Red Sea MAX 130D
The Complete Reef System
USER MANUAL
w w w. re d s e a f i s h . co m
Contents
Preface .........................................................................................3
Quick reference setup chart.......................................................36
Introduction............................................................................1-7
Caring for the reef...........................................................38-50
Lighting..........................................................................................4
Daily reef care procedures..........................................................38
Water movement and circulation.................................................4
Weekly reef care.............................................................................44
Temperature..................................................................................5
Monthly reef care: water changes...............................................49
Filtration.........................................................................................5
Bimonthly or longer-term care...................................................49
Livestock........................................................................................6
Troubleshooting...............................................................51-52
Safety......................................................................................2-9
Setup................................................................................................51
Parts diagrams................................................................................10
Technical issues.............................................................................52
MAX Setup..........................................................................11-12
Location........................................................................................11
Unpacking the aquarium.............................................................12
Pre-operating instructions.............................................13-37
Assembly......................................................................................13
Preparing the saltwater..............................................................26
Adjusting the protein skimmer...................................................30
Preparing the substrate..............................................................31
Live rock.......................................................................................33
Stocking the tank.........................................................................34
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List of figures
Figure 1: Drip Loop........................................................................7
Figure 22: Securing the hood supports.................................19
Figure 2: MAX parts - front view without hood..........................10
Figure 23: Releasing the snap.................................................20
Figure 3: MAX parts - rear view...................................................10
Figure 24: Opening the hood to upright position..................20
Figure 4: MAX contents...............................................................10
Figure 25: Lowering the hood...............................................20
Figure 5: Biological filter material...............................................13
Figure 26: Skimmer collection cup........................................21
Figure 6: Carbon filter..................................................................13
Figure 27: Assembling the integrated foam adjuster..........21
Figure 7: Circulation pump..................................................................13
Figure 28: Attaching the skimmer collection cup................21
Figure 8: Installing the circulation pumps.................................14
Figure 29: Removing the splash cover..................................22
Figure 9: Heater...........................................................................14
Figure 30: Power center.........................................................22
Figure 10: Inserting the heater....................................................15
Figure 31: Inserting the power center...................................23
Figure 11: Protein skimmer parts................................................15
Figure 32: Control panel........................................................23
Figure 12: Skimmer assembled..................................................16
Figure 33: Removing the splash cover..................................23
Figure 13: Inserting the protein skimmer.........................................16
Figure 34: Water enters through over-flow box..................28
Figure 14: Mechanical filtration...................................................16
Figure 35: Water flow through the Max filtration system .....29
Figure 15: Attaching the integrated over-flow box......................17
Figure 36: Maximum water level .........................................29
Figure 16: Attaching and positioning the filter shutter...............17
Figure 37: Optimal water level.............................................29
Figure 17: Light tubes..................................................................17
Figure 38: Minimum water level...........................................29
Figure 18: Inserting the light tubes.................................................18
Figure 39: Make sure not to block the foam adjuster windows....30
Figure 19: Positioning the lighting control panel...............................18
Figure 40: Maximum and Minimum height for the foam adjuster...31
Figure 20: Positioning the skimmer panel.................................19
Figure 41: Curing the live rock..............................................33
Figure 21: Attaching the skimmer panel....................................19
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User Manual
Preface
Congratulations on your purchase of the Red Sea MAX.
The uniquely colorful and diverse underwater world of the coral
reef and its inhabitants has captivated man for ages.
Since the early years aquatic hobbyists have tried to duplicate
this wonderland in their homes, focusing on the equipment and
technologies required to achieve this.
Red Sea developed the MAX to provide a complete reef-ready
system so that from the beginning, you can focus on the aquarium's
inhabitants rather than the hardware.
This manual includes complete set-up and operational instructions
for the MAX aquarium including information on saltwater and
substrate preparation, cycling, rock curing, livestock selection
and long-term reef care.
We hope that you enjoy your MAX.
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Red Sea MAX
1 Introduction
The Red Sea MAX approach to the coral reef experience is to
replicate a natural marine environment as faithfully as possible.
In the ocean coral reefs flourish only where specific physical
conditions prevail, such as sufficient light, adequate current,
stable temperature and water clarity. The Red Sea MAX provides
a system that creates these conditions allowing you to keep a
thriving, healthy reef aquarium in your own home.
Lighting
Light is the primary energy source in a coral reef ecosystem.
Some of the reef organisms such as macro-algae, phytoplankton
and zooxanthellae symbiotic algae convert the light into chemical
energy that other reef inhabitants consume in turn. Invertebrates,
such as corals and anemones, rely on sufficient light to promote
photosynthesis. These photosynthetic invertebrates harbor
symbiotic algae called zooxanthellae that consume the nitrogenous
components and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the coral, converting
it into nutrients and oxygen for the coral itself. The spectrum of
light is of paramount importance because those wavelengths
(colors) of light found at the natural depths of reefs maximize
the ability of the zooxanthellae to photosynthesize.
The intensity of the light is also important, though it is impractical
for a home aquarium to provide the high light intensity present
in natural reefs. As a general rule, a light intensity of 1 watt per
liter of water is sufficient for marine invertebrates.
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As with most other organisms fish and invertebrates require both
light and dark periods for healthy biological functioning. The
photoperiod needed for photosynthesis is 10-12 hours.
The Red Sea MAX features a complete reef spec lighting system,
including 2 high-intensity, 55-watt T5 power compact, fluorescent
bulbs with a high-polish, textured aluminum reflector, designed
specifically to attain the lighting requirements for a healthy reef
ecosystem. The MAX provides a light intensity (lumens) of 11,600
lux of clear blue sky color (10,000K) with a 1:1 ratio to pure actinic
blue (420nm wavelength peak) to enhance the growth and health
of even the delicate stony corals (SPS) and duplicate the magnificent
fluorescent colors of the reef invertebrates. The lighting comes
with a built-in 24 hour timer to ensure a consistent photoperiod.
Two blue LED moonlights complete the
natural environment.
Water movement and circulation
Water movement constitutes another critical physical parameter
in reef aquaria. The extensive biological effects of currents,
specifically their role in transporting nutrients and oxygen, make
them crucial for static coral reef species. Water flow increases the
food supply, fuels metabolism, promotes gas exchange and
improves enzyme action and respiration, calcification and
photosynthesis rates. At the same time it provides proper flushing
of mucus, decreasing disease, and sedimentation damage.
User Manual
Sufficient water movement helps maintain proper water quality
parameters. The turbulence "breaks" the water surface to promote
gas exchange (especially the removal of CO2) and prevents the
accumulation of bio-film, which reduces light penetration. Good
water currents eliminate stagnant areas where decomposing
organic matter would otherwise accumulate.
and stable 22°C / 72°F. In warmer climates, or where the ambient
room temperature is above the maximum recommended, use
the optional water cooling fan and/or add a chiller to the system.
Filtration
The Red Sea MAX, features two 550 lph / 145 gph circulation
pumps with adjustable nozzles. The water flow provides sufficient
water movement for most invertebrates positioning and any
desired aquascaping layout.
Coral reefs develop and flourish only in ocean areas with clear,
unpolluted and sediment-free water that allows adequate light
penetration. Keeping the reef's delicate creatures in a closed
system requires special attention to water quality, by maintaining
parameters within the narrow range that supports life. The
aquarium's main pollutant results from the decomposition of
organic matter in the ecosystem. An efficient filtration system
removes the coarse pollutants from the aquarium before they
are converted into toxic agents, which usually exist in a dissolved
form and are more difficult to remove.
Temperature
A filtration system is made up of a number of elements, each
performing complimentary tasks.
Reef inhabitants are used to very stable temperature conditions
which may vary slowly within a fairly narrow range. Since the
organisms' metabolic rates change with temperature, it is essential
to avoid any sudden or dramatic changes. Most of the corals and
invertebrates originate from the tropical equator regions, where
the water temperature varies between 25 - 30°C, with an average
of 27°C.
The heart of a reef filtration system is the protein skimmer which
removes the vast majority of the wastes produced by the aquarium
inhabitants, as well as thoroughly oxygenating the water.
Most corals available today on the market came from shallow
water with calm to moderate currents. For most soft corals and
LPS corals, turnover of the total water volume 10 times per hour
is ideal for them to flourish and thrive. Stronger currents may in
fact depress their extension.
Mechanical filtration removes the large organic substances, such
as dead fish and plant matter, excess food and sediment from
the water column, and moves it to a user-accessible location.
We recommended that you keep the aquarium temp. on 26-27°C
with an ambient room temperature at a comfortable
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Red Sea MAX
Although mechanical filtration removes most of the fine organic
material, what remains begins to decompose. Some of these
organic particles, known as dissolved organic carbons (DOCs),
are too small to be picked up by the protein skimmer, causing
build-up in the water giving it a yellowish hue. The chemical
filtration action of active carbon essentially acts as a large chemical
sponge, absorbing these impurities from the water.
• Protein skimmer: The turbo air injector protein skimmer
provides a constant mixture of fine air bubbles (0.5-0.8mm
in diameter) and water, creating thick and stable foam of
partially dissolved organics. The MAX skimmer filters the
entire water volume of the tank almost 4 times per hour with
air throughput of 150 l/h (40 gph)
The last stage in the decomposition of organic matter is
mineralization, where bacteria convert organic matter into
inorganic materials, such as ammonia and ortho-phosphate,
which can be harmful to the aquarium inhabitants. Through the
process of nitrification, a special species of nitrifying bacteria
converts toxic ammonia into less toxic nitrate. In order to provide
the bacteria with the large contact area and high flow rate it
needs to develop into a colony, biological filter media should be
part of the filtration system.
of a sponge to trap coarse and fine particles. It is positioned
at the inlet of the filtration provide easy access.
The Red Sea MAX features a 4-stage reef filtration system driven
by two 550lph / 145gph submersible pumps, sufficient to circulate
the entire water volume of the tank 10 times per hour. At the
entrance to the filtration system is a surface skimmer that takes
water from the aquarium water surface where the highest
concentration of waste materials is found. It is designed to prevent
clogging and the build-up of organics, maintaining the ideal
water quality for a reef aquarium. The system is comprised of
the following:
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• Mechanical filtration: The mechanical filtration media consists
• Activate carbon: The granular activate carbon is made from
highly porous, phosphate-free charcoal. It removes any DOCs
for at least two months, depending on the aquarium bioload.
