Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Specifications

Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point
Installation and Configuration Guide
Cisco IOS Release 12.2(8)JA
February 2003
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Text Part Number: OL-3446-01
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Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
Copyright © 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved.
C ON T E N T S
Preface
xvii
Audience
Purpose
xvii
xvii
Organization
xvii
Conventions
xix
Related Publications
xxi
Obtaining Documentation xxi
World Wide Web xxi
Documentation CD-ROM xxi
Ordering Documentation xxii
Documentation Feedback xxii
Obtaining Technical Assistance xxii
Cisco.com xxii
Technical Assistance Center xxiii
Cisco TAC Web Site xxiii
Cisco TAC Escalation Center xxiv
CHAPTER
1
Overview
1-1
Features 1-2
Hardware Features 1-2
Dual-Radio Operation 1-2
Ethernet Port 1-2
Console Port 1-2
Status Indicators 1-3
Power Sources 1-3
UL 2043 Certification 1-4
Anti-Theft Features 1-4
Software Features 1-4
Management Options
Roaming Client Devices
1-5
1-5
Network Configuration Examples 1-6
Root Unit on a Wired LAN 1-6
Repeater Unit that Extends Wireless Range 1-7
Central Unit in an All-Wireless Network 1-8
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CHAPTER
2
Installing the Access Point
2-1
Safety Information 2-2
FCC Safety Compliance Statement
General Safety Guidelines 2-2
Warnings
2-2
2-2
Unpacking the Access Point 2-3
Package Contents 2-3
Basic Installation Guidelines 2-3
Installation Above Suspended Ceilings
Before Beginning the Installation
Installation Summary
2-3
2-4
2-5
Connecting the 2.4-GHz Antennas
2-5
Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables 2-5
Connecting to an Ethernet Network with an Inline Power Source
Connecting to an Ethernet Network with Local Power 2-7
Powering Up the Access Point 2-8
CHAPTER
3
Configuring the Access Point for the First Time
3-1
Before You Start 3-2
Resetting the Access Point to Default Settings
Obtaining and Assigning an IP Address
3-3
Connecting to the Access Point Locally
3-3
Assigning Basic Settings 3-4
Default Settings on the Express Setup Page
Protecting Your Wireless LAN
3-2
3-7
3-8
Using the IP Setup Utility 3-8
Obtaining and Installing IPSU 3-9
Using IPSU to Find the Access Point’s IP Address 3-9
Using IPSU to Set the Access Point’s IP Address and SSID
Assigning an IP Address Using the CLI
Using a Telnet Session to Access the CLI
CHAPTER
4
2-7
Using the Web-Browser Interface
3-10
3-11
3-12
4-1
Using the Web-Browser Interface for the First Time
4-2
Using the Management Pages in the Web-Browser Interface
Using Action Buttons 4-4
4-2
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Character Restrictions in Entry Fields
Using Online Help
CHAPTER
5
4-5
Using the Command-Line Interface
IOS Command Modes
Getting Help
4-5
5-1
5-2
5-3
Abbreviating Commands
5-3
Using no and default Forms of Commands
Understanding CLI Messages
5-3
5-4
Using Command History 5-4
Changing the Command History Buffer Size 5-4
Recalling Commands 5-5
Disabling the Command History Feature 5-5
Using Editing Features 5-5
Enabling and Disabling Editing Features 5-6
Editing Commands Through Keystrokes 5-6
Editing Command Lines that Wrap 5-7
Searching and Filtering Output of show and more Commands
Accessing the CLI 5-8
Opening the CLI with Telnet 5-8
Opening the CLI with Secure Shell
CHAPTER
6
Administering the Access Point
5-8
5-9
6-1
Preventing Unauthorized Access to Your Access Point
6-2
Protecting Access to Privileged EXEC Commands 6-2
Default Password and Privilege Level Configuration 6-2
Setting or Changing a Static Enable Password 6-3
Protecting Enable and Enable Secret Passwords with Encryption
Configuring Username and Password Pairs 6-5
Configuring Multiple Privilege Levels 6-6
Setting the Privilege Level for a Command 6-6
Logging Into and Exiting a Privilege Level 6-7
6-4
Controlling Access Point Access with RADIUS 6-7
Default RADIUS Configuration 6-8
Configuring RADIUS Login Authentication 6-8
Defining AAA Server Groups 6-9
Configuring RADIUS Authorization for User Privileged Access and Network Services
Displaying the RADIUS Configuration 6-12
6-11
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Controlling Access Point Access with TACACS+ 6-12
Default TACACS+ Configuration 6-13
Configuring TACACS+ Login Authentication 6-13
Configuring TACACS+ Authorization for Privileged EXEC Access and Network Services
Displaying the TACACS+ Configuration 6-15
Configuring the Access Point for Local Authentication and Authorization
Configuring the Access Point for Secure Shell
Understanding SSH 6-16
Configuring SSH 6-17
6-14
6-15
6-16
Managing the System Time and Date 6-17
Understanding the System Clock 6-17
Understanding Network Time Protocol 6-18
Configuring NTP 6-19
Default NTP Configuration 6-20
Configuring NTP Authentication 6-20
Configuring NTP Associations 6-22
Configuring NTP Broadcast Service 6-23
Configuring NTP Access Restrictions 6-24
Configuring the Source IP Address for NTP Packets 6-26
Displaying the NTP Configuration 6-27
Configuring Time and Date Manually 6-27
Setting the System Clock 6-28
Displaying the Time and Date Configuration 6-28
Configuring the Time Zone 6-29
Configuring Summer Time (Daylight Saving Time) 6-30
Configuring a System Name and Prompt 6-32
Default System Name and Prompt Configuration
Configuring a System Name 6-32
Understanding DNS 6-33
Default DNS Configuration 6-33
Setting Up DNS 6-33
Displaying the DNS Configuration 6-34
Creating a Banner 6-34
Default Banner Configuration 6-35
Configuring a Message-of-the-Day Login Banner
Configuring a Login Banner 6-36
6-32
6-35
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CHAPTER
7
Configuring Radio Settings
7-1
Disabling and Enabling the Radio Interface
Configuring the Role in Radio Network
Configuring Radio Data Rates
7-2
7-2
7-4
Configuring Radio Transmit Power 7-5
Limiting the Power Level for Associated Client Devices
Configuring Radio Channel Settings
7-6
7-7
Enabling and Disabling World-Mode
7-9
Disabling and Enabling Short Radio Preambles
Configuring Transmit and Receive Antennas
7-9
7-10
Disabling and Enabling Aironet Extensions
7-11
Configuring the Ethernet Encapsulation Transformation Method
7-12
Enabling and Disabling Reliable Multicast to Workgroup Bridges
Enabling and Disabling Public Secure Packet Forwarding
Configuring Protected Ports 7-14
Configuring the Beacon Period and the DTIM
Configure RTS Threshold and Retries
Configuring the Fragmentation Threshold
8
Configuring Multiple SSIDs
7-16
7-16
8-2
Configuring Multiple SSIDs 8-2
Default SSID Configuration 8-3
Creating an SSID 8-3
Using a RADIUS Server to Restrict SSIDs
9
Configuring WEP and WEP Features
Understanding WEP
7-15
8-1
Understanding Multiple SSIDs
CHAPTER
7-13
7-15
Configuring the Maximum Data Retries
CHAPTER
7-12
8-4
9-1
9-2
Configuring WEP and WEP Features 9-2
Creating WEP Keys 9-3
Enabling and Disabling WEP and Enabling TKIP and MIC
Enabling and Disabling Broadcast Key Rotation 9-4
9-3
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CHAPTER
10
Configuring Authentication Types
10-1
Understanding Authentication Types 10-2
Open Authentication to the Access Point 10-2
Shared Key Authentication to the Access Point 10-2
EAP Authentication to the Network 10-3
MAC Address Authentication to the Network 10-5
Combining MAC-Based, EAP, and Open Authentication
10-5
Configuring Authentication Types 10-6
Default Authentication Settings 10-6
Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID 10-6
Configuring Authentication Holdoffs, Timeouts, and Intervals
Matching Access Point and Client Device Authentication Types
CHAPTER
11
Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers
10-8
10-9
11-1
Configuring and Enabling RADIUS 11-2
Understanding RADIUS 11-2
RADIUS Operation 11-3
Configuring RADIUS 11-4
Default RADIUS Configuration 11-4
Identifying the RADIUS Server Host 11-4
Configuring RADIUS Login Authentication 11-7
Defining AAA Server Groups 11-9
Configuring RADIUS Authorization for User Privileged Access and Network Services
Starting RADIUS Accounting 11-12
Configuring Settings for All RADIUS Servers 11-13
Configuring the Access Point to Use Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes 11-13
Configuring the Access Point for Vendor-Proprietary RADIUS Server Communication
Displaying the RADIUS Configuration 11-15
11-11
11-14
Configuring and Enabling TACACS+ 11-16
Understanding TACACS+ 11-16
TACACS+ Operation 11-17
Configuring TACACS+ 11-17
Default TACACS+ Configuration 11-18
Identifying the TACACS+ Server Host and Setting the Authentication Key 11-18
Configuring TACACS+ Login Authentication 11-19
Configuring TACACS+ Authorization for Privileged EXEC Access and Network Services
Starting TACACS+ Accounting 11-21
Displaying the TACACS+ Configuration 11-22
11-20
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CHAPTER
12
Configuring VLANs
12-1
Understanding VLANs 12-2
Related Documents 12-3
Incorporating Wireless Devices into VLANs
12-4
Configuring VLANs 12-4
Configuring a VLAN 12-4
Using a RADIUS Server to Assign Users to VLANs 12-6
Viewing VLANs Configured on the Access Point 12-6
VLAN Configuration Example
CHAPTER
13
Configuring QoS
12-7
13-1
Understanding QoS for Wireless LANs 13-2
QoS for Wireless LANs Versus QoS on Wired LANs
Impact of QoS on a Wireless LAN 13-2
Precedence of QoS Settings 13-3
Configuring QoS 13-3
Configuration Guidelines 13-4
Configuring QoS Using the Web-Browser Interface
Adjusting Radio Traffic Class Definitions 13-8
Disabling IGMP Snooping Helper 13-10
13-2
13-4
QoS Configuration Examples 13-10
Giving Priority to Voice Traffic 13-10
Giving Priority to Video Traffic 13-12
CHAPTER
14
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP
14-1
Understanding Proxy Mobile IP 14-2
Overview 14-2
Components of a Proxy Mobile IP Network
How Proxy Mobile IP Works 14-3
Agent Discovery 14-3
Subnet Map Exchange 14-4
Registration 14-5
Tunneling 14-5
Proxy Mobile IP Security 14-6
14-2
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP 14-6
Configuration Guidelines 14-6
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP on Your Wired LAN 14-7
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP on Your Access Point 14-7
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CHAPTER
15
Configuring Filters
15-1
Understanding Filters
15-2
Configuring Filters Using the CLI
15-2
Configuring Filters Using the Web-Browser Interface 15-2
Configuring and Enabling MAC Address Filters 15-3
Creating a MAC Address Filter 15-3
Configuring and Enabling IP Filters 15-5
Creating an IP Filter 15-6
Configuring and Enabling Ethertype Filters 15-8
Creating an Ethertype Filter 15-9
CHAPTER
16
Configuring CDP
16-1
Understanding CDP
16-2
Configuring CDP 16-2
Default CDP Configuration 16-2
Configuring the CDP Characteristics 16-2
Disabling and Enabling CDP 16-3
Disabling and Enabling CDP on an Interface
Monitoring and Maintaining CDP
CHAPTER
17
Configuring SNMP
16-4
16-4
17-1
Understanding SNMP 17-2
SNMP Versions 17-2
SNMP Manager Functions 17-3
SNMP Agent Functions 17-3
SNMP Community Strings 17-3
Using SNMP to Access MIB Variables
17-4
Configuring SNMP 17-4
Default SNMP Configuration 17-5
Disabling the SNMP Agent 17-5
Configuring Community Strings 17-5
Configuring Trap Managers and Enabling Traps 17-7
Setting the Agent Contact and Location Information 17-9
Using the snmp-server view Command 17-9
SNMP Examples 17-9
Displaying SNMP Status
17-10
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CHAPTER
18
Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points
Understanding Repeater Access Points
18-2
Configuring a Repeater Access Point 18-3
Default Configuration 18-4
Guidelines for Repeaters 18-4
Setting Up a Repeater 18-4
Verifying Repeater Operation 18-5
Setting Up a Repeater As a LEAP Client
Understanding Hot Standby
CHAPTER
19
18-1
18-6
18-7
Configuring a Hot Standby Access Point
18-7
Managing Firmware and Configurations
19-1
Working with the Flash File System 19-2
Displaying Available File Systems 19-2
Setting the Default File System 19-3
Displaying Information About Files on a File System 19-3
Changing Directories and Displaying the Working Directory
Creating and Removing Directories 19-4
Copying Files 19-5
Deleting Files 19-5
Creating, Displaying, and Extracting tar Files 19-6
Creating a tar File 19-6
Displaying the Contents of a tar File 19-6
Extracting a tar File 19-7
Displaying the Contents of a File 19-8
19-4
Working with Configuration Files 19-8
Guidelines for Creating and Using Configuration Files 19-9
Configuration File Types and Location 19-9
Creating a Configuration File by Using a Text Editor 19-10
Copying Configuration Files by Using TFTP 19-10
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using TFTP 19-10
Downloading the Configuration File by Using TFTP 19-11
Uploading the Configuration File by Using TFTP 19-11
Copying Configuration Files by Using FTP 19-12
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using FTP 19-13
Downloading a Configuration File by Using FTP 19-13
Uploading a Configuration File by Using FTP 19-14
Copying Configuration Files by Using RCP 19-15
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using RCP 19-16
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Downloading a Configuration File by Using RCP 19-16
Uploading a Configuration File by Using RCP 19-17
Clearing Configuration Information 19-18
Deleting a Stored Configuration File 19-18
Working with Software Images 19-18
Image Location on the Access Point 19-19
tar File Format of Images on a Server or Cisco.com 19-19
Copying Image Files by Using TFTP 19-20
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using TFTP 19-20
Downloading an Image File by Using TFTP 19-21
Uploading an Image File by Using TFTP 19-22
Copying Image Files by Using FTP 19-23
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using FTP 19-23
Downloading an Image File by Using FTP 19-24
Uploading an Image File by Using FTP 19-26
Copying Image Files by Using RCP 19-27
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using RCP 19-27
Downloading an Image File by Using RCP 19-29
Uploading an Image File by Using RCP 19-31
Reloading the Image Using the Web Browser Interface 19-32
Browser HTTP Interface 19-32
Browser TFTP Interface 19-33
CHAPTER
20
Configuring System Message Logging
20-1
Understanding System Message Logging
20-2
Configuring System Message Logging 20-2
System Log Message Format 20-2
Default System Message Logging Configuration 20-3
Disabling and Enabling Message Logging 20-4
Setting the Message Display Destination Device 20-5
Enabling and Disabling Timestamps on Log Messages 20-6
Enabling and Disabling Sequence Numbers in Log Messages 20-6
Defining the Message Severity Level 20-7
Limiting Syslog Messages Sent to the History Table and to SNMP 20-8
Setting a Logging Rate Limit 20-9
Configuring UNIX Syslog Servers 20-10
Logging Messages to a UNIX Syslog Daemon 20-10
Configuring the UNIX System Logging Facility 20-10
Displaying the Logging Configuration
20-12
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CHAPTER
21
Troubleshooting
21-1
Checking the Top Panel Indicators
21-2
Checking Basic Settings 21-4
SSID 21-4
WEP Keys 21-4
Security Settings 21-5
Resetting to the Default Configuration
Using the MODE Button 21-5
Using the Web Browser Interface
21-5
21-6
Reloading the Access Point Image 21-6
Using the MODE button 21-6
Web Browser Interface 21-7
Browser HTTP Interface 21-7
Browser TFTP Interface 21-8
Obtaining the Access Point Image File 21-8
Obtaining the TFTP Server Software 21-9
Activating and Configuring the TFTP Server
CHAPTER
22
2.4-GHz Radio Upgrade
Upgrade Overview
Unpacking the Radio
22-1
22-2
22-2
Opening the Access Cover
22-3
Removing a Blank Spacer Card
CHAPTER
23
22-4
Removing a 2.4-GHz Radio
22-5
Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio
22-7
5-GHz Radio Module Upgrade
Upgrade Overview
23-1
23-2
Unpacking the Radio Module
23-2
Removing the 5-GHz Radio Access Cover
APPENDIX
A
21-9
Removing a 5-GHz Radio Module
23-3
Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
23-5
Translated Safety Warnings
A-1
Dipole Antenna Installation Warning
Explosive Device Proximity Warning
Lightning Activity Warning
23-2
A-2
A-3
A-4
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Installation Warning
A-5
Circuit Breaker (15A) Warning
APPENDIX
A-5
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
B
B-1
Manufacturers Federal Communication Commission Declaration of Conformity Statement
B-2
Department of Communications—Canada B-3
Canadian Compliance Statement B-3
European Community, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein B-4
Declaration of Conformity with Regard to the R&TTE Directive 1999/5/EC
Declaration of Conformity for RF Exposure
B-6
Guidelines for Operating Cisco Aironet Access Points in Japan
Japanese Translation B-6
English Translation B-7
APPENDIX
Channels and Antenna Settings
C
Channels C-2
IEEE 802.11a
IEEE 802.11b
D
Mounting Instructions
Overview
C-1
C-3
C-4
D-1
D-2
Mounting on a Horizontal or Vertical Surface
Mounting on a Suspended Ceiling
D-3
D-4
Attaching the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket
Securing the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket
APPENDIX
E
Protocol Filters
APPENDIX
F
Supported MIBs
MIB List
B-6
C-2
Maximum Power Levels
IEEE 802.11a C-4
IEEE 802.11b C-4
APPENDIX
B-4
D-5
D-5
E-1
F-1
F-1
Using FTP to Access the MIB Files
F-2
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APPENDIX
G
Access Point Specifications
APPENDIX
H
Error and Event Messages
APPENDIX
I
Console Cable Pinouts
Overview
G-1
H-1
I-1
I-2
Console Port Signals and Pinouts
I-2
GLOSSARY
INDEX
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Preface
Audience
This guide is for the networking professional who installs and manages the Cisco Aironet 1200 Series
Access Point, hereafter referred to as the access point. To use this guide, you should have experience
working with the Cisco IOS and be familiar with the concepts and terminology of wireless local area
networks.
Purpose
This guide provides the information you need to install and configure your access point. This guide
provides procedures for using the IOS commands that have been created or changed for use with the
access point. It does not provide detailed information about these commands. For detailed information
about these commands, refer to the Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Command Reference for this
release. For information about the standard IOS Release 12.2 commands, refer to the IOS documentation
set available from the Cisco.com home page at Service and Support > TechnicalDocuments. On the
Cisco Product Documentation home page, select Release 12.2 from the Cisco IOS Software drop-down
list.
This guide also includes an overview of the access point web-based interface (APWI), which contains
all the funtionality of the command-line interface (CLI). This guide does not provide field-level
descriptions of the APWI windows nor does it provide the procedures for configuring the access point
from from the APWI. For all APWI window descriptions and procedures, refer to the access point online
help, which is available from the Help buttons on the APWI pages.
Organization
This guide is organized into these chapters:
Chapter 1, “Overview,” lists the software and hardware features of the access point and describes the
access point’s role in your network.
Chapter 2, “Installing the Access Point,” describes installing your access point on a desktop, wall, or
ceiling, and provides safety warnings and general guidelines.
Chapter 3, “Configuring the Access Point for the First Time,” describes how to configure basic settings
on a new access point.
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Preface
Organization
Chapter 4, “Using the Web-Browser Interface,” describes how to use the web-browser interface to
configure the access point.
Chapter 5, “Using the Command-Line Interface,” describes how to use the command-line interface
(CLI) to configure the access point.
Chapter 6, “Administering the Access Point,” describes how to perform one-time operations to
administer your access point, such as preventing unauthorized access to the access point, setting the
system date and time, and setting the system name and prompt.
Chapter 7, “Configuring Radio Settings,” describes how to configure settings for the access point radio
such as the role in the radio network, data rates, transmit power, channel settings, and others.
Chapter 8, “Configuring Multiple SSIDs,” describes how to configure and manage multiple service set
identifiers (SSIDs) on your access point. You can configure up to 16 SSIDs on your access point and
assign different configuration settings to each SSID.
Chapter 9, “Configuring WEP and WEP Features,” describes how to configure Wired Equivalent Privacy
(WEP), Message Integrity Check (MIC), Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), and broadcast key
rotation to protect your wireless LAN.
Chapter 10, “Configuring Authentication Types,” describes how to configure authentication types on the
access point. Client devices use these authentication methods to join your network.
Chapter 11, “Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers,” describes how to enable and configure the
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) and Terminal Access Controller Access Control
System Plus (TACACS+), which provide detailed accounting information and flexible administrative
control over authentication and authorization processes.
Chapter 12, “Configuring VLANs,” describes how to configure your access point to interoperate with
the VLANs set up on your wired LAN.
Chapter 13, “Configuring QoS,” describes how to configure quality of service (QoS) on your access
point. With this feature, you can provide preferential treatment to certain traffic at the expense of others.
Chapter 14, “Configuring Proxy Mobile IP,” describes how to configure your access point’s proxy
mobile IP feature. When you enable proxy mobile IP on your access point and on your wired network,
the access point helps client devices from other networks remain connected to their home networks.
Chapter 15, “Configuring Filters,” describes how to configure and manage MAC address, IP, and
Ethertype filters on the access point using the web-browser interface.
Chapter 16, “Configuring CDP,” describes how to configure Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) on your
access point. CDP is a device-discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco network equipment.
Chapter 17, “Configuring SNMP,” describes how to configure the Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP) on your access point.
Chapter 18, “Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points,” descibes how to configure your access
point as a hot standby unit or as a repeater unit.
Chapter 19, “Managing Firmware and Configurations,” describes how to manipulate the Flash file
system, how to copy configuration files, and how to archive (upload and download) software images.
Chapter 20, “Configuring System Message Logging,” describes how to configure system message
logging on your access point.
Chapter 21, “Troubleshooting,” provides troubleshooting procedures for basic problems with the access
point.
Chapter 22, “2.4-GHz Radio Upgrade,” provides instructions for upgrading the access point 2.4-GHz
radio.
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Conventions
Chapter 23, “5-GHz Radio Module Upgrade,” provides instructions for upgrading the access point
5-GHz radio.
Appendix A, “Translated Safety Warnings,” provides translations of the safety warnings that appear in
this publication.
Appendix B, “Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information,” provides declarations of
conformity and regulatory information for the access point.
Appendix C, “Channels and Antenna Settings,” lists the access point radio channels and the maximum
power levels supported by the world’s regulatory domains.
Appendix D, “Mounting Instructions,” describes how to mount the access point on a desktop, wall, or
ceiling.
Appendix E, “Protocol Filters,” lists some of the protocols that you can filter on the access point.
Appendix F, “Supported MIBs,” lists the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management
Information Bases (MIBs) that the access point supports for this software release.
Appendix G, “Access Point Specifications,” lists technical specifications for the access point.
Appendix H, “Error and Event Messages,” lists the CLI error and event messages and provides an
explanation and recommended action for each message.
Appendix I, “Console Cable Pinouts,” identifies the pinouts for the serial console cable that connects to
the access point’s serial console port.
Conventions
This publication uses these conventions to convey instructions and information:
Command descriptions use these conventions:
•
Commands and keywords are in boldface text.
•
Arguments for which you supply values are in italic.
•
Square brackets ([ ]) mean optional elements.
•
Braces ({ }) group required choices, and vertical bars ( | ) separate the alternative elements.
•
Braces and vertical bars within square brackets ([{ | }]) mean a required choice within an optional
element.
Interactive examples use these conventions:
•
Terminal sessions and system displays are in screen font.
•
Information you enter is in boldface screen font.
•
Nonprinting characters, such as passwords or tabs, are in angle brackets (< >).
Notes, cautions, and timesavers use these conventions and symbols:
Tip
Means the following will help you solve a problem. The tips information might not be troubleshooting
or even an action, but could be useful information.
Note
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to materials not contained in
this manual.
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Preface
Conventions
Caution
Warning
Waarschuwing
Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might do something that could result equipment damage
or loss of data.
This warning symbol means danger. You are in a situation that could cause bodily injury. Before you
work on any equipment, be aware of the hazards involved with electrical circuitry and be familiar
with standard practices for preventing accidents. (To see translations of the warnings that appear
in this publication, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety Warnings.”)
Dit waarschuwingssymbool betekent gevaar. U verkeert in een situatie die lichamelijk letsel kan
veroorzaken. Voordat u aan enige apparatuur gaat werken, dient u zich bewust te zijn van de bij
elektrische schakelingen betrokken risico’s en dient u op de hoogte te zijn van standaard
maatregelen om ongelukken te voorkomen. (Voor vertalingen van de waarschuwingen die in deze
publicatie verschijnen, kunt u het aanhangsel “Translated Safety Warnings” (Vertalingen van
veiligheidsvoorschriften) raadplegen.)
Varoitus
Tämä varoitusmerkki merkitsee vaaraa. Olet tilanteessa, joka voi johtaa ruumiinvammaan. Ennen
kuin työskentelet minkään laitteiston parissa, ota selvää sähkökytkentöihin liittyvistä vaaroista ja
tavanomaisista onnettomuuksien ehkäisykeinoista. (Tässä julkaisussa esiintyvien varoitusten
käännökset löydät liitteestä "Translated Safety Warnings" (käännetyt turvallisuutta koskevat
varoitukset).)
Attention
Ce symbole d’avertissement indique un danger. Vous vous trouvez dans une situation pouvant
entraîner des blessures. Avant d’accéder à cet équipement, soyez conscient des dangers posés par
les circuits électriques et familiarisez-vous avec les procédures courantes de prévention des
accidents. Pour obtenir les traductions des mises en garde figurant dans cette publication, veuillez
consulter l’annexe intitulée « Translated Safety Warnings » (Traduction des avis de sécurité).
Warnung
Dieses Warnsymbol bedeutet Gefahr. Sie befinden sich in einer Situation, die zu einer
Körperverletzung führen könnte. Bevor Sie mit der Arbeit an irgendeinem Gerät beginnen, seien Sie
sich der mit elektrischen Stromkreisen verbundenen Gefahren und der Standardpraktiken zur
Vermeidung von Unfällen bewußt. (Übersetzungen der in dieser Veröffentlichung enthaltenen
Warnhinweise finden Sie im Anhang mit dem Titel “Translated Safety Warnings” (Übersetzung der
Warnhinweise).)
Avvertenza
Questo simbolo di avvertenza indica un pericolo. Si è in una situazione che può causare infortuni.
Prima di lavorare su qualsiasi apparecchiatura, occorre conoscere i pericoli relativi ai circuiti
elettrici ed essere al corrente delle pratiche standard per la prevenzione di incidenti. La traduzione
delle avvertenze riportate in questa pubblicazione si trova nell’appendice, “Translated Safety
Warnings” (Traduzione delle avvertenze di sicurezza).
Advarsel
Dette varselsymbolet betyr fare. Du befinner deg i en situasjon som kan føre til personskade. Før du
utfører arbeid på utstyr, må du være oppmerksom på de faremomentene som elektriske kretser
innebærer, samt gjøre deg kjent med vanlig praksis når det gjelder å unngå ulykker. (Hvis du vil se
oversettelser av de advarslene som finnes i denne publikasjonen, kan du se i vedlegget "Translated
Safety Warnings" [Oversatte sikkerhetsadvarsler].)
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Related Publications
Aviso
Este símbolo de aviso indica perigo. Encontra-se numa situação que lhe poderá causar danos
fisicos. Antes de começar a trabalhar com qualquer equipamento, familiarize-se com os perigos
relacionados com circuitos eléctricos, e com quaisquer práticas comuns que possam prevenir
possíveis acidentes. (Para ver as traduções dos avisos que constam desta publicação, consulte o
apêndice “Translated Safety Warnings” - “Traduções dos Avisos de Segurança”).
¡Advertencia!
Este símbolo de aviso significa peligro. Existe riesgo para su integridad física. Antes de manipular
cualquier equipo, considerar los riesgos que entraña la corriente eléctrica y familiarizarse con los
procedimientos estándar de prevención de accidentes. (Para ver traducciones de las advertencias
que aparecen en esta publicación, consultar el apéndice titulado “Translated Safety Warnings.”)
Varning!
Denna varningssymbol signalerar fara. Du befinner dig i en situation som kan leda till personskada.
Innan du utför arbete på någon utrustning måste du vara medveten om farorna med elkretsar och
känna till vanligt förfarande för att förebygga skador. (Se förklaringar av de varningar som
förekommer i denna publikation i appendix "Translated Safety Warnings" [Översatta
säkerhetsvarningar].)
Related Publications
These documents provide complete information about the access point:
•
Release Notes for 1200 Series Access Points
•
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Command Reference
Click this link to browse to the Cisco Aironet documentation home page:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wireless/index.htm
To browse to the 1200 series access point documentation, select Aironet 1200 Series Wireless LAN
Products > Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Points.
Obtaining Documentation
Cisco provides several ways to obtain documentation, technical assistance, and other technical
resources. These sections explain how to obtain technical information from Cisco Systems.
Cisco.com
You can access the most current Cisco documentation on the World Wide Web at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/home/home.htm
You can access the Cisco website at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com
International Cisco web sites can be accessed from this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/public/countries_languages.shtml
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Obtaining Documentation
Documentation CD-ROM
Cisco documentation and additional literature are available in a Cisco Documentation CD-ROM
package, which might have shipped with your product. The Documentation CD-ROM is updated
monthly and might be more current than printed documentation. The CD-ROM package is available as
a single unit or through an annual subscription.
Registered Cisco.com users can order the Documentation CD-ROM (product number
DOC-CONDOCCD=) through the online Subscription Store:
http://www.cisco.com/go/subscription
Ordering Documentation
You can find instructions for ordering documentation at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/es_inpck/pdi.htm
You can order Cisco documentation in these ways:
•
Registered Cisco.com users (Cisco direct customers) can order Cisco product documentation from
the Networking Products MarketPlace:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/ordering/index.shtml
•
Registered Cisco.com users can order the Documentation CD-ROM (Customer Order Number
DOC-CONDOCCD=) through the online Subscription Store:
http://www.cisco.com/go/subscription
•
Nonregistered Cisco.com users can order documentation through a local account representative by
calling Cisco Systems Corporate Headquarters (California, U.S.A.) at 408 526-7208 or, elsewhere
in North America, by calling 800 553-NETS (6387).
Documentation Feedback
You can submit comments electronically on Cisco.com. On the Cisco Documentation home page, click
Feedback at the top of the page.
You can email your comments to bug-doc@cisco.com.
You can submit your comments by mail by using the response card behind the front cover of your
document or by writing to the following address:
Cisco Systems
Attn: Customer Document Ordering
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-9883
We appreciate your comments.
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Obtaining Technical Assistance
Obtaining Technical Assistance
Cisco provides Cisco.com, which includes the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) Website, as a
starting point for all technical assistance. Customers and partners can obtain online documentation,
troubleshooting tips, and sample configurations from the Cisco TAC website. Cisco.com registered users
have complete access to the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC website, including TAC tools
and utilities.
Cisco.com
Cisco.com offers a suite of interactive, networked services that let you access Cisco information,
networking solutions, services, programs, and resources at any time, from anywhere in the world.
Cisco.com provides a broad range of features and services to help you with these tasks:
•
Streamline business processes and improve productivity
•
Resolve technical issues with online support
•
Download and test software packages
•
Order Cisco learning materials and merchandise
•
Register for online skill assessment, training, and certification programs
To obtain customized information and service, you can self-register on Cisco.com at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com
Technical Assistance Center
The Cisco TAC is available to all customers who need technical assistance with a Cisco product,
technology, or solution. Two levels of support are available: the Cisco TAC website and the Cisco TAC
Escalation Center. The avenue of support that you choose depends on the priority of the problem and the
conditions stated in service contracts, when applicable.
We categorize Cisco TAC inquiries according to urgency:
•
Priority level 4 (P4)—You need information or assistance concerning Cisco product capabilities,
product installation, or basic product configuration.
•
Priority level 3 (P3)—Your network performance is degraded. Network functionality is noticeably
impaired, but most business operations continue.
•
Priority level 2 (P2)—Your production network is severely degraded, affecting significant aspects
of business operations. No workaround is available.
•
Priority level 1 (P1)—Your production network is down, and a critical impact to business operations
will occur if service is not restored quickly. No workaround is available.
Cisco TAC Website
You can use the Cisco TAC website to resolve P3 and P4 issues yourself, saving both cost and time. The
site provides around-the-clock access to online tools, knowledge bases, and software. To access the
Cisco TAC website, go to this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/tac
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Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
All customers, partners, and resellers who have a valid Cisco service contract have complete access to
the technical support resources on the Cisco TAC website. Some services on the Cisco TAC website
require a Cisco.com login ID and password. If you have a valid service contract but do not have a login
ID or password, go to this URL to register:
http://tools.cisco.com/RPF/register/register.do
If you are a Cisco.com registered user, and you cannot resolve your technical issues by using the Cisco
TAC website, you can open a case online at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/support/index.html
If you have Internet access, we recommend that you open P3 and P4 cases through the Cisco TAC
website so that you can describe the situation in your own words and attach any necessary files.
Cisco TAC Escalation Center
The Cisco TAC Escalation Center addresses priority level 1 or priority level 2 issues. These
classifications are assigned when severe network degradation significantly impacts business operations.
When you contact the TAC Escalation Center with a P1 or P2 problem, a Cisco TAC engineer
automatically opens a case.
To obtain a directory of toll-free Cisco TAC telephone numbers for your country, go to this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml
Before calling, please check with your network operations center to determine the level of Cisco support
services to which your company is entitled: for example, SMARTnet, SMARTnet Onsite, or Network
Supported Accounts (NSA). When you call the center, please have available your service agreement
number and your product serial number.
Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
Information about Cisco products, technologies, and network solutions is available from various online
and printed sources.
•
The Cisco Product Catalog describes the networking products offered by Cisco Systems as well as
ordering and customer support services. Access the Cisco Product Catalog at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/products_catalog_links_launch.html
•
Cisco Press publishes a wide range of networking publications. Cisco suggests these titles for new
and experienced users: Internetworking Terms and Acronyms Dictionary, Internetworking
Technology Handbook, Internetworking Troubleshooting Guide, and the Internetworking Design
Guide. For current Cisco Press titles and other information, go to Cisco Press online at this URL:
http://www.ciscopress.com
•
Packet magazine is the Cisco monthly periodical that provides industry professionals with the latest
information about the field of networking. You can access Packet magazine at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac114/about_cisco_packet_magazine.html
•
iQ Magazine is the Cisco monthly periodical that provides business leaders and decision makers
with the latest information about the networking industry. You can access iQ Magazine at this URL:
http://business.cisco.com/prod/tree.taf%3fasset_id=44699&public_view=true&kbns=1.html
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Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
•
Internet Protocol Journal is a quarterly journal published by Cisco Systems for engineering
professionals involved in the design, development, and operation of public and private internets and
intranets. You can access the Internet Protocol Journal at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/about/ac123/ac147/about_cisco_the_internet_protocol_journal.html
•
Training—Cisco offers world-class networking training, with current offerings in network training
listed at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/learning/le31/learning_recommended_training_list.html
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Obtaining Additional Publications and Information
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C H A P T E R
1
Overview
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Points (hereafter called access points) provide a secure, affordable,
and easy-to-use wireless LAN solution that combines mobility and flexibility with the enterprise-class
features required by networking professionals. With a management system based on Cisco IOS software,
the 1200 series is a Wi-Fi certified, 802.11b-compliant and 802.11a-compliant wireless LAN transceiver.
The 1200 series access point can contain two radios: a 2.4-GHz radio in an internal mini-PCI slot and a
5-GHz radio module in an external, modified cardbus slot. The access point supports one radio of each
type, but it does not support two 2.4-GHz or two 5-GHz radios. You can configure the radios separately,
using different settings on each radio.
The access point serves as the connection point between wireless and wired networks or as the center
point of a stand-alone wireless network. In large installations, wireless users within radio range of an
access point can roam throughout a facility while maintaining seamless, uninterrupted access to the
network.
You can configure and monitor the access point using the command-line interface (CLI), the
browser-based management system, or Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
This chapter provides information on the following topics:
•
Features, page 1-2
•
Management Options, page 1-5
•
Roaming Client Devices, page 1-5
•
Network Configuration Examples, page 1-6
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Chapter 1
Overview
Features
Features
This section describes access point features. Refer to Appendix G, “Access Point Specifications,” for a
list of access point specifications.
Hardware Features
Key hardware features of the 1200 series access point include:
•
Dual-Radio Operation, page 1-2
•
Ethernet Port, page 1-2
•
Console Port, page 1-2
•
Status Indicators, page 1-3
•
Power Sources, page 1-3
•
UL 2043 Certification, page 1-4
•
Anti-Theft Features, page 1-4
Dual-Radio Operation
The 1200 series access point can be initially configured from the factory for single- or dual-radio
operation. You can also upgrade an access point configured for single-radio operation to support
dual-radio operation using a 5-GHz radio module or a 2.4-GHz mini-PCI radio card.
The 2.4-GHz mini-PCI radio card connects to an internal mini-PCI slot. The 5-GHz radio module
connects to the access point’s modified card bus connector. The module incorporates an Unlicensed
National Information Infrastructure (UNII) radio transceiver operating in two of the UNII 5-GHz
frequency bands and supporting up to 8 channels. The module contains dual integrated omnidirectional
antennas and directional patch antennas for diversity operation. The 2.4-GHz radio is called Radio 0 and
the 5-GHz radio is called Radio 1.
Ethernet Port
The auto-sensing Ethernet port accepts an RJ-45 connector, linking the access point to your 10BASE-T
or 100BASE-T Ethernet LAN. The access point can receive power through the Ethernet cable from a
power injector, switch, or power patch panel. The Ethernet MAC address is printed on the label on the
back of the access point.
Console Port
The console port provides access to the access point’s command-line interface (CLI) using a terminal
emulator program. Use an RJ-45 to DB-9 serial cable to connect your computer’s COM port to the access
point’s serial console port. (Refer to Appendix I, “Console Cable Pinouts,” for a description of the
console port pinouts.) Assign the following port settings to a terminal emulator to open the management
system pages: 9600 baud, 8 data bits, No parity, 1 stop bit and no flow control.
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Features
Status Indicators
The three indicators on the top of the access point report Ethernet activity, association status, and radio
activity.
•
The Ethernet indicator signals Ethernet traffic on the wired LAN, or Ethernet infrastructure. This
indicator is normally green when an Ethernet cable is connected and blinks green when a packet is
received or transmitted over the Ethernet infrastructure. The indicator is off when the Ethernet cable
is not connected.
•
The status indicator signals operational status. Green indicates that the access point is associated
with at least one wireless client. Blinking green indicates that the access point is operating normally
but is not associated with any wireless devices.
•
The radio indicator signals wireless traffic over the radio interface. The light is normally off, but it
blinks green whenever a packet is received or transmitted over the access point radio.
Figure 1-1 shows the three status indicators.
Figure 1-1
Access Point Indicators
Ethernet
Status
86704
Radio
Power Sources
The access point can receive power from an external power module or through inline power using the
Ethernet cable. Using inline power, you do not need to run a separate power cord to the access point. The
access point supports the following power sources:
•
Power supply (input 100–240 VAC, 50–60 Hz, output 48 VDC, 0.2A minimum)
•
Inline power from:
– Cisco Aironet Power Injector for 1100 and 1200 series access points
– A switch capable of providing inline power, such as Cisco Catalyst 3500XL, 3550, 4500, or
6500 switches
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Features
– An inline power patch panel, such as the Cisco Catalyst Inline Power Patch Panel
Note
The Catalyst 3550-24 PWR switch supports power for access points configured with both 2.4-GHz and
5-GHz radios. Other switches and patch panels might not provide enough power for the 5-GHz radio.
UL 2043 Certification
Caution
The 1200 series power injectors are not tested to UL 2043 and should not be placed in a building’s
environmental air space, such as above suspended ceilings.
The access point is encased in a durable metal case having adequate fire resistance and low
smoke-producing characteristics suitable for operation in a building's environmental air space, such as
above suspended ceilings, in accordance with Section 300-22(c) of the NEC, and with Sections 2-128,
12-010(3) and 12-100 of the Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1, C22.1.
Anti-Theft Features
There are two methods of securing the access point to help prevent theft:
•
Security cable keyhole—You can use the security cable slot to secure the access point using a
standard security cable, such as those used on laptop computers.
•
Security hasp—When you mount the access point on a wall or ceiling using the mounting bracket
and the security hasp, you can lock the access point to the bracket with a padlock. Compatible
padlocks are Master Lock models 120T and 121T or equivalent.
Software Features
In addition to all the standard access point features, 1200 series access points also offer these software
features:
•
World mode—Use this feature to communicate the access point’s regulatory setting information,
including maximum transmit power and available channels, to world mode-enabled clients. Clients
using world mode can be used in countries with different regulatory settings and automatically
conform to local regulations. World mode is supported only on the 2.4-GHz radio.
•
Repeater mode—Configure the access point as a wireless repeater to extend the coverage area of
your wireless network.
•
Standby mode—Configure the access point as a standby unit that monitors another access point and
assumes its role in the network if the monitored access point fails.
•
Multiple SSIDs—Create up to 16 SSIDs on your access point and assign any combination of these
settings to each SSID:
– Broadcast SSID mode for guests on your network
– Client authentication methods
– Maximum number of client associations
– VLAN identifier
– Proxy Mobile IP
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Management Options
– RADIUS accounting list identifier
– A separate SSID for infrastructure devices such as repeaters and workgroup bridges
•
VLANs—Assign VLANs to the SSIDs on your access point (one VLAN per SSID) to differentiate
policies and services among users.
•
QoS—Use this feature to support quality of service for prioritizing traffic from the Ethernet to the
access point. The access point also supports the voice-prioritization schemes used by 802.11b
wireless phones such as Spectralink's Netlink™ and Symbol’s Netvision™.
•
Proxy Mobile IP—Use this feature to configure the access point to provide proxy Mobile IP service
for clients that do not have mobile IP software installed.
•
RADIUS Accounting—Enable accounting on the access point to send accounting data about
wireless client devices to a RADIUS server on your network.
•
TACACS+ adminstrator authentication—Enable TACACS+ for server-based, detailed accounting
information and flexible administrative control over authentication and authorization processes. It
provides secure, centralized validation of administrators attempting to gain access to your access
point.
•
Enhanced security—Enable three advanced security features to protect against sophisticated attacks
on your wireless network's WEP keys: Message Integrity Check (MIC), WEP key hashing, and
broadcast WEP key rotation.
•
Enhanced authentication services—Set up repeater access points to authenticate to your network
like other wireless client devices. After you provide a network username and password for the
repeater, it authenticates to your network using LEAP, Cisco's wireless authentication method, and
receives and uses dynamic WEP keys.
Management Options
You can use the access point management system through the following interfaces:
•
The IOS command-line interface (CLI), which you use through a Telnet session. Most of the
examples in this manual are taken from the CLI. Chapter 5, “Using the Command-Line Interface,”
provides a detailed description of the CLI.
•
A web-browser interface, which you use through a web browser. Chapter 4, “Using the
Web-Browser Interface,” provides a detailed description of the web-browser interface.
•
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Chapter 17, “Configuring SNMP,” explains how
to configure your access point for SNMP management.
Roaming Client Devices
If you have more than one access point in your wireless LAN, wireless client devices can roam
seamlessly from one access point to another. The roaming functionality is based on signal quality, not
proximity. When a client’s signal quality drops, it roams to another access point.
Wireless LAN users are sometimes concerned when a client device stays associated to a distant access
point instead of roaming to a closer access point. However, if a client’s signal to a distant access point
remains strong and the signal quality is high, the client will not roam to a closer access point. Checking
constantly for closer access points would be inefficient, and the extra radio traffic would slow throughput
on the wireless LAN.
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Network Configuration Examples
Network Configuration Examples
This section describes the access point’s role in three common wireless network configurations. The
access point’s default configuration is as a root unit connected to a wired LAN or as the central unit in
an all-wireless network. The repeater role requires a specific configuration.
Root Unit on a Wired LAN
An access point connected directly to a wired LAN provides a connection point for wireless users. If
more than one access point is connected to the LAN, users can roam from one area of a facility to another
without losing their connection to the network. As users move out of range of one access point, they
automatically connect to the network (associate) through another access point. The roaming process is
seamless and transparent to the user. Figure 1-2 shows access points acting as root units on a wired LAN.
Figure 1-2
Access Points as Root Units on a Wired LAN
Access Point
(Root Unit)
Access Point
(Root Unit)
65999
Wired LAN
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Network Configuration Examples
Repeater Unit that Extends Wireless Range
An access point can be configured as a stand-alone repeater to extend the range of your infrastructure or
to overcome an obstacle that blocks radio communication. The repeater forwards traffic between
wireless users and the wired LAN by sending packets to either another repeater or to an access point
connected to the wired LAN. The data is sent through the route that provides the best performance for
the client. Figure 1-3 shows an access point acting as a repeater. Consult the “Configuring a Repeater
Access Point” section on page 18-3 for instructions on setting up an access point as a repeater.
Note
Non-Cisco client devices might have difficulty communicating with repeater access points.
Figure 1-3
Access Point as Repeater
Access Point
(Root Unit)
Wired LAN
66000
Access Point
(Repeater)
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Network Configuration Examples
Central Unit in an All-Wireless Network
In an all-wireless network, an access point acts as a stand-alone root unit. The access point is not
attached to a wired LAN; it functions as a hub linking all stations together. The access point serves as
the focal point for communications, increasing the communication range of wireless users. Figure 1-4
shows an access point in an all-wireless network.
Figure 1-4
Access Point as Central Unit in All-Wireless Network
65998
Access Point
(Root Unit)
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Installing the Access Point
This chapter describes the setup of the access point and includes the following sections:
•
Safety Information, page 2-2
•
Warnings, page 2-2
•
Unpacking the Access Point, page 2-3
•
Basic Installation Guidelines, page 2-3
•
Before Beginning the Installation, page 2-4
•
Installation Summary, page 2-5
•
Connecting the 2.4-GHz Antennas, page 2-5
•
Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables, page 2-5
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Safety Information
Safety Information
Follow the guidelines in this section to ensure proper operation and safe use of the access point.
FCC Safety Compliance Statement
The FCC with its action in ET Docket 96-8 has adopted a safety standard for human exposure to radio
frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy emitted by FCC certified equipment. When used with approved
Cisco Aironet antennas, Cisco Aironet products meet the uncontrolled environmental limits found in
OET-65 and ANSI C95.1, 1991. Proper installation of this radio according to the instructions found in
this manual will result in user exposure that is substantially below the FCC recommended limits.
General Safety Guidelines
•
Do not touch or move antenna(s) while the unit is transmitting or receiving.
•
Do not hold any component containing a radio so that the antenna is very close to or touching any
exposed parts of the body, especially the face or eyes, while transmitting.
•
The use of wireless devices in hazardous locations is limited to the constraints posed by the local
codes, the national codes, and the safety directors of such environments.
Warnings
Translated versions of the following safety warnings are provided in Appendix A, “Translated Safety
Warnings.”
Warning
In order to comply with FCC radio frequency (RF) exposure limits, dipole antennas should be located
at a minimum of 7.9 inches (20 cm) or more from the body of all persons.
Warning
Do not operate your wireless network device near unshielded blasting caps or in an explosive
environment unless the device has been modified to be especially qualified for such use.
Warning
Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during periods of lightning activity.
Warning
Read the installation instructions before you connect the system to its power source.
Warning
This product relies on the building's installation for short-circuit (overcurrent) protection. Ensure that
a fuse or circuit breaker no larger than 120 VAC, 15A U.S. (240 VAC, 10A international) is used on the
phase conductors (all current-carrying conductors).
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Unpacking the Access Point
Unpacking the Access Point
Follow these steps to unpack the access point:
Step 1
Open the shipping container and carefully remove the contents.
Step 2
Return all packing materials to the shipping container and save it.
Step 3
Ensure that all items listed in the “Package Contents” section are included in the shipment. Check each
item for damage. If any item is damaged or missing, notify your authorized Cisco sales representative.
Package Contents
Each access point package contains the following items:
•
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point
•
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Power Module (Universal power supply)
•
Quick Start Guide: Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point
•
Cisco product registration and Cisco documentation feedback cards
Basic Installation Guidelines
Because the access point is a radio device, it is susceptible to common causes of interference that can
reduce throughput and range. Follow these basic guidelines to ensure the best possible performance:
•
Install the access point in an area where large steel structures such as shelving units, bookcases, and
filing cabinets do not block the radio signals to and from the access point.
•
Install the access point away from microwave ovens. Microwave ovens operate on the same
frequency as the access point and can cause signal interference.
Installation Above Suspended Ceilings
The access point uses a metal enclosure having adequate fire resistance and low smoke-producing
characteristics suitable for operation in a building’s environmental air space in accordance with Section
300-22(c) of the NEC, such as above suspended ceilings. For mounting instructions, refer to
Appendix D, “Mounting Instructions.”
Caution
Note
Cisco Aironet power injectors are not tested to UL 2043 and should not be placed in a building’s
environmental air space, such as above suspended ceilings.
If you plan to mount the access point in environmental air space and will upgrade to a 5-GHz radio, Cisco
recommends that you mount the access point horizontally with its antennas pointing down. Doing so will
result in the access point complying with regulatory requirements for environmental air space after the
5-GHz radio is installed.
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Before Beginning the Installation
Before Beginning the Installation
Before you begin the installation process, please refer to Figure 2-1 and Figure 2-2 to become familiar
with the access point’s layout, connectors, and 5-GHz module location.
Figure 2-1
2
3
4
5
6
65847
1
Access Point Layout and Connectors
7
1
1
2.4-GHz antenna connectors
5
Mode button
2
48 VDC power port
6
Status LEDs
3
Ethernet port (RJ-45)
7
Mounting bracket
4
Console port (RJ-45)
Figure 2-2
1
2
3
74631
1
5-GHz Radio Module
1
5-GHz radio module mounting screws
2
5-GHz radio module antenna (patch position)
3
Access point
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Installation Summary
Installation Summary
While installing the access point, you must perform the following operations:
•
If your access point has a 2.4-GHz radio, connect a single antenna or dual diversity antennas (refer
to the “Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables” section on page 2-5).
•
Connect Ethernet and power cables (refer to the “Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables”
section on page 2-5).
•
Configure basic settings (refer to Chapter 3, “Configuring the Access Point for the First Time”).
•
Configure security and other access point options.
•
Use the mounting kit to install the access point on a convenient flat horizontal or vertical surface,
such as a desktop, book shelf, file cabinet, wall, or ceiling. For additional information on mounting,
refer to Appendix D, “Mounting Instructions.”
Connecting the 2.4-GHz Antennas
The access point supports a single antenna or dual diversity antennas. Two R-TNC antenna connectors
are provided on the back of the unit for the 2.4-GHz radio.
If you are using a Cisco Aironet 2 dBi antenna, follow the steps below:
Step 1
Attach an antenna to the Right/Primary 2.4-GHz (R-TNC) antenna connector on the back of the access
point and tighten hand tight. If you are using two antennas for diversity coverage, attach the second
antenna to the Left 2.4-GHz (R-TNC) antenna connector.
Step 2
Orient the antenna depending on how you intend to mount the access point.
•
On a table or desk, orient the antenna straight up.
•
On a vertical surface, such as a wall, orient the antenna straight up.
•
On a ceiling, orient the antenna straight down.
If you are using another Cisco Aironet antenna, refer to the instructions that came with your antenna.
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Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables
Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables
The access point receives power through the Ethernet cable or an external power module. Figure 2-3
shows the power options for the access point.
Figure 2-3
Access Point Power Options
Option 1
Option 2
Option 3
Switch
(without inline power)
Switch with
inline power
SYST
RPS
STAT
UTIL DUPLX
1
2
SPEED
MODE
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10Base-T
10
11
12
Switch
(without inline power)
/ 100Base-TX
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Catalyst 2950
21
22
23
24
SERIES
100Base-FX
23
24
SYST
RPS
STAT
UTIL DUPLX
MODE
SYST
RPS
STAT
UTIL DUPLX
SPEED
MODE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10Base-T
10
11
12
SPEED
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10Base-T
10
11
12
/ 100Base-TX
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Catalyst 2950
21
22
23
24
SERIES
100Base-FX
23
24
/ 100Base-TX
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Catalyst 2950
21
22
23
24
SERIES
100Base-FX
23
24
Inline Power
Patch Panel
K
O
T OR
W
T
Power injector
E
N
SYST
RPS
STAT
UTIL DUPLX
SPEED
E
OG
T ID
R
B
/
P
A
MODE
Power
cord
Access Point
Option 4
74164
Universal
power supply
The access point power options are listed below:
•
A switch with inline power, such as a Cisco Catalyst 3500XL, 3550-24 PWR, 4000, or 6500 switch
•
An inline power patch panel, such as a Cisco Catalyst Inline Power Patch Panel
•
A power injector
•
A power module (Universal power supply)
Note
Currently, the Catalyst 3550-24 PWR switch supports power for both the 2.4-GHz radio and the 5-GHz
radio. Other switches and power patch panels might not provide enough power for the 5-GHz radio.
Note
If you use in-line power from a switch or patch panel, do not connect the power module to the access
point. Using two power sources on the access point might cause the switch or patch panel to shut down
the port to which the access point is connected.
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Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables
Connecting to an Ethernet Network with an Inline Power Source
Caution
The Cisco Aironet Power Injector for the 1100 and 1200 series is designed for use with 1100 series or
1200 series access points only. Using the power injector with other Ethernet-ready devices can damage
the equipment.
Caution
The Cisco Aironet Power Injector for the 1100 and 1200 series is not tested to UL 2043 and should not
be placed in a building's environmental air space, such as above suspended ceilings.
Follow these steps to connect the access point to the Ethernet LAN when you have an inline power
source:
Step 1
Connect the Ethernet cable to the RJ-45 Ethernet connector labeled Ethernet on the access point.
Step 2
Connect the other end of the Ethernet cable to one of the following:
Note
•
A switch with inline power, such as a Cisco Catalyst 3500XL, 3550-24 PWR, 4000, or 6500 switch.
•
An inline power switch panel, such as a Cisco Catalyst Inline Power Patch Panel.
•
The end of a Cisco Aironet power injector labeled To AP/Bridge. Connect the other end labeled To
Network to the 10/100 Ethernet LAN.
If you use a power supply or power injector to power the access point, you must use the power supply
included with your access point and the Cisco Aironet Power Injector for the 1100 and 1200 series access
points.
Connecting to an Ethernet Network with Local Power
Follow these steps to connect the access point to an Ethernet LAN when you are using a local power
source:
Step 1
Connect the Ethernet cable to the RJ-45 Ethernet connector labeled Ethernet on the access point.
Step 2
Plug the other end of the Ethernet cable into an unpowered Ethernet port on your network.
Step 3
Connect the power module’s output connector to the 48-VDC power port labeled 48VDC on the access
point.
Step 4
Plug the other end of the power module into an approved 100- to 240-VAC outlet.
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Connecting the Ethernet and Power Cables
Powering Up the Access Point
When power is applied to the access point, it begins a routine power-up sequence that you can monitor
by observing the three LEDs on top of the access point. After you observe all three LEDs turning green
to indicate the starting of the IOS operating system, the Status LED blinks green signifying that IOS is
operational. When in an operational status, the Ethernet LED is steady green when no traffic is being
passed and dark during periods when traffic is being passed. The sequence takes about 1 minute to
complete. Refer to Chapter 21, “Troubleshooting,” for LED descriptions.
When the sequence is complete, you are ready to obtain the access point’s IP address and perform an
initial configuration. Refer to Chapter 3, “Configuring the Access Point for the First Time,” for
instructions on assigning basic settings to the access point.
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Configuring the Access Point for the First Time
This chapter describes how to configure basic settings on your access point for the first time. The
contents of this chapter are similar to the instructions in the quick start guide that shipped with your
access point. You can configure all the settings described in this chapter using the CLI, but it might be
simplest to browse to the access point’s web-browser interface to complete the initial configuration and
then use the CLI to enter additional settings for a more detailed configuration.
This chapter contains these sections:
•
Before You Start, page 3-2
•
Obtaining and Assigning an IP Address, page 3-3
•
Connecting to the Access Point Locally, page 3-3
•
Assigning Basic Settings, page 3-4
•
Protecting Your Wireless LAN, page 3-8
•
Using the IP Setup Utility, page 3-8
•
Assigning an IP Address Using the CLI, page 3-11
•
Using a Telnet Session to Access the CLI, page 3-12
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Before You Start
Before You Start
Before you install the access point, make sure you are using a computer connected to the same network
as the access point, and obtain the following information from your network administrator:
•
A system name for the access point
•
The case-sensitive wireless service set identifier (SSID) for your radio network
•
If not connected to a DHCP server, a unique IP address for your access point (such as
172.17.255.115)
•
If the access point is not on the same subnet as your PC, a default gateway address and subnet mask
•
A Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) community name and the SNMP file attribute (if
SNMP is in use)
•
If you use IPSU to find or assign the access point IP address, the MAC address from the label on the
bottom of the access point (such as 00164625854c)
Resetting the Access Point to Default Settings
If you need to start over during the initial setup process, follow these steps to reset the access point to
factory default settings using the access point MODE button:
Step 1
Disconnect power (the power jack for external power or the Ethernet cable for in-line power) from the
access point.
Step 2
Press and hold the MODE button while you reconnect power to the access point.
Step 3
Hold the MODE button until the Status LED turns amber (approximately 1 to 2 seconds), and release the
button. All access point settings return to factory defaults.
Follow these steps to return to default settings using the web-browser interface:
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password window appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name field. The default username is Cisco.
Step 4
Enter the access point password in the Password field and press Enter. The default password is Cisco.
The Summary Status page appears.
Step 5
Click System Software and the System Software screen appears.
Step 6
Click System Configuration and the System Configuration screen appears.
Step 7
Click the Reset to Defaults button.
Note
If the access point is configured with a static IP address, the IP address does not change.
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Obtaining and Assigning an IP Address
Obtaining and Assigning an IP Address
To browse to the access point’s Express Setup page, you must either obtain or assign the access point’s
IP address using one of the following methods:
•
Connect to the access point console port and assign a static IP address. Follow the steps in the
“Connecting to the Access Point Locally” section on page 3-3 to connect to the console port.
