ZyXEL Communications ZyAIR User`s guide

ZyAIR G-2000
802.11g Wireless 4-port Router
User's Guide
Version 3.60
February 2004
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Copyright
Copyright © 2003 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a
retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software
described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the patent rights of others.
ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products described herein without notice. This
publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications, Inc.
Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for identification purposes only and may be
properties of their respective owners.
ii
Copyright
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) Interference Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
•
This device may not cause harmful interference.
•
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operations.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device pursuant to
Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference in a commercial environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to
radio communications.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of
the following measures:
1.
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2.
Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3.
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
4.
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice 1
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the
user's authority to operate the equipment.
Certifications
1.
Go to www.zyxel.com
2.
Select your product from the drop-down list box on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3.
Select the certification you wish to view from this page
FCC Statement
iii
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in materials
or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During the warranty period, and
upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or
materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective products or components without
charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or
components to proper operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured
functionally equivalent product of equal value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty
shall not apply if the product is modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected
to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This
warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty of
merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in no event be held liable for
indirect or consequential damages of any kind of character to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return Material
Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is recommended that the unit
be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of purchase or those with an out-dated
warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts
and labor. All repaired or replaced products will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address,
Postage Paid. This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary
from country to country.
Safety Warnings
1. To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG or larger telephone wire.
2. Do not use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
3. Avoid using this product during an electrical storm. There may be a remote risk of electric shock from
lightening.
iv
ZyXEL Warranty
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact customer support.
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
METHOD
LOCATION
WORLDWIDE
SUPPORT E-MAIL
SALES E-MAIL
support@zyxel.com.tw
TELEPHONE1
FAX
1
+886-3-578-3942
WEB SITE
FTP SITE
www.zyxel.com
www.europe.zyxel.com
sales@zyxel.com.tw
+886-3-578-2439
ftp.zyxel.com
ftp.europe.zyxel.com
NORTH
AMERICA
GERMANY
FRANCE
support@zyxel.com
+1-800-255-4101
www.us.zyxel.com
+1-714-632-0882
DENMARK
NORWAY
1
ZyXEL Communications Corp.
6 Innovation Road II
Science Park
Hsinchu 300
Taiwan
ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N. Miller St.
Anaheim
CA 92806-2001
U.S.A.
sales@zyxel.com
+1-714-632-0858
ftp.us.zyxel.com
support@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-0
www.zyxel.de
sales@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-99
ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH.
Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146
Wuerselen
Germany
info@zyxel.fr
+33 (0)4 72 52 97 97
www.zyxel.fr
ZyXEL France
1 rue des Vergers
Bat. 1 / C
69760 Limonest
France
www.zyxel.es
ZyXEL Communications
Alejandro Villegas 33
1º, 28043 Madrid
Spain
www.zyxel.dk
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Columbusvej 5
2860 Soeborg
Denmark
www.zyxel.no
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Nils Hansens vei 13
0667 Oslo
Norway
+33 (0)4 72 52 19 20
SPAIN
REGULAR MAIL
support@zyxel.es
+34 902 195 420
sales@zyxel.es
+34 913 005 345
support@zyxel.dk
+45 39 55 07 00
sales@zyxel.dk
+45 39 55 07 07
support@zyxel.no
+47 22 80 61 80
sales@zyxel.no
+47 22 80 61 81
“+” is the (prefix) number you enter to make an international telephone call.
Customer Support
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
METHOD
LOCATION
SWEDEN
FINLAND
vi
SUPPORT E-MAIL
SALES E-MAIL
TELEPHONE1
FAX
1
support@zyxel.se
+46 31 744 7700
sales@zyxel.se
+46 31 744 7701
support@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780-8411
sales@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780 8448
WEB SITE
REGULAR MAIL
FTP SITE
www.zyxel.se
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg
Sweden
www.zyxel.fi
ZyXEL Communications Oy
Malminkaari 10
00700 Helsinki
Finland
Customer Support
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Copyright .........................................................................................................................................................ii
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement .....................................................iii
ZyXEL Limited Warranty.............................................................................................................................iv
Customer Support...........................................................................................................................................v
List of Figures...............................................................................................................................................xvi
List of Tables.................................................................................................................................................xxi
Preface.........................................................................................................................................................xxiv
OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................................................... I
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your ZyAIR ...................................................................................................1-1
1.1
Introducing the ZyAIR...............................................................................................................1-1
1.2
ZyAIR Features..........................................................................................................................1-1
1.3
Application for the ZyAIR .........................................................................................................1-6
1.3.1
Internet Access Application ...............................................................................................1-6
Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator...........................................................................................2-1
2.1
Web Configurator Overview......................................................................................................2-1
2.2
Accessing the ZyAIR Web Configurator ...................................................................................2-1
2.3
Resetting the ZyAIR ..................................................................................................................2-2
2.3.1
Procedure to Use the Reset Button.....................................................................................2-2
2.4
Navigating the ZyAIR Web Configurator..................................................................................2-3
Chapter 3 Wizard Setup ..............................................................................................................................3-1
3.1
Wizard Setup Overview .............................................................................................................3-1
3.1.1
Channel ..............................................................................................................................3-1
3.1.2
ESS ID................................................................................................................................3-1
3.1.3
WEP Encryption.................................................................................................................3-1
3.2
Wizard Setup: General Setup .....................................................................................................3-1
3.3
Wizard Setup: Wireless LAN Setup...........................................................................................3-3
3.4
Wizard Setup: ISP Parameters ...................................................................................................3-5
3.4.1
Ethernet ..............................................................................................................................3-5
3.4.2
PPPoE Encapsulation .........................................................................................................3-7
3.4.3
PPTP Encapsulation ...........................................................................................................3-9
3.5
Wizard Setup: WAN and DNS.................................................................................................3-11
3.5.1
WAN IP Address Assignment..........................................................................................3-11
3.5.2
IP Address and Subnet Mask............................................................................................3-12
3.5.3
DNS Server Address Assignment ....................................................................................3-12
3.5.4
WAN MAC Address ........................................................................................................3-13
3.6
Basic Setup Complete ..............................................................................................................3-15
SYSTEM, LAN AND WIRELESS................................................................................................................II
Chapter 4 System Screens ...........................................................................................................................4-1
4.1
System Overview .......................................................................................................................4-1
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4.2
Configuring General Setup ........................................................................................................4-1
4.3
Dynamic DNS............................................................................................................................4-2
4.3.1
DYNDNS Wildcard ...........................................................................................................4-3
4.4
Configuring Dynamic DNS .......................................................................................................4-3
4.5
Configuring Password................................................................................................................4-4
4.6
Configuring Time Setting ..........................................................................................................4-5
Chapter 5 LAN Screens...............................................................................................................................5-1
5.1
LAN Overview ..........................................................................................................................5-1
5.2
LANs and WANs.......................................................................................................................5-1
5.2.1
LANs, WANs and the ZyAIR............................................................................................5-1
5.3
DHCP Setup...............................................................................................................................5-2
5.3.1
DNS Servers ......................................................................................................................5-2
5.4
Factory LAN Defaults................................................................................................................5-2
5.5
RIP Setup ...................................................................................................................................5-2
5.6
Multicast ....................................................................................................................................5-3
5.7
Configuring the LAN IP Screens ...............................................................................................5-3
Chapter 6 Wireless Configuration and Roaming......................................................................................6-1
6.1
Wireless LAN Overview............................................................................................................6-1
6.1.1
IBSS...................................................................................................................................6-1
6.1.2
BSS ....................................................................................................................................6-1
6.1.3
ESS ....................................................................................................................................6-2
6.2
Wireless LAN Basics.................................................................................................................6-3
6.2.1
RTS/CTS............................................................................................................................6-3
6.2.2
Fragmentation Threshold ...................................................................................................6-4
6.3
Configuring Wireless .................................................................................................................6-5
6.4
Configuring Roaming ................................................................................................................6-7
6.4.1
Requirements for Roaming ................................................................................................6-9
Chapter 7 Wireless Security........................................................................................................................7-1
7.1
Wireless Security Overview.......................................................................................................7-1
7.2
WEP Overview ..........................................................................................................................7-1
7.2.1
Data Encryption .................................................................................................................7-2
7.2.2
Authentication....................................................................................................................7-2
7.2.3
Preamble Type ...................................................................................................................7-3
7.3
Configuring WEP Encryption....................................................................................................7-3
7.4
MAC Filter.................................................................................................................................7-6
7.5
802.1x Overview........................................................................................................................7-8
7.6
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange ...................................................................................................7-8
7.7
Introduction to WPA..................................................................................................................7-9
7.7.1
User Authentication ...........................................................................................................7-9
7.7.2
Encryption..........................................................................................................................7-9
7.8
WPA-PSK Application Example .............................................................................................7-10
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7.9
WPA with RADIUS Application Example ..............................................................................7-10
7.10 Security Parameters Summary .................................................................................................7-11
7.11 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants............................................................................................7-12
7.12 Configuring 802.1x and WPA..................................................................................................7-12
7.12.1 Authentication Required: 802.1x .....................................................................................7-13
7.12.2 Authentication Required: WPA........................................................................................7-16
7.12.3 Authentication Required: WPA-PSK ...............................................................................7-18
7.13 Introduction to Local User Database........................................................................................7-20
7.14 Configuring Local User Database ............................................................................................7-20
7.15 Introduction to RADIUS ..........................................................................................................7-22
7.15.1 EAP Authentication Overview.........................................................................................7-23
7.16 Configuring RADIUS ..............................................................................................................7-24
WAN .............................................................................................................................................................. III
Chapter 8 WAN Screens ..............................................................................................................................8-1
8.1
WAN Overview .........................................................................................................................8-1
8.2
Configuring WAN ISP ...............................................................................................................8-1
8.2.1
Ethernet Encapsulation.......................................................................................................8-1
8.2.2
PPPoE Encapsulation .........................................................................................................8-3
8.2.3
PPTP Encapsulation ...........................................................................................................8-5
8.3
TCP/IP Priority (Metric) ............................................................................................................8-6
8.4
Configuring WAN IP .................................................................................................................8-7
8.5
Configuring WAN MAC..........................................................................................................8-10
SUA/NAT AND STATIC ROUTE............................................................................................................... IV
Chapter 9 Single User Account (SUA) / Network Address Translation (NAT) .......................................9-1
9.1
NAT Overview...........................................................................................................................9-1
9.1.1
NAT Definitions.................................................................................................................9-1
9.1.2
What NAT Does.................................................................................................................9-2
9.1.3
How NAT Works ...............................................................................................................9-2
9.1.4
NAT Application................................................................................................................9-3
9.1.5
NAT Mapping Types .........................................................................................................9-4
9.1.6
SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT..........................................................................9-5
9.2
SUA Server ................................................................................................................................9-6
9.2.1
Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers ....................................................................9-6
9.2.2
Configuring Servers Behind SUA (Example) ....................................................................9-7
9.3
Configuring SUA Server............................................................................................................9-7
9.4
Configuring Address Mapping...................................................................................................9-9
9.4.1
Configuring Address Mapping Rule ................................................................................9-11
Chapter 10 Static Route.............................................................................................................................10-1
10.1 Static Route Overview .............................................................................................................10-1
10.2 Configuring IP Static Route .....................................................................................................10-1
10.2.1 Configuring Route Entry..................................................................................................10-3
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FIREWALL AND REMOTE MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................... V
Chapter 11 Introduction to Firewalls ....................................................................................................... 11-1
11.1 Firewall Overview ...................................................................................................................11-1
11.2 Types of Firewalls....................................................................................................................11-1
11.2.1 Packet Filtering Firewalls ................................................................................................11-1
11.2.2 Application-level Firewalls..............................................................................................11-1
11.2.3 Stateful Inspection Firewalls............................................................................................11-2
11.3 Introduction to ZyXEL’s Firewall ...........................................................................................11-2
11.4 Denial of Service .....................................................................................................................11-2
11.4.1 Basics ...............................................................................................................................11-3
11.4.2 Types of DoS Attacks ......................................................................................................11-4
11.5 Stateful Inspection ...................................................................................................................11-7
Chapter 12 Firewall Screens .....................................................................................................................12-1
12.1 Access Methods .......................................................................................................................12-1
12.2 Firewall Policies Overview......................................................................................................12-1
12.3 Rule Logic Overview...............................................................................................................12-2
12.3.1 Rule Checklist..................................................................................................................12-2
12.3.2 Security Ramifications.....................................................................................................12-2
12.3.3 Key Fields For Configuring Rules ...................................................................................12-3
12.4 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall .........................................................12-3
12.5 Connection Direction Examples ..............................................................................................12-4
12.5.1 LAN to WAN Rules.........................................................................................................12-4
12.5.2 WAN to LAN Rules.........................................................................................................12-5
12.6 Enabling Firewall.....................................................................................................................12-6
12.6.1 Configuring Content Filtering..........................................................................................12-8
12.6.2 Configuring Firewall Services .......................................................................................12-11
12.6.3 Predefined Services........................................................................................................12-13
Chapter 13 Remote Management.............................................................................................................13-1
13.1 Remote Management Overview...............................................................................................13-1
13.1.1 Remote Management Limitations ....................................................................................13-1
13.1.2 Remote Management and NAT .......................................................................................13-2
13.1.3 System Timeout ...............................................................................................................13-2
13.2 Telnet .......................................................................................................................................13-2
13.3 Configuring TELNET..............................................................................................................13-3
13.4 Configuring FTP ......................................................................................................................13-4
13.5 Configuring WWW..................................................................................................................13-5
13.6 Configuring SNMP ..................................................................................................................13-6
13.6.1 Supported MIBs ...............................................................................................................13-8
13.6.2 SNMP Traps ....................................................................................................................13-8
13.6.3 REMOTE MANAGEMENT: SNMP ..............................................................................13-9
13.7 Configuring DNS...................................................................................................................13-10
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13.8 Configuring Security..............................................................................................................13-11
UPNP AND LOGS........................................................................................................................................ VI
Chapter 14 UPnP Screen ...........................................................................................................................14-1
14.1 Universal Plug and Play Overview ..........................................................................................14-1
14.1.1 How Do I Know If I'm Using UPnP?...............................................................................14-1
14.1.2 NAT Traversal .................................................................................................................14-1
14.1.3 Cautions with UPnP .........................................................................................................14-2
14.2 UPnP and ZyXEL ....................................................................................................................14-2
14.3 Configuring UPnP....................................................................................................................14-2
14.4 Installing UPnP in Windows Example .....................................................................................14-4
14.4.1 Installing UPnP in Windows Me......................................................................................14-4
14.4.2 Installing UPnP in Windows XP ......................................................................................14-5
14.5 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example ....................................................................................14-6
14.5.1 Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device.......................................................14-6
14.5.2 Web Configurator Easy Access........................................................................................14-8
Chapter 15 Logs Screens ...........................................................................................................................15-1
15.1 Using the View Log Screen .....................................................................................................15-1
15.2 Configuring Log Settings .........................................................................................................15-3
15.3 Configuring Reports.................................................................................................................15-6
15.3.1 Viewing Protocol/Port......................................................................................................15-8
15.3.2 Viewing LAN IP Address ..............................................................................................15-10
15.3.3 Reports Specifications....................................................................................................15-11
MAINTENANCE........................................................................................................................................VII
Chapter 16 Maintenance ...........................................................................................................................16-1
16.1 Maintenance Overview ............................................................................................................16-1
16.2 System Status Screen ...............................................................................................................16-1
16.2.1 System Statistics...............................................................................................................16-2
16.3 DHCP Table Screen .................................................................................................................16-3
16.4 Wireless Screen........................................................................................................................16-4
16.5 F/W Upload Screen ..................................................................................................................16-5
16.6 Configuration Screen ...............................................................................................................16-8
16.6.1 Backup Configuration ......................................................................................................16-8
16.6.2 Restore Configuration ......................................................................................................16-9
16.6.3 Back to Factory Defaults................................................................................................16-11
SMT GETTING STARTED MENUS...................................................................................................... VIII
Chapter 17 Introducing the SMT .............................................................................................................17-1
17.1 Connect to your ZyAIR Using Telnet ......................................................................................17-1
17.1.1 Entering Password............................................................................................................17-1
17.2 Changing the System Password ...............................................................................................17-1
17.3 ZyAIR SMT Menu Overview Example ...................................................................................17-2
17.4 Navigating the SMT Interface..................................................................................................17-4
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17.4.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary.........................................................17-5
Chapter 18 General and WAN Setup .......................................................................................................18-1
18.1 General Setup...........................................................................................................................18-1
18.1.1 Dynamic DNS..................................................................................................................18-1
18.1.2 Procedure To Configure Menu 1......................................................................................18-1
18.1.3 Procedure to Configure Dynamic DNS............................................................................18-3
18.2 WAN Setup..............................................................................................................................18-5
Chapter 19 LAN Setup ..............................................................................................................................19-1
19.1 LAN Setup ...............................................................................................................................19-1
19.1.1 General Ethernet Port Filter Setup ...................................................................................19-1
19.2 TCP/IP Ethernet and DHCP Setup...........................................................................................19-2
19.3 IP Alias ....................................................................................................................................19-4
19.3.1 IP Alias Setup ..................................................................................................................19-5
19.4 Wireless LAN Setup ................................................................................................................19-6
19.4.1 Configuring MAC Address Filter ....................................................................................19-9
19.4.2 Configuring Roaming on the ZyAIR .............................................................................19-11
Chapter 20 Internet Access .......................................................................................................................20-1
20.1 Internet Access Configuration .................................................................................................20-1
20.2 Internet Access Setup...............................................................................................................20-2
SMT ADVANCED APPLICATION MENUS .............................................................................................IX
Chapter 21 Remote Node Configuration .................................................................................................21-1
21.1 Remote Node Profile................................................................................................................21-1
21.1.1 Encapsulation Scenarios ..................................................................................................21-1
21.1.2 Outgoing Authentication Protocol ...................................................................................21-4
21.1.3 Remote Node Setup .........................................................................................................21-5
21.2 Remote Node Filter..................................................................................................................21-6
21.2.1 IP Static Route Setup .......................................................................................................21-7
Chapter 22 Dial-in User Setup..................................................................................................................22-1
22.1 Dial-in User Setup ...................................................................................................................22-1
Chapter 23 Network Address Translation (NAT)....................................................................................23-1
23.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................23-1
23.1.1 Applying NAT .................................................................................................................23-1
23.2 NAT Setup ...............................................................................................................................23-2
23.2.1 Address Mapping Sets .....................................................................................................23-3
23.2.2 Configuring Individual Rule ............................................................................................23-6
23.3 Port Forwarding Setup - NAT Server Sets...............................................................................23-7
23.3.1 Configuring a Server behind NAT...................................................................................23-8
23.4 General NAT Examples ...........................................................................................................23-9
23.4.1 Example 1: Internet Access Only.....................................................................................23-9
23.4.2 Example 2: Internet Access with an Inside Server.........................................................23-11
23.4.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers .....................................23-11
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23.4.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs ......................................................23-15
23.5 Trigger Port Setup ..................................................................................................................23-16
SMT ADVANCED MANAGEMENT MENUS............................................................................................ X
Chapter 24 Filter and Firewall Configuration.........................................................................................24-1
24.1 About Filtering .........................................................................................................................24-1
24.2 Configuring a Filter Set............................................................................................................24-3
24.2.1 Filter Rules Summary Menus...........................................................................................24-5
24.3 Configuring a Filter Rule .........................................................................................................24-6
24.3.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule............................................................................................................24-6
24.3.2 Generic Filter Rule .........................................................................................................24-11
24.4 Filter Types and NAT ............................................................................................................24-12
24.5 Example Filter........................................................................................................................24-13
24.6 Applying Filters and Factory Defaults ...................................................................................24-15
24.6.1 Ethernet Traffic ..............................................................................................................24-16
24.6.2 Remote Node Filters.......................................................................................................24-16
24.7 Firewall Setup ........................................................................................................................24-17
Chapter 25 SNMP Configuration .............................................................................................................25-1
25.1 SNMP Configuration ...............................................................................................................25-1
Chapter 26 System Security ......................................................................................................................26-1
26.1 System Security........................................................................................................................26-1
26.1.1 System Password..............................................................................................................26-1
26.1.2 Configuring External RADIUS Server.............................................................................26-1
26.1.3 802.1x...............................................................................................................................26-3
Chapter 27 System Information and Diagnosis.......................................................................................27-1
27.1 Overview..................................................................................................................................27-1
27.2 System Status ...........................................................................................................................27-1
27.3 System Information..................................................................................................................27-3
27.3.1 System Information ..........................................................................................................27-3
27.3.2 Console Port Speed ..........................................................................................................27-4
27.4 Log and Trace ..........................................................................................................................27-5
27.4.1 Viewing Error Log ...........................................................................................................27-5
27.4.2 UNIX Syslog....................................................................................................................27-6
27.4.3 Call-Triggering Packet .....................................................................................................27-7
27.5 Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................27-7
Chapter 28 Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance..................................................................28-1
28.1 Filename Conventions..............................................................................................................28-1
28.2 Backup Configuration ..............................................................................................................28-2
28.2.1 Backup Configuration ......................................................................................................28-3
28.2.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line.........................................................28-3
28.2.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line ....................................................28-4
28.2.4 GUI-based FTP Clients ....................................................................................................28-4
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28.2.5 TFTP and FTP over WAN Management Limitations ......................................................28-4
28.2.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP .................................................................................28-5
28.2.7 TFTP Command Example ...............................................................................................28-5
28.2.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients .................................................................................................28-5
28.3 Restore Configuration..............................................................................................................28-6
28.3.1 Restore Using FTP...........................................................................................................28-6
28.3.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example...............................................................................28-7
28.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files .........................................................................28-8
28.4.1 Firmware File Upload ......................................................................................................28-8
28.4.2 Configuration File Upload ...............................................................................................28-9
28.4.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example........................................28-10
28.4.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload............................................................28-10
28.4.5 TFTP File Upload ..........................................................................................................28-10
28.4.6 TFTP Upload Command Example.................................................................................28-11
Chapter 29 System Maintenance and SMT Menu 24.8 to 24.10 ...........................................................29-1
29.1 Command Interpreter Mode.....................................................................................................29-1
29.2 Call Control Support ................................................................................................................29-2
29.2.1 Call Control Parameters ...................................................................................................29-2
29.2.2 Blacklist ...........................................................................................................................29-3
29.2.3 Budget Management ........................................................................................................29-4
29.2.4 Call History......................................................................................................................29-5
29.3 Time and Date Setting .............................................................................................................29-5
29.3.1 Resetting the Time ...........................................................................................................29-7
Chapter 30 Remote Management.............................................................................................................30-1
30.1 Telnet .......................................................................................................................................30-1
30.2 FTP ..........................................................................................................................................30-1
30.3 Web..........................................................................................................................................30-1
30.4 Remote Management ...............................................................................................................30-1
30.4.1 Remote Management Setup .............................................................................................30-2
30.4.2 Remote Management Limitations ....................................................................................30-3
30.5 Remote Management and NAT ...............................................................................................30-4
30.6 System Timeout .......................................................................................................................30-4
Chapter 31 Call Scheduling ......................................................................................................................31-1
31.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................31-1
APPENDICES...............................................................................................................................................XI
Appendix A Troubleshooting...................................................................................................................... A-1
Problems Starting Up the ZyAIR......................................................................................................... A-1
Problems with the Password ................................................................................................................ A-1
Problems with the Ethernet Interface ................................................................................................... A-2
Problems with the WAN Interface....................................................................................................... A-2
Problems with Internet Access............................................................................................................. A-3
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Problems with Telnet ...........................................................................................................................A-3
Problems with the WLAN Interface.....................................................................................................A-4
Appendix B Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection ........................................................................B-1
Appendix C Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address ..............................................................................C-1
Appendix D Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11............................................................................................D-1
Appendix E Wireless LAN With IEEE 802.1x..........................................................................................E-1
Appendix F Types of EAP Authentication................................................................................................. F-1
Appendix G Antenna Selection and Positioning Recommendation ....................................................... G-1
Appendix H PPPoE.................................................................................................................................... H-1
Appendix I PPTP ......................................................................................................................................... I-1
Appendix J IP Subnetting............................................................................................................................J-1
Appendix K Triangle Route ...................................................................................................................... K-1
Appendix L Command Interpreter ...........................................................................................................L-1
Appendix M NetBIOS Filter Commands.................................................................................................M-1
Appendix N Log Descriptions ....................................................................................................................N-1
Appendix O Power Adaptor Specifications.............................................................................................. O-1
Appendix P Index ........................................................................................................................................ P-1
Table of Contents
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
List of Figures
Figure 1-1 Internet Access Application Example ........................................................................................1-6
Figure 2-1 Web Browser Address Field .......................................................................................................2-1
Figure 2-2 Change Password Screen ...........................................................................................................2-2
Figure 2-3 Navigating the ZyAIR Web Configurator ..................................................................................2-3
Figure 3-1 Wizard 1: General Setup ............................................................................................................3-2
Figure 3-2 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup ..................................................................................................3-4
Figure 3-3 Wizard 3: Ethernet Encapsulation ..............................................................................................3-6
Figure 3-4 Wizard 3: PPPoE Encapsulation ................................................................................................3-8
Figure 3-5 Wizard 3: PPTP Encapsulation.................................................................................................3-10
Figure 3-6 Wizard 4: WAN and DNS ........................................................................................................3-14
Figure 3-7 Setup Complete ........................................................................................................................3-16
Figure 4-1 System General Setup ................................................................................................................4-1
Figure 4-2 DDNS.........................................................................................................................................4-3
Figure 4-3 Password ....................................................................................................................................4-5
Figure 4-4 Time Setting ...............................................................................................................................4-6
Figure 5-1 LAN & WAN IPs .......................................................................................................................5-1
Figure 5-2 IP................................................................................................................................................5-4
Figure 6-1 IBSS (Ad-hoc) Wireless LAN....................................................................................................6-1
Figure 6-2 Basic Service set ........................................................................................................................6-2
Figure 6-3 Extended Service Set..................................................................................................................6-3
Figure 6-4 RTS/CTS ....................................................................................................................................6-4
Figure 6-5 Wireless......................................................................................................................................6-6
Figure 6-6 Roaming Example......................................................................................................................6-8
Figure 6-7 Roaming.....................................................................................................................................6-9
Figure 7-1 ZyAIR Wireless Security Levels................................................................................................7-1
Figure 7-2 WEP Authentication Steps .........................................................................................................7-2
Figure 7-3 Wireless......................................................................................................................................7-4
Figure 7-4 MAC Address Filter ...................................................................................................................7-7
Figure 7-5 WPA - PSK Authentication ......................................................................................................7-10
Figure 7-6 WPA with RADIUS Application Example............................................................................... 7-11
Figure 7-7 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA ....................................................................................................7-13
Figure 7-8 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol ....................................................................7-14
Figure 7-9 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol .......................................................................7-17
Figure 7-10 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol ............................................................7-19
Figure 7-11 Local User Database...............................................................................................................7-21
Figure 7-12 EAP Authentication................................................................................................................7-23
Figure 7-13 RADIUS.................................................................................................................................7-24
Figure 8-1 Ethernet Encapsulation .................................................................................................................8-1
Figure 8-2 Service Type ................................................................................................................................8-2
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Figure 8-3 PPPoE Encapsulation ....................................................................................................................8-4
Figure 8-4 PPTP Encapsulation ......................................................................................................................8-5
Figure 8-5 IP Setup ........................................................................................................................................8-7
Figure 8-6 MAC Setup ................................................................................................................................8-10
Figure 9-1 How NAT Works ........................................................................................................................9-3
Figure 9-2 NAT Application with IP Alias ...................................................................................................9-4
Figure 9-3 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example .....................................................................................9-7
Figure 9-4 SUA/NAT Setup .........................................................................................................................9-8
Figure 9-5 Address Mapping......................................................................................................................9-10
Figure 9-6 Address Mapping Rule .............................................................................................................9-11
Figure 10-1 Example of Static Routing Topology......................................................................................10-1
Figure 10-2 IP Static Route Summary........................................................................................................10-2
Figure 10-3 Edit IP Static Route ................................................................................................................10-3
Figure 11-1 Firewall Application ...............................................................................................................11-3
Figure 11-2 Three-Way Handshake............................................................................................................11-4
Figure 11-3 SYN Flood..............................................................................................................................11-5
Figure 11-4 Smurf Attack...........................................................................................................................11-6
Figure 11-5 Stateful Inspection ..................................................................................................................11-8
Figure 12-1 LAN to WAN Traffic..............................................................................................................12-5
Figure 12-2 WAN to LAN Traffic..............................................................................................................12-6
Figure 12-3 Firewall Settings.....................................................................................................................12-7
Figure 12-4 Firewall Filter .........................................................................................................................12-9
Figure 12-5 Firewall Services ..................................................................................................................12-11
Figure 13-1 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ...........................................................................13-2
Figure 13-2 Telnet ......................................................................................................................................13-3
Figure 13-3 FTP .........................................................................................................................................13-4
Figure 13-4 WWW.....................................................................................................................................13-5
Figure 13-5 SNMP Management Model ....................................................................................................13-7
Figure 13-6 SNMP .....................................................................................................................................13-9
Figure 13-7 DNS......................................................................................................................................13-11
Figure 13-8 Security.................................................................................................................................13-12
Figure 14-1 Configuring UPnP ..................................................................................................................14-3
Figure 15-1 View Log ................................................................................................................................15-2
Figure 15-2 Log Settings............................................................................................................................15-4
Figure 15-3 Reports ...................................................................................................................................15-7
Figure 15-4 Protocol/Port Report...............................................................................................................15-9
Figure 15-5 LAN IP Address Report........................................................................................................15-10
Figure 16-1 System Status .........................................................................................................................16-1
Figure 16-2 System Status: Show Statistics ...............................................................................................16-2
Figure 16-3 DHCP Table............................................................................................................................16-4
Figure 16-4 Association List ......................................................................................................................16-5
List of Figures
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 16-5 Firmware Upgrade .................................................................................................................16-6
Figure 16-6 Firmware Upload In Process ..................................................................................................16-7
Figure 16-7 Network Temporarily Disconnected.......................................................................................16-7
Figure 16-8 Firmware Upload Error ..........................................................................................................16-8
Figure 16-9 Backup Configuration ............................................................................................................16-9
Figure 16-10 Restore Configuration ..........................................................................................................16-9
Figure 16-11 Configuration Upload Successful.......................................................................................16-10
Figure 16-12 Network Temporarily Disconnected...................................................................................16-10
Figure 16-13 Configuration Upload Error ............................................................................................... 16-11
Figure 16-14 Back to Factory Default ..................................................................................................... 16-11
Figure 16-15 Reset Warning Message .....................................................................................................16-12
Figure 17-1 Login Screen ..........................................................................................................................17-1
Figure 17-2 Menu 23.1 System Security : Change Password ....................................................................17-2
Figure 17-3 ZyAIR SMT Menu Overview Example .................................................................................17-3
Figure 17-4 ZyAIR SMT Main Menu........................................................................................................17-5
Figure 18-1 Menu 1 General Setup............................................................................................................18-2
Figure 18-2 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS.......................................................................................18-3
Figure 18-3 Menu 2 WAN Setup ...............................................................................................................18-5
Figure 19-1 Menu 3 LAN Setup ................................................................................................................19-1
Figure 19-2 Menu 3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup............................................................................................19-1
Figure 19-3 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup .........................................................................19-2
Figure 19-4 Physical Network ...................................................................................................................19-4
Figure 19-5 Partitioned Logical Networks.................................................................................................19-4
Figure 19-6 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup .........................................................................19-5
Figure 19-7 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup......................................................................................................19-5
Figure 19-8 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup ..............................................................................................19-7
Figure 19-9 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup ..............................................................................................19-9
Figure 19-10 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter ...........................................................................19-10
Figure 19-11 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup........................................................................................... 19-11
Figure 19-12 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration .................................................................................. 19-11
Figure 20-1 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup................................................................................................20-2
Figure 21-1 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile............................................................................................21-2
Figure 21-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options.................................................................21-5
Figure 21-3 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (Ethernet Encapsulation ) ....................................................21-7
Figure 21-4 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (PPTP or PPPoE Encapsulation)..........................................21-7
Figure 21-5 Menu 12.1 IP Static Route Setup ...........................................................................................21-8
Figure 21-6 Menu 12.1 Edit IP Static Route..............................................................................................21-8
Figure 22-1 Menu 14 Dial-in User Setup...................................................................................................22-1
Figure 22-2 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User ..................................................................................................22-1
Figure 23-1 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup................................................................................................23-1
Figure 23-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options.................................................................23-2
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Figure 23-3 Menu 15 NAT Setup...............................................................................................................23-3
Figure 23-4 Menu 15.1 Address Mapping Sets..........................................................................................23-3
Figure 23-5 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules........................................................................23-4
Figure 23-6 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules ....................................................................................23-5
Figure 23-7 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule ...................................................................................23-6
Figure 23-8 Menu 15.2 Port Forwarding Setup .........................................................................................23-9
Figure 23-9 NAT Example 1 ....................................................................................................................23-10
Figure 23-10 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup ............................................................................................23-10
Figure 23-11 NAT Example 2 ..................................................................................................................23-11
Figure 23-12 Menu 15.2.1 NAT Server Setup..........................................................................................23-11
Figure 23-13 NAT Example 3 ..................................................................................................................23-12
Figure 23-14 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options .............................................................23-13
Figure 23-15 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule ...............................................................................23-13
Figure 23-16 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules ................................................................................23-14
Figure 23-17 NAT Example 4 ..................................................................................................................23-15
Figure 23-18 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule ...............................................................................23-15
Figure 23-19 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules ................................................................................23-16
Figure 23-20 Trigger Port Forwarding Process: Example........................................................................23-16
Figure 23-21 Menu 15.3 Trigger Port Setup ............................................................................................23-17
Figure 24-1 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process .........................................................................................24-1
Figure 24-2 Filter Rule Process..................................................................................................................24-2
Figure 24-3 Menu 21.1 Filter Set Configuration........................................................................................24-3
Figure 24-4 NetBIOS_WAN Filter Rules Summary ..................................................................................24-4
Figure 24-5 NetBIOS_LAN Filter Rules Summary...................................................................................24-4
Figure 24-6 TEL_FTP_WEB_WAN Filter Rules Summary......................................................................24-4
Figure 24-7 Menu 21.1.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule.............................................................................................24-7
Figure 24-8 Executing an IP Filter ...........................................................................................................24-10
Figure 24-9 Menu 21.1.4.1 Generic Filter Rule .......................................................................................24-11
Figure 24-10 Protocol and Device Filter Sets ..........................................................................................24-13
Figure 24-11 Sample Telnet Filter............................................................................................................24-13
Figure 24-12 Sample Filter - Menu 21.1.3.1............................................................................................24-14
Figure 24-13 Sample Filter Rules Summary - Menu 21.1.3 ....................................................................24-15
Figure 24-14 Filtering Ethernet Traffic ....................................................................................................24-16
Figure 24-15 Filtering Remote Node Traffic ...........................................................................................24-16
Figure 25-1 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration...............................................................................................25-1
Figure 26-1 Menu 23 System Security.......................................................................................................26-1
Figure 26-2 Menu 23 System Security.......................................................................................................26-1
Figure 26-3 Menu 23.2 System Security : RADIUS Server ......................................................................26-2
Figure 26-4 Menu 23 System Security.......................................................................................................26-3
Figure 26-5 Menu 23.4 System Security : IEEE802.1x .............................................................................26-4
Figure 27-1 Menu 24 System Maintenance ...............................................................................................27-1
List of Figures
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 27-2 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status ...............................................................................27-2
Figure 27-3 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed.......................................................27-3
Figure 27-4 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance : Information ...................................................................27-4
Figure 27-5 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance : Change Console Port Speed..........................................27-5
Figure 27-6 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance : Log and Trace ..................................................................27-5
Figure 27-7 Sample Error and Information Messages ...............................................................................27-6
Figure 27-8 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : UNIX Syslog ................................................................27-6
Figure 27-9 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic........................................................................27-7
Figure 28-1 Telnet in Menu 24.5 ...............................................................................................................28-3
Figure 28-2 FTP Session Example.............................................................................................................28-4
Figure 28-3 Telnet into Menu 24.6 ............................................................................................................28-7
Figure 28-4 Restore Using FTP Session Example .....................................................................................28-8
Figure 28-5 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1 Upload System Firmware ...............................................................28-9
Figure 28-6 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance .......................................................................28-9
Figure 28-7 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload ..................................................................28-10
Figure 29-1 Menu 24 System Maintenance ...............................................................................................29-1
Figure 29-2 Valid CI Commands ...............................................................................................................29-1
Figure 29-3 Menu24.9 System Maintenance : Call Control ......................................................................29-2
Figure 29-4 Menu 24.9.1 Call Control Parameters ....................................................................................29-2
Figure 29-5 Menu 24.9.2 Blacklist ............................................................................................................29-3
Figure 29-6 Menu 24.9.3 Budget Management .........................................................................................29-4
Figure 29-7 Menu 24.9.2 Call History.......................................................................................................29-5
Figure 29-8 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance : Time and Date Setting ...................................................29-6
Figure 30-1 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ........................................................................... 30-1
Figure 30-2 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ............................................................................30-2
Figure 31-1 Menu 26 Schedule Setup........................................................................................................31-1
Figure 31-2 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup...............................................................................................31-2
Figure 31-3 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPTP) ............................................................31-4
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List of Figures
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 3-1 Wizard 1: General Setup ..............................................................................................................3-3
Table 3-2 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup ....................................................................................................3-4
Table 3-3 Wizard 3: Ethernet Encapsulation................................................................................................3-6
Table 3-4 Wizard 3: PPPoE Encapsulation ..................................................................................................3-8
Table 3-5 Wizard 3: PPTP Encapsulation ..................................................................................................3-10
Table 3-6 Private IP Address Ranges .........................................................................................................3-11
Table 3-7 Example of Network Properties for LAN Servers with Fixed IP Addresses..............................3-13
Table 3-8 Wizard 4: WAN and DNS ..........................................................................................................3-14
Table 4-1 System General Setup ..................................................................................................................4-2
Table 4-2 DDNS...........................................................................................................................................4-4
Table 4-3 Password ......................................................................................................................................4-5
Table 4-4 Time Setting .................................................................................................................................4-6
Table 5-1 IP..................................................................................................................................................5-4
Table 6-1 Wireless........................................................................................................................................6-7
Table 6-2 Roaming.....................................................................................................................................6-10
Table 7-1 Wireless : WEP Fields..................................................................................................................7-5
Table 7-2 MAC Address Filter .....................................................................................................................7-8
Table 7-3 Wireless Security Relational Matrix ..........................................................................................7-12
Table 7-4 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA ......................................................................................................7-13
Table 7-5 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol ......................................................................7-14
Table 7-6 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol .........................................................................7-17
Table 7-7 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol ................................................................7-19
Table 7-8 Local User Database ..................................................................................................................7-22
Table 7-9 RADIUS.....................................................................................................................................7-25
Table 8-1 Ethernet Encapsulation ...................................................................................................................8-2
Table 8-2 Service Type ..................................................................................................................................8-3
Table 8-3 PPPoE Encapsulation .....................................................................................................................8-4
Table 8-4 PPTP Encapsulation .......................................................................................................................8-6
Table 8-5 IP Setup .........................................................................................................................................8-7
Table 9-1 NAT Definitions...........................................................................................................................9-1
Table 9-2 NAT Mapping Types ....................................................................................................................9-5
Table 9-3 Services and Port Numbers ..........................................................................................................9-6
Table 9-4 SUA/NAT Setup...........................................................................................................................9-8
Table 9-5 Address Mapping .......................................................................................................................9-10
Table 9-6 Address Mapping Rule...............................................................................................................9-11
Table 10-1 IP Static Route Summary .........................................................................................................10-2
Table 10-2 Edit IP Static Route ..................................................................................................................10-3
Table 11-1 Common IP Ports .....................................................................................................................11-3
Table 11-2 ICMP Commands That Trigger Alerts......................................................................................11-6
Lists of Tables
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Table 11-3 Legal NetBIOS Commands ..................................................................................................... 11-6
Table 11-4 Legal SMTP Commands.......................................................................................................... 11-7
Table 12-1 Firewall Settings ......................................................................................................................12-7
Table 12-2 Firewall Filter ........................................................................................................................12-10
Table 12-3 Creating/Editing A Firewall Rule ..........................................................................................12-12
Table 12-4 Predefined Services ...............................................................................................................12-13
Table 13-1 Telnet .......................................................................................................................................13-3
Table 13-2 FTP ..........................................................................................................................................13-4
Table 13-3 WWW......................................................................................................................................13-5
Table 13-4 SNMP Traps.............................................................................................................................13-8
Table 13-5 Ports and Interface Types.........................................................................................................13-8
Table 13-6 SNMP ......................................................................................................................................13-9
Table 13-7 DNS ....................................................................................................................................... 13-11
Table 13-8 Security..................................................................................................................................13-12
Table 14-1 Configuring UPnP ...................................................................................................................14-3
Table 15-1 View Log .................................................................................................................................15-2
Table 15-2 Log Settings.............................................................................................................................15-5
Table 15-3 Reports.....................................................................................................................................15-8
Table 15-4 Protocol/Port Report ................................................................................................................15-9
Table 15-5 LAN IP Address Report ......................................................................................................... 15-11
Table 15-6 Report Specifications............................................................................................................. 15-11
Table 16-1 System Status...........................................................................................................................16-2
Table 16-2 System Status: Show Statistics ................................................................................................16-3
Table 16-3 DHCP Table .............................................................................................................................16-4
Table 16-4 Association List .......................................................................................................................16-5
Table 16-5 Firmware Upgrade ...................................................................................................................16-6
Table 16-6 Restore Configuration............................................................................................................16-10
Table 17-1 Main Menu Commands ...........................................................................................................17-4
Table 17-2 Main Menu Summary ..............................................................................................................17-5
Table 18-1 Menu 1 General Setup .............................................................................................................18-2
Table 18-2 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS ........................................................................................18-3
Table 18-3 Menu 2 WAN Setup.................................................................................................................18-5
Table 19-1 Menu 3.2 DHCP Ethernet Setup ..............................................................................................19-3
Table 19-2 Menu3.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup..............................................................................................19-3
Table 19-3 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup .......................................................................................................19-6
Table 19-4 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup ................................................................................................19-7
Table 19-5 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter...............................................................................19-10
Table 19-6 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration ...................................................................................... 19-11
Table 20-1 Internet Account Information...................................................................................................20-1
Table 20-2 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup .................................................................................................20-2
Table 21-1 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile .............................................................................................21-2
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Table 21-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options...................................................................21-5
Table 21-3 Menu 12.1 Edit IP Static Route................................................................................................21-8
Table 22-1 Menu 14.1- Edit Dial-in User...................................................................................................22-2
Table 23-1 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3 ...........................................................................................23-2
Table 23-2 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules .........................................................................23-4
Table 23-3 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules ......................................................................................23-5
Table 23-4 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule.....................................................................................23-6
Table 23-5 Services & Port Numbers.........................................................................................................23-8
Table 23-6 Menu 15.3 Trigger Port Setup................................................................................................23-17
Table 24-1 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu..........................................................24-5
Table 24-2 Rule Abbreviations Used .........................................................................................................24-5
Table 24-3 Menu 21.1.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule ..............................................................................................24-7
Table 24-4 Menu 21.1.4.1 Generic Filter Rule.........................................................................................24-11
Table 24-5 Filter Sets Table .....................................................................................................................24-15
Table 25-1 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration ................................................................................................25-1
Table 26-1 Menu 23.2 System Security : RADIUS Server ........................................................................26-2
Table 26-2 Menu 23.4 System Security : IEEE802.1x...............................................................................26-4
Table 27-1 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status .................................................................................27-2
Table 27-2 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance – Information ....................................................................27-4
Table 27-3 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : UNIX Syslog ..................................................................27-6
Table 27-4 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic..........................................................................27-8
Table 28-1 Filename Conventions..............................................................................................................28-2
Table 28-2 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients......................................................................28-4
Table 28-3 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients ...................................................................28-6
Table 29-1 Menu 24.9.1 Call Control Parameters......................................................................................29-3
Table 29-2 Menu 24.9.1 Budget Management ...........................................................................................29-4
Table 29-3 Menu 24.9.2 Call History.........................................................................................................29-5
Table 29-4 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance : Time and Date Setting .....................................................29-6
Table 30-1 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ..............................................................................30-3
Table 31-1 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup.................................................................................................31-2
Lists of Tables
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Preface
Congratulations on your purchase from the ZyAIR G-2000 802.11g Wireless 4-port Router.
