E.F. Johnson Company 98xx LOW TIER Specifications

FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
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SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS
2000 TO 100,000 CFM
(Indoor & Outdoor Models)
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Introduction ............................................................3
A Proud History of Experience & Qualifications .....3
Assurance of Johnson Controls Backing ...............3
Computer Selection Programs ...............................4
Innovative Engineering & Design ...........................5
Flexibility of Design ................................................6
Superior Casing Performance ................................6
Pre-engineered Packaged Controls .......................7
Customized Variable Size Openings ......................7
Airflow Measurement Performance ........................8
State-of-the-Art Certification & Testing ...................8
New Sound Testing Laboratory ..............................8
Quality Construction Equals Improved IAQ............9
Multi-Sloped Drain Pans ........................................9
Raceways...............................................................9
Improve Cost Savings ............................................9
A Complete Line of Filters ....................................10
Energy Saving Fan Options .................................10
Energy Consumption............................................11
Sound Attenuation ................................................13
Inertia Base ..........................................................13
Quick Selection ....................................................14
FAN APPLICATION REVIEW
Fan Laws .............................................................15
Variable Air Volume ..............................................16
Component Temperature Margins ........................17
Fan Motor Heat ....................................................17
COIL OPTIONS
Cooling Coils ........................................................18
Heating Coils ........................................................19
Typical Application of AH Coils .............................20
SOLUTION SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION
Segment Listing ...................................................21
Unit & Coil Hand Selection ...................................21
FAN SEGMENTS – FS, FR, FE
Fan Applications ...................................................22
Dual Fan Considerations......................................22
Dual Fan Applications ..........................................22
Door and Discharge Locations .............................23
Single Fan DWDI Options ....................................24
Single Fan SWSI Options ....................................25
Dual Fan DWDI Options.......................................26
Dual Fan SWSI Options .......................................27
SWSI vs. DWDI ....................................................28
Fan Motor Control Methods .................................29
COIL SEGMENTS
Cooling (CC) ........................................................30
Heating (HC) ........................................................30
Vertical Coil (VC) ..................................................31
2
STAGGERED COIL OPTIONS
Angle Wall ............................................................32
Back-to-Back ........................................................32
Multizone (MC) .....................................................33
HEATING SEGMENTS
Integral Face & Bypass ........................................34
Indirect Gas-Fired ................................................35
Turndown Examples and Guidelines....................36
Electric Heat Options & Applications ....................37
ENERGY RECOVERY
Heat Wheel ..........................................................40
FILTER SEGMENTS
Applications & Options Table ...............................41
Mechanical Air Filters ...........................................42
MERV Analysis .....................................................43
MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS
Mixing Box /Economizers .....................................44
Mixing Box Optimization Chart .............................46
Typical Economizer Application............................47
Building Pressurization.........................................47
Methods of Pressurization Control .......................48
Economizer Arrangements ...................................48
Face Damper .......................................................49
Inlet Plenum .........................................................49
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
Diffuser Segment .................................................50
Access Segment ..................................................50
Vertical Plenum ...................................................51
Discharge Plenum ................................................51
Sound Attenuator .................................................52
Noise and Vibration ..............................................53
Air Blender - Mixers..............................................54
Face & Bypass Damper Segment ........................55
Turning Segments ................................................56
Humidifier Segment..............................................56
UV Segment .........................................................57
Pipe Chase Enclosure..........................................58
Roof Curb .............................................................58
Special Curb Requests ........................................59
CONTROLS
F. P. Controls & Motor Control Centers ................60
Typical FPC Wiring...............................................60
Software Process .................................................61
Field Equipment Controller...................................61
Power Wiring Options ..........................................62
INDUSTRY FORMULAS
Miscellaneous Industry Formulas.........................63
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS WITH TIPS
Part 1 - General....................................................64
Part 2 - Products ..................................................67
Part 3 - Execution.................................................81
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
Introduction
Assurance of Johnson Controls Backing
This Equipment Guide will provide engineers with
a summary of Solution air handling information in the
most convenient, time-saving manner possible. The
guide will direct you to various sources of data and information helpful in solving questions concerning product
options, design application, as well as installation and
operation.
With every Solution system, you get the support and
resources that come from dealing with a worldwide
manufacturer – JOHNSON CONTROLS. You are not
tied to the limitations of a regional supplier. Instead, you
get the flexibility being able to design in one part of the
country, and buy and install in another location.
Johnson Controls Factory Service
A Proud History of Experience & Qualifications
Johnson Controls combined with YORK heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems and solutions creates the largest global provider of
integrated products, systems and services for the $200
billion global building environment industry.
Johnson Controls/YORK is:
• A global leader in control systems and services
for heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC),
lighting, security and fire management for nonresidential buildings, facility management and
consulting services.
• Represented in over 125 countries, including
North America, Asia, Europe, the Middle East,
Africa and Latin America and in all markets.
®
YORK Solution® air-handling units (AHUs) from Johnson Controls–the only names you need to know for a line
that has no limits. Johnson Controls/YORK engineers
have developed an AHU line that is so flexible, and able
to deliver such high standards of performance, that it can
handle virtually any application. Whatever the air-handling challenge–IAQ, acoustics, energy, controls, you
name it–Johnson Controls/YORK can build a Solution
AHU that will meet your needs.
Solution® AHU’s from Johnson Controls
comprise a complete AHU line to meet commercial,
institutional and industrial indoor and outdoor unit
applications. For more than 50 years, YORK air
handling units have been installed in every type of facility to
handle any type of requirement; manufacturing, education,
healthcare, life sciences and process manufacturing.
Solution® AHU’s come equipped with industry-leading
Metasys® controls that are installed and commissioned
at the factory. Factory installation assures superior
quality, saves time on the jobsite and delivers accurate
performance. Plus, you can count on seamless operation with a Metasys building management system.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
Turn to the experts at Johnson Controls/YORK.
Johnson Controls/York carries the burden of singlesource responsibility since Johnson Controls/YORK
packages the total system, including custom air handlers, chillers, controls, and variable air-volume boxes
and building automation systems. For added peace
of mind, Johnson Controls/YORK offers Inspection
Only, Preventive Maintenance and Inspection, or Total
Service Contracts to meet your specific financing and
management requirements. Johnson Controls service
can also provide certified technicians available locally
for factory start-up, drawing from over 700 factorytrained service technicians in 100 strategically-located
offices nationwide – a capability not offered by independent manufacturers.
Full Service Support
Because JOHNSON CONTROLS factory packaged
devices and motor controls are an integral part of the
equipment, who better to troubleshoot and service the
system than a professional Johnson Controls Service
Technician. The Johnson Controls Service technician
knows not only the equipment and the hardware, but
also has a working knowledge of equipment application and operation. Every unit is backed by this kind of
professional support.
Development and Preparation of Service Literature
Johnson Controls/YORK produces quality product
literature to ensure proper installation, operation and
maintenance. Installation, Operation and Maintenance
manuals must be followed to realize the full capacity
and life of the units. In addition, literature supplements
of special characteristics and features are distributed as
required to support regular product enhancements.
3
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
Computer Selection Programs
YORKworks™ software is the primary source for the
latest product design and performance data.
1. Includes the latest innovations, updates, and efficiencies of YORK® products
2. Includes general functionality used to select
equipment factory packaged controls.
3. Sound data for air-handling units
4. All screens are interconnected and are continually
updated according to configuration inputs.
This powerful software tool brings flexibility and computing power to the desktop of designers. The software
allows you and the customer to make product decisions
and view performance data in a user-friendly, step-bystep, screen-driven environment.
YORKworksCE™ software is a necessity for your
customer’s engineering toolbox. YORKworks revolutionizes the way you specify HVAC equipment. Johnson
Controls/YORK can optimize the selection of any air
handling unit for a specific job requirement with its
computer selection programs.
Quick and Easy selection
• Save Time – choose components and
complete configurations with a couple
of clicks.
• Reduce Errors – use pre-programmed
rules and guidelines for component
selection.
Just Click to
select and add
components
Literature Reference — see ‘Sales Guide – YORK works CE’ Form 70.02-SG1
4
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Innovative Engineering & Design
5. Solution’s Variable Aspect Ratio eliminates the
need for costly modifications.
Solution Air Handlers are not just ‘fans-in-a-box’!
6. Solution fits the specification and the space!
1. Solution is a structure that withstands deflection
2. Solution is a sound/noise barrier
Innovative Engineering & Design allows you to choose
from a limitless variety of configurations. See configurations below for some of the popular applications
designed to meet your particular need.
3. Solution is a container of clean and conditioned air
4. Solution is an integral part of a building’s fire and
safety plans
Configuration 1 (Stacked Unit) –
Configuration 2 (Stacked Unit) –
Mechanical room favorite. Reduced footprint with tiered
supply fan
Ultra-quiet design with plenum fan and U-shaped
cabinet
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Configuration 3 – Minimum frills. Maximum IAQ
FS
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XA HC FF
Configuration 4 – Exhaust air flexibility with gas-heat and humidification
DP
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IG
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Configuration 5 – Cooling-only lab design with HEPA filtration
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Configuration 6 – Classic hospital design with return fan economizer operation.
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
Flexibility of Design
Component Flexibility
Solution AHUs offer the ultimate in dimensional, material, and component flexibility. Solution AHUs have the
same appeal for both “standard” and “custom” markets.
How an air-handling unit is designed and built determines how well it performs.
AHUs are responsible for providing
the environment with quality indoor
air, in an energy efficient and quiet
manner. Solution AHUs help meet
that responsibility by offering every
available component, from energy
wheels to air-monitoring stations
to specialty-purpose filters. As
technology creates new capabilities, Johnson Controls/
YORK will apply these to our Solution line.
Engineering Flexibility
• Variable cabinet dimensions
• Material and component flexibility
• Full line of factory packaged controls installed,
tested and commissioned by Johnson Controls
certified technicians
• Variable sized inlet and discharge openings
• Indoor and outdoor constructions
• Tiered (stacked) and custom configurations
Superior Casing Performance
The foam injected panels of our Solution air handling
units enhance performance, maximizing the indoor air
quality and help to create ASHRAE 62-2000 compliant
designs while reducing costs. The direct result of the
foam injection insulation is a rigid panel, low leakage,
high pressure air handler, with increased energy savings, and reduced initial cost.
Better IAQ
Deflection presents a potential in leaks that form over
time from the operational pressure. The foam injected
Solution panels are 20% more rigid (L/240 vs. L/200)
then the typical fiberglass or foam board construction.
In addition the smaller deflections can be achieved using
lighter sheet metal gauges then required by fiberglass
construction. The result is a lower initial cost unit with
greater performance.
• Panels are individually removable without affecting structural integrity.
Dimensional Flexibility
You can design Solution AHUs to fit the application and
the space. Length, height and width can all be varied
to match building constraints. With hundreds of crosssectional possibilities, you choose the best match for the
application. In addition, all Solution AHU components
have been designed with a variable-aspect ratio to meet
your space and air-velocity requirements.
Material Flexibility
A complete line of construction materials are available,
including galvanized steel, aluminum, painted steel,
stainless steel, and more. Solution AHUs can handle
a multitude of environments, from the most benign to
the most corrosive. NOTE: All units/unit segments are
shrink-wrapped to protect unit from contamination during shipping
6
Lower leakage reduces the infiltration of unfiltered and
unconditioned air into the space. The infiltration of unconditioned air can lead to condensation in unit walls,
crevices and/or insulation. When the infiltration occurs
in a negative pressure atmosphere downstream of the
filter, it will lead to unfiltered air being supplied to the
space. Maintaining a low leakage for positive pressure
segments reduces the loss of conditioned air to a potentially warm and humid ambient environment, causing
increased condensation. Condensation can lead to
premature corrosion as well as IAQ concerns.
The Solution foam injected wall panels help to seal and
maintain the leakage at maximum of 1% with a minimum
+/-8” of static pressure. Options for a maximum leakage
rate of 1/2% at a minimum of +/-10” of static pressure
are available for those projects which demand it.
Coil carryover, humidification, and periodic wash downs
are all instances where water is present in the unit.
Foam insulated panels will not absorb, and retain water,
like a fiberglass insulated panel will. In addition the thermal properties of foam are not degraded by an incident
where the insulation comes in contact with water.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Energy Savings
Factory Installation
The energy savings associated with high performing air
handler construction is directly associated with leakage
and insulating properties.
Factory installation improves quality and saves time.
While a Solution AHU is being manufactured, Johnson
Controls technicians can easily access all its segments.
So there are no accessibility problems to cramp the
quality of the controls installation, which often occurs
on the jobsite.
The infiltration of unconditioned air downstream of a coil,
or the loss of conditioned air downstream of a coil are
just two examples of reduced energy efficiency in an air
handler. The foam injected panel helps to reduce both
of these potential losses by creating a more rigid, lower
leakage air handling over the life of the unit.
Another form of energy loss associated with air handlers
is the thermal energy that is lost through the cabinet of
the air handler. The Solution foam injected panels lower
energy consumption with better insulating properties.
With the standard R-12.5 and optional R-18.8, or R-25,
the Solution can help to reduce the energy usage. The
injected panel provides additional thermal advantages in
that the foam will fill voids, and gaps that aren’t reached
with fiberglass or foam board type constructions.
Solution air handler units are capable of being factory
tested to prove out both leakage and deflection. With
the Solution product it’s not all about construction, it’s
also about performance.
Pre-engineering Packaged Controls
Pre-engineering of sensors ensures the most accurate
performance. There are great advantages to selecting
factory mounted and wired end devices for your Solution
air handling units.
1. Factory mounting maintains leakage performance
2. Factory wiring is plug and play
3. Factory testing of each mounted and wired device
4. Factory generated control diagrams specifically
for each unit
All sensor probes have been pre-engineered to determine the best mounting location, ensuring accurate and
reliable readings.
This improves performance of the unit while eliminating unwanted air leakage common in field-mounted
solutions.
Factory engineering speeds field connections
The goal is to provide
you with an AHU that
simplifies field connection of the controls. For
example, coil valves
are shipped uninstalled,
but pre-wired with quick
connects. If an AHU is
too large to ship in one
piece, you can still count
on fast and easy assembly of Metasys controls
because labeled quick connects come standard on all
shipping splits.
Customized variable size openings
Solution offers the most comprehensive option for factory provided openings. Custom size, custom location and
custom shapes along with custom sized dampers,are
designed to lower installation costs and risk while dramatically improving the quality of the application and
performance of the air handler.
DP
FS
EE
EE
FR
IP
Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Applying VSO Option to Solution Air Handling Units’ - Form
102.20-AG14
JOHNSON CONTROLS
7
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
Airflow Measurement Performance
Solution AMS-60 qualifies to bear the AMCA Ratings
Seal for Airflow Measurement Performance. Ventilation
air flow can be controlled dynamically with the Solution
AMS-60 which is tested to AMCA Standard 611-95.
The Solution AMS-60 continues to be the best integral
VIEWED
FROM
TOP
air-flow station offered for air handling units which is incorporated into mixing box and economizer segments to
meet the most stringent ASHRAE 90.1 requirements
There are 3 damper options to give various measurements of air flow. See FIG. 1.
NOTE: Dampers are split vertically
25%
25%
75%
75%
100%
FIG. 1 – DAMPER OPTIONS
Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘AMS60 for use with Solution AHU’ - Form 102.20-AG1
State-of-the-Art Certification & Testing
Solution Air Handlers are subject to stringent testing
using certified, comprehensive and industry recognized
testing laboratories. Testing is in accordance with ARI
Standard 430 which evaluates the performance of the
entire unit. This assures that each Certified Solution unit
will indeed perform with certainty and reliability.
Solution AHUs have also undergone extensive and rigorous testing to verify conformance with all U.S. and Canadian safety standards, and they bear the ETL Label.
Extensive testing includes:
• ARI 430 certified performance
• ARI 260 sound data
• Full line of ARI 410 certified coils
• ETL listing for product safety per UL 1995
New Sound Testing Laboratory
The new AHU laboratory at the Johnson Controls
Grantley Park Tech Center includes the capability for
sound power measurements on Air Handling Units up to
100,000 CFM in accordance with ARI 260. The facility
will also include the capability for testing unit airflow in
accordance with AMCA 210 to 100,000 CFM. For fan
alone testing, the facility will also have AMCA 300 and
AMCA 210 accreditation. All of this capability will be
available for product development testing and for customer witness testing on critical projects. This facility
will allow verification and calibration of sound models
used for unique features of Solution units, which will
increase the accuracy of our predictions and ensure that
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• ASHRAE 90.1 compliant
• ASHRAE 62 compliant coil and drain pan design
maximizes indoor air quality
• Outstanding thermal capacity proven through
independent testing
• HEPA filtration system exceeds the most stringent
military DOP tests
• AMCA 611 certified airflow measurement stations
• ISO Quality Certification
• Seismic certificate of compliance
Labeled Solution units are tested and listed by ETL in
accordance with UL 1995, Standard for Safety Heating
and Cooling Equipment, and thereby fully complying
with NFPA 90A material requirements.
our customers will continue to obtain the best available
Solution sound data in the marketplace.
This facility will be the largest AHU sound test facility in
the world. Note that in order for a laboratory to measure
ARI 260 sound data, the laboratory must be pure tone
qualified to 50 Hz. This facility will be pure tone qualified to 50 Hz. Pure tone qualification ensures that the
test facility is capable of accurately measuring a noise
source producing tones – such as a fan. Not qualifying
the facility for pure tone response could lead to erroneous results with a tonal noise source. This is why ARI
requires pure tone qualification of reverberation rooms in
the HVAC industry for anything other than VAV boxes.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Quality Construction Equals Improved IAQ
Quality construction is a key to a
minimum amount of
AHU leakage. Leakage is an adversary
of indoor air quality.
It will depreciate the
quality of the supply
air by allowing dirty,
unfiltered air to seep
into the air-stream
downstream of the
filters.
states that “The drain pan outlet shall be located at the
lowest point(s) of the pan.”
Solution units remove the condensate with a multi-sloped
drain pan that ensures positive drainage. Our pan design
also offers the highest level of accessibility for periodic
cleaning, now required by ASHRAE Standard 62.
Raceways
Raceways are used as the exterior skeletal construction
of Solution.
• Raceways provide the form and shape as well as
structural support for panels, base and internal.
• Raceway material is Galvanized
To prevent this leakage, the rigid, thermally superior
panels of Solution AHUs are matched with a rugged
framework to provide an extraordinary casing performance.
The maximum allowable air leakage is less than 1% at
+/- 8" w.g. and a maximum L/240 deflection.
The Shell of Solution is made up of double wall panels
and doors.
• Standard liner material is galvanized
• Stainless liners are optional
• Perforated aluminum liners are optional
The floor is a double wall construction, with a galvanized
steel walk-on surface.
• Optional stainless steel
• Optional aluminum tread plate
Solution is offered with a full-perimeter base-rail with
integral lifting lugs.
• Optional base-rails
• Lifting lugs are provided
as necessary for material
handling
A ‘Curb Rest’ is provided to
direct, guide and indicates alignment when setting a unit on the
curb.
• Galvanized steel strip attached to the raceway or
base-rail
• ‘Curb Rest’ is not to be
considered a flashing
receiver for the curb.
Multi-Sloped Drain Pans
Improve Cost Savings
The way to control micro-organisms, which can flourish
in drain pans, is to control the moisture of cooling-coil
condensate which can remain in the pan during “off” or
“heating” cycles.
Solution UV-C light options
eliminate the potential for a build-up of microbiological
agents.
Poorly designed drain pans
are often breeding grounds
for mold and poor IAQ.
ASHRAE 62-2001, section
5.11.1 states that drain pans
“...shall be sloped at least
1/8" per foot from the horizontal toward the drain outlet
whether the fan is in the on or
off position.” Section 5.11.2
1. Heat exchangers continue to operate at highefficiency levels due to sustainable, like-new,
reduced pressure drop.
2. HVAC equipment operates for shorter periods of
time saving cost on electricity.
3. Improved IAQ as the first line of defense against
sick building syndrome.
Installation of UV-C lamps promotes a cleaner, healther,
more productive work environment.
More detailed information on page 57 of this manual.
Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution IAQ Series General AHU Construction’ - Form 102.20AG3
JOHNSON CONTROLS
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
A Complete Line of Filters
A complete line of clean air solutions for industrial plants,
hospitals, schools, pharmaceutical process, airports and
commercial buildings are available to control or remove
airborne contaminants from the air stream.
Achieving acceptable indoor air quality is more involved
than calculating and applying the appropriate ventilation
rate. Specific AHU performance and other common
sense specification items, tied to ASHRAE 62.1 recommendations, can help achieve the healthy indoor air
quality environment desired.
Light pre-filtering duty:
Stringent filtration requirements:
Odor or VOC removal
–
pleated
–
HEPA
– Activated carbon
–
extended surface
–
Ultra-HEPA
–
17 to 18 MERV
Higher filtration efficient
–
0.3 & 0.1 microns respectively
Air purification systems
High-performance
–
–
99.97% & 99.99 % effectiveness
–
Near-HEPA performance
Germicidal capability
Low-resistance-to-airflow (initial
pressure drop equal to a low-end
pre-filter).