• Biological media: The highly porous ceramic bio-media
provides a huge surface area - 420m2/l or 1,200 sq ft/gal
for nitrifying bacteria colonization.
Livestock
The following are basic guidelines regarding livestock selection
for the two main types of marine aquarium, “Fish-Only” and
“Mini Reef”, which combines reef fish with a multitude of reef
invertebrates such as anemones and corals. We recommend that
you refer to some of the many specialist fish and invertebrate
guides available in order to gain a more in-depth understanding
of the subject.
User Manual
Fish-only
The main focus of this type of tank is the fish. You should carefully
study the unique characteristics of each species before deciding
what and how many to stock. Your chief concerns should include
full size at maturity; dominance and competition with other
species; aggressiveness toward other members of the same
species or towards other species; social behavior (solitary, in
couples or schools) and feeding requirements. Since a fish-only
tank is not required to support delicate invertebrates, which are
vulnerable to even slight changes in water parameters, the total
biomass can be greater than that of a mini reef set-up. Species
diversity can include types that would not be suitable for a mini
reef set up due to competitiveness with invertebrates (feeding
on corals, molluscs or crustaceans).
We recommend that the beginner hobbyist should populate the
tank with the hardiest species available, especially during the
first six months of tank maturation. This group includes the
Damselfish (Pomacentridae, including clownfish), Cardinalfishes
(Apogonidae), Blennies (Blenniidae) and Fairy Basslets
(Grammidae). After you have gained experience with these
species and better understand marine fish feeding requirements
and behavior, you can progress to more demanding species such
as Dwarf angels (Centropygiidae), Hawkfishes (Cirrihitidae), Sea
basses (Serranidae) and Dragonets (Callionymidae).
Given the dimensions of the MAX, we do not recommend that
you keep Tangs (Acanthuridae), Trigger fishes (Balistoididae),
large angelfishes (Pomachanthidae) or butterfly fishes
(Chaetodontidae) , due to their size and behavioral habits.
Mini reef
The main focus of a mini reef is the invertebrates, especially
corals and anemones. The role of the fish is secondary as they
complete the reef ecosystem “picture”. The most important aspect
in choosing fish is their compatibility with or aggressiveness
toward delicate invertebrates. Since the "free swimming" space
in a mini reef tank, with it corals and live rocks, is less than that
of a fish-only tank, the total number of fish inhabiting it will be
less. We recommend that you keep fish from the smaller species;
most of the species listed in the previous section are also suitable
for mini reef set-ups. In long-term tests, the MAX has proven
capable of supporting all soft corals (Sarcophyton sp., Lobophytum
sp., Sinularia sp., Xenia; Cladiella sp., etc.), all LPSs (Large Polyp
Scleractinia, like Euphyllia sp., Plerogyra sp., Nemenzophyllia sp.,
Trachphyllia sp., Caulestra sp., etc.), some SPSs (Small Polyp
Scleractinia, such as Stylophora sp. and Seriatopora), sea anemones,
all types of crustacean (cleaner shrimps, peppermint shrimps,
hermit crabs, scarlet hermit crabs), sea stars and giant clams
(Tridacna sp.).
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Red Sea MAX
2 Safety
PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW ALL SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
DANGER: To avoid possible electric shock, special care should be
taken when handling a wet aquarium. For each of the following
situations, do not attempt repairs yourself; return the appliance
to an authorized service facility for service or discard the appliance.
WARNING: To guard against injury, basic safety precautions should
be observed, including the following:
a. Do not operate any appliance if it has a damaged cord or
plug, if it is malfunctioning, or if it is dropped or damaged
in any manner.
b. To avoid the possibility of the appliance plug or receptacle
getting wet, position the aquarium stand and tank to one
side of a wall mounted receptacle to prevent water from
dripping onto the receptacle or plug. You should create a
"drip loop"(see Figure 1) for each cord connecting an aquarium
appliance to a receptacle. The "drip loop" is that part of the
cord below the level of the receptacle, or the connector. Use
an extension cord, if necessary, to prevent water travelling
along the cord and coming into contact with the receptacle.
If the plug or receptacle does get wet, DO NOT unplug the
cord. Disconnect the fuse or circuit breaker that supplies
power to the appliance. Then unplug the device and examine
for presence of water in the receptacle.
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Figure 1: Drip Loop
User Manual
c. Close supervision is necessary when any appliance is used
by or near children.
d. To avoid injury, do not contact moving parts.
e. Always unplug an appliance from an outlet when not in use,
before putting on or taking off parts, and before cleaning.
Never pull the cord itself to remove the plug from the outlet.
Grasp the plug and pull to disconnect.
f. Do not use an appliance for anything other than its intended
use. The use of attachments not recommended or sold by the
appliance manufacturer may cause an unsafe condition.
g. Do not install or store the appliance where it will be exposed
to the weather or to temperatures below freezing point.
h. Make sure an appliance mounted on a tank is securely installed
before operating it.
i. Read and observe all the important notices on the appliance.
NOTE A cord rated for less amperes or watts than the appliance
rating may overheat. Care should be taken to arrange the
cord so that it cannot be tripped over or pulled accidentally.
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Red Sea MAX
3 Parts Diagrams
Filter Media Chamber & Pumps
Cable Channels
Outlet Nozzle
Heater
Work Surface
Heater Chamber
Front Panel
(Folded Back)
Lighting Control Panel
Adjustable Surface Skimmer
Hood Support Channel
Tank Rim
Smoked Glass Divide
Lighting Timer
Hood Cooling Vent
Power Center
Control Panel
Control Panel Switches
Figure 2: Max parts - front view
Tank Base
Hood Pins
Cooling Fan Vent
Chiller Vent
Figure 3: Max parts - rear view
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Skimmer Collection Cup
Skimmer Panel
User Manual
4 Max Setup
Location
The Red Sea MAX reef system comprises the following:
The first step in setting up the MAX is to choose a suitable location.
The location should be decided upon in advance because, once
filled with substrate, rocks and water, the aquarium must not be
moved. Consider the following parameters when choosing the
location.
Tank weight and support
The tank weighs about 200kg / 440lbs when filled with water,
Reef Base and live rock. If you choose not to use the MAX Cabinet,
consider this weight when selecting an alternative aquarium
support or stand. If the support you choose is not designed
specifically as an aquarium stand, ensure that it can both withstand
the weight and that it remains balanced and level; it should also
be constructed from a material that is splash proof.
The MAX, like all glass aquaria, may crack if subjected to sudden
movement as a result of uneven water pressure on the glass
walls.
Figure 4: MAX contents
1 light tubes x 2
6 biological filter
2 circulation pumps x 2
7 protein skimmer
3 skimmer collection cup
8 mechanical filter (coarse)
4 heater
9 protein skimmer pump
5 carbon filter
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Red Sea MAX
Accessibility
Unpacking the aquarium
When choosing a location, ensure that you have enough room
to raise the main aquarium hood and remove the skimmer
collection cup for regular maintenance. Make sure you can reach
the power center switches located at the rear right side of the
MAX and that the power center can be removed from its niche.
Ensure that the area surrounding the aquarium is waterproof and
consider moving away anything that water might damage.
Please read this section carefully before proceeding. Note that
the empty aquarium weighs approximately 25kg / 55lbs; two
people are required to lift it.
NOTE
If you plan to use a water chiller, ensure that there is
at least 10cm / 4" of clearance behind the MAX to
allow for sufficient air circulation and easy installation
of the Accessory Kit.
Room temperature
Site selection is important for correct temperature maintenance.
We recommend that you keep the ambient room temperature
a comfortable and stable 22°C / 72°F. Avoid placing the tank in
front of an air conditioner, heating vents or direct sunlight.
A well ventilated room with moderate light is the best place to
position the aquarium.
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To unpack the aquarium
1. Remove the protective packaging from around the hood.
2. Remove the hinge pins from either side of the hood opening
and set aside.
3. Holding your hand under the hood from the middle of the
opening, lift the hood and gently place it aside for later
assembly.
4. Remove the light tubes, cardboard box and packaging materials
from inside the tank.
5. With one person positioned at either side of the tank, grasp
the aquarium's top rim and lift it gently out of the box and
onto a flat surface.
6. Open the inner cardboard box and remove all of the parts.
7. Read the Pre-operating instructions
User Manual
5 Pre-operating instructions
Before installing a new aquarium it is advisable to inspect it for
leaks to make sure that no damage has occurred during transport.
Carbon filter material
1. Wash the carbon filter material under running water several
times to remove residual dust.
2. Insert it into the biological filter chamber, coming to rest on
top of the biological filter material.
To check for leaks
1. Fill the tank to the bottom of the inner rim with fresh water.
Wait for 15 minutes and inspect for any signs of leakage.
2. Siphon the water from the tank to empty it.
NOTE
Do not try to move the aquarium with any
water inside
Assembly
Figure 6: Carbon filter
Biological filter material
1. Rinse the biological filter
material in its mesh bag
under running water.
NOTE
2. Insert and push the bag to
the bottom of the filter
media chamber at the backleft corner of the MAX.
During the first 3 days after set-up the carbon may
float and release air bubbles that were trapped inside
its pores. It is recommended to soak it in water for
24- 72 hr. before usage.
Figure 5: Biological filter material
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Red Sea MAX
Circulation pumps (x 2)
5. Fasten the pump's electrical cords through the cord’s clips
and place them in the cord channel that runs the length of
the aquarium's back rim, threading it through the outermost
cord channel at the other end of the aquarium and out through
the cord access hole.
A
B
C
D
Figure 7: Circulation pump
1. Disassemble and reassemble the pumps in order to familiarize
yourself with their inner parts.
2. Position the first pump in the filter media chamber with the
intake pipe pointing down. Push the pump outlet through the
left hole in the smoked glass wall (Fig. 8 A, B). Make sure the
rubber shock absorber sits on the outlet.