•
Use a DHCP server (if available) to automatically assign an IP address. You can find out the
DHCP-assigned IP address using one of the following methods:
– Connect to the access point console port and use the show ip interface brief command to
display the IP address. Follow the steps in the “Connecting to the Access Point Locally” section
on page 3-3 to connect to the console port.
– Provide your organization’s network administrator with your access point’s Media Access
Control (MAC) address. Your network administrator will query the DHCP server using the
MAC address to identify the IP address. The access point’s MAC address is on label attached
to the bottom of the access point.
– Use the Cisco IP Setup Utility (IPSU) to identify the assigned address. You can also use IPSU
to assign an IP address to the access point if it did not receive an IP address from the DHCP
server. IPSU runs on most Microsoft Windows operating systems: Windows 9x, 2000, Me, NT,
and XP.
You can download IPSU from the Software Center on Cisco.com. Click this link to browse to
the Software Center:
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-wireless.shtml
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Connecting to the Access Point Locally
Connecting to the Access Point Locally
If you need to configure the access point locally (without connecting the access point to a wired LAN),
you can connect a PC to its console port using a DB-9 to RJ-45 serial cable. Follow these steps to open
the CLI by connecting to the access point console port:
Connect a nine-pin, female DB-9 to RJ-45 serial cable to the RJ-45 serial port on the access point and
to the COM port on a computer. Figure 3-1 shows the serial port connection.
Figure 3-1
DB-9 to RJ-45
serial cable
Note
Step 2
Connecting the Serial Cable
RJ-45 serial
connector
74005
Step 1
The Cisco part number for the DB-9 to RJ-45 serial cable is AIR-CONCAB1200. Browse to
http://www.cisco.com/go/marketplace to order a serial cable.
Set up a terminal emulator to communicate with the access point. Use the following settings for the
terminal emulator connection: 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and no flow control.
Assigning Basic Settings
After you determine or assign the access point’s IP address, you can browse to the access point’s Express
Setup page and perform an initial configuration:
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password screen appears.
Step 3
Press Tab to bypass the Username field and advance to the Password field.
Step 4
Enter the case-sensitive password Cisco and press Enter. The Summary Status page appears. Figure 3-2
shows the Summary Status page.
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Figure 3-2
Step 5
Summary Status Page
Click Express Setup. The Express Setup screen appears. Figure 3-3 shows the Express Setup page.
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Assigning Basic Settings
Figure 3-3
Step 6
Express Setup Page
Enter the configuration settings you obtained from your system administrator. The configurable settings
include:
•
System Name— The system name, while not an essential setting, helps identify the access point on
your network. The system name appears in the titles of the management system pages.
•
Configuration Server Protocol—Click on the button that matches the network’s method of IP
address assignment.
– DHCP—IP addresses are automatically assigned by your network’s DHCP server.
– Static IP—The access point uses a static IP address that you enter in the IP address field.
•
Note
IP Address—Use this setting to assign or change the access point’s IP address. If DHCP is enabled
for your network, leave this field blank.
If the access point’s IP address changes while you are configuring the access point using the
web-browser interface or a Telnet session over the wired LAN, you lose your connection to the
access point. If you lose your connection, reconnect to the access point using its new IP address.
Follow the steps in the “Resetting the Access Point to Default Settings” section on page 3-2 if
you need to start over.
•
IP Subnet Mask—Enter the IP subnet mask provided by your network administrator so the IP
address can be recognized on the LAN. If DHCP is enabled, leave this field blank.
•
Default Gateway—Enter the default gateway IP address provided by your network administrator.
If DHCP is enabled, leave this field blank.
•
Radio Service Set ID (SSID)—Enter the case-sensitive SSID (32 alphanumeric characters
maximum) provided by your network administrator. The SSID is a unique identifier that client
devices use to associate with the access point.
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Assigning Basic Settings
•
Broadcast SSID in Beacon—Use this setting to allow devices that do not specify an SSID to
associate with the access point.
– Yes—This is the default setting; it allows devices that do not specify an SSID to associate with
the access point.
– No—Devices must specify an SSID to associate with the access point. With No selected, the
SSID used by the client devices must match exactly the access point’s SSID.
•
Role in Radio Network—Click on the button that describes the role of the access point on your
network. Select Access Point (Root) if your access point is connected to the wired LAN. Select
Repeater (Non-Root) if it is not connected to the wired LAN.
•
Optimize Radio Network for—Use this setting to select either preconfigured settings for the access
point radio or customized settings for the access point radio.
– Throughput—Maximizes the data volume handled by the access point but might reduce its
range.
– Range—Maximizes the access point’s range but might reduce throughput.
– Custom—The access point uses settings you enter on the Network Interfaces: Radio-802.11b
Settings page. Clicking Custom takes you to the Network Interfaces: Radio-802.11b Settings
page.
Step 7
•
Aironet Extensions—Enable this setting if there are only Cisco Aironet devices on your wireless
LAN.
•
SNMP Community—If your network is using SNMP, enter the SNMP Community name provided
by your network administrator and select the attributes of the SNMP data (also provided by your
network administrator).
Click Apply to save your settings. If you changed the IP address, you lose your connection to the access
point. Browse to the new IP address to reconnect to the access point.
Your access point is now running but probably requires additional configuring to conform to your
network’s operational and security requirements. Consult the chapters in this manual for the information
you need to complete the configuration.
Note
You can restore the access point to its factory defaults by unplugging the power jack and
plugging it back in while holding down the Mode button for a few seconds, or until the Status
LED turns amber.
Default Settings on the Express Setup Page
Table 3-1 lists the default settings for the settings on the Express Setup page.
Table 3-1
Default Settings on the Express Setup Page
Setting
Default
System Name
ap
Configuration Server Protocol
DHCP
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Table 3-1
Default Settings on the Express Setup Page (continued)
Setting
Default
IP Address
Assigned by DHCP by default; if
DHCP is disabled, the default
setting is 10.0.0.1
IP Subnet Mask
Assigned by DHCP by default; if
DHCP is disabled, the default
setting is 255.255.255.224
Default Gateway
Assigned by DHCP by default; if
DHCP is disabled, the default
setting is 0.0.0.0
Radio Service Set ID (SSID)
tsunami
Broadcast SSID in Beacon
Yes1
Role in Radio Network
Access point (root)
Optimize Radio Network for
Throughput
Aironet Extensions
Enable
SNMP Community
defaultCommunity
1. When you assign multiple SSIDs, this setting no longer appears.
Protecting Your Wireless LAN
After you assign basic settings to your access point, you must configure security settings to prevent
unauthorized access to your network. Because it is a radio device, the access point can communicate
beyond the physical boundaries of your building. Configure some combination of these security features
to protect your network from intruders:
•
Unique SSIDs that are not broadcast in the access point beacon (see Chapter 8, “Configuring
Multiple SSIDs.”)
•
WEP and additional WEP features, such as TKIP and broadcast key rotation (see Chapter 9,
“Configuring WEP and WEP Features.”)
•
Dynamic WEP and client authentication (see Chapter 10, “Configuring Authentication Types.”)
Using the IP Setup Utility
IPSU enables you to find the access point’s IP address when it has been assigned by a DHCP server. You
can also use IPSU to set the access point’s IP address and SSID if they have not been changed from the
default settings. This section explains how to install the utility, how to use it to find the access point’s IP
address, and how to use it to set the IP address and the SSID.
Note
IPSU can be used only on the following operating systems: Windows 95, 98, NT, 2000, ME, or XP.
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Tip
Another simple way to find the access point’s IP address is to look on the Status screen in the Aironet
Client Utility on a client device associated to the access point.
Obtaining and Installing IPSU
IPSU is available on the Cisco web site. Follow these steps to obtain and install IPSU:
Step 1
Use your Internet browser to access the Cisco Software Center at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-wireless.shtml
Step 2
Click Cisco Aironet Wireless LAN Client Adapters.
Step 3
Scroll down to the Windows Utility section.
Step 4
Click Cisco Aironet Client Utility (ACU) for Windows.
Step 5
Click the file IPSUvxxxxx.exe. The vxxxxxx identifies the software package version number.
Step 6
Read and accept the terms and conditions of the Software License Agreement.
Step 7
Download and save the file to a temporary directory on your hard drive and then exit the Internet browser.
Step 8
Double-click IPSUvxxxxxx.exe in the temporary directory to expand the file.
Step 9
Double-click Setup.exe and follow the steps provided by the installation wizard to install IPSU.
The IPSU icon appears on your computer desktop.
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Using the IP Setup Utility
Using IPSU to Find the Access Point’s IP Address
If your access point receives an IP address from a DHCP server, you can use IPSU to find its IP address.
Because IPSU sends a reverse-ARP request based on the access point MAC address, you must run IPSU
from a computer on the same subnet as the access point. Follow these steps to find the access point’s IP
address:
Step 1
Double-click the IPSU icon on your computer desktop to start the utility. The IPSU screen appears (see
Figure 3-4).
Figure 3-4
IPSU Get IP Address Screen
Step 2
When the utility window opens, make sure the Get IP addr radio button in the Function box is selected.
Step 3
Enter the access point’s MAC address in the Device MAC ID field. The access point’s MAC address is
printed on the label on the bottom of the unit. It should contain six pairs of hexadecimal digits. Your
access point’s MAC address might look like the following example:
000164xxxxxx
Note
The MAC address field is not case-sensitive.
Step 4
Click Get IP Address.
Step 5
When the access point’s IP address appears in the IP Address field, write it down.
If IPSU reports that the IP address is 10.0.0.1, the default IP address, then the access point did not receive
a DHCP-assigned IP address. To change the access point IP address from the default value using IPSU,
refer to the “Using IPSU to Set the Access Point’s IP Address and SSID” section on page 3-10.
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Configuring the Access Point for the First Time
Using the IP Setup Utility
Using IPSU to Set the Access Point’s IP Address and SSID
If you want to change the default IP address (10.0.0.1) of the access point, you can use IPSU. You can
also set the access point’s SSID at the same time.
Note
IPSU can change the access point’s IP address and SSID only from their default settings. After the IP
address and SSID have been changed, IPSU cannot change them again.
Note
The computer you use to assign an IP address to the access point must have an IP address in the same
subnet as the access point (10.0.0.x).
Follow these steps to assign an IP address and an SSID to the access point:
Step 1
Double-click the IPSU icon on your computer desktop to start the utility.
Step 2
Click the Set Parameters radio button in the Function box (see Figure 3-5).
Figure 3-5
Step 3
IPSU Set Parameters Screen
Enter the access point’s MAC address in the Device MAC ID field. The access point’s MAC address is
printed on the label on the bottom of the unit. It should contain six pairs of hexadecimal digits. Your
access point’s MAC address might look like this example:
004096xxxxxx
Note
The MAC address field is not case-sensitive.
Step 4
Enter the IP address you want to assign to the access point in the IP Address field.
Step 5
Enter the SSID you want to assign to the access point in the SSID field.
Note
You cannot set the SSID without also setting the IP address. However, you can set the IP address
without setting the SSID.
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Configuring the Access Point for the First Time
Assigning an IP Address Using the CLI
Step 6
Click Set Parameters to change the access point’s IP address and SSID settings.
Step 7
Click Exit to exit IPSU.
Assigning an IP Address Using the CLI
When you connect the access point to the wired LAN, the access point links to the network using a bridge
virtual interface (BVI) that it creates automatically. Instead of tracking separate IP addresses for the
access point’s Ethernet and radio ports, the network uses the BVI.
When you assign an IP address to the access point using the CLI, you must assign the address to the BVI.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to assign an IP address to the access point’s
BVI:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface bvi1
Enter interface configuration mode for the BVI.
Step 3
ip address address
mask
Assign an IP address and address mask to the BVI.
Note
If you are connected to the access point using a Telnet
session, you lose your connection to the access point
when you assign a new IP address to the BVI. If you
need to continue configuring the access point using
Telnet, use the new IP address to open another Telnet
session to the access point.
Using a Telnet Session to Access the CLI
Follow these steps to browse to access the CLI using a Telnet session. These steps are for a PC running
Microsoft Windows with a Telnet terminal application. Check your PC operating instructions for
detailed instructions for your operating system.
Step 1
Select Start > Programs > Accessories > Telnet.
If Telnet is not listed in your Accessories menu, select Start > Run, type Telnet in the entry field, and
press Enter.
Step 2
When the Telnet window appears, click Connect and select Remote System.
Note
Step 3
In Windows 2000, the Telnet window does not contain drop-down menus. To start the Telnet
session in Windows 2000, type open followed by the access point’s IP address.
In the Host Name field, type the access point’s IP address and click Connect.
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4
Using the Web-Browser Interface
This chapter describes the web-browser interface that you can use to configure the access point. It
contains these sections:
•
Using the Web-Browser Interface for the First Time, page 4-2
•
Using the Management Pages in the Web-Browser Interface, page 4-2
•
Using Online Help, page 4-5
The web-browser interface contains management pages that you use to change access point settings,
upgrade firmware, and monitor and configure other wireless devices on the network.
Note
The access point web-browser interface is fully compatible with Microsoft Internet Explorer (version
5.x or later) or Netscape Navigator (version 4.x).
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Using the Web-Browser Interface
Using the Web-Browser Interface for the First Time
Using the Web-Browser Interface for the First Time
Use the access point’s IP address to browse to the management system. See the “Obtaining and
Assigning an IP Address” section on page 3-3 for instructions on assigning an IP address to the access
point.
Follow these steps to begin using the web-browser interface:
Step 1
Start the browser.
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser Location field (Netscape Communicator) or Address
field (Internet Explorer) and press Enter. The Summary Status page appears.
Using the Management Pages in the Web-Browser Interface
The system management pages use consistent techniques to present and save configuration information.
A navigation bar is on the left side of the page, and configuration action buttons appear at the bottom.
You use the navigation bar to browse to other management pages, and you use the configuration action
buttons to save or cancel changes to the configuration.
Note
It’s important to remember that clicking your browser’s Back button returns you to the previous page
without saving any changes you have made. Clicking Cancel cancels any changes you made on the page
and keeps you on that page. Changes are only applied when you click Apply.
Figure 4-1 shows the web-browser interface home page.
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Using the Web-Browser Interface
Using the Management Pages in the Web-Browser Interface
Figure 4-1
Web-Browser Interface Home Page
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Using the Web-Browser Interface
Using the Management Pages in the Web-Browser Interface
Using Action Buttons
Table 4-1 lists the page links and buttons that appear on most management pages.
Table 4-1
Common Buttons on Management Pages
Button/Link
Description
Navigation Links
Home
Displays access point status page with information on the number of radio
devices associated to the access point, the status of the Ethernet and radio
interfaces, and a list of recent access point activity.
Express Setup
Displays the Express Setup page that includes basic settings such as system
name, IP address, and SSID.
Network Map
Displays a list of infrastructure devices on your wireless LAN.
Association
Displays a list of all devices on your wireless LAN, listing their system names,
network roles, and parent-client relationships.
Network Interfaces
Displays status and statistics for the Ethernet and radio interfaces and provides
links to configuration pages for each interface.
Security
Displays a summary of security settings and provides links to security
configuration pages.
Services
Displays status for several access point features and links to configuration
pages for Telnet/SSH, CDP, domain name server, filters, proxy Mobile IP,
QoS, SNMP, SNTP, and VLANs.
System Software
Displays the version number of the firmware that the access point is running
and provides links to configuration pages for upgrading and managing
firmware.
Event Log
Displays the access point event log and provides links to configuration pages
where you can select events to be included in traps, set event severity levels,
and set notification methods.
Configuration Action Buttons
Apply
Saves changes made on the page and remains on the page.
Refresh
Updates status information or statistics displayed on a page.
Cancel
Discards changes to the page and remains on the page.
Back
Discards any changes made to the page and returns to the previous page.
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Using the Web-Browser Interface
Using Online Help
Character Restrictions in Entry Fields
Because the 1200 series access point uses Cisco IOS software, there are certain characters that you
cannot use in the entry fields on the web-browser interface. Table 4-2 lists the illegal characters and the
fields in which you cannot use them.
Table 4-2
Illegal Characters for Web-Browser Interface Entry Fields
Entry Field Type
Illegal Characters
Password entry fields
?
“
$
[
+
All other entry fields
?
“
$
[
+
You also cannot use these
three characters as the
first character in an entry
field:
!
#
;
Using Online Help
Click the help icon at the top of any page in the web-browser interface to display online help. Figure 4-2
shows the print and help icons.
Figure 4-2
Print and Help Icons
When a help page appears in a new browser window, use the Select a topic drop-down menu to display
the help index or instructions for common configuration tasks, such as configuring VLANs.
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Using Online Help
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5
Using the Command-Line Interface
This chapter describes the IOS command-line interface (CLI) that you can use to configure your access
point. It contains these sections:
•
IOS Command Modes, page 5-2
•
Getting Help, page 5-3
•
Abbreviating Commands, page 5-3
•
Using no and default Forms of Commands, page 5-3
•
Understanding CLI Messages, page 5-4
•
Using Command History, page 5-4
•
Using Editing Features, page 5-5
•
Searching and Filtering Output of show and more Commands, page 5-8
•
Accessing the CLI, page 5-8
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Using the Command-Line Interface
IOS Command Modes
IOS Command Modes
The Cisco IOS user interface is divided into many different modes. The commands available to you
depend on which mode you are currently in. Enter a question mark (?) at the system prompt to obtain a
list of commands available for each command mode.
When you start a session on the access point, you begin in user mode, often called user EXEC mode.
Only a limited subset of the commands are available in user EXEC mode. For example, most of the user
EXEC commands are one-time commands, such as show commands, which show the current
configuration status, and clear commands, which clear counters or interfaces. The user EXEC
commands are not saved when the access point reboots.
To have access to all commands, you must enter privileged EXEC mode. Normally, you must enter a
password to enter privileged EXEC mode. From this mode, you must enter privileged EXEC mode
before you can enter the global configuration mode.
Using the configuration modes (global, interface, and line), you can make changes to the running
configuration. If you save the configuration, these commands are stored and used when the access point
reboots. To access the various configuration modes, you must start at global configuration mode. From
global configuration mode, you can enter interface configuration mode and line configuration mode.
Table 5-1 describes the main command modes, how to access each one, the prompt you see in that mode, and
how to exit the mode. The examples in the table use the host name ap.
Table 5-1
Command Mode Summary
Mode
Access Method
Prompt
Exit Method
About This Mode
User EXEC
Begin a session with
your access point.
ap>
Enter logout or quit.
Use this mode to:
•
Change terminal settings
•
Perform basic tests
•
Display system
information
Privileged EXEC
While in user EXEC
mode, enter the
enable command.
ap#
Enter disable to exit.
Global configuration
While in privileged
EXEC mode, enter
the configure
command.
ap(config)#
To exit to privileged
Use this mode to configure
EXEC mode, enter exit or parameters that apply to the
end, or press Ctrl-Z.
entire access point.
Interface
configuration
While in global
configuration mode,
enter the interface
command (with a
specific interface).
ap(config-if)#
To exit to global
configuration mode, enter
exit. To return to
privileged EXEC mode,
press Ctrl-Z or enter end.
Use this mode to verify
commands. Use a password to
protect access to this mode.
Use this mode to configure
parameters for the Ethernet
and radio interfaces. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and
the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
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Using the Command-Line Interface
Getting Help
Getting Help
You can enter a question mark (?) at the system prompt to display a list of commands available for each
command mode. You can also obtain a list of associated keywords and arguments for any command, as
shown in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2
Help Summary
Command
Purpose
help
Obtains a brief description of the help system in any command mode.
abbreviated-command-entry?
Obtains a list of commands that begin with a particular character string.
For example:
ap# di?
dir disable
abbreviated-command-entry<Tab>
disconnect
Completes a partial command name.
For example:
ap# sh conf<tab>
ap# show configuration
?
Lists all commands available for a particular command mode.
For example:
ap> ?
command ?
Lists the associated keywords for a command.
For example:
ap> show ?
command keyword ?
Lists the associated arguments for a keyword.
For example:
ap(config)# cdp holdtime ?
<10-255> Length of time (in sec) that receiver must keep this packet
Abbreviating Commands
You have to enter only enough characters for the access point to recognize the command as unique. This
example shows how to enter the show configuration privileged EXEC command:
ap# show conf
Using no and default Forms of Commands
Most configuration commands also have a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a feature or
function or reverse the action of a command. For example, the no shutdown interface configuration
command reverses the shutdown of an interface. Use the command without the keyword no to re-enable
a disabled feature or to enable a feature that is disabled by default.
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Understanding CLI Messages
Configuration commands can also have a default form. The default form of a command returns the
command setting to its default. Most commands are disabled by default, so the default form is the same
as the no form. However, some commands are enabled by default and have variables set to certain default
values. In these cases, the default command enables the command and sets variables to their default
values.
Understanding CLI Messages
Table 5-3 lists some error messages that you might encounter while using the CLI to configure your
access point.
Table 5-3
Common CLI Error Messages
Error Message
Meaning
How to Get Help
% Ambiguous command:
"show con"
You did not enter enough characters Re-enter the command followed by a question mark (?)
for your access point to recognize the with a space between the command and the question
command.
mark.
The possible keywords that you can enter with the
command are displayed.
You did not enter all the keywords or Re-enter the command followed by a question mark (?)
values required by this command.
with a space between the command and the question
mark.
% Incomplete command.
The possible keywords that you can enter with the
command are displayed.
% Invalid input detected
at ‘^’ marker.
You entered the command
incorrectly. The caret (^) marks the
point of the error.
Enter a question mark (?) to display all the commands
that are available in this command mode.
The possible keywords that you can enter with the
command are displayed.
Using Command History
The IOS provides a history or record of commands that you have entered. This feature is particularly
useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists. You can customize the
command history feature to suit your needs as described in these sections:
•
Changing the Command History Buffer Size, page 5-4
•
Recalling Commands, page 5-5
•
Disabling the Command History Feature, page 5-5
Changing the Command History Buffer Size
By default, the access point records ten command lines in its history buffer. Beginning in privileged
EXEC mode, enter this command to change the number of command lines that the access point records
during the current terminal session:
ap# terminal history [size number-of-lines]
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Using Editing Features
The range is from 0 to 256.
Beginning in line configuration mode, enter this command to configure the number of command lines
the access point records for all sessions on a particular line:
ap(config-line)# history
[size number-of-lines]
The range is from 0 to 256.
Recalling Commands
To recall commands from the history buffer, perform one of the actions listed in Table 5-4:
Table 5-4
Recalling Commands
Action1
Result
Press Ctrl-P or the up arrow key.
Recall commands in the history buffer, beginning with the most recent command.
Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands.
Press Ctrl-N or the down arrow key.
Return to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands
with Ctrl-P or the up arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively
more recent commands.
show history
While in privileged EXEC mode, list the last several commands that you just
entered. The number of commands that are displayed is determined by the setting
of the terminal history global configuration command and history line
configuration command.
1. The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.
Disabling the Command History Feature
The command history feature is automatically enabled.
To disable the feature during the current terminal session, enter the terminal no history privileged
EXEC command.
To disable command history for the line, enter the no history line configuration command.
Using Editing Features
This section describes the editing features that can help you manipulate the command line. It contains
these sections:
•
Enabling and Disabling Editing Features, page 5-6
•
Editing Commands Through Keystrokes, page 5-6
•
Editing Command Lines that Wrap, page 5-7
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Using Editing Features
Enabling and Disabling Editing Features
Although enhanced editing mode is automatically enabled, you can disable it.
To re-enable the enhanced editing mode for the current terminal session, enter this command in
privileged EXEC mode:
ap# terminal editing
To reconfigure a specific line to have enhanced editing mode, enter this command in line configuration
mode:
ap(config-line)# editing
To globally disable enhanced editing mode, enter this command in line configuration mode:
ap(config-line)# no editing
Editing Commands Through Keystrokes
Table 5-5 shows the keystrokes that you need to edit command lines.
Table 5-5
Editing Commands Through Keystrokes
Capability
Keystroke1
Purpose
Move around the command line to
make changes or corrections.
Ctrl-B or the left arrow
key
Move the cursor back one character.
Ctrl-F or the right arrow
key
Move the cursor forward one character.
Ctrl-A
Move the cursor to the beginning of the command line.
Ctrl-E
Move the cursor to the end of the command line.
Esc B
Move the cursor back one word.
Esc F
Move the cursor forward one word.
Ctrl-T
Transpose the character to the left of the cursor with the
character located at the cursor.
Recall commands from the buffer and Ctrl-Y
paste them in the command line. The Esc Y
access point provides a buffer with
the last ten items that you deleted.
Delete entries if you make a mistake Delete or Backspace
or change your mind.
Ctrl-D
Recall the most recent entry in the buffer.
Recall the next buffer entry.
The buffer contains only the last 10 items that you have
deleted or cut. If you press Esc Y more than ten times, you
cycle to the first buffer entry.
Erase the character to the left of the cursor.
Delete the character at the cursor.
Ctrl-K
Delete all characters from the cursor to the end of the
command line.
Ctrl-U or Ctrl-X
Delete all characters from the cursor to the beginning of
the command line.
Ctrl-W
Delete the word to the left of the cursor.
Esc D
Delete from the cursor to the end of the word.
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Using Editing Features
Table 5-5
Editing Commands Through Keystrokes (continued)
Capability
Keystroke1
Purpose
Capitalize or lowercase words or
capitalize a set of letters.
Esc C
Capitalize at the cursor.
Esc L
Change the word at the cursor to lowercase.
Esc U
Capitalize letters from the cursor to the end of the word.
Designate a particular keystroke as
Ctrl-V or Esc Q
an executable command, perhaps as a
shortcut.
Scroll down a line or screen on
displays that are longer than the
terminal screen can display.
Note
Return
Scroll down one line.
Space
Scroll down one screen.
Ctrl-L or Ctrl-R
Redisplay the current command line.
The More prompt appears for
output that has more lines
than can be displayed on the
terminal screen, including
show command output. You
can use the Return and
Space bar keystrokes
whenever you see the More
prompt.
Redisplay the current command line
if the access point suddenly sends a
message to your screen.
1. The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.
Editing Command Lines that Wrap
You can use a wraparound feature for commands that extend beyond a single line on the screen. When
the cursor reaches the right margin, the command line shifts ten spaces to the left. You cannot see the
first ten characters of the line, but you can scroll back and check the syntax at the beginning of the
command.
To scroll back to the beginning of the command entry, press Ctrl-B or the left arrow key repeatedly. You
can also press Ctrl-A to immediately move to the beginning of the line.
Note
The arrow keys function only on ANSI-compatible terminals such as VT100s.
In this example, the access-list global configuration command entry extends beyond one line. When the
cursor first reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted ten spaces to the left and redisplayed. The dollar
sign ($) shows that the line has been scrolled to the left. Each time the cursor reaches the end of the line,
the line is again shifted ten spaces to the left.
ap(config)#
ap(config)#
ap(config)#
ap(config)#
access-list 101 permit tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1
$ 101 permit tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1.20 255.25
$t tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1.20 255.255.255.0 eq
$108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1.20 255.255.255.0 eq 45
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Searching and Filtering Output of show and more Commands
After you complete the entry, press Ctrl-A to check the complete syntax before pressing the Return key
to execute the command. The dollar sign ($) appears at the end of the line to show that the line has been
scrolled to the right:
ap(config)# access-list 101 permit tcp 131.108.2.5 255.255.255.0 131.108.1$
The software assumes you have a terminal screen that is 80 columns wide. If you have a width other than
that, use the terminal width privileged EXEC command to set the width of your terminal.
Use line wrapping with the command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command
entries. For information about recalling previous command entries, see the “Editing Commands Through
Keystrokes” section on page 5-6.
Searching and Filtering Output of show and more Commands
You can search and filter the output for show and more commands. This is useful when you need to sort
through large amounts of output or if you want to exclude output that you do not need to see.
To use this functionality, enter a show or more command followed by the pipe character (|), one of the
keywords begin, include, or exclude, and an expression that you want to search for or filter out:
command | {begin | include | exclude} regular-expression
Expressions are case sensitive. For example, if you enter | exclude output, the lines that contain output
are not displayed, but the lines that contain Output are displayed.
This example shows how to include in the output display only lines where the expression protocol
appears:
ap# show interfaces | include protocol
Vlan1 is up, line protocol is up
Vlan10 is up, line protocol is down
GigabitEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is down
GigabitEthernet0/2 is up, line protocol is up
Accessing the CLI
You can open the access point’s CLI using Telnet or Secure Shell (SSH).
Opening the CLI with Telnet
Follow these steps to open the CLI with Telnet. These steps are for a PC running Microsoft Windows
with a Telnet terminal application. Check your PC operating instructions for detailed instructions for
your operating system.
Step 1
Select Start > Programs > Accessories > Telnet.
If Telnet is not listed in your Accessories menu, select Start > Run, type Telnet in the entry field, and
press Enter.
Step 2
When the Telnet window appears, click Connect and select Remote System.
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Note
In Windows 2000, the Telnet window does not contain drop-down menus. To start the Telnet
session in Windows 2000, type open followed by the access point’s IP address.
Step 3
In the Host Name field, type the access point’s IP address and click Connect.
Step 4
At the username and password prompts, enter your administrator username and password. The default
username is Cisco, and the default password is Cisco. The default enable password is also Cisco.
Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive.
Opening the CLI with Secure Shell
Secure Shell Protocol is a protocol that provides a secure, remote connection to networking devices set
up to use it. Secure Shell (SSH) is a software package that provides secure login sessions by encrypting
the entire session. SSH features strong cryptographic authentication, strong encryption, and integrity
protection. For detailed information on SSH, visit the homepage of SSH Communications Security, Ltd.
at this URL: http://www.ssh.com/
SSH provides more security for remote connections than Telnet by providing strong encryption when a
device is authenticated. See the “Configuring the Access Point for Secure Shell” section on page 6-16
for detailed instructions on setting up the access point for SSH access.
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6
Administering the Access Point
This chapter describes how to administer your access point. This chapter contains these sections:
•
Preventing Unauthorized Access to Your Access Point, page 6-2
•
Protecting Access to Privileged EXEC Commands, page 6-2
•
Controlling Access Point Access with RADIUS, page 6-7
•
Controlling Access Point Access with TACACS+, page 6-12
•
Configuring the Access Point for Local Authentication and Authorization, page 6-15
•
Configuring the Access Point for Secure Shell, page 6-16
•
Managing the System Time and Date, page 6-17
•
Configuring a System Name and Prompt, page 6-32
•
Creating a Banner, page 6-34
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Administering the Access Point
Preventing Unauthorized Access to Your Access Point
Preventing Unauthorized Access to Your Access Point
You can prevent unauthorized users from reconfiguring your access point and viewing configuration
information. Typically, you want network administrators to have access to the access point while you
restrict access to users who connect through a terminal or workstation from within the local network.
To prevent unauthorized access to your access point, you should configure one of these security features:
•
Username and password pairs, which are locally stored on the access point. These pairs authenticate
each user before that user can access the access point. You can also assign a specific privilege level
(read only or read/write) to each username and password pair. For more information, see the
“Configuring Username and Password Pairs” section on page 6-5. The default username is Cisco,
and the default password is Cisco. Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive.
•
Username and password pairs stored centrally in a database on a security server. For more
information, see the “Controlling Access Point Access with RADIUS” section on page 6-7.
Protecting Access to Privileged EXEC Commands
A simple way of providing terminal access control in your network is to use passwords and assign
privilege levels. Password protection restricts access to a network or network device. Privilege levels
define what commands users can issue after they have logged into a network device.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the Cisco IOS
Security Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This section describes how to control access to the configuration file and privileged EXEC commands.
It contains this configuration information:
•
Default Password and Privilege Level Configuration, page 6-2
•
Setting or Changing a Static Enable Password, page 6-3
•
Protecting Enable and Enable Secret Passwords with Encryption, page 6-4
•
Configuring Username and Password Pairs, page 6-5
•
Configuring Multiple Privilege Levels, page 6-6
Default Password and Privilege Level Configuration
Table 6-1 shows the default password and privilege level configuration.
Table 6-1
Default Password and Privilege Levels
Feature
Default Setting
Username and password
Default username is Cisco and the default password is Cisco.
Enable password and privilege level
Default password is Cisco. The default is level 15 (privileged EXEC
level). The password is encrypted in the configuration file.
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Table 6-1
Default Password and Privilege Levels (continued)
Feature
Default Setting
Enable secret password and privilege level
The default enable password is Cisco. The default is level 15 (privileged
EXEC level). The password is encrypted before it is written to the
configuration file.
Line password
Default password is Cisco. The password is encrypted in the configuration
file.
Setting or Changing a Static Enable Password
The enable password controls access to the privileged EXEC mode.
Note
The no enable password global configuration command removes the enable password, but you should
use extreme care when using this command. If you remove the enable password, you are locked out of
the EXEC mode.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set or change a static enable password:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
enable password password
Define a new password or change an existing password for access to
privileged EXEC mode.
The default password is Cisco.
For password, specify a string from 1 to 25 alphanumeric characters. The
string cannot start with a number, is case sensitive, and allows spaces but
ignores leading spaces. It can contain the question mark (?) character if
you precede the question mark with the key combination Crtl-V when you
create the password; for example, to create the password abc?123, do this:
1.
Enter abc.
2.
Enter Crtl-V.
3.
Enter ?123.
When the system prompts you to enter the enable password, you need not
precede the question mark with the Ctrl-V; you can simply enter abc?123
at the password prompt.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The enable password is not encrypted and can be read in the access point
configuration file.
This example shows how to change the enable password to l1u2c3k4y5. The password is not encrypted
and provides access to level 15 (traditional privileged EXEC mode access):
AP(config)# enable password l1u2c3k4y5
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Protecting Enable and Enable Secret Passwords with Encryption
To provide an additional layer of security, particularly for passwords that cross the network or that are
stored on a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server, you can use either the enable password or
enable secret global configuration commands. Both commands accomplish the same thing; that is, you
can establish an encrypted password that users must enter to access privileged EXEC mode (the default)
or any privilege level you specify.
We recommend that you use the enable secret command because it uses an improved encryption
algorithm.
If you configure the enable secret command, it takes precedence over the enable password command;
the two commands cannot be in effect simultaneously.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure encryption for enable and enable
secret passwords:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
enable password [level level] {password |
encryption-type encrypted-password}
Define a new password or change an existing password for
access to privileged EXEC mode.
or
or
enable secret [level level] {password |
encryption-type encrypted-password}
Define a secret password, which is saved using a
nonreversible encryption method.
•
(Optional) For level, the range is from 0 to 15. Level 1 is
normal user EXEC mode privileges. The default level is
15 (privileged EXEC mode privileges).
•
For password, specify a string from 1 to 25
alphanumeric characters. The string cannot start with a
number, is case sensitive, and allows spaces but ignores
leading spaces. By default, no password is defined.
•
(Optional) For encryption-type, only type 5, a Cisco
proprietary encryption algorithm, is available. If you
specify an encryption type, you must provide an
encrypted password—an encrypted password you copy
from another access point configuration.
Note
Step 3
service password-encryption
If you specify an encryption type and then enter a
clear text password, you can not re-enter privileged
EXEC mode. You cannot recover a lost encrypted
password by any method.
(Optional) Encrypt the password when the password is
defined or when the configuration is written.
Encryption prevents the password from being readable in the
configuration file.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
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If both the enable and enable secret passwords are defined, users must enter the enable secret password.
Use the level keyword to define a password for a specific privilege level. After you specify the level and
set a password, give the password only to users who need to have access at this level. Use the privilege
level global configuration command to specify commands accessible at various levels. For more
information, see the “Configuring Multiple Privilege Levels” section on page 6-6.
If you enable password encryption, it applies to all passwords including username passwords,
authentication key passwords, the privileged command password, and console and virtual terminal line
passwords.
To remove a password and level, use the no enable password [level level] or no enable secret [level
level] global configuration command. To disable password encryption, use the no service
password-encryption global configuration command.
This example shows how to configure the encrypted password $1$FaD0$Xyti5Rkls3LoyxzS8 for
privilege level 2:
AP(config)# enable secret level 2 5 $1$FaD0$Xyti5Rkls3LoyxzS8
Configuring Username and Password Pairs
You can configure username and password pairs, which are locally stored on the access point. These
pairs are assigned to lines or interfaces and authenticate each user before that user can access the access
point. If you have defined privilege levels, you can also assign a specific privilege level (with associated
rights and privileges) to each username and password pair.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to establish a username-based authentication
system that requests a login username and a password:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
username name [privilege level]
{password encryption-type password}
Enter the username, privilege level, and password for each user.
•
For name, specify the user ID as one word. Spaces and quotation
marks are not allowed.
•
(Optional) For level, specify the privilege level the user has after
gaining access. The range is 0 to 15. Level 15 gives privileged EXEC
mode access. Level 1 gives user EXEC mode access.
•
For encryption-type, enter 0 to specify that an unencrypted password
will follow. Enter 7 to specify that a hidden password will follow.
•
For password, specify the password the user must enter to gain access
to the access point. The password must be from 1 to 25 characters,
can contain embedded spaces, and must be the last option specified
in the username command.
Step 3
login local
Enable local password checking at login time. Authentication is based on
the username specified in Step 2.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
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To disable username authentication for a specific user, use the no username name global configuration
command.
To disable password checking and allow connections without a password, use the no login line
configuration command.
You must have at least one username configured and you must have login local set to open a
Telnet session to the access point. If you enter no username for the only username, you can be
locked out of the access point.
Note
Configuring Multiple Privilege Levels
By default, the IOS software has two modes of password security: user EXEC and privileged EXEC. You
can configure up to 16 hierarchical levels of commands for each mode. By configuring multiple
passwords, you can allow different sets of users to have access to specified commands.
For example, if you want many users to have access to the clear line command, you can assign it
level 2 security and distribute the level 2 password fairly widely. But if you want more restricted access
to the configure command, you can assign it level 3 security and distribute that password to a more
restricted group of users.
This section includes this configuration information:
•
Setting the Privilege Level for a Command, page 6-6
•
Logging Into and Exiting a Privilege Level, page 6-7
Setting the Privilege Level for a Command
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the privilege level for a command mode:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
privilege mode level level command
Set the privilege level for a command.
Step 3
enable password level level password
•
For mode, enter configure for global configuration mode, exec for
EXEC mode, interface for interface configuration mode, or line for
line configuration mode.
•
For level, the range is from 0 to 15. Level 1 is for normal user EXEC
mode privileges. Level 15 is the level of access permitted by the
enable password.
•
For command, specify the command to which you want to restrict
access.
Specify the enable password for the privilege level.
•
For level, the range is from 0 to 15. Level 1 is for normal user EXEC
mode privileges.
•
For password, specify a string from 1 to 25 alphanumeric characters.
The string cannot start with a number, is case sensitive, and allows
spaces but ignores leading spaces. By default, no password is
defined.
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Command
Purpose
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
or
show privilege
The first command displays the password and access level configuration.
The second command displays the privilege level configuration.
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Step 6
When you set a command to a privilege level, all commands whose syntax is a subset of that command
are also set to that level. For example, if you set the show ip route command to level 15, the show
commands and show ip commands are automatically set to privilege level 15 unless you set them
individually to different levels.
To return to the default privilege for a given command, use the no privilege mode level level command
global configuration command.
This example shows how to set the configure command to privilege level 14 and define SecretPswd14
as the password users must enter to use level 14 commands:
AP(config)# privilege exec level 14 configure
AP(config)# enable password level 14 SecretPswd14
Logging Into and Exiting a Privilege Level
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to log in to a specified privilege level and to exit
to a specified privilege level:
Step 1
Command
Purpose
enable level
Log in to a specified privilege level.
For level, the range is 0 to 15.
Step 2
disable level
Exit to a specified privilege level.
For level, the range is 0 to 15.
Controlling Access Point Access with RADIUS
This section describes how to control administrator access to the access point using Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS). For complete instructions on configuring the access
point to support RADIUS, see Chapter 11, “Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers.”
RADIUS provides detailed accounting information and flexible administrative control over
authentication and authorization processes. RADIUS is facilitated through AAA and can be enabled only
through AAA commands.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the Cisco IOS
Security Command Reference for Release 12.2.
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These sections describe RADIUS configuration:
•
Default RADIUS Configuration, page 6-8
•
Configuring RADIUS Login Authentication, page 6-8 (required)
•
Defining AAA Server Groups, page 6-9 (optional)
•
Configuring RADIUS Authorization for User Privileged Access and Network Services, page 6-11
(optional)
•
Displaying the RADIUS Configuration, page 6-12
Default RADIUS Configuration
RADIUS and AAA are disabled by default.
To prevent a lapse in security, you cannot configure RADIUS through a network management
application. When enabled, RADIUS can authenticate users accessing the access point through the CLI.
Configuring RADIUS Login Authentication
To configure AAA authentication, you define a named list of authentication methods and then apply that
list to various interfaces. The method list defines the types of authentication to be performed and the
sequence in which they are performed; it must be applied to a specific interface before any of the defined
authentication methods are performed. The only exception is the default method list (which, by
coincidence, is named default). The default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces except
those that have a named method list explicitly defined.
A method list describes the sequence and authentication methods to be queried to authenticate a user.
You can designate one or more security protocols to be used for authentication, thus ensuring a backup
system for authentication in case the initial method fails. The software uses the first method listed to
authenticate users; if that method fails to respond, the software selects the next authentication method in
the method list. This process continues until there is successful communication with a listed
authentication method or until all defined methods are exhausted. If authentication fails at any point in
this cycle—meaning that the security server or local username database responds by denying the user
access—the authentication process stops, and no other authentication methods are attempted.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure login authentication. This
procedure is required.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
aaa authentication login {default |
list-name} method1 [method2...]
Create a login authentication method list.
•
To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified
in the login authentication command, use the default keyword
followed by the methods that are to be used in default situations. The
default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces.
•
For list-name, specify a character string to name the list you are
creating.
•
For method1..., specify the actual method the authentication
algorithm tries. The additional methods of authentication are used
only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails.
Select one of these methods:
•
local—Use the local username database for authentication. You must
enter username information in the database. Use the username
password global configuration command.
•
radius—Use RADIUS authentication. You must configure the
RADIUS server before you can use this authentication method. For
more information, see the “Identifying the RADIUS Server Host”
section on page 11-4.
Step 4
line [console | tty | vty] line-number
[ending-line-number]
Enter line configuration mode, and configure the lines to which you want
to apply the authentication list.
Step 5
login authentication {default |
list-name}
Apply the authentication list to a line or set of lines.
•
If you specify default, use the default list created with the aaa
authentication login command.
•
For list-name, specify the list created with the aaa authentication
login command.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable AAA, use the no aaa new-model global configuration command. To disable AAA
authentication, use the no aaa authentication login {default | list-name} method1 [method2...] global
configuration command. To either disable RADIUS authentication for logins or to return to the default
value, use the no login authentication {default | list-name} line configuration command.
Defining AAA Server Groups
You can configure the access point to use AAA server groups to group existing server hosts for
authentication. You select a subset of the configured server hosts and use them for a particular service.
The server group is used with a global server-host list, which lists the IP addresses of the selected server
hosts.
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Server groups also can include multiple host entries for the same server if each entry has a unique
identifier (the combination of the IP address and UDP port number), allowing different ports to be
individually defined as RADIUS hosts providing a specific AAA service. If you configure two different
host entries on the same RADIUS server for the same service (such as accounting), the second
configured host entry acts as a fail-over backup to the first one.
You use the server group server configuration command to associate a particular server with a defined
group server. You can either identify the server by its IP address or identify multiple host instances or
entries by using the optional auth-port and acct-port keywords.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to define the AAA server group and associate a
particular RADIUS server with it:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
Step 3
radius-server host {hostname |
ip-address} [auth-port port-number]
[acct-port port-number] [timeout
seconds] [retransmit retries] [key
string]
Specify the IP address or host name of the remote RADIUS server host.
•
(Optional) For auth-port port-number, specify the UDP destination
port for authentication requests.
•
(Optional) For acct-port port-number, specify the UDP destination
port for accounting requests.
•
(Optional) For timeout seconds, specify the time interval that the
access point waits for the RADIUS server to reply before
retransmitting. The range is 1 to 1000. This setting overrides the
radius-server timeout global configuration command setting. If no
timeout is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of
the radius-server timeout command is used.
•
(Optional) For retransmit retries, specify the number of times a
RADIUS request is resent to a server if that server is not responding
or responding slowly. The range is 1 to 1000. If no retransmit value is
set with the radius-server host command, the setting of the
radius-server retransmit global configuration command is used.
•
(Optional) For key string, specify the authentication and encryption
key used between the access point and the RADIUS daemon running
on the RADIUS server.
Note
The key is a text string that must match the encryption key used
on the RADIUS server. Always configure the key as the last item
in the radius-server host command. Leading spaces are ignored,
but spaces within and at the end of the key are used. If you use
spaces in your key, do not enclose the key in quotation marks
unless the quotation marks are part of the key.
To configure the access point to recognize more than one host entry
associated with a single IP address, enter this command as many times as
necessary, making sure that each UDP port number is different. The
access point software searches for hosts in the order in which you specify
them. Set the timeout, retransmit, and encryption key values to use with
the specific RADIUS host.
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Step 4
Command
Purpose
aaa group server radius group-name
Define the AAA server-group with a group name.
This command puts the access point in a server group configuration mode.
Step 5
server ip-address
Associate a particular RADIUS server with the defined server group.
Repeat this step for each RADIUS server in the AAA server group.
Each server in the group must be previously defined in Step 2.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Step 9
Enable RADIUS login authentication. See the “Configuring RADIUS
Login Authentication” section on page 6-8.
To remove the specified RADIUS server, use the no radius-server host hostname | ip-address global
configuration command. To remove a server group from the configuration list, use the no aaa group
server radius group-name global configuration command. To remove the IP address of a RADIUS
server, use the no server ip-address server group configuration command.
In this example, the access point is configured to recognize two different RADIUS group servers (group1
and group2). Group1 has two different host entries on the same RADIUS server configured for the same
services. The second host entry acts as a fail-over backup to the first entry.
AP(config)# aaa new-model
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.20.0.1 auth-port 1000 acct-port 1001
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.10.0.1 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646
AP(config)# aaa group server radius group1
AP(config-sg-radius)# server 172.20.0.1 auth-port 1000 acct-port 1001
AP(config-sg-radius)# exit
AP(config)# aaa group server radius group2
AP(config-sg-radius)# server 172.20.0.1 auth-port 2000 acct-port 2001
AP(config-sg-radius)# exit
Configuring RADIUS Authorization for User Privileged Access and Network
Services
AAA authorization limits the services available to a user. When AAA authorization is enabled, the
access point uses information retrieved from the user’s profile, which is in the local user database or on
the security server, to configure the user’s session. The user is granted access to a requested service only
if the information in the user profile allows it.
You can use the aaa authorization global configuration command with the radius keyword to set
parameters that restrict a user’s network access to privileged EXEC mode.
The aaa authorization exec radius local command sets these authorization parameters:
Note
•
Use RADIUS for privileged EXEC access authorization if authentication was performed by using
RADIUS.
•
Use the local database if authentication was not performed by using RADIUS.
Authorization is bypassed for authenticated users who log in through the CLI even if authorization has
been configured.
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Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to specify RADIUS authorization for privileged
EXEC access and network services:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa authorization network radius
Configure the access point for user RADIUS authorization for all
network-related service requests.
Step 3
aaa authorization exec radius
Configure the access point for user RADIUS authorization to determine if
the user has privileged EXEC access.
The exec keyword might return user profile information (such as
autocommand information).
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable authorization, use the no aaa authorization {network | exec} method1 global configuration
command.
Displaying the RADIUS Configuration
To display the RADIUS configuration, use the show running-config privileged EXEC command.
Controlling Access Point Access with TACACS+
This section describes how to control administrator access to the access point using Terminal Access
Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+). For complete instructions on configuring the
access point to support TACACS+, see Chapter 11, “Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers.”
TACACS+ provides detailed accounting information and flexible administrative control over
authentication and authorization processes. TACACS+ is facilitated through AAA and can be enabled
only through AAA commands.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the Cisco IOS
Security Command Reference for Release 12.2.
These sections describe TACACS+ configuration:
•
Default TACACS+ Configuration, page 6-13
•
Configuring TACACS+ Login Authentication, page 6-13
•
Configuring TACACS+ Authorization for Privileged EXEC Access and Network Services, page
6-14
•
Displaying the TACACS+ Configuration, page 6-15
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Default TACACS+ Configuration
TACACS+ and AAA are disabled by default.
To prevent a lapse in security, you cannot configure TACACS+ through a network management
application.When enabled, TACACS+ can authenticate administrators accessing the access point
through the CLI.
Configuring TACACS+ Login Authentication
To configure AAA authentication, you define a named list of authentication methods and then apply that
list to various interfaces. The method list defines the types of authentication to be performed and the
sequence in which they are performed; it must be applied to a specific interface before any of the defined
authentication methods are performed. The only exception is the default method list (which, by
coincidence, is named default). The default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces except
those that have a named method list explicitly defined. A defined method list overrides the default
method list.
A method list describes the sequence and authentication methods to be queried to authenticate a user.
You can designate one or more security protocols to be used for authentication, thus ensuring a backup
system for authentication in case the initial method fails. The software uses the first method listed to
authenticate users; if that method fails, the software selects the next authentication method in the method
list. This process continues until there is successful communication with a listed authentication method
or until all defined methods are exhausted. If authentication fails at any point in this cycle—meaning that
the security server or local username database responds by denying the user access—the authentication
process stops, and no other authentication methods are attempted.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure login authentication. This
procedure is required.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
aaa authentication login {default |
list-name} method1 [method2...]
Create a login authentication method list.
•
To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified
in the login authentication command, use the default keyword
followed by the methods that are to be used in default situations. The
default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces.
•
For list-name, specify a character string to name the list you are
creating.
•
For method1..., specify the actual method the authentication
algorithm tries. The additional methods of authentication are used
only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails.
Select one of these methods:
•
local—Use the local username database for authentication. You must
enter username information into the database. Use the username
password global configuration command.
•
tacacs+—Use TACACS+ authentication. You must configure the
TACACS+ server before you can use this authentication method.
Step 4
line [console | tty | vty] line-number
[ending-line-number]
Enter line configuration mode, and configure the lines to which you want
to apply the authentication list.
Step 5
login authentication {default |
list-name}
Apply the authentication list to a line or set of lines.
•
If you specify default, use the default list created with the aaa
authentication login command.
•
For list-name, specify the list created with the aaa authentication
login command.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable AAA, use the no aaa new-model global configuration command. To disable AAA
authentication, use the no aaa authentication login {default | list-name} method1 [method2...] global
configuration command. To either disable TACACS+ authentication for logins or to return to the default
value, use the no login authentication {default | list-name} line configuration command.
Configuring TACACS+ Authorization for Privileged EXEC Access and Network
Services
AAA authorization limits the services available to a user. When AAA authorization is enabled, the
access point uses information retrieved from the user’s profile, which is located either in the local user
database or on the security server, to configure the user’s session. The user is granted access to a
requested service only if the information in the user profile allows it.
You can use the aaa authorization global configuration command with the tacacs+ keyword to set
parameters that restrict a user’s network access to privileged EXEC mode.
The aaa authorization exec tacacs+ local command sets these authorization parameters:
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Note
•
Use TACACS+ for privileged EXEC access authorization if authentication was performed by using
TACACS+.
•
Use the local database if authentication was not performed by using TACACS+.
Authorization is bypassed for authenticated users who log in through the CLI even if authorization has
been configured.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to specify TACACS+ authorization for
privileged EXEC access and network services:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa authorization network tacacs+
Configure the access point for user TACACS+ authorization for all
network-related service requests.
Step 3
aaa authorization exec tacacs+
Configure the access point for user TACACS+ authorization to determine
if the user has privileged EXEC access.
The exec keyword might return user profile information (such as
autocommand information).
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable authorization, use the no aaa authorization {network | exec} method1 global configuration
command.
Displaying the TACACS+ Configuration
To display TACACS+ server statistics, use the show tacacs privileged EXEC command.
Configuring the Access Point for Local Authentication and
Authorization
You can configure AAA to operate without a server by setting the access point to implement AAA in
local mode. The access point then handles authentication and authorization. No accounting is available
in this configuration.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the access point for local AAA:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Command
Purpose
Step 3
aaa authentication login default local
Set the login authentication to use the local username database. The
default keyword applies the local user database authentication to all
interfaces.
Step 4
aaa authorization exec local
Configure user AAA authorization to determine if the user is allowed to
run an EXEC shell by checking the local database.
Step 5
aaa authorization network local
Configure user AAA authorization for all network-related service
requests.
Step 6
username name [privilege level]
{password encryption-type password}
Enter the local database, and establish a username-based authentication
system.
Repeat this command for each user.
•
For name, specify the user ID as one word. Spaces and quotation
marks are not allowed.
•
(Optional) For level, specify the privilege level the user has after
gaining access. The range is 0 to 15. Level 15 gives privileged EXEC
mode access. Level 0 gives user EXEC mode access.
•
For encryption-type, enter 0 to specify that an unencrypted password
follows. Enter 7 to specify that a hidden password follows.
•
For password, specify the password the user must enter to gain access
to the access point. The password must be from 1 to 25 characters,
can contain embedded spaces, and must be the last option specified
in the username command.
Step 7
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 8
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 9
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable AAA, use the no aaa new-model global configuration command. To disable authorization,
use the no aaa authorization {network | exec} method1 global configuration command.
Configuring the Access Point for Secure Shell
This section describes how to configure the Secure Shell (SSH) feature.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the “Secure
Shell Commands” section in the Cisco IOS Security Command Reference for Release 12.2.
Understanding SSH
SSH is a protocol that provides a secure, remote connection to a Layer 2 or a Layer 3 device. There are
two versions of SSH: SSH version 1 and SSH version 2. This software release supports only SSH
version 1.
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SSH provides more security for remote connections than Telnet by providing strong encryption when a
device is authenticated. The SSH feature has an SSH server and an SSH integrated client. The client
supports these user authentication methods:
•
RADIUS (for more information, see the “Controlling Access Point Access with RADIUS” section
on page 6-7)
•
Local authentication and authorization (for more information, see the “Configuring the Access Point
for Local Authentication and Authorization” section on page 6-15)
For more information about SSH, refer to the “Configuring Secure Shell” section in the Cisco IOS
Security Configuration Guide for Release 12.2.
Note
The SSH feature in this software release does not support IP Security (IPSec).
Configuring SSH
Before configuring SSH, download the crypto software image from Cisco.com. For more information,
refer to the release notes for this release.
For information about configuring SSH and displaying SSH settings, refer to the “Configuring Secure
Shell” section in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide for Release 12.2.
Managing the System Time and Date
You can manage the system time and date on your access point automatically, using the Network Time
Protocol (NTP), or manually, by setting the time and date on the access point.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the Cisco IOS
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Understanding the System Clock, page 6-17
•
Understanding Network Time Protocol, page 6-18
•
Configuring NTP, page 6-19
•
Configuring Time and Date Manually, page 6-27
Understanding the System Clock
The heart of the time service is the system clock. This clock runs from the moment the system starts up
and keeps track of the date and time.
The system clock can then be set from these sources:
•
Network Time Protocol
•
Manual configuration
The system clock can provide time to these services:
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•
User show commands
•
Logging and debugging messages
The system clock determines time internally based on Universal Time Coordinated (UTC), also known
as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). You can configure information about the local time zone and summer
time (daylight saving time) so that the time is correctly displayed for the local time zone.
The system clock keeps track of whether the time is authoritative or not (that is, whether it has been set
by a time source considered to be authoritative). If it is not authoritative, the time is available only for
display purposes and is not redistributed. For configuration information, see the “Configuring Time and
Date Manually” section on page 6-27.
Understanding Network Time Protocol
The NTP is designed to time-synchronize a network of devices. NTP runs over User Datagram Protocol
(UDP), which runs over IP. NTP is documented in RFC 1305.
An NTP network usually gets its time from an authoritative time source, such as a radio clock or an
atomic clock attached to a time server. NTP then distributes this time across the network. NTP is
extremely efficient; no more than one packet per minute is necessary to synchronize two devices to
within a millisecond of one another.
NTP uses the concept of a stratum to describe how many NTP hops away a device is from an
authoritative time source. A stratum 1 time server has a radio or atomic clock directly attached, a
stratum 2 time server receives its time through NTP from a stratum 1 time server, and so on. A device
running NTP automatically chooses as its time source the device with the lowest stratum number with
which it communicates through NTP. This strategy effectively builds a self-organizing tree of NTP
speakers.
NTP avoids synchronizing to a device whose time might not be accurate by never synchronizing to a
device that is not synchronized. NTP also compares the time reported by several devices and does not
synchronize to a device whose time is significantly different than the others, even if its stratum is lower.
The communications between devices running NTP (known as associations) are usually statically
configured; each device is given the IP address of all devices with which it should form associations.
Accurate timekeeping is possible by exchanging NTP messages between each pair of devices with an
association. However, in a LAN environment, NTP can be configured to use IP broadcast messages
instead. This alternative reduces configuration complexity because each device can simply be configured
to send or receive broadcast messages. However, in that case, information flow is one-way only.
The time kept on a device is a critical resource; you should use the security features of NTP to avoid the
accidental or malicious setting of an incorrect time. Two mechanisms are available: an access-list-based
restriction scheme and an encrypted authentication mechanism.
Cisco’s implementation of NTP does not support stratum 1 service; it is not possible to connect to a radio
or atomic clock. We recommend that the time service for your network be derived from the public NTP
servers available on the IP Internet. Figure 6-1 shows a typical network example using NTP.
If the network is isolated from the Internet, Cisco’s implementation of NTP allows a device to act as
though it is synchronized through NTP, when in fact it has determined the time by using other means.
Other devices then synchronize to that device through NTP.
When multiple sources of time are available, NTP is always considered to be more authoritative. NTP
time overrides the time set by any other method.
Several manufacturers include NTP software for their host systems, and a publicly available version for
systems running UNIX and its various derivatives is also available. This software allows host systems to
be time-synchronized as well.
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Figure 6-1
Typical NTP Network Configuration
Catalyst 6500
series switch
(NTP master)
Local
workgroup
servers
Catalyst 3550
switch
Catalyst 3550
switch
Catalyst 3550
switch
These switches are configured in
NTP server mode (server association)
with the Catalyst 6500 series switch.
Catalyst 3550
switch
This switch is configured as an NTP
peer to the upstream and downstream
Catalyst 3550 switches.
Workstations
43269
Catalyst 3550
switch
Workstations
Configuring NTP
Cisco Aironet 1100 Series Access Points do not have a hardware-supported clock, and they cannot
function as an NTP master clock to which peers synchronize themselves when an external NTP source
is not available. These access points also have no hardware support for a calendar. As a result, the ntp
update-calendar and the ntp master global configuration commands are not available.