60% to 95%
–
11 to 14 MERV
–
–
rigid & bags
–
Energy-Saving Fan Options
In any AHU, the fan is the largest energy consumer.
Solution fans offer a range
of energy-saving options
through fan types and controls.
Economizers (EE) provide an exhaust path for return
air, allowing the outdoor air conditions, when suitable,
to take advantage of 100% outside air for “free” cooling,
allowing the chillers to be turned off a percentage of the
time during the cooling season. Return and exhaust
fans are available to meet the needs of varying building
pressurization requirements.
– Light aluminum fan
wheels
– Direct-drive plenum
fans, which eliminate
belt-and-pulley energy
losses
To assure the quietest
possible operation,
fans and motors are
common base isolated
from the cabinet.
Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution - Reducing AHU Energy Consumption’ - Form 102.20AG13
10
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Energy Consumption
Rearranging Equation 1 to solve for duct leakage class:
The HVAC industry has taken a leadership role by creating energy-performance guidelines, such as ASHRAE
90.1. Solution AHUs are designed with ASHRAE 90.1
in mind.
Eq. 2
In extreme ambient conditions, heat transfer through
the casing must be controlled. Solution casing offers
maximum thermal performance in the floors, walls and
roof. To prevent energy-robbing air leaks, Solution units
are designed for a maximum casing leakage of less
than 1%.
According to this, regardless of unit size or capacity,
this type air-unit is roughly equivalent to a SMACNA
leakage class of 18.
For every 1% of air leakage at the AHU, 1% more air
must be conditioned, and 1% more energy is consumed.
Table 1. Comparative Solution Leakage Rates
CL = Lmax/P0.65
CL = (0.5 cfm/ft2 x 100 ft2)/50.65
CL = 17.6
Analyzing Solution units is a little more complex than
analyzing the other typical unit, since Solution strives
for a maximum leakage rate of 1% of the unit design
airflow at ± 8 in-w.c. That means that the leakage in
cfm/100 ft2 of unit casing varies based on the size and
capacity of the unit. A 4,000 cfm Solution unit will have
a maximum leakage rate of 40 cfm, whether the unit is
8’ long or 10’ long. Therefore, the 10’ long unit will have
an inherently lower cfm/100 ft2 leakage rate than the 8’
long unit, as shown in Table 1.
Unit CFM:
4000
4000
16000
16000
32000
32000
H (Inches)
36
36
66
66
114
114
W (inches)
54
54
96
96
102
102
Comparing Apples-to-Apples
L (inches)
98
124
105
132
125
150
Competitors claim “Air leakage rates between 1/2 and
1 percent” on their AHUs, but they don’t mention at what
pressure this performance is achievable, nor do they
even specify a leakage rate for the air units.
Area (ft2)
150
182
324
385
537
612
1% Leakage (cfm)
40
40
160
160
320
320
Leakage (cfm/ft²)
0.27
0.22
0.49
0.42
0.60
0.52
This typically makes it difficult to analyze their leakage
performance by not qualifying it based on air pressure.
However, if we reference to SMACNA class 3 air leakage
this is a good place to begin our analyses.
SMACNA class 3 refers to a standardized method
of classifying duct leakage. While this classification
doesn’t technically apply to AHUs, it is a useful method
of comparing the performance claims of different manufacturers. According to SMACNA Duct Leakage Test
Procedures (1985), duct leakage is calculated using
the equation:
Eq. 1
Lmax = CLP0.65
where,
Lmax = maximum permitted leakage in cfm/100ft2 duct surface area;
CL
= duct leakage class, cfm/100ft2 at 1 in-w.c.
Using the Solution performance at ± 8 in-w.c. we can use
the SMACNA leakage class as a standard comparator.
By plugging the values from Table 1 into Equation 2, we
find the leakage class for the various Solution units as
shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Solution AHU Leakage Classes
Unit CFM:
4000
4000
16000
16000
32000
32000
Leakage (cfm/ft²)
0.27
0.22
0.49
0.42
0.60
0.52
7
6
13
11
15
14
Leakage Class
at ± 8 in-w.c
Even on large AHUs, the leakage class of a Solution
unit is lower than that of most competition. Many design
engineers don’t realize this, because when they compare
YORK’s performance to others they aren’t comparing
apples-to-apples unless the performance is translated
into the common language of leakage class.
P0.65 = test pressure in in-w.c.
Literature Reference — see Application Guide Form 102.20-MG1. See also M-42-06.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
EPAct Efficient Performance
Consumption of energy can also be reduced by more
efficient motors. Solution AHU motors meet EPAct
efficient performance standards for general purpose
motors. Standard Solution EPAct efficient and Premiumefficiency motors can be specified and used with frequency control as listed by NEMA Standards Publication
MG 1-2006 (Motors and Generators):
• MG 1-2006 Part 30
Application Considerations for General Purpose
Motors used with Adjustable - Voltage OR Adjustable - Frequency Controls or Both
• MG 1-2006 Part 31
Definite-Purpose Inverter-Fed Poly-phase Motors
Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution Air Handling Units AC Induction Motor Data’ Form 102.20-AG15.
Energy Saving Air-Modulator™
When the air system is designed for variable-air volume (VAV), Solution offers
the most efficient method of
VAV fan control with our AirModulator™ drive, which is
mounted, wired and tested in
our factory.
Fans characteristically require
much less power as the speed
is reduced. With the Air-Modulator™, any reduction in
fan speed results in a cubic reduction in fan horsepower.
For example, a 10% speed reduction results in a 27%
fan horsepower reduction!
Air Modulator benefits include:
1. Extended Equipment Life – soft start of motor and
fan.
2. Quieter Fan Operation –
fan operating at reduced speed and constant line
of efficiency.
3. Eliminates need for motor
starter panels.
4. Improved system control
and response – DDC
controls with LED digital
display.
5. Proven reliability.
Typically HVAC systems consume
a third of the energy used in commercial buildings. Therefore an
energy-efficient HVAC system can
represent a significant savings in
building operating costs. ASHRAE
90.1 provides architects and engineers with guidelines for the design
of energy efficient buildings, with
the exception of low-rise residential
buildings.
Literature Reference — See Application Guides ‘ASHRAE 90.1 Guidelines’ – Form 102.20-AG2 & ‘Understanding AHU Casing Leakage’ – Form M-42-06
12
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Sound Attenuation
An important component of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is acoustics. There are very few constants
when it comes to acoustics, however it is always less
expensive to design and install a system correctly the
first time than it is to make the system quiet after it is
installed. The best way to reduce noise is not to create
it in the first place.
ARI 260 requires that the unit be rated across its entire
operating range according to the AMCA 300 test method.
Johnson Controls/YORK has been and continues to be
fully engaged in a rigorous ARI 260 testing program.
Solution testing includes a wide variety of fan types,
unit sizes and configurations. As a result, Solution can
with assurance say sound power levels are reported in
accordance with ARI 260.
Solution AHU offers a variety of noise-reducing technologies.
Solution AHUs are available
with a nearly endless array
of fan types, all custom
selected for the exacting
requirements of your project.
Direct drive plenum fans
can reduce vibration and
drive noise by eliminating
the belt-and-pulley mechanism. A range of fan-base
construction and isolation techniques are available to
help control sound.
SOUND
ATTENUATION
RACEWAY ASY
BULKHEAD ASY
Source attenuation
is the first sound-reduction method that
should be considered, and is typically least expensive.
Since the fan is the
primary moving part
in an air-handling
system, it’s the first
place to look when
reducing noise.
What little noise is left can be further reduced with direct
methods of sound
attenuation. Using
perforated soundabsorbing walls as
sound traps in the
fan and dischargeplenum sections,
Johnson Controls/
YORK equipment
engineers can help
you design units
to meet your critical sound requirements.
Inertia Base
A concrete inertia base, which is inserted between the
fan and its supportive structure, can be quickly and economically installed in all Solution unit cabinet sizes.
– Inertia fan bases will accommodate both belt
driven and direct drive fans
– The added mass of the inertia base allows for a
softer isolation system and greater isolation efficiencies as well as an effective means of dampening mechanical noise.
– Concrete fill is furnished by contractor.
Application Note - As a rule of thumb the inertia base
should be used when:
• Class II & III fans with 40” diameter wheel or larger
• All centrifugal fans driven by motors of 75HP or
larger
JOHNSON CONTROLS
13
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GENERAL INFORMATION
Quick Selection
The Quick Selection Guide for the Solution AHU was developed and intended to aid the Consulting Engineer, Architect, Design/Build Contractor, and Equipment /Controls Engineer in establishing overall estimates for (minimally)
footprint dimensions, unit weight, & max motor horsepower.
Contents consist of:
– Applications, Features & Benefits
– Instructions
– Data
– Notes
– Reference Formulas and Conversions
Literature Reference — See Quick Select Tool – Solution Slide Chart – Form 102.20-SC1
14
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
FAN APPLICATION REVIEW
Fan Laws (Recommended Accepted Practice)
The fan laws are used to calculate performance characteristics; fan speed (RPM), fan air capacity (CFM),
static pressure (SP) and brake horsepower (BHP) of
a particular fan at conditions other than those at which
the data was taken.
By using the fan laws in conjunction with a fan curve, the
fan performance can be calculated accurately at various
operating conditions. Every fan has its own unique fan
curve. FIG. 2 shows a fan curve at various RPMs.
The system resistance curve relates the total pressure loss in an air handling system to the flow rate of
air through the system. The system curve is unique to
each system because it expresses the pressure losses
associated with the system. (AHU cabinet, coils, filters,
supply and return ductwork, grilles and diffusers).The
SP and CFM values are used to create the system curve
for the particular system. FIG. 3 represents a fan curve
with 2 system curves identified.
System curves will always have a square function slope
(parabola) because the SP varies as a square of the
CFM. The point where the system curve intersects the
RPM curve is the operating point of the fan (point A).
If the system resistance changes (i.e., dirty filters or
change in ductwork), the operating point will move along
the RPM curve to a different operating point and therefore, new system curve (point B). With a fixed system,
the effects of change in RPM, air density of BHP can
be calculated and plotted on the system curve by using
the following fan laws:
• The CFM varies directly with the RPM:
CFM2 = CFM1 x
RPM2
RPM1
• The SP varies as a square of the RPM:
SP2
=
RPM2
SP1 x
2
RPM1
PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE
M
75
9
• The BHP varies as a cube of the RPM:
P
.H
AX
15
00
HP
00
50
13
8
BHP2 = BHP1 x
60
HP
HP
30
RPM2
3
RPM1
6
11
00
HP
RP
M
5
900
RP
HP
M
4
20
3
10
7.5
2
HP
HP
• The SP and BHP are directly proportional to the
air density:
25
STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG)
40
M
M
RP
RP
7
10
70
0R
HP
HP
PM
1
Density2
SP2 = SP1 x
RPM2
x
Density1
2
RPM1
50
0R
PM
50
100 150
200 250 300 350 400
450 500 550 600 650 700
AIRFLOW – CFM (100)
FIG. 2 – CURVE AT VARIOUS RPMs
PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE
9
1300
1500
8
75 MAX. HP
7
60
6
B
5
x
Density2
Density1
x
RPM2
3
RPM1
The fan laws can only be used to project performance
along a specific system curve. Referencing FIG. 3, Point
A can be used to project the performance of Point C and
similarly, Point B can be used to project the performance
of Point D. Point A cannot be used to predict any other
point on the RPM curve, it can only project performance
on the system curve created by Point A.
50
40
900
30
4
25
A
20
D
st
em
2
3
700
Sy
STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG)
1100
BHP2 = BHP1
15
2
m
1
ste
Sy
500
10
1
7.5
50
100 150
200 250 300 350 400
450 500 550 600 650 700
AIRFLOW – CFM (100)
FIG. 3 – FAN CURVE WITH TWO SYSTEM CURVES
JOHNSON CONTROLS
15
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
FAN APPLICATION REVIEW
Variable Air Volume
A common mistake when selecting a fan with variable
air volume is to assume a fan with VAV will follow a
constant design system curve (passing through the point
0 CFM and 0 TSP) to maintain control. VAV systems
do not have a constant system line, but rather a range
of operating points necessary to satisfy the building
requirements. In VAV systems, the operating point will
continue to move based on the air modulation and as
the CFM and SP change, the fan is modulated to match
the new requirements, developing its own system curve.
This modulation is accomplished by using inlet vanes,
variable speed drives or discharge dampers. Before
finalizing the fan selection, plot the new VAV system
curve to confirm the modulation range required does
not enter into the instability range of operation.
Select the most efficient fan that can deliver both the
design and minimum CFM requirements. If the initial
selection does not provide sufficient “turn down”, select
the next smallest fan and re-plot the VAV system for the
smaller fan and re-evaluate. Typically, the largest fan that
can supply the required modulation is the most efficient.
Each application should be considered individually and
evaluated to be sure the fan will not be forced into the
unstable region at modulated condition.
For variable speed drive (VSD) applications, the fan
drive assembly is selected to operate approximately in
the middle of the VSD’s range. When selecting a fan to
be used with a VSD, if the RPM is close to or approaching the Class I limit, select the Class II fan. Selection of
a Class I fan may result in premature bearing failure.
Example
Calculate the minimum CFM and at least 2 arbitrary
points which fall within the stable operating range of
the curve (using equations below) and plot these points
along with the design points to create the new VAV
system. (See FIG. 4.)
Design CFM = 40,000 CFM = CFMd
Design TSP = 4.5 in WG = SPd
Static Pressure Control Point = 1.25 in WG = SPd
1st: Calculate the Minimum CFM:
SPS
Min CFM = CFMd x
√
SP1 x
CFMd
CFM1
=
2
+ SPS – SPd
1.25
40,000 x
√
3 x
= 10,517
2
40,000
+ 1.25 – 4.5
15,000
where: CFM1, SP1 = arbitrary point located on surge line
Min CFM = 10,517
2nd: Calculate the Arbitrary Points:
30,000 CFM
where: CFM2 = 30,000
CFM2 2
SP2 =
x (SPd – SPs) + SPs
CFMd
SP2 =
30,000
40,000
2
x (4.5 – 1.25) + 1.25
SP2 = 3.1
16
20,000 CFM
where: CFM3 = 20,000
CFM3
SP3 =
CFMd
SP3 =
20,000
40,000
2
x (SPd – SPs) + SPs
2
x (4.5 – 1.25) + 1.25
SP3 = 2.1
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE
9
00
00
13
15
8
PM
M
RP
R
7
RPM
75
P
.H
AX
M
5
300
RPM
.
HP
HP
60
10
Pt
HP
3
HP
n
sig
De
HP
HP
20
30
50
4
25
40
STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG)
1100
6
HP
2
Static Pressure
Control Point
1
MODULATION
RANGE
Minimum CFM
50
100
150
200
Design CFM
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
AIRFLOW – CFM (100)
FIG. 4 – FAN CURVE AT VARIOUS RPMs
Solution Component Temperature Margins
• Pre-filters - 150°F.
• Standard motors (Class B Insulation) -104°F.
• High Efficiency Filters - 200°F.
• Motors with Class F Insulation -140°F.
• Fan Bearings - 120°F (FC), 180°F (AF)
• Power Wiring - 140°F.
• Gasketing - 200°F
• Controls & Control Wiring - 140°F.
• Foam - Flash Point: 415°F (213°C)
Fan Motor Heat (MBH)
HEAT
Horsepower
5
7.5
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
75
100
Fan Motor
2.8
3.6
4.4
6.2
7.5
8.7
9.4
13.0
16.0
19.0
21.0
25.0
Fan
12.7
19.1
24.5
38.2
51.0
63.6
76.3
102.0
127.0
153.0
191.0
254.0
Fan & Fan Motor
15.5
22.7
28.9
44.4
58.5
72.3
85.7
115.0
143.0
172.0
212.0
279.0
JOHNSON CONTROLS
17
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
COIL OPTIONS
Flexibility and Performance illustrate the variety of coils
which are available to meet every application. These
carefully engineered coils are designed for an optimum
balance between air pressure drop and heat transfer
coefficient, to allow the maximum amount of cooling
or heating capacity without the added expense of high
air-pressure drops. The coil designs are subjected to
constant extensive evaluation studies comparing different fin corrugations with various tube arrangements.
The Johnson Controls/YORK Equipment Engineer in
your area will welcome the opportunity to assist you
with your coil applications.
Coil Performance is certified in accordance with ARI
Standard 410.
Cooling Coils – Water and Direct Expansion
Direct expansion (DX)
1/4" FPT PLUGGED
VENT FITTING
Chilled water / Hot water
RETURN
SUPPLY
SUPPLY
RETURN
Solution optimizes coil performance with customized coil
options. Solution coils are offered in a wide variety of
types, sizes, arrangements and materials. Coil software
optimizes capacity and pressure drop requirements.
AHU Chilled water cooling coil
• Available in CC, VC, MZ segments
AHU Hot water heating coil
• Available in CC, VC, HC, MZ segments
AHU (DX) Direct Expansion cooling coil
• Available in CC, VC, MZ segments
Notes & Options
Hand of Unit determines connection side of coil. See page 21.
Header material:
•
Copper
•
Red Brass
Connector material:
•
Red brass
•
Steel
Connection Type:
•
MPT
•
Grooved
Fin type:
•
5/8” tube: Sine or Flat
•
1/2” tube: Sine corrugated only
Fin Spacing:
•
A vast range of fins per inch available
Fin Coatings: (Coatings reduce max face velocities)
•
Electro-fin
•
Phenolic
Coil Casing:
•
Galvanized
•
Stainless Steel
Choice of heat transfer medium:
•
Water, Glycol (Ethylene glycol coils are ARI
certified)
•
DX – (a variety of refrigerants to choose from)
Fin Material & Thickness:
•
Aluminum - 0.006”, 0.008”, 0.010”
•
Copper - 0.006”
18
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Heating Coils – Integral face and bypass
Integral face and bypass coils have alternating channels
of heat transfer surface and bypass zones. The air flow
is directed over the heat transfer surface or through the
by-pass zone by modulating dampers that are integral
with the coil construction.
Steam or Hot Water
Integral face and bypass coil (IFB/VIFB)
• Coils are available in the ‘IC’ segment
• Tubes either Vertical or Horizontal
• Coils for maximum freeze protection
INTEGRAL FACE & BYPASS (IFB) COIL
• Hot water or Steam coils
• Multiple rows deep
Notes & Options
Coil Style:
•
IFB
•
VIFB
Coil Type:
•
Water (Glycol)
•
Steam
Rows:
•
1,2,3,4
Connection:
•
SCH 40 pipe
Thermostat:
•
None
•
Electric
Fin Material:
•
Aluminum
Fin Spacing:
•
A range of fins per inch available
Coil Casing:
•
Galvanized
Heating Coils – Steam Distributing
The construction of a Steam Distributing Coil is entirely
different than that of a Standard Steam.
Everyplace that you see an outside tube or header, there
is an inside tube and header that you can’t see. Steam is
distributed through these inside tubes and headers and
slowly released to the outside tubes as the steam turns
to condensate. The condensate then flows back down
the outside tubes in the same direction that the entering
steam comes from. The idea is that all the steam in the
inside tubes keeps the condensate in the outside tubes
from freezing when air passes across the coil at less
than 32ºF. However, under exactly the correct conditions,
even steam distributing coils can freeze.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
Steam Distributing - 1” diameter tube
• Available in CC, VC, HC, MZ segments
• A vast range of fins per inch available
• Multiple tube wall thickness options
Steam
19
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
COIL OPTIONS
Typical Application of Air Handling Coils
Heating Coils
Heating coils can use steam or hot water to add heat
to the air stream. In a cooling-only VAV system, the
heating coil is generally placed in the ‘preheat’ position
between the filters and cooling coil. The preheat coil
can be omitted in this system if the minimum outside
air requirement is low and would not result in a mixed
air temperature below 50ºF to 55ºF.
Heating coil capacity is controlled by means of a modulating control valve in the water or steam piping. The
control valve position is usually controlled by means of
a thermostat in the supply air duct in sequence with the
cooling coil control valve.
solenoid valves in the refrigerant liquid lines, which are
energized to shut-off the flow of refrigerant to part of the
coil. There are several problems with the application of
VAV to a direct expansion (DX) coil which require the
designer to take special precautions when considering
this system. First, the balance point temperature for
the DX coil will change as the air flow rate changes.
Assuming constant coil capacity, reducing the CFM will
reduce the suction temperature and pressure, making
close control of air temperature difficult. In addition,
compressor unloading at reduced load will cause step
changes in capacity and suction temperature, which
can cause hunting in the flow control loop. In short, the
use of variable air flows with a DX coil requires careful
consideration of the effect air flow changes make to the
system. Balance point temperatures must be carefully
considered.
Cooling Coils
Cooling coils remove both sensible and latent heat from
the mixed air and can use chilled water, chilled brine, or
refrigerant as the cooling source. In the case of chilled
water, the supply water temperature generally ranges
from 42ºF to 50ºF, depending on the latent load to be
removed. Brine or a solution of ethylene or propylene
glycol in water is traditionally used at temperatures of
32ºF to 40ºF for applications in which piping is exposed
to freezing temperatures. Control of the cooling coil capacity at the air-handling unit is achieved by means of
a two-way ‘throttling’ or three-way ‘mixing’ control valve.
