Models:
Macro-Tech® 602, 1202 & 2402
Some models may be exported under the name Amcron.®
© 2000 by Crown International, Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elkhart, IN 46515-1000 U.S.A.
Telephone: 219-294-8000. Fax: 219-294-8329. Macro-Tech ® amplifiers are produced by
the Professional Audio Unit of Crown International, Inc. Trademark Notice: PIP ™, PIP2 ™,
SmartAmp ™ and Grounded Bridge ™ are trademarks and Amcron ®, Crown ®, MacroTech ®, IOC ® , ODEP ®, and IQ System ® are registered trademarks of Crown International,
Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
127240-2
07/00
3
YEAR
THREE YEAR
FULL WARRANTY
3
YEAR
WORLDWIDE
NORTH AMERICA
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West
Mishawaka Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the
ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each
NEW Crown1 product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of
purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new
Crown product is free of defects in materials and workmanship, and we
further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the reason for failure,
except as excluded in this Crown Warranty.
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West Mishawaka
Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the ORIGINAL
PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown product,
for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original purchaser
(the “warranty period”) that the new Crown product is free of defects in materials
and workmanship. We further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the
reason for failure, except as excluded in this Warranty.
1
Note: If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the
name “Crown” in this warranty.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product
which occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product
which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident,
negligence, or loss which is covered under any of your insurance contracts.
This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown product if the
serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product which
occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product which has
been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss
which is covered under any of your insurance contracts. This Crown Warranty
also does not extend to the new Crown product if the serial number has been
defaced, altered, or removed.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund
unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and
repair is not practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then
you must make the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free
and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the
actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and
other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the product from
the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our
authorized service centers. We will remedy the defect and ship the product
from the service center within a reasonable time after receipt of the
defective product at our authorized service center.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund unless you
agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not practical
or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then you must make the defective
or malfunctioning product available to us free and clear of all liens or other
encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price, not
including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less a
reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase.
Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at the
factory. We will remedy the defect and ship the product from the service center
or our factory within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at our
authorized service center or our factory. All expenses in remedying the defect,
including surface shipping costs in the United States, will be borne by us. (You
must bear the expense of shipping the product between any foreign country and
the port of entry in the United States and all taxes, duties, and other customs fees
for such foreign shipments.)
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be
shipped in a factory pack. Corrective action will be taken within a
reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by our
authorized service center. If the repairs made by our authorized service
center are not satisfactory, notify our authorized service center
immediately.
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90)
days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be shipped in
a factory pack, which, if needed, may be obtained from us free of charge.
Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of
the defective product by us or our authorized service center. If the repairs made
by us or our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify us or our
authorized service center immediately.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT
OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT OR
PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. SOME STATES DO
NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATIONS OF INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR
EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown
Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which
you are deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and
replacement parts provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall
carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time
without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than
ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
9/90
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown Warranty.
This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which you are
deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and replacement parts
provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the unexpired
portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time without
notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in products
previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
THIS CROWN WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, YOU
MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
9/90
The information furnished in this manual does not include all of the details of design, production, or variations of the
equipment. Nor does it cover every possible situation which may arise during installation, operation or maintenance. If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the name “Crown” in this manual. If you need
special assistance beyond the scope of this manual, please contact our Technical Support Group.
Crown Audio Technical Support Group
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Phone: 800-342-6939 (North America, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) or 219-294-8200
Fax: 219-294-8301 Fax Back (North America only): 800-294-4094 or 219-293-9200
Fax Back (International): 219-294-8100 Internet: http://www.crownaudio.com
IMPORTANT
THE MACRO-TECH 2402 REQUIRES CLASS 1
OUTPUT WIRING. THE MACRO-TECH 602 &
1202 REQUIRE CLASS 2 OUTPUT WIRING.
CAUTION
AVIS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RISQUE DE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’OUVREZ PAS
TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DO
NOT REMOVE TOP OR BOTTOM
COVERS. NO USER SERVICEABLE
PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO
QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
DISCONNECT POWER CORD BEFORE REMOVING REAR INPUT
MODULE TO ACCESS GAIN SWITCH.
À PRÉVENIR LE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’ENLEVEZ PAS LES COUVERCLES. IL
N’Y A PAS DES PARTIES
SERVICEABLE À L’INTÉRIEUR. TOUS
REPARATIONS DOIT ETRE FAIRE PAR
PERSONNEL QUALIFIÉ SEULMENT.
DÉBRANCHER LA BORNE AVANT
D’OUVRIR LA MODULE EN ARRIÈRE.
Magnetic Field
WARNING
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC
SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS
EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE!
The lightning bolt
triangle is used to
alert the user to the
risk of electric shock.
CAUTION! Do not locate sensitive high-gain
equipment such as preamplifiers or tape decks
directly above or below the unit. Because this
amplifier has a high power density, it has a strong
magnetic field which can induce hum into unshielded
devices that are located nearby. The field is strongest just above and below the unit.
If an equipment rack is used, we recommend locating the amplifier(s) in the bottom of the rack and the
preamplifier or other sensitive equipment at the top.
The exclamation point
triangle is used to alert the
user to important operating
or maintenance instructions.
Printed on
recycled paper.
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Important Safety Instructions
1) Read these instructions.
2) Keep these instructions.
3) Heed all warnings.
4) Follow all instructions.
5) Do not use this apparatus near water.
6) Clean only with a dry cloth.
7) Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8) Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat
registers, stoves, or other apparatus that produce heat.
9) Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or groundingtype plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than
the other. A grounding-type plug has two blades and a third
grounding prong. The wide blade or the third prong is provided for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into your
outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete
outlet.
10) Protect the power cord from being walked on or pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point
where they exit from the apparatus.
11) Only use attachments/accessories specified by the manufacturer.
12) Use only with a cart, stand, bracket, or table specified by the
manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus. When a cart is used,
use caution when moving the cart/apparatus combination to
avoid injury from tip-over.
13) Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused
for long periods of time.
14) Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is
required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way,
such as power-supply cord or plug is damaged, liquid has
been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has been dropped.
15) To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not expose this
apparatus to rain or moisture.
Page 4
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
CONTENTS
1 Welcome ............................................................................ 7
1.1 Unpacking ................................................................... 7
1.2 Features ....................................................................... 7
2 Controls, Indicators & Connectors ................................... 9
3 Installation ....................................................................... 11
3.1 Mounting ................................................................... 11
3.2 Cooling ...................................................................... 11
3.3 Wiring ........................................................................ 12
3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation ...................... 12
3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation ................................... 13
3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 14
3.3.4 Input Connection ............................................. 15
3.3.5 Output Connection .......................................... 17
3.3.6 Additional Load Protection ............................... 19
3.4 AC Power Requirements ............................................ 19
4 Operation ......................................................................... 20
4.1 Precautions ................................................................ 20
4.2 Indicators ................................................................... 20
4.3 Protection Systems .................................................... 22
4.3.1 ODEP .............................................................. 22
4.3.2 Standby Mode ................................................. 22
4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection ....................... 22
4.3.4 Fuses and Circuit Breakers .............................. 23
4.4 Controls ..................................................................... 23
4.5 Filter Cleaning ............................................................ 24
5 Technical Information ...................................................... 25
5.1 Overview ................................................................... 25
5.2 Circuit Theory ............................................................ 25
5.2.1 Stereo Operation ............................................. 25
5.2.2 Bridge-Mono Operation ................................... 27
5.2.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 27
6 Specifications .................................................................. 28
7 AC Power Draw & Thermal Dissipation ........................... 37
8 Accessories ..................................................................... 39
8.1 PIP and PIP2 Modules ................................................ 39
8.2 Cooling Fan Options .................................................. 41
8.3 Level Control Security Kit ........................................... 41
9 Service ............................................................................. 42
9.1 Worldwide Service ..................................................... 42
9.2 North American Service ............................................. 42
9.2.1 Service at a N. American Service Center ......... 42
9.2.2 Factory Service ............................................... 42
Reference Manual
Page 5
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
ILLUSTRATIONS
1.1
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
7.1
7.2
7.3
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Page 6
Macro-Tech Amplifier ................................................................ 7
Front Panel Controls & Indicators ............................................... 9
Rear Panel Controls & Connectors .......................................... 10
Mounting Dimensions .............................................................. 11
Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit ............................................ 11
Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet ........................................... 11
Stereo Wiring .......................................................................... 12
Bridge-Mono Wiring ................................................................ 13
Parallel-Mono Wiring ............................................................... 14
Unbalanced Input Wiring ......................................................... 15
Balanced Input Wiring ............................................................. 15
Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs ................................. 15
Infrasonic Filter Capacitors ...................................................... 16
Unbalanced RFI Filters ............................................................ 16
Balanced RFI Filters ................................................................ 16
Wire Size Nomograph ............................................................. 17
Inductive Load (Transformer) Network ..................................... 18
Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph ............................................... 19
Indicators ................................................................................ 20
Macro-Tech ODEP and Signal/IOC Indicator States ................. 21
Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches ............................... 23
Circuit Block Diagram ............................................................. 26
Macro-Tech 602 Minimum Power Matrix .................................. 30
Macro-Tech 1202 Minimum Power Matrix ................................ 31
Macro-Tech 2402 Minimum Power Matrix ................................ 31
Macro-Tech 602 Maximum Power Matrix ................................. 32
Macro-Tech 1202 Maximum Power Matrix ............................... 33
Macro-Tech 2402 Maximum Power Matrix ............................... 33
Typical Frequency Response .................................................. 34
Typical Damping Factor .......................................................... 34
Typical Output Impedance ...................................................... 34
Typical Phase Response ......................................................... 35
Typical Crosstalk for the Macro-Tech 602 ................................. 35
Typical Crosstalk for the Macro-Tech 1202 ............................... 36
Typical Crosstalk for the Macro-Tech 2402 ............................... 36
Macro-Tech 602 Power Draw, Current Draw and
Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles ............................. 37
Macro-Tech 1202 Power Draw, Current Draw and
Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles ............................. 38
Macro-Tech 2402 Power Draw, Current Draw and
Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles ............................. 38
PIP2 Adapter Connection ........................................................ 39
Installing a PIP Module ............................................................ 39
Installing a PIP2 Module .......................................................... 39
Installing a Level Control Shaft Lock ........................................ 41
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 1.1 Macro-Tech Amplifier
1 Welcome
Congratulations on your purchase of the renowned
Macro-Tech ® professional power amplifier. Macro-Tech
amplifiers are designed to provide enormous levels of
pure, undistorted power in a rugged low-profile package—making them the choice for pro sound reinforcement. They utilize our patented ODEP ® protection
circuitry to keep the show going long after other amplifiers have shut down. And with their PIP ™ expandability,
Macro-Tech amplifiers can be easily customized with
one of our many optional input modules (see Section 8
for a list of available PIPs).
1.2 Features
This manual will help you successfully install and use
your new amplifier. Please read all instructions, warnings and cautions. Be sure to read Sections 3.3.2 and
3.3.3 if you plan to use one of the amplifier’s two mono
modes. Also for your protection, please send in your
warranty registration card today and save your bill of
sale because it is your official proof of purchase.