A wireless router is an access point and router rolled into one. It is a cost-effect solution to share Internet
access with multiple computers and expand your wired network.
This User’s Guide is designed to guide you through the configuration of your ZyAIR using the web
configurator or the SMT.
Use the web configurator, System Management Terminal (SMT) or command
interpreter interface to configure your ZyAIR. Not all features can be configured
through all interfaces.
The web configurator parts of this guide contain background information on features configurable by the
web configurator and the SMT. The SMT parts of this guide contain background information solely on
features not configurable by the web configurator.
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and
information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for
North American products.
Related Documentation
Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
Quick Installation Guide
Our Quick Installation Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It contains
information on the configuration of key features and hardware connections and installation.
ZyXEL Web Site
The ZyXEL download library at www.zyxel.com contains additional support documentation.
Please also refer to www.zyxel.com for an online glossary of networking terms.
Syntax Conventions
•
“Enter” means for you to type one or more characters (and press the carriage return). “Select” or
“Choose” means for you to use one predefined choices.
•
Enter, or carriage return, key; [ESC] means the escape key and [SPACE BAR] means the space bar.
[UP] and [DOWN] are the up and down arrow keys.
xxiv
Preface
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
•
Mouse action sequences are denoted using a comma. For example, “click the Apple icon, Control
Panels and then Modem” means first click the Apple icon, then point your mouse pointer to Control
Panels and then click Modem.
•
For brevity’s sake, we will use “e.g.,” as a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” for “that is” or “in
other words” throughout this manual.
•
The ZyAIR G-2000 802.11g Wireless 4-port Router may be referred to simply as the ZyAIR in the
user’s guide.
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you. E-mail all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for improvement to
techwriters@zyxel.com.tw or send regular mail to The Technical Writing Team, ZyXEL Communications
Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan. Thank you.
Graphics Icons Key
ZyAIR
Computer
Modem
Server
Firewall
Router
Notebook Computer
DSLAM (Digital Subscriber
Line Access Multiplexer)
Switch
Wireless Signal
Preface
xxv
Overview
Part I:
OVERVIEW
This part introduces the main features and applications of the ZyAIR and shows how to access
the web configurator and use the Wizard to configure for Internet Access.
I
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the ZyAIR.
1.1
Introducing the ZyAIR
The ZyAIR G-2000, an IEEE802.11b/g compliant broadband wireless sharing gateway, provides wireless
connectivity. As an Internet gateway, your ZyAIR can share an Internet connection (through a cable or
xDSL modem) with multiple computers using SUA/NAT and DHCP. The ZyAIR offers highly secured
wireless connectivity to your wired network with IEEE 802.1x, WEP data encryption, WPA (Wi-Fi
Protected Access) and MAC address filtering.
The ZyAIR is easy to install and configure. The embedded web-based configurator and SNMP network
management enables remote configuration and management of your ZyAIR.
1.2
ZyAIR Features
The following sections describe the features of the ZyAIR.
4-Port Switch
A combination of switch and router makes your ZyAIR a cost-effective and viable network solution. You
can connect up to four computers to the LAN ports on you ZyAIR without the cost of a hub.
10/100M Auto-negotiating Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface
This auto-negotiating feature allows the ZyAIR to detect the speed of incoming transmissions and adjust
appropriately without manual intervention. It allows data transfer of either 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps in either
half-duplex or full-duplex mode depending on your Ethernet network.
10/100M Auto-crossover Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface
The LAN interface automatically adjusts to either a crossover or straight-through Ethernet cable.
10/100 Mbps Ethernet WAN
The 10/100 Mbps Ethernet WAN port attaches to the Internet via broadband modem or router.
Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
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Reset Button
The ZyAIR reset button is built into the side panel. Use this button to restore the factory default password
to 1234; IP address to 192.168.1.1, subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 and DHCP sever enabled with a pool of
32 IP addresses starting at 192.168.1.33.
Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection
The ZyAIR has a special protection mechanism to discourage brute-force password guessing attacks on the
ZyAIR's management interfaces. You can specify a wait-time that must expire before entering a fourth
password after three incorrect passwords have been entered. Please see the appendix for details about this
feature.
ZyAIR LED
The blue ZyAIR LED (also known as the Breathing LED) is on when the ZyAIR is on and blinks (or
breaths) when data is being transmitted to/from its wireless stations. You may use the web configurator to
turn this LED off even when the ZyAIR is on and data is being transmitted/received.
802.11b Wireless LAN Standard
ZyAIR products containing the letter “B” in the model name, such as ZyAIR B-2000, ZyAIR B-2000 v.2,
comply with the 802.11b wireless standard.
The 802.11b data rate and corresponding modulation techniques are as follows. The modulation technique
defines how bits are encoded onto radio waves.
802.11b
Data Rate (Mbps)
Modulation
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
The ZyAIR may be prone to RF (Radio Frequency) interference from other 2.4 GHz
devices such as microwave ovens, wireless phones, Bluetooth enabled devices,
and other wireless LANs.
802.11g Wireless LAN Standard
ZyAIR products containing the letter “G” in the model name, such as ZyAIR G-1000 and ZyAIR G-2000,
comply with the 802.11g wireless standard.
802.11g will be fully compatible with the 802.11b standard. This means an 802.11b radio card can interface
directly with an 802.11g access point (and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or lower depending on range. 802.11g
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has several intermediate rate steps between the maximum and minimum data rates. The 802.11g data rate
and modulation are as follows:
802.11g
Data Rate (Mbps)
Modulation
1 ~ 54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification draft. Key differences
between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data encryption.
SSL Passthrough
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) uses a public key to encrypt data that's transmitted over an SSL connection.
Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many web sites use the protocol to obtain
confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By convention, URLs that require an SSL
connection start with “https” instead of “http”. The ZyAIR allows SSL connections to take place through
the ZyAIR.
Firewall
The ZyAIR employs a stateful inspection firewall with DoS (Denial of Service) protection. By default,
when the firewall is activated, all incoming traffic from the WAN to the LAN is blocked unless it is
initiated from the LAN. The ZyAIR firewall supports TCP/UDP inspection, DoS detection and prevention,
real time alerts, reports and logs.
IEEE 802.1x Network Security
The ZyAIR supports the IEEE 802.1x standard to enhance user authentication. Use the built-in user profile
database to authenticate up to 32 users using MD5 encryption. Use an EAP-compatible RADIUS
(RFC2138, 2139 - Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) server to authenticate a limitless number of
users using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol). EAP is an authentication protocol that supports
multiple types of authentication.
Wireless LAN MAC Address Filtering
Your ZyAIR checks the MAC address of the wireless station against a list of allowed or denied MAC
addresses.
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the wireless network to
help keep network communications private.
Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
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Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
Using the standard TCP/IP protocol, the ZyAIR and other UPnP-enabled devices can dynamically join a
network, obtain an IP address and convey its capabilities to other devices on the network.
Dynamic DNS Support
With Dynamic DNS support, you can have a static hostname alias for a dynamic IP address, allowing the
host to be more easily accessible from various locations on the Internet. You must register for this service.
PPPoE Support (RFC2516)
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) emulates a dial-up connection. It allows your ISP to use
their existing network configuration with newer broadband technologies such as ADSL. The PPPoE driver
on the ZyAIR is transparent to the computers on the LAN, which see only Ethernet and are not aware of
PPPoE thus saving you from having to manage PPPoE clients on individual computers.
PPTP Encapsulation
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a network protocol that enables secure transfer of data from a
remote client to a private server, creating a Virtual Private Network (VPN) using a TCP/IP-based network.
PPTP supports on-demand, multi-protocol and virtual private networking over public networks, such as the
Internet. Use PPTP to connect to a broadband modem to achieve access to high-speed data networks via a
familiar "dial-up networking" user interface.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) allows the translations of multiple IP addresses
used within one network to different IP addresses known within another network.
NAT for Single-IP-address Internet Access
The ZyAIR's SUA (Single User Account) feature allows multiple-user Internet access for the cost of a
single IP account. NAT supports popular Internet applications such as MS traceroute, CuSeeMe, IRC,
RealPlayer, VDOLive, Quake, and PPTP. No configuration is needed to support these applications.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) allows the individual clients (computers) to obtain the
TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a centralized DHCP server. The ZyAIR has built-in DHCP server
capability enabled by default. It can assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway and DNS servers to DHCP
clients. The ZyAIR also acts as a surrogate DHCP server (DHCP Relay) where it relays IP address
assignment from the actual real DHCP server to the clients.
Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in two ways - unicast or broadcast. Multicast is a third way to
deliver IP packets to a group of hosts. IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is the protocol used to
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support multicast groups. The latest version is version 2 (see RFC 2236). The ZyAIR supports versions 1
and 2.
IP Alias
IP Alias allows you to partition a physical network into logical networks over the same Ethernet interface.
The ZyAIR supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet LAN interface with the
ZyAIR itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
IP Policy Routing
IP Policy Routing provides a mechanism to override the default routing behavior and alter packet
forwarding based on the policies defined by the network administrator.
SNMP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a protocol used for exchanging management
information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Your ZyAIR
supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manger station to manage and monitor the ZyAIR
through the network. The ZyAIR supports SNMP version one (SNMPv1) and version two c (SNMPv2c).
Full Network Management
The embedded web configurator is an all-platform web-based utility that allows you to easily access the
ZyAIR’s management settings. Most functions of the ZyAIR are also software configurable via the SMT
(System Management Terminal) interface. The SMT is a menu-driven interface that you can access from a
terminal emulator over a telnet connection.
Logging and Tracing
♦
Built-in message logging and packet tracing.
♦
Unix syslog facility support.
Diagnostics Capabilities
The ZyAIR can perform self-diagnostic tests. These tests check the integrity of the following circuitry:
♦
FLASH memory
♦
DRAM
♦
LAN port
♦
Wireless port
Embedded FTP and TFTP Servers
The ZyAIR’s embedded FTP and TFTP servers enable fast firmware upgrades as well as configuration file
backups and restoration.
Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
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Wireless Association List
With the Wireless Association List, you can see the list of the wireless stations that are currently using the
ZyAIR to access your wired network.
1.3
Application for the ZyAIR
Here is an application example of what you can do with your ZyAIR.
1.3.1 Internet Access Application
Add a wireless LAN to your existing network without expensive network cables. Wireless stations can
move freely anywhere in the coverage area and use resources on the wired network.
Figure 1-1 Internet Access Application Example
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Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator
This chapter describes how to access the ZyAIR web configurator and provides an overview of its
screens.
2.1
Web Configurator Overview
The web configurator makes it easy to configure and manage the ZyAIR. The screens you see in the web
configurator may vary somewhat from the ones shown in this document due to differences between
individual ZyAIR models or firmware versions.
2.2
Accessing the ZyAIR Web Configurator
Step 1.
Make sure your ZyAIR hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick Installation Guide).
Step 2.
Prepare your computer to connect to the ZyAIR (refer to the Setting Up Your Computer’s IP
Address appendix).
Step 3.
Launch your web browser.
Step 4.
Type "192.168.1.1" as the URL.
Address field.
Figure 2-1 Web Browser Address Field
Step 5.
Type "1234" (default) as the password and click Login. In some versions, the default password
appears automatically - if this is the case, click Login.
Step 6.
You should see a screen asking you to change your password (highly recommended) as shown
next. Type a new password (and retype it to confirm) and click Apply or click Ignore to allow
access without password change.
Introducing the Web Configurator
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Figure 2-2 Change Password Screen
Step 7.
You should now see the SYSTEM screen.
The management session automatically times out when the time period set in the
Administrator Inactivity Timer field expires (default five minutes). Simply log back into
the ZyAIR if this happens to you.
2.3
Resetting the ZyAIR
If you forget your password or cannot access the ZyAIR, you will need to reload the factory-default
configuration file or use the RESET button on the side panel of the ZyAIR. Uploading this configuration file
replaces the current configuration file with the factory-default configuration file. This means that you will
lose all configurations that you had previously. The password will be reset to “1234”, also.
2.3.1 Procedure to Use the Reset Button
Make sure the SYS LED is on (not blinking) before you begin this procedure.
Step 1.
Press the RESET button for more than five seconds, and then release it. If the SYS LED begins
to blink, the defaults have been restored and the ZyAIR restarts. Otherwise, go to step 2.
Step 2.
Turn the ZyAIR off.
Step 3.
While pressing the RESET button, turn the ZyAIR on.
Step 4.
Continue to hold the RESET button. The SYS LED will begin to blink and flicker very quickly
after about 10 or 15 seconds. This indicates that the defaults have been restored and the ZyAIR is
now restarting.
Step 5.
Release the RESET button and wait for the ZyAIR to finish restarting.
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2.4
Navigating the ZyAIR Web Configurator
The following summarizes how to navigate the web configurator.
Follow the instructions below or click the
icon (located in the top right corner
of most screens) to view online help.
The
icon does not appear in the main screen.
Click WIZARD SETUP for initial configuration including general
setup, wireless LAN setup, ISP Parameters for Internet Access
and WAN IP/DNS/MAC Address Assignment.
Click the links under ADVANCED to configure advanced features
such as SYSTEM (General Setup, Dynamic DNS, Password and
Time Setting), LAN (DHCP and TCP/IP Setup), WLAN (WLAN
and WLAN Security Setup), WAN, SUA/NAT, STATIC ROUTE
(Route Entry), FIREWALL (Settings, Filter and Services),
REMOTE MGNT (Telnet, FTP, WWW, SNMP, DNS and Security),
UPnP and Logs (View Log, Log Settings and Reports).
Click LOGOUT at
any time to exit the
web configurator.
Click the links under MAINTENANCE to view information about your ZyAIR or
upgrade configuration/firmware files. Maintenance includes SYSTEM STATUS
(Statistics), DHCP TABLE, F/W (Firmware) UPLOAD, CONFIGURATION
(Backup, Restore Default) and WIRELESS (Association List).
Figure 2-3 Navigating the ZyAIR Web Configurator
Introducing the Web Configurator
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Chapter 3
Wizard Setup
This chapter provides information on the Wizard Setup screens in the web configurator.
3.1
Wizard Setup Overview
The web configurator’s setup wizard helps you configure your ZyAIR for Internet access and set up wireless
LAN.
3.1.1 Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11b wireless devices. Channels available depend on
your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your region) so you should use a different
channel than an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce interference. Interference occurs when radio signals
from different access points overlap causing interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP should be on a
channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using. For example, if your region
has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
3.1.2 ESS ID
An Extended Service Set (ESS) is a group of access points or wireless gateways connected to a wired LAN
on the same subnet. An ESS ID uniquely identifies each set. All access points or wireless gateways and their
associated wireless stations in the same set must have the same ESSID.
3.1.3 WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the wireless network. WEP
encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access points to keep network
communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast communications in a network. Both the wireless
stations and the access points must use the same WEP key for data encryption and decryption.
3.2
Wizard Setup: General Setup
General Setup contains administrative and system-related information.
Wizard Setup
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Figure 3-1 Wizard 1: General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Wizard Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 3-1 Wizard 1: General Setup
LABEL
System Name
DESCRIPTION
It is recommended you type your computer's "Computer name". some ISPs check this name
you should enter your computer's "Computer Name".
In Windows 95/98 click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network. Click the Identification
tab, note the entry for the Computer Name field and enter it as the System Name.
In Windows 2000, click Start, Settings, Control Panel and then double-click System.
Click the Network Identification tab and then the Properties button. Note the entry for
the Computer name field and enter it as the System Name.
In Windows XP, click Start, My Computer, View system information and then click the
Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer name field and enter it as the
ZyAIR System Name.
This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but
dashes "-" and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. Type the
domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP may assign a domain
name via DHCP. The domain name entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned
domain name.
Click Next to proceed to the next screen.
Next
3.3
Wizard Setup: Wireless LAN Setup
Set up your wireless LAN using the second wizard screen.
Wizard Setup
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 3-2 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3-2 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup
LABEL
ESSID
DESCRIPTION
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) for the wireless LAN.
If you change this field on the ZyAIR, make sure all wireless stations use the same ESSID in
order to access the network.
Choose
Channel ID
3-4
Select a channel from the drop-down list box.
Wizard Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 3-2 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup
LABEL
WEP
Encryption
DESCRIPTION
Select Disable allows all wireless computers to communicate with the access points without
any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to allow data encryption.
ASCII
Select this option in order to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
HEX
Select this option to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.
The preceding “0x” is entered automatically.
Key 1 to Key 4 The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyAIR and the wireless stations must use
the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one time. The
default key is key 1.
Next
Click Next to continue.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Refer to the chapter on wireless LAN for more information.
3.4
Wizard Setup: ISP Parameters
The ZyAIR offers three choices of encapsulation. They are Ethernet, PPTP or PPPoE. The screen varies
depending upon the type chosen.
3.4.1 Ethernet
Choose Ethernet when the WAN port is used as a regular Ethernet.
Wizard Setup
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 3-3 Wizard 3: Ethernet Encapsulation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3-3 Wizard 3: Ethernet Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
Encapsulation
You must choose the Ethernet option when the WAN port is used as a regular
Ethernet. Otherwise, choose PPPoE or PPTP for a dial-up connection.
Service Type
Select from Standard, RR-Toshiba (RoadRunner Toshiba authentication method),
RR-Manager (Roadrunner Manager authentication method), RR-Telstra or Telia
Login. Choose a Roadrunner service type if your ISP is Time Warner's Roadrunner;
otherwise choose Standard.
The User Name, Password and Login Server IP Address fields are not applicable
(N/A) for the Standard service type.
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Table 3-3 Wizard 3: Ethernet Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Type the username given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the username above.
Login Server IP
Address
The ZyAIR will find the Roadrunner Server IP if this field is left blank. If it does not,
then you must enter the authentication server IP address.
Login Server
(Telia Login only)
Type the domain name of the Telia login server, for example "login1.telia.com".
Relogin
Every(min) (Telia
Login only)
The Telia server logs the ZyAIR out if the ZyAIR does not log in periodically. Type the
number of minutes from 1 to 59 (30 recommended) for the ZyAIR to wait between
logins.
Next
Click Next to proceed to the next page.
Back
Click Back to go back to the previous page.
3.4.2 PPPoE Encapsulation
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) functions as a dial-up connection. PPPoE is an IETF (Internet
Engineering Task Force) draft standard specifying how a host personal computer interacts with a broadband
modem (for example xDSL, cable, wireless, etc.) to achieve access to high-speed data networks. It preserves
the existing Microsoft Dial-Up Networking experience and requires no new learning or procedures.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that works with existing access
control systems (for instance, RADIUS). For the user, PPPoE provides a login and authentication method
that the existing Microsoft Dial-Up Networking software can activate, and therefore requires no new learning
or procedures for Windows users.
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let end users access one of multiple network services, a function
known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service provider to easily create and offer new IP
services for specific users.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both the subscriber and the ISP/carrier, as it requires no
specific configuration of the broadband modem at the subscriber’s site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the ZyAIR (rather than individual computers), the computers on the
LAN do not need PPPoE software installed, since the ZyAIR does that part of the task. Furthermore, with
NAT, all of the LAN's computers will have Internet access.
Refer to the appendix for more information on PPPoE.
Wizard Setup
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Figure 3-4 Wizard 3: PPPoE Encapsulation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3-4 Wizard 3: PPPoE Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameter for Internet Access
Encapsulation
Choose an encapsulation method from the pull-down list box. PPPoE forms a dial-up
connection.
Service Name
Type the name of your service provider.
User Name
Type the user name given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above.
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Wizard Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 3-4 Wizard 3: PPPoE Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Nailed-Up
Connection
Select Nailed-Up Connection if you do not want the connection to time out.
Idle Timeout
Type the time in seconds that elapses before the ZyAIR automatically disconnects from
the PPPoE server.
Next
Click Next to continue.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
3.4.3 PPTP Encapsulation
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a network protocol that enables transfers of data from a remote
client to a private server, creating a Virtual Private Network (VPN) using TCP/IP-based networks.
PPTP supports on-demand, multi-protocol, and virtual private networking over public networks, such as the
Internet.
Refer to the appendix for more information on PPTP.
The ZyAIR supports one PPTP server connection at any given time.
Wizard Setup
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 3-5 Wizard 3: PPTP Encapsulation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3-5 Wizard 3: PPTP Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
Encapsulation
Select PPTP from the drop-down list box.
User Name
Type the user name given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the User Name above.
Nailed-Up
Connection
Select Nailed-Up Connection if you do not want the connection to time out.
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Table 3-5 Wizard 3: PPTP Encapsulation
LABEL
Idle Timeout
DESCRIPTION
Type the time in seconds that elapses before the ZyAIR automatically disconnects
from the PPTP server.
PPTP Configuration
My IP Address
Type the (static) IP address assigned to you by your ISP.
My IP Subnet
Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to you by your ISP (if given).
Server IP Address
Type the IP address of the PPTP server.
Connection
ID/Name
If your ISP has provided a connection ID name, enter it in this field exactly as
provided.
Next
Click Next to continue.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
3.5
Wizard Setup: WAN and DNS
The fourth wizard screen allows you to configure WAN IP address assignment, DNS server address
assignment and the WAN MAC address.
3.5.1 WAN IP Address Assignment
Every computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address. If your networks are isolated from the
Internet, for instance, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP addresses to the hosts
without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following
three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks.
Table 3-6 Private IP Address Ranges
10.0.0.0
-
10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0
-
172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0
-
192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or have it assigned by a private network. If you
belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the ISP can provide you with the
Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if you are part of a much larger organization,
you should consult your network administrator for the appropriate IP addresses.
Wizard Setup
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Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466,
Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
3.5.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a LAN share one
common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or your network
administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their instructions in selecting the IP
addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single user account
and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is established. If this is the case, it is
recommended that you select a network number from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the
Network Address Translation (NAT) feature of the ZyAIR. The Internet Assigned Number Authority
(IANA) reserved this block of addresses specifically for private use; please do not use any other number
unless you are told otherwise. Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254
individual addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other words, the first
three numbers specify the network number while the last number identifies an individual computer on that
network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember, for instance,
192.168.1.1, for your ZyAIR, but make sure that no other device on your network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your ZyAIR will compute the
subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't need to change the subnet
mask computed by the ZyAIR unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
3.5.3 DNS Server Address Assignment
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice versa, for
instance, the IP address of www.zyxel.com is 204.217.0.2. The DNS server is extremely important because
without it, you must know the IP address of a computer before you can access it.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
1.
The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when you sign
up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS Server fields in DHCP Setup.
2.
Leave the DNS Server fields in DHCP Setup blank (for example 0.0.0.0). The ZyAIR acts as a DNS
proxy when this field is blank.
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3.5.4 WAN MAC Address
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is assigned at
the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
You can configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory default or cloning the MAC
address from a workstation on your LAN. Once it is successfully configured, the address will be copied to
the "rom" file (ZyNOS configuration file). It will not change unless you change the setting or upload a
different "rom" file.
ZyXEL recommends you clone the MAC address from a workstation on your LAN
even if your ISP does not require MAC address authentication.
Your ZyAIR WAN port is always set at half-duplex mode as most cable/DSL modems only support halfduplex mode. Make sure your modem is in half-duplex mode. Your ZyAIR supports full duplex mode on the
LAN side.
Table 3-7 Example of Network Properties for LAN Servers with Fixed IP Addresses
Choose an IP address
192.168.1.2-192.168.1.32; 192.168.1.65-192.168.1.254.
Subnet mask
255.255.255.0
Gateway (or default route)
192.168.1.1(ZyAIR LAN IP)
Wizard Setup
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Figure 3-6 Wizard 4: WAN and DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3-8 Wizard 4: WAN and DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN IP Address Assignment
Get automatically from
ISP
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address. This is the
default selection.
Use fixed IP address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
My WAN IP Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use fixed IP Address.
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Table 3-8 Wizard 4: WAN and DNS
LABEL
My WAN IP Subnet
Mask
Gateway/Remote IP
Address
Remote IP Subnet
Mask
DESCRIPTION
Enter the IP subnet mask in this field if you selected Use fixed IP Address.
This field is not available when you select PPPoE and PPTP encapsulation in
the previous wizard screen.
Enter the gateway IP address in this field if you selected Use fixed IP Address.
This field is not available when you select PPPoE encapsulation in the previous
wizard screen.
Enter the gateway IP subnet mask (if your ISP gave you one) in this field if you
selected Use fixed IP Address. This field is available only when you select
PPTP encapsulation in the previous wizard screen.
DNS Server Address Assignment
Get automatically from
ISP
Select this option if your ISP does not give you DNS server addresses. This
option is selected by default.
Use fixed IP address DNS Server IP Address
Select this option If your ISP provides you a DNS server address.
Primary/Secondary
DNS Server
If you selected the Use fixed IP address –DNS Server IP Address option,
enter the provided DNS addresses in these fields.
WAN MAC Address: The MAC address field allows you to configure the WAN port's MAC address by
either using the factory default or cloning the MAC address from a workstation on your LAN.
Factory Default
Select this option to use the factory assigned default MAC address.
Spoof this Computer's
MAC address - IP
Address
Select this option and enter the IP address of the computer on the LAN whose
MAC address you are cloning. Once it is successfully configured, the MAC
address will be copied to the rom file (ZyNOS configuration file). It will not
change unless you change the setting or upload a different rom file. It is
advisable to clone the MAC address from a computer on your LAN even if your
ISP does not presently require MAC address authentication.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue.
3.6
Basic Setup Complete
Click Finish to complete and save the wizard setup.
Wizard Setup
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If you are currently using a wireless (LAN) adapter to access this ZyAIR and you made changes to the
ESSID, then you will need to make the same changed to your wireless (LAN) adapter after you click the
Finish button.
Figure 3-7 Setup Complete
Well done! You have successfully set up your ZyAIR to operate on your network and access the Internet.
3-16
Wizard Setup
System, LAN and Wireless
Part II:
SYSTEM, LAN AND WIRELESS
This part discusses the System, LAN, and Wireless setup screens.
II
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 4
System Screens
This chapter provides information on the System screens.
4.1
System Overview
This section provides information on general system setup.
4.2
Configuring General Setup
Click SYSTEM to open the General screen.
Figure 4-1 System General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
System Screens
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Table 4-1 System General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Type a descriptive name for identification purposes. Some ISPs check this name, so it
is recommended you enter your computer's "Computer name"
This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but
dashes "-" and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
Type the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank, the ISP may
assign a domain name via DHCP. The domain name entered by you is given priority
over the ISP assigned domain name.
Administrator
Inactivity Timer
Type how many minutes a management session (either via the web configurator or
SMT) can be left idle before the session times out.
The default is 5 minutes. After it times out you have to log in with your password again.
Very long idle timeouts may have security risks.
A value of "0" means a management session never times out, no matter how long it
has been left idle (not recommended).
System DNS Servers
First DNS Server
Second DNS
Server
Third DNS
Server
Select From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS server information (and the
ZyAIR's WAN IP address). The field to the right displays the (read-only) DNS server IP
address that the ISP assigns.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the DNS
server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose User-Defined, but leave the IP
address set to 0.0.0.0, User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply. If you set
a second choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP address, the second UserDefined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. If you do not configure a
DNS server, you must know the IP address of a machine in order to access it.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
4.3
Dynamic DNS
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or many dynamic DNS
services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe, etc.). You can also access your FTP
server or web site on your own computer using a domain name (for instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost
is a name of your choice) that will never change instead of using an IP address that changes each time you
reconnect. Your friends or relatives will always be able to call you even if they don't know your IP address.
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First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with www.dyndns.org. This is for people
with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that would still like to have a domain name. The dynamic
DNS service provider will give you a password or key.
4.3.1 DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the same IP address
as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use, for example,
www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
4.4
Configuring Dynamic DNS
To change your ZyAIR’s DDNS, click SYSTEM and then the DDNS tab. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 4-2 DDNS
System Screens
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4-2 DDNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable DDNS
Select this check box to activate DDNS.
Service Provider
Select the name of your DDNS service provider.
DDNS Type
Select the type of service that you are registered for from your DDNS service
provider. Options are Dynamic DNS, Static DNS or Custom DNS.
Host Names 1~3
Enter your host names in the three fields provided. You can specify up to two
host names in each field separated by a comma (",").
User Name
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Option
Your ZyAIR supports DYNDNS wildcard. Select the check box to enable.
Enable off line option
This option is available when CustomDNS is selected in the DDNS Type field.
Check with your dynamic DNS service provider to have traffic redirected to a URL
(that you can specify) while you are off line.
IP Address Update Policy:
Use WAN IP address
Select this option to update the IP address of the host name(s) to the WAN IP
address.
DDNS server auto
detect IP Address
Select this option to update the IP address of the host name(s) automatically by
the DDNS server. It is recommended that you select this option.
Use specified IP
Address
Select this option to update the IP address of the host name(s) to the IP address
specified below. Use this option if you have a static IP address.
IP Address
Enter the IP address if you select the Use specified IP Address option.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
4.5
Configuring Password
To change your ZyAIR’s password (recommended), click SYSTEM and then the Password tab. The screen
appears as shown. This screen allows you to change the ZyAIR’s password.
If you forget your password (or the ZyAIR IP address), you will need to reset the ZyAIR. See the Resetting
the ZyAIR section for details.
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Figure 4-3 Password
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4-3 Password
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Old Password
Type in your existing system password (1234 is the default password).
New Password
Type your new system password (up to 31 characters). Note that as you type a
password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you type.
Retype to Confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
4.6
Configuring Time Setting
To change your ZyAIR’s time and date, click SYSTEM and then the Time Setting tab. The screen appears
as shown. Use this screen to configure the ZyAIR’s time based on your local time zone.
System Screens
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Figure 4-4 Time Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4-4 Time Setting
LABEL
Time Protocol
4-6
DESCRIPTION
Select the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on the
ZyAIR. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to check with
your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that works.
The main difference between them is the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC 868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of seconds
since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
The default, NTP (RFC 1305), is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Select None to enter the time and date manually.
System Screens
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 4-4 Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or the URL of your time server. Check with your ISP/network
administrator if you are unsure of this information (the default is tick.stdtime.gov.tw).
Current Time
(hh:mm:ss)
This field displays the time of your ZyAIR.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyAIR synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Time
(hh:mm:ss)
This field displays the last updated time from the time server.
When you select None in the Time Protocol field, enter the new time in this field
and then click Apply.
Current Date
(yyyy/mm/dd)
This field displays the date of your ZyAIR.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyAIR synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Date
(yyyy/mm/dd)
This field displays the last updated date from the time server.
When you select None in the Time Protocol field, enter the new date in this field
and then click Apply.
Time Zone
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Savings
Select this option if you use daylight savings time. Daylight saving is a period from
late spring to early fall when many countries set their clocks ahead of normal local
time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Start Date (mm-dd)
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time starts on if you selected
Daylight Savings.
End Date (mm-dd)
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time ends on if you selected
Daylight Savings.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
System Screens
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Chapter 5
LAN Screens
This chapter describes how to configure LAN settings.
5.1
LAN Overview
Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many computers are attached. The
LAN screens can help you configure a LAN DHCP server, manage IP addresses, and partition your physical
network into logical networks.
Please see the Wizard Setup chapter for the background information about Primary and Secondary DNS
Server and IP Address and Subnet Mask.
5.2
LANs and WANs
A LAN is a computer network limited to the immediate area, usually the same building or floor of a building.
A WAN (Wide Area Network), on the other hand, is an outside connection to another network or the
Internet.
5.2.1 LANs, WANs and the ZyAIR
The actual physical connection determines whether the ZyAIR ports are LAN or WAN ports. There are two
separate IP networks, one inside, the LAN network; the other outside: the WAN network as shown next:
Figure 5-1 LAN & WAN IPs
LAN Screens
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5.3
DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual clients to obtain
TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the ZyAIR as a DHCP server or disable it.
When configured as a server, the ZyAIR provides the TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If set to None,
DHCP service will be disabled and you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computer
must be manually configured.
5.3.1 DNS Servers
Use the LAN screen to configure the DNS server information that the ZyAIR sends to the DHCP client
devices on the LAN.
There are three places where you can configure DNS setup on the ZyAIR.
1. Use the SYSTEM General screen to configure the ZyAIR to use a DNS server to resolve domain
names for ZyAIR system features like DDNS and the time server.
2. Use the LAN screen to configure the DNS server information that the ZyAIR sends to the DHCP
client devices on the LAN.
3. Use the REMOTE MGNT DNS screen to configure the ZyAIR to accept or discard DNS queries.
5.4
Factory LAN Defaults
The LAN parameters of the ZyAIR are preset in the factory with the following values:
•
IP address of 192.168.1.1 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
• DHCP server enabled with 32 client IP addresses starting from 192.168.1.33.
IP Pool Setup
The ZyAIR is pre-configured with a pool of 32 IP addresses starting from 192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.64. This
configuration leaves 31 IP addresses (excluding the ZyAIR itself) in the lower range for other server
computers, for instance, servers for mail, FTP, TFTP, web, etc., that you may have.
These parameters should work for the majority of installations. If your ISP gives you explicit DNS server
address(es), read the embedded web configurator help regarding what fields need to be configured.
5.5
RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC 1058 and RFC 1389) allows a router to exchange routing
information with other routers. RIP Direction controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets. When set
to:
1. Both - the ZyAIR will broadcast its routing table periodically and incorporate the RIP information that
it receives.
2. In Only - the ZyAIR will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP packets received.
3. Out Only - the ZyAIR will send out RIP packets but will not accept any RIP packets received.
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4. None - the ZyAIR will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets received.
RIP Version controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the ZyAIR sends (it
recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more
information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M send routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that RIP-2B uses subnet
broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines
since they generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets.
However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must use multicasting, also.
By default, RIP Direction is set to Both and RIP Version to RIP-1.
5.6
Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1 recipient) or
Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on the
network - not everybody and not just 1.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership in a
Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an improvement over
version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you would like to read more detailed
information about interoperability between IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of
RFC 2236. The class D IP address is used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to
239.255.255.255. The address 224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used by IP multicast computers.
The address 224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts
(including gateways). All hosts must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP. The address
224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
The ZyAIR supports both IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1) and IGMP version 2 (IGMP-v2). At start up, the
ZyAIR queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership. After that, the ZyAIR
periodically updates this information. IP multicasting can be enabled/disabled on the ZyAIR LAN and/or
WAN interfaces in the web configurator (LAN; WAN). Select None to disable IP multicasting on these
interfaces.
5.7
Configuring the LAN IP Screens
Click LAN to open the IP screen.
LAN Screens
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Figure 5-2 IP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 5-1 IP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Setup (refer to your User's Guide for background information)
DHCP Server
IP Pool Starting
Address
5-4
Select this option to allow your ZyAIR to assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway
and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other systems that support the
DHCP client.
When DHCP is used, the following items need to be set:
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
LAN Screens
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 5-1 IP
LABEL
Pool Size
DESCRIPTION
This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
DNS Servers Assigned by DHCP Server
First DNS Server
Second DNS
Server
Third DNS Server
Select From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS server information (and the
ZyAIR's WAN IP address). The field to the right displays the (read-only) DNS server
IP address that the ISP assigns.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the DNS
server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose User-Defined, but leave the
IP address set to 0.0.0.0, User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply. If
you set a second choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP address, the
second User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select DNS Relay to have the ZyAIR act as a DNS proxy. The ZyAIR's LAN IP
address displays in the field to the right (read-only). The ZyAIR tells the DHCP
clients on the LAN that the ZyAIR itself is the DNS server. When a computer on the
LAN sends a DNS query to the ZyAIR, the ZyAIR forwards the query to the ZyAIR's
system DNS server (configured in the SYSTEM General screen) and relays the
response back to the computer. You can only select DNS Relay for one of the three
servers; if you select DNS Relay for a second or third DNS server, that choice
changes to None after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. If you do not configure a
DNS server, you must know the IP address of a machine in order to access it.
LAN TCP/IP
IP Address
IP Subnet Mask
RIP Direction
RIP Version
Multicast
Type the IP address of your ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1 (factory default).
Type the subnet mask assigned to you by your ISP (if given).
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a multicast group. The ZyAIR supports both IGMP version 1
(IGMP-v1) and IGMP-v2. Select None to disable it.
Windows Networking (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP broadcast packets that enable a computer
to connect to and communicate with a LAN. For some dial-up services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS
packets cause unwanted calls. However it may sometimes be necessary to allow NetBIOS packets to pass
through to the WAN in order to find a computer on the WAN.
LAN Screens
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Table 5-1 IP
LABEL
Allow between
LAN and WAN
DESCRIPTION
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the WAN and
from the WAN to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to
block WAN to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default WAN to LAN firewall
rule that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the WAN
and from the WAN to the LAN.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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Chapter 6
Wireless Configuration and Roaming
This chapter discusses how to configure the Wireless and Roaming screens on the ZyAIR.
6.1
Wireless LAN Overview
This section introduces the wireless LAN (WLAN) and some basic scenarios.
6.1.1 IBSS
An Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS), also called an Ad-hoc network, is the simplest WLAN
configuration. An IBSS is defined as two or more computers with wireless adapters within range of each
other that from an independent (wireless) network without the need of an access point (AP).
Figure 6-1 IBSS (Ad-hoc) Wireless LAN
6.1.2 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or between a wireless
station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled, wireless station
A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other. When Intra-BSS is disabled,
wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but cannot communicate with each other.
Wireless Configuration and Roaming
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Figure 6-2 Basic Service set
6.1.3 ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an access point,
with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired connection between APs is called
a Distribution System (DS). An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points
and their associated wireless stations within the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to
communicate.
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 6-3 Extended Service Set
6.2
Wireless LAN Basics
Refer also to the Wizard Setup chapter for more background information on Wireless LAN features, such as
channels.
6.2.1 RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not within range
of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA) are within range of the
access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other, so they cannot “hear” each other, that
is they do not know if the channel is currently being used. Therefore, they are considered hidden from each
other.
Wireless Configuration and Roaming
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Figure 6-4 RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the ZyAIR, it might not know that station B is already using the channel. If
these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets of data arrive at the AP at
the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the biggest size data
frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station that wants to
transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP for permission to send it.
The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all other stations within its range to notify
them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and confirms with the requesting station the time frame for
the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the RTS (Request
To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network and the “cost”
of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in the RTS (Request To
Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the RTS (Request
To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will be fragmented before they
reach RTS/CTS size.
Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
6.2.2 Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432 bytes) that can be
sent in the wireless network before the ZyAIR will fragment the packet into smaller data frames.
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A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference while you should
set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously) you set, then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will be fragmented
before they reach RTS/CTS size.
6.3
Configuring Wireless
If you are configuring the ZyAIR from a computer connected to the wireless LAN
and you change the ZyAIR’s ESSID or WEP settings, you will lose your wireless
connection when you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless
settings of your computer to match the ZyAIR’s new settings.
Click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED to open the Wireless screen.
Wireless Configuration and Roaming
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Figure 6-5 Wireless
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
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Table 6-1 Wireless
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
Wireless LAN
Click the check box to activate wireless LAN.
ESSID
(Extended Service Set IDentity) The ESSID identifies the Service Set with which a
wireless station is associated. Wireless stations associating to the access point (AP)
must have the same ESSID. Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII
characters) for the wireless LAN.
If you are configuring the ZyAIR from a computer connected to
the wireless LAN and you change the ZyAIR’s ESSID or WEP
settings, you will lose your wireless connection when you press
Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of
your computer to match the ZyAIR’s new settings.
Hide ESSID
Select this check box to hide the ESSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a station cannot
obtain the ESSID through passive scanning using a site survey tool.
Choose
Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
Select a channel from the drop-down list box.
Refer to the Wizard Setup chapter for more information on channels.
RTS/CTS
Threshold
Enter a value between 0 and 2432. The default is 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
Enter a value between 256 and 2432. The default is 2432. It is the maximum data
fragment size that can be sent.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
See the Wireless Security chapter for information on the other labels in this screen.
6.4
Configuring Roaming
A wireless station is a device with an IEEE 802.11mode compliant wireless adapter. An access point (AP)
acts as a bridge between the wireless and wired networks. An AP creates its own wireless coverage area. A
wireless station can associate with a particular access point only if it is within the access point’s coverage
area.
In a network environment with multiple access points, wireless stations are able to switch from one access
point to another as they move between the coverage areas. This is roaming. As the wireless station moves
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from place to place, it is responsible for choosing the most appropriate access point depending on the signal
strength, network utilization or other factors.
The roaming feature on the access points allows the access points to relay information about the wireless
stations to each other. When a wireless station moves from a coverage area to another, it scans and uses the
channel of a new access point, which then informs the access points on the LAN about the change. The new
information is then propagated to the other access points on the LAN. An example is shown in Figure 6-6.
Enable roaming to exchange the latest bridge information of all wireless stations between APs when a
wireless station moves between coverage areas. Wireless stations can still associate with other APs even if
you disable roaming. Enabling roaming ensures correct traffic forwarding (bridge tables are updated) and
maximum AP efficiency. The AP deletes records of wireless stations that associate with other APs (NonZyXEL APs may not be able to perform this). 802.1x authentication information is not exchanged (at the
time of writing).
Figure 6-6 Roaming Example
The steps below describe the roaming process.
Step 1.
As wireless station Y moves from the coverage area of access point AP 1 to that of access point
AP 2, it scans and uses the signal of access point AP 2.
Step 2.
Access point AP 2 acknowledges the presence of wireless station Y and relays this information
to access point AP 1 through the wired LAN.
Step 3.
Access point AP 1 updates the new position of wireless station.
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Step 4.
Wireless station Y sends a request to access point AP 2 for re-authentication.
6.4.1 Requirements for Roaming
The following requirements must be met in order for wireless stations to roam between the coverage areas.
1. All the access points must be on the same subnet and configured with the same ESSID.
2. If IEEE 802.1x user authentication is enabled and to be done locally on the access point, the new
access point must have the user profile for the wireless station.
3. The adjacent access points should use different radio channels when their coverage areas overlap.
4. All access points must use the same port number to relay roaming information.
5. The access points must be connected to the Ethernet and be able to get IP addresses from a DHCP
server if using dynamic IP address assignment.
To enable roaming on your ZyAIR, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then the Roaming
tab. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 6-7 Roaming
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 6-2 Roaming
LABEL
Active
DESCRIPTION
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to enable roaming on the ZyAIR if you have two
or more ZyAIRs on the same subnet.
All APs on the same subnet and the wireless stations must have
the same ESSID to allow roaming.
Port
Enter the port number to communicate roaming information between APs. The port
number must be the same on all APs. The default is 16290. Make sure this port is not
used by other services.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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Chapter 7
Wireless Security
This Chapter describes how to use the MAC Filter, 802.1x, Local User Database and RADIUS to
configure wireless security on your ZyAIR.
