A
Agilent E361xA 60W BENCH SERIES DC POWER SUPPLIES
OPERATING AND SERVICE MANUAL FOR MODELS:
Agilent E3614A
Agilent E3615A
Agilent E3616A
Agilent E3617A
For instruments with higher Serial Numbers than above,
a change page may be included.
Manual Part No. 5959-5310
July 2013
Edition 13
A
CERTIFICATION
Agilent Technologies certifies that this product met its published specifications at time of shipment from the factory. Agilent
Technologies further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards), to the extent allowed by that organization's calibration facility,
and to the calibration facilities of other International Standards Organization members.
WARRANTY
This Agilent Technologies hardware product is warranted against defects in material and workmanship for a period of 3 years
from date of delivery. Agilent software and firmware products, which are designated by Agilent for use with a hardware product and when properly installed on that hardware product, are warranted not to fail to execute their programming instructions
due to defects in material and workmanship for a period of 90 days from date of delivery. During the warranty period, either
Agilent or Agilent Technologies will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be defective. Agilent does
not warrant that operation the software, firmware, or hardware shall be uninterrupted or error free.
For warranty service, with the exception of warranty options, this product must be returned to the nearest service center designated by Agilent. Return to Englewood Colorado Service Center for repair in United States(1-800-258-5165). Customer
shall prepay shipping charges by (and shall pay all duty and taxes) for products returned to Agilent for warranty service.
Except for the products returned to Customer from another country, Agilent shall pay for return of products to Customer.
Warranty services outside the country of initial purchase are included in Agilent's product price, only if Customer pays Agilent
international prices (defined as destination local currency price, or U.S. or Geneva Export price).
If Agilent is unable, within a reasonable time, to repair or replace any product to condition as warranted, the Customer shall
be entitled to a refund of the purchase price upon return of the product to Agilent.
The warranty period begins on the date of delivery or on the date of installation if installed by Agilent.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from improper or inadequate maintenance by the Customer, Customer-supplied software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation outside of the environmental specifications for the product, or improper site preparation and maintenance. TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, NO
OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. AND AGILENT SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
For consumer transactions in Australia and New Zealand:
The warranty terms contained in this statement, except to the extent lawfully permitted, do not exclude, restrict or modify and
are in addition to the mandatory rights applicable to the sale of this product to you.
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES
TO THE EXTENT ALLOWED BY LOCAL LAW, THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE THE CUSTOMER'S SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. AGILENT SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT, TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
ASSISTANCE
The above statements apply only to the standard product warranty. Warranty options, extended support contacts, product
maintenance agreements and customer assistance agreements are also available. Contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales and Service office for further information on Agilent's full line of Support Programs.
SAFETY SUMMARY
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument.
Failure to comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in this manual violates safety standards of design,
manufacture, and intended use of the instrument. Agilent Technologies assumes no liability for the customer's failure to comply
with these requirements.
SAFETY SYMBOLS
BEFORE APPLYING POWER.
Verify that the product is set to match the available line voltage
and that the correct fuse is installed.
Instruction manual symbol; the product will
be marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the user to refer to the instruction
manual.
!
GROUND THE INSTRUMENT.
This product is a Safety Class I instrument (provided with a protective earth terminal). To minimize shock hazard, the instrument
chassis and cabinet must be connected to an electrical ground.
The instrument must be connected to the ac power supply mains
through a three-conductor power cable, with the third wire firmly
connected to an electrical ground(safety ground) at the power
outlet. Any interruption of the protective(grounding) conductor or
disconnection of the protective earth terminal will cause a potential shock hazard that could result in personal injury. If the instrument is to be energized via an external autotransformer for
voltage reduction, be certain that the autotransformer common
terminal is connected to the neutral(earthed pole) of the ac power
lines (supply mains).
or
WARNING
DO NOT OPERATE IN AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE.
Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable
gases or fumes.
CAUTION
KEEP AWAY FROM LIVE CIRCUITS.
Operating personnel must not remove instrument covers. Component replacement and internal adjustments must be made by
qualified service personnel. Do not replace components with
power cable connected. Under certain conditions, dangerous voltages may exist even with the power cable removed. To avoid injuries, always disconnect power, discharge circuits and remove
external voltage sources before touching components.
NOTE
DO NOT SERVICE OR ADJUST ALONE.
Do not attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
Indicate earth(ground) terminal.
The WARNING sign denotes a hazard. It
calls attention to a procedure, practice,
or the like, which, if not correctly performed or
adhered to, could result inpersonal injury. Do
not proceed beyond a WARNING sign until
the indicated conditions are fully understood
and met.
The CAUTION sign denotes a hazard. It calls
attention to an operating procedure, or the
like, which, if not correctly performed or
adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of part or all of the product. Do
not proceed beyond CAUTION sign until the
indicated conditions are fully understood and
met.
The NOTE sign denotes important information. It calls attention to a procedure, practice, condition or the like, which is essential to
highlight.
DO NOT SUBSTITUTE PARTS OR MODIFY INSTRUMENT.
Because of the danger of introducing additional hazards, do not
install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification
to the instrument. Return the instrument to a Agilent Technologies
Sales and Service Office for service and repair to ensure that
safety features are maintained.
Instruments that appear damaged or defective should be made inoperative and secured against unintended
operation until they can be repaired by qualified service personnel.
1-2
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
The Declaration of Conformity (DoC) for this instrument is available on the Agilent website. You can search the DoC by its
product model or description at the web address below.
http://regulations.corporate.agilent.com/DoC/search.htm
Note
If you are unable to search for the respective DoC, please contact your local Agilent representative.