3. Screw the 3-part adjustable outlet nozzle onto the threaded
section of the pump outlet. Ensure that the two components
are firmly attached to either side of the smoked glass wall
(Fig.8 C)
4. Repeat steps 1-3 for the second pump, attaching it to the
second nozzle through the remaining hole in the smoked glass
wall (Fig 8 D)
Figure 8: Installing
the circulation
pumps
Heater
1. Inspect the heater for damage
or cracks.
2. Set the thermostat to 26°C /
78.8°F.
Figure 9: Heater
3. Insert the heater into the heater chamber, which is adjacent
to the filter media chamber.
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User Manual
4. Attach the heater securely to the wall using the suction
cup provided.
Protein skimmer
5. Thread the heater cord through the channel to the other end
of the tank, threading it through the innermost of the three
channels and out the other end through the cord access hole.
Collection cup cover
Cable channel cover
Collection cup
With the three cables from the circulation pumps and heater held
in place in the cable channel, snap close the cable channel cover.
Collection cup adjuster
O-ring
Skimmer body
Pump
Inlet pump
Figure 10: Installing the channel cover
Figure 11: Protein skimmer parts
15
1. Disassemble the skimmer pump and inspect the components
(impeller, impeller housing, inlet pipe, bayonet connector,
flow valve and air pipe).
2. Reassemble the pump, ensuring that the pieces are securely
attached and that the inlet and outlet are parallel to one
another.
3. Ensure that the two double connectors are holding the power
cord and air hose together.
4. Insert the outlet of the pump into
the inlet hole on the side of the
skimmer body (wetting the O–ring
will make it easier to perform this
operation). Make sure that the
pump is pushed in fully.
5. Hold the assembled skimmer above
the skimmer chamber with the
pump side facing towards the power
center. Notice the ribs on the front
and back of the skimmer.
6. Holding the pump air hose and power cord up out of the tank,
carefully slide the skimmer assembly into the skimmer
chamber, wide end first, lining up the two slots that run the
length of the skimmer body with the glass ribs on the front
and back wall of the filtration chamber. Make sure that there
is no pressure being put on air line. (Fig.13)
16
Figure 13: Inserting the protein skimmer
7. Thread the pump cord and hose through the cord access hole,
leaving the flow valve above the skimmer chamber.
8. The collection cup should be placed in position after the hood
has been attached (see later).
Mechanical filtration material
With the skimmer in position in the
skimmer chamber, insert the coarse
black foam vertically along the right
side of the skimmer body, Make sure
that the truncated corner position is
to the right rear corner where the
skimmer pump cord and air line are
positioned.
User Manual
Over-flow box
1. Attach the Over-flow box to the filter comb by inserting the
teeth at the rear of the over-flow box into the slots located
towards the bottom of the filter comb. (Fig. 15)
Figure 16: Attaching and positioning the over-flow box
Figure 15: Attaching the integrated over-flow box
2. Slide the over-flow box 1-2 cm (0.4-0.8 inches) in the upward
direction.
17
Hood
7.
Thread the hood's electrical cord through the cord access
hole in the top of the tank.
8.
Place the hood on top of the tank, lining up the cutout in
the hood with the protein skimmer chamber in the tank.
9.
Make sure that the hood fits securely around the rim of the
tank; it may be necessary to adjust the position of the hood
supports to do this.
10. Place the lighting control panel onto the hood.
Figure 19: Positioning the lighting control panel
11. Hold the skimmer panel in the "open" position over the
skimmer chamber, lining up its hinge holes with those of
the hood.
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User Manual
Figure 20:
Positioning the
skimmer panel
12. Insert the hood pins that you removed for unpacking, attaching
both the skimmer panel and the lighting control panel to the
hood. The panels should open and close easily with the pins
securing the hinge.
15. With your free hand, snap the upper and middle legs of the
hood supports together on both sides and position the hole
at the top of the upper leg in the recess provided in the hood.
Insert the upper support pins to connect the supports to the
hood (some force might be required) (Fig. 22). Do not use
any tools, like a pliers or hammer, to perform this operation.
If you experience difficulty, check the alignment of the pins
with the hole and try again.
Securing the hood and switching
between the 3 opening positions
13. Make sure you have the 2 upper hood support pins at the
ready and fold back the front of the hood.
14. With one hand, raise the hood approximately to a 30° angle
and hold it open in this position.
Figure 21: Attaching the skimmer panel
Figure 22: Securing the hood supports
16. To enable complete access to the filter compartment the hood
can be further opened to an almost vertical position. To release
the bottom leg of the hood support, from it's normal position
in the hood support channel, apply an outword pressure on
the middle leg as shown in fig 23. While supporting the hood
with one hand perform the same operation on the other side.
Raise the hood almost to the vertical position.
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Red Sea MAX
thereafter to the horizontal position. Slight pressure in the direction
of the arrow in Fig. 25 will be required to separate between the
upper and middle legs.
NOTE
Figure 23: releasing the snap
17. One side at a time, push the junction of the lower and middle
legs as shown in Fig. 24 and allow the hood to close slightly
until it rests firmly on the supports.
To disassemble the hood from the aquarium, remove
the hood support pins by inserting the end of a small
screwdriver into the small recess in the head of the
pin. Thereafter, remove the hood pins from the hood
hinges at the back. DO NOT attempt to remove the
hood support by prising open the support joint.
Figure 25: Lowering the hood
Figure 24: opening the hood to upright position
18. To close the hood repeat the above in the reverse order, first
closing to the 30° position and
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User Manual
Skimmer collection cup
3. To complete the assembly of the collection cup make sure that
the lid is seated properly.
4. Open the skimmer panel in the hood.
5. Hold the cup with the foam adjuster on the right hand side
and the waste collection area on the left hand side.
Figure 26
Skimmer
collection cup
1. The collection cup consists of 3 parts: the collection cup body,
the integrated foam adjuster already assembled inside it,
and the lid.
6. Line up the hole in the cup bottom with the top of the skimmer
so that the cup is not above the foam mechanical filter (fig
28). Push the collection cup onto the top of the skimmer until
firmly seated in position.
2. Familiarize yourself with the assembly of the foam adjuster
which will need to be removed periodically for cleaning. When
reassembling make sure that the o-ring at the bottom of the
foam adjuster enters the cup smoothly. Initially assemble the
foam adjuster to its uppermost position (fig 27).
Figure 27: assembling the integrated foam adjuster
Figure 28: Attaching the skimmer collection cup
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Red Sea MAX
Power center
1. Ensure that your hands are dry.
2. Remove the power center splash cover by sliding it away
from the power cord and lifting. Familiarize yourself with how
the splash cover locks into position.
3. Hold the power center near to the power center housing at
the rear of the Max. Connect the cables from the various
components to the power center in the following order,
placing the plugs in the matching sockets:
4. Plug the circulation pumps into sockets #4 and #5.
5. Plug the heater into socket #3.
6. Plug the skimmer pump into socket #2.
7. Plug the hood cord into socket #1.
8. Gather the component cables together and replace the
splash cover.
Figure 29: Removing the splash cover
Figure 30: Power center
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9. Hold the power center with the cable at the bottom. Insert
the power center power cord into the cable niche at the
bottom of the back wall. Insert the power center, into the
power center housing. Use the lip at the bottom to position
the box properly. (fig 31) and push until the power center
snaps into position at the top.
User Manual
Figure 31: Inserting the power center
10. Open the control panel on the outside of the power center
and make sure all the switches are set to OFF (“O” pressed
down and the “I” up).
Figure 33: Removing the splash cover
Setting the analogue timer
The timer has a 3-position switch:
· I (ON position) – daylights on, moonlights off.
· O (OFF position – daylights off, moonlights on.
· Clock symbol – automatically changes between the “I” and
“O” settings according to the timer setting.
Figure 32: Control panel
Operating the lighting
Open the lighting control panel. You will see a timer which
controls both the main T5 lighting and the LED Moonlights.
You will also see a separate switch which can be used to turn
off the moonlights in the event that you do not want them on
automatically when the daylights are off.
Each black segment switch around the face of the timer represents
¼ of an hour (15 minutes). Move the segment switches to the
outer position for the time you want the daylights to be on and
to the inner position for the time you want the daylights to be off.
Once you have the MAX fully operational and switched on, you
can set the actual time by rotating the dial until the arrow is
pointing to the current time.
23
Red Sea MAX
Installing the cooling fan
1. Remove the empty pop-out vent from the aquarium frame
by depressing the two snaps that are located on the left and
right sides at the back (outside) and pushing the vent out of
the frame from the inside. It is easiest to do this with the
hood in the raised position.
2. Hold the cooling fan with the power cable at the bottom and
align it with the recess on the outside of the aquarium
frame.Push the fan securely into the recess in the frame until
the two snaps click into position.
3. Once the aquarium has been placed in its final position connect
the DC socket of the fan to the jack on the power supply and
plug the power supply into a wall outlet making sure that
the cable has a “drip loop”
Note:
To have the desired effect the cooling fan has been
located very close to the water and therefore is exposed
to a salty humid environment. As a result it may need
replacing and is therefore not covered by warranty.
Replacement fans are readily available for purchase
from your aquatic dealer.
Congratulations! You have completed the assembly of your MAX
and can move it to its chosen location. You are now ready to set
up your reef tank.
24
Preparing the saltwater
Seawater naturally contains all of the elements necessary for
marine life. Although collecting saltwater directly from the ocean
has its appeal, it also has drawbacks such as pollution, pathogens
and algae; therefore it is recommended to use synthetic seawater.
Synthetic salt mixes are available for use with pure fresh water
and contain all the necessary minerals in the right proportions.
Please follow these guidelines for preparing saltwater.
Salinity and specific gravity
Salinity is a measure of the total quantity of dissolved minerals
and salt in the water, expressed in parts per thousand (ppt, 0/00)
or grams per liter. The average salinity of ocean water is about
35ppt. Specific gravity (SG) is defined as the ratio of the density
of the liquid in question to the density of pure water. Since the
density of a liquid varies with temperature, so does specific
gravity. The specific gravity of seawater at 35ppt and 25°C / 77°F
is 1.026. The desired range for a marine aquarium is 1.022 to
1.028. Use a hydrometer to estimate the salinity and specific
gravity.