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Default NTP Configuration, page 6-20
•
Configuring NTP Authentication, page 6-20
•
Configuring NTP Associations, page 6-22
•
Configuring NTP Broadcast Service, page 6-23
•
Configuring NTP Access Restrictions, page 6-24
•
Configuring the Source IP Address for NTP Packets, page 6-26
•
Displaying the NTP Configuration, page 6-27
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Default NTP Configuration
Table 6-2 shows the default NTP configuration.
Table 6-2
Default NTP Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
NTP authentication
Disabled. No authentication key is specified.
NTP peer or server associations
None configured.
NTP broadcast service
Disabled; no interface sends or receives NTP broadcast packets.
NTP access restrictions
No access control is specified.
NTP packet source IP address
The source address is determined by the outgoing interface.
NTP is disabled by default.
Configuring NTP Authentication
This procedure must be coordinated with the administrator of the NTP server; the information you configure
in this procedure must be matched by the servers used by the access point to synchronize its time to the NTP
server.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to authenticate the associations (communications
between devices running NTP that provide for accurate timekeeping) with other devices for security
purposes:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
ntp authenticate
Enable the NTP authentication feature, which is disabled by
default.
Step 3
ntp authentication-key number md5 value
Define the authentication keys. By default, none are defined.
•
For number, specify a key number. The range is 1 to
4294967295.
•
md5 specifies that message authentication support is provided
by using the message digest algorithm 5 (MD5).
•
For value, enter an arbitrary string of up to eight characters for
the key.
The access point does not synchronize to a device unless both have
one of these authentication keys, and the key number is specified by
the ntp trusted-key key-number command.
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Step 4
Command
Purpose
ntp trusted-key key-number
Specify one or more key numbers (defined in Step 3) that a peer
NTP device must provide in its NTP packets for this access point to
synchronize to it.
By default, no trusted keys are defined.
For key-number, specify the key defined in Step 3.
This command provides protection against accidentally
synchronizing the access point to a device that is not trusted.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable NTP authentication, use the no ntp authenticate global configuration command. To remove
an authentication key, use the no ntp authentication-key number global configuration command. To
disable authentication of the identity of a device, use the no ntp trusted-key key-number global
configuration command.
This example shows how to configure the access point to synchronize only to devices providing
authentication key 42 in the device’s NTP packets:
AP(config)# ntp authenticate
AP(config)# ntp authentication-key 42 md5 aNiceKey
AP(config)# ntp trusted-key 42
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Configuring NTP Associations
An NTP association can be a peer association (this access point can either synchronize to the other
device or allow the other device to synchronize to it), or it can be a server association (meaning that only
this access point synchronizes to the other device, and not the other way around).
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to form an NTP association with another device:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
ntp peer ip-address [version number]
[key keyid] [source interface] [prefer]
Configure the access point system clock to synchronize a peer or to be
synchronized by a peer (peer association).
or
or
ntp server ip-address [version number] Configure the access point system clock to be synchronized by a time
[key keyid] [source interface] [prefer] server (server association).
No peer or server associations are defined by default.
•
For ip-address in a peer association, specify either the IP address of
the peer providing, or being provided, the clock synchronization. For
a server association, specify the IP address of the time server
providing the clock synchronization.
•
(Optional) For number, specify the NTP version number. The range is
1 to 3. By default, version 3 is selected.
•
(Optional) For keyid, enter the authentication key defined with the
ntp authentication-key global configuration command.
•
(Optional) For interface, specify the interface from which to pick the
IP source address. By default, the source IP address is taken from the
outgoing interface.
•
(Optional) Enter the prefer keyword to make this peer or server the
preferred one that provides synchronization. This keyword reduces
switching back and forth between peers and servers.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
You need to configure only one end of an association; the other device can automatically establish the
association. If you are using the default NTP version (version 3) and NTP synchronization does not
occur, try using NTP version 2. Many NTP servers on the Internet run version 2.
To remove a peer or server association, use the no ntp peer ip-address or the no ntp server ip-address
global configuration command.
This example shows how to configure the access point to synchronize its system clock with the clock of
the peer at IP address 172.16.22.44 using NTP version 2:
AP(config)# ntp server 172.16.22.44 version 2
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Configuring NTP Broadcast Service
The communications between devices running NTP (known as associations) are usually statically
configured; each device is given the IP addresses of all devices with which it should form associations.
Accurate timekeeping is possible by exchanging NTP messages between each pair of devices with an
association. However, in a LAN environment, NTP can be configured to use IP broadcast messages
instead. This alternative reduces configuration complexity because each device can simply be configured
to send or receive broadcast messages. However, the information flow is one-way only.
The access point can send or receive NTP broadcast packets on an interface-by-interface basis if there is an
NTP broadcast server, such as a router, broadcasting time information on the network. The access point can
send NTP broadcast packets to a peer so that the peer can synchronize to it. The access point can also receive
NTP broadcast packets to synchronize its own clock. This section provides procedures for both sending and
receiving NTP broadcast packets.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the access point to send NTP broadcast
packets to peers so that they can synchronize their clock to the access point:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface interface-id
Enter interface configuration mode, and specify the interface to send
NTP broadcast packets.
Step 3
ntp broadcast [version number] [key keyid] Enable the interface to send NTP broadcast packets to a peer.
[destination-address]
By default, this feature is disabled on all interfaces.
•
(Optional) For number, specify the NTP version number. The
range is 1 to 3. If you do not specify a version, version 3 is used.
•
(Optional) For keyid, specify the authentication key to use when
sending packets to the peer.
•
(Optional) For destination-address, specify the IP address of the
peer that is synchronizing its clock to this access point.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Step 7
Configure the connected peers to receive NTP broadcast packets as
described in the next procedure.
To disable the interface from sending NTP broadcast packets, use the no ntp broadcast interface
configuration command.
This example shows how to configure an interface to send NTP version 2 packets:
AP(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1
AP(config-if)# ntp broadcast version 2
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Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the access point to receive NTP
broadcast packets from connected peers:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface interface-id
Enter interface configuration mode, and specify the interface to receive
NTP broadcast packets.
Step 3
ntp broadcast client
Enable the interface to receive NTP broadcast packets.
By default, no interfaces receive NTP broadcast packets.
Step 4
exit
Return to global configuration mode.
Step 5
ntp broadcastdelay microseconds
(Optional) Change the estimated round-trip delay between the access
point and the NTP broadcast server.
The default is 3000 microseconds; the range is 1 to 999999.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable an interface from receiving NTP broadcast packets, use the no ntp broadcast client interface
configuration command. To change the estimated round-trip delay to the default, use the no ntp
broadcastdelay global configuration command.
This example shows how to configure an interface to receive NTP broadcast packets:
AP(config)# interface gigabitethernet0/1
AP(config-if)# ntp broadcast client
Configuring NTP Access Restrictions
You can control NTP access on two levels as described in these sections:
•
Creating an Access Group and Assigning a Basic IP Access List, page 6-25
•
Disabling NTP Services on a Specific Interface, page 6-26
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Creating an Access Group and Assigning a Basic IP Access List
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to control access to NTP services by using
access lists:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
ntp access-group {query-only |
serve-only | serve | peer}
access-list-number
Create an access group, and apply a basic IP access list.
The keywords have these meanings:
•
query-only—Allows only NTP control queries.
•
serve-only—Allows only time requests.
•
serve—Allows time requests and NTP control queries, but does not
allow the access point to synchronize to the remote device.
•
peer—Allows time requests and NTP control queries and allows the
access point to synchronize to the remote device.
For access-list-number, enter a standard IP access list number from 1
to 99.
Step 3
access-list access-list-number permit
source [source-wildcard]
Create the access list.
•
For access-list-number, enter the number specified in Step 2.
•
Enter the permit keyword to permit access if the conditions are
matched.
•
For source, enter the IP address of the device that is permitted access
to the access point.
•
(Optional) For source-wildcard, enter the wildcard bits to be applied
to the source.
Note
When creating an access list, remember that, by default, the end
of the access list contains an implicit deny statement for
everything if it did not find a match before reaching the end.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The access group keywords are scanned in this order, from least restrictive to most restrictive:
1.
peer—Allows time requests and NTP control queries and allows the access point to synchronize
itself to a device whose address passes the access list criteria.
2.
serve—Allows time requests and NTP control queries, but does not allow the access point to
synchronize itself to a device whose address passes the access list criteria.
3.
serve-only—Allows only time requests from a device whose address passes the access list criteria.
4.
query-only—Allows only NTP control queries from a device whose address passes the access list
criteria.
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If the source IP address matches the access lists for more than one access type, the first type is granted.
If no access groups are specified, all access types are granted to all devices. If any access groups are
specified, only the specified access types are granted.
To remove access control to the access point NTP services, use the no ntp access-group {query-only |
serve-only | serve | peer} global configuration command.
This example shows how to configure the access point to allow itself to synchronize to a peer from access
list 99. However, the access point restricts access to allow only time requests from access list 42:
AP# configure terminal
AP(config)# ntp access-group peer 99
AP(config)# ntp access-group serve-only 42
AP(config)# access-list 99 permit 172.20.130.5
AP(config)# access list 42 permit 172.20.130.6
Disabling NTP Services on a Specific Interface
NTP services are enabled on all interfaces by default.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to disable NTP packets from being received on
an interface:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface interface-id
Enter interface configuration mode, and specify the interface to disable.
Step 3
ntp disable
Disable NTP packets from being received on the interface.
By default, all interfaces receive NTP packets.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To re-enable receipt of NTP packets on an interface, use the no ntp disable interface configuration
command.
Configuring the Source IP Address for NTP Packets
When the access point sends an NTP packet, the source IP address is normally set to the address of the
interface through which the NTP packet is sent. Use the ntp source global configuration command when you
want to use a particular source IP address for all NTP packets. The address is taken from the specified
interface. This command is useful if the address on an interface cannot be used as the destination for reply
packets.
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Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a specific interface from which the IP
source address is to be taken:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
ntp source type number
Specify the interface type and number from which the IP source address
is taken.
By default, the source address is determined by the outgoing interface.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The specified interface is used for the source address for all packets sent to all destinations. If a source address
is to be used for a specific association, use the source keyword in the ntp peer or ntp server global
configuration command as described in the “Configuring NTP Associations” section on page 6-22.
Displaying the NTP Configuration
You can use two privileged EXEC commands to display NTP information:
•
show ntp associations [detail]
•
show ntp status
For detailed information about the fields in these displays, refer to the Cisco IOS Configuration
Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.1.
Configuring Time and Date Manually
If no other source of time is available, you can manually configure the time and date after the system is
restarted. The time remains accurate until the next system restart. We recommend that you use manual
configuration only as a last resort. If you have an outside source to which the access point can
synchronize, you do not need to manually set the system clock.
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Setting the System Clock, page 6-28
•
Displaying the Time and Date Configuration, page 6-28
•
Configuring the Time Zone, page 6-29
•
Configuring Summer Time (Daylight Saving Time), page 6-30
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Setting the System Clock
If you have an outside source on the network that provides time services, such as an NTP server, you do
not need to manually set the system clock.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the system clock:
Step 1
Command
Purpose
clock set hh:mm:ss day month year
Manually set the system clock using one of these formats.
or
•
For hh:mm:ss, specify the time in hours (24-hour format), minutes,
and seconds. The time specified is relative to the configured time
zone.
•
For day, specify the day by date in the month.
•
For month, specify the month by name.
•
For year, specify the year (no abbreviation).
clock set hh:mm:ss month day year
Step 2
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 3
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
This example shows how to manually set the system clock to 1:32 p.m. on July 23, 2001:
AP# clock set 13:32:00 23 July 2001
Displaying the Time and Date Configuration
To display the time and date configuration, use the show clock [detail] privileged EXEC command.
The system clock keeps an authoritative flag that shows whether the time is authoritative (believed to be
accurate). If the system clock has been set by a timing source such as NTP, the flag is set. If the time is
not authoritative, it is used only for display purposes. Until the clock is authoritative and the
authoritative flag is set, the flag prevents peers from synchronizing to the clock when the peers’ time is
invalid.
The symbol that precedes the show clock display has this meaning:
•
*—Time is not authoritative.
•
(blank)—Time is authoritative.
•
.—Time is authoritative, but NTP is not synchronized.
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Configuring the Time Zone
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to manually configure the time zone:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
clock timezone zone hours-offset
[minutes-offset]
Set the time zone.
The access point keeps internal time in universal time coordinated (UTC),
so this command is used only for display purposes and when the time is
manually set.
•
For zone, enter the name of the time zone to be displayed when
standard time is in effect. The default is UTC.
•
For hours-offset, enter the hours offset from UTC.
•
(Optional) For minutes-offset, enter the minutes offset from UTC.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The minutes-offset variable in the clock timezone global configuration command is available for those
cases where a local time zone is a percentage of an hour different from UTC. For example, the time zone
for some sections of Atlantic Canada (AST) is UTC-3.5, where the 3 means 3 hours and .5 means 50
percent. In this case, the necessary command is clock timezone AST -3 30.
To set the time to UTC, use the no clock timezone global configuration command.
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Managing the System Time and Date
Configuring Summer Time (Daylight Saving Time)
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure summer time (daylight saving time)
in areas where it starts and ends on a particular day of the week each year:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
clock summer-time zone recurring
Configure summer time to start and end on the specified days every year.
[week day month hh:mm week day month Summer time is disabled by default. If you specify clock summer-time
hh:mm [offset]]
zone recurring without parameters, the summer time rules default to the
United States rules.
•
For zone, specify the name of the time zone (for example, PDT) to be
displayed when summer time is in effect.
•
(Optional) For week, specify the week of the month (1 to 5 or last).
•
(Optional) For day, specify the day of the week (Sunday, Monday...).
•
(Optional) For month, specify the month (January, February...).
•
(Optional) For hh:mm, specify the time (24-hour format) in hours and
minutes.
•
(Optional) For offset, specify the number of minutes to add during
summer time. The default is 60.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The first part of the clock summer-time global configuration command specifies when summer time
begins, and the second part specifies when it ends. All times are relative to the local time zone. The start
time is relative to standard time. The end time is relative to summer time. If the starting month is after
the ending month, the system assumes that you are in the southern hemisphere.
This example shows how to specify that summer time starts on the first Sunday in April at 02:00 and
ends on the last Sunday in October at 02:00:
AP(config)# clock summer-time PDT recurring 1 Sunday April 2:00 last Sunday October 2:00
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Managing the System Time and Date
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps if summer time in your area does not follow a
recurring pattern (configure the exact date and time of the next summer time events):
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
Configure summer time to start on the first date and end on the second
clock summer-time zone date [month
date year hh:mm month date year hh:mm date.
[offset]]
Summer time is disabled by default.
or
• For zone, specify the name of the time zone (for example, PDT) to be
clock summer-time zone date [date
displayed when summer time is in effect.
month year hh:mm date month year
• (Optional) For week, specify the week of the month (1 to 5 or last).
hh:mm [offset]]
• (Optional) For day, specify the day of the week (Sunday, Monday...).
•
(Optional) For month, specify the month (January, February...).
•
(Optional) For hh:mm, specify the time (24-hour format) in hours and
minutes.
•
(Optional) For offset, specify the number of minutes to add during
summer time. The default is 60.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The first part of the clock summer-time global configuration command specifies when summer time
begins, and the second part specifies when it ends. All times are relative to the local time zone. The start
time is relative to standard time. The end time is relative to summer time. If the starting month is after
the ending month, the system assumes that you are in the southern hemisphere.
To disable summer time, use the no clock summer-time global configuration command.
This example shows how to set summer time to start on October 12, 2000, at 02:00, and end on April 26,
2001, at 02:00:
AP(config)# clock summer-time pdt date 12 October 2000 2:00 26 April 2001 2:00
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Configuring a System Name and Prompt
Configuring a System Name and Prompt
You configure the system name on the access point to identify it. By default, the system name and prompt
are ap.
If you have not configured a system prompt, the first 20 characters of the system name are used as the
system prompt. A greater-than symbol (>) is appended. The prompt is updated whenever the system
name changes, unless you manually configure the prompt by using the prompt global configuration
command.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the Cisco IOS
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference and the Cisco IOS IP and IP Routing Command
Reference for Release 12.1.
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Default System Name and Prompt Configuration, page 6-32
•
Configuring a System Name, page 6-32
•
Understanding DNS, page 6-33
Default System Name and Prompt Configuration
The default access point system name and prompt is ap.
Configuring a System Name
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to manually configure a system name:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
hostname name
Manually configure a system name.
The default setting is ap.
The name must follow the rules for ARPANET host names. They must start
with a letter, end with a letter or digit, and have as interior characters only
letters, digits, and hyphens. Names can be up to 63 characters.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
When you set the system name, it is also used as the system prompt.
To return to the default host name, use the no hostname global configuration command.
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Configuring a System Name and Prompt
Understanding DNS
The DNS protocol controls the Domain Name System (DNS), a distributed database with which you can
map host names to IP addresses. When you configure DNS on your access point, you can substitute the
host name for the IP address with all IP commands, such as ping, telnet, connect, and related Telnet
support operations.
IP defines a hierarchical naming scheme that allows a device to be identified by its location or domain.
Domain names are pieced together with periods (.) as the delimiting characters. For example, Cisco
Systems is a commercial organization that IP identifies by a com domain name, so its domain name is
cisco.com. A specific device in this domain, such as the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) system, is
identified as ftp.cisco.com.
To keep track of domain names, IP has defined the concept of a domain name server, which holds a cache
(or database) of names mapped to IP addresses. To map domain names to IP addresses, you must first
identify the host names, specify the name server that is present on your network, and enable the DNS.
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Default DNS Configuration, page 6-33
•
Setting Up DNS, page 6-33
•
Displaying the DNS Configuration, page 6-34
Default DNS Configuration
Table 6-3 shows the default DNS configuration.
Table 6-3
Default DNS Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
DNS enable state
Disabled.
DNS default domain name
None configured.
DNS servers
No name server addresses are configured.
Setting Up DNS
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set up your access point to use the DNS:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
ip domain-name name
Define a default domain name that the software uses to complete unqualified
host names (names without a dotted-decimal domain name).
Do not include the initial period that separates an unqualified name from the
domain name.
At boot time, no domain name is configured; however, if the access point
configuration comes from a BOOTP or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) server, then the default domain name might be set by the BOOTP or
DHCP server (if the servers were configured with this information).
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Creating a Banner
Step 3
Step 4
Command
Purpose
ip name-server server-address1
[server-address2 ...
server-address6]
Specify the address of one or more name servers to use for name and address
resolution.
ip domain-lookup
(Optional) Enable DNS-based host name-to-address translation on your access
point. This feature is enabled by default.
You can specify up to six name servers. Separate each server address with a
space. The first server specified is the primary server. The access point sends
DNS queries to the primary server first. If that query fails, the backup servers
are queried.
If your network devices require connectivity with devices in networks for which
you do not control name assignment, you can dynamically assign device names
that uniquely identify your devices by using the global Internet naming scheme
(DNS).
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 7
copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
If you use the access point IP address as its host name, the IP address is used and no DNS query occurs.
If you configure a host name that contains no periods (.), a period followed by the default domain name
is appended to the host name before the DNS query is made to map the name to an IP address. The default
domain name is the value set by the ip domain-name global configuration command. If there is a
period (.) in the host name, the IOS software looks up the IP address without appending any default
domain name to the host name.
To remove a domain name, use the no ip domain-name name global configuration command. To remove
a name server address, use the no ip name-server server-address global configuration command. To
disable DNS on the access point, use the no ip domain-lookup global configuration command.
Displaying the DNS Configuration
To display the DNS configuration information, use the show running-config privileged EXEC
command.
Creating a Banner
You can configure a message-of-the-day (MOTD) and a login banner. The MOTD banner appears on all
connected terminals at login and is useful for sending messages that affect all network users (such as
impending system shutdowns).
The login banner also appears on all connected terminals. It appears after the MOTD banner and before
the login prompts.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this section, refer to the Cisco IOS
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
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Creating a Banner
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Default Banner Configuration, page 6-35
•
Configuring a Message-of-the-Day Login Banner, page 6-35
•
Configuring a Login Banner, page 6-36
Default Banner Configuration
The MOTD and login banners are not configured.
Configuring a Message-of-the-Day Login Banner
You can create a single or multiline message banner that appears on the screen when someone logs into
the access point.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a MOTD login banner:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
banner motd c message c
Specify the message of the day.
For c, enter the delimiting character of your choice, such as a pound sign
(#), and press the Return key. The delimiting character signifies the
beginning and end of the banner text. Characters after the ending
delimiter are discarded.
For message, enter a banner message up to 255 characters. You cannot
use the delimiting character in the message.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To delete the MOTD banner, use the no banner motd global configuration command.
This example shows how to configure a MOTD banner for the access point using the pound sign (#)
symbol as the beginning and ending delimiter:
AP(config)# banner motd #
This is a secure site. Only authorized users are allowed.
For access, contact technical support.
#
AP(config)#
This example shows the banner displayed from the previous configuration:
Unix> telnet 172.2.5.4
Trying 172.2.5.4...
Connected to 172.2.5.4.
Escape character is '^]'.
This is a secure site. Only authorized users are allowed.
For access, contact technical support.
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Creating a Banner
User Access Verification
Password:
Configuring a Login Banner
You can configure a login banner to appear on all connected terminals. This banner appears after the
MOTD banner and before the login prompt.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a login banner:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
banner login c message c
Specify the login message.
For c, enter the delimiting character of your choice, such as a pound sign
(#), and press the Return key. The delimiting character signifies the
beginning and end of the banner text. Characters after the ending delimiter
are discarded.
For message, enter a login message up to 255 characters. You cannot use the
delimiting character in the message.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To delete the login banner, use the no banner login global configuration command.
This example shows how to configure a login banner for the access point using the dollar sign ($) symbol
as the beginning and ending delimiter:
AP(config)# banner login $
Access for authorized users only. Please enter your username and password.
$
AP(config)#
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7
Configuring Radio Settings
This chapter describes how to configure radio settings for your access point. This chapter includes these
sections:
•
Disabling and Enabling the Radio Interface, page 7-2
•
Configuring the Role in Radio Network, page 7-2
•
Configuring Radio Data Rates, page 7-4
•
Configuring Radio Transmit Power, page 7-5
•
Configuring Radio Channel Settings, page 7-7
•
Enabling and Disabling World-Mode, page 7-9
•
Disabling and Enabling Short Radio Preambles, page 7-9
•
Configuring Transmit and Receive Antennas, page 7-10
•
Disabling and Enabling Aironet Extensions, page 7-11
•
Configuring the Ethernet Encapsulation Transformation Method, page 7-12
•
Enabling and Disabling Reliable Multicast to Workgroup Bridges, page 7-12
•
Enabling and Disabling Public Secure Packet Forwarding, page 7-13
•
Configuring the Beacon Period and the DTIM, page 7-15
•
Configure RTS Threshold and Retries, page 7-15
•
Configuring the Maximum Data Retries, page 7-16
•
Configuring the Fragmentation Threshold, page 7-16
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Configuring Radio Settings
Disabling and Enabling the Radio Interface
Disabling and Enabling the Radio Interface
The access point radios are enabled by default. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps
to disable the access point radio:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
shutdown
Disable the radio port.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the shutdown command to enable the radio port.
Configuring the Role in Radio Network
You can configure your access point as a root device that is connected to the wired LAN or as a repeater
(non-root) device that is not connected to the wired LAN. Figure 7-1 shows a root access point and a
repeater access point.
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Configuring the Role in Radio Network
Figure 7-1
Root and Repeater Access Points
Access Point
(Root Unit)
Wired LAN
66000
Access Point
(Repeater)
See Chapter 18, “Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points,” for detailed instructions on setting
up repeaters.
You can also configure a fallback role for the access point radio. The access point automatically assumes
the fallback role when its Ethernet port is disabled or disconnected from the wired LAN. There are two
possible fallback roles:
•
Repeater—When the Ethernet port is disabled, the access point becomes a repeater and associates
to a nearby root access point.
•
Shutdown—The access point shuts down its radio and disassociates all client devices.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the access point’s radio network role and
fallback role:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
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Configuring Radio Data Rates
Command
Purpose
Step 3
station role
Set the access point role.
repeater | root
• Set the role to repeater or root.
[ fallback { shutdown | repeater } ]
• (Optional) Select the radio’s fallback role. If the access
point’s Ethernet port is disabled or disconnected from the
wired LAN, the access point can either shut down its radio
port or become a repeater access point associated to a
nearby root access point.
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Configuring Radio Data Rates
You use the data rate settings to choose the data rates the access point uses for data transmission. The
rates are expressed in megabits per second. The access point always attempts to transmit at the highest
data rate set to Basic, also called Require on the browser-based interface. If there are obstacles or
interference, the access point steps down to the highest rate that allows data transmission. You can set
each data rate (1, 2, 5.5, and 11 megabits per second) to one of three states:
Note
•
Basic (this is the default state for all data rates)—Allows transmission at this rate for all packets,
both unicast and multicast. At least one of the access point's data rates must be set to Basic.
•
Enabled—The access point transmits only unicast packets at this rate; multicast packets are sent at
one of the data rates set to Basic.
•
Disabled—The access point does not transmit data at this rate.
At least one data rate must be set to basic.
You can use the Data Rate settings to set up an access point to serve client devices operating at specific
data rates. For example, to set up the 2.4-GHz radio for 11 megabits per second (Mbps) service only, set
the 11-Mbps rate to Basic and set the other data rates to Enabled. To set up the access point to serve
only client devices operating at 1 and 2 Mbps, set 1 and 2 to Basic and set the rest of the data rates to
Enabled. To set up the 5-GHz radio for 54 Mbps service only, set the 54-Mbps rate to Basic and set the
other data rates to Enabled.
You can also configure the access point to set the data rates automatically to optimize either range or
throughput. When you enter range for the data rate setting, the access point sets the 1 Mbps rate to basic
and the other rates to enabled. When you enter throughput for the data rate setting, the access point sets
all four data rates to basic.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the radio data rates:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
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Configuring Radio Transmit Power
Step 3
Command
Purpose
speed
Set each data rate to basic or enabled, or enter range to
optimize access point range or throughput to optimize
throughput.
These options are available for the
2.4-GHz radio:
{[1.0] [11.0] [2.0] [5.5] [basic-1.0]
[basic-11.0] [basic-2.0] [basic-5.5] |
range | throughput}
These options are available for the
5-GHz radio:
{[6.0] [9.0] [12.0] [18.0] [24.0]
[36.0] [48.0] [54.0] [basic-6.0]
[basic-9.0] [basic-12.0] [basic-18.0]
[basic-24.0] [basic-36.0]
[basic-48.0] [basic-54.0] |
range | throughput}
•
(Optional) Enter 1.0, 2.0, 5.5, and 11.0 to set these data
rates to enabled on the 2.4-GHz radio. Enter 6.0, 9.0, 12.0,
18.0, 24.0, 36.0, 48.0, and 54.0 to set these data rates to
enabled on the 5-GHz radio.
•
(Optional) Enter basic-1.0, basic-2.0, basic-5.5, and
basic-11.0 to set these data rates to basic on the 2.4-GHz
radio. Enter basic-6.0, basic-9.0, basic-12.0, basic-18.0,
basic-24.0, basic-36.0, basic-48.0, and basic-54.0 to set
these data rates to basic on the 5-GHz radio.
•
(Optional) Enter range or throughput to automatically
optimize radio range or throughput. When you enter
range, The access point sets the lowest data rate to basic
and the other rates to enabled. When you enter
throughput, the access point sets all data rates to basic.
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of the speed command to disable data rates. When you use the no form of the command,
all data rates are disabled except the rates you name in the command. This example shows how to disable
data rate 1.0:
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# no speed basic-2.0 basic-5.5 basic-11.0
ap1200(config-if)# end
Data rate 1 is disabled, and the rest of the rates are set to basic.
This example shows how to set up the access point for 11-Mbps service only:
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# no speed basic-11.0
ap1200(config-if)# end
Data rate 11 is set to basic, and the rest of the data rates are set to disabled.
Configuring Radio Transmit Power
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the transmit power on your access point
radio:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
power local
Set the transmit power to one of the power levels allowed in
your regulatory domain. All settings are in mW.
These options are available for the
2.4-GHz radio:
Note
{ 1 | 5 | 20 | 30 | 50 | 100 | maximum }
The settings allowed in your regulatory domain might
differ from the settings listed here.
These options are available for the
5-GHz radio:
{ 5 | 10 | 20 | 40 | maximum }
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of the power command to return the power setting to maximum, the default setting.
Limiting the Power Level for Associated Client Devices
You can also limit the power level on client devices that associate to the access point. When a client
device associates to the access point, the access point sends the maximum power level setting to the
client.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to specify a maximum allowed power setting on
all client devices that associate to the access point:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
power client
Set the maximum power level allowed on client devices that
associate to the access point. All settings are in mW.
These options are available for
2.4-GHz clients:
{ 1 | 5 | 20 | 30 | 50 | 100 | maximum}
Note
The settings allowed in your regulatory domain might
differ from the settings listed here.
These options are available for 5-GHz
clients:
{ 5 | 10 | 20 | 40 | maximum }
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of the client power command to disable the maximum power level for associated clients.
Note
Aironet extensions must be enabled to limit the power level on associated client devices. Aironet
extensions are enabled by default.
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Configuring Radio Channel Settings
Configuring Radio Channel Settings
The default channel setting for the access point radios is least congested; at startup, the access point
scans for and selects the least-congested channel. For most consistent performance after a site survey,
however, we recomend that you assign a static channel setting for each access point. The channel settings
on your access point correspond to the frequencies available in your regulatory domain. See Appendix C,
“Channels and Antenna Settings,” for the frequencies allowed in your domain.
Each 2.4-GHz channel covers 22 MHz. The bandwidth for channels 1, 6, and 11 does not overlap, so you
can set up multiple access points in the same vicinity without causing interference.
The 5-GHz radio operates on eight channels from 5180 to 5320 MHz. Each channel covers 20 MHz, and
the bandwidth for the channels overlaps slightly. For best performance, use channels that are not adjacent
(44 and 46, for example) for radios that are close to each other.
Note
Too many access points in the same vicinity creates radio congestion that can reduce throughput. A
careful site survey can determine the best placement of access points for maximum radio coverage and
throughput.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the access point’s radio channel:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
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Configuring Radio Channel Settings
Step 3
Command
Purpose
channel
frequency | least-congested
Set the default channel for the access point radio. To search for the
least-congested channel on startup, enter least-congested.
These are the available frequencies (in MHz) for the 2.4-GHz
radio:
•
channel 1—2412 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, and China)
•
channel 2—2417 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, and China)
•
channel 3—2422 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 4—2427 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 5—2432 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 6—2437 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 7—2442 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 8—2447 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 9—2452 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, Israel, and China)
•
channel 10—2457 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, and China)
•
channel 11—2462 (Americas, EMEA, Japan, and China)
•
channel 12—2467 (EMEA and Japan only)
•
channel 13—2472 (EMEA and Japan only)
•
channel 14—2484 (Japan only)
These are the available frequencies (in MHz) for the 5-GHz radio:
•
channel 34—5170 (Japan only)
•
channel 36—5180 (Americas and Singapore)
•
channel 38—5190 (Japan only)
•
channel 40—5200 (Americas and Singapore)
•
channel 42—5210 (Japan only)
•
channel 44—5220 (Americas and Singapore)
•
channel 46—5230 (Japan only)
•
channel 48—5240 (Americas and Singapore)
•
channel 52—5260 (Americas and Taiwan)
•
channel 56—5280 (Americas and Taiwan)
•
channel 60—5300 (Americas and Taiwan)
•
channel 64—5320 (Americas and Taiwan)
Note
The frequencies allowed in your regulatory domain might
differ from the frequencies listed here.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Enabling and Disabling World-Mode
Enabling and Disabling World-Mode
When you enable world mode, the access point adds channel carrier set information to its beacon. Client
devices with world mode enabled receive the carrier set information and adjust their settings
automatically. For example, a client device used primarily in Japan could rely on world mode to adjust
its channel and power settings automatically when it travels to Italy and joins a network there. World
mode is disabled by default.
World mode is not supported on the 5-GHz radio.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable world mode:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio 0
Enter interface configuration mode for the 2.4-GHz radio
interface.
Step 3
world-mode
Enable world mode.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the command to disable world mode.
Note
Aironet extensions must be enabled for world mode operation. Aironet extensions are enabled by default.
Disabling and Enabling Short Radio Preambles
The radio preamble (sometimes called a header) is a section of data at the head of a packet that contains
information that the access point and client devices need when sending and receiving packets. You can
set the radio preamble to long or short:
•
Short—A short preamble improves throughput performance. Cisco Aironet Wireless LAN Client
Adapters support short preambles. Early models of Cisco Aironet's Wireless LAN Adapter (PC4800
and PC4800A) require long preambles.
•
Long—A long preamble ensures compatibility between the access point and all early models of
Cisco Aironet Wireless LAN Adapters (PC4800 and PC4800A). If these client devices do not
associate to your access points, you should use short preambles.
You cannot configure short or long radio preambles on the 5-GHz radio.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to disable short radio preambles:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio 0
Enter interface configuration mode for the 2.4-GHz radio
interface.
Step 3
no preamble-short
Disable short preambles and enable long preambles.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Configuring Transmit and Receive Antennas
Command
Purpose
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Short preambles are enabled by default. Use the preamble-short command to enable short preambles if
they are disabled.
Configuring Transmit and Receive Antennas
You can select the antenna the access point uses to receive and transmit data. There are three options for
both the receive and the transmit antenna:
•
Diversity—This default setting tells the access point to use the antenna that receives the best signal.
If your access point has two fixed (non-removeable) antennas, you should use this setting for both
receive and transmit.
•
Right—If your access point has removeable antennas and you install a high-gain antenna on the
access point's right connector, you should use this setting for both receive and transmit. When you
look at the access point's back panel, the right antenna is on the right.
•
Left—If your access point has removeable antennas and you install a high-gain antenna on the
access point's left connector, you should use this setting for both receive and transmit. When you
look at the access point's back panel, the left antenna is on the left.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to select the antennas the access point uses to
receive and transmit data:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
antenna receive
{diversity | left | right}
Set the receive antenna to diversity, left, or right.
antenna transmit
{diversity | left | right}
Set the transmit antenna to diversity, left, or right.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Step 4
Note
Note
For best performance, leave the receive antenna setting
at the default setting, diversity.
For best performance, leave the transmit antenna
setting at the default setting, diversity.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Disabling and Enabling Aironet Extensions
Disabling and Enabling Aironet Extensions
By default, the access point uses Cisco Aironet 802.11 extensions to detect the capabilities of Cisco
Aironet client devices and to support features that require specific interaction between the access point
and associated client devices. Aironet extensions must be enabled to support these features:
•
Load balancing—The access point uses Aironet extensions to direct client devices to an access point
that provides the best connection to the network based on factors such as number of users, bit error
rates, and signal strength.
•
Message Integrity Check (MIC)—MIC is an additional WEP security feature that prevents attacks
on encrypted packets called bit-flip attacks. The MIC, implemented on both the access point and all
associated client devices, adds a few bytes to each packet to make the packets tamper-proof.
•
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)—TKIP, also known as WEP key hashing, is an additional
WEP security feature that defends against an attack on WEP in which the intruder uses an
unencrypted segment called the initialization vector (IV) in encrypted packets to calculate the WEP
key.
•
Repeater mode—Aironet extensions must be enabled on repeater access points and on the root
access points to which they associate.
•
World mode—Client devices with world mode enabled receive carrier set information from the
access point and adjust their settings automatically.
•
Limiting the power level on associated client devices—When a client device associates to the access
point, the access point sends the maximum allowed power level setting to the client.
Disabling Aironet extensions disables the features listed above, but it sometimes improves the ability of
non-Cisco client devices to associate to the access point.
Aironet extensions are enabled by default. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to
disable Aironet extensions:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
no dot11 extension aironet
Disable Aironet extensions.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the dot11 extension aironet command to enable Aironet extensions if they are disabled.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Configuring the Ethernet Encapsulation Transformation Method
Configuring the Ethernet Encapsulation Transformation Method
When the access point receives data packets that are not 802.3 packets, the access point must format the
packets to 802.3 using an encapsulation transformation method. These are the two transformation
methods:
•
802.1H—This method provides optimum performance for Cisco Aironet wireless products. This is
the default setting.
•
RFC1042—Use this setting to ensure interoperability with non-Cisco Aironet wireless equipment.
RFC1042 does not provide the interoperability advantages of 802.1H but is used by other
manufacturers of wireless equipment.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the encapsulation transformation
method:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
payload-encapsulation
Set the encapsulation transformation method to RFC1042
(snap) or 802.1h (dot1h, the default setting).
snap | dot1h
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Enabling and Disabling Reliable Multicast to Workgroup
Bridges
Reliable multicast messages from the access point to workgroup bridges allow approximately 20 Cisco
Aironet Workgroup Bridges to associate to the access point. The default setting, disabled, allows more
than 20 workgroup bridges to associate to the access point.
Access points and bridges normally treat workgroup bridges not as client devices but as infrastructure
devices, like access points or bridges. Treating a workgroup bridge as an infrastructure device means that
the access point reliably delivers multicast packets, including Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
packets, to the workgroup bridge.
The performance cost of reliable multicast delivery—duplication of each multicast packet sent to each
workgroup bridge—limits the number of infrastructure devices, including workgroup bridges, that can
associate to the access point. To increase beyond 20 the number of workgroup bridges that can associate
to the access point, the access point must reduce the delivery reliability of multicast packets to
workgroup bridges. With reduced reliability, the access point cannot confirm whether multicast packets
reach the intended workgroup bridge, so workgroup bridges at the edge of the access point's coverage
area might lose IP connectivity. When you treat workgroup bridges as client devices, you increase
performance but reduce reliability.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Enabling and Disabling Public Secure Packet Forwarding
Note
This feature is best suited for use with stationary workgroup bridges. Mobile workgroup bridges might
encounter spots in the access point's coverage area where they do not receive multicast packets and lose
communication with the access point even though they are still associated to it.
A Cisco Aironet Workgroup Bridge provides a wireless LAN connection for up to eight
Ethernet-enabled devices.
This feature is not supported on the 5-GHz radio.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the encapsulation transformation
method:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio 0
Enter interface configuration mode for the 2.4-GHz radio
interface.
Step 3
infrastructure-client
Enable reliable multicast messages to workgroup bridges.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the command to disable reliable multicast messages to workgroup bridges.
Enabling and Disabling Public Secure Packet Forwarding
Public Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) prevents client devices associated to an access point from
inadvertently sharing files or communicating with other client devices associated to the access point. It
provides Internet access to client devices without providing other capabilities of a LAN. This feature is
useful for public wireless networks like those installed in airports or on college campuses.
Note
To prevent communication between clients associated to different access points, you must set up
protected ports on the switch to which your access points are connected. See the “Configuring Protected
Ports” section on page 7-14 for instructions on setting up protected ports.
To enable and disable PSPF using IOS commands on your access point, you use bridge groups. You can
find a detailed explanation of bridge groups and instructions for implementing them in this document:
•
Cisco IOS Bridging and IBM Networking Configuration Guide, Release 12.2. Click this link to
browse to the Configuring Transparent Bridging chapter:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fibm_c/bcfpart1/bcftb.
htm
You can also enable and disable PSPF using the web-browser interface. The PSPF setting is on the Radio
Settings pages.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Enabling and Disabling Public Secure Packet Forwarding
PSPF is disabled by default. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable PSPF:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
bridge-group group port-protected
Enable PSPF.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the command to disable PSPF.
Configuring Protected Ports
To prevent communication between client devices associated to different access points on your wireless
LAN, you must set up protected ports on the switch to which your access points are connected. Follow
these steps to set up protected ports on your switch:
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to define a port on your switch as a protected
port:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface interface-id
Enter interface configuration mode, and enter the type and
number of the switchport interface to configure, such as
gigabitethernet0/1.
Step 3
switchport protected
Configure the interface to be a protected port.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show interfaces interface-id
switchport
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable protected port, use the no switchport protected interface configuration command.
For detailed information on protected ports and port blocking, refer to the “Configuring Port-Based
Traffic Control” chapter in the Catalyst 3550 Multilayer Switch Software Configuration Guide,
12.1(12c)EA1. Click this link to browse to that guide:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps646/products_configuration_guide_book09186a
008011591c.html
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Configuring Radio Settings
Configuring the Beacon Period and the DTIM
Configuring the Beacon Period and the DTIM
The beacon period is the amount of time between access point beacons in Kilomicroseconds. One Kµsec
equals 1,024 microseconds. The Data Beacon Rate, always a multiple of the beacon period, determines
how often the beacon contains a delivery traffic indication message (DTIM). The DTIM tells power-save
client devices that a packet is waiting for them.
For example, if the beacon period is set at 100, its default setting, and the data beacon rate is set at 2, its
default setting, then the access point sends a beacon containing a DTIM every 200 Kµsecs. One Kµsec
equals 1,024 microseconds.
The default beacon period is 100, and the default DTIM is 2. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode,
follow these steps to configure the beacon period and the DTIM:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
beacon period value
Set the beacon period. Enter a value in Kilomicroseconds.
Step 4
beacon dtim-period value
Set the DTIM. Enter a value in Kilomicroseconds.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Configure RTS Threshold and Retries
The RTS threshold determines the packet size at which the access point issues a request to send (RTS)
before sending the packet. A low RTS Threshold setting can be useful in areas where many client devices
are associating with the access point, or in areas where the clients are far apart and can detect only the
access point and not each other. You can enter a setting ranging from 0 to 2339 bytes.
Maximum RTS Retries is the maximum number of times the access point issues an RTS before stopping
the attempt to send the packet over the radio. Enter a value from 1 to 128.
The default RTS threshold is 2312, and the default maximum RTS retries setting is 32. Beginning in
privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the RTS threshold and maximum RTS retries:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
rts threshold value
Set the RTS threshold. Enter an RTS threshold from 0 to 2339.
Step 4
rts retries value
Set the maximum RTS retries. Enter a setting from 1 to 128.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the command to reset the RTS settings to defaults.
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Configuring Radio Settings
Configuring the Maximum Data Retries
Configuring the Maximum Data Retries
The maximum data retries setting determines the number of attempts the access point makes to send a
packet before giving up and dropping the packet.
The default setting is 32. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the
maximum data retries:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
packet retries value
Set the maximum data retries. Enter a setting from 1 to 128.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the command to reset the setting to defaults.
Configuring the Fragmentation Threshold
The fragmentation threshold determines the size at which packets are fragmented (sent as several pieces
instead of as one block). Use a low setting in areas where communication is poor or where there is a great
deal of radio interference.
The default setting is 2338 bytes. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure
the fragmentation threshold:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
fragment-threshold value
Set the fragmentation threshold. Enter a setting from 256 to
2338 bytes for the 2.4-GHz radio. Enter a setting from 256 to
2346 bytes for the 5-GHz radio.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the command to reset the setting to defaults.
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8
Configuring Multiple SSIDs
This chapter describes how to configure and manage multiple service set identifiers (SSIDs) on the
access point. This chapter contains these sections:
•
Understanding Multiple SSIDs, page 8-2
•
Configuring Multiple SSIDs, page 8-2
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Configuring Multiple SSIDs
Understanding Multiple SSIDs
Understanding Multiple SSIDs
The SSID is a unique identifier that wireless networking devices use to establish and maintain wireless
connectivity. Multiple access points on a network or sub-network can use the same SSIDs. SSIDs are
case sensitive and can contain up to 32 alphanumeric characters. Do not include spaces in your SSIDs.
You can configure up to 16 SSIDs on your 1200 series access point and assign different configuration
settings to each SSID. All the SSIDs are active at the same time; that is, client devices can associate to
the access point using any of the SSIDs. These are the settings you can assign to each SSID:
•
VLAN
•
Client authentication method
Note
For detailed information on client authentication types, see Chapter 10, “Configuring
Authentication Types.”
•
Maximum number of client associations using the SSID
•
Proxy mobile IP
•
RADIUS accounting for traffic using the SSID
•
Guest mode
•
Repeater mode, including authentication username and password
If you want the access point to allow associations from client devices that do not specify an SSID in their
configurations, you can set up a guest SSID. The access point includes the guest SSID in its beacon. The
access point’s default SSID, tsunami, is set to guest mode. However, to keep your network secure, you
should disable the guest mode SSID on most access points.
If your access point will be a repeater or will be a root access point that acts as a parent for a repeater,
you can set up an SSID for use in repeater mode. You can assign an authentication username and
password to the repeater-mode SSID to allow the repeater to authenticate to your network like a client
device.
If your network uses VLANs, you can assign an SSID to a VLAN, and client devices using the SSID are
grouped in that VLAN.
Configuring Multiple SSIDs
These sections contain configuration information for multiple SSIDs:
•
Default SSID Configuration, page 8-3
•
Creating an SSID, page 8-3
•
Using a RADIUS Server to Restrict SSIDs, page 8-4
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Configuring Multiple SSIDs
Configuring Multiple SSIDs
Default SSID Configuration
Table 8-1 shows the default SSID configuration:
Table 8-1
Default SSID Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
SSID
tsunami
Guest Mode SSID
tsunami (The access point broadcasts this SSID in
its beacon and allows client devices with no SSID
to associate.)
Creating an SSID
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create an SSID:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
ssid ssid-string
Create an SSID and enter SSID configuration mode for the new
SSID. The SSID can consist of up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. SSIDs are case sensitive.
Note
Do not include spaces in your SSIDs.
Step 4
authentication client
username username
password password
(Optional) Set an authentication username and password that
the access point uses to authenticate to the network when in
repeater mode. Set the username and password on the SSID that
the repeater access point uses to associate to a root access point,
or with another repeater.
Step 5
accounting list-name
(Optional) Enable RADIUS accounting for this SSID. For
list-name, specify the accounting method list. Click this link
for more information on method lists:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios
122/122cgcr/fsecur_c/fsaaa/scfacct.htm#xtocid2
Step 6
vlan vlan-id
(Optional) Assign the SSID to a VLAN on your network. Client
devices that associate using the SSID are grouped into this
VLAN.
Step 7
guest-mode
(Optional) Designate the SSID as your access point’s
guest-mode SSID. The access point includes the SSID in its
beacon and allows associations from client devices that do not
specify an SSID.
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Configuring Multiple SSIDs
Command
Purpose
Step 8
infrastructure-ssid [optional]
(Optional) Designate the SSID as the SSID that other access
points and workgroup bridges use to associate to this access
point. If you do not designate an SSID as the infrastructure
SSID, infrastructure devices can associate to the access point
using any SSID. If you designate an SSID as the infrastructure
SSID, infrastructure devices must associate to the access point
using that SSID unless you also enter the optional keyword.
Step 9
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 10
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Note
You use the ssid command’s authentication options to configure an authentication type for each SSID.
See Chapter 10, “Configuring Authentication Types,” for instructions on configuring authentication
types.
Use the no form of the command to disable the SSID or to disable SSID features.
This example shows how to:
•
Name an SSID
•
Configure the SSID for RADIUS accounting
•
Set the maximum number of client devices that can associate using this SSID to 15
•
Assign the SSID to a VLAN
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# configure interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# ssid batman
ap1200(config-ssid)# accounting accounting-method-list
ap1200(config-ssid)# max-associations 15
ap1200(config-ssid)# vlan 3762
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
Using a RADIUS Server to Restrict SSIDs
To prevent client devices from associating to the access point using an unauthorized SSID, you can
create a list of authorized SSIDs that clients must use on your RADIUS authentication server.
The SSID authorization process consists of these steps:
1.
A client device associates to the access point using any SSID configured on the access point.
2.
The client begins RADIUS authentication.
3.
The RADIUS server returns a list of SSIDs that the client is allowed to use. The access point checks
the list for a match of the SSID used by the client. There are three possible outcomes:
a. If the SSID that the client used to associate to the access point matches an entry in the allowed
list returned by the RADIUS server, the client is allowed network access after completing all
authentication requirements.
b. If the access point does not find a match for the client in the allowed list of SSIDs, the access
point disassociates the client.
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Configuring Multiple SSIDs
Configuring Multiple SSIDs
c. If the RADIUS server does not return any SSIDs (no list) for the client, then the administrator
has not configured the list, and the client is allowed to associate and attempt to authenticate.
The allowed list of SSIDs from the RADIUS server are in the form of Cisco VSAs. The Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft standard specifies a method for communicating vendor-specific
information between the access point and the RADIUS server by using the vendor-specific attribute
(attribute 26). Vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) allow vendors to support their own extended attributes
not suitable for general use. The Cisco RADIUS implementation supports one vendor-specific option by
using the format recommended in the specification. Cisco’s vendor-ID is 9, and the supported option has
vendor-type 1, which is named cisco-avpair. The Radius server is allowed to have zero or more SSID
VSAs per client.
In this example, the following AV pair adds the SSID batman to the list of allowed SSIDs for a user:
cisco-avpair= ”ssid=batman”
For instructions on configuring the access point to recognize and use VSAs, see the “Configuring the
Access Point to Use Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes” section on page 11-13.
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Configuring Multiple SSIDs
Configuring Multiple SSIDs
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9
Configuring WEP and WEP Features
This chapter describes how to configure Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), Message Integrity Check
(MIC), Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), and broadcast key rotation. This chapter contains these
sections:
•
Understanding WEP, page 9-2
•
Configuring WEP and WEP Features, page 9-2
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Configuring WEP and WEP Features
Understanding WEP
Understanding WEP
Just as anyone within range of a radio station can tune to the station's frequency and listen to the signal,
any wireless networking device within range of an access point can receive the access point's radio
transmissions. Because WEP is the first line of defense against intruders, Cisco recommends that you
use full encryption on your wireless network.
WEP encryption scrambles the communication between the access point and client devices to keep the
communication private. Both the access point and client devices use the same WEP key to encrypt and
unencrypt radio signals. WEP keys encrypt both unicast and multicast messages. Unicast messages are
addressed to just one device on the network. Multicast messages are addressed to multiple devices on
the network.
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication provides dynamic WEP keys to wireless users.
Dynamic WEP keys are more secure than static, or unchanging, WEP keys. If an intruder passively
receives enough packets encrypted by the same WEP key, the intruder can perform a calculation to learn
the key and use it to join your network. Because they change frequently, dynamic WEP keys prevent
intruders from performing the calculation and learning the key. See Chapter 10, “Configuring
Authentication Types,” for detailed information on EAP and other authentication types.
Three additional security features defend your wireless network's WEP keys:
•
Message Integrity Check (MIC)—MIC prevents attacks on encrypted packets called bit-flip attacks.
During a bit-flip attack, an intruder intercepts an encrypted message, alters it slightly, and
retransmits it, and the receiver accepts the retransmitted message as legitimate. The MIC,
implemented on both the access point and all associated client devices, adds a few bytes to each
packet to make the packets tamper proof.
•
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, also known as WEP key hashing)—This feature defends
against an attack on WEP in which the intruder uses the unencrypted initialization vector (IV) in
encrypted packets to calculate the WEP key. TKIP removes the predictability that an intruder relies
on to determine the WEP key by exploiting IVs.
•
Broadcast key rotation—EAP authentication provides dynamic unicast WEP keys for client devices
but uses static broadcast keys. When you enable broadcast WEP key rotation, the access point
provides a dynamic broadcast WEP key and changes it at the interval you select. Broadcast key
rotation is an excellent alternative to TKIP if your wireless LAN supports wireless client devices
that are not Cisco devices or that cannot be upgraded to the latest firmware for Cisco client devices.
Configuring WEP and WEP Features
These sections describe how to configure WEP and additional WEP features such as MIC, TKIP, and
broadcast key rotation:
•
Creating WEP Keys, page 9-3
•
Enabling and Disabling WEP and Enabling TKIP and MIC, page 9-3
•
Enabling and Disabling Broadcast Key Rotation, page 9-4
WEP, TKIP, MIC, and broadcast key rotation are disabled by default.
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Configuring WEP and WEP Features
Creating WEP Keys
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a WEP key and set the key properties:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
encryption
[vlan vlan-id]
key 1-4
size { 40 | 128 } encryption-key
[transmit-key]
Create a WEP key and set up its properties.
•
(Optional) Select the VLAN for which you want to create
a key.
•
Name the key slot in which this WEP key resides. You can
assign up to 4 WEP keys for each VLAN.
•
Enter the key and set the size of the key, either 40-bit or
128-bit. 40-bit keys contain 10 hexadecimal digits; 128-bit
keys contain 26 hexadecimal digits.
•
(Optional) Set this key as the transmit key. The key in slot
1 is the transmit key by default, but you can set any key as
the transmit key.
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
This example shows how to create a 128-bit WEP key in slot 1 for VLAN 22 and sets the key as the
transmit key:
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# configure interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# encryption vlan 22 key 1 size 128 12345678901234567890123456
transmit-key
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
Enabling and Disabling WEP and Enabling TKIP and MIC
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable WEP, TKIP, and MIC:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
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Configuring WEP and WEP Features
Step 3
Command
Purpose
encryption
[vlan vlan-id]
mode wep {optional [key-hash] |
mandatory [mic] [key-hash]}
Enable WEP, MIC, and TKIP.
•
(Optional) Select the VLAN for which you want to enable
WEP and WEP features.
•
Set the WEP level and enable TKIP and MIC. If you enter
optional, client devices can associate to the access point
with or without WEP enabled. You can enable TKIP with
WEP set to optional but you cannot enable MIC. If you
enter mandatory, client devices must have WEP enabled
to associate to the access point. You can enable both TKIP
and MIC with WEP set to mandatory.
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of the encryption command to disable WEP or to disable WEP features.
This example sets WEP to mandatory for VLAN 22 and enables MIC and TKIP.
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# configure interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# encryption vlan 22 mode wep mandatory mic key-hash
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
Enabling and Disabling Broadcast Key Rotation
Broadcast key rotation is disabled by default. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps
to enable broadcast key rotation:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
broadcast-key
change seconds
[vlan vlan-id]
Enable broadcast key rotation.
•
Enter the number of seconds between each rotation of the
broadcast key.
•
(Optional) Enter a VLAN for which you want to enable
broadcast key rotation.
Step 4
end
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of the encryption command to disable broadcast key rotation.
This example enables broadcast key rotation on VLAN 22 and sets the rotation interval to 300 seconds:
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# configure interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# broadcast-key vlan 22 change 300
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
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10
Configuring Authentication Types
This chapter describes how to configure authentication types on the access point. This chapter contains
these sections:
•
Understanding Authentication Types, page 10-2
•
Configuring Authentication Types, page 10-6
•
Matching Access Point and Client Device Authentication Types, page 10-9
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Understanding Authentication Types
Understanding Authentication Types
This section describes the authentication types that you can configure on the access point. The
authentication types are tied to the SSIDs that you configure for the access point. If you want to serve
different types of client devices with the same access point, you can configure multiple SSIDs. See
Chapter 8, “Configuring Multiple SSIDs,” for complete instructions on configuring multiple SSIDs.
Before a wireless client device can communicate on your network through the access point, it must
authenticate to the access point using open or shared-key authentication. For maximum security, client
devices should also authenticate to your network using MAC-address or EAP authentication,
authentication types that rely on an authentication server on your network.
The access point uses four authentication mechanisms or types and can use more than one at the same
time. These sections explain each authentication type:
•
Open Authentication to the Access Point, page 10-2
•
Shared Key Authentication to the Access Point, page 10-2
•
EAP Authentication to the Network, page 10-3
•
MAC Address Authentication to the Network, page 10-5
•
Combining MAC-Based, EAP, and Open Authentication, page 10-5
Open Authentication to the Access Point
Open authentication allows any device to authenticate and then attempt to communicate with the access
point. Using open authentication, any wireless device can authenticate with the access point, but the
device can communicate only if its WEP keys match the access point’s. Devices not using WEP do not
attempt to authenticate with an access point that is using WEP. Open authentication does not rely on a
RADIUS server on your network.
Figure 10-1 shows the authentication sequence between a device trying to authenticate and an access
point using open authentication. In this example, the device’s WEP key does not match the access point’s
key, so it can authenticate but not pass data.
Figure 10-1 Sequence for Open Authentication
Access point
or bridge
with WEP key = 123
Client device
with WEP key = 321
1. Authentication request
54583
2. Authentication response
Shared Key Authentication to the Access Point
Cisco provides shared key authentication to comply with the IEEE 802.11b standard. However, because
of shared key’s security flaws, we recommend that you avoid using it.
During shared key authentication, the access point sends an unencrypted challenge text string to any
device attempting to communicate with the access point. The device requesting authentication encrypts
the challenge text and sends it back to the access point. If the challenge text is encrypted correctly, the
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access point allows the requesting device to authenticate. Both the unencrypted challenge and the
encrypted challenge can be monitored, however, which leaves the access point open to attack from an
intruder who calculates the WEP key by comparing the unencrypted and encrypted text strings. Because
of this weakness, shared key authentication can be less secure than open authentication. Like open
authentication, shared key authentication does not rely on a RADIUS server on your network.
Figure 10-2 shows the authentication sequence between a device trying to authenticate and an access
point using shared key authentication. In this example the device’s WEP key matches the access point’s
key, so it can authenticate and communicate.
Figure 10-2 Sequence for Shared Key Authentication
Access point
or bridge
with WEP key = 123
Client device
with WEP key = 123
1. Authentication request
2. Unencrypted challenge
4. Authentication response
54584
3. Encrypted challenge response
EAP Authentication to the Network
This authentication type provides the highest level of security for your wireless network. By using the
Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the
access point helps a wireless client device and the RADIUS server to perform mutual authentication and
derive a dynamic unicast WEP key. The RADIUS server sends the WEP key to the access point, which
uses it for all unicast data signals that it sends to or receives from the client. The access point also
encrypts its broadcast WEP key (entered in the access point’s WEP key slot 1) with the client’s unicast
key and sends it to the client.
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Understanding Authentication Types
When you enable EAP on your access points and client devices, authentication to the network occurs in
the sequence shown in Figure 10-3:
Figure 10-3 Sequence for EAP Authentication
Wired LAN
Client
device
Access point
or bridge
Server
1. Authentication request
3. Username
(relay to server)
(relay to client)
4. Authentication challenge
5. Authentication response
(relay to server)
(relay to client)
6. Authentication success
7. Authentication challenge
(relay to server)
(relay to client)
8. Authentication response
9. Successful authentication
(relay to server)
65583
2. Identity request
In Steps 1 through 9 in Figure 10-3, a wireless client device and a RADIUS server on the wired LAN
use 802.1x and EAP to perform a mutual authentication through the access point. The RADIUS server
sends an authentication challenge to the client. The client uses a one-way encryption of the user-supplied
password to generate a response to the challenge and sends that response to the RADIUS server. Using
information from its user database, the RADIUS server creates its own response and compares that to
the response from the client. When the RADIUS server authenticates the client, the process repeats in
reverse, and the client authenticates the RADIUS server.
