Washington Apple Pi Journal, August 1984

$2
Wa/hington Apple Pi o
The Journal of Washington Apple Pi, Ltd.
Volume. 6
AUGust1984
number 8 Hiahliahtl
- -
v
mAC SOFTWARE UPDATE
PLAYinG TI.,E mARI<ET WITI-f 0TOCI<SIG
An APPLE TE.LE.COmm TUTORIAL
nE.W RELE.ASE.S FRom APPLE.
AnD T I-IE PIG
In This Issue..
Officers &Staff, Editorial
• David Morganstein
President's Corner
Job Mart • • • • •
Minutes, Notes from the Office, SIGNews • • • • •
WAP Calendar • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Membership Directory • • • • • Dana J. Schwartz
WAP Hotline • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Hardware Helpers, Genl. [nformation, Event Queue.
WAP Election Results, Classifieds • • • • • • ••
Q & A • • • • • • • • • • • • •• Bruce F. Field
A Page From the Stack • • • • • • Robert C. Platt
DisabledSIG News • • • • • • • • • • • Jay Thal
Peter Combes
EDSIG News
Low-Cost Cooling Idea • • • • • • • George Kinal
Macintosh Software Availability Update • • • • •
Mac Mailing List Management ••• Brooks Leffler
Glossary For New Mac Owners ••• Robert C. Platt
A Letter to St.Mac • • • • • • David Morganstein
............
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
10 12 16 16 17 18 19 20 22 When is a Data Base a Data Base?.Alex. E. Barnes
Playing the Market with StockSIG •• Robert Wood
Apple-Oriented Telecomm. Tutorial. George Kinal
Feeding at the Trough: • • • • • Michael Hartman
Specialized Data Management • • • • • Bob Oringel
Softviews • • • • • • • • • • • David Morganstein
Permutation Generator in LISP • • • • Bill Wurzel
Update of Auto-Repeat Dialing ••• George Kinal
Apple Writer Printer Glossary. •• Al R. Rumble
Apple Tracks • • • • • • • • Richard Langston II
Richard Langston II
Apple Tech Notes
Letter to the Editor • • • • • Ludwig Benner Jr.
Premium Softcard lie: A Review •• Robert C. Platt
Monthly Tutorial Outline • • • • • • • • • • • •
WAP Tutorial Registration • • • • • • • • • • • •
Membership Director Change Form • • • • • • • • •
Disketeria Mail Order Form • • • • • • • • • • •
•
Index to Advertisers
23 24 28 32 35 36 38 39 40 42 46 47 48 49 50 50 51 52 8 DISK IlIon 8 II ? $Igg
WOWI
Clinton Computer had an opportunity to buy a limited
number of brand new Apple Disk I I Is at a very special
price from Apple. We made this purchase because we have
manufactured an adapter to make these Apple Disk I I Is work
on the Apple I I Plus or Apple I Ie, with either D05 3.3 or
ProDOS. The adapter requires no modification to the computer,
disk drive or cable. These drives will operate on an Apple I I
or an Apple I I I.
There are many third party drives for the Apple I I. Most
of them have a low initial price, but are more expensive over
the life of the drive because they are not widely serviced or
supported. The Apple Disk III, on the other hand, was built as
an improvement over the Disk I I. The Disk I I I works better
and qUieter, it looks nicer and it can be serviced by any
authorized Apple dealer. A disk controller is also available
for $69, if you need one.
Apple Disk I I Is available only at our Clinton location.
Call ahead for large quantities.
Branch AI'e. (Rf 5) af
6443 Old A lex, Ferri Rd Ciimon. AID 20735 (30 I) 1i5ti·2500 et An Olympic Record
Sprint through the top seiling sohware programs
for the Apple with
MINUTE MANUALS
Feel confident at your starting line equipped with the
Minute Manual • MINUTE MANUAL for PFS: FILEIREPORT/GRAPHIWRITE.
for This book explains this "easy" integrated software system for those who have one or more of
the programs and for those conSidering bUying PFS. Quick gUide contains over 50 step-by-step
PFS: procedures for no guesswork. no wasting time and quick reference. Many procedures not found
File/Report in PFS manual like how to use an Epson. Okldata. Prowriter.NEC. Gemini or Apple dot matrix
printer. Also contains two tutorials for business and education. The MINUTE MANUAL Is
Graph/Write Minute Manual for Apple Writer I/e ••
•••
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••
••
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••
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••
I
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perfect for home. school and business. ISBN 0-913131-03-2
$ 12.95
• THE MINUTE MANUAL FOR APPLE WRITER lie has a proven track record In
• getting you started word processing without the need to read computer.
• software and printer manuals.
The book contains step-by-step instructions for the seven basic procedures and advanced
procedures. Many procedures will not be fpund in the original manuals. forty pages of step.by­
step Instructions explaining how to use Apple Writer lie with the Epson FXIMX. Gemini
lO/lOX. Okldata. Apple DMP. Prowriter. and NEC 8023A dot matrix printers. An entire
chapter explains the most difficult problems of printing and formatting. The most useful
S7 .95
computer book you' II buy this year! ISBN 0-913131-01-6
• On your mark. get set. enter any printing code with a single keystroke.
Glossary Disk for Apple Writer lie & ][ +
Minute Manual
for Apple Writer ][ +
Minute Manual for DB Master This disk contains separate glossary files of print commands for each of the following dot
matrix printers: Epson MXlFX. Gemini 10/10X. Apple DMP/lmagewrlter. Prowrlter. NEC
8023A. and Okldata. Access any print code with a Single keystroke within Apple Writer lie or
11+. Also contains FREE the alternate character set to do sub/superscripts on the Apple DMP.
Also explains how to patch Apple Writer lie to use NUL code to UNDERLINING and
SUPERSCRIPTS on the Epson MX and Gemini printers. Also. find out how to use your
printer's foreign characters. special symbols and graphics characters In Apple Writer. $ 14.95
The Apple][ + Version explains step by step the six basic operating procedures.
advanced procedures. WPL procedures. and EPSON MX printing procedures.
Also explains how to enhance the Apple II + to do word processing-lower case chip. shift key
mod. 80 column board. monitor. extra memory. and more. Also contains First User's Guide To
Word Processing. Get the Glossary Disk to get printing codes for Epson FX. Gemini lOX.
$ 7 .95
Prowriter. Apple DMPllmagewriter. NEC 8023A. and Okldato. ISBN 0-913131-00-8
Sample Data Disks.
DB Master
=
Version 3 for Apple][/][ + and lie.
This book provides a straightforward and practical approach to learning and using one of the
most powerful and popular data base programs for the Apple Computer. Contains practical
explanations. informative tutorials and sound advice along with step-by-step instructions for
creating and using a data base. Two tutorials take you through the powerful features of $ 12.95
searching. sorting, report generation. and file restructuring and reblocking. ISBN 0-913131-024
These optional data disks contain the data used In the tutorials and allow you to work through
the tutorials without creating a practice data base, $9.95
Available at COMM CENTEH, B. Dulton, Sidney Kramers (H St.), VF Assoc., Logical Choice, Towson Computer, Computers
Unlimited, Westminster Computers & more, or send check + $1 S/H to Mlnuteware. P.O. Box 2392, Columbia. MD 21045
(301) 995·1166.
Washington Apple Pi
Augus t 1984
1
1
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..
OUR APPROACH
' !
:
, .
• All Products Always Discounted Cl Reference Literature & Guides For Browsing • Demo Machines
• Special Orders Our Speciality
• Gift Certificates Available
• Rainchecks For Out -Of -Stock Specials
• Comfortable Showroom Environment
• Special Corporate, Government, Educational & User Group Accounts
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HARDWARE
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Complete coupon to be placed on Software City Special Mailing Ust
Mo"'",~
Rd
Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
~
,.
.;... Address
."
:. ~
Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
u it:.
~
NIcholson La"e
~ Monlgomery 1 0
11621 Nebel Slreel (E.'endedl ~:JfOIl
l{.-ckv.lle _ Maryland 20852 ~
0
\_boq':>
Type PC at Work _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
~ WillIe FIorI' Mall
.J I\,.
To DC
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Monitors
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Type PCat Home _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
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CHEVY CHASE
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
OFF ICE.R5
Pres1dent
V1ce Pres-ProgramsVice Pres-SIGs
Treasurer
Secretary
Directors Editor
Associate Editor Journal Staff:
Store Distrbtn. Columnists:
Applesoft
DisabledSIG
EDSIG
LOGOSIG
Q &A
Tel ecomm
VisiCalc
Review Coord.:
Hardware
Software
Group Purchases -
&
5TI~f
f
David Morganste1n
Tom Warr1ck
Bob Platt
Edward Myerson
Nancy Little
Bernie Benson
Peter Combes
J.T. (Tom) DeMay Jr
Bruce Field
Nancy Philipp
Jay Thal
Rich Wasserstrom
Bernie Urban
Genevie Urban
(301)
(301)
(301)
(703)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(202)
(703)
(301)
(301)
Ray Hobbs
(301) 490-7484
972-4263
656-4389
223-1588
759-5479
762-3215
951-5294
251-6369
779-4632
340-7038
924-2354
244-3649
893-9147
229-3458
229-3458
J.T. (Tom) DeMay Jr (301) 779-4632
(202) 244-3649
Jay Thal
(301) 251-6369
Peter Combes
Nancy Strange
(703) 691-1619
(301) 340-7038
Bruce F1eld
(703) 527-2704
Dave Harvey
(202) 966-5742
Walt Francis
Scott Rullman
(301) 779-5714
Raymond Hobbs
(301) 490-7484
Rich Wasserstrom *(301) 654-8060
*(Call Kev1n at office on M,W,Th,F)
(301) 384-1070
D1sketer1a Staff: - John Malcolm
- Dave Weikert, Joy Aso, Bob Hicks,
- Ed Lang, J1m & Nancy Little,
- Terry Prudden, Bruce Redd1ng,
- Gordon Stubbs
(202) 223-1588
New Disks
- Bob Platt
(301) 445-1583
- Mike Hartman
Pascal Lib.
CPIM Lib.
(202) 966-5742
Head Reading Lib. - Walt Franc1s
(202) 546-0076
Apple Tea Coord. - Paula Benson
Arrangements
Demonstrations
General Counsel
- Jim Taylor
(301) 926-7869
- Signe Larson
(703) 524-4541
- J1m Burger (Burger & Kendall)
day (202) 293-7170
Membersh1p
- Dana Schwartz
(301) 654-8060
Program
- Car a Cira
(301) 468-6118
Publicity Cha1rman- Hunter Alexander
(703) 820-8304
Public Relat10ns - Lee Raesly
(301) 460-0754 Rules & Elections - Bob Platt
(202) 223-1588 School Coordinators: (703) 451-9373 Virginia
- Barbara Larson
(703 ) 691-1619
- Nancy Strange
(301 ) 657-2353
Mont. Co. MD
- Margie Stearns
(301 ) 699-8200
Pr. Geo. Co. MD - Conrad Fl ec k
(202 ) 363-5963
Special Publctns. - Betsy Harriman
(301 ) 656-4389
SYSOP
- Tom Warrick
(301 ) 881-2543
Tutorials
- Steve Stern
(301 ) 460-0754
- Leon Raes ly
(703 ) 356-9025
Vol unteer Coord. - Sue Roth
(202 ) 223-1588
SIG Coord1nator - Bob Platt
SIG Chairmen:
Appleseeds
(703) 241-1216
- Mike Forman
Apple III
- Jerry Chandler &
(703) 790-1651
(301) 588-1992
- Bill Hershey
(301) 694-5968
- John Kapkel
CESIG
(301) 340-7962
- Roy Ros fel d
(301) 997-9138
- Charles Franklin
CPIM
(202) 244-3649
DisabledSIG
- Jay Thal
- Peter Combes
(301) 251-6369
EDSIG
(703) 280-1136
- Kevin Nealon
Forth SIG
- Charles Field
(202) 265-4040
LAWSIG
(703) 750-0224
- Gordon Stubbs
LISASIG
(703) 691-1619
- Nancy Strange
LOGOSIG
(301) 656-4389
- Tom Warrick
SIG Mac
(301) 951-5294
- Bernie Benson
NEWSIG
(703) 931-4937
Pascal (PIG)
- Har ry Bishopl
(301) 593-2993
- Jim Harvison
(301) 490-7484
PI-SIG
- Raymond Hobbs
(703) 893-9591
STOCKSIG
- Robert Wood
(202) 546-7270
- George Kinal
Telecomm. SIG
Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. 8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201 Bethesda, MD 20814 Office (301) 654-8060 ABBS (301) 986-8085 - 24 hourslday
ABBS-Buy and Sell (301) 871-7978 - 7:30 PM to 7:30 AM Copyright 1984, Washington Apple Pi, Ltd.
Let this be a reminder that the pages of this Journal
are open and available to all of the microcomputer
users and members of this organization, be they
Apple JE, III, Lisa or Macintosh owners; Pascal,
Integer Basic, Forth, Lisp, Logo or whatever language
users; Apple Writer, WordStar, Supertext or whatever
word processor, etc. We provide the opportunity to
all (within the bounds of current soc1ally acceptable
tenets) to use these pages for furthering the knowl­
edge, understanding, and enterta1nment of our readers.
We will publish most everything that is subm1tted to
us, but we cannot publish what is not. To those who
feel that there is (or m1ght be) 1nsuff1c1ent coverage
of a spec1fic area or computer, we say help us help
Washington Apple P1 you by send1ng 1n your contr1but10ns. The rest w1ll
take care of 1tself. How about it, you Apple III
fo 1ks out there, and the Lisa crowd too, and 1et' s
hear more from the Mac devotees?
We would also request of our contr1butors, be they
monthly, aper10d1c or first t1mers, please help us by
sending in your contr1butions early and preferably on
diskette.
It 1s that time of the year again - the
Urbans are taking their annual sabbatical, and the job
of gett1ng out the next issue has been graciously
assumed by Bob Platt and Car a Cira. Deadlines have a
habit of arriving whether or not one is prepared.
Buena suerte, Bob and Cara.
~
August 1984
3
IDE..nT'
0\/
cl
mO("80nste:
THANKS TO THE PAST YEAR'S BOARO. One of the truly
marvelous things about our organization is the enthus­
iasm and dedication of its volunteers. We would like
to express the appreciation of all of our members,
from WAP number one to WAP number 5,000+ to the
Executive Board. You have served the membership well
and deserve our thanks for all of the time and effort
you have given.
Last month we gave special mention to two officers who
chose not to run again. This month we would like to
extend special thanks to Ed Myerson (and his behind­
the-scenes comrade in arms, Priscilla) who, twogether,
have shouldered the unenviable task of keeping the
books straight.
Ed has kept our accounting up with
the growth we have experienced and instituted fiscal
procedures with the future in mind. We thank them
both for their time and talents.
Words of appreciation are needed for Gordon Stubbs who
has served for several years as Director-at-Large.
Gordon has given uncounted hours to the club as a for­
mer Head Librarian. He has spent many Friday evenings
before the monthly meeting making library copies for
sale when the Alf-ordered disks failed to appear on
time.
He has been there to offer counsel and advise.
Many thanks to you, Gordon, for helping to make us
what we are.
WELCOME TO THE NEW OFFICERS. The Board will have the
benefit of several talented people who have in the
past shown their enthusiasm by working long hours as
volunteers.
We welcome to official positions Tom
Warrick, our SYSOP and SIG Mac chairman, and Bob
Platt, new disk librarian and SIG chairman coordina­
tor, as Vice Presidents. Their energies and guidance
have served the club for several years and now they
have offered to serve in yet other ways.
We also
welcome Nancy Little as secretary. Many of you know
Nancy from the diskette table where she has helped
distribute disks every Saturday for as far back as we
can remember. Both Jay Thal and Tom DeMay have become
Directors-at-Large.
They are known to us all for
their past service. Jay has helped with both EDSIG
and SIGDisabled. Tom coordinates the hardware helpers
and is maintaining a list of most recent version
numbers for commercial products. Both have contrib­
uted many excellent articles to our Journal.
To those who ran but were not elected we thank you for
your interest and hope that we can continue to count
on your help, your time and advise. Our group can
only remain effective if it constantly seeks advise on
its members needs and draws on volunteer efforts of
the dedicated.
THE ABBS.
There continues to be a very healthy
While
discussion about the future form of our ABBS.
we have a system we can be proud of, we need to plan
for expanded capability. We are pleased that Dave
Harvey will be conducting some research and leading a
discussion on the form the ABBS may take.
As we
understand it, the most likely alternatives are: a
distributed system, using Apples and operating out of
a series of hQmes; a network system using a,hard-disk
and a series of Apples in one location; a used mini­
computer which can mutlitask; and renting time on a
widely available communication mainframe such as the
Source.
Dave, and any volunteers who want to work
with him, will be exploring these and other options
and making a recommendation.
4
n
BUDGETING. We continue to discuss the club budget for
the next year.
If you have specific suggestions,
please call, write or attend a board meeting to make
sure your thoughts are brought to the Board's atten­
tion.
TUTORIALS. The first round of Dan Robrish's Applesoft
tutorials
for younger members was lightly but
intensely attended. The second round of six sessions
begins July 24.
If you are interested, call the
office to check on space availability. Visiplot and
Apple Plot will be the subject of a Lee Raesly
tutorial on August 11. We will restart our weekly
Tuesday night tutorials this fall. Several modifica­
tions are planned and will be reflected in an updated
outline to appear soon in the Journal. This series is
aimed at the beginner and can be attended in whole or
in part depending on your needs.
ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL GARAGE SALE. Thanks to Joe Fuchs
and his legions of volunteers, we held another suc­
cessful garage sale with almost 600 people in attend­
ance.
(I guess I mean successful ••• I couldn't sell
my slightly used copy of Super Invaders for love or
money.)
OUR STALWART DISK LIBRARIANS. There are a group of
dedicated folks who continue, month after month, to
give their talent and many hours of labor to benefit
us all. John Mal colm, Dave Weikert and their able
assistants provide the marvelous collection of disk­
ettes for sale. Their work to insure adequate sup- .~
plies and to distribute the disks makes it possible
for all of us to obtain low-cost, valuable software
for our micros. Their services raise much needed
revenue for the club, revenue which permits us to grow
and serve our members in other ways. Please take a
minute at the next meeting to express your thanks to
them for all of their totally volunteer dedication.
MEETINGS WITH APPLE SALES PERSONNEL.
Last month,
several Board members held two meetings with the local
Apple sales representatives. Our purpose was to make
a long overdue introduction and to get acquainted.
The Apple sales organization is going through some
changes which should be completed by this fall.
We
hope that our talks opened a line of communication and
began a mutual effort that will benefit both WAP
members and local dealers.
Ilc TIMING PROBLEM. We have heard that there appears
to be a timing problem with the built-in serial
interface on the newly released Apple Ilc. To gather
facts about this potential problem, we ask owners of
the Ilc to tryout your interface with a modem at 300
and 1200 baud and report back to us. We are checking
with the Apple sales reps to get the facts about the
problem and will report back what we learn.
It
HELP WANTED
Washington Apple Pi needs an experienced part-time
bookkeeper.
Approximately 45 hours/month. Call Ed
Myerson, evenings 759-5479.
It
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
.5 I G r'E.LU.5 JUNE GENERAL MEETING
WAP, Ltd. met at the USUHS on June 23, 1984 at 10:00
~ AM. President David Morganstein presided. The method
of selecting the door prize winner of the garage sale
was explained. Bernie Urban was thanked for preparing
the calendar which appears in the Journal. Members
were reminded to respect the USUHS fac 11 fty. T-shirt
sales were announced, and a special T-shirt was pre­
sented to the President.
Election winners were
announced.
Sara LaVilla and Dana Schwartz were pre­
sented plaques of appreciation. Member number 5000
was awared a T-shirt, a disk of his choice and early
entrance to the garage sale. Group purchase reported.
DOS 3.2 diskette sale price of 3 for $12 was
announced.
A speaker was requested for the Echo II
voice board. The July program featuring two music
systems was announced. Volunteers were sought to lead
NEWSIG and to help revise the new members handbook.
Summer tutorials were announced. A meeting with Apple
sales representatives of the Eastern U.S. was report­
ed. Questions, concerns, etc. were elicited from the
members.
There was some interest in creating a
Physics and Scientific Education SIG. Rental services
are not available at the office. A request for a
booklet documenting library disks was made (the new
member handbook contains some disk documentation). A
new member complimented the organization of the
meeting.
Mac group purchase was explained. There is
the possibility of a group purchase for the Apple ftc.
The need for a larger meeting place was discussed.
SUMMARY OF JULY EXECUTIVE BOARD MEETING
The Executive Board of Washington Apple Pi, Ltd. met
on July 11, 1984 at the WAP office.
Ed Myerson
,,-. reported that the budget would be ready before next
month's Board meeting.
Major budget items were
reviewed by the Board. A sampling of non-renewing WAP
members will be contacted to determine their reasons
for not renewing and to find out if there are member
needs not being met by the Pi. The hardware helper
committee reported about present services to members.
The Board decided to maintain a limited supply of the
3.2 disks at the office. Article 5, Section 6 of the
Bylaws which deals with censuring or expelling mem­
bers was reviewed. Group buying procedures were dis­
cussed.
Members will be reminded that they may pro­
vide demonstrations of hardware/software from 9-10 on
meeting Saturdays. Bernie Urban announced that Jona­
than Rotenberg of the Boston Computer SOCiety is
scheduled to visit the WAP office on July 13.
The
Urbans are leaving on July 24 for a month's vacation
and would like to have all newsletter contributions
sent in as soon as possible. The SIG Mac was dis­
cussed and compared with the other SIGs. SIG Mac will
meet on the 2nd Saturday of the month at USUHS.
The
Board authorized the expenditure of up to $100 per
year for guards during SIG meetings at USUHS.
Each
SIG Chairman is authorized to spend up to $100 per
year for incidental expenses.
<t
F RClrn APPLE /11 SIG meets on the second Thursday of the
month at 7:30 PM. The next meeting will be on August
9 at Universal Computers, 1710 Fern Street, Alexan­
dria, VA.
APPLE SEEDS is the special interest group for
younger members.
They meet during the regular
meeting.
CESIG is the special interest group of computer entre­
peneurs.
They meet after the monthly WAP meeting at
the club office.
DISABLEDSIG - See "DISABLEDSIG News· elsewhere in this
issue.
EDSIG
the education special interest group the EDSIG Page elsewhere in this issue.
LAWSIG usually meets in downtown Washington, D.C. at
noon once a month. For information call Charles G.
Field, Chairman, 265-4040, or Jim Burger, 822-1093.
LOGOSIG meets monthly at 12:45 after the regular WAP
meeting at the Barrie School, 13500 Layhi11 Road,
Silver Spring, MD.
NEWSIG will meet just after the regular Washington
Apple Pi meeting and conducts a "drop-in" for new
Apple owners on Thursday evenings from 7:30- 9:00 PM
in the office. They will answer questions and try to
help new owners get their systems up and running.
PIG, the Pascal Interest Group, meets on the third
Thursday of each month at 7:30 PM at the Club Office.
PI-SIG (formerly ASMSIG) has a new emphasis - program
interface.
For details of their meeting call Ray
Hobbs at (301) 490-7484.
SIG Mac meets on the 1st Thursday at 7:30 PM and on
the 2nd Saturday from 9:00 AM to 12 :30 PM, in the
auditorium at USUHS.
STOCKSIG meetings are on the second Thursday at 8:00
PM at the WAP office. See StockSIG article elsewhere
in this issue. Call Robert Wood, (703) 893- 9591.
Te1ecomm SIG
meeting.
usually meets after
the
regular WAP
It
BBS COMMITTEE
The first meeting of the BBS Committee will be at 1:00
PM on Sunday, July 29 at Dave Harvey's home. If you
would like to attend, give him a call at 527-2704 for
directions.
*** ASSIGNMENT OF ABBS PASSWORDS ***
*** TEMPORARY CHANGE IN OFFICE HOURS ***
note that the WAP office will be closed on
~Tuesday
evenings during the month of August.
Other
hours remain the same as listed in General Informa­
tion elsewhere in this issue. Tuesday evening hours
will resume on a regular basis in September.
Washington Apple Pi
see
FORTHSIG will hold its next meeting on Saturday, Aug­
ust 18 at 1:00 PM in the WAP office.
elF F Please
our
WAP
All requests for passwords to the WAP ABBS should be
directed to the office. A password will be assigned
to you at the time you call and will then be passed on
to the SYSOP, who will enter it into the system. This
process takes several days, SO we ask your patience.
Please do not call the SYSOP for passwords.
It
August 1984
5
August 1984 WAP SUNDAY
MUNDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY
FRIDAY
SATURDAY
-----------1-----------1-----------1-----------1-----------1-----------1----------­
,
,
, 1
1 2 AS Tutr1 3
1 4
,
,
,
1
,
,04 lOAM Off'
,SIG Mac'
'7:30 PM
1
,USUHS'
1
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-----------1-----------,-----------,-----------1-----------,-----------,----------­
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1 23
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1WAP Meeting
1USUHS-9 AM
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-----------,-----------,-----------1-----------,-----------,-----------1----------­
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September 1984 WAP
SUNDAY
MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY
FRIDAY
SATURDAY
-----------1-----------1-----------1-----------,-----------1-----------1----------­
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-----------,-----------1-----------,-----------~-----------,-----------1-----------
23
1 24
1 25
, 26
1 27
1 28
1 29
1
'Beginning 1
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-----------1-----------,-----------1-----------,-----------,-----------,----------­
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6
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
mE.rT1BE.RSI-i I P [) II~E.C TOI~Y b~
Dana
J.
3chwar-tz The next edition of the Washington Apple Pi Membership
There
Directory will be published early this fall.
will be over 3500 names listed. and with such a large
number there are bound to be some unavoidable errors.
In order to catch some of these problems before publi­
cation. we are listing below the WAP membership num­
bers of those members who will not be included.
The
list includes up to new member T"SOT8' and information
received (via renewals and other communications) in
our office as of July 15. 1984.
bet1callyand the other sorted by zipcode. The Direc­
tory will be distributed free of charge (one copy per
membership number) only to those persons whose names
appear in it. No extra copies will be made and no
copies will be sold.
If the information below is incorrect. or if you wish
to change your directions to the Club, please fill out
and return the form in the back of this issue.
Changes and corrections MUST be received in the WAP
office no later than August 25, 1984.
Information
arriving after that date will not be included in this
edition of the Directory.
The Directory will include ONLY the following informa­
tion: first and last name, home phone number, city and
zipcode.
There will be two lists. one sorted alpha­
0021
0027
0069
0076
0089
0094
0107
0127
0144
0160
0169
0186
0187
0201
0202
0207
0210
0223
0233
0234
0235
0239
0250
0260
0284
0292
0293
0314
0319
0328
0331
0336
0372
0376
0407
0409
0449
0450
0451
0452
0459
0475
0480
0486
0492
0503
0513
0536
0588
0591
0596
0637
0643
0645
0649
0676
0703
0713
0741
0753
0790
0796
0825
0830
0841
0849
0854
0850
0859
0864
0866
0870
0884
0893
0898
0935
0953
0960
0967
0972
0973
0981
0983
1004
1011
1012
1024
1034
1048
1127
1128
1178
1180
1181
1194
1195
1213
1236
1286
1296
1298
1340
1342
1343
1388
1406
1440
1450
1469
1470
1489
1513
1534
1535
1556
1588
1611
1710
1718
1719
1723
1730
1753
1759
1761
1778
1820
1847
1867
1870
1876
1881
1883
1898
1913
1920
1922
1930
1936
1938
1941
1944
1946
1947
1953
1959
1968
1988
1990
2004
2009
2028
2042
2078
2088
2089
2111
2126
2150
2159
2178
2179
2197
2208
2233
2244
2295
2335
2340
2365
2386
2388
2399
2411
2421
2437
2458
2476
2492
2550
2561
2563
2585
2587
2616
2618
2619
2621
2629
2697
2715
2790
2820
2823
2832
2846
2854
2858
2898
2931
2935
2937
2944
3042
3070
3075
3096
3124
3151
3175
3211
3235
3254
3262
3312
3319
3344
3357
3371
3380
3398
3440
3453
3470
3475
3480
3483
3492
3511
3512
3520
3522
3530
3531
3548
3561
3568
3569
3574
3582
3590
3600
3619
3621
3630
3637
3674
3676
3688
3691
3714
3734
3737
3740
3744
3751
3752
3766
3773
3800
3820
3826
3844
3847
3852
3858
3863
3876
3885
3892
3895
3915
3917
3940
3944
3945
3951
3955
4000
4008
4015
4029
4057
4064
4068
4078
4081
4092
4107
4124
4157
4167
4182
4187
4205
4208
4224
4225
4239
4257
4281
4285
4288
4296
4325
4369
4378
4395
4429
4431
4474
4492
4519
4520
4551
4556
4558
4562
4564
4569
4577
4581
4603
4611
4616
4646
4649
4655
4658
4661
4674
4695
4751
4768
4791
4797
4827
4833
4846
4859
4870
4874
4875
4881
4904
4928 S070
4937 S071
4938
4951
4967
4971
4977
4991
5005
SOO9
5034
5040
5041
5046
5062
~
Till-STATE SrSTEII6 DISCOUNT APPLE SOFTWARE
Our Retail
lodt Runner ........................................... 34.95 Zork I~ II, or 111... ................................... 39.95 Zaxxoo .................................................. 39.95 Choplifter .............................................. 34.95 Kroft Joystick ...
49.95
Exodus:: Ultimo 111... ................................ 54.95 'w'izordrV ............................................... 49.95 'Wizardry II-Kni9ht of Diomonds.............. 34.95 Wizardry III-Legacy of lyI9OC,lmn ............ 39.95 M
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
R.tail
Price 25.95
29.50
27.50
25.95
39.95
38.95
37.95
25.95
29.95
Our Pric. The Accountant ........................... 129.00 89.95
ASC II Express: The Professional. 129.95 89.95
Screenwriter 11 ........................... 129.95 89.95
Moster Type ................................ 39.95 27.95
Bank Street 'Writer ...................... 69.95 49.95
Word Star ................................... 495.00 289.95 Galactic Advtntuns ..................... 59.95 42.95
Home Accountant .......................... 74.95 56.95
Verbatim (10 d;sks) 51/4 ............ 42.00 26.95
• 'vi. aoo.pt VISA or MosterCord (inolu<» cord •
ond vxpirotion dot.), personal ch\"cks (oUow 2
Hail ord.rs to:
1ft I-STBTE SYSTEMS
P.O.BOX 2544
Springfield, VA 22152
Washfngton Apple P1 weeks), or mOne\j orders
• V A residents add 49& soI~s tax
No credit card penalty! • Includt $2.00 for shipping
• All software products: on disk
• AD prices subject to c~ without notice
m
• Ve oarr, • IGr.- 1m. of discount
software. Yrittt us for our fr... catalog_
August 1984
7
IJJr~l='
I-iOTL I (IE.
Have a problem? The following club members have agreed to help. PLEASE, keep in mind that the people listed
are VOLUNTEERS.
Respect all telephone restrictions, where listed, and no calls after 10:00 PM except where
indicated.
Users of the Hotline are reminded that calls regarding commercial software packages should be ~
limited to those you have purchased.
Please do not call about copied software for which you have no
documentation.
If the person called has a telephone answering machine, and your call is not returned, don't
assume that he did not try to return your call - perhaps you were not home. Try again.
General (703) 527-2704
(301) 498-6074 Dave Harvey
Robert Hartin
Accounting Packages
Accountant(Dec.Sup.) Mark Pankin
Home Accountant
Leon Raesly
(703) 524-0937
* (301) 460-0754
Languages, contd.
Forth
LOGO
LISP
Bruce Field
(301) 340-7038
Ron Murray (eve.) (202) 328-3553
Fred Naef
(703) 471-1479
Mathl O.R. Applns.
Mark Pankin
(703) 524-0937
(301)
(703)
(703)
(301)
(301)
(301) 340-9432
Operating Systems
Apple DOS
APPLE SSC
Bernie Benson
(301) 951-5294
Apple TechNotes
Lance Bell
Shirley Weaver
(703) 550-9064
(301) 761-2479
CPIM
AppleWorks
Carl Eisen
J.J. Finkelstein
(703) 354-4837
(301) 652-9375
ProDOS
Richard Langston
Richard Unt ied
Robert Fretwell
Ray Hobbs
Richard Langston
Paddles
Tom Riley (eve.)