7.1
Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless stations,
access points and the wired network.
The figure below shows the possible wireless security levels on your ZyAIR. EAP (Extensible
Authentication Protocol) is used for authentication and utilizes dynamic WEP key exchange. It requires
interaction with a RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) server either on the WAN or your
LAN to provide authentication service for wireless stations.
Figure 7-1 ZyAIR Wireless Security Levels
If you do not enable any wireless security on your ZyAIR, your network is accessible to any wireless
networking device that is within range.
7.2
WEP Overview
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) as specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard provides methods for both data
encryption and wireless station authentication.
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7.2.1 Data Encryption
WEP provides a mechanism for encrypting data using encryption keys. Both the AP and the wireless stations
must use the same WEP key to encrypt and decrypt data. Your ZyAIR allows you to configure up to four 64bit or 128-bit WEP keys, but only one key can be enabled at any one time.
7.2.2 Authentication
Three different methods can be used to authenticate wireless stations to the network: Open System, Shared
Key, and Auto. The following figure illustrates the steps involved.
Figure 7-2 WEP Authentication Steps
Open system authentication involves an unencrypted two-message procedure. A wireless station sends an
open system authentication request to the AP, which will then automatically accept and connect the wireless
station to the network. In effect, open system is not authentication at all as any station can gain access to the
network.
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Shared key authentication involves a four-message procedure. A wireless station sends a shared key
authentication request to the AP, which will then reply with a challenge text message. The wireless station
must then use the AP’s default WEP key to encrypt the challenge text and return it to the AP, which attempts
to decrypt the message using the AP’s default WEP key. If the decrypted message matches the challenge text,
the wireless station is authenticated.
When your ZyAIR's authentication method is set to open system, it will only accept open system
authentication requests. The same is true for shared key authentication. However, when it is set to auto
authentication, the ZyAIR will accept either type of authentication request and the ZyAIR will fall back to
use open authentication if the shared key does not match.
7.2.3 Preamble Type
A preamble is used to synchronize the transmission timing in your wireless network. There are two preamble
modes: Long and Short.
Short preamble takes less time to process and minimizes overhead, so it should be used in a good wireless
network environment when all wireless clients support it.
Select Long if you have a ‘noisy’ network or are unsure of what preamble mode your wireless clients support
as all IEEE 802.11b compliant wireless adapters must support long preamble. However, not all wireless
adapters support short preamble. Use long preamble if you are unsure what preamble mode the wireless
adapters support, to ensure interpretability between the ZyAIR and the wireless stations and to provide more
reliable communication in ‘noisy’ networks.
Select Auto to have the ZyAIR automatically use short preamble when all wireless clients support it,
otherwise the ZyAIR uses long preamble.
The ZyAIR and the wireless stations MUST use the same preamble mode in order
to communicate.
7.3
Configuring WEP Encryption
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption; click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED to display
the Wireless screen.
Wireless Security
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Figure 7-3 Wireless
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
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Table 7-1 Wireless : WEP Fields
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WEP
Encryption
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points without
any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Authentication
Method
This field is activated when you select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP in the WEP
Encryption field.
Select Auto, Open System or Shared Key from the drop-down list box.
ASCII
Select this option in order to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
Hex
Select this option in order to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.
The preceding "0x", that identifies a hexadecimal key, is entered automatically.
Key 1 to Key
4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyAIR and the wireless stations must
use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one time. The
default key is key 1.
Enable
Breathing
LED
Select this check box to enable the Breathing LED, also known as the ZyAIR LED.
The blue ZyAIR LED is on when the ZyAIR is on and blinks (or breaths) when data is
being transmitted to/from its wireless stations. Clear the check box to turn this LED off
even when the ZyAIR is on and data is being transmitted/received.
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list menu. Choices are Long, Short and
Auto. The default setting is Auto.
See the section on preamble for more information.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to associate
with the ZyAIR.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to associate
with the ZyAIR.
Select Mixed to allow either IEEE802.11b or IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyAIR. The transmission rate of your ZyAIR might be reduced.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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7.4
MAC Filter
The MAC filter screen allows you to configure the ZyAIR to give exclusive access to up to 32 devices
(Allow Association) or exclude up to 32 devices from accessing the ZyAIR (Deny Association). Every
Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is assigned at the
factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to
know the MAC address of the devices to configure this screen.
To change your ZyAIR’s MAC filter settings, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then the
MAC Filter tab. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 7-4 MAC Address Filter
The following table describes the labels in this menu.
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Table 7-2 MAC Address Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select Yes from the drop down list box to enable MAC address filtering.
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address table.
Select Deny Association to block access to the ZyAIR, MAC addresses not listed will be
allowed to access the ZyAIR
Select Allow Association to permit access to the ZyAIR, MAC addresses not listed will be
denied access to the ZyAIR.
Set
This is the index number of the MAC address.
MAC
Address
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless station that are
allowed or denied access to the ZyAIR in these address fields.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.5
802.1x Overview
The IEEE 802.1x standard outlines enhanced security methods for both the authentication of wireless stations
and encryption key management. Authentication can be done using the local user database internal to the
ZyAIR (authenticate up to 32 users) or an external RADIUS server for an unlimited number of users.
See also the section on RADIUS in this User’s Guide.
7.6
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when the wireless
connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key is generated each time
reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key in the Wireless screen. You
may still configure and store keys here, but they will not be used while Dynamic WEP is enabled.
To use Dynamic WEP, enable and configure the RADIUS server (see section 7.15) and enable Dynamic
WEP Key Exchange in the 802.1x screen. Ensure that the wireless station’s EAP type is configured to one of
the following:
7-8
•
EAP-TLS
•
EAP-TTLS
•
PEAP
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EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange.
7.7
Introduction to WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification draft. Key differences
between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data encryption.
7.7.1 User Authentication
WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate wireless clients
using an external RADIUS database. You can’t use the ZyAIR’s Local User Database for WPA
authentication purposes since the Local User Database uses EAP-MD5 which cannot be used to generate
keys. See later in this chapter and the appendices for more information on IEEE 802.1x, RADIUS and EAP.
Therefore, if you don’t have an external RADIUS server you should use WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared Key)
that only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless gateway and wireless
client. As long as the passwords match, a client will be granted access to a WLAN.
7.7.2 Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Message Integrity Check
(MIC) and IEEE 802.1x.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by
the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a Message Integrity Check (MIC)
named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up a key hierarchy
and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to
encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all
happens in the background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data packets, altering
them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function in which the receiver and the
transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do not match, it is assumed that the data has
been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity checking
mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi network than WEP, making
it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference between the
two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific credentials. The commonpassword approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force password-guessing attacks but it’s still an
improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-to-use, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
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7.8
WPA-PSK Application Example
A WPA-PSK application looks as follows.
Step 1. First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key (PSK)
must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters (including spaces and symbols).
Step 2. The AP checks each client’s password and (only) allows it to join the network if it matches its
password.
Step 3. The AP derives and distributes keys to the wireless clients.
Step 4. The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP encryption process to encrypt data exchanged between
them.
Figure 7-5 WPA - PSK Authentication
7.9
WPA with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the RADIUS shared
secret. A WPA application example with an external RADIUS server looks as follows. “A” is the RADIUS
server. “DS” is the distribution system.
Step 1. The AP passes the wireless client’s authentication request to the RADIUS server.
Step 2. The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants or denies
network access accordingly.
Step 3. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then sets up a
key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically generate unique
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data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly communicated between the
AP and the wireless clients.
Figure 7-6 WPA with RADIUS Application Example
7.10 Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each Authentication
Method/ key management protocol type. You enter manual keys by first selecting 64-bit WEP or 128-bit
WEP from the WEP Encryption field and then typing the keys (in ASCII or hexadecimal format) in the key
text boxes. MAC address filters are not dependent on how you configure these security features.
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Table 7-3 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
ENCRYPTION
METHOD
ENTER
MANUAL KEY
Open
None
No
Disable
Open
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
Shared
WEP
IEEE 802.1X
WPA
WEP
No
Enable
WPA
TKIP
No
Enable
WPA-PSK
WEP
Yes
Enable
WPA-PSK
TKIP
Yes
Enable
7.11 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the wireless client
how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicants are the WPA patch for
Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client, and Meetinghouse Data Communications' AEGIS client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's built-in "Zero
Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
7.12 Configuring 802.1x and WPA
To change your ZyAIR’s authentication settings, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then
the 802.1x/WPA tab. The screen varies by the key management protocol you select.
You see the next screen when you select No Access Allowed or No Authentication Required in the
Wireless Port Control field.
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Figure 7-7 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7-4 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA
LABEL
Wireless Port
Control
DESCRIPTION
To control wireless stations access to the wired network, select a control method from
the drop-down list box. Choose from No Access Allowed, No Authentication
Required and Authentication Required.
No Access Allowed blocks all wireless stations access to the wired network.
No Authentication Required allows all wireless stations access to the wired network
without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default setting.
Authentication Required means that all wireless stations have to enter usernames
and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
Select Authentication Required to configure Key Management Protocol and other
related fields.
7.12.1 Authentication Required: 802.1x
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and 802.1x in the Key Management
Protocol field to display the next screen.
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Figure 7-8 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7-5 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol
LABEL
Wireless Port
Control
7-14
DESCRIPTION
To control wireless stations access to the wired network, select a control method from
the drop-down list box. Choose from No Authentication Required, Authentication
Required and No Access Allowed.
No Authentication Required allows all wireless stations access to the wired network
without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default setting.
Authentication Required means that all wireless stations have to enter usernames
and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
No Access Allowed blocks all wireless stations access to the wired network.
The following fields are only available when you select Authentication Required.
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Table 7-5 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ReAuthentication
Timer
(in seconds)
Specify how often wireless stations have to reenter usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected. This field is activated only when you select Authentication
Required in the Wireless Port Control field.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is 1800
seconds (30 minutes).
If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyAIR automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network after
a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the username and password
again before access to the wired network is allowed.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the Wireless
Port Control field. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Key Management
Protocol
Choose 802.1x from the drop-down list.
Dynamic WEP
Key Exchange
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the Wireless
Port Control field. Also set the Authentication Databases field to RADIUS Only.
Local user database may not be used.
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without using dynamic WEP key exchange.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Up to 32 stations can access the ZyAIR when you configure dynamic WEP key
exchange.
This field is not available when you set Key Management Protocol to WPA or WPAPSK.
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Table 7-5 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for 802.1x Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the ZyAIR. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this drop-down list box to select which database the ZyAIR should use
(first) to authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
Select Local User Database Only to have the ZyAIR just check the built-in user
database on the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the ZyAIR just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the ZyAIR first check the user database on
the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password. If the user name is not
found, the ZyAIR then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the ZyAIR first check the user database on
the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password. If the
ZyAIR cannot reach the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR then checks the local user
database on the ZyAIR. When the user name is not found or password does not
match in the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR will not check the local user database and
the authentication fails.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
Once you enable user authentication, you need to specify an external RADIUS
server or create local user accounts on the ZyAIR for authentication.
7.12.2 Authentication Required: WPA
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and WPA in the Key Management
Protocol field to display the next screen.
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Figure 7-9 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 7-6 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose WPA in this field.
WPA Mixed Mode
The ZyAIR can operate in WPA Mixed Mode, which supports both clients running
WPA and clients running WEP security in the same Wi-Fi network.
Select Enable to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, select Disable and configure
the Group Data Privacy field.
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Table 7-6 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Data
Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for
broadcast and multicast (“group”) traffic if the Key Management Protocol is WPA
and WPA Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have enabled
WPA Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK Key
Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Group Key
Update Timer
The WPA Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPA-PSK
key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management) sends a new
group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of
automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a
periodic basis. Setting of the WPA Group Key Update Timer is also supported in
WPA-PSK mode. The ZyAIR default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Authentication
Databases
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database
Only with 802.1x Key Management Protocol.
7.12.3 Authentication Required: WPA-PSK
Select Authentication Required in the Wireless Port Control field and WPA-PSK in the Key
Management Protocol field to display the next screen.
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Figure 7-10 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 7-7 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Management
Protocol
Choose WPA-PSK in this field.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only
difference between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password,
instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
WPA Mixed Mode
The ZyAIR can operate in WPA Mixed Mode, which supports both clients running
WPA and clients running WEP security in the same Wi-Fi network.
Select Enable to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, select Disable and configure
the Group Data Privacy field.
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Table 7-7 Wireless LAN: 802.1x/WPA for WPA-PSK Protocol
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Data
Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for
broadcast and multicast (“group”) traffic if the Key Management Protocol is WPA
and WPA Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have enabled
WPA Mixed Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK Key
Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Group Key
Update Timer
The WPA Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPA-PSK
key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management) sends a new
group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of
automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a
periodic basis. Setting of the WPA Group Key Update Timer is also supported in
WPA-PSK mode. The ZyAIR default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Authentication
Databases
This field is only visible when WPA Mixed Mode is enabled.
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database
Only with 802.1x Key Management Protocol.
7.13 Introduction to Local User Database
By storing user profiles locally on the ZyAIR, your ZyAIR is able to authenticate wireless users without
interacting with a network RADIUS server. However, there is a limit on the number of users you may
authenticate in this way. You can only use Local User Database with 802.1x key management protocol.
7.14 Configuring Local User Database
To change your ZyAIR’s local user database, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then the
Local User Database tab. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 7-11 Local User Database
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Wireless Security
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Table 7-8 Local User Database
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to activate the user profile.
User Name
Enter the username (up to 31 characters) for this user profile.
Password
Type a password (up to 31 characters) for this user profile. Note that as you type a
password, the screen displays a (*) for each character you type.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
7.15 Introduction to RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-sever model that supports authentication and accounting, where access point is
the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server handles the following tasks among
others:
•
Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
•
Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS user is a simple package exchange in which your ZyAIR acts as a message relay between the
wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the RADIUS server
for user authentication:
•
Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
•
Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
•
Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
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•
Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The access point
sends a proper response from the user and then sends another Access-Request message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the RADIUS server
for user accounting:
•
Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
•
Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared secret key, which
is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In addition to the shared key, password
information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the wired network from unauthorized access.
7.15.1 EAP Authentication Overview
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the IEEE802.1x
transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By using EAP to interact with
an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the access point helps a wireless station and a RADIUS server perform
authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. The ZyAIR supports EAPTLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP with RADIUS. Refer to the Types of EAP Authentication appendix for
descriptions on the four common types.
Your ZyAIR supports EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5) with the local user database and RADIUS.
The following figure shows an overview of authentication when you specify a RADIUS server on your
access point.
Figure 7-12 EAP Authentication
The details below provide a general description of how IEEE 802.1x EAP authentication works. For an
example list of EAP-MD5 authentication steps, see the IEEE 802.1x appendix.
•
The wireless station sends a “start” message to the ZyAIR.
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•
The ZyAIR sends a “request identity” message to the wireless station for identity information.
•
The wireless station replies with identity information, including username and password.
•
The RADIUS server checks the user information against its user profile database and determines
whether or not to authenticate the wireless station.
7.16 Configuring RADIUS
Configure the RADIUS screen if you want to authenticate wireless users using an external server.
To specify a RADIUS server, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then the RADIUS tab.
The screen appears as shown.
Figure 7-13 RADIUS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 7-9 RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication Server
Active
Server IP Address
Port Number
Shared Secret
Select Yes from the drop down list box to enable user authentication through an
external authentication server.
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
Enter the port number of the external authentication server. The default port
number is 1812.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to
do so with additional information.
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external authentication server and the ZyAIR.
The key must be the same on the external authentication server and your ZyAIR.
The key is not sent over the network.
Accounting Server
Active
Server IP Address
Port Number
Shared Secret
Select Yes from the drop down list box to enable user accounting through an
external authentication server.
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal notation.
Enter the port number of the external accounting server. The default port number is
1813.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to
do so with additional information.
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external accounting server and the ZyAIR.
The key must be the same on the external accounting server and your ZyAIR. The
key is not sent over the network.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
Wireless Security
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WAN
Part III:
WAN
This part covers the web configurator screen and information about WAN.
III
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 8
WAN Screens
This chapter describes how to configure the ZyAIR WAN screens.
8.1
WAN Overview
A WAN (Wide Area Network) is an outside connection to another network or the Internet.
See the Wizard Setup chapter for more background information on most fields in the WAN screens.
Background information on WAN fields not included in the Wizard is described here.
8.2
Configuring WAN ISP
To change your ZyAIR’s WAN ISP settings, click WAN and then the ISP tab. The screen differs by the
encapsulation.
8.2.1 Ethernet Encapsulation
The screen shown next is for Ethernet encapsulation.
Figure 8-1 Ethernet Encapsulation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
WAN Screens
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Table 8-1 Ethernet Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
You must choose the Ethernet option when the WAN port is used as a regular
Ethernet.
Service Type
Select from Standard, RR-Toshiba (RoadRunner Toshiba authentication method),
RR-Manager (Roadrunner Manager authentication method), RR-Telstra or Telia
Login. Choose a Roadrunner service type if your ISP is Time Warner's Roadrunner;
otherwise choose Standard.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Service Type
The screen varies according to the service type you select.
You need a username and password if your ISP is Time Warner’s Roadrunner.
Figure 8-2 Service Type
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 8-2 Service Type
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Encapsulation
You must choose the Ethernet option when the WAN port is used as a regular
Ethernet.
Service Type
Select from Standard, RR-Toshiba (RoadRunner Toshiba authentication method),
RR-Manager (Roadrunner Manager authentication method) RR-Telstra or Telia
Login. Choose a Roadrunner service type if your ISP is Time Warner's Roadrunner;
otherwise choose Standard.
User Name
Enter the username given to you by your ISP.
Password
Enter the password associated with the login name above.
Retype to
Confirm
Type your password again here to ensure that what you entered in the Password
field above was what you intended.
Login Server IP
Address
The ZyAIR will find the Roadrunner Server IP address if this field is left blank. If it
does not, then you must enter the authentication server IP address.
Login Server
(Telia Login only)
Type the domain name of the Telia login server, for example "login1.telia.com".
Relogin
Every(min) (Telia
Login only)
The Telia server logs the ZyAIR out if the ZyAIR does not log in periodically. Type the
number of minutes from 1 to 59 (30 recommended) for the ZyAIR to wait between
logins.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.2.2 PPPoE Encapsulation
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is an IETF Draft standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a
personal computer (PC) interacts with a broadband modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The PPP
over Ethernet option is for a dial-up connection using PPPoE.
The screen shown next is for PPP over Ethernet encapsulation.
WAN Screens
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Figure 8-3 PPPoE Encapsulation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8-3 PPPoE Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
Encapsulation
The PPP over Ethernet choice is for a dial-up connection using PPPoE. The ZyAIR
supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet).
Service Name
Type the PPPoE service name provided to you. PPPoE uses a service name to
identify and reach the PPPoE server.
User Name
Type the username given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above.
Retype to Confirm
Type your password again here to ensure that what you entered in the Password
field above was what you intended.
Nailed-Up
Connection
Select Nailed-Up Connection if you do not want the connection to time out.
Idle Timeout
Specify the time in seconds that elapses before the ZyAIR automatically
disconnects from the PPPoE server.
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Table 8-3 PPPoE Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.2.3 PPTP Encapsulation
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is a network protocol that enables secure transfer of data from a
remote client to a private server, creating a Virtual Private Network (VPN) using TCP/IP-based networks.
PPTP supports on-demand, multi-protocol and virtual private networking over public networks, such as the
Internet.
The screen shown next is for PPTP encapsulation.
Figure 8-4 PPTP Encapsulation
WAN Screens
8-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8-4 PPTP Encapsulation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ISP Parameters for Internet Access
Encapsulation
PPTP supports on-demand, multi-protocol, and virtual private networking over public
networks, such as the Internet. The ZyAIR supports only one PPTP server
connection at any given time. To configure a PPTP client, you must configure the
User Name and Password fields for a PPP connection and the PPTP parameters
for a PPTP connection.
User Name
Type the user name given to you by your ISP.
Password
Type the password associated with the user name above.
Retype to Confirm
Type your password again here to ensure that what you entered in the Password
field above was what you intended.
Nailed-up
Connection
Select Nailed-Up Connection if you do not want the connection to time out.
Idle Timeout
Specify the time in seconds that elapses before the ZyAIR automatically disconnects
from the PPTP server.
PPTP Configuration
My IP Address
Type the (static) IP address assigned to you by your ISP.
My IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to you by your ISP (if given).
Server IP Address
Type the IP address of the PPTP server.
Connection ID/Name
Type your identification name for the PPTP server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.3
TCP/IP Priority (Metric)
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best route for transmission by
choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop count as the measurement of cost, with a
minimum of "1" for directly connected networks. The number must be between "1" and "15"; a number
greater than "15" means the link is down. The smaller the number, the lower the "cost".
The metric sets the priority for the ZyAIR’s routes to the Internet. If any two of the default routes have the
same metric.
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8.4
Configuring WAN IP
To change your ZyAIR’s WAN IP settings, click WAN and then the IP tab.
Figure 8-5 IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8-5 IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN IP Address Assignment
Get automatically
from ISP
WAN Screens
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address. This is the default
selection.
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Table 8-5 IP Setup
LABEL
Use fixed IP
address
My WAN IP
Address
My WAN IP
Subnet Mask
(Ethernet
encapsulation)
Remote IP
Address (or
Gateway IP
Address)
DESCRIPTION
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
Enter the ZyAIR WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use fixed IP Address.
Enter the ZyAIR WAN IP subnet mask (if your ISP gave you one) in this field if you
selected Use fixed IP Address.
Type the IP address of the remote network or gateway. The gateway is an immediate
neighbor of your ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN,
the gateway must be a router on the same segment as your ZyAIR; over the WAN,
the gateway must be the IP address of one of the remote nodes.
Remote IP Subnet
Mask (PPPoE
and PPTP
encapsulation)
When using a LAN to LAN application, type the IP subnet mask of the destination
network. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of
255.255.255.255, in the subnet mask field, to force the network number to be
identical to the host ID.
Network Address
Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) allows the translation of an Internet protocol
address used within one network to a different IP address known within another
network.
SUA (Single User Account) is a subset of NAT that supports two types of mapping:
Many-to-One and Server. When you select this option the ZyAIR will use Address
Mapping Set 255 in the SMT.
Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your ZyAIR.
Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your ZyAIR.
For more information about NAT refer to the NAT chapter in this User's Guide.
Metric (PPPoE
and PPTP only)
Type a number that approximates the cost for this link. Metric represents the "cost" of
transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop count as the measurement of
cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks. The number need not be
precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good
number.
Private (PPPoE
and PPTP only)
This parameter determines if the ZyAIR will include the route to this remote node in
its RIP broadcasts. If select Yes, this route is kept private and not included in RIP
broadcast. If select No, the route to this remote node will be propagated to other
hosts through RIP broadcasts.
8-8
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Table 8-5 IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information
with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP
packets.
Choose Both, None, In Only or Out Only.
When set to Both or Out Only, the ZyAIR will broadcast its routing table periodically.
When set to Both or In Only, the ZyAIR will incorporate RIP information that it
receives.
When set to None, the ZyAIR will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP
packets received.
By default, RIP Direction is set to Both.
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the ZyAIR sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving).
Choose RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably
adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both
RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that
RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting. Multicasting can
reduce the load on non-router machines since they generally do not listen to the RIP
multicast address and so will not receive the RIP packets. However, if one router
uses multicasting, then all routers on your network must use multicasting, also. By
default, the RIP Version field is set to RIP-1.
Multicast
Choose None (default), IGMP-V1 or IGMP-V2. IGMP (Internet Group Multicast
Protocol) is a session-layer protocol used to establish membership in a Multicast
group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. If you
would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between IGMP
version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236.
Windows Networking (NetBIOS over TCP/IP):
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP broadcast packets that enable a computer
to connect to and communicate with a LAN. For some dial-up services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS
packets cause unwanted calls. However it may sometimes be necessary to allow NetBIOS packets to pass
through to the WAN in order to find a computer on the WAN.
WAN Screens
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Table 8-5 IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Allow between
WAN and LAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the WAN and
from the WAN to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with the default policy set to
block WAN to LAN traffic, you also need to enable the default WAN to LAN firewall
rule that forwards NetBIOS traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN to the WAN
and from the WAN to the LAN.
Allow Trigger Dial
Select this option to allow NetBIOS packets to initiate calls.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.5
Configuring WAN MAC
To change your ZyAIR’s WAN MAC settings, click WAN and then the MAC tab. The screen appears as
shown.
Figure 8-6 MAC Setup
The MAC address screen allows users to configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory
default or cloning the MAC address from a computer on your LAN. Choose Factory Default to select the
factory assigned default MAC address.
Otherwise, click Spoof this computer's MAC address - IP Address and enter the IP address of the
computer on the LAN whose MAC you are cloning. Once it is successfully configured, the address will be
copied to the rom file (ZyNOS configuration file). It will not change unless you change the setting or upload
a different ROM file.
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SUA/NAT and Static Route
Part IV:
SUA/NAT AND STATIC ROUTE
This part covers the information about SUA/NAT and Static Route setup.
IV
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 9
Single User Account (SUA) / Network
Address Translation (NAT)
This chapter discusses how to configure SUA/NAT on the ZyAIR.
9.1
NAT Overview
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host in a
packet. For example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one network is changed to a
different IP address known within another network.
9.1.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the ZyAIR. For example, the computers of your
subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are the outside hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router. For example, the
local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local network, while the global
address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is traveling in the WAN side.
Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to the IP address of a host
used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the IP address of an inside host in a packet when the
packet is still in the local network, while an inside global address (IGA) is the IP address of the same inside
host when the packet is on the WAN side. The following table summarizes this information.
Table 9-1 NAT Definitions
TERM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the WAN.
SUA/NAT
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NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
9.1.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a subscriber (the inside
local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding the packet to the WAN side. When the
response comes back, NAT translates the destination address (the inside global address) back to the inside
local address before forwarding it to the original inside host. Note that the IP address (either local or global)
of an outside host is never changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically assigned by the ISP. In
addition, you can designate servers (for example a web server and a telnet server) on your local network and
make them accessible to the outside world. Although you can make designated servers on the LAN
accessible to the outside world, it is strongly recommended that you attach those servers to the DMZ port
instead. If you do not define any servers (for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload mapping), NAT
offers the additional benefit of firewall protection. With no servers defined, your ZyAIR filters out all
incoming inquiries, thus preventing intruders from probing your network. For more information on IP
address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).
9.1.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For outgoing packets, the ILA
(Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN, and the IGA (Inside Global Address) is the source
address on the WAN. For incoming packets, the ILA is the destination address on the LAN, and the IGA is
the destination address on the WAN. NAT maps private (local) IP addresses to globally unique ones required
for communication with hosts on other networks. It replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP
source port numbers for Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet and then
forwards it to the Internet. The ZyAIR keeps track of the original addresses and port numbers so incoming
reply packets can have their original values restored. The following figure illustrates this.
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Figure 9-1 How NAT Works
9.1.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs (logical LANs using IP
Alias) behind the ZyAIR can communicate with three distinct WAN networks. More examples follow at the
end of this chapter.
SUA/NAT
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Figure 9-2 NAT Application with IP Alias
9.1.5 NAT Mapping Types
NAT supports five types of IP/port mapping. They are:
One to One: In One-to-One mode, the ZyAIR maps one local IP address to one global IP address.
Many to One: In Many-to-One mode, the ZyAIR maps multiple local IP addresses to one global IP
address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation), ZyXEL’s Single User
Account feature (the SUA Only option).
Many to Many Overload: In Many-to-Many Overload mode, the ZyAIR maps the multiple local IP
addresses to shared global IP addresses.
Many One to One: In Many-One-to-One mode, the ZyAIR maps each local IP address to a unique
global IP address.
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Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the NAT to be
accessible to the outside world.
Port numbers do not change for One-to-One and Many-One-to-One NAT mapping
types.
The following table summarizes these types.
Table 9-2 NAT Mapping Types
TYPE
IP MAPPING
SMT ABBREVIATION
One-to-One
ILA1
IGA1
1-1
Many-to-One (SUA/PAT)
ILA1
ILA2
IGA1
IGA1
M-1
IGA1
IGA2
IGA1
IGA2
M-M Ov
IGA1
IGA2
IGA3
M-1-1
…
Many-to-Many Overload
ILA1
ILA2
ILA3
ILA4
…
Many-One-to-One
ILA1
ILA2
ILA3
…
Server
Server 1 IP
Server 2 IP
Server 3 IP
IGA1
IGA1
IGA1
Server
9.1.6 SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ZyNOS implementation of a subset of NAT that supports two types of
mapping, Many-to-One and Server. The ZyAIR also supports Full Feature NAT to map multiple global IP
addresses to multiple private LAN IP addresses of clients or servers using mapping types. Select either SUA
Only or Full Feature in WAN IP.
SUA/NAT
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9.2
SUA Server
An SUA server set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or FTP, that you
can make visible to the outside world even though SUA makes your whole inside network appear as a single
computer to the outside world.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local IP address of
the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web service is on port 80 and FTP on
port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can support more than one service
(for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to specify a range of port numbers. You can
allocate a server IP address that corresponds to a port or a range of ports.
Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server processes (such as a Web or
FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may periodically check for servers and may suspend your account
if it discovers any active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your ISP.
Default Server IP Address
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP address. A default server
receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen.
If you do not assign a Default Server IP address, the ZyAIR discards all packets
received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
9.2.1 Port Forwarding: Services and Port Numbers
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further
information about port numbers. Please also refer to the Supporting CD for more examples and details on
SUA/NAT.
Table 9-3 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
9-6
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
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Table 9-3 Services and Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
9.2.2 Configuring Servers Behind SUA (Example)
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server, port 80 to another (A in the
example) and assign a default server IP address of 192.168.1.35 to a third (B in the example). You assign the
LAN IP addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a single host on
the Internet.
Figure 9-3 Multiple Servers Behind NAT Example
9.3
Configuring SUA Server
If you do not assign a Default Server IP address, the ZyAIR discards all packets
received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
Click SUA/NAT to open the SUA Server screen.
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Refer to the Table 9-3 for port numbers commonly used for particular services.
Figure 9-4 SUA/NAT Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9-4 SUA/NAT Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default Server
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server. A
default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen.
#
This field displays the number of an individual SUA server entry.
Active
Select this check box to enable the SUA server entry. Clear this checkbox to disallow
forwarding of these ports to an inside server without having to delete the entry.
Name
Enter a name to identify this port-forwarding rule.
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Table 9-4 SUA/NAT Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Port
End Port
Enter a port number here.
To forward only one port, enter the port number in the Start Port field and then type it
again in the End Port field.
To specify a range of ports, enter the start port number in the Start Port field and the
last port to be forwarded in the End Port field.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the server here.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.4
Configuring Address Mapping
Ordering your rules is important because the ZyAIR applies the rules in the order that you specify. When a
rule matches the current packet, the ZyAIR takes the corresponding action and the remaining rules are
ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured rule, your configured rule will be pushed up
by that number of empty rules. For example, if you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set
and now you configure rule number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9. Now if
you delete rule 4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so old rules 5, 6 and 7 become new rules 4, 5 and
6.
To change your ZyAIR’s address mapping settings, click SUA/NAT and then the Address Mapping tab.
The screen appears as shown.
SUA/NAT
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Figure 9-5 Address Mapping
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9-5 Address Mapping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays the index number of the address mapping rule.
Local Start IP
This refers to the Inside Local Address (ILA), that is the starting local IP address. Local
IP addresses are N/A for Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end local IP address. If the rule is for all local IP addresses, then this field
displays 0.0.0.0 and 255.255.255.255 as the Local End IP address. This field is N/A for
One-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global Start IP
This refers to the global IP address. 0.0.0.0 is for a dynamic IP address from your ISP
with Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global Address (IGA), that is the starting global IP address.
This field is N/A for One-to-One, Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
Type
Choose the port mapping type from the drop down list.
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Table 9-5 Address Mapping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Insert
Click Insert to insert a new mapping rule before an existing one.
Edit
Select the radio button next to the address mapping rule index number you want to
configure, then click Edit to go to the Address Mapping Rule screen.
Delete
Select the radio button next to the address mapping rule index number you want to
remove, then click this button to delete it.
9.4.1 Configuring Address Mapping Rule
To edit an address mapping rule, click the Edit button to display the screen shown next.
Figure 9-6 Address Mapping Rule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9-6 Address Mapping Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Choose the port mapping type from the drop down list.
Local Start IP
This is the starting local IP address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for Server port
mapping.
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Table 9-6 Address Mapping Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Local End IP
This is the end local IP address (ILA). If your rule is for all local IP addresses, then
enter 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and 255.255.255.255 as the Local End
IP address.
This field is N/A for One-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global Start IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have a dynamic
IP address from your ISP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-to-One, Manyto-One and Server mapping types.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Chapter 10
Static Route
This chapter shows you how to configure static routes for your ZyAIR.
10.1 Static Route Overview
Each remote node specifies only the network to which the gateway is directly connected, and the ZyAIR has
no knowledge of the networks beyond. For instance, the ZyAIR knows about network N2 in the following
figure through remote node Router 1. However, the ZyAIR is unable to route a packet to network N3 because
it doesn't know that there is a route through the same remote node Router 1 (via gateway Router 2). The static
routes are for you to tell the ZyAIR about the networks beyond the remote nodes.
Figure 10-1 Example of Static Routing Topology
10.2 Configuring IP Static Route
Click STATIC ROUTE to open the screen shown next.
Static Route
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Figure 10-2 IP Static Route Summary
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10-1 IP Static Route Summary
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays an individual static route index number.
Name
This field displays the name that describes or identifies this route.
Active
This field shows whether this static route is active (Yes) or not (No).
Destination
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is
always based on network number.
Gateway
This field displays the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate
neighbor of your ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN, the
gateway must be a router on the same segment as your ZyAIR; over the WAN, the
gateway must be the IP address of one of the remote nodes.
Edit
To set up a static route on the ZyAIR, click the radio button next to the static route
index number you want to configure, then click Edit to go to the Static Route -Edit
screen.
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Table 10-1 IP Static Route Summary
LABEL
Delete
DESCRIPTION
To remove a static route on the ZyAIR, select the radio button next to the static route
index number you want to remove, then click Delete.
10.2.1 Configuring Route Entry
Select a static route index number and click Edit. The screen shown next appears. Fill in the required
information for each static route.
Figure 10-3 Edit IP Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10-2 Edit IP Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Route Name
Enter a descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purposes only.
Active
Select this check box to activate this static route.
Static Route
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Table 10-2 Edit IP Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination IP
Address
Type the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is always based on
network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet mask of
255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical
to the host ID.
IP Subnet Mask
Type the IP subnet mask here.
Gateway IP
Address
Type the IP address of the gateway.
The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the
destination. On the LAN, the gateway must be a router on the same segment as your
ZyAIR; over the WAN, the gateway must be the IP address of one of the remote
nodes.
Metric
Type a number that approximates the cost for this link. Metric represents the "cost" of
transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop count as the measurement of
cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks. The number need not be
precise, but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Private
This parameter determines if the ZyAIR will include the route to this remote node in its
RIP broadcasts. If this check box is selected, this route is kept private and not included
in RIP broadcast. If it is not selected, the route to this remote node will be propagated
to other hosts through RIP broadcasts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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Static Route
Firewall and Remote Management
Part V:
FIREWALL AND REMOTE MANAGEMENT
This part introduces firewalls in general and the ZyAIR firewall. It also explains custom ports and
gives example firewall rules and information on Remote Management.
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Chapter 11
Introduction to Firewalls
This chapter gives some background information on firewalls and introduces the ZyAIR firewall.
11.1 Firewall Overview
Originally, the term firewall referred to a construction technique designed to prevent the spread of fire from
one room to another. The networking term “firewall” is a system or group of systems that enforces an accesscontrol policy between two networks. It may also be defined as a mechanism used to protect a trusted
network from an untrusted network. Of course, firewalls cannot solve every security problem. A firewall is
one of the mechanisms used to establish a network security perimeter in support of a network security policy.
It should never be the only mechanism or method employed. For a firewall to guard effectively, you must
design and deploy it appropriately. This requires integrating the firewall into a broad information-security
policy. In addition, specific policies must be implemented within the firewall itself.
11.2 Types of Firewalls
There are three main types of firewalls:
1.
Packet Filtering Firewalls
2.
Application-level Firewalls
3.
Stateful Inspection Firewalls
11.2.1 Packet Filtering Firewalls
Packet filtering firewalls restrict access based on the source/destination computer network address of a
packet and the type of application.
11.2.2 Application-level Firewalls
Application-level firewalls restrict access by serving as proxies for external servers. Since they use programs
written for specific Internet services, such as HTTP, FTP and telnet, they can evaluate network packets for
valid application-specific data. Application-level gateways have a number of general advantages over the
default mode of permitting application traffic directly to internal hosts:
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i.
Information hiding prevents the names of internal systems from being made known via DNS to
outside systems, since the application gateway is the only host whose name must be made known to
outside systems.
ii.
Robust authentication and logging pre-authenticates application traffic before it reaches internal
hosts and causes it to be logged more effectively than if it were logged with standard host logging.
Filtering rules at the packet filtering router can be less complex than they would be if the router needed
to filter application traffic and direct it to a number of specific systems. The router need only allow
application traffic destined for the application gateway and reject the rest.
11.2.3 Stateful Inspection Firewalls
Stateful inspection firewalls restrict access by screening data packets against defined access rules. They make
access control decisions based on IP address and protocol. They also "inspect" the session data to assure the
integrity of the connection and to adapt to dynamic protocols. These firewalls generally provide the best
speed and transparency; however, they may lack the granular application level access control or caching that
some proxies support. See section 11.5 for more information on Stateful Inspection.
Firewalls, of one type or another, have become an integral part of standard security solutions for enterprises.
11.3 Introduction to ZyXEL’s Firewall
The ZyAIR firewall is a stateful inspection firewall and is designed to protect against Denial of Service
attacks when activated (in SMT menu 21.2 or in the web configurator). The ZyAIR’s purpose is to allow a
private Local Area Network (LAN) to be securely connected to the Internet. The ZyAIR can be used to
prevent theft, destruction and modification of data, as well as log events, which may be important to the
security of your network. The ZyAIR also has packet-filtering capabilities.
11.4 Denial of Service
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a connection to the Internet. Their
goal is not to steal information, but to disable a device or network so users no longer have access to network
resources. The ZyAIR is pre-configured to automatically detect and thwart all known DoS attacks.
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Figure 11-1 Firewall Application
11.4.1 Basics
Computers share information over the Internet using a common language called TCP/IP. TCP/IP, in turn, is a
set of application protocols that perform specific functions. An “extension number”, called the "TCP port" or
"UDP port" identifies these protocols, such as HTTP (Web), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), POP3 (E-mail),
etc. For example, Web traffic by default uses TCP port 80.
When computers communicate on the Internet, they are using the client/server model, where the server
"listens" on a specific TCP/UDP port for information requests from remote client computers on the network.
For example, a Web server typically listens on port 80. Please note that while a computer may be intended
for use over a single port, such as Web on port 80, other ports are also active. If the person configuring or
managing the computer is not careful, a hacker could attack it over an unprotected port.
Some of the most common IP ports are:
Table 11-1 Common IP Ports
21
FTP
53
DNS
23
Telnet
80
HTTP
25
SMTP
110
POP3
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11.4.2 Types of DoS Attacks
There are four types of DoS attacks:
1.
Those that exploit bugs in a TCP/IP implementation.
2.
Those that exploit weaknesses in the TCP/IP specification.
3.
Brute-force attacks that flood a network with useless data.
4.
IP Spoofing.
1.
"Ping of Death" and "Teardrop" attacks exploit bugs in the TCP/IP implementations of various
computer and host systems.
1-a Ping of Death uses a "ping" utility to create an IP packet that exceeds the maximum 65,536
bytes of data allowed by the IP specification. The oversize packet is then sent to an unsuspecting
system. Systems may crash, hang or reboot.
1-b Teardrop attack exploits weaknesses in the reassembly of IP packet fragments. As data is
transmitted through a network, IP packets are often broken up into smaller chunks. Each fragment
looks like the original IP packet except that it contains an offset field that says, for instance, "This
fragment is carrying bytes 200 through 400 of the original (non fragmented) IP packet." The
Teardrop program creates a series of IP fragments with overlapping offset fields. When these
fragments are reassembled at the destination, some systems will crash, hang, or reboot.
2.
Weaknesses in the TCP/IP specification leave it open to "SYN Flood" and "LAND" attacks. These
attacks are executed during the handshake that initiates a communication session between two
applications.
Figure 11-2 Three-Way Handshake
Under normal circumstances, the application that initiates a session sends a SYN (synchronize) packet to the
receiving server. The receiver sends back an ACK (acknowledgment) packet and its own SYN, and then the
initiator responds with an ACK (acknowledgment). After this handshake, a connection is established.
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2-a SYN Attack floods a targeted system with a series of SYN packets. Each packet causes the
targeted system to issue a SYN-ACK response. While the targeted system waits for the ACK that
follows the SYN-ACK, it queues up all outstanding SYN-ACK responses on what is known as a
backlog queue. SYN-ACKs are moved off the queue only when an ACK comes back or when an
internal timer (which is set at relatively long intervals) terminates the three-way handshake. Once
the queue is full, the system will ignore all incoming SYN requests, making the system unavailable
for legitimate users.
Figure 11-3 SYN Flood
2-b In a LAND Attack, hackers flood SYN packets into the network with a spoofed source IP
address of the targeted system. This makes it appear as if the host computer sent the packets to
itself, making the system unavailable while the target system tries to respond to itself.
3.
A brute-force attack, such as a "Smurf" attack, targets a feature in the IP specification known as
directed or subnet broadcasting, to quickly flood the target network with useless data. A Smurf hacker
floods a router with Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets (pings). Since the
destination IP address of each packet is the broadcast address of the network, the router will broadcast
the ICMP echo request packet to all hosts on the network. If there are numerous hosts, this will create a
large amount of ICMP echo request and response traffic. If a hacker chooses to spoof the source IP
address of the ICMP echo request packet, the resulting ICMP traffic will not only clog up the
"intermediary" network, but will also congest the network of the spoofed source IP address, known as
the "victim" network. This flood of broadcast traffic consumes all available bandwidth, making
communications impossible.
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Figure 11-4 Smurf Attack
ICMP Vulnerability
ICMP is an error-reporting protocol that works in concert with IP. The following ICMP types trigger an alert:
Table 11-2 ICMP Commands That Trigger Alerts
5
REDIRECT
13
TIMESTAMP_REQUEST
14
TIMESTAMP_REPLY
17
ADDRESS_MASK_REQUEST
18
ADDRESS_MASK_REPLY
Illegal Commands (NetBIOS and SMTP)
The only legal NetBIOS commands are the following - all others are illegal.
Table 11-3 Legal NetBIOS Commands
MESSAGE:
REQUEST:
POSITIVE:
NEGATIVE:
RETARGET:
KEEPALIVE:
All SMTP commands are illegal except for those displayed in the following tables.
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Table 11-4 Legal SMTP Commands
AUTH
DATA
EHLO
ETRN
EXPN
HELO
HELP
MAIL
QUIT
RCPT
RSET
SAML
SEND
SOML
TURN
VRFY
NOOP
Traceroute
Traceroute is a utility used to determine the path a packet takes between two endpoints. Sometimes when a
packet filter firewall is configured incorrectly an attacker can traceroute the firewall gaining knowledge of
the network topology inside the firewall.