When mutual authentication is complete, the RADIUS server and the client determine a WEP key that
is unique to the client and provides the client with the appropriate level of network access, thereby
approximating the level of security in a wired switched segment to an individual desktop. The client
loads this key and prepares to use it for the logon session.
During the logon session, the RADIUS server encrypts and sends the WEP key, called a session key, over
the wired LAN to the access point. The access point encrypts its broadcast key with the session key and
sends the encrypted broadcast key to the client, which uses the session key to decrypt it. The client and
access point activate WEP and use the session and broadcast WEP keys for all communications during
the remainder of the session.
There is more than one type of EAP authentication, but the access point behaves the same way for each
type: it relays authentication messages from the wireless client device to the RADIUS server and from
the RADIUS server to the wireless client device. See the “Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID”
section on page 10-6 for instructions on setting up EAP on the access point.
Note
If you use EAP authentication, you can select open or shared key authentication, but you don’t have to.
EAP authentication controls authentication both to your access point and to your network.
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MAC Address Authentication to the Network
The access point relays the wireless client device’s MAC address to a RADIUS server on your network,
and the server checks the address against a list of allowed MAC addresses. Intruders can create
counterfeit MAC addresses, so MAC-based authentication is less secure than EAP authentication.
However, MAC-based authentication provides an alternate authentication method for client devices that
do not have EAP capability. See the “Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID” section on page 10-6
for instructions on enabling MAC-based authentication.
Tip
If you don’t have a RADIUS server on your network, you can create a list of allowed MAC addresses on
the access point’s Advanced Security: MAC Address Authentication page. Devices with MAC addresses
not on the list are not allowed to authenticate. When you create the list of allowed MAC addresses, use
lower case for all letters in the addresses that you enter.
Figure 10-4 shows the authentication sequence for MAC-based authentication.
Figure 10-4 Sequence for MAC-Based Authentication
Wired LAN
Client
device
Access point
or bridge
Server
1. Authentication request
2. Authentication success
65584
3. Association request
4. Association response
(block traffic from client)
5. Authentication request
6. Success
7. Access point or bridge unblocks
traffic from client
Combining MAC-Based, EAP, and Open Authentication
You can set up the access point to authenticate client devices using a combination of MAC-based and
EAP authentication. When you enable this feature, client devices that associate to the access point using
802.11 open authentication first attempt MAC authentication; if MAC authentication succeeds, the client
device joins the network. If MAC authentication fails, the access point waits for the client device to
attempt EAP authentication. See the “Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID” section on page 10-6
for instructions on setting up this combination of authentications.
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Configuring Authentication Types
This section describes how to configure authentication types. You attach configuration types to the
access point’s SSIDs. See Chapter 8, “Configuring Multiple SSIDs,” for details on setting up multiple
SSIDs. This section contains these topics:
•
Default Authentication Settings, page 10-6
•
Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID, page 10-6
•
Configuring Authentication Holdoffs, Timeouts, and Intervals, page 10-8
Default Authentication Settings
The default SSID on the access point is tsunami. Table 10-1 shows the default authentication settings for
the default SSID:
Table 10-1 Default Authentication Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
SSID
tsunami
Guest Mode SSID
tsunami (The access point broadcasts this SSID in
its beacon and allows client devices with no SSID
to associate.)
Authentication type assigned to tsunami
open
Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure authentication types for SSIDs:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
ssid ssid-string
Create an SSID and enter SSID configuration mode for the new
SSID. The SSID can consist of up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. SSIDs are case sensitive.
Note
Do not include spaces in SSIDs.
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Command
Step 4
Purpose
authentication open
(Optional) Set the authentication type to open for this SSID.
[mac-address list-name [alternate]] Open authentication allows any device to authenticate and then
[eap list-name]
attempt to communicate with the access point.
•
(Optional) Set the SSID’s authentication type to open with
MAC address authentication. The access point forces all
client devices to perform MAC-address authentication
before they are allowed to join the network. For list-name,
specify the authentication method list. Click this link for
more information on method lists:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/softwar
e/ios122/122cgcr/fsecur_c/fsaaa/scfathen.htm#xtocid2
Use the alternate keyword to allow client devices to join
the network using either MAC or EAP authentication;
clients that successfully complete either authentication are
allowed to join the network.
•
Note
Step 5
authentication shared
[mac-address list-name]
[eap list-name]
(Optional) Set the SSID’s authentication type to open with
EAP authentication. The access point forces all client
devices to perform EAP authentication before they are
allowed to join the network. For list-name, specify the
authentication method list.
An access point configured for EAP authentication
forces all client devices that associate to perform EAP
authentication. Client devices that do not use EAP
cannot use the access point.
(Optional) Set the authentication type for the SSID to shared
key.
Note
Because of shared key's security flaws, Cisco
recommends that you avoid using it.
Note
You can assign shared key athentication to only one
SSID.
•
(Optional) Set the SSID’s authentication type to shared key
with MAC address authentication. For list-name, specify
the authentication method list.
•
(Optional) Set the SSID’s authentication type to shared key
with EAP authentication. For list-name, specify the
authentication method list.
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Step 6
Command
Purpose
authentication network-eap
list-name
[mac-address list-name]
(Optional) Set the authentication type for the SSID to
Network-EAP. Using the Extensible Authentication Protocol
(EAP) to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the
access point helps a wireless client device and the RADIUS
server to perform mutual authentication and derive a dynamic
unicast WEP key. However, the access point does not force all
client devices to perform EAP authentication.
•
(Optional) Set the SSID’s authentication type to
Network-EAP with MAC address authentication. All client
devices that associate to the access point are required to
perform MAC-address authentication. For list-name,
specify the authentication method list.
Step 7
end
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of the SSID commands to disable the SSID or to disable SSID features.
This example sets the authentication type for the SSID batman to open with a combination of
MAC-address and EAP authentication. Client devices using the batman SSID first attempt MAC-address
authentication using a server named adam. If MAC authentication succeeds, they join the network, but
if it fails, they attempt EAP authentication using the same server.
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# configure interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# ssid batman
ap1200(config-ssid)# authentication open mac adam alternate eap adam
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
Configuring Authentication Holdoffs, Timeouts, and Intervals
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure holdoff times, reauthentication
periods, and authentication timeouts for client devices authenticating through your access point:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
dot11 holdoff-time seconds
Enter the number of seconds a client device must wait before it
can reattempt to authenticate following a failed authentication.
Enter a value from 1 to 65555 seconds.
Step 3
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 4
dot1x client-timeout seconds
Enter the number of seconds the access point should wait for a
reply from a client attempting to authenticate before the
authentication fails. Enter a value from 1 to 65555 seconds.
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Step 5
Command
Purpose
dot1x reauth-period seconds
[server]
Enter the interval in seconds that the access point waits before
forcing an authenticated client to reauthenticate.
•
(Optional) Enter the server keyword to configure the
access point to use the rauthentication period specified by
the authentication server. If you use this option, configure
your authentication server with RADIUS attribute 27,
Session-Timeout. This attribute sets the maximum number
of seconds of service to be provided to the client before
termination of the session or prompt. The server sends this
attribute to the access point when a client device performs
EAP authentication.
Step 6
end
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Use the no form of these commands to reset the values to default settings.
Matching Access Point and Client Device Authentication Types
To use the authentication types described in this section, the access point authentication settings must
match the authentication settings on the client adapters that associate to the access point. Refer to the
Cisco Aironet Wireless LAN Client Adapters Installation and Configuration Guide for Windows for
instructions on setting authentication types on wireless client adapters. Refer to Chapter 9, “Configuring
WEP and WEP Features,” for instructions on configuring WEP on the access point.
Table 10-2 lists the client and access point settings required for each authentication type.
Table 10-2 Client and Access Point Security Settings
Security Feature
Client Setting
Access Point Setting
Static WEP with open
authentication
Create a WEP key and enable Use
Static WEP Keys and Open
Authentication
Set up and enable WEP and enable
Open Authentication
Static WEP with shared key Create a WEP key and enable Use
authentication
Static WEP Keys and Shared Key
Authentication
Set up and enable WEP and enable
Shared Key Authentication
LEAP authentication
Set up and enable WEP and enable
Network-EAP
Enable LEAP
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Table 10-2 Client and Access Point Security Settings (continued)
Security Feature
Client Setting
Access Point Setting
If using ACU to
configure card
Enable Host Based EAP and Use
Dynamic WEP Keys in ACU and
select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
Smart Card or Other Certificate as
the EAP Type in Windows 2000
(with Service Pack 3) or
Windows XP
Set up and enable WEP and enable
EAP and Open authentication
If using Windows XP
to configure card
Select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
Smart Card or other Certificate as
the EAP Type
Set up and enable WEP and enable
EAP and Open Authentication
If using ACU to
configure card
Create a WEP key, enable Host
Based EAP, and enable Use Static
WEP Keys in ACU and select
Enable network access control
using IEEE 802.1X and
MD5-Challenge as the EAP Type
in Windows 2000 (with Service
Pack 3) or Windows XP
Set up and enable WEP and enable
EAP and Open authentication
If using Windows XP
to configure card
Select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
MD5-Challenge as the EAP Type
Set up and enable WEP and enable
EAP and Open Authentication
EAP-TLS authentication
EAP-MD5 authentication
PEAP authentication
If using ACU to
configure card
Set up and enable WEP and enable
Enable Host Based EAP and Use
EAP and Open authentication
Dynamic WEP Keys in ACU and
select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
PEAP as the EAP Type in Windows
2000 (with Service Pack 3) or
Windows XP
If using Windows XP
to configure card
Select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
PEAP as the EAP Type
Set up and enable WEP and enable
Require EAP and Open
Authentication
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Table 10-2 Client and Access Point Security Settings (continued)
Security Feature
Client Setting
Access Point Setting
If using ACU to
configure card
Enable Host Based EAP and Use
Dynamic WEP Keys in ACU and
select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
SIM Authentication as the EAP
Type in Windows 2000 (with
Service Pack 3) or Windows XP
Set up and enable WEP with full
encryption and enable EAP and
Open authentication
If using Windows XP
to configure card
Select Enable network access
control using IEEE 802.1X and
SIM Authentication as the EAP
Type
Set up and enable WEP with full
encryption and enable Require
EAP and Open Authentication
EAP-SIM authentication
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11
Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers
This chapter describes how to enable and configure the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
(RADIUS) and Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+), which provide
detailed accounting information and flexible administrative control over authentication and
authorization processes. RADIUS and TACACS+ are facilitated through AAA and can be enabled only
through AAA commands.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco IOS
Security Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This chapter contains these sections:
•
Configuring and Enabling RADIUS, page 11-2
•
Configuring and Enabling TACACS+, page 11-16
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Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers
Configuring and Enabling RADIUS
Configuring and Enabling RADIUS
This section describes how to configure and enable RADIUS. These sections describe RADIUS
configuration:
•
Understanding RADIUS, page 11-2
•
RADIUS Operation, page 11-3
•
Configuring RADIUS, page 11-4
•
Displaying the RADIUS Configuration, page 11-15
Understanding RADIUS
RADIUS is a distributed client/server system that secures networks against unauthorized access.
RADIUS clients run on supported Cisco devices and send authentication requests to a central RADIUS
server, which contains all user authentication and network service access information. The RADIUS host
is normally a multiuser system running RADIUS server software from Cisco (Cisco Secure Access
Control Server version 3.0), Livingston, Merit, Microsoft, or another software provider. For more
information, refer to the RADIUS server documentation.
Use RADIUS in these network environments, which require access security:
•
Networks with multiple-vendor access servers, each supporting RADIUS. For example, access
servers from several vendors use a single RADIUS server-based security database. In an IP-based
network with multiple vendors’ access servers, dial-in users are authenticated through a RADIUS
server that is customized to work with the Kerberos security system.
•
Turnkey network security environments in which applications support the RADIUS protocol, such
as an access environment that uses a smart card access control system. In one case, RADIUS has
been used with Enigma’s security cards to validate users and to grant access to network resources.
•
Networks already using RADIUS. You can add a Cisco access point containing a RADIUS client to
the network.
•
Networks that require resource accounting. You can use RADIUS accounting independently of
RADIUS authentication or authorization. The RADIUS accounting functions allow data to be sent
at the start and end of services, showing the amount of resources (such as time, packets, bytes, and
so forth) used during the session. An Internet service provider might use a freeware-based version
of RADIUS access control and accounting software to meet special security and billing needs.
RADIUS is not suitable in these network security situations:
•
Multiprotocol access environments. RADIUS does not support AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA),
NetBIOS Frame Control Protocol (NBFCP), NetWare Asynchronous Services Interface (NASI), or
X.25 PAD connections.
•
Switch-to-switch or router-to-router situations. RADIUS does not provide two-way authentication.
RADIUS can be used to authenticate from one device to a non-Cisco device if the non-Cisco device
requires authentication.
•
Networks using a variety of services. RADIUS generally binds a user to one service model.
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RADIUS Operation
When a wireless user attempts to log in and authenticate to an access point whose access is controlled
by a RADIUS server, authentication to the network occurs in the steps shown in Figure 11-1:
Figure 11-1 Sequence for EAP Authentication
Wired LAN
Access point
or bridge
Client
device
Server
1. Authentication request
3. Username
(relay to server)
(relay to client)
4. Authentication challenge
5. Authentication response
(relay to server)
(relay to client)
6. Authentication success
7. Authentication challenge
(relay to server)
(relay to client)
8. Authentication response
9. Successful authentication
(relay to server)
65583
2. Identity request
In Steps 1 through 9 in Figure 11-1, a wireless client device and a RADIUS server on the wired LAN
use 802.1x and EAP to perform a mutual authentication through the access point. The RADIUS server
sends an authentication challenge to the client. The client uses a one-way encryption of the user-supplied
password to generate a response to the challenge and sends that response to the RADIUS server. Using
information from its user database, the RADIUS server creates its own response and compares that to
the response from the client. When the RADIUS server authenticates the client, the process repeats in
reverse, and the client authenticates the RADIUS server.
When mutual authentication is complete, the RADIUS server and the client determine a WEP key that
is unique to the client and provides the client with the appropriate level of network access, thereby
approximating the level of security in a wired switched segment to an individual desktop. The client
loads this key and prepares to use it for the logon session.
During the logon session, the RADIUS server encrypts and sends the WEP key, called a session key, over
the wired LAN to the access point. The access point encrypts its broadcast key with the session key and
sends the encrypted broadcast key to the client, which uses the session key to decrypt it. The client and
access point activate WEP and use the session and broadcast WEP keys for all communications during
the remainder of the session.
There is more than one type of EAP authentication, but the access point behaves the same way for each
type: it relays authentication messages from the wireless client device to the RADIUS server and from
the RADIUS server to the wireless client device. See the “Assigning Authentication Types to an SSID”
section on page 10-6 for instructions on setting up client authentication using a RADIUS server.
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Configuring RADIUS
This section describes how to configure your access point to support RADIUS. At a minimum, you must
identify the host or hosts that run the RADIUS server software and define the method lists for RADIUS
authentication. You can optionally define method lists for RADIUS authorization and accounting.
A method list defines the sequence and methods to be used to authenticate, to authorize, or to keep
accounts on a user. You can use method lists to designate one or more security protocols to be used, thus
ensuring a backup system if the initial method fails. The software uses the first method listed to
authenticate, to authorize, or to keep accounts on users; if that method does not respond, the software
selects the next method in the list. This process continues until there is successful communication with
a listed method or the method list is exhausted.
You should have access to and should configure a RADIUS server before configuring RADIUS features
on your access point.
This section contains this configuration information:
Note
•
Default RADIUS Configuration, page 11-4
•
Identifying the RADIUS Server Host, page 11-4 (required)
•
Configuring RADIUS Login Authentication, page 11-7 (required)
•
Defining AAA Server Groups, page 11-9 (optional)
•
Configuring RADIUS Authorization for User Privileged Access and Network Services, page 11-11
(optional)
•
Starting RADIUS Accounting, page 11-12 (optional)
•
Configuring Settings for All RADIUS Servers, page 11-13 (optional)
•
Configuring the Access Point to Use Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes, page 11-13 (optional)
•
Configuring the Access Point for Vendor-Proprietary RADIUS Server Communication, page 11-14
(optional)
The RADIUS server CLI commands are disabled until you enter the aaa new-model command.
Default RADIUS Configuration
RADIUS and AAA are disabled by default.
To prevent a lapse in security, you cannot configure RADIUS through a network management
application. When enabled, RADIUS can authenticate users accessing the access point through the CLI.
Identifying the RADIUS Server Host
Access point-to-RADIUS-server communication involves several components:
•
Host name or IP address
•
Authentication destination port
•
Accounting destination port
•
Key string
•
Timeout period
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•
Retransmission value
You identify RADIUS security servers by their host name or IP address, host name and specific UDP
port numbers, or their IP address and specific UDP port numbers. The combination of the IP address and
the UDP port number creates a unique identifier allowing different ports to be individually defined as
RADIUS hosts providing a specific AAA service. This unique identifier enables RADIUS requests to be
sent to multiple UDP ports on a server at the same IP address.
If two different host entries on the same RADIUS server are configured for the same service—such as
accounting—the second host entry configured acts as a fail-over backup to the first one. Using this
example, if the first host entry fails to provide accounting services, the access point tries the second host
entry configured on the same device for accounting services. (The RADIUS host entries are tried in the
order that they are configured.)
A RADIUS server and the access point use a shared secret text string to encrypt passwords and exchange
responses. To configure RADIUS to use the AAA security commands, you must specify the host running
the RADIUS server daemon and a secret text (key) string that it shares with the access point.
The timeout, retransmission, and encryption key values can be configured globally per server for all
RADIUS servers or in some combination of global and per-server settings. To apply these settings
globally to all RADIUS servers communicating with the access point, use the three unique global
configuration commands: radius-server timeout, radius-server retransmit, and radius-server key. To
apply these values on a specific RADIUS server, use the radius-server host global configuration
command.
Note
If you configure both global and per-server functions (timeout, retransmission, and key
commands) on the access point, the per-server timer, retransmission, and key value
commands override global timer, retransmission, and key value commands. For
information on configuring these setting on all RADIUS servers, see the “Configuring
Settings for All RADIUS Servers” section on page 11-13.
You can configure the access point to use AAA server groups to group existing server hosts for
authentication. For more information, see the “Defining AAA Server Groups” section on page 11-9.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure per-server RADIUS server
communication. This procedure is required.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
radius-server host {hostname |
ip-address} [auth-port port-number]
[acct-port port-number] [timeout
seconds] [retransmit retries] [key
string]
Specify the IP address or host name of the remote RADIUS server host.
•
(Optional) For auth-port port-number, specify the UDP destination
port for authentication requests.
•
(Optional) For acct-port port-number, specify the UDP destination
port for accounting requests.
•
(Optional) For timeout seconds, specify the time interval that the
access point waits for the RADIUS server to reply before
retransmitting. The range is 1 to 1000. This setting overrides the
radius-server timeout global configuration command setting. If no
timeout is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of
the radius-server timeout command is used.
•
(Optional) For retransmit retries, specify the number of times a
RADIUS request is resent to a server if that server is not responding
or responding slowly. The range is 1 to 1000. If no retransmit value
is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of the
radius-server retransmit global configuration command is used.
•
(Optional) For key string, specify the authentication and encryption
key used between the access point and the RADIUS daemon running
on the RADIUS server.
Note
The key is a text string that must match the encryption key used
on the RADIUS server. Always configure the key as the last item
in the radius-server host command. Leading spaces are ignored,
but spaces within and at the end of the key are used. If you use
spaces in your key, do not enclose the key in quotation marks
unless the quotation marks are part of the key.
To configure the access point to recognize more than one host entry
associated with a single IP address, enter this command as many times as
necessary, making sure that each UDP port number is different. The
access point software searches for hosts in the order in which you specify
them. Set the timeout, retransmit, and encryption key values to use with
the specific RADIUS host.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To remove the specified RADIUS server, use the no radius-server host hostname | ip-address global
configuration command.
This example shows how to configure one RADIUS server to be used for authentication and another to
be used for accounting:
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.29.36.49 auth-port 1612 key rad1
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.20.36.50 acct-port 1618 key rad2
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This example shows how to configure host1 as the RADIUS server and to use the default ports for both
authentication and accounting:
AP(config)# radius-server host host1
Note
You also need to configure some settings on the RADIUS server. These settings include the IP address
of the access point and the key string to be shared by both the server and the access point. For more
information, refer to the RADIUS server documentation.
Configuring RADIUS Login Authentication
To configure AAA authentication, you define a named list of authentication methods and then apply that
list to various interfaces. The method list defines the types of authentication to be performed and the
sequence in which they are performed; it must be applied to a specific interface before any of the defined
authentication methods are performed. The only exception is the default method list (which, by
coincidence, is named default). The default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces except
those that have a named method list explicitly defined.
A method list describes the sequence and authentication methods to be queried to authenticate a user.
You can designate one or more security protocols to be used for authentication, thus ensuring a backup
system for authentication in case the initial method fails. The software uses the first method listed to
authenticate users; if that method fails to respond, the software selects the next authentication method in
the method list. This process continues until there is successful communication with a listed
authentication method or until all defined methods are exhausted. If authentication fails at any point in
this cycle—meaning that the security server or local username database responds by denying the user
access—the authentication process stops, and no other authentication methods are attempted.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure login authentication. This
procedure is required.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
aaa authentication login {default |
list-name} method1 [method2...]
Create a login authentication method list.
•
To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified
in the login authentication command, use the default keyword
followed by the methods that are to be used in default situations. The
default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces. For more
information on list names, click this link:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/1
22cgcr/fsecur_c/fsaaa/scfathen.htm#xtocid2
•
For method1..., specify the actual method the authentication
algorithm tries. The additional methods of authentication are used
only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails.
Select one of these methods:
•
line—Use the line password for authentication. You must define a
line password before you can use this authentication method. Use the
password password line configuration command.
•
local—Use the local username database for authentication. You must
enter username information in the database. Use the username
password global configuration command.
•
radius—Use RADIUS authentication. You must configure the
RADIUS server before you can use this authentication method. For
more information, see the “Identifying the RADIUS Server Host”
section on page 11-4.
Step 4
line [console | tty | vty] line-number
[ending-line-number]
Enter line configuration mode, and configure the lines to which you want
to apply the authentication list.
Step 5
login authentication {default |
list-name}
Apply the authentication list to a line or set of lines.
•
If you specify default, use the default list created with the aaa
authentication login command.
•
For list-name, specify the list created with the aaa authentication
login command.
Step 6
radius-server attribute 32
include-in-access-req format %h
Configure the access point to send its system name in the NAS_ID
attribute for authentication.
Step 7
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 8
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 9
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable AAA, use the no aaa new-model global configuration command. To disable AAA
authentication, use the no aaa authentication login {default | list-name} method1 [method2...] global
configuration command. To either disable RADIUS authentication for logins or to return to the default
value, use the no login authentication {default | list-name} line configuration command.
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Defining AAA Server Groups
You can configure the access point to use AAA server groups to group existing server hosts for
authentication. You select a subset of the configured server hosts and use them for a particular service.
The server group is used with a global server-host list, which lists the IP addresses of the selected server
hosts.
Server groups also can include multiple host entries for the same server if each entry has a unique
identifier (the combination of the IP address and UDP port number), allowing different ports to be
individually defined as RADIUS hosts providing a specific AAA service. If you configure two different
host entries on the same RADIUS server for the same service (such as accounting), the second
configured host entry acts as a fail-over backup to the first one.
You use the server group server configuration command to associate a particular server with a defined
group server. You can either identify the server by its IP address or identify multiple host instances or
entries by using the optional auth-port and acct-port keywords.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to define the AAA server group and associate a
particular RADIUS server with it:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
radius-server host {hostname |
ip-address} [auth-port port-number]
[acct-port port-number] [timeout
seconds] [retransmit retries] [key
string]
Specify the IP address or host name of the remote RADIUS server host.
•
(Optional) For auth-port port-number, specify the UDP destination
port for authentication requests.
•
(Optional) For acct-port port-number, specify the UDP destination
port for accounting requests.
•
(Optional) For timeout seconds, specify the time interval that the
access point waits for the RADIUS server to reply before
retransmitting. The range is 1 to 1000. This setting overrides the
radius-server timeout global configuration command setting. If no
timeout is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of
the radius-server timeout command is used.
•
(Optional) For retransmit retries, specify the number of times a
RADIUS request is resent to a server if that server is not responding
or responding slowly. The range is 1 to 1000. If no retransmit value
is set with the radius-server host command, the setting of the
radius-server retransmit global configuration command is used.
•
(Optional) For key string, specify the authentication and encryption
key used between the access point and the RADIUS daemon running
on the RADIUS server.
Note
The key is a text string that must match the encryption key used
on the RADIUS server. Always configure the key as the last item
in the radius-server host command. Leading spaces are ignored,
but spaces within and at the end of the key are used. If you use
spaces in your key, do not enclose the key in quotation marks
unless the quotation marks are part of the key.
To configure the access point to recognize more than one host entry
associated with a single IP address, enter this command as many times as
necessary, making sure that each UDP port number is different. The
access point software searches for hosts in the order in which you specify
them. Set the timeout, retransmit, and encryption key values to use with
the specific RADIUS host.
Step 4
aaa group server radius group-name
Define the AAA server-group with a group name.
This command puts the access point in a server group configuration mode.
Step 5
server ip-address
Associate a particular RADIUS server with the defined server group.
Repeat this step for each RADIUS server in the AAA server group.
Each server in the group must be previously defined in Step 2.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Step 9
Enable RADIUS login authentication. See the “Configuring RADIUS
Login Authentication” section on page 11-7.
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To remove the specified RADIUS server, use the no radius-server host hostname | ip-address global
configuration command. To remove a server group from the configuration list, use the no aaa group
server radius group-name global configuration command. To remove the IP address of a RADIUS
server, use the no server ip-address server group configuration command.
In this example, the access point is configured to recognize two different RADIUS group servers (group1
and group2). Group1 has two different host entries on the same RADIUS server configured for the same
services. The second host entry acts as a fail-over backup to the first entry.
AP(config)# aaa new-model
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.20.0.1 auth-port 1000 acct-port 1001
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.10.0.1 auth-port 1645 acct-port 1646
AP(config)# aaa group server radius group1
AP(config-sg-radius)# server 172.20.0.1 auth-port 1000 acct-port 1001
AP(config-sg-radius)# exit
AP(config)# aaa group server radius group2
AP(config-sg-radius)# server 172.20.0.1 auth-port 2000 acct-port 2001
AP(config-sg-radius)# exit
Configuring RADIUS Authorization for User Privileged Access and Network Services
AAA authorization limits the services available to a user. When AAA authorization is enabled, the
access point uses information retrieved from the user’s profile, which is in the local user database or on
the security server, to configure the user’s session. The user is granted access to a requested service only
if the information in the user profile allows it.
Note
This section describes setting up authorization for access point adminsitrators, not for wireless client
devices.
You can use the aaa authorization global configuration command with the radius keyword to set
parameters that restrict a user’s network access to privileged EXEC mode.
The aaa authorization exec radius local command sets these authorization parameters:
Note
•
Use RADIUS for privileged EXEC access authorization if authentication was performed by using
RADIUS.
•
Use the local database if authentication was not performed by using RADIUS.
Authorization is bypassed for authenticated users who log in through the CLI even if authorization has
been configured.
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Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to specify RADIUS authorization for privileged
EXEC access and network services:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa authorization network radius
Configure the access point for user RADIUS authorization for all
network-related service requests.
Step 3
aaa authorization exec radius
Configure the access point for user RADIUS authorization to determine if
the user has privileged EXEC access.
The exec keyword might return user profile information (such as
autocommand information).
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable authorization, use the no aaa authorization {network | exec} method1 global configuration
command.
Starting RADIUS Accounting
The AAA accounting feature tracks the services that users are accessing and the amount of network
resources that they are consuming. When AAA accounting is enabled, the access point reports user
activity to the RADIUS security server in the form of accounting records. Each accounting record
contains accounting attribute-value (AV) pairs and is stored on the security server. This data can then be
analyzed for network management, client billing, or auditing.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable RADIUS accounting for each Cisco
IOS privilege level and for network services:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa accounting network start-stop
radius
Enable RADIUS accounting for all network-related service requests.
Step 3
ip radius source-interface bvi1
Configure the access point to send its BVI IP address in the
NAS_IP_ADDRESS attribute for accounting records.
Step 4
aaa accounting update periodic minutes Enter an accounting update interval in minutes.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable accounting, use the no aaa accounting {network | exec} {start-stop} method1... global
configuration command.
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Configuring Settings for All RADIUS Servers
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure global communication settings
between the access point and all RADIUS servers:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
radius-server key string
Specify the shared secret text string used between the access point and all
RADIUS servers.
Note
The key is a text string that must match the encryption key used on
the RADIUS server. Leading spaces are ignored, but spaces within
and at the end of the key are used. If you use spaces in your key, do
not enclose the key in quotation marks unless the quotation marks
are part of the key.
Step 3
radius-server retransmit retries
Specify the number of times the access point sends each RADIUS request
to the server before giving up. The default is 3; the range 1 to 1000.
Step 4
radius-server timeout seconds
Specify the number of seconds an access point waits for a reply to a
RADIUS request before resending the request. The default is 5 seconds; the
range is 1 to 1000.
Step 5
radius-server deadtime minutes
Use this command to cause the Cisco IOS software to mark as “dead” any
RADIUS servers that fail to respond to authentication requests, thus
avoiding the wait for the request to time out before trying the next
configured server. A RADIUS server marked as dead is skipped by
additional requests for the duration of minutes that you specify, or unless
there are no servers not marked dead.
Note
If you set up more than one RADIUS server, you must configure the
RADIUS server deadtime for optimal performance.
Step 6
radius-server attribute 32
include-in-access-req format %h
Configure the access point to send its system name in the NAS_ID attribute
for authentication.
Step 7
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 8
show running-config
Verify your settings.
Step 9
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To return to the default setting for the retransmit, timeout, and deadtime, use the no forms of these
commands.
Configuring the Access Point to Use Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft standard specifies a method for communicating
vendor-specific information between the access point and the RADIUS server by using the
vendor-specific attribute (attribute 26). Vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) allow vendors to support their
own extended attributes not suitable for general use. The Cisco RADIUS implementation supports one
vendor-specific option by using the format recommended in the specification. Cisco’s vendor ID is 9,
and the supported option has vendor type 1, which is named cisco-avpair. The value is a string with this
format:
protocol : attribute sep value *
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Protocol is a value of the Cisco protocol attribute for a particular type of authorization. Attribute and
value are an appropriate AV pair defined in the Cisco TACACS+ specification, and sep is = for
mandatory attributes and the asterisk (*) for optional attributes. This allows the full set of features
available for TACACS+ authorization to also be used for RADIUS.
For example, the following AV pair activates Cisco’s multiple named ip address pools feature during IP
authorization (during PPP’s IPCP address assignment):
cisco-avpair= ”ip:addr-pool=first“
The following example shows how to provide a user logging in from an access point with immediate
access to privileged EXEC commands:
cisco-avpair= ”shell:priv-lvl=15“
Other vendors have their own unique vendor IDs, options, and associated VSAs. For more information
about vendor IDs and VSAs, refer to RFC 2138, “Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
(RADIUS).”
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the access point to recognize and
use VSAs:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
radius-server vsa send [accounting |
authentication]
Enable the access point to recognize and use VSAs as defined by RADIUS
IETF attribute 26.
•
(Optional) Use the accounting keyword to limit the set of recognized
vendor-specific attributes to only accounting attributes.
•
(Optional) Use the authentication keyword to limit the set of
recognized vendor-specific attributes to only authentication attributes.
If you enter this command without keywords, both accounting and
authentication vendor-specific attributes are used.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your settings.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
For a complete list of RADIUS attributes or more information about VSA 26, refer to the “RADIUS
Attributes” appendix in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide for Release 12.2.
Configuring the Access Point for Vendor-Proprietary RADIUS Server Communication
Although an IETF draft standard for RADIUS specifies a method for communicating vendor-proprietary
information between the access point and the RADIUS server, some vendors have extended the RADIUS
attribute set in a unique way. Cisco IOS software supports a subset of vendor-proprietary RADIUS
attributes.
As mentioned earlier, to configure RADIUS (whether vendor-proprietary or IETF draft-compliant), you
must specify the host running the RADIUS server daemon and the secret text string it shares with the
access point. You specify the RADIUS host and secret text string by using the radius-server global
configuration commands.
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Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers
Configuring and Enabling RADIUS
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to specify a vendor-proprietary RADIUS server
host and a shared secret text string:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
radius-server host {hostname | ip-address} non-standard
Specify the IP address or host name of the remote
RADIUS server host and identify that it is using a
vendor-proprietary implementation of RADIUS.
Step 3
radius-server key string
Specify the shared secret text string used between the
access point and the vendor-proprietary RADIUS
server. The access point and the RADIUS server use
this text string to encrypt passwords and exchange
responses.
Note
The key is a text string that must match the
encryption key used on the RADIUS server.
Leading spaces are ignored, but spaces within
and at the end of the key are used. If you use
spaces in your key, do not enclose the key in
quotation marks unless the quotation marks
are part of the key.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your settings.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To delete the vendor-proprietary RADIUS host, use the no radius-server host {hostname | ip-address}
non-standard global configuration command. To disable the key, use the no radius-server key global
configuration command.
This example shows how to specify a vendor-proprietary RADIUS host and to use a secret key of rad124
between the access point and the server:
AP(config)# radius-server host 172.20.30.15 nonstandard
AP(config)# radius-server key rad124
Displaying the RADIUS Configuration
To display the RADIUS configuration, use the show running-config privileged EXEC command.
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Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers
Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Understanding TACACS+, page 11-16
•
TACACS+ Operation, page 11-17
•
Configuring TACACS+, page 11-17
•
Displaying the TACACS+ Configuration, page 11-22
Understanding TACACS+
TACACS+ is a security application that provides centralized validation of users attempting to gain access
to your access point. Unlike RADIUS, TACACS+ does not authenticate client devices associated to the
access point.
TACACS+ services are maintained in a database on a TACACS+ daemon typically running on a UNIX
or Windows NT workstation. You should have access to and should configure a TACACS+ server before
configuring TACACS+ features on your access point.
TACACS+ provides for separate and modular authentication, authorization, and accounting facilities.
TACACS+ allows for a single access control server (the TACACS+ daemon) to provide each
service—authentication, authorization, and accounting—independently. Each service can be tied into its
own database to take advantage of other services available on that server or on the network, depending
on the capabilities of the daemon.
TACACS+, administered through the AAA security services, can provide these services:
•
Authentication—Provides complete control of authentication of administrators through login and
password dialog, challenge and response, and messaging support.
The authentication facility can conduct a dialog with the administrator (for example, after a
username and password are provided, to challenge a user with several questions, such as home
address, mother’s maiden name, service type, and social security number). The TACACS+
authentication service can also send messages to administrator screens. For example, a message
could notify administrators that their passwords must be changed because of the company’s
password aging policy.
•
Authorization—Provides fine-grained control over administrator capabilities for the duration of the
administrator’s session, including but not limited to setting autocommands, access control, session
duration, or protocol support. You can also enforce restrictions on the commands that an
administrator can execute with the TACACS+ authorization feature.
•
Accounting—Collects and sends information used for billing, auditing, and reporting to the
TACACS+ daemon. Network managers can use the accounting facility to track administrator activity
for a security audit or to provide information for user billing. Accounting records include
administrator identities, start and stop times, executed commands (such as PPP), number of packets,
and number of bytes.
The TACACS+ protocol provides authentication between the access point and the TACACS+ daemon,
and it ensures confidentiality because all protocol exchanges between the access point and the TACACS+
daemon are encrypted.
You need a system running the TACACS+ daemon software to use TACACS+ on your access point.
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Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
TACACS+ Operation
When an administrator attempts a simple ASCII login by authenticating to an access point using
TACACS+, this process occurs:
1.
When the connection is established, the access point contacts the TACACS+ daemon to obtain a
username prompt, which is then displayed to the administrator. The administrator enters a username,
and the access point then contacts the TACACS+ daemon to obtain a password prompt. The access
point displays the password prompt to the administrator, the administrator enters a password, and
the password is then sent to the TACACS+ daemon.
TACACS+ allows a conversation to be held between the daemon and the administrator until the
daemon receives enough information to authenticate the administrator. The daemon prompts for a
username and password combination, but can include other items, such as the user’s mother’s
maiden name.
2.
The access point eventually receives one of these responses from the TACACS+ daemon:
– ACCEPT—The administrator is authenticated and service can begin. If the access point is
configured to require authorization, authorization begins at this time.
– REJECT—The administrator is not authenticated. The administrator can be denied access or is
prompted to retry the login sequence, depending on the TACACS+ daemon.
– ERROR—An error occurred at some time during authentication with the daemon or in the
network connection between the daemon and the access point. If an ERROR response is
received, the access point typically tries to use an alternative method for authenticating the
administrator.
– CONTINUE—The administrator is prompted for additional authentication information.
After authentication, the administrator undergoes an additional authorization phase if authorization
has been enabled on the access point. Administrators must first successfully complete TACACS+
authentication before proceeding to TACACS+ authorization.
3.
If TACACS+ authorization is required, the TACACS+ daemon is again contacted, and it returns an
ACCEPT or REJECT authorization response. If an ACCEPT response is returned, the response
contains data in the form of attributes that direct the EXEC or NETWORK session for that
administrator, determining the services that the administrator can access:
– Telnet, rlogin, or privileged EXEC services
– Connection parameters, including the host or client IP address, access list, and administrator
timeouts
Configuring TACACS+
This section describes how to configure your access point to support TACACS+. At a minimum, you
must identify the host or hosts maintaining the TACACS+ daemon and define the method lists for
TACACS+ authentication. You can optionally define method lists for TACACS+ authorization and
accounting. A method list defines the sequence and methods to be used to authenticate, to authorize, or
to keep accounts on an administrator. You can use method lists to designate one or more security
protocols to be used, thus ensuring a backup system if the initial method fails. The software uses the first
method listed to authenticate, to authorize, or to keep accounts on administrators; if that method does
not respond, the software selects the next method in the list. This process continues until there is
successful communication with a listed method or the method list is exhausted.
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Configuring RADIUS and TACACS+ Servers
Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
This section contains this configuration information:
•
Default TACACS+ Configuration, page 11-18
•
Identifying the TACACS+ Server Host and Setting the Authentication Key, page 11-18
•
Configuring TACACS+ Login Authentication, page 11-19
•
Configuring TACACS+ Authorization for Privileged EXEC Access and Network Services, page
11-20
•
Starting TACACS+ Accounting, page 11-21
Default TACACS+ Configuration
TACACS+ and AAA are disabled by default.
To prevent a lapse in security, you cannot configure TACACS+ through a network management
application. When enabled, TACACS+ can authenticate administrators accessing the access point
through the CLI.
Identifying the TACACS+ Server Host and Setting the Authentication Key
You can configure the access point to use a single server or AAA server groups to group existing server
hosts for authentication. You can group servers to select a subset of the configured server hosts and use
them for a particular service. The server group is used with a global server-host list and contains the list
of IP addresses of the selected server hosts.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to identify the IP host or host maintaining
TACACS+ server and optionally set the encryption key:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
tacacs-server host hostname [port
integer] [timeout integer] [key string]
Identify the IP host or hosts maintaining a TACACS+ server. Enter this
command multiple times to create a list of preferred hosts. The software
searches for hosts in the order in which you specify them.
•
For hostname, specify the name or IP address of the host.
•
(Optional) For port integer, specify a server port number. The default
is port 49. The range is 1 to 65535.
•
(Optional) For timeout integer, specify a time in seconds the access
point waits for a response from the daemon before it times out and
declares an error. The default is 5 seconds. The range is 1 to 1000
seconds.
•
(Optional) For key string, specify the encryption key for encrypting
and decrypting all traffic between the access point and the TACACS+
daemon. You must configure the same key on the TACACS+ daemon
for encryption to be successful.
Step 3
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
Step 4
aaa group server tacacs+ group-name
(Optional) Define the AAA server-group with a group name.
This command puts the access point in a server group subconfiguration
mode.
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Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
Step 5
Command
Purpose
server ip-address
(Optional) Associate a particular TACACS+ server with the defined server
group. Repeat this step for each TACACS+ server in the AAA server
group.
Each server in the group must be previously defined in Step 2.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show tacacs
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To remove the specified TACACS+ server name or address, use the no tacacs-server host hostname
global configuration command. To remove a server group from the configuration list, use the no aaa
group server tacacs+ group-name global configuration command. To remove the IP address of a
TACACS+ server, use the no server ip-address server group subconfiguration command.
Configuring TACACS+ Login Authentication
To configure AAA authentication, you define a named list of authentication methods and then apply that
list to various interfaces. The method list defines the types of authentication to be performed and the
sequence in which they are performed; it must be applied to a specific interface before any of the defined
authentication methods are performed. The only exception is the default method list (which, by
coincidence, is named default). The default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces except
those that have a named method list explicitly defined. A defined method list overrides the default
method list.
A method list describes the sequence and authentication methods to be queried to authenticate an
administrator. You can designate one or more security protocols to be used for authentication, thus
ensuring a backup system for authentication in case the initial method fails. The software uses the first
method listed to authenticate users; if that method fails to respond, the software selects the next
authentication method in the method list. This process continues until there is successful communication
with a listed authentication method or until all defined methods are exhausted. If authentication fails at
any point in this cycle—meaning that the security server or local username database responds by denying
the administrator access—the authentication process stops, and no other authentication methods are
attempted.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure login authentication:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa new-model
Enable AAA.
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Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
Step 3
Command
Purpose
aaa authentication login {default |
list-name} method1 [method2...]
Create a login authentication method list.
•
To create a default list that is used when a named list is not specified
in the login authentication command, use the default keyword
followed by the methods that are to be used in default situations. The
default method list is automatically applied to all interfaces.
•
For list-name, specify a character string to name the list you are
creating.
•
For method1..., specify the actual method the authentication
algorithm tries. The additional methods of authentication are used
only if the previous method returns an error, not if it fails.
Select one of these methods:
•
line—Use the line password for authentication. You must define a
line password before you can use this authentication method. Use the
password password line configuration command.
•
local—Use the local username database for authentication. You must
enter username information into the database. Use the username
password global configuration command.
•
tacacs+—Uses TACACS+ authentication. You must configure the
TACACS+ server before you can use this authentication method.
Step 4
line [console | tty | vty] line-number
[ending-line-number]
Enter line configuration mode, and configure the lines to which you want
to apply the authentication list.
Step 5
login authentication {default |
list-name}
Apply the authentication list to a line or set of lines.
•
If you specify default, use the default list created with the aaa
authentication login command.
•
For list-name, specify the list created with the aaa authentication
login command.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 8
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable AAA, use the no aaa new-model global configuration command. To disable AAA
authentication, use the no aaa authentication login {default | list-name} method1 [method2...] global
configuration command. To either disable TACACS+ authentication for logins or to return to the default
value, use the no login authentication {default | list-name} line configuration command.
Configuring TACACS+ Authorization for Privileged EXEC Access and Network Services
AAA authorization limits the services available to an administrator. When AAA authorization is
enabled, the access point uses information retrieved from the administrator’s profile, which is located
either in the local user database or on the security server, to configure the administrator’s session. The
administrator is granted access to a requested service only if the information in the administrator profile
allows it.
You can use the aaa authorization global configuration command with the tacacs+ keyword to set
parameters that restrict an administrator’s network access to privileged EXEC mode.
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Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
The aaa authorization exec tacacs+ local command sets these authorization parameters:
Note
•
Use TACACS+ for privileged EXEC access authorization if authentication was performed by using
TACACS+.
•
Use the local database if authentication was not performed by using TACACS+.
Authorization is bypassed for authenticated administrators who log in through the CLI even if
authorization has been configured.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to specify TACACS+ authorization for
privileged EXEC access and network services:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa authorization network tacacs+
Configure the access point for administrator TACACS+ authorization for
all network-related service requests.
Step 3
aaa authorization exec tacacs+
Configure the access point for administrator TACACS+ authorization to
determine if the administrator has privileged EXEC access.
The exec keyword might return user profile information (such as
autocommand information).
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable authorization, use the no aaa authorization {network | exec} method1 global configuration
command.
Starting TACACS+ Accounting
The AAA accounting feature tracks the services that administrators are accessing and the amount of
network resources that they are consuming. When AAA accounting is enabled, the access point reports
administrator activity to the TACACS+ security server in the form of accounting records. Each
accounting record contains accounting attribute-value (AV) pairs and is stored on the security server.
This data can then be analyzed for network management, client billing, or auditing.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable TACACS+ accounting for each Cisco
IOS privilege level and for network services:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
aaa accounting network start-stop
tacacs+
Enable TACACS+ accounting for all network-related service requests.
Step 3
aaa accounting exec start-stop tacacs+
Enable TACACS+ accounting to send a start-record accounting notice at
the beginning of a privileged EXEC process and a stop-record at the end.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
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Configuring and Enabling TACACS+
Command
Purpose
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable accounting, use the no aaa accounting {network | exec} {start-stop} method1... global
configuration command.
Displaying the TACACS+ Configuration
To display TACACS+ server statistics, use the show tacacs privileged EXEC command.
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12
Configuring VLANs
This chapter describes how to configure your access point to operate with the VLANs set up on your
wired LAN. These sections describe how to configure your access point to support VLANs:
•
Understanding VLANs, page 12-2
•
Configuring VLANs, page 12-4
•
VLAN Configuration Example, page 12-7
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Configuring VLANs
Understanding VLANs
Understanding VLANs
A VLAN is a switched network that is logically segmented, by functions, project teams, or applications
rather than on a physical or geographical basis. For example, all workstations and servers used by a
particular workgroup team can be connected to the same VLAN, regardless of their physical connections
to the network or the fact that they might be intermingled with other teams. You use VLANs to
reconfigure the network through software rather than physically unplugging and moving devices or
wires.
A VLAN can be thought of as a broadcast domain that exists within a defined set of switches. A VLAN
consists of a number of end systems, either hosts or network equipment (such as bridges and routers),
connected by a single bridging domain. The bridging domain is supported on various pieces of network
equipment such as LAN switches that operate bridging protocols between them with a separate group
for each VLAN.
VLANs provide the segmentation services traditionally provided by routers in LAN configurations.
VLANs address scalability, security, and network management. You should consider several key issues
when designing and building switched LAN networks:
•
LAN segmentation
•
Security
•
Broadcast control
•
Performance
•
Network management
•
Communication between VLANs
You extend VLANs into a wireless LAN by adding IEEE 802.11Q tag awareness to the access point.
Frames destined for different VLANs are transmitted by the access point wirelessly on different SSIDs
with different WEP keys. Only the clients associated with that VLAN receive those packets. Conversely,
packets coming from a client associated with a certain VLAN are 802.11Q tagged before they are
forwarded onto the wired network.
Figure 12-1 shows the difference between traditional physical LAN segmentation and logical VLAN
segmentation with wireless devices connected.
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Configuring VLANs
Understanding VLANs
Figure 12-1 LAN and VLAN Segmentation with Wireless Devices
Traditional LAN segmentation
VLAN segmentation
VLAN 1 VLAN 2
VLAN 3
LAN 1
Catalyst
VLAN switch
Shared hub
Floor 3
LAN 2
Catalyst
VLAN switch
Shared hub
Floor 2
LAN 3
SSID 0
SSID 0
Floor 1
SSID 0
Catalyst
VLAN switch
Trunk SSID 1 = VLAN1
SSID 2 = VLAN2
port
SSID 3 = VLAN3
SSID 1
SSID 2
SSID 3
81652
Shared
hub
Related Documents
These documents provide more detailed information pertaining to VLAN design and configuration:
•
Cisco IOS Switching Services Configuration Guide. Click this link to browse to this document:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fswtch_c/index.htm
•
Cisco Internetwork Design Guide. Click this link to browse to this document:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/idg4/index.htm
•
Cisco Internetworking Technology Handbook. Click this link to browse to this document:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/index.htm
•
Cisco Internetworking Troubleshooting Guide. Click this link to browse to this document:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/itg_v1/index.htm
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Configuring VLANs
Configuring VLANs
Incorporating Wireless Devices into VLANs
The basic wireless components of a VLAN consist of an access point and a client associated to it using
wireless technology. The access point is physically connected through a trunk port to the network VLAN
switch on which the VLAN is configured. The physical connection to the VLAN switch is through the
access point’s Ethernet port.
In fundamental terms, the key to configuring an access point to connect to a specific VLAN is by
configuring its SSID to recognize that VLAN. Since VLANs are identified by a VLAN ID, it follows
that if the SSID on an access point is configured to recognize a specific VLAN ID, a connection to the
VLAN is established. When this connection is made, associated wireless client devices having the same
SSID can access the VLAN through the access point. The VLAN processes data to and from the clients
the same way that it processes data to and from wired connections. You can configure up to 16 SSIDs
on your access point, so you can support up to 16 VLANs.
You can use the VLAN feature to deploy wireless devices with greater efficiency and flexibility. For
example, one access point can now handle the specific requirements of multiple users having widely
varied network access and permissions. Without VLAN capability, multiple access points would have to
be employed to serve classes of users based on the access and permissions they were assigned.
These are two common strategies for deploying wireless VLANs:
•
Segmentation by user groups: You can segment your wireless LAN user community and enforce a
different security policy for each user group. For example, you can create three wired and wireless
VLANs in an enterprise environment for full-time and part-time employees and also provide guest
access.
•
Segmentation by device types: You can segment your wireless LAN to allow different devices with
different security capabilities to join the network. For example, some wireless users might have
handheld devices that support only static WEP, and some wireless users might have more
sophisticated devices using dynamic WEP. You can group and isolate these devices into separate
VLANs.
Configuring VLANs
These sections describe how to configure VLANs on your access point:
•
Configuring a VLAN, page 12-4
•
Using a RADIUS Server to Assign Users to VLANs, page 12-6
•
Viewing VLANs Configured on the Access Point, page 12-6
Configuring a VLAN
Configuring your access point to support VLANs is a three-step process:
1.
Assign SSIDs to VLANs.
2.
Assign authentication settings to SSIDs.
3.
Enable the VLAN on the radio and Ethernet ports.
This section describes how to assign SSIDs to VLANs and how to enable a VLAN on the access point
radio and Ethernet ports. For detailed instructions on assigning authentication types to SSIDs, see
Chapter 10, “Configuring Authentication Types.” For instructions on assigning other settings to SSIDs,
see Chapter 8, “Configuring Multiple SSIDs.”
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Configuring VLANs
Configuring VLANs
You can configure up to 16 SSIDs on the access point, so you can support up to 16 VLANs that are
configured on your LAN.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to assign an SSID to a VLAN and enable the
VLAN on the access point radio and Ethernet ports:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio0
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface.
Step 3
ssid ssid-string
Create an SSID and enter SSID configuration mode for the new
SSID. The SSID can consist of up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. SSIDs are case sensitive.
Note
You use the ssid command’s authentication options to
configure an authentication type for each SSID. See
Chapter 10, “Configuring Authentication Types,” for
instructions on configuring authentication types.
Step 4
vlan vlan-id
(Optional) Assign the SSID to a VLAN on your network. Client
devices that associate using the SSID are grouped into this
VLAN. Enter a VLAN ID from 1 to 4095.
Step 5
exit
Return to interface configuration mode for the radio interface.
Step 6
interface dot11radio0.x
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio VLAN sub
interface.
Step 7
encapsulation dot1q vlan-id
[native]
Enable a VLAN on the radio interface.
Step 8
exit
Return to global configuration mode.
Step 9
interface fastEthernet0.x
Enter interface configuration mode for the Ethernet VLAN
subinterface.
Step 10
encapsulation dot1q vlan-id
[native]
Enable a VLAN on the Ethernet interface.
Step 11
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 12
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
(Optional) Designate the VLAN as the native VLAN. On many
networks, the native VLAN is VLAN 1.
(Optional) Designate the VLAN as the native VLAN. On many
networks, the native VLAN is VLAN 1.
This example shows how to:
•
Name an SSID
•
Assign the SSID to a VLAN
•
Enable the VLAN on the radio and Ethernet ports as the native VLAN
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# interface dot11radio0
ap1200(config-if)# ssid batman
ap1200(config-ssid)# vlan 1
ap1200(config-ssid)# exit
ap1200(config)# interface dot11radio0.1
ap1200(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 1 native
ap1200(config-subif)# exit
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Configuring VLANs
ap1200(config)# interface fastEthernet0.1
ap1200(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 1 native
ap1200(config-subif)# exit
ap1200(config)# end
Using a RADIUS Server to Assign Users to VLANs
You can configure your RADIUS authentication server to assign users or groups of users to a specific
VLAN when they authenticate to the network.
The VLAN-mapping process consists of these steps:
1.
A client device associates to the access point using any SSID configured on the access point.
2.
The client begins RADIUS authentication.
3.
When the client authenticates sucessfully, the RADIUS server maps the client to a specific VLAN,
regardless of the VLAN mapping defined for the SSID the client is using on the access point. If the
server does not return any VLAN attribute for the client, the client is assigned to the VLAN specified
by the SSID mapped locally on the access point.
These are the RADIUS user attributes used for vlan-id assignment. Each attribute must have a common
Tag value to identify the grouped relationship.
•
IETF 64 (Tunnel Type): Set this attribute to VLAN
•
IETF 65 (Tunnel Medium Type): Set this attribute to 802
•
IETF 81 (Tunnel Private Group ID): Set this attribute to vlan-id
Viewing VLANs Configured on the Access Point
In privileged EXEC mode, use the show vlan command to view the VLANs that the access point
supports. This is sample output from a show vlan command:
Virtual LAN ID:
1 (IEEE 802.1Q Encapsulation)
vLAN Trunk Interfaces:
FastEthernet0
Virtual-Dot11Radio0
Dot11Radio0
This is configured as native Vlan for the following interface(s) :
Dot11Radio0
FastEthernet0
Virtual-Dot11Radio0
Protocols Configured:
Address:
Bridging
Bridge Group 1
Bridging
Bridge Group 1
Bridging
Bridge Group 1
Virtual LAN ID:
Received:
201688
201688
201688
Transmitted:
0
0
0
Received:
Transmitted:
2 (IEEE 802.1Q Encapsulation)
vLAN Trunk Interfaces:
FastEthernet0.2
Virtual-Dot11Radio0.2
Protocols Configured:
Dot11Radio0.2
Address:
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Configuring VLANs
VLAN Configuration Example
VLAN Configuration Example
This example shows how to use VLANs to manage wireless devices on a college campus. In this
example, three levels of access are available through VLANs configured on the wired network:
•
Management access—Highest level of access; users can access all internal drives and files,
departmental databases, top-level financial information, and other sensitive information.
Management users are required to authenticate using Cisco LEAP.
•
Faculty access—Medium level of access; users can access school’s Intranet and Internet, access
internal files, access student databases, and view internal information such as human resources,
payroll, and other faculty-related material. Faculty users are required to authenticate using Cisco
LEAP.
•
Student access—Lowest level of access; users can access school’s Intranet and the Internet, obtain
class schedules, view grades, make appointments, and perform other student-related activities.
Students are allowed to join the network using static WEP.
In this scenario, a minimum of three VLAN connections are required, one for each level of access.
Because the access point can handle up to 16 SSIDs, you can use the basic design shown in Table 12-1.
Table 12-1 Access Level SSID and VLAN Assignment
Level of Access
SSID
VLAN ID
Management
boss
01
Faculty
teach
02
Student
learn
03
Managers configure their wireless client adapters to use SSID boss, faculty members configure their
clients to use SSID teach, and students configure their wireless client adapters to use SSID learn. When
these clients associate to the access point, they automatically belong to the correct VLAN.
You would complete these steps to support the VLANs in this example:
1.
Configure or confirm the configuration of these VLANs on one of the switches on your LAN.
2.
On the access point, assign an SSID to each VLAN.
3.
Assign authentication types to each SSID.
4.
Configure VLAN 1, the Management VLAN, on both the fastethernet and dot11radio interfaces on
the access point. You should make this VLAN the native VLAN.
5.
Configure VLANs 2 and 3 on both the fastethernet and dot11radio interfaces on the access point.
6.
Configure the client devices.
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VLAN Configuration Example
Table 12-2 shows the commands needed to configure the three VLANs in this example.
Table 12-2 Configuration Commands for VLAN Example
Configuring VLAN 1
Configuring VLAN 2
Configuring VLAN 3
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# interface
dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# ssid boss
ap1200(config-ssid)# vlan 01
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# interface
dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# ssid teach
ap1200(config-ssid)# vlan 02
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# interface
dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# ssid learn
ap1200(config-ssid)# vlan 03
ap1200(config-ssid)# end
ap1200 configure terminal
ap1200(config) interface
FastEthernet0.1
ap1200(config-subif)
encapsulation dot1Q 1 native
ap1200(config-subif) exit
ap1200(config) interface
FastEthernet0.2
ap1200(config-subif) encapsulation
dot1Q 2
ap1200(config-subif) bridge-group 2
ap1200(config-subif) exit
ap1200(config) interface
FastEthernet0.3
ap1200(config-subif) encapsulation
dot1Q 3
ap1200(config-subif) bridge-group 3
ap1200(config-subif) exit
ap1200(config)# interface
Dot11Radio0.1
ap1200(config-subif)#
encapsulation dot1Q 1 native
ap1200(config-subif)# exit
ap1200(config) interface
Dot11Radio0.2
ap1200(config-subif) encapsulation
dot1Q 2
ap1200(config-subif) bridge-group 2
ap1200(config-subif) exit
ap1200(config) interface
Dot11Radio0.3
ap1200(config-subif) encapsulation
dot1Q 3
ap1200(config-subif) bridge-group 3
ap1200(config-subif) exit
Note
You do not need to configure
a bridge group on the
subinterface that you set up
as the native VLAN. This
bridge group is moved to the
native subinterface
automatically to maintain
the link to bridge virtual
interface (BVI) 1, which
represents both the radio and
Ethernet interfaces.
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Configuring VLANs
VLAN Configuration Example
Table 12-3 shows the results of the configuration commands in Table 12-2. Use the show running
command to display the running configuration on the access point.