Communications Packages and Modems-Telecom.
Anchor Mark 12
George Kinal(7-10)(202)
Jeremy Parker
(301)
Ben Acton
(301)
Apple CAT II
Dave Harvey
(703)
ASCII Express
Jeremy Parker
(301)
BIZCOHP Modem
Tom Nebiker
(216)
General
Tom Warrick
(301)
Hayes Smartmodem
Bernie Benson
(301)
Tom Vier (1-6 PH) (703)
Omninet
Steve Wildstrom
(301)
VISITERM
Bernie Benson
(301)
XTALK CPIH Comm.
Computers, Specific
Apple Ilc
Apple /Ie
Lisa
Macintosh
Corvus Hard Disk
Data Bases
dBase II
Scott Rullman
Scott Rullman
Don Kornreich
Scot t Rullman
Tom Warrick
Donald Schmitt
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(7171
546-7270
229-2578
428-3605
527-2704
229-2578
867-7463
656-4389
951-5294
860-0083
564-0039
951-5294
779-5714
779-5714
292-9225
779-5714
656-4389
334-3265
Tom Vier (1-6 PM) (703) 860-0083
Paul Bublitz
John Stap les
Doug Daje
Dave Einhorn
Leon Raesly
*
Bob Schmidt
Normand Bernache
Leon Raesly
*
Doug Daje
Jon Vaupel
Bill Etue
Ben Ryan
Jenny Spevak
J.J. Finkelstein
(301)
(703)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(301)
(703)
(301)
(202)
(301)
Expediter Compiler
Peter Rosden
(301) 229-2288
Graphics
Bill Schultheis
(703) 538-4575
DB Master
Data Perfect
Data Factory
General Manager
InfoHaster
List Handler
PFS
QuickFile II
261-4124
759-3461
868-5487
593-8420 460-0754
736-4698 935-5617
460-0754 868-5487
977-3054 620-2103
469-6457
362-3887
652-9375
Languages (A=Applesoft, 1=lnteger, P=Pascal, M=Machine
A
Peter Combes
(301) 251-6369
A, I
Jeff Oillon
(301) 422-6458
A
Richard Langston (301) 258-9865
A
Hark Pankin
(703) 524-0937
Leon Raesly
* (301) 460-0754
A
A,I,P,M
Bill Schultheis
(703) 538-4575
A,I,M
Richard Untied
(703) 241-8678
M
Raymond Hobbs
(301) 490-7484
P
Dottie Acton
(301) 428-3605
Donn Hoffman
* (202) 966-2616
P
8
Printers
General
Anderson Jacobson
Apple Dot Matrix
Da i sywriter 2000
IDS 460
Imagewr iter
MX-80
NEC 8023
Okidata
S11 entype
Spreadsheets
Lotus 1-2-3
Multiplan
VisiCalc
Spreadsheet 2.0
(MagiCalc)
258-9865
241-8678
971-2621
490-7484
258-9865
Walt Franc is
Bill Etue
Leon Raesly
Joan B. Dunham
Henry Greene
Jeff Stetekluh
Scott Rullman
Jeff D1110n
B111 Mark
Fred Feer
Scott Rullman
Bruce Field
(202)
(703)
* (301)
* (301)
(202)
(703)
(703)
(301)
(301)
(703)
(301)
(301)
966-5742 620-2103 460-0754 585-0989 363-1797 521-4882 779-5714 434-0405 779-8938 978-7724 779-5714
340-7038 ~
Leon Raes ly
Walt Francis
Wa lt Franc is
Roy Rosfeld
Terry Prudden
Walt Francis
Leon Raesly
Leon Raes ly
* (301)
(202)
(202)
(301)
(3011
(202)
* (301)
* (301)
460-0754
966-5742
966-5742
340-7962
933-3065
966-5742
460-0754
460-0754
Statistical Packages
Jim Carpenter
Mark Pankin
(301) 371-5263
(703) 524-0937
Stock Market
Robert Wood
(703) 893- 9591 Tax Preparer-H.Soft
Leon Raesly
* (301) 460-0754 Time-Sharing
Dave Harvey
(703) 527-2704 Word Proces sors
Apple Writer II
Walt Francis
(202)
(301 )
Doug Daje
(301 )
Dianne Lorenz
Leon Raesly
* (301)
Executive Secretary Louis Biggie
(202)
(202)
Format II
Henry Donahoe
(301 )
Gutenberg
Neil Muncy
Letter Perfect
(301 )
Cara Cira
Leon Raesly
* (301)
Magic Window and II Joyce·C. Little
(3011
Peach Text
(703 )
Carl Eisen
PIE Writer/Apple PIE Jim Graham
(703)
(301 )
ScreenWriter II
Peter Combes
Supertext II
Doug Daje
(301 )
Peter Rosden
(301 )
Word Hand 1er
Jon Vaupel
(301 )
Christopher Romero(703)
(703)
Work Juggler lie
Carl Eisen
Word Star
Christopher Romero(703)
966-5742 868-5487
530-7881
460-0754
296-1280
298-9107
251-9330
468-6118
460-0754
321-2989
354-4837
643-1848
251-6369
868-5487
229-2288~
977-3054
471-1949
354-4837
471-1949
*Calls up until midnight are ok.
August 1984 Washington Apple Pi
I--fAI~DWAR~ 1--f~I_P~R.3
If you are having hardware problems with your Apple
and/or peripheral equipment, the following persons
have agreed to help. It will be at the discretion of
the Hardware Helper just how involved he becomes. He
may only suggest things for you to do, or he may
actively assist in cleaning, removing or replacing
parts.
?:. \ \'l?:.
~'",­
nT
QUE.UE.
Washington Apple Pi meets on the 4th Saturday (usual­
ly) of each month at the Uniformed Services University
of the Health Sciences (USUHS), Building B, 4301 Jones
Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, on the campus of the
National Naval Medical Center. Library transactions
journal pickup, membersh ips, etc. are from 8:45 !
10:00 AM. From 9:00 to 10:00 AM there is an informal
"Help· session in the auditorium. The main meeting
starts promptly at 10:00, at which time all sales and
services close so that volunteers can attend the meet­
ing.
A sign interpreter and reserved seating are
provided for the hearing impaired.
Tilghman Broaddus
Rt I, Box 246
Mechanicsville, VA 23001
(804) 779-2553 (till 10)
Gene Cartier
6026 Haverhill Court
Springfield, VA 22152
(703) 569-8450 (till 10)
J. T. (Tom) DeMay Jr.
4524 Tuckerman street
Riverdale, MD 20737
(301) 779-4632 (till 11)
Bruce Field
1402 Grandin Avenue
Rockville, MD 20851
(301) 340-7038 (till 10)
Lyman Hewins
Route 2, Box 26
Leonardtown, MD 20650
(301) 475-9563 (till 11)
Pete Jones
1121 N. Arlington Blvd.
N. Arlington, VA 22209
(703) 430-1606 (7-10)
Bob Kosciesza
2301 Douglas Court
Silver Spring, MD 20902
(301) 933-1896 (till 10)
Mark Pankin
1018 North Cleveland st.
Arlington, VA 22201
(703) 524-0937 (till 10)
Richard Rowell
1906 Valley Stream Drive
Rockville, MD 20851
(301) 770-5260 (7-11)
(202) 651-5816 (9-4)
Jim Taylor
16821 Briardale Road
Derwood, MD 20855
(301) 926-7869 (till 10)
R~.3ULT5
Ron Waynant
13101 Claxton Drive
Laurel, MD 20708
(301) 776-7760 (7-10:30)
Dave Weikert
17700 Mill Creek Drive
Derwood, MD 20855
(301) 926-4461 (]-10 ex­
cept Thurs. and weekends)~
Pres i dent
Vice president for Programs
Vice President for SIGs
Treasurer
Secretary
oirec tors
Following are dates and topics for upcoming months:
August
25 - ScreenWriter - Peter Combes
September 22 - Appleworks - Walt Mossberg
October 27­
The Executive Board of Washington Apple Pi meets on
the second Wednesday of each month at 7:30 PM at the
office.
All members are welcome to attend.
(Some­
times an alternate date is selected. Call the office
for any late changes.)
~
wr~l~
Following are
Elections:
E.LE.C T I O(~I
the results of the recent
G ~('IE-RI~L
I (-If nl~~rnr4T I CJ(j
Apple user groups may reprint without prior permission
any portion of the contents herein, provided proper
author, title and publication credits are given.
Membership dues for Washington Apple Pi are $25.00 for
the first year and 18.00 per year thereafter, begin­
ning in the month Joined. If you would like to join,
please call the club office or write to the office
address.
Amembership application will be mailed to
you. Subscriptions to the Washington Apple Pi Journal
are not available. The Journal is distributed as a
benefit of membership.
Current Office hours are:
Monday - Friday - 10 AM to 2:30 PM
*Tues. & Thurs. - 7 to 9:30 PM
Saturday
- 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM (except meeting
Sat)
- 12:00 to 3:30 PM (meeting Sat only)
* Please note that the office will not be open on
Tuesday evenings during the month of August. Regular
hours as listed above will resume in September.
Washington Apple Pi
-
WAP Annual
David Morganstein
Tom Warrick
Bob Platt
Ed Myerson
Nancy Little
Bern i e Benson
Peter Combes
J. T. (Tom) Demay Jr.
Bruce Field
Nancy Ph ili pp
Jay Thal
Rich Wasserstrom
The results of the referenda questions are still being
tallied and will be presented in a later issue.
~
(~I
'-_ -
r~~C"'
I'~ ,.,)
If
FOR SALE: Printer, IDS 445G Paper Tiger with graphics
software, 4 print sizes, 2 lines spacing, l-year-old
printhead; includes paper tray, cover and cable. New,
$785; asking, $350. Call Jerry, 547-9113 and leave a
message.
FOR SALE: 80-col umn card, $75; Z-80 card, $70; Grap­
pler card, $85. Call Arnie Rosenberg at 649-6400 or
460-8093 (eves.).
FOR SALE: Dow Jones Market Microscope. Comprehensive
Used
technical analysis program. Sells for $699.
once.
Bargain at $350 or best offer.
Call Newt
Steers, 9AM-9PM, 320-5820.
FOR SALE OR TRADE: Imagewriter (new); Videx 80-column;
Mountain Hardware clock. Need Epson FX. Call Burt,
686-3514 (day) or 320-4720 (eve.).
~
August 1984
9
& A
Q
b~~
Bruce.
F
F
e. l d
A few months ago I had a request for a low-resolution
graphics screen dump. I printed two such programs in
my column and this brought two more out of the wood­
work.
Randy Davis wrote to tell me about a program
available to dump low resolution graphics to the
Gemini-l0 printer (which I think is also compatible
with the Epson MX-80). The program is in the public
domain and is available from the Dallas Apple Corps on
the March Disk of the Month. Their address is P.O.
Box 5537. Richardson TX 75080.
At the risk of sounding commercial. Gerald Berkowitz
has also written a lo-res dump program that works with
the Epson FX 80. Okidata 92/93. the Apple DMP and
Imagewriter. and others. He charges $35.00 for single
copies with discounts for multiple purchases by school
districts.
Gerald is at P.O. Box 515. Park Ridge. IL
60068.
Loren Engrav has asked me to pass along the following:
"I have an Apple )[+. an Epson MX-80 printer. and an
Epson parallel interface in slot 1. In addition. I
have a Hayes modem card in slot 2 and a Vision 80 card
in slot 3. I noticed that occasionally t~e printer
would drop characters and from time to time hang up.
The problem is that cards in slots 2 and 3 can contam­
The fix according to Epson. is to
inate slot 1.
solder a 220 pf 50 V nonpolarized ceramic capacitor.
available from Radio Shack. between pins 3 and 7 of
chip 6A on the Epson parallel interface. This is a
very difficult problem to diagnose for the unsuspect­
ing."
Thanks for the tiP. Loren. Actually the first thing I
recommend to someone having trouble with their Apple
is to remove all the peripheral cards and replace them
one at a time and in various combinations until the
problem reappears. This may not solve the problem but
hopefully will give you a clue where to look.
A few months ago I answered a question from a reader
about changing the name of the greeting program on a
disk.
I suggested that a disk zap program could be
used to mod ify the name stored on track 1. sector 9.
Ed Marquart wrote to remind me that the Master Create
program on the System Master diskette also allows you
to change the name of the greeting program.
Master Create "creates" a master disk by replacing the
DOS on the disk with the master DOS image. It pauses
to ask for the name of the greeting program and at
this point you should type in the name of the program
you really want. This is also a good way to repair a
disk that has had the DOS damaged.
Q. I recently bought a detachable keyboard kit for the
Apple made by Key Tec. P.O. Box 722. Marblehead. MA
01945.
The kit is basically a color matched
housing for the keyboard to fit into. a plate to
cover the spot where the keyboard was. a 5 ft.
ribbon cable. and instructions on how to perform
the removal of the keyboard. After several days
some technical problems surfaced in the use of the
Key Tec.
1. signal interference: Upon switching onloff the
power to my ventilator fan (internally mounted
inside the Apple). or my printer. the last
character typed is replicated a number of times
from 2 or 3 to about 12 times (it seems to vary)
10
onto the CRT screen. Also I have noticed that
my Apple seems to pick up signals from other
power fluctuations (like light switches) when
they are turned on/off.
2. The Signal interference is a relatively minor
annoyance. perhaps you can suggest a fix for
it...
But the second problem is more serious
and very much bothersome ••• The Reset:
The
reset signal from the keyboard is not received
Upon turning on the Apple all keys
properly.
including
the
Reset
function
properly.
Furthermore upon using one of my modified disk
systems.
either Diversi-Dos or David DOS.
everything still works fine... including the
reset.
However upon booting standard DOS 3.3
When
the reset no longer seems to function!
resetting under DOS 3.3 the keyboard "freezes·
and no longer accepts any other keystrokes. In
fact the whole system seems to ·hang". What is
happening?
A. The signal interference is probably that. as you
suspected. the long ribbon cable is picking up
unwanted signals. It might help to shield this by
wrapping it with aluminum foil and connecting the
foil to a metal part of the Apple case.
If you
don't need the fullS foot length you could shorten
the cable to the minimum needed. The connectors on
the cable are readily available and can be squeezed
on the cable with a vise if you don't have the
It is also possible to replace the
proper tool.
cable with a shielded cable; however you will
probably not be able to obtain one with the
connectors in place and will have to construct your
own.
Placement of your existing cable may also be
critical, try moving it away from your internal fan
and other power lines. You might also try running
a separate heavy ground wire from the metal part of
the case of the Apple to the new keyboard housing.
Also, make sure that the three wire plug on your
Apple is properly connected to a grounded three
If you are sure your outlet is not
wire outlet.
grounded or you are using a "cheater" plug with the
pigtail lead unconnected, you can ground your Apple
to a water pipe.
Although it flies in the face of all the arguments
you've presented, I don't think your Reset problem
has anything to do with software. The reset signal
from the keyboard goes directly to the microproces­
sor reset pin. If everything is functioning per­
fectly, the Apple is running a program. or charac­
ters can be typed on the screen and it fails to
respond to Reset, I think you have a poor or broken
connection between the reset output on the keyboard
and the Apple. There is no way that software can
disable the reset signal.
Before everyone jumps down my throat on that last
statement let me clarify what happens on Reset.
When the Reset key (and on some Aqples you also
have to simultaneously press the control key) is
pressed the 6502 microprocessor stops what it is
doing and waits until the key is released. It then
starts executing the Monitor program in one of the
All Apple )[+'s and lIe's have an
Apple's ROMS.
Autostart ROM Monitor that initializes the Apple,
and then checks the soft entry vector and power up
byte at memory locations $3F2-$3F4. If these bytes
do not have consistent values (i.e. when the power
contd.
Augus t 1984 Washington Apple Pi
is first turned on) the program looks for a disk
controller card and tries to boot a disk, if no
card is found it prints "Apple ][a at the top of
the screen and starts Applesoft. It is possible to
change the soft entry vector to do other things and
this is where it appears that the software controls
the reset process. But in almost every case pres­
s ing Reset (and control if necessary) causes the
Apple to jump to the soft entry vector. (A speCial
case is that a few 16K RAM cards remain enabled on
Reset and can cause problems.) DOS 3.3 changes the
soft entry vector to jump to the DOS warmstart
entry routine, so when you press Reset DOS stays
connected and you return to Applesoft.
If this
doesn't work you may have a bad copy of DOS 3.3 or
other hardware problems. A good test would be to
temporarily re-connect the keyboard inside the
Apple and see if this works.
Q. Recently I purchased an ULTRA ROM Card and a
VIEWHASTER-80 Card.
I installed them in slots 2
and 3 of my Apple II. PRI2 turns on the ULTRA ROM.
PRI3 turns on the VIEWMASTER-80. Each card func­
tions normally individually but each disconnects
the other when turned on so that I cant' use the
ROM GPLE in the 80-column mode. 00 you have a
solution for this problem?
A. No, all I have is an explanation. In general when
using the Apple you can direct the output to (or
get input from) only one device at a time, the
40-column screen, an 80-column card, a printer,
etc. You can't for example print to both a printer
and a modem in different slots at the same time.
The actual deta i 15 of how output and input is
handled depends on the interface cards; thus for
some interface cards it is possible to write a
short machine language routine to fool two cards
into running at the same time. I do not think this
is possible however with these two cards. Both the
ULTRA ROM card and VIEWMASTER-80 want to read the
keyboard directly; to get both to operate together
you would have to modify the program stored in the
ROMs on the cards.
Q.
have what I believe is a relatively simple ques­
tion that you may be able to help me with. (Where
have I heard this before? BFF) I have the Videx
Ultraterm video card running in slot 3 of my Apple
lIe, and I'm using Apple's Monitor II for my
display.
The display works quite well in the 40
and 80 column modes, but if I try to use the 96,
128, 132, or 160 column modes, I lose characters
from both the left and right edges of the display
due to overscan.
Is it poss ible to wire in a
resistor across the video phono leads to cut down
on the overscan?
Incidentally, in one of your earlier answers, you
indicated that with Apple's 80 column card in­
stall ed in a II e, slot 3 cou 1d not be used by
another video card. The lIe would ignore it, you
said.
I don't have an extended memory lie video
card in my Apple (yet), but the documentation on my
Ultraterm indicates that it has been designed to
overcome this and can be used in slot 3 of a lIe.
electron beam on and off rapidly enough and the
characters get blurred. To help prevent this and
to make the characters wider, Videx displays the
characters more slowly than the monitor electron
beam travels, thus causing you to lose some of the
characters at the edges. Adding a resistor to the
video cable only changes the voltage levels and
will not do anything to help with the timing. On
some monitors there may be an adjustment for
horizontal scan, but there isn't one on the Monitor
II (at least on the outside). I would check with
Videx to make sure your card is working properly
and to see if they have a fix. But I am afraid you
are probably out of luck.
As far as operating the Ultraterm board in slot 3
of a lIe( the standard signal provided by Apple in
slot 3 I/O Select) is disabled when a lie 80­
column card is installed in the auxiliary slot.
Videx apparently does not use this signal. So, the
Ultraterm will work in slot 3 with another
80-column card in the auxiliary slot but most
standard 80-column cards, especially those designed
for the Apple ][, will not.
Q.
have a small Hello program that clears the
screen, displays a list of programs that can be
run, prompts the user to select which, and then
RUNs the appropriate program.
Why does this
program make the disk drive make a brack-brack
noise (the head returning to track 0) before
running the program I request?
A. I won't bother to reproduce all of your program
here but I note that it consists of all standard
App1esoft statements that should not cause any
problem, except where you POKE 34,24 to stop
scrolling when you request an input on the last
line of the screen.
45 POKE 34,24: REM STOP SCROLL
200 VTAB 24: PRINT "WHICH ONE 00 YOU WANT? w;
205 INPUT aW:AS:IF NOT LEN(AS) THEN 200
Location 34 controls the top of the screen window
and the acceptable range of numbers that can be
used is 0 to 23. By POKEing 24 you are confusing
the Apple by saying that the top of the window is
below the bottom of the window and when scrolling,
memory gets moved around in strange ways. What is
happening is that something in DOS is accidentally
You are lucky that nothing more
modified.
disastrous happened. You should be particularly
careful when changing any of the window boundaries
at locations 32, 33, 34, and 35.
To get around scrolling when requesting an input on
the last line I suggest that you use GET instead of
INPUT. With GET you can type any single character
and use that to select your program and since no
carriage return is printed, there is no scrolling. ~
A. The overscan problem you observe is the result of a
timing problem.
The amount of time it takes for
the electron beam in your monitor to travel from
the left side of the screen to the right side is
all the time allowed to display the characters.
Usually only a fraction of this time is used; the
remaining time becomes the borders around the text.
The more characters you display the faster the
signals must change in time and eventually you get
to the point where the monitor can't turn the
Washington Apple Pi August 1984
11
PAG~
fROrll
TI-l~
.5 TAC.I<' Robe.rt
WAP's library of software continues to grow at a rapid
pace.
Eight new disks premiered in July, and we are
hoping to keep up our pace.
{153.5} APT.BLDG.PURCHASE - A detailed analysiS of the
financial factors to be considered by a prospective
landlord.
Looking for a good way to escape the heat of summer?
Why not organize your Apple software collection and
put together some donations to the WAP library?
Remember that for each 5-1/4 inch disk you donate, we
will give you an Apple ][ library disk in exchange.
For your Mac/Lisa donations, you will get a Sig Mac
disk.
{153.6} DECISIONMAKER-R - by Phil Feldman and Tom
Rigg, Kilobaud, July 1977 adapted by R.H. Davies
causes you to list factors for each alternative when
making a decision. You then rate each factor for each
alternative on a I to 10 scale.
MUSIC WANTED
{153.8} VISICALC FORMULAS - An Applesoft program to
list the formulas specified in a VisiCalc or The
Spreadsheet template. Use PRII to route output to the
printer. Run VISICALC FORMULAS INSTR for details.
We continue to look for song files for the ALF music
board, which was the topic of the July WAP meeting.
Please contact Bernie Benson or Bob Platt. Also, if
you have typed-in songs for Dennis Brother's MacMusic
program, we are putting together a music disk for the
Mac.
A number of new co-processor boards have appeared for
the Apple featuring the 68000 or 8088 chip. If you
have some software to use with these boards, please
consider donating it to the library. Call Bob Platt
for details.
We are also looking for programs to be added to a File
Cabinet disk.
Moving on to the details of our latest disks, two new
Pascal disks PIGI3: and PIGI4: are described in Mike
Hartman's
column elsewhere in this issue.
The
remainder of this column describes our third Mac disk
and five new DOS 3.3 disks for the Apple II.
DISK 153 - INVESTMENTS A
programs was
This collection of public-domain
assembled by the American Association of Individual
Investors. The series continues on Disk 154. Most of
the programs on these disks presume a knowledge of
Consult WAP's
investments and simple statistics.
StockSIG for further background.
{153.1} LINEAR REGRESSION-R is a least squares fit
from pairs of data values. You input the number of
known points and pairs of x and y values. The program
lists the coefficient of determination, correlation
coefficient and standard estimate of error.
{153.2} PORTFOLIO.REVIEW-R by J.M.Hubner allows you to
enter investment names, initial prices and number of
shares. By updating your portfolio with daily closing
prices and purchases/sales, the program will keep
statistics on your portfolio value and tax liability.
CThis is one of several programs on this disk that
performs this function.) Run PORTFOLIO.REVIEW.DOC-R
for deta 11 s.
{153.3}
STOCK OPTION/COVERED
HEDGE by Edward
Christianson, Interface Age, Feb. 1977; Appl esoft
version by F. Paul Wyman - Will estimate the rate of
I'm not
return on various stock option positions.
sure that the provision for brokerage commissions is
up-to-date.
{153.4} STOCK PORTFOLIO VALUATION - Input initial
price, number of shares, price and current dividend
for each stock in your portfolio.
12
{153.7} HIRES LINE GRAPH
{153.9} AAII-STOCK OPTIONS
{153.10} AAII-BOND YIELDS
{153.ll} AAII-STOCK STATISTICS
{153.12} AAII-OPTIONS ON FUTURES
{I53.13}
AAII-T-BILL CALCULATOR - Enter dealer's
quoted divident yield, face amount, date of purchase
and date of maturity. The program will then calculate
the discount and bond equivalent yield.
{153.14} PFPERFORMANCE - Displays strengh of stock
portfolio.
Modify data statements in lines 240-360
for your stock holdings. Line 210 should read:
210 F=365*Y+D+31*CM-l)-INTC.4*M+2.3)+INTCY/4)
-INTC.75*CINTCY/IOO)+1)
r-,.
{153.15} LOAN SCHEDULE - Displays an amortization
table for a loan of any specified amount, interest
rate and term. Change line 150 to read:
150 IF LEN(A$»2 THEN IF MIDS(A$,LENCAS)-2,l)c"."
THEN 170 {153.16}
BUSINESS FINANCE - A monster Applesoft
program to perform all of the followi ng funct ions:
future value of an investment, future value of an
annuity, future val ue of savings, investment with­
drawals, minimum income investments, income from
investments,
nominal
interest rates,
effective
interest
rates,
depreciation rates,
depreciated
investments,
year end salvage value,
discounted
commercial
paper,
loan principal, loan
payment
schedule, balance of a loan, and mortgage amortiza­
tion.
Another version of this program is FINANCE,
Avelar's financial pack from A.P.P.L.E.
DISK 154 - INVESTMENTS B
This disk contains programs from the American Associa­
of Individual Investors, an Amway record keep­
tion
ing
system, and ut l1ity programs for the Apple Dot
Matrix Printer.
{154.1} STOCK MARKET FORECASTER - Written for tape
cassette I/O. Modify the program to store past market
data from a disk.
{154.2} STOCK VALUATION - Another program to compute
your portfo110 data based upon current prices.
,,-..,
{154.3} LEASE COMPUTATION - Compute first term and VC
leasing rates based upon length of lease and the orig­
inal cost of an item.
contd.
August 1984 Washington Apple Pi
{154.4} LIFE MANAGEMENT
personal net worth.
AND FINANCES -
Calculates
these three files on a disk by themselves
MASTER CATALOG PROG the HELLO program.
and
make
{154.5} CHECK BOOK - (by Robert B. Shepp) Will save a
check book register in an Applesoft sequential file.
You can either save all records or just uncashed
checks for future monthly reconcilations. Run CHECK
~ BOOK INSTR for details.
{IS4.14} SET APPLE MATRIX PRINTER - This asks ques­
tions about the character size wanted and then sets
the printer. It selects from the 7 default character
sets.
It can provide bold or elongated characters.
It can also change the number of lines per inch.
{154.6) TREND LINE ANALYSIS - (by Bill Martin) Does a
least squares curve fit and hi-res plot of data.
{154.15} DUMB TYPER - A short utility program which
will print just what you enter on the keyboard.
The
printer will print when the buffer is full (approxi­
mately a line) or when a <cr> is sent. Because errors
are not easily corrected, this is no substitute for a
word processor. You can enter the ESC printer control
sequences.
{154.7} DECISION MAKER II - Another program to analyze
a problem into weighed factors.
{154.8} LINEAR.PROGRAMMING - Finds the optimum solu­
tion to a problem expressed as a series of inequali­
ties in multiple variables. Adjust the DIM statements
to be sure that the program can handle your number of
variables. (Linear programming is a well-known mathe­
matical technique that can be used in every day life.
For example, a hot dog factory will use linear pro­
gramming to change the mix of ingredients based upon
the current price of those ingredients.)
APPLE DOT MATRIX PRINTER UTILITIES - The first set of
programs are designed to help Apple Dot Matrix and
Imagewriter Printer owners. (Programs PRINTER GRAPH­
ICS FOR APPLE and GRAPHICS TESTER may not work for the
Some of the programs can be modified
Imagewriter.)
for other printers. Many thanks to Joan Dunham for
donating them. (See Joan's article in the June 1984
WAP Journal for hard-copy documentation of this
material.)
{154.9} AOM FONTS DEMONSTRATOR - This program demon­
strates the characters in the 7 available sizes. The
ASCII decimal code for each character is printed on
the lines below the character.
~{IS4.10}
SET VERTICAL TABS - This is a utility program
to set the vertical tabs for use with the Electronic
Vertical Form Unit. The vertical tab control codes
are used to space down the desired number of lines
when the tabs have been set. The ADM will always
return to the left margin on any line feed.
This
handy feature will store the tab positions for up to 5
forms.
This is useful when working with forms or
labels that are not the standard 66 or 72 lines long.
{154.11} PRINTER GRAPHICS FOR APPLE - This
demo
program shows a 256-member graphics character set in
the ADM. It prints the decimal code (0 to 255) of the
character below and the ASCII character corresponding
to that code (.if not a control character!) above the
Note that both this and the
graphics character.
GRAPHICS TESTER program require POKEs to memory loca­
tions used by the interface cards. There probably are
some interface cards which won't like that.
The
serial cards used by the Imagewriter may not accept
these POKEs.
{154.12} GRAPHICS TESTER - A short one
stration of a graphics pattern.
line demon­
{IS4.13} MASTER CATALOG PROG - This is yet another
version of MASTER CATALOG available on several WAP
disks (including the WAP 134 NEW MEMBER DISK).
This
uses MASTER CATALOG ADM and B.MAS.CAT.48K. This ver­
sion distinguishes between front and back (for the
two-sided users) and traps control characters that are
embedded 1n program names. (To use the trap you store
the catalog and then read the catalog back in. Con­
trol characters are replaced with blanks - see line
~257S).
MASTER CATALOG PROG just loads the binary sub­
routine file B.MAS.CAT.48K and then runs MASTER CATA­
LOG ADM.
Once the binary file is loaded the MASTER
CATALOG ADM can be run repeatedly without having to
reload the binary file each time. I suggest you put
Washington Apple Pi {154.16} HELP MY PRINTER DOESNT WORK - A program that
lists file HELP.DOC which is a text file of problems
and suggested resolutions. (See June 1984 WAP Journal
p. 26; the Applesoft program for displaying documenta­
tion is written-up on p.46.)
{154.17} AMWAY RECORD KEEPING PROGRAMS - These pro­
grams will track orders, inventory and finances of an
Amway dealership. Some of these menu-driven routines,
such as the phone list, will also be useful to non­
Amway WAP members. To use, RUN AM.HELLO.
DISK 155: lAC 33 - MISCELLANEOUS
This disk contains programs written solely by members
of Apple-Dayton. The prorams have been selected for
overall quality and unique programming techniques.
The disk 1s distributed through the lAC.
{155.1} A-D HELLO [A:08:Utility] - Club information;
loader for U/MENU 4.0 and A-D NOTES READER. Written by
Mason Friar. Modified by Ted Rose. Run G/RUBIK'S CUBE
INFORMATION for instructions.
{ISS.2} G/RUBIK'S CUBE [A:22:Games] - A program that
uses hi-res graphics to let you manipulate a Rubik's
Cube.
Doesn't tell you how to solve the cube, but
gives you a selection of starting positions. Written
by Thomas Cottrell.
{ISS.3} G/RUBIK'S CUBE HRS.CHR [B:05:Games] - Support
program for G/RUBIK'S CUBE; loads the shapes for the
characters used to write to the hi-res screen.
A$S2S6,L$03A9.
{155.4} G/RUBIK'S CUBE CHAR DISP [A:02:Games] - A
support utility that can be used to display the
character shape tables contained in G/RUBIK'S CUBE
HRS.CHR.
{155.S} G/RUBIK'S CUBE STRING WTR [A:12:Games] - Sup­
port program for G/RUBIK'S CUBE that can be used to
enter special patterns which can then be read in and
displayed by G/RUBIK'S CUBE.
{155.6} G/STAR TREK.RUN FIRST [A:08:Games] - Boot pro­
gram for G/STAR TREK. Must be run first to set the
memory boundaries and load all the supporting pro­
grams. Written by Steven Bowline.
G/STAR TREK [A:53:Games] - Steven Bowline has done a
superb job of revising the original Mike Mayfield
program into App1esoft and adding hi-res graphics.