❏ Patented ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuitry compensates for overheating and overload to keep
the amplifier working when others would fail.
1.1 Unpacking
Please unpack and inspect your new amplifier for any
damage that may have occurred during transit. If damage is found, notify the transportation company immediately. Only you, the consignee, may initiate a claim for
shipping damage. Crown will be happy to cooperate
fully as needed. Save the shipping carton as evidence
of damage for the shipper’s inspection.
Even if the unit arrived in perfect condition, as most do,
save all packing materials so you will have them if you
ever need to transport the unit. NEVER SHIP THE UNIT
WITHOUT THE FACTORY PACK.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech amplifiers use cutting edge technology to
deliver the ultimate in power and value for their size,
weight and price. They offer numerous advantages over
conventional designs and provide benefits you can’t get
in amplifiers from any other manufacturer.
Here are some of their many features:
❏ Crown’s Grounded Bridge ™ design delivers large voltage
swings without using easily stressed output-transistor configurations like conventional amplifiers. The results are
lower distortion and superior reliability.
❏ IOC ® (Input/Output Comparator) circuitry immediately
alerts of any distortion exceeding 0.05%, providing dynamic proof of distortion-free performance.
❏ PIP (Programmable Input Processor) connector accepts
accessories that tailor the amplifier to suit specific applications.
❏ Enhanced PIP2 ™ (Programmable Input Processor)
connector accepts new accessory modules that further
tailor the amplifier to suit specific applications,
including wideband load current monitoring..
❏ Two mono modes (Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono) for
driving a wide range of load impedances.
❏ Very low harmonic and intermodulation distortion result in
the best dynamic transfer function in the industry.
❏ High damping factor provides superior control over lowfrequency drivers for a clean, accurate low end.
❏ Full protection against shorted outputs, mismatched
loads, input/output DC, general overheating, high-frequency overloads and internal faults.
❏ Dedicated power supply transformers isolate channels in
Stereo mode for superb crosstalk characteristics and reliability—each channel is virtually a separate amplifier.
❏ Balanced inputs with internal three-position sensitivity
Page 7
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
switch and adjustable front-panel level controls.
❏ Versatile 5-way binding posts make it easy to connect
output wiring.
❏ Full protection from shorted, open and mismatched
loads, general overheating. DC, high-frequency overloads, and full internal fault protection are provided by
our latest protection scheme: “Quad-Mute.”
❏ Efficient heat sinks and a self-contained forced-air cooling system dissipate heat quickly and evenly for extra
amplifier protection and greater power output.
Page 8
❏ Extra rugged, extruded aluminum front panel with ODEP
and signal presence/IOC indicators for each channel,
and an Enable indicator.
❏ Mounts in a standard 19-inch (48.3-cm) equipment rack
(units can also be stacked).
❏ Three-Year, No-Fault, Full warranty completely protects
your investment and guarantees its specifications.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 2.1 Front Panel Controls & Indicators
2 Controls, Indicators &
Connectors
A. Dust Filters
The dust filters remove large particles from the air drawn
in by the cooling fan. Check the filters regularly to prevent clogging. The filter elements can be easily removed for cleaning by gently pulling them away from
the front panel (see Sections 3.2 and 4.5).
B. Level Controls
The output level for each channel is set with these convenient level controls mounted on the front panel. Each
level control has 31 detents for precise adjustment (see
Section 4.4). A security option is available to prevent
tampering (see Section 8.3).
C. Signal/IOC Indicators
These green multifunction indicators show signal presence and distortion for each channel. As signal presence indicators, they flash synchronously with the
output audio signals to show their presence. As IOC
(Input/Output Comparator) indicators, they flash
brightly with a 0.1 second hold delay if there is a difference of 0.05% or more between the input and output
signal waveforms. This provides proof of distortion-free
performance. Note: The Channel 2 IOC indicator stays
on in Parallel-Mono mode (see Section 4.2).
are depleted, the indicators turn off and ODEP proportionally limits output drive so the amplifier can safely
continue operating even under severe conditions.
These indicators can also help identify more unusual
operating conditions (see Section 4.2).
E. Enable Indicator
This indicator lights when the amplifier has been “enabled” or turned on, and AC power is available (see
Section 4.2).
F. Enable Switch
This push button is used to turn the amplifier on and off.
When turned on, the output is muted for approximately
four seconds to protect your system from start-up transients. (This delay can be changed. Contact Crown’s
Technical Support Group for details.)
G. Power Cord
The power cord has an appropriate plug for the required
voltage. 120 VAC, 60 Hz North American Macro-Tech
602s and 1202s have 14 AWG line cords and NEMA 515P plugs. Macro-Tech 2402s have 12 AWG line cords
and NEMA 5-20P plugs. International units are shipped
with an appropriate line cord and plug. See Section 7
for AC power usage.
D. ODEP Indicators
H. Stereo/Mono Switch
During normal operation of the ODEP (Output Device
Emulation Protection) circuitry, these amber indicators
glow brightly to show the presence of reserve thermaldynamic energy. They dim proportionally as energy reserves decrease. In the rare event that energy reserves
The three operating modes of a Macro-Tech amplifier
are controlled by this switch. Stereo mode is used for
normal two-channel operation, Bridge-Mono mode is
used to drive a single channel with a load impedance of
at least 4 ohms, and Parallel-Mono mode is used to
Reference Manual
Page 9
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 2.2 Rear Panel Controls & Connectors
(Note: Reset Switches (Item I) only available on the Macro-Tech 2402 model.)
drive a single channel with an impedance less than 4
ohms. Important:Turn off the amplifier before changing the stereo/mono switch (see Section 3.3).
(tip and sleeve) input signals. Caution: The Channel 2
input should NOT be used in either Bridge Mono or
Parallel Mono mode.
I. Reset Switches (Macro-Tech 2402 only)
L. Balanced XLR Inputs
The Macro-Tech 2402 has a back panel Reset switch
for each channel. Each switch resets the circuit breaker
that protects the channel’s power supply from overload.
The factory-installed PIP2-FXQ provides a three-pin female XLR connector for balanced input to each channel. The XLR inputs are connected in parallel with the
amplifier’s phone jack inputs. Because the PIP2-FXQ
does not have any active circuitry, its XLR connectors
can also be used as “daisy chain” outputs to connect
signals from phone jack inputs to multiple amplifiers
(see Section 3.3.4). Caution: The Channel 2 input
should NOT be used in either Bridge Mono or Parallel Mono mode.
J. PIP Module
The standard PIP2-FXQ is included with your amplifier.
It provides female three-pin XLR input connectors. A
variety of other PIP modules can be used in place of the
PIP2-FXQ. They add additional features that customize
the amplifier for different applications (see Section 8.1
for information on available PIP modules).
❑ Input Sensitivity Switch (not shown)
The three-position input sensitivity switch located inside
the amplifier can be set after removing the PIP module
(J). It is set at the factory to 0.775 volts for standard 1kHz output into 8 ohms. It can also be set to 1.4 volts for
standard 1-kHz output into 8 ohms, or a fixed voltage
gain of 26 dB (see Section 4.4).
K. Balanced Phone Jack Inputs
Balanced 1/4-inch phone jack input connectors are provided on the PIP2-FXQ. The phone jacks can be wired
for either balanced (tip, ring and sleeve) or unbalanced
Page 10
M. Output Jacks
A pair of versatile 5-way binding posts is provided for
the output of each channel. The 5-way binding posts
accept banana plugs, spade lugs or bare wire. (European models do not accept banana plugs.)
N. Input Ground Lift Switch
The input ground lift switch is located on the PIP2-FXQ.
It is used to isolate the input signal grounds from the AC
(chassis) ground to help prevent ground loops that can
result in unwanted hum and noise (see Section 3.3.4 for
more information about preventing ground loops).
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
3 Installation
3.1 Mounting
Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed for standard
19-inch (48.3-cm) rack mounting and “stack” mounting
without a cabinet. For more efficient cooling and extra
support in a rack, it is recommended that units be
stacked directly on top of each other.
Important: If the unit will be transported, it should also
be securely supported at the back of the rack.
Fig. 3.1 Mounting Dimensions
3.2 Cooling
NEVER block the side or front air vents. Macro-Tech
amplifiers do not need to be mounted with space between them. If you must leave open spaces in a rack for
any reason, close them with blank panels to prevent air
from recycling into the front of other amplifiers. Allow at
least 35 cubic feet (1 cubic meter) per minute per unit
for the Macro-Tech 602 and 1202, and at least 45 cubic
feet (1.3 cubic meters) per minute per unit for the
Macro-Tech 2402. Additional air flow may be required
when driving low impedance loads at consistently high
output levels. Refer to Section 7 for detailed information
on thermal dissipation.
When mounting the amplifier in a rack, the side walls of
the rack should be at least 2 inches (5 cm) away from
the chassis as shown in Figure 3.2.
Tip: An easy way to verify adequate cooling is to observe the ODEP indicators while the amplifier is operating under worst-case conditions. If the indicators dim,
additional cooling is recommended.
If your rack has a front door that could block air flow to
the amplifier’s air intakes, you must provide adequate
air flow by installing a grille in the door or by pressurizing the air behind the door. Wire grilles are recommended over perforated panels because they tend to
cause less air restriction. A good choice for pressurizing the air behind a rack cabinet door is to mount a
“squirrel cage” blower inside the rack (Option 1 below).
At the bottom of the rack, mount the blower so it blows
outside air into the space between the door and in front
of the amplifiers, pressurizing the “chimney” behind the
door. This blower should not blow air into or take air out
of the space behind the amplifiers. For racks without a
door, you can evacuate the rack by mounting the blower
at the top of the rack so that air inside the cabinet is
drawn out the back (Option 2 below).
AIR
FLOW
BLOWER
(OPTION 2)
FRONT
OF
RACK
DOOR
EQUIPMENT
RACK
(SIDE VIEW)
17 in
43.2 cm
IMPORTANT: Be sure rear of amplifier
is securely mounted to rack.
AIR
FLOW
16 in
40.6 cm
AIR
FLOW
AMPLIFIER
(TOP VIEW)
BLOWER
(OPTION 1)
Fig. 3.3 Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet
2 in
(5 cm)
MIN.
RACK
CABINET
AIR FLOW
Fig. 3.2 Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit
Reference Manual
AIR
FLOW
If the air supply is unusually dusty, you might want to
pre-filter it using commercial furnace filters to prevent
rapid loading of the unit’s own air filter. When needed,
the unit’s filter can be cleaned with mild dish detergent
and water (see Section 4.5).
Page 11
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
3.3 Wiring
This section describes the most common ways to install your amplifier in a sound system. The input and
output terminals are located on the back panel. Please
use care when making connections, selecting signal
sources and controlling the output level. The load you
save may be your own! Crown assumes no liability for
damaged loads resulting from careless amplifier use or
deliberate overpowering.
CAUTION: Always remove power from the unit and
turn the level controls off while making or changing
connections. This is very important when loudspeakers are connected because it reduces the chance of
loud blasts that can cause loudspeaker damage.