Table 12-3 Results of Example Configuration Commands
VLAN 1 Interfaces
VLAN 2 Interfaces
VLAN 3 Interfaces
interface Dot11Radio0.1
encapsulation dot1Q 1 native
no ip route-cache
no cdp enable
bridge-group 1
bridge-group 1
subscriber-loop-control
bridge-group 1
block-unknown-source
no bridge-group 1 source-learning
no bridge-group 1 unicast-flooding
bridge-group 1 spanning-disabled
interface Dot11Radio0.2
encapsulation dot1Q 2
no ip route-cache
no cdp enable
bridge-group 2
bridge-group 2
subscriber-loop-control
bridge-group 2
block-unknown-source
no bridge-group 2 source-learning
no bridge-group 2 unicast-flooding
bridge-group 2 spanning-disabled
interface Dot11Radio0.3
encapsulation dot1Q 3
no ip route-cache
bridge-group 3
bridge-group 3
subscriber-loop-control
bridge-group 3 block-unknown-source
no bridge-group 3 source-learning
no bridge-group 3 unicast-flooding
bridge-group 3 spanning-disabled
interface FastEthernet0.1
encapsulation dot1Q 1 native
no ip route-cache
bridge-group 1
no bridge-group 1 source-learning
bridge-group 1 spanning-disabled
interface FastEthernet0.2
encapsulation dot1Q 2
no ip route-cache
bridge-group 2
no bridge-group 2 source-learning
bridge-group 2 spanning-disabled
interface FastEthernet0.3
encapsulation dot1Q 3
no ip route-cache
bridge-group 3
no bridge-group 3 source-learning
bridge-group 3 spanning-disabled
Notice that when you configure a bridge group on the radio interface, these commands are set
automatically:
bridge-group 2 subscriber-loop-control
bridge-group 2 block-unknown-source
no bridge-group 2 source-learning
no bridge-group 2 unicast-flooding
bridge-group 2 spanning-disabled
When you configure a bridge group on the FastEthernet interface, these commands are set automatically:
no bridge-group 2 source-learning
bridge-group 2 spanning-disabled
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Configuring VLANs
VLAN Configuration Example
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13
Configuring QoS
This chapter describes how to configure quality of service (QoS) on your access point. With this feature,
you can provide preferential treatment to certain traffic at the expense of others. Without QoS, the access
point offers best-effort service to each packet, regardless of the packet contents or size. It sends the
packets without any assurance of reliability, delay bounds, or throughput.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco
Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Command Reference for this release.
This chapter consists of these sections:
•
Understanding QoS for Wireless LANs, page 13-2
•
Configuring QoS, page 13-3
•
QoS Configuration Examples, page 13-10
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Understanding QoS for Wireless LANs
Understanding QoS for Wireless LANs
Typically, networks operate on a best-effort delivery basis, which means that all traffic has equal priority
and an equal chance of being delivered in a timely manner. When congestion occurs, all traffic has an
equal chance of being dropped.
When you configure QoS on the access point, you can select specific network traffic, prioritize it, and
use congestion-management and congestion-avoidance techniques to provide preferential treatment.
Implementing QoS in your wireless LAN makes network performance more predictable and bandwidth
utilization more effective.
When you configure QoS, you create QoS policies and apply the policies to the VLANs configured on
your access point. If you do not use VLANs on your network, you can apply your QoS policies to the
access point’s Ethernet and radio ports.
QoS for Wireless LANs Versus QoS on Wired LANs
The QoS implementation for wireless LANs differs from QoS implementations on other Cisco devices.
With QoS enabled, access points perform the following:
•
They do not classify packets; they prioritize packets based on DSCP value, client type (such as a
wireless phone), or the priority value in the 802.1q or 802.1p tag.
•
They do not match packets using ACL; they use only MQC class-map for matching clauses.
•
They do not construct internal DSCP values; they only support mapping by assigning IP DSCP,
Precedence, or Protocol values to Layer 2 COS values.
•
They carry out EDCF like queuing on the radio egress port only.
•
They do only FIFO queueing on the Ethernet egress port.
•
They support only 802.1Q/P tagged packets. Access points do not support ISL.
•
They support only MQC policy-map set cos action.
•
They prioritize the traffic from voice clients (such as Symbol phones) over traffic from other clients
when the QoS Element for Wireless Phones feature is enabled.
•
They support Spectralink phones using the class-map IP protocol clause with the protocol value set
to 119.
To contrast the wireless LAN QoS implementation with the QoS implementation on other Cisco network
devices, see the Cisco IOS Quality of Service Solutions Configuration Guide at this URL:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fqos_c/index.htm
Impact of QoS on a Wireless LAN
Wireless LAN QoS features are a subset of the proposed 802.11e draft. QoS on wireless LANs provides
prioritization of traffic from the access point over the WLAN based on traffic classification.
Just as in other media, you might not notice the effects of QoS on a lightly loaded wireless LAN. The
benefits of QoS become more obvious as the load on the wireless LAN increases, keeping the latency,
jitter, and loss for selected traffic types within an acceptable range.
QoS on the wireless LAN focuses on downstream prioritization from the access point. Figure 13-1 shows
the upstream and downstream traffic flow.
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Figure 13-1 Upstream and Downstream Traffic Flow
Radio
downstream
Ethernet
downstream
Client
device
Radio
upstream
Access
point
Ethernet
upstream
81732
Wired
LAN
•
The radio downstream flow is traffic transmitted out the access point radio to a wireless client
device. This traffic is the main focus for QoS on a wireless LAN.
•
The radio upstream flow is traffic transmitted out the wireless client device to the access point. QoS
for wireless LANs does not affect this traffic.
•
The Ethernet downstream flow is traffic sent from a switch or a router to the Ethernet port on the
access point. If QoS is enabled on the switch or router, the switch or router might prioritize and
rate-limit traffic to the access point.
•
The Ethernet upstream flow is traffic sent from the access point Ethernet port to a switch or router
on the wired LAN. The access point does not prioritize traffic that it sends to the wired LAN based
on traffic classification.
Precedence of QoS Settings
When you enable QoS, the access point queues packets based on the Layer 2 class of service value for
each packet. The access point applies QoS policies in this order:
1.
Packets already classified—When the access point receives packets from a QoS-enabled switch or
router that has already classified the packets with non-zero 802.1Q/P user_priority values, the access
point uses that classification and does not apply other QoS policy rules to the packets. An existing
classification takes precedence over all other policies on the access point.
2.
QoS Element for Wireless Phones setting—If you enable the QoS Element for Wireless Phones
setting, traffic from voice clients takes priority over other traffic regardless of other policy settings.
The QoS Element for Wireless Phones setting takes precedence over other policies, second only to
previously assigned packet classifications.
3.
Policies you create on the access point—QoS Policies that you create and apply to VLANs or to the
access point interfaces are third in precedence after previously classified packets and the QoS
Element for Wireless Phones setting.
4.
Default classification for all packets on VLAN—If you set a default classification for all packets on
a VLAN, that policy is fourth in the precedence list.
Configuring QoS
QoS is disabled by default. This section describes how to configure QoS on your access point. It contains
this configuration information:
•
Configuration Guidelines, page 13-4
•
Configuring QoS Using the Web-Browser Interface, page 13-4
•
Adjusting Radio Traffic Class Definitions, page 13-8
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Configuring QoS
Configuration Guidelines
Before configuring QoS on your access point, you should be aware of this information:
•
The most important guideline in QoS deployment is to be familiar with the traffic on your wireless
LAN. If you know the applications used by wireless client devices, the applications’ sensitivity to
delay, and the amount of traffic associated with the applications, you can configure QoS to improve
performance.
•
QoS does not create additional bandwidth for your wireless LAN; it helps control the allocation of
bandwidth. If you have plenty of bandwidth on your wireless LAN, you might not need to configure
QoS.
Configuring QoS Using the Web-Browser Interface
This section describes configuring QoS using the web-browser interface.
For a list of IOS commands for configuring QoS using the CLI, consult the Cisco Aironet 1100 Series
Access Point Command Reference. Follow these steps to browse to the command reference:
1.
Click this link to browse to the Cisco Aironet documentation home page:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wireless/index.htm
2.
Follow this path to the product, document, and chapter:
Aironet 1100 Series Wireless LAN Products > Cisco Aironet 1100 Series Access Points >
Cisco Aironet 1100 Series Access Point Command Reference
Follow these steps to configure QoS:
Step 1
If you use VLANs on your wireless LAN, make sure the necessary VLANs are configured on your access
point before configuring QoS.
Step 2
Click Services in the task menu on the left side of any page in the web-browser interface. When the list
of Services expands, click QoS. The QoS Policies page appears. Figure 13-2 shows the QoS Policies
page.
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Configuring QoS
Figure 13-2 QoS Policies Page
Step 3
With <NEW> selected in the Create/Edit Policy field, type a name for the QoS policy in the Policy Name
entry field. The name can contain up to 25 alphanumeric characters. Do not include spaces in the policy
name.
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Configuring QoS
Step 4
Step 5
If the packets that you need to prioritize contain IP precedence information in the IP header TOS field,
select an IP precedence classification from the IP Precedence drop-down menu. Menu selections include:
•
Routine (0)
•
Priority (1)
•
Immediate (2)
•
Flash (3)
•
Flash Override (4)
•
Critic/CCP (5)
•
Internet Control (6)
•
Network Control (7)
Use the Apply Class of Service drop-down menu to select the class of service that the access point will
apply to packets of the type that you selected from the IP Precedence menu. The access point matches
your IP Precedence selection with your class of service selection. Settings in the Apply Class of Service
menu include:
•
Best Effort (0)
•
Background (1)
•
Spare (2)
•
Excellent (3)
•
Control Lead (4)
•
Video <100ms Latency (5)
•
Voice <100ms Latency (6)
•
Network Control (7)
Step 6
Click the Add button beside the Class of Service menu for IP Precedence. The classification appears in
the Classifications field. To delete a classification, select it and click the Delete button beside the
Classifications field.
Step 7
If the packets that you need to prioritize contain IP DSCP precedence information in the IP header TOS
field, select an IP DSCP classification from the IP DSCP drop-down menu. Menu selections include:
•
Best Effort
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 1 Low
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 1 Medium
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 1 High
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 2 Low
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 2 Medium
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 2 High
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 3 Low
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 3 Medium
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 3 High
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 4 Low
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 4 Medium
•
Assured Forwarding — Class 4 High
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•
Class Selector 1
•
Class Selector 2
•
Class Selector 3
•
Class Selector 4
•
Class Selector 5
•
Class Selector 6
•
Class Selector 7
•
Expedited Forwarding
Step 8
Use the Apply Class of Service drop-down menu to select the class of service that the access point will
apply to packets of the type that you selected from the IP DSCP menu. The access point matches your
IP DSCP selection with your class of service selection.
Step 9
Click the Add button beside the Class of Service menu for IP DSCP. The classification appears in the
Classifications field.
Step 10
If you need to prioritize the packets from Spectralink phones (IP Protocol 119) on your wireless LAN,
use the Apply Class of Service drop-down menu to select the class of service that the access point will
apply to Spectralink phone packets. The access point matches Spectralink phone packets with your class
of service selection.
Step 11
Click the Add button beside the Class of Service menu for IP Protocol 119. The classification appears
in the Classifications field.
Step 12
If you need to assign a priority to filtered packets, use the Filter drop-down menu to select a Filter to
include in the policy. (If no filters are defined on the access point, a link to the Apply Filters page appears
instead of the Filter drop-down menu.) For example, you could assign a high priority to a MAC address
filter that includes the MAC addresses of IP phones.
Note
The access list you use in QoS does not affect the access point’s packet forwarding decisions.
Step 13
Use the Apply Class of Service drop-down menu to select the class of service that the access point will
apply to packets that match the filter that you selected from the Filter menu. The access point matches
your filter selection with your class of service selection.
Step 14
Click the Add button beside the Class of Service menu for Filter. The classification appears in the
Classifications field.
Step 15
If you want to set a default classification for all packets on a VLAN, use the Apply Class of Service
drop-down menu to select the class of service that the access point will apply to all packets on a VLAN.
The access point matches all packets with your class of service selection.
Step 16
Click the Add button beside the Class of Service menu for Default classification for packets on the
VLAN. The classification appears in the Classifications field.
Step 17
When you finish adding classifications to the policy, click the Apply button under the Apply Class of
Service drop-down menus. To cancel the policy and reset all fields to defaults, click the Cancel button
under the Apply Class of Service drop-down menus. To delete the entire policy, click the Delete button
under the Apply Class of Service drop-down menus.
Step 18
Use the Apply Policies to Interface/VLANs drop-down menus to apply policies to the access point
Ethernet and radio ports. If VLANs are configured on the access point, drop-down menus for each
VLAN’s virtual ports appear in this section. If VLANs are not configured on the access point, drop-down
menus for each interface appear.
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Step 19
Click the Apply button at the bottom of the page to apply the policies to the access point ports.
Step 20
If you want the access point to give priority to all voice packets regardless of VLAN, click the Advanced
tab. Figure 13-3 shows the QoS Policies - Advanced page.
Figure 13-3 QoS Policies - Advanced Page
Select Enable and click Apply to give top priority to all voice packets.
Adjusting Radio Traffic Class Definitions
The access point uses the radio traffic class definitions to calculate backoff times for each packet. As a
rule, high-priority packets have short backoff times.
The default values in the Min and Max Contention Window fields and in the Slot Time fields are based
on settings recommended in IEEE Draft Standard 802.11e. For detailed information on these values,
consult that standard.
We strongly recommend that you use the default settings on the Radio Traffic Classes page. Changing
these values can lead to unexpected blockages of traffic on your wireless LAN, and the blockages might
be difficult to diagnose. If you change these values and find that you need to reset them to defaults, use
the default settings listed in Table 13-1.
The values listed in Table 13-1 are to the power of 2. The access point computes Contention Window
values with this equation:
CW = 2 ** X minus 1
where X is the value from Table 13-1.
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Table 13-1 Default QoS Radio Traffic Class Definitions
Class of Service
Min Contention Window
Max Contention Window
Fixed Slot Time
Best Effort
5
10
2
Background
6
10
3
Spare
5
10
3
Excellent Effort
5
10
2
Controlled Load
4
10
2
Video <100ms Latency
4
8
2
Voice <100ms Latency
2
8
2
Network Control
3
8
2
Figure 13-4 shows the Radio Traffic Classes page.
Figure 13-4 Radio Traffic Classes Page
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QoS Configuration Examples
Disabling IGMP Snooping Helper
When Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) snooping is enabled on a switch and a client roams
from one access point to another, the client’s multicast session is dropped. When the access point’s
IGMP snooping helper is enabled, the access point sends a general IGMP query to the network
infrastructure on behalf of the client every time the client associates or reassociates to the access point.
By doing so, the multicast stream is maintained for the client as it roams.
The IGMP snooping helper is enabled by default. To disable it, browse to the QoS Policies - Advanced
page, select Disable, and click Apply. Figure 13-3 shows the QoS Policies - Advanced page.
QoS Configuration Examples
These sections describe two common uses for QoS:
•
Giving Priority to Voice Traffic, page 13-10
•
Giving Priority to Video Traffic, page 13-12
Giving Priority to Voice Traffic
This section demonstrates how you can apply a QoS policy to your wireless network’s voice VLAN to
give priority to wireless phone traffic.
In this example, the network administrator creates a policy named voice_policy that applies voice class
of service to traffic from Spectralink phones (protocol 119 packets). The user applies the voice_policy
to the incoming and outgoing radio ports and to the outgoing Ethernet port for VLAN 77. Figure 13-5
shows the administrator’s QoS Policies page.
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Figure 13-5 QoS Policies Page for Voice Example
The network administrator also enables the QoS element for wireless phones setting on the QoS
Policies - Advanced page. This setting gives priority to all voice traffic regardless of VLAN.
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Giving Priority to Video Traffic
This section demonstrates how you could apply a QoS policy to a VLAN on your network dedicated to
video traffic.
In this example, the network administrator creates a policy named video_policy that applies video class
of service to video traffic. The user applies the video_policy to the incoming and outgoing radio ports
and to the outgoing Ethernet port for VLAN 87. Figure 13-6 shows the administrator’s QoS Policies
page.
Figure 13-6 QoS Policies Page for Video Example
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14
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP
This chapter describes how to configure your access point’s proxy Mobile IP feature. This chapter
contains these sections:
•
Understanding Proxy Mobile IP, page 14-2
•
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP, page 14-6
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Understanding Proxy Mobile IP
Understanding Proxy Mobile IP
These sections explain how access points conduct proxy Mobile IP:
•
Overview, page 14-2
•
Components of a Proxy Mobile IP Network, page 14-2
•
How Proxy Mobile IP Works, page 14-3
•
Proxy Mobile IP Security, page 14-6
Overview
The access point’s proxy Mobile IP feature works in conjunction with the Mobile IP feature in IOS.
When you enable proxy Mobile IP on your access point and on your wired network, the access point
helps client devices from other networks remain connected to their home networks. The visiting client
devices do not need special software; the access point provides proxy Mobile IP services on their behalf.
Any wireless client can participate.
Mobile IP provides users the freedom to roam beyond their home subnets while maintaining their home
IP addresses. This enables transparent routing of IP datagrams to mobile users during their movement,
so that data sessions can be initiated to them while they roam. For example, a client device with an IP
address of 192.95.5.2 could associate to an access point on a network whose IP addresses are in the
209.165.200.x range. The guest client device keeps its 192.95.5.2 IP address, and the access point
forwards its packets through a Mobile IP enabled router across the Internet to a router on the client’s
home network.
Access points with proxy Mobile IP enabled attempt to provide proxy service for any client device that
associates and does not perform the following:
•
Does not issue a DHCP request to get a new IP address.
•
Does not support a Mobile IP stack. If a device supports a Mobile IP stack, the access point assumes
that the device will perform its own Mobile IP functions.
You enable proxy Mobile IP for specific SSIDs on the access point, providing support only for clients
that use those SSIDs. Proxy Mobile IP does not support VLANs. You can pause proxy Mobile IP support
without losing your proxy Mobile IP configuration.
Proxy Mobile IP is disabled by default.
Note
Guest client devices do not receive broadcast and multicast packets.
Components of a Proxy Mobile IP Network
Five devices participate in proxy Mobile IP:
•
A visiting client device. The visiting client device is any device such as a personal digital assistant
or a laptop that can associate to a wireless access point. It does not need any special proxy Mobile
IP software.
•
An access point with proxy Mobile IP enabled. The access point proxies on behalf of the visiting
client device, performing all Mobile IP services for the device.
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Understanding Proxy Mobile IP
•
An authoritative access point on your network supporting proxy Mobile IP. The authoritative access
point uses a subnet map to keep track of the home agent information for all visiting client devices.
•
A home agent. The home agent is a router on the visiting client’s home network that serves as the
anchor point for communication with the access point and the visiting client. The home agent
tunnels packets from a correspondent node on the Internet to the visiting client device.
•
A foreign agent. The foreign agent is a router on your network that serves as the point of attachment
for the visiting client device when it is on your network, delivering packets from the home agent to
the visiting client.
Figure 14-1 shows the five participating devices.
Figure 14-1 Participating Devices in Proxy Mobile IP
Client device
visiting foreign
network
Client device
at home
Access point
supporting proxy
mobile IP
Internet
Home
agent
Access point
supporting proxy
mobile IP
81653
Foreign
agent
Authoritative
access point
supporting proxy
mobile IP
How Proxy Mobile IP Works
The proxy Mobile IP process has four main phases. These sections describe each phase:
•
Agent Discovery, page 14-3
•
Subnet Map Exchange, page 14-4
•
Registration, page 14-5
•
Tunneling, page 14-5
Agent Discovery
During the agent discovery phase, the home agent and the foreign agent advertise their services on the
network by using the ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP). The access point listens to these
advertisements.
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The IRDP advertisements carry Mobile IP extensions that specify whether an agent is a home agent,
foreign agent, or both; its care-of address; the types of services it provides, such as reverse tunneling and
generic routing encapsulation (GRE); and the allowed registration lifetime or roaming period for visiting
client devices. Rather than waiting for agent advertisements, an access point can send out an agent
solicitation. This solicitation forces any agents on the network to immediately send an agent
advertisement.
When an access point determines that a client device is connected to a foreign network, it acquires a
care-of address for the visiting client. The care-of address is an IP address of a foreign agent that has an
interface on the network being visited by a client device. An access point can share this address among
many visiting client devices.
When the visiting client associates to an access point, the access point compares the client’s IP address
with that of its own IP network information and detects that the client is a visitor from another network.
The access point then begins the registration. However, before the access point can begin the registration
process on behalf of the visiting client, it needs to know the home agent IP address of the visiting client.
It gets the home agent’s IP address by looking it up on a subnet map table.
Subnet Map Exchange
Each access point with proxy Mobile IP enabled maintains a subnet map table. The subnet map table
consists of a list of home agent IP addresses and their subnet masks. Table 14-1 is an example of a subnet
map table.
Table 14-1 Example of a Subnet Map Table
Home Agent
Subnet Mask
10.10.10.1
255.255.255.0
10.10.4.2
255.255.255.0
10.3.4.4
255.255.255.248
10.12.1.1
255.255.0.0
Access points use the subnet map table to determine the IP address of the visiting client’s home agent.
When an access point boots up or when proxy Mobile IP is first enabled on an access point, it obtains
its own home agent information using the agent discovery mechanism. It sends this information to
another access point called an authoritative access point (AAP). The AAP is an access point that is
responsible for keeping the latest subnet map table.
When the AAP receives the new information, it replies to the access point with a copy of the latest subnet
map table. The new access point now has the latest subnet map table locally and it is ready to perform
proxy Mobile IP for visiting clients. Having the subnet map table locally helps the access point do a
quick lookup for the home agent information. Meanwhile, the AAP adds the new access point to its list
of access points and the home agent information to its subnet map table. The AAP then updates all the
other access points with this additional piece of information.
You can designate up to three AAPs on your wireless LAN. If an access point fails to reach the first AAP,
it tries the next configured AAP. The AAPs compare their subnet map tables periodically to make sure
they have the same subnet map table. If the AAP detects that there are no more access points for a
particular home agent, it sends a deregistration packet on behalf of the broadcast address of the home
agent subnet to see if the home agent is still active. If the home agent responds, the AAP keeps the home
agent entry in the subnet map table even though there are no access points in the home agent's subnet.
This process supports client devices that have already roamed to foreign networks. If the home agent
does not respond, the AAP deletes the home agent entry from the subnet map table.
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When a client device associates to an access point and the access point determines that the client is
visiting from another network, the access point performs a longest-match lookup on its subnet map table
and obtains the home agent address for the visiting client. When the access point has the home agent
address, it can proceed to the registration step.
Registration
The access point is configured with the mobility security association (which includes the shared key) of
all potential visiting clients with their corresponding home agents. You can enter the mobility security
association information locally on the access point or on a RADIUS server on your network, and access
points with proxy Mobile IP enabled can access it there.
The access point uses the security association information, the visiting client’s IP address, and the
information that it learns from the foreign agent advertisements to form a Mobile IP registration request
on behalf of the visiting client. It sends the registration request to the visiting client’s home agent through
the foreign agent. The foreign agent checks the validity of the registration request, which includes
checking that the requested lifetime does not exceed its limitations and that the requested tunnel
encapsulation is available. If the registration request is valid, the foreign agent relays the request to the
home agent.
The home agent checks the validity of the registration request, which includes authentication of the
visiting client. If the registration request is valid, the home agent creates a mobility binding (an
association of the visiting client with its care-of address), a tunnel to the care-of address, and a routing
entry for forwarding packets to the home address through the tunnel.
The home agent then sends a registration reply to the visiting client through the foreign agent (because
the registration request was received through the foreign agent). The foreign agent checks the validity
of the registration reply, including ensuring that an associated registration request exists in its pending
list. If the registration reply is valid, the foreign agent adds the visiting client to its visitor list, establishes
a tunnel to the home agent, and creates a routing entry for forwarding packets to the home address. It
then relays the registration reply to the visiting client.
Finally, the access point checks the validity of the registration reply. If the registration reply specifies
that the registration is accepted, the access point is able to confirm that the mobility agents are aware of
the visiting client's roaming. Subsequently, the access point intercepts all packets from the visiting client
and sends them to the foreign agent.
The access point re-registers on behalf of the visiting client before its registration lifetime expires. The
home agent and foreign agent update their mobility binding and visitor entry, respectively, during
re-registration.
A successful Mobile IP registration by the access point on behalf of the visiting client sets up the routing
mechanism for transporting packets to and from the visiting client as it roams.
Tunneling
The visiting client sends packets using its home IP address, effectively maintaining the appearance that
it is always on its home network. Even while the visiting client is roaming on foreign networks, its
movements are transparent to correspondent nodes (other devices with which the visiting client
communicates).
Data packets addressed to the visiting client are routed to its home network, where the home agent
intercepts and tunnels them to the care-of address toward the visiting client. Tunneling has two primary
functions: encapsulation of the data packet to reach the tunnel endpoint, and decapsulation when the
packet is delivered at that endpoint. The tunnel mode that the access point supports is IP Encapsulation
within IP Encapsulation.
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Typically, the visiting client sends packets as it normally would. The access point intercepts these
packets and sends them to the foreign agent, which routes them to their final destination, the
correspondent node.
Proxy Mobile IP Security
Mobile IP uses a strong authentication scheme to protect communications to and from visiting clients.
All registration messages between a visiting client and the home agent must contain the Mobile-Home
Authentication Extension (MHAE). Proxy Mobile IP also implements this requirement in the
registration messages sent by the access point on behalf of the visiting clients to the home agent.
The integrity of the registration messages is protected by a shared 128-bit key between the access point
(on behalf of the visiting client) and the home agent. You can enter the shared key on the access point or
on a RADIUS server.
The keyed message digest algorithm 5 (MD5) in prefix+suffix mode is used to compute the authenticator
value in the appended MHAE. Mobile IP and proxy Mobile IP also support the hash-based message
authentication code (HMAC-MD5). The receiver compares the authenticator value it computes over the
message with the value in the extension to verify the authenticity.
Optionally, the Mobile-Foreign Authentication Extension and the Foreign-Home Authentication
Extension are appended to protect message exchanges between a visiting client and foreign agent and
between a foreign agent and home agent, respectively.
Replay protection uses the identification field in the registration messages as a timestamp and sequence
number. The home agent returns its time stamp to synchronize the visiting client for registration. In
proxy Mobile IP, the visiting clients are not synchronized to their home agents because the access point
intercepts all home agent messages.
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP
These sections describe how to configure proxy Mobile IP:
•
Configuration Guidelines, page 14-6
•
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP on Your Wired LAN, page 14-7
•
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP on Your Access Point, page 14-7
Configuration Guidelines
Before configuring proxy Mobile IP, you should consider these guidelines:
•
You can enable proxy Mobile IP only on root access points (units connected to the wired LAN). You
cannot enable proxy Mobile IP on repeater access points.
•
Access points participating in proxy Mobile IP should be configured with gateway addresses. You
can configure the gateways manually, or the access points can receive gateways through DHCP.
•
The foreign and home agents must reside on the network gateways where you want to support proxy
Mobile IP.
•
If your authoritative access points receive their IP addresses through DHCP, use the access point
host names to specify the AAPs in the proxy Mobile IP configuration.
•
Proxy Mobile IP does not support broadcast and multicast traffic for visiting clients.
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Configuring Proxy Mobile IP
•
To use proxy Mobile IP with DHCP-enabled client devices, you must disable Media Sense on the
client devices. You can find instructions for disabling Media Sense in Microsoft Knowledge Base
Article Q239924. Click this URL to browse to this article:
http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=KB;EN-US;Q239924&
•
Proxy Mobile IP does not support VLANs.
•
If you disable proxy Mobile IP on your access point, the entire proxy Mobile IP configuration is
cleared. To disable proxy Mobile IP without clearing the configuration, use the ip proxy-mobile
pause command.
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP on Your Wired LAN
Proxy Mobile IP on access points works in conjunction with Mobile IP configured on your network
routers. For instructions on configuring Mobile IP on a router on your network, refer to the Mobile IP
chapter in 12.2 T New Features (Early Deployment Releases). Click this link to browse to the Mobile IP
chapter:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios120/120newft/120t/120t1/mobileip.htm
Configuring Proxy Mobile IP on Your Access Point
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure proxy Mobile IP on your access
point:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
ip proxy-mobile enable
Enable proxy Mobile IP on the access point.
Step 3
ip proxy-mobile aap ip-address
[ip-address] [ip-address]
Designate the access points that serve as the authoritative
access points (the access points with which this access point
compares its subnet table).
Note
Step 4
ip proxy-mobile secure
node address-start address-end
spi spi
key { hex | ascii } key
You should specify at least two access points as AAPs
in case one AAP fails. If you designate only one AAP
and it goes offline, you lose all the information in the
subnet map table.
Create security association settings for an IP address or for a
range of IP addresses.
•
Enter an IP address, or the starting and ending addresses in
an IP range.
•
Enter the security parameter index.
•
Enter a key for the security parameter. Specify whether the
key contains hexadecimal or ASCII characters. If you
choose hexadecimal, the key must contain 32 characters. If
you choose ASCII, the key can contain up to 16 characters
with no minimum length.
Step 5
interface fastethernet 0
Enter interface configuration mode for the Ethernet port.
Step 6
ip proxy-mobile
Enable proxy Mobile IP on the Ethernet port.
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Command
Purpose
Step 7
exit
Return to global config mode.
Step 8
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio port. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 9
ip proxy-mobile
Enable proxy Mobile IP on the radio port.
Step 10
ssid ssid
Enter an SSID for which you want to enable proxy Mobile IP.
Note
Proxy Mobile IP functionality is not supported on
SSIDs where VLAN is also enabled.
Step 11
ip proxy-mobile
Enable proxy Mobile IP for the SSID.
Step 12
exit
Return to global config mode.
Step 13
interface bvi1
Enter interface configuration mode for the bridge virtual
interface (BVI).
Step 14
ip proxy-mobile
Enable proxy Mobile IP on the BVI.
Step 15
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 16
copy running-config startup-config (Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Use the no form of the ip proxy-mobile commands to disable proxy Mobile IP. Use the ip proxy-mobile
pause command to disable proxy Mobile IP without losing your proxy Mobile IP configuration.
This example shows how to enable proxy Mobile IP on an access point for the SSID tsunami for IP
addresses from 10.91.7.151 to 10.91.7.176:
ap1200# configure terminal
ap1200(config)# ip proxy-mobile enable
ap1200(config)# ip proxy-mobile aap 192.168.15.22 192.168.15.24 192.168.15.28
ap1200(config)# ip proxy-mobile secure node 10.91.7.151 10.91.7.176 spi 102 key ascii
0987654
ap1200(config)# interface fastethernet 0
ap1200(config-if)# ip proxy-mobile
ap1200(config-if)# interface dot11radio 0
ap1200(config-if)# ip proxy-mobile
ap1200(config-if)# ssid tsunami
ap1200(config-if-ssid)# ip proxy-mobile
ap1200(config-if-ssid)# exit
ap1200(config-if)# exit
ap1200(config)# interface bvi1
ap1200(config-if)# ip proxy-mobile
ap1200(config-if-ssid)# end
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15
Configuring Filters
This chapter describes how to configure and manage MAC address, IP, and Ethertype filters on the access
point using the web-browser interface. This chapter contains these sections:
•
Understanding Filters, page 15-2
•
Configuring Filters Using the CLI, page 15-2
•
Configuring Filters Using the Web-Browser Interface, page 15-2
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Understanding Filters
Understanding Filters
Protocol filters (IP protocol, IP port, and Ethertype) prevent or allow the use of specific protocols
through the access point’s Ethernet and radio ports. You can set up individual protocol filters or sets of
filters. You can filter protocols for wireless client devices, users on the wired LAN, or both. For example,
an SNMP filter on the access point’s radio port prevents wireless client devices from using SNMP with
the access point but does not block SNMP access from the wired LAN.
IP address and MAC address filters allow or disallow the forwarding of unicast and multicast packets
either sent from or addressed to specific IP or MAC addresses. You can create a filter that passes traffic
to all addresses except those you specify, or you can create a filter that blocks traffic to all addresses
except those you specify.
You can configure filters using the web-browser interface or by entering commands in the CLI.
Tip
You can include filters in the access point’s QoS policies. Refer to Chapter 13, “Configuring QoS,” for
detailed instructions on setting up QoS policies.
Configuring Filters Using the CLI
To configure filters using IOS commands, you use access control lists (ACLs) and bridge groups. You
can find explanations of these concepts and instructions for implementing them in these documents:
•
Cisco IOS Bridging and IBM Networking Configuration Guide, Release 12.2. Click this link to
browse to the “Configuring Transparent Bridging” chapter:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122cgcr/fibm_c/bcfpart1/bcftb.
htm
•
Catalyst 4908G-L3 Cisco IOS Release 12.0(10)W5(18e) Software Feature and Configuration Guide.
Click this link to browse to the “Command Reference” chapter:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/l3sw/4908g_l3/ios_12/10w518e/config/cmd_ref.
htm
Configuring Filters Using the Web-Browser Interface
This section describes how to configure and enable filters using the web-browser interface. You complete
two steps to configure and enable a filter:
1.
Name and configure the filter using the filter setup pages.
2.
Enable the filter using the Apply Filters page.
These sections describe setting up and enabling three filter types:
•
Configuring and Enabling MAC Address Filters, page 15-3
•
Configuring and Enabling IP Filters, page 15-5
•
Configuring and Enabling Ethertype Filters, page 15-8
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Configuring and Enabling MAC Address Filters
MAC address filters allow or disallow the forwarding of unicast and multicast packets either sent from
or addressed to specific MAC addresses. You can create a filter that passes traffic to all MAC addresses
except those you specify, or you can create a filter that blocks traffic to all MAC addresses except those
you specify. You can apply the filters you create to either or both the Ethernet and radio ports and to
either or both incoming and outgoing packets.
Note
MAC address filters are powerful, and you can lock yourself out of the access point if you make a
mistake setting up the filters. If you accidentally lock yourself out of your access point, use the CLI to
disable the filters.
Use the MAC Address Filters page to create MAC address filters for the access point. Figure 15-1 shows
the MAC Address Filters page.
Figure 15-1 MAC Address Filters Page
Follow this link path to reach the Address Filters page:
1.
Click Services in the page navigation bar.
2.
In the Services page list, click Filters.
3.
On the Apply Filters page, click the MAC Address Filters tab at the top of the page.
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Creating a MAC Address Filter
Follow these steps to create a MAC address filter:
Step 1
Follow the link path to the MAC Address Filters page.
Step 2
If you are creating a new MAC address filter, make sure <NEW> (the default) is selected in the
Create/Edit Filter Index menu. To edit a filter, select the filter number from the Create/Edit Filter Index
menu.
Step 3
In the Filter Index field, name the filter with a number from 700 to 799. The number you assign creates
an access control list (ACL) for the filter.
Step 4
Enter a MAC address in the Add MAC Address field. Enter the address with periods separating the three
groups of four characters (0040.9612.34ab, for example).
Note
To make sure the filter operates properly, use lower case for all the letters in the MAC addresses
that you enter.
Step 5
Use the Mask entry field to indicate how many bits, from left to right, the filter checks against the MAC
address. For example, to require an exact match with the MAC address (to check all bits) enter
FFFF.FFFF.FFFF. To check only the first 4 bytes, enter FFFF.FFFF.0000.
Step 6
Select Forward or Block from the Action menu.
Step 7
Click Add. The MAC address appears in the Filters Classes field. To remove the MAC address from the
Filters Classes list, select it and click Delete Class.
Step 8
Repeat Step 4 through Step 7 to add addresses to the filter.
Step 9
Select Forward All or Block All from the Default Action menu. The filter’s default action must be the
opposite of the action for at least one of the addresses in the filter. For example, if you enter several
addresses and you select Block as the action for all of them, you must choose Forward All as the filter’s
default action.
Tip
You can create a list of allowed MAC addresses on an authentication server on your network. Consult
the “Configuring Authentication Types” section on page 10-6 for instructions on using MAC-based
authentication.
Step 10
Click Apply. The filter is saved on the access point, but it is not enabled until you apply it on the Apply
Filters page.
Step 11
Click the Apply Filters tab to return to the Apply Filters page. Figure 15-2 shows the Apply Filters page.
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Figure 15-2 Apply Filters Page
Step 12
Select the filter number from one of the MAC drop-down menus. You can apply the filter to either or
both the Ethernet and radio ports, and to either or both incoming and outgoing packets.
Step 13
Click Apply. The filter is enabled on the selected ports.
If clients are not filtered immediately, click Reload on the System Configuration page to restart the
access point. To reach the System Configuration page, click System Software on the task menu and then
click System Configuration.
Note
Client devices with blocked MAC addresses cannot send or receive data through the access point, but
they might remain in the Association Table as unauthenticated client devices. Client devices with
blocked MAC addresses disappear from the Association Table when the access point stops monitoring
them, when the access point reboots, or when the clients associate with another access point.
Configuring and Enabling IP Filters
IP filters (IP address, IP protocol, and IP port) prevent or allow the use of specific protocols through the
access point’s Ethernet and radio ports, and IP address filters allow or prevent the forwarding of unicast
and multicast packets either sent from or addressed to specific IP addresses. You can create a filter that
passes traffic to all addresses except those you specify, or you can create a filter that blocks traffic to all
addresses except those you specify. You can create filters that contain elements of one, two, or all three
IP filtering methods. You can apply the filters you create to either or both the Ethernet and radio ports
and to either or both incoming and outgoing packets.
Use the IP Filters page to create IP filters for the access point. Figure 15-3 shows the IP Filters page.
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Figure 15-3 IP Filters Page
Follow this link path to reach the IP Filters page:
1.
Click Services in the page navigation bar.
2.
In the Services page list, click Filters.
3.
On the Apply Filters page, click the IP Filters tab at the top of the page.
Creating an IP Filter
Follow these steps to create an IP filter:
Step 1
Follow the link path to the IP Filters page.
Step 2
If you are creating a new filter, make sure <NEW> (the default) is selected in the Create/Edit Filter Index
menu. To edit an existing filter, select the filter name from the Create/Edit Filter Index menu.
Step 3
Enter a descriptive name for the new filter in the Filter Name field.
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Step 4
Select Forward all or Block all as the filter’s default action from the Default Action menu. The filter’s
default action must be the opposite of the action for at least one of the addresses in the filter. For
example, if you create a filter containing an IP address, an IP protocol, and an IP port and you select
Block as the action for all of them, you must choose Forward All as the filter’s default action.
Step 5
To filter an IP address, enter an address in the IP Address field.
Note
If you plan to block traffic to all IP addresses except those you specify as allowed, put the
address of your own PC in the list of allowed addresses to avoid losing connectivity to the access
point.
Step 6
Type the mask for the IP address in the Mask field. Enter the mask with periods separating the groups
of characters (112.334.556.778, for example). If you enter 255.255.255.255 as the mask, the access point
accepts any IP address. If you enter 0.0.0.0, the access point looks for an exact match with the IP address
you entered in the IP Address field. The mask you enter in this field behaves the same way that a mask
behaves when you enter it in the CLI.
Step 7
Select Forward or Block from the Action menu.
Step 8
Click Add. The address appears in the Filters Classes field. To remove the address from the Filters
Classes list, select it and click Delete Class. Repeat Step 5 through Step 8 to add addresses to the filter.
If you do not need to add IP protocol or IP port elements to the filter, skip to Step 15 to save the filter
on the access point.
Step 9
To filter an IP protocol, select one of the commmon protocols from the IP Protocol drop-down menu, or
select the Custom radio button and enter the number of an existing ACL in the Custom field. Enter an
ACL number from 0 to 255. See Appendix E, “Protocol Filters,” for a list of IP protocols and their
numeric designators.
Step 10
Select Forward or Block from the Action menu.
Step 11
Click Add. The protocol appears in the Filters Classes field. To remove the protocol from the Filters
Classes list, select it and click Delete Class. Repeat Step 9 to Step 11 to add protocols to the filter.
If you do not need to add IP port elements to the filter, skip to Step 15 to save the filter on the access
point.
Step 12
To filter a TCP or UDP port protocol, select one of the commmon port protocols from the TCP Port or
UDP Port drop-down menus, or select the Custom radio button and enter the number of an existing
protocol in one of the Custom fields. Enter a protocol number from 0 to 65535. See Appendix E,
“Protocol Filters,” for a list of IP port protocols and their numeric designators.
Step 13
Select Forward or Block from the Action menu.
Step 14
Click Add. The protocol appears in the Filters Classes field. To remove the protocol from the Filters
Classes list, select it and click Delete Class. Repeat Step 12 to Step 14 to add protocols to the filter.
Step 15
When the filter is complete, click Apply. The filter is saved on the access point, but it is not enabled until
you apply it on the Apply Filters page.
Step 16
Click the Apply Filters tab to return to the Apply Filters page. Figure 15-4 shows the Apply Filters page.
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Figure 15-4 Apply Filters Page
Step 17
Select the filter name from one of the IP drop-down menus. You can apply the filter to either or both the
Ethernet and radio ports, and to either or both incoming and outgoing packets.
Step 18
Click Apply. The filter is enabled on the selected ports.
Configuring and Enabling Ethertype Filters
Ethertype filters prevent or allow the use of specific protocols through the access point’s Ethernet and
radio ports. You can apply the filters you create to either or both the Ethernet and radio ports and to either
or both incoming and outgoing packets.
Use the Ethertype Filters page to create Ethertype filters for the access point. Figure 15-5 shows the
Ethertype Filters page.
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Figure 15-5 Ethertype Filters Page
Follow this link path to reach the Ethertype Filters page:
1.
Click Services in the page navigation bar.
2.
In the Services page list, click Filters.
3.
On the Apply Filters page, click the Ethertype Filters tab at the top of the page.
Creating an Ethertype Filter
Follow these steps to create an Ethertype filter:
Step 1
Follow the link path to the Ethertype Filters page.
Step 2
If you are creating a new filter, make sure <NEW> (the default) is selected in the Create/Edit Filter Index
menu. To edit an existing filter, select the filter number from the Create/Edit Filter Index menu.
Step 3
In the Filter Index field, name the filter with a number from 200 to 299. The number you assign creates
an access control list (ACL) for the filter.
Step 4
Enter an Ethertype number in the Add Ethertype field. See Appendix E, “Protocol Filters,” for a list of
protocols and their numeric designators.
Step 5
Enter the mask for the Ethertype in the Mask field.
Step 6
Select Forward or Block from the Action menu.
Step 7
Click Add. The Ethertype appears in the Filters Classes field. To remove the Ethertype from the Filters
Classes list, select it and click Delete Class. Repeat Step 4 through Step 7 to add Ethertypes to the filter.
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Configuring Filters Using the Web-Browser Interface
Step 8
Select Forward All or Block All from the Default Action menu. The filter’s default action must be the
opposite of the action for at least one of the Ethertypes in the filter. For example, if you enter several
Ethertypes and you select Block as the action for all of them, you must choose Forward All as the filter’s
default action.
Step 9
Click Apply. The filter is saved on the access point, but it is not enabled until you apply it on the Apply
Filters page.
Step 10
Click the Apply Filters tab to return to the Apply Filters page. Figure 15-6 shows the Apply Filters page.
Figure 15-6 Apply Filters Page
Step 11
Select the filter number from one of the Ethertype drop-down menus. You can apply the filter to either
or both the Ethernet and radio ports, and to either or both incoming and outgoing packets.
Step 12
Click Apply. The filter is enabled on the selected ports.
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16
Configuring CDP
This chapter describes how to configure Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) on your access point.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco
Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Command Reference for this release and the Cisco IOS Configuration
Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This chapter contains these sections:
•
Understanding CDP, page 16-2
•
Configuring CDP, page 16-2
•
Monitoring and Maintaining CDP, page 16-4
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Understanding CDP
Understanding CDP
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a device-discovery protocol that runs on all Cisco network
equipment. Each device sends identifying messages to a multicast address, and each device monitors the
messages sent by other devices. Information in CDP packets is used in network management software
such as CiscoWorks2000.
CDP is enabled on the access point’s Ethernet port by default. However, CDP is enabled on the access
point’s radio port only when the radio is associated to another wireless infrastructure device, such as an
access point or a bridge.
Note
For best performance on your wireless LAN, disable CDP on all radio interfaces and on sub-interfaces
if VLANs are enabled on the access point.
Configuring CDP
This section contains CDP configuration information and procedures:
•
Default CDP Configuration, page 16-2
•
Configuring the CDP Characteristics, page 16-2
•
Disabling and Enabling CDP, page 16-3
•
Disabling and Enabling CDP on an Interface, page 16-4
Default CDP Configuration
Table 16-1 lists the default CDP settings.
Table 16-1 Default CDP Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
CDP global state
Enabled
CDP interface state
Enabled
CDP holdtime (packet holdtime in seconds)
180
CDP timer (packets sent every x seconds)
60
Configuring the CDP Characteristics
You can configure the CDP holdtime (the number of seconds before the access point discards CDP
packets) and the CDP timer (the number of seconds between each CDP packets the access point sends).
Beginning in Priveleged Exec mode, follow these steps to configure the CDP holdtime and CDP timer.
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Configuring CDP
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
cdp holdtime seconds
(Optional) Specify the amount of time a receiving device should
hold the information sent by your device before discarding it.
The range is from 10 to 255 seconds; the default is 180 seconds.
Step 3
cdp timer seconds
(Optional) Set the transmission frequency of CDP updates in
seconds.
The range is from 5 to 254; the default is 60 seconds.
Step 4
end
Return to Privileged Exec mode.
Use the no form of the CDP commands to return to the default settings.
This example shows how to configure and verify CDP characteristics:
AP# configure terminal
AP(config)# cdp holdtime 120
AP(config)# cdp timer 50
AP(config)# end
AP# show cdp
Global CDP information:
Sending a holdtime value of 120 seconds
Sending CDP packets every 50 seconds
For additional CDP show commands, see the “Monitoring and Maintaining CDP” section on page 16-4.
Disabling and Enabling CDP
CDP is enabled by default. Beginning in Priveleged Exec mode, follow these steps to disable the CDP
device discovery capability.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
no cdp run
Disable CDP.
Step 3
end
Return to Privileged Exec mode.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable CDP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
cdp run
Enable CDP after disabling it.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
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Monitoring and Maintaining CDP
This example shows how to enable CDP.
AP# configure terminal
AP(config)# cdp run
AP(config)# end
Disabling and Enabling CDP on an Interface
CDP is enabled by default on all supported interfaces to send and receive CDP information.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to disable CDP on an interface:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface interface-id
Enter interface configuration mode, and enter the
interface on which you are disabling CDP.
Step 3
no cdp enable
Disable CDP on an interface.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable CDP on an interface:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface interface-id
Enter interface configuration mode, and enter the
interface on which you are enabling CDP.
Step 3
cdp enable
Enable CDP on an interface after disabling it.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
This example shows how to enable CDP on an interface.
AP# configure terminal
AP(config)# interface x
AP(config-if)# cdp enable
AP(config-if)# end
Monitoring and Maintaining CDP
To monitor and maintain CDP on your device, perform one or more of these tasks, beginning in
privileged EXEC mode.
Command
Description
clear cdp counters
Reset the traffic counters to zero.
clear cdp table
Delete the CDP table of information about neighbors.
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Command
Description
show cdp
Display global information, such as frequency of transmissions and the holdtime
for packets being sent.
show cdp entry entry-name
[protocol | version]
Display information about a specific neighbor.
You can enter an asterisk (*) to display all CDP neighbors, or you can enter the
name of the neighbor about which you want information.
You can also limit the display to information about the protocols enabled on the
specified neighbor or information about the version of software running on the
device.
show cdp interface [type number]
Display information about interfaces where CDP is enabled.
You can limit the display to the type of interface or the number of the interface
about which you want information (for example, entering gigabitethernet 0/1
displays information only about Gigabit Ethernet port 1).
show cdp neighbors [type number]
[detail]
Display information about neighbors, including device type, interface type and
number, holdtime settings, capabilities, platform, and port ID.
You can limit the display to neighbors on a specific type or number of interface
or expand the display to provide more detailed information.
show cdp traffic
Display CDP counters, including the number of packets sent and received and
checksum errors.
Below are six examples of output from the CDP show privileged EXEC commands:
AP# show cdp
Global CDP information:
Sending CDP packets every 50 seconds
Sending a holdtime value of 120 seconds
AP# show cdp entry *
------------------------Device ID: AP
Entry address(es):
IP address: 10.1.1.66
Platform: cisco WS-C3550-12T, Capabilities: Switch IGMP
Interface: GigabitEthernet0/2, Port ID (outgoing port): GigabitEthernet0/2
Holdtime : 129 sec
Version :
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) C3550 Software (C3550-I5Q3L2-M), Experimental Version 12.1(20010612:021
316) [jang-flamingo 120]
Copyright (c) 1986-2001 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 06-Jul-01 18:18 by jang
advertisement version: 2
Protocol Hello: OUI=0x00000C, Protocol ID=0x0112; payload len=27, value=0000000
0FFFFFFFF010221FF00000000000000024B293A00FF0000
VTP Management Domain: ''
Duplex: full
------------------------Device ID: idf2-1-lab-l3.cisco.com
Entry address(es):
IP address: 10.1.1.10
Platform: cisco WS-C3524-XL, Capabilities: Trans-Bridge Switch
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Interface: GigabitEthernet0/1,
Holdtime : 141 sec
Port ID (outgoing port): FastEthernet0/10
Version :
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) C3500XL Software (C3500XL-C3H2S-M), Version 12.0(5.1)XP, MAINTENANCE IN
TERIM SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Fri 10-Dec-99 11:16 by cchang
advertisement version: 2
Protocol Hello: OUI=0x00000C, Protocol ID=0x0112; payload len=25, value=0000000
0FFFFFFFF010101FF000000000000000142EFA400FF
VTP Management Domain: ''
AP# show cdp entry * protocol
Protocol information for talSwitch14 :
IP address: 172.20.135.194
Protocol information for tstswitch2 :
IP address: 172.20.135.204
IP address: 172.20.135.202
Protocol information for tstswitch2 :
IP address: 172.20.135.204
IP address: 172.20.135.202
AP# show cdp interface
GigabitEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/2 is up, line protocol is down
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/3 is administratively down, line protocol is down
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/4 is up, line protocol is down
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/5 is up, line protocol is up
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/6 is up, line protocol is up
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/7 is up, line protocol is down
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
GigabitEthernet0/8 is up, line protocol is down
Encapsulation ARPA
Sending CDP packets every 60 seconds
Holdtime is 180 seconds
AP# show cdp neighbor
Capability Codes: R - Router, T - Trans Bridge, B - Source Route Bridge
S - Switch, H - Host, I - IGMP, r - Repeater
Device ID
Local Intrfce
Holdtme
Capability
Platform
Port ID
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Perdido2
Perdido2
Gig 0/6
Gig 0/5
125
125
R S I
R S I
WS-C3550-1Gig
WS-C3550-1Gig
0/6
0/5
AP# show cdp traffic
CDP counters :
Total packets output: 50882, Input: 52510
Hdr syntax: 0, Chksum error: 0, Encaps failed: 0
No memory: 0, Invalid packet: 0, Fragmented: 0
CDP version 1 advertisements output: 0, Input: 0
CDP version 2 advertisements output: 50882, Input: 52510
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17
Configuring SNMP
This chapter describes how to configure the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) on your
access point.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco
Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Command Reference for this release and to the Cisco IOS
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This chapter consists of these sections:
•
Understanding SNMP, page 17-2
•
Configuring SNMP, page 17-4
•
Displaying SNMP Status, page 17-10
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Understanding SNMP
Understanding SNMP
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between
SNMP managers and agents. The SNMP manager can be part of a network management system (NMS)
such as CiscoWorks. The agent and management information base (MIB) reside on the access point. To
configure SNMP on the access point, you define the relationship between the manager and the agent.
The SNMP agent contains MIB variables whose values the SNMP manager can request or change. A
manager can get a value from an agent or store a value into the agent. The agent gathers data from the
MIB, the repository for information about device parameters and network data. The agent can also
respond to a manager’s requests to get or set data.
An agent can send unsolicited traps to the manager. Traps are messages alerting the SNMP manager to
a condition on the network. Traps can mean improper user authentication, restarts, link status (up or
down), MAC address tracking, closing of a TCP connection, loss of connection to a neighbor, or other
significant events.
This section includes these concepts:
•
SNMP Versions, page 17-2
•
SNMP Manager Functions, page 17-3
•
SNMP Agent Functions, page 17-3
•
SNMP Community Strings, page 17-3
•
Using SNMP to Access MIB Variables, page 17-4
SNMP Versions
This software release supports these SNMP versions:
•
SNMPv1—The Simple Network Management Protocol, a full Internet standard, defined in
RFC 1157.
•
SNMPv2C, which has these features:
– SNMPv2—Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol, a draft Internet standard,
defined in RFCs 1902 through 1907.
– SNMPv2C—The Community-based Administrative Framework for SNMPv2, an experimental
Internet protocol defined in RFC 1901.
SNMPv2C replaces the Party-based Administrative and Security Framework of SNMPv2Classic with
the Community-based Administrative Framework of SNMPv2C while retaining the bulk retrieval and
improved error handling of SNMPv2Classic.
Both SNMPv1 and SNMPv2C use a community-based form of security. The community of managers
able to access the agent’s MIB is defined by an IP address access control list and password.
SNMPv2C includes a bulk retrieval mechanism and more detailed error message reporting to
management stations. The bulk retrieval mechanism retrieves tables and large quantities of information,
minimizing the number of round-trips required. The SNMPv2C improved error-handling includes
expanded error codes that distinguish different kinds of error conditions; these conditions are reported
through a single error code in SNMPv1. Error return codes now report the error type.
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Understanding SNMP
You must configure the SNMP agent to use the version of SNMP supported by the management station.
An agent can communicate with multiple managers; therefore, you can configure the software to support
communications with one management station using the SNMPv1 protocol and another using the
SNMPv2 protocol.
SNMP Manager Functions
The SNMP manager uses information in the MIB to perform the operations described in Table 17-1.
Table 17-1 SNMP Operations
Operation
Description
get-request
Retrieves a value from a specific variable.
get-next-request
Retrieves a value from a variable within a table.1
get-bulk-request2
Retrieves large blocks of data that would otherwise require the transmission of
many small blocks of data, such as multiple rows in a table.
get-response
Replies to a get-request, get-next-request, and set-request sent by an NMS.
set-request
Stores a value in a specific variable.
trap
An unsolicited message sent by an SNMP agent to an SNMP manager when some
event has occurred.
1. With this operation, an SNMP manager does not need to know the exact variable name. A sequential search is performed to
find the needed variable from within a table.
2. The get-bulk command works only with SNMPv2.
SNMP Agent Functions
The SNMP agent responds to SNMP manager requests as follows:
•
Get a MIB variable—The SNMP agent begins this function in response to a request from the NMS.
The agent retrieves the value of the requested MIB variable and responds to the NMS with that value.
•
Set a MIB variable—The SNMP agent begins this function in response to a message from the NMS.
The SNMP agent changes the value of the MIB variable to the value requested by the NMS.
The SNMP agent also sends unsolicited trap messages to notify an NMS that a significant event has
occurred on the agent. Examples of trap conditions include, but are not limited to, when a port or module
goes up or down, when spanning-tree topology changes occur, and when authentication failures occur.
SNMP Community Strings
SNMP community strings authenticate access to MIB objects and function as embedded passwords. In
order for the NMS to access the access point, the community string definitions on the NMS must match
at least one of the three community string definitions on the access point.
A community string can have one of these attributes:
•
Read-only—Gives read access to authorized management stations to all objects in the MIB except
the community strings, but does not allow write access
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•
Read-write—Gives read and write access to authorized management stations to all objects in the
MIB, but does not allow access to the community strings
•
Read-write-all—Gives read and write access to authorized management stations to all objects in the
MIB, including the community strings
Using SNMP to Access MIB Variables
An example of an NMS is the CiscoWorks network management software. CiscoWorks 2000 software
uses the access point MIB variables to set device variables and to poll devices on the network for specific
information. The results of a poll can be displayed as a graph and analyzed to troubleshoot
internetworking problems, increase network performance, verify the configuration of devices, monitor
traffic loads, and more.
As shown in Figure 17-1, the SNMP agent gathers data from the MIB. The agent can send traps
(notification of certain events) to the SNMP manager, which receives and processes the traps. Traps are
messages alerting the SNMP manager to a condition on the network such as improper user
authentication, restarts, link status (up or down), MAC address tracking, and so forth. The SNMP agent
also responds to MIB-related queries sent by the SNMP manager in get-request, get-next-request, and
set-request format.
Figure 17-1 SNMP Network
SNMP manager
get-request, get-next-request,
get-bulk, set-request
get-response, traps
Network device
MIB
SNMP agent
81949
NMS
For information on supported MIBs and how to access them, see Appendix F, “Supported MIBs.”
Configuring SNMP
This section describes how to configure SNMP on your access point. It contains this configuration
information:
•
Default SNMP Configuration, page 17-5
•
Disabling the SNMP Agent, page 17-5
•
Configuring Community Strings, page 17-5
•
Configuring Trap Managers and Enabling Traps, page 17-7
•
Setting the Agent Contact and Location Information, page 17-9
•
Using the snmp-server view Command, page 17-9
•
SNMP Examples, page 17-9
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Configuring SNMP
Default SNMP Configuration
Table 17-2 shows the default SNMP configuration.
Table 17-2 Default SNMP Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
SNMP agent
Enabled
SNMP community strings
Read-Only: Public
Read-Write: Private
Read-Write-all: Secret
SNMP trap receiver
None configured
SNMP traps
None enabled
Disabling the SNMP Agent
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to disable the SNMP agent:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
no snmp-server
Disable the SNMP agent operation.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
No specific IOS command exists to enable SNMP. The first snmp-server global configuration command
that you enter enables SNMPv1 and SNMPv2.
Configuring Community Strings
You use the SNMP community string to define the relationship between the SNMP manager and the
agent. The community string acts like a password to permit access to the agent on the access point.
Optionally, you can specify one or more of these characteristics associated with the string:
•
An access list of IP addresses of the SNMP managers that are permitted to use the community string
to gain access to the agent
•
A MIB view, which defines the subset of all MIB objects accessible to the given community
•
Read and write or read-only permission for the MIB objects accessible to the community
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Configuring SNMP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a community string on the access
point:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
snmp-server community string [ro | rw]
[access-list-number]
Configure the community string.
Step 3
access-list access-list-number {deny |
permit} source [source-wildcard]
•
For string, specify a string that acts like a password and
permits access to the SNMP protocol. You can configure one
or more community strings of any length.