1-3
Table of Contents
SAFETY SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
INSTRUMENT AND MANUAL IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
OPTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
ACCESSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
INSTALLATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
INITIAL INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Mechanical Check. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Electrical Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
INSTALLATION DATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Location and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Outline Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Rack Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
INPUT POWER REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Line Voltage Option Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Power Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
TURN-ON CHECKOUT PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
OPERATING MODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
LOCAL OPERATING MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Constant Voltage Operaton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Constant Current Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Overvoltage Protection (OVP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
CONNECTING LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
OPERATION BEYOND RATED OUTPUT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
REMOTE OPERATING MODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Remote Voltage Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Remote Analog Voltage Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
MULTIPLE-SUPPLY OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
NORMAL PARALLEL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
AUTO-PARALLEL OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
NORMAL SERIES OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
AUTO-SERIES OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
AUTO-TRACKING OPERATON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
LOAD CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
PULSE LOADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
REVERSE CURRENT LOADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
OUTPUT CAPACITANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
REVERSE VOLTAGE LOADING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
BATTERY CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
1-4
GENERAL INFORMATION
OPTIONS
Options 0EM, 0E3 and 0E9 determine which line voltage is
selected at the factory. The standard unit is configured for 115
Vac ± 10%. For information about changing the line voltage
setting, see paragraph "INPUT POWER REQUIREMENTS",
page 1-6.
0EM:
Input power, 115 Vac ± 10%, 47-63 Hz
0E3:
Input power, 230 Vac ± 10%, 47-63 Hz
0E9:
Input power, 100 Vac ± 10%, 47-63 Hz
0L2:
One additional manual
INTRODUCTION
This manual describes all models in the Agilent E361xA 60W
Bench Power Supply family and unless stated otherwise, the
information in this manual applies to all models.
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
This product is a Safety Class I instrument, which means
that it is provided with a protective earth ground terminal.
This terminal must be connected to an ac source that has a
3-wire ground receptacle. Review the instrument rear panel
and this manual for safety markings and instructions before
operating the instrument. Refer to the Safety Summary page
at the beginning of this manual for a summary of general
safety information. Specific safety information is located at
the appropriate places in this manual.
ACCESSORY
The accessory listed below may be ordered from your local
Agilent Technologies Sales Office either with the power supply or separately. (Refer to the list at the rear of the manual for
address.)
Agilent Part No. Description
5063-9240
Rack Kit for mounting one or two 3 1/2" high
supply in a standard 19" rack
This power supply is designed to comply with the following
safety and EMC(Electromagnetic Compatibility) requirements
„IEC 348: Safety Requirements for Electronic Measuring
Apparatus
„IEC 1010-1/EN 61010: Safety Requirements for Electrical
Equipment for Measurement, Control, and Laboratory Use
„CSA C22.2 No.231: Safety Requirements for Electrical and
Electronic Measuring and Test Equipment
„UL 1244: Electrical and Electronic Measuring and Testing
Equipment.
„EMC Directive 89/336/EEC: Council Directive entitled
Approximation of the Laws of the Member States relating to
Electromagnetic Compatibility
„EN 55011(1991) Group 1, Class B/CISPR 11: Limits and
„Methods of Radio Interference Characteristics of
„Industrial, Scientific, and Medical(ISM) Radio-Frequency
Equipment
„EN 50082-1(1991) /
IEC 801-2(1991): Electrostatic Discharge Requirements
IEC 801-3(1984): Radiated Electromagnetic Field
Requirements
IEC 801-4(1988): Electrical Fast Transient/Burst
Requirements
„ICES/NMB-001
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES-001.
Cet appareil ISM est conforme à la norme NMB-001 du Canada.
The rack mount kit is needed for rack mounting of all models
in the Agilent E361xA power supply because these supplies
have molded feet.
DESCRIPTION
This power supply is suitable for either bench or rack
mounted operation. It is a compact, well-regulated, Constant
Voltage/Constant Current supply that will furnish full rated
output voltage at the maximum rated output current or can be
continuously adjusted throughout the output range. The output can be adjusted both locally from the front panel and
remotely by changing the settings of the rear panel switches
(See paragraph "REMOTE OPERATING MODES", page 1-9).
The models in this family offer up to 60 watts of output power,
with voltage up to 60 volts and current up to 6 amps as shown
in Table 1.
The front panel VOLTAGE control can be used to establish
the voltage limit when the supply is used as a constant current source and the CURRENT control can be used to establish the output current limit when the supply is used as a
constant voltage source. The supply will automatically cross
over from constant voltage to constant current operation and
vice versa if the output current or voltage exceeds these preset limits.
INSTRUMENT AND MANUAL IDENTIFICATION
The front panel includes an autoranging (E3614A singlerange) digital voltmeter and a single-range digital ammeter.
Two 3 1/2 digit voltage and current displays accurately show
the output voltage and current respectively. The output ratings for each model are shown in the Specifications and
Operating Characteristics Table.
A serial number identifies your power supply. The serial
number encodes the country of manufacture, the date of the
latest significant design change, and a unique sequential
number. As an illustration, a serial number beginning with
KR306 denotes a power supply built in 1993 (3=1 993,
4=1994, etc), 6th week manufacture in Malaysia (MY). The
remaining digits of the serial number are a unique, five-digit
number assigned sequentially.
The OVP/CC SET switch is used to check the OVP trip voltage and current control set value. When pressing this switch,
the voltage display indicates the OVP trip voltage and the current display indicates the current control set value.
If a yellow Change Sheet is supplied with this manual, its purpose is to explain any differences between your instrument
and the instrument described in this manual. The change
sheet may also contain information for correcting errors in
the manual.
The power supply has both front and rear output terminals.
Either the positive or negative output terminal may be
1-5
grounded or the power supply can be operated floating at up
to a maximum of 240 Volts off ground. Total output voltage to
ground must not exceed 240 Vdc.
LINE FUSE
Line Voltage
100/115 Vac
230 Vac
Fuse
2.0 AT
1.0 AT
SPECIFICATIONS
Detailed specifications for the power supply are given in Table
1. All specifications are at front terminals with a resistive load,
and local sensing unless otherwise stated. Operating characteristics provide useful, but non-warranted information in the
form of the nominal performance.
Agilent Part No.
2110-1393
2110-1346
Table 1. Specifications and Operating Characteristics
*AC INPUT
*STABILITY (OUTPUT DRIFT)
An internal switch permits operation from 100, 115, or 230 Vac
lines.
100 Vac ± 10%, 47-63 Hz, 163 VA, 125 W
115 Vac ± 10%, 47-63 Hz, 163 VA, 125 W
230 Vac ± 10%, 47-63 Hz, 163 VA, 125 W
Maximum change in output for an 8 hours following a 30 minute
warm-up under constant line, load and ambient temperature.