Macro-Tech amplifiers may be operated in one of three
modes (Stereo, Bridge-Mono, and Parallel-Mono) by
switching the stereo/mono switch on the back panel.
There are VERY IMPORTANT wiring differences among
these three modes which will be discussed next.
3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation
In Stereo mode, installation is very intuitive: input Channel 1 feeds output Channel 1, and input Channel 2 feeds
output Channel 2. To put the amplifier in Stereo mode,
first turn off the amplifier, then slide the stereo/mono
switch to the center position, and properly connect the
output wiring as shown in Figure 3.4. A pair of 5-way
binding posts is provided for each channel to facilitate
easy connection of loudspeaker wires. Observe correct
loudspeaker polarity and be very careful not to short
the two outputs.
CAUTION: In Stereo mode, never parallel the two
outputs by directly tying them together, and never
parallel them with the output of another amplifier.
Such a connection does not result in increased power
output, but may result in overheating and premature
activation of the protection circuitry.
Note: A method for paralleling multiple amplifiers for failsafe redundancy is available from Crown’s Technical
Support Group.
Fig. 3.4 Stereo Wiring
Page 12
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation
Bridge-Mono mode is intended for driving loads with a
total impedance of 4 ohms or more (If the load is less
than 4 ohms, see Section 3.3.3). Installing the amplifier
in Bridge-Mono mode is very different from the other
modes and requires special attention.
To put the amplifier in Bridge-Mono mode, turn the amplifier off and slide the stereo/mono switch to the right
(as you face the back of the amplifier). Both outputs
receive the signal from Channel 1 with the output of
Channel 2 inverted so it can be bridged with the Channel 1 output. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or
the signal level and quality may be greatly degraded.
Keep the Channel 2 level control turned down completely (counterclockwise).
not defeated in Bridge-Mono mode. Any signal fed into
Channel 2 will work against and add to or distort the
signal in Channel 1.
Connect the load across the Channel 1 and 2 red binding posts with the positive lead from the load attaching
to the red post of Channel 1 and the negative lead of the
load attaching to the red post of Channel 2 as shown in
Figure 3.5. THE TWO BLACK BINDING POSTS ARE
NOT USED AND SHOULD NOT BE SHORTED. The
load must be balanced (neither side shorted to ground).
CAUTION: Be certain all equipment (meters,
switches, etc.) connected to the mono output is balanced. To prevent oscillations, both sides of the line
must be isolated from the input grounds.
Note: The input jack and level control of Channel 2 are
Fig. 3.5 Bridge-Mono Wiring
Reference Manual
Page 13
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation
Parallel-Mono mode is intended for driving loads with a
net impedance of less than 4 ohms. (See Bridge-Mono
if the load is 4 ohms or greater.) Installing the amp in
Parallel-Mono mode is very different from the other
modes and requires special attention.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to operate in Stereo or
Bridge-Mono mode until the Parallel-Mono jumper
is first removed. Failure to do so will result in high
distortion and excessive heating.
To put the amplifier in Parallel-Mono mode, turn it off
and slide the stereo/mono switch to the left (as you face
the back panel). Connect the input signal to Channel 1
only. The Channel 2 input and level control are by-
passed in this mode, so they should not be used.
Note: It is normal for the IOC indicator of Channel 2 to
remain lit in Parallel-Mono mode.
Install a jumper wire between the red binding posts of
both Channel 1 and 2 that is at least 14 gauge in size.
Then, connect the load to the output of Channel 1 as
shown in Figure 3.6. The positive lead from the load
connects to the red binding post of Channel 1 and the
negative lead from the load connects to the black binding post of Channel 1.
CAUTION: Remove the jumper wire before changing to Stereo or Bridge-Mono mode.
Fig. 3.6 Parallel-Mono Wiring
Page 14
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
3.3.4 Input Connection
Both the balanced XLR and phone jack inputs have a
nominal impedance of 20 k ohms (10 k ohms with unbalanced wiring) and will accept the line-level output of
most devices. Female three-pin XLR input connectors
and 1/ 4-inch jacks are provided on the standard
PIP2-FXQ input module (other PIP modules are described in Section 8.1). Correct input wiring will depend
on two factors: (1) whether the input signals are balanced or unbalanced, and (2) whether the signal source
Fig. 3.8 Balanced Input Wiring
floats or has a ground reference. Figures 3.7 and 3.8
show the recommended connection techniques for
each type of signal source.
The amplifier’s built-in 1/4-inch phone jack input connectors can be wired similarly for balanced or unbalanced,
floating or ground-referenced sources. They have a
standard tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) configuration: the tip is
positive (+), the ring is negative (–) and the sleeve is
chassis (see Figure 3.9). Wiring for various sources follows the XLR wiring guidelines shown in Figures 3.7
and 3.8.
Fig. 3.9 Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs
Fig. 3.7 Unbalanced Input Wiring
Reference Manual
Page 15
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
910 Ω
Please follow the instruction in Section 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 if
the amplifier will be used in either Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono mode. Remember, do not use the Channel 2
input in either of these mono modes.
+
A
+
.003
µF
Balanced In
–
Balanced Out
–
910 Ω
1.8 mH
+
SOLVING INPUT PROBLEMS
Sometimes large infrasonic (subaudible) frequencies
are present in the input signal. These can damage loudspeakers by overloading or overheating them. To at-
B
Balanced In
–
Balanced Out
–
1.8 mH
2.5 mH
+
C
dB
Balanced In
+
.018
µF
–
Balanced Out
–
2.5 mH
0
0.47 Film 1.8 mH
–5
–10
+
.015
µF
+
F
1µ
.1
µF
.05
µF
D
µF
.01
Balanced In
+
.015
µF
–
–15
Balanced Out
–
0.47 Film 1.8 mH
1 Hz
10 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
10 kHz
Fig. 3.12 Balanced RFI Filters
Frequency
Fig. 3.10 Infrasonic Filter Capacitors
signal. Some examples of unbalanced wiring for lowpass filters are shown in Figure 3.11.
tenuate such frequencies, place a capacitor in series
with the input signal line. The graph in Figure 3.10
shows some capacitor values and how they affect the
frequency response. Use only low-leakage paper, mylar
or tantalum capacitors.
For balanced input wiring use one of the examples in
Figure 3.12. Filters A, B and C correspond to the unbalanced filters above. Filter D also incorporates the infrasonic filter described previously.
A third problem to avoid is hum. The two most common
sources of hum in an audio system are inductive coupling and ground loops.
Another problem to avoid is the presence of large levels of radio frequencies or RF in the input signal. Although high RF levels may not pose a threat to the
amplifier, they can burn out tweeters or other loads that
are sensitive to high frequencies. Extremely high RF levels can also cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its protection circuitry, resulting in inefficient
1.8 K ohm
.003
µF
Source
To
Amp
0
GND
6 dB/octave
3.9 mH
.015
µF
To
Amp
A
12 dB/octave
–10
B
GND
C
B
5 mH
R 600 ohm
Source
.018
µF
Input Wiring Tips
dB
A
R 600 ohm
Source
Inductive coupling can occur when input cables are
–20
To
Amp
GND
C
4 kHz
Note: A low source impedance (R) can be
increased to 600 ohms with an appropriate resistor.
10 kHz
40 kHz
100 kHz
Frequency
Fig. 3.11 Unbalanced RFI Filters
operation. RF can be introduced into the signal by local
radio stations and from the bias signal of many tape
recorders. To prevent high levels of input RF, install an
appropriate low-pass filter in series with the the input
Page 16
1. Use only shielded cable. Cables with
higher density shields are better. Spiral
wrapped shield is not recommended.
2. When using unbalanced lines, keep the
cables as short as possible. Avoid cable
lengths greater than 10 feet (3 meters).
3. Do not run signal cables together with
high-level wiring such as loudspeaker wires
or AC cords. This greatly lessens the chance
of hum or noise being induced into the input
cables.
4. Turn the entire system off before changing
connections. Turn level controls down
completely before powering the system back
up. Crown is not liable for damage incurred
when any transducer or component is
overdriven.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
subjected to a magnetic field from a power cord or
power transformer. One way to prevent inductive coupling is to lace the input cables together along their
length and route them as far away as possible from
power transformers and power cords. The use of
shielded pair cable is another effective way to reduce
or eliminate hum resulting from inductive coupling.
gauge (thickness) for the length being used. The resistance introduced by inadequate loudspeaker cables
will reduce both the output power and the motion con-
.0002
Input and output grounds are sometimes tied together
for testing or metering. This can cause feedback oscillation from load current in the test loop. In some systems, even the AC power line may provide this
feedback path. Proper grounding, input isolation and
isolation of common AC devices in the system is good
practice.
.0004
RS
SOURCE
RESISTANCE
(ohms)
.0006
.001
RL
RS
DAMPING
FACTOR
20,000
10,000
.002
.004
.006
.01
5,000
.02
2,000
Use Good Output Connectors
1. To prevent possible shorts, do not expose
the loudspeaker cable connectors.
2. Do not use connectors that might accidentally tie two channels together when making or breaking connections (for example, a
standard three-wire stereo phone plug).
3. Connectors that can be plugged into AC
power receptacles should never be used.
40
RL
LOAD
RESISTANCE
(ohms)
1,000
5000
500
30
.06
.1
200
100
50
(ohms/1000 ft.)
2-COND.
CABLE
(feet)
1000
.4
.6
20
1
10
5. Connectors with any tendency to short
should never be used.
5
500
1
2
5
100
10
50
20
50
100
2
10
#20
10
5
9
4
#16
#14
#10
1
#8
#6
.5
#4
5000
8
#2
6
7
#18
#12
1000
2000
2
#28
#26
#24
#22
200
500
4. Connectors with low current-carrying capacity should not be used.
COPPER
WIRE
(AWG)
.2
20
15
8000
.04
1
10
6
.1
#0
#00
#0000
.05
5
20
4
40
.01
3
3.3.5 Output Connection
Consider the power-handling capacity of your load before connecting it to the amplifier. Crown is not liable for
damage incurred at any time due to overpowering. Fusing loudspeaker lines is highly recommended (see Section 3.3.6). Also, please pay close attention to the
precautions provided in Section 4.1.
2
Example Shown:
RL = 8 ohms; RS = 0.016 ohms or D.F. = 500;
Cable Length = 10 ft.; answer: #8 wire
1.5
1
0.9
HOW TO DETERMINE
APPROPRIATE WIRE GAUGE
It is important to use loudspeaker cables with sufficient
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Fig. 3.13 Wire Size Nomograph
Reference Manual
Page 17
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
trol of the loudspeakers. The latter problem occurs because the damping factor decreases as the cable resistance increases. This is very important because the
amplifier’s excellent damping factor can easily be negated by insufficient loudspeaker cables.
Use the nomograph in Figure 3.13 and the procedure
that follows to find the recommended wire gauge (AWG
or American Wire Gauge) for your system.
1. Note the load resistance of the loudspeakers connected
to each channel of the amplifier. Mark this value on the
“Load Resistance” line of the nomograph.