In VAV systems, a supply duct thermostat is typically
used to modulate the control valve so as to maintain
a constant temperature of air leaving the unit, usually
55ºF to 60ºF.
When refrigerant is used as the cooling source, it enters
the coil in liquid form from a condensing unit and provides cooling by a process called ‘direct expansion’. The
liquid refrigerant evaporates as the warmer air moves
across the coil, removing heat from the air during the
process. The evaporated refrigerant is then compressed
in the condensing unit, which also houses the condensing coil where the heat is rejected to the outside. Control
of the coil capacity is typically by means of a series of
Design Considerations
In order to insure predicted coil performance, air distribution must be uniform. There are two design checks
for this:
1. ‘45 degree rule’ – This rule states that the performance of the coil will not be affected as long as the
diffusion angle from the most restrictive block-off to
the finned portion of the coil is 45 degrees or less.
This rule holds true unless there are unusual flow
fields, caused by such components as upstream
fans or mixing boxes where not applied properly.
2. ‘Uniform pressure rule’ – This rule states that the
performance of the coil will not be affected as long as
the maximum difference in upstream, downstream,
and combined static pressure due to local velocity
pressure at any one point on the coil compared to
another point that does not exceed 10 percent of
the pressure drop through the coil. The basis for
this rule is that the flow rate through the coils at any
one point is a function of the local upstream and
downstream pressures, and if pressure differences
are small, distribution will be uniform.
Literature Reference — See “DX Piping Guide” – Form 050.40-ES2
20
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
SOLUTION SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION
FAN SEGMENTS
• FS – Supply
• Forward Curved
• Airfoil
• Industrial Airfoil
• SWSI Plenum
(Belt and Direct Drive)
• FR – Return
• Forward Curved
• Airfoil
• Industrial Airfoil
• SWSI Plenum
(Belt and Direct Drive)
• FE – Exhaust
• Forward Curved
• Airfoil
• Industrial Airfoil
HEAT SEGMENTS
• IC – Integral Face & Bypass Coil
• IG – Indirect Gas Fired Furnace
• EH – Electric Heater
ENERGY RECOVERY
• ER – Energy Recovery
FILTER SEGMENTS
• FF – Flat Filter (2” or 4”)
• AF – Angle Filter (2” & 4”)
• RF – High Efficiency Filter
• Rigid Filter (12”)
• Bag Filter (21”)
• Mini-Pleat Filter (4”)
• HF – HEPA Filter
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
• VP – Vertical Plenum
• DP – Discharge Plenum
• TN – Turning Plenum
• DI – Diffuser
• XA – Access segment
• AB- Air Blender
• EB – External Bypass
• IB – Internal Bypass
• FD – Face Damper
• AT – Attenuator
• HM - Humidifier
• UV - UVC Lamps
INLET SEGMENTS
• MB – Mixing Box
• FM – Filter/Mixing Box
• EF – Filter/Economizer
• EE – Economizer
• IP – Inlet Plenum
• VE – Vertical Economizer
• VF – Vertical Filter/Economizer
COIL SEGMENTS
• CC – Cooling Coil
• HC – Heating Coil
• VC – Vertical Coil
• MZ - Multizone
Unit & Coil Hand Identification
FAN SECTION
RIGHT
REAR
RIGHT HAND (RH)
COIL CONNECTION
LEFT HAND (LH)
COIL CONNECTION
RETURN AIR
LEFT
OUTSIDE AIR
INLET SECTION
DRIVE HAND AND COIL HAND DETERMINED
BY FACING THE INLET SECTION
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FRONT
21
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
SINGLE FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE
Fan Applications
Fan segments are available as supply, return and or exhaust applications. Unit configurations have a segment option of utilizing a single fan or a dual fan arrangement. Isolation consists of 1" or 2" springs with a seismic snubber
option. Thrust restraints and OSHA belt guards are available as required.
Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI)
• Forward Curve or Airfoil centrifugal
• Belt Driven
Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI)
• Airfoil plenum
• Belt Drive or Direct Drive
Bearing options for fans with lubricating bearings: (refer
to Notes & Options)
• Extended Lube Line
• External Lube Line
In most fan systems a segment with a single fan is
adequate for the required system design and rating.
Methods of control can vary and may include dampers
or variable speed drives. Also included in a single fan
design may be the allowance for future expansions.
In some situations, there may be a need for a system design using multiple fans in a cabinet. The following are some
reasons to consider a dual fan arrangement:
Dual Fan Considerations
1. One fan may be too large and not fit into the desired
space, or it may weigh too much if supported on
upper levels.
2. The required operating range of the system may
necessitate multiple fans instead of one large fan
controlled over a wide operating range.
4. Critical systems are often equipped with redundant
or back-up fans in case of a fire or accident or some
other emergency that requires a sudden increase in
flow. Redundant fans are also used to eliminate downtime during fan maintenance.
5. Some systems for process applications may require
pressures that are greater than a single fan can produce or when noise may be a special concern.
3. Multiple fans for capacity control may be more economical if cost of operation is critical, especially at
very low flow rates for long time intervals.
Dual Fan Applications
Solution dual fan application methods include 50/50 where both fans operate together to share the load equally or
100/100 where only one fan at a time is in operation.
• In a 50/50 application, the failure of one fan will result in a condition where the other fan will continue
to operate. The single fan will provide partial load
capabilities
• In a 100/100 application, the failure of one fan will
result in the operation of the other (standby) fan to
provide full capacity
Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘AHU Dual Fan Options’ - Form 102.20-AG17
22
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Door and Discharge Locations
Fan and fan motor may be oriented in the fan
segment. Consideration must be given to which
orientation is used where. Upstream/downstream
usage follow.
Where Doors are used:
Rear/rear-inverted discharge – Upstream
Top/bottom discharge – Downstream
Front/front inverted discharge – Downstream
Top-inverted/bottom-inverted discharge –
Upstream
FRONT (F)
REAR (R)
TOP (T)
BOTTOM (B)
HINGES
DOOR
HINGES
FRONT INVERTED (FI)
REAR INVERTED (RI)
HINGES
HINGES
DOOR
DOOR
DOOR
TOP INVERTED (TI)
BOTTOM INVERTD (BI)
HINGES
HINGES
DOOR
HINGES
HINGES
DOOR
DOOR
DOOR
AIRFLOW
JOHNSON CONTROLS
23
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
SINGLE FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE
Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI) Options – Belt Drive
Fan and fan motor may be oriented in the fan segments as shown. Consideration must be given to which orientation
is used where. Upstream/downstream images shown below.
Motor Beside
Motor Behind
Notes & Options (DWDI)
1. If a discharge plenum is immediately downstream of a fan
section and the discharge plenum has a top discharge, the fan
section will be rear inverted discharge.
2. If the discharge plenum has a rear, side or bottom discharge,
the fan will be rear discharge.
3. When a diffuser is ordered immediately downstream of a fan
section, the fan will be rear or rear inverted discharge.
Fan type available
•
Forward Curve centrifugal
•
Airfoil centrifugal
Class I (S) construction
•
Permanently sealed bearings
•
Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 18x18 (Forward Curve)
4. Door width is sized to remove max HP motor with connection
box removed.
Class 1 Construction
NOTE: Doors follow motor location. See door locations illustration
on page 23.
Class II construction
•
Lubricating bearings
•
Fan sizes: 20x15 thru 40x40
•
Lubricating bearings
•
Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 40x40
Thrust restraints are optional for rear and front discharge airfoil fans
only.
24
•
Not available for FC fans.
•
Required for AF with TSP over 6”
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI) Options
Fan and fan motor may be oriented in the fan segments as shown. Consideration must be given to which orientation
is used where. Upstream/downstream images shown below.
Belt Drive
Direct Drive
Notes & Options (SWSI)
1. The plenum fan segments can accommodate multiple duct
outlets, thus reducing the amount of field duct work and
transitions.
3. Fan discharge locations - rear, front, bottom, top, left and right.
2. When any filter segment (EF, FM, FF, AF, RF, or HF) or coil
segment (CC or HC) is located upstream of a FS-SWSI,
FR-SWSI or FE-SWSI, sufficient transition length will be
required between the FS segment and the filter segment.
5. Thrust restraints are required with TSP over 3”.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
4. Single Width, Single-Inlet (SWSI) air foil plenum fans are
available as Class I, II & III. (with lubricating bearings)
25
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
DUAL FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE
Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI) Options – Belt Drive
Fan type available:
• Forward Curve centrifugal
• Airfoil centrifugal
Class I (S) construction
• Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 18x18 (Forward Curve)
Class 1 construction
• Fan sizes: 20x15 thru 22x22
Motor Behind
Class II construction
• Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 22x22
DWDI motor location – Behind only
Notes & Options
Access doors are provided on both sides of the segment.
•
Allow sufficient access-to and clearance-around the segment
for motor removal from either side.
Separation Panel Option
•
DWDI option is mounted on fan discharge.
•
Note: Not available with fan exhaust (FE)
•
Option is required with 100 %/100 % method.
Options include (depending on type of fan):
Optional safeguard when servicing requires that the system be
in a running status. A separation panel is positioned between
the fans.
1. Manual sliding panel
2. Back-draft damper with counter balance
3. Mechanical Control damper
Flow Isolation Options
•
•
Optional isolation method to prevent air from an energized fan
going back through a fan that is not energized.
DUAL FAN
WITH DISCHARGE
DAMPERS
DUAL FAN
WITH SLIDING
PANEL
DUAL FAN
WITH NO
DAMPER
DAMPER
FS
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
SLIDING
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
DAMPER
DAMPER
FR
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
SLIDING
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
DAMPER
NOTES:
FE
26
1. DAMPER OPTIONS ARE ONLY
AVAILABLE FOR FRONT/FRONT INVERTED/
REAR/REAR INVERTED DISCHARGE.
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
DIRECTION OF AIRFLOW
2. DAMPERS OPTIONS ARE NOT
AVAILABLE FOR TOP/TOP INVERTED/
BOTTOM/BOTTOM INVERTED DISCHARGE.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI) Options – Belt-Drive or Direct Drive
Fan type available:
• Standard Airfoil (AF) 10" – 30"
• *Industrial Airfoil (AF) 12" – 30"
• Class I, II, *III
SWSI motor location:
• 10" to 16" fans - behind motor only
• 18" to 30" fans -top motor only
• Fans with top motor location will require thrust
restraint
Notes & Options
Access doors are provided on both sides of the segment.
•
Allow sufficient access-to and clearance-around the segment
for motor removal from either side.
Separation Panel Option
•
SWSI option is mounted on fan inlet.
•
Note: Not available with fan exhaust (FE)
•
Option is required with 100 %/100 % method.
Options include (depending on type of fan):
Optional safeguard when servicing requires that the system be
in a running status. A separation panel is positioned between
the fans.
1. Manual sliding panel
2. Back-draft damper with counter balance
3. Mechanical Control damper
Flow Isolation Options
•
•
Optional isolation method to prevent air from an energized fan
going back through a fan that is not energized.
DUAL FAN
WITH SLIDING
PANEL
DUAL FAN
WITH NO
DAMPER
DUAL FAN
WITH INLET
DAMPERS
DAMPER
FS
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
SLIDING
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
DAMPER
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
FR
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
SLIDING
WALL
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
DAMPER
INLET
DAMPER
1 WHEEL
DIAMETER
FE
JOHNSON CONTROLS
OPTIONAL
ISOLATION
WALL
DIRECTION OF AIRFLOW
27
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE
SWSI Plenum vs. DWDI Housed Fan Application
Velocity Profile:
SWSI Plenum airfoil fans offer superior performance
for many applications. Typical concerns with fan performance are efficiency, noise, and air velocity profile
through components. Plenum fans offer advantages
for all three concerns. Additionally, these fans provide
flexibility with outlet configurations, reduced mechanical
space footprint, and the benefit of direct-drive.
Due to the relatively small outlet/blast area of housed
DWDI fans, an air diffuser must be applied to the discharge of the fan to obtain an acceptable velocity profile
through the next component. Air diffusers add static
pressure which decreases fan efficiency and increases
fan noise levels. SWSI plenum fans positively pressurize
the entire cabinet, they do not require a diffuser with its
associated performance losses.
Efficiency:
DWDI housed fans use a scroll to increase their efficiency. However, optimizing this fan requires a process
referred to as “static regain”. Housed fans are tested
with an outlet duct of 2.5 to 3.5 times the wheel diameter in length. This outlet duct allows the “static regain”
process, where velocity pressure is converted to static
pressure. Housed fans applied without this outlet duct
will require a system effect factor (SEF) which decreases
the fan efficiency. Housed fans in blow-through positions
will also require an air diffuser which decreases the efficiency further. The combination of these two system
effects brings even the best housed DWDI airfoil fan
efficiency to, or below that, of the SWSI plenum fan,
thereby eliminating the benefit of the fan scroll.
Noise:
Plenum fans have the benefit of effectively utilizing the
entire unit as the fan housing, which offers superior attenuation. The same factors that decrease the housed
fan’s efficiency discussed above also increase the noise
level of the housed fan. Also, since the SWSI plenum
fan has no scroll, typically there is room within the air
handling unit for a larger wheel (33” SWSI plenum vs. 27”
DWDI housed, for example), which generally produces
better sound characteristics. For design pressures at or
below 6.00 in. W.C., it is very common to see supply air
sound power levels lower when using a SWSI plenum
airfoil fan instead of the DWDI housed airfoil fan. Additionally, perforated liners may be used in plenum fan
sections for greater attenuation.
28
Outlet Flexibility:
SWSI Plenum fans serve to pressure the entire fan plenum, allowing for multiple duct take-off from the AHU.
Additionally, these openings can be tailored to match
virtually any duct configuration, be it rectangular or round
/ flat-oval with bellmouth fittings for improved acoustic
and optimized pressure drop performance.
Mechanical Space Optimization:
A housed DWDI fan requires a straight run of duct per
AMCA guidelines at the outlet of the fan before elbows
can be applied. This constraint imposes restrictions on
duct layout and mechanical space design which generally increase overall footprint requirements. The ducted
take-offs from pressurized plenums, as in the case of
a SWSI plenum fan, does not have a requirement for a
straight run and affords greater flexibility to the architect
and engineer in ductwork design.
Direct-Drive Benefit:
Specialty housed DWDI fans can be used in direct-drive
arrangements, where the fan wheel is directly mounted
onto the motor shaft, most-typically, housed fans are
driven by a belt and sheave system. Belt-drive systems
typically allow for 3-5% of efficiency loss and impose
maintenance requirements not present in direct-drive
systems. Additionally, belts wear and give off debris in
the form of belt dust. Anymore, discerning engineer’s
apply direct-driven SWSI plenum fans with VFD’s
for efficient variable air volume duty and trouble-free
maintenance.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Fan Motor Control Methods
Motor control options can be explained as any one of the 3 items described below.
Disconnect
• Low Cost
This is a device for the source of power (line voltage
as provided through the building electrical utility)
from the controlled device (motor).
• Constant Volume
Across-the-line Starter
• Higher Cost
Motor Controller will provide a start / stop operation
of a motor. An integral disconnect (shall incorporate
a “lockout/tag-out” system) shall provide disconnecting of “line side” power from the electrical utility
system.
• Constant Volume
• No BAS control needed
• Start/Stop controlled remotely
• Thermal Overload Protection
• Under/over Voltage Relay
• Disconnect Option - Fused only
The motor controller will also contain the proper
short circuit and thermal overload protection for the
motor that it is controlling.
Indoor Enclosure - NEMA 3R
Indoor Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 380, 460, 575
Outdoor Enclosure - NEMA 3R
Outdoor Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 380, 460, 575
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
• Highest Cost
The Air-Modulator type controller varies speed of the
motor by pulse width modulation of the alternating
current waveform.
• Variable Volume
An integral disconnect (incorporates a “lockout/tagout” system) provides disconnecting of “line side”
power from the electrical utility system.
• Start/Stop controlled remotely
• Integrated basic unitary controller (can also integrate with BAS)
• Comprehensive Protection
• Disconnect Options -Fused, Non-fused, or None
Indoor Enclosure - NEMA 1
This motor controller will also contain the proper
short circuit and thermal overload protection for the
motor that it is controlling.
Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 460
Outdoor Enclosure - NEMA 3R
Outdoor Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 380, 460, 575
Literature Reference — See Engineering Guide – ‘Air Modulators’ – Form 100.42-EG1
JOHNSON CONTROLS
29
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
COIL SEGMENT – CC, HC AND VC
Cooling Coil – (CC)
When cooling 100% OA there are precautions required.
Summer design conditions are such that when air is
cooled down to normal coil leaving temperatures, there is
a considerable amount of condensate generated. Many
applications suggest cooling coils should be selected
for an air velocity under 500 FPM. If the unit is selected
as a 100% OA application, the drainage area for larger
face area coils will be increased to properly compensate
for the probable condensate.
Notes & Options
Coils
•
Door
A combination of Water and DX coils in the same segment
requires all coils to be of the same tube diameter.
•
Multiple Water coils configured in the same segment must be
of the same tube diameter.
•
Steam coils may be configured with 5/8” tube coils. A spacer
must be used between a steam coil and any water coil or DX
coil.
•
Usual door location is drive side
•
With pipe chase, the door is always opposite the pipe chase
IAQ drain pans material options:
Liner – Galvanized or Stainless Steel
Headers
•
Usual header location is drive side.
•
All headers in the same segment must exit the unit on the
same side.
Heating Coil – (HC)
When heating only is required the heating coil segment
is an excellent minimally sized housing which shall accommodate a single heating coil. Coils are offered with
left or right hand connections. Coils will be individually
mounted and easily removable.
Coil segment panels (side panels and top panel) shall
be easily removable to allow for removal and replacement of coils, without affecting the structural integrity
of the unit.
Notes & Options
Coils
•
•
Doors
Only hot water and steam coils are available in the HC segment.
Only one coil (hot water or steam) is permitted per segment.
Headers
•
Usual header location is on the drive side.
•
Doors are not available.
Drain pans
•
Auxiliary drain pan is optional.
•
Usual drain location is header side.
•
The drain is always opposite the pipe chase.
Literature Reference — See Service Guide – ‘Field Assembly ad Disassembly Indoor/Outdoor’ –
Form 102.20-FA1 & Installation Manual Form 102.20-NOM1
30
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Vertical Coil – (VC)
SIDE VIEW
This segment shall provide for a 90-degree change in
airflow direction from horizontal to vertical, after passing
air through the coil space.
FS
FAN
SEGMENT
Coils are configured for horizontal air flow to minimize
segment length. Drains pans are extended to assure
complete condensate drainage and coil access. Coil
segment panels (side panels) shall be easily removable
to allow for removal and replacement of coils, without
affecting the structural integrity of the unit.
VC
SEGMENT
AIRFLOW
LEFT HAND SHOWN
RIGHT HAND OPPOSITE
CONDENSATE DRAIN
CONNECTION 1 1/4" MPT
Notes & Options
Doors
Coils
All coils located in the same coil segment must have the same
coil hand.
•
Usual door location is on the drive side.
•
Doors are always last in the air stream of the segment
•
Multiple Water coils configured in the same segment must be
of the same tube diameter.
•
With pipe chase, the door is always opposite the pipe chase
•
A combination of Water and DX coils in the same segment
requires all coils to be of the same tube diameter.
•
The steam coil is available for use in the VC segment. Steam
coils may be configured with 5/8” tube coils. A spacer must be
used between a steam coil and any water coil or DX coil.
•
Drain pans
•
IAQ drain pan liner - Galvanized or Stainless Steel
•
Usual drain location is on header side
•
With pipe chase, the drain is always opposite the pipe chase
Headers
•
Usual header location is on the drive side.
•
All headers in the same segment must exit the unit on the
same side.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
31
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
STAGGERED COIL OPTION – CC, HC, AND VC
Staggered Coil configurations are available as an option for both the indoor and outdoor Solution® units. Angled Wall
or Back-to-Back configurations are available in both heating and cooling coil segments.
Angle Wall
Staggered coil design increases coil face area and allows increased CFM without having to increase cabinet
size.
Notes & Options
Coils
follows the ”primary” side of the unit.
•
A staggered coil can not be combined with a non-staggered
coil in the same segment.
•
Each coil bank will be located over a drain pan.
•
Not available as a reduced face coil option.
Controls
•
Optional control valve and valve jack (manifolded together
external of unit).
Headers
•
Coil connections can be on the same side or opposite sides.
•
Optional factory extended piping connections for each coil to
the exterior of the unit.
•
Optional insulation for extended piping.
•
Extended piping does not apply to DX coils.
Drain pans
•
Pan connection hand follows coil hand except for outside units
where the drain connection is opposite the coil hand.
•
If coil connections are on both sides, the drain pan connection
Back-to-Back
Staggered coil design is specifically for a reduced coil
pull distance and for opposite side connections. Two
shorter coils will be used in place of one longer coil.
Notes & Options
Coils
•
•
32
Drain pans
A staggered coil can not be combined with a non-staggered
coil in the same segment.
Not available as a reduced face coil option.
•
The drain pan connection follows the ”primary” side of the unit.