Constant Voltage: Less than 0.1% plus 5 mV
Constant Current: Less than 0.1% plus 10 mA
DC OUTPUT
Less than 50 μsec for output recovery to within 15 mV following a
change in output current from full load to half load, or vice versa.
LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSE TIME
Voltage and current can be programmed via front panel control or
remote analog control over the following ranges;
E3614A: 0 - 8 V, 0 - 6 A
E3615A: 0 - 20 V, 0 - 3 A
E3616A: 0 - 35 V, 0 - 1.7 A
E3617A: 0 - 60 V, 0 - 1 A
METER ACCURACY: ±(0.5% of output + 2 counts) at
25oC ± 5oC
METER (PROGRAMMING) RESOLUTION
Voltage: E3614A
E3615A
E3616A
E3617A
Current: E3614A
E3615A
E3616A
E3617A
*OUTPUT TERMINALS
The output terminals are provided on the front and rear panel.
They are isolated from the chassis and either the positive or negative terminal may be connected to the ground terminal.
LOAD REGULATION
Constant Voltage - Less than 0.01% plus 2 mV for a full load to no
load change in output current.
Constant Current - Less than 0.01% plus 250 μA for a zero to
maximum change in output voltage.
10 mV
10 mV (0 to 20 V), 100 mV (above 20 V)
10 mV (0 to 20 V), 100 mV (above 20 V)
10 mV (0 to 20 V), 100 mV (above 20 V)
10 mA
10 mA
1 mA
1 mA
*OVERLOAD PROTECTION
A continuously acting constant current circuit protects the power
supply for all overloads including a direct short placed across the
terminals in constant voltage operation. The constant voltage circuit limits the output voltage in the constant current mode of operation.
LINE REGULATION
Constant Voltage - Less than 0.01% plus 2 mV for any line voltage change within the input rating.
Constant Current - Less than 0.01% plus 250 μA for any line voltage change within the input rating.
*OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
Trip voltage adjustable via front panel control.
E3614A
E3615A
E3616A
E3617A
Range: 2.5-10 V 2.5-23 V
2.5-39 V
5-65 V
Margin: Minimum setting above output voltage to avoid
false tripping: 4% of output + 2 V for all models
PARD (Ripple and Noise)
Constant Voltage: Less than 200 μV rms and 1 mV p-p
(20 Hz-20 MHz).
Constant Current: E3614A: Less than 5 mA rms
E3615A: Less than 2 mA rms
E3616A: Less than 500 μA rms
E3617A: Less than 500 μA rms
*REMOTE ANALOG VOLTAGE PROGRAMMING (25 ± 5oC)
per degree C at 40oC-55oC.
Remotely varied voltage from 0 to 10 V provides zero to maximum rated output voltage or current.
Voltage: Linearity 0.5% Current: Linearity 0.5%
The programming inputs are protected against input voltages up
to ±40 V.
*TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
REMOTE SENSING
OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE
0 to 40oC for full rated output. Maximum current is derated 1%
Maximum change in output per oC after a 30-minute warm-up.
Constant Voltage: Less than 0.02% plus 500 μV.
Constant Current: E3614A: Less than 0.02% plus 3 mA
E3615A: Less than 0.02% plus 1.5 mA
E3616A: Less than 0.02% plus 1 mA
E3617A: Less than 0.02% plus 0.5 mA
Meets load-regulation specification when correcting for load-lead
drops of up to 0.5 V per lead with sense wire resistance of less
than 0.5 ohms per sense lead and lead lengths of less than 5
meters.
1-6
Table 1. Specifications and Operating Characteristics (Cont’d)
*REMOTE PROGRAMMING SPEED
DC ISOLATION
Maximum time required for output voltage to change from initial
value to within a tolerance band (0.1%) of the newly programmed
value following the onset of a step change in the programming
input voltage.
Full load
No load
Up:
E3614A:
3 msec
2 msec
E3615A:
9 msec
6 msec
E3616A:
85 msec
85 msec
E3617A:
200 msec
200 msec
Down: E3614A:
7 msec
1.6 sec
E3615A:
13 msec
2.2 sec
E3616A:
65 msec
1.8 sec
E3617A:
200 msec
3.2 sec
± 240 Vdc maximum between either output terminal and earth
ground including the output voltage.
INSTALLATION
instructions.
*COOLING: Convection cooling is employed.
*WEIGHT: 12.1 lbs/5.5 Kg net, 14.9 lbs/6.75 Kg shipping.
* Operating Characteristics
INITIAL INSPECTION
Before shipment, this instrument was inspected and found to be
free of mechanical and electrical defects. As soon as the instrument is unpacked, inspect for any damage that may have
occurred in transit. Save all packing materials until the inspection
is completed. If damage is found, a claim should be filed with the
carrier. The Agilent Technologies Sales and Service office should
be notified.
Mechanical Check
This check should confirm that there are no broken knobs or connectors, that the cabinet and panel surfaces are free of dents and
scratches, and that the meter is not scratched or cracked.
Electrical Check
The instrument should be checked against its electrical specifications. Paragraph "TURN-ON CHECKOUT PROCEDURE" contains a brief checkout procedure and "PERFORMANCE TEST" in
section SERVICE INFORMATION includes an instrument performance check to verify proper instrument operation.
Figure 1. Outline Diagram
INPUT POWER REQUIREMENTS
The instrument is shipped ready for bench operation. It is necessary only to connect the instrument to a source of power and it is
ready for operation.
This power supply may be operated from nominal 100, 115, or
230 Vac 47-63 Hertz power source. A label on the rear panel
shows the nominal input voltage set for the unit at the factory. If
necessary, you can convert the supply to another nominal input
voltage by following the instructions below
Location and Cooling
Line Voltage Option Conversion
INSTALLATION DATA
Line voltage conversion is accomplished by adjusting two components: the line select switch and the rear panel fuse F1. To convert the supply from one line voltage option to another, proceed
as follows:
This instrument is air cooled. Sufficient space should be allowed so
that a free flow of cooling air can reach the sides and rear of the
instrument when it is in operation. It should be used in an area where
the ambient temperature does not exceed 40oC. Maximum current is
derated 1% per oC at 40oC-55oC.
a. Disconnect power cord.
b. Turn off the supply and remove the top cover by lifting the
cover upwards after taking it off from both sides of the chassis
by inserting a flat-blade screwdriver into the gap on the lower
rear portion of the cover.
c. Set two sections of the line voltage selector switch on the PC
board for the desired line voltage (see Figure 2).
d. Check the rating of the fuse F1 installed in the rear panel fuse
holder and replace with the correct fuse if necessary. For 100
and 115 V operation, use a time delay blow 2 A fuse and for
230 V use a time delay 1 A fuse.
Outline Diagram
Figure 1 is a outline diagram showing the dimensions of the
instrument.
