Cabletron Systems SFCS-1000 Specifications

ATM Switch
Configuration Manual
Notice
Notice
Cabletron Systems reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information
contained in this document without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Cabletron
Systems to determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this manual is subject to change without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CABLETRON SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT,
SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOST PROFITS) ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS MANUAL OR THE INFORMATION
CONTAINED IN IT, EVEN IF CABLETRON SYSTEMS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF, KNOWN, OR
SHOULD HAVE KNOWN, THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
© Copyright April 1996 by:
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
35 Industrial Way
Rochester, NH 03867-5005
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Order Number: 9031917
SPECTRUM, Remote LANVIEW, and LANVIEW are registered trademarks and MMAC-Plus is a
trademark of Cabletron Systems, Inc.
Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation.
i
Notice
FCC Notice
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.
This equipment uses, generates, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed in
accordance with the operator’s manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference in which case the user
will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
WARNING: Changes or modifications made to this device which are not expressly approved by the
party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
VCCI Notice
This equipment is in the 1st Class Category (information equipment to be used in commercial and/or
industrial areas) and conforms to the standards set by the Voluntary Control Council for Interference
by Information Technology Equipment (VCCI) aimed at preventing radio interference in commercial
and/or industrial areas.
Consequently, when used in a residential area or in an adjacent area thereto, radio interference may be
caused to radios and TV receivers, etc.
Read the instructions for correct handling.
ii
Notice
DOC Notice
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from digital
apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of
Communications.
Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables
aux appareils numériques de la class A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique
édicté par le ministère des Communications du Canada.
iii
Notice
iv
Table of Contents
Preface
Chapter Summaries .................................................................................................. xiii
Technical Support...................................................................................................... xiv
Typographical Styles.................................................................................................. xv
Important Information Indicators ........................................................................... xv
Laser Warning...........................................................................................................xvii
Safety Agency Compliance....................................................................................xviii
Safety Precautions............................................................................................xviii
Symbols .............................................................................................................xviii
Modifications to Equipment............................................................................. xix
Placement of a FORE Systems Product .......................................................... xix
Power Cord Connection.................................................................................... xix
Chapter 1
Configuring PVCs
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
Chapter 2
Virtual Paths ......................................................................................................... 1-3
1.2.1 Through Paths ............................................................................................ 1-4
1.2.2 Originating and Terminating Paths......................................................... 1-6
Listing Virtual Paths ............................................................................................ 1-7
Virtual Channels................................................................................................. 1-10
1.4.1 Listing Virtual Channels ......................................................................... 1-13
Creating Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) ................................................. 1-15
1.5.1 Creating a Virtual Path............................................................................ 1-15
1.5.1.1 Terminating a PVC at a Switch .................................................... 1-18
1.5.1.2 Creating ATM ARP Entries........................................................... 1-19
1.5.1.3 Listing ATM ARP Entries ............................................................. 1-20
1.5.2 Creating a Virtual Channel..................................................................... 1-21
Traffic Types ........................................................................................................ 1-23
Traffic Policing (Usage Parameter Control).................................................... 1-24
1.7.1 Setting the CLP Bit................................................................................... 1-24
1.7.2 Leaky Bucket Algorithm ......................................................................... 1-24
1.7.3 UNI 3.0 UPC Traffic Contract Parameters............................................ 1-25
1.7.4 AMI UPC Commands ............................................................................. 1-27
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.1.1 Logical IP Subnets...................................................................................... 2-2
2.1.2 Classical IP Interfaces ................................................................................ 2-2
2.1.3 SPANS Interface ......................................................................................... 2-3
2.2 Address Registration and ILMI ......................................................................... 2-4
2.2.1 NSAP Addresses ........................................................................................ 2-4
2.2.2 Operating with ILMI Support.................................................................. 2-5
2.2.3 Operating without ILMI Support ............................................................ 2-5
2.2.4 Configuration ............................................................................................. 2-5
2.3 ARP and ARP Servers.......................................................................................... 2-6
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Contents
2.3.1 Theory.......................................................................................................... 2-6
2.3.2 Configuring a Host to be an ARP Server ................................................ 2-7
2.3.2.1 Configuring a Host as an ARP Server for One-Time Use .......... 2-8
2.3.2.2 Configuring a Host as a Permanent ARP Server......................... 2-9
2.3.2.3 Configuring a Hewlett-Packard Computer as an ARP Server 2-10
2.3.3 Configuring a Cabletron Switch to be an ARP Server ........................ 2-11
2.3.4 Classical IP Operation ............................................................................. 2-12
2.3.5 Operational Issues.................................................................................... 2-13
2.4 Classical IP PVCs................................................................................................ 2-14
2.4.1 Theory and Configuration ...................................................................... 2-14
2.4.2 Revalidation and Removal ..................................................................... 2-15
2.5 Debugging ........................................................................................................... 2-16
2.6 Configuring the Network.................................................................................. 2-17