Headers
•
Coil connections can be on the same side or opposite sides.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Multi-zone Segment – (MZ)
HOT DECK DAMPER
(FULL WIDTH)
MZ heating and air conditioning units offer design and
application advantages over various smaller single
zone units. The Solution unit is designed to carry on
that tradition by including a MZ segment into the design
of the unit.
MZ and Dual Deck air-handling units can be configured
for heating and cooling, or cooling and ventilation, or
ventilation and heating applications.
HOT DECK
CC
(COLD DECK)
XA
DI
DWDI < AIR FLOW
-ORSWSI < AIR FLOW
COLD DECK DAMPER
(FULL WIDTH)
Rear or Top discharge MZ configurations:
• The bottom tier is the cold deck and contains a
diffuser and a cooling coil space.
• The top tier is the hot deck and contains a heating
coil mounted horizontally at the upstream side of
the hot deck.
Air enters the diffuser then splits into two streams.
• One stream turns up through the hot deck coil
and exits the rear or top through the hot deck
damper.
• The other stream continues horizontally through
the cooling coil and exits the rear or top through
the cold deck damper.
The MZ unit is optionally available less the zone dampers for use on dual duct or other blow-thru systems. If a
hot deck opening is not required, it may be blanked-off
in the field.
Notes & Options
The MZ segment is for indoor applications only and will be the last
segment in air-stream.
Air pressure drop balance plates shall be used to equalize pressure
drop across the hot and cold deck coils when required.
Discharge options:
•
Top with damper or without damper
•
Rear with damper or without damper
Door is optional for cold deck.
Literature Reference — See Application Guide – ‘Multizone Application of Solution Units’ – Form 102.20-AG12
JOHNSON CONTROLS
33
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
HEATING SEGMENTS
Integral Face & Bypass – (IC)
Applications ideally suited for:
The Integral Face & Bypass coil controls air temperature
while full steam pressure or water flow is maintained in
the coil at all times. The temperature of the discharge
air is controlled by proportioning the entering air through
the multiple heating and by pass channels.
1. Make-up Air
2. Combustion Air Make-up
3. Penthouse units
4. Air conditioning preheat and
heating/ventilating units.
IFB
RACEWAY
WIREWAY
AIRFLOW
LEFT HAND SHOWN
RIGHT HAND OPPOSITE
Features & Benefits:
VIFB COIL CONECTIONS
IFB COIL CONNECTIONS
• Maximum freeze protection
• Constant volume
J
L
• Minimum temperature
override
K
LE
• Minimum stratification
VIFB
• Accurate temperature
control
Notes & Options
1. Coil connections must be located opposite the access door.
Doors:
2. All piping to be supplied by field, coil connections are internal
from factory.
Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments.
3. Optional pipe chase with outdoor units
A door is required in the immediate downstream segment from the
IC segment.
4. Pipe chase is not intended for trapping or piping, but for the
connections only.
Headers:
Usual header location is on the drive side. Header location must
be opposite the access door.
Coils:
Only hot water and steam applications are available for this segment.
34
Auxiliary Drain pans:
An auxiliary drain pan is optional.
Usual drain location:
•
With pipe chase, the drain is always opposite the pipe chase
•
IFB on header side
•
VIFB on left side of the unit
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Indirect Gas-Fired Furnace – (IG)
HEAT EX.
CONTROL
PANEL
DOOR
I.D. FAN
Notes & Options
The IG segment must be positive pressure. (Fan segment is not allowed downstream of the IG Segment.)
Furnaces in VAV applications are designed to be used only with 100%
supply fan airflow.
Furnace includes a series stainless steel primary heat exchanger. A
secondary stainless steel heat exchanger is also included.
– An access door is required upstream of any IG segment.
– Gas pipe train options are available
– Use of furnace in reduced airflow operation may result in serious damage to equipment and may be hazardous.
The IG segment pipe chase is a single pipe chase that covers only
the IG segment.
– Indirect Gas-Fired Furnace Maximum Temperature rise = 90F
– Indirect Gas-Fired Furnace Maximum A.P.D. = 2.00” W.C.
– The pipe chase is not intended for trapping or piping, but for
the connections only.
– The Maximum Temperature at the IG segment discharge =
190F
– Pipe chase enclosure is optional for indoor units and required
for Outdoor units.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
35
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
HEATING SEGMENTS
Turndown Examples and Guidelines – (IG)
Choosing Considerations
Description
When choosing the proper turn down three issues should
be considered.
Indirect Fired Gas Heater section consists of the stainless steel primary and secondary heat exchanger with
the power burner design. The basic design allows the
power burner to inject the correct ratio of air and gas into
the primary heat exchanger where the main combustion
occurs. The heated products of combustion then pass
through the multiple secondary tubes heating each tube
for maximum heat transfer. The products of combustion
then pass to the inducer draft fan and through the flue.
The air is heated by passing around the primary and
secondary tubes for optimal heat transfer. The heater
is designed for 80% efficiency.
• The furnace comes wired with all necessary
safety controls and valves installed.
• The controls vary based on the BTU level and
Insurance Requirements selected.
• These units are designed to handle Natural Gas
as a standard.
• The gas pressure available at the unit needs to be
considered when ordering the equipment.
1. Greater modulation provides improved temperature
control. If the furnace is modulated to its minimum
fire position, and controls determine there is too
much furnace capacity, then the furnace is staged
on and off, on carefully chosen time delays, to satisfy
the light load heating requirements. The 3-1 option is
generally sufficient particularly if design temperature
rise does not exceed 30-40 degrees.
2. The greater the range of modulation the greater
the cost.
3. Experience requires that a furnace should not turn
down to a temperature rise less than 5-8 degrees.
Greater modulation decreases the flue stack temperature at low fire, increases the amount of condensation,
and can decrease the life of the heat exchanger even
though all Solution furnaces utilizes a stainless steel
primary and stainless steel secondary heat exchanger
tubes along with condensate drains.
The condensate line must be adequately sized, trapped,
along with drainage of the condensate per local code.
Equations:
• BTU Output Required = CFM x 1.08 x Temperature Rise Required
• BTU Input = BTU Output ÷ .80
The Solution furnaces are available with burner firing
arrangements:
• 3-1 MODULATION: The burner will modulate for
100% - 33% of full fire
• 10-1 MODULATION: The burner will modulate
from 100% - 10% of full fire
• 25-1 MODULATION: The burner will modulate
from 100% - 4% of full fire
Literature Reference — See Installation Operation Manual – Form 102.20-NOM1
36
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Electric Heat – (EH)
The EH segment can be installed in either a draw
through or blow through arrangement.
Remote Mounted terminal panels
• An electric heat control panel may be selected as
a remote panel.
• In this case the panel will be shipped separate to
the customer for field installation.
An optional wide access door may be ordered on the
opposite side of the electric heater control panel.
An SCR Controller is available on all heaters with a
height dimension greater than 26.5”.
Delta T =
kW x 3160
CFM
Notes & Options
•
Electric heaters are of “open coil” construction, with 80% nickel,
20% chromium coil elements machine crimped to stainless steel
terminals and amply supported on ceramic bushing isolators.
Open coil heaters are furnished with a disk-type, automatic reset
thermal cutout for primary over-temperature protection. Heaters
are also being furnished with disk-type, load-carrying manual
reset thermal cutouts, factory wired in series with heater stages
for secondary protection.
•
Heaters are rated for the voltage, phase and number of heating
stages indicated in the schedule. All three-phase heaters will
have equal, balanced, three-phase stages.
•
Finned tubular construction - optional
JOHNSON CONTROLS
•
All internal wiring shall be stranded copper with 105°C minimum
insulation and shall be terminated in crimped connectors or box
lugs.
•
Power and control terminal blocks shall be provided and clearly
marked for all field wiring and shall be sized for installation of
75°C copper wire rated in accordance with NEC Table 310-16,
not more than three conductors in a conduit.
•
Heaters shall be furnished with built-in fuses per NEC. Heaters
with loads greater than 48 amps will be furnished with built-in
fusing. Heaters shall be sub-circuited into a maximum of 48
amps per circuit. Low resistance single element fuses will be
mounted in phenolic fuse blocks fitted with extra tension springs
to assure cool connections. Fuses shall be sized at least 125%
of the load.
37
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
HEATING SEGMENTS
Typical Applications
An electric heating system will use either an open wire
element or an element encased in a sheathed ceramic
material. For most applications either construction can
be used, however, in applications with potentially high
humidity (i.e.100% OA application), the encased element will have a longer life expectancy and is recommended.
Selection of the proper unit, heating load and temperature control system is dependent on the application of
the unit.
1. Make-up Air Unit is used for heating 100% OA air
to the indoor design temperature with a typical discharge temperature of 55-70° F.
2. Space Heating Unit is used for heating 100% RA
from the conditioned space to make up for building
heat loss.
3. Combination Make-up Air & Space Heating
is used to heat OA & RA combined through a
mixing box.
Optional Control Methods
1. Proportional step control – multi-staging control of
circuits
2. SCR Controller – a time proportioning type controller
that modulates the heater and supplies the exact
amount of power to match the heat demand. Precision controlled from zero to 100% in direct response
to the modulating thermostat signal system. 100%
step-less and noise-less operation. *Note – SCR’s
are limited to a maximum KW. Multiple SCR’s may
be applied to larger heaters. Multiple SCR’s do not
imply full face control. See “Special Application
Considerations”.
3. Vernier Proportional Control – used on larger KW
heaters where very close heat control is required.
The system employs a combination of SCR and non-
38
SCR steps. This is accomplished by satisfying most
of the heat requirement through the non-SCR steps
and then the last portion of the heat requirement is
“fine-tuned” by the modulating SCR controller. The
SCR step is nominally equal to the KW of a non-SCR
step to provide an even transition between steps.
*Special Application Considerations:
(contact factory for special applications)
It is always important to ensure the proper control
method so that the heater effectively treats the required
amount of outdoor air regardless of temperature, without risking over heating and or tripping the low limit
thermostat.
1. In applications where air flow varies and temperature
ranges are extreme, the face area of the heater
should be designed for full face simultaneous control, thus avoiding problems of air and temperature
stratification. This is extremely relevant on heaters
with large face areas. The full face control method,
for a partial of fully active electric heat coil, eliminates the concern of air bypass through inactive
circuits. Thus, almost any load split can be safely
achieved.
2. With lower airflows under VFD control, one must
assure there is even air flow across the face area of
the heater. This may require special consideration
of the air-inlet position and size, (i.e. inlet to be
centered on the front of the unit).
a. Instability in temperature can easily occur if the
variation in the air flow characteristic is excessive. Large temperature variations can occur
as specific stages and circuits are modulated
on and off. In extreme cases, this instability can
cascade and cause extreme over-heating on the
complete heater face or in spots of the heater
face due to low-air-flow augmented by unit inlet
opening locations and distance.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Recommended Safety Control Options:
EXAMPLE:
A fan relay and an airflow switch provide added protection for applications listed above.
Determine whether the minimum air velocity requirement
is met for a 108 kW heater installed for an air handling
unit operating at 18,000cfm at a maximum inlet temperature of 65°F.
– Fan relay provides the advantage of being a positive electrical interlock between the fan and the
heater.
– Airflow switch is normally used to prevent a
heater from operating unless air is flowing.
Minimum Air Flows
Electric heaters differ from steam or hot water coils in
that the heat output is constant as long as the heater
is energized. Therefore, sufficient air flow must be provided to prevent overheating and nuisance tripping of
the thermal cutouts.
The minimum required velocity is determined from the
graph on the basis of entering air temperature and watts
per square foot of cross segmental heating coil area.
1. Heating Coil Area = 33 sq. ft.
2. kW / sq ft. = 108 kW = 3.3 kW / sq. ft. 33 sq. ft.
3. Use top curve (below 80°F inlet air). Find 3.3 kW
per square foot on the vertical axis.
Read the minimum face velocity required, which
in this case is 250 feet per minute (fpm).
4. AHU FV = 18,000 cfm = 545 fpm 33 sq. ft.
Since 545 FPM exceeds the minimum velocity requirement of 250 FPM, this installation is satisfactory for
heater operation.
Equations: Use these formulas as rough guidelines for
estimating purposes only:
EQUATION 1: MBH = kW x 3.412
EQUATION 2: ▲T = kW x 3160
Scfm
EQUATION 3: Actual kW = Rated kW x V actual
V rated
EQUATION 4: Load Amps = kW x 1000
V x 1.732
Literature Reference — See Application Guide ‘Electric Heaters for Air Handling Units’ – Form 102.20-AG4
JOHNSON CONTROLS
39
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
ENERGY RECOVERY – ER
Energy Recovery
An HVAC system that utilizes energy recovery is more
energy efficient, improves humidity control, and reduces
peak demand charges.
Solution Energy Recovery wheels:
– Improve building HVAC system performance by
efficiently preconditioning the outdoor air supply.
The ER segment transfers heat & humidity from adjacent
exhaust air & outside air streams.
– Improves HVAC system efficiency up to 40%
Horizontal wheel segment
– Improves de-humidification capacity up to 75%
Thermal performance is certified by the manufacturer
in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 84, Method of
Testing Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers and ARI Standard
1060, Rating Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Ventilation
Equipment
HEATWHEEL MOTOR
Vertical wheel segment
Notes & Options
ER has only one type of configuration – supply air fan draw-thru and
exhaust air fan draw-thru for indoor and outdoor applications.
1. Indoor - Vertical wheel segment with stacked construction
a. All doors are usually on drive side with two on top tier
(both sides of wheel) and two on bottom tier (both sides of
wheel).
2. Indoor and Outdoor - Horizontal wheel segment with single
tier construction
Wheel control
•
Damper control
•
VFD
– Auxiliary drain pan – none
– Purge function – Optional
a. Outside Air inlet is located on both sides of segment
b. Access door is usually on drive side for horizontal wheel
segments.
Literature Reference — See Application Guide “Energy Recovery Wheels” – Form 102.20-AG6
40
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
FILTER SEGMENTS – AF, FF, RF AND HF
Application and Options Table
Application: (AF)
– Pre-filter side-load negative pressure
configuration
Side loading only
– Single stage filtration
AIRFLOW
Options:
– Auxiliary Drain pan options
– 2” & 4” Low Efficient media
– 4” High Efficient media
AF - ANGLE FILTER
Side loading only
AIRFLOW
Application: (FF)
Options:
– Pre-filter side-load negative pressure
configuration
– Auxiliary Drain pan
– Single stage filtration
– Low Efficient media
Application: (RF)
Options:
– 2” & 4” media
FF - FLAT FILTER
Rear, Front or side loading
(length includes 2" prefilter)
AIRFLOW
– Pre filter negative pressure configura- – 2-stage filtration.
tions:
– Auxiliary Drain pan
Side-load, front load and rear load
– 4” & 12” High Efficient Media
– Final filter positive pressure configu(65%-95%)
rations:
Front-load (upstream access required)
Rear-load (downstream access required)
Side-load
RF - RIGID FILTER
Application: (Bag)
Rear, Front or side loading
(length includes 2" prefilter)
AIRFLOW
Options:
– Pre filter negative pressure configura- – 2-stage filtration.
tions:
– Auxiliary Drain pan
Side-load, front load and rear load
– High Efficient Media (65%-95%)
– Final filter positive pressure configurations:
Front-load (upstream access required)
Rear-load (downstream access required)
Side-load
RF - BAG FILTER
Application: (HF)
Front loading
AIRFLOW
– Face velocity - maximum 500 fpm
– Pre filter negative pressure configura- – Single stage filtration
tions:
Options:
Front-load (upstream access re– Auxiliary Drain-pan
quired)
– Media efficiency 99.97% & 99.99%
– Final filter positive pressure configurations: Front-load (upstream access
required)
HF - HEPA FILTER
Caution – Never place a blow-thru final filter segment directly downstream of a cooling coil with a saturated leaving air temperature. Once the relative humidity has reached 100%, adiabatic cooling applies to the expanding air and associated temperature drop. Moisture deposits may form on final filters.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
41
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
FILTER SEGMENTS – AF, FF, RF AND HF
Mechanical Air Filters
ASHRAE 52.2 Particle Size Ranges
Mechanical air filters remove dust by capturing it on
the filter medium, the filter element. A mechanical air
filter is any type of dry media filter. All of the throwaway
air filters used in HVAC systems and Air Handlers are
mechanical air filters. Any man made or natural fiber
filter is a mechanical air filter. This includes HEPA air
filters as well.
Range
Size (in microns) Group
1
0.30 to 0.40
E1
2
0.40 to 0.55
E1
3
0.55 to 0.70
E1
4
0.70 to 1.00
E1
5
1.00 to 1.30
E2
Comparing Various Air Filters To MERV Ratings
6
1.30 to 1.60
E2
Dry-media filters exhibit an increase in efficiency as they
collect dirt and dust. A dry media filter is at the lowest
efficiency rating when it is ‘clean’. The increase in efficiency corresponds to a decrease in open area as the
media collects fibers and particles. In dust critical environments the user typically can’t wait for the increased
efficiency. As a result of this type issue, ASHRAE 52.2
defined the minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV)
to describe filter performance.
7
1.60 to 2.20
E2
8
2.20 to 3.00
E2
The MERV is based on the worst case performance of
a filter through all six stages of dust loading and all particles 0.3-10 microns. Because the rating represents the
worst-case performance, end users can use it to assure
performance in applications where a maximum particle
count must be maintained over the filter’s entire life.
ASHRAE 52.1 arrestance and dust-spot tests used either weights or times to generate a ratio, or efficiency.
This efficiency was an easy way to describe a filter’s performance. Thus, a 50 percent filter would stop a nominal
50 percent of the particles in the air stream as averaged
over the test period. Unfortunately, this average over
time told a user nothing about performance for a specific
particle size at a specific stage in a filter’s life.
ASHRAE Standard 52.2 rates filter arrestance differently.
Standard 52.2 testing protocol includes the reliable and
consistent testing of filter performance on particles of nominal 0.3-10 microns in diameter. This testing provides an
accurate and clear description of arrestance at each stage,
rather than the average produced by Standard 52.1.
9
3.00 to 4.00
E3
10
4.00 to 5.50
E3
11
5.50 to 7.00
E3
12
7.00 to 10.00
E3
The efficiency of the filter is measured on 12 particle size
ranges. The twelve size ranges are then placed in three
larger groups (E1, E2, E3) and the percentages in each
group are averaged
MERV
Value
Group 1
Av. Eff.%
0.3 to 1
Group 2
Av. Eff.%
1 to 3
Group 3
Av. Eff.%
3 to 10
1
n/a
n/a
E3<20
2
n/a
n/a
E3<20
3
n/a
n/a
E3<20
4
n/a
n/a
E3<20
5
n/a
n/a
20<35
6
n/a
n/a
35<50
7
n/a
n/a
50<70
8
n/a
n/a
70
9
n/a
E2<50
85
10
n/a
50<65
85
11
n/a
65<80
85
12
n/a
80
90
13
E1<75
90
90
14
75<85
90
90
15
85<95
90
90
16
95
95
95
The average is called the Particle Size Efficiency which
is used to determine the Minimum Efficiency Reporting
Value (MERV).
42
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
MERV Analysis
The required MERV rating for filters will follow directly
from the maximum allowable particle concentrations in
the three bands of 0.3-1.0 microns, 1.0-3.0 microns and
3.0-10.0 microns.
The following comparisons are not meant to be definitive:
MERV
Particle
Rating
Size
Applications
Type
1-4
>10 um
Residential
Permanent
Light Commercial
Metal
Equipment
Foam
1. A rating of MERV 10 corresponds to 50-65 percent
efficiency for particles 1-3 microns and above 85
percent efficiency for particles 3-10 microns.
2. A rating of MERV 13 corresponds to less than 75
percent arrestance efficiency for particles 0.3-1
microns, above 90 percent efficiency for particles
1-3 microns, and above 90 percent efficiency for
particles 3-10 microns.
3. A rating of MERV 15 corresponds to 85-95 percent
arrestance efficiency for particles 0.3-1.0 microns,
above 90 percent efficiency for particles 1-3 microns, and above 90 percent efficiency for particles
3-10 microns.
4. Ratings of MERV 16 to MERV 20 correspond to
HEPA and ULPA filters.
Note: The entire list of MERV ratings based on particle arrestance efficiency is found in Table 12-1 of Standard 52-2.
As an example, if you are concerned with pulling out a
high percentage of molds, mold varies in size from about
4 microns to 40 microns.
Filter
Fiberglass
Poly Panel
5-8
3 to 10 um
Commercial
Industrial
Pleated
Filters
Better Res.
Paint Booth
9-12
1 to 3 um
Res. – Best
Commercial
13-16
16-20
Telecommunications
Rigid Box
Industrial
Bag
0.3 to 1 um
0.3 um
Best
Pleated
Rigid cell
Rigid Cell
Smoke Removal
Bags
General Surgery
V-Cell
Hospitals
Mini-pleat
Health Care
HEPA /
ULPA
• The greatest numbers of mold spores are less than
10 microns in diameter.
• The chart indicates a MERV 8 filter will pull out at
least an average of 70% of the particles down to 3
microns.
• Pleated filters are available in a MERV 11. The
MERV 11 would give you an average of at least
85% mold removal.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
43
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS – MB, FM, EE, EF, FD, IP, VE AND VF
Mixing Box/Mixing Segment (MB/FM)
ROOF PANEL
Solution has designed a mixing box (MB) which combines fresh air and re-circulated air by means of interconnected dampers.