Rack Mounting
This instrument may be rack mounted in a standard 19-inch rack
panel either by itself or alongside a similar unit. Please see
ACCESSORY, page 1-4, for available rack mounting accessories. Each rack-mounting kit includes complete installation
1-7
e. Replace the cover and mark the supply clearly with a tag or
label indicating the correct line voltage and fuse that is in
use.
4. DISPLAY OVP/CC SET Switch: Pressing this switch causes
the VOLTS display to show voltage setting for overvoltage
shutdown (trip voltage) and the AMPS display to show the
current control set value. Setting values are either front panel
settings or remote voltage programmed settings.
5. OVP Adjust Screwdriver Control: While pressing the DISPLAY OVP/CC SET switch, rotating the control clock-wise
with a small, flat-blade screwdriver increases the setting for
overvoltage shutdown.
6. VOLTS Display: Digital display of actual output voltage, or
OVP shutdown setting.
7. AMPS Display: Digital display of actual output current, or
output-current setting.
8. CV LED Indicator: Output voltage is regulated when lighted.
This means the power supply is operating in the constant voltage mode.
9. CC LED Indicator: Output current is regulated when lighted.
This means the power supply is operating in the constant current mode.
10. OVP LED Indicator: Output is shutdown by the occurrence
of an overvoltage when lighted. Removing the cause of overvoltage and turning the power off, then on, resets the power
supply.
Figure 2. Line Voltage Selector (set for 115 Vac)
Power Cord
To protect operating personnel, the instrument should be
grounded. This instrument is equipped with a three conductor
power cord. The third conductor is the ground conductor and
when the power cord is plugged into an appropriate receptacle,
the supply is grounded.
The power supply was shipped with a power cord for the type of
outlet used at your location. If the appropriate cord was not
included, contact your nearest Agilent Sales Office to obtain the
correct cord.
TURN-ON CHECKOUT PROCEDURE
The following checkout procedure describes the use of the front
panel controls and indicators illustrated in Figure 3 and ensures
that the supply is operational:
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
LOCAL
MASTER
_
+
+
_
+
_
INTRODUCTION
This section explains the operating controls and indicators and
provides information on many operating modes possible with your
instrument. The front panel controls and indicators are illustrated
in Figure 3.
M/S 1
M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
SENSE
+S
OUT
-S
CV
CC
VREF A1 A2 A3
A4 A5
REMOTE
Figure 4. Switch Settings of Rear-Panel Control for TurnOn Checkout
a. Disconnect power cord.
b. Check that the rear-panel switch settings are as shown in Figure 4.
c. Check that the rear panel label indicates that the supply is set
to match your input line voltage (If not, refer to "Line Voltage
Option Conversion".).
d. Check that the fuse on the rear panel is correct for your line
voltage.
e. Connect the power cord and push the LINE switch to ON.
f. While pressing OVP/CC SET switch, verify that the OVP
shutdown is set above 8.0, 20.0, 35.0, or 60.0 Vdc for
E3614A, E3615A, E3616A, or E3617A respectively. If not,
turn up OVP Adjust with a small flat-blade screwdriver.
g. Turn VOLTAGE control fully counter clockwise to ensure that
the output of VOLTS display decreases to 0 Vdc, then fully
clockwise to ensure that output voltage increases to the maximum output voltage.
h. While pressing OVP/CC SET switch, turn the CURRENT control fully counter clockwise and then fully clockwise to ensure
Figure 3. Front-Panel Controls and Indicators
1. LINE Switch: Pressing this switch turns the supply on, or off.
2. VOLTAGE Control: Clockwise rotation increases output voltage.
3. CURRENT Control: Clockwise rotation increases output current.
1-8
that the current limit value can be set from zero to maximum
rated value.
False OVP shutdowns may occur if you set the OVP shutdown
too close to the supply's operating voltage. Set the OVP shutdown voltage 4% of output +2.0 V or more above the output voltage to avoid false shutdowns from load-induced transients.
OPERATING MODES
The setting of the rear panel switch determines the operating
modes of the power supply. The local operating mode is set so
the power supply senses the output voltage directly at the output
terminals (local sensing) for operation using the front panel controls (local programming). Other operating modes are: remote
voltage sensing and remote programming of output voltage and
current using external voltages.
Adjusting OVP. Follow this procedure to adjust the OVP shutdown voltage.
a. With the VOLTAGE control fully counter clockwise, turn on
the power supply.
b. While depressing DISPLAY OVP/CC SET switch, adjust
the OVP Adjust control to the desired OVP shutdown using
a small, flat-blade screwdriver.
c. Follow the procedure for CC or CV operaton to set the output voltage and current
LOCAL OPERATING MODE
The power supply is shipped from the factory configured in the
local operating mode. Local operating mode requires the switch
settings of the rear panel, as shown in Figure 4. The power supply
provides constant voltage(CV) or constant current(CC) output.
Resetting OVP. If OVP shutdown occurs, reset the supply by
turning power off. Wait one or more seconds, and turn power on
again. If OVP shutdown continue to occur, check the connections
to the load and sense terminals, and check the OVP limit setting..
Constant Voltage Operaton
To set up a power supply for constant voltage operation, proceed
as follows:
a. Turn on the power supply and adjust 10-turn VOLTAGE control for desired output voltage (output terminals open).
b. While depressing DISPLAY OVP/CC SET switch, adjust 10turn CURRENT control for the desired current limit.
c. With power off connect the load to the output terminals.
d. Turn on the power supply. Verify that CV LED is lighted.
During actual operation, if a load change causes the current
limit to be exceeded, the power supply will automatically
cross over to constant current mode and the output voltage
will drop proportionately.