2. Select an acceptable damping factor and mark it on the
“Damping Factor” line. Your amplifier can provide an excellent damping factor of 1,000 from 10 to 400 Hz in Stereo
mode with an 8-ohm load. In contrast, typical damping factors are 50 or lower. Higher damping factors yield lower distortion and greater motion control over the loudspeakers. A
common damping factor for commercial applications is between 50 and 100. Higher damping factors may be desirable for live sound, but long cable lengths often limit the
highest damping factor that can be achieved practically.
(Under these circumstances, Crown’s IQ System ® is often
used so amplifiers can be monitored and controlled when
they are located very near the loudspeakers.) In recording
studios and home hi-fi, a damping factor of 500 or more is
very desirable.
3. Draw a line through the two points with a pencil, and
continue until it intersects the “Source Resistance” line.
4. On the “2-Cond. Cable” line, mark the length of the
cable run.
5. Draw a pencil line from the mark on the “Source Resistance” line through the mark on the “2-Cond. Cable” line,
and on to intersect the “Annealed Copper Wire” line.
6. The required wire gauge for the selected wire length and
damping factor is the value on the “Annealed Copper Wire”
line. Note: Wire size increases as the AWG gets smaller.
7. If the size of the cable exceeds what you want to use,
(1) find a way to use shorter cables, like using the IQ System, (2) settle for a lower damping factor, or (3) use more
than one cable for each line. Options 1 and 2 will require the
substitution of new values for cable length or damping factor
in the nomograph. For option 3, estimate the effective wire
gauge by subtracting 3 from the apparent wire gauge every
time the number of conductors of equal gauge is doubled.
So, if #10 wire is too large, two #13 wires can be substituted,
or four #16 wires can be used for the same effect.
SOLVING OUTPUT PROBLEMS
Sometimes high-frequency oscillations occur which
can cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its protection circuitry and result in inefficient operation. The
effects of this problem are similar to the effects of the RF
Page 18
problem described in Section 3.3.4. To prevent highfrequency oscillations:
1. Lace together the loudspeaker conductors for
each channel; do not lace together the conductors from different channels. This minimizes the
chance that cables will act like antennas and
transmit or receive high frequencies that can
cause oscillation.
2. Avoid using shielded loudspeaker cable.
3. Avoid long cable runs where the loudspeaker
cables from different amplifiers share a common
cable tray or cable jacket.
4. Never connect the amplifier’s input and output
grounds together.
5. Never tie the outputs of multiple amplifiers together.
6. Keep loudspeaker cables well separated from
input cables.
7. Install a low-pass filter on each input line (similar
to the RF filters described in Section 3.3.4).
8. Install input wiring according to the instructions
in Section 3.3.4.
Another problem to avoid is the presence of large subsonic currents when primarily inductive loads are
used. Examples of inductive loads are 70-volt transformers and electrostatic loudspeakers.
Inductive loads can appear as a short circuit at low frequencies. This can cause the amplifier to produce large
low-frequency currents and activate its protection circuitry. Always take the precaution of installing a highpass filter in series with the amplifier’s input when
inductive loads are used. A 3-pole, 18-dB-per-octave
filter with a –3 dB frequency of 50 Hz is recommended
(depending on the application, an even higher –3 dB
frequency may be desirable). Such a filter is described
with infrasonic frequency problems in Section 3.3.4.
4-ohm, 20-watt
Resistor
+
590 to 708 µF Capacitor
120 VAC, N.P.
+
From
Amplifier
Output
Inductive
Load
–
–
Fig. 3.14 Inductive Load (Transformer) Network
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Another way to prevent the amplifier from prematurely
activating its protection systems and to protect inductive loads from large low-frequency currents is to connect a 590 to 708 µF nonpolarized capacitor and 4-ohm,
20-watt resistor in series with the amplifier’s output and
the positive (+) lead of the transformer. The circuit
shown in Figure 3.14 uses components that are available from most electronic supply stores.
3.3.6 Additional Load Protection
Macro-Tech amplifiers generate enormous power. If
your loudspeakers do not have built-in protection from
excessive power, it’s a good idea to protect them. Loudspeakers are subject to thermal damage from sustained
overpowering and mechanical damage from large transient voltages. Special fuses can be used to protect
your loudspeakers in both cases.
Two different types of fuses are required for thermal protection and voltage protection. Slow-blow fuses are usually selected to protect loudspeakers from thermal
damage because they are similar to loudspeakers in
the way they respond to thermal conditions over time. In
contrast, high-speed instrument fuses like the Littlefuse
361000 series are used to protect loudspeakers from
large transient voltages. The nomograph in Figure 3.15
can be used to select the properly rated fuse for either
type of loudspeaker protection.
There are basically two approaches that can be taken
when installing fuses for loudspeaker protection. A common approach is to put a single fuse in series with the
output of each channel. This makes installation convenient because there is only one fuse protecting the loads
on each output. The main disadvantage of this approach
becomes obvious if the fuse blows because none of the
loads will receive any power.
A better approach is to fuse each driver independently.
This allows you to apply the most appropriate protection for the type of driver being used. In general, lowfrequency drivers (woofers) are most susceptible to
thermal damage and high-frequency drivers (tweeters)
are usually damaged by large transient voltages. This
means that your loudspeakers will tend to have better
protection when the woofers are protected by slow-blow
fuses and high-frequency drivers are protected by highspeed instrument fuses.
3.4 AC Power Requirements
All Macro-Tech amplifiers are shipped with an appropriate line cord. When possible, use a power receptacle
on a dedicated circuit and always make sure that it can
supply the correct voltage and current. We do not recommend operating your amplifier on voltages greater
than 10% above or below the unit’s rated voltage. For
example, if your amplifer is rated for 120 VAC, the line
voltage should not exceed 132 VAC. See Section 7 for
power requirements under a variety of conditions.
Fig. 3.15 Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph
Reference Manual
All specifications in this manual were measured using
120 VAC, 60 Hz power, unless otherwise noted. Specifications were derived using a voltage that is accurate to
within 0.5% with THD less than 1.0% under all testing
conditions. Performance variations can occur at other
AC voltages and frequencies. In addition, line regulation problems directly affect the output power from the
amplifier.
Page 19
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
4 Operation
4.1 Precautions
Macro-Tech amplifiers are protected from internal and
external faults, but you should still take the follow precautions for optimum performance and safety:
1. Improper wiring for Stereo, Bridge-Mono and
Parallel-Mono modes can result in serious operating difficulties. Refer to Section 3.3 for details.
2. WARNING: Do not change the position of the
stereo/mono switch unless the amplifier is first
turned off.
3. CAUTION: In Parallel-Mono mode, a jumper is
used between the red (+) Channel 1 and 2 output
binding posts. Be sure to remove this jumper for
Stereo or Bridge-Mono mode, otherwise high
distortion and excessive heating will definitely
occur. Check the stereo/mono switch on the back
panel for proper position.
4. Turn off the amplifier and unplug it from the AC
mains before removing the PIP module.
5. Use care when making connections, selecting signal sources and controlling the output level. The
load you save may be your own.
6. Do not short the ground lead of an output cable to
the input signal ground. This may form a ground
loop and cause oscillations.
7. Operate the amplifier from AC mains of not more
than 10% variation above or below the selected line
voltage and only the specified line frequency.
8. Never connect the output to a power supply output, battery or power main. Such connections may
result in electrical shock.
9. Tampering with the circuitry by unqualified personnel, or making unauthorized circuit changes invalidates the warranty.
Remember: Crown is not liable for damage that results
from overdriving other system components.
4.2 Indicators
The amber Enable indicator is provided to show that
the amplifier has been turned on (or enabled), and that
its low-voltage power supply and forced-air cooling system are working. It does not indicate the status of the
high-voltage power supplies. For example, the Enable
indicator will remain lit during unusual conditions that
would cause the amplifier’s protection systems to put a
Page 20
Fig. 4.1 Indicators
high-voltage power supply in “standby” mode (see Section 4.3.2).
The amber ODEP indicators confirm the normal operation of Crown’s patented Output Device Emulation
Protection circuitry. During normal operation, they glow
brightly to show the presence of reserve thermal-dynamic energy. They dim proportionally as the energy
reserve decreases. In the rare event that there is no reserve, the indicators turn off and ODEP proportionally
limits the drive level of the output stages so the amplifier can continue safe operation even when conditions
are severe. (For a more detailed description of ODEP,
see Section 4.3.1.)
The ODEP indicator for the affected channel will turn off
if a high-voltage power supply is put in “standby” mode,
a high-voltage power supply fuse (or breaker) blows, or
a transformer activates its thermal protection circuitry
(see Section 4.3.2). Both ODEP indicators turn off if the
amplifier loses AC power, the power switch is turned off
or the low-voltage power supply fuse blows.
The green Signal/IOC indicators show signal presence
and distortion. As signal presence indicators, they flash
with normal intensity in sync with the output audio signals. As IOC (Input/Output Comparator) indicators, they
flash brightly if there is any difference between the input
and output signal waveforms greater than 0.05%. Because transient distortion happens quickly, a 0.1 second “hold delay” keeps the indicators on long enough
to be easily noticed. The IOC function essentially provides proof of distortion-free performance. Note: The
Channel 2 IOC indicator will remain lit when running in
Parallel-Mono mode.
Under conditions where one of the amplifier’s high-voltage power supplies is temporarily put in standby mode,
the Signal/IOC indicators will stay on with full brightness. They will resume normal operation when the amplifier is no longer in standby mode.
Note: See Figure 4.2 for an explanation of the conditions
that may activate standby mode.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
The table in Figure 4.2 shows the possible states for the
ODEP and Signal/IOC indicators. It also describes the
conditions that may be associated with the different indicator states. The Enable indicator will be off with the
first indicator state, “There is no power to the amplifier.”
All other conditions in the table will occur with the En-
able indicator turned on. It is important to note the possible states of the indicators in the rare event that you
experience a problem. This can greatly aid in determining the source of problems. Please contact your local Crown representative or our Technical Support
Group for futher assistance.
Fig. 4.2 Macro-Tech ODEP and Signal/IOC Indicator States
Reference Manual
Page 21
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
4.3 Protection Systems
Macro-Tech amplifiers provide extensive protection and
diagnostics capabilities. Protection systems include
ODEP, “standby” mode, fuses (or breakers), and special thermal protection for the unit’s transformers.
4.3.1 ODEP
Crown invented ODEP to solve two long-standing problems in amplifier design: to prevent amplifier shutdown
during demanding operation and to increase the efficiency of the output circuitry.
To do this, Crown established a rigorous program to
measure the safe operating area (SOA) of each output
transistor before installing it in an amplifier. Next, Crown
designed intelligent circuitry to simulate the instantaneous operating conditions of those output transistors.
Its name describes what it does: Output Device Emulation Protection or ODEP. In addition to simulating the
operating conditions of the output transistors, it also
compares their operation to their known SOA. If it sees
that more power is about to be asked of them than they
are capable of delivering under the present conditions,
ODEP immediately limits the drive level until it falls within
the SOA. Limiting is proportional and kept to an absolute minimum—only what is required to prevent output
transistor damage.