•
(Optional) Specify either read-only (ro) if you want
authorized management stations to retrieve MIB objects, or
specify read/write (rw) if you want authorized management
stations to retrieve and modify MIB objects. By default, the
community string permits read-only access to all objects.
•
(Optional) For access-list-number, enter an IP standard access
list numbered from 1 to 99 and 1300 to 1999.
(Optional) If you specified an IP standard access list number in
Step 2, then create the list, repeating the command as many times
as necessary.
•
For access-list-number, enter the access list number specified
in Step 2.
•
The deny keyword denies access if the conditions are
matched. The permit keyword permits access if the conditions
are matched.
•
For source, enter the IP address of the SNMP managers that
are permitted to use the community string to gain access to the
agent.
•
(Optional) For source-wildcard, enter the wildcard bits in
dotted decimal notation to be applied to the source. Place ones
in the bit positions that you want to ignore.
Recall that the access list is always terminated by an implicit deny
statement for everything.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Note
To disable access for an SNMP community, set the community string for that community to the null
string (do not enter a value for the community string).
To remove a specific community string, use the no snmp-server community string global configuration
command.
This example shows how to assign the string comaccess to SNMP, to allow read-only access, and to
specify that IP access list 4 can use the community string to gain access to the access point SNMP agent:
AP(config)# snmp-server community comaccess ro 4
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Configuring Trap Managers and Enabling Traps
A trap manager is a management station that receives and processes traps. Traps are system alerts that
the access point generates when certain events occur. By default, no trap manager is defined, and no traps
are issued.
Access points running this IOS release can have an unlimited number of trap managers. Community
strings can be any length.
Table 17-3 describes the supported access point traps (notification types). You can enable any or all of
these traps and configure a trap manager to receive them.
Table 17-3 Notification Types
Notification Type
Description
authenticate-fail
Enable traps for authentication failures.
config
Enable traps for SNMP configuration changes.
deauthenticate
Enable traps for client device deauthentications.
disassociate
Enable traps for client device disassociations.
dot11-qos
Enable traps for QoS changes.
entity
Enable traps for SNMP entity changes.
rogue-ap
Enable traps for rogue access point detections.
snmp
Enable traps for SNMP events.
switch-over
Enable traps for switch-overs.
syslog
Enable syslog traps.
wlan-wep
Enable WEP traps.
Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server enable global configuration
command, such as tty and udp-port. These notification types are always enabled. You can use the
snmp-server host global configuration command to a specific host to receive the notification types
listed in Table 17-3.
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Configuring SNMP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure the access point to send traps to a
host:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
snmp-server host host-addr {traps | informs} {version {1 Specify the recipient of the trap message.
| 2c}} community-string notification-type
• For host-addr, specify the name or address of the
host (the targeted recipient).
•
Specify traps (the default) to send SNMP traps
to the host. Specify informs to send SNMP
informs to the host.
•
Specify the SNMP version to support. Version 1,
the default, is not available with informs.
Note
Step 3
snmp-server enable traps notification-types
Though visible in the command-line help
string, the version 3 keyword (SNMPv3) is
not supported.
•
For community-string, specify the string to send
with the notification operation. Though you can
set this string using the snmp-server host
command, we recommend that you define this
string by using the snmp-server community
command before using the snmp-server host
command.
•
For notification-type, use the keywords listed in
Table 17-3 on page 17-7.
Enable the access point to send specific traps. For a
list of traps, see Table 17-3 on page 17-7.
To enable multiple types of traps, you must issue a
separate snmp-server enable traps command for
each trap type.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration
file.
To remove the specified host from receiving traps, use the no snmp-server host host global
configuration command. To disable a specific trap type, use the no snmp-server enable traps
notification-types global configuration command.
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Setting the Agent Contact and Location Information
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to set the system contact and location of the
SNMP agent so that these descriptions can be accessed through the configuration file:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
snmp-server contact text
Set the system contact string.
For example:
snmp-server contact Dial System Operator at beeper 21555.
Step 3
snmp-server location text
Set the system location string.
For example:
snmp-server location Building 3/Room 222
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Using the snmp-server view Command
In global configuration mode, use the snmp-server view command to access Standard IEEE 802.11 MIB
objects through IEEE view and the dot11 read-write community string.
This example shows how to enable IEEE view and dot11 read-write community string:
AP(config)# snmp-server view ieee ieee802dot11 included
AP(config)# snmp-server community dot11 view ieee RW
SNMP Examples
This example shows how to enable SNMPv1 and SNMPv2C. The configuration permits any SNMP
manager to access all objects with read-only permissions using the community string public. This
configuration does not cause the access point to send any traps.
AP(config)# snmp-server community public
This example shows how to permit any SNMP manager to access all objects with read-only permission
using the community string public. The access point also sends config traps to the hosts 192.180.1.111
and 192.180.1.33 using SNMPv1 and to the host 192.180.1.27 using SNMPv2C. The community string
public is sent with the traps.
AP(config)#
AP(config)#
AP(config)#
AP(config)#
AP(config)#
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
community public
enable traps config
host 192.180.1.27 version 2c public
host 192.180.1.111 version 1 public
host 192.180.1.33 public
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Configuring SNMP
Displaying SNMP Status
This example shows how to allow read-only access for all objects to members of access list 4 that use
the comaccess community string. No other SNMP managers have access to any objects. SNMP
Authentication Failure traps are sent by SNMPv2C to the host cisco.com using the community string
public.
AP(config)# snmp-server community comaccess ro 4
AP(config)# snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication
AP(config)# snmp-server host cisco.com version 2c public
This example shows how to send Entity MIB traps to the host cisco.com. The community string is
restricted. The first line enables the access point to send Entity MIB traps in addition to any traps
previously enabled. The second line specifies the destination of these traps and overwrites any previous
snmp-server host commands for the host cisco.com.
AP(config)# snmp-server enable traps entity
AP(config)# snmp-server host cisco.com restricted entity
This example shows how to enable the access point to send all traps to the host myhost.cisco.com using
the community string public:
AP(config)# snmp-server enable traps
AP(config)# snmp-server host myhost.cisco.com public
Displaying SNMP Status
To display SNMP input and output statistics, including the number of illegal community string entries,
errors, and requested variables, use the show snmp privileged EXEC command. For information about
the fields in this display, refer to the Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for
Release 12.2.
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18
Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points
This chapter descibes how to configure your access point as a hot standby unit or as a repeater unit. This
chapter contains these sections:
•
Understanding Repeater Access Points, page 18-2
•
Configuring a Repeater Access Point, page 18-3
•
Understanding Hot Standby, page 18-7
•
Configuring a Hot Standby Access Point, page 18-7
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Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points
Understanding Repeater Access Points
Understanding Repeater Access Points
A repeater access point is not connected to the wired LAN; it is placed within radio range of an access
point connected to the wired LAN to extend the range of your infrastructure or to overcome an obstacle
that blocks radio communication. You can configure either the 2.4-GHz radio or the 5-GHz radio as a
repeater. In access points with two radios, only one radio can be a repeater; the other radio must be
configured as a root radio.
The repeater forwards traffic between wireless users and the wired LAN by sending packets to either
another repeater or to an access point connected to the wired LAN. The data is sent through the route
that provides the best performance for the client. When you configure an access point as a repeater, the
access point’s Ethernet port does not forward traffic.
You can set up a chain of several repeater access points, but throughput for client devices at the end of
the repeater chain will be quite low. Because each repeater must receive and then re-transmit each packet
on the same channel, throughput is cut in half for each repeater you add to the chain.
A repeater access point associates to the access point with which it has the best connectivity. However,
you can specify the access point to which the repeater associates. Setting up a static, specific association
between a repeater and a root access point improves repeater performance.
To set up repeaters, you must enable Aironet extensions on both the parent (root) access point and the
repeater access points. Aironet extensions, which are enabled by default, improve the access point's
ability to understand the capabilities of Cisco Aironet client devices associated with the access point.
Disabling Aironet extensions sometimes improves the interoperability between the access point and
non-Cisco client devices. Non-Cisco client devices might have difficulty communicating with repeater
access points and the root access point to which repeaters are associated.
Figure 18-1 shows an access point acting as a repeater.
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Configuring Repeater and Standby Access Points
Configuring a Repeater Access Point
Figure 18-1 Access Point as a Repeater
Access Point
(Root Unit)
Wired LAN
66000
Access Point
(Repeater)
Configuring a Repeater Access Point
This section provides instructions for setting up an access point as a repeater and includes these sections:
•
Default Configuration, page 18-4
•
Guidelines for Repeaters, page 18-4
•
Setting Up a Repeater, page 18-4
•
Verifying Repeater Operation, page 18-5
•
Setting Up a Repeater As a LEAP Client, page 18-6
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Configuring a Repeater Access Point
Default Configuration
Access points are configured as root units by default. Table 18-1 shows the default values for settings
that control the access point’s role in the wireless LAN.
Table 18-1 Default Settings for Role in Wireless LAN
Feature
Default Setting
Station role
Root
Parent
none
Extensions
Aironet
Guidelines for Repeaters
Follow these guidelines when configuring repeater access points:
•
Use repeaters to serve client devices that do not require high throughput. Repeaters extend the
coverage area of your wireless LAN, but they drastically reduce throughput.
•
Use repeaters when most if not all client devices that associate with the repeaters are Cisco Aironet
clients. Non-Cisco client devices sometimes have trouble communicating with repeater access
points.
Setting Up a Repeater
Beginning in Privileged Exec mode, follow these steps to configure an access point as a repeater:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
ssid ssid-string
Create the SSID that the repeater uses to associate to a root access
point; in the next step designate this SSID as an infrastructure
SSID. If you created an infrastructure SSID on the root access
point, create the same SSID on the repeater, also.
Step 4
infrastructure-ssid [optional]
Designate the SSID as an infrastructure SSID. The repeater uses
this SSID to associate to the root access point. Infrastructure
devices must associate to the repeater access point using this
SSID unless you also enter the optional keyword.
Step 5
exit
Exit SSID configuration mode and return to radio interface
configuration mode.
Step 6
station-role repeater
Set the access point’s role in the wireless LAN to repeater.
Step 7
dot11 extensions aironet
If Aironet extensions are disabled, enable Aironet extensions.
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Configuring a Repeater Access Point
Step 8
Command
Purpose
parent {1-4} mac-address
[timeout]
(Optional) Enter the MAC address for the access point to which
the repeater should associate.
•
You can enter MAC addresses for up to four parent access
points. The repeater attempts to associate to MAC address 1
first; if that access point does not respond, the repeater tries
the next access point in its parent list.
•
(Optional) You can also enter a timeout value in seconds that
determines how long the repeater attempts to associate to a
parent access point before trying the next parent in the list.
Enter a timeout value from 0 to 65535 seconds.
Step 9
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 10
copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
This example shows how to set up a repeater acess point with three potential parents:
AP# configure terminal
AP(config)# interface dot11radio 0
AP(config-if)# ssid chicago
AP(config-ssid)# infrastructure-ssid
AP(config-ssid)# exit
AP(config-if)# station-role repeater
AP(config-if)# dot11 extensions aironet
AP(config-if)# parent 1 0987.1234.h345 900
AP(config-if)# parent 2 7809.b123.c345 900
AP(config-if)# parent 3 6543.a456.7421 900
AP(config-if)# end
Verifying Repeater Operation
After you set up the repeater, check the LEDs on top of the repeater access point. If your repeater is
functioning correctly, the LEDs on the repeater and the root access point to which it is associated behave
like this:
•
The status LED on the root access point is steady green, indicating that at least one client device is
associated with it (in this case, the repeater).
•
The status LED on the repeater access point is steady green when it is associated with the root access
point and the repeater has client devices associated to it. The repeater's status LED flashes (steady
green for 7/8 of a second and off for 1/8 of a second) when it is associated with the root access point
but the repeater has no client devices associated to it.
The repeater access point should also appear as associated with the root access point in the root access
point's Association Table.
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Configuring a Repeater Access Point
Setting Up a Repeater As a LEAP Client
You can set up a repeater access point to authenticate to your network like other wireless client devices.
After you provide a network username and password for the repeater access point, it authenticates to
your network using LEAP, Cisco's wireless authentication method, and receives and uses dynamic WEP
keys.
Setting up a repeater as a LEAP client requires three major steps:
1.
Create an authentication username and password for the repeater on your authentication server.
2.
Configure LEAP authentication on the root access point to which the repeater associates. See
Chapter 10, “Configuring Authentication Types,” for instructions on setting up authentication on the
access point.
3.
Configure the repeater to act as a LEAP client. Beginning in Privileged Exec mode, follow these
instructions to set up the repeater as a LEAP client:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
interface dot11radio { 0 | 1 }
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface. The
2.4-GHz radio is radio 0, and the 5-GHz radio is radio 1.
Step 3
ssid ssid-string
Create an SSID and enter SSID configuration mode for the new
SSID. The SSID can consist of up to 32 alphanumeric characters,
but they should not include spaces. SSIDs are case-sensitive.
Step 4
authentication network-eap
list-name
Enable LEAP authentication on the repeater so that
LEAP-enabled client devices can authenticate through the
repeater. For list-name, specify the name or IP address of the
authentication server.
Step 5
authentication client username
username
password password
Configure the username and password that the repeater uses when
it performs LEAP authentication. This username and password
must match the username and password that you set up for the
repeater on the authentication server.
Step 6
infrastructure ssid [optional]
(Optional) Designate the SSID as the SSID that other access
points and workgroup bridges use to associate to this access
point. If you do not designate an SSID as the infrastructure SSID,
infrastructure devices can associate to the access point using any
SSID. If you designate an SSID as the infrastructure SSID,
infrastructure devices must associate to the access point using
that SSID unless you also enter the optional keyword.
Step 7
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 8
copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
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Understanding Hot Standby
Understanding Hot Standby
Hot Standby mode designates an access point as a backup for another access point. The standby access
point is placed near the access point it monitors, configured exactly the same as the monitored access
point. The standby access point associates with the monitored access point as a client and queries the
monitored access point regularly through both the Ethernet and the radio ports. If the monitored access
point fails to respond, the standby access point comes online and takes the monitored access point’s place
in the network.
Except for the IP address, the standby access point’s settings should be identical to the settings on the
monitored access point. If the monitored access point goes offline and the standby access point takes its
place in the network, matching settings ensures that client devices can switch easily to the standby access
point.
Hot standby mode is disabled by default.
Note
If the monitored access point malfunctions and the standby access point takes its place, repeat the hot
standby setup on the standby access point when you repair or replace the monitored access point. The
standby access point does not revert to standby mode automatically.
Configuring a Hot Standby Access Point
When you set up the standby access point, you must enter the MAC address of the access point that the
standby unit will monitor. Record the MAC address of the monitored access point before you configure
the standby access point.
The standby access point also must duplicate several key settings on the monitored access point. These
settings are:
•
Primary SSID (as well as additional SSIDs configured on the monitored access point)
•
Default IP Subnet Mask
•
Default Gateway
•
Data rates
•
WEP settings
•
Authentication Types
Check the monitored access point and record these settings before you set up the standby access point.
Note
Wireless client devices associated to the standby access point lose their connections during the hot
standby setup process.
Beginning in Privileged Exec mode, follow these steps to enable hot standby mode on an access point:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
iapp standby mac-address
Puts the access point into standby mode and specifies the MAC
address of the monitored access point.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
interface dot11radio 0
Enter interface configuration mode for the radio interface.
Note
Hot Standby mode is available only for the 2.4-GHz
radio.
Step 4
ssid ssid-string
Create the SSID that the standby access point uses to associate to
the monitored access point; in the next step designate this SSID
as an infrastructure SSID. If you created an infrastructure SSID
on the monitored access point, create the same SSID on the
repeater, also.
Step 5
infrastructure-ssid [optional]
Designate the SSID as an infrastructure SSID. The standby uses
this SSID to associate to the monitored access point. If the
standby access point takes the place of the monitored access
point, infrastructure devices must associate to the standby access
point using this SSID unless you also enter the optional keyword.
Step 6
exit
Exit SSID configuration mode and return to radio interface
configuration mode.
Step 7
iapp standby poll-frequency
seconds
Sets the number of seconds between queries that the standby
access point sends to the monitored access point’s radio and
Ethernet ports.
Step 8
iapp standby timeout seconds
Sets the number of seconds the standby access point waits for a
response from the monitored access point before it assumes that
the monitored access point has malfunctioned.
Step 9
show iapp standby-parms
Verify your entries. If the access point is in standby mode, this
command displays the standby parameters, including the MAC
address of the monitored access point and the poll-frequency and
timeout values. If the access point is not in standby mode, no iapp
standby mac-address appears.
Step 10
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 11
copy running-config
startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
After you enable standby mode, configure the settings that you recorded from the monitored access point
to match on the standby access point.
Use this command to check the standby configuration:
show iapp standby-parms
This command displays the MAC address of the standby access point, the standby timeout, and the
poll-frequency values. If no standby access point is configured, this message appears:
no iapp standby mac-address
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19
Managing Firmware and Configurations
This chapter describes how to manipulate the Flash file system, how to copy configuration files, and how
to archive (upload and download) software images.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco
Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Command Reference for this release and the Cisco IOS Configuration
Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This chapter consists of these sections:
•
Working with the Flash File System, page 19-2
•
Working with Configuration Files, page 19-8
•
Working with Software Images, page 19-18
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Managing Firmware and Configurations
Working with the Flash File System
Working with the Flash File System
The Flash file system on your access point provides several commands to help you manage software
image and configuration files.
The Flash file system is a single Flash device on which you can store files. This Flash device is called
flash:.
This section contains this information:
•
Displaying Available File Systems, page 19-2
•
Setting the Default File System, page 19-3
•
Displaying Information About Files on a File System, page 19-3
•
Changing Directories and Displaying the Working Directory, page 19-4
•
Creating and Removing Directories, page 19-4
•
Copying Files, page 19-5
•
Deleting Files, page 19-5
•
Creating, Displaying, and Extracting tar Files, page 19-6
•
Displaying the Contents of a File, page 19-8
Displaying Available File Systems
To display the available file systems on your access point, use the show file systems privileged EXEC
command as shown in this example:
ap# show file systems
File Systems:
*
Size(b)
16128000
16128000
32768
-
Free(b)
11118592
11118592
26363
-
Type
flash
unknown
nvram
network
opaque
opaque
opaque
opaque
network
network
Flags
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
rw
ro
ro
rw
rw
Prefixes
flash:
zflash:
nvram:
tftp:
null:
system:
xmodem:
ymodem:
rcp:
ftp:
Table 19-1 lists field descriptions for the show file systems command.
Table 19-1 show file systems Field Descriptions
Field
Value
Size(b)
Amount of memory in the file system in bytes.
Free(b)
Amount of free memory in the file system in bytes.
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Table 19-1 show file systems Field Descriptions (continued)
Field
Value
Type
Type of file system.
flash—The file system is for a Flash memory device.
network—The file system is for a network device.
nvram—The file system is for a nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) device.
opaque—The file system is a locally generated pseudo file system (for example, the system) or a download
interface, such as brimux.
unknown—The file system is an unknown type.
Flags
Permission for file system.
ro—read-only.
rw—read/write.
wo—write-only.
Prefixes
Alias for file system.
flash:—Flash file system.
ftp:—File Transfer Protocol network server. Used to transfer files to or from the network device.
nvram:—Non-volatile RAM memory (NVRAM).
null:—Null destination for copies. You can copy a remote file to null to determine its size.
rcp:—Remote Copy Protocol (RCP) network server.
system:—Contains the system memory, including the running configuration.
tftp:—Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) network server.
zflash:—Read-only file decompression file system, which mirrors the contents of the Flash file system.
Setting the Default File System
You can specify the file system or directory that the system uses as the default file system by using the
cd filesystem: privileged EXEC command. You can set the default file system to omit the filesystem:
argument from related commands. For example, for all privileged EXEC commands that have the
optional filesystem: argument, the system uses the file system specified by the cd command.
By default, the default file system is flash:.
You can display the current default file system as specified by the cd command by using the pwd
privileged EXEC command.
Displaying Information About Files on a File System
You can view a list of the contents of a file system before manipulating its contents. For example, before
copying a new configuration file to Flash memory, you might want to verify that the file system does not
already contain a configuration file with the same name. Similarly, before copying a Flash configuration
file to another location, you might want to verify its filename for use in another command.
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Working with the Flash File System
To display information about files on a file system, use one of the privileged EXEC commands in
Table 19-2:
Table 19-2 Commands for Displaying Information About Files
Command
Description
dir [/all] [filesystem:][filename]
Display a list of files on a file system.
show file systems
Display more information about each of the files on a file system.
show file information file-url
Display information about a specific file.
show file descriptors
Display a list of open file descriptors. File descriptors are the internal representations
of open files. You can use this command to see if another user has a file open.
Changing Directories and Displaying the Working Directory
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change directories and display the working
directory.
Step 1
Command
Purpose
dir filesystem:
Display the directories on the specified file system.
For filesystem:, use flash: for the system board Flash device.
Step 2
cd new_configs
Change to the directory of interest.
The command example shows how to change to the directory named
new_configs.
Step 3
pwd
Display the working directory.
Creating and Removing Directories
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create and remove a directory:
Step 1
Command
Purpose
dir filesystem:
Display the directories on the specified file system.
For filesystem:, use flash: for the system board Flash device.
Step 2
mkdir old_configs
Create a new directory.
The command example shows how to create the directory named old_configs.
Directory names are case sensitive.
Directory names are limited to 45 characters between the slashes (/); the name
cannot contain control characters, spaces, deletes, slashes, quotes, semicolons,
or colons.
Step 3
dir filesystem:
Verify your entry.
To delete a directory with all its files and subdirectories, use the delete /force /recursive
filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
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Use the /recursive keyword to delete the named directory and all subdirectories and the files contained
in it. Use the /force keyword to suppress the prompting that confirms a deletion of each file in the
directory. You are prompted only once at the beginning of this deletion process. Use the /force and
/recursive keywords for deleting old software images that were installed by using the archive
download-sw command but are no longer needed.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board Flash device. For file-url, enter the name of the directory
to be deleted. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Caution
When files and directories are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered.
Copying Files
To copy a file from a source to a destination, use the copy [/erase] source-url destination-url privileged
EXEC command. For the source and destination URLs, you can use running-config and startup-config
keyword shortcuts. For example, the copy running-config startup-config command saves the currently
running configuration file to the NVRAM section of Flash memory to be used as the configuration
during system initialization.
Network file system URLs include ftp:, rcp:, and tftp: and have the following syntax:
•
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)—ftp:[[//username [:password]@location]/directory]/filename
•
Remote Copy Protocol (RCP)—rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/filename
•
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)—tftp:[[//location]/directory]/filename
Local writable file systems include flash:.
Some invalid combinations of source and destination exist. Specifically, you cannot copy these
combinations:
•
From a running configuration to a running configuration
•
From a startup configuration to a startup configuration
•
From a device to the same device (for example, the copy flash: flash: command is invalid)
For specific examples of using the copy command with configuration files, see the “Working with
Configuration Files” section on page 19-8.
To copy software images either by downloading a new version or uploading the existing one, use the
archive download-sw or the archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command. For more information, see
the “Working with Software Images” section on page 19-18.
Deleting Files
When you no longer need a file on a Flash memory device, you can permanently delete it. To delete a
file or directory from a specified Flash device, use the delete [/force] [/recursive] [filesystem:]/file-url
privileged EXEC command.
Caution
When files are deleted, their contents cannot be recovered.
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Use the /recursive keyword for deleting a directory and all subdirectories and the files contained in it.
Use the /force keyword to suppress the prompting that confirms a deletion of each file in the directory.
You are prompted only once at the beginning of this deletion process. Use the /force and /recursive
keywords for deleting old software images that were installed by using the archive download-sw
command but are no longer needed.
If you omit the filesystem: option, the access point uses the default device specified by the cd command.
For file-url, you specify the path (directory) and the name of the file to be deleted.
This example shows how to delete the file myconfig from the default Flash memory device:
ap# delete myconfig
Creating, Displaying, and Extracting tar Files
You can create a tar file and write files into it, list the files in a tar file, and extract the files from a tar
file as described in the next sections.
Creating a tar File
To create a tar file and write files into it, use this privileged EXEC command:
archive tar /create destination-url flash:/file-url
For destination-url, specify the destination URL alias for the local or network file system and the name
of the tar file to create. These options are supported:
•
For the local Flash file system, the syntax is
flash:/file-url
•
For the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the syntax is
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), the syntax is
rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), the syntax is
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
The tar-filename.tar is the tar file to be created.
For flash:/file-url, specify the location on the local Flash file system from which the new tar file is
created. You can also specify an optional list of files or directories within the source directory to write
to the new tar file. If none are specified, all files and directories at this level are written to the newly
created tar file.
This example shows how to create a tar file. This command writes the contents of the new-configs
directory on the local Flash device to a file named saved.tar on the TFTP server at 172.20.10.30:
ap# archive tar /create tftp:172.20.10.30/saved.tar flash:/new-configs
Displaying the Contents of a tar File
To display the contents of a tar file on the screen, use this privileged EXEC command:
archive tar /table source-url
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For source-url, specify the source URL alias for the local or network file system. These options are
supported:
•
For the local Flash file system, the syntax is
flash:
•
For the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the syntax is
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), the syntax is
rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), the syntax is
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
The tar-filename.tar is the tar file to display.
You can also limit the display of the files by specifying an optional list of files or directories after the tar
file; then only these files are displayed. If none are specified, all files and directories are displayed.
This example shows how to display the contents of the c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA.tar file that is in Flash
memory:
ap# archive tar /table flash:c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA.tar
info (219 bytes)
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/ (directory)
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/html/ (directory)
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/html/foo.html (0 bytes)
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA.bin (610856 bytes)
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/info (219 bytes)
info.ver (219 bytes)
This example shows how to display only the c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/html directory and its contents:
ap# archive tar /table flash:c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/html
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/html/ (directory)
c1200-k9w7-mx.122-8.JA/html/foo.html (0 bytes)
Extracting a tar File
To extract a tar file into a directory on the Flash file system, use this privileged EXEC command:
archive tar /xtract source-url flash:/file-url
For source-url, specify the source URL alias for the local or network file system. These options are
supported:
•
For the local Flash file system, the syntax is
flash:
•
For the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the syntax is
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the Remote Copy Protocol (RCP), the syntax is
rcp:[[//username@location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
•
For the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), the syntax is
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/tar-filename.tar
The tar-filename.tar is the tar file from which to extract files.
For flash:/file-url, specify the location on the local Flash file system into which the tar file is extracted.
You can also specify an optional list of files or directories within the tar file for extraction. If none are
specified, all files and directories are extracted.
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This example shows how to extract the contents of a tar file located on the TFTP server at 172.20.10.30.
This command extracts just the new-configs directory into the root directory on the local Flash file
system. The remaining files in the saved.tar file are ignored.
ap# archive tar /xtract tftp://172.20.10.30/saved.tar flash:/new-configs
Displaying the Contents of a File
To display the contents of any readable file, including a file on a remote file system, use the more [/ascii
| /binary | /ebcdic] file-url privileged EXEC command:
This example shows how to display the contents of a configuration file on a TFTP server:
ap# more tftp://serverA/hampton/savedconfig
!
! Saved configuration on server
!
version 11.3
service timestamps log datetime localtime
service linenumber
service udp-small-servers
service pt-vty-logging
!
<output truncated>
Working with Configuration Files
This section describes how to create, load, and maintain configuration files. Configuration files contain
commands entered to customize the function of the Cisco IOS software. To better benefit from these
instructions, your access point contains a minimal default running configuration for interacting with the
system software.
You can copy (download) configuration files from a TFTP, FTP, or RCP server to the running
configuration of the access point for various reasons:
•
To restore a backed-up configuration file.
•
To use the configuration file for another access point. For example, you might add another access
point to your network and want it to have a configuration similar to the original access point. By
copying the file to the new access point, you can change the relevant parts rather than recreating the
whole file.
•
To load the same configuration commands on all the access points in your network so that all the
access points have similar configurations.
You can copy (upload) configuration files from the access point to a file server by using TFTP, FTP, or
RCP. You might perform this task to back up a current configuration file to a server before changing its
contents so that you can later restore the original configuration file from the server.
The protocol you use depends on which type of server you are using. The FTP and RCP transport
mechanisms provide faster performance and more reliable delivery of data than TFTP. These
improvements are possible because FTP and RCP are built on and use the Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack, which is connection oriented.
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This section includes this information:
•
Guidelines for Creating and Using Configuration Files, page 19-9
•
Configuration File Types and Location, page 19-9
•
Creating a Configuration File by Using a Text Editor, page 19-10
•
Copying Configuration Files by Using TFTP, page 19-10
•
Copying Configuration Files by Using FTP, page 19-12
•
Copying Configuration Files by Using RCP, page 19-15
•
Clearing Configuration Information, page 19-18
Guidelines for Creating and Using Configuration Files
Creating configuration files can aid in your access point configuration. Configuration files can contain
some or all of the commands needed to configure one or more access points. For example, you might
want to download the same configuration file to several access points that have the same hardware
configuration.
Use these guidelines when creating a configuration file:
•
If no passwords have been set on the access point, you must set them on each access point by
entering the enable secret secret-password global configuration command. Enter a blank line for
this command. The password is saved in the configuration file as clear text.
•
If passwords already exist, you cannot enter the enable secret secret-password global configuration
command in the file because the password verification will fail. If you enter a password in the
configuration file, the access point mistakenly attempts to execute the passwords as commands as it
executes the file.
•
The copy {ftp: | rcp: | tftp:} system:running-config privileged EXEC command loads the
configuration files on the access point as if you were entering the commands at the command line.
The access point does not erase the existing running configuration before adding the commands. If
a command in the copied configuration file replaces a command in the existing configuration file,
the existing command is erased. For example, if the copied configuration file contains a different IP
address in a particular command than the existing configuration, the IP address in the copied
configuration is used. However, some commands in the existing configuration might not be replaced
or negated. In this case, the resulting configuration file is a mixture of the existing configuration file
and the copied configuration file, with the copied configuration file having precedence.
To restore a configuration file to an exact copy of a file stored on a server, copy the configuration
file directly to the startup configuration (by using the copy {ftp: | rcp: | tftp:}
nvram:startup-config privileged EXEC command), and reload the access point.
Configuration File Types and Location
Startup configuration files are used during system startup to configure the software. Running
configuration files contain the current configuration of the software. The two configuration files can be
different. For example, you might want to change the configuration for a short time period rather than
permanently. In this case, you would change the running configuration but not save the configuration by
using the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command.
The running configuration is saved in DRAM; the startup configuration is stored in the NVRAM section
of Flash memory.
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Creating a Configuration File by Using a Text Editor
When creating a configuration file, you must list commands logically so that the system can respond
appropriately. This is one method of creating a configuration file:
Step 1
Copy an existing configuration from an access point to a server.
For more information, see the “Downloading the Configuration File by Using TFTP” section on
page 19-11, the “Downloading a Configuration File by Using FTP” section on page 19-13, or the
“Downloading a Configuration File by Using RCP” section on page 19-16.
Step 2
Open the configuration file in a text editor such as vi or emacs on UNIX or Notepad on a PC.
Step 3
Extract the portion of the configuration file with the desired commands, and save it in a new file.
Step 4
Copy the configuration file to the appropriate server location. For example, copy the file to the TFTP
directory on the workstation (usually /tftpboot on a UNIX workstation).
Step 5
Make sure the permissions on the file are set to world-read.
Copying Configuration Files by Using TFTP
You can configure the access point by using configuration files you create, download from another
access point, or download from a TFTP server. You can copy (upload) configuration files to a TFTP
server for storage.
This section includes this information:
•
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using TFTP, page 19-10
•
Downloading the Configuration File by Using TFTP, page 19-11
•
Uploading the Configuration File by Using TFTP, page 19-11
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using TFTP
Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using TFTP, perform these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the TFTP server is properly configured. On a Sun workstation,
make sure that the /etc/inetd.conf file contains this line:
tftp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/in.tftpd in.tftpd -p -s /tftpboot
Make sure that the /etc/services file contains this line:
tftp 69/udp
Note
•
You must restart the inetd daemon after modifying the /etc/inetd.conf and /etc/services files.
To restart the daemon, either stop the inetd process and restart it, or enter a fastboot
command (on the SunOS 4.x) or a reboot command (on Solaris 2.x or SunOS 5.x). For more
information on the TFTP daemon, refer to the documentation for your workstation.
Ensure that the access point has a route to the TFTP server. The access point and the TFTP server
must be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check
connectivity to the TFTP server by using the ping command.
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•
Ensure that the configuration file to be downloaded is in the correct directory on the TFTP server
(usually /tftpboot on a UNIX workstation).
•
For download operations, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. The permission
on the file should be world-read.
•
Before uploading the configuration file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server.
To create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file
you will use when uploading it to the server.
•
During upload operations, if you are overwriting an existing file (including an empty file, if you had
to create one) on the server, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. Permissions on
the file should be world-write.
Downloading the Configuration File by Using TFTP
To configure the access point by using a configuration file downloaded from a TFTP server, follow these
steps:
Step 1
Copy the configuration file to the appropriate TFTP directory on the workstation.
Step 2
Verify that the TFTP server is properly configured by referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload
a Configuration File by Using TFTP” section on page 19-10.
Step 3
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 4
Download the configuration file from the TFTP server to configure the access point.
Specify the IP address or host name of the TFTP server and the name of the file to download.
Use one of these privileged EXEC commands:
•
copy tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] system:running-config
•
copy tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename] nvram:startup-config
The configuration file downloads, and the commands are executed as the file is parsed line-by-line.
This example shows how to configure the software from the file tokyo-confg at IP address 172.16.2.155:
ap# copy tftp://172.16.2.155/tokyo-confg system:running-config
Configure using tokyo-confg from 172.16.2.155? [confirm] y
Booting tokyo-confg from 172.16.2.155:!!! [OK - 874/16000 bytes]
Uploading the Configuration File by Using TFTP
To upload a configuration file from an access point to a TFTP server for storage, follow these steps:
Step 1
Verify that the TFTP server is properly configured by referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload
a Configuration File by Using TFTP” section on page 19-10.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
Upload the access point configuration to the TFTP server. Specify the IP address or host name of the
TFTP server and the destination filename.
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Use one of these privileged EXEC commands:
•
copy system:running-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename]
•
copy nvram:startup-config tftp:[[[//location]/directory]/filename]
The file is uploaded to the TFTP server.
This example shows how to upload a configuration file from an access point to a TFTP server:
ap# copy system:running-config tftp://172.16.2.155/tokyo-confg
Write file tokyo-confg on host 172.16.2.155? [confirm] y
#
Writing tokyo-confg!!! [OK]
Copying Configuration Files by Using FTP
You can copy configuration files to or from an FTP server.
The FTP protocol requires a client to send a remote username and password on each FTP request to a
server. When you copy a configuration file from the access point to a server by using FTP, the Cisco IOS
software sends the first valid username in this list:
•
The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip ftp username username global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
Anonymous.
The access point sends the first valid password in this list:
•
The password specified in the copy command if a password is specified.
•
The password set by the ip ftp password password global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
The access point forms a password named username@apname.domain. The variable username is the
username associated with the current session, apname is the configured host name, and domain is
the domain of the access point.
The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to
the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept your FTP write request.
Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all
copies. Include the username in the copy command if you want to specify only a username for that copy
operation.
If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file is written to or copied from the directory
associated with the username on the server. For example, if the configuration file resides in the home
directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.
For more information, refer to the documentation for your FTP server.
This section includes this information:
•
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using FTP, page 19-13
•
Downloading a Configuration File by Using FTP, page 19-13
•
Uploading a Configuration File by Using FTP, page 19-14
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Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using FTP
Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using FTP, perform these tasks:
•
Ensure that the access point has a route to the FTP server. The access point and the FTP server must
be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check
connectivity to the FTP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username,
make sure that the current FTP username is the one that you want to use for the FTP download. You
can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If you do not want
to use this username, create a new FTP username by using the ip ftp username username global
configuration command during all copy operations. The new username is stored in NVRAM. If you
are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you have a valid username, this username
is used, and you do not need to set the FTP username. Include the username in the copy command
if you want to specify a username for only that copy operation.
•
When you upload a configuration file to the FTP server, it must be properly configured to accept the
write request from the user on the access point.
For more information, refer to the documentation for your FTP server.
Downloading a Configuration File by Using FTP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to download a configuration file by using FTP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration
File by Using FTP” section on page 19-13.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode on the access point.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
Using FTP, copy the configuration file from a network server
copy
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory] to the running configuration or to the startup configuration
file.
/filename] system:running-config
or
copy
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory]
/filename] nvram:startup-config
This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory
on the remote server with an IP address of 172.16.101.101 and to load and run those commands on the
access point:
ap# copy ftp://netadmin1:mypass@172.16.101.101/host1-confg system:running-config
Configure using host1-confg from 172.16.101.101? [confirm]
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Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host1-confg:![OK]
ap#
%SYS-5-CONFIG: Configured from host1-config by ftp from 172.16.101.101
This example shows how to specify a remote username of netadmin1. The software copies the
configuration file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address
of 172.16.101.101 to the access point startup configuration.
ap# configure terminal
ap(config)# ip ftp username netadmin1
ap(config)# ip ftp password mypass
ap(config)# end
ap# copy ftp: nvram:startup-config
Address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file[rtr2-confg]? host2-confg
Configure using host2-confg from 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host2-confg:![OK]
[OK]
ap#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_NV:Non-volatile store configured from host2-config by ftp from
172.16.101.101
Uploading a Configuration File by Using FTP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload a configuration file by using FTP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File by Using FTP” section on page 19-13.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
Using FTP, store the access point running or startup
copy system:running-config
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory] configuration file to the specified location.
/filename]
or
copy nvram:startup-config
ftp:[[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory]
/filename]
This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named ap2-confg to the netadmin1
directory on the remote host with an IP address of 172.16.101.101:
ap# copy system:running-config ftp://netadmin1:mypass@172.16.101.101/ap2-confg
Write file ap2-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
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Building configuration...[OK]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
ap#
This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server by using FTP to copy the file:
ap# configure terminal
ap(config)# ip ftp username netadmin2
ap(config)# ip ftp password mypass
ap(config)# end
ap# copy nvram:startup-config ftp:
Remote host[]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file to write [ap2-confg]?
Write file ap2-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
![OK]
Copying Configuration Files by Using RCP
The Remote Copy Protocol (RCP) provides another method of downloading, uploading, and copying
configuration files between remote hosts and the access point. Unlike TFTP, which uses User Datagram
Protocol (UDP), a connectionless protocol, RCP uses TCP, which is connection-oriented.
To use RCP to copy files, the server from or to which you will be copying files must support RCP. The
RCP copy commands rely on the rsh server (or daemon) on the remote system. To copy files by using
RCP, you do not need to create a server for file distribution as you do with TFTP. You only need to have
access to a server that supports the remote shell (rsh). (Most UNIX systems support rsh.) Because you
are copying a file from one place to another, you must have read permission on the source file and write
permission on the destination file. If the destination file does not exist, RCP creates it for you.
The RCP requires a client to send a remote username with each RCP request to a server. When you copy
a configuration file from the access point to a server, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid
username in this list:
•
The username specified in the copy command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the
command is configured.
•
The remote username associated with the current TTY (terminal) process. For example, if the user
is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command,
the access point software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.
•
The access point host name.
For a successful RCP copy request, you must define an account on the network server for the remote
username. If the server has a directory structure, the configuration file is written to or copied from the
directory associated with the remote username on the server. For example, if the configuration file is in
the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.
This section includes this information:
•
Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using RCP, page 19-16
•
Downloading a Configuration File by Using RCP, page 19-16
•
Uploading a Configuration File by Using RCP, page 19-17
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Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration File by Using RCP
Before you begin downloading or uploading a configuration file by using RCP, perform these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the RCP server supports the remote shell (rsh).
•
Ensure that the access point has a route to the RCP server. The access point and the server must be
in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check
connectivity to the RCP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username,
make sure that the current RCP username is the one that you want to use for the RCP download. You
can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If you do not want
to use this username, create a new RCP username by using the ip rcmd remote-username username
global configuration command to be used during all copy operations. The new username is stored in
NVRAM. If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you have a valid
username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the RCP username. Include the username
in the copy command if you want to specify a username for only that copy operation.
•
When you upload a file to the RCP server, it must be properly configured to accept the RCP write
request from the user on the access point. For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to the .rhosts
file for the remote user on the RCP server. For example, suppose that the access point contains these
configuration lines:
hostname ap1
ip rcmd remote-username User0
If the access point IP address translates to ap1.company.com, the .rhosts file for User0 on the RCP
server should contain this line:
ap1.company.com ap1
For more information, refer to the documentation for your RCP server.
Downloading a Configuration File by Using RCP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to download a configuration file by using RCP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File by Using RCP” section on page 19-16.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
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Command
Purpose
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
system:running-config
Using RCP, copy the configuration file from a network
server to the running configuration or to the startup
configuration file.
or
copy
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
nvram:startup-config
This example shows how to copy a configuration file named host1-confg from the netadmin1 directory
on the remote server with an IP address of 172.16.101.101 and load and run those commands on the
access point:
ap# copy rcp://netadmin1@172.16.101.101/host1-confg system:running-config
Configure using host1-confg from 172.16.101.101? [confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host1-confg:![OK]
ap#
%SYS-5-CONFIG: Configured from host1-config by rcp from 172.16.101.101
This example shows how to specify a remote username of netadmin1. Then it copies the configuration
file host2-confg from the netadmin1 directory on the remote server with an IP address of 172.16.101.101
to the startup configuration:
ap# configure terminal
ap(config)# ip rcmd remote-username netadmin1
ap(config)# end
ap# copy rcp: nvram:startup-config
Address of remote host [255.255.255.255]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file[rtr2-confg]? host2-confg
Configure using host2-confg from 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
Loading 1112 byte file host2-confg:![OK]
[OK]
ap#
%SYS-5-CONFIG_NV:Non-volatile store configured from host2-config by rcp from
172.16.101.101
Uploading a Configuration File by Using RCP
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload a configuration file by using RCP:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a
Configuration File by Using RCP” section on page 19-16.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
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Command
Purpose
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
copy system:running-config
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
Using RCP, copy the configuration file from an access point
running or startup configuration file to a network server.
or
copy nvram:startup-config
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/filename]
This example shows how to copy the running configuration file named ap2-confg to the netadmin1
directory on the remote host with an IP address of 172.16.101.101:
ap# copy system:running-config rcp://netadmin1@172.16.101.101/ap2-confg
Write file ap-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
Building configuration...[OK]
Connected to 172.16.101.101
ap#
This example shows how to store a startup configuration file on a server:
ap# configure terminal
ap(config)# ip rcmd remote-username netadmin2
ap(config)# end
ap# copy nvram:startup-config rcp:
Remote host[]? 172.16.101.101
Name of configuration file to write [ap2-confg]?
Write file ap2-confg on host 172.16.101.101?[confirm]
![OK]
Clearing Configuration Information
This section describes how to clear configuration information.
Deleting a Stored Configuration File
Caution
You cannot restore a file after it has been deleted.
To delete a saved configuration from Flash memory, use the delete flash:filename privileged EXEC
command. Depending on the setting of the file prompt global configuration command, you might be
prompted for confirmation before you delete a file. By default, the access point prompts for confirmation
on destructive file operations. For more information about the file prompt command, refer to the Cisco
IOS Command Reference for Release 12.1.
Working with Software Images
This section describes how to archive (download and upload) software image files, which contain the
system software, IOS code, radio firmware, and the web management HTML files.
You download an access point image file from a TFTP, FTP, or RCP server to upgrade the access point
software. You upload an access point image file to a TFTP, FTP, or RCP server for backup purposes. You
can use this uploaded image for future downloads to the same access point or another of the same type.
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The protocol you use depends on which type of server you are using. The FTP and RCP transport
mechanisms provide faster performance and more reliable delivery of data than TFTP. These
improvements are possible because FTP and RCP are built on and use the Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) stack, which is connection-oriented.
This section includes this information:
Note
•
Image Location on the Access Point, page 19-19
•
tar File Format of Images on a Server or Cisco.com, page 19-19
•
Copying Image Files by Using TFTP, page 19-20
•
Copying Image Files by Using FTP, page 19-23
•
Copying Image Files by Using RCP, page 19-27
•
Reloading the Image Using the Web Browser Interface, page 19-32
For a list of software images and supported upgrade paths, refer to the release notes for your access point.
Image Location on the Access Point
The IOS image is stored in a directory that shows the version number. A subdirectory contains the HTML
files needed for web management. The image is stored on the system board Flash memory (flash:).
You can use the show version privileged EXEC command to see the software version that is currently
running on your access point. In the display, check the line that begins with System image file is...
It shows the directory name in Flash memory where the image is stored.
You can also use the dir filesystem: privileged EXEC command to see the directory names of other
software images you might have stored in Flash memory.
tar File Format of Images on a Server or Cisco.com
Software images located on a server or downloaded from Cisco.com are provided in a tar file format,
which contains these files:
•
info file
The info file is always at the beginning of the tar file and contains information about the files within
it.
•
IOS image
•
Web management files needed by the HTTP server on the access point
•
radio firmware 5000.img file
•
info.ver file
The info.ver file is always at the end of the tar file and contains the same information as the info file.
Because it is the last file in the tar file, its existence means that all files in the image have been
downloaded.
Note
The tar file sometimes ends with an extension other than .tar.
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Copying Image Files by Using TFTP
You can download an access point image from a TFTP server or upload the image from the access point
to a TFTP server.
You download an access point image file from a server to upgrade the access point software. You can
overwrite the current image with the new one.
You upload an access point image file to a server for backup purposes; this uploaded image can be used
for future downloads to the same or another access point of the same type.
This section includes this information:
•
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using TFTP, page 19-20
•
Downloading an Image File by Using TFTP, page 19-21
•
Uploading an Image File by Using TFTP, page 19-22
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using TFTP
Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using TFTP, perform these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the TFTP server is properly configured. On a Sun workstation,
make sure that the /etc/inetd.conf file contains this line:
tftp dgram udp wait root /usr/etc/in.tftpd in.tftpd -p -s /tftpboot
Make sure that the /etc/services file contains this line:
tftp 69/udp
Note
You must restart the inetd daemon after modifying the /etc/inetd.conf and /etc/services files.
To restart the daemon, either stop the inetd process and restart it, or enter a fastboot
command (on the SunOS 4.x) or a reboot command (on Solaris 2.x or SunOS 5.x). For more
information on the TFTP daemon, refer to the documentation for your workstation.
•
Ensure that the access point has a route to the TFTP server. The access point and the TFTP server
must be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check
connectivity to the TFTP server by using the ping command.
•
Ensure that the image to be downloaded is in the correct directory on the TFTP server (usually
/tftpboot on a UNIX workstation).
•
For download operations, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. The permission
on the file should be world-read.
•
Before uploading the image file, you might need to create an empty file on the TFTP server. To
create an empty file, enter the touch filename command, where filename is the name of the file you
will use when uploading the image to the server.
•
During upload operations, if you are overwriting an existing file (including an empty file, if you had
to create one) on the server, ensure that the permissions on the file are set correctly. Permissions on
the file should be world-write.
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Downloading an Image File by Using TFTP
You can download a new image file and replace the current image or keep the current image.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image directories.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow Steps 1 through 3 to download a new image from a TFTP
server and overwrite the existing image.
Step 1
Command
Purpose
.
Copy the image to the appropriate TFTP directory on the
workstation. Make sure the TFTP server is properly configured; see
the “Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using
TFTP” section on page 19-20
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
archive download-sw /overwrite /reload
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/image-name
Download the image file from the TFTP server to the access point,
and overwrite the current image.
archive download-sw /leave-old-sw /reload
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/image-name
Note
•
The /overwrite option overwrites the software image in Flash
with the downloaded image.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading the
image unless the configuration has been changed and not
saved.
•
For //location, specify the IP address of the TFTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name, specify the directory (optional)
and the image to download. Directory and image names are
case sensitive.
Download the image file from the TFTP server to the access point,
and keep the current image.
•
The /leave-old-sw option keeps the old software version after
a download.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading the
image unless the configuration has been changed and not
saved.
•
For //location, specify the IP address of the TFTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name, specify the directory (optional)
and the image to download. Directory and image names are
case sensitive.
To avoid an unsuccessful download, use the archive download-sw /safe command, which downloads
the image first and does not delete the current running version until the download succeeds.
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The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the access point model and that enough
DRAM is present, or it aborts the process and reports an error. If you specify the /overwrite option, the
download algorithm removes the existing image on the Flash device whether or not it is the same as the
new one, downloads the new image, and then reloads the software.
Note
If the Flash device has sufficient space to hold two images and you want to overwrite one of these images
with the same version, you must specify the /overwrite option.
If you specify the /leave-old-sw, the existing files are not removed. If there is not enough space to install
the new image and keep the current running image, the download process stops, and an error message is
displayed.
The algorithm installs the downloaded image on the system board Flash device (flash:). The image is
placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the system boot path variable is
updated to point to the newly installed image.
If you kept the old image during the download process (you specified the /leave-old-sw keyword), you
can remove it by entering the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board Flash device. For file-url, enter the directory name of the
old image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Uploading an Image File by Using TFTP
You can upload an image from the access point to a TFTP server. You can later download this image to
the access point or to another access point of the same type.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image directories.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload an image to a TFTP server:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Make sure the TFTP server is properly configured; see the
“Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using TFTP”
section on page 19-20.
Step 1
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 2
archive upload-sw
tftp:[[//location]/directory]/image-name.tar
Upload the currently running access point image to the TFTP
server.
•
For //location, specify the IP address of the TFTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory (optional)
and the name of the software image to be uploaded. Directory
and image names are case sensitive. The image-name.tar is the
name of the software image to be stored on the server.
The archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command builds an image file on the server by uploading these
files in order: info, the IOS image, the HTML files, and info.ver. After these files are uploaded, the
upload algorithm creates the tar file format.
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Copying Image Files by Using FTP
You can download an access point image from an FTP server or upload the image from the access point
to an FTP server.
You download an access point image file from a server to upgrade the access point software. You can
overwrite the current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download.
You upload an access point image file to a server for backup purposes. You can use this uploaded image
for future downloads to the access point or another access point of the same type.
This section includes this information:
•
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using FTP, page 19-23
•
Downloading an Image File by Using FTP, page 19-24
•
Uploading an Image File by Using FTP, page 19-26
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using FTP
You can copy images files to or from an FTP server.
The FTP protocol requires a client to send a remote username and password on each FTP request to a
server. When you copy an image file from the access point to a server by using FTP, the Cisco IOS
software sends the first valid username in this list:
•
The username specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip ftp username username global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
Anonymous.
The access point sends the first valid password in this list:
•
The password specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if a password is specified.
•
The password set by the ip ftp password password global configuration command if the command
is configured.
•
The access point forms a password named username@apname.domain. The variable username is the
username associated with the current session, apname is the configured host name, and domain is
the domain of the access point.
The username and password must be associated with an account on the FTP server. If you are writing to
the server, the FTP server must be properly configured to accept the FTP write request from you.
Use the ip ftp username and ip ftp password commands to specify a username and password for all
copies. Include the username in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if you want to specify a username only for that operation.
If the server has a directory structure, the image file is written to or copied from the directory associated
with the username on the server. For example, if the image file resides in the home directory of a user
on the server, specify that user's name as the remote username.
Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using FTP, perform these tasks:
•
Ensure that the access point has a route to the FTP server. The access point and the FTP server must
be in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Verify
connectivity to the FTP server by using the ping command.
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•
If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username,
make sure that the current FTP username is the one that you want to use for the FTP download. You
can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If you do not want
to use this username, create a new FTP username by using the ip ftp username username global
configuration command. This new name will be used during all archive operations. The new
username is stored in NVRAM. If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and
you have a valid username, this username is used, and you do not need to set the FTP username.
Include the username in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if you want to specify a username for that operation only.
•
When you upload an image file to the FTP server, it must be properly configured to accept the write
request from the user on the access point.
For more information, refer to the documentation for your FTP server.
Downloading an Image File by Using FTP
You can download a new image file and overwrite the current image or keep the current image.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image directories.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow Steps 1 through 7 to download a new image from an FTP
server and overwrite the existing image. To keep the current image, skip Step 7.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by
Using FTP” section on page 19-23.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
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Command
Step 7
Step 8
Purpose
archive download-sw /overwrite /reload
Download the image file from the FTP server to the access
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory] point, and overwrite the current image.
/image-name.tar
• The /overwrite option overwrites the software image in
Flash with the downloaded image.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading
the image unless the configuration has been changed and
not saved.
•
For //username[:password], specify the username and
password; these must be associated with an account on the
FTP server. For more information, see the “Preparing to
Download or Upload an Image File by Using FTP” section
on page 19-23.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the FTP server.
•
For directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
archive download-sw /leave-old-sw /reload
Download the image file from the FTP server to the access
ftp:[[//username[:password]@location]/directory] point, and keep the current image.
/image-name.tar
• The /leave-old-sw option keeps the old software version
after a download.
Note
•
The /reload option reloads the system after downloading
the image unless the configuration has been changed and
not saved.
•
For //username[:password], specify the username and
password. These must be associated with an account on
the FTP server. For more information, see the “Preparing
to Download or Upload an Image File by Using FTP”
section on page 19-23.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the FTP server.
•
For directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
To avoid an unsuccessful download, use the archive download-sw /safe command, which downloads
the image first and does not delete the current running version until the download succeeds.
The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the access point model and that enough
DRAM is present, or it aborts the process and reports an error. If you specify the /overwrite option, the
download algorithm removes the existing image on the Flash device, whether or not it is the same as the
new one, downloads the new image, and then reloads the software.
Note
If the Flash device has sufficient space to hold two images and you want to overwrite one of these images
with the same version, you must specify the /overwrite option.
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If you specify the /leave-old-sw, the existing files are not removed. If there is not enough space to install
the new image and keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is
displayed.
The algorithm installs the downloaded image onto the system board Flash device (flash:). The image is
placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT path-list is updated
to point to the newly installed image. Use the privileged EXEC mode show boot command to display
boot attributes, and use the global configuration boot command to change the boot attributes.
If you kept the old image during the download process (you specified the /leave-old-sw keyword), you
can remove it by entering the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board Flash device. For file-url, enter the directory name of the
old software image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Uploading an Image File by Using FTP
You can upload an image from the access point to an FTP server. You can later download this image to
the same access point or to another access point of the same type.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image directories.
The upload feature is available only if the HTML pages associated with the Cluster Management Suite
(CMS) have been installed with the existing image.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload an image to an FTP server:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the FTP server is properly configured by referring
to the “Preparing to Download or Upload a Configuration
File by Using FTP” section on page 19-13.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username or password (see Steps 4, 5, and 6).
Step 4
ip ftp username username
(Optional) Change the default remote username.
Step 5
ip ftp password password
(Optional) Change the default password.
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Command
Purpose
Step 6
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 7
archive upload-sw
Upload the currently running access point image to the FTP
ftp:[[//[username[:password]@]location]/directory]/ server.
image-name.tar
• For //username:password, specify the username and
password. These must be associated with an account on
the FTP server. For more information, see the “Preparing
to Download or Upload an Image File by Using FTP”
section on page 19-23.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the FTP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the name of the software image to be
uploaded. Directory and image names are case sensitive.
The image-name.tar is the name of the software image
to be stored on the server.
The archive upload-sw command builds an image file on the server by uploading these files in order:
info, the IOS image, the HTML files, and info.ver. After these files are uploaded, the upload algorithm
creates the tar file format.
Copying Image Files by Using RCP
You can download an access point image from an RCP server or upload the image from the access point
to an RCP server.
You download an access point image file from a server to upgrade the access point software. You can
overwrite the current image with the new one or keep the current image after a download.
You upload an access point image file to a server for backup purposes. You can use this uploaded image
for future downloads to the same access point or another of the same type.
This section includes this information:
•
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using RCP, page 19-27
•
Downloading an Image File by Using RCP, page 19-29
•
Uploading an Image File by Using RCP, page 19-31
Preparing to Download or Upload an Image File by Using RCP
RCP provides another method of downloading and uploading image files between remote hosts and the
access point. Unlike TFTP, which uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a connectionless protocol, RCP
uses TCP, which is connection-oriented.
To use RCP to copy files, the server from or to which you will be copying files must support RCP. The
RCP copy commands rely on the rsh server (or daemon) on the remote system. To copy files by using
RCP, you do not need to create a server for file distribution as you do with TFTP. You only need to have
access to a server that supports the remote shell (rsh). (Most UNIX systems support rsh.) Because you
are copying a file from one place to another, you must have read permission on the source file and write
permission on the destination file. If the destination file does not exist, RCP creates it for you.
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RCP requires a client to send a remote username on each RCP request to a server. When you copy an
image from the access point to a server by using RCP, the Cisco IOS software sends the first valid
username in this list:
•
The username specified in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC
command if a username is specified.
•
The username set by the ip rcmd remote-username username global configuration command if the
command is entered.
•
The remote username associated with the current TTY (terminal) process. For example, if the user
is connected to the router through Telnet and was authenticated through the username command,
the access point software sends the Telnet username as the remote username.
•
The access point host name.
For the RCP copy request to execute successfully, an account must be defined on the network server for
the remote username. If the server has a directory structure, the image file is written to or copied from
the directory associated with the remote username on the server. For example, if the image file resides
in the home directory of a user on the server, specify that user’s name as the remote username.
Before you begin downloading or uploading an image file by using RCP, do these tasks:
•
Ensure that the workstation acting as the RCP server supports the remote shell (rsh).
•
Ensure that the access point has a route to the RCP server. The access point and the server must be
in the same subnetwork if you do not have a router to route traffic between subnets. Check
connectivity to the RCP server by using the ping command.
•
If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you do not have a valid username,
make sure that the current RCP username is the one that you want to use for the RCP download. You
can enter the show users privileged EXEC command to view the valid username. If you do not want
to use this username, create a new RCP username by using the ip rcmd remote-username username
global configuration command to be used during all archive operations. The new username is stored
in NVRAM. If you are accessing the access point through a Telnet session and you have a valid
username, this username is used, and there is no need to set the RCP username. Include the username
in the archive download-sw or archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command if you want to
specify a username only for that operation.
•
When you upload an image to the RCP to the server, it must be properly configured to accept the
RCP write request from the user on the access point. For UNIX systems, you must add an entry to
the .rhosts file for the remote user on the RCP server. For example, suppose the access point contains
these configuration lines:
hostname ap1
ip rcmd remote-username User0
If the access point IP address translates to ap1.company.com, the .rhosts file for User0 on the RCP
server should contain this line:
ap1.company.com ap1
For more information, refer to the documentation for your RCP server.