Strong electrostatic discharge to power supply can make
OVP trip and eventually crowbar the output, which can
effectively protect output loads from the hazardous ESD
current.
CONNECTING LOADS
The output of the supply is isolated from earth ground. Either output terminal may be grounded or the output can be floated up to
240 volts off ground. Total output voltage to ground must not
exceed 240 Vdc.
Constant Current Operation
To set up a power supply for constant current operation, proceed
as follows:
Each load should be connected to the power supply output terminals
using separate pairs of connecting wires. This will minimize mutual
coupling effects between loads and will retain full advantage of the
low output impedance of the power supply. Each pair of connecting
wires should be as short as possible and twisted or shielded to
reduce noise pick-up. (If a shield is used, connect one end to the
power supply ground terminal and leave the other end unconnected.)
a. Turn on power supply.
b. While depressing DISPLAY OVP/CC SET switch, adjust
CURRENT control for the desired output current.
c. Turn up the VOLTAGE control to the desired voltage limit.
d. With power off connect the load to the output terminal.
e. Turn on power supply and then verify that CC LED is lighted.
(If CV LED is lighted, choose a higher voltage limit. A voltage
setting that is greater than the current setting multiplied by the
load resistance in ohms is required for CC operation.) During
actual operation, if a load change causes the voltage limit to
be exceeded, the power supply will automatically cross over
to constant voltage operation at the preset voltage limit and
output current will drop proportionately.
If load considerations require that the output power distribution
terminals be remotely located from the power supply, then the
power supply output terminals should be connected to the remote
distribution terminals via a pair of twisted or shielded wires and
each load separately connected to the remote distribution terminals. For this case, remote sensing should be used (See paragraph "Remote Voltage Sensing").
Overvoltage Protection (OVP)
Adjustable overvoltage protection guards your load against overvoltage. When the voltage at the output terminals increases (or is
increased by an external source) to the OVP shutdown voltage as
set by the OVP ADJUST control, the supply's OVP circuit disables the output causing the output voltage and current to drop to
zero. During OVP shutdown the OVP LED lights.
OPERATION BEYOND RATED OUTPUT
The output controls can adjust the voltage or current to values up
to 5% over the rated output. Although the supply can be operated
in the 5% overrange region without being damaged, it can not be
guaranteed to meet all of its performance specifications in this
region.
1-9
REMOTE OPERATING MODES
leads. Ground the shield at the power supply end only. Do not use
the shield as one of the sensing conductors.
Remote operating modes discussed below are remote voltage
sensing and remote voltage programming. You can set up the unit
for remote operating modes by changing the settings of the rear
panel switch and connecting the leads from the rear panel terminals to the load or the external voltage. Solid conductors of 0.75
Stability. When the supply is connected for remote sensing, it is
possible for the impedance of the load wires and the capacitance
of the load to form a filter, which will become part of the supply's
CV feedback loop. The extra phase shift created by this filter can
degrade the supply's stability and can result in poor transient
response performance or loop stability. In extreme cases, it can
cause oscillations. Keep the leads as short as possible and twist
the leads of the load to eliminate the load lead inductance and
keep the load capacitance as small as possible.The load leads
should be of the largest diameter practical, heavy enough to limit
the voltage drop in each lead to 0.5 volts.
to 1.5 mm2 can be connected to the rear panel terminals by simply push fitting. Thinner wires or conductors are inserted into the
connection space after depressing the orange opening lever.
Turn off the supply while making changes to rear panel switch
settings or connections. This avoids the possibility of damage
to the load and OVP shutdown from unintended output.
The sense leads are part of the supply's programming feedback
control loop. Accidental open-connections of sense or load leads
during remote sensing operation have various unwanted effects.
Provide secure, permanent connections-especially for the sense
leads.
Remote Voltage Sensing
Remote voltage sensing is used to maintain good regulation at the
load and reduce the degradation of regulation that would occur due
to the voltage drop in the leads between the power supply and the
load. By connecting the supply for remote voltage sensing, voltage
is sensed at the load rather than at the supply's output terminals.
This will allow the supply to automatically compensate for the voltage drop in the load leads and improve regulation.
During remote sensing setup, it is strongly recommended to
power off (by presssing power ON/OFF button) the power supply
to avoid undesirable damage to the load or the power supply.
l
When the supply is connected for remote sensing, the OVP circuit
senses the voltage at the sense leads and not the main output
terminals.
LOCAL
MASTER
Remote voltage sensing compensates for a voltage drop of
up to 0.5 V in each load, and there may be up to a 0.1 V
drop between the output terminal and the internal sensing
resistor, at which point the OVP circuit is connected. Therefore, the voltage sensed by the OVP circuit could be as
much as 1.1 V more than the voltage being regulated at the
load. It may be necessary to re-adjust the OVP trip voltage
when using remote sensing.
M/S 1
M/S 2
CV
CC
SLAVE
_
+
SENSE
+S
OUT
+
-S
_
CV
+
CC
_
VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
REMOTE
+
LOAD
_
NOTE: Twist sense leads and load leads
CV Regulation. Notice that any voltage drop in the sense leads
adds directly to the CV load regulation. In order to maintain the
specified performance, keep the sense lead resistance to 0.5
ohms per lead or less.
Figure 5. Remote Voltage Sensing
Remote Analog Voltage Programming
Remote analog voltage programming permits control of the regulated output voltage or current by means of a remotely varied voltage. The programming (external) voltage should not exceed 10
volts. The stability of the programming voltages directly affects
the stability of the output. The voltage control on the front panel is
disabled during remote analog programming.
Remote Sensing Connections. Remote sensing requires
changing settings of the rear panel switch and connecting the
load leads from + and - output terminals to the load and connecting the sense leads from the +S and -S terminals to the load as
shown in Figure 5.
Observe polarity when connecting the sensing leads to
the load.
The supply includes clamp circuits to prevent it from
supplying more than about 120% of rated output voltage
or current when the remote programming voltage is
greater than 10 Vdc. Do not intentionally operate the supply above 100% rated output. Limit your programming
voltage to 10 Vdc.