4. Often, many DoS attacks also employ a technique known as "IP Spoofing" as part of their attack. IP
Spoofing may be used to break into systems, to hide the hacker's identity, or to magnify the effect of the
DoS attack. IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers by tricking a
router or firewall into thinking that the communications are coming from within the trusted network. To
engage in IP spoofing, a hacker must modify the packet headers so that it appears that the packets
originate from a trusted host and should be allowed through the router or firewall. The ZyAIR blocks all
IP Spoofing attempts.
11.5 Stateful Inspection
Stateful inspection means the ZyAIR records packet information, such as port number and source/destination
addresses and then allows or denies the response depending on your firewall rules.
The default rules allow LAN-to-WAN traffic and deny traffic initiated from WAN-to-LAN.
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Figure 11-5 Stateful Inspection
The previous figure shows the ZyAIR’s default firewall rules in action as well as demonstrates how stateful
inspection works. User A can initiate a Telnet session from within the LAN and responses to this request are
allowed. However other Telnet traffic initiated from the WAN is blocked.
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Chapter 12
Firewall Screens
This chapter shows you how to configure your ZyAIR firewall.
12.1 Access Methods
The web configurator is, by far, the most comprehensive firewall configuration tool your ZyAIR has to offer.
For this reason, it is recommended that you configure your firewall using the web configurator. SMT screens
allow you to activate the firewall.
12.2 Firewall Policies Overview
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply:
•
LAN to LAN/ZyAIR
•
WAN to LAN
•
LAN to WAN
•
WAN to WAN/ZyAIR
By default, the ZyAIR’s stateful packet inspection allows packets traveling in the following directions:
•
LAN to LAN/ZyAIR
This allows computers on the LAN to manage the ZyAIR and communicate between networks or
subnets connected to the LAN interface.
•
LAN to WAN
By default, the ZyAIR’s stateful packet inspection blocks packets traveling in the following directions:
•
WAN to LAN
•
WAN to WAN/ZyAIR
This prevents computers on the WAN from using the ZyAIR as a gateway to communicate with
other computers on the WAN and/or managing the ZyAIR.
You may define additional rules and sets or modify existing ones but please exercise extreme caution in
doing so.
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If you configure firewall rules without a good understanding of how they work, you
might inadvertently introduce security risks to the firewall and to the protected
network. Make sure you test your rules after you configure them.
For example, you may create rules to:
♦
Block certain types of traffic, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), from the LAN to the Internet.
♦
Allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database synchronization, from specific hosts on the
Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
♦
Allow everyone except your competitors to access a Web server.
♦
Restrict use of certain protocols, such as Telnet, to authorized users on the LAN.
These custom rules work by comparing the Source IP address, Destination IP address and IP protocol type of
network traffic to rules set by the administrator. Your customized rules take precedence and override the
ZyAIR’s default rules.
12.3 Rule Logic Overview
Study these points carefully before configuring rules.
12.3.1 Rule Checklist
1.
State the intent of the rule. For example, “This restricts all IRC access from the LAN to the Internet.” Or,
“This allows a remote Lotus Notes server to synchronize over the Internet to an inside Notes server.”
2.
Is the intent of the rule to forward or block traffic?
3.
What direction of traffic does the rule apply to (refer to 12.2)?
4.
What IP services will be affected?
5.
What computers on the Internet will be affected? The more specific, the better. For example, if traffic is
being allowed from the Internet to the LAN, it is better to allow only certain machines on the Internet to
access the LAN.
12.3.2 Security Ramifications
Once the logic of the rule has been defined, it is critical to consider the security ramifications created by the
rule:
1.
Does this rule stop LAN users from accessing critical resources on the Internet? For example, if IRC is
blocked, are there users that require this service?
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2.
Is it possible to modify the rule to be more specific? For example, if IRC is blocked for all users, will a
rule that blocks just certain users be more effective?
3.
Does a rule that allows Internet users access to resources on the LAN create a security vulnerability? For
example, if FTP ports (TCP 20, 21) are allowed from the Internet to the LAN, Internet users may be able
to connect to computers with running FTP servers.
4.
Does this rule conflict with any existing rules?
Once these questions have been answered, adding rules is simply a matter of plugging the information into
the correct fields in the web configurator screens.
12.3.3 Key Fields For Configuring Rules
Action
Should the action be to Block or Forward?
“Block” means the firewall silently discards the packet.
Service
Select the service from the Service scrolling list box. If the service is not listed, it is necessary to first define
it. See section 12.6.3 for more information on predefined services.
12.4 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall
1.
Change the default password via web configurator.
2.
Think about access control before you connect to the network in any way, including attaching a modem
to the port.
3.
Limit who can access your router.
4.
Don't enable any local service (such as SNMP or NTP) that you don't use. Any enabled service could
present a potential security risk. A determined hacker might be able to find creative ways to misuse the
enabled services to access the firewall or the network.
5.
For local services that are enabled, protect against misuse. Protect by configuring the services to
communicate only with specific peers, and protect by configuring rules to block packets for the services
at specific interfaces.
6.
Protect against IP spoofing by making sure the firewall is active.
7.
Keep the firewall in a secured (locked) room.
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12.5 Connection Direction Examples
This section describes examples for firewall rules for connections going from LAN to WAN and from WAN
to LAN.
LAN to LAN/ZyAIR and WAN to WAN/ZyAIR rules apply to packets coming in on the associated interface
(LAN or WAN respectively). LAN to LAN/ZyAIR means policies for LAN-to-ZyAIR (the policies for
managing the ZyAIR through the LAN interface) and policies for LAN-to-LAN (the policies that control
routing between two subnets on the LAN).
12.5.1 LAN to WAN Rules
LAN-to-WAN rules are local network to Internet firewall rules. The default is to forward all traffic from
your local network to the Internet.
How can you block certain LAN to WAN traffic?
You may choose to block certain LAN-to-WAN traffic in the Services screen (click the Services tab). All
services displayed in the Blocked Services list box are LAN-to-WAN firewall rules that block those services
originating from the LAN.
Blocked LAN-to-WAN packets are considered alerts. Alerts are “higher priority logs” that include system
errors, attacks and attempted access to blocked web sites. Alerts appear in red in the View Log screen. You
may choose to have alerts e-mailed immediately in the Log Settings screen.
LAN-to-LAN/ZyAIR means the LAN to the ZyAIR LAN interface. This is always allowed, as this is how
you manage the ZyAIR from your local computer.
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Figure 12-1 LAN to WAN Traffic
12.5.2 WAN to LAN Rules
WAN-to-LAN rules are Internet to your local network firewall rules. The default is to block all traffic from
the Internet to your local network.
How can you forward certain WAN to LAN traffic? You may allow traffic originating from the WAN to be
forwarded to the LAN by:
Configuring NAT port forwarding rules in the web configurator SUA Server screen or SMT NAT
menus.
Configuring One-to-One and Many-One-to-One NAT mapping rules in the web configurator
Address Mapping screen or SMT NAT menus.
Configuring WAN or LAN & WAN access for services in the Remote Management screens or
SMT menus. When you allow remote management from the WAN, you are actually configuring
WAN-to-WAN/ZyAIR firewall rules. WAN-to-WAN/ZyAIR firewall rules are Internet to the
ZyAIR WAN interface firewall rules. The default is to block all such traffic. When you decide what
WAN-to-LAN packets to log, you are in fact deciding what WAN-to-LAN and WAN-toWAN/ZyAIR packets to log.
Allow NetBIOS traffic from the WAN to the LAN using the WAN IP web screen or SMT menu
24.8 commands.
Forwarded WAN-to-LAN packets are not considered alerts.
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Figure 12-2 WAN to LAN Traffic
12.6 Enabling Firewall
The ordering of your rules is very important as rules are applied in turn.
The default rules allow LAN-to-WAN traffic and deny traffic initiated from WAN-to-LAN. You may block
traffic initiated from the LAN by configuring blocked services in the Services screen. You may allow traffic
initiated from the WAN by configuring port-forwarding rules, one-to-one/many one-to-one mapping rules
and/or allow remote management.
The firewall is automatically enabled when you configure blocked services. When you configure a remote
management menu to allow access to the ZyAIR, a firewall rule (WAN-to-WAN) is automatically created.
Click FIREWALL to open the Settings screen. Enable (or activate) the firewall by selecting the Enable
Firewall check box as seen in the following screen.
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Select this check box to enable
the firewall.
Figure 12-3 Firewall Settings
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12-1 Firewall Settings
LABEL
Enable Firewall
Firewall Screens
DESCRIPTION
Select this check box to activate the firewall. The ZyAIR performs access control and
protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks when the firewall is activated.
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Table 12-1 Firewall Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Bypass Triangle
Route
Select this check box to have the ZyAIR firewall permit the use of triangle route
topology on the network. See the appendix for more on triangle route topology.
LAN to WAN
To log packets related to firewall rules, make sure that Access Control under Log is
selected in the Logs, Log Settings screen.
Packets to Log
Choose what LAN to WAN packets to log. Choose from:
•
No Log
• Log Blocked (blocked LAN to WAN services appear in the Blocked
Services textbox in the Services screen (with Enable Services Blocking
selected))
•
WAN to LAN
Packets to Log
Log All (log all LAN to WAN packets)
To log packets related to firewall rules, make sure that Access Control under Log is
selected in the Logs, Log Settings screen.
Choose what WAN to LAN and WAN to WAN/ZyAIR packets to log. Choose from:
•
No Log
•
Log Forwarded
•
Log All (log all WAN to LAN packets).
Allow one specific computer full access to all blocked resources.
Trusted
Computer IP
Address
You can allow a specific computer to access all Internet resources without
restriction. Enter the IP address of the trusted computer in this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
12.6.1 Configuring Content Filtering
Content filtering allows you to block web sites by URL keywords that you specify, for example, you can
block access to all web sites with the word “bad” in the URL by specifying “bad’ as a keyword. You can also
block access to web proxies and pages containing Active X components, Java applets and cookies. Finally
you can schedule when the ZyAIR performs content filtering by day and time.
Click FIREWALL and then the Filter tab to open the Filter screen.
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Figure 12-4 Firewall Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 12-2 Firewall Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Restrict Web
Features
Select the categories of web features that you want to restrict.
ActiveX
ActiveX is a tool for building dynamic and active Web pages and distributed object
applications. When you visit an ActiveX Web site, ActiveX controls are downloaded
to your browser, where they remain in case you visit the site again.
Java
Java is a programming language and development environment for building
downloadable Web components or Internet and intranet business applications of all
kinds.
Cookies
Web Proxy
Enable URL
Keyword Blocking
Keyword
Web servers that track usage and provide service based on ID use cookies.
This is a server that acts as an intermediary between a user and the Internet to
provide security, administrative control, and caching service. When a proxy server
is located on the WAN it is possible for LAN users to circumvent content filtering by
pointing to this proxy server.
Select this check box to block the URL containing the keywords in the keyword list
Type a keyword in this field. You may use any character (up to 64 characters).
Wildcards are not allowed.
Keyword List
This is a list of keywords that will be inaccessible to computers on your LAN once
you enable URL keyword blocking.
Add
Type a keyword in the Keyword field and click then Add to add a keyword to the
Keyword List.
Delete
Clear All
Select a keyword from the Keyword List and then click Delete to remove this
keyword from the list.
Click Clear All to empty the Keyword List.
Denied Access
Message
Enter a message to be displayed when a user tries to access a restricted web site.
Day to Block
Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to activate blocking.
Time of Day to
Block (24-Hour
Format)
Select All Day or enter the start and end times in the hour-minute format to activate
blocking.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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12.6.2 Configuring Firewall Services
Click ADVANCED, FIREWALL and then the Services tab to open the Services screen. Use this screen to
enable service blocking, enter/delete/modify the services you want to block and the date/time you want to
block them.
Figure 12-5 Firewall Services
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 12-3 Creating/Editing A Firewall Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Services
Blocking
Select the check box to activate service blocking.
Available Services
This is a list of pre-defined services (ports) you may prohibit your LAN computers
from using. Select the port you want to block using the drop-down list and click Add
to add the port to the Blocked Service field.
Please see Table 12-4 for more information on services available
Blocked Services
This is a list of services (ports) that will be inaccessible to computers on your LAN
once you enable service blocking. Choose the IP port (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP)
that defines your customized port from the drop down list box.
Custom Port
A custom port is a service that is not available in the pre-defined Available
Services list and you must define using the next two fields.
For a comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet
Assigned Number Authority) web site.
Type
Port Number
Services are either TCP and/or UDP. Select from either TCP or UDP.
Enter the port number range that defines the service. For example, suppose you
want to define the Gnutella service. Select TCP type and enter a port range from
6345-6349.
Add
Select a service from the Available Services drop-down list and then click Add to
add a service to the Blocked Service field.
Delete
Select a service from the Blocked Services list and then click Delete to remove
this service from the list.
Clear All
Click Clear All to empty the Blocked Service.
Day to Block
Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to activate blocking.
Time of Day to
Block (24-Hour
Format)
Select the time of day you want service blocking to take effect. Configure blocking
to take effect all day by selecting the All Day check box. You can also configure
specific times that by entering the start time in the Start (hr) and Start (min) fields
and the end time in the End (hr) and End (min) fields. Enter times in 24-hour
format, for example, “3:00pm” should be entered as “15:00”.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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12.6.3 Predefined Services
The Available Services list box in the Services screen (see Figure 12-5) displays all predefined services that
the ZyAIR already supports. Next to the name of the service, two fields appear in brackets. The first field
indicates the IP protocol type (TCP, UDP, or ICMP). The second field indicates the IP port number that
defines the service. (Note that there may be more than one IP protocol type. For example, look at the default
configuration labeled “(DNS)”. (UDP/TCP:53) means UDP port 53 and TCP port 53. Up to 128 entries are
supported. Custom services may also be configured using the Custom Ports function discussed later.
Table 12-4 Predefined Services
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
BGP(TCP:179)
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT(UDP:68)
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER(UDP:67)
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
(TCP/UDP:7648, 24032)
A popular videoconferencing solution from White Pines Software.
DNS(UDP/TCP:53)
Domain Name Server, a service that matches web names (e.g.
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
FINGER(TCP:79)
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related command that can be used to find out if
a user is logged on.
FTP(TCP:20.21)
File Transfer Program, a program to enable fast transfer of files, including
large files that may not be possible by e-mail.
HTTP(TCP:80)
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol – a client/server protocol for the world wide
web.
ICQ(UDP:4000)
This is a popular Internet chat program.
IPSEC_TUNNEL(ESP:0)
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation Security Protocol) tunneling protocol uses
this service.
IRC(TCP/UDP:6667)
This is another popular Internet chat program.
MULTICAST(IGMP:0)
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is used when sending packets to a specific
group of hosts.
NEWS(TCP:144)
A protocol for news groups.
NFS(UDP:2049)
Network File System - NFS is a client/server distributed file service that
provides transparent file sharing for network environments.
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Table 12-4 Predefined Services
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
NNTP(TCP:119)
Network News Transport Protocol is the delivery mechanism for the
USENET newsgroup service.
PING(ICMP:0)
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol that sends out ICMP echo requests to
test whether or not a remote host is reachable.
PPTP(TCP:1723)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the control channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL(GRE:0)
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol enables secure transfer of data over public
networks. This is the data channel.
RCMD(TCP:512)
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO(TCP:7070)
A streaming audio service that enables real time sound over the web.
REXEC(TCP:514)
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN(TCP:513)
Remote Login.
RTELNET(TCP:107)
Remote Telnet.
RTSP(TCP/UDP:554)
The Real Time Streaming (media control) Protocol (RTSP) is a remote
control for multimedia on the Internet.
SFTP(TCP:115)
Simple File Transfer Protocol.
SMTP(TCP:25)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SNMP(TCP/UDP:161)
Simple Network Management Program.
SNMPTRAPS(TCP/UDP:162)
Traps for use with the SNMP (RFC:1215).
SQL-NET(TCP:1521)
Structured Query Language is an interface to access data on many different
types of database systems, including mainframes, midrange systems, UNIX
systems and network servers.
SSH(TCP/UDP:22)
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS(UDP:1558)
Stream Works Protocol.
TELNET(TCP:23)
Telnet is the login and terminal emulation protocol common on the Internet
and in UNIX environments. It operates over TCP/IP networks. Its primary
function is to allow users to log into remote host systems.
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Table 12-4 Predefined Services
SERVICE
DESCRIPTION
TFTP(UDP:69)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an Internet file transfer protocol similar to
FTP, but uses the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE(TCP:7000)
Another videoconferencing solution.
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Chapter 13
Remote Management
This chapter provides information on the Remote Management screens.
13.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which ZyAIR interface (if
any) from which computers. You can customize the service port, access interface and the secured client IP
address to enhance security and flexibility.
When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN, you
still need to configure a firewall rule to allow access. See the firewall chapters for
details on configuring firewall rules.
You may manage your ZyAIR from a remote location via:
Internet (WAN only)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only,
Neither (Disable).
When you Choose WAN only or ALL (LAN & WAN), you still need to configure a
firewall rule to allow access.
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server Access field.
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The ZyAIR automatically disconnects
a remote management session of lower priority when another remote management session of higher priority
starts. The priorities for the different types of remote management sessions are as follows.
1.
Console port
2.
Telnet
3.
HTTP
13.1.1 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1.
A filter in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet, FTP or Web
service.
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2.
You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
3.
The IP address in the Secured Client IP Address field does not match the client IP address. If it
does not match, the ZyAIR will disconnect the session immediately.
4.
There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority running. You
may only have one remote management session running at one time.
5.
There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
13.1.2 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
Use the ZyAIR’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
Use the ZyAIR’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
13.1.3 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds). The ZyAIR
automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer than this timeout period. The
management session does not time out when a statistics screen is polling. You can change the timeout period
in the System screen.
13.2 Telnet
You can telnet into the ZyAIR to perform remote management.
Figure 13-1 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
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13.3 Configuring TELNET
Click REMOTE MGNT to open the TELNET screen.
Figure 13-2 Telnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13-1 Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
Secured Client
IP Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the ZyAIR
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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13.4 Configuring FTP
You can upload and download the ZyAIR’s firmware and configuration files using FTP, please see the
chapter on firmware and configuration file maintenance for details. To use this feature, your computer must
have an FTP client.
To change your ZyAIR’s FTP settings, click REMOTE MGNT and then the FTP tab. The screen appears as
shown.
Figure 13-3 FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13-2 FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
Secured Client
IP Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the ZyAIR
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
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Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
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Table 13-2 FTP
LABEL
Reset
DESCRIPTION
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.5 Configuring WWW
To change your ZyAIR’s World Wide Web settings, click REMOTE MGNT and then the WWW tab. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 13-4 WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13-3 WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
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Table 13-3 WWW
LABEL
Secured Client
IP Address
DESCRIPTION
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the ZyAIR
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.6 Configuring SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol used for exchanging management information between
network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Your ZyAIR supports SNMP agent
functionality, which allows a manager station to manage and monitor the ZyAIR through the network. The
ZyAIR supports SNMP version one (SNMPv1) and version two c (SNMPv2c). The next figure illustrates an
SNMP management operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
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Figure 13-5 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the ZyAIR). An agent
translates the local management information from the managed device into a form compatible with SNMP.
The manager is the console through which network administrators perform network management functions.
It executes applications that control and monitor managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of information to be
collected about a device. Examples of variables include the number of packets received, node port status etc.
A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and
agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The manager issues a
request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol operations:
•
Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
•
GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list within an agent. In
SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table from an agent, it initiates a Get
operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
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•
Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
•
Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
13.6.1 Supported MIBs
The ZyAIR supports MIB II that is defined in RFC-1213 and RFC-1215. The focus of the MIBs is to let
administrators collect statistical data and monitor status and performance.
13.6.2 SNMP Traps
The ZyAIR will send traps to the SNMP manager when any one of the following events occurs:
Table 13-4 SNMP Traps
TRAP #
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
1
coldStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (power on).
2
warmStart (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent after booting (software reboot).
3
linkUp (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent when the port is up.
4
authenticationFailure (defined in
RFC-1215)
A trap is sent to the manager when receiving any SNMP
get or set requirements with wrong community
(password).
6
linkDown (defined in RFC-1215)
A trap is sent when the port is down.
The following table maps the physical port and encapsulation to the interface type.
Table 13-5 Ports and Interface Types
PHYSICAL PORT/ENCAP
13-8
INTERFACE TYPE
LAN port(s)
enet0
Wireless port
enet1
PPPoE encap
pppoe
1483 encap
mpoa
Ethernet encap
enet-encap
PPPoA
ppp
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13.6.3 REMOTE MANAGEMENT: SNMP
To change your ZyAIR’s SNMP settings, click REMOTE MGNT and then the SNMP tab. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 13-6 SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13-6 SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SNMP Configuration
Get Community
Enter the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get and GetNext
requests from the management station.
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Table 13-6 SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Set Community
Enter the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from the
management station.
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your ZyAIR will only respond to SNMP messages from this
address. A blank (default) field means your ZyAIR will respond to all SNMP messages
it receives, regardless of source.
Trap
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
SNMP
Service Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Service Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
Secured Client
IP Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the ZyAIR
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.7 Configuring DNS
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice versa.
Refer to the LAN chapter for more information.
To change your ZyAIR’s DNS settings, click REMOTE MGNT and then the DNS tab. The screen appears
as shown.
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Figure 13-7 DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13-7 DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Service Port
The DNS service port number is 53 and cannot be changed here.
Service Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may send DNS queries to the ZyAIR.
Secured Client
IP Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to send DNS queries to the
ZyAIR.
Select All to allow any computer to send DNS queries to the ZyAIR.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
send DNS queries to the ZyAIR.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
13.8 Configuring Security
To change your ZyAIR’s security settings, click REMOTE MGNT and then the Security tab. The screen
appears as shown.
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your ZyAIR, an ICMP response packet is
automatically returned. This allows the outside user to know the ZyAIR exists. The ZyAIR series support
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anti-probing, which prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent. This keeps outsiders from
discovering your ZyAIR when unsupported ports are probed.
Figure 13-8 Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13-8 Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol is a message control and error-reporting protocol
between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP)
datagrams, but the messages are processed by the TCP/IP software and directly
apparent to the application user.
Respond to Ping
on
The ZyAIR will not respond to any incoming Ping requests when Disable is selected.
Select LAN to reply to incoming LAN Ping requests. Select WAN to reply to incoming
WAN Ping requests. Otherwise select LAN&WAN to reply to both incoming LAN and
WAN Ping requests.
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Table 13-8 Security
LABEL
Do not respond
to requests for
unauthorized
services
DESCRIPTION
Select this option to prevent hackers from finding the ZyAIR by probing for unused
ports. If you select this option, the ZyAIR will not respond to port request(s) for unused
ports, thus leaving the unused ports and the ZyAIR unseen. By default this option is
not selected and the ZyAIR will reply with an ICMP Port Unreachable packet for a port
probe on its unused UDP ports, and a TCP Reset packet for a port probe on its
unused TCP ports.
Note that the probing packets must first traverse the ZyAIR's firewall mechanism
before reaching this anti-probing mechanism. Therefore if the firewall mechanism
blocks a probing packet, the ZyAIR reacts based on the firewall policy, which by
default, is to send a TCP reset packet for a blocked TCP packet. You can use the
command "sys firewall tcprst rst [on|off]" to change this policy. When the firewall
mechanism blocks a UDP packet, it drops the packet without sending a response
packet.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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UPnP and Logs
Part VI:
UPNP AND LOGS
This part provides information and configuration instructions for UPnP (Universal Plug and Play)
and the logs.
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Chapter 14
UPnP Screen
This chapter introduces the Universal Plug and Play feature.
14.1 Universal Plug and Play Overview
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that uses TCP/IP for simple
peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A UPnP device can dynamically join a network, obtain
an IP address, convey its capabilities and learn about other devices on the network. In turn, a device can
leave a network smoothly and automatically when it is no longer in use.
14.1.1 How Do I Know If I'm Using UPnP?
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder (Windows XP). Each UPnP
compatible device installed on your network will appear as a separate icon. Selecting the icon of a UPnP
device will allow you to access the information and properties of that device.
14.1.2 NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate through NAT. UPnP
network devices can automatically configure network addressing, announce their presence in the network to
other UPnP devices and enable exchange of simple product and service descriptions. NAT traversal allows
the following:
Dynamic port mapping
Learning public IP addresses
Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal and UPnP.
See the SUA/NAT chapter for further information about NAT.
UPnP Screens
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14.1.3 Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own services and opening firewall
ports may present network security issues. Network information and configuration may also be obtained
and modified by users in some network environments.
All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without additional configuration.
Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
14.2 UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has achieved UPnP certification from the Universal Plug and Play Forum Creates UPnP™
Implementers Corp. (UIC). ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports IGD 1.0 (Internet Gateway Device).
At the time of writing ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports Windows Messenger 4.6 and 4.7 while
Windows Messenger 5.0 and Xbox are still being tested.
UPnP broadcasts are only allowed on the LAN.
Please see later in this User’s Guide for examples of installing UPnP in Windows XP and Windows Me as
well as an example of using UPnP in Windows.
14.3 Configuring UPnP
Click UPNP to display the screen shown next.
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 14-1 Configuring UPnP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14-1 Configuring UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Device Name
This identifies the ZyAIR in UPnP applications.
Enable the Universal Plug
and Play (UPnP) feature
Select this check box to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use a
UPnP application to open the web configurator's login screen without entering
the ZyAIR's IP address (although you must still enter the password to access
the web configurator).
Allow users to make
configuration changes
through UPnP
Select this check box to allow UPnP-enabled applications to automatically
configure the ZyAIR so that they can communicate through the ZyAIR, for
example by using NAT traversal, UPnP applications automatically reserve a
NAT forwarding port in order to communicate with another UPnP enabled
device; this eliminates the need to manually configure port forwarding for the
UPnP enabled application.
Allow UPnP to pass
through Firewall
Select this check box to create a static LAN to LAN/ZyAIR rule that allows
forwarding of ports 1900 and 80. Selecting this check box also creates a
dynamic firewall rule every time a NAT forwarding port is reserved for UPnP.
This setting remains active until you disable UPnP or clear this check box.
Clear this check box to have the firewall block all UPnP application packets
(for example, MSN packets) instead of creating a firewall rule for them.
UPnP Screens
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Table 14-1 Configuring UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
14.4 Installing UPnP in Windows Example
This section shows how to install UPnP in Windows Me and Windows XP.
14.4.1 Installing UPnP in Windows Me
Follow the steps below to install UPnP in Windows Me.
Step 1.
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click
Add/Remove Programs.
Step 2.
Click on the Windows Setup tab and select
Communication in the Components selection box. Click
Details.
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Step 3.
In the Communications window, select the Universal
Plug and Play check box in the Components selection
box.
Step 4.
Click OK to go back to the Add/Remove Programs
Properties window and click Next.
Step 5.
Restart the computer when prompted.
14.4.2 Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install UPnP in Windows XP.
Step 1.
Click Start and Control Panel.
Step 2.
Double-click Network Connections.
Step 3.
In the Network Connections window,
click Advanced in the main menu and
select Optional Networking
Components ….
The Windows Optional Networking
Components Wizard window displays.
Step 4.
Select Networking Service in the
Components selection box and click
Details.
UPnP Screens
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Step 5.
In the Networking Services window,
select the Universal Plug and Play
check box.
Step 6.
Click OK to go back to the Windows
Optional Networking Component
Wizard window and click Next.
14.5 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must already have UPnP
installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the ZyAIR.
Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the ZyAIR. Turn on your computer and the ZyAIR.
14.5.1 Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device
Step 1.
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click
Network Connections. An icon displays
under Internet Gateway.
Step 2.
Right-click the icon and select Properties.
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Step 3.
In the Internet Connection Properties
window, click Settings to see the port
mappings that were automatically created.
UPnP Screens
Step 4.
You may edit or delete the port
mappings or click Add to
manually add port mappings.
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When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port
mappings will be deleted automatically.
Step 5.
Select the Show icon in notification area
when connected check box and click OK. An
icon displays in the system tray
Step 6.
Double-click the icon to display your current
Internet connection status.
14.5.2 Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the ZyAIR without finding out the IP address of
the ZyAIR first. This is helpful if you do not know the IP address of the ZyAIR.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator.
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Step 1.
Click Start and then Control
Panel.
Step 2.
Double-click Network
Connections.
Step 3.
Select My Network Places under
Other Places.
Step 4.
An icon with the description for
each UPnP-enabled device
displays under Local Network.
Step 5.
Right-click the icon for your
ZyAIR and select Invoke. The web
configurator login screen displays.
UPnP Screens
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Step 6.
14-10
Right-click the icon for your ZyAIR and
select Properties. A properties window
displays with basic information about
the ZyAIR.
UPnP Screens
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 15
Logs Screens
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and viewing the ZyAIR’s
logs. Refer to the appendix for example log message explanations.
15.1 Using the View Log Screen
The web configurator allows you to look at all of the ZyAIR’s logs in one location.
Click LOGS to open the View Log screen. Use the View Log screen to see the logs for the categories that
you selected in the Log Settings screen (see section 15.2). Options include logs about system maintenance,
system errors, access control, allowed or blocked web sites, blocked web features (such as ActiveX
controls, java and cookies), attacks (such as DoS) and IPSec.
You can view logs and alert messages in this page. Log entries in red indicate system error logs. Once the
log entries are all used, the log will wrap around and the old logs will be deleted.
Click a column heading to sort the entries. A triangle indicates the direction of the sort order.
Logs Screens
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Figure 15-1 View Log
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15-1 View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
Select a log category from the drop down list box to display logs within the selected
category. To view all logs, select All Logs.
The number of categories shown in the drop down list box depends on the selection in
the Log Settings page.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming packet.
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming packet.
Note
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
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Table 15-1 View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Email Log Now
Click Email Log Now to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in the
Log Settings page.
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click Clear Log to clear all the logs.
15.2 Configuring Log Settings
To change your ZyAIR’s log settings, click LOGS and then the Log Settings tab. The screen appears as
shown.
Use the Log Settings screen to configure to where the ZyAIR is to send the logs; the schedule for when the
ZyAIR is to send the logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts the ZyAIR is to send.
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system errors, attacks (access
control) and attempted access to blocked web sites or web sites with restricted web features such as cookies,
Active X and so on. Some categories such as System Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may
differentiate them by their color in the View Log screen. Alerts are displayed in red and logs are displayed
in black.
Alerts are e-mailed as soon as they happen. Logs may be e-mailed as soon as the
log is full (see Log Schedule). Selecting many alert and/or log categories
(especially Access Control) may result in many e-mails being sent.
Logs Screens
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Figure 15-2 Log Settings
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15-2 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Info
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages will
not be sent via e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail message that
the ZyAIR sends.
Send Log to
Logs are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left blank,
logs will not be sent via e-mail.
Send Alerts to
Syslog Logging
Enter the e-mail address where the alert messages will be sent. Alerts include
system errors, attacks and attempted access to blocked web sites. If this field is
left blank, alert messages will not be sent via e-mail.
Syslog logging sends a log to an external syslog server used to store logs.
Active
Syslog Server IP
Address
Log Facility
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you to log the
messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your
syslog program for more details.
Send Log
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages being
sent as E-mail:
•
Daily
•
Weekly
•
Hourly
•
When Log is Full
•
None.
If the Weekly or the Daily option is selected, specify a time of day when the E-mail
should be sent. If the Weekly option is selected, then also specify which day of the
week the E-mail should be sent. If the When Log is Full option is selected, an
alert is sent when the log fills up. If you select None, no log messages are sent.
Day for Sending Log
This field is only available when you select Weekly in the Log Schedule field.
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the logs.
Logs Screens
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Table 15-2 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time for Sending Log
Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00 pm) to
send the logs.
Clear log after sending
mail
Select the check box to clear all logs after logs and alert messages are sent via email.
Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record.
Send Immediate Alert
Select the categories of alerts for which you want the ZyAIR to immediately send
e-mail alerts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
15.3 Configuring Reports
To change your ZyAIR’s log reports, click LOGS and then the Reports tab. The screen appears as shown.
The Reports screen displays which computers on the LAN send and receive the most traffic, what kinds of
traffic are used the most and which web sites are visited the most often. Use the Reports screen to view
information about bandwidth usage :
Web sites visited the most often
Number of times the most visited web sites were visited
The most-used protocols or service ports
The amount of traffic for the most used protocols or service ports
The LAN IP addresses to and/or from which the most traffic has been sent
How much traffic has been sent to and from the LAN IP addresses to and/or from which the most
traffic has been sent
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The web site hit count may not be 100% accurate because sometimes when an
individual web page loads, it may contain references to other web sites that also
get counted as hits.
The ZyAIR records web site hits by counting the HTTP GET packets. Many web sites include HTTP GET
references to other web sites and the ZyAIR may count these as hits, thus the web hit count is not (yet)
100% accurate.
Figure 15-3 Reports
Enabling the ZyAIR’s reporting function decreases the overall throughput by
about 1 Mbps.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Logs Screens
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Table 15-3 Reports
LABEL
Report Type
DESCRIPTION
Use the drop-down list box to select the type of reports to display.
Web Site Hits displays the web sites that have been visited the most often from the
LAN and how many times they have been visited.
Protocol/Port displays the protocols or service ports that have been used the most
and the amount of traffic for the most used protocols or service ports.
LAN IP Address displays the LAN IP addresses to and /or from which the most traffic
has been sent and how much traffic has been sent to and from those IP addresses.
Start Collection/
Stop Collection
The button text shows Start Collection when the ZyAIR is not recording report data
and Stop Collection when the ZyAIR is recording report data.
Click Start Collection to have the ZyAIR record report data.
Click Stop Collection to halt the ZyAIR from recording more data.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the report display. The report also refreshes automatically
when you close and reopen the screen.
#
This field displays the index number of an individual web site.
Web Site
Web Site displays the web site address(es) that have been visited the most often
from the LAN.
Hits
Hits displays the total number of visits to each web site.
15.3.1 Viewing Protocol/Port
In the Reports screen, select Protocol/Port from the Report Type drop-down list box to have the ZyAIR
record and display which protocols or service ports have been used the most and the amount of traffic for
the most used protocols or service ports.
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Figure 15-4 Protocol/Port Report
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15-4 Protocol/Port Report
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Protocol/Port
This column lists the protocols or service ports for which the most traffic has gone
through the ZyAIR. The protocols or service ports are listed in descending order with the
most used protocol or service port listed first.
Start Collection/
Stop Collection
The button text shows Start Collection when the ZyAIR is not recording report data and
Stop Collection when the ZyAIR is recording report data.
Click Start Collection to have the ZyAIR record report data.
Click Stop Collection to halt the ZyAIR from recording more data.
Logs Screens
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Table 15-4 Protocol/Port Report
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the report display. The report also refreshes automatically when
you close and reopen the screen.
Direction
This field displays Incoming to denote traffic that is coming in from the WAN to the LAN.
This field displays Outgoing to denote traffic that is going out from the LAN to the WAN.
Amount
This column lists how much traffic has been sent and/or received for each protocol or
service port. The measurement unit shown (bytes, Kbytes, Mbytes or Gbytes) varies with
the amount of traffic for the particular protocol or service port. The count starts over at 0
if a protocol or port passes the bytes count limit (see Table 15-6).
15.3.2 Viewing LAN IP Address
In the Reports screen, select LAN IP Address from the Report Type drop-down list box to have the
ZyAIR record and display the LAN IP addresses that the most traffic has been sent to and/or from and how
much traffic has been sent to and/or from those IP addresses.
Computers take turns using dynamically assigned LAN IP addresses. The ZyAIR
continues recording the bytes sent to or from a LAN IP address when it is
assigned to a different computer.
Figure 15-5 LAN IP Address Report
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15-5 LAN IP Address Report
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start Collection/
Stop Collection
The button text shows Start Collection when the ZyAIR is not recording report data and
Stop Collection when the ZyAIR is recording report data.
Click Start Collection to have the ZyAIR record report data.
Click Stop Collection to halt the ZyAIR from recording more data.
Refresh
Click Refresh to update the report display. The report also refreshes automatically when
you close and reopen the screen.
IP Address
This column lists the LAN IP addresses to and/or from which the most traffic has been
sent. The LAN IP addresses are listed in descending order with the LAN IP address to
and/or from which the most traffic was sent listed first.
Direction
This field displays Incoming to denote traffic that is coming in from the WAN to the LAN.
This field displays Outgoing to denote traffic that is going out from the LAN to the WAN.
Amount
This column displays how much traffic has gone to and from the listed LAN IP
addresses. The measurement unit shown (bytes, Kbytes, Mbytes or Gbytes) varies with
the amount of traffic sent to and from the LAN IP address. The count starts over at 0 if
the total traffic sent to and from a LAN IP passes the bytes count limit (see Table 15-6).
15.3.3 Reports Specifications
The following table lists detailed specifications on the reports feature.
Table 15-6 Report Specifications
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Number of web sites/protocols or
ports/IP addresses listed:
20
Hit count limit:
Up to 232 hits can be counted per web site. The count starts over at 0 if
it passes four billion
Bytes count limit:
Up to 264 bytes can be counted per protocol/port or LAN IP address.
64
The count starts over at 0 if it passes 2 bytes
Logs Screens
15-11
Maintenance
Part VII:
MAINTENANCE
This part describes the Maintenance web configurator screens.
VII
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 16
Maintenance
This chapter describes the Maintenance screens that display system information such as ZyNOS
firmware, port IP addresses and port traffic statistics.
16.1 Maintenance Overview
The maintenance screens can help you view system information, upload new firmware, manage configuration
and restart your ZyAIR.
16.2 System Status Screen
Click SYSTEM STATUS to open the System Status screen, where you can use to monitor your ZyAIR.
Note that these fields are READ-ONLY and are meant to be used for diagnostic purposes.
Figure 16-1 System Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Maintenance
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Table 16-1 System Status
LABEL
System Name
ZyNOS Firmware
Version
DESCRIPTION
This is the System Name you enter in the first Internet Access Wizard screen. It is
for identification purposes.
This is the ZyNOS Firmware version and the date created. ZyNOS is ZyXEL's
proprietary Network Operating System design.
WAN Port
IP Address
IP Subnet Mask
DHCP
This is the WAN port IP address.
This is the WAN port subnet mask.
This is the WAN port DHCP role - Client or None.
LAN Port
IP Address
IP Subnet Mask
DHCP
Show Statistics
This is the LAN port IP address.
This is the LAN port subnet mask.
This is the LAN port DHCP role - Server, Client or None.
Click Show Statistics to see router performance statistics such as number of
packets sent and number of packets received for each port.
16.2.1 System Statistics
Read-only information here includes port status and packet specific statistics. Also provided are "system up
time" and "poll interval(s)". The Poll Interval field is configurable.
Figure 16-2 System Status: Show Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
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Table 16-2 System Status: Show Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the LAN or WAN port.
Status
This shows the port speed and duplex setting if you are using Ethernet encapsulation for
the Ethernet port.
This shows the transmission speed only for wireless port.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets on this port.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets on this port.
Collisions
This is the number of collisions on this port.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission speed in bytes per second on this port.
Rx B/s
This shows the reception speed in bytes per second on this port.
Up Time
This is the total amount of time the line has been up.
System Up Time This is the total time the ZyAIR has been on.
Poll Interval
Enter the time interval for refreshing statistics.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered above.
Stop
Click this button to stop refreshing statistics.
16.3 DHCP Table Screen
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual clients to obtain
TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the ZyAIR as a DHCP server or disable it.
When configured as a server, the ZyAIR provides the TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If set to None,
DHCP service will be disabled and you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else the computer
must be manually configured.
Click DHCP TABLE. Read-only information here relates to your DHCP status. The DHCP table shows
current DHCP client information (including IP Address, Host Name and MAC Address) of all network
clients using the DHCP server.
Maintenance
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 16-3 DHCP Table
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16-3 DHCP Table
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the host computer.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the # field listed above.
Host Name
This field displays the computer host name.
MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address on a LAN (Local Area Network) is
unique to your computer (six pairs of hexadecimal notation).
A network interface card such as an Ethernet adapter has a hardwired address that is
assigned at the factory. This address follows an industry standard that ensures no other
adapter has a similar address.
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the DHCP table.
16.4 Wireless Screen
View the wireless stations that are currently associated to the ZyAIR in the Association List screen.
Click the WIRELESS link under MAINTENANCE to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 16-4 Association List
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16-4 Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of an associated wireless station.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of an associated wireless station.
Association Time
This field displays the time a wireless station first associated with the ZyAIR.
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the screen.
16.5 F/W Upload Screen
Find firmware at www.zyxel.com in a file that (usually) uses the system model name with a "*.bin"
extension, e.g., "zyair.bin". The upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to
two minutes. After a successful upload, the system will reboot. See the Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance chapter for upgrading firmware using FTP/TFTP commands.
Click F/W UPLOAD to display the screen as shown. Follow the instructions in this screen to upload
firmware to your ZyAIR.
Maintenance
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 16-5 Firmware Upgrade
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16-5 Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must decompress
compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
Do not turn off the ZyAIR while firmware upload is in progress!
After you see the Firmware Upload in Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into the device
again.
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Figure 16-6 Firmware Upload In Process
The ZyAIR automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In some operating
systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 16-7 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the System Status screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to the F/W
Upload screen.
Maintenance
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Figure 16-8 Firmware Upload Error
16.6 Configuration Screen
See the Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance chapter for transferring configuration files using
FTP/TFTP commands.
Click the CONFIGURATION link. Information related to backup configuration, restoring configuration and
factory defaults appears as shown next.
16.6.1 Backup Configuration
Backup configuration allows you to back up (save) the ZyAIR’s current configuration to a file on your
computer. Once your ZyAIR is configured and functioning properly, it is highly recommended that you back
up your configuration file before making configuration changes. The backup configuration file will be useful
in case you need to return to your previous settings.
Click Backup to save the ZyAIR’s current configuration to your computer.
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Figure 16-9 Backup Configuration
16.6.2 Restore Configuration
Restore configuration replaces your ZyAIR's current configuration (content filters, firewall settings, etc.)
with a new or previously saved configuration. Restore files (usually) have a .ROM extension, e.g.,
"zyair.rom". The system reboots automatically after the file transfer is complete and uses the configured
values in the file.
WARNING!
Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may PERMANENTLY DAMAGE
YOUR ZyAIR. When the Restore Configuration process is complete, the ZyAIR will
automatically restart.
Click the Restore tab to display the screen shown next.
Figure 16-10 Restore Configuration
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Maintenance
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Table 16-6 Restore Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must decompress
compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process.
Do not turn off the ZyAIR while configuration file upload is in progress.
After you see a “configuration upload successful” screen, you must then wait one minute before logging into
the ZyAIR again.
Figure 16-11 Configuration Upload Successful
The ZyAIR automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In some operating
systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 16-12 Network Temporarily Disconnected
If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP address of your computer to be
in the same subnet as that of the default ZyAIR IP address (192.168.1.1). See the appendix for details on how
to set up your computer’s IP address.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to the
Configuration screen.
16-10
Maintenance
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 16-13 Configuration Upload Error
16.6.3 Back to Factory Defaults
Clicking the Reset button in this section clears all user-entered configuration information and returns the
ZyAIR to its factory defaults as shown on the screen. This will erase all configurations that you have applied.
Click the Default tab to display the screen shown next.
Figure 16-14 Back to Factory Default
The following warning screen will appear.
Maintenance
16-11
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 16-15 Reset Warning Message
You can also press the RESET button on the side panel to reset the factory defaults of your ZyAIR. Refer to
the Resetting the ZyAIR section for more information on the RESET button.
16-12
Maintenance
SMT Getting Started Menus
Part VIII:
SMT GETTING STARTED MENUS
This part introduces the SMT (System Management Terminal) and discusses the “Getting Started”
SMT menus.