TOP DAMPER
Solution’s space saving combination filter mixing segment (FM) offers an angle filter as an integral part of
the mixing segment to economically provide filtering
and mixing capability.
FRONT DAMPER
END WALL PANEL
Notes & Options
•
The MB/FM Segment typically must be the first segment in
direction of airflow.
Hood application – only the following outdoor segments are available
•
Access doors are optional.
•
•
Auxiliary drain pans optional except when bottom opening is
selected
Hood Options
•
Combination filter mixing segment (FM) provides a full-height
access door for filter service.
•
Bird screen is standard with all hoods
•
Moisture eliminator is available as an option
•
Variable size openings and dampers are optional.
•
Safety grate option for bottom openings
Note: When the moisture eliminator option is selected the moisture eliminator acts as the bird screen. A separate bird screen will
not be required.
Mixing box (MB or FM) Economizer (EE or EF) outside air
(OA) inlet openings.
Economizer
ECONOMIZER WALL
Solution offers numerous economizer configurations
for various ventilation applications. The economizer is
designed with factory packaged controls in-mind. Correctly set-up economizers will constantly track building
pressurization as well as both indoor and outdoor air
temperatures using transducers, mixed air sensors
and enthalpy control that monitors air temperature and
humidity.
DOOR
DAMPER
DAMPER
ANGLE FILTER ASY
DOOR
Notes & Options
•
The EE or EF segment may be first in the air-stream or may
be used in conjunction with other segments in an economizer
application.
Hood application – only the following outdoor segments are available with hoods
•
Fan Exhaust (FE) discharge openings
•
Economizer (EE or EF) exhaust air (EA) discharge openings
44
Hood Options
•
Bird screen is standard with all hoods
•
Moisture eliminator is available as an option
Note: When the moisture eliminator option is selected the moisture eliminator acts as the bird screen. A separate bird screen will
not be required.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Vertical Economizer
Solution offers a Vertical Economizer arrangement which consists of tiered segments; top and bottom. Both top and
bottom segments are designed to be of minimum length required. The VE arrangement is designed to be first in the
air-stream unless it is immediately preceded by XA, FR (DWDI), FR (SWSI), FE (DWDI), FE (SWSI).
The VE segment must be configured in a top tier arrangement per the following rules:
1. Only one VE per unit
2. Must be tiered over the MB or FM segment
3. MB or FM segment must have a top damper
General Considerations:
1. VE segment shall be available for all Solution unit
sizes provided engineering rules for stacking allow
the top section of VE segment to be tiered.
2. VE segment shall be designed for the configurations
described in the sketches below.
3. Both top and bottom sections of the VE segment
shall be designed to be of minimum length required.
The design shall allow the two sections of VE segment to be of different lengths.
4. Sound data shall be provided for all configurations
of VE segment.
5. Controls shall be available on VE segment for both
top and bottom sections.
6. Filter option shall be available in the bottom section
of the VE segment similar to FM segment.
7. Doors are available as an option for indoor units
and are required for outdoor units.
Notes & Options
•
VE segment will have the same construction materials as the
MB or FM segment.
•
Auxiliary drain pans optional except when bottom opening is
selected
•
No optional auxiliary drain pain.
•
Variable size openings and dampers are optional.
•
Optional Access Doors & View-ports.
•
Safety grate option for bottom openings
JOHNSON CONTROLS
45
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
MIXING BOX OPTIMIZATION CHART
This Mixing Box Optimization chart provides techniques and suggestions to meet the desired needs for your specific mixing box design process. It is a decision-making process in which the effectiveness of a mixing box must be
considered. Ideally, mixing boxes should provide adequate mixing.
Mixing Box
Assessment
Standard Mixing
Box
with/without
Angle Filter
Mixing
Effectiveness
GOOD APPLICATION
Most effective
Advantages
• Lowest first cost
• Space saving
Disadvantages
• Risk of low mixing effectiveness
• with filter
1. In constant volume system
• with VAV
• Parallel blade control damper
• Risk of nuisance low limit
tripping
• Blade orientation and rotation
promotes mixing
• Risk of stratification
Standard Mixing
Box without filters
and
*Sequenced
Controlled
Dampers
(sequence listed
below)
Standard Mixing
Box
without filters and
Static
Air Mixer (blender)
BETTER APPLICATION
Most effective
1 In VAV system
2. With Min Max damper
3. With opposed blade control
damper
* Sequenced damper control is most
suitable for low air flow – low velocity applications
BEST APPLICATION
Most effective
1. Outside air designs at freezing
and sub-freezing temperatures
2.Constant or VAV systems
*Sequenced opposed control
dampers are recommended for
VAV systems
• Lower first cost
• Mixes outside and return air
more proportionately
• Improves system performance at low flow rates
• Risk of nuisance low limit
tripping
• Risk of possible stratification
• Sequence will add stability
to the control loop
• Greatly improves mixing of
sub-freezing air streams
• Higher first cost among
damper designs
• Greatly reduces, if not elimi- • Increases unit length
nates, stratification in short
• Some additional static
distances
pressure loss
• Works effectively and consistently
*Suggested sequence of operation as follows:
1) Start the fan with the return air damper fully open and the outdoor air damper fully closed.
a) An independent signal shall be sent to the Outdoor air damper
i) Minimum open position
b) An independent signal shall be sent to the Return air damper
i) Full open position
2) The outdoor air damper shall modulate further open to admit additional outdoor air as required to satisfy the (mixed air), (discharge air)
temperature sensor or IAQ requirements.
3) Once the outdoor air damper is fully open, if additional outdoor air is required, the return air damper shall modulate toward its closed
position.
46
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS – MB, FM, EE, EF, FD, IP, VE AND VF
Typical Economizer Application
Building Pressurization
ASHRAE Standards Demanding Economizer Considerations:
Building Pressurization – is defined as the relative air
pressure in a building, as compared to the exterior or ambient air pressure. A design amount of outside air must
be introduced to insure design building ventilation.
ASHRAE 90 - The ‘standard’ details requirements for
a high performance & energy-efficient design of buildings (which includes equipment as part of the building
system).
What is high performance?
• Lower energy usage
• Lower life cycle cost
• Durable
• Healthy
• Productive
How buildings use energy?
• Different building types use it differently
• Occupancy & equipment schedule
• Internal vs. external load dominated buildings
• Building occupants
ASHRAE 62 - The ‘standard’ details Indoor Air Quality
issues with the purpose to establish acceptable ventilation procedures & standard-of care.
What are ventilation procedures?
• Mechanical ventilation systems shall include controls, manual or automatic, that enable the fan
system to operate whenever the spaces served are
occupied
• The system shall be designed to maintain the
minimum outdoor airflow as required under any load
condition
What is a standard-of-care?
• Guidelines to designers addressing contaminant
source control, minimum maintenance activity &
frequency, filtration and managing relative humidity
JOHNSON CONTROLS
This difference in pressure has a large impact on how the
building operates and it can have undesirable if not peculiar impacts on building operations. Over-pressurized
buildings will have doorways which are transformed into
wind tunnels. Under-pressurization will create a building
that has become negatively pressurized and infiltration
makes indoor climate control difficult.
The difference between the amount of OA and EA must
remain constant at all operating conditions to maintain
proper building ventilation and pressurization.
Over Pressurization caused by • Too much OA
• Not enough EA
Results in • Excessive energy consumption
• Perimeter doors opening
Under Pressurization caused by • Too little OA
• Too much EA
Results in • Ventilation problems with occupants
• Excessive building odors
• Poor temperature control (infiltration)
• Excessive energy costs
• Difficulty in opening doors
Knowing how to correct and avoid pressurization problems can prevent minor, inconvenient and comfort related issues from growing into insurmountable problems
and liability issues.
47
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS – MB, FM, EE, EF, FD, IP, VE AND VF
Methods of Pressurization Control
Dedicated Exhaust Fan Economizer -
Full Return Air Fan Economizer -
Fan runs only when economizer opens the OA dampers
Handles pressure losses through
Handles pressure losses through
• Return air system
• Return air system when in exhaust mode
• Exhaust dampers
• Exhaust air path
Supply Fan handles pressure losses through
Building pressurization provides insight in identifying,
diagnosing, correcting and most importantly, avoiding
some unusual building operational problems.
• Outside air dampers
• Mixed air dampers
Economizer Arrangements
TOP
VIEW
ANGLED
MIXING
DAMPER
( 100% OA, 100% EA)
(100% OA, 100% EA)
( 100% OA, 100% EA)
L/R SIDE
DAMPER
SIDE
VIEW
EE - Economizer with
angled mixing damper.
EE - Economizer with vertical
mixing damper. NOTE: Top dampers not available for outdoor units.
LD08032
EF - Filter/Economizer
LD08033
LD08034
TOP
VIEW
SIDE
VIEW
SIDE
VIEW
EE - Inlet/Economizer
VE - Vertical Economizer
(50% OA on each side with barometric exhaust)
NOTE: VF (VerticalFilter Economizer) is available with filtration.
LD08035
Literature Reference — See Application Guide ‘Return & Exhaust Fan Economizers and Building Pressurization’ – Form 100.00-AG3
48
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Face Damper – (FD)
FS
XA
FD
XA
Notes & Options
The FD segment contains a full face damper
•
Face dampers are sized to cover whole components downstream within tunnel.
Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments.
•
The FD is available for both indoor and outdoor applications.
•
The FD can be located first in air stream or last in air stream,
only with indoor applications.
Access is required immediately upstream of the FD segment
to access damper actuator and linkage.
Damper material option:
•
Galvanized
•
Aluminum
Inlet Plenum – (IP)
W
The Inlet Plenum is as its name implies; a segment
used to provide a proper means of air entry into the air
handler.
TOP/BOTTOM
INTAKE
FRONT INTAKE
Openings may be applied to top, bottom, front, left side
and right side.
L
TOP VIEW
L
The variable size opening option allows the opening to
be properly aligned and sized for airflow convergence
and or divergence.
FRONT VIEW
LEFT / RIGHT
SIDE INTAKE
H
SIDE VIEW
Notes & Options
If a plenum fan is used as a return fan and return air is ducted, an IP
segment must be provided upstream of the plenum fan.
•
•
Access Door - Optional
•
Auxiliary Drain Pans – Optional
Dampers are not available as an option
JOHNSON CONTROLS
49
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
Diffuser Segment – (DI)
The diffuser segment is constructed of heavy gauge
galvanized steel with a built-in perforated plate, which
prevents high velocities through the center of the downstream component. This segment is mainly used for
blow-thru type applications immediately after a DWDI
fan or locations where even air distribution across the
unit cross section is a necessity.
Notes & Options
The Diffuser Segment must be placed immediately downstream of
a DWDI fan segment when filters, attenuators, humidifiers, electric
heater and/or coils immediately follow the fan.
•
Auxiliary Drain Pan - Optional
•
Access Door – Optional
Access Segment – (XA)
The Access Segment is a functional segment provided
to allow access-to or inspection-of any component in
adjacent segments. The access segment assists in determining the best segment arrangement for a specific
function and or layout.
It is designed for flexibility with full sized access doors
and variable segment length.
XA
Notes & Options
Access Segments may be used at any point in the unit configuration; positive pressure (blow thru) or negative pressure (draw thru)
configurations.
Access segments may be provided for maintenance, cleaning, service
and or spacing for correct air flow requirements.
50
• Auxiliary Drain Pan - Optional (minimum segment length applies)
• Access Door – Optional (both sides of the unit -minimum segment length applies)
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Vertical Plenum – (VP)
VP
The Vertical Plenum (VP) is a segment designed for
vertical configurations (top tier) with unique discharge
arrangements.
Multiple and variable size supply air openings are available through the VP segment.
The VP segment may be applied as an acoustical
chamber, with perforated panel option, that dampens
low frequency sound. In addition, the air stream expansion reduces turbulence and creates an acoustical end
reflection.
FS
XA
AF
Notes & Options
Discharge locations available are top, front, rear, left side and right
side.
Discharge opening options are rectangular, round and oval.
Doors are optional (Inward opening for positive pressure)
Discharge Plenum – (DP)
The Discharge Plenum (DP) is a segment designed
for horizontal configurations with unique discharge arrangements.
Multiple and variable size supply air openings are available through the DP segment.
The DP segment may be applied as an acoustical
chamber, with perforated panel option, that dampens
low frequency sound. In addition, the air stream expansion reduces turbulence and creates an acoustical end
reflection.
DP
FS
XA
AF
Notes & Options
Discharge locations available are top, bottom, rear, left side and
right side.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
Discharge opening options are rectangular, round and oval.
•
Auxiliary Drain Pan - Optional
•
Access Door – Optional (both sides of the unit - Inward opening for positive pressure)
51
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
Sound Attenuator – (AT)
SOUND
ATTENUATOR
Sound Attenuators are rated for two flow conditions,
FORWARD and REVERSE.
• Forward flow occurs when air and sound-waves
travel in the same direction, as in a supply air duct
or fan discharge.
• Reverse flow occurs when sound-waves and
air travel in opposing directions, as in a typical
return-air system.
Because attenuation values are generally higher in
the first five octave bands in the reverse flow mode,
compared to the forward flow mode, more economical
silencer selections can often be made on the return-air
systems. These phenomena are illustrated below.
RACEWAY ASSEMBLY
BULKHEAD ASSEMBLY
FORWARD FLOW
REVERSE FLOW
Under FORWARD FLOW conditions, highfrequency sound is refracted into the ductsilencer walls.
Under REVERSE FLOW conditions, sound is
refracted away from the walls and toward the
center of the duct-silencer.
Notes & Options
Silencer Length Options:
•
3ft, 5ft, 7ft
Face Velocity
•
Low
•
Ultra Low
Media Types:
Frequency Range
•
Normal
•
Low
Casing Materials:
•
Galvanized
•
Stainless Steel
•
Standard
Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments.
•
Film-lined (Hospital media)
•
None (No media)
When AT segment is located immediate downstream of DWDI fan
segment a Diffuser segment is needed to ensure even airflow distribution.
Literature Reference — See Application Guide ‘Acoustichecks for Air Handling Projects’ – Form 100.00-AG2 &
‘Fundamentals of Acoustics’ – Form 102.20-AG4
52
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Noise & Vibration
Any mechanical device is capable of generating noise
and vibration for a variety of reasons. The air handler
unit noise emanates simultaneously from three distinct
sources: aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical.
Noise generally applies to any problem in which the ears
are the main sensor. Noise is made up of many different
sound frequencies at various loudness levels. Noise
when compared to vibration is similar in that they both
have amplitude and frequency. Usually noise is a much
lower amplitude and energy content which is measured
in db referenced to Watts. Typically noise has a much
wider frequency range and a higher upper limit than
vibration (63Hz – 8KHz)
Vibration generally applies to any problem in which
the hands or touching are the main sensor. Amplitude
is large when there is a problem. It has much greater
energy content with a smaller frequency range (3Hz
– 500Hz)
Noise Considerations and Characteristics
Mechanical and electrical noise sources usually begin
as vibration and are later transferred into airborne noise.
To avoid unsatisfactory noise levels, many factors should
be considered at the design stage. Noise is generally
considered low quality, unwanted sound. Characteristic
words such as tone, pitch, steady, unsteady and intermittent help to define whether the source of the noise
is aerodynamic, mechanical or electrical.
Electrical
Aerodynamic
Mechanical
Generated noise is caused by turbulence, high velocities, and instabilities
due to pulsation and surge. Technically
speaking it relates to pressure pulsations and is characterized by a continuous broadband frequency spectrum
with an objectionable superimposed
pure tone.
Generated noise is a function of motors,
Generated noise has a different sound
relays, motor controls, or unbalanced
quality and characteristic. It can have
line voltages into the motor
a metallic sound caused by metal-tometal contact or working noise radiating
from belts and bearings. This noise may
be constant or intermittent.
Vibration Considerations and Characteristics
Rotating devices, such as air handling units, all create
vibration which can be transmitted to other parts of the
structure. The magnitude of this vibration is subject to
a number of things, the most significant of which is the
Aerodynamic
amount of unbalance of the rotating components. The
frequency at which this occurs is the operating RPM of
the components. There are many different sources of
vibration. One of the most difficult tasks is the systematic
identification of the vibration characteristic; amplitude,
frequency, location or direction.
Mechanical
Vibration may occur from unbalance,
Vibration is generated when a forced
vibration in which the energy and char- resonance, looseness and rubbing.
acteristics of the air-stream are large
enough to cause turbulence, pulsations
or a blade frequency tone. Vibration can
also be the result of a resonance (reverberation).
JOHNSON CONTROLS
Electrical
Vibration generated occurs from torsion
fluctuations, eddy current induced fields
and improper wiring.
53
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
Air Blender/Mixers – (AB)
The static mixer provides a high level of mixing in a
minimal distance and at a low pressure drop. Mixers
placed just after the mixing segment improves mixing
outside and return air streams. Mixers work effectively
and consistently. There are no moving parts.
Applications (When used):
Features & Benefits:
– Eliminates air stratification
– Provides most mixing in shortest possible distance
– Reduces low limit-stat nuisance trips
– Improves accuracy of temperature control systems
– Mixes outside ventilation air into supply air stream
to satisfy IAQ/IEQ requirements
– Allows for greater use of economizer operation
– Requires negligible energy (typical application is
between 0.10 - 0.20” w.g.)
– Provides expected mixing for every cabinet size
– Provides reliable pressure drop rating which
includes the effect of mixer to plenum area ratio.
– Provides uniform velocity profile for even filter
loading and enhanced coil performance
Notes & Options
AB segment should be applied immediately after the mixing box/economizer segment. AB segment is designed to mix air from openings on
any combinations of: top, bottom, end and sides.
Minimum velocity through a mixer is 400 FPM.
54
Air mixer arrangements may include one mixer, two horizontal mixers,
three horizontal mixers, two vertical mixers or three vertical mixers.
The arrangement depends upon upstream segment configuration.
Door - optional
Drain pan - optional
Mixer material option: Aluminum or Stainless Steel
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Face & Bypass Damper Segments – (IB), (EB)
Internal Face & Bypass – (TB)
The IB Segment must be located immediately upstream
of a reduced face coil.
FS
HC
IB
XA
AF
• Available for indoor or outdoor applications.
• Designed to divert airflow around a coil.
When a full face coil is required downstream of the reduced face coil, access segment(s) must be included
between the coils.
IB segment is used to control
• Humidity
• Low temperature flows across water coils
Notes & Options
Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments.
•
An 18” access door is required immediately upstream of the IB
segment to access damper actuator and linkage.
Damper material option:
•
Galvanized
•
Aluminum
External Face & Bypass – (EB)
Each EB segment must be configured with a “bypass air
inlet” downstream in the configuration for reintroducing
the bypassed air to the unit. The EB segment cannot
exist without such a “bypass air inlet” partner.
• The EB segment is available for indoor
application only
The external face and bypass damper is located upstream of a full-face coil. External Bypass damper is
a balanced opposed blade face damper with interconnecting linkage.
• Bypass duct is to be field supplied
FS
HC
EB
AF
Notes & Options
Damper material option:
Door is optional
•
Galvanized
•
It is designed to divert airflow through an external bypass duct.
•
Aluminum
•
External Bypass segment assumes ‘top’ outlet.
Drain pan is optional
JOHNSON CONTROLS
55
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
IP
TN
TN
TN
TN
XA
HF
XA
DP
Turning Segments – (TN)
The purpose of the Turning Segment is to assist air
turning in a vertical direction.
A Turning Segment (TN) can only be located at the end
of a unit configuration.
Segment lengths are engineered for a variety of tiered
space saving configurations.
FS
CC
AF
FS
CC
AF
MB
Notes & Options
TN segments are available for configuring in both top and bottom
tiers.
Access Door – Optional (both sides of the unit - Inward opening for
positive pressure)
Drain pan is optional for bottom tier segments.
Humidifier Segment – (HM)
Adding humidification for full winter comfort and productivity is just as important as air conditioning in the summer months. Temperature control must be combined with
humidity control to maintain proper comfort parameters.
ASHRAE 62 indicates that relative humidity is part of
acceptable ventilation procedures & standard-of care
Solution provides a standard steam injection distribution
type humidifier with a short absorption manifold for use
where short steam absorption distances are critical.
• Steam is distributed evenly through the full length
of the manifold.
• The header size, number and spacing of distribution tubes shall be determined so that all steam
is absorbed by the air before reaching the next
component in the air stream depth.
Notes & Options
•
Electric, gas and steam-to-steam generator types
•
Optional auxiliary drain pan
•
Valves cannot be selected as an off-the-shelf item; each valve
has a specific plate/orifice specifically cut per order specifications.
•
Optional access doors
•
Optional controls
•
Control valve actuation shall be electronic and shall be
compatible with either a 0-10V DC signal or a 4-20 mA control
signal.
•
The recommended location of the HM segment is downstream
of the HC segment but upstream of the CC segment.
•
The humidifier segment can not be configured upstream of a
HEPA filter segment.
•
The humidifier segment may be configured upstream of RF,
FF, and AF filter segments.