User Manual
The freshwater source
Although municipal tap water is readily available, you should
avoid using it in your reef aquarium. Tap water is not pure and
contains elements detrimental to the aquarium inhabitants, such
as chlorine, fluoride and metals. It also contains nitrates,
phosphates and silicate, the major nutrients for noxious algae.
We strongly recommend using reverse osmosis (RO) or distilled
water.
NOTE
If you must use tap water, do not treat it with
conditioners such as de-chlorinators, as they introduce
undesirable chemicals into the carefully balance
seawater and may interfere with the performance of
the protein skimme.. It is recommended to aerate/stir
the tap water for 24 hr. before usage.
Red Sea Coral Pro
The Red Sea MAX Starter Kit includes a bucket of Red Sea Coral
Pro salt.
Coral Pro was formulated specifically for reef aquaria, based on
the natural salt harvested through solar evaporation of water
from the Red Sea. It is enriched with refined minerals to replicate
natural seawater, but with higher calcium levels 450ppm),
balanced alkalinity and pH to benefit your corals. The salt is
designed specifically for reverse osmosis (RO) water or soft,
filtered tap water.
NOTE
There are many synthetic salt brands on the market;
some of them may contain chemical additives and
binding substances that may interfere with protein
skimmer performances. We highly recommend using
Red Sea Coral Pro which does not contain the binding
materials and will not interfere with the protein
skimmer performance.
Mixing the salt
The only time you can mix the saltwater in the tank is during
setup when the tank is empty. Never pour a synthetic sea salt
mix directly into an aquarium containing livestock. When preparing
seawater for water changes use another inert container, such as
a plastic bucket.
HINT
When mixing saltwater, always add the water first
and then the salt, in order to avoid the formation of
insoluble precipitates.
To mix the salt
1. Fill the aquarium until the level of water in the aquarium
reaches the underside of the inside plastic rim. Make sure
that the integrated over-flow box is positioned 3.5 cm (1.4
inches) below the inner rim, so the water can easily enter
the filtration chamber.
25
Red Sea MAX
2. Make sure your hands are dry.
3. Connect the MAX to the power supply.
4. Turn the lights on.
5. Direct the two pump nozzles down.
6. Activate the two circulation pumps and the skimmer pump.
7. Switch on the heater if the water temperature is below
24°C / 75°F.
8. Add 4.5kg / 9.9lbs of Red Sea Coral Pro salt to achieve a
salinity of 35ppt.
9. Wait 20-30 minutes. The pump action should help the salt
dissolve completely.
NOTE
MAX filtration system is positioned on the back of the
tank, as opposed to in a “sump” and therefore the
performance of the filtration system is directly related
to the water level inside the filtration chamber and
the tank.
The water enters the filtration chamber through the over-flow
box and the filter comb on the filtration chamber front wall (Fig.
34). The water flows through the mechanical filtration media,
then enters the protein skimmer (Fig 35 a). After the skimmer
the water rises up and down again through the heater chamber
(Fig 35 b,c) to the bio-media and carbon filter chamber and out
through the 2 circulation pumps (Fig 35 d).
10. Measure the salinity with a hydrometer, following the
hydrometer instructions.
11. Add water or salt as necessary to achieve the desired salinity.
HINT The warmer the water, the faster the salt will dissolve.
Water level and flow dynamics
After filling the tank with salt water and turning on the pumps
and the skimmer, it is time to understand and examine MAX flow
dynamics and the influence of water level.
28
Fig 34: Water enters through over-flow box
User Manual
d
b
a
Max
c
Figure 35: Water flow through the MAX filtration system
There are two factors affecting the water level inside the filtration
chamber:
1. Overall water volume in the system
2. Over-flow box position
NOTE
Over-flow box positioning should be adjusted regularly
according to the water level in the aquarium. As a
general rule, the top surface of the teeth of the overflow box should be positioned at the water surface
At this point of set up, the water level inside the filtration chamber
should be up to 1 cm (0.4 inch) below the plastic rim and the
black covers of the pumps as can be seen through the Filter
compartment water level viewer. This is the Maximum water
level (Fig 36).
Figure 36: Maximum water level
Lift up the over flow box to start surface skimming. The water
level in the pump chamber will drop to the middle of the pump
body; this is the optimal water level for operation (Fig 37). If the
water level drops below the pump body, lower the over-flow
box as necessary to raise the water level.
Optim
Figure 37: Optimal water level
29
Red Sea MAX
Never let the water level drop below the min. line (Fig. 38).
If the water level is near the min. line and the over-flow box
positioned in its lowest stage you should add the amount of
water necessary to lift the water level to its optimal position.
NOTE
Performance of the protein skimmer is directly related
to water level in the filtration chamber. For optimal
performance, the water level should always be
between the max and min levels.
Adjusting the protein skimmer
Adjusting the protein skimmer is a two stage process combining
coarse tuning of the integrated foam adjuster and fine tuning
with the air valve.
1. With the water set at the optimal level, rotate the integrated
foam adjuster anti-clockwise to its full height.
Min
Figure 38: Minimum water level
NOTE
MAX filtration system can sustain water loss of 6-8
lit. (1.5-2 U.S. Gal) due to evaporation/skimmer
waste, and continue functioning normally. Water loss
above this level will dramatically affect the
performance of the filter system.
If you intend to leave your MAX without supervision for more
than one day, you must take out the over-flow box to allow free
water flow.
30
Max
Min
Figure 39: Maximum and minimum height for the foam adjuster
2. Open the air valve to the maximum.
3. The foam generating in the upper part of the skimmer body,
will start to climb up the neck. If the foam is too wet and it
is overflowing, start to close the air valve until the consistency
of the foam stabilizes.
User Manual
4. If the foam is too dry and doesn’t reach the integrated foam
adjuster windows, first increase the air flow by opening the
valve and then start to lower the height of the foam adjuster
by rotating it clockwise. The foam will start to climb up the
neck and stabilize.
5. Make sure not to lower the adjuster more than its minimal
height. Doing so will interfere with
the foam production and will block
the foam from flowing out the
windows to the collection cup.
Figure 40: Make sure not to block the foam adjuster windows
NOTE
During set up, the skimmer may over-skim for few
days or may not skim at all. This is the skimmer’s
“break-in” period. Adjusting the skimmer during this
period may take some time and requires patience.
It is advisable to do fine adjustments every few
hours until the foam settles down.
Preparing the substrate
You can set up your reef tank with or without a substrate
at the bottom.
We recommend using an Aragonite-based substrate of at least
5-7cm / 2-2.7", as it helps keep the water chemistry balanced.
Aragonite dissolves slowly in water, releasing calcium ions and
carbonates that help maintain proper pH and alkalinity for good
coral growth. In an established tank, when the substrate matures,
it takes on the characteristics of “live sand” inhabited by millions
of micro-organisms. These creatures promote a successful
aquarium, aiding the biological filtration processes of nitrification,
de-nitrification and the consumption/ decomposition of uneaten
food. The substrate also provides a natural habitat for small
worms and crustaceans that help clean the tank from detritus
and play a major role in the delicate ecosystem's food chain.
We recommend using Red Sea Reef Base, included in the MAX
Starter Kit. With the addition of the recommended quantity of
live rock (see next section), the depth of your Reef Base substrate
should reach the recommended minimum depth of 5cm/2".
Red Sea Reef Base provides an ideal substrate for all marine fish
and invertebrate aquaria. It consists of naturally occurring reef
sand spheres mixed with aragonite coral chips, and comes prewashed and impurity-free. The spheres, highly porous calcareous
shells of simple protozoa (foraminefers), provide a large surface
area for bacteria colonization and offer multiple other benefits
to marine aquaria; the porosity of the spheres provides an
excellent media for both aerobic (nitrifying) and anaerobic
(denitrifying) biological filtration. The high buffering capacity of
natural aragonite, the most dissolvable form of calcium carbonate,
helps to maintain natural, stable levels of pH in the aquarium.
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Red Sea MAX
Washing the substrate
Although Red Sea Reef Base has already been washed prior to
shipping, we recommend repeating the process before use:
1. Rinse the substrate thoroughly under running water.
2. Spread it evenly on the tank bottom.
3. Note the change in water level as a result; remove excess
water and store it for later use.
Live rock
Live rocks are small pieces of stony reef rubble naturally broken
off from their source. The main advantage of these porous,
aragonite-based rocks lies in their colonization by large amounts
of beneficial bacteria and other micro-organisms, including
nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, macro-algae, sponges, worms
and other invertebrates. These organisms help maintain healthy
water parameters and establish the natural food chains. Live rock
also has great aesthetic appeal.
As a rule, you should add 1kg / 2.2lbs of live rock per 10 liters/
2.6 gallons of tank volume. The exact amount will vary with the
type of rock you choose, but it should occupy at least 40 percent
of the tank volume. For the MAX this means approximately 11kg
/24lb of average density live rock.
32
The rock's viability when you receive it depends on several factors,
namely harvesting, shipping and pre-purchase maintenance.
Unfortunately, much of the live rock sold today requires a curing
process to rid it of the organisms that died during shipping and
to reseed it with living, beneficial ones. Signs of whitish-gray
film on newly purchased rocks indicate that the live organisms
have died and must be cured or cycled. Your live rock must be
fully cured before you can add any fish or invertebrates to the
aquarium. We therefore strongly recommend that you purchase
your live rock from a reputable dealer, or perform the cycle
process yourself inside the MAX.
If you have purchased cured live rocks, or live rocks from a mature
aquarium, you can skip the next section.
Cycle
The curing process - which initiates the biological processes such
as the nitrogen cycle and the recolonization of micro-organisms
typically takes 1-4 weeks depending on the type of rock and the
method used. Although many organisms die during transport,
much of the fauna survives. During the cycling period the ammonia
levels rise rapidly as bacteria process the dead organisms. The
elevated ammonia levels can cause even more organisms to die,
producing even more ammonia. The populations of nitrifying and
denitrifying bacteria grow accordingly, eventually processing all
the ammonia and nitrite and reducing them to
undetectable levels.