Instructions for all the features of this game are
available from the program G/STAR TREK.RUN FIRST. The
only trouble is the use of non-standard 3-1etter com­
mands:
August 1984
contd.
13
NAV
LRS
PHA
TOR
SHE
DAM
COM
-
lo-res graphics and music for the younger generation.
Some keyboard input is required. Written by Grace and
Dan Fox.
activate warp engines.
long range scan of other quadrants. fire phasers.
fire torpedos. raises/lowers shields. damage report.
battle computer. {155.7} U/FASTBOOT CREATE [B:06:UtilityJ - This pro­
gram will configure an initialized 4SK DOS 3.3 to load
the non-resident Basic Into the the 16K card as a part
of the bootup process. The card Is loaded approx. 5
times faster than by the system master and since the
language is loaded before the greetings program is
run, it can be in either vers ion of Bas i c • After the
FASTBOOT disk is created, transfer programs using only
file transfer type routines (FlO). Should be used
only on disks that are blank except for a greeting
program. Written by John Matthews and Jim Hopper.
A$OS03,LS04DO
(155.S) U/CATEDIT 1.0.CODE [B:05:Utility] - A catalog
edit program that allows you to add titles, change
names to flashing, inverse or lower case displays and
clear previous titles from the catalog. Written by
Jim Hopper. A$OS03,LS03D4
{155.9} U/DISKSCAN 1.6 [B:12:Utility] - This program
is an assembly language implementat Ion of the p­
System's "Bad Block Scan". Initialization Is also
supported with the greeting program you have pre­
loaded.
If you find bad blocks and reinitializing
does not cure the problem, the VTOC can be written
back to the disk with the bad block marked as used so
DOS will ignore it on future disk operations. Written
by Jim Hopper. A$4000,L$OA2F
{155.l0} U/MENU 4.0 [B:07:Utility] - Apple-Dayton menu
program loaded by A-D HELLO or A-D NOTES READER. This
program is relocated between DOS and its buffers so
that normal program usage will not disturb it and it
can be called back at any time. Some programs require
additional space which will cause the menu to fail to
respond. Use the space bar to access successive pages
of the catalog of programs on the disk. Written by
Rick Croasdale. A$SOOO,L$05EA;4SK.
{155.ll} U/A-W TRANSFER [A:lO:Utillty] - This program
is designed to communicate with a copy of itself In
another Apple when both are equipped with the DC Hayes
Mlcromodem II. The programs will take standard Apple
Writer binary text files, convert them to ASCII for
transmission, send from one to the other, convert back
to A-W format and save the text to disk as a TEXT.--­
file at the receiver end. Written by John Matthews.
{155.l2} U/EPSON SETUP 1.3 [A:33:Utility] - A menu­
driven program to send control codes to an Epson MX-SO
printer to set Condensed, Expanded, Enhanced, Double
printing, etc. Includes a sample letterhead which can
be modified into your own. Written by Ed and Mike
Hunter.
{155.l3} U/GETPASCAL 2.2 [B:06:Utility] - A program
that allows the user to download files from a PASCALI
FORTRAN format disk. This assembly language update of
the original GET PASCAL done in Basic by Dr. Matthews
runs about ten times faster. At present, onl y Pascal
text file transfer is supported. Written by John B.
Matthews, M.D. A$OS03,L$04B3
{155.14} U/UTILITIES NOTES [T:16:Utility] - Additional
documentation on FASTBOOT, DISK SCAN, and GETPASCAL
programs. Can be read using the FILE CONVERTER pro­
gram. Written by Jim Hopper and John Matthews.
{155.15} E/PRESCHOOL FUNPACK [A:4l:Education] - Some
exercises and "just plain entertainment" presented in
14
1155.16} B/FILE CONVERTER 2.0 [A:lS:Business] - A
business util ity program that will read any Apple r-,
Writer binary file or sequential TEXT file (regardless
of string length). Options include screen preview
(with lower case available for those with lower case
adapters) and left-justified print-out. The files in
memory can be saved to disk as Apple Writer or Text
files.
Multiple disk drives are supported and the
program will run on any size Apple that can support
DOS (the smaller machines may not be able to load very
much text). Written by Ted Rose.
{155.17} B/FILE CONVERTER 2.0.0BJ [B:03:BusinessJ
Support program for B/FILE CONVERTER 2.0 that loads
into a DOS buffer. Program 1s relocatable. This pro­
gram must be on the same disk with B/FILE CONVERTER
2.0 for the program to run properly.
A(HlMEM) ,U19S
For documentation, RUN this program and then load file
B/FILE CONV 2.0 INSTRUCTIONS with option 2 "LOAD
SEQUENTIAL TEXT FILE", then select option 3 for screen
preview or 4 for printout.
{155.1S} A-D NOTES READER [A:06:UtilityJ - Routine
called by A-D HELLO to present a screen preview of the
Written
documentation contained in A-D VOL 1 NOTES.
by Ted Rose. [NOTE: requires B/FILE CONVERTER 2.0.0BJ
to run.J
DISK 156: lAC 35 - APPlESOFT
APPLE WRITER lIe
This disk contains files from three sources. lAC disk
35 provides a program to help write Applesoft pro­
grams.
Next are a series of ut il ity programs donated
by WAP member Rudie Slaughter. Finally, this disk
features utilities by Ronald Green to help use the~,
Apple Writer lIe word processor.
{156.1} BUILD A PROGRAM - by Loren Avenson (NI~UG
member).
This program builds a skeleton Applesoft
program to accept/convert dates and optionally the
cod Ing for a user-defined indexed sequential disk
fil e. Run DOCUMENTATION FOR BUILD for details.
{156.2} INPUT-ROUTINE - A part of BUILD A PROGRAM used
as a run time package.
{156.3} INPUT-ROUTINE-DEMO - Demonstrates the use
the BUILD A PROGRAM package.
of
l156.41 FILE SALVADOR - (by Rudie Slaughter) - Re­
stores deleted files from a DOS 3.3 disk (provided
that no new files were added since the deletion.
{156.5} GAME CONTROLLER TEST - Two versions for the ][
and lIe. This two-line Applesoft program will dis~lay
the current button and paddle settings. Note that the
file name for the lIe version Is in lower case and
will appear as junk characters when listed on a ][t.
{156.6} MON TEST - Displays a test pattern for
Sony color monitors.
non­
{156.7} SONY TEST - Displays the same test pattern for
Sony color monitors.
1156.S} Pentamze 2.0 (by Robert Tsuk) - An Improved
vers Ion of the game that was fea tured In Byte, Vol. 7,
No.9.
{156.9} APPLE WRITER lIe INFORMATION
Included are an APPLE WRITER REFERENCE CHART, an APPLE
WRITER OPERATION description, a GLOSSARY for the PKASO
interface with the C. Itoh Pro Writer printer, a
contd.
August 19S4
Washington Apple PI
GLOSSARY REFERENCE CHART, a GLOSSARY USE description
and print format files.
~
The print formats files are (with each file name pre­
fixed by ·PRT."): STANDARD PAGE FORMAT; STANOARD PAGE
BLOCK FORMAT (use 10 CPI and 6 LPI); CORRESPONDENCE
FORMAT (use proportional &8 LPI); SMALL PRINT FORMAT;
SMALL PRINT BLOCK FORMAT (use 12 CPI and 6 LPI); TINY
PRINT FORMAT; TINY PRINT BLOCK FORMAT (use 17 CPI and
8 LPI)
DISK 157: lAC 36 ARCADE GAMES
This disk features three shoot-em-up arcade games by
Albert Lesiak of the Northern Illinois Apple User's
Group. Al used Borderbund's Arcade Maker to generate
the three machine language programs. The remainder of
the disk is a theme song and title display. To leave
any of these games, press Control-Open Apple-Reset at
the same time.
{IS7.1} BEACH-HEAD - A tank-oriented game in honor of
the 40th anniversary of the Normandy invasion.
{IS7.2} WESTWARD HOI - Try to protect your wagon train
with the luck of a joystick and nine lives. Shoot the
Indians before they shoot you.
{IS7.3} BEE CRUNCH - A two player game using paddles.
The object is to score pOints by killing swarming bees
or your opponent (who moves along the opposite side of
the sc reen .)
SIG HAC DISK 3
Tony Anderson offers
latest Sig Mac disk.
the following
report
on
our
The third Sig Mac disk contains information about the
,
fonts provided by Apple Computer Inc, in the Macintosh
- ' dealer software upgrade of May 1984 (Finder version
1.1g) This disk comes to us through the efforts and
generosity of Price M. Collins. The disk is divided
into four parts:
1) A MacWrite document that contains an explanation of
some of the numeric parameters associated with a font,
and a listing of those parameters for all 32 fonts.
SSS DISCOUNT PRICES SSS Monitors
Amdek Color 1 . . .. .. .. .. .. .
Amdek RGB Color II .. .. . . . ..
Amdek 300A . .. .. . . .. .. . .. .
NEC 1260 (Green) ...........
NEC Color (Composite) .......
$292
$420
S155
$120
$275
Modems
D.C.
Hayes
Micromodem lie ............ $245 D.C. Hayes
300 Baud Smartmodem ...•... $215
D.C. Hayes
1200 Baud Smartmodem ...... $490
Printers
Toshiba PI350 ............ $1500 Toshiba PI351 ............ $1565 NEC 3510 $jlinwrilef ........ $1250 Okidata Micro B2 A.......... $310 OkJdata Micro B3 A.......... S565 Okidata Micro 92 ............ $440 Okidata Micro 93 ............ $700 Prawriter 8510 A. . . . . . . . . . . . $390 Epson FXBO ............... $485 Epson FX100 .............. $670 Epson RX -BO FIT. . . . . . . . . . . . $375 Epson RX-l00.. .. .. .. .. .. .. $535 Diablo 620 ................ $795 Qume Sprinl114O .......... $1300 SAFT Slandby Power
(2OOW) ...... .
. $395
DB Masler ................ CALL
Grappler Pllnler Card
(Specify Pllnter) ....... . . . $115
BuHered Grappler Plus. . . . . . . . $165
l-BO Card ................. S130
Soncard Premium
System lie............... $340
Wordslar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $300
Wordslar With Appllcard . . . . . .. $325
Sarum Accelerator II ......... CALL
Vil'ex Videoterm ... . . .. . . . . . $215
Siock Option Analysis Program
(H & H Scientific) . . . . . . . .. $250
Stock Oplian Scanner
(H & H Scienllfic) . . . . . . . .. $350
d Base II. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . $440
Dow Jones Analyzer. . . . . . . . . . $290
Dow Jones Manager . . . . . . . .. $250
UK lener Perfect ........... $105
Visicalc ................... $185
Microsoh Multiplan .......... $IBO
General Manager ............ $150
Screenwriter II .............. $100
Sensible Speller ..........•. $100
Titan 12BK Ram Card .. . . . . •. $350
Wildcard Plus ••............ $125
TK Solver!.. ............... $210
PFS: File .................. S95
PfS: Report ................ $95
PFS: Write ................. $95
Koala Pad ................. $100
2) Five MacWrite documents that provide ASCII tables
of each font. These tables show all of the characters
in each font including the non-typable characters in
Cairo and Chicago.
3) Six MacPaint documents:
FONT SAMPLES: A small sample of every font
the character at Hex 09 (Opt ion-t 11 de),
unique to each.
including
which is
CAIRO KEYBOARD: A handy printed map to the arrangement
of the keyboard when using this non-alphabetic font.
The next four files are fonts drawn in MacPaint
cause they can't be typed in MacWrite.
CALL FOR ITEMS NOT LISTED GOV'T PURCHASE ORDERS ACCEPTED be­
GENEVA 20
NEWYORK 20
NEWYORK 36
TORONTO 20
RAMADA COMPUTER PRODUCTS
4) A fonts file which contains three fonts called
Boxes 9, 10 and 12. If incorporated into a user's
system, they will let you draw boxes around words in
'-'" MacWrite.
These fonts replace the equivalent-sized
Toronto fonts.
~
Washington Apple Pi
VISA/Me (Add 3%). money order, certified check. Prices subject to change. Shipping/handling 55. MD residents add 5% lax. Mail order only. Augus t 1984
A Division of H & H Scientific 13507 Pendleton St. Ft. Washington, MD 20744 Tel. (301) 292-2958 15
DI.5ABLE.D ,5 I G nE.LU5
Thal
* * * * * ** * * * * * * * ** * * * *
DISABLEDSIG AUGUST MEETING
THURSDAY. AUGUST 9. 1984. 7:00 P.M.
SUBJ.: ON THE ROAD TO TRANSPARENT SCREEN EMULATION
CHEVY CHASE COMMUNITY CENTER
CONNECTICUT AVE. &McKINLEY ST •• NW. DC
* * ** * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * *
At the August 9 meeting Roger Petersen and Jim Turri
will present Information pertaining to computer output
for the blind and visually impaired,
The subject of the July meeting was the assessment of
needs and the prescription of augmentive devices for
children with handicaps, Mary Wilds. a teacher of
orthopedically impaired students, and Karen Greszko,
an
occupational therapist. both with the Prince
William County (VA) school system. gave the presenta­
tion.
The presentation revolved around a video-tape of one
of their students working with an Apple ][+ in the
It allowed for stop-frame analysis, at
school.
different stages. so that the participating audience
could try to brainstorm proposed solutions. But. one
of the first problems that had to be faced was the
clash of different disciplines.
Obviously. it wasn't a physical clash. but It typified
one of the initial problems when persons of different
disciplines get together to discuss a singular issue.
The problem was that of language. As often as the
cognoscenti are questioned when they speak about POKEs
and PEEKs. they are equally in the dark when they hear
the terms athetoid (low muscle tone). or plantar
flexed (when the foot is pointed down as a ballet
dancer on pOint).
The first decision. then. was to speak a common
tongue,
In that common tongue we were able to deter­
mine important things like cognitive ability. ability to descriminate between physical pOints (the spacing
and location of switches), desire to use a head-stick for entry. and whether fatigue was a factor (in fact. physical accuity improved with time). The subject was a six and a half year old girl who.
due to cerebral palsy, has numerous physical disfunc­
tions and deformities and unintelligible speech. But.
that tells us, the layperson, what we see and hear ­
it does not tell us about the person, What we see and
hear tells us that she will likely not become a tight­
rope walker or an opera singer, but few of us would.
experts to brainstorm some proposals (solutions?).
Out of those suggestions a synthesis will develop
which. for a time. will aid communication. By "for a
time". I mean when she wants and needs even more power
available to her.
Among the suggest ions were an ergonomiC keyboard
extension which would support the lower arms and
wrists
in a typing position; a Dvorak keyboard
arrangement so that the most used letters (e,t.i,o,
n•••• ) are most accessible with the least movement;
the use of treadle switches; macros; and a scanning
dictionary.
(Incidently, a lIe can be readily modi­
fied to use Dvorak. and it's built into the IIc ,)
Some will work, some may not (now), but the develop­
ment will go on,
Importantly. individuals with
specific skills are linked together for a continuing.
problem-solving, relationship. - If you like that sort
of challenge. and to develop possible software and
hardware solutions. you should attend the DISABLEDSIG
meetings.
EASE OF ACCESS
When I joined the Pi we wondered when in the future we
would reach member number 500. And for some. whose
Apples have four or fewer digits in the serial number,
even that seemed out of reach. Now we are over 5,000
and climbing. The office and classroom space also has
to grow. as well as meet the needs of a broadening
group of members.
~
While the newsletter has been available on disk for
the visually impaired, and signers are available at
our main meetings for the visually impaired. the WAP
office IS NOT NOW accessible to the physically im­
paired.
However, WAP wants to do something about
that.
If you are knowledgeable about CHAIRLIFTS, or
OTHER DEVICES which could facilitate access to our
offices, please contact me or the office.
~
E.D.S I G
(I E. lUS
Cornbe. s
The real person. in fact. has high (gifted) cognitive
abilities. a sense of humor. and is highly motivated.
She uses a computer in her work (school) setting and
one at home (a lie). So ... if you only had this para­
graph to go on. wouldn't you hire her?
Tuesday. August 7. at 7.30 p,m.
That is what it is all about, using augmentive devices
to amplify a person's strengths. In this case. using
those available computers to aid her communication and
enable her to enter the first grade this fall.
Tuesday. September 4. at 7.30 p.m.
Well. back to the presentation. It is difficult to
describe in symbols what was viewed on the video
screen. Suffice it to say that the images allowed the
therapists.
and the engineers, and the computer
All
EDSIG meetings are held in the Auditorium.
Building B. of the Uniformed Services University of
the Health Sciences. on the campus the National Naval
Medical Center, 4301 Jones Bridge Road. Bethesda, MD.
16
EDSIG Calendar
"Human Factors In Educational Programming"
Morariu of the University of Maryland.
-
Dr.
·Videodiscs and Micros·, Dr. Paul Riorden. USUHS.
August 1984
~
Washin ton A le Pi
AnOTI-iE..R LOW-C05T COOLinG
F OR
b ~
yotJR
G e.
0
r-
r~PPLE.
1<'
9 e.
I
n
Cl
L
The ventilation inadequacies of the Apple ][ when
filled up with accessory boards is well known. Remov­
ing the lid is one solution that works pretty well.
The hang-on fan/switch/surge protector units also
work, up to a point, but they don't move enough air
past the really hot boards. A 3.25 inch square
·Sprite" fan can be installed inside the case on the
right side, and, if "baffled" with some duct tape,
provides a fair air flow; these fans go for $8 used.
But they are noisy, and the air doesn't flow past the
peripheral boards.
A few years ago, I wouldn't have dared to suggest the
following solution, nor would I have wanted to do it
myself to my valuable new Apple. But let's face it ­
Apple ][s aren't such valuable items any more. So, by
making a single cut and drilling two holes in the back
panel, a real super air mover can be installed for
under $10.
The ROTROH "Biscuit" fan blows
IDE.A air out of a rectangu­
lar opening about one by two inches. It mounts using
two screws on the face of its air outlet. To install
this fan on the back of your Apple, cut off about two
inches of the plastic case riser that separates the
opening behind slots 0 and 2. The holes for the
screws should be drilled 1.75 inches down from the
top, behind slots 0 and 3. This placement blows air
right past the memory card and peripheral cards in
slots 1 and 2. Place a cardboard baffle from the
motherboard row C up to the keyboard. This will pre­
vent air from zooming out the keyboard opening, and
instead will force some air turbulence back to the
cards in slots 3 through 7.
The only major disadvantage I've found 1s that the fan
protrudes four inches behind the Apple. This may not
be suitable in some cases. It is not as quiet as the
The
hang-ons, but is qui eter than the Spr He fan.
Biscuit is available (used) for $6 (get two - minimum
order is $10) under stock no. SPL 38-24 from Meshna,
P. O. Box 62, E. Lynn, MA 01904. Happy cooling!
It
mllIIPWllBlD& ELECTRONIC rWIIID3nWI!1 IJAILII rpoora cert.wro
1£WIll
~CDI
JURIfPfI3~
CtlW
'PR'rt.W
[bun lPlllllCCll
Just bring this ad or your club ID to qualify.
OUR SHOWROOM IS lOCATED AT 1042 ROCKVillE PIKE ROCKVillE, MD. ~UTURE ~URNITURE
The Complete ElectroniCS Furniture Center
Call
Washington Apple Pi
3~(o)-UU(o).
E!e
August 1984
IIIIgl'lI·j"'I"1
17
n-ll~C_
I nTO.5I-i
AVAILABILITY
PRODUCT
12\5 .sOf TWARE.
UPDAT~
s:~ ~
AVAILABILITY
COMPANY
PHONE
Telos Software Products
Main Street Software
Haba Systems, Inc.
Odesta Corporation
Software Publishing Corp.
Microsoft Corporation
DigiCorp
Desktop Software, Inc.
(213)
(415)
(213)
(800)
(415)
(206)
(801)
(408)
Microsoft Corporation
Living Videotext
Megahaus
(206) 828-8080
(415) 964-6300
(619) 450-1230
October
Now
Now
Lotus Development Corp.
Microsoft Corporation
Software Arts
(617) 492-7171
(206) 828-8080
(617) 237-4000
1Q 1985
Now
July
Microsoft Corporation
Hayden Software Co.
Apple Computer, Inc.
T/Maker Graphics
Miles Computing, Inc.
(206)
(800)
(408)
(415)
(818)
828-8080
343-1218
996-1010
962-0195
994-7901
August
July
September
Now
July
Intermatrix
Winterhalter, Inc.
Microcom
Apple Computer, Inc.
(213)
(313)
(617)
(408)
985-5763
662-2002
762-9310
996-1010
July
July
July
July
Dow Jones & Co., Inc.
(609) 452-2000
July
(408) 996-1010
(800) 241-2005
September
September
(213) 410-3977
(503) 758-0521
August
October
(609)
(213)
(415)
(213)
(301)
(408)
(312)
452-2000
823-1129
493-1593
215-0529
984-0262
996-1010
975-4030
4Q
Now
Now
August
Now
August
Now
(818)
(800)
(312)
(617)
346-0730
343-1218
232-1984
576-2760
Now
June
Now
July
DATA BASES
Fllevision
Main Street Filer
Habadex
Helix
PFS:File
Microsoft File
theBase
1stBase
450-2424
332-1274
901-8828
323-5423
962-8910
828-8080
562-2227
458-9095
August
Now
Now
July
August
4Q
August
August
WORD PROCESSING
Microsoft Word
Think Tank
MegaMerge
ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEETS
Lotus Macintosh Product
Multiplan
TK!Solver
GRAPHICS
Microsoft Chart
DaVinci Landscapes
MacDraw
ClickArt
Mac the Knife
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
MagicPhone
DataTalker/Mac
Era 2
MacTerminal
Dow Jones Spreadsheet
Li n k
OTHER BUSINESS
MacProject
MacAccounting
Home "Mac" Accountant
Apple Computer, Inc.
Peachtree Software
Arrays, Inc./Continental
Software
Desktop Calendar for Mac Videx
Dow Jones Market
Manager Plus
Dow Jones & Co., Inc.
MacCoach
ATI
The Sales Edge
Human Edge Software
Dollars and Sense
Monogram, Inc.
Mac FORTH
Creative Solutions, Inc.
Macintosh Pascal
Apple Computer, Inc.
C Language Compiler
Software, Ltd.
AND PLAY
Millionaire
Sargon III
Transylvania
Professional Composer
Blue Chtp Software, Inc.
Hayden Software Co.
Penguin Software, Inc.
Mark of the Unicorn
All
information in this list is provided to Apple Computer by the product's
developer. Apple cannot warranty any third party products or their anticipated
availability dates.
Please contact the individual developers for further
information.
(Ed. Note: List was modified to include data appearing in August
6 Infoworld.)
18
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
mAILinG LIST
TI--1E.
'- b ~
mAnAG~m~nT
LU I TI--1 mAC I nT051--1 Brooks Mailing list management is what led me to a computer
in the first place. I own a kite shop and have a
retail mailing list which is now at 3200 names and
growing by 100-150 pe~ month.
fully intended to get the tried and true lie - but
was seduced by the Mac instead, even though on the
26th of January, mailing list management was a long
way off.
I've been us ing it for the books, and for
lots of print advertising, but the list is the big
job.
So when filing systems became available recent­
ly, I jumped - too Quickly, as might have been pre­
d icted.
I have now had three weeks of intensive experience
with list management on the Mac, first with Habadex
and more recently with Main Street Filer. I should
emphasize that this review pertains only to mailing
list management, as I have had neither need nor time
to test other capabilities of the software. For any
serious mailer, Habadex is not the answer.
Main
Street Filer, on the other hand, is terrific.
Habadex is published by Haba Systems, Inc.
It is
being promoted primarily as a hi-tech Rolodex, with
phone dialing capability through an optional (and not
yet available) adaptor, but it also provides for the
reordering of the file eight different ways, printing
of lists and labels, and limited mail-merge. All data
must be on the disk with the application, which puts
List
the outside limit at about 500 names per disk.
is S200.
Main Street Filer is published by Main Street Soft­
ware.
It is a data base management system which uses
a 4-way file ordering system instead of sorting, while
providing for rangelmatch selection criteria for each
field.
Data may be kept on the same disk as the
The publisher
application, or on separate disks.
claims that the system will handle up to 65,000 rec­
ords with up to 36 fields of up to 40 characters each.
List is $250.
Both programs have taken full advantage of the Mac's
talents with regard to data entry. Record design is
all done with the mouse. Both systems provide a basic
nameladdress format as a starting pOint, allowing you
to customize the screen by moving fields around, add­
ing or deleting. Haba allows you to drag the box for
each field into the location on the screen that seems
most logical to you, but you're stuck with their
generic names for fields, such as "Note II".
Main
street sets the screen format for you, but allows you
to name the field, to order fields as you wish, and to
specify fields to be skipped on initial data entry.
Both systems use similar techniques for designing
reports, whether they be columnar lists or labels.
With Habadex, you drag fields to the position you
wish, whereas with Main Street, you do the whole
design by clicking on options.
Since the keyboard in both programs is used primarily
for data entry, and the mouse for nearly everything
else, efforts have been made to avoid the ping-ponging
from keyboard to mouse that might be expected, al­
though neither program is consistent on this.
Both systems are fast in data entry and retrieval, and
both are easy to get the hang of.
Documentation
varies.
The Habadex manual is very easy to read and
Washington Apple Pi
conversational, if a bit patronizing to "the rest of
us", but skimps on specifics. MSF's manual is much
more complete, but written in such a sterile manner
that I was put off by it until I needed it for refer­
ence.
For example, sample screens in the book show
fields named "Field One", "Field Two", etc., instead
of examples like "Name", "Address".
But the task that separates the two packages into
Professional L1st Manager and glorified Rolodex is
printing.
With Main Street, you can fully specify
spacing and print Quality, and the stuff comes out
(even in high-speed draft Quality) with a very profes­
sional appearance, better in my opinion than most com­
puter labels.
You can even have them in hi-res
Chicago 12 if you want them! The only problem I've
had with MSF printing is in the centering of columnar
reports, but for mailing list management, that's not
critical, and I haven't worked with it enough to know
whether that glitch is in me or the program.
With Habadex, you get draft Quality type and haphazard
word spacing - no choice, take it or leave it.
For
the first time on the Mac, what you see is much super­
ior to what you get. Worse yet, Habadex seems to have
been designed to print only on 8 1/2" x 11" paper, and
every label on the market that I've found is mounted
on pages either 6" or 12" long. So if you go precise­
ly by the Habadex manual, one of two strange things
will happen. Habadex will re-size the spacing you've
given it so as to space the labels evenly down the
page, andlor Habadex will adjust spacing between
labels at the end of the page so the next page will
start at the same place. Either way, you end up with
names and addresses which are printed out of sync with
the labels!
Six phone calls, one letter, and many yards of paper
later, the best guidance I have gotten by Haba is (a)
that the 11" page problem was "built into the
machine", and (b) that I could have custom labels made
on II" paper!
At tha t, I took Habadex bac k for a
refund - as luck would have it on the day Main Street
F11 er ar rived.
The only confusing aspect of working with MSF is that
the main menu screen (with the inevitable redundant
"Welcome" message) appears without modification at
You
several levels of penetrat ion into the program.
see it when first opening the application; you see it
after opening a specific file; and you return to it
after using each subroutine. The only way you can
find out where you are is to pull down the Apple menu
to "About Filer", which tells you which file you're
working, how many records reside therein, and how much
memory is in use. All that should appear on the main
screen.
Another point worth mentioning is that the application
itself and the system folder occupy 332K of memory on
the master disk, which means that most files will have
to be put on a separate disk. In my case, I have
chosen to separate my list into volumes by zipcode, in
the absence of a hard disk.
Working with multiple disks can be done with only the
internal drive, but at the cost of an extraordinary
amount of disk swapping. Copying individual records,
So,
for example, takes one disk swap per record.
after one week of using the system, I bought a second
disk drive. It's a whole different world. Now I have
the list management system I've been looking for.
~
August 1984
19
GLO.S5ARY fOR nE.LU rnr"4C
b,y Robert (~. P l a t t
Apple users are constantly creating new acronyms and
buzz words.
This brief glossary should guide the
newcomer through SIS Mac meetings as well as conver­
sations with other WAP members. A revised version of
this glossary will appear in our next New Member
Reference
Book, so I welcome your comments and
corrections.
ABBS - Apple Bulletin Board System.
A computer
program which allows users to call via a modem and
store or retrieve messages or computer programs.
To
date, no ABBS program has been written for the Mac.
ownE.I~.s
Event Manager - A program in the Mac's operating
system that processes events according to their
priority, thus allowing the Mac to shift its attention
between several different activities that appear to be
running concurrently.
Font - A set of characters of a specific typeface and
size.
Fonts are stored in the system file and can be
added or deleted by the Font Mover application.
Forth - A "stack oriented" microcomputer
language.
programming
Application
program - Software that performs
a
specified task such as a spreadsheet program.
Data
f11 es created by specific applicat ions usually have
distinctive icons. Opening such files automatically
starts up the associated application.
Heap - A portion of the Mac's RAM memory where
porary data and desk accessories are stored.
The structure or actual phys i ca 1 Architecture
organization of a computer circuit which determines its behavior. I-beam - A cursor shape displayed by the
editing text.
BASIC - Beginner's All Purpose Symbolic Ins truct ion Code, a programming language widely used on mi c rocom­
Two versions are available on the Mac ­
puters.
Mac Bas i c and Microsoft Basic. I/O - Input/output, the process of moving data to
from the computer.
Icon - A small graphics symbol that
application, function or file.
Mac
represents
tem­
or
when
an
Handle - A pOinter to an object to be processed by the
Mac operating system.
Bit-mapped image - A computer screen display method
where each dot on the screen corresponds to a binary
digit in the computer's memory. The value of the
digit determines whether the dot is on or off.
Journaling - A process for recording a program's
output and activity for later analysis or reproduc­
tion.
The Guided Tour disks are examples of th i s
technique.
Bus - A group of wires which connect a microproces­
sor with memory and input/output circuits. The Mac­
intosh's bus can move 16 bits of data at the same time. LISA - Local Integrated Software Architecture, the
name of Apple's first series of 68000 based computers.
Clipboard - A separate file on each disk that stores information copied or cut while working in an applica­
tion. Compiler - A program which translates a high level language, such as BASIC, into machine instructions. CPU - Central Processing Unit. The CPU in the Mac and
Lisa is the Motorola 68000 chip.
Cursor - A position indicator, which shows where you
are on a video screen. On the Mac, the shape of the
cursor symbol changes depending on its context.
Desk accessory - A small program that can operate at
the same time as a Mac application program. (e.g.
alarm clock, note pad, calculator and control panel.)
Desktop - The image on the Mac screen that is pro­
duced by the Finder to show disks and their contents.
Disassembler
A program which converts machine
language
into a higher level language, such as
assembly language.
Localizing - The process of making a generic
specific to a particular country or language.
program
MaCintosh. Charles - Scottish inventor of a water­
proof rubberized fabriC, used in mackintosh rain
coa ts.
McIntosh. John - Discoverer of the McIntosh apple in
1796. A mispelling of his name became the moniker for
a popular new microcomputer.
Modem - A circuit which converts the Apple's intern­
al digital information into sounds which can be trans­
mitted over telephone lines.
Pascal - A high level programming language invented by
Niklaus Wirth, a Swiss computer science professor, who
believes that programs should consist of well- defined
data structures and well-structured procedural steps.
Power strip - An electrical device with multiple
sockets for plugging in your Mac and peripheral
devices. Power strips usually include a master on-off
switch and a voltage fl1 ter to protect aga inst spikes
caused by thunderstorms, etc.
Dragging - The processing of pointing the mouse at an
object, then moving the mouse to a second location
while keeping the mouse button pressed.
Prompt - A
plays when it
example, the
t ion point in
Event - An occurrence which must be processed by the
Mac.
Events include: preSSing or releasing the mouse
button, typing on the keyboard, or inserting a disk.
Public domain software - Programs which may be copied
without further permission from or royalty payments to
the author.
contd.
20
August 1984
speCial symbol which the computer dis­
is waiting for the user to respond. For
flashing vertical bar marking the inser­
HacWrite is a prompt.
,,-.....,
Washington Apple Pi
Qufckdraw - A routine in the Mac's ROM that
and manipulates video graphics.
displays
RAM - Random Access Memory. Integrated circuits which
store and recall informat ion.