This level of protection enables Crown to increase output efficiency to never-before-achieved levels while
greatly increasing amplifier reliability.
The on-board intelligence is monitored in two ways.
First, the front panel ODEP indicators show whether the
amplifier is functioning correctly or if ODEP is limiting
the drive level. Second, ODEP data is fed to the back
panel PIP connector so advanced PIP modules like the
IQ-PIP-USP2 can use it to monitor and control the amplifier.
With ODEP, the show keeps going because you get the
maximum power with the maximum protection.
4.3.2 Standby Mode
An important part of a Macro-Tech amplifier's protection systems is standby mode. Standby protects the
amplifier during potentially catastrophic conditions. It
temporarily removes bias in all four output stages, protecting the amplifier and its loads. This advanced protection implementation, called "Quad-Mute," is new to
the Macro-Tech series amplifiers. Standby mode can
be identified using the indicator table in Figure 4.2.
Standby mode can be activated in several situations.
First, if dangerous subsonic frequencies or direct curPage 22
rent (DC) is detected in the amplifier’s output, the unit
will activate its DC/low-frequency protection circuitry
and put the affected channels in standby. This protects
the loads and prevent oscillations. The unit resumes normal operation as soon as the amplifier no longer detects dangerous low frequency or DC output. Although
it is extremely unlikely that you will ever activate the
amplifier’s DC/low-frequency protection system, improper source materials such as subsonic square
waves or input overloads that result in excessively
clipped input signals can activate this system.
The amplifier’s fault protection system will put an amplifier channel in standby mode in rare situations where
heavy common-mode current is detected in the
channel’s output. The amplifier should never output
heavy common-mode current unless its circuitry is damaged in some way, and putting a channel in standby
mode helps to prevent further damage.
The amplifier’s transformer thermal protection circuitry is activated in very unusual circumstances where
the unit’s transformer temperature rises to unsafe levels. Under these abnormal conditions, the amplifier will
put the channel of the affected transformer in standby
mode. The amplifier will return to normal operation after
the transformer cools to a safe temperature. (For more
information on transformer thermal protection, refer to
the following section.)
An IQ-PIP module may also temporarily place the
amplfier in standby mode, typically for power conservation. The standby mode status can be triggered either manually or through IQ's “auto standby” feature. If
triggered via the IQ auto standby feature, the standby
status will be automatically cancelled when the defined
level of input signal is detected. However, if the standby
status has been triggered manually, this status must be
manually cancelled using IQ.
4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection
All Macro-Tech amplifiers have transformer thermal protection. It protects the power supplies from damage under the rare conditions of transformer temperatures
rising too high. A thermal switch embedded in each
transformer removes power to the channel if there is
excessive heat. The switch automatically resets when
the transformer cools to a safe temperature.
It is extremely unlikely that you will ever see a
Macro-Tech amplifier activate transformer thermal protection as long as it is operated within rated conditions
(see Section 6, Specifications). One reason is that
ODEP keeps the amplifier working under very severe
conditions. Even so, higher than rated output levels, exReference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
cessively low impedance loads and unreasonably high
input signals can generate more heat in the transformer
than in the output devices. These conditions can overheat the transformer and activate its protection system.
Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed to keep working
under conditions where other amplifiers would fail. But
even when the limits of a Macro-Tech amplifier are exceeded, it will still protect itself—and your investment—
from damage.
4.3.4 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
The power supplies of the Macro-Tech 602 and 1202
are protected by fuses. The power supplies of the
Macro-Tech 2402 are protected by circuit breakers. With
rated loads and output levels, the fuses (or circuit breakers) should only shut down the amplifier in the rare instance of a catastrophic failure. Other protection
systems like ODEP keep the amplifier operational under most other severe conditions. The fuses (or circuit
breakers) can also shut down the amplifier in cases
where extremely low-impedance loads and high output
levels result in current draw that exceeds their rating.
Again, this should only be possible when operating outside rated conditions, such as when the amplifier is
used to drive a 1-ohm load in Stereo mode, or when a
signal overloads the input and is clipped severely.
All 120 VAC, 60 Hz units and all Macro-Tech 2402s have
a separate fuse for the low-voltage power supply. All
units have separate fuses or breakers for the high-voltage power supplies.
Macro-Tech amplifiers do not blow their fuses or trip
their breakers unless something is wrong. In the rare
event that an internal fuse blows, please refer the unit to
a qualified technician. If a breaker in a Macro-Tech 2402
trips, try to identify and correct the problem before resetting the breakers with the back panel Reset
switches. If the problem persists, refer the unit to a
qualified technician.
beside the switch should glow. During the four
second mute delay which immediately follows, the
Signal/IOC indicators will flash unpredictably and
the ODEP LEDs will stay off. After the mute delay,
the ODEP indicators should come on with full
brilliance and the Signal/IOC indicators should
function normally (remain off if no signal is present;
flash if a signal is present). Remember, the Channel
2 Signal/IOC indicator will remain on if the amplifier
is in Parallel-Mono mode.
4. After the mute delay, turn up the level of your audio
source to the maximum desired level.
5. Turn up the level controls of the amplifier until the
maximum desired sound level is achieved.
6. Turn down the level of your audio source to its
normal range.
For ease of use, the level controls are also located on
the front panel. Each control has 31 detents for accurate repeatability. To prevent tampering with these controls, the Level Control Security Kit is available (see
Section 8.3). Note: In Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono
modes, turn down the Channel 2 level control and only
use the Channel 1 control.
The input sensitivity switch is located inside the back
panel of the amplifier. It is factory-set to 0.775 volts for
standard 1-kHz power into 8 ohms. It can be switched
either to 1.4 volts for standard 1-kHz power output, or to
a fixed voltage gain of 26 dB. When set to 26 dB gain,
the input sensitivity is 2.2 volts for the Macro-Tech 602,
2.6 volts for the Macro-Tech 1202 and 3.1 volts for the
Macro-Tech 2402. Note: Factory setting for international
models is 1.4V.
How to change the input sensitivity:
1. Turn off the amplifier and disconnect its power cord
4.4 Controls
The Enable switch is located on the front panel so you
can easily turn the amplifier on and off. If you ever need
to make any wiring or installation changes, don’t forget
to disconnect the power cord. The six steps listed next
should be followed whenever you turn on the amplifier:
1. Turn down the level of your audio source. For
example, set your master mixer’s volume to –∞.
2. Turn down the level controls of the amplifier (if they
are not already down).
3. Turn on the Enable switch. The Enable indicator
Reference Manual
Fig. 4.3 Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches
Page 23
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
from the AC mains power receptacle.
2. Remove the PIP module (two screws).
3. Locate the sensitivity switch access hole inside the
chassis opening as shown in Figure 4.3. It is located
just above the phone jack inputs.
4. Set the switch to the desired position noted on the
label for the access hole. The position toward the
front panel sets the sensitivity to 1.4 volts for
standard 1-kHz power, the middle position provides
26 dB gain, and the back position sets the
sensitivity to 0.775 volts for standard 1-kHz power.
5. Replace the PIP module and reconnect the power to
the amplifier.
The Macro-Tech 2402 has back panel Reset switches
that are used to reset the breakers that protect the highvoltage power supplies from overload. If a breaker trips,
the IOC indicator for the affected channel will turn on
(see Figure 4.2).
Page 24
4.5 Filter Cleaning
Dust filters are provided on the air intakes to the cooling
system (see Figure 2.1). If these filters become clogged,
the unit will not cool as efficiently as it should and may
produce output levels that are lower than normal due to
high heat sink temperature.
To clean, remove each of the filter elements by gently
pulling them away from the front panel. Clean with mild
dishwashing detergent and warm water. Replacement
filters may be ordered from the factory.
Dust filters are not 100% efficient—depending on the
local environment, the internal heat sinks of the amplifier will benefit from periodic cleaning by a qualified
technician. Internal cleaning information is available
from our Technical Support Group.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
5 Technical Information
5.1 Overview
Your Macro-Tech amplifier incorporates several advanced technological features including real-time computer simulation of output transistor stress, low-stress
output stages, an advanced heat sink embodiment and
the PIP2 (Programmable Input Processor) expansion
system.
Custom circuitry is incorporated to limit temperature
and current to safe levels, making it highly reliable and
tolerant of faults. Unlike many lesser amplifiers, it can
operate at its voltage and current limits without self-destructing.
Real-time computer simulation is used to create an analogue of the junction temperature of the output transistors (hereafter referred to as “output devices”). Current
is limited only when the device temperature becomes
excessive (and by the minimum amount required). This
patented approach is called Output Device Emulation
Protection (or ODEP). It maximizes the available output
power and protects against overheating—the major
cause of device failure.
The amplifier is protected from all common hazards that
plague high-power amplifiers including shorted, open
or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies, excessive temperature, chain-destruction phenomena,
input overload and high-frequency blowups. The unit
protects loudspeakers from input and output DC, as
well as turn-on and turn-off transients.
The four-quadrant topology used in a Macro-Tech’s
grounded output stages is called the Grounded Bridge.
This patented topology makes full use of the power supplies providing peak-to-peak voltages to the load that
are twice the voltage seen by the output devices (see
Figure 5.1).
As its name suggests, the Grounded Bridge topology
is referenced to ground. Composite devices are constructed to function as gigantic NPN and PNP devices
to handle currents which exceed the limits of available
devices. Each output stage has two composite NPN devices and two composite PNP devices.
The devices connected to the load are referred to as
“high-side NPN and PNP” and the devices connected
to ground are referred to as “low-side NPN and PNP.”
Positive current is delivered to the load by increasing
conductance simultaneously in the high-side NPN and
low-side PNP stage, while synchronously decreasing
conductance of the high-side PNP and low-side NPN.
Reference Manual
The two channels may be used together to double the
voltage (Bridge-Mono) or the current (Parallel-Mono)
presented to the load. This feature gives you flexibility
to maximize the power available to the load.
A wide bandwidth, multiloop design is used for stateof-the-art compensation. This produces ideal behavior
and results in ultra-low distortion values.
Aluminum extrusions have been widely used for heat
sinks in power amplifiers due to their low cost and reasonable performance. However, measured on a wattsper-pound or watts-per-volume basis, the extrusion
technology doesn’t perform nearly as well as the heat
sink technology developed for Macro-Tech amplifiers.
Our heat sinks are fabricated from custom convoluted
fin stock that provides an extremely high ratio of area to
volume, or area to weight. All power devices are
mounted directly to massive heat spreaders that are
electrically at the Vcc potential. Electrifying the heat
spreaders improves thermal performance by eliminating the insulating interface underneath the power devices. The chassis itself is even used as part of the
thermal circuit to maximize utilization of the available
cooling resources.
5.2 Circuit Theory
Each channel is powered by its own power transformer
T100 or T200. Both channels share a common low-voltage transformer TF-1. The secondary output of T100 is
full-wave rectified by D109 and is filtered by a large
computer-grade capacitor. D104 through D107 provide
boosted voltage to power LVAs and predrivers. A thermal switch embedded in each transformer protects it
from overheating.