User Manual
To initiate and boost the seeding of nitrifying and denitrifying
bacteria in the bio-filter media and live rocks, the Red Sea MAX
Starter Kit includes Red Sea NitroBac. This specially designed
formula contains a concentrated blend of nitrifying bacteria that
quickly and effectively stabilize the nitrification process, reducing
the cycling time for new aquaria by up to 60 percent. You can
add it directly to the aquarium during the initial setup and add
50ml every week during the cycle period.
4. Direct the pump nozzles to produce good water movement
throughout the tank.
Curing the live rocks
8. Test the water parameters, paying particular attention to
ammonia and nitrite levels.
1. Wash all the rocks with saltwater and remove any grayish or
slimy areas, which harbor decaying microorganisms. This will
help minimize ammonia levels.
2. Remove any signs of algae.
3. Place the live rock in the tank. Ensure that only small areas
of the rock are in contact with the tank bottom or other
rocks.Try to build as many caves as possible such that the
larger rocks sit on the bottom and the smaller ones on top.
It is important to build a stable structure that provides the
rock with good water circulation. Do not block the pump
outlets or filtration chamber opening.
5. Add 50ml/1.7oz of Red Sea NitroBac.
6. Program the lighting system, starting with a 6-hour period
of light on the first day.
7. Gradually increase this interval by 1 hour every two days until
it reaches 12-14 hours per day.
9. Change 10-25% of the water weekly, siphoning out any
settled debris.
10. Start a regular maintenance program (see next chapter).
Algae blooms
During the cycle process, you can expect a series of algae blooms.
First the brown diatom algae will appear, followed by red
cyanobacteria and then green filamentous algae. These algae
blooms constitute a natural and typical part of the cycle in reef
tanks. They will disappear naturally, giving way to patches of
desirable purple-pink coralline algae on the live rocks.
To control this algae bloom, introduce some "cleaning" herbivores
to the new aquarium.
Figure 41: Positioning live rock
33
Red Sea MAX
These “janitors” play an important long-term role, keeping your
aquarium in good shape. They help control algae, remove detritus,
eliminate the occasional small dead fish trapped in the rockwork
and scavenge for scraps of food that fall to the bottom or between
rocks. They play an especially important role if your tank has
substrate, keeping it clean and aerated. We recommend starting
with the following species:
• Brittlestar starfish
• Pistol shrimp
• Detrital feeding sea cucumbers
Additionally, we recommend introducing herbivorous snails, such
as Asraea tuncta or Turbo snail. The blue-legged hermit crab,
Clibanarius tricolor, plays a similar role, as does the attractive
skunk cleaner shrimp, Lysmata grabhami.
When the ammonia and nitrite levels have peaked and
subsequently reach zero, you have finished the cycle.
Stocking the tank
After the Red Sea MAX has finished the cycle and the algae
blooms are under control, your aquarium is ready to be stocked
with fish and invertebrates. Here are some guidelines to help
you stock a healthy and successful aquarium:
34
• Compatibility of species: Before adding any fish or invertebrates,
familiarize yourself with any compatibility issues among the
desired species. Tank inhabitant compatibility is crucial to a
successful and healthy reef aquarium. Incompatible species
will increase stress in the fish and increase the risk of disease.
• Stocking rate: Stock your aquarium gradually to allow the
biological filtration to catch up with the bio-load of the new
inhabitants.
• Introducing species: Introduce the more docile species first.
This allows them to acclimate themselves to the aquarium
before you add larger, more active and aggressive species.
Stocking fish and invertebrates
Once you have selected the species, you need to determine how
many fish you can successfully keep in the MAX. While that
depends on many factors, as a general rule of thumb you should
stock no more than 1cm / 0.4" of fully grown fish per 4 liters /
1 gallon of free water volume. We recommend that you stock
no more than 35cm / 14" of fully grown fish.
Remember to consider the desired species' maximum sizes when
calculating this figure.
User Manual
Invertebrates
To acclimatize your Livestock
Among the many species of invertebrates available to the hobbyist,
you will find differences in the natural habitats of these creatures
that dictate the physical conditions required for them to flourish,
such as light and current. Corals adapt well to different lighting
conditions, but some are more sensitive to change than others.
Corals take time to adjust to new environments, though you can
help this process along.
Place the fish/coral/invertebrate, with all of the water from its
bag, into a bucket. Place the bucket on the floor next to the MAX.
With some air line tubing and a flow valve, run a siphon drip line
from the MAX to the bucket. Start a siphon and slowly allow the
tank water to drip into the bucket, using the valve to adjust the
drip rate. Keep the drip fairly slow; too fast a drip can change
the parameters too quickly and shock the creatures.
If your corals come from a mature reef aquarium:
When the volume of water in the bucket has doubled, test the
pH, salinity and temperature of the water. If they match the
tank's parameters, you can transfer all the livestock to the
aquarium. If not, continue with the drip method until the
parameters match. Be sure to remove water from the bucket to
prevent overflow, if necessary.
• Try to place them such that their new environment duplicates
the original lighting and currents as closely as possible. You
will know that the coral has adjusted when it expands fully
and displays vibrant coloration.
• Continue to monitor the coral's adjustment to its new location.
If it appears to shrink and decrease its coloration, relocate it
to another position.
Acclimation
The water that holds the fish and invertebrates during transport
has a different pH, temperature and salinity from that in your
aquarium. Fish, and especially invertebrates, react easily to even
minor changes in these parameters, so proper acclimation is the
key to their successful relocation.
The stocked aquarium
The above steps should simplify and demystify the setup and
stocking processes for a reef aquarium. Remember to research
the needs of the fish and invertebrates you want to stock to
guarantee from the start that you have the time, energy and
resources to invest in their care.
Try to resist the temptation to add all the inhabitants at once. By
stocking your aquarium slowly, you greatly increase the creatures’
chances of survival and your chances of long-term success. With
proper setup, diligent patience and care, your Red Sea MAX and
its inhabitants will thrive.
35
Red Sea MAX
Quick reference setup chart
The following is a step-by-step guide designed to help you keep
track of the various stages involved in setting up, cycling and
monitoring your MAX in the first three critical months of aquarium
operation. Each stage is explained elsewhere in this manual.
Cycle period
Assemble the MAX
Fill tank with water & mix salt
Test salinity & temperature
Test equipment
Add substrate
Test pH & alkalinity
Add live rocks
Cure live rocks (1)
Test Ammonia, Nitrite & Nitrate (2)
Test calcium & phosphate
Algae bloom (3)
Stock with "cleaning crew” (4)
Stock with fish (4)
Change water
Stock with corals (5)
Feed invertebrates
Clean mechanical filter
Change carbon
36
Week 1
day 1
day 2
day 3
day 4
day 5
day 6
day 7
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Month 2
Month 3
User Manual
1. If cured live rocks are introduced on day 1, the 4-week curing
cycle can be shortened to just a few days (until ammonia
and nitrite levels are no longer detectable).
2. Ammonia, nitrite and nitrate should be tested on a regular
basis during the cycle period - every 2 days in the first week
and at the end of each subsequent week. Special attention
should be paid to ammonia and nitrite peaks in order to
monitor cycle progression.
3. Algae blooms are a good sign in the cycling procedure and
the maturation of the tank. From day 3-4 post set-up, the
brown algae will start to cover the aquarium glass and rocks,
followed by the red cyano-bacteria and sometimes green
filamentous algae. These should disappear naturally during
week 4 with the help of the “cleaning crew.”
4. Stock with fish only after testing water parameters (salinity,
pH, ammonia, nitrite, alkalinity and calcium). During week 3
you can add two small damselfish. The next fish should be
added at the end of week 4.
5. Stock with corals only after testing water parameters. Ammonia
and nitrite levels should be 0, Phosphate 0-5ppm, pH 8.28.4, alkalinity 2.5-4 meq/l and calcium 400-450.
You can download the above chart in PDF format from
redseamax.com under support > downloads.
37
Red Sea MAX
6 Caring for the reef
Daily reef care procedures
The long-term success and health of the inhabitants of your MAX
aquarium depends on you. Proper planning makes reef care easier
to manage and quicker to perform. This will leave you more time
for the real goal: enjoying your aquarium. Care of the tank should
follow a regular, logical pattern. Divide the tasks into daily, weekly
and monthly procedures, including equipment checks, feeding,
water parameter testing and adjustments.
Check the appearance of your fish and corals.
You may find it helpful to make a systematic checklist of care
activities and keep a log of the activities performed. There is a
comprehensive maintenance log available for download from
the Support section of the MAX mini-site, which you can print
out or use as a basis to design your own log. Your log does not
need to be complicated; you will need to track the following:
• The tank's parameters – pH, salinity, temperature, etc.
• Information specific to each animal – when you added them,
their approximate size, date of death (it happens in the most
successful aquaria!) and possible cause, etc.
• The general appearance of the tank and individual species.
• Equipment changes – when you changed light tubes or replaced
heaters, etc.
38
Fish
Check the fishes' behavior. Look for signs of aggression – like
bites or injuries- diseases or missing inhabitants (the prompt
removal of carcasses is crucial). If you spot any signs of illness,
treat the affected fish in a quarantine tank; most treatments are
highly toxic to marine invertebrates.
Corals
Check the polyp extensions, looking for signs of stress, such as
closed polyps (i.e. for long periods), fading colors or loose tissue.
If necessary, relocate the stressed coral to an area with better
light and current. If all the corals show signs of stress, it most
likely results from water parameters, particularly pH or salinity.
Water color and turbidity
The aquarium water should be clear. Several factors may account
for turbid water:
• White or milky water unrelated to calcium/buffer additives
can result from ammonia buildup. This occurs through
decomposing organic matter or rotting carcasses. In such a
case, the water will also emit an unpleasant odor.
User Manual
If this occurs, you should do the following:
1. Test the ammonia level and pH.
4. Remove the outlet nozzles from the pumps and examine
each one for blockage.
2. Change up to 50% of the water volume.
5. Remove the pumps from the filter chamber.
3. Look for dead animals.
6. Examine the inlet pipes and the impeller chamber.
4. Replace any carbon filter in use for more than two months.
7. Return the pumps to their original positions and secure the
nozzles in place.