Output Noise. Any noise picked up on the sense leads will
appear at the supply's output voltage and may degrade CV load
regulation. Twist the sense leads to minimize the pickup of external noise and run them parallel and close to the load leads. In
noisy environments, it may be necessary to shield the sense
1-10
Remote Programming Connections. Remote programming
requires changing settings of the switch and connecting external
voltages to + and - terminals of "CV" or "CC" on the rear panel.
Any noise picked up on the programming leads will appear on the
supply's output and may degrade regulation. To reduce noise
pick-up, use a twisted or shielded pair of wires for programming,
with the shield grounded at one end only. Do not use the shield as
a conductor.
put current while normal series and auto-series provides increased
output voltage. Auto-tracking provides single control of output voltage of more than one supply. You can set up the unit for multiplesupply operation by changing the settings of the rear panel switch
and connecting the leads from the rear panel terminals to the load.
Solid conductors of 0.75 to 1.5 mm2 can be connected to the rear
panel terminals by simply push fitting. Thinner wires or conductors
are inserted into the connection space after depressing the orange
opening lever.
Notice that it is possible to operate a power supply simultaneously
in the remote sensing and the remote analog programming
modes.
NORMAL PARALLEL OPERATION
Two or more power supplies being capable of CV/CC automatic
cross over operation can be connected in parallel to obtain a total
output current greater than that available from one power supply.
The total output current is the sum of the output currents of the
individual power supplies. The output of each power supply can
be set separately. The output voltage controls of one power supply should be set to the desired output voltage; the other power
supply should be set for a slightly higher output voltage. The supply with the higher output voltage setting will deliver its constant
current output, and drop its output voltage until it equals the output of the other supply, and the other supply will remain in constant voltage operation and only deliver that fraction of its rated
output current which is necessary to fulfill the total load demand.
Figure 8 shows the rear panel switch settings and terminal connections for normal parallel operation of two supplies.
Remote Programming, Constant Voltage. Figure 6 shows the
rear panel switch settings and terminal connections for remotevoltage control of output voltage. A 1 Vdc change in the remote
programming voltage produces a change in output voltage (voltage gain) as follows: E3614A: 0.8 Vdc, E3615A: 2 Vdc, E3616A:
3.5 Vdc, E3617A: 6 Vdc
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1
M/S 2
CV
CC
SLAVE
_
+
SENSE
OUT
+S
+
-S
_
_
+
CV
CC
VREF A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
REMOTE
NOTE:
POWER SUPPLY
See the supplementary Manual, if you are not using
Figure 6. Remote Voltage Programming, Constant
Voltage
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
Remote Programming, Constant Current. Figure 7 shows the
rear panel switch settings and terminal connections for remotevoltage control of output current. A 1 Vdc change in the remote
programming voltage produces a change in output current (current gain) as follows: E3614A: 0.6 Adc, E3615A: 0.3 Adc,
E3616A: 0.17 Adc, E3617A: 0.1 Adc
LOCAL
MASTER
LOCAL
MASTER
isolated programming voltage source.
_
+
+
_
CC
SENSE
REMOTE
OUT
+S
+
-S
_
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
LOAD
POWER SUPPLY
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
_
+
CV
_
+
CV
CC
REMOTE
+
SENSE
+S
_
OUT
+
-S
CV
_
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Figure 8. Normal Parallel Operation of Two Supplies
AUTO-PARALLEL OPERATION
M/S 1
M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
SENSE
+S
OUT
-S
CV
CC
VREF A1
A2
A3
A4
Auto-parallel operation permits equal current sharing under all load
conditions, and allows complete control of output current from one
master supply. The control unit is called the master; the controlled
units are called slaves. Normally, only supplies having the same
model number should be connected for auto-parallel operation,
since the supplies must have the same voltage drop across the current monitoring resistor at full current rating. The output current of
each slave is approximately equal to the master's. Figure 9 and Figure 10 show the rear panel switch settings and terminal connections
for auto-parallel operation of two supplies and three supplies.
A5
REMOTE
NOTE:
See the supplementary Manual, if you are not using
isolated programming voltage source.
Figure 7. Remote Voltage Programming, Constant
Current
Remote Programming Speed. See the table of Specifications,
page 1-5.
MULTIPLE-SUPPLY OPERATION
Normal parallel and auto-parallel operation provides increased out-
1-11
Setting Voltage and Current. Turn the slave unit's CURRENT
control fully clockwise. Adjust the master unit's controls to set the
desired output voltage and current. The master supply operates
in a completely normal fashion and may be set up for either constant voltage or constant current operation as required. Verify that
the slave is in CV operation.
gramming according to the remote-programming instructions.
MASTER POWER SUPPLY
For auto-parallel operation of two supplies, the combined output
voltage is the same as the master unit's voltage setting, and the
combined output current is two times the master unit's current. In
general, for two supplies, the auto-parallel output current(Io) is
M/S 1
M/S 2
CV
SLAVE
CC
_
+
LOCAL
MASTER
SENSE
+S
OUT
-S
M/S 2
CV
SLAVE
CC
_
+
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1
SENSE
OUT
+S
-S
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
SENSE
REMOTE
OUT
+S
+
-S
_
+
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
+
SENSE
REMOTE
+S
_
OUT
+
-S
CV
_
+
SENSE
OUT
+S
-S
_ + _
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
REMOTE
Series operation of two or more power supplies can be accomplished up to the output isolation rating of any one supply to
obtain a higher voltage than that available from a single supply.
Series connected supplies can be operated with one load across
both supplies or with a separate load for each supply. These
power supplies have a reverse polarity diode connected across
the output terminals so that if operated in series with other supplies, damage will not occur if the load is short-circuited or if one
supply is turned on separately from its series partners. When this
connection is used, the output voltage is the sum of the voltages
of the individual supplies. Each of the individual supplies must be
adjusted in order to obtain the total output voltage. Figure 11
shows the rear panel switch settings and terminal connections for
normal series operation of two supplies.
_
LOAD
LOCAL
CC
+
NORMAL SERIES OPERATION
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY
MASTER
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Figure 10. Auto-Parallel Operation of Three Supplies
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
CV
SLAVE
MASTER POWER SUPPLY
_
M/S 2
_ + _
CV
_
+
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1
+
REMOTE
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY
Proportional currents from auto-paralleled units require
equal load-lead voltage drops. Connect each supply to
the load using separate pairs of wire with length chosen
to provide equal voltage drops from pair to pair. If this is
not feasible, connect each supply to a pair of distribution
terminals using equal- voltage-drop wire pairs, and then
connect the distribution terminals to the load with a single
pair of leads.