Factory mounted controls are not available in the Humidifier
segment. Any FMED device in a downstream segment should
be located at least the absorption distance away from the
humidifier manifold.
•
•
•
Valve package shall be supplied and shipped loose. Field
Installation and wiring is required.
Usual humidifier headers are located the same side as coil
headers.
•
Optional stainless steel supports and liner
•
The Humidifier Vendor humidifier selection software shall size
the valve package.
56
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
UV Segment – (UV)
Johnson Controls has developed UV-C lighting options that control the growth and transfer of surface and airborne
microbial agents. By incorporating UV light options into your air handling unit it is now possible to control microbiological infestations, using ultraviolet light technology to disinfect the unit, thereby maintaining the cleanliness of
the unit and the re-circulated air of the space being conditioned. By eliminating a multitude of micro-organisms, IAQ
is improved and occupants are healthier.
Airborne Inactivation Option – is accomplished
by installing the stand-alone “Airborne Inactivation”
segment upstream and/or downstream of all cooling
coil segments to control airborne microbial agents.
UV-C lights for this type of application are of higher
intensity and are designed for “On-the-fly” kill of airborne contaminates. Lamps are configured for 360°
UV irradiance for maximum air-stream cleansing.
Surface Decontamination Option – is done by
incorporating UV-C lights in the coil segment downstream of all cooling coils and above all drain pans.
In this application reflectivity of the UV light is of
dominant importance. Exposure time is unlimited. Any
increase in reflectivity enhances the UV effectiveness
and efficiency. The kill rate increases dramatically
with this application method.
AIRBORNE OPTION
Combining Both Options – If both Surface Decontamination and Airborne Inactivation options are used
together, they can virtually clean your unit and the air
you breathe. Working together with various filtration systems and complying with the requirements of ASHRAE
Standard 62.1 will assure the best possible IAQ when
a designer combines all of these technologies.
SURFACE OPTION
UV
UV
SA
OA
DP
HF
XA
DI
FS
CC
AF
MB
RA
Notes & Options
Optional Radiometer
•
Radiometer detects and measures intensity of radiant thermal
energy
Optional Access Door
•
•
Mechanical interlock switch to assure that the UVC assembly
will be de-energized when accessed.
•
Optional View-port
Optional stainless steel supports and rails
Access is optional for servicing the UV lights.
Literature Reference — See Application Guide — ‘Solution® Air-Handling Units UV-C Light Options’ – Form:
102.20-AG16 & Specification Sheet – Form: 102.20-S16
JOHNSON CONTROLS
57
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
ACCESSORY SEGMENTS
Pipe Chase Enclosure
3. Roof, floor, side and end panels will be double
wall construction.
1. The Pipe Chase may be selected in various
depths.
4. Pipe chase doors
2. The Pipe Chase may be applied to XA, HC, CC,
VC, IC or IG segment.
a. These segments must be on the bottom tier of
an indoor or outdoor unit.
• All pipe chases must have at least one door.
5. Pipe chase curb
• The pipe curb under a pipe chase will be level
with the curb under the unit.
WALL PANEL WITH
COIL OUTLETS
PIPE CHASE
PANEL ASSEMBLY
PIPE CHASE
ACCESS DOOR
PIPE CHASE
CURB ASSY
OUTDOOR: DRAIN CONNECTION IS ALWAYS ON SIDE OPPOSITE PIPE CHASE.
INDOOR: DRAIN CONNECTION IS ALWAYS SAME SIDE AS PIPE CHASE.
Roof Curb
Johnson Controls recommends that an HVAC factory
curb always be provided. Solution curbs are built to fit
the unique footprint of each air handler. Solution also
provides specific drawing and specification data for each
unit and curb. These documents provide vital data such
as unit dimensions, weight, component details, cross
braces, supply & return opening layout dimensions, and
notes which are unique to each unit.
Although insulated curbs are specified in many cases,
the contractor responsible for the roof typically supplies
the insulation function.
Notes & Options
1. Johnson Controls does not recommend vibration isolation be
provided on both the fan skid, inside the unit, and the curb,
outside the unit, without credible testing results.
3. Dual vibration isolation applications must be designed by a
licensed Professional Engineer specializing in vibration isolation design.
2. Using improperly designed internal and external isolation
springs can increase vibration.
4. Units with a baserail and a bottom opening: duct connection is
flush with the bottom of the unit, not flush with the baserail.
58
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
SLOPED CURB
LENGTH-WISE SLOPE
OUTSIDE
AIR
OUTSIDE
AIR
SUPPLY
AIR
RETURN
AIR
42"
MAX
ROOFTOP
PIPE
CHASE
RETURN
AIR IN
14"
MIN
SUPPLY
AIR
ROOFTOP
RETURN > SUPPLY
SUPPLY > RETURN
42"
MAX
42
RETURN
AIR
14"
MIN
WIDTH-WISE SLOPE
ROOFTOP
14"
MIN
PIPE
CHASE
*14"
RETURN
AIR IN
42"
MAX
ROOFTOP
RIGHT > LEFT
LEFT > RIGHT
Special Curb Requests
Spring isolation curbs
Seimic isolation curbs
Roof curbs that incorporate adjustable spring isolators
into the curb as a single component. Most isolation curbs
are designed for 1” static deflection springs. The springs
are mechanically fastened and sized within the frame
to ensure uniform deflection for the entire system. The
vibration eleimination portion of the curb is constructed
of structural steel and should be designed to match the
bottom of the rooftop unit. Usual operating height is 21”
with options for different heights.
Roof Curbs that incorporate seismic isolation as a fully
adjustable support system specifically designed for unit
vibration and seismic/wind restraint. Seismic isolation
curbs are designed to meet superimposed live and
dead loads, including equipment and other construction
loads to be supported by the curb. The curb contains
mountings designed and rated to resist seismic forces
in all directions.
Literature Reference — See Application Guide — ‘Roof Curb & Unit Application’ – Form 100.00-AG11
JOHNSON CONTROLS
59
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
CONTROLS
Factory-Packaged Controls – (FPC)
Typical FPC Wiring
YORK Factory-Packaged Controls assure you of getting:
• A complete factory-engineered system
Location of wiring harnesses are typically opposite the
high voltage. See “Power-Wiring Options diagram on
page 62.
• Reduce costs by taking the guesswork out of
control installation
• A higher quality control system direct from the factory
• Full service support
Notes & Options
Factory mounted devices are available as packaged ‘Standards’ kits,
which are defined as pre-engineered system applications. Most likely
several ‘Standards’ will “fit” a given AHU configuration.
60
Devices are available in a variety of options from mount-only with no
control panel to a complete mounted, wired and factory-tested with
the Johnson Controls Metasys FEC series controller.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
Software Process
The software process will automatically apply the devices to the functional segments required for the control
method.
Field Equipment Controller (FEC)
Our open design FEC conrollers use the industry standard BACnet MS/TP open communication protocol
– customers can use devices from other vendors on
the network, don’t have to stay with one vendor which
provides wider options to the customer and consulting
engineer
On time, on budget – Standards reduce engineering
and installation time and result in the lowest possible
installed cost. New tools like CCT reduce configuration
and commissioning time.
Minimize issues – Johnson Controls builds reliability into
each device. Our documentation and training are excellent so the devices are installed correctly the first time.
Reduce operating costs – With adaptive tuning, the system uses process condition information it acquires and
adapts for improved control without manual intervention.
State-based control reduces wear and tear on actuators
and other components by allowing the system to be in
only one mode at a time. For example, only heating or
only cooling.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
61
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
CONTROLS
Power Wiring Options
TOP VIEW
LOW VOLTAGE
RETURN FAN MOTOR WIRING.
CDW - HEATING
LOW VOLTAGE
CDW - COOLING
SUPPLY FAN MOTOR WIRING.
EMAL
HIGH VOLTAGE
SUPPLY FAN MCC CABINET.
OPTIONAL SINGLE POINT
MOTOR WIRING
FAN SEGMENT PRIMARY ACCESS DOOR.
ALTERNATE MOTOR WIRING CUTOUT LOCATION
RETURN FAN MCC CABINET.
Notes & Options
All motor wiring will be sized and installed based upon National
Electrical Code requirements. The wire-ways will be categorized as
follows:
A disconnect panel will be required anytime there are (2) or (3)
3-phase loads that require a common factory terminated wiring connection. A maximum of (3) 3-phase loads are allowed for single point
power option.
•
High Voltage – (120V and higher) is usually on drive side of the
product
•
Low Voltage – (24V) is usually on opposite drive side.
i.
•
All motor wiring will be installed neatly in perpendicular and/or
parallel planes with the unit walls and floors.
ii. Return / Exhaust Fan Motor Controller.
Single Point Power (SPP) is defined as:
1. ALL electrical loads in a specific unit configuration wired to a
common point of connection through the proper motor control
protection devices. This requires the customer to bring only one
source of power to the unit.
3-phase loads are as follows:
Supply Fan Motor Controller
iii. Gas Heater.
iv. Electric Heater.
v. Energy Wheel Motor Controller.
2. Where motor controls (VFD, starter or wired disconnect) are NOT
selected, no motor wiring shall be provided. Should 120V or 24V
elements be selected where motor controls are not included, they
shall require field wiring.
3. Where multiple motor control devices are selected, optionally,
single point power connections shall be provided. The field power
supply point shall be the supply fan segment.
4. Where an external wired disconnect option is selected for either
supply or return/exhaust fans (or both), single point wiring shall
NOT be available.
There are three different sizes of transformers available; 150VA,
500VA, and 2000VA.
•
62
The transformer being the device, used to transform power
from a primary voltage of 460 volts, 230 volts, or 575 volts, to
a secondary voltage level. An example of a secondary voltage
would be 120 volts.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
INDUSTRY FORMULAS
Electrical
Watts ÷ Amps
= Volts
Volts x Amps
= Watts
Watts ÷ Volt
= Amps
Amp (A) = a measurement of rate of flow of electrons along
a wire
Volt (V) = a measure of electrical potential
Kilowatt (kw)
= a thousand watts
Watt (W) = a measure of power an electrical device
consumes
BTU
= KW x 3415
1KW
= 1.34 HP
1 HP
= 2545 BTUH
PUMP HP =
FLOW (gpm) x HEAD (ft
5311 x E pump x E motor
FAN
CFM x SP
6350 x E fan
PUMP KW =
FAN KW =
FLOW (gpm) x PD (ft)
5311 x E pump x E motor
.7457 x BHP
E motor
1.73 = √3 FOR THREE PHASE SERVICE
HP =
FAN STATIC EFF =
FAN MECH EFF
=
CFM x SP
6350 x BHP
CFM x TP
6350 x BHP
Basic Fan Laws
Drive Calculations
CFM varies directly as the RPM
Motor RPM x Motor Pulley PD = Blower RPM x Blower
Pulley PD
CFM1
CFM2
=
RPM1
RPM2
Static pressure varies as the square of the RPM
Example:
SP1
SP2
1,750 x 7.2 = 1,190 Blower RPM
10.6
=
(RPM1)2 =
(RPM2)2
(CFM1)2
(CFM2)2
10% too much CFM:
HP varies as the cube of the RPM
BHP1
BHP2
=
(RPM1)3 =
(RPM2)3
(CFM1)3
(CFM2)3
1,750 x 7.2 = 11.8 “ PD Blower Pulley
1,190 x (0.90)
Air
TOTAL COOLING LOAD (MBH) = 4.5 x CFM STANDARD AIR x (ENTHALPY ENT. AIR - ENTHALPY LVG. AIR) / 1000
4.5 = 0.075 (WT. OF STD. AIR, # / FT3) x 60 (MIN./HR.)
SENSIBLE COOLING LOAD (MBH) =
CFM x 1.08 x (EDB-LDB)
1000
1.08 = 0.075 (WT. OF STD. AIR, # / FT3) x 60 (MIN./HR.) x .24 (Specific Heat of dry air)
SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO =
SH
MBH/Sq. Ft. x FA x 1000
TOTAL COOLING LOAD (BTW/HR) = GPM x 500 x (EWT-LWT)
500 = 8.33 (WT. OF H20 @ 60 deg F, # / GAL) x 60 (MIN./HR.) x 1.0 (Specific heat of water)
Metric Conversions
CFM x 1.6992 = m3/hr
Ft/min x 0.00508 = m/s
BTU x 0.00029 = kWh
CFM x 0.4719 = L/s
Inch x 25.4 = mm
Gpm x 0.063 = L/s
HP x 0.7457 = kW
Lb x 0.4535 = kg
JOHNSON CONTROLS
63
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
PART 1
GENERAL
1.01 SECTION INCLUDES
A. Indoor and outdoor air handling units and components as scheduled and shown
on drawings.
B. Motor disconnects, motor starters, and variable frequency drives.
1.02 RELATED SECTIONS
A. The requirements of the General Conditions, Supplementary Conditions, Division 1, equipment schedules, and drawings apply.
1.03 REFERENCES
A. AMCA 99 – Standard Handbook
B. AMCA 210 – Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Rating Purposes
C. AMCA 500 – Test Methods for Louvers, Dampers, and Shutters
D. AMCA 611-95 – Methods of Testing Airflow Measurement Stations for Rating
E. ANSI/AFBMA 9 – Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings
F.
ANSI/UL 900 – Test Performance of Air Filter Units
G. ARI 260 – Sound Rating of Ducted Air Moving and Conditioning Equipment
H. ARI 410 – Forced-Circulation Air Cooling and Air Heating Coils
I.
ARI 430 – Testing and Rating of Central-Station Air Handling Units
J.
ASHRAE 52.1/52.2 – Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning
Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size
K. ASHRAE 62 – Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
L. ASHRAE 90.1 – Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential
Buildings
M. ASTM-C 1338 – Standard Test Method for Determining Fungi Resistance of
Insulation Material and Facings.
N. NFPA 70 – National Electric Code (conductors, equipment and raceways)
O. NFPA 90A – Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems
P.
SMACNA – HVAC Duct Construction Standards
Q. UL-181 – Mold Growth and Humidity Test
R. UL-1995 – Standard for Safety for Heating and Cooling Equipment
S. ISO/PWD 13261-3 – Sound Power Rating of air-conditioning and air-source
heat pump equipment: Part 3, Ducted Equipment.
T.
ISO 9614 – Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound
intensity: Part 1, Measurement at discrete points; Part 2, Measurement by scanning, and Part 3, Precision method for measurement by scanning.
1.04 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Manufacturer shall have a minimum of 25 years of experience in designing,
manufacturing, and servicing air-handling units.
64
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
B. The design indicated on the schedules and shown on the drawings is based upon
the products of the named manufacturer. Alternate equipment manufacturers
are acceptable if equipment meets scheduled performance requirements and
dimensional requirements.
C. If equipment is supplied by a manufacturer other than the one named, coordinate
with the General Contractor and affected subcontractors to ensure the specified
performance is met. This coordination shall include (but is not limited to) the
following:
1.
Structural supports for units
2.
Size and location of concrete bases/housekeeping pads
3.
Location of roof curbs, unit supports and roof penetrations
4.
Ductwork sizes and connection locations
5.
Piping size and connection/header locations
6.
Interference with existing or planned ductwork, piping and wiring
7.
Electrical power requirements and wire/conduit and over current protection
sizes.
8.
Trap height requirements
D. The Mechanical Contractor shall be responsible for costs incurred by the General
Contractor, Subcontractors, and Consulting Engineers to accommodate units furnished by a manufacturer other than manufacturer named as basis of design.
1.05 RATINGS AND CERTIFICATIONS
A. Air Handling Unit safety: ETL or UL 1995
B. Air Handling Unit energy use: ASHRAE 90.1
C. Fans: AMCA 210
D. Air Coils: ARI 410
E. Air Handling Unit certification program: ARI 430
F.
Filter media: ANSI/UL 900 listed Class I or Class II
G. Control wiring: NEC codes & ETL requirements
H. Motors: Federally mandated Energy Policy Act (EPACT).
I.
Airflow Monitoring Stations: AMCA 611-95
1.06 SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTATION REQUIRED
A. Furnish fan performance ratings and fan curves with specified operating point
clearly plotted.
B. Furnish drawings indicating unit dimensions, required clearances, field connection locations, wiring diagrams, shipping drawings, and curb drawings.
C. Furnish performance report showing fan, motor, coil, and component performance
details. Performance report shall detail unit casing performance and include
materials, gauges, and finishes.
D. Furnish operation and maintenance data, including instructions for lubrication,
filter replacement, motor and drive replacement, and condensate pan cleaning;
spare parts lists, and wiring diagrams.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
65
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
E. Adjust and report performance ratings for the proper altitude of operation.
F.
Report air-handling unit performance ratings in accordance with ARI-430
(static pressure, airflow, fan speed, and fan brake horsepower).
[Tip 1]: ARI 430 established testing,
rating and conformance requirements for
AHUs. To claim compliance, manufacturers
must periodically submit production AHUs
to ARI for testing.
G. Report static pressure profiles by component section.
H. Report coil ratings in accordance with ARI-410 (capacities and pressure
drops).
I.
Report and rate sound power levels in accordance with ARI-260 (ducted discharge, ducted inlet, free inlet sound).
J.
Airflow measuring device performance shall be certified and rated in accordance
with AMCA-611. Report data in accordance with AMCA-611. Provide AMCA
Certified Rating Seal for Airflow Measurement Performance.
K. Report panel deflection at +/-8” w.g., stated in terms of ‘L/X’ where ‘L’ is the
casing panel length and ‘X’ is a constant provided by the AHU manufacturer.
L. Report casing leakage rate at +/-8” w.g., specified in terms of percentage of
design airflow.
M. Report weight loads and distributions by component section.
N. Report product data for filter media, filter performance data, filter assembly, and
filter frames.
[Tip 2]: ARI 410 established testing,
rating and reporting standards for air coils.
This includes special attention to heating
and cooling capacity as well as air and fluid
pressure drops.
[Tip 3]: ARI 260 standardized the
measurement and reporting of sound data
for AHUs. It does not require manufacturers
to adhere to a certification program to claim
compliance. It does require an extensive
testing program. (Note: AMCA 300 applies
to sound for bare fans only)
[Tip 4]: AMCA 611 details the requirements for certifying the performance of
airflow measuring stations. It assures buyers that the reported data is accurate and
reliable. Testing is performed by AMCA or
by an independent AMCA certified facility.
O. Report electrical requirements for power supply wiring including wiring diagrams for interlock and control wiring, clearly indicating factory-installed and
field-installed wiring.
P.
Report motor electrical characteristics.
1.07 DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING
A. Comply with ASHRAE 62, Section 5 (mold and corrosion resistant casings,
filters upstream of wetted surfaces, and drain pan design).
B. Comply with ASHRAE 62, Section 7 (practices to be followed during construction and startup). Protect equipment from moisture by appropriate in-transit and
on-site procedures.
[Tip 5]: ASHRAE 62 established
minimum standards for designing, building
and operating a building to help ensure acceptable indoor air quality.
C. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for handling, unloading and storage.
D. Protect, pack, and secure loose-shipped items within the air-handling units.
Include detailed packing list of loose-shipped items, including illustrations and
instructions for application.
E. Protect, pack and secure controls devices, motor control devices and other electronic equipment. Do not store electronic equipment in wet or damp areas even
when they are sealed and secured.
F.
Enclose and protect control panels, electronic or pneumatic devices, and variable
frequency drives; and pack with desiccant bags. Replace desiccant bags every 60
days. For equipment stored in an environment with a relative humidity greater
than 60%, change bags every 30 days. Do not store equipment in wet or damp
areas even when they are sealed and secured.
G. Seal openings to protect against damage during shipping, handling and storage.
66
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
H. Provide shrink-wrap around unpainted units. The membrane shall cover entire
AHU during shipping and storage. Cover equipment, regardless or size or shape.
Tarping is not acceptable.
I.
Shrink-wrap equipment, including electrical components, for protection against
rain, snow, wind, dirt, sun fading, road salt/chemicals, rust and corrosion. Keep
equipment clean and dry.
J.
Tarp painted units to protect against rain and road debris during shipping.
[Tip 6]: ASHRAE 62 Section 7.1.3
recommends the protection of equipment
on site and during transport. Shrink wrap is
a cost-effective, high-quality way to comply
with this recommendation.
K. Clearly mark AHU sections with unit tag number, segment sequence number,
and direction of airflow. Securely affix safety-warning labels.
1.08 EXTRA MATERIALS
A. Provide one set of filters for balancing, and one additional set for final turnover
to owner.
B. Provide one extra set of belts, in addition to the factory-installed set.
1.09 WARRANTY
A. Provide warranty for 18 months from date of shipment. Warranty shall cover
manufacturer defects. Warranty shall include labor for 12 months from date of
shipment. Warranty work shall be performed by manufacturer’s factory-trained
and factory-employed technician. Service technician must be based within 50
miles of job site.
B. Include factory-provided controls in the parts and labor warranties.
[Tip 7]: Specifying an 18 month
warranty helps to ensure that the owner will
benefit from a full 12 months of warranty.
Specifying labor warranty ensures that the
manufacturer will stand by their product
for quality and performance during that
time. Specifying local service support helps
ensure quick response when service is
desired or needed.
C. Parts associated with routine maintenance, such as belts and air filters shall be
excluded.