• Yellow water: This usually indicates that the carbon needs
replacing. The yellow color results from the buildup of humic
acids from decomposed algae and other substances.
• Green water: This indicates an algae outbreak; it rarely occurs
in marine aquaria.
• Milky water from air bubbles: See the Technical section in
Troubleshooting, chapter 7, for more information on microbubbles.
Circulation
Maintain adequate water circulation by checking that both
circulation pumps are working well and are pointed in the right
directions. If you notice any regression in currents, check the inlet
pipes at the bottom of each pump and the outlet nozzles for any
obstructions (snails, crabs, carbon chips, etc.). To do so, follow
this procedure:
1. Turn the pumps off at the power center.
2. Lift the hood and secure the supports.
8. Turn the pumps on at the power center.
Protein skimmer functioning
Check the foam production in the collection cup and adjust the
height of the foam adjuster and the air flow valve as required
to get stable dry foam. As a general rule, opening the air flow
valve produces more bubbles; closing it produces less bubbles.
Opening the air valve all the way may cause the skimmer to
over-skim, producing a lot of watery foam.
See the Technical section in Troubleshooting, chapter 7, for more
information on skimmer adjustment and fine tuning.
Proper skimmer functioning should be among your chief reef
care concerns. Therefore, get into the habit of emptying the
collection cup daily. The skimmer chamber should have a constant
movement of air bubbles throughout. If the water in the chamber
becomes clear and the skimmed material production decreases
over time (i.e. more than a week with regular feeding), first
check the setting of the foam adjuster and the air valve flow and
3. Remove the cable channel cover.
39
Red Sea MAX
then check the skimmer pump and air line intake for clogging.
To check the skimmer pump carry out the following procedure:
1. Turn off the skimmer pump at the power center.
2. Open the skimmer panel.
3. Disconnect the collection cup from the skimmer body.
4. Remove the mechanical filter materials on top of the pump.
5. Slowly lift the skimmer body, removing it from the chamber.
6. Gently pull the pump off the skimmer body and return the
skimmer to the chamber.
7. Open the impeller housing and check for calcium buildup,
damage to the impeller or the presence of foreign objects.
8. To clean the air line and air intake nipple, submerge the inlet
assembly with its air line in a bucket of hot water.
9. Clean the parts and reassemble the pump.
10. Reconnect the pump to the skimmer and slide the skimmer
back into the chamber as before. Keep the air line out of
the water.
11. Turn on the skimmer at the power center.
40
12. Gauge the air suction and the water/air mixture. If it still
seems inadequate, check again for blockage and repeat
steps 1-3.
13. Clean the collection cup and reconnect it to the skimmer.
14. Replace the filter foams on top of the pump, keeping the air
line out.
15. Close the skimmer panel.
Water level
Check on a daily basis the water level through the Filter
compartment water level viewer. Make sure that the water level
is not too low to interfere with the system operation. Furthermore
the water loss to evaporation may dramatically raises salinity.
Adjust the over-flow box if necessary and use RO water to replenish
the evaporated water.
See the Technical section in Troubleshooting, chapter 7, for more
information on water level adjustment and fine tuning.
Water temperature control
For optimum conditions a reef aquarium should be maintained
at a stable water temperature in the range of 24-28°C / 76-82°F
(the stability of the temperature being more important than the
exact value).
User Manual
Slightly higher temperatures can be tolerated for short periods
of time as long as the change in temperature is steady and not
sudden. Monitor the temperature at least twice a day, looking
for dramatic fluctuations.
Avoid temperature differences of more than 2°C / 7°F during the
day. During season changes and when heating or cooling the
house, monitor the tank temperature more frequently, adjusting
the heater as necessary.
If the water temperature falls below 24°C / 76°F
1. Lift the skimmer cover and gently lift the heater enough to
see its operation light.
2. Turn the thermostat control knob to raise the temperature
by 2°C / 7°F.
3. One hour later, test the temperature again. Never change
the temperature by more than 2°C / 7°F at a time.
If the water temperature rises above 28°C / 82°F for more than
a day.
Monitor the room temperature over a 24 hour period. If the MAX
is located in a closed room without sufficient ventilation, the
ambient room temperature can slowly rise causing a subsequent
rise in aquarium water temperature.
The MAX has been designed to accommodate the addition of a
water cooling fan and water chiller to maintain the correct water
temperature.
When the MAX is running in an environment with a steady
ambient temperature from 23 – 25 °C / 73 - 77°F, turn on the
cooling fan located at the back of the aquarium. It will keep the
aquarium water below 27°C / 81°F. Above an ambient temperature
of 26°C / 78°F, a chiller of at least 1/10 HP should be used.
Installing a chiller with the Accessory kit
MAX accessory kit provides an easy and convenient way to secure
the inlet and outlet pipes of additional equipment such as water
chiller to the MAX .The Accessory kit consists of a bracket that
snaps into position in the frame above the back wall of the MAX
and 2 bayoneted hose barb connectors.
1. Attach approx 10cm (4”) of ½”flexible pipe to the outlet of
the chiller pump (not provided). Attach one of the bayoneted
hose barbs to the free end of the tube.
2. Position the chiller pump in the triangle-shaped niche formed
by the skimmer and the heater chamber wall and feed its
power cord through the window in the back wall.
3. Connect the inlet and outlet flexible pipes of the chiller to
the hose barbs on the bracket and secure in position with the
lock-nuts.
41
Red Sea MAX
7. Ensure that the inlet and outlet pipes are securely attached
to the chiller. Plug in the chiller pump and check that the
water is circulating through the chiller without leaks at any
of the connections in the piping.
8. Pay attention to the drop in water level and refill the tank
with freshly mixed salt water at the same salinity, pH & temp.
9. Operate the chiller according to the instructions supplied
with it.
Surface film buildup
Look for any accumulation of surface bio-film. This occurs naturally
when light organic compounds, such as fatty acids and insoluble
proteins, concentrate on the surface. The Red Sea MAX filtration
system continues to work even if the water level drops 5cm/ 2".
To ensure proper surface skimming, adjust the level of the overflow box attached to the filter comb:
1. Lift the hood and secure the supports.
2. Adjust the position of the over-flow box so that the top surface
of the teeth is at the water surface.
3. Pay attention to the water level in the filtration chamber and
adjust the over-flow box as necessary.
Algae blooms
Look for any signs of algae blooms – green filamentous,
cyanobacteria or diatoms. Both desirable and undesirable algae
will thrive in your tank which provides the perfect conditions for
growth: water, light, nitrogen and phosphates. Algae control
techniques range from preventive to biological, mechanical,
physical and chemical.
Different algae serve different functions. At the basic level, they
serve as biological indicators, giving you signs of overall system
health. The algae in the system generally include the following
types:
Diatoms
These ubiquitous, single-celled algae prove mostly beneficial in
nutrient cycling, out-competing undesirable organisms. They
appear at the first stages of the cycle period, as described in the
previous chapter. Though they may appear as a brownish film
on tank walls, live rocks and gravel, diatoms rarely cause problems
in marine aquaria. They proliferate under high silicate conditions;
they consume the silicate and reduce its level.
Blue-green, cyanobacteria
These organisms actually appear dark red to the naked eye.
Closely related to bacteria, these algae often constitute the scum
on polluted, poorly aerated or circulated, over-fertilized waters.
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User Manual
They feel slimy to the touch. The presence of the clusters, threads
and chains of these organisms indicates a circulation or filtration
problem in marine aquaria.
Green filamentous
These are hairy, dark green algae spread throughout the tank,
especially on live rock where coralline algae do not proliferate
well. Hair algae can easily overgrow other specimens in the
aquarium, including coral. To control their population, introduce
herbivores. many species of sea urchins perform this function
well. Astrea snails and blue-leg hermit crabs also help.
Algae prevention
Chemical activity
Algae thrive in nutrient-rich water. Initially, provide as little
phosphate and nitrate for them as possible.
Circulation
Most micro-algae do better under stagnant conditions. Keep the
water moving and monitor your pump's performance.
Filtration
Protein skimmers reign supreme in preventing micro-algae; they
quickly remove organics that might otherwise fuel algae growth.
Monitor your skimmer performance regularly and keep it clean.
Macro-algae
These organisms help to control micro-algae. The shade caused
by the macro-algae cuts down on the light that the micro-algae
receive and use some of the nutrients otherwise available for
these undesirable forms. The fast-growing caulerpa and encrusting
corallines (a group of red algae resembling coral) are best.
Pollutants
Do not overfeed. Perform frequent, partial water changes to
dilute nutrients.
Biological controls
Turbo and astrea snails, and herbivorous fish such as blennies,
graze on the algae. Snails tend to be both popular and effective
scavengers for this purpose.
Feeding
As you might expect, the feeding and nutrition of marine life
forms is one of the most important factors in keeping healthy
aquarium inhabitants. Fish comprise an extremely diverse group,
especially when it comes to diet.
Obviously, no single food will meet the dietary needs of all
aquatic species at all life stages. Many attractive species, like
butterfly fish and mandarins, rarely populate aquaria, as they
have special dietary requirements that can only be met in their
natural environments.
43
Red Sea MAX
Many fish have adapted to certain types of feeding. Knowledge
of these idiosyncrasies will enable you to properly select the
food.
of single species (brine shrimp, krill) or blends.
Feeding time offers the best opportunity to assess your fishes'
condition. You should look for:
Dried, flaked, pellets or frozen – certain herbivores prefer these.
Macro-algae are a natural source for these (like ulva, caulerpa
or spirolina). You might also try steamed okra, zucchini and similar
greens, although in the long run they contribute to oxalic acid
buildup. Lettuce and other leafy greens serve well as filler, but
offer little nutritional benefit.
• Fish that do not approach the food.
• Fish that cannot swallow or bite. If you spot this second group,
consider changing the size of the pieces you offer.
Frequency
Feed frequently in small quantities; never let excess food
accumulate and rot. This beneficial method of "underfeeding"
mirrors the situation these species encounter in the wild.
Food
Dry foods that have been formulated for marine aquariums
normally provide a complete diet for most marine fish; you should
however provide other sources of food and nutrition for the
herbivores and carnivores in your aquarium.