See the web configurator parts of this guide for background information on
features configurable by web configurator and SMT.
VIII
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 17
Introducing the SMT
This chapter describes how to access the SMT and provides an overview of its menus.
17.1 Connect to your ZyAIR Using Telnet
The following procedure details how to telnet into your ZyAIR.
Step 1.
Make sure your computer IP address and the ZyAIR IP address are on the same subnet. Refer to
the Setting Up Your Computer IP Address appendix.
Step 2.
In Windows, click Start (usually in the bottom left corner), Run and then type “telnet
192.168.1.1” (the default IP address) and click OK.
Step 3.
For your first login, enter 1234 in the Password field. As you type the password, the screen
displays an “x” for each character you type.
Step 4.
After entering the password you will see the main menu.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes (default timeout
period) after you log in, your ZyAIR will automatically log you out.
17.1.1 Entering Password
The login screen appears after you press [ENTER], prompting you to enter the password, as shown next.
For your first login, enter the default password “1234”. As you type the password, the screen displays an
“x” for each character you type.
Enter Password : xxxx
Figure 17-1 Login Screen
17.2 Changing the System Password
Change the ZyAIR default password by following the steps shown next.
Introducing the SMT
17-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Step 1.
Enter 23 in the main menu to open Menu 23 - System Security.
Step 2.
Enter 1 to display Menu 23.1 - System Security - Change Password as shown next.
Step 3.
Type your existing system password in the Old Password field, for example “1234”, and press
[ENTER].
Menu 23.1 – System Security – Change Password
Old Password= ****
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm= ?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 17-2 Menu 23.1 System Security : Change Password
Step 4.
Type your new system password in the New Password field (up to 30 characters), and press
[ENTER].
Step 5.
Re-type your new system password in the Retype to confirm field for confirmation and press
[ENTER].
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk “*” for each character you type.
17.3 ZyAIR SMT Menu Overview Example
The following figure gives you an example overview of the various SMT menu screens for your ZyAIR.
17-2
Introducing the SMT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
ZyAIR G-2000
Main Menu
Menu 1
General Setup
Menu 2
WAN Setup
Menu 3
LAN Setup
Menu 4
Internet Access
Setup
Menu 3.1
LAN Port Filter
Setup
Menu 1.1
Configure Dynamic
DNS
Menu 3.2
TCP/IP and DHCP
Setup
Menu 3.5.1
WLAN MAC
Address Filter
Menu 3.5
Wireless LAN
Setup
Menu 24.9.4
Call History
Menu 24.9.3
Budget Management
Menu 24.9.2
Blacklist
Menu 3.2.1
IP Alias Setup
Menu 11
Remote Node Setup
Menu 12
Static Routing Setup
Menu 14
Dial-in User Setup
Menu 15
NAT Setup
Menu 11.3
Remote Node Network
Layer Options
Menu 12.1.1
Edit IP Static Route
Menu 14.1
Edit Dial-in User
Menu 15.1
Address Mapping Sets
Menu 15.2
Port Forwarding Setup
Menu 11.5
Remote Node Filter
Menu 15.1.1
Address Mapping Rules
Menu 15.1.1.x
Address Mapping Rule
Menu 15.3
Trigger Port Setup
Menu 3.5.2
Roaming
Configuration
Menu 26
Schedule Setup
Menu 24
System Maintenance
Menu 23
System Security
Menu 22
SNMP Configuration
Menu 21
Filter and Firewall Setup
Menu 26.x
Schedule Set Setup
Menu 24.1
System Maintenance -Status
Menu 23.1
Change Password
Menu 23.2
RADIUS Server
Menu 21.1
Filter Set Configuration
Menu 21.1.x
Filter Rules Summary
Menu 24.2.2
System Maintenance -Change Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2
System Information and
Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2.1
System Maintenance -Information
Menu 23.4
IEEE802.1X
Menu 21.2
Firewall Setup
Menu 21.1.x.1
Generic Filter Rule
Menu 24.3.1
System Maintenance -View Error Log
Menu 24.11
Remote Management
Setup
Menu 24.9.1
Call Control Parameters
Menu 24.10
Time and Date
Setting
Menu 24.9
Call Control
Menu 24.8
Command Interpreter
Mode
Menu 24.3
System Maintenance -Log and Trace
Menu 24.7.2
System Maintenance -Upload System
Configuration File
Menu 24.7.1
System Maintenance -Upload System Firmware
Menu 24.7
System Maintenance -Upload Firmware
Menu 24.4
System Maintenance -Diagnostic
Menu 24.6
System Maintenance -Restore Configuration
Menu 24.5
System Maintenance -Backup Configuration
Menu 21.1.x.1
TCP/IP Filter Rule
Menu 24.3.2
System Maintenance -UNIX Syslog
Figure 17-3 ZyAIR SMT Menu Overview Example
Introducing the SMT
17-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
17.4 Navigating the SMT Interface
Several operations that you should be familiar with before you attempt to modify the configuration are
listed in the table below.
Table 17-1 Main Menu Commands
OPERATION
KEYSTROKE
DESCRIPTION
Move down to
another menu
[ENTER]
To move forward to a submenu, type in the number of the desired
submenu and press [ENTER].
Move up to a
previous menu
[ESC]
Press [ESC] to move back to the previous menu.
Move to a “hidden” Press [SPACE
Fields beginning with “Edit” lead to hidden menus and have a
BAR] to change No default setting of No. Press [SPACE BAR] once to change No to
menu
to Yes then press Yes, then press [ENTER] to go to the “hidden” menu.
[ENTER].
Move the cursor
[ENTER] or
Within a menu, press [ENTER] to move to the next field. You can
[UP]/[DOWN] arrow also use the [UP]/[DOWN] arrow keys to move to the previous
keys.
and the next field, respectively.
Entering
information
Type in or press
You need to fill in two types of fields. The first requires you to type
[SPACE BAR], then in the appropriate information. The second allows you to cycle
press [ENTER].
through the available choices by pressing [SPACE BAR].
Required fields
<?> or ChangeMe
All fields with the symbol <?> must be filled in order to be able to
save the new configuration.
All fields with ChangeMe must not be left blank in order to be
able to save the new configuration.
N/A fields
<N/A>
Some of the fields in the SMT will show a <N/A>. This symbol
refers to an option that is Not Applicable.
Save your
configuration
[ENTER]
Save your configuration by pressing [ENTER] at the message
“Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel”. Saving the data on
the screen will take you, in most cases to the previous menu.
Exit the SMT
Type 99, then press Type 99 at the main menu prompt and press [ENTER] to exit the
[ENTER].
SMT interface.
After you enter the password, the SMT displays the main menu, as shown next.
17-4
Introducing the SMT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2003 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ZyAIR G-2000 Main Menu
Getting Started
1. General Setup
2. WAN Setup
3. LAN Setup
4. Internet Access Setup
Advanced Applications
11. Remote Node Setup
12. Static Routing Setup
14. Dial-in User Setup
15. NAT Setup
Advanced Management
21. Filter and Firewall Setup
22. SNMP Configuration
23. System Security
24. System Maintenance
26. Schedule Setup
99. Exit
Enter Menu Selection Number:_
Figure 17-4 ZyAIR SMT Main Menu
17.4.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary
Table 17-2 Main Menu Summary
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
1
General Setup
Use this menu to set up your general information.
2
WAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your WAN connection.
3
LAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your LAN and WLAN connection.
4
Internet Access Setup
A quick and easy way to set up an Internet connection.
11
Remote Node Setup
Use this menu to set up the Remote Node for LAN-to-LAN connection,
including Internet connection.
12
Static Routing Setup
Use this menu to set up static routes.
14
Dial-in User Setup
Use this menu to set up local user profiles on the ZyAIR.
15
NAT Setup
Use this menu to specify inside servers when NAT is enabled.
21
Filter and Firewall Setup
Use this menu to set up filters and firewall to provide security, etc.
22
SNMP Configuration
Use this menu to set up SNMP related parameters.
23
System Security
Use this menu to change your password and set up wireless security.
24
System Maintenance
This menu provides system status, diagnostics, software upload, etc.
26
Schedule Setup
Use this menu to schedule outgoing calls.
Introducing the SMT
17-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 17-2 Main Menu Summary
#
99
17-6
MENU TITLE
Exit
DESCRIPTION
Use this to exit from SMT and return to a blank screen.
Introducing the SMT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 18
General and WAN Setup
The chapter shows you the information on general setup and how to configure the WAN.
18.1 General Setup
Menu 1 – General Setup contains administrative and system-related information (shown next). The
System Name field is for identification purposes. However, because some ISPs check this name you should
enter your computer's "Computer Name".
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. If you leave this blank,
the domain name obtained by DHCP from the ISP is used. While you must enter the host name (System
Name) on each individual computer, the domain name can be assigned from the ZyAIR via DHCP.
18.1.1 Dynamic DNS
To use this service, you must register with the Dynamic DNS service provider. The Dynamic DNS service
provider will give you a password or key. The ZyAIR supports www.dyndns.org. You can apply to this
service provider for Dynamic DNS service.
DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the same IP
address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use, for example,
www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
18.1.2 Procedure To Configure Menu 1
Step 1.
Enter 1 in the Main Menu to open Menu 1 – General Setup as shown next.
General and WAN Setup
18-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name=
Domain Name= zyxel.com.tw
First System DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Second System DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Third System DNS Server= None
IP Address= N/A
Edit Dynamic DNS= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 18-1 Menu 1 General Setup
Step 2.
Fill in the required fields. Refer to the table shown next for more information about these fields.
Table 18-1 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name
can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not
allowed, but dashes “-” and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
Enter the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field
blank, the ISP may assign a domain name via DHCP. You can go to
menu 24.8 and type "sys domainname" to see the current domain
name used by your gateway.
ZyAIR
zyxel.com.tw
If you want to clear this field just press the [SPACE BAR]. The domain
name entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned domain
name.
First System DNS
Server
Press [SPACE BAR] to select From ISP, User Defined or None and
press [ENTER].
From ISP
Second System
DNS Server
Third System DNS
Server
IP Address Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. This field is available
when you select User-Defined in the field above.
18-2
N/A
General and WAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 18-1 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
Edit Dynamic DNS
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to configure
Menu 1.1 – Configure Dynamic DNS (discussed next).
No
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
18.1.3 Procedure to Configure Dynamic DNS
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
Step 1.
To configure Dynamic DNS, go to Menu 1 – General Setup and select Yes in the Edit
Dynamic DNS field. Press [ENTER] to display Menu 1.1– Configure Dynamic DNS as
shown next.
Menu 1.1 - Configure Dynamic DNS
Service Provider= WWW.DynDNS.ORG
Active= Yes
DDNSType= DynamicDNS
Host Name 1=
Host Name 2=
Host Name 3=
Username=
Password= ********
Enable Wildcard Option= Yes
Enable Off Line Option= N/A
IP Address Update Policy:
DDNS Server Auto Detect IP Address= Yes
Use Specified IP Address= N/A
Use IP Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 18-2 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 18-2 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Service Provider This is the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
General and WAN Setup
EXAMPLE
WWW.DynDNS.ORG
(default)
18-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 18-2 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to make
dynamic DNS active.
Yes
DDNS Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select DynamicDNS if
you have a dynamic IP address(es). Select StaticDNS if you have a
static IP address(s).
DynamicDNS
(default)
Select CustomDNS to have dyns.org provide DNS service for a
domain name that you already have from a source other than
dyndns.org.
Host1-3
Enter your host name(s) in the fields provided. You can specify up to
two host names separated by a comma in each field.
USER
Enter your user name.
Password
Enter the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard Your ZyAIR supports DYNDNS wildcard. Press [SPACE BAR] and
then [ENTER] to select Yes or No This field is N/A when you choose
Option
DDNS client as your service provider.
Enable Off Line
Option
This field is only available when CustomDNS is selected in the
DDNS Type field. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select
Yes. When Yes is selected, traffic is redirected to a URL that you
have previously specified (see www.dyndns.org for details).
me.dyndns.org
No
Yes
IP Address Update Policy:
You can select Yes in either the Use Server Detected IP field (recommended) or the Use Specified IP
Address field, but not both.
With the Use Server Detected IP and Use Specified IP Address fields both set to No, the DDNS server
automatically updates the IP address of the host name(s) with the ZyAIR’s WAN IP address.
DDNS does not work with a private IP address. When both fields are set to No, the ZyAIR must have a public
WAN IP address in order for DDNS to work.
DDNS Server
Auto Detect IP
Address
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to have
the DDNS server automatically update the IP address of the host
name(s) with the public IP address that the ZyAIR uses or is behind.
Yes
You can set this field to Yes whether the IP address is public or
private, static or dynamic.
18-4
General and WAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 18-2 Menu 1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Use Specified IP Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and then press [ENTER] to
Address
update the IP address of the host name(s) to the IP address
specified below.
EXAMPLE
No
Only select Yes if the ZyAIR uses or is behind a static public IP
address.
Use IP Address
Enter the static public IP address if you select Yes in the Use
Specified IP Address field.
N/A
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
18.2 WAN Setup
The MAC address field allows users to configure the WAN port's MAC address by either using the factory
default or cloning the MAC address from a computer on your LAN. Once it is successfully configured, the
address will be copied to the rom file (ZyNOS configuration file). It will not change unless you change the
setting or upload a different rom file.
ZyXEL recommends you clone the MAC address from a workstation on your LAN
even if your ISP does not require MAC address authentication.
From the main menu, enter 2 to display Menu 2-WAN Setup screen as shown.
Menu 2 - WAN Setup
MAC Address:
Assigned By= Factory default
IP Address= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 18-3 Menu 2 WAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 18-3 Menu 2 WAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
MAC Address
General and WAN Setup
18-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 18-3 Menu 2 WAN Setup
FIELD
Assigned By
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Factory default and press [ENTER] to
use the factory assigned MAC address.
Factory default
Select IP address attached on LAN and enter the IP address in the
IP Address field below to clone the MAC address of the computer
on the Ethernet.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the computer whose MAC address you are
cloning. This field is available if you select IP address attached on
LAN in the Assigned By field.
N/A
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
18-6
General and WAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 19
LAN Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure the LAN on your ZyAIR..
19.1 LAN Setup
This section describes how to configure the Ethernet using Menu 3 – LAN Setup. From the main menu,
enter 3 to display menu 3.
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
1. LAN Port Filter Setup
2. TCP/IP and DHCP Setup
5. Wireless LAN Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 19-1 Menu 3 LAN Setup
19.1.1 General Ethernet Port Filter Setup
This menu allows you to specify filter set(s) that you wish to apply to the Ethernet traffic. You seldom
need to filter Ethernet traffic; however, the filter sets may be useful to block certain packets, reduce traffic
and prevent security breaches.
Menu 3.1 - LAN Port Filter Setup
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 19-2 Menu 3.1 LAN Port Filter Setup
LAN Setup
19-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
If you need to define filters, please read the Filter Set Configuration chapter first, then return to this menu
to define the filter sets.
19.2 TCP/IP Ethernet and DHCP Setup
Use menu 3.2 to configure your ZyAIR for TCP/IP.
To edit menu 3.2, enter 3 from the main menu to display Menu 3-Ethernet Setup. When menu 3 appears,
press 2 and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2-TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup, as shown next:
First address in
the IP pool
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
IP addresses
of the DNS
servers
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
First DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Second DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Third DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
DHCP Server Address= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
This is the IP
address of the
ZyAIR.
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
Edit IP Alias= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Size of the IP
pool
Figure 19-3 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Follow the instructions in the following table on how to configure the DHCP fields.
19-2
LAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 19-1 Menu 3.2 DHCP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
If set to Server, your ZyAIR can assign IP addresses, an IP default
gateway and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other
systems that support the DHCP client.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the ZyAIR acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays
DHCP requests and responses between the remote server and the
clients. Enter the IP address of the actual, remote DHCP server in the
Remote DHCP Server in this case.
DHCP
EXAMPLE
Server
(default)
When DHCP is used, the following items need to be set:
Starting Address This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP
address pool.
192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool This field specifies the size or count of the IP address pool.
First DNS Server Press [SPACE BAR] to select From ISP, User Defined, DNS Relay
or None and press [ENTER].
Second DNS Server
The DNS servers are passed to the DHCP clients along with the IP
Third DNS Server address and the subnet mask.
IP Address Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. This field is available
when you select User-Defined in the field above.
32
From ISP
N/A
DHCP Server If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above then enter the IP address
Address of the actual remote DHCP server here.
Follow the instructions in the following table to configure TCP/IP parameters for the Ethernet port.
Table 19-2 Menu3.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
TCP/IP Setup
IP Address Enter the (LAN) IP address of your ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask Your ZyAIR will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the
IP address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting,
use the subnet mask computed by the ZyAIR.
RIP Direction Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP direction. Choices are Both, In
Only, Out Only or None.
LAN Setup
192.168.1.1
255.255.255.0
Both
19-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 19-2 Menu3.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Version Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP version. Choices are RIP-1,
RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
Multicast IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a session-layer protocol
used to establish membership in a Multicast group. The ZyAIR supports
both IGMP version 1(IGMP-v1) and version 2 (IGMP-v2). Press the
[SPACE BAR] to enable IP Multicasting or select None to disable it.
Edit IP Alias The ZyAIR supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical
Ethernet interface with the ZyAIR itself as the gateway for each LAN
network.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to go to menu
3.2.1.
EXAMPLE
RIP-1
None
No
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
19.3 IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the same Ethernet
interface. The ZyAIR supports three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet interface with
the ZyAIR itself as the gateway for each LAN network.
Figure 19-4 Physical Network
Figure 19-5 Partitioned Logical Networks
Use menu 3.2.1 to configure IP Alias on your ZyAIR.
19-4
LAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
19.3.1 IP Alias Setup
Use menu 3.2 to configure the first network. Move the cursor to Edit IP Alias field and press
[SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to configure the second and third network.
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
DHCP= Server
Client IP Pool:
Starting Address= 192.168.1.33
Size of Client IP Pool= 32
First DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Second DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
Third DNS Server= From ISP
IP Address= N/A
DHCP Server Address= N/A
TCP/IP Setup:
IP Address= 192.168.1.1
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
RIP Direction= Both
Version= RIP-1
Multicast= None
Edit IP Alias= Yes
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 19-6 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP and DHCP Ethernet Setup
Press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2.1-IP Alias Setup, as shown next.
Menu 3.2.1 - IP Alias Setup
IP Alias 1= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
IP Alias 2= No
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
RIP Direction= N/A
Version= N/A
Incoming protocol filters=
Outgoing protocol filters=
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 19-7 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
Follow the instructions in the table below to configure IP Alias parameters.
LAN Setup
19-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 19-3 Menu 3.2.1 IP Alias Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias
Choose Yes to configure the LAN network for the ZyAIR.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask Your ZyAIR will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the
IP address that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting,
use the subnet mask computed by the ZyAIR
EXAMPLE
Yes
192.168.1.1
255.255.255.0
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP direction. Choices are None,
Both, In Only or Out Only.
None
Version
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the RIP version. Choices are RIP-1,
RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1
Incoming
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the incoming traffic between
Protocol Filters this node and the ZyAIR.
Outgoing
Enter the filter set(s) you wish to apply to the outgoing traffic between
Protocol Filters this node and the ZyAIR.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
19.4 Wireless LAN Setup
Use menu 3.5 to set up your ZyAIR as the wireless access point. To edit menu 3.5, enter 3 from the main
menu to display Menu 3 – LAN Setup. When menu 3 appears, press 5 and then press [ENTER] to display
Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup as shown next.
19-6
LAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
ESSID= Wireless
Hide ESSID= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
WEP Encryption= Disable
Default Key= N/A
Key1= N/A
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Key4= N/A
Authen. Method= N/A
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Edit Roaming Configuration= No
Breathing LED= Yes
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 19-8 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 19-4 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXMAPLE
Wireless
ESSID
The ESSID (Extended Service Set IDentity) identifies the AP to which the
wireless stations associate. Wireless stations associating to the AP must
have the same ESSID. Enter a descriptive name of up to 32 printable 7bit ASCII characters.
Hide ESSID
Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes to hide the ESSID in the outgoing
data frame so an intruder cannot obtain the ESSID through passive
scanning.
Channel ID
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a channel. This allows you to set the
operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
RTS Threshold
Setting this attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a
value between 0 and 2432.
2432
Frag. Threshold
This is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value
between 256 and 2432.
2432
WEP Encryption Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access
points without any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
LAN Setup
No
CH01
2412MHz
Disable
19-7
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 19-4 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Default Key
Enter the key number (1 to 4) in this field. Only one key can be enabled
at any one time. This key must be the same on the ZyAIR and the
wireless stations to communicate.
Key 1 to Key 4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyAIR and the
wireless stations must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
EXMAPLE
1
0x12345abcde
If you chose 64-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter any 5
ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 13
ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F").
Enter “0x” before the key to denote a hexadecimal
key. Don’t enter “0x” before the key to denote a
ASCII key.
Authen. Method
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Auto, Open System Only or Shared Key
Only and press [ENTER].
Auto
This field is N/A if WEP is not activated.
If WEP encryption is activated, the default setting is Auto.
Edit MAC
Address Filter
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu
3.5.1 - WLAN MAC Address Filter.
Edit Roaming
Configuration
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to go to Menu
3.5.2 - Roaming Configuration.
Breathing LED
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No and press [ENTER].
Preamble
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a preamble type. Choices are Long, Short
and Auto. The default setting is Auto.
Yes
See the section on preamble for more information.
19-8
LAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 19-4 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXMAPLE
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyAIR.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyAIR.
Select Mixed to allow either IEEE802.11b or IEEE802.11g compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyAIR. The transmission rate of your
ZyAIR might be reduced. This is the default setting.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
19.4.1 Configuring MAC Address Filter
Your ZyAIR checks the MAC address of the wireless station device against a list of allowed or denied
MAC addresses. However, intruders could fake allowed MAC addresses so MAC-based authentication is
less secure than EAP authentication.
Follow the steps below to create the MAC address table on your ZyAIR.
Step 1.
From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
Step 2.
Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
ESSID= Wireless
Hide ESSID= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
WEP Encryption= Disable
Default Key= N/A
Key1= N/A
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Key4= N/A
Authen. Method= N/A
Edit MAC Address Filter= Yes
Edit Roaming Configuration= No
Breathing LED= Yes
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 19-9 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
LAN Setup
19-9
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Step 3.
In the Edit MAC Address Filtering field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER]. Menu 3.5.1 – WLAN MAC Address Filter displays as shown next.
Menu 3.5.1 - WLAN MAC Address Filter
Active= No
Filter Action= Allowed Association
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------1=
00:00:00:00:00:00
13=
00:00:00:00:00:00
25=
00:00:00:00:00:00
2=
00:00:00:00:00:00
14=
00:00:00:00:00:00
26=
00:00:00:00:00:00
3=
00:00:00:00:00:00
15=
00:00:00:00:00:00
27=
00:00:00:00:00:00
4=
00:00:00:00:00:00
16=
00:00:00:00:00:00
28=
00:00:00:00:00:00
5=
00:00:00:00:00:00
17=
00:00:00:00:00:00
29=
00:00:00:00:00:00
6=
00:00:00:00:00:00
18=
00:00:00:00:00:00
30=
00:00:00:00:00:00
7=
00:00:00:00:00:00
19=
00:00:00:00:00:00
31=
00:00:00:00:00:00
8=
00:00:00:00:00:00
20=
00:00:00:00:00:00
32=
00:00:00:00:00:00
9=
00:00:00:00:00:00
21=
00:00:00:00:00:00
10=
00:00:00:00:00:00
22=
00:00:00:00:00:00
11=
00:00:00:00:00:00
23=
00:00:00:00:00:00
12=
00:00:00:00:00:00
24=
00:00:00:00:00:00
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 19-10 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 19-5 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
To enable MAC address filtering, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER].
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter table.
To deny access to the ZyAIR, press [SPACE BAR] to select Deny Association and press
[ENTER]. MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to access the router.
The default action, Allowed Association, permits association with the ZyAIR. MAC
addresses not listed will be denied access to the router.
MAC Address Filter
1..32 Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the client computers that are
allowed or denied access to the ZyAIR in these address fields.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
19-10
LAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
19.4.2 Configuring Roaming on the ZyAIR
Enable the roaming feature if you have two or more ZyAIRs on the same subnet. Follow the steps below to
allow roaming on your ZyAIR.
Step 1.
From the main menu, enter 3 to display Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
Step 2.
Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
ESSID= Wireless
Hide ESSID= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
WEP Encryption= Disable
Default Key= N/A
Key1= N/A
Key2= N/A
Key3= N/A
Key4= N/A
Authen. Method= N/A
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Edit Roaming Configuration= Yes
Breathing LED= Yes
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 19-11 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Step 3.
Move the cursor to the Edit Roaming Configuration field. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes
and then press [ENTER]. Menu 3.5.2 – Roaming Configuration displays as shown next.
Menu 3.5.2 - Roaming Configuration
Active= Yes
Port #= 16290
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 19-12 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 19-6 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration
FIELD
Active
LAN Setup
DESCRIPTION
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to enable roaming on the ZyAIR if you
have two or more ZyAIRs on the same subnet.
19-11
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 19-6 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration
FIELD
Port #
DESCRIPTION
Enter the port number to communicate roaming information between access points. The
port number must be the same on all access points. The default is 16290. Make sure this
port is not used by other services.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
19-12
LAN Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 20
Internet Access
This chapter describes how to configure the ZyAIR for Internet Access.
20.1 Internet Access Configuration
Menu 4 allows you to enter the Internet Access information in one screen. Menu 4 is actually a simplified
setup for one of the remote nodes that you can access in menu 11. Before you configure your ZyAIR for
Internet access, you need to collect your Internet account information from your ISP and telephone
company.
Use the following table to record your Internet Account Information. Note that if you are using PPP or
PPPoE encapsulation, then the only ISP information you need is a login name and password.
Table 20-1 Internet Account Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Enter the name of the ZyAIR (optional).
Service Name
(PPPoE)
Enter the PPPoE service name if the ISP
supplies one. Enter “any” if the ISP does not
assign you one.
Encapsulation
Select Ethernet, PPPoE or PPTP
My Login
Enter the login name assigned by your ISP (for
PPP/PPPoE only).
My Password
Enter the password associated with your ISP
assigned My Login (for PPP/PPPoE only).
Idle Timeout
(PPPoE or
PPP)
Enter the time lapse, in seconds, before you
automatically disconnect from the PPPoE or PPP
server.
IP Address
Enter if your IP address is not dynamically
assigned.
Network
Address
Translation
Select Full Feature, SUA Only or None.
Internet Access
YOUR INFORMATION
20-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 20-1 Internet Account Information
FIELD
DNS Server
Address
Assignment
DESCRIPTION
YOUR INFORMATION
Primary DNS server
Secondary DNS server
Enter when using RFC 1483 Encapsulation or a
static IP address.
20.2 Internet Access Setup
From the main menu, type 4 to display Menu 4 – Internet Access Setup, as shown next.
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= ChangeMe
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 20-1 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
The following table contains instructions on how to configure your ZyAIR for Internet access.
Table 20-2 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
ISP’s Name
Enter the name of your Internet Service Provider. This information is
for identification purposes only.
ChangeMe
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the method of encapsulation used
by your ISP. Choices are PPPoE, PPP or Ethernet.
20-2
Ethernet
Internet Access
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 20-2 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
FIELD
Service Type
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
This field is available if you select the Ethernet encapsulation.
Press [SPACE BAR] to select the service type then press [ENTER].
Standard
Choose a RoadRunner flavor if your ISP is using Time Warner's
RoadRunner; otherwise choose Standard. The User Name,
Password and Login Server fields are not applicable (N/A) for the
latter.
Choose from Standard, Telstra (RoadRunner Telstra or BigPond
authentication method), RR-Manager (RoadRunner Manager
authentication method), RR-Toshiba (RoadRunner Toshiba
authentication method) or Telia Login.
My Login
My Password
Retype to Confirm
Login Server
Relogin Every
(min)
Idle Timeout
IP Address
Assignment
IP Address
IP Subnet Mask
Gateway IP
Address
Network Address
Translation
Internet Access
Configure the My Login and My Password fields for PPP and
PPPoE encapsulation only. Enter the login name exactly as your
ISP gives you.
N/A
Enter the password associated with the login name above.
N/A
Type your password again for confirmation.
Enter the IP address of the login server in dotted decimal notation.
10.11.12.13
The Telia server logs the ZyAIR out if the ZyAIR does not log in
periodically. Type the number of minutes from 1 to 59 (30
recommended) for the ZyAIR to wait between logins
Specify the time in seconds that elapses before the ZyAIR
automatically disconnects from the PPPoE or PPTP server.
100
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Static or
Dynamic address assignment.
Static
Enter the IP address supplied by your ISP if applicable.
10.11.12.20
Your ZyAIR will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on
the IP address that you entered. Unless you are implementing
subnetting, use the subnet mask computed by the ZyAIR.
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate
neighbor of your ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the
destination. On the LAN, the gateway must be a router on the same
segment as your ZyAIR.
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select None, SUA Only
or Full Feature. Please see the NAT Chapter for more details.
SUA Only
20-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 20-2 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
If all your settings are correct your ZyAIR should connect automatically to the Internet. If the connection
fails, note the error message that you receive on the screen and take the appropriate troubleshooting steps.
Refer to the System Security chapter for the wireless LAN security setup.
20-4
Internet Access
SMT Advanced Applications Menus
Part IX:
SMT ADVANCED APPLICATION MENUS
This part shows how to configure Remote Node, Static Routing, Dial-in User and NAT.
IX
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 21
Remote Node Configuration
This chapter shows you how to set up remote nodes on the WAN side.
A remote node is required for placing calls to a remote gateway. A remote node represents both the remote
gateway and the network behind it across a WAN connection. When you use menu 4 to set up Internet
access, you are configuring one of the remote nodes.
21.1 Remote Node Profile
Use Menu 11-Remote Node Profile to setup the remote node.
From the main menu, enter 11 to display Menu 11-Remote Node Profile as shown in Figure 21-1.
21.1.1 Encapsulation Scenarios
For Internet access you should use the encapsulation used by your ISP.
Nailed-Up Connection (PPPoE/PPTP)
A nailed-up connection is a dial-up line where the connection is always up regardless of traffic demand.
The ZyAIR does two things when you specify a nailed-up connection. The first is that idle timeout is
disabled. The second is that the ZyAIR will try to bring up the connection when turned on and whenever the
connection is down. A nailed-up connection can be very expensive for obvious reasons.
Do not specify a nailed-up connection unless your ISP offers flat-rate service or you need a constant
connection and the cost is of no concern.
Remote Node Configuration
21-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ChangeMe
Active= Yes
Route= IP
Encapsulation= PPTP
Service Type= Standard
Service Name= N/A
Outgoing:
My Login=
My Password= ********
Retype to Confirm= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
PPTP:
My IP Addr=
My IP Mask=
Server IP Addr=
Connection ID/Name=
Edit IP= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules=
Nailed-Up Connection= No
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 21-1 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
In Menu 11.1 – Remote Node Profile, fill in the fields as described in the following table.
Table 21-1 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Rem Node Name
Type a unique, descriptive name of up to eight characters for this
node.
ChangeMe
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select No to deactivate
this node. Inactive nodes are displayed with a minus sign “–“ in
SMT menu 11.
Yes
(default)
Encapsulation
Press [SPACE BAR] to select from Ethernet, PPPoE or PPTP and
press [ENTER].
Ethernet
Service Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the service type.
Standard
Choose a RoadRunner flavor if your ISP is using Time Warner's
RoadRunner; otherwise choose Standard. The User Name,
Password and Login Server IP Address fields are not applicable
(N/A) for the latter.
Choose from Standard, Telstra (RoadRunner Telstra or BigPond
authentication method), RR-Manager (RoadRunner Manager
authentication method), RR-Toshiba (RoadRunner Toshiba
authentication method) or Telia Login.
21-2
Remote Node Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 21-1 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Service Name
When using PPPoE encapsulation, type the name of your PPPoE
service here.
EXAMPLE
N/A
Outgoing:
My Login
My Password
Type the login name assigned by your ISP when the ZyAIR calls
this remote node.
Type the password assigned by your ISP when the ZyAIR calls this
remote node.
Retype to Confirm
Type your password again to make sure that you have entered is
correct.
Authen
This field sets the authentication protocol used for outgoing calls.
Options for this field are:
PAP
CHAP/PAP – Your ZyAIR will accept either CHAP or PAP when
requested by this remote node.
CHAP – accept CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol) only.
PAP – accept PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) only.
PPTP is available only for PPTP encapsulation
PPTP:
My IP Addr
Type the (static) IP address assigned to you by your ISP in dotted
decimal notation.
My IP Mask
Type the subnet mask of the PPTP server.
Server IP Addr
Type the IP address of the PPTP server in dotted decimal notation.
Connection
ID/Name
Enter the connection ID or connection name in this field. It must
follow the "c:id" and "n:name" format. For example, C:12 or N:My
ISP.
This field is optional and depends on the requirements of your DSL
modem.
10.11.12.13
Route
This field determines the protocol used in routing. Options are IP
and None.
IP
(default)
Edit IP
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display
Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options.
No
Telco Option:
Telco Option is available only for PPTP or PPPoE encapsulation.
Remote Node Configuration
21-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 21-1 Menu 11.1 Remote Node Profile
FIELD
Allocated
Budget (min)
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
This sets a ceiling for outgoing call time for this remote node. The
default for this field is 0 meaning no budget control.
0
(default)
Period (hr)
This field is the time period that the budget should be reset. For
example, if we are allowed to call this remote node for a maximum
of 10 minutes every hour, then the Allocated Budget is (10
minutes) and the Period (hr) is 1 (hour).
0
(default)
Schedules
This field is only applicable for PPPoE and PPPTP encapsulation.
You can apply up to four schedule sets here. For more details
please refer to the Call Schedule Setup chapter.
Nailed-up
Connection
This field is only applicable for PPPoE and PPTP encapsulation.
This field specifies if you want to make the connection to this
remote node a nailed-up connection. More details are given earlier
in this section.
Session Options
Edit Filter Sets
Idle Timeout (sec)
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to open
menu 11.5 to edit the filter sets. See the Remote Node Filter
section for more details.
No
(default)
Type the number of seconds (0-9999) that can elapse when the
ZyAIR is idle (there is no traffic going to the remote node), before
the ZyAIR automatically disconnects the remote node. 0 means
that the session will not timeout.
100
(default)
This field is available only for PPTP or PPPoE encapsulations.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
21.1.2 Outgoing Authentication Protocol
For obvious reasons, you should employ the strongest authentication protocol possible. However, some
vendors’ implementation includes specific authentication protocol in the user profile. It will disconnect if
the negotiated protocol is different from that in the user profile, even when the negotiated protocol is
stronger than specified. If the peer disconnects right after a successful authentication, make sure that you
specify the correct authentication protocol when connecting to such an implementation.
21-4
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
21.1.3 Remote Node Setup
For the TCP/IP parameters, perform the following steps to edit Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer
Options.
Move the cursor to the Edit IP field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes, then press [ENTER] to display
Menu 11.3 – Remote Node Network Layer Options shown below.
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Static
Rem IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= Full Feature
Metric= 1
Private= N/A
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 21-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
The next table explains the fields in this menu.
Table 21-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Dynamic if the remote
node is using a dynamically assigned IP address or Static if it is using a
static (fixed) IP address. You will only be able to configure this in the
ISP node (also the one you configure in menu 4), all other nodes are
set to Static.
Static
Rem IP Addr
This is the IP address you entered in the previous menu.
Rem Subnet
Mask
Type the subnet mask assigned to the remote node.
My WAN Addr
Some implementations, especially UNIX derivatives, require separate
IP network numbers for the WAN and LAN links and each end to have a
unique address within the WAN network number. In that case, type the
IP address assigned to the WAN port of your ZyAIR.
Remote Node Configuration
21-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 21-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
FIELD
Network
Address
Translation
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Full Feature if you
have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your ZyAIR.
Full
Feature
Select SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your
ZyAIR. The SMT uses Address Mapping Set 255 (menu 15.1 - see
section 23.2.1).
Select None to disable NAT.
Metric
The metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes.
IP routing uses hop count as the cost measurement, with a minimum of
1 for directly connected networks. Type a number that approximates the
cost for this link. The number need not be precise, but it must be
between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Private
This determines if the ZyAIR will include the route to this remote node
in its RIP broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and not
included in RIP broadcast. If No, the route to this remote node will be
propagated to other hosts through RIP broadcasts.
RIP Direction
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP Direction.
Options are Both, In Only, Out Only or None.
None
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the RIP version.
Options are RIP-1, RIP-2B or RIP-2M.
RIP-1
IGMP-v1 sets IGMP to version 1, IGMP-v2 sets IGMP to version 2 and
None disables IGMP.
None
Version
Multicast
2
No
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
21.2 Remote Node Filter
Move the cursor to the Edit Filter Sets field in menu 11.1, then press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes. Press
[ENTER] to display Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter.
Use Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter to specify the filter set(s) to apply to the incoming and outgoing
traffic between this remote node and the ZyAIR and also to prevent certain packets from triggering calls.
You can specify up to 4 filter sets separated by comma, for example, 1, 5, 9, 12, in each filter field.
Note that spaces are accepted in this field.
21-6
Remote Node Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 1, 2, 3
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 21-3 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (Ethernet Encapsulation )
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 1
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 21-4 Menu 11.5 Remote Node Filter (PPTP or PPPoE Encapsulation)
21.2.1 IP Static Route Setup
Static routes tell the ZyAIR routing information that it cannot learn automatically through other means. This
can arise in cases where RIP is disabled on the LAN or a remote network is beyond the one that is directly
connected to a remote node.
Each remote node specifies only the network to which the gateway is directly connected and the ZyAIR has
no knowledge of the networks beyond. For instance, the ZyAIR knows about network N2 in the following
figure through remote node Router 1. However, the ZyAIR is unable to route a packet to network N3
because it does not know that there is a route through remote node Router 1 (via Router 2). The static routes
allow you to tell the ZyAIR about the networks beyond the remote nodes.
Remote Node Configuration
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Configuration
Step 1.
To configure an IP static route, use Menu 12 - Static Route Setup as shwon next.
Menu 12 - IP Static Route Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter selection number:
Figure 21-5 Menu 12.1 IP Static Route Setup
Step 2.
Now, type the route number of a static route you want to configure.
Menu 12.1 - Edit IP Static Route
Route #: 1
Route Name= ?
Active= No
Destination IP Address= ?
IP Subnet Mask= ?
Gateway IP Address= ?
Metric= 2
Private= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 21-6 Menu 12.1 Edit IP Static Route
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 21-3 Menu 12.1 Edit IP Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Route #
This is the index number of the static route that you chose in menu 12.1.
Route Name
Type a descriptive name for this route. This is for identification purpose only.
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
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Remote Node Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 21-3 Menu 12.1 Edit IP Static Route
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is
always based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use a
subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network number to
be identical to the host ID.
IP Subnet
Mask
Type the subnet mask for this destination. Follow the discussion on IP Subnet Mask in
this manual.
Gateway IP
Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN, the gateway must be a
router on the same segment as your ZyAIR; over WAN, the gateway must be the IP
address of one of the remote nodes.
Metric
Metric represents the “cost” of transmission for routing purposes. IP routing uses hop
count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of 1 for directly connected networks.
Type a number that approximates the cost for this link. The number need not be precise,
but it must be between 1 and 15. In practice, 2 or 3 is usually a good number.
Private
This parameter determines if the ZyAIR will include the route to this remote node in its
RIP broadcasts. If set to Yes, this route is kept private and is not included in RIP
broadcasts. If No, the route to this remote node will be propagated to other hosts
through RIP broadcasts.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
Remote Node Configuration
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 22
Dial-in User Setup
This chapter shows you how to create user accounts on the ZyAIR.
22.1 Dial-in User Setup
By storing user profiles locally, your ZyAIR is able to authenticate wireless users without interacting with a
network RADIUS server.
Follow the steps below to set up user profiles on your ZyAIR.
Step 1.
From the main menu, enter 14 to display Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup.
Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 22-1 Menu 14 Dial-in User Setup
Step 2.
Type a number and press [ENTER] to edit the user profile.
Menu 14.1 - Edit Dial-in User
User Name= test
Active= Yes
Password= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 22-2 Menu 14.1 Edit Dial-in User
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Dial-in User Setup
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 22-1 Menu 14.1- Edit Dial-in User
FIELD
User Name
DESCRIPTION
Enter a username up to 31 alphanumeric characters long for this user profile.
This field is case sensitive.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable the user profile.
Password
Enter a password up to 31 characters long for this user profile.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
22-2
Dial-in User Setup
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 23
Network Address Translation (NAT)
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the ZyAIR.
23.1 Introduction
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host in a
packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one network to a different IP
address known within another network.
23.1.1 Applying NAT
You apply NAT via menus 4 or 11.3 as displayed next. The next figure shows you how to apply NAT for
Internet access in menu 4. Enter 4 from the main menu to go to Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup.
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= ChangeMe
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= Full Feature
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-1 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
The following figure shows how you apply NAT to the remote node in menu 11.1.
Step 1.
Enter 11 from the main menu.
Step 2.
Move the cursor to the Edit IP field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to
bring up Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options.
NAT
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Addr= N/A
Network Address Translation= Full Feature
Metric= 1
Private= N/A
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 23-2 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
The following table describes the options for Network Address Translation.
Table 23-1 Applying NAT in Menus 4 & 11.3
FIELD
Network
Address
Mapping
DESCRIPTION
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Full Feature if you
have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your ZyAIR.
EXAMPLE
Full Feature
Select None to disable NAT.
When you select SUA Only, the SMT uses Address Mapping Set 255
(menu 15.1 - see Section 23.2.1). Choose SUA Only if you have just
one public WAN IP address for your ZyAIR.
23.2 NAT Setup
Use the Address Mapping Sets menus and submenus to create the mapping table used to assign global
addresses to computers on the LAN. Set 255 is used for SUA. When you select Full Feature in menu 4 or
11.3, the SMT will use Set 1, which supports all mapping. When you select SUA Only, the SMT will use
the pre-configured Set 255 (read only).
The Server Set is a list of LAN side servers mapped to external ports. To use this set, a server rule must be
set up inside the NAT Address Mapping set. Please see Section 23.3 for further information on these menus.
To configure NAT, enter 15 from the main menu to bring up the following screen.
23-2
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 15 – NAT Setup
1. Address Mapping Sets
2. Port Forwarding Setup
3. Trigger Port Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 23-3 Menu 15 NAT Setup
23.2.1 Address Mapping Sets
Enter 1 to bring up Menu 15.1 – Address Mapping Sets.
Menu 15.1 - Address Mapping Sets
1. NAT_SET
255. SUA (read only)
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 23-4 Menu 15.1 Address Mapping Sets
SUA Address Mapping Set
Enter 255 to display the next screen. The fields in this menu cannot be changed.
Menu 15.1.255 is read-only.
NAT
23-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= SUA
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
--------------0.0.0.0
Local End IP
--------------255.255.255.255
Global Start IP
--------------0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Global End IP
---------------
Type
-----M-1
Server
Figure 23-5 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules
The following table explains the fields in this menu.
Table 23-2 Menu 15.1.255 SUA Address Mapping Rules
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Set Name
This is the name of the set you selected in menu 15.1 or enter the
name of a new set you want to create.
Idx
This is the index or rule number.
Local Start IP
Local Start IP is the starting local IP address (ILA).
Local End IP
Local End IP is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all
local IPs, then the Start IP is 0.0.0.0 and the End IP is
255.255.255.255.