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Downloading an Image File by Using RCP
You can download a new image file and replace or keep the current image.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image directories.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow Steps 1 through 6 to download a new image from an RCP
server and overwrite the existing image. To keep the current image, skip Step 6.
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload an Image
File by Using RCP” section on page 19-27.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
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Step 6
Step 7
Command
Purpose
archive download-sw /overwrite /reload
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/image-na
me.tar]
Download the image file from the RCP server to the access
point, and overwrite the current image.
archive download-sw /leave-old-sw /reload
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/image-na
me.tar]
Note
•
The /overwrite option overwrites the software image in
Flash with the downloaded image.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after
downloading the image unless the configuration has
been changed and not saved.
•
For //username, specify the username. For the RCP copy
request to execute successfully, an account must be
defined on the network server for the remote username.
For more information, see the “Preparing to Download
or Upload an Image File by Using RCP” section on
page 19-27.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the RCP server.
•
For /directory/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
Download the image file from the RCP server to the access
point, and keep the current image.
•
The /leave-old-sw option keeps the old software version
after a download.
•
The /reload option reloads the system after
downloading the image unless the configuration has
been changed and not saved.
•
For //username, specify the username. For the RCP copy
request to execute, an account must be defined on the
network server for the remote username. For more
information, see the “Preparing to Download or Upload
an Image File by Using RCP” section on page 19-27.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the RCP server.
•
For /directory]/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the image to download. Directory and
image names are case sensitive.
To avoid an unsuccessful download, use the archive download-sw /safe command, which downloads
the image first and does not delete the current running version until the download succeeds.
The download algorithm verifies that the image is appropriate for the access point model and that enough
DRAM is present, or it aborts the process and reports an error. If you specify the /overwrite option, the
download algorithm removes the existing image on the Flash device whether or not it is the same as the
new one, downloads the new image, and then reloads the software.
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Note
If the Flash device has sufficient space to hold two images and you want to overwrite one of these images
with the same version, you must specify the /overwrite option.
If you specify the /leave-old-sw, the existing files are not removed. If there is not enough room to install
the new image an keep the running image, the download process stops, and an error message is
displayed.
The algorithm installs the downloaded image onto the system board Flash device (flash:). The image is
placed into a new directory named with the software version string, and the BOOT environment variable
is updated to point to the newly installed image.
If you kept the old software during the download process (you specified the /leave-old-sw keyword), you
can remove it by entering the delete /force /recursive filesystem:/file-url privileged EXEC command.
For filesystem, use flash: for the system board Flash device. For file-url, enter the directory name of the
old software image. All the files in the directory and the directory are removed.
Uploading an Image File by Using RCP
You can upload an image from the access point to an RCP server. You can later download this image to
the same access point or to another access point of the same type.
Caution
For the download and upload algorithms to operate properly, do not rename image directories.
The upload feature is available only if the HTML pages associated with the Cluster Management Suite
(CMS) have been installed with the existing image.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to upload an image to an RCP server:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
Verify that the RCP server is properly configured by
referring to the “Preparing to Download or Upload an Image
File by Using RCP” section on page 19-27.
Step 2
Log into the access point through a Telnet session.
Step 3
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
This step is required only if you override the default remote
username (see Steps 4 and 5).
Step 4
ip rcmd remote-username username
(Optional) Specify the remote username.
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Command
Purpose
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
archive upload-sw
rcp:[[[//[username@]location]/directory]/image-na
me.tar]
Upload the currently running access point image to the RCP
server.
•
For //username, specify the username; for the RCP copy
request to execute, an account must be defined on the
network server for the remote username. For more
information, see the “Preparing to Download or Upload
an Image File by Using RCP” section on page 19-27.
•
For @location, specify the IP address of the RCP server.
•
For /directory]/image-name.tar, specify the directory
(optional) and the name of the software image to be
uploaded. Directory and image names are case
sensitive.
•
The image-name.tar is the name of software image to be
stored on the server.
The archive upload-sw privileged EXEC command builds an image file on the server by uploading these
files in order: info, the IOS image, the HTML files, and info.ver. After these files are uploaded, the
upload algorithm creates the tar file format.
Reloading the Image Using the Web Browser Interface
You can also use the Web browser interface to reload the access point image file. The Web broswer
interface supports loading the image file using HTTP or TFTP interfaces.
Note
Your access point configuration is not changed when using the browser to reload the image file.
Browser HTTP Interface
The HTTP interface allows you to browse to the access point image file on your PC and download the
image to the access point. Follow the instructions below to use the HTTP interface:
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password screen appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name field.
Step 4
Enter the access point password in the Password field and press Enter. The Summary Status page
appears.
Step 5
Click the System Software tab and then click Software Upgrade. The HTTP Upgrade screen appears.
Step 6
Click the Browse button to locate the image file on your PC.
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Step 7
Click the Upload button.
For additional information, click the Help icon on the Software Upgrade screen.
Browser TFTP Interface
The TFTP interface allows you to use a TFTP server on a network device to load the access point image
file. Follow the instructions below to use a TFTP server:
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password screen appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name field.
Step 4
Enter the access point password in the Password field and press Enter. The Summary Status page
appears.
Step 5
Click the System Software tab and then click Software Upgrade. The HTTP Upgrade screen appears.
Step 6
Click the TFTP Upgrade tab.
Step 7
Enter the IP address for the TFTP server in the TFTP Server field.
Step 8
Enter the file name for the access point image file in the Upload New System Image Tar File field. If the
file is located in a subdirectory of the TFTP server root directory, include the relative path of the TFTP
server root directory with the filename. If the file is located in the TFTP root directory, enter only the
filename.
Step 9
Click the Upload button.
For additional information click the Help icon on the Software Upgrade screen.
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20
Configuring System Message Logging
This chapter describes how to configure system message logging on your access point.
Note
For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, refer to the Cisco IOS
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
This chapter consists of these sections:
•
Understanding System Message Logging, page 20-2
•
Configuring System Message Logging, page 20-2
•
Displaying the Logging Configuration, page 20-12
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Understanding System Message Logging
Understanding System Message Logging
By default, access points send the output from system messages and debug privileged EXEC commands
to a logging process. The logging process controls the distribution of logging messages to various
destinations, such as the logging buffer, terminal lines, or a UNIX syslog server, depending on your
configuration. The process also sends messages to the console.
Note
The syslog format is compatible with 4.3 BSD UNIX.
When the logging process is disabled, messages are sent only to the console. The messages are sent as
they are generated, so message and debug output are interspersed with prompts or output from other
commands. Messages are displayed on the console after the process that generated them has finished.
You can set the severity level of the messages to control the type of messages displayed on the console
and each of the destinations. You can timestamp log messages or set the syslog source address to enhance
real-time debugging and management.
You can access logged system messages by using the access point command-line interface (CLI) or by
saving them to a properly configured syslog server. The access point software saves syslog messages in
an internal buffer. You can remotely monitor system messages by accessing the access point through
Telnet or by viewing the logs on a syslog server.
Configuring System Message Logging
This section describes how to configure system message logging. It contains this configuration
information:
•
System Log Message Format, page 20-2
•
Default System Message Logging Configuration, page 20-3
•
Disabling and Enabling Message Logging, page 20-4
•
Setting the Message Display Destination Device, page 20-5
•
Enabling and Disabling Timestamps on Log Messages, page 20-6
•
Enabling and Disabling Sequence Numbers in Log Messages, page 20-6
•
Defining the Message Severity Level, page 20-7
•
Limiting Syslog Messages Sent to the History Table and to SNMP, page 20-8
•
Setting a Logging Rate Limit, page 20-9
•
Configuring UNIX Syslog Servers, page 20-10
System Log Message Format
System log messages can contain up to 80 characters and a percent sign (%), which follows the optional
sequence number or timestamp information, if configured. Messages are displayed in this format:
seq no:timestamp: %facility-severity-MNEMONIC:description
The part of the message preceding the percent sign depends on the setting of the service
sequence-numbers, service timestamps log datetime, service timestamps log datetime [localtime]
[msec] [show-timezone], or service timestamps log uptime global configuration command.
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Table 20-1 describes the elements of syslog messages.
Table 20-1 System Log Message Elements
Element
Description
seq no:
Stamps log messages with a sequence number only if the service sequence-numbers global
configuration command is configured.
For more information, see the “Enabling and Disabling Sequence Numbers in Log Messages”
section on page 20-6.
Date and time of the message or event. This information appears only if the service timestamps
log [datetime | log] global configuration command is configured.
timestamp formats:
mm/dd hh:mm:ss
For more information, see the “Enabling and Disabling Timestamps on Log Messages” section on
page 20-6.
or
hh:mm:ss (short uptime)
or
d h (long uptime)
facility
The facility to which the message refers (for example, SNMP, SYS, and so forth). A facility can
be a hardware device, a protocol, or a module of the system software. It denotes the source or the
cause of the system message.
severity
Single-digit code from 0 to 7 that is the severity of the message. For a description of the severity
levels, see Table 20-3 on page 20-8.
MNEMONIC
Text string that uniquely describes the message.
description
Text string containing detailed information about the event being reported.
This example shows a partial access point system message:
00:00:46: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Port-channel1, changed state to up
00:00:47: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface GigabitEthernet0/1, changed state to up
00:00:47: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface GigabitEthernet0/2, changed state to up
00:00:48: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Vlan1, changed state to down
00:00:48: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface GigabitEthernet0/1, changed
state to down 2
*Mar 1 18:46:11: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty2 (10.34.195.36)
18:47:02: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty2 (10.34.195.36)
*Mar 1 18:48:50.483 UTC: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty2 (10.34.195.36)
Default System Message Logging Configuration
Table 20-2 shows the default system message logging configuration.
Table 20-2 Default System Message Logging Configuration
Feature
Default Setting
System message logging to the console
Enabled
Console severity
Debugging (and numerically lower levels;
see Table 20-3 on page 20-8)
Logging buffer size
4096 bytes
Logging history size
1 message
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Table 20-2 Default System Message Logging Configuration (continued)
Feature
Default Setting
Timestamps
Disabled
Synchronous logging
Disabled
Logging server
Disabled
Syslog server IP address
None configured
Server facility
Local7 (see Table 20-4 on page 20-11)
Server severity
Informational (and numerically lower
levels; see Table 20-3 on page 20-8)
Disabling and Enabling Message Logging
Message logging is enabled by default. It must be enabled to send messages to any destination other than
the console. When enabled, log messages are sent to a logging process, which logs messages to
designated locations asynchronously to the processes that generated the messages.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to disable message logging:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
no logging on
Disable message logging.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
or
show logging
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Disabling the logging process can slow down the access point because a process must wait until the
messages are written to the console before continuing. When the logging process is disabled, messages
are displayed on the console as soon as they are produced, often appearing in the middle of command
output.
The logging synchronous global configuration command also affects the display of messages to the
console. When this command is enabled, messages appear only after you press Return. For more
information, see the “Enabling and Disabling Timestamps on Log Messages” section on page 20-6.
To re-enable message logging after it has been disabled, use the logging on global configuration
command.
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Setting the Message Display Destination Device
If message logging is enabled, you can send messages to specific locations in addition to the console.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, use one or more of the following commands to specify the
locations that receive messages:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
logging buffered [size] [level]
Log messages to an internal buffer. The default buffer size is 4096. The
range is 4096 to 2147483647 bytes. Levels include emergencies 0, alerts
1, critical 2, errors 3, warnings 4, notifications 5, informational 6, and
debugging 7.
Note
Step 3
logging host
Do not make the buffer size too large because the access point
could run out of memory for other tasks. Use the show memory
privileged EXEC command to view the free processor memory on
the access point; however, this value is the maximum available,
and you should not set the buffer size to this amount.
Log messages to a UNIX syslog server host.
For host, specify the name or IP address of the host to be used as the
syslog server.
To build a list of syslog servers that receive logging messages, enter this
command more than once.
For complete syslog server configuration steps, see the “Configuring
UNIX Syslog Servers” section on page 20-10.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
terminal monitor
Log messages to a non-console terminal during the current session.
Terminal parameter-setting commands are set locally and do not remain
in effect after the session has ended. You must perform this step for each
session to see the debugging messages.
Step 6
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
The logging buffered global configuration command copies logging messages to an internal buffer. The
buffer is circular, so newer messages overwrite older messages after the buffer is full. To display the
messages that are logged in the buffer, use the show logging privileged EXEC command. The first
message displayed is the oldest message in the buffer. To clear the contents of the buffer, use the clear
logging privileged EXEC command.
To disable logging to the console, use the no logging console global configuration command. To disable
logging to a file, use the no logging file [severity-level-number | type] global configuration command.
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Enabling and Disabling Timestamps on Log Messages
By default, log messages are not timestamped.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable timestamping of log messages:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
service timestamps log uptime
Enable log timestamps.
or
The first command enables timestamps on log messages,
showing the time since the system was rebooted.
service timestamps log datetime [msec] [localtime]
The second command enables timestamps on log messages.
[show-timezone]
Depending on the options selected, the timestamp can
include the date, time in milliseconds relative to the local
time zone, and the time zone name.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable timestamps for both debug and log messages, use the no service timestamps global
configuration command.
This example shows part of a logging display with the service timestamps log datetime global
configuration command enabled:
*Mar
1 18:46:11: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty2 (10.34.195.36)
This example shows part of a logging display with the service timestamps log uptime global
configuration command enabled:
00:00:46: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Port-channel1, changed state to up
Enabling and Disabling Sequence Numbers in Log Messages
Because there is a chance that more than one log message can have the same timestamp, you can display
messages with sequence numbers so that you can unambiguously refer to a single message. By default,
sequence numbers in log messages are not displayed.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable sequence numbers in log messages:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
service sequence-numbers
Enable sequence numbers.
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 5
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable sequence numbers, use the no service sequence-numbers global configuration command.
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This example shows part of a logging display with sequence numbers enabled:
000019: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty2 (10.34.195.36)
Defining the Message Severity Level
You can limit messages displayed to the selected device by specifying the severity level of the message,
which are described in Table 20-3.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to define the message severity level:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
logging console level
Limit messages logged to the console.
By default, the console receives debugging messages and numerically
lower levels (see Table 20-3 on page 20-8).
Step 3
logging monitor level
Limit messages logged to the terminal lines.
By default, the terminal receives debugging messages and numerically
lower levels (see Table 20-3 on page 20-8).
Step 4
logging trap level
Limit messages logged to the syslog servers.
By default, syslog servers receive informational messages and
numerically lower levels (see Table 20-3 on page 20-8).
For complete syslog server configuration steps, see the “Configuring
UNIX Syslog Servers” section on page 20-10.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
show running-config
Verify your entries.
or
show logging
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
Note
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
Specifying a level causes messages at that level and numerically lower levels to be displayed at the
destination.
To disable logging to the console, use the no logging console global configuration command. To disable
logging to a terminal other than the console, use the no logging monitor global configuration command.
To disable logging to syslog servers, use the no logging trap global configuration command.
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Table 20-3 describes the level keywords. It also lists the corresponding UNIX syslog definitions from
the most severe level to the least severe level.
Table 20-3 Message Logging Level Keywords
Level Keyword
Level
Description
Syslog Definition
emergencies
0
System unstable
LOG_EMERG
alerts
1
Immediate action needed
LOG_ALERT
critical
2
Critical conditions
LOG_CRIT
errors
3
Error conditions
LOG_ERR
warnings
4
Warning conditions
LOG_WARNING
notifications
5
Normal but significant condition
LOG_NOTICE
informational
6
Informational messages only
LOG_INFO
debugging
7
Debugging messages
LOG_DEBUG
The software generates four other categories of messages:
•
Error messages about software or hardware malfunctions, displayed at levels warnings through
emergencies. These types of messages mean that the functionality of the access point is affected.
•
Output from the debug commands, displayed at the debugging level. Debug commands are
typically used only by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC).
•
Interface up or down transitions and system restart messages, displayed at the notifications level.
This message is only for information; access point functionality is not affected.
•
Reload requests and low-process stack messages, displayed at the informational level. This
message is only for information; access point functionality is not affected.
Limiting Syslog Messages Sent to the History Table and to SNMP
If you have enabled syslog message traps to be sent to an SNMP network management station by using
the snmp-server enable trap global configuration command, you can change the level of messages sent
and stored in the access point history table. You can also change the number of messages that are stored
in the history table.
Messages are stored in the history table because SNMP traps are not guaranteed to reach their
destination. By default, one message of the level warning and numerically lower levels (see Table 20-3
on page 20-8) are stored in the history table even if syslog traps are not enabled.
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Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to change the level and history table size
defaults:
Command
Step 1
Step 2
Purpose
configure terminal
logging history level
Enter global configuration mode.
1
Change the default level of syslog messages stored in the history file and
sent to the SNMP server.
See Table 20-3 on page 20-8 for a list of level keywords.
By default, warnings, errors, critical, alerts, and emergencies messages
are sent.
Step 3
logging history size number
Specify the number of syslog messages that can be stored in the history
table.
The default is to store one message. The range is 1 to 500 messages.
Step 4
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 5
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 6
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
1.
Table 20-3 lists the level keywords and severity level. For SNMP usage, the severity level values increase by 1. For example, emergencies
equal 1, not 0, and critical equals 3, not 2.
When the history table is full (it contains the maximum number of message entries specified with the
logging history size global configuration command), the oldest message entry is deleted from the table
to allow the new message entry to be stored.
To return the logging of syslog messages to the default level, use the no logging history global
configuration command. To return the number of messages in the history table to the default value, use
the no logging history size global configuration command.
Setting a Logging Rate Limit
You can enable a limit on the number of messages that the access point logs per second. You can enable
the limit for all messages or for messages sent to the console, and you can specify that messages of a
specific severity are exempt from the limit.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable a logging rate limit:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
logging rate-limit seconds
Enable a logging rate limit in seconds.
[all | console]
•
(Optional) Apply the limit to all logging or only to
messages logged to the console.
•
(Optional) Exempt a specific severity from the limit.
[except severity]
Step 3
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 4
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To disable the rate limit, use the no logging rate-limit global configuration command.
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Configuring UNIX Syslog Servers
The next sections describe how to configure the 4.3 BSD UNIX server syslog daemon and define the
UNIX system logging facility.
Logging Messages to a UNIX Syslog Daemon
Before you can send system log messages to a UNIX syslog server, you must configure the syslog
daemon on a UNIX server. Log in as root, and perform these steps:
Note
Step 1
Some recent versions of UNIX syslog daemons no longer accept by default syslog packets from the
network. If this is the case with your system, use the UNIX man syslogd command to determine what
options must be added to or removed from the syslog command line to enable logging of remote syslog
messages.
Add a line such as the following to the file /etc/syslog.conf:
local7.debug /usr/adm/logs/cisco.log
The local7 keyword specifies the logging facility to be used; see Table 20-4 on page 20-11 for
information on the facilities. The debug keyword specifies the syslog level; see Table 20-3 on page 20-8
for information on the severity levels. The syslog daemon sends messages at this level or at a more severe
level to the file specified in the next field. The file must already exist, and the syslog daemon must have
permission to write to it.
Step 2
Create the log file by entering these commands at the UNIX shell prompt:
$ touch /usr/adm/log/cisco.log
$ chmod 666 /usr/adm/log/cisco.log
Step 3
Make sure the syslog daemon reads the new changes by entering this command:
$ kill -HUP `cat /etc/syslog.pid`
For more information, see the man syslog.conf and man syslogd commands on your UNIX system.
Configuring the UNIX System Logging Facility
When sending system log messages to an external device, you can cause the access point to identify its
messages as originating from any of the UNIX syslog facilities.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure UNIX system facility message
logging:
Command
Purpose
Step 1
configure terminal
Enter global configuration mode.
Step 2
logging host
Log messages to a UNIX syslog server host by entering its IP address.
To build a list of syslog servers that receive logging messages, enter this
command more than once.
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Step 3
Command
Purpose
logging trap level
Limit messages logged to the syslog servers.
Be default, syslog servers receive informational messages and lower. See
Table 20-3 on page 20-8 for level keywords.
Step 4
logging facility facility-type
Configure the syslog facility. See Table 20-4 on page 20-11 for
facility-type keywords.
The default is local7.
Step 5
end
Return to privileged EXEC mode.
Step 6
show running-config
Verify your entries.
Step 7
copy running-config startup-config
(Optional) Save your entries in the configuration file.
To remove a syslog server, use the no logging host global configuration command, and specify the syslog
server IP address. To disable logging to syslog servers, enter the no logging trap global configuration
command.
Table 20-4 lists the 4.3 BSD UNIX system facilities supported by the Cisco IOS software. For more
information about these facilities, consult the operator’s manual for your UNIX operating system.
Table 20-4 Logging Facility-Type Keywords
Facility Type Keyword
Description
auth
Authorization system
cron
Cron facility
daemon
System daemon
kern
Kernel
local0-7
Locally defined messages
lpr
Line printer system
mail
Mail system
news
USENET news
sys9
System use
sys10
System use
sys11
System use
sys12
System use
sys13
System use
sys14
System use
syslog
System log
user
User process
uucp
UNIX-to-UNIX copy system
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Configuring System Message Logging
Displaying the Logging Configuration
Displaying the Logging Configuration
To display the current logging configuration and the contents of the log buffer, use the show logging
privileged EXEC command. For information about the fields in this display, refer to the Cisco IOS
Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference for Release 12.2.
To display the logging history file, use the show logging history privileged EXEC command.
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21
Troubleshooting
This chapter provides troubleshooting procedures for basic problems with the access point. For the most
up-to-date, detailed troubleshooting information, refer to the Cisco TAC website at the following URL
(select Top Issues and then select Wireless Technologies):
http://www.cisco.com/tac
Sections in this chapter include:
•
Checking the Top Panel Indicators, page 21-2
•
Checking Basic Settings, page 21-4
•
Resetting to the Default Configuration, page 21-4
•
Reloading the Access Point Image, page 21-6
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Checking the Top Panel Indicators
Checking the Top Panel Indicators
If your access point is not communicating, check the three LED indicators on the top panel. You can use
them to quickly assess the unit’s status. Figure 21-1 shows the indicators.
Figure 21-1 Access Point Indicators
Ethernet
Status
86704
Radio
The indicators signals have the following meanings (for additional details refer to Table 21-1):
•
The Ethernet indicator signals traffic on the wired LAN, or Ethernet infrastructure. This indicator is
normally green when an Ethernet cable is connected, and blinks green when a packet is received or
transmitted over the Ethernet infrastructure. The indicator is off when the Ethernet cable is not
connected.
•
The status indicator signals operational status. Steady green indicates that the access point is
associated with at least one wireless client. Blinking green indicates that the access point is
operating normally but is not associated with any wireless devices.
•
The radio indicator blinks green to indicate radio traffic activity. The light is normally off, but it
blinks green whenever a packet is received or transmitted over the access point’s radio.
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Checking the Top Panel Indicators
Table 21-1 Top Panel Indicator Signals
Message
type
Ethernet
indicator
Status
indicator
Radio
indicator
Meaning
Boot loader
status
Green
–
Green
DRAM memory test.
–
Amber
Red
Board initialization test
–
Blinking
green
Blinking
green
Flash memory test.
Amber
Green
–
Ethernet initialization test.
Green
Green
Green
Starting IOS.
–
Green
–
At least one wireless client device is
associated with the unit.
–
Blinking
green
–
No client devices are associated; check the
unit’s SSID and WEP settings.
–
Green
Blinking
green
Transmitting/receiving radio packets.
Green
–
–
Ethernet link is operational.
Blinking
green
–
–
Transmitting/receiving Ethernet packets.
Red
–
Red
DRAM memory test failure.
–
Red
Red
File system failure.
Red
Red
–
Ethernet failure during image recovery.
Amber
Green
Amber
Boot environment error.
Red
Green
Red
No IOS image file.
Amber
Amber
Amber
Boot failure.
–
Green
Blinking
amber
Maximum retries or buffer full occurred on
the radio.
Blinking
amber
-
–
Transmit/receive Ethernet errors.
–
Blinking
amber
–
General warning.
Configuration
Reset
–
Amber
–
Resetting the configuration options to
factory defaults.
Failure
Red
Red
Red
Firmware failure; try disconnecting and
reconnecting unit power.
Firmware
Upgrade
–
Red
–
Loading new firmware image.
Association
status
Operating
status
Boot Loader
Errors
Operation
Errors
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Checking Basic Settings
Checking Basic Settings
Mismatched basic settings are the most common causes of lost connectivity with wireless clients. If the
access point does not communicate with client devices, check the following areas.
SSID
Wireless clients attempting to associate with the access point must use the same SSID as the access point.
If a client device’s SSID does not match the SSID of an access point in radio range, the client device will
not associate. The access point default SSID is tsunami.
WEP Keys
The WEP key you use to transmit data must be set up exactly the same on your access point and any
wireless devices with which it associates. For example, if you set WEP Key 3 on your client adapter to
0987654321 and select it as the transmit key, you must also set WEP Key 3 on the access point to exactly
the same value. The access point does not need to use Key 3 as its transmit key, however.
Refer to Chapter 9, “Configuring WEP and WEP Features,” for instructions on setting the access point’s
WEP keys.
Security Settings
Wireless clients attempting to authenticate with your access point must support the same security options
configured in the access point, such as EAP or LEAP, MAC address authentication, Message Integrity
Check (MIC), WEP key hashing, and 802.1X protocol versions.
If a wireless client is unable to authenticate with your access point, contact the system administrator for
proper security settings in the client adapter and for the client adapter driver and firmware versions that
are compatible with the access point settings.
Note
The access point MAC address that appears on the Status page in the Aironet Client Utility (ACU) is the
MAC address for the access point radio. The MAC address for the access point Ethernet port is printed
on the label on the back of the access point.
Resetting to the Default Configuration
If you forget the password that allows you to configure the access point, you may need to completely
reset the configuration. You can use the MODE button on the access point or the web-browser interface.
Note
The following steps reset all configuration settings to factory defaults, including passwords, WEP keys,
the IP address, and the SSID.
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Resetting to the Default Configuration
Using the MODE Button
Follow these steps to delete the current configuration and return all access point settings to the factory
defaults using the MODE button:
Step 1
Disconnect power (the power jack for external power or the Ethernet cable for in-line power) from the
access point.
Step 2
Press and hold the MODE button while you reconnect power to the access point.
Step 3
Hold the MODE button until the Status LED turns amber (approximately 1 to 2 seconds), and release the
button.
Step 4
After the access point reboots, you must reconfigure the access point by using the Web browser
interface, the Telnet interface, or IOS commands.
Note
The access point is configured with the factory default values including the IP address (set to
receive an IP address using DHCP).
Using the Web Browser Interface
Follow the steps below to delete the current configuration and return all access point settings to the
factory defaults using the web browser interface.
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password screen appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name field.
Step 4
Enter the access point password in the Password field and press Enter. The Summary Status page
appears.
Step 5
Click System Software and the System Software screen appears.
Step 6
Click System Configuration and the System Configuration screen appears.
Step 7
Click the Reset to Defaults button.
Note
Step 8
If the access point is configured with a static IP address, the IP address does not change.
After the access point reboots, you must reconfigure the access point by using the Web browser interface,
the Telnet interface, or IOS commands.
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Reloading the Access Point Image
Reloading the Access Point Image
If your access point has a firmware failure, you must reload the complete access point image file using
the Web browser interface or by pressing and holding the MODE button for around 30 seconds. You can
use the browser interface if the access point firmware is still fully operational and you want to upgrade
the firmware image. However, you can use the MODE button when the access point has a corrupt
firmware image.
Using the MODE button
You can use the MODE button on the access point to reload the access point image file from an active
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server on your network or on a PC connected to the access point
Ethernet port.
Note
If your access point experiences a firmware failure or a corrupt firmware image, indicated by three red
LED indicators, you must reload the image from a connected TFTP server.
Note
This process resets all configuration settings to factory defaults, including passwords, WEP keys, the
access point IP address, and SSIDs.
Follow the steps below to reload the access point image file:
Step 1
The PC you intend to use must be configured with a static IP address in the range of 10.0.0.2 to 10.0.0.30.
Step 2
Make sure the PC contains the access point image file (c1100-k9w7-tar.default) in the TFTP server
folder and the TFTP server is activated. For additional information, refer to the “Obtaining the Access
Point Image File” and “Obtaining the TFTP Server Software” sections.
Step 3
Connect the PC to the access point using a Category 5 (CAT5) Ethernet cable.
Step 4
Disconnect power (the power jack for external power or the Ethernet cable for in-line power) from the
access point.
Step 5
Press and hold the MODE button while you reconnect power to the access point.
Step 6
Hold the MODE button until the status LED turns red (approximately 20 to 30 seconds), and release the
MODE button.
Step 7
Wait until the access point reboots as indicated by all LEDs turning green followed by the Status LED
blinking green.
Step 8
After the access point reboots, you must reconfigure the access point by using the Web interface, the
Telnet interface, or IOS commands.
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Reloading the Access Point Image
Web Browser Interface
You can also use the Web browser interface to reload the access point image file. The Web broswer
interface supports loading the image file using HTTP or TFTP interfaces.
Note
Your access point configuration is not changed when using the browser to reload the image file.
Browser HTTP Interface
The HTTP interface enables you to browse to the access point image file on your PC and download the
image to the access point. Follow the instructions below to use the HTTP interface:
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password screen appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name field.
Step 4
Enter the access point password in the Password field and press Enter. The Summary Status page
appears.
Step 5
Click the System Software tab and then click Software Upgrade. The HTTP Upgrade screen appears.
Step 6
Click the Browse button to locate the image file on your PC.
Step 7
Click the Upload button.
For additional information, click the Help icon on the Software Upgrade screen.
Browser TFTP Interface
The TFTP interface allows you to use a TFTP server on a network device to load the access point image
file. Follow the instructions below to use a TFTP server:
Step 1
Open your Internet browser. You must use Microsoft Internet Explorer (version 5.x or later) or Netscape
Navigator (version 4.x).
Step 2
Enter the access point’s IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network
Password screen appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name field.
Step 4
Enter the access point password in the Password field and press Enter. The Summary Status page
appears.
Step 5
Click the System Software tab and then click Software Upgrade. The HTTP Upgrade screen appears.
Step 6
Click the TFTP Upgrade tab.
Step 7
Enter the IP address for the TFTP server in the TFTP Server field.
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Step 8
Enter the file name for the access point image file in the Upload New System Image Tar File field. If the
file is located in a subdirectory of the TFTP server root directory, include the relative path of the TFTP
server root directory with the filename. If the file is located in the TFTP root directory, enter only the
filename.
Step 9
Click the Upload button.
For additional information click the Help icon on the Software Upgrade screen.
Obtaining the Access Point Image File
The access point image file can be obtained from the Cisco.com software center using the following
steps:
Step 1
Use your Internet browser to access the Cisco Software Center at the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-wireless.shtml
Step 2
Locate the access point firmware and utilities section and click on the link for the 1100 series access
point.
Step 3
Double-click the latest firmware image file (c1100-k9w7-tar.122-4.JA).
Step 4
Download the access point image file to a directory on your PC hard drive.
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Reloading the Access Point Image
Obtaining the TFTP Server Software
The TFTP server software (self-extracting and installing file) can be obtained from the Cisco.com
software center using the following URL:
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-web.shtml
Download the file to a temporary directory on your PC hard drive. To install the TFTP server,
double-click the downloaded file and follow the installer program instructions.
Activating and Configuring the TFTP Server
Follow the steps below to activate the TFTP server and specify the location of the access point image
file:
Step 1
Double-click the Cisco TFTP Server icon on your PC’s desktop to activate the server program.
Step 2
Select Options from the View drop-down menu. The Options screen appears.
Step 3
Click the Browse button of the TFTP server root directory field and locate the access point image file.
Step 4
Click OK.
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22
2.4-GHz Radio Upgrade
This chapter provides upgrade instructions for the 2.4-GHz radio module and includes the following
sections:
•
Upgrade Overview, page 22-2
•
Opening the Access Cover, page 22-3
•
Removing a Blank Spacer Card, page 22-4
•
Removing a 2.4-GHz Radio, page 22-5
•
Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio, page 22-7
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2.4-GHz Radio Upgrade
Upgrade Overview
Upgrade Overview
This section provides instructions for upgrading the access point 2.4-GHz radio. The following
operations summarize the upgrade procedure:
Caution
Note
•
Remove all cables and power connections from the access point.
•
Follow standard electrostatic discharge (ESD) procedures.
•
Place the access point on an ESD-protected work surface.
•
Open the access point’s 2.4-GHz radio access cover.
•
For an access point without the 2.4-GHz radio feature, remove the blank spacer card.
•
For an access point with the 2.4-GHz radio feature, remove the existing 2.4-GHz card.
•
Install the new 2.4-GHz radio card.
•
Close the access point 2.4-GHz radio access cover.
ESD can damage the Cisco Aironet radio and the internal components of the access point. It is
recommended that the 2.4-GHz radio upgrade procedures be performed by an ESD-trained service
technician at an ESD-protected workstation.
After you install the new radio, all configurable radio settings will be at default values. Refer to
Chapter 7, “Configuring Radio Settings,” for complete instructions on configuring the new radio.
Unpacking the Radio
Each 2.4-GHz radio is shipped with the following items:
•
Quick start guide
•
A product registration card
•
A T-10 tamper-resistant Torx L-wrench
•
A 2.4-GHz radio product compliance label
If anything is missing or damaged, contact your Cisco representative for support.
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Opening the Access Cover
Opening the Access Cover
To open the 2.4-GHz radio access cover, follow the steps below:
Step 1
Remove all cables and power connections from the access point.
Step 2
Remove all static-generating items from the work area, such as plastic material, styrofoam cups, and
other similar items.
Step 3
Place the access point and the new 2.4-GHz radio (in its antistatic bag) on an antistatic work surface.
Step 4
Discharge any static buildup on your body by touching a grounded surface (antistatic work surface)
before proceeding.
Step 5
Position the access point so that the bottom cover is facing up.
Caution
Step 6
The internal access point components and the 2.4-GHz radio can be damaged by ESD from improper
handling.
Remove the bottom access cover (see Figure 22-1) using the T-10 tamper-resistant Torx L-wrench
provided with your Cisco radio card.
Figure 22-1 Location of 2.4-GHz Radio Access Cover Screw
74458
1
1
Access Cover Screw
If your access point was not configured with a 2.4-GHz radio, go to the “Removing a Blank Spacer Card”
section. If you are replacing an existing 2.4-GHz radio, go to the “Removing a 2.4-GHz Radio” section.
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Removing a Blank Spacer Card
Removing a Blank Spacer Card
When your access point is not factory-configured with a 2.4-GHz radio, it contains a blank spacer card
in the internal mini-PCI connector. You must remove the blank spacer card prior to installing a new
2.4-GHz radio card.
Caution
Handle all components carefully and observe all ESD precautions. The internal access point components
and the 2.4-GHz radio can be damaged by ESD from improper handling.
To remove the blank spacer card from the mini-PCI connector, following the steps below:
Step 1
Push the card-retaining clips (on each side of card) away from the card (see Figure 22-2). When released,
the board springs up.
Figure 22-2 Location of Retaining Clips on Blank Spacer Card
2
3
1
74248
1
Step 2
1
Card-retaining clips
2
Antenna connector (white wire)
3
Antenna connector (black wire)
Carefully bend the card near the slots in opposite directions to provide enough clearance to remove the
antenna wires.
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Removing a 2.4-GHz Radio
Step 3
Remove the antenna wires from the blank spacer card.
Caution
Step 4
To avoid damaging the antenna wire assemblies, handle them by their connectors.
Remove the blank spacer card from the mini-PCI connector.
For instructions on installing the radio card, go to the “Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio” section.
Removing a 2.4-GHz Radio
To remove a 2.4-GHz radio card from your access point, follow the steps below:
Caution
Step 1
The internal access point components and the 2.4-GHz radio can be damaged by ESD from improper
handling.
Use your fingers to carefully remove the antenna wire connectors from the 2.4-GHz radio card.
Caution
The antenna connectors can be damaged by using a pair of long-nose pliers during the removal
process.
Caution
To avoid damaging the antenna wire assemblies, handle them by their connectors.
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Removing a 2.4-GHz Radio
Step 2
Remove the 2.4-GHz radio card from the mini-PCI connector by performing the following operations:
a.
Push the card-retaining clips (on each side of card) away from the card (see Figure 22-3). When
released, the radio card springs up (see Figure 22-4).
Figure 22-3 Location of Retaining Clips on 2.4-GHz Radio Card
1
1
74253
MAIN AUX
1
Step 3
Card-retaining clips
b.
Grasp the radio card only on the edges, being careful not to touch components on the board or the
gold connector pins.
c.
Remove the 2.4-GHz card from the mini-PCI connector.
Place the removed 2.4GHz radio card into an anti-static bag.
For instructions on installing a new radio card, go to the “Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio” section.
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Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio
Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio
To install a new 2.4-GHz radio card into the access point, follow the steps below.
Caution
The internal access point components and the 2.4-GHz radio can be damaged by ESD from improper
handling.
Step 1
Carefully remove the Cisco Aironet 2.4-GHz radio card from its anti-static bag.
Step 2
Grasp the radio card only on the edges, being careful not to touch components on the board or the gold
connector pins.
Step 3
Connect the black antenna wire connector to the radio card antenna connector marked by the black label
(see Figure 22-4).
Caution
To avoid damaging the antenna wire assemblies, handle them by their connectors.
Figure 22-4 Antenna Connector Labels and Mini-PCI Connector
1
IN
X
AU
MA
2
74251
3
Step 4
1
Antenna connector (black wire)
2
Antenna connector (white wire)
3
Mini-PCI connector
Connect the white antenna wire connector to the radio card antenna connector marked by the white label
(see Figure 22-4).
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Installing a 2.4-GHz Radio
Step 5
Insert the radio card into the access point’s mini-PCI connector by following the steps below:
a.
Tilt the radio card at approximately 20o to 30o so that its gold pins are aligned with the mini-PCI
connector (see Figure 22-4).
b.
Push the card into the mini-PCI connector until it clicks into place.
Step 6
Carefully push the card down (towards the access point’s motherboard) until the card-retaining clips lock
into the notches on the side of the radio card (you will hear a click).
Step 7
Carefully position the antenna wires so that the metal connectors do not touch each other.
Caution
Damage to the radio could occur if the antenna connectors are touching when power is applied. If they
are touching, carefully rotate them in opposite directions until they are separated.
Step 8
Reinstall the 2.4-GHz radio access cover and use the T-10 tamper-resistant Torx L-wrench to tighten the
cover’s retaining screw.
Step 9
Remove the backing paper from the 2.4-GHz radio product compliance label.
Step 10
Carefully attach the label in the space provided below the access point’s product compliance label as
shown in Figure 22-5.
Figure 22-5 Location of Product Compliance Labels
2
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1
Note
2.4-GHz radio product compliance label
2
Access point product compliance label
If your access point contains a 5-GHz radio module, there will also be a 5-GHz radio product
compliance label on the back of the unit.
The radio card installation is now complete. To configure the radio with your wireless network settings,
refer to Chapter 7, “Configuring Radio Settings.”
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5-GHz Radio Module Upgrade
This chapter provides upgrade instructions for the 5-GHz radio module and includes the following
sections:
•
Upgrade Overview, page 23-2
•
Removing the 5-GHz Radio Access Cover, page 23-2
•
Removing a 5-GHz Radio Module, page 23-3
•
Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module, page 23-5
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Upgrade Overview
Upgrade Overview
This section provides instructions for upgrading the access point 5-GHz radio module. The following
operations summarize the upgrade procedure:
Note
1.
Remove all cables and power connections from the access point.
2.
Place your access point on a flat surface.
3.
For an access point without the 5-GHz radio feature, remove the 5-GHz radio access cover.
4.
For an access point with the 5-GHz radio feature, remove the existing 5-GHz radio module.
5.
Install the new 5-GHz radio module.
After you install the radio module, all configurable radio settings will be at default values. Refer to
Chapter 7, “Configuring Radio Settings,” for complete instructions on configuring the new radio.
Unpacking the Radio Module
Each 5-GHz radio module is shipped with the following items:
•
Quick start guide
•
A product registration card
•
A T-10 tamper-resistant Torx L-wrench
•
A 5-GHz radio product compliance label
If anything is missing or damaged, contact your Cisco representative for support.
Removing the 5-GHz Radio Access Cover
To remove the 5-GHz radio access cover, follow the instructions below:
Step 1
Remove all cables and power connections from the access point.
Step 2
Place the access point on a flat surface so that the unit is upright with the front end facing you.
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Step 3
Remove the 5-GHz access cover (see Figure 23-1) using the supplied Torx L-wrench.
Figure 23-1 5-GHz Radio Access Cover
2
1
74632
1
1
2
Access Cover Screws
Access Cover
Removing a 5-GHz Radio Module
To remove the 5-GHz radio module, follow the instructions below:
Step 1
Remove all cables and power connections from the access point.
Step 2
Place the access point on a flat surface so that the unit is upright with the front end facing you.
Step 3
Unscrew the two mounting screws using the supplied Torx L-wrench (Figure 23-2).
Figure 23-2 5-GHz Radio Module
1
2
3
74631
1
1
Mounting screws
2
5-GHz radio module antenna
Note
3
Access point
Do not attempt to remove the mounting screws from the module; they are captured in the module
housing.
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Removing a 5-GHz Radio Module
Step 4
Insert your fingers into the base of the 5-GHz radio module (closest to the access point) and pull straight
out from the access point (see Figure 23-3).
74629
Figure 23-3 Removing the 5-GHz Radio Module
Step 5
Fold the antenna down (towards the attached radio card) and insert the module into a static protected bag.
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Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
To install a new 5-GHz radio module into your access point, follow the steps below:
Step 1
Before you can install a new 5-GHz radio module, you must remove the access cover or an existing
5-GHz radio module (refer to “Removing the 5-GHz Radio Access Cover” or “Removing a 5-GHz Radio
Module”).
Step 2
Place the access point on a flat surface so that the unit is upright with the front end facing you.
Step 3
Grasp the new 5-GHz radio module by it’s base (with the antenna pointing up) and insert the card into
the access point’s card-bus slot (see Figure 23-4).
Figure 23-4 Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
1
2
4
74604
3
Step 4
1
Access point
3
Access point card-bus slot
2
5-GHz radio module antenna
4
5-GHz radio card
Push the 5-GHz radio module into the slot until you hear a slight click.
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Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
Step 5
Tighten the 5-GHz radio module mounting screws (see Figure 23-5) using the supplied Torx L-wrench.
Figure 23-5 Location of Mounting Screws
2
1
74630
1
2
2
5-GHz radio module antenna
Mounting screws
Step 6
Remove the backing paper from the 5-GHz radio product compliance label.
Step 7
Carefully attach the label in the space provided below the product compliance label (see Figure 23-6).
Figure 23-6 5-GHz Radio Product Compliance Label
2
74246
1
1
5-GHz radio product compliance label
2
Access point product compliance label
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Chapter 23
5-GHz Radio Module Upgrade
Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
Note
If your access point contains an internal 2.4-GHz radio, there will also be a 2.4-GHz radio
product compliance label on the back of the unit.
The 5-GHz radio module installation is now complete and radio settings are at default values. To
configure the 5-GHz radio with your wireless network settings refer to Chapter 7, “Configuring Radio
Settings.”
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Chapter 23
5-GHz Radio Module Upgrade
Installing a 5-GHz Radio Module
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C H A P T E R
A
Translated Safety Warnings
This appendix provides translations of the safety warnings that appear in this publication. These
translated warnings apply to other documents in which they appear in English. The following safety
warnings appear in this appendix:
•
Dipole Antenna Installation Warning, page A-2
•
Explosive Device Proximity Warning, page A-3
•
Lightning Activity Warning, page A-4
•
Installation Warning, page A-5
•
Circuit Breaker (15A) Warning, page A-5
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Chapter A
Translated Safety Warnings
Dipole Antenna Installation Warning
Dipole Antenna Installation Warning
Warning
In order to comply with FCC radio frequency (RF) exposure limits, dipole antennas should be located
at a minimum of 7.9 inches (20 cm) or more from the body of all persons.
Waarschuwing
Om te voldoen aan de FCC radiofrequentie (RF) blootstellingslimieten dienen dipoolantennes zich
minstens 20 cm of meer van de lichamen van alle personen bevinden.
Varoitus
FCC:n antamien radiotaajuuksille altistumista koskevien rajoitusten mukaan dipoliantennien on
sijaittava vähintään 20 cm:n päässä kaikista henkilöistä.
Attention
Pour se conformer aux limites d’exposition à la fréquence radio préconisées par la FCC (Federal
Communications Commission), les antennes dipôles doivent se situer à un minimum de 20 cm de
toute personne.
Warnung
Um die in den FCC-Richtlinien festgelegten Expositionshöchstgrenzen für Radiofrequenzen (RF)
nicht zu überschreiten, sollten Dipolantennen mindestens 20 cm (7,9 Zoll) vom Körper aller Person
entfernt aufgestellt werden.
Avvertenza
Per conformarsi ai limiti FCC di esposizione a radiofrequenza (RF), le antenne a dipolo devono stare
ad una distanza minima di 20 cm dal corpo di ogni persona.
Advarsel
I henhold til eksponeringsgrensene for radiofrekvenser (RF), skal dipole antenner befinne seg på
en avstand av minst 20 cm eller mer fra mennesker.
Aviso
Para estar de acordo com as normas FCC de limites de exposição para freqüência de rádio (RF), as
antenas dipolo devem estar distantes no mínimo 20 cm (7,9 pol) do corpo de qualquer pessoa.
¡Advertencia!
Para cumplir con los límites de exposición de radio frecuencia (RF) de la Comisión Federal de
Comunicaciones (FCC) es preciso ubicar las antenas dipolo a un mínimo de 20 cm (7,9 pulgadas) o
más del cuerpo de las personas.
Varning!
För att följa FCC-exponeringsgränserna för radiofrekvens (RF), bör dipolsantenner placeras på
minst 20 cm avstånd från alla människor.
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Chapter A
Translated Safety Warnings
Explosive Device Proximity Warning
Explosive Device Proximity Warning
Warning
Do not operate your wireless network device near unshielded blasting caps or in an explosive
environment unless the device has been modified to be especially qualified for such use.
Waarschuwing
Varoitus
Gebruik dit draadloos netwerkapparaat alleen in de buurt van onbeschermde ontstekers of in een
omgeving met explosieven indien het apparaat speciaal is aangepast om aan de eisen voor een
dergelijk gebruik te voldoen.
Älä käytä johdotonta verkkolaitetta suojaamattomien räjäytysnallien läheisyydessä tai
räjäytysalueella, jos laitetta ei ole erityisesti muunnettu sopivaksi sellaiseen käyttöön.oen.
Attention
Ne jamais utiliser un équipement de réseau sans fil à proximité d'un détonateur non blindé ou dans
un lieu présentant des risques d'explosion, sauf si l'équipement a été modifié à cet effet.
Warnung
Benutzen Sie Ihr drahtloses Netzwerkgerät nicht in der Nähe ungeschützter Sprengkapseln oder
anderer explosiver Stoffe, es sei denn, Ihr Gerät wurde eigens für diesen Gebrauch modifiziert und
bestimmt.
Avvertenza
Advarsel
Aviso
¡Advertencia!
Varning!
Non utilizzare la periferica di rete senza fili in prossimità di un detonatore non protetto o di
esplosivi a meno che la periferica non sia stata modificata a tale proposito.
Ikke bruk den trådløse nettverksenheten nært inntil uisolerte fenghetter eller i et eksplosivt miljø
med mindre enheten er modifisert slik at den tåler slik bruk.
Não opere o dispositivo de rede sem fios perto de cápsulas explosivas não protegidas ou num
ambiente explosivo, a não ser que o dispositivo tenha sido modificado para se qualificar
especialmente para essa utilização.
No utilizar un aparato de la red sin cable cerca de un detonador que no esté protegido ni tampoco
en un entorno explosivo a menos que el aparato haya sido modificado con ese fin.
Använd inte den trådlösa nätverksenheten i närheten av oskyddade tändhattar eller i en explosiv
miljö om inte enheten modifierats för att kunna användas i sådana sammanhang.
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Chapter A
Translated Safety Warnings
Lightning Activity Warning
Lightning Activity Warning
Warning
Waarschuwing
Varoitus
Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during periods of lightning activity.
Tijdens onweer dat gepaard gaat met bliksem, dient u niet aan het systeem te werken of kabels aan
te sluiten of te ontkoppelen.
Älä työskentele järjestelmän parissa äläkä yhdistä tai irrota kaapeleita ukkosilmalla.
Attention
Ne pas travailler sur le système ni brancher ou débrancher les câbles pendant un orage.
Warnung
Arbeiten Sie nicht am System und schließen Sie keine Kabel an bzw. trennen Sie keine ab, wenn es
gewittert.
Avvertenza
Non lavorare sul sistema o collegare oppure scollegare i cavi durante un temporale con fulmini.
Advarsel
Utfør aldri arbeid på systemet, eller koble kabler til eller fra systemet når det tordner eller lyner.
Aviso
¡Advertencia!
Varning!
Não trabalhe no sistema ou ligue e desligue cabos durante períodos de mau tempo (trovoada).
No operar el sistema ni conectar o desconectar cables durante el transcurso de descargas
eléctricas en la atmósfera.
Vid åska skall du aldrig utföra arbete på systemet eller ansluta eller koppla loss kablar.
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Chapter A
Translated Safety Warnings
Installation Warning
Installation Warning
Warning
Waarschuwing
Varoitus
Read the installation instructions before you connect the system to its power source.
Raadpleeg de installatie-aanwijzingen voordat u het systeem met de voeding verbindt.
Lue asennusohjeet ennen järjestelmän yhdistämistä virtalähteeseen.
Attention
Avant de brancher le système sur la source d'alimentation, consulter les directives d'installation.
Warnung
Lesen Sie die Installationsanweisungen, bevor Sie das System an die Stromquelle anschließen.
Avvertenza
Advarsel
Aviso
Consultare le istruzioni di installazione prima di collegare il sistema all’alimentatore.
Les installasjonsinstruksjonene før systemet kobles til strømkilden.
Leia as instruções de instalação antes de ligar o sistema à sua fonte de energia.
¡Advertencia!
Ver las instrucciones de instalación antes de conectar el sistema a la red de alimentación.
Varning!
Läs installationsanvisningarna innan du kopplar systemet till dess strömförsörjningsenhet.
Circuit Breaker (15A) Warning
Warning
This product relies on the building’s installation for short-circuit (overcurrent) protection. Ensure
that a fuse or circuit breaker no larger than 120 VAC, 15A U.S. (240 VAC, 10A international) is used
on the phase conductors (all current-carrying conductors).
Waarschuwing
Dit produkt is afhankelijk van de installatie van het gebouw voor kortsluit- (overstroom)beveiliging.
Controleer of er een zekering of stroomverbreker van niet meer dan 120 Volt wisselstroom, 15 A voor
de V.S. (240 Volt wisselstroom, 10 A internationaal) gebruikt wordt op de fasegeleiders (alle
geleiders die stroom voeren).
Varoitus
Attention
Tämä tuote on riippuvainen rakennukseen asennetusta oikosulkusuojauksesta
(ylivirtasuojauksesta). Varmista, että vaihevirtajohtimissa (kaikissa virroitetuissa johtimissa)
käytetään Yhdysvalloissa alle 120 voltin, 15 ampeerin ja monissa muissa maissa 240 voltin,
10 ampeerin sulaketta tai suojakytkintä.
Pour ce qui est de la protection contre les courts-circuits (surtension), ce produit dépend de
l'installation électrique du local. Vérifier qu'un fusible ou qu'un disjoncteur de 120 V alt., 15 A U.S.
maximum (240 V alt., 10 A international) est utilisé sur les conducteurs de phase (conducteurs de
charge).
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Chapter A
Translated Safety Warnings
Circuit Breaker (15A) Warning
Warnung
Dieses Produkt ist darauf angewiesen, daß im Gebäude ein Kurzschluß- bzw. Überstromschutz
installiert ist. Stellen Sie sicher, daß eine Sicherung oder ein Unterbrecher von nicht mehr als 240 V
Wechselstrom, 10 A (bzw. in den USA 120 V Wechselstrom, 15 A) an den Phasenleitern (allen
stromführenden Leitern) verwendet wird.
Avvertenza
Questo prodotto dipende dall’installazione dell’edificio per quanto riguarda la protezione contro
cortocircuiti (sovracorrente). Verificare che un fusibile o interruttore automatico, non superiore a
120 VCA, 15 A U.S. (240 VCA, 10 A internazionale) sia stato usato nei fili di fase (tutti i conduttori
portatori di corrente).
Advarsel
Dette produktet er avhengig av bygningens installasjoner av kortslutningsbeskyttelse (overstrøm).
Kontroller at det brukes en sikring eller strømbryter som ikke er større enn 120 VAC, 15 A (USA) (240
VAC, 10 A internasjonalt) på faselederne (alle strømførende ledere).
Aviso
¡Advertencia!
Varning!
Este produto depende das instalações existentes para protecção contra curto-circuito
(sobrecarga). Assegure-se de que um fusível ou disjuntor não superior a 240 VAC, 10A é utilizado
nos condutores de fase (todos os condutores de transporte de corrente).
Este equipo utiliza el sistema de protección contra cortocircuitos (o sobrecorrientes) deló propio
edificio. Asegurarse de que se utiliza un fusible o interruptor automático de no más de 240 voltios
en corriente alterna (VAC), 10 amperios del estándar internacional (120 VAC, 15 amperios del
estándar USA) en los hilos de fase (todos aquéllos portadores de corriente).
Denna produkt är beroende av i byggnaden installerat kortslutningsskydd (överströmsskydd).
Kontrollera att säkring eller överspänningsskydd används på fasledarna (samtliga strömförande
ledare) för internationellt bruk max. 240 V växelström, 10 A (i USA max. 120 V växelström, 15 A).
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A P P E N D I X
B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory
Information
This appendix provides declarations of conformity and regulatory information for the Cisco Aironet
1200 Series Access Points.
This appendix contains the following sections:
•
Manufacturers Federal Communication Commission Declaration of Conformity Statement
•
Department of Communications—Canada
•
European Community, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein
•
Declaration of Conformity for RF Exposure
•
Guidelines for Operating Cisco Aironet Access Points in Japan
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Appendix B
Manufacturers Federal Communication Commission Declaration of Conformity Statement
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
Manufacturers Federal Communication Commission
Declaration of Conformity Statement
Tested To Comply
With FCC Standards
FOR HOME OR OFFICE USE
Models:
AIR-AP1200 with AIR-MP20B-A-K9 and/or AIR-RM20A-A-K9,
AIR-AP1210, AIR-AP1220B-A-K9, AIR-AP1230B-A-K9,
AIR-AP1220A-A-K9, AIR- AP1230A-A-K9,
FCC Certification number:
LDK 102042 (AIR-MP20B-A-K9)
LDK 102045 (AIR-RM20A-A-K9)
Manufacturer:
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
USA
This device complies with Part 15 rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1.
This device may not cause harmful interference, and
2.
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits of a Class B digital device, pursuant
to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful
interference when the equipment is operated in a residential environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and radiates radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the
instructions, may cause harmful interference. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not
occur. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined
by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to correct the interference by one of the
following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment to an outlet on a circuit different from which the receiver is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician.
Caution
The Part 15 radio device operates on a non-interference basis with other devices operating at this
frequency when using integrated antennas or those listed in Table B-1. Any changes or modification to
the product not expressly approved by Cisco could void the user’s authority to operate this device.
Caution
Within the 5.15-5.25 GHz band (5 GHz radio channels 34-48) the U-NII devices are restricted to indoor
operations to reduce any potential for harmful interference to co-channel Mobile Satellite System (MSS)
operations.
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Appendix B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
Department of Communications—Canada
Table B-1
Access Point 2.4-GHz Antennas
Cisco Part Number
Model
Gain
AIR-ANT1949
Yagi
13.5
AIR-ANT4121
Omni-directional
12.0
AIR-ANT3549
Patch
8.5
AIR-ANT2012
Spatial diversity
6.5
AIR-ANT1729
Patch
6.0
AIR-ANT2506
Omni-directional
5.1
AIR-ANT3213
Omni-directional
5.0
AIR-ANT1728
Omni-directional
5.0
AIR-ANT3195
Patch
3.0
AIR-ANT5959
Omni-directional
2.0
AIR-ANT4941
Dipole
2.2
Department of Communications—Canada
Canadian Compliance Statement
This Class B Digital apparatus meets all the requirements of the Canadian Interference-Causing
Equipment Regulations.
Cet appareil numerique de la classe B respecte les exigences du Reglement sur le material broilleur du
Canada.
This device complies with Class B Limits of Industry Canada. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
1.
This device may not cause harmful interference, and
2.
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
Cisco Aironet 11-Mbps, 2.4-GHz Access Points are certified to the requirements of RSS-210 for
2.4-GHz spread spectrum devices, and Cisco Aironet 54-Mbps, 5-GHz Access Points are certified to the
requirements of RSS-210 for 5-GHz spread spectrum devices.The use of this device in a system
operating either partially or completely outdoors may require the user to obtain a license for the system
according to the Canadian regulations. For further information, contact your local Industry Canada
office.
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Appendix B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
European Community, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein
European Community, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and
Liechtenstein
Declaration of Conformity with Regard to the R&TTE Directive 1999/5/EC
English:
This equipment is in compliance with the essential requirements and other relevant
provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC.
Deutsch:
Dieses Gerät entspricht den grundlegenden Anforderungen und den weiteren
entsprecheneden Vorgaben der Richtlinie 1999/5/EU.
Dansk:
Dette udstyr er i overensstemmelse med de væsentlige krav og andre relevante
bestemmelser i Directiv 1999/5/EF.
Español:
Este equipo cumple con los requisitos esenciales asi como con otras disposiciones de
la Directive 1999/5/EC.
Έλληνας:
Αυτός ο εξοπλισµός συµµορφώνεται µε τις ουσιώδεις απαιτήσεις και τις λοιπές
διατάξεις της Οδηγίας 1999/5/EΚ.
Français:
Cet appareil est conforme aux exigencies essentialles et aux autres dispositions
pertinantes de la Directive 1999/5/EC.
Íslenska:
Þessi búnaður samrýmist lögboðnum kröfum og öðrum ákvæðum tilskipunar
1999/5/ESB.
Italiano:
Questo apparato é conforme ai requisiti essenziali ed agli altri principi sanciti dalla
Direttiva 1999/5/EC.
Nederlands:
Deze apparatuur voldoet aan de belangrijkste eisen en andere voorzieningen van
richtlijn 1999/5/EC.