The low-voltage transformer output is rectified by diodes D1, D2, D3 and D4 to generate an unregulated 24
volts. Monolithic regulators U1 and U2 provide a regulated ±15 volts.
5.2.1 Stereo Operation
For simplicity, the discussion of Stereo operation will refer to one channel only. Mono operation will be discussed later.
Please refer to the block diagram in Figure 5.1 and the
schematics provided at the back of this manual.
The input signal at the phone jack passes directly into
the balanced gain stage (U104-C and U104-D). When
the PIP module is used, the input signal first passes
through the PIP’s circuitry and then to the balanced gain
stage.
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 5.1 Circuit Block Diagram
Page 26
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
The balanced gain stage (U104-C and U104-D) causes
balanced to single-ended conversion using a difference
amplifier. From there, gain can be controlled with a potentiometer. The error amp (U104-A) amplifies the difference between the output signal and the input signal
from the gain pot, and drives the voltage translator
stage.
From the error amp U104-A, the voltage translator stage
channels the signal to the Last Voltage Amplifiers (LVAs)
depending on the signal polarity. The +LVA (Q104 and
Q105) and the –LVA (Q110 and Q111), with their pushpull effect through the bias servo Q318, drive the fully
complementary output stage.
The bias servo Q318 is thermally coupled to the heat
sink, and sets the quiescent bias current in the output
stage to lower the distortion in the crossover region of
the output signal. Depending on the polarity of the output signal, D301, D302, D303 and D304 are used to
remove the charge on the unused portion of the output
stage.
With the voltage swing provided by the LVAs, the signal
then gains current amplification through the Darlington
emitter-follower output stage.
The bridge-balanced circuit (U104-B) receives a signal
from the output of the amplifier, and differences it with
the signal at the Vcc supply. The bridge-balanced circuit then develops a voltage to drive the bridge-balanced output stage. This results in the Vcc supply
having exactly one half of the output voltage added to
their quiescent voltage. D309, D310, D311 and a trimmer resistor set the quiescent current point for the
bridge-balanced output stage.
The protection mechanisms that affect the signal path
are implemented to protect the amplifier under realworld conditions. These conditions are high instantaneous current, excessive temperature, and output
device operation outside safe conditions.
Q107 and Q108 sense current in the output stage and
act as a conventional current limiter. When current at
any one instant exceeds the design criteria, the limiters
remove the drive from the LVAs, thus limiting current in
the output stage to a safe level.
To further protect the output stages, the patented ODEP
circuitry is used. It produces an analog output proportional to the always-changing safe operating area of the
output transistor. This output controls the translator
stage previously mentioned, removing any further drive
that may exceed the safe operating area of the output
stage.
Reference Manual
Thermal sensor S100 gives the ODEP circuits vital information on the operating temperature of the heat sink on
which the output devices are mounted.
Should the amplifier fail in such a way that would cause
DC across the output leads, the DC protection circuit
senses this on the negative feedback loop and shuts
down the power supply until the DC is removed.
5.2.2 Bridge-Mono Operation
By setting the back panel stereo/mono switch to BridgeMono, the user can convert the Macro-Tech into a
bridged, single-channel amplifier. With a signal applied
to the Channel 1 input jack and the load connected
across the red (+) back panel 5-way binding posts,
twice the voltage can be output.
The Channel 1 output feeds the Channel 2 error amp
U204-A. Because there is a net inversion, the channel 2
output is out of polarity with Channel 1. This produces
twice as much voltage across the load. Each of the
channel’s protection mechanisms work independently
if a fault occurs.
5.2.3 Parallel-Mono Operation
With the stereo/mono switch set to Parallel-Mono, the
output of Channel 2 is paralleled with the output of
Channel 1. A suitable jumper capable of handling high
current levels must be connected across the red (+)
5-way binding posts to gain the benefits of this mode of
operation.
The signal path for Channel 1 is the same as previously
discussed, except Channel 1 also drives the output
stage of Channel 2. The Channel 2 balanced input, error amp, translators and LVAs are disconnected and no
longer control the Channel 2 output stage. Disconnecting the front-end stages from the Channel 2 output
causes the Channel 2 IOC circuit to note that the input
waveform (which is not present) does not match the output waveform (which is driven by the Channel 1 input
signal). This activates the Channel 2 IOC indicator any
time the amplifier is switched to Parallel-Mono. The
Channel 2 output stage and protection mechanisms are
also coupled through S1 and function as one.
In Parallel-Mono mode, twice the current of one channel
alone can be obtained. Because the Channel 2 ODEP
circuit is coupled through S1, this gives added protection if a fault occurs in the Channel 2 output stage. The
ODEP circuit of Channel 2 will limit the output of both
output stages by removing the drive from the Channel 1
translator stages.
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
6 Specifications
The following applies to units in Stereo mode with 8-ohm loads and
an input sensitivity of 26 dB gain unless otherwise specified.
Standard 1 kHz Power: refers to maximum average power in watts
at 1 kHz with 0.1% THD.
Full Bandwidth Power: refers to maximum average power in watts
from 20 Hz to 20 kHz with 0.1% THD.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: refers to amplifiers with dedicated transformers for 120 VAC, 60 Hz power mains.
International Units: refers to amplifiers with special multi-tap transformers that are configurable for several AC mains voltages and line
frequencies (some are labeled 602, 1202 and 2402).
Performance
Frequency Response: ±0.1 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz at 1
watt (see Figure 6.7).
Phase Response: ±10 degrees from 10 Hz to 20 kHz at 1
watt (see Figure 6.10).
Signal-to-Noise Ratio, A-weighted: Better than 105 dB
below rated power. Better than 100 dB below full bandwidth power.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): Less than 0.05% at full
bandwidth power from 20 Hz to 1 kHz increasing linearly
to 0.1% at 20 kHz.
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD): (60 Hz, 7 kHz) Less
than 0.05% from 163 milliwatts to full bandwidth power.
Damping Factor: Greater than 1,000 from 10 Hz to 400
Hz (see Figure 6.8).
Crosstalk: See Figures 6.11, 6.12 and 6.13.
Slew Rate: Greater than 13 volts per microsecond.
Voltage Gain: 20:1 ±3% or 26 dB ±0.25 dB at the maximum level setting (also see Section 4.4).
Macro-Tech 602 : 54:1 ±12% or 35 dB ±0.5 dB at 0.775 volt
sensitivity; 30:1 ±12% or 30 dB ±0.5 dB at 1.4 volt sensitivity.
Macro-Tech 1202 : 64:1 ±12% or 36 dB ±0.5 dB at 0.775 volt
sensitivity; 36:1 ±12% or 31 dB ±0.5 dB at 1.4 volt sensitivity.
Macro-Tech 2402 : 83:1 ±12% or 38 dB ±0.5 dB at 0.775 volt
sensitivity; 46:1 ±12% or 33 dB ±0.5 dB at 1.4 volt sensitivity.
Power
Output Power: The following are guaranteed minimums
for standard 1 kHz power from 120 VAC, 60 Hz North
American units. For more information or specs on international units, see the power matrices that follow.
Macro-Tech 602
Stereo mode (both channels driven):
400 watts into 2 ohms.
325 watts into 4 ohms.
220 watts into 8 ohms.
Page 28
Bridge-Mono mode:
750 watts into 4 ohms.
655 watts into 8 ohms.
450 watts into 16 ohms.
Parallel-Mono mode:
700 watts into 1 ohm.
665 watts into 2 ohms.
450 watts into 4 ohms.
Macro-Tech 1202
Stereo mode (both channels driven):
675 watts into 2 ohms.
480 watts into 4 ohms.
310 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
1300 watts into 4 ohms.
970 watts into 8 ohms.
620 watts into 16 ohms.
Parallel-Mono mode:
1300 watts into 1 ohm.
965 watts into 2 ohms.
620 watts into 4 ohms.
Macro-Tech 2402
Stereo mode (both channels driven):
1050 watts into 2 ohms.
800 watts into 4 ohms.
520 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2070 watts into 4 ohms.
1585 watts into 8 ohms.
1035 watts into 16 ohms.
Parallel-Mono mode:
2080 watts into 1 ohm.
1605 watts into 2 ohms.
1035 watts into 4 ohms.
Load Impedance: Safe with all types of loads. Rated for 2 to
16 ohms in Stereo, 4 to 16 ohms in Bridge-Mono and 1 to 4
ohms in Parallel-Mono mode.
Required AC Mains: 50/60 Hz; 100, 120, 220 and 240 VAC
(±10%) units are available. All draw 100 watts or less at idle.
Current, voltage and frequency requirements are provided
on the unit’s back panel (also see Section 7).
Amplifiers don’t create energy. The AC mains voltage and
current must be sufficient to deliver the power you expect.
Controls
Enable: A front panel push button used to turn the amplifier
on and off.
Level: A front panel rotary control for each channel with 31
detents used to control the output level.
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Stereo/Mono: A three-position back panel switch used to
select Stereo, Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono mode.
Sensitivity: A three-position switch inside the PIP compartment used to select the input sensitivity for both channels:
0.775 volts or 1.4 volts for standard 1 kHz power, or a 26 dB
voltage gain.
Reset (Macro-Tech 2402 only): A back panel push button
for each channel used to reset the circuit breaker that protects each power supply.
Indicators
Enable: This amber front panel indicator shows the on/off status of the low-voltage power supply.
Signal/IOC: Each channel has a green front panel indicator
that flashes to show amplifier output. If a channel’s output
waveform differs from its input by 0.05% or more, the indicator flashes brightly to show distortion. This function provides
proof of distortion-free performance. In Parallel-Mono mode,
the Channel 2 light stays on (see Section 4.2).
ODEP: Each channel has an amber front panel indicator that
shows thermal-dynamic energy reserve. Normally, each
ODEP indicator is lit to show available reserve energy. In the
rare event that a channel has no reserve, its indicator will dim
in proportion to ODEP limiting. An ODEP indicator may also
turn off under other conditions (see Section 4.2).
Input/Output
Protection
Macro-Tech amplifiers are protected against shorted,
open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies;
excessive temperature, chain destruction phenomena,
input overload damage and high-frequency blowups.
They also protect loudspeakers from input/output DC and
turn-on/turn-off transients.
If unreasonable operating conditions occur, the patented
ODEP circuitry will proportionally limit the drive level to
protect the output transistor stages, particularly in the case
of elevated temperature. Transformer overheating will result in a temporary shutdown of the affected channel;
when it has cooled to a safe temperature, the transformer
will automatically reset itself. Controlled slew-rate voltage
amplifiers prevent RF burnouts. And input overload protection is provided by current-limiting resistance at the input. Refer to Section 4.3.
Turn On: Four-second delay with no dangerous transients. Contact Crown’s Technical Support Group to
change the turn-on delay time.
Construction
Steel chassis with durable black finish, aluminum front
panel with Lexan overlay, and specially designed flowthrough ventilation from front to side panels.
Cooling: Internal heat sinks with forced-air cooling for
rapid, uniform heat dissipation.