+
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
REMOTE
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY
LOCAL
_ + _
LOAD
Io = Im + Is = 2Im
where Im = master unit's output current
Is = slave unit's output current
MASTER
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
POWER SUPPLY
Figure 9. Auto-Parallel Operation of Two Supplies
LOCAL
MASTER
Overvoltage Protection. Adjust the desired OVP shutdown limit
using the master unit's OVP Adjust control. Set the slave units'
OVP limits above the master's. When a master-unit shuts down,
the master programs the slave units to zero voltage output. If a
slave unit shuts down, it shuts only itself down. If the required current is great enough, the master will switch from CV to CC operation.
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
_
+
SENSE
REMOTE
OUT
+S
+
-S
_
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
LOAD
POWER SUPPLY
LOCAL
MASTER
+
Remote Sensing. To remote sense with auto-parallel operation,
connect remote-sense leads only to the master unit according to
the remote-sensing instructions.
Remote Analog Voltage Programming. To remote program with
auto-parallel operation, set up only the master unit for remote pro-
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
REMOTE
SENSE
+S
_
OUT
+
-S
CV
_
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Figure 11. Normal Series Operation of Two Supplies
1-12
AUTO-SERIES OPERATION
above the master unit's current setting to avoid having the slave
switch to CC operation.
Auto-series operation permits equal or proportional voltage
sharing, and allows control of output voltage from one master
unit. The voltage of the slaves is determined by the setting of the
front panel VOLTAGE control on the master and voltage divider
resistor. The master unit must be the most positive supply of the
series. The output CURRENT controls of all series units are
operative and the current limit is equal to the lowest setting. If
any output CURRENT controls are set too low, automatic cross
over to constant current operation will occur and the output voltage will drop. Figure 12 and Figure 13 show the rear panel
switch settings and terminal connections for Auto-series operation of two supplies and three supplies. This mode can also give
±voltage tracking operation of two supplies with two separate
loads.
When in CC operation the combined output current is the same
as the master unit's current setting, and when in CV operation the
combined output voltage is the sum of the master unit's and the
slave unit's output voltages.
Overvoltage Protection. Set the OVP shutdown voltage in each
unit so that it shuts down at a voltage higher than its output voltage
during auto-series operation. When a master unit shuts down, it programs any slave units to zero output. When a slave unit shuts down,
it shuts down only itself (and any slaves below it in the stack). The
master (and all slaves above the shut-down slave) continues to supply output voltage.
Mixed model numbers may be employed in auto-series combination without restriction, provided that each slave is specified as
being capable of auto-series operation. If the master supply is set
up for constant current operation, then the master-slave combination will act as a composite constant current source.
MASTER POWER SUPPLY
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
_
+
SENSE
OUT
+S
REMOTE
_
+
-S
CV
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
LOAD
R1
R2
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY
Total output voltage to ground must not exceed 240 Vdc.
LOCAL
MASTER
Determining Resistors. External resistors control the fraction (or
multiple) of the master unit's voltage setting that is supplied from
the slave unit. Notice that the percentage of the total output voltage contributed by each supply is independent of the magnitude
of the total voltage. For two units in auto-series the ratio of R1 to
R2 is
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
_
+
SENSE
OUT
+S
REMOTE
_
+
-S
CV
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Figure 12. Auto-Series Operation of Two Supplies
(R1+R2)/R1 = (Vo/Vm)
R2/R1
= (Vs/Vm)
MASTER POWER SUPPLY
Where
M/S 1
For example, using the E3617A as a slave unit and putting R2=50
kΩ (1/4 watt), then from the above equations,
R1 = R2(Vm/Vs) = 50(Vm/Vs) kΩ
M/S 2
+
LOCAL
MASTER
Vo = auto-series voltage = Vs + Vm
Vm = master unit's output voltage
Vs = slave unit's output voltage
CV
SLAVE
CC
SENSE
+S
_
OUT
+
-S
CV
_ + _
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
REMOTE
LOAD
R1
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY(S1)
+
LOCAL
MASTER
_
+
R2
_ + _
In order to maintain the temperature coefficient and stability performance of the supply, choose stable, low noise resistors.
M/S 1
M/S 2
CV
SLAVE
CC
SENSE
+S
OUT
-S
CV
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
REMOTE
R3
It is recommended to connect a 0.1 μF capacitor in parallel with R2 in two supplies operation or R2 and R4 in
three supplies operation to ensure the stable operation.
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY(S2)
Setting Voltage and Current. Use the master unit's controls to
set the desired output voltage and current. The VOLTAGE control
of the slave unit is disabled. Turning the voltage control of the
master unit will result in a continuous variation of the output of the
series combination, with the contribution of the master's output
voltage to that of the slave's voltage always remaining in the ratio
of the external resistors. Set the CURRENT control of slave unit
M/S 1
M/S 2
SLAVE
+
LOCAL
MASTER
CV
CC
SENSE
+S
OUT
_
+
-S
CV
R4
_ + _
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
REMOTE
R2 R2 R4
)
Vo=Vm(1+ +
R1 R1 R3
Where
Vo = Auto-Series voltage = Vm + Vs1 + Vs2
Vm = master unit's output voltage
Vs1 = slave(S1) unit's output voltage
Vs2 = slave(S2) unit's output voltage
Figure 13. Auto-Series Operation of Three Supplies
1-13
Remote Sensing. To remote sense with auto-series operation,
set SENSE switch of the master unit and set SENSE switch of the
slave unit to remote.
Remote Analog Programming. To simultaneously remote program both units' output voltages, set up only the master unit for
remote voltage programming according to the remote programming instructions. To vary the fraction of the output voltage contribution by the slave unit, connect a variable resistor in place of R2
in two units operation. To independently remote program each
unit's output current setting, set up each unit for remote control of
output current according to the instructions under "Remote Programming, Constant Current" paragraph.
Remote Analog Voltage Programming. To remote analog program with auto-series operation, connect program (external) voltages to the "CV" or "CC"" terminal of the master unit and set "CV"
or "CC" switch of the master unit to remote.