Global Start
IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic
IP, enter 0.0.0.0 as the Global Start IP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA).
Type
These are the mapping types. Server allows us to specify multiple
servers of different types behind NAT to this machine. See later for
some examples.
EXAMPLE
SUA
1
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.255
0.0.0.0
Server
Once you have finished configuring a rule in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to
Confirm…” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
23-4
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
User-Defined Address Mapping Sets
Now let’s look at option 1 in menu 15.1. Enter 1 to bring up this menu. We’ll just look at the differences
from the previous menu. Note the extra Action and Select Rule fields mean you can configure rules in this
screen. Note also that the “?” in the Set Name field means that this is a required field and you must enter a
name for the set.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= NAT_SET
Idx
--1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
---------------
Local End IP
---------------
Action= Edit
Global Start IP
---------------
Global End IP
---------------
Type
------
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-6 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules
The table below describes the fields for configuration in this menu.
Table 23-3 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules
FIELD
DESRIPTION
Set Name
Enter a name for this set of rules. This is a required field. If this field is left
blank, the entire set will be deleted.
Action
The default is Edit. Edit means you want to edit a selected rule (see
following field). Insert Before means to insert a rule before the rule selected.
The rules after the selected rule will then be moved down by one rule. Delete
means to delete the selected rule and then all the rules after the selected one
will be advanced one rule. None disables the Select Rule item.
Select
Rule
When you choose Edit, Insert Before or Delete in the previous field the
cursor jumps to this field to allow you to select the rule to apply the action in
question.
NAT
EXAMPLE
NAT_SET
Edit
1
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
You must press [ENTER] at the bottom of the screen to save the whole set. You
must do this again if you make any changes to the set – including deleting a rule.
No changes to the set take place until this action is taken.
An End IP address must be numerically greater than its corresponding IP Start address.
If the Set Name field is left blank, the entire set will be deleted.
23.2.2 Configuring Individual Rule
In Menu 15.1.1-Address Mapping Rules, select Edit in the Action field and then selecting a rule brings
up the following menu, Menu 15.1.1.1 - Address Mapping Rule in which you can edit an individual rule
and configure the Type, Local and Global Start/End IPs.
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start=
End = N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-7 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
The table below describes the fields for configuration in this menu.
Table 23-4 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select from a total of five types.
Server allows you to specify multiple servers of different types behind NAT
to this computer. See Section 23.4.3 for an example.
One-to-One
Local IP
Only local IP fields are N/A for server; Global IP fields MUST be set for
Server.
Start
23-6
This is the starting local IP address (ILA).
0.0.0.0
NAT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 23-4 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
FIELD
End
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
This is the ending local IP address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IPs, then
put the Start IP as 0.0.0.0 and the End IP as 255.255.255.255. This field is
N/A for One-to-One and Server types.
N/A
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). If you have a dynamic IP, enter
0.0.0.0 as the Global IP Start. Note that Global IP Start can be set to
0.0.0.0 only if the types are Many-to-One or Server.
0.0.0.0
Global IP
Start
End
Server
Mapping Set
This is the ending global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-toOne, Many-to-One and Server types.
N/A
Only available when Type is set to Server. Type a number from 1 to 10 to
choose a server set from menu 15.2.
Once you have finished configuring a rule in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to
Confirm…” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
Ordering Your Rules
Ordering your rules is important because the ZyAIR applies the rules in the order that you specify. When a
rule matches the current packet, the ZyAIR takes the corresponding action and the remaining rules are
ignored. If there are any empty rules before your new configured rule, your configured rule will be pushed
up by that number of empty rules. For example, if you have already configured rules 1 to 6 in your current
set and now you configure rule number 9. In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9.
Now if you delete rule 4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so as old rule 5 becomes rule 4, old rule 6
becomes rule 5 and old rule 7 becomes rule 6.
23.3 Port Forwarding Setup - NAT Server Sets
A NAT server set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or FTP, that you
can make visible to the outside world even though NAT makes your whole inside network appear as a
single machine to the outside world.
Use Menu 15 - NAT Setup to forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your local network.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local IP address of
the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web service is on port 80 and FTP on
port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can support more than one service
(for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to specify a range of port numbers.
NAT
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server. A service request that does
not have a server explicitly designated for it is forwarded to the default server. If the default is not defined,
the service request is simply discarded.
Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server
processes (such as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may
periodically check for servers and may suspend your account if it discovers any
active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your ISP.
The most often used port numbers are shown in the following table. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further
information about port numbers. Please also refer to the included disk for more examples and details on
NAT.
Table 23-5 Services & Port Numbers
SERVICES
PORT NUMBER
ECHO
7
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
21
Telnet
23
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
25
DNS (Domain Name System)
53
Finger
79
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol or WWW, Web)
80
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
110
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)
119
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
161
SNMP trap
162
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol)
1723
23.3.1 Configuring a Server behind NAT
Follow these steps to configure a server behind NAT:
Step 1.
Enter 15 in the main menu to go to Menu 15 - NAT Setup.
Step 2.
Enter 2 to display Menu 15.2 – Port Forwarding Setup as shown next.
23-8
NAT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 15.2 – NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
0.0.0.0
2.
0
0
0.0.0.0
3.
0
0
0.0.0.0
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-8 Menu 15.2 Port Forwarding Setup
Step 3.
Enter a port number in an unused Start Port No field. To forward only one port, enter it again
in the End Port No field. To specify a range of ports, enter the last port to be forwarded in the
End Port No field.
Step 4.
Enter the inside IP address of the server in the IP Address field. In the following figure, you
have a computer acting as an FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (ports 21, 23 and 25) at
192.168.1.33.
Step 5.
Press [ENTER] at the “Press ENTER to confirm …” prompt to save your configuration after
you define all the servers or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
23.4 General NAT Examples
23.4.1 Example 1: Internet Access Only
In the following Internet access example, you only need one rule where your ILAs (Inside Local addresses)
all map to one dynamic IGA (Inside Global Address) assigned by your ISP.
NAT
23-9
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Figure 23-9 NAT Example 1
Menu 4 - Internet Access Setup
ISP's Name= ChangeMe
Encapsulation= Ethernet
Service Type= Standard
My Login= N/A
My Password= N/A
Retype to Confirm= N/A
Login Server= N/A
Relogin Every (min)= N/A
IP Address Assignment= Dynamic
IP Address= N/A
IP Subnet Mask= N/A
Gateway IP Address= N/A
Network Address Translation= SUA Only
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-10 Menu 4 Internet Access Setup
From menu 4, choose the SUA Only option from the Network Address Translation field. This is the
Many-to-One mapping discussed in section 23.4. The SUA Only read-only option from the Network
Address Translation field in menus 4 and 11.3 is specifically pre-configured to handle this case.
23-10
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
23.4.2 Example 2: Internet Access with an Inside Server
Figure 23-11 NAT Example 2
In this case, you do exactly as above (use the convenient pre-configured SUA Only set) and then go to
menu 15.2 to specify the Inside Server behind the NAT as shown in the next figure.
Menu 15.2 - NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
192.168.1.10
2.
0
0
0.0.0.0
3.
0
0
0.0.0.0
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-12 Menu 15.2.1 NAT Server Setup
23.4.3 Example 3: Multiple Public IP Addresses With Inside Servers
In this example, there are 3 IGAs from our ISP. There are many departments but two have their own FTP
server. All departments share the same router. The example will reserve one IGA for each department with
NAT
23-11
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
an FTP server and all departments use the other IGA. Map the FTP servers to the first two IGAs and the
other LAN traffic to the remaining IGA. Map the third IGA to an inside web server and mail server. Four
rules need to be configured, two bi-directional and two uni-directional as follows.
Rule 1.
Map the first IGA to the first inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
Rule 2.
Map the second IGA to our second inside FTP server for FTP traffic in both directions (1 : 1
mapping, giving both local and global IP addresses).
Rule 3.
Map the other outgoing LAN traffic to IGA3 (Many : 1 mapping).
Rule 4.
You also map your third IGA to the web server and mail server on the LAN. Type Server
allows you to specify multiple servers, of different types, to other computers behind NAT on the
LAN.
The example situation looks somewhat like this:
Figure 23-13 NAT Example 3
Step 1.
23-12
In this case you need to configure Address Mapping Set 1 from Menu 15.1 - Address Mapping
Sets. Therefore you must choose the Full Feature option from the Network Address
Translation field (in menu 4 or menu 11.3) as shown in the finger below.
NAT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 11.3 - Remote Node Network Layer Options
IP Address Assignment= Static
Rem IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
Rem Subnet Mask= 0.0.0.0
My WAN Addr= 0.0.0.0
Network Address Translation= Full Feature
Metric= 1
Private= N/A
RIP Direction= None
Version= N/A
Multicast= None
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 23-14 Menu 11.3 Remote Node Network Layer Options
Step 2.
Then enter 15 from the main menu.
Step 3.
Enter 1 to configure the Address Mapping Sets.
Step 4.
Enter 1 to begin configuring this new set. Enter a Set Name, choose the Edit Action and then
enter 1 for the Select Rule field. Press [ENTER] to confirm.
Step 5.
Select Type as One-to-One (direct mapping for packets going both ways), and enter the local
Start IP as 192.168.1.10 (the IP address of FTP Server 1), the global Start IP as 10.132.50.1
(our first IGA). The following figure shows how to configure the first rule.
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= One-to-One
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = N/A
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-15 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Step 6.
NAT
Repeat the previous step for rules 2 to 4 as outlined above.
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Step 7.
When finished, menu 15.1.1 should look like as shown next.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= Eample3
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
--------------192.168.1.10
192.168.1.11
0.0.0.0
Local End IP
--------------255.255.255.255
Action= None
Global Start IP
--------------10.132.50.1
10.132.50.2
10.132.50.3
10.132.50.3
Global End IP
---------------
Type
-----1-1
1-1
M-1
Server
Select Rule= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-16 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules
Now configure the IGA3 to map to our web server and mail server on the LAN.
Step 1.
Enter 15 from the main menu.
Step 2.
Enter 2 to display Menu 15.2 – Port Forwarding Setup and configure it as shown.
Menu 15.2 – NAT Server Setup
Rule
Start Port No.
End Port No.
IP Address
--------------------------------------------------1.
Default
Default
0.0.0.0
2.
80
80
192.168.1.21
3.
25
25
192.168.1.20
4.
0
0
0.0.0.0
5.
0
0
0.0.0.0
6.
0
0
0.0.0.0
7.
0
0
0.0.0.0
8.
0
0
0.0.0.0
9.
0
0
0.0.0.0
10.
0
0
0.0.0.0
11.
0
0
0.0.0.0
12.
0
0
0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Example 3: Menu 15.2 Port Forwarding Setup
23-14
NAT
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
23.4.4 Example 4: NAT Unfriendly Application Programs
Some applications do not support NAT Mapping using TCP or UDP port address translation. In this case it
is better to use Many One-to-One mapping as port numbers do not change for Many One-to-One (and
One-to-One) NAT mapping types. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 23-17 NAT Example 4
Other applications such as some gaming programs are NAT unfriendly because
they embed addressing information in the data stream. These applications won’t
work through NAT even when using One-to-One and Many One-to-One mapping
types.
Follow the steps outlined in example 3 to configure these two menus as follows.
Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
Type= Many One-to-One
Local IP:
Start= 192.168.1.10
End = 192.168.1.12
Global IP:
Start= 10.132.50.1
End = 10.132.50.3
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-18 Menu 15.1.1.1 Address Mapping Rule
NAT
23-15
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
After you’ve configured your rule, you should be able to check the settings in menu 15.1.1 as shown next.
Menu 15.1.1 - Address Mapping Rules
Set Name= Example4
Idx
--1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Local Start IP
--------------192.168.1.10
Local End IP
--------------192.168.1.12
Action= Edit
Global Start IP
--------------10.132.50.1
Global End IP
--------------10.132.50.3
Type
-----M-1-1
Select Rule=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-19 Menu 15.1.1 Address Mapping Rules
23.5 Trigger Port Setup
The ZyAIR records the IP address of a LAN computer that requests a service that you have defined as a
“trigger port”. The response from the Internet can then be forwarded directly to the LAN computer. Trigger
ports are transient; they only exist while in use or are timed out. The following is a trigger port example.
Figure 23-20 Trigger Port Forwarding Process: Example
1. Jane requests a file from the Real Audio server (port 7070).
23-16
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
2. Port 7070 is a “trigger” port and causes the ZyAIR to record Jane’s computer IP address. The ZyAIR
associates Jane's computer IP address with the "incoming" port range of 6970-7170.
3. The Real Audio server responds using a port number ranging between 6970-7170.
4. The ZyAIR forwards the traffic to Jane’s computer IP address.
5. Only Jane can connect to the Real Audio server until the connection is closed or times out. The
ZyAIR times out in three minutes with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) or two hours with TCP/IP
(Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).
Two Points To Remember About Trigger Ports
1.
Trigger events only happen on outgoing data (from the ZyAIR to the WAN).
2.
Only one LAN computer can use a trigger port (range) at a time.
Enter 3 in menu 15 to display Menu 15.3 — Trigger Port Setup, shown next.
Menu 15.3 - Trigger Port Setup
Incoming
Trigger
Rule
Name
Start Port
End Port
Start Port
End Port
---------------------------------------------------------------------1.
0
0
0
0
2.
0
0
0
0
3.
0
0
0
0
4.
0
0
0
0
5.
0
0
0
0
6.
0
0
0
0
7.
0
0
0
0
8.
0
0
0
0
9.
0
0
0
0
10.
0
0
0
0
11.
0
0
0
0
12.
0
0
0
0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 23-21 Menu 15.3 Trigger Port Setup
The table below describes the fields for configuration in this menu.
Table 23-6 Menu 15.3 Trigger Port Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Rule
This is the rule index number.
Name
Enter a unique name for identification purposes. You may enter up to 15
characters in this field. All characters are permitted - including spaces.
NAT
EXAMPLE
1
Real Audio
23-17
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 23-6 Menu 15.3 Trigger Port Setup
FIELD
Incoming
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Incoming is a port (or a range of ports) that a server on the WAN uses when it sends out a
particular service. The ZyAIR forwards the traffic with this port (or range of ports) to the
wireless station on the LAN that requested the service.
Start Port
Enter a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
6970
End Port
Enter a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
7170
Trigger
The trigger port is a port (or a range of ports) that causes (or triggers) the ZyAIR to record the
IP address of the LAN computer that sent the traffic to a server on the WAN.
Start Port
Enter a port number or the starting port number in a range of port numbers.
7070
End Port
Enter a port number or the ending port number in a range of port numbers.
7070
Press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm...” to save your configuration, or press [ESC] at
any time to cancel.
23-18
NAT
SMT Advanced Management Menus
Part X:
SMT ADVANCED MANAGEMENT MENUS
This part discusses Filtering and Firewall setup, SNMP, System Security, System Information and
Diagnosis, Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance, System Maintenance and Information,
Call Scheduling and Remote Management.
X
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 24
Filter and Firewall Configuration
This chapter shows you how to create and apply filters and setup firewall.
24.1 About Filtering
Your ZyAIR uses filters to decide whether or not to allow passage of a data packet and/or to make a call.
There are two types of filter applications: data filtering and call filtering. Filters are subdivided into device
and protocol filters, which are discussed later.
Data filtering screens data to determine if the packet should be allowed to pass. Data filters are divided into
incoming and outgoing filters, depending on the direction of the packet relative to a port. Data filtering can
be applied on either the WAN side or the Ethernet side. Call filtering is used to determine if a packet should
be allowed to trigger a call.
Outgoing packets must undergo data filtering before they encounter call filtering. Call filters are divided
into two groups, the built-in call filters and user-defined call filters. Your ZyAIR has built-in call filters that
prevent administrative, for example, RIP packets from triggering calls. These filters are always enabled and
not accessible to you. Your ZyAIR applies the built-in filters first and then the user-defined call filters, if
applicable, as shown next.
Call Filtering
Outgoing
Packet
Data
Filtering
No
match
Match
No
match
Built-in
default
Call Filters
User-defined
Call Filters
(if applicable)
Match
Drop
packet
Drop packet
if line not up
No
match
Active Data
Initiate call
if line not up
Send packet
and reset
Idle Timer
Match
Drop packet
if line not up
Or
Or
Send packet
but do not reset
Idle Timer
Send packet
but do not reset
Idle Timer
Figure 24-1 Outgoing Packet Filtering Process
Filter and Firewall Configuration
24-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Two sets of factory filter rules have been configured in menu 21 to prevent NetBIOS traffic from triggering
calls. A summary of their filter rules is shown in the figures that follow.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow when executing a filter rule.
Start
Packet
intoFilter
Fetch First
Filter Set
Filter Set
Fetch Next
Filter Set
Fetch First
Filter Rule
Fetch Next
Filter Rule
Yes
Yes
Yes
Next Filter Set
Available?
No
Next filter
Rule
Available?
No
Active?
Yes
No
Check
Next
Rule
Execute
Filter Rule
Forward
Drop
Drop Packet
Accept Packet
Figure 24-2 Filter Rule Process
24-2
Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to block various types of packets. Because each filter
set can have up to six rules, you can have a maximum of 24 rules active for a single port.
For incoming packets, your ZyAIR applies data filters only. Packets are processed depending on whether a
match is found. The following sections describe how to configure filter sets.
The Filter Structure of the ZyAIR
A filter set consists of one or more filter rules. Usually, you would group related rules, for example, all the
rules for NetBIOS, into a single set and give it a descriptive name. You can configure up to twelve filter
sets with six rules in each set, for a total of 72 filter rules in the system.
24.2 Configuring a Filter Set
To configure a filter set, follow the steps shown next.
Step 1.
Enter 21 from the main menu.
Step 2.
Enter 1 to display Menu 21.1 – Filter Set Configuration.
Menu 21.1 - Filter Set Configuration
Filter
Set #
-----1
2
3
4
5
6
Comments
----------------NetBIOS_WAN
NetBIOS_LAN
TEL_FTP_WEB_WAN
_______________
_______________
_______________
Filter
Set #
-----7
8
9
10
11
12
Comments
----------------_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
Enter Filter Set Number to Configure= 0
Figure 24-3 Menu 21.1 Filter Set Configuration
Step 3.
Type the filter set to configure (no. 1 to 12) and press [ENTER].
Step 4.
Type a descriptive name or comment in the Comments field and press [ENTER].
Step 5.
Press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to confirm…” to display Menu 21.1.1 – Filter
Rules Summary (that is, if you selected filter set 1 in menu 21.1).
The following figures show the summary of three filter sets of your ZyAIR.
Filter and Firewall Configuration
24-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 21.1.1 - Filter Rules Summary
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Type
---IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
Filter Rules
--------------------------------------------------------------Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=137
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=138
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=139
M
N
N
N
N
N
N
m
D
D
D
D
D
D
n
N
N
N
N
N
F
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Figure 24-4 NetBIOS_WAN Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.2 - Filter Rules Summary
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- ---- --------------------------------------------------------------- - - Y IP
Pr=17, SA=0.0.0.0, SP=137, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=53
N D F
N
N
N
N
N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Figure 24-5 NetBIOS_LAN Filter Rules Summary
Menu 21.1.3 - Filter Rules Summary
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
Type
---IP
IP
IP
Filter Rules
--------------------------------------------------------------Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=23
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=21
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=80
M
N
N
N
m
D
D
D
n
N
N
F
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure:
Figure 24-6 TEL_FTP_WEB_WAN Filter Rules Summary
24-4
Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
24.2.1 Filter Rules Summary Menus
The following tables briefly describe the abbreviations used in menus 21.1.x.
Table 24-1 Abbreviations Used in the Filter Rules Summary Menu
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
#
The filter rule number: 1 to 6.
A
Active: “Y” means the rule is active. “N” means the rule is inactive.
Type
The type of filter rule: “GEN” for Generic, “IP” for TCP/IP.
Filter Rules
These parameters are displayed here.
M
More.
“Y” means there are more rules to check which form a rule chain with the present rule.
An action cannot be taken until the rule chain is complete.
“N” means there are no more rules to check. You can specify an action to be taken for
instance, forward the packet, drop the packet or check the next rule. For the latter, the
next rule is independent of the rule just checked.
m
Action Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N“ means to check the next rule.
n
Action Not Matched.
“F” means to forward the packet immediately and skip checking the remaining rules.
“D” means to drop the packet.
“N” means to check the next rule.
The protocol dependent filter rules abbreviation are listed as follows:
Table 24-2 Rule Abbreviations Used
FILTER TYPE
DESCRIPTION
IP
Pr
Protocol
SA
Source Address
SP
Source Port Number
DA
Destination Address
DP
Destination Port Number
GEN
Filter and Firewall Configuration
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 24-2 Rule Abbreviations Used
FILTER TYPE
DESCRIPTION
Off
Offset
Len
Length
24.3 Configuring a Filter Rule
To configure a filter rule, type its number in Menu 21.1.1 – Filter Rules Summary and press [ENTER] to
open menu 21.1.1.x for the rule.
There are two types of filter rules: TCP/IP and Generic. Depending on the type of rule, the parameters for
each type will be different. Use [SPACE BAR] to select the type of rule that you want to create in the
Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to open the respective menu.
To speed up filtering, all rules in a filter set must be of the same class, for instance, protocol filters or
generic filters. The class of a filter set is determined by the first rule that you create. When applying the
filter sets to a port, separate menu fields are provided for protocol and device filter sets. If you include a
protocol filter set in a device filters field or vice versa, the ZyAIR will warn you and will not allow you to
save.
24.3.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a TCP/IP filter rule. TCP/IP rules allow you to base the rule on
the fields in the IP and the upper layer protocol, for example, UDP and TCP headers.
To configure TCP/IP rules, select TCP/IP Filter Rule from the Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to
open Menu 21.1.1.1 – TCP/IP Filter Rule, as shown next.
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 21.1.1.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Filter #: 1,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 137
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 24-7 Menu 21.1.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
The following table describes how to configure your TCP/IP filter rule.
Table 24-3 Menu 21.1.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule coordinates, for instance, 2, 3
refers to the second filter set and the third filter rule of that
set.
1,1
Filter Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and the [ENTER] to select filter type.
Choices are TCP/IP Filter Rule or Generic Filter Rule.
TCP/IP Filter
Rule
Active
Select Yes to activate or No to deactivate the filter rule.
IP Protocol
This is the upper layer protocol, for example, TCP is 6, UDP
is 17 and ICMP is 1. The value must be between 0 and 255.
A value of 0 matches ANY protocol.
0 to 255
IP Source Route
IP Source Route is an optional header that dictates the route
an IP packet takes from its source to its destination. If Yes,
the rule applies to any packet with an IP source route. The
majority of IP packets do not have source route.
No
(default)
No
Destination:
Filter and Firewall Configuration
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 24-3 Menu 21.1.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
IP Addr
Type the destination IP address of the packet you want to
filter. This field is ignored if it is 0.0.0.0.
IP Mask
Type the IP mask to apply to the Destination: IP Addr field.
Port #
Type the destination port of the packets you want to filter.
The field range is 0 to 65535. A 0 field is ignored.
Port # Comp
Select the comparison to apply to the destination port in the
packet against the value given in Destination: Port #.
Choices are None, Less, Greater, Equal or Not Equal.
IP Addr
Type the source IP Address of the packet you want to filter.
A 0.0.0.0 field is ignored.
IP Mask
Type the IP mask to apply to the Source: IP Addr field.
0 to 65535
None
Source:
Port #
Port # Comp
Type the source port of the packets you want to filter. The
range of this field is 0 to 65535. A 0 field is ignored.
Select the comparison to apply to the source port in the
packet against the value given in Source: Port # field.
Choices are None, Less, Greater, Equal or Not Equal.
0 to 65535
None
TCP Estab
This applies only when the IP Protocol field is 6, TCP. If
Yes, the rule matches packets that want to establish TCP
connection(s) (SYN=1 and ACK=0); else it is ignored.
No
(default)
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule
before an action is taken or else the packet is disposed of
according to the action fields.
No
(default)
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not
Matched will be N/A.
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched – Only packets that match the rule
parameters will be logged.
Action Not Matched – Only packets that do not match the
rule parameters will be logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
24-8
Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 24-3 Menu 21.1.1 TCP/IP Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Action Matched
Select the action for a matching packet. Choices are Check
Next Rule, Forward or Drop.
Check Next Rule
(default)
Action Not Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule. Choices
are Check Next Rule, Forward or Drop.
Check Next Rule
(default)
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
The following figure illustrates the logic flow of an IP filter.
Filter and Firewall Configuration
24-9
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Packet
into IP Filter
Filter Active?
No
Yes
Apply SrcAddrMask
to Src Addr
Check Src
IP Addr
Not Matched
Matched
Apply DestAddrMask
to Dest Addr
Check Dest
IP Addr
Not Matched
Matched
Check
IP Protocol
Not Matched
Matched
Check Src &
Dest Port
Not Matched
Matched
More?
Yes
No
Action Matched
Drop
Drop Packet
Action Not Matched
Check Next Rule
Check Next Rule
Drop
Forward
Forward
Check Next Rule
Accept Packet
Figure 24-8 Executing an IP Filter
24-10
Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
24.3.2 Generic Filter Rule
This section shows you how to configure a generic filter rule. The purpose of generic rules is to allow you
to filter non-IP packets. For IP, it is generally easier to use the IP rules directly.
For generic rules, the ZyAIR treats a packet as a byte stream as opposed to an IP packet. You specify the
portion of the packet to check with the Offset (from 0) and the Length fields, both in bytes. The ZyAIR
applies the Mask (bit-wise ANDing) to the data portion before comparing the result against the Value to
determine a match. The Mask and Value fields are specified in hexadecimal numbers. Note that it takes
two hexadecimal digits to represent a byte, so if the length is 4, the value in either field will take 8 digits,
for example, FFFFFFFF.
To configure a generic rule select an empty filter set in menu 21.1, for example 4. Select Generic Filter
Rule in the Filter Type field and press [ENTER] to open Menu 21.1.4.1 – Generic Filter Rule, as shown
in the following figure.
Menu 21.1.4.1 - Generic Filter Rule
Filter #: 4,1
Filter Type= Generic Filter Rule
Active= No
Offset= 0
Length= 0
Mask= N/A
Value= N/A
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Check Next Rule
Action Not Matched= Check Next Rule
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 24-9 Menu 21.1.4.1 Generic Filter Rule
The next table describes the fields in the Generic Filter Rule menu.
Table 24-4 Menu 21.1.4.1 Generic Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Filter #
This is the filter set, filter rule coordinates, for instance, 2, 3 refers to the
second filter set and the third rule of that set.
4,1
Filter Type
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a type of rule.
Parameters displayed below each type will be different. Choices are
Generic Filter Rule or TCP/IP Filter Rule.
Generic Filter
Rule
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to turn on the
filter rule.
No
(default)
Filter and Firewall Configuration
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 24-4 Menu 21.1.4.1 Generic Filter Rule
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Offset
Type the starting byte of the data portion in the packet that you want to
compare. The range for this field is from 0 to 255.
0
(default)
Length
Type the byte count of the data portion in the packet that you want to
compare. The range for this field is 0 to 8.
0
(default)
Mask
Type the mask (in Hexadecimal) to apply to the data portion before
comparison.
Value
Type the value (in Hexadecimal) to compare with the data portion.
More
If Yes, a matching packet is passed to the next filter rule before an action
is taken or else the packet is disposed of according to the action fields.
No
(default)
If More is Yes, then Action Matched and Action Not Matched will be
N/A.
Log
Select the logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Action Matched – Only matching packets and rules will be logged.
Action Not Matched – Only packets that do not match the rule
parameters will be logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
None
Action
Matched
Select the action for a matching packet. Choices are Check Next Rule,
Forward or Drop.
Check Next
Rule
Action Not
Matched
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule. Choices are Check
Next Rule, Forward or Drop.
Check Next
Rule
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
24.4 Filter Types and NAT
There are two classes of filter rules, Generic Filter Device rules and Protocol Filter (TCP/IP) rules.
Generic Filter rules act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. Protocol Filter rules act on IP packets.
When NAT (Network Address Translation) is enabled, the inside IP address and port number are replaced
on a connection-by-connection basis, which makes it impossible to know the exact address and port on the
wire. Therefore, the ZyAIR applies the protocol filters to the “native” IP address and port number before
NAT for outgoing packets and after NAT for incoming packets. On the other hand, the generic (or device)
filters are applied to the raw packets that appear on the wire. They are applied at the point where the ZyAIR
24-12
Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
is receiving and sending the packets; for instance, the interface. The interface can be an Ethernet, or any
other hardware port. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 24-10 Protocol and Device Filter Sets
24.5 Example Filter
Let’s look at an example to block outside users from telnetting into the ZyAIR.
Figure 24-11 Sample Telnet Filter
Step 1.
Enter 1 in menu 21 to open Menu 21.1 – Filter Set Configuration.
Step 2.
Enter the index number of the filter set you want to configure (in this example, 3).
Step 3.
Type a descriptive name or comment in the Edit Comments field (for example,
TELNET_WAN) and press [ENTER].
Filter and Firewall Configuration
24-13
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Step 4.
Press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel” to open Menu
21.1.3.1 – TCP/IP Filter Rule.
Step 5.
Type 1 to configure the first filter rule. Make the entries in this menu as shown next.
Menu 21.1.3.1 - TCP/IP Filter Rule
Select Yes to make the rule active.
Filter #: 3,1
Filter Type= TCP/IP Filter Rule
Active= Yes
IP Protocol= 6
IP Source Route= No
Destination: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #= 23
Port # Comp= Equal
Source: IP Addr= 0.0.0.0
IP Mask= 0.0.0.0
Port #=
Port # Comp= None
TCP Estab= No
More= No
Log= None
Action Matched= Drop
Action Not Matched= Forward
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
There are no
more rules to
check.
Select Drop here so that the
packet will be dropped if its
destination is the telnet port.
6 is the TCP protocol.
The port number for the telnet
service (TCP protocol) is 23. See
RFC-1060 for port numbers of wellknown services.
Select Equal here
as we are looking
for packets going
to port 23 only.
Select Forward here so that the packet will be forwarded if
its destination is not the telnet port and there are no more
rules in this filter set to check. Select Next if there are
more rules to check.
Figure 24-12 Sample Filter - Menu 21.1.3.1
When you press [ENTER] to confirm, the following screen appears. Note that there is only one filter rule in
this set.
24-14
Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 21.1.3 - Filter Rules Summary
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
A Type
Filter Rules
M m n
- ---- --------------------------------------------------------------- - - Y IP
Pr=6, SA=0.0.0.0, DA=0.0.0.0, DP=23
N D F
N
N
N
N
N
Enter Filter Rule Number (1-6) to Configure: 1
This shows you that you have
configured and activated (A = Y) a
TCP/IP filter rule (Type = IP, Pr = 6)
for destination telnet ports (DP =
23).
M = N means an action can be taken immediately.
The action is to drop the packet (m = D) if the
action is matched and to forward the packet
immediately (n = F) if the action is not matched no
matter whether there are more rules to be
checked (there aren’t in this example).
Figure 24-13 Sample Filter Rules Summary - Menu 21.1.3
After you have created the filter set, you must apply it.
Step 1.
Enter 11 in the main menu to display menu 11 and type the remote node number to edit.
Step 2.
Go to the Edit Filter Sets field, press [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER].
Step 3.
This brings you to menu 11.5. Apply the example filter set (for example, filter set 3) in this
menu as shown in the next section.
24.6 Applying Filters and Factory Defaults
This section shows you where to apply the filter(s) after you design it (them). Sets of factory default filter
rules have been configured in menu 21 (but have not been applied) to filter traffic.
Table 24-5 Filter Sets Table
FILTER SETS
DESCRIPTION
Input Filter Sets:
Apply filters for incoming traffic. You may apply protocol or device filter rules.
See earlier in this chapter for information on filters.
Output Filter Sets:
Apply filters for traffic leaving the ZyAIR. You may apply filter rules for protocol or
device filters. See earlier in this section for information on types of filters.
Call Filter Sets:
Apply filters to decide if a packet should be allowed to trigger a call.
Filter and Firewall Configuration
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
24.6.1 Ethernet Traffic
You seldom need to filter Ethernet traffic; however, the filter sets may be useful to block certain packets,
reduce traffic and prevent security breaches. Go to menu 3.1 (shown next) and type the number(s) of the
filter set(s) that you want to apply as appropriate. You can choose up to four filter sets (from twelve) by
typing their numbers separated by commas, for example, 3, 4, 6, 11. The factory default filter set,
NetBIOS_LAN, is inserted in the protocol filters field under Input Filter Sets in menu 3.1 in order to
prevent local NetBIOS messages from triggering calls to the DNS server.
Menu 3.1 – LAN Port Filter Setup
Apply filter 2 to
block NETBIOS
traffic from the
LAN
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 2
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters=
device filters=
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 24-14 Filtering Ethernet Traffic
24.6.2 Remote Node Filters
Go to menu 11.5 (shown next) and type the number(s) of the filter set(s) as appropriate. You can cascade up
to four filter sets by typing their numbers separated by commas. The factory default filter set,
NetBIOS_WAN, is inserted in the protocol filters field under Call Filter Sets in menu 11.5 to block local
NetBIOS traffic from triggering calls to the ISP.
Apply filter 3 to block
Tel, FTP and Web
traffic from the WAN.
Menu 11.5 - Remote Node Filter
Input Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 3
device filters=
Output Filter Sets:
protocol filters= 1
device filters=
Call Filter Sets:
Protocol filters=
Device filters=
Apply filter 1 to block
NETBIOS traffic to
the WAN.
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
Figure 24-15 Filtering Remote Node Traffic
Note that call filter sets are visible when you select PPTP or PPPoE encapsulation.
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Filter and Firewall Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
24.7 Firewall Setup
The ZyAIR wireless gateways employ a stateful inspection firewall with DoS (Denial of Service)
protection. By default, when the firewall is activated, all incoming traffic from the WAN to the LAN is
blocked unless it is initiated from the LAN. The ZyAIR firewall supports TCP/UDP inspection, DoS
detection and prevention, real time alerts, reports and logs.
Enter 2 in menu 21 to display Menu 21.2 — Firewall Setup, shown next.
Menu 21.2 - Firewall Setup
The firewall protects against Denial of Service (DoS) attacks when
it is active.
Your network is vulnerable to attacks when the firewall is turned off.
Refer to the User's Guide for details about the firewall default
policies.
You may define additional Policy rules or modify existing ones but
please exercise extreme caution in doing so.
Active: No
You can use the Web Configurator to configure the firewall.
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Filter and Firewall Configuration
24-17
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 25
SNMP Configuration
This chapter explains SNMP Configuration menu 22.
25.1 SNMP Configuration
To configure SNMP, select option 22 from the main menu to open Menu 22 – SNMP Configuration as
shown next. The “community” for Get, Set and Trap fields is SNMP terminology for password.
Menu 22 - SNMP Configuration
SNMP:
Get Community= public
Set Community= public
Trusted Host= 0.0.0.0
Trap:
Community= public
Destination= 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 25-1 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
The following table describes the SNMP configuration parameters.
Table 25-1 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Get Community
Type the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming
Get- and GetNext requests from the management station.
public
Set Community
Type the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set
requests from the management station.
public
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your ZyAIR will only respond to SNMP
messages from this address. A blank (default) field means your
ZyAIR will respond to all SNMP messages it receives, regardless
of source.
0.0.0.0
SNMP:
Trap:
SNMP Configuration
25-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 25-1 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each
trap to the SNMP manager.
public
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
0.0.0.0
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
25-2
SNMP Configuration
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 26
System Security
This chapter describes how to configure the system security on the ZyAIR.
26.1 System Security
You can configure the system password, an external RADIUS server and 802.1x in this menu.
26.1.1 System Password
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Figure 26-1 Menu 23 System Security
You should change the default password. If you forget your password you have to restore the default
configuration file. Refer to the section on changing the system password in the Introducing the SMT chapter
and the section on resetting the ZyAIR in the Introducing the Web Configurator chapter.
26.1.2 Configuring External RADIUS Server
Enter 23 in the main menu to display Menu 23 – System Security.
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Figure 26-2 Menu 23 System Security
From Menu 23- System Security, enter 2 to display Menu 23.2 - System Security-RADIUS Server as
shown next.
System Security
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 23.2 - System Security - RADIUS Server
Authentication Server:
Active= No
Server Address= 10.11.12.13
Port #= 1812
Shared Secret= ********
Accounting Server:
Active= No
Server Address= 10.11.12.13
Port #= 1813
Shared Secret= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 26-3 Menu 23.2 System Security : RADIUS Server
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 26-1 Menu 23.2 System Security : RADIUS Server
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable
user authentication through an external authentication server.
No
Authentication Server
Active
Server Address
Port
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in
dotted decimal notation.
10.11.12.13
The default port of the RADIUS server for authentication is 1812.
1812
You need not change this value unless your network
administrator instructs you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the
key to be shared between the external authentication server and
the access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same
on the external authentication server and ZyAIR.
Accounting Server
Active
Server Address
26-2
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable
user authentication through an external accounting server.
No
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted
decimal notation.
10.11.12.13
System Security
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 26-1 Menu 23.2 System Security : RADIUS Server
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port
The default port of the RADIUS server for accounting is 1813.
EXAMPLE
1813
You need not change this value unless your network
administrator instructs you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Specify a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the
key to be shared between the external accounting server and the
access points.
The key is not sent over the network. This key must be the same
on the external accounting server and ZyAIR.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
26.1.3 802.1x
The IEEE802.1x standards outline enhanced security methods for both the authentication of wireless
stations and encryption key management.
Follow the steps below to enable EAP authentication on your ZyAIR.
Step 1.
From the main menu, enter 23 to display Menu23 – System Security.
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
2. RADIUS Server
4. IEEE802.1x
Figure 26-4 Menu 23 System Security
Step 2.
Enter 4 to display Menu 23.4 – System Security – IEEE802.1x.
System Security
26-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 23.4 - System Security - IEEE802.1x
Wireless Port Control= Authentication Required
ReAuthentication Timer (in second)= 1800
Idle Timeout (in second)= 3600
Key Management Protocol= WPA-PSK
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange= N/A
PSK= ********
WPA Mixed Mode= Disable
Group Data Privacy= TKIP
WPA Group Key Update Timer= 40
Authentication Databases= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel::
Figure 26-5 Menu 23.4 System Security : IEEE802.1x
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 26-2 Menu 23.4 System Security : IEEE802.1x
FIELD
Wireless Port
Control
DESCRIPTION
Press [SPACE BAR] and select a security mode for the wireless LAN access.
Select No Authentication Required to allow any wireless stations access to your
wired network without entering usernames and passwords. This is the default setting.
Selecting Authentication Required means wireless stations have to enter usernames
and passwords before access to the wired network is allowed.
Select No Access Allowed to block all wireless stations access to the wired network.
The following fields are not available when you select No Authentication Required or
No Access Allowed.
ReAuthentication Timer
(in second)
26-4
Specify how often a client has to re-enter username and password to stay connected to
the wired network.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the Wireless
Port Control field. Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 (in seconds). The default
time interval is 1800 seconds (or 30 minutes).
System Security
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 26-2 Menu 23.4 System Security : IEEE802.1x
FIELD
Idle Timeout
(in second)
DESCRIPTION
The ZyAIR automatically disconnects a client from the wired network after a period of
inactivity. The client needs to enter the username and password again before access to
the wired network is allowed.
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the Wireless
Port Control field. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Key
Management
Protocol
Press [SPACE BAR] to select 802.1x, WPA or WPA-PSK and press [ENTER].
Dynamic WEP
Key Exchange
This field is activated only when you select Authentication Required in the Wireless
Port Control field. Also set the Authentication Databases field to RADIUS Only.
Local user database may not be used.
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points without
using Dynamic WEP Key Exchange.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Up to 32 stations can access the ZyAIR when you configure Dynamic WEP Key
Exchange.
PSK
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including spaces
and symbols) when you select WPA-PSK in the Key Management Protocol field.
WPA Mixed
Mode
Select Enable to activate WPA mixed mode. Otherwise, select Disable and configure
Group Data Privacy field.
Group Data
Privacy
Group Data Privacy allows you to choose TKIP (recommended) or WEP for broadcast
and multicast (“group”) traffic if the Key Management Protocol is WPA and WPA
Mixed Mode is disabled. WEP is used automatically if you have enabled WPA Mixed
Mode.
All unicast traffic is automatically encrypted by TKIP when WPA or WPA-PSK Key
Management Protocol is selected.
WPA Group
Key Update
Timer
System Security
The WPA Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPA-PSK
key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management) sends a new
group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of
automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic
basis. Setting of the WPA Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPA-PSK
mode. The ZyAIR default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
26-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 26-2 Menu 23.4 System Security : IEEE802.1x
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local user
database is the built-in database on the ZyAIR. The RADIUS is an external server. Use
this field to decide which database the ZyAIR should use (first) to authenticate a
wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding database
correctly first.
When you configure Key Management Protocol to WPA, the Authentication
Databases must be RADIUS Only. You can only use the Local User Database with
802.1x Key Management Protocol.
Select Local User Database Only to have the ZyAIR just check the built-in user
database on the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the ZyAIR just check the user database on the specified
RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the ZyAIR first check the user database on
the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password. If the user name is not
found, the ZyAIR then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the ZyAIR first check the user database on
the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password. If the
ZyAIR cannot reach the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR then checks the local user
database on the ZyAIR. When the user name is not found or password does not match
in the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR will not check the local user database and the
authentication fails.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
Once you enable user authentication, you need to specify an external RADIUS server or create local user
accounts on the ZyAIR for authentication.
26-6
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 27
System Information and Diagnosis
This chapter covers the information and diagnostic tools in SMT menus 24.1 to 24.4.
27.1 Overview
These tools include updates on system status, port status, log and trace capabilities and upgrades for the
system software. This chapter describes how to use these tools in detail.
Type 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 - System Maintenance, as shown in the following figure.
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
Call Control
Time and Date Setting
Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 27-1 Menu 24 System Maintenance
27.2 System Status
The first selection, System Status gives you information on the status and statistics of the ports, as shown in
the next figure. System Status is a tool that can be used to monitor your ZyAIR. Specifically, it gives you
information on your LAN and wireless LAN status, number of packets sent and received.
To get to System Status, type 24 to go to Menu 24 – System Maintenance. From this menu, type 1.
System Status. There are two commands in Menu 24.1 – System Maintenance – Status. Entering 9 resets
the counters; pressing [ESC] takes you back to the previous screen.
System Information and Diagnosis
27-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status
Port
WAN
LAN
WLAN
Port
WAN
LAN
WLAN
Status
TxPkts
RxPkts
Down
0
0
100M/Full
1252
3200
11M
968
0
Ethernet Address
IP Address
00:A0:C5:00:00:05
0.0.0.0
00:A0:C5:00:00:04
192.168.1.1
00:A0:C5:00:00:04
System up Time:
0:47:48
Cols
0
0
0
Tx B/s
0
304
0
IP Mask
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
00:47:45
Thu. Dec. 17, 2003
Rx B/s
0
128
0
DHCP
Client
Server
Up Time
0:00:00
0:47:43
0:47:43
Name: G-2000.zyxel.com.tw
Routing: IP
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.60(HI.0)b5 | 12/12/2003
Press Command:
COMMANDS: 1-Drop WAN 9-Reset Counters
ESC-Exit
Figure 27-2 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status
The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 – System Maintenance – Status which are
read-only and meant for diagnostic purposes.
Table 27-1 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port type. Port types are: LAN, WAN and WLAN
Status
This shows the status of the port.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets to this remote node.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets from this remote node.