Resource Manager - The part of the Macintosh's
operating system through which an application accesses
various resources, such as fonts, menus and icons.
ROM - Read Only Memory. Integrated circuits which
have information permanently recorded. This informa­
tion is not lost when the computer is turned off. The
Mac has a 64K ROM that hold much of its operating
system and user interface.
Scroll - To change the video display by moving
information out at one end (usually the top) to make
room for additional information at the other end (the
bottom).
Scroll bars - The bottom and right edges of Mac
windows, when if shaded, can be used to control which
portion of a larger region will be displayed through
the wi ndow.
SIG - SpeCial Interest Group. SIG Mac is one of many
WAP groups which cover Mac-related topics.
For
example, the Pascal Interest Group discusses Mac­
Pascal.
Spreadsheet
be entered
additional
tionships.
program - A program which permits data to
on a video screen and then to have
data displayed based upon defined rela­
For example, Multiplan.
Template - A set of formulas and relationships used to
program a spreadsheet application to fulfill
a
particular task, such as computing income tax returns.
Trap - A special instruction available on the Motorola
68000 that shifts execution from a user program to the
Mac's operating system.
UCSD p-system - An operating system developed at the
University of California San Diego. The p-systen is
popular because the same system is available on a wide
variety of microcomputers. Rumors of its availability
on the Mac by the end of the year abound.
USUHS - Uniformed Services University of the Health
SCiences, located at 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda
MD (between Wisconsin and Connecticut Aves.)
Utility - A program which performs a standardized
housekeeping task, rather than serving a specific user
application.
Volunteer - WAP's most treasured asset. Please become
one.
WAP - Washington Apple Pi, the second largest
User Group in the world.
Apple
Window - An independently controlled region on the
video screen, that represents a set of data or
activity.
Write-protect tab - A plastic slide in the corner of a
floppy disk case that can prevent data from being
written on the disk.
(t
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Thunder Clock ~ •••••••••••••• 120.00
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This ad i5 written a month in
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$4.00 extra
Quantity Discounts Available
Washington Apple Pi
August 1984
21
A
LE.TTE.R
David
TO 5T . rnAC
n..l o (" 9 a n s
July 7, 1984
Matt Vuen, Assoc. Editor
st. Mac
7250 Laurel Canyon Blvd.
North Hollywood, CA 91605
Dear Matt,
I would like to disagree strongly with the point of
view presented in your July St.Mac editorial. Specif­
ically, you state that it is not important to know who
is to blame for the slow beginning in software
development and release. Second, you suggest that Mac
owners should do nothing about the dearth of software
but sit back and wait.
I believe that before something can be done about it,
we must understand why the development has been slow.
(This is a bit more constructive than merely finger­
pointing to identify who is to blame.) Regardless of
your suggestion that the consumer sit back and wait,
Macintosh owners are going to be concerned about
continual postponements and delays in the release of
new software.
potential owners are going to wait
until they see the light at the end of the tunnel. I
think the biggest reasons for the time and effort
required to develop Mac software are fairly clear and,
to be candid, only Apple can change this.
Perhaps the readers of St.Mac would be interested in
the details of developing software for the Macintosh:
1. First, the developer must invest in a Lisa computer
with a megabyte of memory and a hard disk (preferably
with 10 megs of memory). Until the availablilty of
MacWorks this past month, you also had to invest in a
Macintosh if you wanted to see your software run in
the Macintosh environment. The total capital outlay
to the developer (even at the exceptional discounts
offered by Apple) was in excess of $6,500. This is
not a lot of money to a software firm such as Micro­
soft, but it 1s a great deal to an ind1vidual develop­
er.
Compare this with the cost to develop software
for the Ilc, the Commodore 64 or the IBM PC.
Given
the relatively small number of Macintosh owners, the
individual developers, the ones who wrote most of the
10,000 programs for the Apple J[, may not be rushing
in droves to make such an investment. (I believe that
Apple
has indicated that about 1,000 potential
developers have made a first step by obtaining either
a Lisa or a Mac.)
2. After you have the equipment, you must learn enough
about both the Lisa Pascal Workshop and the Macintosh
operating system to begin interfacing your program to
the environment. The strong point here is that Apple
has provided the developer with an incredible array of
utilities to speed the process and to insure uniform­
ity between applications. While this approach has
many positive benefits, the drawback is that it will
take several man-months of effort to digest the reams
of rough draft documentation explaining how to use the
routines.
This effort represents an even greater
investment of resources for a developer.
t
~
n
grams which do not requ1re royalties to be paid to
language suppliers. Again, compare these road-blocks
with the experience of the Apple J[, where developers
were able to use any of a half-dozen languages to
br1ng out their own special product.
3. Certain aspects of the Lisa Pascal Workshop require
more extensive programming than would be necessary in
other Pascal environments. One example of this is the
SANE routines for performing arithmetic operations.
Every single arithmetic operation, such as addition
and multiplicat10n, must be re-written as a procedure
call.
This means a lot of translation to programs
which have been developed using other Pascal systems.
While there are no doubt good reasons for this situa­
t10n, it will cause additional time and effort in the
development of Mac software. Unfortunately, this is
exactly the kind of effort that Wirth was trying to
avoid when he developed Pascal.
Personally, I am very enthus1astic about the Macintosh and the direction that Apple is taking. I have little doubt that it has the orientation of the personal com­
puter of the future. The initial response of the public appears to be overwhelmingly posit1ve. We in the Washington Apple Pi have welcomed several hundred Mac owners into our users group and are trying to cull together bits and pieces of information to help them get more from their equipment. However, having the right idea at the right time may ,.-.,
not be enough. To say that the competition is very
keen is most certainly an understatement. The future
success of the Mac or any personal computer lies in
its abil ity to perform tasks that current and poten­
tial owners want - that means software. Since 1 have
already been told by one developer that he has decided
to layoff his Mac programmer and halt development
until better documentation is released, 1 am concerned
about impediments that stand in the way of new product
development.
Let me suggest a few things wh1ch might speed the appearance of Mac software. First, a sanewhat more readable, final version of the Macintosh documentat10n would help software authors. Second, when useful utilities are released, such as the two Supplement
disks which became available in June, supporting docu­
mentation would make it easier for developers to learn how to use the programs without extens he tri al and error efforts. 1 hope that Apple is moving ahead as quickly as poss ible in the preparat ion of a develop­
ment environment within the Macintosh which would reduce the capital investment needed to write Mac programs.
Further, 1 hope the ability to develop in other languages will soon be possible so that many
existing programs can be translated into the Mac's amazing operating system. Most Sincerely,
David Morganstein, President
Washington Apple Pi
~
I am very interested 1n know1ng whether software
development w111 ever be poss1ble d1rectly on a Mac1n­
tosh, and if so when? 1 do not mean Microsoft BASIC
programs wh1ch cannot draw on the Mac's ROM routines.
I mean the ab11ity to write complete, stand-alone pro22
August 1984
Washinoton Apple Pi
UJI-iE.n
A [)ATA
bLl
'...
BA5E. RE.ALLY
A DATA
BA,sF- ("7.
r~ l e.xan de.
I
E..
13allle.s
Near the end of the October meeting on data bases
somebody made
the statement that the products
discussed were not really data bases
Up until that
pOint I had thought maybe I was th~ only one who
realized that.
An article in the July issue of the
Journal (WHAT YOU WANT FROM A DATA BASE PROGRAM)
again, by inference, raises that issue.
Gertrude Stein who was wise enough to know that "a
rose is a rose, 15 a rose, is a rose" would also
probably have realized that what an eager vendor calls
a data-base is not necessarily a data-base.
The
vendors zeal for alighting on THE buzz-word of the
decade is not seriously deterred by a rigorous adher­
ence to the use of the most accurate term. Does the
term "file handler" have any of the pizzaz of "data
Heck, you might just as well expect Rightbase".
Guard commercials to use "armpit" instead of ·under­
arm" •
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) of
the Nat10nal Bureau of Standards, and the Committee on
Data Systems languages (CODASYl) have been dealing
with the problem of what is a data-base for over a
decade.
In the mid-seventies they had hoped to
develop a universally accepted standard as they had
done with FORTRAN and COBOL. The definition of a
standard was published and is st ill a benchmark
document today.
It is known as the CODASYl model.
However, with the rapid evolution of theory and
practice,
two other models have received equal
They are known as "hierarchical" and
acceptance.
"relational" models.
The CODASYl model has become
frequently referred to as the "network" model.
What, then, distinguishes a data-base system from a
file manager?
A data-base system works with a
collection of files. A file manager works with one.
That is a simplification. Nevertheless, I believe it
is the essential distinction between the two.
Of
course file managers added multiple-file handling to
their capabilities. But in such a case the user would
still approach his data as if it were in separate
files. The data-base user, however, looks at his data
as if it were coming from one pool, independently of
whether or not it res1des 1n one file.
A simple example clarifies this. Suppose you have a
billing system and one of your customers moves. In a
file management system you make a pass through the
file and change his address each time it appears,
perhaps going through hundreds of records and making a
dozen changes for each item to be billed to the
affected customer. In a data-base system that custom­
er's address would appear only once in a customer
table and would have only one record for each custom­
er, ie: tens instead of hundreds. Bills are produced
by 11nking a billing record to a customer record.
The most obvious benefit of the data-base system in
the example above is that the computer has to do far
But the most important advantage 1s the
less work.
elim1nation of data redundancy. In the circles 1n
which I travel, data redundancy is about as popular as
ring-around-the-collar and foot odor. Wh11e saving
space is an important benefit of the e11mination of
data redundancy, of far greater import is the elimina­
tion of data inconsistency.
In the file manager environment, it often happens that
since the customer's address resides in different
Washington Apple Pi
places in the fil e, it 1s different in some of those
places.
In a properly designed data-base this won't
happen.
To summarize: The features mentioned in last month's
article are good features which can be found in both
fi~e management or data-base systems. Don't believe
it s a data-base system just because a salesman calls
his product that. It is a data-base system if and
only if it links multiple files to eliminate data
redundancy.
~
R rJ lJ r~l [) l) P
l:) ,y
I~ 0
b e. r t
P lot t
If Time can have its people sect10n and Newsweek its
Newsmakers department, surely the WAP Journal should
have 1ts own computer-celebr1ty oriented feature.
Marc Rotenberg hosted a reception at the Public
Interest Computer ASSOCiation, 122 Maryland Ave NE, to
announce a new learning center to assist non-profit
organizations to learn how to use computers.
Mark
Verm11ion, Director of Apple's Community Grants
Program was the featured speaker. Apple is playing a
key roll in fund ing the center.
The recept ion
featured a demonstration room with a variety of com­
puters, including two Macintoshes. The Mac drew the
largest crowds with demonstrations of MacWrite,
MacPaint and MacTerminal.
WAP and the Mac made a
number of converts (and hopefully a few new members.)
Active lAWSIG member, Kenneth A. Wasch's dream came
true at the June C.E.S. in Chicago. Ken has been
working for a long time to form a Software Publishers
ASSOCiation, and the group has been finally launched
with Doug Carlston as President and Ken as Executive
Director. One of the first issues to be addressed by
the new group is software piracy. Membership informa­
tion is available from Ken at 202-364-0523.
WAP's publication program is expanding. Faced with
the depletion of WAP's inventory of green New Member
Reference Books, a new edition is in the works.
It
will feature three volumes describing club serVices,
information on the II and III, and information for Mac
and lisa owners. A second project features reprints
of WAP Journal articles on Pascal. Please call me at
223-158B if you can volunteer to help with either
project.
~
August 1984
23
PLAYinG
mARI<,E. T
TI-iE.
Robe.rt
There also are more than a dozen specialized financial
data bases available, on line or on disk, for the same
purpose.
In addition there are half a dozen maga­
zines, dozens of books, and several associations at
the national level all devoted to computerized invest­
ing.
The motivation for all this activity is simply to make
money playing the market. However, the proliferation
of software and data bases, and the accompanying com­
patibility problems make it anything but simple. Nor
are the objects of all this attention, the stock and
commodity markets themselves, easy to analyze.
The
ultimate purpose of the effort is to forecast the
price action of the market or individual stock, wheth­
er long term or short term, with a profitable degree
of accuracy and reliability. The hazards of forecast­
ing have been well and frequently demonstrated.
The STOCKSIG was formed in the Fall of 1982 to help
its members cope with these complexities by sharing
information and experiences and to evaluate the wide
range of available alternatives through a joint
effort.
This article will discuss the major problems
faCing
the computerized investor, for which the
STOCKSIG can provide some help and encouragement.
Software is the most important element in computerized
investing, and the selection of programs is the first
step in developing an investment system. There are
three major categories of market software. The least
exciting of these is called portfolio management and
its function is to simpl ify the record keeping of
financial
transactions.
Such record keeping is
required for tax purposes and for good financi al
management.
For anyone with twenty or more market
transactions a year, a portfolio manager is very use­
ful. Their cost ranges from $45 to $500 and there are
perhaps 100 different programs available. Accordingly
the selection of a suitable portfolio manager program
can be a difficult task. Needless to say, not all of
the programs are very good. Your local computer store
does not keep market software in inventory so you
can't get a demonstration from them, but you may get
some useful advice from the STOCKSIG.
The most important category of market software is
technical analysis, and there are an estimated 200
programs of this type ranging in cost from under $100
to over $2000. Technical analYSis programs emphasize
market timing and use a variety of mathematical and
statistical methods for forecasting future prices of
stocks, the market indices, options or commodities.
The methods include moving averages, exponential
smoothing, OSCillators, time series analysis, trend
lines, momentum indicators, Black-Scholes models,
probability functions, charting and plotting, with
sometimes a little astrology thrown in.
Evaluating
this pile of software and making a few selections is
not simple.
24
third
major
software
category
is
5TOCI<,s I G
ste:.r
Wood,
Over the past three years the stock and commodity
markets have become a major application area for
personal computers, as demonstrated by the 300 or more
commercial programs advertised to help you make money
in this area with your personal computer. In fact,
there probably are more programs available for the
stock and commodity markets than any other purpose
with the exception of games and educational programs.
The
UJ I TI-i
fundamental
analysis which focuses on long term investing by
analyzing the financial and operating fundamentals of
particular companies and industries. It considers the
past history of such elements as earnings, price­
earnings ratios, growth rates, book value, divi~ends,
and return on capital. The best that can be sald for
this form of analysiS is that it will lead to the slow
loss of money.
However, it is very popular with
novices and those with an aversion to mathematiCS.
Data bases are another important consideration and
there are about a dozen financi al data bases which
specialize in stock, bond, option and commodity data.
These are accessible via modem and contain extensive
historical files in addition to current data.
How­
ever, there are significant differences between the
various information services, in terms of contents and
operation.
Data bases also involve compatibility
problems as we shall see. Their selection requires
careful consideration, and assumptions can be costly.
The cost is not just wasted money but more importantly
the time and effort expended in the process of dis­
covering that you have made a poor selection.
Hardware is a problem only in regard to modem and printer and their compatibility with any given program and an on-line data base. For example, the Dow Jones Market Analyzer program will interface only with the Dow Jones Information Service, and a Hayes Micromodem II.
However, the Dow Jones Information Service does
not include some of the most important market data
such as advances and declines, up volume and downr"\
volume, or the Standard and Poor indices.
In contrast, the Anidata Market Analyst program uses a Hayes Micromodem II to interface either with the financial data base of Compuserve or the Warner Com­
puter System information service which has excellent and very extensive current and historical data files. There are other compatibility problems resulting from the absence of any standard for datafile format. Every individual program uses its own unique file for­
mat and many will use an unique DOS. It is unlikely
that any single program will provide all of the ana­
lytical features that you want. As a consequence you
will probably have to maintain as many different and redundant data files, as the number of programs you use. This may be as many as half a dozen. One way out of this is to limit yourself to a single
integrated system of programs and data base, such as Computrac.
At $1900 pl us $200 a year tha t may seem a little expensive and it still limits you to one sys­
tem, although it is a very extensive system consisting of several dozen analytical and portfoliO management programs. In evaluating software the normal approach is to test
how well it performs as a piece of software, in tenns
of documentation, ease of learning, simple operation,
error trapping, speed, clarity of displays, organiza­
tion, and other program operating characteristics.
However, in the case of software which performs a
decision support function there is a higher dimension
for evaluation; how well does the program contribute r"\
to analYSiS, forecasting, decision making and profit,
with the emphaSis on forecasting and profit making?
For the market investor or trader the only really
germaine question is, will the price of the stock go
up, down, or fluctuate narrowly sideways?
If the
contd.
August 1984
WashinQton Apple Pi
program does not help address that question, directly
or indirectly, it isn't of much value.
Everything
else is a waste of time.
***************************************
In most cases those who write reviews of stock market
software are more expert in programming than in the
market. They usually look at the program as an item
of software and do not even attempt to assess its
ultimate utility and value, in tenns of its contribu­
tion to profitable investing and trading.
:
For the really active trader there are a dozen dif­
ferent systems which will put you on line in real time
with the stock and commodity markets. These systems
provide an information service similar to the termi­
nals on brokers desks. They communicate via FM radio
side band, telephone line, or satellite and your own
dish antenna. The cost ranges from $250 to $2000 per
month, depending on the features and the number of
markets accessed.
While this article has focused on major problems
involved in computerized investing, it should be
emphasized that there are powerful, and in fact domi­
nant and decisive, advantages to be gained by means of
the personal computer. These advantages are best
discussed on a program by program and case by case
basis.
The purpose of this article has been to outline the
cons iderat ions involved in us ing personal computers
for investing in the stock. commodity. and financial
The STOCKSIG has considerable collective
markets.
experience covering the kinds of questions which this
article has raised including specific market software
and data bases, and we encourage all interested mem­
bers of the Pi to join with us for fun and possible
profit.
The STOCKSIG meets on the second Thursday of each
month from B:OO p.m. to 10 p.m. at the Pi office in
Bethesda. The classroom meeting room is excellent for
our purposes with an Apple lie. a chalkboard. a
Vugraph projector. and room for about 25 people. Our
usual format starts with an open discussion analyzing
the current market in terms of teChnical analysis and
fundamentals, as well as short and long term timing.
This is followed by a feature presentation and demon­
stration on a major item of market software. or stock
market indicator. Active participation is encouraged
and interested market players are invited.
~
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~
~
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:MITAC HIGH RES. AMBER
~
: MONITOR(20 MHZ)
:ZENITH 12" GREEN MONITOR
M
*:VERBATIM DATALIFE SSIDD DISK .,Plf
:
(10 PACKS ,IN PLASTIC BOX)
:MEMORY CHIPS FOR IBM(4164,
~
: 200 NS, SET OF 9)
:TEAC FD 55B DS/bD 320KB
~
: DISK DRIVE FOR IBM
**
*
***
**:
:
IlIIS4l
*
*
*
31:* 1«:
~4:
~t=
-/~'1=
1S:*
fto!
:
~:
:
ss:*
2J:
«:
:
:
I~=
:
*
*
*
••.•
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***
**: *
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*
MICRO STAR COMPANY
P. o. BOX 2307
COLUMBIA, MD 21045
(301) 730-7172
*
:
:
•
:*
:
: Terms I Add $1.00 handling fee per
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TYSONS CORNER CENTER'S :order. MD residents add 5% tax.
H~/nform
Information on Store Names,
Sales, Events, Restaurants,
Theatres, Gifts, Metrobus
Schedules and Much More
:
*Personal or company checks allow 2
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*or cashier check only(add $1.65 COD
:charge).Prices are subject to change
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*add 3.5% surcharge. Manufacturer or
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Washington Apple Pi
August 1984
25
~©~~l\Dirrn:~ ~~~rn: l\Dlf!]lLn~nirrn:[Q) Discount Apple Software ACCOUNTING
The Accountant
The Accountant 5.0
AR/AP/GL/PR(Cont.) ea.
ea.
AR/AP (BPI)
Church Management
General Accounting (BPI)
Home Accountant
inventory Control (BPi)
Payroll (BPI or Broderbund)
Tax Advantage
67
88
165
260
325
260
51
260
260
48
COMMUNICATIONS
ASCII Express Pro
Data Capture 4.0
P-Term Pro
Visllink
Visiterm
Z-Term Pro
88
44
88
175
72
102
DATA BASE
DB Master
Datastar (req. CP/M)
dBase II (req. CP/M)
Incredible Jack
PFS: File
PFS: Graph
PFS: Report
Visidex
Vlsifile
150
195
325
122
85
85
85
175
175
EDUCATION
Algebra 1, 2,3,4
ea. 28
Algebra 5, 6
ea. 34
Alphabet Beast & Co.
24
Alphabet Circus
21
14
BaSic Skills
Body Awareness
34
Bouncing Kamungas
21
Cause & Effect (red/blue)
34
Cognito
28
Compumath/arithmatic
34
Compumath/decimals
34
Compumathlfractions
34
Facemaker
24
Fact & Fiction Tool Kit
28
Fact or Opinion (red/blue)
34
Foreign Languages
14
Game of the States
28
Grandma's House
24
Gertrude's Puzzles
31
31
Gertrude's Secrets
Hands on BASIC Prog.
54
KlnderComp
21
Learning w/Fuzzywomp
21
Lucky's Magic Hat
28
Mastering the College Bds. 119
Mastering the SAT
102
Mastertype
28
34
Math Blaster
14
Math & Social Studies
28
Match Maker (specify)
28
Micro Habitats
28
Micro Mother Goose
28
Moptown Hotel
21
Mr. Cool
21
Number Farm
34
PSAT Word Attack Skills
34
Rocky's Boots
34
SAT Word Attack Skills
Speed Reader II (Davidson) 48
28
Spellicopter
28
Sticky Bear ABC
28
Sticky Bear Basket Bounce
28
Sticky Bear Numbers
28
Sticky Bear Opposites
28
Sticky Bear Shapes
68
Terrapin Logo
28
Trickster Coyote
20
Typing Tutor
34
Typing Tutor III
28
U.S. Geography
24
Wizard of id's Way Type
34
Word Attack
23
World Builders
LEISURE
Adventure In Time
A.E.
Arcade Machine
Beyond Castle Wollenstein
Blade of Blackpoole
Castle Wollenstein
Checkers
Chess 7.0
Computer Ambush
Computer Baseball
Computer Gin Rummy
Computer Quarterback
Cosmic Balance
Cranston Manor
Dark Crystal
Dark Forest
Deadline
Decathlon
Enchanter
Epidemic
Galactic Gladiator
HI-Res Goll II
Infidel
JumpJet
Kabul Spy
Knight of Diamonds
Mating Zone
Napoleon's Campaign
Odin
Old Ironsides
21
24
41
24
28
21
34
48
43
29
21
29
29
24
28
21
34
24
34
25
29
24
34
21
24
24
21
43
34
28
~©~~(UJ1frn:~ ~~~rn: (UJl~][LO~n1frn:[Q)
26
34
Planetfall
23
Prisoner II
43
Pursuit of Graf Spee
24
Queen of Phobos
36
Questron
24
Randamn
28
Run for the Money
34
Sargon III
28
Seastalker
43
Shattered Alliance
24
Sherwood Forest
21
Sneakers
34
Sorceror
43
Southern Command
28
Starcross
34
Suspended
29
Tigers in the Snow
68
Time Zone
24
Transyivanla
24
Tubeway
42
Ultima II
41
Ultima III
24
Ulysses
58
War in Russia
29
Warp Factor
34
Witness
23
Wizard and the Princess
34
Wizardry
ea. 28
Zork I, II, III
SPREADSHEET
Calcstar
Flashcalc
Magicalc
Multiplan
Practicalc II
Supercalc
Supercalc II
Vislcalc
Visitrend/Vlsiplot
Visischedule
132
71
107
153
51
132
195
175
71
107
UTILITY/GRAPHICS
20
Apple Mechanic
27
Apple Plot
137
Applesoft Compiler
17
Banner Magic
Budge's 3-D Graphics
27
Complete Graphics System 55
41
Data Plot
Disk Organizer
21
21
Disk Recovery
17
DOS Boss
24
Double Take
102
Double\lme Printer
51
Editrix
55
E.P.F.
51
Fontrix
20
Frame Up
Graphics Solution
GraForth
Graftrix
Hi-Res Secrets
Merlin
Multi-Disk Catalog
Munch-a-Bug
Picture Builder
Printographer
Pronto DOS
Routine Machine
Special Effects
Speedstar
Super Disk Copy
The Artist
The Bug
Utility City
Zoom Graphics
102
51
44
85
44
17
28
18
34
20
44
28
92
21
55
34
20
34
WORD PROCESSING
Addressbook/Mail List
Bank Street Speller
Bank Street Writer
Correctstar
Format II
Homeword
Letter Perfect
Magic Window II
PIE Writer
Print Shop
Sensible Speller
Screenwriter II
Spellstar
Super Text Professional
Super Text Home/Office
Word Handler
Wordstar (req. CP/M)
34
48
48
132
102
48
102
107
102
34
85
88
102
119
85
55
260
MISCELLANEOUS
Micro Barmate
Micro Cookbook
also
Appetizers
Soup & Salads
Desserts
28
28
9
9
9
DISKETTES
51f. SS/SD WABASH 17.50/10
3'12" for the Macintosh45.00/1 0
(BASF or Maxell)
II
Ordering Instructions
Specify II + /lle/lic
Maryland residents add 5% sales tax
Shipping and handling $3 per order
No charges or COD's
Prices subject to change
Call for items not listed
P.O. Box 1247 o Columbia, MD 21044 0 (301) 854-2346
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
5%" DlSKETIES & STORAGE
FLOPPY DISK DRIVES
• B&W CAMERA
• DOUBLE-NOTCHED DSiDD
DISKETTES. EACH .
1.65
• DOUBLE-NOTCHED DSiDD
DISKETTES. 100
. 155.00
• HARD PLASTIC STAND-UP
lO-DISKETTE LIBRARY
2.75 EACH
CASES .
....
4 FOR 10.00
• FOURTH DIMENSION DISK
199.00
DRIVE
189.00'
• MITAC DISK DRIVE
• DISTAR SLiMLINE DISK
179.00'
DRIVE
• LASER SLiMLINE DISK
174.00·
DRIVE
• STANDARD DISK CONTROLLER
65.00
CARD
• NAV DISK
59.00·
CONTROLLER
• DOUBLE-SIDED DISK
GAME 1/0 DEVICES
('c.peclly COIOf O~Olces tH~lqt! h1.lck hItJt!, fPI't'"
qrey ,.~,j yellow)
• SMOKED PLASTIC JUMBO-SIZE
FLIP-TOP 75 DISKETTE
FILE CASES.
18.00·
PRINTERS
Df~IVE
• GEMINI 10-X DOT MATRIX
PRINTER
279.00'
• DELTA 15 DOT MATRIX
PRINTER
549.00·
• RADIX 200CPS DOT MATRIX
PRINTER
669.00
• QUADJET COLOR INK.-JET
PRINTER
595.00'
• TRANSTAR 120 LETTER
QUALITY PRINTER
449.00
• SILVER REED 550 LETTER
QUALITY PRINTER
495.00'
• STARWRITER A-l0 18CPS
LETTER QUALITY PRINTER
BEST BUYII ..
549.00'
• TOSHIBA 1340 DOT MATRIX AND
LETTER QUALITY COMBINED 795.00'
• PROWRITER DOT MATRIX
PRINTER
349.00'
• OKI-DATA MICROLINE
92A DOT MATRIX PRINTER
419.00'
PRINTER INTERFACES AND
ACCESSORIES
• STANDARD PARALLEL
INTERFACE CARD
• GRAPHICS PARALLEL
INTERFACE CARD
• FINGERPRINT PUSH-BUTTON
GRAPHICS INTERFACE CARD
• PRINT-IT PUSH-BUTTON
GRAPHICS INTERFACE
CARD
• MICROFAZER GENERAL PRINT
BUFFER
.
• PRINTER STAND.
'Denotes new price or Item
279.00'
49.00
75.00'
119.00
15~00'
149.00'
14.00
• SMART CONTROLLER FOR
DOUBLE-SIDED DRIVES
• GORILLA 12-INCH MONITOR
GREEN
• SYNCO 12-INCH MONITOR.
AMBER
• AMDEK COLOR 1+ LO-RES
COLOR MONITOR.
ONLY 749.00!!!!* 98.00
89.00'
295.00
MODEMS
• INTERNAL APPLE II
300-BAUD MODEM
(WITH SOFTWARE $15200)
• PRO-MODEM 1200
• SIGNALMAN MARK XII
109.00
389.00·
279.00
GRAPHICS DEVICES
• POWER PAD + STARTER KIT
119.00·
VIDEO & DISPLAY EQUIPMENT
299.00·
• DIGITIZER
WE CAN SPECIAL ORDER
MOST SOFTWARE AT
DISCOUNT PRICES
• TWIN PORT GAME I/O
EXTENDER
• SINGLE PORT GAME 110
EXTENDER.
• TG GAME PADDLES
• ADAM & EVE GAME
PADDLES
• SAMPSON JOYSTICK
• HAYES MACH II
JOYSTICK
• HAYES MACH III
JOYSTICK
29.00
18.00
31.00
29.00
29.00
37.00
45.00
SLOT EXPANSION
49.00
• 16K RAM CARD
• MEMORY MASTER liE 64K RAM
& 80-COLUMN CARD
145.00
• MEMORY MASTER liE 128K RAM
195.00
& 80-COLUMN CARD
• MICROTEK II., 128K VISICALC AND
MEMORY EXPANSION ..
219.00
• CCS 7710 SERIAL
117.00
INTERFACE CARD
• SERI-ALL SERIAL
149.00
INTEHFACE CARD
• 80-COLUMN CARD (VIEWMASTER)
139.00
WITH SOFT-SWITCH
• Z-80 PLUS CARD
(CPM FOR APPLE)
115.00
• FAST Z-80 CARD
(APPLICARD)
245.00
• TIMEMASTER II CLOCKiCALENDAR
109.00
CARD
SPECIAL PERIPHERALS • EPS EXPANSION KEYBOARD
(INCLUDES EXTRA MODULE)
• COOLING FAN WITH SURGE
PROTECTOR
UPS shipping, $4.00 per order plus $6.00 per printer or monitor
290.00
39.00
/.PPLE 11884
FILL OUT THE FORM BELOW TO RECEIVE OUR FREE CATALOG.
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195.00
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6327 WESTERN AVE, NW/WASHINGTON, DC 20015 Washington Apple Pi
August 1984
27
An
APPL~-ORI~nT~D
T~L~communICATlons
Ge.orge.
1. INTRODUCTION -
1<
I n a
l
Forms of Computer Communications
Usually when the Te1ecomm SIS sponsors a WAP meeting
on the subject, we have some of our illustrious and
experienced members give an introduction along the
lines of ·what telecommunications is good for.·
I
won't do that here, assuming that you have already
been motivated to consider equipping your Apple for
commun icat ions.
I'm dealing here primarily with communications using
telephone lines. Many of the same techniques also
apply to connecting two computers right next to each
other, as well as to communications over radio (usual­
ly amateur radio) connections.
Computers communicate with each other using several
established sets of ·ru1es of the road,D called proto­
cols.
Most communication between or tolfrom large
mainframe computers, especially those made by IBM,
employs synchronous Dtransmission (you will also hear
the terms DBi-Sync , SNA, and SDLC in this connec­
tion). IBM terminal protocols which operate synchron­
ously include the 3270 and 3780 series. If you have a
need to make your Apple communicate in such a system,
it is possible but expensive; Apple is now selling an
interface unit which makes Lisas, Macs, and Apple Ills
look like a 3780 terminal. The remainder of this
article will not have any relevance to synchronous
communications, since 95~ of microcomputer communica­
tions is not synchronous but asynchronous.
I won't attempt to describe what asynchronous means.
Suffice it to say that all common interfaces and
modems in the personal computer world are asynchro­
nous.
Even in this Dasync· world, though, different
protocols can be used for various purposes. When you
call up a bulletin board, or The Source or CompuServe,
you are operating in what is called • free-wheel ingD
ASCII.