Frozen foods
Available in many types, sizes and formats, these specimens
prove more palatable to some stock, and often cost much less
than "fresh" food. Processed properly, frozen food provides the
same nutrition as fresh food. They tend to come in cubes, packs
44
Green foods
Weekly reef care
Water quality parameters
To achieve and maintain a successful reef aquarium, you must
control the physical and chemical limits of the reef environment.
The start of this manual discussed the physical requirements and
how Red Sea MAX makes it easy for you to maintain them. This
section covers the desired water parameters as described in the
chart below. Following the cycle period, when the system has
run for several months, many users routinely skip ammonia and
nitrite checks, but you must check the following parameters
regularly:
Nitrate levels
Check nitrate levels at least as often as you change the water.
pH and alkalinity
User Manual
Check pH and alkalinity, especially if you use calcium additives
regularly. If pH drops, take corrective action by reducing feeds,
adding buffer supplements and increasing water changes.
Salinity
Check salinity and specific gravity.
These recommendations follow years of aquarist experience,
but you may get slightly different figures from other experts.
To clarify the basis for each recommendation, a brief description
of each parameter's importance follows the table.
Parameter
Recommended for MAX
Ocean
Salinity
Temperature
35ppt;sg = 1.026
24-29°C / 77-84°F for marine
24-27°C / 77-80°F for reef
Variable
pH
7.8-8.5 for marine8.2-8.4 for reef
8.0-8.3
Alkalinity
2.5-4.5 meq./L (7-15dKH)
2.5 meq/L7 dKH
Calcium
380-450ppm
420ppm
Magnesium
1250-1350ppm
1280ppm
Phosphate
< 0.03ppm
0.005ppm
Ammonia
< 0.1ppm
Variable (typically < 0.1ppm)
Nitrite
< 0.2ppm typically
Variable (typically < 0.0001ppm)
Nitrate
< 10ppm
Variable (typically < 0.1ppm)
Silica
< 2ppm
< 0.06 – 2.7ppm
Strontium
5-15ppm
8ppm
Iron
0.1-0.2ppm
0.000006ppm
Iodine
0.05 – 0.07 ppm
0.06ppm total of all forms
Variable
The first chapter discussed water temperature and salinity. To
monitor the other parameters, the Red Sea MAX Starter Kit
provides you with the Red Sea Marine Lab, consisting of test
kits for the following:
•
Ammonia
•
Nitrite
•
Nitrate
•
pH
•
Alkalinity pro
•
Calcium Pro
•
Magnesium
Red Sea also offers test kits for phosphate, silicate and iodine.
Contact your local Red Sea dealer for details.
pH
Several factors contribute to the importance of monitoring your
marine aquarium's pH level. Chief among them is that aquatic
organisms thrive only within a certain range that varies from
organism to organism. Changes in pH affect fundamental
processes in many marine organisms, such as calcification, or
the deposition of calcium carbonate skeletons.
pH levels should remain in the 8.2-8.4 range for a reef
aquarium.
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Red Sea MAX
pH may drop during daylight for several reasons:
•
Excessive CO2
•
Alkalinity decreases
•
Excessive nitrification
•
Organic matter buildup
If you detect other indications of organic matter buildup, consider
reducing the food quantity and partially changing the water.
Alkalinity
Alkalinity refers to the amount of acid required to lower the pH,
as well as indicates the store of bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonate
(CO3) in the water.
Corals absorb bicarbonate, convert it to carbonate, and then
combine the carbonate with calcium to form calcium carbonate
skeletons. The prevailing wisdom among marine biologists favors
the notion that certain organisms calcify more quickly at higher
alkalinity than naturally occurs in seawater. Bicarbonate intake
thus becomes a limiting factor in the calcification rate among
many corals. This stems partially from the fact that both
photosynthesis and calcification compete for bicarbonate, and
the bicarbonate concentration starts out low. For these reasons,
coral reef husbandry requires close attention to alkalinity. Without
supplementation, alkalinity levels will drop as corals consume
the bicarbonate.
46
You should maintain alkalinity in the 2.4-4.5 meq/L (7-15 dKH)
range. Higher levels, although they do not adversely affect the
coral, do increase the likelihood of decreased calcium
concentration.
For boosting alkalinity, use Red Sea Coral Buff. Its unique formula
of carbonate and bicarbonate effectively increases alkalinity to
the desired levels.
Calcium
As mentioned above, corals primarily use calcium carbonate to
form their skeletons. Most of the calcium comes from the
surrounding water. Consequently, aquaria with growing coral,
calcareous red algae, tridacnids and halimeda become rapidly
depleted of calcium. Once the calcium level drops below 360ppm,
corals can no longer absorb enough of it, and they stop growing.
Therefore, keep the calcium level at 380-450ppm. Higher levels,
although they do not adversely affect the coral, do increase the
likelihood of decreased alkalinity.
Always monitor alkalinity when adding calcium. For optimum
balance, use Red Sea Success Calcium and Coral Buff together.
For long-term calcium management, use a product such as Red
Sea Success Calk. The result of continuous research into hard
coral growth, Red Sea developed this superior alternative to
kalkwasser, calcium reactors and calcium chloride supplements.
Success Calk safely and simply replenishes the calcium and
carbonate as the corals remove them from the water.
User Manual
To determine proper dosage for these treatments, monitor the
calcium and alkalinity using test kits.
Magnesium
Magnesium's primary importance lies in its effect on the
alkalinity/calcium balance in reef aquaria. Some corals and
coralline algae deplete magnesium by absorbing it into their
growing skeletons.
Seawater and reef aquarium water ideally have calcium carbonate
at super-saturation levels. This naturally causes calcium to
precipitate out of solution, forming crystals. Magnesium binds
to these crystals, effectively blocking their surface and preventing
further growth that would otherwise pull more calcium out of
the solution. This helps keep calcium and alkalinity at natural
levels.
You should maintain magnesium levels of 1200-1400ppm. We
recommend using Red Sea Success Magnesium supplement to
bring the concentration up to par.
Phosphate
Inorganic orthophosphate occurs in aquaria in several chemical
forms (H3PO4, H2PO4-2, HPO4- and PO4-3). Most test kits measure
this form of phosphate; it will typically accumulate in reef aquaria.
These phosphates enter the aquarium with food, added water
and some methods of calcium and alkalinity supplementation.
If allowed to accumulate above natural levels, phosphates can
present two problems:
•
Calcification inhibition
•
Algae growth
For these reasons, keep the phosphate below 0.03ppm. To
accomplish this, incorporate periodic water changes, good
skimming, balanced feeding and proper maintenance.
Ammonia
As mentioned earlier, ammonia results from the decomposition
of organic matter, and from the excretory processes of fish. It is
highly toxic to marine life. In an established aquarium, the
nitrifying bacteria rapidly convert ammonia to nitrite, nitrate and
nitrogen gas, compounds with much less toxicity to fish than
ammonia itself. Ammonia levels should not rise above 0.1ppm.
To maintain low-to-zero levels of ammonia, combine periodic
water changes, good skimming, balanced feeding and good
maintenance.
Nitrite
Seawater makes nitrite far less toxic than fresh water does. As
an intermediate product of ammonia oxidation, nitrite demands
little or no attention from the reef aquarist. Nevertheless, tracking
nitrite can prove instructive by demonstrating the biochemical
processes at work in the aquarium. Nitrite levels should not
exceed 0.1ppm.
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Red Sea MAX
Nitrate
Cleaning
The nitrification process ends with the production of nitrate.
Nitrate abundance usually results in the growth of algae and
potential pests such as dinoflagellates, whose growth are spurred
by nitrate. At the levels normally found in reef aquaria, nitrates
carry no particular toxicity; in fact the zooxanthellae corals
consume it as a nitrogen source.
Since cleaning the system disrupts the inhabitants anyway, exploit
the opportunity to clean thoroughly.
To maintain low levels of nitrate, combine periodic water changes,
the use of a deep sand bed (DSB) and balanced feeding.
Iodine
Both organic and inorganic iodine exist in the ocean. Their complex
involvement in various cycles still constitutes an area of active
research. Iodine predominates in two forms; iodate (IO3) and
iodide (I). Together, these two forms should account for about
0.06ppm.
Among the primary organisms in reef aquaria that consume
iodine, you will find both micro-and macro-algae, as well as
some soft corals.
Iodine overdoses will prove highly toxic to corals. Unless you are
using an accurate Iodine test kit such as Red Sea’s Iodine test
lab, use iodine supplements sparingly, if at all.
48
1. Wipe down the outside of the hood and glass as well as the
transparent lens to get rid of algae and salt crests. Do not use
detergents or soap, only fresh water and a clean rag. To clean
algae from the inside of the glass, use a sharp razor or cleaning
magnet.
2. Remove and inspect the mechanical filtration media for
excessive debris. Rinse them under tap water.
3. Clean the skimmer collection cup and neck.
Supplements
Add supplements in accordance with the tested water parameters
and the appearance / behavior of the inhabitants. Do not overdose.
Some supplements, such as iodine, are toxic in high doses.
Invertebrate feeding
The first step in understanding and addressing the dietary needs
of a reef invertebrate is to identify the feeding strategies of a
given specimen.
User Manual
Coral
Most symbiotic corals need to supplement the products of
photosynthesis with hosted zooxanthellae. Very few species are
truly autotrophic; most will slowly starve if not fed in captivity.
Unfortunately the aquarist cannot always discern such a gradual
process; the net daily deficit amounts to only a few percent.
Most popular coral specimens feed on zooplankton; other
nanoplankton (bacteria, floc, mucus) or absorb nutrients from
the water. Most corals require feeding.
Anemones
Anemones consume pieces of mussel or shrimp, placed directly
on the tentacles or mouth.
Fish supply stores stock many different commercial liquid foods.
We recommend Red Sea CoralGro. CoralGro's complete, balanced
formulation supplies all the nutritional requirements for marine
invertebrates.
Monthly reef care: water changes
While we recommend changing 10% of the tank water every
week, if that proves too difficult, replace 25-30% of the water
at least once a month. Frequent partial water changes help to
dilute undesirable substances.
1. Siphon away the amount of water to be replaced.
2. Pre-mix the replacement seawater to achieve the temperature
and specific gravity that match the tank water parameters.