AUTO-TRACKING OPERATON
Auto-tracking operation of power supplies is similar to auto-series
operation except that the master and slave supplies have the
same output polarity with respect to a common bus or ground.
This operation is useful where simultaneous turn-up, turn-down or
proportional control of all power supplies is required.
MASTER POWER SUPPLY
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
Figure 14 and Figure 15 show two and three supplies connected
in auto-tracking with their negative output terminals connected
together as a common or ground point. For two units in autotracking a fraction R2/(R1+R2) of the output of the master supply
is provided as one of the inputs to the comparison amplifier of the
slave supply, thus controlling the slave's output. The master supply in an auto-tracking operation must be the positive supply having the largest output voltage. Turn-up and turn-down of the
power supplies are controlled by the master supply. In order to
maintain the temperature coefficient and stability specifications of
the power supply, the external resistor should be stable, low
noise, low temperature.
CV
CC
_
+
SENSE
OUT
+S
REMOTE
+
-S
_
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
LOAD
R1
R2
LOAD
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1 M/S 2
SLAVE
CV
CC
_
+
SENSE
OUT
+S
REMOTE
+
-S
CV
_
+
_
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
Figure 14. Auto-Tracking Operation of Two Supplies
Determining Resistors. External resistors control the fraction of
the master unit's voltage that is supplied from the slave unit. For
two units in auto-tracking the ratio R1 and R2 is
MASTER POWER SUPPLY
R2/(R1+R2 = (Vs/Vm)
Where Vm = master output voltage
Vs = slave output voltage
M/S 1
M/S 2
+
LOCAL
MASTER
CV
SLAVE
CC
SENSE
+S
_
OUT
+
-S
CV
_ + _
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
REMOTE
LOAD
Setting Voltage and Current. Use the master unit's VOLTAGE control to set the output voltage from both units. When the master is in
CV operation, the master's output voltage(Vm) is the same as its
voltage setting, and the slave's output voltage for two units operation
is Vm(R2/(R1+R2)). The VOLTAGE control of the slave unit is disabled. Set the CURRENT controls of master and slave units above
the required currents to assure CV operation of master and slave
units.
M/S 1
M/S 2
+
LOCAL
MASTER
It is recommended to connect a 0.1 μF capacitor in parallel with R2 in two supplies operation or R2 and R4 in
three supplies operation to ensure the stable operation.
CV
SLAVE
CC
SENSE
+S
M/S 2
-S
CV
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
CV
SLAVE
R2
Vs1 =
Vm
R1+ R2
R4
Vs2 =
Vs1
R3+ R4
CC
R3
LOAD
+
LOCAL
MASTER
M/S 1
OUT
R2
_ + _
+
_
REMOTE
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY(S2)
Overvoltage Protection. Set the OVP shutdown voltage in each
unit so that it shuts down at a voltage higher than its output voltage during auto-tracking operation. When a master unit shuts
down, it programs any slave units to zero output. When a slave
unit shuts down, it shuts down only itself.
R1
LOAD
SLAVE POWER SUPPLY(S1)
SENSE
+S
OUT
R4
_ + _
+
_
-S
CV
CC VREF A1 A2 A3 A4 A5
REMOTE
Where
Vm = masters unit's output voltage
Vs1 = slave(S1) unit's output voltage
Vs2 = slave(S2) unit's output voltage
Figure 15. Auto-Tracking Operation of Three Supplies
Remote Sensing. To include remote sensing with auto-tracking
operation independently, set up each unit for remote sensing
according to the remote-sensing instructions under previous
paragraph.
1-14
LOAD CONSIDERATIONS
a. The output impedance of the power supply decreases with
increasing frequency.
b. The recovery time of the output voltage is longer for load
resistance changes.
c. A large surge current causing a high power dissipation in the
load occurs when the load resistance is reduced rapidly.
This section provides information on operating your supply with
various types of loads connected to its output.
PULSE LOADING
The power supply will automatically cross over from constantvoltage to constant current operation in response to an increase
(over the preset limit) in the output current. Although the preset
limit may be set higher than the average output current, high peak
currents (as occur in pulse loading) may exceed the preset current limit and cause cross over to occur. If this cross over limiting
is not desired, set the preset limit for the peak requirement and
not the average.
REVERSE VOLTAGE LOADING
A diode is connected across the output terminals with reverse
polarity. This diode protects the output electrolytic capacitors and
the series regulator transistors from the effects of a reverse voltage applied across the output terminals. For example, in series
operation of two supplies, if the AC is removed from one supply,
the diode prevents damage to the unenergized supply which
would otherwise result from a reverse polarity voltage.
REVERSE CURRENT LOADING
An active load connected to the power supply may actually
deliver a reverse current to the power supply during a portion of
its operating cycle. An external source can not be allowed to
pump current into the supply without loss of regulation and possible damage to the output capacitor of the power supply. To avoid
these effects, it is necessary to preload the supply with a dummy
load resistor so that the power supply delivers current through the
entire operating cycle of the load devices.
Since series regulator transistors cannot withstand reverse voltage, another diode is connected across the series transistor. This
diode protects the series regulators in parallel or auto-parallel
operation if one supply of the parallel combination is turned on
before the other.
BATTERY CHARGING
The power supply's OVP circuit contains a crowbar SCR, which
effectively shorts the output of the supply whenever the OVP trips. If
an external voltage source such as a battery is connected across the
output, and OVP inadvertently triggered, the SCR will continuously
sink a large current from the source; possibly damaging the supply.
To avoid this a diode must be connected in series with the output as
shown in Figure 17.
Figure 16. Reverse Current Loading Solution
Figure 17. Recommended Protection Circuit for
Battery Charging
OUTPUT CAPACITANCE
An internal capacitor, connected across the output terminals of
the power supply, helps to supply high-current pulses of short
duration during constant voltage operation. Any capacitance
added externally will improve the pulse current capability, but will
decrease the safety provided by the current limiting circuit. A
high-current pulse may damage load components before the
average output current is large enough to cause the current limiting circuit to operate.
The effect of the output capacitor during constant current operation are as follows:
1-15
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© Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2002–2013
Printed in Malaysia
Thirteenth Edition, July 12, 2013
5959-5310
Agilent Technologies