These services can be called using nothing
more than a portable Ddumb-termina1 A such as the Texas
Instruments Silent 700. You type a character on the
keyboard and it gets sent. The remote computer sends
a character and it gets printed on the monitor or on a
piece of paper. One commonly used improvement on this
approach is the XON-XOFF protocol. You all know how
Ctr1-S stops the listing of a program. Well, in most
systems, the Ctr1-S is the so-called DXOFF" character,
which means ·stop sending D• The
matching Dresume
sending· character, called DXON D, is Ctr1-Q. Then,
there is a class of protocols which are used to per­
form verified file transfer. By file transfer is
meant the sending of a disk file on one computer to a
disk on the other computer. Verified means that the
accuracy of the data is checked on each block, and if
it is not perfect, another attempt is made. Verified
transfer is not essential for text, but is important
for programs, including ·binary" files. Ward Chris­
tensen developed a protocol, appropriately called the
Christensen protocol, which is in widespread use for
verified transfer.
In fact, in order to download
files from CP/M bulletin boards, this protocol must beD
used.
It is also called the DMODEM" or the DXMODEM
protocol, since these are names of the CP/M programs
which use it. There are communications programs on
the market that use other verified transfer protocols;
some of them are better in some ways than Christen­
sen's, but they are all incompatible with one another.
28
TUTORIAL
2. ·WHAT DO I NEED ?"
Your Apple does not come with a telephone cordlp1ug
(unlike some computers on the market). In order to
turn it into a communications machine, you need three
things (in general):
• A MODEM
• AN INTERFACE CARD
• COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE
I sa i d, ·in general.· The Apple /I I, the 16/32 bit
Apples, and the new /lc come with serial interfaces
already built in; only the J[, ][+, lIe need an inter­
face card.
Even that blanket statement has excep­
t ions, because the three elements ment ioned can be
combined in various ways. The most common exception
(sort of) is the kind of modem introduced by Hayes,
the Micromodem, which combines the "actual" modem with
a built-in interface. Most interface cards have some
very rudimentary program included as a firmware ROM on
the card, so you can communicate without separate
software. Furthermore, a few manufacturers have de­
signed their modems and accompanying software to
interface through the game port, so although there is
an interface, there is no interface card. Still, you
will find that most Apple users with a complete 300
and 1200 baud setup will have all three of the ele­
ments I mentioned. InCidentally, you should be care­
ful about compatibility among these three elements.
As with most computer-oriented applications, it is
generally good advice to choose the software first.
Then, be sure that the interface and modem you choose
can be accomodated by that software.
3. THE MOST COMMON EXAMPLES
The biggest problem with writing this part is that
whatever I say, it will be obsolete within a year.
Both the Mac and the Ilc are likely to have a big
influence on the overall picture of Apple-oriented
communications, and will affect software and hardware
popularity.
The following pertains mostly to the
Apple J[ and III family.
A. Modems
The modem converts the digital signals from the com­
puter into audio tones that can be sent over a tele­
phone line (and, back the other way). The most popular
modems fall into three categories:
SINGLE BOARD MODEMS/INTERFACES
D.C. Hayes invented this kind of modem, and the Hayes
Micromodem II is still a big seller. It is a 300 baud
modem with the usual DsmartD features such as dialing,
and is usually sold with the Smartcom software pack­
age.
(A single board modem plugs into one of the
Apple J[, lIe slots, usually slot 12).
The Novation Apple cat is functionally very similar to
the Micromodem, and does not have a separate Dcoupler"
box outside the computer. All sorts of optional
accessories, such as a printer port, tone decoder, BSR
controller, telephone handset, etc. are available.
This modem operates in the usual 300 baud mode, as
well as a half duplex "202 typeD 1200 baud (warning ­
this mode is only useful for communicating with other
contd.
Augus t 1984
Washington Apple Pi
Operant Systems PRINTERS-
- - HARDWARE - ­
Epson FX-SO 1160 CPI, tractor/lingle sheet, graphicsl .. 459 FX-l00 Iwide clI'rillgll version of the aboveI...... 689 AX-BOF/T 1100 CPI tractorlsingle .heet, graphics I S29 LQ-1500 1200 cps, fan~s\ic le\ter-quali\y lodel 1125 Okid&ta 92 11&0 cps, graphics, BEST print for pricel ... 429 93 1132 coluln version of abovel ............... 665 Toshiba 1340 1144 cps draft, BEST letter-qual latrixl .. 799 Texas Inltrusentl TI-~5 1150 cps draft, 35 cps NLQI ... 795 IDS Prisl-SO 1200 cps, calorlsheel-feed options availl. 999 Gelini lOX 1120 cps, trac\orlsingle sheet, graphicsl ... 289 15X IlIid~riage sue fea\ures as Epson KXI .. 1110 C.Itoh F-l0 Starwriter 140 cps daisywheel, best for .1 1049 A-l0 11S cps version of the abovel ............. 559 Transtar 130 11S cps daisywheel, Diablo cOlpatiblel .... 575 120 1111 CPI daisywheel, al abovel ............. illS NEt 7710 155 cps daisYllheel, built like a tankl ....... 1795 Oiablo 620 125 cps daisywheell ......................... 839 QUle Sprint 11/110 1110 CPI daisYwheell ................. 1349 IIODDtS-
Hayes IUcrolodes ][e I\one dialing/speakerlSlartcol II. 239 Saar\lades 300 1300 baud RS-232, direct-connec\1 210 Slarllodea 1200 1300/1200 baud, al abovel ........ 495 Novalion Apple-Ca\ II Iwl COlII&rei 1200 baud capablel .. 235 SI&r1.-cat 300 IRS-232 , direct-connectl ........ 175 Slart-ca\ 300/1200 lB. abovel ................. 389 Kicrocal ERA 2 1300/1200 baud card with softwarel ...... 319 ZOOI Telephonics Networker 1300 baud card II/sof\warel .. 149 US Robotics Password 1300/1200 baud, au\o-dial/answerl. 335 Anchor Autolation Hark 12 1300/1200 baud, RS-232I ...... 269 Volkslodel 1300 baud, RS-232I ........ 59 DISK DRIVES­
"ieroSci A2 drive 11001 Apple-colpAtible Shugart 3901 .. 235 Rana Systel' Eli\e One drive 1110 track, 163KI .......... 259 Elite Two 140 \rack, double side, 326KI ... 389 Eli te Three 180 \rack, double side, 6521<1. 449 TEAt Thinline drive 1110 track, 1001 Apple cOlpAtiblel .. 259 Oavong, Corvus l and Corona Winchester drivOl ......... lcalll CP/K , 6502C SYSTEK~-
Applieard 16 Khz Z-81I, 64X \0 192K ANt, 7kol vicIHl .. 249 Kicrosof\ Softcard ][e IZ-eo, 80 col , 64K on one card I 325 Softcard lincludes CP/K 2.2 and KBASICI ..•... 225 DR Gold Card 16 Khz, BO-col, 64-1921(, CP/H 3.0, CSASICI 345 AlS CP/H Plus 5yuel 16 Khz Z-SO, 64K AM, CP/H 3.01. .. 275 Titan Sys\els Accelera\or ][ 13.6 Khz 6502C prDCellorl. 425 Speed Deaon 16502C high-speed coprocellorl ........•.... 239 IOIITOAS-
Aldek 300G 112" green anU-glare screen, lB1ihz I........
300A 112" aaber anh-glare screen, 18Khzl ........
Color I Illo-caluin \elt/color graphicsl ..........
lEe JB-12011l2OS Igreen/aaber anti-glare screen, 20Hhzl
JB-1260 112" green, 15Khz, bea\ value for loneyl ...
USI PI-2 112" green &n\i-glare screen, 20 Khzl .........
PI-3 112" uber anti-glare screen, 20 Khzl.........
INTERFACES , IltEF'ERS , ClOCKS­
140 155 289 159 110 99 99 Pkaso/U printer interface Isuperior graphici 'lore!!I. 129 Shuffle8uffer 132K--12BK w/cut , paste/ser and parl .. lcalll Crapplerf printer interface Iparallel III graphicsl ..... 120 Suffered Grapplerf 116K to 611K buffer plus graphicsl ... 169 CPS Hultifunction Iserial, parallel, and clockl ........ 165 Wizard IPI Igraphics , text dUlp, page forsa\ting I ..... 69 CCS 7710A IRS-232 serial for prlntQrl , 10dOlII ........ 109 Practical Peripherals ProClock IProDoI cOlpa\iblel ..... 109 VIDEO , KEYBOARD-
Videx Ultraterl 1160 coluln/llB row display !!I ......... 259 Video\erl 181I-caluln wi softlwitch' inversel .... 209 Welpercorp Wizard-SO Ii0ftBllitch , inverse buil\-inl •.. 155 ALS Saartlrl II ISO calulns at a bargain pricel ........ 129 KicroSci BO-col card 11/6AX RAH for ][e................. 125 Kev\ronic KB-200 low-prafile detached ke9board ......... 235 K9tJRY EXPAHSIIJI--
Wespercorp Wizard 16K RAH clI'd l2-yr warrantlll......... 63 Titan 5gS\0I1 12BK RAH card ............................ 359 Washington Apple Pi
I«IRD PROCESSIt«;--
- - SOFTWARE ­
Wordstar 3.3 lincluding 6 Khz Z-SO Applicard !I!I ..
ScreenWriter II 170 col displa" spooling, larell ..
Super-Text Profelsional ............................
Bank Street Writer or Speller ......................
pfs: Write ][e.....................................
Pie Wri ter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Word Handler f Lil\ Handler f Spell Handler ........
HaaeWord leal~to-use icon-baled sllitell ...........
Perfec\ Writer ledi\/vivw lultiple filel in CP/KI ..
Incredible Jack lword processing, data bale, calcl.
Sensible Speller IV Ichecks ANY file \'pel .........
The Word Plus Isuper spelling checker far CP/KI ....
SPREADSI£ETS , FORTU£-T£LLERS­
llul\iplan Istate-af-t~art Ipreadlhee\I ...........
FlalhCalc IViliCalc rtl a faceliftl ...............
SuperCalc 2 Ipawerfu CP/K spreadlheetl ............
IWOIItAnllf
299 as 11~ 49 85 99 109 39 175 119 89 109 135 79 179 1WfACE)£NT-­
dSASE II Iwl ZIP screen generatorl .................
Quickcode IdBASE progrBl generalorl ................
The General Kanager 2.0 ............................
Thinktank lelectranic thought organizerl ...........
ph: File, .Report , or Graph........................
Infos\ar lincluding 6 Khz Z-BO AppliCird !!!I ......
Qata Perfec\.. .... .. . ... . ... .. ..... .. . .... . .... ....
DB Halter 11.0 Ilatest verlionl .....................
BUSINESS' ACaUfTIIIi-
SPI Accounting IAR/AP/PAYIn1..I INVEHTORYI ea ladule:
Peach\ree Peachpak IGl/AR/API ........... all three:
Dollarl , Sense Ihole accounting f graphicll •......
The Accountant Idouble-entry baakkeeping Ililtell ...
Hale Accountlln\... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . .
COKHUNICATIONS--
Ascii Express Profeslional Ifor DOS 3.31 ...........
Z-\erl Professional Ifor CP/KI .....................
Oata-(;ap\ure ][e...................................
pfs:Acce&s Ibalic cOllunications far the ][el ......
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If you find a lower price, give UI a chance \0 bI&\ it. Feel free to call for answers \0 technical quos\ions.
TO ORDER:
August 1984 Call Jlff Dillon
or Write or visit:
at
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Z9
Apple-Cats and those now extremely rare computer
centers that support 202-mode). It also can be used
for "Deafnet" communications to connect with the so­
called Weitbrecht modem used by the hearing-impaired
community.
The Apple-Cat comes w1th a very competent
software package called Com-Ware.
Zoom Telephon1cs has placed on the market an inexpen­
sive ($129) single-board modem. It seems to be a good
way to get started in commun1cations, though the modem
does not do the "auto· functions (dialing, answering)
that the Hayes and Novation do. It comes with ·Net­
worker- software, though the firm encourages buyers to
get the more sophisticated Netmaster package for $50
additional.
The advertising for this modem implies
that it interfaces with the computer itself just like
an Apple Communications Card. Therefore, any software
which can be configured for that card can also be used
with the Zoom modem. (I have not personally confirmed
this to be true, however.)
MICROCOM has just placed on the market a 300/1200 baud
single board modem, the ERA 2. Not only does this
modem support both 300 and the popular 212-type full
duplex 1200 baud, but it also operates using the
M1crocom Networking Protocol, a verified protocol that
is becoming popular in a number of systems. There is
some question, though, as to how flexible this modem
is for software other than that supplied by Microcon;
I was told, for example, that the ERA 2 will not work
with CPIM equipped Apples. Still, the retail list of
the ERA 2 is less than that of most 300/1200 baud
modems plus interface cards.
DUMB MODEMS
Nobody actually calls their modem ·dumb," but it's a
good distinction to make relative to the "smart a
modem.
I'm covering here the external modems, con­
necting to the computer's serial (RS-232C) 1nterface
First, there's a slew of simple acoustically
socket.
coupled modems - the kind that you place your tele­
phone handset into when connection has been made.
A
lot of criticisms have been leveled against acoustic
couplers, but I happen to believe that unless you work
in a boiler factory, couplers work pretty well. Some
of them, in fact, were designed and built for commer­
cial use, and have excellent circuit designs that
perform very well. You can pick these up now surplus
or used for under $50 (sometimes, for under $10 I).
A popular inexpensive dumb 300 baud modem is
Anchor Automation Mark I, or its new successor
Volksmodem. They are going for about $60.
the
the
Then there is a whole slew of what I would call ·com­
mercial grade" modems, built by Racal-Vadic, Anderson­
Jacobson, UDS, Rixon, Prentice and of course Western
Electric.
You probably wouldn't want to go out and
buy one of these for home use, but for some business
applications they are better suited than the "consumer
grade- modems, since they tend to be designed for 24­
hour-a-day use, and have more sophisticated circuit
designs in some cases.
market, Including some with a multi-colored apple on
them (actuallYJl1ade~s. P.obntirc;. which also sells
their own), and--the va-st -majority are ·Smartmodem
compatible", meaning they respond to the exact same
commands as the Hayes products. A big splash was
caused by Anchor's announcement of the Mark XII, a "-...,,
300/1200 modem billed as being functionally identical
to the Hayes Smartmodem 1200, but at about half the
price.
This modem is becoming very popular locally,
although some users have ex per- ienced indadequate
The jury is still out on whether
performance.
Anchor's cost cutting and rush to introduce the
product may have been a mistake.
B. INTERFACE CARDS
(Only Apple ][, lie owners need to read this; the
Apple Ilc's two serial interfaces are supposed to be
the same as the Apple Super Serial card). For a long
time, the demand for serial interface cards was pretty
small.
Printers used parallel interfaces most often,
and almost all Apple owners who wanted to communicate
used the Micromodem. That has changed, with the new
series of Apple printers, and with lower cost 1200
baud modems. So there are a lot of new cards coming
on the market. I can't say much about sane of them.
The Apple Super Serial Card took the place of two
older Apple products: the Serial card (meant for
printers, NOT modems), and the Caranunications Card.
The SSC is a nice product, and has recently been
reduced in price from its previously exhorbitant $200
list.
The CCS 7710 continues to be sold (and bought). It is
a good card, but comes with an interface wired for a
printer; you need a special "crossover cable" to use
it with a modem, and every modem is a bit different in
exactly how this cable should be wired.
SSM (now Transend) made a serial card (the ASIO), a
dual (serial and parallel) card (the AIO), and more
recently the AIO-II (pretty much the same as the AIO
but with some improvements).
They are primarl1y
selling their cards now as part of a package which
includes the Transend software. They are much harder
to find than the CCS, but are easier for a beginner to
hook up to a modem. (Transend also makes both single
board and external modems.)
The old Apple Communications card no longer exists in
new production, but Taiwanese clones as well as refur­
bished genuine Apple cards are still available at
bargain rates ($59). They are set up for 300 baud; a
wiring modification is necessary to use them at both
300 and 1200. They work very well with the Anchor
Mark XII modem; they will not work with some older
designs of 212-type modems, for example the Anderson­
Jacobson 1233/1259 type.
The MPC AP-SIO has been commended to
is available at moderate cost ($90),
the CCS in its circuit design, and
its connector is correctly wired for
my attention. It
is very much like
can be set up so
a modem.
-SMART· MODEMS
C. SOFTWARE
There is some controversy as to who invented this kind
of modem; recently Hayes agreed to pay BIZCOMP a hefty
royalty payment for the idea, but the term -Smart­
~odemis copyrighted by Hayes. These modems have
built-in microprocessors that interpret sequences of
Thus,
characters sent to them, and act accordingly.
they can be commanded to dial a phone number" to
answer a call, to hang up, etc. Hayes makes a Smart­
modem (300 baud) and a Smartmodem 1200 (300/1200). No
Apple ][, lIe owner would logically buy the 300 baud
version; might as well get the Micromodem instead. A
number of similar products have now appeared on the
Well, without any question the most popular advanced
communications software package for the Apple ][
family is ASCII Express - the Professional, now sup­
plied by United Software Industries. There is very
little this package cannot do. It supports the Chris­
"AEtensen protocol, and has a built in editor.
Pro" only works under DOS 3.3; comparable products are
Z-Term for CPIM, and P-Term for Pascal.
30
SOFTERM II also supports the Christensen protocol.
This is the one product that can deal with DOS, CPIM,
and Pascal files. Its single biggest asset, though,
contd.
Augus t 1984
Washington Apple Pi
.--..,
' ,
is that with it ynllr App1e c:on b~~de to emulate any
one of perhaps a dozen di fferenf spec ifi c CRT termi­
nals. This is something you might need to communicate
properly with a specific mainframe computer.
Data Capture had some popularity a while back, but
-..-/ seems to have lost its following more recently. (It's
written in BASIC, so is not suited to 1200 baud).
The Transend series has some very nice features.
Transend I is a very simple, basic communications
package.
Transend II is functionally similar to
AE-Pro; its biggest disadvantage perhaps is that the
protocol used is not Christensen's, so verified trans­
fer is possible only to another Transend-equipped
Apple.
If you have CP/M on your Apple, you really should get
the MODEM/XMODEM programs running: the latest version,
MODEM 7/30, is on WAP Disk 1409. This will allow you
to download programs from the various RCPM systems.
Some members have a library of hundreds of public
domain programs acquired in this way.
If your Apple is used commercially, and your communi­
cations involve both other (non-Apple) microcomputers
and long distance transfer, you might want to evaluate
BLAST (Comm. Research Group, Baton Rouge). The proto­
col this program uses is not Christensen, but is more
efficient, and allows simultaneous transfer in both
direct ions.
The following articles in previous WAP magazines may
be of interest:
Automatic Dial for Data Capture 4.0
Communication with the Apple II
The New ABBS
Is your Communicating Apple Protected
from Lightning Damage 1
Telecomm. SIG News
Electronic Mail with the Apple II
Inside the Micromodem Firmware
Two Communications Packages: A Review
Apple II <-> IBM PC Communications
COMH-TERM - A Communications Program
Anchor Mark 12 Modem: A Review
MCI Mail and the Apple II
Softronics Softerm 2: A Review
Interfaces for Anchor Mark 12
Modification of CP/M "Modem"
Transend 2 Review
Comparison of The Source and Compuserve
Further Notes on Serial Comm. Cards
MacIntosh <-> Apple II Transfer
Anchor Mark 12 Review Update
Auto Dial, Redial, and Log On
Dec 81
June 82
July/Aug 82
Nov 82
Dec 82
Feb 83
May 83
July 83
Aug 83
Jan 84
Jan 84
Jan 84
Feb 84
Mar 84
Mar 84
Mar 84
Mar 84
Apr 84
May 84
May 84
July 84
<t
COMM-TERM is a very simple communications package that
is in WAP Library Disk 144. It's enough to get you
started, and does a bit more than the firmware on an
interface card. For example, it will receive data and
write it out to disk, or it will send out a DOS 3.3
text file.
~
4. WHAT'S IT ALL GOOD FOR 1; REFERENCES
Well, I said I wouldn't supply motivation here.
But
I'll list, "for the record," the five major categories
of use as I see them:
1. Calling computer bulletin boards, including our own
WAP ABBS.
This is a great way to have questions
answered ("help !"): buy/sell hardware/software; keep
up on the latest Apple developments; and download
software, text, pictures, etc.
CAREER OPPORTUNITY SOFTWARE EVALUATION ~ SYSTEMS ,
INC.
2. Calling the data base services, such as The Source,
CompuServe, DIALOG, Dow Jones Information Service. I
can't even begin to list all the things you can do on
these sy stems.
WE
A
3. Communications with other Apples, other microcom­
puters, word processors, or type-setting services, to
exchange programs or text.
TRS-SO OFF-THE-SHELF PACKAGES.
4. Dialing in to specific main-frame computers. These
computers are those provided by your employer or Uni­
versity, allowing you to work at home, for example.
WORD PROCESSORS, COMMUNICATIONS, #ID/oR
5. Telecommunications per se. You can now use ser­
vices such as MCI-Mail, Western Union Easy-Link, and
others
to send messages, incl uding international
telexes.
The networks such as Telenet, Tymnet, UNI­
NET, and Graphnet also provide a variety of electronic
mail services (as do CompuServe and the SOURCE).
IS LOOKING FOR 5
EXPER IENCED MI CROCa-1PllTER PROFESS IONALS
MINIrU1 OF 2 YEARS
EXPERIENCE WORKING ON
IB'11 APPl£ #ID/OR
IF
YOU
HAVE EXPERIENCE WITH SPREADSHEETS,
DB"IS
GRAPHICS PACKAGES YOU QUALIFY FOR AN
INTERVIEW,
KOH SYSTEMS, INC,
SEND RESLME TO:
164 ROll..I NS AVENUE
The best selling general reference on microcomputer
communications is: "The Complete Handbook of Personal
Computer Communications· by A. Glossbrenner, st.
Martin's Press. On the other hand, due out shortly is
"Joy of Telecommunication" by WAP's own Bill Cook;
even if you already have the former book you'll prob­
ably want to get Bill's as well.
Washington Apple Pi
REQUIRE
August 1984
SUITE 301
ROCKVILLE, M) 20052
ATTN: PERSONNEL
#404
31
fE.E.DlnG
le.ase.s
AT
TI-fE. TROl)G
rrom
mlchae l
AppLrL
l-f a r t
I~
:
a n c.1
thrL
PI(J
rn c. n
I've been up to my ears in Lisa Pascal and the Mac,
but I do still occasionally turn on my lIe. This time
I have news on a number of new Pascal software
releases from Apple for both the][ and the III.
Apple has introduced a truly phenomenal amount of
hardware and software in the past nine months, and
many people think the company's mettle will be tested
by the effort required to market and support this
great a number and diversity of products. Also, the
PIG itself has two new library disks which will be
available beginning this month.
This represents
something of a milestone for the PIG, but we cannot
continue to expand the Pascal library without your
contributions.
Apple Releases Pascal 1.2 for the II
Early this spring, Apple released Apple Pascal version
1.2 for the Apple II family (J[, J[+, lIe, Ilc).
Since the new features are much as I've discussed here
previously, I won't recap them now. But for those of
you with 128K lIe or Ilc machines in need of more
space, the final numbers are 39,300 bytes for Pascal
code and 44,500 bytes for application program data and
assembly language routines.
Pascal 1.2 will also
support the ProFile hard disk, direct 1/0 with ProDOS
files.
and the Apple Mouse.
According to the
announcement provided to dealers, all those who pur­
chased version 1.1 on or after December 2, 1983 are
entitled to a free upgrade. Purchasers of Pascal
prior to this date can obtain an upgrade kit for $75.
(My reading of this announcement is that owners of 1.0
who did not upgrade to 1.1 are covered. Much to my
surprise, I have recently come across some people in
this category.)
This special upgrade offer expires
September I, 1984, so act NOW.
Apple is handling the upgrade by mail-order, not
through Apple dealers. (Both Apple and the dealers
have reasons for doing it this way, but it certainly
is an irritation for the customer.) To obtain the
upgrade, you must mail the following items:
(1) Your original APPLEl: disk (others NOT accepted)
(2) One of the following, according to your Pascal
purchase date:
(a) A photocopy of your sales slip, proving pur­
chase of Apple Pascal on or after December 2,
1983
(b) A check for $75.00, payable to Apple Computer,
Inc.
(3) Your name and address, incl uding ZIP code
Hail these to this address:
Apple II Pascal Upgrade
P.O. Box 306 Half Moon Bay, CA 94019 set, so even new Pascal purchasers will receive six
(6!) separate manuals with their 1.2 system (the two
main manuals plus four new-release pamplets).
I
believe that Apple is finally working on new manuals.
have spoken to a few people who have already re­
ceived the upgrade, and they are very happy with the
new release. All 1.1 code files execute under version
1.2, with the exception of system files (those named
SYSTEM.xxx); these are version-checked to ensure com­
patibility.
This is necessary, though it can cause
problems with sane current canmercfal software (but
see the discussion on 1.2 and the Advanced System
Editor below). Of course, future commercial software
will assume you have 1.2, so even if you aren't
excited about the many new features and the bug fixes,
you should take advantage of the upgrade offer.
Re­
member, it expires this September 1st.
Apple II Pascal and the ProFile
With the release of ProDOS and Pascal 1.2, Apple has
made available both the hardware and the software to
interface the Apple ProFile hard disk to the J[, J[+,
and lIe canputers. The Apple II Pascal Profile Mana­
ger is supplied with the ProFile accessory kit for the
Apple II.
With this, you may create and manipulate
multiple Pascal volumes on the ProFile (dividing the
hard disk space between Pascal and ProOOS as you
wish).
Several volumes (I believe up to six) may be
on-line at once, thus giving you immediate access to ~
all of your utilities and data files. You may also
store system files on a ProFile volume, which you can
make the Pascal root volume after booting from a
floppy disk. As discussed before, this will greatly
speed up the operation of Pascal.
The Pascal ProFile Manager includes the hard disk
device driver and Attach utility, a Volume Manager, an
Extended Filer, and a Pascal Backup program.
The
Volume Manager enables you to create and delete Pascal
volumes on the ProFile, and to assign these volumes to
specific unit numbers. Once this "mounting" is done,
a ProFile volume is treated the same as a floppy disk.
The Pascal Backup program allows you to backup and
restore selected Pascal files, VOlumes, or areas on
the hard disk. The Extended Filer, which can replace
the standard SYSTEM.FILER, includes canmands for
invoking the Volume Manager and the Backup program.
The device driver on early copies of the ProFile
Manager had a bug which prevented its use with the
128K fl avor of Pascal 1.2. Th is has, however, been
corrected, and new copies of the product should have
the updated driver. If you have the faulty vers ion,
an update is available through your dealer.
(Many
thanks to John Stokes for sharing his knowledge of and
experience with this product.)
Within four to six weeks Apple will mail the following
items to you:
The Apple Pascal Workbench Series
(1) New versions
will contain
1.2 release.
(2) A Pascal 1.2
new features
in 1.1 which
Apple has recently introduced a new software product
line for the Apple II and III computers, the Apple
Workbench.
These are software de vel opment tool s for
the DOS, ProDOS, and Pascal operating systsns, and
include some things which in the past were available
only to Apple Certified Developers. The Workbench
products are
intended for
"techn ically-oriented
people", and it is Apple's hope that the products will
contd.
Shamefully,
32
of all four Apple Pascal disks; these
both a 64K and a 128K version of the
Update Manual, which describes the
of version 1.2 and lists the bugs
were fixed.
Apple
has not yet produced a 1.2 manual
August 1984 Washington Apple Pi
~
enable all serious software writers to create higher­
quali ty programs. Interest1ngly. _to cut the time and
costs involved in issuing these products~tney w111
have generic packaging. (Those fancy covers on your
Pascal manuals apparently used quite a bit of bothl)
The manuals will share the same artwork and layout,
and Apple will sell a Workbench loose-leaf binder in
which you can organize the separate manuals as you
like.
Five products for the Apple II and III Pascal
environments have been released or are expected
shortly. While your dealer probably won't have all of
them in stock, he should be able to obtain them from
Apple quickly.
The products I am aware of are
described below.
Apple II Pascal Device Support Tools:
This includes both the new version of SYSTEM.ATTACH
required for Pascal 1.2 and the ProDOS 110 Units.
While the SYSTEM.ATTACH used for 1.1 (and available on
PIGO:) does not work with 1.2, all of your device
drivers will (both your own and those things in the
file ATTACH.ORIVERS with commercial add-on hardware).
I don't know anything about the ProDOS 110 Units
except that they'll make programs like Huffin and
Puffin a thing of the past. You'll be able to write
Pascal programs to process the data files created by
the growing number of ProDOS software packages. (I do
not think this product is available yet; but since
ATTACH is included with the ProFile Manager, I trust
we don't have long to wait.)
Apple II Mouse Tool Kit:
This package is something I know very little about,
other than that one of the reasons for the late
release of 1.2 was difficulty in getting the 128K
flavor to handle mouse interrupts. The tool kit is
rumored to be fairly low-level routines, doing only
things like obtaining the mouse position and button
state.
Apple Pascal Numerics (SANE):
SANE is the Standard Apple Numeric Environment. It is
available for all Apple computers: the interface
remains the same while the implementation changes.
(This latter is pure assembly language code, either
6502 or 68000.) SANE provides full support of the
proposed
IEEE floating-point arithmetic
standard
(P754), including 16-, 32-, and 64-bit integers;
single-, double-, and extended precision f10ating­
point numbers (32,64, and 80 bits); and a wide range
of arithmetic, comparison, trigonometric, exponential,
and financial operations. Seventeen-digit accuracy is
available. Apple has been a leader in the adoption of
the IEEE standard. The Apple III Pascal compiler
(version 1.1) was the first microcomputer compiler to
conform to it. SANE is provided as a Unit for the
Apple II and III, whose procedures and functions you
call to perform all of your mathematical operations.
If you need to do high-precision arithmetiC, and find
Long Integers inadequate or awkward, this is the
package for you. SANE is available now.
Apple III Pascal Tool Kit:
This is a comprehensive collection of tools, including
an enhanced compiler and several powerful utilities.
The compiler provides new language features conforming
to the ISO standard, additional compiler directives,
and much more extensive listing information.
The
utilities are a source file comparer, a full-featured
cross-referencer, a procedure-structure lister, a
customizable pretty-printer and syntax checker, a
multi-field directory sorter, a user-interface unit,
and a virtual-memory simulator for using arrays larger
than memory. The compiler and many of the utilities
can be used in developing Apple II programs on the III
Washington Apple Pi
(an environment much-liked by those who use ttl. This
tool kit is available both as a separate product and
as an upgrade to current Apple III Pascal owners.
Apple III Pascal Debugger (Pronto):
Finally, a debugger for an Apple Pascal.
It's not
quite a symbolic debugger, but it's a start.
Pronto
allows you to set breakpoints, pause on command, trace
execution, and examine variable values.
This is
accomplished without recompilation, but it is almost
mandatory to have a clJ11piler listing at hand. This
debugger was developed by First Byte with cooperation
from Apple; they have recently released a similar
product, Bug-Off, for Apple II Pascal. If you have
Bug-Off, you might track down your neighborhood Apple
III developer and look at his Pronto documentation.
Bug-Off's is just abysmal.
The Advanced System Editor and Pascal 1.2
As mentioned above, there is a problem with executing
Pascal 1.1 SYSTEM.xxx files under version 1.2. The
root of this is that various operating system data
structures (the SYSCOM and the GlobalsJ have changed
in the new release, so most of the old system files
simply wouldn't work properly. However, many of us in
the PIG own the Advanced System Editor (ASE) from
Volition Systems, which is a wonderful replacement for
the standard SYSTEM.EDITOR. We, of course, want to
use this under 1.2; and it turns out that ASE doesn't
Thus,
reference any of the changed data structures.
all we have to do is convince the new operating system
to run it. There are two ways to go about this. The
first, suggested by John Stokes, is to reniJTIe the ASE
SYSTEM.EDITOR to EDITOR.CODE. Then write a small Pas­
cal program (under 1.2) wh ich simply uses the Chain­
Stuff Unit to make the call SetChain('Editor'), and
rename its code file SYSTEM.EDITOR. Selecting E(dit
from the main command line runs this file, which in
turn invokes EDITOR.CODE and ASE. This will, natural­
ly enough, execute, since it is no longer regarded as
a system file. VOila, a working ASEI The second way,
worked out by both Mel Saffren and Arley Dealey of
USUS, involves patching the system infQrmation con­
tained in the first block of all code files.