3. Slowly add the newly mixed water.
4. Check the parameters again, and adjust as necessary.
Take this opportunity to vacuum part of the substrate or bare
bottom and bare live rock areas, rearrange the décor and perhaps
move around some of the livestock.
Bimonthly or longer-term care
Some reef care activities need not take place as frequently.
Review the following list for details:
Change the carbon filter
Replace the active carbon filter every two months.
Clean the bio-filter media
Every 3-4 months, clean the bio-filter of accumulated debris.
Immerse it in clean saltwater and shake gently, so as not to
damage the fauna.
Clean the pump impellers and housing
Calcium carbonate builds up on the pump motors. Every 6 months,
submerge each pump in a mixture of hot water and vinegar.
Remember to properly turn off and disconnect each pump.
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Red Sea MAX
Add Reef Base
Reef Base, as aragonite, slowly dissolves, breaking up into calcium
and carbonate. It may decrease in volume as much as 10-15%
annually. Replenish it to ensure a deep sand bed.
Change the lamps
Over 6-12 months, the intensity of the fluorescent lamps will
decrease as much as 50% and the spectrum will narrow towards
the red end, which can promote algae bloom.
50
User Manual
7 Troubleshooting
Setup
Q Where should I locate my MAX?
A IMPORTANT: The location of your MAX should be decided
upon in advance because, once filled with substrate, rocks
and water, the aquarium must not be moved.
Consider the following parameters in choosing the location:
Tank weight and support
The tank weighs about 200 kg (440lbs) when filled with water,
reef base and live rock. If you choose not to use the MAX Totem
Cabinet, consider this weight when selecting an alternative
aquarium support or stand. If the support you choose is not
designed specifically as an aquarium stand, ensure that it can
both withstand the weight and that it remains balanced and
level; it should also be constructed from a material that is splash
proof. The MAX, like all glass aquaria, may crack if subjected to
sudden movement as a result of uneven water pressure on the
glass walls.
Accessibility
When choosing a location, ensure that you have enough room
to raise the main aquarium hood and remove the skimmer
collection cup for regular maintenance.
Make sure you can reach the power center switches located at
the rear right side of the MAX and that the power center can be
removed from its niche. Ensure that the area surrounding the
aquarium is waterproof and consider moving away anything that
water might damage.
Room temperature
Site selection is important for correct temperature maintenance.
We recommended that you keep the ambient room temperature
a comfortable and stable 22°C / 72°F. Avoid placing the tank in
front of an air conditioner, heating vents or direct sunlight. A
well ventilated room with moderate light is the best place to
position the aquarium.
Q How much live rock should I use?
A As a rule, you should add 1 kg / 2.2lb of live rock per 10
liters / 2.6 gallons of tank volume. The exact amount will
vary with the type of rock you choose, but it should occupy
at least forty percent of the tank volume. For the MAX this
means approximately 11kg / 24lb of average density live
rock.
Q Should I use substrate?
A You can set up your reef tank with or without a substrate
at the bottom. We recommend using substrate, ideally an
Aragonite-based substrate as it helps keep the water chemistry
balanced. As Aragonite dissolves slowly in water, it releases
calcium ions and carbonates that help maintain proper pH
and alkalinity for good coral growth. In an established tank,
51
Red Sea MAX
when the substrate matures, it takes on the characteristics of
“live sand” inhabited by millions of microorganisms. These
creatures promote a successful aquarium, aiding the biological
filtration processes of nitrification, de-nitrification and the
consumption/ decomposition of uneaten food. The substrate
also provides a natural habitat for small worms and crustaceans
that help clean the tank from detritus and play a major role
in the delicate ecosystem's food chain. We recommend using
Red Sea Reef Base (included in the MAX Starter Kit).
Q How much substrate should I use?
A We recommend a substrate base of at least 5-7 cm / 2-2.7"
in depth.
Technical issues
Q The water temperature in the aquarium is going over 27°C
/ 81°F.
A Monitor the ambient temperature in the room over a 24
hour period.
It is important to consider the ventilation in the room where
the MAX is to be kept as the hood is fan cooled and expels
the heat generated from the light tubes into the room.In a
closed room without ventilation, the ambient temperature
can slowly rise.
When the MAX is run-in, in an environment with a steady
ambient temperature of 22°C / 72°F or below, no cooling
should be necessary.
52
Reduce the thermostat setting on your heater and monitor
the results
In an ambient temperature from 23–25 °C / 73-77°F, the
optional water cooling fan that can be installed at the back
of the aquarium will keep the aquarium water below 27°C
/81°F.
If the ambient temperature is above 26°C/78°F a water chiller
of at least 1/10 HP should be used.
Q The daylights are not switching on and off every day as
programmed.
A Refer to the “operating the lights” section above and ensure
that the lights are programmed for the full week option.
Q The water level on the Filter compartment water level
viewer is near the min. line but the tank water level is
below the rim.
A Check the over-flow box position and adjust it as necessary
below the surface level.
If the water level in the pump compartment stays near the
min line, take out the mechanical and biological media and
clean them vigorously, they might become clogged with
excessive debris.
Q My set up is new and the skimmer doesn’t seem to be
skimming.
User Manual
A If the set up is new or If you have just cleaned your skimmer,
re-rinse it with water. Allow the skimmer to run for 48 hours
before worrying. Skimmers react to changes in water density
and other chemical residue can form on the plastic during
the molding process. While this is safe for your aquarium, it
will impede the skimmer’s efficiency for a couple of days.
Remember that your skimmer will work only if the water
contains proteins, as these proteins bind to the surface of the
air bubbles and give the bubbles the structural rigidity they
need to ascend the neck of the skimmer and settle in the
collection cup. If your tank is clean, your skimmer cannot
produce foam no matter how much you open the air inlet.
Q My skimmer is producing a lot of weak, watery foam.
A Production of an excessive amount of weak, watery foam
– also referred to as over-skimming - indicates the presence
of chemical substances that need to be removed by the
skimmer.
Raise the foam adjuster as necessary and reduce the air flow
by closing the air valve, until you get a stable foam production
Q My skimmer isn’t producing foam or it is too dry and builds
on the neck.
A During a new set-up the bio-load is low and the amount of
organics is negligible.If your MAX is fully stocked, lower the
foam adjuster as necessary and open the air valve.
Check the water level and raise it to the optimal line.
If you still get light foam production inspect for blockage in the
airline or skimmer inlet.
Q Why are there micro-bubbles in my tank?
A A low level of micro-bubbles in marine aquariums is normal
and should be expected. Intense skimming is the secret of
great water quality, as it both removes organic waste before
it can break down AND maintains a high redox level. This is
achieved by super-saturating the water with air, i.e. dissolving
more gas into the water than is normal for the given
temperature and pressure. Once the super-saturated water
leaves the skimmer, it “relaxes” and releases the extra gas
in the form of micro-bubbles.
You might be getting microbubbles if you are using tap water
with water conditioners or natural seawater. Many conditioners
, some synthetic salt formulae and impurities found in natural
seawater increase the surface tension of the water and cause
a small proportion of the bubbles to escape out of the skimmer
chamber and flow out through the pumps.
We strongly recommend NOT to use tap water. If you are
going to use it, DO NOT add conditioners/dechlorinators.
Allow the water to settle for 24 hours before to let the chlorine
evaporate naturally before introducing to the MAX.
For further info and trouble shooting refer to the ”microbubbles” flow chart at www.redseamax.com.
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Red Sea MAX
Q The power heads are running but no water is passing
through them.
A This can be due to two reasons:
1. Airlock. During setup, small pockets of air (airlocks)
can get trapped inside the impellor chamber of the
powerhead, causing it to spin freely without pumping
any water.
REMEDY:
a. Carefully remove each powerhead from the glass
partition to which it’s attached
b. Invert the powerhead body inside the water of the
chamber. Shake it gently to release the airlock
2. Inlet tube blockage. One of the corners of the bio
media mesh bag has got sucked into the inlet of the
powerhead and is blocking it.
REMEDY:
Push the bio media bag down so that its corners
away from the powerhead inlet.
Warranty
Red Sea Aquarium Products Limited Warranty.
The limited warranty sets forth all Red Sea Fish Pharm Ltd (Red Sea) responsibilities
regarding this product. There are no other express or implied warranties from
Red Sea.
Red Sea warrants your product against defects in materials and workmanship for a
period of 12 months, valid from the date of original purchase and will repair this
product free of charge (not including shipping costs) with new/rebuilt parts. Damage
to the aquarium glass or to the florescent tubes is not included. The precondition for
the warranty is that the stipulated set-up routine is observed. In the event that a
problem develops with this product during or after the warranty period, contact your
local dealer or Red Sea (at the company address indicated) for details of your nearest
authorized service center.
The warranty is extended only to the original purchaser. Proof of date of purchase will
be required before warranty performance is rendered. This warranty only covers failures
due to defects in materials or workmanship which occur during normal use. It does
not cover damage which occurs in shipment or failures which result from misuse,
abuse, neglect, improper installation, operation, mishandling, misapplication, alteration,
modification or service by anyone other than an authorized Red Sea service center.
Red Sea shall not be liable for incidental or consequential damages resulting from the
use of this product, or arising out of any breach of this warranty. All express and
implied warranties, including the warranties of saleability and fitness for particular
purpose, are limited to the applicable warranty period set forth above.
These statements do not affect the statutory rights of the consumer.
USA
Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential
damages, or limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts, so the above exclusion
or limitations may not apply.
54
Red Sea Europe
ZA de la St-Denis
F-27130 Verneuil s/Avre,
France
Tel: (33) 2 32 37 71 37
info@redseaeurope.com
Red Sea Deutschland
Hauptstrasse 37
40699 Erkrath
Tel: (49) 2104 175 888
info@redseafish.de
www.redseafish.com
International
Free Trade Industrial Zone
Eilat 88000, Israel
Tel: +972 9 956 7107
office@redseafish.co.il
ENG V1 JULY / 08
Red Sea U.S.A.
18125 Ammi Trail
Houston, TX 77060
Tel: 1-888-RED-SEA9
redseainfo@redseafish.com