Cols
This is the number of collisions on this connection.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission rate in bytes per second.
Rx B/s
This shows the receiving rate in bytes per second.
Up Time
This is the time this channel has been connected to the current remote node.
Ethernet Address
This shows the MAC address of the port.
IP Address
This shows the IP address of the network device connected to the port.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the network device connected to the port.
27-2
System Information and Diagnosis
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 27-1 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance : Status
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
DHCP
This shows the DHCP setting (None, Relay or Server) of the network device
connected to the port.
System Up Time
This is the time the ZyAIR is up and running from the last reboot.
27.3 System Information
To get to the System Information:
Step 1.
Enter 24 to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
Step 2.
Enter 2 to display Menu 24.2 – System Information and Console Port Speed.
Step 3.
From this menu you have two choices as shown in the next figure:
Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed
1. System Information
2. Console Port Speed
Please enter selection:
Figure 27-3 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed
The ZyAIR has an internal console port for support personnel only. Do not open
the ZyAIR as it will void your warranty.
27.3.1 System Information
Enter 1 in menu 24.2 to display the screen shown next.
System Information and Diagnosis
27-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Menu 24.2.1 - System Maintenance - Information
Name: G-2000.zyxel.com.tw
Routing: IP
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.60(HI.0)b5 | 12/12/2003
Country Code: 255
LAN
Ethernet Address: 00:A0:C5:00:00:01
IP Address: 192.168.1.1
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP: Server
Press ESC or RETURN to Exit:
Figure 27-4 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance : Information
The table below describes the fields for configuration in this menu.
Table 27-2 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance – Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Name
Displays the system name of your ZyAIR. This information can be changed in
Menu 1 – General Setup.
Routing
Refers to the routing protocol used.
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware
version. ZyNOS is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications
Corporation.
Country Code
Refers to the country code of the firmware.
LAN
Ethernet Address
IP Address
IP Mask
DHCP
Refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) of your ZyAIR.
This is the IP address of the ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation.
This shows the subnet mask of the ZyAIR.
This field shows the DHCP setting of the ZyAIR.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
27.3.2 Console Port Speed
You can set up different port speeds for the console port through Menu 24.2.2 – System Maintenance –
Console Port Speed. Your ZyAIR supports 9600 (default), 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115200 bps console
27-4
System Information and Diagnosis
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
port speeds. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select the desired speed in menu 24.2.2, as shown
in the following figure.
Menu 24.2.2 – System Maintenance – Change Console Port Speed
Console Port Speed: 9600
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 27-5 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance : Change Console Port Speed
After you changed the console port speed on your ZyAIR, you must also make the same change to the
console port speed parameter of your communication software.
27.4 Log and Trace
There are two logging facilities in the ZyAIR. The first is the error logs and trace records that are stored
locally. The second is the UNIX syslog facility for message logging.
27.4.1 Viewing Error Log
The first place you should look for clues when something goes wrong is the error log. Follow the
procedures to view the local error/trace log:
Step 1. Type 24 in the main menu to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
Step 2. From menu 24, type 3 to display Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace.
Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace
1. View Error Log
2. UNIX Syslog
4. Call-Triggering Packet
Figure 27-6 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance : Log and Trace
Step 3.
Enter 1 from Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace and press [ENTER] twice to
display the error log in the system.
System Information and Diagnosis
27-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
After the ZyAIR finishes displaying the error log, you will have the option to clear it. Samples of typical
error and information messages are presented in the next figure.
45 Sat Jan 1 00:00:00 2000 PP0e
46 Sat Jan 1 00:00:00 2000 PINI
47 Sat Jan 1 00:00:00 2000 PINI
48 Sat Jan 1 00:00:02 2000 PP05
49 Sat Jan 1 00:00:02 2000 PP16
50 Sat Jan 1 00:00:02 2000 PP16
51 Sat Jan 1 00:00:30 2000 PSSV
52 Sat Jan 1 00:32:34 2000 PP10
53 Sat Jan 1 00:32:34 2000 PINI
54 Sat Jan 1 00:32:55 2000 PINI
INFO LAN promiscuous mode <1>
INFO Last errorlog repeat 1 Times
INFO main: init completed
-WARN SNMP TRAP 3: link up
-WARN Last errorlog repeat 2 Times
INFO adjtime task pause 1 day
-WARN SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
INFO SMT Password pass
INFO SMT Session Begin
INFO SMT Session End
Clear Error Log (y/n):
Figure 27-7 Sample Error and Information Messages
27.4.2 UNIX Syslog
The ZyAIR uses the UNIX syslog facility to log the CDR (Call Detail Record) and system messages to a
syslog server. Syslog can be configured in Menu 24.3.2 – System Maintenance – UNIX Syslog, as shown
next.
Menu 24.3.2 - System Maintenance - Syslog Logging
Syslog:
Active= No
Syslog Server IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Log Facility= Local 1
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 27-8 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : UNIX Syslog
You need to configure the UNIX syslog parameters described in the following table to activate syslog and
then choose what you want to log.
Table 27-3 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : UNIX Syslog
PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
Syslog:
Active
Syslog Server IP
Address
27-6
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to turn syslog logging on or off.
Type the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
System Information and Diagnosis
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 27-3 Menu 24.3.2 System Maintenance : UNIX Syslog
PARAMETER
Log Facility
DESCRIPTION
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select a location. The log facility allows you
to log the messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation
of your syslog program for more details.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to
cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
27.4.3 Call-Triggering Packet
Call-triggering Packet displays information about the packet that triggered a dial-out call in an easy
readable format. Equivalent information is available in menu 24.1 in hexadecimal format.
27.5 Diagnostic
The diagnostic facility allows you to test the different aspects of your ZyAIR to determine if it is working
properly. Menu 24.4 allows you to choose among various types of diagnostic tests to evaluate your system,
as shown in the following figure.
Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic
TCP/IP
1. Ping Host
2. WAN DHCP Release
3. WAN DHCP Renewal
4. Internet Setup Test
System
11. Reboot System
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Host IP Address= N/A
Figure 27-9 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic
Follow the procedure next to get to display this menu:
Step 1.
From the main menu, type 24 to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
Step 2.
From this menu, type 4. Diagnostic to open Menu 24.4 – System Maintenance – Diagnostic.
The table below describes the diagnostic tests available in menu 24.4 for your ZyAIR and the connections.
System Information and Diagnosis
27-7
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Table 27-4 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance : Diagnostic
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Ping Host
Ping the host to see if the links and TCP/IP protocol on both systems are working.
DHCP Release
Release the IP address assigned by the DHCP server.
DHCP Renewal
Get a new IP address from the DHCP server.
Internet Setup
Test
Use this option to test your Internet connection.
Reboot System
Reboot the ZyAIR.
Host IP Address
If you typed 1 to ping host, now type the address of the computer you want to ping.
27-8
System Information and Diagnosis
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chapter 28
Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance
This chapter tells you how to back up and restore your configuration file as well as upload new
firmware and a new configuration file.
28.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory default settings in the menus
such as password, DHCP Setup, TCP/IP Setup, etc. It arrives from ZyXEL with a “rom” filename
extension. Once you have customized the ZyAIR's settings, they can be saved back to your computer under
a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the system firmware
and has a “bin” filename extension. With many FTP and TFTP clients, the filenames are similar to those
seen next.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file " firmware.bin" to the ZyAIR.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file “config.cfg”.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the source, you will
need to rename them as the ZyAIR only recognizes “rom-0” and “ras”. Be sure you keep unaltered copies
of both files for later use.
The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to the filename on the
ZyAIR and the external filename refers to the filename not on the ZyAIR, that is, on your computer, local
network or FTP site and so the name (but not the extension) may vary. After uploading new firmware, see
the ZyNOS F/W Version field in Menu 24.2.1 – System Maintenance – Information to confirm that you
have uploaded the correct firmware version. The AT command is the command you enter after you press
“y” when prompted in the SMT menu to go into debug mode.
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Table 28-1 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL NAME
EXTERNAL NAME
DESCRIPTION
Configuration
File
Rom-0
This is the configuration filename on the
ZyAIR. Uploading the rom-0 file replaces
the entire ROM file system, including your
ZyAIR configurations, system-related data
(including the default password), the error
log and the trace log.
*.rom
Firmware
Ras
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS
firmware on the ZyAIR.
*.bin
28.2 Backup Configuration
The ZyAIR displays different messages explaining different ways to backup,
restore and upload files in menus 24.5, 24.6, 24. 7.1 and 24.7.2; depending on
whether you use Telnet.
Option 5 from Menu 24 – System Maintenance allows you to backup the current ZyAIR configuration to
your computer. Backup is highly recommended once your ZyAIR is functioning properly. FTP is the
preferred methods for backing up your current configuration to your computer since they are faster.
Please note that terms “download” and “upload” are relative to the computer. Download means to transfer
from the ZyAIR to the computer, while upload means from your computer to the ZyAIR.
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28.2.1 Backup Configuration
Follow the instructions as shown in the next screen.
Menu 24.5 - Backup Configuration
To transfer the configuration file to your workstation, follow the procedure
below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your router. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Locate the 'rom-0' file.
4. Type 'get rom-0' to back up the current router configuration to
your workstation.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain
in this menu to back up using TFTP), please see your router manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
Figure 28-1 Telnet in Menu 24.5
28.2.2 Using the FTP Command from the Command Line
Step 1.
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Step 2.
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your ZyAIR.
Step 3.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Step 4.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
Step 5.
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Step 6.
Use “get” to transfer files from the ZyAIR to the computer, for example, “get rom-0 config.rom”
transfers the configuration file on the ZyAIR to your computer and renames it “config.rom”. See
earlier in this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
Step 7.
Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
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28.2.3 Example of FTP Commands from the Command Line
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 zyxel.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
Figure 28-2 FTP Session Example
28.2.4 GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUI-based FTP clients.
Table 28-2 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the
server for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your
ISP or service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Initial Remote Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
28.2.5 TFTP and FTP over WAN Management Limitations
TFTP, FTP and Telnet over WAN will not work when:
1.
You have disabled Telnet service in menu 24.11.
2.
You have applied a filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) to block Telnet service.
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3.
The IP address in the Secured Client IP field in menu 24.11 does not match the client IP. If it does not
match, the ZyAIR will disconnect the Telnet session immediately.
4.
You have an SMT console session running.
28.2.6 Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The ZyAIR supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file using TFTP (Trivial
File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the configuration file,
follow the procedure shown next.
Step 1.
Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyAIR and log in. Because TFTP does not have
any security checks, the ZyAIR records the IP address of the telnet client and accepts TFTP
requests only from this address.
Step 2.
Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
Step 3.
Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will not be
interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT timeout (default) when
the file transfer is complete.
Step 4.
Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyAIR. Set the transfer mode to
binary before starting data transfer.
Step 5.
Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyAIR and the
computer. The file name for the configuration file is “rom-0” (rom-zero, not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the TFTP
transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the documentation of your
TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the ZyAIR to the computer and “binary” to set
binary transfer mode.
28.2.7 TFTP Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files), “host” is the
ZyAIR IP address, “get” transfers the file source on the ZyAIR (rom-0, name of the configuration file on
the ZyAIR) to the file destination on the computer and renames it config.rom.
28.2.8 GUI-based TFTP Clients
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients.
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Table 28-3 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the ZyAIR. 192.168.1.1 is the ZyAIR’s default IP address when
shipped.
Send/Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the ZyAIR and “Fetch” to back up the file on your
computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or configuration file (*.rom
extension) on your computer.
Remote File
This is the filename on the ZyAIR. The filename for the firmware is “ras” and for the
configuration file, is “rom-0”.
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
Refer to section 28.2.5 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP over WAN.
28.3 Restore Configuration
This section shows you how to restore a previously saved configuration. Note that this function erases the
current configuration before restoring a previous back up configuration; please do not attempt to restore
unless you have a backup configuration file stored on disk.
FTP is the preferred method for restoring your current computer configuration to your ZyAIR since FTP is
faster. Please note that you must wait for the system to automatically restart after the file transfer is
complete.
WARNING!
DO NOT INTERUPT THE FILE TRANSFER PROCESS AS THIS MAY
PERMANENTLY DAMAGE YOUR ZYAIR. WHEN THE RESTORE CONFIGURATION
PROCESS IS COMPLETE, THE ZYAIR WILL AUTOMATICALLY RESTART.
28.3.1 Restore Using FTP
For details about backup using (T)FTP please refer to earlier sections on FTP and TFTP file upload in this
chapter.
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Menu 24.6 - Restore Configuration
To transfer the firmware and the configuration file, follow the procedure
below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your router. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put backupfilename rom-0" where backupfilename is the name of
your backup configuration file on your workstation and rom-spt is the
remote file name on the router. This restores the configuration to
your router.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful file transfer.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on restoring using TFTP (note that you must
remain on this menu to restore using TFTP), please see your router
manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
Figure 28-3 Telnet into Menu 24.6
Step 1.
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Step 2.
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your ZyAIR.
Step 3.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Step 4.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
Step 5.
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Step 6.
Find the “rom” file (on your computer) that you want to restore to your ZyAIR.
Step 7.
Use “put” to transfer files from the ZyAIR to the computer, for example, “put config.rom rom0” transfers the configuration file “config.rom” on your computer to the ZyAIR. See earlier in
this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
Step 8.
Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt. The ZyAIR will automatically restart after a successful
restore process.
28.3.2 Restore Using FTP Session Example
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ftp> put config.rom rom-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR rom-0
226 File received OK
221 Goodbye for writing flash
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 0.06Seconds 273.07Kbytes/sec.
ftp>quit
Figure 28-4 Restore Using FTP Session Example
Refer to section 28.2.5 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP over WAN.
28.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files
This section shows you how to upload firmware and configuration files. You can upload configuration files
by following the procedure in the previous Restore Configuration section or by following the instructions in
Menu 24.7.2 – System Maintenance – Upload System Configuration File.
WARNING!
DO NOT INTERUPT THE FILE TRANSFER PROCESS AS THIS MAY
PERMANENTLY DAMAGE YOUR ZYAIR.
28.4.1 Firmware File Upload
FTP is the preferred method for uploading the firmware and configuration. To use this feature, your
computer must have an FTP client.
When you telnet into the ZyAIR, you will see the following screens for uploading firmware and the
configuration file using FTP.
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Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload the system firmware, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put firmwarefilename ras" where "firmwarefilename" is the name
of your firmware upgrade file on your workstation and "ras" is the
remote file name on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful firmware upload.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP),
please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
Figure 28-5 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.1 Upload System Firmware
28.4.2 Configuration File Upload
You see the following screen when you telnet into menu 24.7.2.
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To upload the system configuration file, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put configurationfilename rom-0" where "configurationfilename"
is the name of your system configuration file on your workstation, which
will be transferred to the "rom-0" file on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after the upload system configuration
file process is complete.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading configuration file using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload configuration file using TFTP),
please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
Figure 28-6 Telnet Into Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance
To upload the firmware and the configuration file, follow these examples
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance
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28.4.3 FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example
Step 1.
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
Step 2.
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your ZyAIR.
Step 3.
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
Step 4.
Enter your password as requested (the default is “1234”).
Step 5.
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
Step 6.
Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the ZyAIR, for example, “put firmware.bin ras”
transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the ZyAIR and renames it “ras”.
Similarly, “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the configuration file on your computer
(config.rom) to the ZyAIR and renames it “rom-0”. Likewise “get rom-0 config.rom” transfers
the configuration file on the ZyAIR to your computer and renames it “config.rom.” See earlier in
this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
Step 7.
Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
28.4.4 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 1103936 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
Figure 28-7 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
More commands (found in GUI-based FTP clients) are listed earlier in this chapter.
Refer to section 28.2.5 to read about configurations that disallow TFTP and FTP over WAN.
28.4.5 TFTP File Upload
The ZyAIR also supports the uploading of firmware files using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over
LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer the firmware and the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
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Step 1.
Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyAIR and log in. Because TFTP does not have
any security checks, the ZyAIR records the IP address of the telnet client and accepts TFTP
requests only from this address.
Step 2.
Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
Step 3.
Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the console timeout, so the TFTP transfer will not be
interrupted. Enter “command sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute console timeout (default)
when the file transfer is complete.
Step 4.
Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyAIR. Set the transfer mode to
binary before starting data transfer.
Step 5.
Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyAIR and the
computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras”.
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the ZyAIR in CI mode before and during the TFTP
transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the documentation of your
TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the ZyAIR to the computer, “put” the other way
around, and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
28.4.6 TFTP Upload Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files), “host” is the
ZyAIR’s IP address and “put” transfers the file source on the computer (firmware.bin – name of the
firmware on the computer) to the file destination on the remote host (ras - name of the firmware on the
ZyAIR).
Commands that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance
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Chapter 29
System Maintenance and SMT Menu
24.8 to 24.10
This chapter leads you through SMT menus 24.8 to 24.10.
29.1 Command Interpreter Mode
The Command Interpreter (CI) is a part of the main system firmware. The CI provides much of the same
functionality as the SMT, while adding some low-level setup and diagnostic functions. Enter the CI from
the SMT by selecting menu 24.8. See the included disk or the zyxel.com web site for more detailed
information on CI commands. Enter 8 from Menu 24 – System Maintenance. A list of valid commands
can be found by typing help or ? at the command prompt. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu
when finished.
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
9. Call Control
10. Time and Date Setting
11. Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 29-1 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2003 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
G-2000> ?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
device
ether
poe
pptp
config
wlan
ip
ppp
bridge
hdap
cnm
radius
8021x
G-2000>
Figure 29-2 Valid CI Commands
System Maintenance and SMT Menu 24.8 to 24.10
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29.2 Call Control Support
The ZyAIR provides two call control functions: budget management and call history. Please note that this
menu is only applicable when Encapsulation is set to PPPoE or PPTP in menu 4 or menu 11.1.
The budget management function allows you to set a limit on the total outgoing call time of the ZyAIR
within certain times. When the total outgoing call time exceeds the limit, the current call will be dropped
and any future outgoing calls will be blocked.
Call history chronicles preceding incoming and outgoing calls.
To access the call control menu, select option 9 in menu 24 to go to Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance Call Control, as shown in the next table.
Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control
1.
2.
3.
4.
Call Control Parameters
Blacklist
Budget Management
Call History
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 29-3 Menu24.9 System Maintenance : Call Control
29.2.1 Call Control Parameters
Menu 24.9.1 shows the call control parameters. Enter 1 from Menu 24.9 to bring up the following menu.
Menu 24.9.1 - Call Control Parameters
Dialer Timeout:
Digital Call(sec)= 30
Retry Counter= 0
Retry Interval(sec)= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 29-4 Menu 24.9.1 Call Control Parameters
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
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Table 29-1 Menu 24.9.1 Call Control Parameters
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Dialer Timeout:
Digital
Call(sec)
Retry Counter
Enter a number from 5 to 300
The ZyAIR will timeout if it cannot set up an outgoing digital call within the timeout
value. The default is 30.
Enter a number from 0 to 255
How many times a busy or ‘no answer’ telephone number is retried before it is put on
the blacklist. The default is 0 and the blacklist control is not enabled.
Retry
Interval(sec)
Enter a number from 0 to 255
Type a number of seconds for the ZyAIR to wait before trying another call after a call
has failed. This applies before a phone number is blacklisted.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
29.2.2 Blacklist
Menu 24.9.2 shows the blacklist. The phone numbers on the blacklist are numbers that the ZyAIR had
problems connecting to in the past. The only operation allowed is taking a number off the list by entering its
index number. Enter 2 from Menu 24.9 to bring up the following menu.
Menu 24.9.2 - Blacklist
Phone Number
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Remove Selection(1-14):
Figure 29-5 Menu 24.9.2 Blacklist
System Maintenance and SMT Menu 24.8 to 24.10
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29.2.3 Budget Management
Menu 24.9.1 shows the budget management statistics for outgoing calls. Enter 1 from Menu 24.9 - System
Maintenance - Call Control to bring up the following menu.
Menu 24.9.3 - Budget Management
Remote Node
Connection Time/Total Budget
Elapsed Time/Total Period
1.ChangeMe
No Budget
No Budget
2.Dial-in User
No Budget
No Budget
Reset Node (0 to update screen):
Figure 29-6 Menu 24.9.3 Budget Management
The total budget is the time limit on the accumulated time for outgoing calls to a remote node. When this
limit is reached, the call will be dropped and further outgoing calls to that remote node will be blocked.
After each period, the total budget is reset. The default for the total budget is 0 minutes and the period is 0
hours, meaning no budget control. You can reset the accumulated connection time in this menu by entering
the index of a remote node. Enter 0 to update the screen. The budget and the reset period can be configured
in menu 11.1 for the remote node.
Table 29-2 Menu 24.9.1 Budget Management
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Remote Node
Enter the index number of the remote node you
want to reset (just one in this case)
1
Connection
Time/Total Budget
This is the total connection time that has gone by
(within the allocated budget that you set in menu
11.1).
5/10 means that 5
minutes out of a total
allocation of 10
minutes have lapsed.
Elapsed Time/Total
Period
The period is the time cycle in hours that the
allocation budget is reset (see menu 11.1.) The
elapsed time is the time used up within this period.
0.5/1 means that 30
minutes out of the 1hour time period has
lapsed.
Enter “0” to update the screen or press [ESC] to return to the previous screen.
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29.2.4 Call History
This is the second option in Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control. It displays information
about past incoming and outgoing calls. Enter 2 from Menu 24.9 - System Maintenance - Call Control to
bring up the following menu.
Menu 24.9.2 - Call History
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Phone Number
Dir
Rate
#call
Max
Min
Total
Enter Entry to Delete(0 to exit):
Figure 29-7 Menu 24.9.2 Call History
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 29-3 Menu 24.9.2 Call History
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Phone Number
The PPPoE service names are shown here.
Dir
This shows whether the call was incoming or outgoing.
Rate
This is the transfer rate of the call.
#call
This is the number of calls made to or received from that telephone number.
Max
This is the length of time of the longest telephone call.
Min
This is the length of time of the shortest telephone call.
Total
This is the total length of time of all the telephone calls to/from that telephone number.
You may enter an entry number to delete it or ‘”0” to exit.
29.3 Time and Date Setting
The ZyAIR keeps track of the time and date. There is also a software mechanism to set the time manually
or get the current time and date from an external server when you turn on your ZyAIR. Menu 24.10 allows
System Maintenance and SMT Menu 24.8 to 24.10
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you to update the time and date settings of your ZyAIR. The real time is then displayed in the ZyAIR error
logs.
Step 1.
Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
Step 2.
Then enter 10 to go to Menu 24.10 – System Maintenance – Time and Date Setting to update
the time and date settings of your ZyAIR as shown in the following screen.
Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting
Time Protocol= NTP (RFC-1305)
Time Server Address= 128.105.39.21
Current Time:
New Time (hh:mm:ss):
05 : 47 : 19
05 : 47 : 17
Current Date:
New Date (yyyy-mm-dd):
2000 - 01 - 01
2000 - 01 - 01
Time Zone= GMT
Daylight Saving= No
Start Date (mm-dd):
End Date (mm-dd):
01 - 01
01 - 01
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 29-8 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance : Time and Date Setting
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 29-4 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance : Time and Date Setting
FIELD
Time Protocol
DESCRIPTION
Enter the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on the
ZyAIR. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to check with
your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that works.
The main differences between them are the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of seconds
since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None. The default, enter the time manually.
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your time server. Check with your
ISP/network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Current Time
This field displays an updated time only when you reenter this menu.
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Table 29-4 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance : Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
New Time
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format.
Current Date
This field displays an updated date only when you re-enter this menu.
New Date
Enter the new date in year, month and day format.
Time Zone
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to set the time difference between your time
zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
If you use daylight savings time, then choose Yes.
Start Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it starts on.
End Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it ends on
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel“ to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
29.3.1 Resetting the Time
The ZyAIR resets the time in three instances:
i.
On leaving menu 24.10 after making changes.
ii.
When the ZyAIR starts up, if there is a time server configured in menu 24.10.
iii.
24-hour intervals after starting.
System Maintenance and SMT Menu 24.8 to 24.10
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Chapter 30
Remote Management
This chapter covers remote management (SMT menu 24.11).
30.1 Telnet
You can configure your ZyAIR for remote Telnet access as shown next.
Figure 30-1 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
30.2 FTP
You can upload and download ZyAIR firmware and configuration files using FTP. To use this feature, your
computer must have an FTP client.
30.3 Web
You can use the ZyAIR’s embedded web configurator for configuration and file management. See the
online help for details.
30.4 Remote Management
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server Access field.
Enter 11 from menu 24 to display Menu 24.11 – Remote Management Control.
Remote Management
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30.4.1 Remote Management Setup
Remote management setup is for managing Telnet, FTP and Web services. You can customize the service
port, access interface and the secured client IP address to enhance security and flexibility.
You may manage your ZyAIR from a remote location via:
the Internet (WAN only), the LAN only, All (LAN and WAN) or Disable (neither).
WAN only (Internet)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only
Disable (Neither)
If you enable remote management of a service, but have applied a filter to block
the service, then you will not be able to remotely manage the service.
Enter 11, from menu 24, to display Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control (shown next).
Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control
TELNET Server:
Port = 23
Access = LAN only
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
FTP Server:
Port = 21
Access = LAN only
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Web Server:
Port = 80
Access = LAN only
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
SNMP Service:
Port = 161
Access = ALL
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
DNS Service:
Port = 53
Access = ALL
Secured Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 30-2 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
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Table 30-1 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Telnet Server
FTP Server
Web Server
SNMP Service
DNS Service
Each of these read-only labels denotes a service or protocol.
Port
This field shows the port number for the service or protocol. You may
change the port number if needed, but you must use the same port
number to access the ZyAIR.
EXAMPLE
The DNS Service port number is 53. This cannot be changed.
Access
Select the access interface (if any) by pressing the [SPACE BAR].
Choices are: LAN only, WAN only, All or Disable. The default is
LAN only.
Secured Client IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service or protocol to
access the ZyAIR. Enter an IP address to restrict access to a client
with a matching IP address.
LAN only
0.0.0.0
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message "Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel" to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
30.4.2 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1.
A filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet, FTP or Web
service.
2.
You have disabled that service in menu 24.11.
3.
The IP address in the Secured Client IP field (menu 24.11) does not match the client IP address.
If it does not match, the ZyAIR will disconnect the session immediately.
4.
There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority running. You
may only have one remote management session running at one time.
5.
There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
Remote Management
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30.5 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
Use the ZyAIR’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
Use the ZyAIR’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
30.6 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds). The ZyAIR
automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer than this timeout period. The
management session does not time out when a statistics screen is polling. You can change the timeout
period in the System screen or change sys stdio on the command line.
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Chapter 31
Call Scheduling
Call scheduling (applicable for PPPoE or PPTP encapsulation only) allows you to dictate when a
remote node should be called and for how long.
31.1 Introduction
The call scheduling feature allows the ZyAIR to manage a remote node and dictate when a remote node
should be called and for how long. This feature is similar to the scheduler in a video cassette recorder (you
can specify a time period for the VCR to record). You can apply up to 4 schedule sets in Menu 11.1 –
Remote Node Profile. From the main menu, enter 26 to access Menu 26 – Schedule Setup as shown next.
Menu 26 - Schedule Setup
Schedule
Set #
Name
------ ----------------1
_______________
2
_______________
3
_______________
4
_______________
5
_______________
6
_______________
Schedule
Set #
Name
------ ----------------7
_______________
8
_______________
9
_______________
10
_______________
11
_______________
12
_______________
Enter Schedule Set Number to Configure= 0
Edit Name= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 31-1 Menu 26 Schedule Setup
Lower numbered sets take precedence over higher numbered sets thereby avoiding scheduling conflicts. For
example, if sets 1, 2, 3 and 4 in are applied in the remote node then set 1 will take precedence over set 2, 3
and 4 as the ZyAIR, by default, applies the lowest numbered set first. Set 2 will take precedence over set 3
and 4, and so on.
You can design up to 12 schedule sets but you can only apply up to four schedule sets for a remote node.
Call Scheduling
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To delete a schedule set, enter the set number and press [SPACE BAR] and then
[ENTER] (or delete) in the Edit Name field.
To setup a schedule set, select the schedule set you want to setup from menu 26 (1-12) and press [ENTER]
to see Menu 26.1 - Schedule Set Setup as shown next.
Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
Active= Yes
Start Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
How Often= Once
Once:
Date(yyyy-mm-dd)= 2000 - 01 - 01
Weekdays:
Sunday= N/A
Monday= N/A
Tuesday= N/A
Wednesday= N/A
Thursday= N/A
Friday= N/A
Saturday= N/A
Start Time(hh:mm)= 00 : 00
Duration(hh:mm)= 00 : 00
Action= Forced On
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 31-2 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
If a connection has been already established, your ZyAIR will not drop it. Once the connection is dropped
manually or it times out, then that remote node can't be triggered up until the end of the Duration.
Table 31-1 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to No and press [ENTER] to disable the schedule
set.
Yes
Start Date
Enter the start date when you wish the set to take effect in year -monthdate format. Valid dates are from the present to 2036-February-5.
2000-01-01
How Often
Should this schedule set recur weekly or be used just once only? Press
[SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Once or Weekly. Both these
options are mutually exclusive. If Once is selected, then all weekday
settings are N/A. When Once is selected, the schedule rule deletes
automatically after the scheduled time elapses.
Once
Once:
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Table 31-1 Menu 26.1 Schedule Set Setup
FIELD
Date
DESCRIPTION
If you selected Once in the How Often field above, then enter the date
the set should activate here in year-month-date format.
EXAMPLE
2000-01-01
Weekday:
Day
If you selected Weekly in the How Often field above, then select the
day(s) when the set should activate (and recur) by going to that day(s)
and pressing [SPACE BAR] to select Yes, then press [ENTER].
Start Time
Enter the start time when you wish the schedule set to take effect in
hour-minute format.
09:00
Duration
Enter the maximum length of time this connection is allowed in hourminute format.
08:00
Action
Forced On means that the connection is maintained whether or not
there is a demand call on the line and will persist for the time period
specified in the Duration field.
Forced On
Forced Down means that the connection is blocked whether or not there
is a demand call on the line.
Enable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule permits a demand
call on the line. Disable Dial-On-Demand means that this schedule
prevents a demand call on the line.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to save
your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
Once your schedule sets are configured, you must then apply them to the desired remote node(s). Enter 11
from the Main Menu and then enter the target remote node index. Using [SPACE BAR], select PPPoE or
PPTP in the Encapsulation field and then press [ENTER] to make the schedule sets field available as
shown next.
Call Scheduling
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Menu 11.1 - Remote Node Profile
Rem Node Name= ChangeMe
Active= Yes
Route= IP
Encapsulation= PPTP
Service Type= Standard
Service Name= N/A
Outgoing:
My Login=
My Password= ********
Authen= CHAP/PAP
PPTP:
My IP Addr=
My IP Mask=
Server IP Addr=
Connection ID/Name=
Edit IP= No
Telco Option:
Allocated Budget(min)= 0
Period(hr)= 0
Schedules= 1,2,3,4
Nailed-Up Connection= No
Apply your schedule sets
here.
Session Options:
Edit Filter Sets= No
Idle Timeout(sec)= 100
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Figure 31-3 Applying Schedule Set(s) to a Remote Node (PPTP)
You can apply up to four schedule sets, separated by commas, for one remote node. Change the schedule
set numbers to your preference(s).
31-4
Call Scheduling
Appendices
Part XI:
APPENDICES
This part provides contains troubleshooting and additional background information on setting up
your computer’s IP address, wireless LAN, 802.1x, PPPoE, PPTP, IP subnetting and Triangle
Route. It also provides information on the command interpreter interface, NetBIOS commands
and logs.
XI
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix A
Troubleshooting
This appendix covers potential problems and possible remedies. After each problem description,
some instructions are provided to help you to diagnose and to solve the problem.
Problems Starting Up the ZyAIR
Chart A-1 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your ZyAIR
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
None of the LEDs
turn on when I
plug in the power
adaptor.
Make sure you are using the supplied power adaptor and that it is plugged in to an
appropriate power source. Check that the power source is turned on.
I cannot access
the ZyAIR via the
console port.
1. Check to see if the ZyAIR is connected to your computer's console port.
If the problem persists, you may have a hardware problem. In this case, you should
contact your local vendor.
2. Check to see if the
communications program is
configured correctly. The
communications software
should be configured as
follows:
VT100 terminal emulation.
9600 bps is the default speed on leaving the factory.
Try other speeds in case the speed has been
changed.
No parity, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, data flow set to
none.
Problems with the Password
Chart A-2 Troubleshooting the Password
PROBLEM
I cannot access
the ZyAIR.
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The Password and Username fields are case-sensitive. Make sure that you enter
the correct password and username using the proper casing.
Use the RESET button on the side panel of the ZyAIR to restore the factory default
configuration file (hold this button in for more than five seconds). This will restore all
of the factory defaults including the password.
Troubleshooting
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Problems with the Ethernet Interface
Chart A-3 Troubleshooting the Ethernet Interface
PROBLEM
I cannot access
the ZyAIR from
the Ethernet
CORRECTIVE ACTION
If all of the LAN LEDs on the front panel are off, check the Ethernet cable
connection between your ZyAIR and the computer connected to the LAN port.
Check for faulty Ethernet cables.
Make sure the computer’s Ethernet adapter is installed and working properly.
Verify that the IP addresses and the subnet masks of the ZyAIR and the computer
are on the same subnet.
I cannot ping any
computer on the
LAN.
If all of the LAN LEDs on the front panel are off, check the Ethernet cable
connection between your ZyAIR and the computer connected to the LAN port.
Verify that the IP addresses and the subnet masks of the ZyAIR and the computers
are on the same subnet.
Problems with the WAN Interface
Chart A-4 Troubleshooting the WAN Interface
PROBLEM
I cannot get a WAN
IP address from the
ISP.
CORRECTIVE ACTION
The ISP provides the WAN IP address after authenticating you. Authentication may
be through the user name and password, the MAC address or the host name.
The username and password apply to PPPoE and PPTP encapsulation only. Make
sure that you have entered the correct Service Type, User Name and Password (be
sure to use the correct casing). Refer to the WAN Screens chapter (web configurator)
or the Internet Access chapter (SMT).
Clone the MAC address from your computer on the LAN as the ZyAIR’s WAN MAC
address. Refer to the WAN Screens chapter (web configurator) or the General and
WAN Setup chapter (SMT). It is recommended that you clone your computer’s MAC
address, even if your ISP presently does not require MAC address authentication.
Configure your computer’s name as the ZyAIR’s system name. Refer to the Wizard
Setup chapter (web configurator) or the General and WAN Setup chapter (SMT).
A-2
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Problems with Internet Access
Chart A-5 Troubleshooting Internet Access
PROBLEM
I cannot access the
Internet.
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Connect your cable/DSL modem to the ZyAIR using the appropriate cable.
Check with the manufacturer of your cable/DSL device about your cable
requirement because for some devices may require a crossover cable and others a
straight-through Ethernet cable.
Verify your WAN settings. Refer to the WAN chapter (web configurator) or the
Internet Access chapter (SMT).
Make sure you entered the correct user name and password.
For wireless stations, check that both the ZyAIR and wireless station(s) are using
the same ESSID, channel and WEP keys (if WEP encryption is activated).
Internet connection
disconnects
If you use PPTP or PPPoE encapsulation, check the idle time-out setting. Refer to
the WAN chapter (web configurator) or the Remote Node Configuration chapter
(SMT).
Contact your ISP.
Problems with Telnet
Chart A-6 Troubleshooting Telnet
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot access
the ZyAIR through
Telnet.
Refer to the Problems with the Ethernet Interface section for instructions on checking
your Ethernet connection.
Troubleshooting
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Problems with the WLAN Interface
Chart A-7 Troubleshooting the WLAN Interface
PROBLEM
I cannot ping any
computer on the
WLAN.
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Make sure the wireless card is properly inserted in the ZyAIR and the WLAN LED is
on.
Make sure the wireless adapter on the wireless station is working properly.
Check that both the ZyAIR and wireless station(s) are using the same ESSID,
channel and WEP keys (if WEP encryption is activated).
A-4
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix B
Brute-Force Password Guessing
Protection
The following describes the commands for enabling, disabling and configuring the brute-force password
guessing protection mechanism for the password. See the Command Interpreter appendix for information
on the command structure.
Chart B-1 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
sys pwderrtm
This command displays the brute-force guessing password protection settings.
sys pwderrtm 0
This command turns off the password's protection from brute-force guessing.
sys pwderrtm N
This command sets the password protection to block all access attempts for N (a
number from 1 to 60) minutes after the third time an incorrect password is entered.
Example
sys pwderrtm 5
This command sets the password protection to block all access attempts for five minutes after
the third time an incorrect password is entered.
By default, the brute-force password guessing protection is turned ON with a 3-minute wait time.
Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix C
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all versions of
UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/IP on your computer.
Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later
operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order to
"communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that your computers
have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the ZyAIR's LAN port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the
Network icon to open the Network window.
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a network
adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
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If you need the adapter:
a.
In the Network window, click Add.
b.
Select Adapter and then click Add.
c.
Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
a.
In the Network window, click Add.
b.
Select Protocol and then click Add.
c.
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
d.
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
a.
Click Add.
b.
Select Client and then click Add.
c.
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
d.
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click OK.
e.
Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry and click
Properties.
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1.
Click the IP Address tab.
-If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an
IP address automatically.
-If you have a static IP address, select Specify
an IP address and type your information into
the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
2.
Click the DNS Configuration tab.
-If you do not know your DNS information, select
Disable DNS.
-If you know your DNS information, select
Enable DNS and type the information in the
fields below (you may not need to fill them all
in).
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
3.
Click the Gateway tab.
-If you do not know your gateway’s IP address,
remove previously installed gateways.
-If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the
New gateway field and click Add.
4.
Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
5.
Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
6.
Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Your Computer’s IP Address
1.
Click Start and then Run.
2.
In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration window.
3.
Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask and default
gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
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Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
1.
For Windows XP, click start, Control Panel. In
Windows 2000/NT, click Start, Settings, Control
Panel.
2.
For Windows XP, click Network
Connections. For Windows 2000/NT, click
Network and Dial-up Connections.
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
3.
Right-click Local Area Connection and
then click Properties.
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4.
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the
General tab in Win XP) and click Properties.
5.
The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties
window opens (the General tab in Windows XP).
-If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain
an IP address automatically.
-If you have a static IP address click Use the
following IP Address and fill in the IP address,
Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
Click Advanced.
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
6.
-If you do not know your gateway's IP address,
remove any previously installed gateways in the
IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to
configure additional IP addresses:
-In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click
Add.
-In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP
address and a subnet mask in Subnet mask,
and then click Add.
-Repeat the above two steps for each IP address
you want to add.
-Configure additional default gateways in the IP
Settings tab by clicking Add in Default
gateways.
-In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP
address of the default gateway in Gateway. To
manually configure a default metric (the number
of transmission hops), clear the Automatic
metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
-Click Add.
-Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
-Click OK when finished.
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
7.
In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties
window (the General tab in Windows XP):
-Click Obtain DNS server address
automatically if you do not know your DNS
server IP address(es).
-If you know your DNS server IP address(es),
click Use the following DNS server addresses,
and type them in the Preferred DNS server and
Alternate DNS server fields.
If you have previously configured DNS servers,
click Advanced and then the DNS tab to order
them.
8.
Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9.
Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
10. Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Your Computer’s IP Address
1.
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2.
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can also open
Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then click the Support tab.
Macintosh OS 8/9
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Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
1.
Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click
TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP Control Panel.
2.
Select Ethernet built-in
from the Connect via list.
3.
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
4.
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
-From the Configure box, select Manually.
-Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
-Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
-Type the IP address of your ZyAIR in the Router address box.
5.
Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6.
Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7.
Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Your Computer’s IP Address
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1.
Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences
to open the System Preferences window.
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Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
2.
Click Network in the icon bar.
- Select Automatic from the Location list.
- Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
- Click the TCP/IP tab.
3.
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
4.
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
-From the Configure box, select Manually.
-Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
-Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
-Type the IP address of your ZyAIR in the Router address box.
5.
Click Apply Now and close the window.
6.
Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Your Computer’s IP Address
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
Setting Up Your Computer’s IP Address
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Appendix D
Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11
A wireless LAN (WLAN) provides a flexible data communications system that you can use to access
various services (navigating the Internet, email, printer services, etc.) without the use of a cabled
connection. In effect a wireless LAN environment provides you the freedom to stay connected to the
network while roaming around in the coverage area. WLAN is not available on all models.
Benefits of a Wireless LAN
Wireless LAN offers the following benefits:
1.
It provides you with access to network services in areas otherwise hard or expensive to wire, such as
historical buildings, buildings with asbestos materials and classrooms.
2.
It provides healthcare workers like doctors and nurses access to a complete patient’s profile on a
handheld or notebook computer upon entering a patient’s room.
3.
It allows flexible workgroups a lower total cost of ownership for workspaces that are frequently
reconfigured.
4.
It allows conference room users access to the network as they move from meeting to meeting, getting
up-to-date access to information and the ability to communicate decisions while “on the go”.
5.
It provides campus-wide networking mobility, allowing enterprises the roaming capability to set up
easy-to-use wireless networks that cover the entire campus transparently.
IEEE 802.11
The 1997 completion of the IEEE 802.11 standard for wireless LANs (WLANs) was a first important step
in the evolutionary development of wireless networking technologies. The standard was developed to
maximize interoperability between differing brands of wireless LANs as well as to introduce a variety of
performance improvements and benefits.
The IEEE 802.11 specifies three different transmission methods for the PHY, the layer responsible for
transferring data between nodes. Two of the methods use spread spectrum RF signals, Direct Sequence
Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS), in the 2.4 to 2.4825 GHz
Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11
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ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
unlicensed ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical) band. The third method is infrared technology, using
very high frequencies, just below visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum to carry data.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of computers
with wireless nodes or stations (STA), which is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). In the most basic form, a
wireless LAN connects a set of computers with wireless adapters. Any time two or more wireless adapters
are within range of each other, they can set up an independent network, which is commonly referred to as
an Ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). See the following diagram of an example of
an Ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Diagram D-1 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
Infrastructure Wireless LAN Configuration
For infrastructure WLANs, multiple access points (APs) link the WLAN to the wired network and allow
users to efficiently share network resources. The access points not only provide communication with the
wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic in the immediate neighborhood. Multiple access
points can provide wireless coverage for an entire building or campus. All communications between
stations or between a station and a wired network client go through the access point.
D-2
Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
The Extended Service Set (ESS) shown in the next figure consists of a series of overlapping BSSs (each
containing an Access Point) connected together by means of a Distribution System (DS). Although the DS
could be any type of network, it is almost invariably an Ethernet LAN. Mobile nodes can roam between
access points and seamless campus-wide coverage is possible.
Diagram D-2 ESS Provides Campus-Wide Coverage
Wireless LAN and IEEE 802.11
D-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix E
Wireless LAN With IEEE 802.1x
As wireless networks become popular for both portable computing and corporate networks, security is now
a priority.
Security Flaws with IEEE 802.11
Wireless networks based on the original IEEE 802.11 have a poor reputation for safety. The IEEE 802.11b
wireless access standard, first published in 1999, was based on the MAC address. As the MAC address is
sent across the wireless link in clear text, it is easy to spoof and fake. Even the WEP (Wire Equivalent
Privacy) data encryption is unreliable as it can be easily decrypted with current computer speed
Deployment Issues with IEEE 802.11
User account management has become a network administrator’s nightmare in a corporate environment, as
the IEEE 802.11b standard does not provide any central user account management. User access control is
done through manual modification of the MAC address table on the access point. Although WEP data
encryption offers a form of data security, you have to reset the WEP key on the clients each time you
change your WEP key on the access point.