Input Connector: Two balanced 1/4-inch phone jacks on the
back panel and two balanced three-pin female XLR connectors on the factory-installed PIP2-FXQ (see Section 8 for information on optional PIP modules).
Dimensions: Standard 19-inch (48.3-cm) rack mount
width (EIA RS-310-B), 3.5-inch (8.9-cm) height, 16 inch
(40.6-cm) depth behind the mounting surface and 2.5inch (6.3- cm) protrusion in front of the mounting surface.
Input Impedance: Nominally 20 k ohms, balanced. Nominally 10 k ohms, unbalanced.
Approximate Weight: Center of gravity is 6 inches
(15.2 cm) behind front mounting surface.
Input Sensitivity: Settings include 0.775 volts or 1.4 volts for
standard 1 kHz power, or a 26 dB voltage gain (see Section
4.4 for more information).
Output Connectors: Two sets of color-coded 5-way binding
posts (for banana plugs, spade lugs or bare wire).
Output Impedance: Less than 10 milliohms in series with
less than 2 microhenries (see Figure 6.9).
DC Output Offset: (Shorted input) ±10 millivolts.
Output Signal
Stereo: Unbalanced, two-channel.
Bridge-Mono: Balanced, single-channel. Channel 1 controls
are active; Channel 2 should not be used.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units:
Macro-Tech 602 : 39 pounds, 9 ounces (17.9 kg) net;
44 pounds (19.9 kg) shipping weight.
Macro-Tech 1202 : 44 pounds, 1 ounce (20.0 kg) net;
47 pounds (21.3 kg) shipping weight.
Macro-Tech 2402 : 51 pounds, 12 ounces (23.5 kg) net;
65 pounds (29.5 kg) shipping weight.
International Units:
Macro-Tech 602 : 41 pounds, 15 ounces (19.0 kg) net;
46 pounds (20.9 kg) shipping weight.
Macro-Tech 1202 : 42 pounds, 12 ounces (19.4 kg) net;
46 pounds, 13 ounces (21.3 kg) shipping weight.
Macro-Tech 2402 : 48 pounds, 15 ounces (22.2 kg) net;
57 pounds, 6 ounces (26.0 kg) shipping weight.
Parallel-Mono: Unbalanced, single-channel. Channel 1
controls are active; Channel 2 controls are bypassed.
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Crown specifications are guaranteed for three years.
In an effort to provide you with as much information as possible about the high power-producing capabilities of your amplifier,
we have created the following power matrices.
Minimum Guaranteed Power Specifications
Crown’s minimum power specifications represent the absolute smallest amount of output power you can expect from your
amplifier when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. Some spaces in each matrix may be left blank because the
same guarantee is not provided for those conditions—however, your amplifier will perform well under all conditions listed in
each matrix.
When measuring power, 0.1% THD appears to be the industry standard for distortion. Two of the maximum average power
specifications shown in each minimum power matrix are measured at 0.1% THD so you can easily compare Crown specifications to those of other manufacturers. But this high level of distortion actually allows for some clipping which is undesirable.
Because of this, a maximum average power spec at 0.05% THD is included in each minimum power matrix which represents
non-clipped conditions. Although most manufacturers do not give you power specifications at 0.05% THD, we encourage
them to provide these specifications so you will have a more realistic representation of the way amplifiers should be used in
the real world—without a clipped output signal.
Many manufacturers publish power specs with a tolerance of ±1 dB or worse. This means their amplifier can deviate more
than 20% in output! A 100-watt amplifier would meet their specification if it only produced 79.4 watts. Other manufacturers
qualify their specs by saying they are “typical,” “subject to manufacturing tolerances,” “single channel driven” or that they are
specified with “fuses bypassed.” Each of these statements effectively removes any performance guarantee. In fact, some
manufacturers use these tactics to generate large power numbers, and they don’t even print a disclaimer. We take a different
approach at Crown—our amplifiers are guaranteed to meet or exceed their specifications for three years. Further, because
our published specs are set below our “in-house” measurements, you can expect every Crown amplifier to exceed its published minimum power specs. We believe you should get what you pay for.
Minimum Power Notes:
All minimum power specifications are based on
0.1% regulated AC mains and an ambient room
temperature of 70° F (21° C). International units
with multi-tap transformers are specified for the
worst-case transformer tap (normally 100 VAC,
50 Hz). The standard EIA power measurement
(RS-490) is not identified here because it is identical to the FTC Continuous Average Power specification.
1. A 1-kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level is increased until the THD
reaches 0.1%. At this level the average power
per channel is reported.
2. A sine wave is presented to the amplifier over
the range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level
at each frequency is increased until the THD
reaches 0.1%. At this level the average power
per channel is reported.
3. A 1-kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level is increased until the THD
reaches 0.05%. At this level the average
power per channel is reported.
4. Continuous power in the context of Federal
Trade Commission testing is understood to be
a minimum of five minutes of operation. Harmonic distortion is measured as the RMS sum
total and given as a percentage of the fundamental output voltage. This applies for all wattages greater than 0.25 watts.
Fig. 6.1 Macro-Tech 602 Minimum Power Matrix
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 6.2 Macro-Tech 1202 Minimum Power Matrix
Fig. 6.3 Macro-Tech 2402 Minimum Power Matrix
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Maximum Power Specifications
Crown’s maximum power specifications represent the largest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier
when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. These specifications can be used to prevent loudspeaker and
hearing damage.
The maximum power matrices include specifications for single cycle and 40 millisecond burst sine waves. Burst signals act
like large transient peaks that are present in common source signals. Loudspeakers can respond to a single cycle burst, so
the single cycle burst specifications should be used to help you protect your loudspeakers. In contrast, a 40 millisecond burst
represents the typical response time of the human ear. Your ear will not respond to the entire dynamic change of a burst that
lasts less than 40 milliseconds.
The burst power specifications are provided at 0.05% THD which is a practical low-distortion condition. Operating the amplifier at levels higher than 0.05% THD can result in output power levels that are higher than those listed in the maximum power
matrices.
Maximum Power Notes:
All maximum power specifications are
based on 0.1% regulated AC mains
and an ambient room temperature of
70° F (21° C). International units with
multi-tap transformers are specified for
the best-case transformer tap (normally 240 VAC, 60 Hz). Although it is
an unusual condition, your amplifier
can function well with AC mains voltages up to 10% over the specified line
voltage. With overvoltage conditions,
your amplifier may be capable of delivering instantaneous power levels up
to 20% greater than the specifications
in the matrix.
1. A single cycle sine wave is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion. The
average power during the burst is
reported. Loudspeakers must be
able to withstand this level if they
are to be safely used with this amplifier.
2. A 40-millisecond sine wave burst
(10 percent duty cycle) is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion. The
average power during the burst is
reported. This power level is a
measurement of the amplifier’s
maximum transient power that can
be perceived by the human ear.
Fig. 6.4 Macro-Tech 602 Maximum Power Matrix
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 6.5 Macro-Tech 1202 Maximum Power Matrix
Fig. 6.6 Macro-Tech 2402 Maximum Power Matrix
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Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
+2
+1
0
–1
–2
8 ohm
4 ohm
–3
2 ohm
1 watt
dB
–4
–5
–6
–7
10
100
1K
10 K
100 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.7 Typical Frequency Response
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
8 ohm
200
100
0
100
20
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.8 Typical Damping Factor
504.0
126.8
6 dB
MILLIOHMS
31.8
8.0
2.0
10
100
1K
10 K
100 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.9 Typical Output Impedance
Page 34
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
TEF ®
Measurement
+45˚
0˚
–45˚
100
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.10 Typical Phase Response
TEF ®
Measurement
–51
–57
–63
dB
–69
–75
–81
100
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.11 Typical Crosstalk for the Macro-Tech 602
Reference Manual
Page 35
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
–66
TEF ®
Measurement
–72
–78
–84
dB
–90
–96
–102
100
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.12 Typical Crosstalk for the Macro-Tech 1202
–60
TEF ®
Measurement
–66
–72
–78
dB
–84
–90
–96
100
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.13 Typical Crosstalk for the Macro-Tech 2402
Page 36
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
7 AC Power Draw and
Thermal Dissipation
This section provides detailed information about the
amount of power and current drawn from the AC mains
by the Macro-Tech 602, 1202 and 2402 amplifiers and
the amount of heat produced under various conditions.
The calculations presented here are intended to provide a realistic and reliable depiction of the amplifiers.
The following assumptions or approximations were
made:
• The amplifier’s available channels are loaded and full
power is being delivered.
• The amplifier efficiency at standard 1-kHz power is
estimated to be 65%.
• Quiescent power draw is 90 watts (an almost negligible amount for full-power calculations).
• Quiescent thermal dissipation equals 105 btu/hr at
90 watts.
• The estimated duty cycles take into account the typical crest factor for each type of source material.
• Duty cycle of pink noise is 50%.
• Duty cycle of highly compressed rock ‘n’ roll midrange is 40%.
• Duty cycle of rock ‘n’ roll is 30%.
• Duty cycle of background music is 20%.
• Duty cycle of continuous speech is 10%.
• Duty cycle of infrequent, short duration paging is 1%.
Here are the equations used to calculate the data presented in Figures 7.1 through 7.3:
AC Mains Power
Draw (watts)
=
Total output power with all x Duty
channels driven (watts)
Cycle
Amplifier Efficiency (.65)
+ Quiescent Power
Draw (watts)
The quiescent power draw of 90 watts is a maximum
value and includes power drawn by the fan. The following equation converts power draw in watts to current
draw in amperes:
AC Mains Power
Draw (watts)
Current Draw =
(amperes)
AC Mains x
Power
Voltage
Factor (.83)
The power factor of 0.83 is needed to compensate for
the difference in phase between the AC mains voltage
and current. The following equation is used to calculate
thermal dissipation:
Thermal
Dissipation =
(btu/hr)
(
Total output power with all x Duty x .35
channels driven (watts)
Cycle
Amplifier Efficiency (.65)
+
)
Quiescent Power
Draw (watts)
x 3.415
The constant 0.35 is inefficiency (1.00–0.65) and the
factor 3.415 converts watts to btu/hr. Thermal dissipation in btu is divided by the constant 3.968 to get kcal. If
you plan to measure output power under real-world conditions, the following equation may also be helpful:
Thermal
Dissipation =
(btu/hr)
(
Total measured output power x .35
from all channels (watts)
Amplifier Efficiency (.65)
+
)
Quiescent Power
Draw (watts)
x 3.415
Fig. 7.1 Macro-Tech 602 Power Draw, Current Draw and
Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
Reference Manual
Page 37
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
Fig. 7.2 Macro-Tech 1202 Power Draw, Current Draw and
Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
Fig. 7.3 Macro-Tech 2402 Power Draw, Current Draw and
Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
Page 38
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
8 Accessories
8.1 PIP and PIP2 Modules
For more information on these or other PIPs under development, contact your local dealer or Crown’s Technical Support Group.
One advantage of Crown PIP2 compatible amplifiers is
the ability to customize them using PIP (Programmable
Input Processor) and PIP2 modules. The PIPs shown
here may be used in any Crown PIP2-compatible amplifier. PIPs carrying the PIP2 logo have been configured with an extended, PIP2-enhanced feature set.