1.10 SYSTEM STARTUP
A. Do not operate units for any purpose, temporary or permanent, until ductwork
is clean, filters are in place, bearings lubricated, and fan has been test run under
observation.
B. Comply with manufacturer’s start-up requirements to ensure safe and correct
operation and integrity of warranty.
PART 2
PRODUCTS
2.01 ACCEPTABLE MANUFACTURERS
A. YORK Solution
B. Approved Equal (Prior written approval by engineer of record is required)
2.02 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
A. Air Handling Unit (AHU) consists of a structural base, insulated casing, access
doors, fans, motors, motor controls, coils, filters, dampers, controls, components,
and accessories; as shown on drawings, schedules, and specifications.
B. Provide AHU to meet the specified levels of performance for scheduled items
including airflow, static pressure, cooling capacity, heating capacity, electrical
characteristics, sound, casing leakage, panel deflection and casing thermal performance.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
C. AHU shall maintain structural integrity when wall panels are removed.
D. Provide internal components and accessories as specified and scheduled. Components and accessories shall be installed by the AHU manufacturer in an ISO9002 certified facility.
E. Ship units in one piece. Split units only where necessary for shipping and installation.
F.
Manufacturer shall provide detailed, step-by-step instructions for disassembly
and reassembly.
G. For AHU segments that must be broken down for rigging and installation: segment shall be disassembled and reassembled by manufacturer’s factory-trained
service personnel.
H. Manufacturer shall perform a field leakage test to confirm 1% leakage per section
2.25.
I.
Manufacturer shall provide a written statement confirming that the unit is built
to the manufacturer’s factory standards and that the unit will carry the full warranty.
2.03 STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
A. Comply with ratings and certifications referenced in this specification.
B. Manufacturers who do not comply with ARI-430 shall factory test EACH unit
to verify brake horsepower rating, airflow performance and total static pressure
performance. See specification Section 2.23 (VERIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE) for testing requirements.
[Tip 8]: ARI 430 established testing,
rating and conformance requirements for
AHUs. To claim compliance, manufacturers
must periodically submit production AHUs
to ARI for testing.
C. Manufacturers who do not conform to requirements of ARI 260 for ducted discharge and return air sound shall submit EACH unit to an independent sound
test laboratory for ARI 260 testing. The test laboratory shall conform to ARI
260, Section 4.4, Test Equipment and Facilities.
2.04 BASE RAIL
A. Provide a structural base rail under the full perimeter of the unit, formed from
mill galvanized steel.
B. Provide clearance for proper external trapping of drain pans steam condensate.
C. Provide base rail and lifting lug system that does not require additional support
for rigging. Include base rail lifting lugs at each side shipping splits and at unit
corners.
2.05 CASING
A. Provide double wall AHU casing. Exposed insulation is not acceptable.
B. Panel assembly shall meet UL standard 1995 for fire safety. Panel assembly
shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 90A.
C. Provide an insulation system that is resistant to mold growth in accordance with
a standardized test method such as UL 181 or ASTM C 1338.
[Tip 9]: This spec item also found in
ASHRAE standard 62, section 5.5.1.
D. Encapsulate insulation with sheet metal so that air does not contact insulation.
Panels insulated with fiberglass shall be sealed at each corner and around their
entire perimeter, to eliminate airflow through the panel and to eliminate microbial
growth potential within the casing wall.
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JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
E. Provide casing with minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of 12 hr-ft2-°F/
BTU.
F.
Roof, wall, floor, and access door panels shall be galvanized or stainless
steel.
G. Provide an additional .125” aluminum diamond tread plate floor liner in access
areas.
H. Provide perforated liner in the fan section and other sections as shown on the
drawings. The perforated panel shall enclose matte-faced fiberglass insulation.
I.
Provide a unit frame of galvanized steel that provides the overall structure of
the unit and does not rely on the casing panels for structural integrity. Insulate
frame in the same manner as panels, roof, and floors.
J.
Provide AHU casing that leaks no more than 1% of design airflow at +/-8”
w.g.
K. Provide wall panels and access doors that deflect no more than L/240 when
subjected to +/- 8” w.g. ‘L’ is the panel-span length and ‘L/240’ is the deflection
at panel midpoint.
L. Provide floors and roofs that deflects no more than L/240 when subjected to a
300 lb load at mid-span. ‘L’ is the panel-span length and ‘L/240’ is the deflection
at panel midpoint.
M. Provide outdoor AHUs with a roof system that deflects no more than L/240 when
subjected to a snow load of 30 lb/ft2. ‘L’ is defined as the panel-span length and
‘L/240’ is the deflection at the panel midpoint.
N. Provide outdoor AHUs with a roof sloped at a minimum pitch of 1/4” per foot.
The roof shall overhang side and end panels by a minimum of 2”.
O. Provide an exterior finish on outdoor units that shows a breakdown of less than
1/8” on either side of a scribed line when subjected to ASTM B117 500 hour,
5% salt spray conditions. This is equivalent to an ASTM D1654 rating of ‘6’.
[Tip 10]: Casing thermal performance
has a direct impact on the owner’s utility bill.
Spec R-12 for the utmost in energy savings.
Many manufacturers employ 2” walls with
foam insulation to achieve this high thermal
performance. With fiberglass insulation, 4”
walls may be required to achieve R-12.
[Tip 11]: Some manufacturers do not
insulate the frames of their units, leaving
the casing vulnerable to sweating and
energy loss.
[Tip 12]: Some manufacturer’s casings leak 5% or more. Ensure that energy
is not wasted by outward leakage and that
conditioned air is not contaminated by
inward leakage. Leaky units are also prone
to sweating at their leak points. 1% leakage
at design static pressure is a very common
benchmark for leak integrity.
[Tip 13]: When static pressure in a
unit changes and panels deflect, leakage
occurs. Over time, panels experience metal
fatigue, leading to even more leakage.
This wastes energy and compromises IAQ.
Spec L/240 for the most rigid and leak-free
casing. Specifying sheet metal gauges does
not guarantee rigid panels. Foam-insulated panels may be required to meet this
performance.
[Tip 14]: Floor systems are the most
prone to leakage than the other panels of
the casing. Every time someone walks on
the AHU floor, panels deflect, leading to
leakage and sweating. Spec L/240 for the
most rigid and leak-free floor. Specifying
sheet metal gauges does not guarantee
rigid a rigid floor. Foam-insulated panels
may be required to meet this performance.
2.06 PRIMARY DRAIN PANS
A. Provide drain pans that comply with requirements for the AHU casing (Section
2.07).
B. Comply with the stated intent of ASHRAE Standard 62.
C. Provide a drain pan under each cooling coil and humidifier. Drain pans for cooling
coils and humidifiers shall meet the requirements of ASHRAE 62.
D. Provide drain connection made of same material as drain pan. Do not use dissimilar metals because of the risk of galvanic corrosion. Weld connection to the
drain pan.
E. Drain pan shall be double wall with an R-value of 12 hr-ft2-°F/BTU. The entire
area of the drain pan shall have this level of thermal performance.
F.
Insulate plumbing associated with drain pan drains and connections.
G. Provide drain pan under the complete width and length of cooling coil and
humidifier sections.
H. Drain pan shall allow visual inspection and physical cleaning on 100% of the
pan surface without removal of the coil or humidifier.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
[Tip 15]: On outdoor units, roof panels
are more prone to leakage than wall panels
due to high thermal stress and snow loads.
Ensure that performance is achieved on the
roof by specifying L/200 or higher.
[Tip 16]: Poorly designed drain pans
are often breeding grounds for mold and
poor IAQ. ASHRAE 62-2001, section 5.11.1
states that drain pans “…shall be sloped
at least 1/8” per foot from the horizontal toward the drain outlet…whether the fan is in
the on or off position.” Section 5.11.2 states
that “The drain pan outlet shall be located at
the lowest point(s) of the pan.”
[Tip 17]: Some drain pan designs may
call for less insulation at the lowest points
of the pan.
[Tip 18]: This plumbing is difficult to
access and service. Uninsulated connections may lead to sweating and puddling
beneath the unit.
69
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
I.
Provide a minimum of 1” clearance between the drain pan and any coil casing,
coil support or any other obstruction.
J.
Provide drain pan that allows the design rate of condensate drainage regardless
of fan status.
[Tip 19]: YORK recommends this
clearance so that the drain pan can be
cleaned and inspected without requiring coil
removal. ASHRAE 62 recommends annual
inspection during the cooling season and
cleaning if necessary.
K. Provide drain pan sloped in at least two planes by at least 1/8” per foot toward
a single drain. Locate drain connection at the lowest point of the pan. Pan shall
have no horizontal surfaces.
2.07 ACCESS DOORS
A. Provide access door(s) that meet requirements for the AHU casing.
B. Provide industrial style stainless steel hinges that permit 180 degrees of door
swing.
C. Provide latches with roller cam mechanisms that ensure a tight seal. Rotating
knife-edge or “paw” latches are not acceptable.
D. Provide each door with a single handle linked to multiple latching points or a
separate handle for each latching point. Doors serving access segments shall
have an interior latch handle.
E. Provide access doors with a locking hasp to accommodate a lockout device.
F.
Provide double-pane viewing windows as shown on the elevation view drawings.
Windows shall be a non-condensing type consisting of an integrated silica desiccant dehumidification layer. Minimum dimension shall be 3” x 8”.
2.08 PIPE CHASE CABINET
A. Provide pipe chases with double wall, insulated panels. Pipe chase shall have
the same thermal performance as the unit casing.
B. Provide a perimeter base rail and/or roof curb under the pipe chase(s) that meets
requirements for the AHU base rail and/or roof curb.
C. Manufacturer may combine the pipe chase enclosures of adjacent segments.
D. Provide a minimum pipe chase depth, as shown on drawings. Pipe chase depth is
the clear inside dimension from inner pipe chase surface to outer unit surface.
E. Manufacturer may ship pipe chases separate from AHU if the chases are provided with lifting lugs for field installation per the AHU base rail requirements.
Manufacturer shall provide step-by-step instructions with illustrations for proper
pipe chase installation.
2.09 ROOF CURBS
A. Provide factory-fabricated galvanized steel roof curb for outdoor units. Roof
curb shall support the full-perimeter of the air handling equipment, including
pipe chases.
B. Match roof curb to roof slope. Curb surface shall be level in both axes.
C. Provide wood nailing strip to which roofer may nail roof flashing.
D. Ship roof curb loose for field installation prior to unit placement.
2.10 FANS
A. Provide double width double inlet (DWDI) housed fans or single width single
inlet (SWSI) plenum fans as equipment schedule and drawings.
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JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
B. Airfoil fans shall comply with AMCA standard 99 2408 69 and 99 2401 82.
Provide an AMCA Seal on airfoil fans. Airfoil fan performance shall be based
on tests made in accordance with AMCA standards 210 and comply with the
requirements of the AMCA certified ratings program for air performance.
C. Provide fans with true airfoil blades unless otherwise scheduled.
[Tip 20]: True airfoil fans are desirable
as they offer higher efficiency and have a
non-overloading fan characteristic.
D. Provide fans with the following accessories:
1.
Fan inlet screens in the inlets of fan housing (REQUIRED on SWSI plenum
fans)
2.
Access door inlet screen (on AHU casing)
3.
OSHA-compliant belt guard enclosing the fan motor and drive
E. Provide airfoil fans with blades formed of extruded aluminum, as scheduled.
Bent sheet metal blades are not acceptable.
F.
Provide an access door in the fan scroll, as shown on drawings.
G. Provide fans with polished steel shafts with first critical shaft speed at least 125%
of the maximum operating speed for the fan pressure class. Shaft shall have an
anti-corrosion coating.
H. Provide fan motor on an adjustable base to allow adjustable and consistent belt
tension.
I.
Mount the fan and motor assembly on a common adjustable base.
This common base shall attach to vibration isolators, which mount to structural
support channels. These channels shall span the AHU floor and mount directly
to the AHU frame. Manufacturers not complying with this requirement must
submit detailed structural and weight data to a licensed structural engineer for
review and stamped certification. The mechanical engineer shall review these
engineers’ final reports prior to submittal approval.
J.
Provide vibration isolation springs with 1” or 2” static deflection, as scheduled.
[Tip 21]: Under no circumstances
should the fan and motor assembly mount
to the AHU casing floor. This would lead
to excess casing vibration poor acoustics,
panel fatigue and air leakage.
K. Connect DWDI fans to the unit casing or bulkheads with canvas flexible connection.
L. Provide horizontal thrust restraints between AHU casing and fan housings with
end discharge. This requirement applies to the following cases:
1.
SWSI fans operating at greater than 3” of total static pressure
2.
DWDI airfoil fans operating at greater than 6” of total static pressure
3.
DWDI airfoil fans operating at greater than 3” of total static pressure
2.11 BEARINGS AND DRIVES
A. Provide bearings complying with ANSI/AFBMA 9 for fatigue life ratings.
[Tip 22]: L-50 implies that bearings have a 50% chance of failure during
200,000 hours of operation. L-10 bearings
have only a 10% chance of failure during
the same time period.
B. Provide fan bearings with an average life L50 of at least 200,000 hours.
C. Provide fan bearings with an average life L10 of at least 200,000 hours, as
scheduled.
D. Provide permanently lubricated bearings on forward curved fans smaller than
18.” On other fans, provide re-greaseable bearings with hydraulic grease fittings
and lube lines extended to the motor side of the fan or to the exterior of the unit
(primary access side).
E. Provide plenum fans with direct-drive transmissions.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
[Tip 23]: L-50 implies that bearings have a 50% chance of failure during
200,000 hours of operation. L-10 bearings
have only a 10% chance of failure during
the same time period.
[Tip 24]: Direct drive plenum fans
provide higher levels of efficiency and are
typically quieter than belt-driven fans.
71
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
F.
Provide drives selected with a 1.5 service factor. Sheaves shall be machined from
a close grain cast iron and statically balanced by the manufacturer. Provide a
fixed pitch sheave on the motor.
G. Provide fixed pitch sheaves on both the fan and motor. Fans with motors rated
at 15 hp or less may be field balanced using variable pitch sheaves. Provide
fixed pitch sheaves when final balance is complete. Air balancer shall select and
provide final set of sheaves.
H. Provide multiple belt drives on belt driven fans with motors 10 hp or greater.
Belts shall be V-type, precision molded, raw edge construction, anti-static, oilresistant and heat-resistant.
2.12 ELECTRICAL MOTORS
A. Provide fan motors built in accordance with the latest standards of the NEMA
and IEEE.
B. Provide AHU and fan motors in compliance with ASHRAE 90.1.
C. Provide fan motors with the following characteristics:
1.
60 hertz, 1750 rpm operation
2.
Service factor of 1.15
3.
Premium efficiency, or as required to meet ASHRAE 90.1
4.
NEMA design ball bearing type
5.
Rated for continuous duty at full load in a 104°F (40°C) ambient
6.
Open drip proof (ODP) or totally enclosed, fan cooled (TEFC) as
scheduled.
7.
Suitable for use in variable frequency application, per NEMA MG-1 Part
30
8.
Inverter ready per NEMA STD MG1 PART 31.4.4.2
[Tip 25]: ASHRAE 90.1 has a detailed
requirement for motor efficiency – typically requiring what manufacturer’s call
“premium” efficiency motors. 90.1 also has
a detailed requirement for motor SIZE,
depending on the application, static pressure, etc.
D. Provide direct drive plenum fans coupled to motors with matching speed, as
scheduled.
2.13 FAN-MOTOR DISCONNECTS
A. Provide UL or ETL listed fan-motor disconnects and associated components, as
scheduled and shown on drawings. Disconnects shall comply with applicable
provisions of the National Electric Code.
B. Provide fused or non-fused fan-motor disconnects in NEMA 1, NEMA 3R,
NEMA 4, or NEMA 12 enclosures, as scheduled and shown on drawings.
C. Mount disconnects on the primary access side of the associated fan segment.
1.
Mount unit main disconnect (on units with single point power) on the primary
access side of supply fan section.
D. Disconnect shall be suitable for use as an OSHA lockout/tagout disconnect when
applied in accordance with part IV, Department of Labor OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910,
Control of Hazardous Energy Source (lockout/tagout): final rule.
E. Disconnect handles shall be lockable in the “off” position with up to three padlocks. Switch mechanism shall be directly lockable in the “off” position via
padlock when door is open.
72
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
F.
Provide disconnects with integral ground lug.
1.
Provide two (2) #14 ground wires on 16A to 100A disconnects.
2.
Provide one (1) #6-250 ground wire on 200A to 400A disconnects.
G. Provide auxiliary contacts, as scheduled.
2.14 FAN-MOTOR STARTERS
A. Provide UL or ETL listed motor starters and associated components, as scheduled
and shown on drawings. Starters shall comply with applicable provisions of the
National Electric Code.
B. Provide starter in a NEMA 3R enclosure.
C. Mount starter on the primary access side of its associated fan section, and wire
starter to motor, unless shown otherwise on drawings.
D. Provide the following features in each starter panel:
1.
Main power block
2.
Motor contactor(s)
3.
Individual starter short circuit and overload protection devices
4.
Two primary control fuses, one secondary control line size fuse
5.
Three phase ambient compensated overload heater elements
6.
115-volt control power transformer with primary and secondary protection
7.
Five-point terminal strip for field control connections
8.
Factory wired, non-fused or fused main power disconnect, integral with
starter panel
9.
Integrated on/off auto switch.
10. Wiring to fan motor
E. Starters on outdoor units shall be suitable for use in ambient temperatures from
5°F to 104°F:
1.
Provide low ambient temperature kit suitable for use down to -20°F.
2.
Provide high ambient temperature kit suitable for use up to 135°F.
2.15 FAN-MOTOR VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES (VFDS)
A. Provide UL or ETL listed VFDs and associated components, as scheduled and
shown on drawings. VFDs shall comply with applicable provisions of the National Electric Code.
B. Mount VFDs in a dedicated NEMA 1 compartment located on the primary access side of its associated fan section and wire VFD to motor, unless otherwise
indicated on drawings.
C. Enclose outdoor VFDs in a NEMA-3R enclosure.
D. VFDs on outdoor units shall be suitable for use in ambient temperatures from
5°F to 104°F:
1.
Provide low ambient temperature kit suitable for use down to -20°F.
2.
Provide high ambient temperature kit suitable for use up to 135°F.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
73
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
E. After unit installation, VFD shall be started and programmed by a factory trained
and employed service technician. Refer to Section 3.05.
F.
Provide the following VFD disconnect and bypass option:
1.
Fused main disconnect
2.
2 contactor VFD bypass
3.
2 contactor VFD bypass with fused disconnect
4.
2 contactor VFD bypass with non-fused disconnect
[Tip 26]: Select from item a, b, c or d.
Consider that VFDs are a mature, proven
and highly reliable technology. Bypass
packages are therefore not as important as
they used to be. Perhaps specifying a spare
drive in lieu of bypass packages on drives is
a better value for the owner.
G. Provide harmonic distortion feedback protection:
1.
Equivalent 5% impedance input line reactor
2.
Integral RFI/EMI filtering to meet EMC EN61800-3 for First Environment
H. Provide a user interface with the following features:
1.
30 Character multi-lingual alphanumeric display
2.
Parameter set-up and operating data
3.
Display data shall include:
a. output frequency (Hz)
b. speed (RPM)
c. motor current
d. calculated % motor torque
e. calculated motor power (kW)
f. DC bus voltage
g. output voltage
h. heat sink temperature
i. elapsed time meter (re-settable)
j. kWh (re-settable)
k. input / output terminal monitor
l. PID actual value (feedback) & error
m. fault text
n. warning text
o. scalable process variable display
I.
74
Provide VFD with the following protection circuits:
1.
over current
2.
ground fault
3.
over voltage
4.
under voltage
5.
over temperature
6.
input power loss of phase
7.
loss of reference/feedback
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
8.
J.
adjustable current limit regulator
VFD shall be UL 508C approved for electronic motor overload (12t).
K. Provide high input transient protection and surge suppression
1.
4 MOVs ahead of diode bridge
2.
120 Joule rated 1600V diode module
3.
Compliant with UL 1449 / ANSI 61.4
L. Provide the following communication features:
1.
Two programmable analog inputs
2.
Six programmable digital inputs
3.
Two programmable analog output
4.
Three programmable digital relay outputs
5.
Modbus RTU Communications protocol
6.
Adjustable filters on analog inputs and outputs
7.
Input speed signals, including 4-20 mA and 0-10 VDC
8.
Accel/Decel contacts (floating point control)
9.
Auto restart (customer selectable and adjustable)
10. Start/Stop options shall include 2 wire (dry contact closure), 3 wire (momentary contacts), application of input power, and application of reference
signal (PID sleep/wake-up)
11. Integrated control interface for Siemens FLN, Johnson N2, Modbus RTU,
or BACnet MS/TP or LONworks over RS-485.
M. Provide the following functions:
1.
Premagnetization on start
2.
DC braking/hold at stop
3.
Ramp or coast to stop
4.
Seven preset speeds
5.
Three critical frequency lockout bands
6.
Start function shall include ramp, flying start, automatic torque boost, and
automatic torque boost with flying start
2.16 FACTORY INSTALLED ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES
A. In addition to motor power terminals, provide an independent power terminal for
convenience receptacles and lights. Provide switches as shown on drawings.