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to support
extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control features. It is supported by
Windows XP and a number of network devices.
Advantages of the IEEE 802.1x
•
•
User based identification that allows for roaming.
Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
•
Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless stations.
Wireless LAN with IEEE 802.1x
E-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
RADIUS Server Authentication Sequence
The following figure depicts a typical wireless network with a remote RADIUS server for user
authentication using EAPOL (EAP Over LAN).
Client computer
access authorized.
Client computer
access not authorized.
Diagram E-1 Sequences for EAP MD5–Challenge Authentication
E-2
Wireless LAN with IEEE 802.1x
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix F
Types of EAP Authentication
This appendix discusses the four popular EAP authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS
and PEAP. The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. Consult your
network administrator for more information.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server sends a
challenge to the wireless station. The wireless station ‘proves’ that it knows the password by encrypting the
password with the challenge and sends back the information. Password is not sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to get the
plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the authentication server may
access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an authentication server as MD5
authentication method does not perform mutual authentication. Finally, MD5 authentication method does
not support data encryption with dynamic session key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data
encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless stations for mutual
authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the identity of the server, the
client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of certificates is done in the open before a
secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital certificate is an
electronic ID card that authenticates the sender’s identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a
Certificate Authority (CA) to handle certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the server-side
authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done by sending username
and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is protected. For client authentication,
EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and
MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection, then use
simple username and password methods through the secured connection to authenticate the clients, thus
Types of EAP Authentication
F-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP methods, such as EAP-MD5 and EAPMSCHAPv2, for client authentication.
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use dynamic keys
for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for public deployment, simple
user name and password pair is more practical. The following table is a comparison of the features of four
authentication types.
Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Security
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Deployment
Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Wireless Security
Poor
Best
Good
Good
No
No
Yes
Yes
Mutual
Authentication
Dynamic Key
Exchange
Client Identity
Protection
F-2
Types of EAP Authentication
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix G
Antenna Selection and Positioning
Recommendation
An antenna couples RF signals onto air. A transmitter within a wireless device sends an RF signal to the
antenna, which propagates the signal through the air. The antenna also operates in reverse by capturing RF
signals from the air.
Choosing the right antennas and positioning them properly increases the range and coverage area of a
wireless LAN.
Antenna Characteristics
Frequency
An antenna in the frequency of 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b) or 5GHz(IEEE 802.11a) is needed to
communicate efficiently in a wireless LAN.
Radiation Pattern
A radiation pattern is a diagram that allows you to visualize the shape of the antenna’s coverage area.
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain, measured in dB (decibel), is the increase in coverage within the RF beam width. Higher
antenna gain improves the range of the signal for better communications.
For an indoor site, each 1 dB increase in antenna gain results in a range increase of approximately 2.5%.
For an unobstructed outdoor site, each 1dB increase in gain results in a range increase of approximately
5%. Actual results may vary depending on the network environment.
Antenna gain is sometimes specified in dBi, which is how much the antenna increases the signal power
compared to using an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is a theoretical perfect antenna that sends
out radio signals equally well in all directions. dBi represents the true gain that the antenna provides.
Types of Antennas For WLAN
There are two types of antennas used for wireless LAN applications.
•
Omni-directional antennas send the RF signal out in all directions on a horizontal plane. The
coverage area is torus-shaped (like a donut) which makes these antennas ideal for a room
environment. With a wide coverage area, it is possible to make circular overlapping coverage
areas with multiple access points.
Antenna Selection and Positioning Recommendation
G-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
•
Directional antennas concentrate the RF signal in a beam, like a flashlight. The angle of the beam
width determines the direction of the coverage pattern; typically ranges from 20 degrees (less
directional) to 90 degrees (very directional). The directional antennas are ideal for hallways and
outdoor point-to-point applications.
Positioning Antennas
In general, antennas should be mounted as high as practically possible and free of obstructions. In point-to
–point application, position both transmitting and receiving antenna at the same height and in a direct line
of sight to each other to attend the best performance.
For omni-directional antennas mounted on a table, desk, and so on, point the antenna up. For omnidirectional antennas mounted on a wall or ceiling, point the antenna down. For a single AP application,
place omni-directional antennas as close to the center of the coverage area as possible.
For directional antennas, point the antenna in the direction of the desired coverage area.
Connector Type
The ZyAIR is equipped with a reverse polarity SMA jack, so it will work with any 2.4GHz wireless
antenna with a reverse polarity SMA plug.
G-2
Antenna Selection and Positioning Recommendation
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix H
PPPoE
PPPoE in Action
An ADSL modem bridges a PPP session over Ethernet (PPP over Ethernet, RFC 2516) from your PC to an
ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit), which connects to a DSL Access Concentrator where the PPP
session terminates (see the next figure). One PVC can support any number of PPP sessions from your LAN.
PPPoE provides access control and billing functionality in a manner similar to dial-up services using PPP.
Benefits of PPPoE
PPPoE offers the following benefits:
1.
It provides you with a familiar dial-up networking (DUN) user interface.
2.
It lessens the burden on the carriers of provisioning virtual circuits all the way to the ISP on multiple
switches for thousands of users. For GSTN (PSTN & ISDN), the switching fabric is already in place.
3.
It allows the ISP to use the existing dial-up model to authenticate and (optionally) to provide
differentiated services.
Traditional Dial-up Scenario
The following diagram depicts a typical hardware configuration where the PCs use traditional dial-up
networking.
Diagram H-1 Single-PC per Modem Hardware Configuration
PPPoE
H-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
How PPPoE Works
The PPPoE driver makes the Ethernet appear as a serial link to the PC and the PC runs PPP over it, while
the modem bridges the Ethernet frames to the Access Concentrator (AC). Between the AC and an ISP, the
AC is acting as a L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) LAC (L2TP Access Concentrator) and tunnels the
PPP frames to the ISP. The L2TP tunnel is capable of carrying multiple PPP sessions.
With PPPoE, the VC (Virtual Circuit) is equivalent to the dial-up connection and is between the modem
and the AC, as opposed to all the way to the ISP. However, the PPP negotiation is between the PC and the
ISP.
ZyAIR as a PPPoE Client
When using the ZyAIR as a PPPoE client, the PCs on the LAN see only Ethernet and are not aware of
PPPoE. This alleviates the administrator from having to manage the PPPoE clients on the individual PCs.
Diagram H-2 ZyAIR as a PPPoE Client
H-2
PPPoE
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix I
PPTP
What is PPTP?
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) is a Microsoft proprietary protocol (RFC 2637 for PPTP is
informational only) to tunnel PPP frames.
How can we transport PPP frames from a PC to a broadband modem over
Ethernet?
A solution is to build PPTP into the ANT (ADSL Network Termination) where PPTP is used only over the
short haul between the PC and the modem over Ethernet. For the rest of the connection, the PPP frames are
transported with PPP over AAL5 (RFC 2364). The PPP connection, however, is still between the PC and
the ISP. The various connections in this setup are depicted in the following diagram. The drawback of this
solution is that it requires one separate ATM VC per destination.
Diagram I-1 Transport PPP frames over Ethernet
PPTP and the ZyAIR
When the ZyAIR is deployed in such a setup, it appears as a PC to the ANT.
In Windows VPN or PPTP Pass-Through feature, the PPTP tunneling is created from Windows 95, 98 and
NT clients to an NT server in a remote location. The pass-through feature allows users on the network to
access a different remote server using the ZyAIR's Internet connection. In NAT mode, the ZyAIR is able to
pass the PPTP packets to the internal PPTP server (i.e. NT server) behind the NAT. Users need to forward
PPTP packets to port 1723 by configuring the server in Menu 15.2 - Server Set Setup. In the case above
as the remote PPTP Client initializes the PPTP connection, the user must configure the PPTP clients. The
ZyAIR initializes the PPTP connection hence; there is no need to configure the remote PPTP clients.
PPTP
I-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
PPTP Protocol Overview
PPTP is very similar to L2TP, since L2TP is based on both PPTP and L2F (Cisco’s Layer 2 Forwarding).
Conceptually, there are three parties in PPTP, namely the PNS (PPTP Network Server), the PAC (PPTP
Access Concentrator) and the PPTP user. The PNS is the box that hosts both the PPP and the PPTP stacks
and forms one end of the PPTP tunnel. The PAC is the box that dials/answers the phone calls and relays the
PPP frames to the PNS. The PPTP user is not necessarily a PPP client (can be a PPP server too). Both the
PNS and the PAC must have IP connectivity; however, the PAC must in addition have dial-up capability.
The phone call is between the user and the PAC and the PAC tunnels the PPP frames to the PNS. The
PPTP user is unaware of the tunnel between the PAC and the PNS.
Diagram I-2 PPTP Protocol Overview
Microsoft includes PPTP as a part of the Windows OS. In Microsoft’s implementation, the PC, and hence
the ZyAIR, is the PNS that requests the PAC (the ANT) to place an outgoing call over AAL5 to an RFC
2364 server.
Control & PPP connections
Each PPTP session has distinct control connection and PPP data connection.
Call Connection
The control connection runs over TCP. Similar to L2TP, a tunnel control connection is first established
before call control messages can be exchanged. Please note that a tunnel control connection supports
multiple call sessions.
The following diagram depicts the message exchange of a successful call setup between a PC and an ANT.
I-2
PPTP
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Diagram I-3 Example Message Exchange between PC and an ANT
PPP Data Connection
The PPP frames are tunneled between the PNS and PAC over GRE (General Routing Encapsulation, RFC
1701, 1702). The individual calls within a tunnel are distinguished using the Call ID field in the GRE
header.
PPTP
I-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix J
IP Subnetting
IP Addressing
Routers “route” based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the correct
destination host uses the host ID.
IP Classes
An IP address is made up of four octets (eight bits), written in dotted decimal notation, for example,
192.168.1.1. IP addresses are categorized into different classes. The class of an address depends on the
value of its first octet.
Class “A” addresses have a 0 in the left most bit. In a class “A” address the first octet is the network
number and the remaining three octets make up the host ID.
Class “B” addresses have a 1 in the left most bit and a 0 in the next left most bit. In a class “B” address
the first two octets make up the network number and the two remaining octets make up the host ID.
Class “C” addresses begin (starting from the left) with 1 1 0. In a class “C” address the first three
octets make up the network number and the last octet is the host ID.
Class “D” addresses begin with 1 1 1 0. Class “D” addresses are used for multicasting. (There is also a
class “E” address. It is reserved for future use.)
Chart J-1 Classes of IP Addresses
IP ADDRESS:
OCTET 1
OCTET 2
OCTET 3
OCTET 4
Class A
0
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Host ID
Class B
10
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Class C
110
Network number
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Host IDs of all zeros or all ones are not allowed.
Therefore:
A class “C” network (8 host bits) can have 28 –2 or 254 hosts.
A class “B” address (16 host bits) can have 216 –2 or 65534 hosts.
IP Subnetting
J-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
A class “A” address (24 host bits) can have 224 –2 hosts (approximately 16 million hosts).
Since the first octet of a class “A” IP address must contain a “0”, the first octet of a class “A” address can
have a value of 0 to 127.
Similarly the first octet of a class “B” must begin with “10”, therefore the first octet of a class “B” address
has a valid range of 128 to 191. The first octet of a class “C” address begins with “110”, and therefore has a
range of 192 to 223.
Chart J-2 Allowed IP Address Range By Class
CLASS
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(BINARY)
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
Class A
00000000 to 01111111
0 to 127
Class B
10000000 to 10111111
128 to 191
Class C
11000000 to 11011111
192 to 223
Class D
11100000 to 11101111
224 to 239
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits are part of
the host ID (using a logical AND operation). A subnet mask has 32 bits; each bit of the mask corresponds
to a bit of the IP address. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is
part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet mask is “0” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is
part of the host ID.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just as IP addresses are. The “natural” masks for
class A, B and C IP addresses are as follows.
Chart J-3 “Natural” Masks
CLASS
NATURAL MASK
A
255.0.0.0
B
255.255.0.0
C
255.255.255.0
Subnetting
With subnetting, the class arrangement of an IP address is ignored. For example, a class C address no
longer has to have 24 bits of network number and 8 bits of host ID. With subnetting, some of the host ID
bits are converted into network number bits. By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous
J-2
IP Subnetting
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
sequence of ones beginning from the left most bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros,
for a total number of 32 bits.
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a continuous
number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the number of ones instead of
writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing a “/” followed by the number of bits in
the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128.
The following table shows all possible subnet masks for a class “C” address using both notations.
Chart J-4 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK IP ADDRESS
SUBNET MASK “1” BITS
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
The first mask shown is the class “C” natural mask. Normally if no mask is specified it is understood that
the natural mask is being used.
Example: Two Subnets
As an example, you have a class “C” address 192.168.1.0 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
NETWORK NUMBER
HOST ID
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
0
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
00000000
The first three octets of the address make up the network number (class “C”). You want to have two
separate networks.
IP Subnetting
J-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate subnets by converting one of the host ID bits of the IP
address to a network number bit. The “borrowed” host ID bit can be either “0” or “1” thus giving two
subnets; 192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 and 192.168.1.128 with mask 255.255.255.128.
In the following charts, shaded/bolded last octet bit values indicate host ID bits
“borrowed” to form network ID bits. The number of “borrowed” host ID bits
determines the number of subnets you can have. The remaining number of host
ID bits (after “borrowing”) determines the number of hosts you can have on each
subnet.
Chart J-5 Subnet 1
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Chart J-6 Subnet 2
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
The remaining 7 bits determine the number of hosts each subnet can have. Host IDs of all zeros represent
the subnet itself and host IDs of all ones are the broadcast address for that subnet, so the actual number of
hosts available on each subnet in the example above is 27 – 2 or 126 hosts for each subnet.
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is the subnet itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask 255.255.255.128
is the directed broadcast address for the first subnet. Therefore, the lowest IP address that can be assigned
J-4
IP Subnetting
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
to an actual host for the first subnet is 192.168.1.1 and the highest is 192.168.1.126. Similarly the host ID
range for the second subnet is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The above example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a class “C” address space into two
subnets. Similarly to divide a class “C” address into four subnets, you need to “borrow” two host ID bits to
give four possible combinations of 00, 01, 10 and 11. The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192. Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving
26-2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (all 0’s is the subnet itself, all 1’s is the broadcast address on the subnet).
Chart J-7 Subnet 1
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Chart J-8 Subnet 2
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Chart J-9 Subnet 3
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.128
IP Subnetting
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
J-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Chart J-10 Subnet 4
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example Eight Subnets
Similarly use a 27-bit mask to create 8 subnets (001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110).
The following table shows class C IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Chart J-11 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST ADDRESS
BROADCAST ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
223
254
255
The following table is a summary for class “C” subnet planning.
J-6
IP Subnetting
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart J-12 Class C Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED” HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
Subnetting With Class A and Class B Networks.
For class “A” and class “B” addresses the subnet mask also determines which bits are part of the network
number and which are part of the host ID.
A class “B” address has two host ID octets available for subnetting and a class “A” address has three host
ID octets (see Chart J-1) available for subnetting.
The following table is a summary for class “B” subnet planning.
Chart J-13 Class B Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED” HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128
(/25)
512
126
IP Subnetting
J-7
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart J-13 Class B Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED” HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER SUBNET
10
255.255.255.192
(/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224
(/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240
(/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248
(/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252
(/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254
(/31)
32768
1
J-8
IP Subnetting
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix K
Triangle Route
The Ideal Setup
When the firewall is on, your ZyAIR acts as a secure gateway between your LAN and the Internet. In an
ideal network topology, all incoming and outgoing network traffic passes through the ZyAIR to protect
your LAN against attacks.
Diagram K-1 Ideal Setup
The “Triangle Route” Problem
A traffic route is a path for sending or receiving data packets between two Ethernet devices. Some
companies have more than one alternate route to one or more ISPs. If the LAN and ISP(s) are in the same
subnet, the “triangle route” problem may occur. The steps below describe the “triangle route” problem.
Step 1.
A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending out a SYN packet to a receiving
server on the WAN.
Step 2.
The ZyAIR reroutes the SYN packet through Gateway B on the LAN to the WAN.
Step 3.
The reply from the WAN goes directly to the computer on the LAN without going through the
ZyAIR.
As a result, the ZyAIR resets the connection, as the connection has not been acknowledged.
Triangle Route
K-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Diagram K-2 “Triangle Route” Problem
The “Triangle Route” Solutions
This section presents you two solutions to the “triangle route” problem.
IP Aliasing
IP alias allows you to partition your network into logical sections over the same Ethernet interface. Your
ZyAIR supports up to three logical LAN interfaces with the ZyAIR being the gateway for each logical
network. By putting your LAN and Gateway B in different subnets, all returning network traffic must pass
through the ZyAIR to your LAN. The following steps describe such a scenario.
Step 1.
A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet to a receiving server
on the WAN.
Step 2.
The ZyAIR reroutes the packet to Gateway B in Subnet 2.
Step 3.
The reply from WAN goes through the ZyAIR to the computer on the LAN in Subnet 1.
K-2
Triangle Route
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Diagram K-3 IP Alias
Gateways on the WAN Side
A second solution to the “triangle route” problem is to put all of your network gateways on the WAN side
as the following figure shows. This ensures that all incoming network traffic passes through your ZyAIR to
your LAN. Therefore your LAN is protected.
Diagram K-4 Gateways on the WAN Side
Triangle Route
K-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix L
Command Interpreter
The following describes how to use the command interpreter. Enter 24 in the main menu to bring up the
system maintenance menu. Enter 8 to go to Menu 24.8 - Command Interpreter Mode. See the included
disk or zyxel.com for more detailed information on these commands.
Use of undocumented commands or misconfiguration can damage the unit and
possibly render it unusable.
Command Syntax
The command keywords are in courier new font.
Enter the command keywords exactly as shown, do not abbreviate.
The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>.
The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [].
The |symbol means “or”.
For example,
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
means that you must specify the type of netbios filter and whether to turn it on or off.
Command Usage
A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the command prompt. Always type the full
command. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
Command Interpreter
L-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix M
NetBIOS Filter Commands
The following describes the NetBIOS packet filter commands. See the Command Interpreter appendix for
information on the command structure.
Introduction
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP broadcast packets that enable a computer
to connect to and communicate with a LAN.
For some dial-up services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS packets cause unwanted calls.
You can configure NetBIOS filters to do the following :
•
Allow or disallow the sending of NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the WAN.
•
Allow or disallow the sending of NetBIOS packets from the WAN to the LAN.
•
Allow or disallow NetBIOS packets to initiate calls.
Display NetBIOS Filter Settings
Syntax:
sys filter netbios disp
This command gives a read-only list of the current NetBIOS filter modes for a ZyAIR.
=========== NetBIOS Filter Status ===========
Between LAN and WAN: Forward
IPSec Packets: Forward
Trigger Dial: Disabled
Diagram M-1 NetBIOS Display Filter Settings Command Without DMZ Example
The filter types and their default settings are as follows.
Chart M-1 NetBIOS Filter Default Settings
NAME
Between LAN
and WAN
DESCRIPTION
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets are blocked or forwarded
between the LAN and the WAN.
NetBIOS Filter Commands
EXAMPLE
Forward
M-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart M-1 NetBIOS Filter Default Settings
NAME
DESCRIPTION
EXAMPLE
IPSec
Packets
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets sent through a VPN
connection are blocked or forwarded.
Forward
Trigger dial
This field displays whether NetBIOS packets are allowed to initiate calls.
Disabled means that NetBIOS packets are blocked from initiating calls.
Disabled
NetBIOS Filter Configuration
Syntax:
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
<type> =
Identify which NetBIOS filter (numbered 0-3) to configure.
0 = Between LAN and WAN
3 = IPSec packet pass through
4 = Trigger Dial
<on|off> =
For types 0, use on to enable the filter and block NetBIOS packets. Use off to
disable the filter and forward NetBIOS packets.
For type 3, use on to block NetBIOS packets from being sent through a VPN
connection. Use off to allow NetBIOS packets to be sent through a VPN connection.
For type 4, use on to allow NetBIOS packets to initiate dial backup calls. Use off to
block NetBIOS packets from initiating dial backup calls.
Example commands
Command:
sys filter netbios config 0 on
This command blocks LAN to WAN and WAN to LAN NetBIOS packets.
Command:
sys filter netbios config 3 on
This command blocks IPSec NetBIOS packets.
Command:
sys filter netbios config 4 off
This command stops NetBIOS commands from initiating calls.
M-2
NetBIOS Filter Commands
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix N
Log Descriptions
Chart N-1 System Error Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s exceeds the max.
number of session per
host!
This attempt to create a NAT session exceeds the maximum number of
NAT session table entries allowed to be created per host.
Chart N-2 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information from the time
server.
Time calibration
failed
The router failed to get information from the time server.
DHCP client gets %s
A DHCP client got a new IP address from the DHCP server.
DHCP client IP
expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns
%s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
SMT Login
Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router's SMT interface.
SMT Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router's SMT interface.
WEB Login
Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator interface.
WEB Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator interface.
TELNET Login
Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
Log Descriptions
N-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart N-2 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
FTP Login
Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router via FTP.
FTP Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via FTP.
NAT Session Table is
Full!
The maximum number of NAT session table entries has been
exceeded and the table is full.
Chart N-3 UPnP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
UPnP pass through
Firewall
DESCRIPTION
UPnP packets can pass through the firewall.
Chart N-4 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
0
Echo Reply
0
3
4
N-2
DESCRIPTION
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
Log Descriptions
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart N-4 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
0
5
DESCRIPTION
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to
the destination network.
Redirect
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
8
Echo
0
11
Echo message
Time Exceeded
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
12
Parameter Problem
0
13
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
0
14
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
0
15
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
0
16
Information request message
Information Reply
0
Log Descriptions
Information reply message
N-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart N-5 Sys log
LOG MESSAGE
Mon dd hr:mm:ss hostname
src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
DESCRIPTION
This message is sent by the "RAS" when this syslog is
generated. The messages and notes are defined in this
appendix’s other charts.
Log Commands
Go to the command interpreter interface (the Command Interpreter Appendix explains how to access and
use the commands).
Configuring What You Want the ZyAIR to Log
Use the sys logs load command to load the log setting buffer that allows you to configure which logs
the ZyAIR is to record.
Use sys logs category followed by a log category and a parameter to decide what to record.
Chart N-6 Log Categories and Available Settings
LOG CATEGORIES
N-4
AVAILABLE PARAMETERS
8021x
0, 1
access
0, 1, 2, 3
attack
0, 1, 2, 3
error
0, 1, 2, 3
icmp
0, 1
javablocked
0, 1, 2, 3
mten
0, 1
packetfilter
0, 1
remote
0, 1
tcpreset
0, 1
upnp
0, 1
Log Descriptions
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Chart N-6 Log Categories and Available Settings
LOG CATEGORIES
AVAILABLE PARAMETERS
urlblocked
0, 1, 2, 3
urlforward
0, 1
Use 0 to not record logs for that category, 1 to record only logs for that category, 2 to record only
alerts for that category, and 3 to record both logs and alerts for that category.
Use the sys logs save command to store the settings in the ZyAIR (you must do this in order to
record logs).
Displaying Logs
Use the sys logs display command to show all of the logs in the ZyAIR’s log.
Use the sys logs category display command to show the log settings for all of the log
categories.
Use the sys logs display [log category] command to show the logs in an individual ZyAIR
log category.
Use the sys logs clear command to erase all of the ZyAIR’s logs.
Log Command Example
This example shows how to set the ZyAIR to record the error logs and alerts and then view the results.
ras> sys logs load
ras> sys logs category error 3
ras> sys logs save
ras> sys logs display access
# .time
notes
source
destination
message
0|11/11/2002 15:10:12 |172.22.3.80:137
|ACCESS BLOCK
|172.22.255.255:137
Firewall default policy: UDP(set:8)
Log Descriptions
N-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
1|11/11/2002 15:10:12 |172.21.4.17:138
|ACCESS BLOCK
|172.21.255.255:138
Firewall default policy: UDP(set:8)
2|11/11/2002 15:10:11 |172.17.2.1
|ACCESS BLOCK
|224.0.1.60
Firewall default policy: IGMP(set:8)
3|11/11/2002 15:10:11 |172.22.3.80:137
|ACCESS BLOCK
|172.22.255.255:137
Firewall default policy: UDP(set:8)
4|11/11/2002 15:10:10 |192.168.10.1:520
|ACCESS BLOCK
|192.168.10.255:520
Firewall default policy: UDP(set:8)
5|11/11/2002 15:10:10 |172.21.4.67:137
|ACCESS BLOCK
N-6
|172.21.255.255:137
Log Descriptions
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix O
Power Adaptor Specifications
NORTH AMERICAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adaptor Model
AD48-1201200DUY
Input Power
AC120Volts/60Hz/0.25A
Output Power
DC12Volts/1.2A
Power Consumption
10 W
Safety Standards
UL, CUL (UL 1950, CSA C22.2 No.234-M90)
NORTH AMERICAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adaptor Model
DV-121A2-5720
Input Power
AC120Volts/60Hz/27VA
Output Power
DC12Volts/1.2A
Power Consumption
10 W
Safety Standards
UL, CUL (UL 1310, CSA C22.2 No.223-M91)
EUROPEAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adaptor Model
AD-1201200DV
Input Power
AC230Volts/50Hz/0.2A
Output Power
DC12Volts/1.2A
Power Consumption
10 W
Safety Standards
TUV, CE (EN 60950)
UNITED KINGDOM PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adaptor Model
AD-1201200DK
Input Power
AC230Volts/50Hz/0.2A
Output Power
DC12Volts/1.2A
Power Consumption
10 W
Safety Standards
TUV, CE (EN 60950, BS7002)
Power Adaptor Specifications
O-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
JAPAN PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adaptor Model
JOD-48-1124
Input Power
AC100Volts/ 50/60Hz/ 27VA
Output Power
DC12Volts/1.2A
Power Consumption
10 W
Safety Standards
T-Mark (Japan Dentori)
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND PLUG STANDARDS
AC Power Adaptor Model
AD-1201200DS or AD-121200DS
Input Power
AC240Volts/50Hz/0.2A
Output Power
DC12Volts/1.2A
Power Consumption
10 W
Safety Standards
NATA (AS 3260)
O-2
Power Adaptor Specifications
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Appendix P
Index
4
4-Port Switch ..................................................1-1
8
802.1x .............................................................7-8
A
Address Assignment ........................... 3-11, 3-12
Ad-hoc Configuration ....................................D-2
Alternative Subnet Mask Notation.................. J-3
Antenna
Directional..................................................G-2
Omni-directional ........................................G-1
Types..........................................................G-1
Antenna gain ..................................................G-1
Application-level Firewalls...........................11-1
Applications ....................................................1-6
AT command ................................................28-1
Attack Types .................................................11-6
Authentication.............................. 7-2, 21-3, 21-4
auto-crossover .................................................1-1
auto-negotiation ..............................................1-1
B
Backup ................................................ 16-8, 28-2
Basic Service Set............................................D-2
Blacklist ........................................................29-3
Brute Force Password Guessing Protection ....1-2
Brute-force Attack,........................................11-5
BSS ............................ 6-1. See Basic Service Set
Budget Management .....................................29-4
C
CA .................................................................. F-1
Call Control...................................................29-2
Call Filtering .................................................24-1
Call Filters
Built-In ......................................................24-1
User-Defined .............................................24-1
Call History ......................................... 29-3, 29-5
Call Scheduling .............................................31-1
Maximum Number of Schedule Sets.........31-1
PPPoE........................................................31-3
Precedence ................................................31-1
Precedence Example ................See precedence
CDR (Call Detail Record) .............................27-6
Certificate Authority ................................See CA
Channel ...........................................................3-1
Channel ID ............................................ 6-7, 19-7
CHAP............................................................21-3
Classes of IP Addresses .................................. J-1
Collision ........................................................27-2
Command Interpreter ....................................29-1
Community....................................................25-1
Computer Name ............................................18-1
Computer’s IP Address .................................. C-1
Conditions that prevent TFTP and FTP from
working over WAN...................................28-4
Configuration ........................................ 5-2, 16-3
Content Filtering ...........................................12-8
Copyright ...........................................................ii
Cost Of Transmission.......................... 21-6, 21-9
CPU Load......................................................27-3
Customer Support...............................................v
D
Data encryption ...............................................3-1
Index
P-1
ZyAIR G-2000 Broadband Wireless Sharing Router
Data Encryption .............................................. 7-2
Data Filtering ................................................ 24-1
DDNS Type .................................................. 18-4
Denial of Service .......................................... 11-2
Device Filter rules....................................... 24-12
DHCP .... 1-4, 3-3, 3-12, 4-3, 5-2, 5-4, 16-3, 27-4
Diagnostic..................................................... 27-7
Diagnostic Tools........................................... 27-1
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum................. D-2
Distribution System ....................................... D-3
DNS ...................................................13-10, 19-3
DNS Servers ................................................... 5-2
Domain Name....................... 3-3, 3-12, 9-6, 23-8
Domain Name System ................................ 13-10
DoS
Basics........................................................ 11-3
Types ........................................................ 11-4
DoS (Denial of Service).......................1-3, 24-17
DS .................................. See Distribution System
DSSS........See Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Dynamic DNS................ 1-4, 4-2, 4-3, 18-1, 18-3
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ........... 1-4
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange ........................ 7-8
DYNDNS Wildcard...............................4-3, 18-1
E
EAP..........................................................1-3, 7-1
EAP Authentication ...............................F-1, 7-23
MD5............................................................F-1
TLS .............................................................F-1
TTLS...........................................................F-1
ECHO ............................................................. 9-6
Enable Wildcard ........................................... 18-4
Encapsulation..............................20-1, 20-2, 21-1
PPP over Ethernet ...................................... H-1
Encryption ...................................................... 7-9
Error Log ...................................................... 27-5
Error/Information Messages
Sample ...................................................... 27-6
ESS6-2. See Extended Service Set. See Extended
Service Set
P-2
ESS ID ............................................................3-1
Ethernet....................................................3-5, 3-7
Ethernet Encapsulation .................................23-7
Ethernet Traffic...........................................24-16
Extended Service Set ..............................D-3, 6-2
Extended Service Set IDentification ...............6-7
F
Factory LAN Defaults.....................................5-2
FCC...................................................................iii
FHSS..See Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
Filename Conventions ..................................28-1
Filter..............................................................19-1
Applying Filters ......................................24-15
Ethernet traffic ........................................24-16
Ethernet Traffic.......................................24-16
Filter Rules................................................24-5
Filter Structure ..........................................24-3
Generic Filter Rule..................................24-11
Remote Node ............................................21-6
Remote Node Filter...................................21-6
Remote Node Filters ...............................24-16
Sample ....................................................24-14
SUA ........................................................24-12
TCP/IP Filter Rule ....................................24-6
Filter Rule Process ........................................24-2
Filter Rule Setup ...........................................24-6
Filter Rules Summary
Sample ....................................................24-15
Filter Set
Class..........................................................24-6
Filter Set Configuration ................................24-3
Filtering................................................24-1, 24-6
Finger..............................................................9-6
Firewall ...........................................................1-3
Access Methods ........................................12-1
Connection Direction ................................12-4
Creating/Editing Rules............................12-11
Enabling....................................................12-1
Introduction...............................................11-2
LAN to WAN Rules..................................12-4
Index
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Policies......................................................12-1
Rule Checklist...........................................12-2
Rule Logic.................................................12-2
Rule Security Ramifications .....................12-2
Services ...................................................12-13
Types.........................................................11-1
Firewall Application .....................................11-3
Firmware File
Maintenance..............................................16-5
Fragment Threshold ......................................19-7
Fragmentation Threshold ................................6-4
Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum ...........D-2
FTP....................... 4-2, 5-2, 9-6, 13-1, 13-4, 30-3
Restrictions ...............................................30-3
FTP File Transfer ..........................................28-8
FTP Restrictions.................................. 13-1, 28-4
FTP Server ..................................................23-13
G
Gateway ........................................................21-9
General Setup................................. 3-1, 4-1, 18-1
Global..............................................................9-1
H
Hidden Menus...............................................17-4
Hop Count........................................... 21-6, 21-9
Host....................................................... 4-5, 18-4
Host IDs .......................................................... J-1
HTTP .................................. 9-6, 11-1, 11-3, 23-8
I
IBSS .......6-1. See Independent Basic Service Set
ICMP echo ....................................................11-5
IEEE 802.11...................................................D-1
Deployment Issues ..................................... E-1
Security Flaws............................................ E-1
IEEE 802.1x............................................ E-1, 1-3
Advantages................................................. E-1
IGMP ..............................................................5-3
IGMP support................................................21-6
Index
Independent Basic Service Set ............... D-2, 6-1
Infrastructure Configuration...........................D-2
Inside...............................................................9-1
Inside Global Address .....................................9-1
Inside Local Address.......................................9-1
Internet Access ....................1-4, 17-5, 20-1, 20-2
Internet Access Setup........................... A-2, 23-1
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ..11-5
IP Address .. 3-11, 3-12, 5-5, 9-6, 9-7, 16-3, 19-3,
21-9, 24-8, 27-4, 27-8
IP Addressing.................................................. J-1
IP Alias.................................................. 1-5, 19-4
IP Alias Setup................................................19-5
IP Classes ........................................................ J-1
IP Filter .......................................................24-10
Logic Flow ................................................24-9
IP mask..........................................................24-8
IP Multicast .....................................................1-4
IP Packet .....................................................24-11
IP Policy Routing ............................................1-5
IP Pool..................................................... 5-4, 5-5
IP Pool Setup...................................................5-2
IP Ports..........................................................11-3
IP Spoofing ......................................... 11-4, 11-7
IP Static Route ..............................................21-7
IP Static Route Setup ....................................21-8
K
Key Fields For Configuring Rules ................12-3
L
LAN ................................................................5-1
LAN IP Address................................ 15-8, 15-10
LAN Setup ............................................ 5-1, 19-1
LAN to WAN Rules......................................12-4
LAND ................................................. 11-4, 11-5
Link type .......................................................27-2
Local ...............................................................9-1
Local User Database .....................................7-20
Log and Trace ...............................................27-5
P-3
ZyAIR G-2000 Broadband Wireless Sharing Router
Log Descriptions............................................ N-1
Log Facility................................................... 27-7
Logging Option..................................24-8, 24-12
Logs .............................................................. 15-1
M
MAC Address
Cloning Recommendation ........................ 18-5
MAC Address Filter Action.................7-8, 19-10
MAC Address Filtering .........................7-6, 19-9
MAC Filter ..................................................... 7-6
Main Menu ................................................... 17-4
Management Information Base (MIB).......... 13-7
Many to Many No Overload..................See NAT
Many to Many Overload........................See NAT
Many to One ..........................................See NAT
MD5................................................................F-1
Message Digest Algorithm 5 ................ See MD5
Message Integrity Check ................................ 7-9
Message Logging.......................................... 27-5
Metric.................................. 8-6, 10-4, 21-6, 21-9
MIC........................ See Message Integrity Check
Multicast ........................................ 5-3, 5-5, 21-6
My WAN Address ........................................ 21-5
N
Nailed-Up Connection .................................. 21-1
NAT......................3-7, 3-12, 9-6, 9-7, 9-8, 24-12
Application ................................................. 9-3
Applying NAT in the SMT Menus ........... 23-1
Configuring............................................... 23-2
Definitions .................................................. 9-1
Examples .................................................. 23-9
How NAT Works........................................ 9-2
Mapping Types ........................................... 9-4
Non NAT Friendly Application Programs.. 2315
Ordering Rules.......................................... 23-7
What NAT does .......................................... 9-2
NAT Transversal ........................14-1, 14-2, 14-3
P-4
NetBIOS commands .....................................11-6
Network Address Translation ........ 1-4, 9-1, 20-3
Network Address Translation (NAT)............23-1
Network Management..............................1-5, 9-7
Network Topology With RADIUS Server
Example ..................................................... E-2
NNTP..............................................................9-6
O
Offline...........................................................18-4
One to One .............................................See NAT
Open System ...................................................7-2
Outside............................................................9-1
P
Packet Filtering Firewalls .............................11-1
Packets ..........................................................27-2
PAP ...............................................................21-3
Password ............................. 4-4, 17-1, 21-3, 25-1
Ping ...............................................................27-8
Ping of Death ................................................11-4
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet.............8-3
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol ... 3-9, 9-7. See
PPTP
POP3 ......................................................9-6, 11-3
PPPoE .............................................. 1-4, 3-5, 3-7
PPTP .................................. I-1, 3-5, 3-7, 3-9, 9-7
PPTP Encapsulation........................................3-9
PPTP Support..................................................1-4
Preamble Mode ...............................................7-3
Private ........................................ 10-4, 21-6, 21-9
Private IP Address ........................................3-11
Protocol.........................................................24-7
Protocol Filter Rules ...................................24-12
Protocol/Port .................................................15-8
Q
Quick Installation Guide ............................... xxiv
Index
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
R
RADIUS................................................ 1-3, 7-22
RAS...............................................................27-4
Rate
Receiving ..................................................27-2
Transmission .............................................27-2
Related Documentation................................. xxiv
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service ..See
RADIUS
Remote DHCP Server ...................................19-3
Remote Management ....................................13-1
Remote Management and NAT ....................13-2
Remote Management Limitations ....... 13-1, 30-3
Remote Management Setup ................ 30-1, 30-2
Remote Node ...................................... 21-1, 27-2
Remote Node Profile.................................21-2
Reports ..........................................................15-6
Consideration ............................................15-7
Required fields ..............................................17-4
Restore ..........................................................16-9
Restore Configuration ...................................28-6
RF signals.......................................................D-1
RIP ........................................ 5-2, 5-3, 19-3, 21-6
Roaming..........................................................6-7
Enable on ZyAIR ....................................19-11
Example ......................................................6-8
Requirements ..............................................6-9
RTS Threshold ...................................... 6-3, 19-7
Rules ................................................... 12-1, 12-5
Checklist ...................................................12-2
Creating Custom .......................................12-1
Key Fields .................................................12-3
LAN to WAN............................................12-4
Logic .........................................................12-2
Predefined Services.................................12-13
S
Schedule Sets
Duration ....................................................31-2
Secure Sockets Layer ......................................1-3
Index
Security Parameters.......................................7-11
Security Ramifications ..................................12-2
Server .4-7, 9-5, 23-2, 23-4, 23-6, 23-7, 23-8, 239, 23-11, 23-12
Service......................................................iv, 12-3
Service Set.......................................................6-7
Service Type ..................................................A-2
Services ...........................................................9-6
setup a schedule.............................................31-2
Shared Key......................................................7-3
Simple Network Management Protocol ..........1-5
SMT ................................................................1-5
SMT Menu Overview ...................................17-2
SMTP ..............................................................9-6
Smurf................................................... 11-5, 11-6
SNMP....................................1-5, 9-7, 12-3, 13-6
Configuration ............................................25-1
Get.............................................................13-7
Manager ....................................................13-7
MIBs .........................................................13-8
Trap ...........................................................13-8
Trusted Host..............................................25-1
SNMP Traps..................................................13-8
Stateful Inspection.....1-3, 11-1, 11-2, 11-7, 11-8,
24-17
Static Route ...................................................10-1
Static Route Setup .........................................21-7
Static Routing Topology ...............................21-7
SUA.................................................. 9-6, 9-7, 9-8
SUA (Single User Account).................. See NAT
Subnet Mask..... 3-12, 5-5, 19-3, 21-5, 21-9, 27-4
Subnet Masks .................................................. J-2
Subnetting ....................................................... J-3
Supporting Disk ............................................xxiv
SYN Flood .......................................... 11-4, 11-5
SYN-ACK.....................................................11-5
Syslog............................................................27-6
Syslog IP Address .........................................27-6
Syslog Server ................................................27-6
System
Console Port Speed ...................................27-4
P-5
ZyAIR G-2000 Broadband Wireless Sharing Router
Diagnostic ................................................. 27-7
Log and Trace ........................................... 27-5
Syslog and Accounting ............................. 27-6
System Information .................................. 27-3
System Status............................................ 27-1
Time and Date........................................... 29-5
System Information ...................................... 27-3
System Information & Diagnosis.................. 27-1
System Maintenance.. 27-1, 27-3, 28-2, 28-5, 2811, 29-1, 29-2, 29-4, 29-5, 29-6
System Management Terminal ....................... 1-5
System Name .................................................. 4-2
System Timeout ...................................13-2, 30-4
T
TCP/IP .. 5-5, 11-3, 11-4, 13-2, 24-12, 27-8, 30-1
Teardrop........................................................ 11-4
Telnet ...................................................13-2, 30-1
Telnet Configuration............................13-2, 30-1
Telnet Under NAT........................................ 30-1
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol .................... 7-9
TFTP
And FTP Over WAN} .............................. 30-3
Restrictions ............................................... 30-3
TFTP and FTP over WAN Will Not Work
When…..................................................... 28-4
TFTP and FTP Over WAN} ......................... 13-1
TFTP File Transfer ..................................... 28-10
TFTP Restrictions................................13-1, 28-4
Three-Way Handshake ................................. 11-4
Time and Date Setting .................................. 29-6
Time Setting ................................................... 4-5
Time Zone..................................................... 29-7
TKIP ..........See Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TLS .................................................................F-1
Trace Records ............................................... 27-5
Traceroute..................................................... 11-7
Transport Layer Security ........................See TLS
Triangle.......................................................... K-1
Triangle Route\ Solutions .............................. K-2
Trigger Port Forwarding
P-6
Process Example .....................................23-16
Troubleshooting
Accessing ZyAIR...............................A-3, A-4
Ethernet Port .............................................. A-2
Password .................................................... A-1
Start-Up...................................................... A-1
TTLS...............................................................F-1
Tunneled Transport Layer Service....... See TTLS
U
Universal Plug and Play..................................1-4
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)..........14-1, 14-3
UNIX Syslog........................................27-5, 27-6
UNIX syslog parameters...............................27-6
Upload Firmware ..........................................28-8
UPnP Examples ............................................14-4
Use Server Detected IP .................................18-4
User Authentication ........................................7-9
User Name .............................................4-4, 18-4
User Profiles ........................................7-20, 22-1
User Specified IP Addr .................................18-5
V
Valid CI Commands .....................................29-1
VPN ................................................................8-5
W
WAN...............................................................5-1
WAN Setup............................................3-13, 8-1
WAN to LAN Rules .....................................12-5
Web...............................................................13-5
Web Configurator ................. 2-1, 2-3, 11-2, 12-3
Web Site Hits ................................................15-8
WEP.........................................................3-1, 7-1
WEP Encryption ............................ 1-3, 7-5, 19-7
Wide Area Network ........................................8-1
Wi-Fi Protected Access...................................1-3
Wired Equivalent Privacy ...............................1-3
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants ................7-12
Wireless LAN .......................................D-1, 19-6
Index
ZyAIR G-2000 Wireless 4-port Router User’s Guide
Benefits ......................................................D-1
Wireless LAN Setup .....................................19-6
Wireless Security ............................................7-1
Wizard Setup.................................. 3-1, 3-5, 3-11
WLAN ................................... See Wireless LAN
WPA................................................................7-9
WPA with RADIUS Application ..................7-10
WPA-PSK .......................................................7-9
WPA-PSK Application .................................7-10
www.dyndns.org ...........................................18-4
Index
Z
ZyAIR LED.....................................................1-2
ZyNOS ................................................ 28-1, 28-2
ZyNOS F/W Version.....................................28-1
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
Note...............................................................iv
ZyXEL’s Firewall
Introduction...............................................11-2
P-7