PLIFIER
FROM AM
PIP2 ADAP
TER
B
A
18 PIN (B)
B
20 PIN (A)
A
Fig. 8.1 PIP2 Adaptor
Connection
EL
BACK PAN
OF PIP2
AMPLIFIER
PIP2 ADAPTE
R
IQ-P.I.P.-DSP is an IQ System Programmable Input
Processor with DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for PIPcompatible amplifiers. As a component of the IQ System, it
connects the amplifier to the Crown Bus so the amplifier
can be controlled and monitored. Its DSP capabilities
enable it to be programmed with a variety of functions,
such as filters and crossovers, signal delay, input
compressor and output limiter, and a variety of other useful
features similar to those included with the IQ-P.I.P-SMT.
Requires an IQ2 interface and a computer for initial setup.
P.I.P. LE
MODU
Fig. 8.2 Installing a PIP
Module
The modules install easily:
For PIP units featuring an
edge-connector, first install the PIP2 adapter,
then carefully slide the PIP
card edge into the
adapter’s edge connector.
Finally, insert the combined units into the amplifier and screw securely
into place (see Figures 8.1
and 8.2).
IQ-P.I.P.-MEM Integrates Crown PIP-compatible amplifiers
into Crown’s IQ System. Each channel of each amplifier
can be monitored and individually controlled from an inexpensive PC. A total of 15 functions can be either monitored
or controlled. Memory backup is also incorporated in case
of power failure. Requires an IQ2 interface and a computer
for initial setup.
For PIP2s featuring ribbon
cable connectors, simply
locate the two connectors
on the underside of the
PIP circuit board, then
Fig. 8.3 Installing a PIP2
connect the two input ribModule
bon cables coming from
the amplifier. Both ribbon cables should run smoothly
from the amplifier to the PIP card. Insert the PIP and
attached cables into the PIP opening in the back of the
amplfier, then screw securely into place (see Figure
8.3).
IQ-P.I.P.-SMT “Smart Amp” offers impressive new features
unavailable elsewhere. The processing speed is substantially enhanced over other designs. A programmable powersupply gate conserves energy by shutting off the amplifier’s
high-power supplies until an audio signal is present. The
user may define error-reporting conditions of the amplifier.
There is much greater flexibility and thermal operational
protection available, as well as a built-in smooth output limiter to discretely control maximum amplifier output. Requires
an IQ2 interface and a computer for initial setup.
WARNING: Disconnect power to the amplifier when
installing or removing a PIP module.
Reference Manual
Page 39
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
removable barrier block connectors for quick, solderless
connections.
P.I.P.-BEQX Same as P.I.P.-BEQC but with XLR connectors.
P.I.P.-AMCb combines many of the features found in the
P.I.P.-XOV and P.I.P.-CLP to provide both a variable 4thorder Linkwitz-Riley crossover and an IOC-driven or variable-threshold signal-driven compressor. In addition, variable equalization networks provide for “constant-directivity” horn equalization and filter-assisted B6 vented bass
box equalization. Bi-amping and tri-amping capabilities are
provided via XLR connectors.
+
+
∞
∞
P.I.P.-ATNJ includes the features of the P.I.P.-FXT (balanced
Jensen® 1:1 isolation transformers) and adds to each channel a 12-dB/octave RFI filter, a variable 18-dB/octave highpass filter (to reduce bass/subsonic frequencies), and a 6dB/octave 3-kHz shelving network for “constant-directivity” horn equalization. Special quick-connect barrier blocks
are provided for inputs to each channel. Also adds a
Jensen® 32-step precision attenuator to each channel.
P.I.P.-BEQC adds many features of the Bose® Controllers
to the input of your amplifier. Each channel includes a custom equalization network for Bose loudspeakers. Also included is a bass-cut (high-pass) filter for each channel.
The equalization and bass-cut filters can be bypassed, if
desired. Balanced inputs and “daisy-chain” outputs use
Page 40
IN
PUSH
IQ-PIP-USP2 is an IQ2-series component. This means it
supports Crown’s UCODE protocol and requires an IQ
System with an IQ2-compatible IQ interface. UCODE
(universal code) enables users and third parties to
develop custom software objects to control and monitor
IQ2-compatible components like the IQ-PIP-USP2.
IN
PUSH
OUT
OUT
3
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
CH-2
CH-1
GND
1
2
P.I.P.-BP1C The P.I.P.-BP1C is a versatile, stereo band-pass
processor that plugs into any PIP-capable Crown amplifier.
Each channel of the P.I.P.-BP1C is completely independent
from the other and combines the functions of a low-pass
filter, a high-pass filter, vented loudspeaker box equalization, horn equalization and compression. DIP switches and
convenient jumper blocks make it easy to configure any of
its powerful operating features. Uses removable barrier
block, quick-disconnect connectors. P.I.P.-BP1X Same as
the P.I.P.-BP1C but with XLR connectors.
P.I.P.-CLP is designed to detect and prevent overload. The
same error detecting circuit that is used to signal the IOC
indicator is used to activate this error-driven compressor. It
is not a typical signal-driven compressor, but a circuit to
prevent any overload. It can yield up to 13 dB or additional
signal safety margin without noticeable program change.
P.I.P.-EDCb State-of-the-art programmable error-driven and
signal-driven compressor plus a variable high-pass filter
for each channel. Fast or slow attach and release times
can be set independently for each channel.
P.I.P.-FMX facilitates “daisy-chaining” several amplifier balanced inputs together. Female to male 3-pin XLR connectors are used to passively bridge the amplifier inputs.
Reference Manual
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
8.2 Cooling Fan Options
P.I.P.-FXT uses balanced 1:1 transformers to isolate the
source from the inputs. It comes with balanced female 3pin XLR connectors.
Every Macro-Tech amplifier has a built-in high-velocity
fan that provides optimum cooling. Two optional replacement fan blades are available for special cooling
requirements. Crown part C 6594-3 is a quieter, low-velocity fan blade that in many cases can provide adequate cooling. Crown part C 6593-5 is a reverse
air-flow fan blade which changes the direction of the air
flow in and out of the amplifier (not recomended for the
Macro-Tech 2402). Important: The optional replacement
fan blades should only be installed by a qualified technician.
8.3 Level Control Shaft Lock
P.I.P.-PA permits the unique capability of adding one mic/
line input directly to each channel of an amplifier. With phantom power for microphones, this mic/line input may be remotely switched from mic to line priorities.
A security accessory, the shaft lock can be used to secure your amplifier’s level controls in situations where
the front panel controls are subject to tampering. One is
needed for each channel. They can be ordered through
the Crown Service/Parts Department. For more information, contact your local Crown dealer or Crown’s Technical Support Group.
P.I.P.-RPA A phantom-power mixer that has four balanced
mic or line inputs with voiceover capability and adjustable
“duck” level, 84 dB of attenuation. A 10-volt DC source for
remote control capability is provided. The P.I.P.-EXT (Part
M44731-4), available from service, allows the P.I.P.-RPA and
other PIP cards to be “extended” outside the amplifier for
easy set up.
P.I.P.-RPAT has the same features as the P.I.P.-RPA but includes four input transformers.
P.I.P.-XOV is a versatile, economical mono 12- or 18-dB/
octave crossover/filter which offers bi-amping and tri-amping
capability.
Fig. 8.4 Installing a Level Control Shaft Lock
Reference Manual
Page 41
Macro-Tech® 602/1202/2402 Power Amplifiers
9 Service
This unit has very sophisticated circuitry which should
only be serviced by a fully trained technician. This is
one reason why each unit bears the following label:
Your repaired unit will be returned via UPS ground.
Please contact us if other arrangements are required.
Always use the
original factory pack
to transport the unit.
CAUTION: To prevent electric shock, do not remove
covers. No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to a qualified technician.
9.1 Worldwide Service
Service may be obtained from an authorized service
center. (Contact your local Crown/Amcron representative or our office for a list of authorized service centers.)
To obtain service, simply present the bill of sale as proof
of purchase along with the defective unit to an authorized service center. They will handle the necessary
paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport your unit in the original factory
pack.
9.2 North American Service
Service may be obtained in one of two ways: from an
authorized service center or from the factory. You may
choose either. It is important that you have your copy of
the bill of sale as your proof of purchase.
9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center
This method usually saves the most time and effort. Simply present your bill of sale along with the defective unit
to an authorized service center to obtain service. They
will handle the necessary paperwork and repair. Remember to transport the unit in the original factory pack.
A list of authorized service centers in your area can be
obtained from our Technical Support Group.
9.2.2 Factory Service
To obtain factory service, fill out the service information page that follows and send it along with your proof
of purchase and the defective unit to the Crown factory.
For warranty service, we will pay for ground shipping
both ways in the United States. Contact Crown Factory
Service or Technical Support to obtain prepaid shipping labels prior to sending the unit. Or, if you prefer,
you may prepay the cost of shipping, and Crown will
reimburse you. Send copies of the shipping receipts to
Crown to receive reimbursement.
Page 42
Factory Service Shipping Instructions:
1. When sending a Crown product to the factory for
service, be sure to fill out the service information
form that follows and enclose it inside your unit’s
shipping pack. Do not send the service information form separately.
2. To ensure the safe transportation of your unit to
the factory, ship it in an original factory packing
container. If you don’t have one, call or write
Crown’s Parts Department. With the exception of
polyurethane or wooden crates, any other packing material will not be sufficient to withstand the
stress of shipping. Do not use loose, small size
packing materials.
3. Do not ship the unit in any kind of cabinet (wood
or metal). Ignoring this warning may result in extensive damage to the unit and the cabinet. Accessories are not needed—do not send the
instruction manual, cables and other hardware.
If you have any questions, please call or write the Crown
Technical Support Group.
Crown Audio Customer Service
Technical Support / Factory Service
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart,
Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Telephone: 219-294-8200
800-342-6939 (North America,
Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only)
Facsimile:
219-294-8301 (Technical Support)
219-294-8124 (Factory Service)
Fax Back:
219-293-9200 (North America only)
800-294-4094 (North America only)
219-294-8100 (International)
http://www.crownaudio.com
Internet:
Reference Manual
Crown Factory Service Information
Shipping Address: Crown International, Inc., Factory Service, Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, IN 46517
Phone: 1-800-342-6939 or 1-219-294-8200 Fax: 1-219-294-8124
Owner’s Name: _________________________________________________________________________
Shipping Address: ______________________________________________________________________
Phone Number: _____________________________
Fax Number: _____________________________
Model: ________________________ Serial Number: ______________ Purchase Date: ___________
NATURE OF PROBLEM
(Be sure to describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.)
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Detach and send with unit.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Other equipment in your system: _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
If warranty has expired, payment will be:
❏ Cash/Check
❏ VISA
❏ MasterCard
Card Number:___________________________
Exp. Date:_______ Signature:____________________________
ENCLOSE THIS PORTION WITH THE UNIT. DO NOT MAIL SEPARATELY.
❏ C.O.D.