B. Provide incandescent or fluorescent lights in segments as scheduled or shown
on drawings. Provide light switches as scheduled or shown on drawings.
C. Provide a 1-hour timer on external light switches.
D. Provide a 120v convenience receptacle on supply fan segment.
2.17 HEATING AND COOLING COMPONENTS
A. Provide coils manufactured by AHU manufacturer, except where noted in contract
documents.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
B. Coils shall meet or exceed performance scheduled on drawings.
1.
When applicable, provide coils with performance certified in accordance
with ARI Standard 410 for coil capacity and pressure drop. Circuit coils
such that the fluid velocity is within the range of certified rating conditions
at design flow.
C. Provide cooling coils with a maximum face velocity of 550 fpm or 500 fpm or
450 fpm. Face velocity calculations shall be based on the finned area of the
coil.
D. Provide cooling coil drain pan that is sufficient to contain coil condensate. Drain
pan shall extend a minimum of 6” or 10” or 14” downstream of the face of the
coil.
E. Provide coil segment casing to accommodate full-face or reduced-face coils as
scheduled. Provide face and bypass coil segments with factory installed bypass
damper.
F.
Provide at least 18” or 24” or 30” of access between coils. Provide an easily
operable access panel or door, as shown on drawings.
[Tip 27]: Coils with higher face
velocities are more vulnerable to moisture
carryover. A coil’s vulnerability to condensate carryover depends on the coil design.
Coils with densely packed fins (12 or 14 fpi)
are more vulnerable. Coils with staggered
tube arrangements (YORK standard) are
less vulnerable. The cleanliness of a coil
also matters.
[Tip 28]: YORK coils are designed
and selected to prevent moisture carryover.
However, dirty coils or coils operating
under non-design conditions may lead
to carryover moisture. Therefore, YORK
recommends at least 6” of drain pan downstream to catch moisture. More drain pan is
better, as it will keep moisture from reaching
downstream components such as fans and
fan motors.
G. Provide coil segment casing that meets or exceeds casing performance of the
unit.
H. Provide panels that are easily removable with no special tools.
I.
Locate access doors to provide clearance for pipe insulation, connectors, and
accessories. Space shall allow a minimum of 90 degrees of door swing.
J.
Provide coils built in their own full perimeter frame. Tube sheets on each end
shall have fully drawn collars to support and protect tubes. Horizontal coil casing
and support members shall allow moisture to drain. Casing and support members
shall not block finned area.
[Tip 29]: Because the coil segment is
the coldest part of the AHU, thermal performance, leakage and deflection are critical
here. Cooling coil drainpans are typically
the root of an AHU’s IAQ problems, making
performance even more critical.
K. Individual coils shall be removable from the side of the AHU.
L. Provide an intermediate drain pan on stacked cooling coils. Intermediate drain
pan shall slope in a minimum of two planes toward a single drain connection.
M. Provide a single intermediate vertical coil support on coils with a finned length
greater than 62”. Provide two vertical supports on coils with a finned length
greater than 100”, and three vertical supports on coils with a finned length greater
than 141”.
N. Extend coil connections through AHU casing. Provide a 1/4” FPT plugged
vent/drain tap on each connection. Circuiting shall allow complete draining and
venting when installed. Vent and drain connections shall be on the coil connection extension outside of the unit casing.
O. Insulate gap between coil stub out connection and AHU casing with a spoolshaped sleeve grommet. Adhesive rings applied the casing walls are not acceptable.
P.
Water and glycol coils shall be operable at 250 psig working pressure and up to
300° F. Factory test water and glycol coils with 325 psig compressed air under
water.
Q. Direct expansion (DX) coils shall conform to ANSI B9.1 (Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration) when operating with a maximum refrigerant pressure of
250 psig. Factory test DX coils with 325 psig compressed air under water.
76
[Tip 30]: Coil penetrations are a very
common leakage point. Not only can air
leak through the casing, but it can also leak
into individual panels. This leads to a loss
in IAQ and energy efficiency performance.
Spec a tight seal by specifying coil connections that are extended through the casing,
and by specifying a spool-shaped grommet
seal that isolates the coil connection from
the panel, and that isolates the interior of
the unit from the exterior. Coil penetrations
are a very common leakage point. Not only
can air leak through the casing, but it can
also leak into individual panels. This leads
to a loss in IAQ and energy efficiency performance. Spec a tight seal by specifying
coil connections that are extended through
the casing, and by specifying a spoolshaped grommet seal that isolates the coil
connection from the panel, and that isolates
the interior of the unit from the exterior.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
R. Steam distributing coils shall be operable at 50 psig pressure and a corresponding
saturated steam temperature of 298° F. Factory test steam coils with 315 psig
compressed air under water. Dehydrate and seal coils prior to shipping.
S. Provide steam-distributing coils with a tube outer diameter (OD) of 1” and an
inner distribution tube of 5/8” O.D. Circuit coils for gravity drain of condensate
without trapping. Steam shall discharge in the direction of condensate flow to
ensure even heat transfer across each tube.
T.
Provide water, glycol and DX coils with a tube OD of 5/8” or 1/2”. Mechanically
expand tubes to form fin bond and provide burnished, work-hardened interior
surface. Tubes shall have a minimum tube wall thickness of 0.020” or 0.025” or
0.035” or 0.049” for 5/8” tubes, and 0.016” or 0.020” or 0.032” for 1/2” tubes.
U. Provide coils with copper tube return bends with the following final minimum
thicknesses:
1.
0.035” for 5/8” diameter tubes
2.
0.032” for 1/2” diameter tubes with 0.020” or 0.032” tube wall thicknesses
3.
0.020” for 1/2” diameter tubes with 0.016” tube wall thickness.
[Tip 31]: The outer radius of a coil
tube’s return bend can be very vulnerable to
premature failure. Tubes that are machine
bent to create a return bend are especially
susceptible to failure, as the outer radius of
the bend is stretched and has a final thickness that is significantly thinner than the
initial tube thickness. Specifying and enforcing a FINAL thickness of .035” at the outer
radius of the return bend will help ensure a
robust and long-lasting coil
V. Provide water, glycol and steam coil headers made of seamless copper or brass
tubing. Pipe connections shall be steel or red brass. Header connections (tubes
and piping connections) shall be silver-brazed or TIG welded.
W. Provide DX coils with brass distributor and solder-type connections. Suction
and discharge connections shall be on the same end regardless of coil depth.
Mount refrigerant specialties outside of unit. Provide DX coils with a hot gas
bypass port on distributor.
X. Provide coils with die-formed, continuous aluminum or copper fins. Fins shall
have fully drawn collars to accurately space fins and protect tubes. Fins shall be
0.006” or 0.008 or 0.01” thick.
Y. Provide coil coatings as scheduled or indicated on drawings.
2.18 FILTERS
A. Provide filter segments and filters as scheduled.
B. Provide side loading filters for filter segments located upstream of coil segment(s)
with an access door on the drive side through which filters can be easily loaded.
C. Provide face loading filters for segments located downstream of coil segment(s).
Provide an 18” (minimum) access plenum and access door on the drive side
through which face loading filters can be easily loaded.
[Tip 32]: Face loading filters offer a
tighter seal and less air bypass than side
loading filters. For performance reasons,
it is best to not use side loading filters in
downstream or “final” positions, where the
filters typically have high efficiencies. Be
sure to specify generous access, as they
require space upstream or downstream of
the rack to change filters.
D. Provide filter racks integral to the unit and constructed of galvanized steel or
stainless steel.
E. Provide Class 2 or Class 1 filter media per U.L. 900 and as required by local
codes.
F.
Filter types, efficiencies, and nominal depths shall be as follows:
1.
Flat filters – 2” throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, 2” 30% pleated, or 4”
30% pleated filters, as scheduled.
2.
Angled filters – 2” throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, or 2” 30% pleated
filters, as scheduled.
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GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
3.
Rigid filters – 4” mini pleated, 12” rigid, or 22” bag filters with efficiencies
of 60-65% (MERV 11), 80-85% (MERV 13), 90-95% (MERV 14), or 9095% (MERV 15), respectively; as scheduled.
a. Provide a pre-filter rack in rigid filter segments. Pre-filters shall have 2”
throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, 2” 30% pleated, or 4” 30% pleated
filters as scheduled.
4.
Carbon filters – 2” deep rechargeable, incinerable, or disposable panels filled
with 60% activity carbon, as scheduled.
a. Carbon filtration system shall be designed for a minimum contact efficiency of 99% with a residence time of at least 0.08 seconds.
b. Provide post-filter and/or pre-filter rack in carbon filter segments with 2”
throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, 2” 30% pleated, or 4” 30% pleated
filters, as scheduled.
5.
HEPA filters – 12” 99.97%, or 99.99% efficient media, as scheduled.
a. Performance of installed filtration system shall be certified via a DOP test
and classified as UL Class 1 when tested in accordance with UL Standard
586.
b. Filter frame shall be specifically developed for HEPA filters, with appropriate quantities of filter clamps.
G. Provide a flush mounted, factory installed magnahelic differential pressure gage
on the drive side of unit to measure pressure drop across filters. Manufacturer
shall provide fully functional gauges, complete with tubing.
2.19 DAMPERS
A. Provide dampers tested in accordance with AMCA 500.
B. Provide factory-installed dampers, as shown on drawings.
C. Dampers shall have airfoil blades, extruded vinyl edge seals, and flexible metal
compressible jamb seals.
D. Dampers shall have a maximum leakage rate of 4 CFM/square foot at 1” w.g.,
and shall comply with ASHRAE 90.1.
E. Damper blades shall be parallel acting unless otherwise indicated.
F.
Damper blades shall be galvanized steel or aluminum, as scheduled.
2.20 AIRFLOW MONITORING STATIONS
A. Provide airflow monitoring stations, as scheduled or shown on drawings.
B. Provide airflow monitoring stations tested in accordance with AMCA Standard
611 in an AMCA registered laboratory. Airflow monitoring stations shall bear
the AMCA Ratings Seal for Airflow Measurement Performance.
C. If airflow station incorporates a control damper, control damper shall comply
with leakage rates per ASHRAE 90.1 and with specification section 2.19 DAMPERS.
D. Provide a factory-installed transducer that sends a CFM-proportional, 4-20 mA
or 0-10V signal, as specified.
2.21 DIFFUSERS
A. Provide diffuser segments as shown on drawings.
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
B. Diffuser plates shall ensure proper air flow across components downstream of
DWDI fans.
2.22 APPURTENANCES
A. Provide rain hoods on outdoor unit air intakes, as shown on drawings. Provide
moisture screens on outdoor air inlet rain hoods.
B. Provide safety grates over bottom openings, as shown on drawings.
1.
Safety grates shall be capable of supporting a 300 lb. center load.
2.23 FINISHES
A. Manufacturer shall clean the exterior surfaces of units prior to finishing, painting,
or shipment.
B. Manufacturer shall paint outdoor units prior to shipment. Manufacturer shall
paint indoor units, as scheduled or shown on drawings.
1.
Manufacturer shall apply a primer prior to painting units.
2.
Manufacturer shall apply a finish coat of acrylic polyurethane paint.
3.
Finished unit shall exceed 500-hour salt spray solution (5%) test without
any sign of red rust when tested in accordance with ASTM B-117.
2.24 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS
A. Manufacturer shall dynamically balance fan/motor/base assembly.
1.
Balance constant volume fan assemblies at design RPM.
2.
Balance variable volume fan assemblies from 10% to 100% of design
RPM.
3.
Take filter-in measurements in the horizontal and vertical axes on the drive
and opposite-drive sides of fan shafts.
4.
Take filter-out measurements in the horizontal, vertical, and axial axes on
the drive and opposite-drive side of fan shafts.
5.
Constant speed fan vibration limits: filter-in measurements shall not exceed
4 mils. Filter-out measurements shall not exceed 6 mils in the horizontal
and vertical axes, and 7 mils in the axial axis.
6.
Variable speed fan vibration limits: filter -in measurements shall not exceed
7 mils. Filter-out measurements shall not exceed 9.5 mils.
B. Manufacturer shall hipot test wiring intended to carry voltages greater than
30Vac.
2.25 VERIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE
A. Factory test one out of every five AHUs (or a minimum of one unit) to verify
compliance with airflow, static pressure, casing leakage, and panel deflection
requirements. Owner and engineer reserve the right to select units to be tested.
Manufacturer shall pay food, lodging, and travel expenses for up to two witnesses.
1.
Alternatively, field test units to verify compliance with airflow, static pressure, casing leakage, and panel deflection requirements. Follow testing procedures outlined in this specification. Manufacturer shall hire a mechanical
engineer of record to supervise testing.
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GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
B. One representative from both the owner and the engineer shall witness the test.
Manufacturer shall pay food, lodging and transportation expenses for two witnesses.
C. Perform test on a fully assembled unit with sections joined per manufacturer’s
installation instructions. Use of additional material (tape, sealant, caulk) is not
acceptable.
D. Perform tests to verify the following performance criteria:
1.
Casing leaks no more than 1% of design CFM at +/-8” w.g.
2.
Casing panels deflect no more than L/240 at +/-8” w.g. ‘L’ is defined as the
panel span length and ‘L/X’ is the deflection at panel midpoint.
[Tip 33]: Make sure that bidders to
your specification are held accountable for
their performance. Specifying leakage and
deflection tests are an important part of
ensuring the owner gets the performance
that was specified.
E. Unit shall meet the Large Missile Impact Test for AHU casing (walls, roof, and
doors) and base. Unit shall carry a Notice of Acceptance (NOA) from the Miami-Dade County Product Control Division. Label equipment per NOA labeling
instructions.
F.
Provide written letter of guarantee from manufacturer stating that no condensation will form on the exterior of units, under given design conditions.
G. Should a unit fail a test, treat unit with a permanent remedy at manufacturer’s
expense until test is successfully passed.
[Tip 34]: It is not practical or reasonable to test for thermal performance or
sweating. However a manufacturer should
know their performance capabilities and
should willingly write this letter.
2.26 FACTORY TEST SETUP AND METHODS
A. AHU Preparation
1.
Assemble and seal AHU sections per manufacturer’s installation manual.
2.
Close and latch access doors. No additional sealing is permitted.
3.
Seal duct, damper and louver openings.
4.
Blank off and seal supply fan opening(s).
5.
Blank off and seal supply fan bulkhead to isolate positive and negative
pressure sections.
B. Pressurization procedure
1.
Pressurize positive pressure side to specified static pressures using a pressure blower.
2.
Pressurize negative pressure side to specified static pressures using a pressure blower.
3.
Measure and monitor differential pressure exerted on the cabinet with a
pressure gage.
C. Test measurement
1.
Measure panel deflections at the centers (length and width) or four panels
chosen by owner and engineer.
2.
Measure pressure drop through an ASME long radius nozzle, mounted n
the test module.
3.
Monitor leakage at the same time panel deflection is measured.
D. While under pressure, inspect units failing to meet specified leakage and deflection. Treat failing areas with a permanent remedy. Repeat test and inspection.
Re-treat unit as necessary to pass both tests.
E. Provide test data and results in a complete report to the owner.
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
PART 3
EXECUTION
3.01 INSTALLATION
A. Install equipment per industry standards, applicable codes, and manufacturer’s
instructions.
B. Do not use AHUs for temporary heating, cooling or ventilation prior to complete
inspection and startup performed per this specification.
C. Install AHUs on a concrete pad, roof curb, or structural steel base, as shown on
drawings.
D. Install AHUs with manufacturer’s recommended clearances for access, coil pull,
and fan removal.
E. Provide one complete set of filters for testing, balancing, and commissioning.
Provide second complete set of filters at time of transfer to owner.
F.
Install AHU plumb and level. Connect piping and ductwork according to
manufacturer’s instructions.
G. Install seismic restraints and anchors per applicable local building codes. Refer
to specification Section 230548 (15240 / 15070) for product and installation
requirements.
H. Install pipe chases per manufacturer’s instructions.
3.02 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL
A. Store per AHU manufacturer’s written recommendations. Store AHUs indoors in
a warm, clean, dry place where units will be protected from weather, construction traffic, dirt, dust, water and moisture. If units will be stored for more than
6 months, follow manufacturer’s instruction for long-term storage.
B. Rig and lift units according manufacturer’s instructions.
[Tip 35]: Improper storage can degrade the longevity and performance of an
AHU. Rust and bacteria may form if units
are not kept dry. IAQ and energy efficiency
may be negatively impacted once improperly stored AHUs are operating.
3.03 AHU INSPECTION
A. Hire manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician to
perform an inspection of unit and installation prior to startup. Technician shall
inspect and verify the following as a minimum:
1.
Damage of any kind
2.
Level installation of unit
3.
Proper reassembly and sealing of unit segments at shipping splits.
4.
Tight seal around perimeter of unit at the roof curb
5.
Installation of shipped-loose parts, including filters, air hoods, bird screens
and mist eliminators.
6.
Completion and tightness of electrical, ductwork and piping connections
7.
Tight seals around wiring, conduit and piping penetrations through AHU
casing.
8.
Supply of electricity from the building’s permanent source
9.
Integrity of condensate trap for positive or negative pressure operation
[Tip 36]: A thorough inspection and
necessary corrections ensure a proper
installation. A proper installation is necessary to fully realize the energy, IAQ and
acoustical benefits of a high-performance
AHU and system.
10. Condensate traps charged with water
11. Removal of shipping bolts and shipping restraints
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
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12. Sealing of pipe chase floor(s) at penetration locations.
13. Tightness and full motion range of damper linkages (operate
manually)
14. Complete installation of control system including end devices and
wiring
15. Cleanliness of AHU interior and connecting ductwork
16. Proper service and access clearances
17. Proper installation of filters
18. Filter gauge set to zero
B. Resolve any non-compliant items prior to proceeding with the inspection of the
fan assembly.
3.04 INSPECTION AND ADJUSTMENT: AHU FAN ASSEMBLY
A. Hire the manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician
perform an inspection of the AHU fan assembly subsequent to general AHU
inspection and prior to startup. Technician shall inspect and verify the following
as a minimum:
1.
Fan isolation base and thrust restraint alignment
2.
Tight set screws on pulleys, bearings and fan
3.
Tight fan bearing bolts
4.
Tight fan and motor sheaves
5.
Tight motor base and mounting bolts
6.
Blower wheel tight and aligned to fan shaft
7.
Sheave alignment and belt tension
8.
Fan discharge alignment with discharge opening
9.
Fan bearing lubrication
[Tip 37]: A thorough inspection and adjustment of the fan assembly helps ensure
that the energy, IAQ and acoustical benefits
of a high-performance AHU and system are
realized.
10. Free rotation of moving components (rotate manually)
B. Manufacturer shall perform service to bring fan performance within factory
specifications.
3.05 STARTUP SERVICE AND OWNER TRAINING
A. Manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician shall
startup AHUs. Technician shall perform the following steps as a minimum:
82
1.
Energize the unit disconnect switch
2.
Verify correct voltage, phases and cycles
3.
Energize fan motor briefly (“bump”) and verify correct direction of rotation.
4.
Re-check damper operation; verify that unit cannot and will not operate
with all dampers in the closed position.
5.
Energize fan motors and verify that motor FLA is within manufacturer’s
tolerance of nameplate FLA for each phase.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
FORM 102.20-QG1 (808)
B. Provide a minimum of 4 hours of training for owner’s personnel by manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician. Training shall
include AHU controls, motor starter, VFD, and AHU.
C. Training shall include startup and shutdown procedures as well as regular operation and maintenance requirements.
D. If AHU is provided with a factory-mounted variable frequency drive (VFD), hire
the VFD manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician
to inspect, test, adjust, program and start the VFD. Ensure that critical resonant
frequencies are programmed as ‘skip frequencies’ in the VFD controller.
E. Submit a startup report summarizing any problems found and remedies performed.
3.06 FIELD PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION
A. Leakage: Pressurize casing to +/-8” w.g. and measure leakage. Pressurize casing
to –8”w.g. and measure leakage. If leakage exceeds 1% of design airflow, seal
leakage points with a permanent solution. Repeat test. If the AHU still does not
pass, contact the manufacturer to seal unit.
[Tip 38]: A field leakage test is a prudent step to ensure that the AHU performs
as promised. The test is a final confirmation
that the AHU will perform. Field testing confirms that the AHU withstood the stresses
of shipping, rigging and installation and can
still provide high performance.
B. Submit a field test report with testing data recorded. Include description of corrective actions taken.
3.07 CLEANING
A. Clean unit interior prior to operating. Remove tools, debris, dust and dirt.
B. Clean exterior prior to transfer to owner.
3.08 DOCUMENTATION
A. Provide Installation, Operation & Maintenance Manuals in the supply fan
section of each unit. Provide six additional copies for owner’s project system
manual.
B. Provide six copies of Spare Parts Manual for owner’s project system manual.
JOHNSON CONTROLS
83
Printed on recycled paper
Form: 102.20-QG1 (808) Supersedes: 102.20-QG1 (707)
© 2008 Johnson Controls, Inc. P.O. Box 423, Milwaukee, WI 53201 Printed in USA
www.johnsoncontrols.com