As
documented in Appendix C of the Apple II Pascal
Operating System Reference Manual, each code file con­
ta ins a record Segl nfo, wh fch records the code type
and system version number of each program segment
present.
This is where you must play "fool the
operating systemh. Programs to do this are available
on MUSUS, the USUS SIG on ClJ11puServe, and further
details will be available at the next PIG meeting.
(For those of you anxious to do it yourself, the
version number of Apple II 1.2 is 5.)
PIG13: The Guerilla Guide
The Guerilla Guide is an epic effort by Bart Thomas, a
New Jersey member of USUS (and very recently, WAP).
8art wrote and assembled this material to cover the
documentation gaps, "gotchas", and wise pointers he
found while learning Pascal and the Apple Pascal sys­
tem.
He also includes some programs he wrote while
learning how to use various features of the system. I
can recommend this disk very highly to anyone who is
starting out with Apple Pascal, and there are several
things which might be of use to old-hands.
Bart
describes the disk as follows:
"The Guerilla Guide to Apple Pascal consists of three
text files:
Pasint, Pbooks, and Pas2e. The Pasint
file is too long for the Apple Pascal Editor, so it is
broken into three files Pasinl,2,3.Text so that it can
be updated easily. If you have ASE or another editor
that can handle the whole file, you can make a file
contd.
August 1984
33
that can be printed out easily by copying the 3 files
into a "blank" file. The ends of each file are marked
with the marker "E" and the header, except for the
first file, is skipped by beginning at the "B" marker.
Thus into the new file. you would cOPl "F" and when
pranpted for the filename enter Pasinl[B,El. It has
been formatted within the Editor (ASE), so that all
that is needed is to set up your printer to skip
perforat ions.
"There is a file Printr.Doc.Text that discusses two
Epson programs that are included on the disk. One of
these, PS.Text, sets the Epson to skip perforations;
the other, FF.Text, is handy if you are using a print­
er buffer to send a form feed before sending another
file.
If you do not have an Epson, simply use the
Epson setup text files as a base to build your own.
You will find it very worthwhile, as printing direct
from the Filer is MUCH faster than printing through a
text formatter.
(Of course, we are tal king about a
Transfer of the file to '6.)
"The group of files at the end of the disk are a
simple mailing list handler that will do short form
letters that are made up in the p-System editor. Note
that the key file is Mailer, and while it can run on
the boot disk as System.Startup, it depends on all its
textfiles caning from a disk named Mail:. This is
designed more to show disk 1/0, but it is enough
faster than most word-processors so that we actually
use it at the office!"
There are also several files which offer excellent
examples of handling keyboard input, long integers,
and calendar dates. KybdStuff and KybdDemo, which are
by Ron De Groat, provide bullet-proofed and range­
checked input of decimal and hex integers, real num­
bers, and characters. LongStuff and Long.Doc are a
unit for reading, writing, and "normalizing" Long
Integers. The unit supports the embedding of commas
for readability and the use of fixed decimal points to
prod uce high- prec i s ion real numbers.
DateStuff,
Dates.Doc, and Coupon form a package for entering
calendar dates and computing the separation between
them in the context of a bond interest payment issuer.
PIGI4: Another Hodge-Podge
We have a real hodge-podge of programs here. Just to
be different, almost all of them are from local PIG
members.
There are utilities for printers and PILOT,
for disks and displays, and a small one to check up on
your 6502. There is also a graphics program, and even
the first game in ages (gasp!). Except where noted,
all of these should run on the Apple ][. ][+, lie, and
Ilc; they should also work under Apple Pascal 1.1 and
1.2, both 64K and 128K flavors. (This is definitely
beginning to get canplicated.)
PILOTLIST.TEXT - Robert Platt
Bob has donated another program for the canputer-aided
instruction field, and our first related to the PILOT
language system. (The PILOT system is Pascal-based.
so this is the appropriate environment for PILOT
utilities.) PILOTLIST produces a listing of your les­
son with assigned line numbers and generates a cross­
reference of all statement labels. This latter capa­
bility is not included in the PILOT system. Also. it
enables you to make use of PILOT with non-Apple­
protocol printer interfaces, since Pascal can support
these via ATTACH drivers (this is in fact Bob's situa­
tion) •
SCREENINFO.TEXT
SCREENUNIT.TEXT
SCREEHDEMO.TEXT - Michael Hartman
34
This is a windowing unit for th~ Apple lIe and its 80­
column card. SCREENUNIT enables you to set scrolling
windows of arbitrary height, width, and position on
the text screen. It al so provides cursor position
reporting, type-ahead buffer stuffing, and inverse
characters. The unit was inspired by BIOSSTUFF, which
appeared on PIG3:. SCREENINFO is a set of short notes
which should enable you to use the routines. SCREEN­
UNIT is the unit itself. SCREENDEMO is a not-very­
fancy demo which uses all of the procedures in the
unit.
By transferring this unit to Modula-2 and
adding a procedure to stash the current screen state
out to disk, it might be possible to do a very nice
overlapping-window applications package through the
use of co-routines. (I do not know whether SCREENUNIT
will work with the Ilc; it uses somewhat different ROM
code for driving the 80-column text display.)
LORES.INFO.TEXT
LORES.UNIT.TEXT
LORES.ASM.TEXT
LORES.ASHI.TEXT
LORES.TEST.TEXT - Michael Hartman
These files canpose a double-wide lo-res graphics unit
for the Apple lIe and Ilc. The results are a little
disapPOinting when you use an RF modulator connected
to a television set, but I bet it's real nice on a
monitor.
Personally, I've always felt that lo-res
graphics were vastly underrated. LORES.INFO is the
documentation for the unit. LORES.UNIT is the Pascal
LORES.ASM and LORES.ASMI are the assembly lan­
host.
guage source which does all the work. LORES.TEST is
another mundane demo which uses all the unit's pro­
cedures. (The BASIC double-wide demo in the July 1983
Call-A.P.P.L.E. is pretty nice; the line drawing
routine at the end was taken from it.) For those of
you with ](s and ](+s. there is a mostly call­
compatible 40-column lo-res unit on PIG2:.
LIFE.INFO.TEXT
LI FE. LORES. TEXT
LIFE.lRASH. TEXT
MACRO.LIB.TEXT - Michael Hartman
Now here's a nice demo for the double-wide lo-res
graphics, and it uses the windowing unit to boot!
Since the first real program I ever wrote (back in
1971 on a CDC sanething-or-other) was a Life program,
I've always had a soft-spot for the simulation.
I
don't claim the algorithm is the fastest in the world,
but it is the most straightforward. (Now that I have
a 68000-based machine ••• ) LIFE. INFO is a short ex­
planation of the program (not of Life itself).
LIFE.LORES
is the Pascal part of the
program.
LIFE.LRASM is the assembly language part.
MACRO.LIB
is my assembly-language macro library, which is used
by LIFE.LRASM. As written, LIFE.LORES expects to find
LORESGRAPHICS and SCREENUNIT in your SYSTEM.LIBRARY.
(What do you mean you don't want to clutter your
library up with my units?!)
PRINT.ART.TEXT
PRINT.TEXT - Jerry Crawford
This
Epson
1984
lines
other
that
with
turn
will
as on
article and program for printing files on an
MX-80 or MX-lOO printer appeared in the April
WAP Journal. It allows you to set the number of
per page, print size and emphasis, and a few
items.
Note the sneaky method of telling you
your printer is turned off! To use this program
Graftrax-Plus ROMs, you'll have to add a line to
off the autanatic SkiP-over(-perforation.
PRINT
also work on an Apple III and III Plus) as well
the many varieties of 115.
REG.DUHP.TEXT - Michael Hartman
While
Augus t 1984
I
was working on the double-wide la-res rou­
contd. on pg 39
Washfngton Apple Pf
r--"
5PE-C I AL I ZE-f) DATA
PROGRI~m5
Bob
o r-
TUJO
rTlAnAG E-mE-nT
Re.v i e.LUS
nge.l
(Food and Money)
The order of precedence in these two reviews is dic­
tated solely by my regard for food over money, as both
programs were found to be worthwhile.
The first program that we will examine is Magic Recipe
File, by PCS (Peninsula Consulting and Software) of
Mountain View, CA. Although I don't normally cook
food, I have long felt guilty that my Apple works
mostly for me and not for my spouse, who does the
family cooking. What then could be better to salve my
guilt feelings, than a program which could aid the
family member who does the cooking?
family claim records. The main menu permits looking
at files, entering claims, entering or deleting pay­
ments, and a handy save data and continue, or save
data and stop option. Testing of the system using
family data proved satisfactory. A print option is
offered which permits printing of selected screens if
hard copy is needed.
Computers cope Inc. supplies a 10-page documentation
for MEOCLAIMS which, like the recipe program above, is
One curious
also clear, concise and well written.
acknowledgement, which terminates the documentation,
gives thanks to the author's wife and son, by name,
for their help without at the same time naming the
author of this excel lent program.
(t
Magic Recipe File (MRF) is on a non-copyprotected
disk. It begins with a main menu which gives the user
the options to: view a previously entered recipe;
change that recipe; add or delete a recipe; list
recipes by number (3 digit maximum), by name or title;
construct, view on screen, or change an index of
recipe numbers; reset the number of disk drives used
in the system; or to use the print menu functions.
The print options are: print one or more recipes by
number or name; print listings of recipe names,
numbers and titles; print the recipe numbers index.
The user encounters a minor bit of confusion at the
outset, because the recipe can have both a name and a
title,
limited
characterslongin• ..______________________...
length, with
while thethename
title
may beto 30eight
characters
Further, the title cannot be used in the program's
EXPAND YOUR APPLE POWER!!
sorting process, to find a recipe. That function is
limited to name and number. The confusion wanes
rapidly, however, as the user tries the system. Our
ROBINS BRINGS THE SMALL USER SUPPLIES
family recipes are often more than 8 characters in
ANn EQUIPMENT AT A REASONABLE COST.
length, but my spouse also files the name of the
person who gave her the recipe, and that name fits the
title space admirably.
MRF does indeed perform as advertised. I used the
family recipe file to test the program successfully,
and I particularly enjoyed salivating while construct­
ing a sample index of foods. The documentation for
Magic Recipe File is eight pages in length, plus two
appendices.
In my estimation, it is clear, concise
and well written.
Hard disk for MACINTOSH.
10 megabyte fixed disk and
5 megabyte removable disk
for only
$1675.
MICRaRIVE II fran TDS
FOR m'LE II
Single
$219.
The second program is MEDCLAIMS, by Computers cope Inc.
wi controller $259.
$470.
of Matawan, NJ. Its purpose is to control the flow of double
medical and dental insurance claims that one files , w/ controller $509.
with the insurer for collecting payment. A program of
this type might be particularly useful to those of us
in the metropolitan Washington area who through our
connection with the federal government are FEHBA
claimants.
MEOCLAIHS uses two disks, a copyprotected program
disk, and a files disk, but it utilizes only one disk
drive. On the files disk, the program keeps track of:
which medical or dental claims are sent to each
insurer; the claim amount; the date of medical ser­
vice; the date that the claim was sent to the insurer;
which claims were paid; which are still pending; the
amount paid on each claim; the amount of the claim
which is applied to a deductible; and whether the
claim is to be paid directly, or to the provider of
the service.
The
PANASONIC
KXP 1090
KXP 1091
KXP 1092
MACDRIVE by Techmar.
MICRODRIVE IIC by TDS.
For APPLE I IC.
800% Faster.
100% Compatible.
140 kilobytes per disk.
Single unit only $252.
MAC 3.5" DISKS
MAC DISK BOXES
4.25 ea.
3.50 ea.
MAC DISK FLIP FILES 21 95 ea
(holds 50)
•
•
EPSON Ribbons for MX,RX,FX 80
3.95 ea. reloads 1.95
Cartridge Ribbon for APPLE
IMAGEWR1TER 3.95 reloads 1.95
9 1/2 x 11 Clean Edge Paper
18 and 206 (2700/3000 sheets)
only 28.95 box.
!!!~N§11
GREAT VOLUME DISCOUNTS!
VISA'
PRINTERS
(80 cps)
(120 cps)
(180 cps)
8304 Hilltop Road
Fairfax, Virginia 22031
(Merrifield Area)
UPS Shipping
FOB Fairfax, VA
560-5900
program can summarize individual claims and total
Washington Apple Pi
August 1984
35
.sOfTVIE..W.s
b,y
David
mOiganste:
GUTENBERG JUNIOR. Several months ago, P.K. Wong
described the Gutenberg word processors in the WAP
Journal.
He focused primarily on the Senior version
but mentioned the Junior as a low-cost alternative. I
had the opportunity of trying out the Junior and I
came away with mixed reactions. The Gutenberg is not
quite a word processor; it is a typesetting package
for use on the Apple. While it provides excellent
word processing entry and edit of text, including an
80-column display on the Apple lIe, it is aimed at a
slightly different target.
My major criticism of the package is its complexity.
Gutenberg has many options, most of which are acti­
vated by a seemingly never-ending list of embedded
commands. To understand these command functions, you
must examine demonstration files and compare them with
the printed results.
Since it is to be used for
type-setting, Gutenberg has several built-in character
sets.
Alternate sets can be loaded into memory and
selected using a single key stroke. You may translate
one key into its alternate or switch the keyboard over
to the entire alternate set for a longer text entry.
The program comes with several character sets and
includes a utility to create and save your own fonts.
Using keyboard macros, the Gutenberg makes it possible
to use one or two keystrokes to enter up to 33 charac­
ters.
There are three variations of macros.
One
choice is for use after a return command to be used
with left-just1fied formats. The other two require
that you strike the macro character once or twice. A
set of macros can be saved to disk using a provided
utility.
The manual indicates that they can be
reloaded for later use, but does not indicate if this
is done automatically or manually.
Most word proceSSing programs allow you to embed
speCial commands, or macros, which cause printing to
occur in special ways. The Gutenberg programs come
with extensive format options to set the page layout,
paragraph form, print style and other functions, such
as print controls.
You can select from eight macros to set the page lay­
out.
Among the options are simple single column,
double-spaced drafts; double column, single-spaced
story or newsletter articles; and others. Alterna­
tively, you can build your own macros and position
titles and page numbers.
Paragraph formatting can be individualized by using
blocked paragraphs with adjustable left margins, or by
having the paragraphs automatically or manually num­
bered.
Some of the options are useful for letters,
form letters, and envelopes.
A novel feature of Gutenberg is that it does windowsl
It has the ability to move two windows into your text
file, or to view two different files simultaneously.
With this split screen feature, you can easily copy
material from one window to another, just as the Word
(from Microsoft) will do on the Macintosh.
The manual is unusual since it comes in machine­
readable form; that is, in Gutenberg file format
(which is, unfortunately, a non DOS 3.3 format). This
no doubt keeps the cost down, but brings up a crucial
problem. Since the program is configured to work with
only one printer, you must buy the correct version or
you can't print the manual.
I hope Micromation
36
n
changes its policy and includes a copy of the manual
with the program. I found the manual's writing style
awkward. The documentation doesn't include a summary
listing of the edit commands. Recognizing that the
user must memorize the various codes for edit opera­
tions,
other word processing packages provide a
summary list or reference card. The manual does con­
tain an extensive list of format and print commands.
While they are grouped by function, they are not
11sted in any obviOUS order. If you try to perform
one of the formatting functions, such as setting
column formats or the method of initializing a page,
be prepared to search the entire six-page listing.
The print command, list is siml1ar to the format
command list.
The list is shorter, however, and
contains only 36 formats that can be scanned more
easily.
Apparently, there are more print commands
that are not described in the documentation. Accord­
ing to the manual, aIt is not in the scope of the
Gutenberg Junior Version to list all 115 commands. To
obtain the full list of commands and user manual you
will have to purchase the Gutenberg Senior Version."
The manual contains 39 pages describing how to use the
program and an addi t ional 60 pages of example print
and format options and their effects. Unfortunatel y,
there is no index.
If you own an Apple ][ Plus, you must make a simple
hardware change which permits the shift key to func­
tion.
The change is not necessary if you own a lIe,
since it has a working shift key. Gutenberg Junior
users are told on the inside package that they must
make the necessary connection to a ][ Plus, but the
manual does not mention that this change must be made.
It took me some time to realize how to get capital
letters on my ][ Plus.
The second hardware requirement is a printer and
interface card supported by the package. You must buy
the package configured for your printer and select
from among a list of interface cards. The Junior can
work with any of the following interfaces: the Apple
PIC, CPS, Dumpling, Epson-Prometheus, Grappler or
Grappler Plus, Microbuffer II Plus, Microengineering,
Pkaso, or Apple Super Serial. If you do not have one
of these cards, you can expect to experience diffi­
culty printing out your text, even in the unformatted
DUMP mode.
Each time the program boots, you must identify your
interface card and slot. The request is a serial pass
through the list of nine supported cards. While the
A
process is not time consuming, it is annoying.
preferable system, as used by the Senior version,
would store this information on the disk and allow the
user to modify it.
To get hard copy, while editing, you must issue a
Control-P command to leave the editor and run a
printing program. After printing, you must re-select
the fl1e and re-enter the editor. A more convenient
approach would allow you to get a rough draft without
leaving the editor.
Gutenberg uses its own disk operating system. Whl1 e a
disk can be copied with the standard Apple DOS 3.3
COPYA program, Gutenberg files cannot be read from DOS
3.3.
contd.
Augus t 1984
Washington Apple Pi
The Gutenberg Junior word processor possesses power
for formatting graphical text. The manual contains
most of the information a user needs, but is a bit
difficult to follow. Regardless of its shortcomings,
I must agree with P.K. Wong there is no other word
processing package that provides the Gutenberg's
unique capabilities. The potential user may want to
examine the Senior before selecting one.
make, as well as display all pieces attacking or
defending a square. These options would facilitate
learning the game, but their lack in no way diminishes
Sargon III. If you are familiar with the rules, you
will find a good challenge in Sargon III.
Hayden
Software, 600 Suffolk st., lowell, MA., 01853. Price:
$49.95
Micromation limited, 1 Yorkdale Road,
Toronto, Ontario M6A 3Al. Price: $85
MICRO TSP (David lilien). This package provides
regression based tools for modeling and forecasting
time series. The tools are four varieties of multiple
linear regression (one dependent variable): ordinary
least squares (OlSQ), first-order
autoregressive
correction of OlSQ (the Cochrane-Drcut method), and
two-stage least squares with and without the auto­
regressive correction. Each of these four regression
techniques is executed by a command which produces a
table of the coefficients with their standard errors
and t-statistics and some summary statistics such as
the adjusted R-squared, standard error of the
regression and the Durbin-Watson statistic. Micro-TSP
remembers
the coefficients from the most recent
regression and uses them in the command which automat­
ically generates forecasts over a user specified
period. The only other statistical command provides
summary statistics, including a covariance matrix, for
a group of series.
Suite 406,
SARGON III (Dan &Kathe Spracklen). This is the third
version of a popular and successful chess playing
program.
The first verSion, prepared for the Z-80
microprocessor, established itself in competition as a
powerful player.
The Spracklen's second effort,
Sargon II, was written in 6502 machine code and was
interfaced with the Apple, using excellent graphics to
display the board and pieces. It also appeared in a
stand-alone chess-playing machine using a 6502B chip
and running at 2Mhz., twice the speed of the Apple.
Sargon III is the most advanced of their efforts and
is a truly formidable opponent.
Sargon III can suggest moves, and save games in mid­
play for later completion. The package comes with 107
classic games for examination. These can be stepped
through for study using a handy replay feature. Sar­
gon III will display the moves it is considering;
however, the display is changing so rapidly that only
the first couple of moves it is considering can be
seen.
The screen will flip between one of two dis­
You can view either the most recent moves of
plays.
the game shown in text format or, by hitting the
Escape key, you can see the board in high resolution.
The program has the ability to give you a text print­
out of the current position on the board or of the
listing of game moves.
To enter a move, you use algebraic chess notation.
The rows of the board are numbered from 1 to 8,
starting at the bottom of the screen (usually White's
side). The columns are lettered from left to right as
A to H. Thus, an opening move advancing the Queen's
pawn two squares is entered as 02-04.
Rated chess players tell me that it is quite a chal­
lenge.
You can select any of nine levels of play.
These are time limited from five seconds per move
(level 0) to ten minutes per move (level 8). There is
an infinite time limit (level 9) if you want Sargon
III to keep looking for the best move. This might be
useful for those who play chess by mail. I tried it
using a Saturn accelerator card and running it at
level 8. I was no competition whatsoever. Both Chess
7.0 and Sargon III think while you think, a feature
which dramatically improves playing ·ski1l·. Whenever
you select a move the evaluation algorithm expected,
the program is one step ahead of you!!
Since computers have good memories, you might suppose
that a chess-playing program could "recall" a few good
opening sequences. Sargon has an incredible "opening
book" of 68,000 positions. If you remain "in the
book", Sargon III will move automatically without
having to reevaluate the position.
Several time series can be plotted simultaneously
versus time by typing the command PLOT followed by a
list of series names. PLDT{N) produces normalized
plots of time series (subtract mean and divide by
standard deviation of the series). A plot of the
residuals from the most recent regression can be
obtained by simply typing PlOT{R). Scatterplots of
one series versus another can be obtained from the
GRAPH command. PLOT and GRAPH produce high resolution
graphics on the Apple but require a color/graphics
monitor adaptor for the IBM PC.
Micro-TSP is easy to use and well suited for handling
time series of up to several hundred observations
each. We have several minor criticisms which could be
corrected in future versions. The requirement that
the user describe the time dimension of data in a file
before the file can be loaded is unforgivable, espe­
cially since there is no way to obtain the information
from within the package, although it is stored at the
beginning of the file itself. Next, although the
workfile feature provides a quick way to save all time
series currently in RAM under one file name (a handy
method for interrupting your work), Micro-TSP has two
sets of file handling commands: one for the time
series in the workfile and one for the series on
disks.
Why not have just one set of commands with a
consistent, single letter parameter to reference the
disk?
The manual provides a good introduction on how to use
two of the four regression types in three chapters
featuring several case studies of actual problems and
real data. The other two types are described briefly
but not illustrated. The print and binding are not of
the quality expected for the price from a major pub­
lisher of statistics textbooks. McGraw-Hill, Prince­
ton Rd. Hightstown, NJ 08520 Phone: (609) 426-5000
Price: $295.
~
The 79 page manual begins with a review of Chess rules
and describes the algebraic notation for entering
moves.
It then summarizes the special features of
Sargon III. The last sections contain short descrip­
tions of the Great Games and Chess problems included
on the disk.
Sargon III is not particularly suited for teaching
By comparison, Chess 7.0 allows the novice
chess.
learner to see all the possible moves a piece might
Washington Apple Pi
August 1984
37
A
pE.RmUTATlon GE.11E.Rf"-1TOR
B i l l UJu rze.l First of all, it's not easy to write programs here in
the Philippines. Oh, the physical environment is fine
- plenty of reliable IIOv/60Hz power and fine air con­
ditioning. The problem is the many interesting places
to see and things to do that compete with the Apple
keyboard for your time. This really is a beautiful
and fascinating part of the world •••
Anyway, I was trying to figure out some anagrams the
other day (you know, words with the letters all scram­
bled up) and decided it would be more fun to write a
program to generate the solution. All you have to do
is rearrange the letters in every possible configura­
tion and the answer has to be in there somewhere.
stated more formally, then, what I wanted to do is
generate the set of all permutations of n objects,
where, in this case, the n objects are letters of the
alphabet. There is at least one straightforward way
to do this. Consider a function PERMUTE(). If n=I,
then
PERMUTE (A) " (A)
If n=2, then
PERMUTE (A B) " « B A) (A B»
If n=3, then
2. The LOOP construct. If a function body is enclosed
within a LOOP construct, it is repeatedly evaluated
until some predicate evaluates to non-NIL.
The
LOOP construct then returns the value of the
function body which follows the non-NIL predicate.
3. Implicit local variables. If there are more argu­
ments in a function's formal argument list than
there are arguments in the call to the function,
these extra arguments are bound to NIL and may be
used as local variables.
Features 2 and 3, taken together, eliminate the need
for the unaesthetic PROG construct, and it is not sup­
ported in muLISP.
NOW, back to the problem. We will represent an indi­
vidual permutation of n objects as a list of those
objects.
We wish to develop a function PERM which
will accept a list of objects and return the list of
all possible permutations of these objects. If the
number of objects of the list input to PERM is one, it
should return the list of that one object. Otherwise,
it should return the list formed by "marching" the CAR
of the input list through each permutation of the CDR
of the input list. From this definition, we see that
we need some way of generating a list by applying a
function to each element of another list. This func­
tion should do it:
PERMUTE (A B C) " «C B A) (B C A) (B A C)
(C A B) (A C B) (A B C)
Notice that in the last case above, the set is formed
by taking the third element (C) and "marching it
through" each permutation of the n=2 case: take the
first n=2 permutation (B A) and generate the first
line of n=3 by placing the C in the first position ­
(C B A), then in the second position - (B C A), then
in the third position - (B A C). Do the same thing
for the second n=2 permutation and you've generated
the n"3 set. To generate the n=4 set, take the fourth
element (D) and "march it through" each of the n=3
permutations like this:
PERMUTE (A BCD) "
«0 C B A) (C
(0 B C A) (B
(0 B A C) (B
(0 C A B) (C
(0 A C B) (A
(0 A B C) (A
0
0
0
0
0
0
B A)
C A)
A C)
A B)
C B)
B C)
(C
(B
(B
(C
(A
(A
BOA)
C 0 A)
A 0 C)
A 0 B)
COB)
B 0 C)
(C
(B
(B
(C
(A
(A
B A D)
C A D)
A C D)
A B D)
C B D)
BCD»
We also see that, although somewhat trivial, the
case can be generated in the same fashion from
single n=I permutation.
n=2
the
Considering the recursive nature of the algorithm and
the need for dynamiC data structures, the programming
language LISP is probably a good choice. I use the
Microsoft CP/M version, muLISP, written by Rich and
Stoutememyer.
The principal differences between
muLISP and INTERLISP/MACLISP are:
1. The implied CONDo Consider the body of a muLISP
function to be composed of a list of tasks. Then
if the CAAR of the task is atomic, then the CAR of
the task is interpreted as a predicate, which is
If it evaluates to non-NIL, then the
evaluated.
function body is replaced by the CDR of the task.
Otherwise, the value of the task is NIL.
38
III LI.5P (DEFUN MAPLC (LAMBDA (LST FUN OBJ)
«NULL LSTlNIL)
(APPEND (FUN OBJ (CAR LST» (MAPLC (CDR LST)
FUN OBJ))))
Now we can write the function PERM from the
tion:
defini­
(DEFUN PERM (LAMBDA (LI)
«EQ (LENGTH LI) 1) (LIST LI»
(MAPLC (PERM (CDR Ll» DIST (CAR Ll»»
All we need to do now is define the function DIST
which takes some object OBJ and "marches it through"
some list LI. For example,
(DIST 0 (A B C) ==
«0 A B C) (A 0 B C) (A B 0 C) (A BCD»
One easy way to do this is CONS up a list of lists,
each formed by sandwiching OBJ between two other
lists, L2 and Ll. Originally L2 is empty and LI is
the original list. Then we pop off the CAR of Ll,
APPEND it to L2 and sandwich again. This is repeated
until there is nothing left in LI:
(DEFUN DIST (LAMBDA (OBJ Ll L2 L3)
(LOOP
(SETQ L3 (CONS (APPEND
(APPEND (REVERSE L2) (LIST
OBJ» Ll) L3» «NULL Ll) L3)
(PUSH (POP Ll) L2»» Now all we need is a routine to print out the list of
permutations.
For ease of scanning, we'll print one
permutation per line and pause after each 20, waiting
for a carriage return to continue:
Augus t 1984 contd. on pg 39
Washington Apple Pi
UPDf~TE.
Of AUTO ­
f OR TI-iE. mARI<' 1 2
Ge:.orge:. 1<' ina l
Well, old man Murphy must be maintaining his alliance
with the ABBS, because shortly after my piece on how
to set up an auto-dial macro in AE-Pro for the Mark 12
modem was printed (WAP May 1984), the WAP ABBS was
revised, and the published macro ceased to work.
Here is a revised group of macros. Refer to the May
article for explanation of the various symbols, etc.
This new set beeps each time it redials, but is other­
wise pretty much the same.
MACRO It: *\EH G**AT DT 9868085'-YC2\Ll MACRO '2:
-TRl* G G G* G G G G**'*****WP9999.PSWD'\L3
DIALinG MACRO '3:
*\EF
I had to use three linked macros, rather than only
two, because the combined macro ('2 and '3 together in
one string) gave incorrect results for some reason.
As before, to begin auto-repeat dialing just enter
Ctrl-W 1 from the terminal mode.
The sign-on sequence starting with '*****WP9999.PSWD
etc. can easily be modifed for Sign-on to any bulletin
board or system. The third Macro simply restores the
machine to full-duplex operation (half duplex is
temporarily set by the \EH command in order that the
Ctrl-Gs ( G) create beeps from the Apple speaker).
<t
Feeding at the Trough contd. from pg 34
tines, I discovered a small bug in the Apple Pascal
To help me to determine that it really
assembler.
wasn't my fault, I wrote this assembly language rou­
tine for printing the contents of the 6502 registers.
Each time REG.DUMP is called, it prints a line with
the values of the A, X, Y, and P (status) registers in
that order.
Note that the register state is pre­
served. This routine directly accesses your printer
interface card registers, but it will work with all
parallel cards recognized by the Pascal BIOS.
What
I'd really like to see is someone find the table of
device driver addresses so that I could do Unit I/O to
all devices from assembly language. (Any takers?)
COPY.TEXT - Tren Ward
Do you have a one-drive system? Do you not back up as
often as you should in order to avoid getting swap­
per's wrist? Well, this program is for you. COpy is
a stand-alone utility to replace doing a T(ransfer in
the Filer. The advantage is that only four disk swaps
are required instead of twelve. Tren reports that the
total copying time is also cut by a factor of three,
from six minutes to two. The reduced number of swaps
is possible because the Filer is a large program,
while COPY is small and leaves most of memory free for
buffering disk data.
LANDER.TEXT - Rosenthal
This is an all-text versio~ of the early-classic lunar
lander game.
Use paddle 0 to control your vertical
thrust, paddle 1 for your horizontal.
Each game
starts with random altitude and velocities. LANDER is
not much more complicated than the version for my
HP-25 calculator, but the status displays are handled
very nicely.
This would make a good starting point
for a program including graphics, or you can just see
how the text screen is updated. LANDER is from the
San Antonio Appleseed User Group and reached PIG via
an exchange with the Dallas Apple Corps/Fort Worth
Apple User Group. (One of the first and best versions
of lunar lander ran on a PDP-8 w1th a round display
screen and a light pen. If you landed close to the
target spot, you were able to get out and walk to the
McDonald's there for a hamburger. If you landed ON
the golden arches, you were reprimanded ·You 1diot
you just demo11shed the only McDonald's on the Moonl-1
Washington Apple Pi
1~E.Pf_AT
Thanks again to all contr1butors, especially Bart
Thomas, and let's hear from some new peoplel
Surely
the exc1tement of a new PIG disk 1s enough to spur you
to help fill the next one and get it out the doorl If
you have a contribut10n for the library or news for
the column, please contact me at (301) 445-1583. on
the WAP BBS (WAP284). or on CompuServe [73075,1171].
Contr1butions may be mailed to me in care of the club
office.
<t
Permutation Generator contd. from pg 38
(DEFUN PRINP (LAMBDA (LST PERMI LCTR)
(SETQ LCTR 0)
(LOOP
«NULL LST))
( «EQ (REMAINDER LCTR 20) 0)
(READCH)
(SETQ LCTR 0) ) ) (SETQ LCTR (PLUS LCTR 1» (SETQ PERM1 (POP LST» (LOOP «NULL PERM1) (TERPRI»
(PRINI (POP PERM1»»»
Finally,
PERMUTE:
we
pull
it
all together
in
the
function
(DEFUN PERMUTE (LAMBDA NIL (LOOP
(SETQ INLIS (READ»
«NULL INLIS))
(PRINP (REVERSE (PERM (UNPACK INLIS»»»)
That's 1tl
A permutat10n generator for sets of n
objects where n is limited only by RAM size and your
patience!