Norsk:
Dette utstyret er i samsvar med de grunnleggende krav og andre relevante
bestemmelser i EU-directiv 1999/5/EC.
Português:
Este equipamento satisfaz os requisitos essenciais e outras provisões da Directiva
1999/5/EC.
Suomalainen:
Tämä laite täyttää direktiivin 1999/5/EY oleelliset vaatimukset ja on siinä asetettujen
muidenkin ehtojen mukainen.
Svenska:
Denna utrustning är i överensstämmelse med de väsentliga kraven och andra
relevanta bestämmelser i Direktiv 1999/5/EC.
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Appendix B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
European Community, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland, and Liechtenstein
The Declaration of Conformity related to this product can be found at the following URL:
http://www.ciscofax.com
For 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz access points with 100 mW radios, the following standards were applied:
•
Radio:
EN 300.328-1, EN 300.328-2
•
EMC:
EN 301.489-1, EN 301.89-17
•
Safety:
EN 60950
The following CE mark is affixed to the 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz access points with 100 mW radios:
Note
This equipment is intended to be used in all EU and EFTA countries. Outdoor use may be restricted to
certain frequencies and/or may require a license for operation. For more details, contact Cisco Corporate
Compliance.
Note
Combinations of power levels and antennas resulting in a radiated power level above 100 mW equivalent
isotropic radiated power (EIRP) are considered as not compliant with the above mentioned directive and
are not allowed for use within the European community and other countries that have adopted the
European R&TTE directive 1999/5/EC or the CEPT recommendation Rec 70.03 or both. For more
details on legal combinations of power levels and antennas, refer to the .
For 54 Mbps, 5 GHz access points with 40 mW radios, the following standards were applied:
•
Radio:
EN 301.893
•
EMC:
EN 301.489-1, EN 301.489-17
•
Safety:
EN 60950
49325
The following CE mark is affixed to the 54 Mbps, 5 GHz access points with 40 mW radios:
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Appendix B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
Declaration of Conformity for RF Exposure
Declaration of Conformity for RF Exposure
The radio module has been found to be compliant to the requirements set forth in CFR 47 Sections
2.1091, 2.1093, and 15.247 (b) (4) addressing RF Exposure from radio frequency devices as defined in
Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic
Fields. For antennas, AIR-ANT4121 and AIR-ANT1949, the equipment should be positioned more than
2 m from your body or nearby persons. For all other approved antennas the equipment shoud be installed
more than 20 cm from your body or nearby persons.
The access point (with 5 GHz integrated antenna) must be installed to maintain a minimum 20 cm
(7.9 in) co-located separation distance from other FCC approved indoor/outdoor antennas used with the
access point. Any antennas or transmitters not approved by the FCC cannot be co-located with the access
point antennas. The access point’s co-located 2.4 GHz (2.2 dBi) and 5 GHz integrated antennas support
a minimum separation distance of 10 cm (3.9 in) and are compliant with the applicable FCC RF exposure
limit when transmitting simultaneously.
Note
Dual antennas used for diversity operation are not considered co-located.
Guidelines for Operating Cisco Aironet Access Points in Japan
This section provides guidelines for avoiding interference when operating Cisco Aironet access points
in Japan. These guidelines are provided in both Japanese and English.
03-5549-6500
43768
Japanese Translation
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Appendix B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
Guidelines for Operating Cisco Aironet Access Points in Japan
English Translation
This equipment operates in the same frequency bandwidth as industrial, scientific, and medical devices
such as microwave ovens and mobile object identification (RF-ID) systems (licensed premises radio
stations and unlicensed specified low-power radio stations) used in factory production lines.
1.
Before using this equipment, make sure that no premises radio stations or specified low-power radio
stations of RF-ID are used in the vicinity.
2.
If this equipment causes RF interference to a premises radio station of RF-ID, promptly change the
frequency or stop using the device; contact the number below and ask for recommendations on
avoiding radio interference, such as setting partitions.
3.
If this equipment causes RF interference to a specified low-power radio station of RF-ID, contact
the number below.
Contact Number: 03-5549-6500
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Appendix B
Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information
Guidelines for Operating Cisco Aironet Access Points in Japan
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A P P E N D I X
C
Channels and Antenna Settings
This appendix lists the access point radio channels and the maximum power levels supported by the
world’s regulatory domains.
The following topics are covered in this appendix:
•
Channels, page C-2
•
Maximum Power Levels, page C-4
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Appendix C
Channels and Antenna Settings
Channels
Channels
IEEE 802.11a
The channel identifiers, channel center frequencies, and regulatory domains of each IEEE 802.11a
20-MHz-wide channel are listed in Table C-1.
Table C-1
Note
Channels for IEEE 802.11a
Regulatory Domains
Channel
Identifier
Frequency in
MHz
Americas (-A)
Japan (-J)
Singapore (-S)
Taiwan (-T)
34
5170
-
X
-
-
36
5180
X
-
X
-
38
5190
-
X
-
-
40
5200
X
-
X
-
42
5210
-
X
-
-
44
5220
X
-
X
-
46
5230
-
X
-
-
48
5240
X
-
X
-
52
5260
X
-
-
X
56
5280
X
-
-
X
60
5300
X
-
-
X
64
5320
X
-
-
X
149
5745
-
-
-
-
153
5765
-
-
-
-
157
5785
-
-
-
-
161
5805
-
-
-
-
All channel sets are restricted to indoor usage except the Americas (-A), which allows for indoor and
outdoor use on channels 52 through 64 in the United States.
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Appendix C
Channels and Antenna Settings
Channels
IEEE 802.11b
The channel identifiers, channel center frequencies, and regulatory domains of each IEEE 802.11b
22-MHz-wide channel are listed in Table C-2.
Table C-2
Note
Channels for IEEE 802.11b
Regulatory Domains
Channel
Identifier
Frequency in
MHz
Americas (-A)
EMEA (-E)
Israel (-I)
China (-C)
Japan (-J)
1
2412
X
X
-
X
X
2
2417
X
X
-
X
X
3
2422
X
X
X
X
X
4
2427
X
X
X
X
X
5
2432
X
X
X
X
X
6
2437
X
X
X
X
X
7
2442
X
X
X
X
X
8
2447
X
X
X
X
X
9
2452
X
X
X
X
X
10
2457
X
X
-
X
X
11
2462
X
X
-
X
X
12
2467
-
X
-
-
X
13
2472
-
X
-
-
X
14
2484
-
-
-
-
X
Mexico is included in the Americas regulatory domain; however, channels 1 through 8 are for indoor use
only while channels 9 through 11 can be used indoors and outdoors. Users are responsible for ensuring
that the channel set configuration complies with the regulatory standards of Mexico.
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Appendix C
Channels and Antenna Settings
Maximum Power Levels
Maximum Power Levels
This section lists the maximum radio power levels and antenna gains for each regulatory domain. For
additional information on setting radio transmit power, refer to the “Configuring Radio Transmit Power”
section on page 7-5.
IEEE 802.11a
An improper combination of power level and antenna gain can result in equivalent isotropic radiated
power (EIRP) above the amount allowed per regulatory domain. Table C-3 lists the maximum power
levels and antenna gains allowed for each IEEE 802.11a regulatory domain.
Table C-3
Maximum Power Levels Per Antenna Gain for IEEE 802.11a
Maximum Power Level (mW)
with 6-dBi Antenna Gain
Regulatory Domain
Americas (-A)
(160 mW EIRP maximum on channels 36-48,
800 mW EIRP maximum on channels 52-64)
40
Japan (-J)
(10 mW/MHz EIRP maximum)
40
Singapore (-S)
(100 mW EIRP maximum)
20
Taiwan (-T)
(800 mW EIRP maximum)
40
IEEE 802.11b
An improper combination of power level and antenna gain can result in equivalent isotropic radiated
power (EIRP) above the amount allowed per regulatory domain. Table C-4 lists the maximum power
levels and antenna gains allowed for each IEEE 802.11b regulatory domain.
Table C-4
Maximum Power Levels Per Antenna Gain for IEEE 802.11b
Regulatory Domain
Americas (-A)
(4W EIRP maximum)
Antenna Gain (dBi)
Maximum Power Level (mW)
0
100
2.2
100
5.2
100
6
100
8.5
100
12
100
13.5
100
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Appendix C
Channels and Antenna Settings
Maximum Power Levels
Table C-4
Maximum Power Levels Per Antenna Gain for IEEE 802.11b (continued)
Regulatory Domain
EMEA (-E)
(100 mW EIRP maximum)
Israel (-I)
(100 mW EIRP maximum)
China (-C)
(10 mW EIRP maximum)
Japan (-J)
(10 mW/MHz EIRP maximum)
Antenna Gain (dBi)
Maximum Power Level (mW)
0
100
2.2
50
5.2
30
6
30
8.5
5
12
5
13.5
5
21
1
0
100
2.2
50
5.2
30
6
30
8.5
5
12
5
13.5
5
21
1
0
5
2.2
5
5.2
n/a
6
n/a
8.5
n/a
12
n/a
13.5
n/a
21
n/a
0
50
2.2
30
5.2
30
6
30
8.5
n/a
12
n/a
13.5
5
21
n/a
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Appendix C
Channels and Antenna Settings
Maximum Power Levels
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A P P E N D I X
D
Mounting Instructions
This appendix provides instructions for mounting the access point to suspended ceilings, vertical
surfaces, or horizontal surfaces using the access point mounting bracket.
The following sections are included in this chapter:
•
Overview, page D-2
•
Mounting on a Horizontal or Vertical Surface, page D-3
•
Mounting on a Suspended Ceiling, page D-4
•
Attaching the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket, page D-5
•
Securing the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket, page D-5
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Appendix D
Mounting Instructions
Overview
Overview
You can mount the access point on any of the following surfaces:
•
Horizontal or vertical flat surfaces, such as walls or ceilings
•
Suspended ceilings
The access point ships with a detachable mounting bracket and the necessary mounting hardware.
Because it is detachable, you can use the mounting bracket as a template to mark the positions of the
mounting holes for your installation. You then install the mounting bracket and attach the access point
when you are ready. Refer to Figure D-1 to locate the various mounting holes for the method you intend
to use.
Note
The Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point provides adequate fire resistance and low smoke-producing
characteristics suitable for operation in a building's environmental air space in accordance with Section
300-22(C) of the National Electrical Code (NEC), such as above suspended ceilings.
Note
If you plan to mount the access point in environmental air space and will upgrade to a 5-GHz radio, Cisco
recommends that you mount the access point horizontally with its antennas pointing down. Doing so will
result in the access point complying with regulatory requirements for environmental air space after the
5-GHz radio is installed.
Note
When mounting the access point in a building’s environmental air space, you must use Ethernet cable
suitable for operation in environmental air space in accordance with Section 300-22(C) of the National
Electrical Code (NEC).
Mounting Bracket
1
2
8
2
3
7
3
6
4
4
5
65863
Figure D-1
1
Access point mount
5
Locking detent
2
Cable tie points
6
Wall cable access
3
Ceiling mount holes
7
Suspended ceiling cable access
4
Access point mounts
8
Security hasp
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Appendix D
Mounting Instructions
Mounting on a Horizontal or Vertical Surface
A mounting hardware kit is provided that contains the hardware and fasteners necessary to mount the
access point. Refer to the Table D-1 to identify the materials you need to mount your access point, then
go to the section containing the specific mounting procedure.
Table D-1
Material Needed to Mount Access Point
Mounting Method
Materials Required
In Kit
Horizontal or vertical surface
Four #8 x 1 in. (25.4 mm) screws
Four wall anchors
3/16 in. (4.7 mm) or 3/32 in. (2.3 mm) drill bit
Drill
Standard screwdriver
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Suspended ceiling
Two caddy fasteners with studs
Two plastic spacers
Two 1/4–20 Keps nuts with built-in washers
Standard screwdriver
Appropriate wrench or pliers
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Mounting on a Horizontal or Vertical Surface
Follow these steps to mount the access point on a horizontal or vertical surface.
Step 1
Use the mounting bracket as a template to mark the locations of the four mounting holes.
Step 2
Drill one of the following sized holes at the locations you marked:
•
3/16 in. (4.7 mm) if you are using wall anchors
•
1/8 in. (6.3 mm) if you are not using wall anchors
Step 3
Install the anchors into the wall if you are using them. Otherwise, go to Step 4.
Step 4
Secure the mounting bracket to the surface using the #8 fasteners.
Note
Step 5
On a vertical surface, mount the bracket with its security hasp facing down.
Attach the access point to the mounting bracket.
Note
You can make your installation more secure by mounting it to a stud or major structural member
and using the appropriate fasteners.
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Appendix D
Mounting Instructions
Mounting on a Suspended Ceiling
Mounting on a Suspended Ceiling
Note
To comply with NEC code, a #10-24 grounding lug is provided on the mounting bracket.
You should review Figure D-2 before beginning the mounting process.
Figure D-2
Mounting Bracket Parts
1
2
2
3
3
4
5
74121
5
1
Suspended ceiling T-rail
4
Mounting bracket
2
Caddy fastener
5
Keps nut (contains an attached lock washer)
3
Plastic spacer
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Appendix D
Mounting Instructions
Attaching the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket
Follow these steps to mount your access point on a suspended ceiling:
Step 1
Determine the location where you want to mount the access point.
Step 2
Attach two caddy fasteners to the suspended ceiling T-rail.
Step 3
Use the mounting bracket to adjust the distance between the caddy fasteners so that they align with the
holes in the mounting bracket.
Step 4
Use a standard screwdriver to tighten the caddy fastener studs in place on the suspended ceiling T-rail.
Do not overtighten.
Step 5
Install a plastic spacer on each caddy fastener stud. The spacer’s legs should contact the suspended
ceiling T-rail.
Step 6
Attach the mounting bracket to the caddy fastener studs and start a Keps nut on each stud.
Step 7
Use a wrench or pliers to tighten the Keps nuts. Do not overtighten.
Step 8
Attach the access point to the mounting bracket.
Attaching the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket
Follow these steps to attach the access point to the mounting bracket:
Step 1
Line up the three mounting pins on the access point with the large ends of the keyhole-shaped holes on
the mounting bracket.
Step 2
Insert the access point into the keyhole shaped holes and maintain a slight pressure to hold it in place.
Step 3
Slide the access point’s mounting pins into the small ends of the keyhole-shaped holes on the mounting
bracket and push the connector end of the access point. You will hear a click when the locking detent
contacts the access point and locks it into place.
Step 4
Attach and adjust the antenna(s) or antenna cables.
Step 5
Connect the Ethernet cable to the access point’s Ethernet port.
Step 6
Insert the 1200 series power module cable connector into the access point’s 48 VDC power port (if you
are using a local power source).
Securing the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket
The security hasp on the mounting bracket allows you to lock the access point to the bracket to make it
more secure. When the access point is properly installed on the mounting bracket, the holes in the
security hasps line up so you can install a padlock.
Known compatible padlocks are Master Lock models 120T or 121T.
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Appendix D
Mounting Instructions
Securing the Access Point to the Mounting Bracket
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A P P E N D I X
E
Protocol Filters
The tables in this appendix list some of the protocols that you can filter on the access point. The tables
include:
•
Table E-1, Ethertype Protocols
•
Table E-2, IP Protocols
•
Table E-3, IP Port Protocols
In each table, the Protocol column lists the protocol name, the Additional Identifier column lists other
names for the same protocol, and the ISO Designator column lists the numeric designator for each
protocol.
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Appendix E
Table E-1
Protocol Filters
Ethertype Protocols
Protocol
Additional Identifier ISO Designator
ARP
—
0x0806
RARP
—
0x8035
IP
—
0x0800
Berkeley Trailer Negotiation
—
0x1000
LAN Test
—
0x0708
X.25 Level3
X.25
0x0805
Banyan
—
0x0BAD
CDP
—
0x2000
DEC XNS
XNS
0x6000
DEC MOP Dump/Load
—
0x6001
DEC MOP
MOP
0x6002
DEC LAT
LAT
0x6004
Ethertalk
—
0x809B
Appletalk ARP
Appletalk
AARP
0x80F3
IPX 802.2
—
0x00E0
IPX 802.3
—
0x00FF
Novell IPX (old)
—
0x8137
Novell IPX (new)
IPX
0x8138
EAPOL (old)
—
0x8180
EAPOL (new)
—
0x888E
Telxon TXP
TXP
0x8729
Aironet DDP
DDP
0x872D
Enet Config Test
—
0x9000
NetBUI
—
0xF0F0
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Appendix E
Protocol Filters
Table E-2
IP Protocols
Protocol
Additional Identifier ISO Designator
dummy
—
0
Internet Control Message Protocol
ICMP
1
Internet Group Management Protocol
IGMP
2
Transmission Control Protocol
TCP
6
Exterior Gateway Protocol
EGP
8
PUP
—
12
CHAOS
—
16
User Datagram Protocol
UDP
17
XNS-IDP
IDP
22
ISO-TP4
TP4
29
ISO-CNLP
CNLP
80
Banyan VINES
VINES
83
Encapsulation Header
encap_hdr
98
Spectralink Voice Protocol
SVP
Spectralink
119
raw
—
255
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Appendix E
Table E-3
Protocol Filters
IP Port Protocols
Protocol
Additional Identifier ISO Designator
TCP port service multiplexer
tcpmux
1
echo
—
7
discard (9)
—
9
systat (11)
—
11
daytime (13)
—
13
netstat (15)
—
15
Quote of the Day
qotd
quote
17
Message Send Protocol
msp
18
ttytst source
chargen
19
FTP Data
ftp-data
20
FTP Control (21)
ftp
21
Secure Shell (22)
ssh
22
Telnet
—
23
Simple Mail Transport Protocol SMTP
mail
25
time
timserver
37
Resource Location Protocol
RLP
39
IEN 116 Name Server
name
42
whois
nicname
43
43
Domain Name Server
DNS
domain
53
MTP
—
57
BOOTP Server
—
67
BOOTP Client
—
68
TFTP
—
69
gopher
—
70
rje
netrjs
77
finger
—
79
Hypertext Transport Protocol
HTTP
www
80
ttylink
link
87
Kerberos v5
Kerberos
krb5
88
supdup
—
95
hostname
hostnames
101
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Appendix E
Protocol Filters
Table E-3
IP Port Protocols (continued)
Protocol
Additional Identifier ISO Designator
TSAP
iso-tsap
102
CSO Name Server
cso-ns
csnet-ns
105
Remote Telnet
rtelnet
107
Postoffice v2
POP2
POP v2
109
Postoffice v3
POP3
POP v3
110
Sun RPC
sunrpc
111
tap ident authentication
auth
113
sftp
—
115
uucp-path
—
117
Network News Transfer
Protocol
Network News
readnews
nntp
119
USENET News Transfer
Protocol
Network News
readnews
nntp
119
Network Time Protocol
ntp
123
NETBIOS Name Service
netbios-ns
137
NETBIOS Datagram Service
netbios-dgm
138
NETBIOS Session Service
netbios-ssn
139
Interim Mail Access Protocol v2 Interim Mail
Access Protocol
143
IMAP2
Simple Network Management
Protocol
SNMP
161
SNMP Traps
snmp-trap
162
ISO CMIP Management Over IP CMIP Management 163
Over IP
cmip-man
CMOT
ISO CMIP Agent Over IP
cmip-agent
164
X Display Manager Control
Protocol
xdmcp
177
NeXTStep Window Server
NeXTStep
178
Border Gateway Protocol
BGP
179
Prospero
—
191
Internet Relay Chap
IRC
194
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Appendix E
Table E-3
Protocol Filters
IP Port Protocols (continued)
Protocol
Additional Identifier ISO Designator
SNMP Unix Multiplexer
smux
199
AppleTalk Routing
at-rtmp
201
AppleTalk name binding
at-nbp
202
AppleTalk echo
at-echo
204
AppleTalk Zone Information
at-zis
206
NISO Z39.50 database
z3950
210
IPX
—
213
Interactive Mail Access Protocol imap3
v3
220
Unix Listserv
ulistserv
372
syslog
—
514
Unix spooler
spooler
515
talk
—
517
ntalk
—
518
route
RIP
520
timeserver
timed
525
newdate
tempo
526
courier
RPC
530
conference
chat
531
netnews
—
532
netwall
wall
533
UUCP Daemon
UUCP
uucpd
540
Kerberos rlogin
klogin
543
Kerberos rsh
kshell
544
rfs_server
remotefs
556
Kerberos kadmin
kerberos-adm
749
network dictionary
webster
765
SUP server
supfilesrv
871
swat for SAMBA
swat
901
SUP debugging
supfiledbg
1127
ingreslock
—
1524
Prospero non-priveleged
prospero-np
1525
RADIUS
—
1812
Concurrent Versions System
CVS
2401
Cisco IAPP
—
2887
Radio Free Ethernet
RFE
5002
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A P P E N D I X
F
Supported MIBs
This appendix lists the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Information Bases
(MIBs) that the access point supports for this software release. The Cisco IOS SNMP agent supports both
SNMPv1 and SNMPv2. This appendix contains these sections:
•
MIB List, page F-1
•
Using FTP to Access the MIB Files, page F-2
•
IEEE802dot11-MIB
•
Q-BRIDGE-MIB
•
P-BRIDGE-MIB
•
CISCO-DOT11-IF-MIB
•
CISCO-WLAN-VLAN-MIB
•
CISCO-IETF-DOT11-QOS-MIB
•
CISCO-IETF-DOT11-QOS-EXT-MIB
•
CISCO-DOT11-ASSOCIATION-MIB
•
CISCO-L2-DEV-MONITORING-MIB
•
CISCO-DDP-IAPP-MIB
•
CISCO-IP-PROTOCOL-FILTER-MIB
•
CISCO-SYSLOG-EVENT-EXT-MIB
•
CISCO-TBRIDGE-DEV-IF-MIB
•
BRIDGE-MIB
•
CISCO-CDP-MIB
•
CISCO-CONFIG-COPY-MIB
•
CISCO-CONFIG-MAN-MIB
•
CISCO-FLASH-MIB
•
CISCO-IMAGE-MIB
•
CISCO-MEMORY-POOL-MIB
MIB List
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Appendix F
Supported MIBs
Using FTP to Access the MIB Files
•
CISCO-PROCESS-MIB
•
CISCO-PRODUCTS-MIB
•
CISCO-SMI-MIB
•
CISCO-TC-MIB
•
CISCO-SYSLOG-MIB
•
ENTITY-MIB
•
IF-MIB
•
OLD-CISCO-CHASSIS-MIB
•
OLD-CISCO-SYS-MIB
•
OLD-CISCO-SYSTEM-MIB
•
OLD-CISCO-TS-MIB
•
RFC1213-MIB
•
RFC1398-MIB
•
SNMPv2-MIB
•
SNMPv2-SMI
•
SNMPv2-TC
Using FTP to Access the MIB Files
Follow these steps to obtain each MIB file by using FTP:
Step 1
Use FTP to access the server ftp.cisco.com.
Step 2
Log in with the username anonymous.
Step 3
Enter your e-mail username when prompted for the password.
Step 4
At the ftp> prompt, change directories to /pub/mibs/v1 or /pub/mibs/v2.
Step 5
Use the get MIB_filename command to obtain a copy of the MIB file.
Note
You can also access information about MIBs on the Cisco web site:
http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/netmgmt/cmtk/mibs.shtml
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A P P E N D I X
G
Access Point Specifications
This appendix provides technical specifications for the Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point.
Table G-1 lists the technical specifications for the access point.
Table G-1
Access Point Specifications
Category
Access Point with 2.4-GHz Radio
Access Point with 5-GHz Radio Module
Size
6.56 in. W x 7.23 in. D x 1.66 in. H
16.67 cm W x 18.36 cm D x 4.22 cm H
With the 5-GHz antenna in the patch position:
6.56 in. W x 8.04 in. D x 2.21 in. H
16.67 cm W x 20.42 cm D x 5.61
Status Indicators
Three indicators on the top panel: Ethernet traffic, status, and radio traffic
Connectors
Back panel (left to right): reverse-TNC antenna connector; power connector (for plug-in AC power
module); RJ-45 connector for 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T Ethernet connections; upside down RJ-45
connector for serial connections; reverse-TNC antenna connector.
Front Panel: Card Bus connector used for the 5-GHz radio module.
Input Voltage
48 VDC nominal. Operational up to 60 VDC. Voltage higher than 60 VDC can damage the unit.
Input Current
With 2.4 GHz radio:
125 mA (typical)
With 5-GHz radio:
165 mA (typical)
With 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz radios
225 mA (typical)
The access point is capable of drawing 380 mA depending upon the current radios and future radios
installed in the unit.
Operating Temperature Access point:
–4 to 131oF (–20 to 55oC)
Access point (with 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz radio):
–4 to 122oF (–20 to 50 oC)
1200 series power injector:
32 to 104 oF (0 to 40 oC)
1200 series power injector:
32 to 104oF (0 to 40oC)
Storage Temperature
–40 to 185oF (–40 to 85 oC)
–40 to 185oF (–40 to 85oC)
Weight
Without mounting bracket:
1.6 lbs (0.73 kg) with 2.4-GHz radio
module
Without mounting bracket:
1.87 lbs (0.85 kg) with 5-Ghz radio module
1.97 lbs (0.89 kg) with 5-GHz radio module and
2.4-GHz radio
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Appendix G
Table G-1
Access Point Specifications
Access Point Specifications (continued)
Category
Access Point with 2.4-GHz Radio
Access Point with 5-GHz Radio Module
Power Output
100, 50, 30, 20, 5, or 1 mW
(Depending on the regulatory domain in
which the access point is installed)
40 mW (16 dBm)
20 mW (13 dBm)
10 mW (10 dBm)
5 mW (7 dBm)
Note
These values are based on the FCC peak
measurement method as defined in
FCC 15.407 (A)(4)
Frequency
2.400 to 2.497 GHz
(Depending on the regulatory domain in
which the access point is installed)
UNII 1—5.15 to 5.25 GHz
UNII 2—5.25 to 5.35 GHz
(Depending on the regulatory domain in which the
access point is installed)
Range
Indoor:
150 ft at 11 Mbps
350 ft at 1 Mbps
Indoor:
170 ft at 6 Mbps
130 ft at 18 Mbps
60 ft at 54 Mbps
Outdoor:
800 ft at 11 Mbps
2000 ft at 1 Mbps
Outdoor:
1000 ft at 6 Mbps
100 ft at 54 Mbps
Modulation
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM)
Data rates
1, 2, 5.5, and 11 Mbps
6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps
Antenna
A diversity system with two reverse-TNC
connectors (Cisco antennas are sold
separately).
A diversity system consisting of two integrated
omnidirectional and two integrated directional
antennas.
Compliance
The 1200 series access point complies with UL 2043 for products installed in a building’s
environmental air handling spaces, such as above suspended ceilings.
Caution
Note
Safety
The 1200 series power injectors are not tested to UL 2043 and should not be placed in a
building’s environmental air space, such as above suspended ceilings.
If you plan to mount the access point in environmental air space using a 5-GHz radio, Cisco
recommends that you mount the access point horizontally with its antennas pointing down.
Doing so results in the access point complying with regulatory requirements for
environmental air space with the 5-GHz radio installed.
Designed to meet:
Designed to meet:
•
UL 1950 Third Edition
•
UL 1950 Third Edition
•
CSA 22.2 No. 950-95
•
CSA 22.2 No. 950-95
•
IEC 60950 Second Edition, including
Amendments 1-4 with all deviations
•
IEC 60950 Second Edition, including
Amendments 1-4 with all deviations
•
EN 60950 Second Edition, including
Amendments 1-4
•
EN 60950 Second Edition, including
Amendments 1-4
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Appendix G
Table G-1
Access Point Specifications
Access Point Specifications (continued)
Category
Access Point with 2.4-GHz Radio
Access Point with 5-GHz Radio Module
Radio Approvals
FCC Part 15.247
Canada RSS-210
Japan Telec 33B
EN 300.328
FCC Part 15.407
Canada RSS-210
Japan ARIB STD-T71
EN 301.893
EMI and Susceptibility FCC Part 15.107 and 15.109 Class B
ICES-003 Class B (Canada)
EN 55022 B
AS/NZS 3548 Class B
VCCI Class B
EN 55024
EN 301.489-1
EN 301.489-17
RF Exposure
OET-65C
RSS-102
ANSI C95.1
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Appendix G
Access Point Specifications
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A P P E N D I X
H
Error and Event Messages
This appendix lists the CLI error and event messages. Table H-1 lists the errors and events and provides
an explanation and recommended action for each message.
Table H-1
Error and Event Messages
Message
Explanation
Recommended Action
Software Auto Upgrade Messages
SW_AUTO_UPGRADE-FATAL:
Attempt to upgrade software failed,
software on Flash may be deleted.
Please copy software into Flash.
Auto upgrade of the software failed. The Copy software before rebooting the
software on the Flash memory might have unit.
been deleted. Copy software into the
Flash memory.
SW_AUTO_UPGRADE-7-FAILURE:
dhcp_client_start_stop failed
Auto upgrade of the software failed due Copy the error message exactly as it
to error in starting/stopping DHCP client appears and report it to your technical
process.
support representative.
SW_AUTO_UPGRADE-7-FAILURE: Auto upgrade of the software failed.
Failed to obtain ip addr from dhcp server
Copy the error message exactly as it
appears and report it to your technical
support representative.
SW_AUTO_UPGRADE-7-FAILURE:
boot_file_pathent creation failed
Auto upgrade of the software failed due
to error in creation of pathent (internal
data structure).
Copy the error message exactly as it
appears and report it to your technical
support representative.
802.11 Association and management uses
a table-driven state machine to keep track
and transition an Association through
various states. A state transition occurs
when an Association receives one of
many possible events. When this error
occurs, it means that an Association
received an event that it did not expect
while in this state.
The system can continue but may lose
the Association that generates this
error. Copy the message exactly as it
appears and report it to your technical
service representative.
Association Management Messages
DOT11-3-BADSTATE: [mac-address]
[chars] [chars] -> [chars]
DOT11-6-ASSOC: Interface [interface], A station associated to an access point.
Station [char] [mac] Associated
None.
DOT11-6-ADD: Interface [interface],
Station [mac] Associated to Parent
[mac]
None.
A station associated to an access point.
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Appendix H
Table H-1
Error and Event Messages
Error and Event Messages (continued)
Message
Explanation
Recommended Action
DOT11-6-DISASSOC: Interface
[interface], Deauthenticating Station
[mac] [char]
A station disassociated from an access
point.
None.
DOT11-6-ROAMED: Station
A station has roamed to a new access
[mac-address] Roamed to [mac-address] point.
None.
Proxy Mobile IP Subsystem Messages
PMIP-3-REG_FAIL: Mobile Node
10.4.1.3 mobile ip registration failed
Check for correct configuration of
When a mobile node (MN) moves to a
Mobile IP agents and the access point.
foreign network, the access point
registers the MN to its Home Agent. This
message indicates that the registration
failed.
PMIP-3-REG_AUTH_FAIL: Mobile
When a mobile node (MN) moves to a
Node 10.4.1.3 registration failed due to foreign network, the access point
authentication failure
registers the MN to its Home Agent. This
message indicates that the registration
failed because the HA or FA failed to
authenticate each other or the MN.
Make sure the correct authentication
information is configured on the Home
Agent, the Foreign Agent, and the
access point.
PMIP-3-REG_FA_FAIL: Mobile Node
10.4.1.3 registration failed due to
Foreign Agent denial
When a Mobile node (MN) moves to a
foreign network, the access point
registers the MN to its Home Agent. This
message indicates that the registration
was denied by the Foreign Agent.
Make sure the correct authentication
information is configured on the Home
Agent, the Foreign Agent, and the
access point.
PMIP-3-REG_HA_FAIL: Mobile Node When a Mobile node (MN) moves to a
10.4.1.3 registration failed due to Home foreign network, the access point
registers the MN to its Home Agent. This
Agent denial
message indicates that the registration
was denied by the Home Agent.
Make sure the correct authentication
information is configured on the Home
Agent, the Foreign Agent, and the
access point.
PMIP-3-AUTH_UNAVAIL:
Authentication for 10.4.1.3 unavailable
Make sure the correct Mobile Node
Proxy Mobile IP failed to obtain the
information is configured locally or on
Mobile Node's authentication
information either locally or from a AAA the AAA server.
server.
PMIP-3-HAFA_UNAVAIL: No
response from the Mobile IP Agent to
our registration requests
Proxy Mobile IP failed to access the
Home or Foreign Agent while trying to
register the Mobile Node.
PMIP-6-HAFA_DOWN: Mobile IP
Agent 10.4.1.1 is down or unavailable
Mobile IP Home or Foreign agent has
Make sure there is at least one Home
gone down or is inaccessible to the access and Foreign Agent configured on that
point.
subnet and is accessible to the access
point.
Make sure the HA or FA is not down or
is network inaccessible. Also check
that the subnet map information
regarding the Home Agent is correct.
PMIP-3-AAP_UNAVAIL: Authoritative The authoritative access point cannot be
Access Point is unavailable
reached to obtains subnet map table.
Make sure all the access points have the
same information regarding
Authoritative and regular access points.
PMIP-6-START: Proxy Mobile IP
services has started
None.
Proxy Mobile IP service has started.
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Appendix H
Table H-1
Error and Event Messages
Error and Event Messages (continued)
Message
Explanation
Recommended Action
PMIP-6-STOP: Proxy Mobile IP
services have stopped
Proxy Mobile IP service has stopped.
None.
PMIP-6-REPEATER_STOP: AP is now Proxy Mobile IP does not run on
operating as a repeater, disabling Proxy repeaters or workgroup bridges, and it is
Mobile IP services
disabled automatically when the access
point is in repeater mode.
None.
Unzip Messages
SOAP-4-UNZIP_OVERFLOW: Failed
to unzip
Flash:/c1200-k9w7-mx.122-3.6.JA1/ht
ml/level15/ap_xxx.htm.gz, exceeds
maximum uncompressed html size
The HTTP server cannot retrieve a
compressed file in response to an HTTP
GET request because the size of the file is
too large for the buffers used in the
uncompression process.
Make sure file is a valid HTML page. If
so, you'll have to copy an
uncompressed version of the file into
Flash to retrieve it through HTTP.
802.11 Subsystem Messages
DOT11-6-FREQ_INUSE: Radio
frequency [int] is in use
When scanning for an unused frequency, None.
the unit recognized another radio using
the displayed frequency.
DOT11-6-FREQ_USED: Radio
frequency [int] selected
After scanning for an unused frequency, None.
the unit selected the displayed frequency.
DOT11-4-VERSION_MISMATCH:
When starting the radio, the wrong
Require radio version [hex].[int], found firmware version was found. The radio
version [hex].[int]
will be loaded with the required version.
None.
DOT11-2-VERSION_INVALID:
Unable to find required radio version
[hex].[int]
None.
When trying to re-flash the radio
firmware, the access point recognized
that the radio firmware packaged with the
IOS firmware had the incorrect version.
DOT11-4-NO_SSID: No SSIDs
configured, radio not started
All SSIDs were deleted from the
configuration. At least one must be
configured for the radio to run.
Configure at least one SSID on the
access point.
DOT11-4-FLASHING_RADIO:
Flashing the radio firmware ([chars])
The radio has been stopped to load new
firmware.
None.
DOT11-2-NO_FIRMWARE: No radio
firmware file ([chars]) was found
When trying to Flash new firmware into
the radio, the file for the radio was not
found in the Flash file system.
The wrong image has been loaded into
the unit. Locate the correct image based
on the type of radio used.
DOT11-2-BAD_FIRMWARE: Radio
firmware file ([chars]) is invalid
When trying to Flash new firmware into Put the correct firmware image file in
the radio, the file was found to be invalid. the place where the unit is looking.
DOT11-4-FLASH_RADIO_DONE:
Flashing the radio firmware completed
The radio firmware Flash is complete,
and the radio will be restarted with the
new firmware.
DOT11-4-LINK_DOWN: Radio parent
lost: [chars]
The connection to the parent access point None.
was lost for the displayed reason. The
unit will try to find a new parent access
point.
None.
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Appendix H
Table H-1
Error and Event Messages
Error and Event Messages (continued)
Message
Explanation
Recommended Action
DOT11-4-CANT_ASSOC: Cannot
associate: [chars]
The unit could not establish a connection Check the configuration of both the
to a parent access point for the displayed parent access point and this unit to
reason.
make sure the basic settings (SSID,
WEP, and others) match.
Inter-Access Point Protocol Messages
DOT11-6-ROAMED: Station
A station has roamed to a new access
[mac-address] Roamed to [mac-address] point.
None.
DOT11-6-STANDBY_ACTIVE:
Standby to Active, Reason = [chars]
([int])
None.
The access point is transitioning from
standby mode to active mode.
DOT11-6-ROGUE_AP: Rogue AP
A station has reported a potential rogue
[mac-address] reported. Reason: [chars] access point for the stated reason.
None.
SCHED-3-UNEXPECTEDMESSAGE:
Unknown message [hex] received (ptr
arg [hex], num arg [hex]).
A process can register to be notified when Copy the error message exactly as it
appears, and report it to your technical
various events occur in the router. This
message indicates that a process received support representative.
a message from another process that it
does not know how to handle.
SCHED-3-UNEXPECTEDEVENT:
Process received unknown event (maj
[hex], min [hex]).
A process can register to be notified when Copy the error message exactly as it
appears, and report it to your technical
various events occur in the router. This
message indicates that a process received support representative.
an event that it did not know how to
handle.
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A P P E N D I X
I
Console Cable Pinouts
This appendix identifies the pinouts for the serial console cable that connects to the access point’s serial
console port. The appendix contains the following sections:
Overview, page I-2
Console Port Signals and Pinouts, page I-2
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Appendix I
Console Cable Pinouts
Overview
Overview
The access point requires a special serial cable that connects the access point serial console port (RJ-45
connector) to your PC’s COM port (DB-9 connector). This cable can be purchased from Cisco (part
number AIR-CONCAB1200) or can be built using the pinouts in this appendix.
Console Port Signals and Pinouts
Use the console RJ-45 to DB-9 serial cable to connect the access point’s console port to the COM port
of your PC running a terminal emulation program.
Note
Both the Ethernet and console ports use RJ-45 connectors. Be careful to avoid accidently connecting the
serial cable to the Ethernet port connector.
Table I-1 lists the signals and pinouts for the console RJ-45 to DB-9 serial cable.
Table I-1
Signals and Pinouts for a Console RJ-45 to DB-9 Serial Cable
Console Port
PC COM Port
RJ-45
DB-9
1
Pins
Signals
1
NC
-
-
2
NC
-
-
3
TXD
2
RXD
4
GND
5
GND
5
GND
5
GND
6
RXD
3
TXD
7
NC
-
-
8
NC
-
-
Pins Signals
1. NC indicates not connected.
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G L O S S A RY
802.11
The IEEE standard that specifies carrier sense media access control and physical
layer specifications for 1- and 2-megabit-per-second (Mbps) wireless LANs
operating in the 2.4-GHz band.
802.11a
The IEEE standard that specifies carrier sense media access control and physical
layer specifications for wireless LANs operating in the 5-GHz frequency band.
802.11b
The IEEE standard that specifies carrier sense media access control and physical
layer specifications for 5.5- and 11-Mbps wireless LANs operating in the
2.4-GHz frequency band.
A
Access Point
A wireless LAN data transceiver that uses radio waves to connect a wired
network with wireless stations.
Ad Hoc Network
A wireless network composed of stations without Access Points.
Antenna Gain
The gain of an antenna is a measure of the antenna’s ability to direct or focus
radio energy over a region of space. High gain antennas have a more focused
radiation pattern in a specific direction.
Associated
A station is configured properly to allow it to wirelessly communicate with an
Access Point.
B
Beacon
A wireless LAN packet that signals the availability and presence of the wireless
device. Beacon packets are sent by access points and base stations; however,
client radio cards send beacons when operating in computer to computer (Ad
Hoc) mode.
BOOTP
Boot Protocol. A protocol used for the static assignment of IP addresses to
devices on the network.
BPSK
A modulation technique used by IEEE 802.11b-compliant wireless LANs for
transmission at 1 Mbps.
Broadcast Packet
A single data message (packet) sent to all addresses on the same subnet.
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Glossary
C
CCK
Complementary code keying. A modulation technique used by IEEE
802.11b-compliant wireless LANs for transmission at 5.5 and 11 Mbps.
Cell
The area of radio range or coverage in which the wireless devices can
communicate with the base station. The size of the cell depends upon the speed
of the transmission, the type of antenna used, and the physical environment, as
well as other factors.
Client
A radio device that uses the services of an Access Point to communicate
wirelessly with other devices on a local area network.
CSMA
Carrier sense multiple access. A wireless LAN media access method specified
by the IEEE 802.11 specification.
D
Data Rates
The range of data transmission rates supported by a device. Data rates are
measured in megabits per second (Mbps).
dBi
A ratio of decibels to an isotropic antenna that is commonly used to measure
antenna gain. The greater the dBi value, the higher the gain, and the more acute
the angle of coverage.
DHCP
Dynamic host configuration protocol. A protocol available with many operating
systems that automatically issues IP addresses within a specified range to
devices on the network. The device retains the assigned address for a specific
administrator-defined period.
Dipole
A type of low-gain (2.2-dBi) antenna consisting of two (often internal) elements.
Domain Name
The text name that refers to a grouping of networks or network resources based
on organization-type or geography; for example: name.com—commercial;
name.edu—educational; name.gov—government; ISPname.net—network
provider (such as an ISP); name.ar—Argentina; name.au—Australia; and so on.
DNS
Domain Name System server. A server that translates text names into IP
addresses. The server maintains a database of host alphanumeric names and their
corresponding IP addresses.
DSSS
Direct sequence spread spectrum. A type of spread spectrum radio transmission
that spreads its signal continuously over a wide frequency band.
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Glossary
E
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol. An optional IEEE 802.1x security feature
ideal for organizations with a large user base and access to an EAP-enabled
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server.
Ethernet
The most widely used wired local area network. Ethernet uses carrier sense
multiple access (CSMA) to allow computers to share a network and operates at
10, 100, or 1000 Mbps, depending on the physical layer used.
F
File Server
A repository for files so that a local area network can share files, mail, and
programs.
Firmware
Software that is programmed on a memory chip.
G
Gateway
A device that connects two otherwise incompatible networks together.
GHz
Gigahertz. One billion cycles per second. A unit of measure for frequency.
I
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A professional society serving
electrical engineers through its publications, conferences, and standards
development activities. The body responsible for the Ethernet 802.3 and wireless
LAN 802.11 specifications.
Infrastructure
The wired Ethernet network.
IP Address
The Internet Protocol (IP) address of a station.
IP Subnet Mask
The number used to identify the IP subnetwork, indicating whether the IP
address can be recognized on the LAN or if it must be reached through a
gateway. This number is expressed in a form similar to an IP address; for
example: 255.255.255.0.
Isotropic
An antenna that radiates its signal 360 degrees both vertically and horizontally
in a perfect sphere.
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Glossary
M
MAC
Media Access Control address. A unique 48-bit number used in Ethernet data
packets to identify an Ethernet device, such as an access point or your client
adapter.
Modulation
Any of several techniques for combining user information with a transmitter’s
carrier signal.
Multipath
The echoes created as a radio signal bounces off of physical objects.
Multicast Packet
A single data message (packet) sent to multiple addresses.
O
Omni-directional
This typically refers to a primarily circular antenna radiation pattern.
Orthogonal
Frequency Division
Multiplex (OFDM)
A modulation technique used by IEEE 802.11a-compliant wireless LANs for
transmission at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps.
P
A basic message unit for communication across a network. A packet usually includes routing
information, data, and sometimes error detection information.
Packet
Q
Quadruple Phase
Shift Keying
A modulation technique used by IEEE 802.11b-compliant wireless LANs for
transmission at 2 Mbps.
R
Range
A linear measure of the distance that a transmitter can send a signal.
Receiver Sensitivity A measurement of the weakest signal a receiver can receive and still correctly
translate it into data.
RF
Radio frequency. A generic term for radio-based technology.
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Glossary
Roaming
A feature of some Access Points that allows users to move through a facility
while maintaining an unbroken connection to the LAN.
RP-TNC
A connector type unique to Cisco Aironet radios and antennas. Part 15.203 of
the FCC rules covering spread spectrum devices limits the types of antennas that
may be used with transmission equipment. In compliance with this rule, Cisco
Aironet, like all other wireless LAN providers, equips its radios and antennas
with a unique connector to prevent attachment of non-approved antennas to
radios.
S
Spread Spectrum
A radio transmission technology that spreads the user information over a much
wider bandwidth than otherwise required in order to gain benefits such as
improved interference tolerance and unlicensed operation.
SSID
Service Set Identifier (also referred to as Radio Network Name). A unique
identifier used to identify a radio network and which stations must use to be able
to communicate with each other or to an access point. The SSID can be any
alphanumeric entry up to a maximum of 32 characters.
T
Transmit Power
The power level of radio transmission.
U
UNII
Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure—regulations for UNII devices
operating in the 5.15 to 5.35 GHz and 5.725 to 5.825 GHz frequency bands.
UNII-1
Regulations for UNII devices operating in the 5.15 to 5.25 GHz frequency band.
UNII-2
Regulations for UNII devices operating in the 5.25 to 5.35 GHz frequency band.
UNII-3
Regulations for UNII devices operating in the 5.725 to 5.825 GHz frequency
band.
Unicast Packet
A single data message (packet) sent to a specific IP address.
W
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy. An optional security mechanism defined within the
802.11 standard designed to make the link integrity of wireless devices equal to
that of a cable.
Workstation
A computing device with an installed client adapter.
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Glossary
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I N D EX
authoritative time source, described
A
6-18
authorization
abbreviating commands
5-3
with RADIUS
access point
6-11, 11-11
with TACACS+
security settings
10-9
access point image
21-6
B
accounting
with RADIUS
6-14, 11-16, 11-20
11-12
with TACACS+
Back button
11-16, 11-21
antenna
4-4
banners
configuring
connectors
gains
G-2
login
C-5
warnings
6-36
message-of-the-day login
A-1
Apply button
default configuration
4-4
when displayed
attributes, RADIUS
6-35
6-34
basic settings
vendor-proprietary
vendor-specific
6-35
11-14
11-13
checking
21-4
broadcast key rotation
9-1
authentication
local mode with AAA
NTP associations
6-20
RADIUS
key
defined
11-16
10-4, 11-3
Network-EAP
10-3
10-2
shared key
16-4
channels, supported by regulatory domains
Cisco TAC
C-2, C-3
21-1
17-4
CLI
abbreviating commands
command modes
10-3
16-4
16-4
CiscoWorks 2000
authentication types
open
on an interface
monitoring
6-13, 11-19
authentication server
EAP
disabling for routing device
enabling and disabling
11-18
login
4-4
CDP
6-8, 11-7
TACACS+
key
C
Cancel button
11-5
login
6-15
5-3
5-2
editing features
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Index
enabling and disabling
keystroke editing
wrapped lines
preparing
5-6
5-7
error messages
5-4
filtering command output
getting help
uploading
5-6
5-8
19-10, 19-13, 19-16
reasons for
19-8
using FTP
19-14
using RCP
19-17
using TFTP
5-3
history
19-11
connections, secure remote
changing the buffer size
connectors
5-4
G-1, G-2
described
5-4
console port
disabling
5-5
crypto software image
recalling commands
I-2
6-16
5-5
no and default forms of commands
terminal emulator settings
client power level, limiting
5-3
D
3-4
7-6
data rates
clock
G-2
daylight saving time
See system clock
6-30
declarations of conformity
command-line interface
B-1
default
See CLI
configuration, resetting
command modes
6-16
5-2
default commands
commands
21-5
5-3
default configuration
abbreviating
5-3
no and default
banners
5-3
setting privilege levels
6-6
community strings
configuring
overview
DNS
6-33
NTP
6-20
password and privilege level
17-5
RADIUS
17-3
SNMP
configuration files
19-10
deleting a stored configuration
17-5
20-3
system name and prompt
19-18
TACACS+
downloading
6-32
6-13, 11-18
directories
19-10, 19-13, 19-16
changing
19-4
reasons for
19-8
creating and removing
19-4
using FTP
19-13
displaying the working
19-4
using RCP
19-16
using TFTP
6-2
6-8, 11-4
system message logging
creating using a text editor
preparing
6-35
DNS
19-11
guidelines for creating and using
default configuration
19-9
invalid combinations when copying
types and location
19-9
displaying the configuration
19-5
system contact and location information
6-33
17-9
overview
6-33
setting up
6-33
6-34
domain names
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DNS
setting the display destination device
6-33
Domain Name System
severity levels
20-7
system message format
See DNS
Ethernet indicator
downloading
preparing
20-2
21-2
extended temperature range
configuration files
2-3
19-10, 19-13, 19-16
reasons for
19-8
using FTP
19-13
using RCP
19-16
using TFTP
F
fallback role
19-11
7-3
FCC Declaration of Conformity
image files
FCC Safety Compliance
deleting old image
preparing
19-22
19-18
2-2
copying
19-5
deleting
19-5
using FTP
19-24
displaying the contents of
using RCP
19-29
tar
using TFTP
19-21
creating
19-8
19-6
displaying the contents of
extracting
E
EAP authentication
19-19
file system
displaying available file systems
10-3
EAP-MD5 authentication
displaying file information
setting on client and access point
10-10
EAP-SIM authentication
local file system names
10-11
EAP-TLS authentication
setting the default
editing features
19-5
19-3
10-10
show and more command output
Flash device, number of
enabling and disabling
5-6
frequencies
5-8
19-2
C-2, C-3
frequency range
5-6
G-2
FTP
5-7
EIRP, maximum
C-4 to C-5
accessing MIB files
enable password
6-4
configuration files
downloading
6-4
6-16
overview
encryption for passwords
6-4
preparing the server
error messages
uploading
5-4
F-2
19-13
encrypted software image
during command entry
19-3
filtering
setting on client and access point
enable secret password
19-2
19-2
network file system names
setting on client and access point
wrapped lines
19-6
19-7
image file format
keystrokes used
B-2
files
19-20, 19-23, 19-27
reasons for
overview
20-5
19-12
19-13
19-14
image files
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Index
deleting old image
downloading
19-26
preparing the server
uploading
L
19-24
LEAP authentication
19-23
setting on client and access point
19-26
10-9
LED indicators
Ethernet
G
21-2
radio traffic
status
get-bulk-request operation
17-3
get-next-request operation
17-3, 17-4
get-request operation
get-response operation
21-2
limiting client power level
7-6
login authentication
17-3, 17-4
with RADIUS
17-3
global configuration mode
21-2
6-8, 11-7
with TACACS+
5-2
login banners
6-13, 11-19
6-34
log messages
H
See system message logging
help, for the command line
5-3
history
M
changing the buffer size
5-4
described
5-4
MAC
disabling
5-5
management options
recalling commands
CLI
5-5
history table, level and number of syslog messages
Home button
20-8
3-10, 3-11
5-1
Message Integrity Check
9-1
messages
4-4
to users through banners
6-34
MIBs
I
accessing files with FTP
IGMP snooping helper
indicators
input power
overview
21-2
F-2
17-2
SNMP interaction with
G-1
installation guidelines
MIC
2-3
interface configuration mode
IP address, finding and setting
IPSU
location of files
13-10
5-2
3-9
F-2
17-4
9-1
Mode button
modulation
21-6
G-2
monitoring
3-8
ISO designators for protocols
E-1
CDP
16-4
N
K
key features
1-2
Network-EAP
10-3
Network Time Protocol
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
IN-4
OL-3446-01
Index
See NTP
with usernames
no commands
PEAP authentication
5-3
NTP
setting on client and access point
pinouts, serial cable
associations
authenticating
defined
ports, protected
6-20
connecting
6-23
injector
6-22
server
input
6-22
default configuration
2-5
G-1
G-2
maximum
6-18
C-4 to C-5
on client devices
creating an access group
source IP address, configuring
7-6
preferential treatment of traffic
6-25
disabling NTP services per interface
6-26
See QoS
6-26
preventing unauthorized access
privileged EXEC mode
6-18
synchronizing devices
6-22
exiting
5-2
6-7
logging into
6-18
synchronizing
overview
6-18
6-7
6-2, 6-6
setting a command with
6-6
Public Secure Packet Forwarding
O
OK button
4-4
operating temperature
G-1
6-2
privilege levels
time
services
7-14
power level
6-27
restricting access
stratum
I-2
2-6
output
6-20
displaying the configuration
overview
10-10
power
6-18
enabling broadcast messages
peer
6-5
7-13
Q
QoS
configuration guidelines
P
overview
package contents
password reset
13-4
13-2
quality of service
2-3
See QoS
21-5
passwords
default configuration
encrypting
overview
6-4
R
radio
6-2
setting
enable
6-2
indicator
RADIUS
6-3
enable secret
21-2
6-4
attributes
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
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IN-5
Index
vendor-proprietary
vendor-specific
repeater
11-14
chain of access points
11-13
configuring
restricting access
accounting
NTP services
11-12
authentication
6-8, 11-7
authorization
6-11, 11-11
communication, global
overview
multiple UDP ports
default configuration
6-24
6-2
passwords and privilege levels
RADIUS
11-5, 11-13
communication, per-server
TACACS+
11-4, 11-5
6-12
RFC
11-5
1157, SNMPv1
6-8, 11-4
17-2
6-9, 11-9
1305, NTP
displaying the configuration
6-12, 11-15
1901, SNMPv2C
identifying the server
operation of
6-11, 11-11
rate limit, logging
11-2
11-12
20-9
RCP
B-6
1-5
9-1
S
safety warnings, translated
A-1
secure remote connections
6-16
Secure Shell
configuration files
downloading
overview
uploading
See SSH
19-16
security features
19-15
preparing the server
synchronizing
19-16
19-17
downloading
uploading
19-31
I-2
Cisco cable
19-29
preparing the server
20-6
serial
cable
deleting old image
10-9
sequence numbers in log messages
image files
I-2
set-request operation
19-27
17-4
severity levels, defining in system messages
19-31
shared key
show cdp traffic command
C-2, C-3
Simple Network Management Protocol
21-6
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
See RADIUS
Remote Copy Protocol
20-7
10-5
B-1
reloading access point image
See RCP
17-2
11-2
G-2
domains
17-2
rotation, broadcast key
11-3
tracking services accessed by user
regulatory
RF exposure
roaming
11-4
suggested network environments
range
6-18
1902 to 1907, SNMPv2
11-4
limiting the services to the user
method list, defined
6-2
6-7, 11-1
defining AAA server groups
overview
18-2
16-5
See SNMP
size
G-1
SNMP
accessing MIB variables with
17-4
agent
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
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Index
described
17-3
disabling
17-5
with shared key authentication, setting on client and
access point 10-9
statistics
community strings
configuring
overview
CDP
17-5
SNMP input and output
17-3
configuration examples
default configuration
status indicators
17-9
manager functions
20-8
17-3
location of
6-18
summer time
6-30
See system message logging
17-2, 17-4
17-9
status, displaying
17-10
system clock
configuring
system contact and location
trap manager, configuring
daylight saving time
17-9
manually
17-8
overview
types of
time zones
17-3
overview
17-2, 17-4
6-29
6-28
6-17
See also NTP
17-7
system message logging
17-2
snooping helper, IGMP
default configuration
13-10
20-3
defining error message severity levels
software images
location in Flash
disabling
19-19
tar file format, described
enabling
crypto software image
level keywords, described
6-16
limiting messages
6-16
displaying settings
message format
6-17
SSH Communications Security, Ltd.
5-9
SSID
multiple SSIDs
8-1
troubleshooting
21-4
20-12
20-4
facility keywords, described
6-17
20-7
20-4
displaying the configuration
19-19
5-9
described
6-30
displaying the time and date
17-7
versions supported
configuring
6-30
6-28
summer time
traps
described
7-14
syslog
F-2
snmp-server view
SSH
stratum, NTP
G-1
switchport protected command
MIBs
enabling
17-10
21-2, G-1
storage temperature
17-5
limiting system log messages to NMS
overview
16-4
overview
20-2
rate limit
20-9
20-11
20-8
20-8
20-2
sequence numbers, enabling and disabling
setting the display destination device
timestamps, enabling and disabling
static WEP
with open authentication, setting on client and access
point 10-9
20-6
20-5
20-6
UNIX syslog servers
configuring the daemon
20-10
configuring the logging facility
20-10
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IN-7
Index
facilities supported
terminal emulator
20-11
system name
3-4
TFTP
default configuration
6-32
configuration files
manual configuration
6-32
downloading
See also DNS
19-11
preparing the server
uploading
system prompt
default setting
19-11
image files
6-32
deleting
19-22
downloading
T
19-21
preparing the server
TAC
uploading
21-1
TFTP server
TACACS+
accounting, defined
authentication, defined
TKIP
11-21
authorization
overview
enabling
6-13, 11-18
6-15, 11-22
6-14, 11-20
tracking services accessed by user
displaying the contents of
Telnet
21-1
17-4
daemon configuration
19-7
facilities supported
19-19
unpacking
20-11
2-3
See downloading
G-1
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
20-10
upgrading software images
G-1
9-1
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus
See TACACS+
20-2
20-10
message logging configuration
temperature
storage
troubleshooting
UNIX syslog servers
19-6
3-12
operating
17-2, 17-4
U
19-6
image file format
17-7
11-21
tar files
extracting
notification types
with system message logging
11-16
creating
17-7
with CiscoWorks
11-17
17-7
17-3
overview
11-18
limiting the services to the user
operation of
9-1
defined
6-13, 11-19
displaying the configuration
identifying the server
6-29
configuring managers
6-14, 11-20
default configuration
20-6
traps
11-18
login authentication
21-6
timestamps in log messages
11-16
time zones
authentication key
19-22
See NTP and system clock
11-16
configuring
accounting
19-20
time
11-16
authorization, defined
19-10
uploading
configuration files
preparing
19-10, 19-13, 19-16
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
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Index
reasons for
19-8
using FTP
19-14
using RCP
19-17
using TFTP
19-11
image files
preparing
19-20, 19-23, 19-27
reasons for
19-18
using FTP
19-26
using RCP
19-31
using TFTP
19-22
user EXEC mode
5-2
username-based authentication
6-5
V
voltage range
G-1
W
warnings
2-2, A-1
Web-based interface
common buttons
4-4
compatible browsers
4-1
web site
Cisco Software Center
weight
WEP
3-9, 21-8
G-1
9-1
with EAP
WEP key
10-3
21-4
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
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IN-9
Index
Cisco Aironet 1200 Series Access Point Installation and Configuration Guide
IN-10
OL-3446-01