It took about 42 seconds to generate all
the permutations for a word of six letters. I can't
wait to see how fast it will execute on a Mac!
And you Forth buffs out there! How about coding this
routine in Forth? The easiest way to do recursion in
Forth is to SMUDGE dur1ng compilation of the rec~rsion
word - make the SMUDGE immed1atel
(Ed. Note: Please clean up your act!)
August 1984
39
APPLE. WRITE.R
GLOSSARY
b~ Al
R. Rurnble
PRlnTE.R commAnDS Apple Writer II users can use a shortcut way to imbed
pr1nter commands in text by having a glossary of such
commands. each command beginning and ending with
Control V.
You can take a leaf from Apple Writer
itself when you choose the single ("key") character
(to follow Control G) for each different command.
Choose thh character so that it will be easy to
associate with a particular printer command. Table 1
shows my own choice of "key" characters and the cor­
responding comands. Since 10.12. and 17 (charactersl
in.) are two digits. they were shortened by dropping
the 1. Likewise the .S in 8.S. If your pr1nter does
not accept commands the same as those shown in Table
1. or if you prefer a different choice of key charac­
ters. then compile your own index of key characters in
the format of Table 1. Once you have done th1s you
are ready to create the glossary.
The glossary itself is created by following the
instructions in the Apple Writer manual. After you
type the first "key· letter. you type an initial
Ctrl-V. then the command. and end with another Ctrl-V.
What you put between the initial and final Ctrl-V will
depend on your printer and interface card.
I have
Prowriter and a Pkaso NE12 card. My first three
entries. in creating the glossary. would look like
thiS. except that no spaces would be put in. I put
them in here for readability.
A Ctrl V Ctrl I M$ Ctrl V B Ctrl V Ctrl I MI Ctrl V b Ctrl V Ctrl 134M Ctrl V In compOSing the LISTING. which will print out Table
2. I hoped to make it more universal by using Pro­
writer CHR$() commands rather than my Pkaso printer
commands.
I ran into one difficulty.
The printer
command CHR$(9) for "move to next tab stop" is inter­
cepted normally by Pkaso as its lead-in character.
This was disabled as indicated in the note below the
listing.
LISTING
10
12
IS
20
30
40
SO
60
70
80
90
100
After typing the whole glossary as above. you save it
in the usual manner. using the name "prtr cmds glos­
sary" or whatever you like. Whenever you may want to
use it. you load it using Ctrl-QS. A reference copy
of Table 1 (or your own glossary index) printed on a 8
1/2 inch sheet is handy for your notebook.
In the
table. Det. (default) is what you get when printer
power is turned on.
Another handy reference page. if you have a printer
which has alternate character sets (additional to the
standard ASCII set). is a table of Printer Alternate
Character Sets. My Prowriter (and I believe the NEC
PC-8023A and Apple DMP) has these. These characters
are shown in Table 2. Suppose you desire to print a
Greek pi.
You first set the printer to the Greek
character set as indicated in the NOTES below the
table.
Then a look at the table shQws you that you
must press the slash key to print ~i. If you do not
wish to print any other characters from the Greek
character set. you get back into the ASCII character
set as indicated in the NOTES. Bert Morris presented.
in the January 1984 Apple Pi. the data of Table 2 in a
different form. The LISTING is for a program which.
when RUN. will print Table 2. which is in columns.
which I find easier to use. Or you can xerox Table 2.
As Bert pointed out. there is no SPACE in either of
these two alternate character sets. so if you need to
make a space you have to shift back into ASCII to make
one (or more).
If there are more characters you'd like to use than
are available in your printer there are ways to make
them available.
Pkaso interface cards come with a
demo disk containing what they call Superfont charac­
ters and a program for incorporating them into an
Apple Writer II glossary. or you can expand your
printer commands glossary to include them. calling it.
40
say. a master glossary. The superfont glossary has
subscripts and more math symbols. There are means to
make up your own characters. say a personal logo.
I
personally am not familiar with other interface cards
but would expect that some have similar capabilities.
110
120
130
140
ISO
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
2S0
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
322
324
326
328
330
332
334
336
338
340
3S0
360
370
380
PRI 1
PRINT
POKE 114S.2SS
C$ = CHR$ (48):E$" CHR$ (27):T$" CHR$ (9):
U$" CHR$ (88) :V$" CHR$ (89)
PRINT E$; CHR$ (78);E$; CHR$ (76)"009";
PRINT "TABLE 2.": PRINT
PRINT E$; CHR$ (69); CHR$ (14);
PRINT E$; CHR$ (76)"013";
PRINT "PROWRITER"
PRINT E$; CHR$ (76)"00S";
PRINT "ALTERNATE CHARACTER SETS": PRINT
CHR$ (IS);: PRINT E$; CHR$ (76)"000";
PRINT E$;C$;: PRINT
E$;"(009.01S.025.036.042,OS2."
FOR I " 1 TO 2
PRINT H;E$;U$;: PRINT "TO
PRINT";:
PRINT E$;V$;
PRINT T$;E$;U$;: PRINT" TYPE";: PRINT E$;V$; NEXT I PRINT: PRINT FOR J " 1 TO 2 PRINT T$;: PRINT "GREEK"; PRINT T$;: PRINT" GRAPHICS"; PRINT T$;: PRINT "(ASCII)";
NEXT J PRINT E$; CHR$ (78)
PRINT E$;C$;E$;"(010,016.023,033.039,046.";
FOR 0 = 32 TO 61:E = 0 + 30
FOR K " 1 TO 2 PRINT T$:E$: CHR$ (38);: ON K GOSUB 370,380 PRINT T$:E$: CHR$ (3S):: ON K GOSUB 370,380 PRINT H:E$; CHR$ (36);: ON K GOSUB 370,390
NEXT K NEXT 0 PRINT: PRINT E$;C$ PRINT E$; CHR$ (76)"007";
PRINT "NOTES: TO USE THE ABOVE TABLE, FIRST SET" PRINT "PRINTER TO DESIRED CHAR SET. GREEK OR" PRINT "GRAPHICS, WITH CMD PRINT CHR$ (27) ; CHR$ ( 3B) "
PRINT "OR CHR$(27) ;CHR$(35); .IF IN APPLEWRITER"
PRINT "II AND PRTR CMOS GLOSSARY IS LOADED, TYPE"
PRINT "CTRL GG OR CTRL G";: PRINT CHR$ (l031;:
PRINT" RESPECTIVELY. THE"
PRINT "FIRST ENTRY IN ASCII COLUMN IS A"
PRINT "SPACE, I.E. PRESS SPACE BAR. THE LAST"
PRINT "13 CHARS IN GREEK CHAR SET ARE"
PRINT "SUPERSCRIPTS. TO RETURN TO ASCII SET USE"
PRINT "CHR$(27);CHR$(36) OR (GLOSSARY) CTRL GA ."
PRINT E$; CHR$ (76)"000";
END
PRINT CHR$ (D);: RETURN
PRINT CHR$ (E);: RETURN
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
390 PRINT CHR$ (E): RETURN
400 END
TABLE 2.
NOTE: Pkaso prtr interface card NE12 for PROWRITER
(and similar) uses CHR$(9) as lead-in. It has been
necessary to disable th1s by adding l1nes 12 and 15.
This allows CHR$(9) to pass to the printer as tab
command. For PKASO/U and other cards, consult manual.
Or try deleting lines 12 and 15.
PROWRITER
ALTERNATE CHARACTER
.:..;TO~_ _..I. P.!l.RIu;NT!J. ~
T
""o"-__..P""'
. . RI""NT
....
GREEK
GREEK GRAPHICS (ASCII)
Table 1.
"
E
~
Prtr Cmd (Def: when prtr powered up)
A
B
b
D
d
F
f
G
9
I
L
ASCII Char Set. Def.
Bold Print. (or enhanced)
End bold print. Def.
Bidirectional printing. Def.
Unid1rectional printing
Forward line feed d1rection. Def.
Reverse line feed direction.
Greek Char Set.
Graphics Char Set.
Incremental Print Mode.
Logic-Seek Print Mode. Def.
Line Feed (in incremental)
Tab to next stop.
Clear all tab stops. Def.
Begin Underlining.
End underlining. Def.
6 Lines/in (vertically). Def.
8 Lines/in (vertically)
5 Chars/1n (horizontally).
6 Chars/in (horiz).
8.5 Chars/in (horiz)
10 Chars/in (horiz). Def.
12 Chars/in (horiz).
17 Chars/in (horiz).
T
t
U
u
Y
v
5
6
8
o
2
7
::::
'Il
e
\.
K
)...
II
v
ti
o
l(
p
,.
t
It
•
X
•
•
••
(
)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
v
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x
.
II)
r
.,
1:
1\
J
tt
"\
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B
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.
*
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••
+
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t­
ot
±
&.
I
I
I
I
I
~
o
.,
"••
•
~
E
F
G
H
I
J
o
•
"o
/
N
"
Q
4
s
6
7
<
*
~
~
~
~
I
I
I:
K
L
H
2
L
=
)
?
OJ
A
B
C
D
X
o
P
R
S
T
U
V
8
,
W
C
Y
Z
+
x
[
NOTESI TO USE THE ABOVE TABLE, FIRST SET
PRINTER TO DESIRED CHAR SET, GREEK OR
GRAPHICS, WITH CHD PRINT CHR$(27)ICHR$(38)
OR CHR'(27)ICHRS(35); .IF IN APPLEWRITER
II AND PRTR CMDS GLOSSARY IS LOADED, TYPE
CTRL GG OR CTRL G9 RESPECTIVELY. THE
FIRST ENTRY IN ASCII COLUMN IS A
SPACE, I.E. PRESS SPACE BAR. THE LAST
13 CHARS IN GREEK CHAR SET ARE
SUPERSCRIPTS. TO RETURN TO ASCII SET USE
CHR'(27)ICHR'(36) OR (GLOSSARY) CTRL GA •
40% Tax Bn1cket / 14% Interest.
a 15
r' SOFTflAR£ FROII
f.·:::
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y
PRINTER COMMANDS GLOSSARY INDEX. 1
GRAPHICS (ASCII)
ex
II
Key
SETS
~
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.. ..
Washington Apple Pi
....
August 1984
41
r~PPLE.
TRACI<5
Richard
l_an9stc)n
This month, I am presenting a program that is intended
to make DOS 3.3 easier to use, by allowing users to
customize it to meet their needs and desires.
It
allows users to choose several useful (and some use­
less) modifications to DOS 3.3.
USING DOS DOCTOR
Using DOS DOCTOR is very simple. The first time it is
run, it should be run using the D$aCHR$(4): GOTO 20
command. Then, use option five and enter the location
of the disk drives in the system.
Select each of the options desired from the menu and
then use option four and respond yes to the question
prompt.
If it is run on a one drive system, DOS Doc­
tor will prompt the user to remove the DOS Doctor disk
and insert the blank one. All the changes made using
Dos Doctor are saved when a disk is initialized.
Increase Disk Space
This option increases the space on a disk by eleven
sectors.
It does this by moving the directory track
from track $11 (I7) to track 2, fill ing the eleven
sectors on track 2 which had been marked as used but
were actually blank. The only drawback of this is
that it reduces the number of files in the directory
to a maximum of 77. It al so does not work well with
Divers i-DOS.
Increase Disk Speed
This option increases the speed of all disk I/O (in­
put! output) by about one half. It works by chang ing
the order in which sectors are stored on a diskette.
Normally, DOS 3.3 offsets the sectors on a disk by a
factor of three. This is done in order to decrease
the time it takes for DOS to read and write data.
However, the sectors are not quite far enough apart.
As a result, DOS reads the data from the first
requested sector, copies it into memory, moves it to
the required place, and then goes back to read the
next sector. By the time it does, however, the needed
sector has passed under the head and must go all the
way around again.
USing DOS Doctor, the sector offset is increased to
11.
This allows DOS to perform all necessary work
before the next sector is reached. The only fault of
this offset lies in saving previously existing files.
DOS must first read, and then write, data to the same
sector. This process slows down I/O considerably. To
avoid this problem, DOS Doctor Checks for write opera­
tions, and then skips the unneeded read if one is
found.
the PRI command. This option stops DOS from erasing
the first byte of the RAMcard, which is used as a
marker to determine if Integer Basic is on the card.
The next two options, BRUN and EXEC Hello file, add
the option of BRUNing or EXECing the Hello file of a
disk.
To use this option, just select it and then
copy the machine language program or DOS text file
from another disk.
Status
This selection will show the user the status of sev­
eral of the program opt ions. After displaying the
status information, the program will prompt:
"Initilize disk 7"
This is the way changes in the operating system made
by Dos Doctor are saved. Responding yes to this will
cause Dos Doctor to ask for a file name, and then it
will prompt the user to swap dfsks, if necessary.
Change System Set-up
This option will allow the user to enter the location
in the sys tern and the number of disk dr hes in the
Just enter the information, and it will be
system.
saved to disk as a text file.
Change Catalog Format
This section allows the "D1sk Volume" message to be
changed to any text desired, and it also allows the
user to change the characters used to show file type
in the Catalog. The disk volume message can include
linefeeds, bells, and carriage returns, and should be
entered as shown 1n the program. For instance, enter­
ing a "@" will cause a carriage return to be displayed
in the Disk Volume message.
This program has seen countless revisions, and it was
originally written in two modules.
These facts
account for the disorganization and odd techniques
used in this program.
For $3.00, a diskette, and return postage, I would be
happy to copy this program for you, thus eliminating
the need for you to type it all in.
Please send
requests to: 602 Paradise Ct, Gaithersburg, MD 20877.
10 NORMAL: GOSUB 800
20 _________________________________________
TEXT: HOME: VTAB 1: PRINT
u:
VTAB
6: PRI NT
u ________________________________________
u:
Additional Functions
Thfs 'section contains a mixed bag of options.
ESC/
CATALOG causes DOS to check for an ESC character after
displaying a page of the catalog. If ESC has been
pressed, DOS exits to Applesoft. If it has not been
pressed, DOS waits for a keypress and displays the
next page of the catalog. Remove catalog pauses will
do just that - display all of the files in the catalog
without wafting for a keypress.
30
40
50
60
The avoid-reload-of-RAHcard routine cures one of DOS
3.3 greatest pains, that of having to reload Integer
Basic onto the RAHcard every time DOS is rebooted with
100
150
160
42
I I
70
80
90
VTAB 2: PRINT TAB( 13)" DOS DOCTOR ": VTAB 3:
PRI NT TAB( 19)" BY": VTAB 4: PRI NT TAB
( 12)"RICHARD LANGSTON"
POKE 34,7
VTAB 8: PRINT TAB( 16)"MAIN MENU"
VTAB 10: PRINT"
1. INCREASE DISK SPACE"
VTAB 12: PRINT·
2. INCREASE DISK READ/WRITE
SPEED
VTAB 14: PRI NT "
3. ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS
VTAB 16: PRINT"
4. STATUS/FORHAT DISK
VTAB 18: PRI NT "
5. CHANGE SY STEM
CONF IGURATION
VTAB 20: PRINT"
6. CHANGE CATALOG FORHAT"
VTAB 23: INPUT "ENTER YOUR CHOICE--> ";A$
A a INT ( VAL (AS»
contd.
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
APPLE MACINTOStF $2,450 10 DAY BACKLOG ON MAC
'.'
COMPUTER HARDWARE
• MODEMS
H. Micromodem lie, II +
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Hayes S/M - 300
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• PRINTERS
Panasonic 1091
Epson FX 80 (160 cps)
Epson RX80
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Okldata 92P
Epson FX100 (160 cps)
• ACCESSORIES
System Saver
A~Pllcard + Wordstar
1 K RAM Card (M/soft)
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80 col. crd. Nlde)()
Micro-Buffer II - 16 K
Compo paper (9V2 x 11)
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• PRINTERS (Ltr. Qual.)
Gemini protype
Sliver Reed - Exp 550
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Monitor - Grn 12"
Monitor - Amber 12"
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RESTON, VA 22091
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495-5960
860-1702
Washington Apple Pi
August 1984
43
170
180
200
202
210
220
230
240
250
300
400
500
510
520
530
IF A < 1 OR A > 6 THEN 150
ON A GOTO 200.300.400.500.600.700
HOME
PRINT: PRINT" THIS ROUTINE WILL ADD 15 SECTORS
TO ANAPPLE DISK BV MOVING THE CATALOG FROM TRACK
17 TO THE SPACE ON TRACK 2 THAT IS MARKED USED
BUT IS. IN FACT. EMPTY.": PRINT
INPUT "SURE VOU WANT TO INSTALL THIS ROUTINE?"jA$
IF LEFT$ (A$.I) < > "y" AND LEFT$ (A$.I) < >
"V" THEN 250
POKE X + I.C
GOTO 20
POKE X + 1. ASC ("N"): GOTO 20
GOSUB 2000: GOTO 20
GOSUB 5000: GOTO 20
HOME
PRINT "BOOT SLOT--> "jBSj: PRINT TAB( 20)"BOOT
DRIVE--> ";BD
PRINT "OBJECT SLOT--> "jOSj: PRINT TAB
( 20)"OBJECT DRIVE--> "jOO
PRINT: PRINT "FREE SECTORS--> "j CHR$ ( PEEK
(X + 1))
535
540
545
548
550
555
557
570
580
585
587
590
599
600
605
610
620
630
635
640
650
660
665
670
675
680
700
710
720
730
740
750
760
765
770
775
780
782
784
786
790
795
44
PRINT "FAST DOS--> "j CHR$ ( PEEK (X»
PRINT "ESC/CATALOG--> "j CHR$ ( PEEK (X + 2»
PRINT "REMOVE CATALOG PAUSES--> "j CHR$ ( PEEK
(X + 3»
PRINT "AVOID RE-LOAD--> "j CHR$ ( PEEK (8196»
PRINT "BRUN 'HELLO' FILE--> "; CHR$ ( PEEK
(X + 5»
PRINT "EXEC 'HELLO' FILE--> "j CHR$ ( PEEK
(X + 6»
PRINT "'DISK VOLUME' MESSAGE--> "jDV$
VTAB 23: INPUT "INITILIZE DISK ?"jA$
IF LEFT$ (A$.l) < > "V" AND LEFT$ (M.l) < >
"y" THEN 20
INPUT" 'HELLO' FILE NAME ?"jA$
IF BD = 00 AND 8S = OS THEN INPUT "INSERT DISK,
PRESS 'RETURN'"jXZ$
GOTO 3000
END
HOME
INPUT"
SOOT SLOT--> "j BS
INPUT"
BOOT DRIVE--> "jBD
INPUT"
OBJECT SLOT--> "jOS
INPUT"
OBJECT DRIVE--> "jOD
IF BS < 2 OR OS < 2 OR BD < 1 OR 00 < 1 OR BD > 2
OR 00 > 2 OR BS > 7 OR OS > 7 THEN 600
INPUT"
ANV CHANGES ?"jA$
IF LEFT$ (A$,I) = .y" OR LEFT$ (A$,I)
"V"
THEN 600
PRINT D$j"OPEN SETUP.DISK"
PRINT D$j"WRITE SETUP.DISK"
PRINT BS: PRINT BD: PRINT OS: PRINT 00
PRINT D$j"CLOSE SETUP.DISK"
GOTO 20
DV" 46011
HOME
PRINT: PRINT: INVERSE: PRINT" • "j: NORMAL:
PRINT "" LINE FEED"
PRINT: INVERSE: PRINT" @ "j: NORMAL
PRINT"=
RETURN"
PRINT: INVERSE: PRINT" ] "j: NORMAL
PRINT"=
BELL"
VTAB 17: PRINT TAB( 21)"------------"
VTAB 17: INPUT "DISK VOLUME MESSAGE ?"jDV$
IF DV$ = "" THEN DV$ = "DISK VOLUME"
I~ LEN (DV$) < 11 THEN DV$ = DV$ + " ": GOTO 770
FOR DO = 1 TO 11
DC" ASC ( MID$ (DV$,DO,I»
IF DC" ASC (".~) THEN DC = 10
IF DC" ASC ("@") THEN DC = 13
IF DC" ASC ("]") THEN DC = 7
POKE DV - DO,DC + 128
NEXT: GOTO 6000
800
805
810
815
820
821
822
823
825
830
835
840
845
850
899
1000
1010
1020
1030
1035
1040
1045
1070
1080
1090
1100
1110
1120
1130
1140
1150
1160
1170
1180
1200
2000
2020
2025
2030
2040
2050
2060
2070
2080
2090
2100
2110
2120
2500
2510
2520
2530
2540
3000
3006
3007
3008
3010
August 1984
X = 8192:C c ASC ("Y")
DV$" "DISK VOLUME"
0$" CHR$ (4)
REM POKE IN RWTS ROUTINE
POKE 16384,169: POKE 16385,64: POKE 16386,160:
POKE 16387,15: POKE 16388,32: POKE 16389,217:
POKE 16390,3: POKE 16391,169: POKE 16392,0:
POKE 16393,141: POKE 16394,72:
POKE 16395.0: POKE 16396,96: POKE 16397,0:
POKE 16398.0: POKE 16399.1: POKE 16400,96:
POKE 16401.1: POKE 16402,0: POKE 16403,17:
POKE 16404,0: POKE 16405,33:
POKE 16406,64: POKE 16407,0: POKE 16408.65:
POKE 16409.0: POKE 16410,0: POKE 16411.1:
POKE 16412,0: POKE 16413,254: POKE 16414,96:
POKE 16415,1: POKE 16416,0:
POKE 16417,1: POKE 16418,239: POKE 16419,216:
POKE 16420,255:
PRINT D$j"OPEN SETUP.DISK"
PRINT D$j"READ SETUP.DISK"
INPUT BS,BD,OS,OD
PRINT D$j"CLOSE SETUP. DRIVE"
IF PEEK (X + 10) = 254 THEN 899
FOR I = X TO X + 9: POKE.I, ASC ("N"): NEXT
RETURN
REM **DOS CATALOG TRACK MOVER
REM **BV RICHARD LA~GSTON
REM ** 2/12/82
POKE 16400.0S * 16
POKE 16401,00
POKE 16414,BS * 16
POKE 16415,BD
CALL 16384
POKE 16641,2
POKE 16764,255: POKE 16765,254
POKE 16411.2: CALL 16384
FOR I " 15 TO 6 STEP - 1
POKE 16411,1
POKE 16403,17
POKE 16404,1
CALL 16384
POKE 16641.2
POKE 16411.2: POKE 16403.2
CALL 16384: NEXT
RETURN
HOME : PRINT : PRINT" THIS ROUTINE INCREASES
THE SPEED DOS READS AND WRITES DATA BV CHANGINS
THE ORDER THE SECTORS ARE STORED ON THE DISK"
INPUT "SURE VOU WANT TO SPEED-UP?"jA$: IF LEFT$
(A$.I) < > "V" AND LEFT$ (A$,I) < > aye
THEN 2070
POKE 8192, ASC (UV"): SOTO 20
FOR I " 0 TO 7: READ A: POKE 48929 + I,A: NEXT
FOR I = 0 TO 14: READ A: POKE 48351 + I.A: NEXT
FOR I " 0 TO 17: READ A: POKE 48366 + I,A: NEXT
RETURN
POKE X. ASC ("N"): RETURN
DATA 32,105.186
DATA 173,95.170,201,48,240,7.201,4,240,3,32,220,
175.96
DATA 164,63,185,240.188,76,223.188
DATA 133,63,240,3,76,21,191.76,41,191,160,148.
136,150,145
DATA 145,200,1,2,5,4,7,6,9,8,11,10,13,12,0,
14.15.3
POKE 44601,32: REM POKE JMP
POKE 44602,133
POKE 44603,186
POKE 47749,32: POKE 47750,27: POKE 47751,253:
POKE 47752,201: POKE 47753,155: POKE 47754,240:
POKE 47755,1: POKE 47756,96: POKE 47757,76:
POKE 47758,44: POKE 47759,174:
POKE 47760.130: RETURN
IF PEEK (X + 2) " C THEN SOSUB 2500
IF PEEK (8192) = C THEN SOSUB 2030
IF A$ " ." THEN 10 HOME: VTAB 14: HTAB 14: INVERSE: PRINT "INITIALIZINS" PRINT D$j"INIT "A$".S"OS",O·OD",V"V contd.
Wash1ngton Apple P1
3020 IF PEEK (X + 1) c C THEN GOSUB 1000
3030 PRINT OS;"DELETE ftAS
3035 IF BS " OS AND BD 00 THEN INPUT" INSERT DOS
DOCTOR DISK, PRESS 'RETURN'";ZS
3040 PRINT DS;"RUN DOS DOCTOR,DftBD
3050 NORMAL: GOTO 20
5000 POKE 8192 + 10,254
5010 HOME
5020 INPUT "ESC/CATALOG OPTION ?",AS
5030 IF LEFT$ (AS,!) " "Y" OR LEFTS (AS,l) " "y"
THEN 5290
5040 POKE 8194, ASC ("N")
5050 INPUT"
REMOVE CATALOG PAUSES ?a,AS
5060 IF LEFTS (AS,l) < > .y a AHD LEFTS (AS,l) < >
"ya THEN 5100
5070 POKE 44596,96
5080 POKE 8195, ASC (·Y")
5090 GOTO 5110
5100 POKE 44596,96: POKE 8195, ASC ("H a )
5110 INPUT·
AVOID RE-LOAD OF RAM CARD ?";AS
5120 IF LEFTS (AS,l) < > "y· AHD LEFTS (AS,l) < >
"y" THEH 5160
5130 FOR I " 49107 TO 49109
5140 POKE 1,234: NEXT
5150 POKE 8196, ASC ("Y"): GOTO 5170
5160 POKE 49107,141: POKE 49108,0: POKE 49109,224:
POKE 8196, ASC ("N")
5170 INPUT·
BRUN 'HELLO' PROGRAM ?",AS
5180 IF LEFTS (AS,I) < > "y· AND LEFTS (AS,l) < >
By. THEH 5210
5190 POKE 8197, ASC (·Y")
5200 POKE 40514,52: GOTO 5280
5210 POKE 40514,6: POKE 8197, ASC ("N")
5220 INPUT"
EXEC 'HELLO' FILE ?",AS
5230 IF LEFTS (AS,l) " "Y" OR LEFTS (AS 1) a = "y"
THEN POKE 40514,20: POKE 8198, ASC ("y ):
GOTO 5280
5240 POKE 40514,6: POKE 8198, ASC ("N a )
5260 GOTO 5280
5270 POKE 42569,127: POKE 8199, ASC ("N")
5280 RETURN 5290 POKE 8194, ASC (·Y")
5300 GOTO 5110 6000 HOME : PRINT : INPUT "CHANGE FILE TYPE
CHARACTERS ?",CFS
6005 PRINT
6010 IF LEFTS (CFS,l) < > ay" AND LEFTS (CFS,!)
< > .y. THEN 20
6020 HOME: PRINT: PRINT "I. TEXT
6030 PRINT "2. INTEGER
6040 PRINT a3. APPLESOFT
6045 PRIHT "4. BINARY
6050 PRINT "5. 'S' TYPE
6060 PRINT "6. 'R' TYPE
6065 PRINT "7. , A' TYPE
6070 PRINT "8. 'B' TYPE
6075 IHPUT "TYPE TO CHANGE ?";TCS
6080 TC" VAL (TCS): IF TCS .. ". THEN 6100
6090 ON
TC
GOSUB
7000,7100,7200,7300,7400,7500,7600,7700
6095 GOTO 6020
6100 HOME: PRINT: INVERSE: PRINT" 0 ",: NORMAL:
PRINT ... OMIT"
6110 PRINT: INPUT ·VOLUME NUMBER ?·,VNS
6120 IF VNS " .a THEN 20
6130 VN" VAL (VNS)
6140 IF VN .. 0 THEN 6200
6150 V" VN
6160 POKE 44480,32: POKE 44481,66: POKE 44482,174
6170 GOTO 20
6200 POKE 44480,234: POKE 44481,234: POKE 44482,234
6210 GOTO 20
7000 GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
7010 POKE 45991,FT
7090 RETURN
0
Washington Apple Pi
7100
7110
7200
7210
7300
7310
7400
7410
7500
7510
7600
7610
7700 7710 7800 7810 7820 7830 7840 8000 8010
8020
8030
8040 8050 8060 8070 8200 8210 8220 8230 GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45992,FT: RETURN
GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45993,FT: RETURN
GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45994,FT: RETURN
GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45995,FT: RETURN
GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45996,FT: RETURN
GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45997,FT: RETURN
GOSUB 7800: GOSUB 8000: GOSUB 8200
POKE 45998,FT: RETURN
VTAB 20: PRINT a TYPE THE CHARACTER TO REPLACE
THE NORMAL ONE USED, DO NOT PRESS 'RETURN'."
VTAB 23: PRINT "--> ",: GET FTS
IF FTS " "
• THEN 7810
FT" ASC (FTS): IF FT .. 0 THEN 7810
RETURN
PRINT: PRINT "<",: INVERSE: PRIHT "I";:
NORMAL : PRINT a>NVERSE"
PRINT: PRIHT "<",: FLASH: PRINT "F",: NORMAL
PRINT "> LASH"
PRINT: PRINT "<N>ORHAL"
PRINT "-->";: GET ZZ$
IF ZZ$ .. "F" THEN FL .. 1: RETURN
IF ZZ$ .. "I" THEN IH " 1: RETURN
IF ZZS .. "N" THEN RETURN
GOTO 8030
IF (IN) THEN FT " FT - 64: GOTO 8230
IF FL THEN GOTO 8230
FT" FT + 128
RETURN
~
.Paragon Technologies, Inc.
August 1984 offers classes in our IBM PC laboratory
and Apple lie laboratory in McLean:
· Getting Started With The Micro
Computer
· VISICALC. LOTUS 1. 2. 3
· d Base II
· WordStar
· Programming in BASIC
· Computer assisted SAT preparation
All classes are hands-on with one person
per computer.
Call
556-9659
or write to us:
P.O. Box 6128
McLean, Virginia 22106
45
APPL~
T~CI-t
Richard
nOT~5
Langston
The first installment of this column will deal
Apple DDS 3.3.
with
DOS COMMANDS BEING IGNORED
BLOAD BINARY PROGRAM
BSAVE BINARY PROGRAM
PRI6
DDS - NUMERIC STORAGE
The Control-D of a DOS command must be the first
character on an output line. This means that it must
be immediately preceded by a carriage return. If it
isn't, the command will be printed out to the screen
or the printer and be ignored by DOS.
Numeric data that is stored in a DOS text fille is not
stored in a packed format. The informat ion is on the
disk in the same ASCII format that a printer would
receive. For example:
3.14159 will be stored as 7 bytes+ a carriage return
3
will be stored as 1 byte + a carriage return
The most common cause for this is having a GET state­
ment or a PRINT statement that ends in a semi-colon
(;), comma(,), TAB, or SPC as the last 1/0 operation
before the command that gets ignored. An extra PRINT
before the next DOS command will generate the carriage
return required for it to be recognized.
There is no way under DOS to store packed variables.
(NOTE: I remember an article" in Byte about a year ago
that did store packed variables.)
Another solution to the problem is to define 0$
D$=CHR$(13)+ CHR$(4).
HIDING MACHINE LANGUAGE ROUTINES ABOVE THE DOS 3.3
FILE BUFFERS
as
Another cause of DOS commands being ignored is improp­
er use of the IN' and PRI commands. IN' and PR' are
DOS command, and must be preceded by a Control-D.
It is possible to position machine language routines
between DOS and its first file buffer. Routines hid­
den this way cannot be overwritten by Basic programs.
PROGRAM AND HI-RES MEMORY CONFLICTS
$9000 and $9001 (in a 48K or larger system) point to
the first, highest, buffer. Add the number of pages
(256 byte blocks) the routine needs to the contents of
$9001. Then place a $00 at the address now pOinted at
by the contents of $9000, $9001 plus $25. Then JSR
$A7D4, which will rebuild the DOS file buffers and
move the current Basic HIMEM down. The first available
address for the routine will be the address pointed at
by the contents of $9000, $9001 plus $20.
The easiest way to use hi-res graphics with a long
Applesoft program is to relocate the program. This
way, the problem of conflict between program text and
variables and the hi-res pages is eliminated.
The
resulting program w1l1 initialize the Apple's memory
and RUN a program. The program will load above the
hi-res pages.
DOS and CHAIN w1l1 continue to load
programs there until the system is re-booted or an FP
command is executed.
DDS AND THE IN' AND PRI COMMANDS
DOS uses the Apple 1/0 vectors to int~rcept commands
from BASIC. The PRI and IN' statements modify these
1/0 vectors directly, which makes it impossible for
DOS to see subsequent commands from BASIC. The usual
symptom is that DDS doesn't work after the printer is
turned off.
(NOTE: Use CALL 1002 to correct this
problem.)
BINARY FILE ADDRESS AND LENGTH PARAMETERS
The starting address and length of a binary file are
loaded into two registers in memory when the file is
Page 144 of the DOS Manual has the addresses
loaded.
to look at for this information. To find the starting
address for a program use the following program:
PRINT "ADDRESS="; PEEK(43634) + PEEK(43635) * 256 :
PRINT "LENGTH="; PEEK(43616) + PEEK(43617) * 256.
BRUN HELLO?
When DOS is booted it will "RUN" the program that was
in memory when the diskette was initialized. DOS can
be changed so that it will "BRUN" the HELLO file
instead.
In a 48K Apple, change the byte at $9E42
from $06 to $34. The following commands will create a
disk that will BRUN HELLO when it is next booted.
CALL -151
9E42: 34
3DOG (OR control-C)
INIT HELLO
DELETE HELLO
46
DOS AND HI-RES
DOS uses two memory locations ($26,$27) that are also
used by Applesoft's hi-res routines during the HPLOT
TO X,Y statement. DOS commands between HPLOT X,Y
statements will cause HPLOT TO to plot improperly.
The pointer can be saved and restored to enable mixing
DOS and hi-res. The two lines added to the program
below demonstrate how to maintain the pointer values.
BAD EXAMPLE
10
20
30
40
D$=CHR$(4)
HPLOT 1,2
PRINT D$;"CATALOG"
HPLOT TO 33,44
WORKING VERSION
10
20
">25
30
=>35
40
DS"CHR$(4)
HPLOT 1,2 A"PEEK(38): B=PEEK(39)
PRINT D$;"CATALOG" POKE 38,A: POKE 39,B
HPLOT TO 33,44
TRACE AND DOS COMMANDS
TRACE won't work with DOS commands unless 0$ is
defined as D$"CHR$(13)+CHR$(4). This is because DOS
expects the Control-D to be the first character on a
line of output, and TRACE does not send a RETURN.
USER DEFINED FUNCTIONS AND CHAIN
User defined functions in Applesoft may cause problems
if CHAIN is used. When a DEF FN statement is encoun­
tered in Applesoft, there is an entry made in the
simple variable table that points to the rest of the
funct ion in the text of the program. Strange and per­
haps fatal things can happen if a function defined in
the previous program is used without having the same
image of the function at the same memory location in
contd. on pg 48
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
L~TT~R
TO
Ludwig
~DITnR
Be.nne.r
Dear Bernie,
From mj WAP number, you know I have been using the
Apple [a while - since January 1980, but I am not a
computer buff. About 70 to 80 percent of the use has
involved word processors and the handling of word
processor files. Lately, that handling has involved
the telephone transfer of work files with greatly
increasing frequency.
I wanted to share a recent
experience with you and some of the other WAP members.
I use WordStar and Supertext II Pro for all my word
processing.
Both WP's save files as text files. One
uses CP/M and the other uses DOS 3.3/3.2.1. There are
several nice transfer programs for both operating
systems, and I have used or encountered most of the
popular ones, I think. My problems occur when I have
to initiate communications with someone who doesn't
have my particular programs. For example, the other
day I wanted to send a Supertext DOS text file (3.2.1)
to a researcher for a quick review and comments, in
connection with a business proposal. There was an
Apple in each office but we had different (and incom­
patible) communications software. We solved the prob­
lem with a program called "Micromover. u (I first saw
it advert fsed in WAP about 1 1/2 years ago.)
I
haven't heard much about it since, but the program has
one really GREAT feature: it enables you to send a
receiving computer the transfer program that it then
uses to do the file exchanges - in either direction!
You just get your modems talking to each other, and
then the program takes over.
If you have ever been stymied trying to move files
over the phone between Apples, especially on short
notice like I am, this program sure solves that
problem.
I had been using it for routine telephone
file transfers between our offices, but this short­
notice transfer really made me appreciate what the
author had done for us! It is really a genius idea,
and that one application made my acquisition of the
program worthwhile.
I am not aware of any other
programs that let 10U boot-strap your exchange in the
same way. And it s user friendly too.
It doesn't
have all the options of an ASCII Express or Z-Term or
some of the other transfer programs, but that one
feature - and its ease of use - put it in a class by
itself. I recommend it very highly for anyone who may
be faced with any short-notice transfers to or from
strange Apples in unforeseen places.
Jr. has several features that really help me handle long
documents, i.e., the automatic EASY linking of multi­
ple files for globally checking, correcting, preView­
ing and printing out book-length works, the ability to
block out parts of papers or pages during printing,
the easy entry of indented outline-type text and para­
graphs, the formatting simplicity, word counts, etc.
Unfortunately, Muse has yet to put 'out a printing pro­
gram that produces printed documents comparable with
WordStar's final printed products (after you finally
figure out how to make them happen!) so I use WordStar
with all its complexities, delays, bdos error problems
and eccentricities when I have to have a micro-justi­
fied print job. Otherwise, I much prefer Supertext
Pro; it's easy to teach new people, easy to use, full­
featured, fast and doesn't bomb. I think it is one of
the real underrated programs in the WP field 1n 1ts
price range. And I was able to install my 80-column
card with one Supertext keystroke, and it worked
flawlessly.
St111 can't say that about my WordStar
after 4 months of trying.
I thought this 1nfo m1ght be of 1nterest to some of
our members.
I have the CP/M (cruel, punishing and
masochistic?)
SIG disks with the modem transfer
programs, and I still haven't figured out how to make
those work yet. Maybe it'll come to me if I find the
right sentence 1n the SOO-page Softcard manuals. CP/M
sure isn't for us amateurs who want a tooL, not a
challenge. Please, Apple, don't succumb to CP/M!
You
and
u1ng
ably
I feel I can call up any Apple in the country now, and
successfully complete an exchange of DOS files!
Not
just text files, but binary and other files too!
I
have sent 3.2 files to a 3.3 DOS system and vice
versa.
It takes about 15 minutes to transfer the
uprogramu to the receiving computer, and then we move
the DOS document files very quickly. I can deliver my
work to most Apple )[s now in an hour or less, even if
our software is not compatible. And once tney have
the receiving program, they can send it right back to
me then or later, edited, proofed or otherwise anno­
tated. That's sure a good feeling.
As for the word processors themselves, I have used
WordStar, Supertext I, Supertext II, Apple PIE, Apple
Writer I and II, and EasyWriter enough to say I have
experience with them. I presently use WordStar and
Supertext II Pro for all my work. Since Muse brought
out the ST Pro that writes text files to disks (3.2.1
format) I have used that very extens ivel y, because it
folks are doing a fantastic job with the magazine
everyth1ng. Thanks ever so much for your cont 1n­
ded1cation. A lot of us apprec1ate it, and prob­
don't let you know often enough.
~
After games, spreadsheets
and word processing ...
+MEDCLAIMS Anew class of software
for your Apple II, 11+, lie, IIc
If your family medical/dental claims have you
overwhelmed and underpaid, MEDCLAIMS will help.
• How much have you used In deductlbles?
• When do they stop deducting and start paying?
• When should you switch to the family deductible?
• Which claims were you paid for?
• Which are stili open? For how long?
Claims, payments, medical. dental. different
insurance companies. full menu & prompts.
NOTHING TO STUDY OR LEARN. Guaranteed to
run on Apple 11.11+, lie. IIc; 48K. 1disk drive.
MEDCLAIMS. $49 ... Pays for itself. Prompt shipment. Send check to: COMPUTERSCOPE INC. Box 529 Matawan. N.J. 07747 OR CAll TOll FREE (24 hrs.) 1·800·551-8800 ~
to order by VISA or MASTERCARD
~
Acple II. II •. lie . lie are reolSlerecl trademart<s 01 Apple Computet Ine
Washington Apple Pi
Augus t 1984
47
.50f TCARD //E.
Robe.rt C.Platt
When prospective Apple purchasers ask whether to buy a
lIe or the new Ilc, accepted wisdom recommends the lIe
if the user ·wants to add features.· In my opinion,
the best example of an addition to the Apple lIe is
Microsoft's Premium Softcard lIe. This product adds a
Z80 coprocessor to your'Apple. As a result, your
Apple can run a wide variety of programs written for
the CPIM Operating System.
THE CPIM WORLD
CPIM was the first operating system to become popular
on microcomputers. A number of popular programs, such
as Wordstar, a word processor, and Multiplan, a
spreasheet, are available only on CPIM systems. Fur­
ther, an incredibly large number of free public domain
programs are available to run under CP/M.
Because
CPIM was the hacker's system of choice in the 8-bit
microcomputer world, a variety of faSCinating software
has been written for it. CPIM will run only on an
Intel 8008 chip or its descendants. Many popular com­
puters such as the Radio Shack TRS-80 series, the
Commodore 64 and the Epson use these chips. However,
the Apple uses a 6502 microprocessor instead and
cannot run CPIM without additional circuitry.
The
Softcard lie provides the necessary hardware and
software.
THE PACKAGE
The hardware.
A single printed-circuit board plugs
into the auxiliary slot of the lIe.
This board
includes 64K of RAM, and is the functional equivalent
of an Apple extended 80-column card. But in addition,
the board includes a Zilog Z80B microprocessor that
features a clock rate three times faster than former
Microsoft Z80 cards. The card includes a well-labeled
jumper to enable double hi-res graphics.
The software. Version 2.2 of Digital Research's CPIM
operating system has been configured to use the 64K of
the auxiliary memory and the special 80-column screen
controls of the Apple. Unlike earlier Microsoft CPIM
systems, the lIe version uses the Apple's 6502 as an
input/output processor. It also uses the Apple's main
RAM memory for a 256 character type-ahead buffer and a
printer buffer.
Re.v
e.w
EVALUATION If you have an Apple ][+, you should consider purchas­
ing an Applicard, Digital Research Gold Card or ALS's
CPIM Plus System. The latter two can be purchased
with version 3.0 of CPIM, and the Applicard is avail­
able as a free bonus when purchasing the Wordstar word
processor for around $300. The advantage to the
Softcard lIe is that it also serves the function of an
extended 80-column card. Whatever coprocessor system
you buy, check for the aval1abl1ty of CPIM and a pro­
gramming language. (Some cards are sol d without any
languages.
However, there is nothing special about
Microsoft's BASIC, you can add Turbo Pascal to any of
these packages for under $50.)
I am very pleased with my Softcard lie. It incl udes
good documentation from Microsoft on CPIM and G-W
Basic.
A copy of Thom Hogan's ·Osborne CPIM User
Guide" (1982 Osborne, 209 pages) is al so inc 1uded.
However, if you have never used CPIM or the Z80
assembler before, additional texts will probably be
necessary.
An additional ·Programmer's Guide,"
including a disk with a DOWNLOAD utility is sent to
those users who return their warranty registration
card s.
The price of Z80 boards has dropped about 30~ in the
last six months. In part this is due to the entry of
a number of cheap boards that are sold without soft­
ware.
Also people are considering investing in
coprocessor cards that feature faster versions of the
6502 or the 6BOOO chip instead of the ZBO.
(I was
very pleased with the price that WAP's Group Purchase
was able to get on the Softcard lIe, which includes
all necessary software.)
One annoying aspect of the package is the "license
agreements"
that Digital Research and Microsoft
include in the package. One hopes that as the law
surrounding the sale of software becomes more mature,
users will not be burdened by such contracts of
adhension.
Also out-of-warranty replacement fees are
a bit steep.
It
Gee-Whiz BASIC.
Version 5.27 of Microsoft's
interpreted BASIC has been modified to include many of
the Applesoft commands for using lo-res and hi-res
graphics.
This is a full BASIC with many useful , . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ­
debugging tools and a full set of disk file commands.
Apple Tech Notes contd. from pg 46
Assembler-debugger. Digital Research ASM assembler for
the Z80 and its DDT debuggerlmonitor permit machine
the current program.
language programs to be executed alone or CALLed as
BASIC subrountines.
The standard CPIM utilities,
The easy way around this problem is not to use defined
including the ED text editor, and the PIP file manager
functions or redefine all of your defined function in
are included.
each of the chained modules.
INSTALLATION
SYNTAX ERROR WHEN PROGRAM IS RUN
Installation was extremely simple. The system is
already configured for the Apple lIe. The only change
necessary was to adjust the jumper to enable double
hi-res graphics.
However, a CONFIGIO program is
included should you attach external terminals or make
other modifications.
The installation instructions
are excellent.
48
Applesoft requires that the first byte in the program
storage area be zero. Some machine language programs
don't leave a zero in that location, and Applesoft may
respond strangely. To initialize that byte, use the
command POKE PEEK(103) + PEEK(104) * 256,0. This will
work even if the program memory pOinter has been
changed.
It
Augus t 1984
Washington Apple Pi
rnU(lTI-fL Y
TUTUI~
I r='L
The following outlines are used in our four monthly
beginning tutorials, which are given on Tuesday eve­
nings at the office, from 7:30 to 9:00 PM. A regis­
tration form is in the back of this issue.
SESSION 1.
Introduction to Apple Computer Hardware.
A. Welcome to the World of Apple
1. Hooking it up: disk drives, printers TVs &
RF modulators, games paddles
2. Inserting & removing cards
3. The keyboard
B. Handling Floppy Disks
1. Reading a catalog
2. Running a program
3. Using the back of the disk
C. Handy Features
1. Added memory boards
2. Eighty columns
3. Lower Case
4. Fans
SESSION 2.
How to Use Your Apple Software
A. Booting a Disk: PRI6 and Friends
1. The Autostart ROM
2. The Disk Drive
3. Run the "HELLO· Program
4. The Worst That Could Happen: There Goes
$2.90 Down the Drain
B. CATALOG: What's on This Disk?
OUTLinESESSION 3.
A. What is Programming?
B. The PRINT Statement
C. Variables
1. $ means string
2. ~ means integer
D. INPUT Statement
E. Arrays
F. Immediate Mode vs. Stored Program
1. Line numbers
2. LIST, NEW, DEL
G. Changing a Program Line
H. RUNning a Program
1. RUN
2. CONT
3. CLEAR
4. END
I. Looping
J. Branching
K. Subroutines
L. Limitations and Restrictions
1. Precision
2. Garbage collections
3. PEEK, POKE, CALL & and USR
M. Advanced Memory Usage
SESSION 4. Bits, Bytes, Nibbles
This tutorial is intended to describe what goes on in
the machine underneath BASIC. Assembly language is
not gOing to be taught but we will show how assembly/
machine language programs can be entered from printed
listings. Several commands of the Monitor program in
the Apple will be explained.
A. Binary and Hexadecimal Number Systems
1. The File Name (30 characters)
2. Locked or Unlocked?
3. File Types: A, I, B, T, R
4. File Size I: Sectors
C. Other Important DOS Commands
1. General DOS Syntax
a. The command word
b. The filename
c. Other information (e.g. new filename,
loading/saving address
d. Slot, drive, volume
e. Must start at the "left margin"
2. INIT filename: Initializing a Disk
3. LOAD filename: for Applesoft and Integer
4. RUN filename
5. SAVE filename
6. BRUN, BLOAD and BSAVE
7. DELETE filename
8. LOCK and UNLOCK
9. Text Files: a Very Brief Introduction
1. What is a bit, byte, or nibble?
2. Adding and subtracting binary and hex
3. Converting binary and hex to decimal
4. Using the Monitor to add hex numbers
B. The ASCII Character System
1. What is ASCII?
2. Converting control codes to decimal or hex
C. Using the Monitor Program
1. Examining and changing memory
2. Entering machine language programs
3. Listing machine language programs
4. The difference between assembly and machine
language
D. Memory Map or Where Is It?
1. Text and Hires graphics pages
2. Free areas for machine language programs or
shape tables
3. How a language card works; what it's good
for
D. Useful Utilities
1. FlO: File Developer
2. COPYA
3. BOOT 13 and MUFFIN
4. INTBASIC and INTEGER BASIC-DISK
5. The WAP New Member Disk
6. Disk Recovery Programs
Welcome to Applesoft Basic
E. Using Applesoft Efficiently
1. How Applesoft is stored
2. How to use LOMEM and HIMEM
3. What an interpreter is and why it is so slow
4. How DOS works with Applesoft (or why you
shouldn't use PRll)
~
E. For Further Reading
1. The DOS Manual(s)
2. Beneath Apple DOS
3. All About DOS
Washington Apple Pi August 1984
49
WAP TUTORIAL REGISTRATION The following four WAP tutorials are being offered on Tuesday evenings from 7:30 to 9:00 PM. at the office. 8227
Woodmont Avenue. Room 202. Bethesda. MD. (The tutorials start promptly at 7:30; if you bring your computer please
arrive 15 minutes early to set up.) You may sign up for any or all of the series. They are designed for the
"beginner" and will be repeated monthly. A detailed outline of the tutorials is given elsewhere in this issue.
The outline is undergoing some changes at the moment. particularly session 4. therefore. the outline may not be
exactly as it will be presented.
( )
September 4 - INTRODUCTION TO APPLE COMPUTER HARDWARE () October 2
() October 9
- HOW TO USE YOUR APPLE SOFTWARE
( )
September 11
() October 16
( )
September 18 - BEGINNING BASIC
() October 23
( )
September 25 - BITS. BYTES. NIBBLES
The fee for each tutorial is $10.00 with an Apple. monitor and disk drive. $15.00 without (monitors available for
1st 5 registrants - call office). Please note that WAP does not have equipment for you to use; if you do not
bring your own. you will have to look over someone's shoulder.
Tutorials at $10.00 (with equipment)
-- Tutorials at $15.00 (without equipment)
The following "non-regular" tutorials are being Offered. They are at the WAP office unless otherwise indicated.
Saturday tutorials are from 9:30 AM - 12:00 Noon. Monday and Wednesday tutorials begin at 7:30 PM.
Please
register in advance.
VISIPLOT & APPLE PLOT - Lee Raesly. Aug. 11 - 9:30 AM
) $10 with Apple. member
) $15 wlo Apple, member
) $15 with. non-member ) $20 w/o. non-member Please check the desired tutorials and return this form with feels) made payable to Washington Apple Pi. Ltd. to:
Washington Apple Pi. Ltd.
Attn. Tutorials
8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201
Bethesda. MD 20814
Name
----------------------------------------------------­
Evening Phone
Daytime Phone
---------------------
----------------
Total Enclosed $
------
MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY CHANGES
Use this form ONLY if you wish to CHANGE your instructions to the Club.
See article elsewhere in this issue.
NAME (Please print)
MEMBERSHIP NO. (required)
ADDRESS: Street
-----------
-------------------------------------
CITY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STATE
PHONE: Home (
ZIPCODE
________ Work (
--------------
Please check one box only:
DO NOT include my name in the Membership Directory.
I authorize the release of my name. zipcode and phone no. to other members
through the Membership Directory.
Club policy prohibits releasing a member's personal information unless you release that information by checking
one of the boxes above. If you do not release this information. you will not receive a copy of the Directory.
Your response on this form will supersede any previous instructions to the Club.
SIGNATURE
DATE
----------------------­
---------­
return this form to:
Please
Washington Apple Pi. Ltd.
Attn. Directory
8227 Woodmont Avenue. Suite 201
Bethesda. MD 20814
This form must be received in the WAP office by August 25. 1984 to be included in the next Directory printing.
50
Augus t 1984
Washfngton Apple Pf
r--..
WASHINGTON APPLE PI DISKETERIA MAIL ORDER FORM Software for Creative Living DhlStkS from Washington Apple Pi's Disketeria are available for purchase This form Is only for ordering
t a you want ma11ed to you. •
PROGRAM DISKETTES: (1st 5)
- Members $ 6.00 ea.; Non-members $ 9.00 ea.
•
(remainder) - Members $ 5.00 ea.; Non-members $ 8.00 ea.
OOS 3.2 OOS 3.3 contd
( ) Volume Id6 SCience engineering
( ) Volume 1 Ut111t les I
( ) Volume 107 Games 8
( ) Volume 2 ut 11ftles II
( ) Vol ume 108 lAC 10 (Graphics)
( ) Volume 3 Games I
( ) Volume 109 lAC 11 (Applesoft Tutorial)
( ) Volume 4 Games II
( ) Volume 110 Personal/Education
( ) Volume 5 Gemes III
( ) Vol ume 111 Games C
( ) Volume 6 Games IV
( ) Volume 112 Utilities C
( ) Volume 7 Games V
( ) Vol ume 113 8us iness B
( ) Volume 8 ut 11 it les III
( ) Volume 115 lAC 12/13 Misc.
( ) Volume 9 Educational I
( ) Vol ume 116 lAC 14 MfcrcmxlemI I
( ) Volume 10 Math/Science
( ) Volume 117 Picture Packer
( ) Volume 11 Graph lcs I
( ) Volume 118 Utilities D
( ) Volume 12 Games VI
( ) Vol ume 119 lAC 15 Misc.
( ) Volume 13 GIII!IeS
( ) Volume 120 lAC 16 Misc.
( ) Volume 14 lAC Utilities IV
( ) Vollllle 121 WAPABBS 1.1 Doc. **
( ) Volume 15 Games VII
( ) Volume 122 lAC 17 Misc.
( ) Volume 16 Utl1itles V
( ) Volume 123 French Vocabulary
( ) Volume 17 Graphics II
( ) Volume 124 Utilities E
( ) Volume 18 Educational II
( ) Vol ume 125 lAC 18 Misc.
( ) Vol ume 19 Communications
( ) Vollllle 126 Sights and Sounds
( ) Volume 20 Music ( ) Vol ume 127 Math/Science
( ) Volume 21 Apple Orchard
( ) Volume 128 Games D ( ) Vol ume 22 Utl11ties VI
( ) Vol ume 129 GLAQ ( ) Volume 23 Games VI II
( ) Vollllle 130 Dfversl-DOS ***
( ) Volume 24 Games IX
( ) Volume 131 Personal/Educ. 2
( ) Volume 25 ut 11ftles VII
( ) Vollllle 132 lAC 19 - Utilities F
( ) Volume 26 Stocks/Investments
( ) Volume 133 lAC 20 - Pascal &OOS 3.3
( ) Volume 27 Math
( ) Volume 134 New Members Disk
( ) Volume 28 Planetflnder
( ) Volume 135 WAPABBS 1.1 Disk 1 **
( ) Volume 29 Utilities VIII
( ) Volume 136 WAPABBS 1.1 Disk 2 **
( ) Volume JO Gemes X ( ) Volume 137 lAC 21 Spreadsheet A
( ) Vol ume 31 Plot Utilities
( ) Volume 138 lAC 23 Utilities G
( ) Volume 32 Games XI
( ) Vol ume 139 lAC 24 Educat Ion 3
( ) Volume 33 Account lng
( ) Volume 140 Education 4 ( ) Volume 34 Solar Tutor
( ) Volume 141 Special Data Bases
( ) Volume 35 Garden Management
( ) Volume 142 lAC 28 Pinball Games
( ) VollJ11e 36 Games XII
( ) Volume 143 Sports ( ) Volume 37 Ut11itles IX
( ) Volume 144 lAC 27 Applesoft Prog.
( ) Volume 38 Games XI II
( ) Volume 145 Apple Logo Tool Kit
( ) Volume 39 lAC VII
( ) Volume 146 Apple Logo Sample Prog.
( ) Volume 40 lAC VIII
( ) Volume 147 Logo Documentation
( ) Volume 150 EDSIGI (Elem. Hath)
DOS 3.3
( ) Volume 41 lAC 25 Mach. Lang. Utll. ( ) Volume 151 1983 Tax Template
( ) Volume 152 lAC 31 Miscellaneous
( ) Volume 42 One Key DOS ***
( ) Volume 153 Investments A
( ) Volume 43 lAC 29 Utilities H
( ) Volume 154 Investments B
( ) Volume 44 Utilities I
( ) Vol ume 70 Bus iness/Hath/Stat lstlcs ( ) Vol ume 155 lAC 33 Miscellaneous
( ) Volume 156 lAC 35 Applesoft-AWlle
( ) Volume 71 Music
( ) Vol ume 157 lAC 36 Arcade Gemes
( ) Volume 72 Keyboard Games ( ) Vol ume 73 Text Adventure Games ( ) Volume 90 Spreadsheet C Genl. Bus. Eamon Serl es ( ) Volume 91 Spreadsheet D Investment ( ) Volume 180 Oungeon Designer
( ) Volume 92 Spreadsheet E Bus. Recd. ( ) Volume 181 Beginners Cave
( )*Volume 182 Lair of Minotaur
( ) Volume 100 Utilities A
( )*Volume 183 Cave of the Mind
( ) Volume 101 Utilities B
( )*Volume 184 lyphur Rherventure
( ) Vol ume 102 Games A
( )*Volume 185 Castle of Doom
( ) Volume 103 Merry Christmas
( )*Volume 186 Oeath Star ( ) Vol ume 104 Bus lness A
( )*Volume 187 Devl1's Tomb
( ) Volume 105 FIG-FORTH/Utilities
dls~s
Efl1'Qn contd.
'*Volume 188
( )*Volume 189
( )*Vol ume 190
( )*Volume 191
( )*Volume 192
( )*Volume 193
( )*Volume 194
( )*Volume 195
( )*Volume 196
( )*Volume 197
( )*Volume 198
( )*Volume 199
( )*Volume 200
( )*Volume 201
( )*Volume 202
( )*Volume 203
( )*Volume 204
( )*Volume 205
( )*Volume 206
( )*Volume 207
Caves of Treas.lsl. Furloso The Haglc Kingdom
The Tam of Molfnar Lost Isl. of Apple
Abductor's Quarters Quest for Trezore Underground City Merlin's Castle Horgrath Castle
Deathtrap
The Bleck Death
The Temple of Ngurct
Bleck Mountain
Nuclear Nightmare
Feast of Carroll
The Haster's Dungeon
The Cryshl Mountain
The Lost Adventure
The Manxone Foe
Pascal
( ) Volume JOO
( ) Volume 301
( ) Vol ume 302
( ) Volume 303
( ) Volume 304
( ) Volume 305
( ) Vollllle 306
( ) Volume 307
( ) Volume 308
( ) Vol ume 309
( ) Vol ume 310
( ) Vollllle 311
( ) Volume 312
( ) Volume 313
( ) Vollllle 314
See al so Vol ume
PIGO: ATTACH 1.1/BIOS
PIGl: PIG2: PIGJ: PIG4:
PIGS:
PIG6:
PIG7:
PIG8:
PIG9:
PIGI0
PIGII
PIG12
PIG13 Guer111a Guide
PIG14
133
CP/M
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
lCPRZ Install
lCPRZ Documentat Ion
lCPRZ Utilities
Modan 730
Vol ume
Vol ume
Vol ume
Volume
Vol ume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
490
~
Forth
( ) Volume 700 Assembler/Disassembler
( ) Vollllle 701 Full Screen Editor
( ) Volume 702 GoForth
See al so Volume 105
+ $1 postage ea
nOl\1lanbers add $3 per.
() SlgHec Disk 1 HS Basic Pgms
() SlgHac Disk 2 Atkinson's Goodies
() SlgMac Disk 3 Fonts
* Volume 181 required with these disks.
** Vols. 121. 135. 136 must be purchased together.
*** Use of this disk requires sending money to the author ($30 for Dfversl-Dos and $9 for One Key Dos.)
(NOTE: ALLOW 3 TO 4 WEEKS FOR HAILING.)
Tohl Order •
ADDRESS
CITY. STATE lIP _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Washington Apple Pi
~$7.00
disks.
$_­
Make check payable and send to:
NAME
TELEPHONE
Macintosh -
_ _ _ _ _WAP MEMBERSHIP NO. August 1984 Washington Apple Pl. Ltd.
Attn. Dlsketeria
8227 Woodmont Avenue. Suite 201
Bethesda. KD 20814
DATE _ _ _ _ _ _ __
51
Wap T-shirts for Sale $7.00
Support your clubl Buy a VAP T-Shirt. Background color is "Apple"
tan - lettering is in green and red. Available at the VAP office or
by mail for $7.00 each. If ordering by mail add $1.50 postage and
handling per order.
State size: Adults Small, Medium or Large;
Children'S Small. Medium or Large (the sizes run a little on the
small side). Send check or money order payable to Washington Apple
Pi and .ail to Washington Apple Pi, 8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201.
Bethesda HD 20814.
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
AIS Microsystems
• • • • • • 41
Anderson Jacobson •
• • Back Cover
Clinton Computer
• Ins ide Front
Computer Den Ltd.
• • • • 21
Computerscope Inc. • • • • • • • • • • • 47
Computer Ware Unlimited.
• • • • • • 26
Frederick Computer Products •• Inside Back
Future Furniture ••••
• •• 17
KOH Sys tems, Inc. • • • • • •
• • • 31
Micro Connection
• 43
Micro Star Co • •
••• 25
Minuteware
1
Operant Systems • • • • • • •
29
Paragon Technologies Inc
• • • • • • 45
Ramada Computer Products • • • • • • • • 15
Robins Inc • • • • •
• • • 35
Software City • • • • •
2
Tri-State Systems •••
7
Tysons Corner Center • • • • • • • • • • 25
VF Associates ••
• • • • • • • 27
Washington Appple Pi
• 52
....
·..
52
August 1984
Washington Apple Pi
There's onlyone place
0
buy apples. AT FREDERICK COMPUTER PRODUCTS !!!
As an Authorized Apple Dealer we offer a full selection of
both Apple Hardware and Software at low, low prices.
Also, as an Authorized Service Center we provide fast and
efficient service on all Apple products.
FREDERICK COMPUTER PRODUCTS, INC.
Microcomputer Systems And Peripherals 5726 INDUSTRY LANE-FREDERICK, MD.- (301)694-8884 pplC!
computC!r
®Authorized Dealer
OUL~.
U
S
RA rE
POSTAGE
P A I 0
WASHINGTON APPLE PI, LTD.
PERMIT
8227 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 201
Bethesda, MD 20814
* 5389
Silver Spring , MD
20910
ADDRESS CORRECTION REQUESTED
A REFURBISHED DAISY WHEEL TERMINAL FOR PERSONAL COMPUTER USERS AND SMALL BUSINESSES . Three-In-One Offer! Just $598 (Includes On-Site Warranty) • A 30 cps letter-quality printer
• A timesharing keyboard terminal (when modem equipped)
• A Selectric*-style keyboard typewriter
Aj daisy whee l printer terminals are renowned for
exceptional performance, high reliability , and applic<ltions
versatility . Now you can have all this for only $598" in our
special limited offer.
• 30 cps letter-quillity printing • Changeable type faces
• Full ASCII keyboard with
numeric pad ­
• High resolution X-Y p lotting
• Complete electronic forms
control
• 128-character buffer
• Asynchronous RS-232 interface
• Printwheel , ribbon cartridge,
and cable included
• 30-day parts/labor warranty
And you can choose from a list of options including
forms tractor, pin -feed platen, paper trays, s ide shelves,
extra printwhee ls, APL keyboard and 2K buffer.
For information telephone 3011840-5700
john Noble - DC Sean Belanger
- MD, jim Burrell - VA
..... ............................ . }I
··..,ugg\.'... h·O "'t'lllng
tlnd
h
~hldd
pflll' ,
n.dudl"
tipthlll"
"ubjl'l't
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Illlludl'''' II'rt.11n \Iptltllh
th'lngt' \\ llhllUI
ntltl\l'
l1lh't .1\,III.lblL· \lI\l~' In the UII1ILgUI1U.., L ..,
1
ANDERSON
JACOBSON
8653 Grovemont Circle
Gaithersburg, MD
20877-4191