2.6.1 Third-Party Host with No ILMI and No RFC-1577 Support ............. 2-18
2.6.2 Third-Party Switch with ILMI and No RFC-1577 Support ................ 2-19
2.6.3 Third-Party Switch with RFC-1577 and No ILMI Support ................ 2-20
Chapter 3
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.1
3.2
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 3-1
Emulated LAN Components .............................................................................. 3-2
3.2.1 LAN Emulation Client (LEC) ................................................................... 3-3
3.2.2 LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS) ...................................... 3-3
3.2.3 LAN Emulation Server (LES) ................................................................... 3-3
3.2.4 Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS)................................................... 3-3
3.3 Emulated LAN Operation................................................................................... 3-4
3.3.1 Initialization................................................................................................ 3-6
3.3.2 Registration and Address Resolution...................................................... 3-6
3.3.3 Data Transfer............................................................................................... 3-7
3.4 Configuring an ELAN ......................................................................................... 3-8
3.4.1 Configuring an LECS Configuration Database File .............................. 3-9
3.4.1.1 Before You Begin .............................................................................. 3-9
3.4.1.2 LECS Configuration File Syntax .................................................. 3-10
3.4.1.3 Defining an ELAN ......................................................................... 3-12
3.4.1.4 Defining a Client ............................................................................ 3-14
3.4.1.5 LECS Control Parameters ............................................................. 3-15
3.4.2 Sample LECS Configuration File ........................................................... 3-16
3.4.3 The Default LECS Configuration File ................................................... 3-19
3.4.4 Starting the LAN Emulation Services ................................................... 3-21
3.4.4.1 Starting the LECS ........................................................................... 3-21
3.4.4.2 Creating a LES and a BUS............................................................. 3-23
3.4.5 Starting the LEC(s) and Joining an ELAN............................................ 3-24
3.4.5.1 Creating a LEC ............................................................................... 3-24
3.4.5.2 Configuring the LEC Failover Mechanism ................................ 3-26
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Contents
Chapter 4
SONET Configuration
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
Chapter 5
4.1.1 Transmit Indicators.................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.2 Receive Indicators...................................................................................... 4-2
Configuring SONET Mode ................................................................................. 4-2
Configuring SONET Empty Cells...................................................................... 4-3
Configuring SONET Loopback .......................................................................... 4-4
4.4.1 Diagnostic Loopback ................................................................................. 4-4
4.4.2 Line Loopback ............................................................................................ 4-4
Displaying SONET Error Counters ................................................................... 4-6
SONET Error Counter Descriptions.................................................................. 4-7
Configuring SONET Timing............................................................................. 4-10
DS-3 Configuration
5.1.1 Transmit Indicators.................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.2 Receive Indicators...................................................................................... 5-1
5.2 Configuring DS-3 Mode ...................................................................................... 5-2
5.3 Configuring DS-3 Empty Cells........................................................................... 5-3
5.4 Configuring DS-3 Line Length........................................................................... 5-3
5.5 Configuring DS-3 Framing ................................................................................. 5-4
5.6 Configuring DS-3 Payload Scrambling............................................................. 5-5
5.7 Configuring DS-3 Loopback............................................................................... 5-6
5.7.1 Cell Loopback............................................................................................. 5-7
5.7.2 Payload Loopback ..................................................................................... 5-7
5.7.3 Diagnostic Loopback ................................................................................. 5-7
5.7.4 Line Loopback ............................................................................................ 5-7
5.8 Displaying DS-3 Error Counters ........................................................................ 5-8
5.9 DS-3 Error Counter Descriptions....................................................................... 5-9
5.10 Configuring DS-3 Timing................................................................................ 5-11
Chapter 6
E-3 Configuration
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.1.1 Transmit Indicators.................................................................................... 6-1
6.1.2 Receive Indicators...................................................................................... 6-1
Configuring E-3 Mode......................................................................................... 6-2
Configuring E-3 Payload Scrambling................................................................ 6-2
Configuring E-3 Loopback.................................................................................. 6-3
6.4.1 Cell Loopback............................................................................................. 6-4
6.4.2 Payload Loopback ..................................................................................... 6-4
6.4.3 Diagnostic Loopback ................................................................................. 6-4
6.4.4 Line Loopback ............................................................................................ 6-4
Configuring E-3 Empty Cells ............................................................................. 6-5
Displaying E-3 Error Counters........................................................................... 6-6
E-3 Error Counter Descriptions.......................................................................... 6-7
Configuring E-3 Timing ...................................................................................... 6-9
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Contents
Chapter 7
TP25 Configuration
8.1.1 Transmit Indicators .................................................................................... 7-1
8.1.2 Receive Indicators ...................................................................................... 7-1
8.2 Configuring TP25 Loopback............................................................................... 7-2
8.2.1 Line Loopback ............................................................................................ 7-2
8.3 Displaying TP25 Error Counters........................................................................ 7-4
8.4 TP25 Error Counter Descriptions....................................................................... 7-4
Chapter 8
TAXI Configuration
9.1.1 Transmit Indicators .................................................................................... 8-1
9.1.2 Receive Indicators ...................................................................................... 8-1
9.2 Configuring TAXI Loopback .............................................................................. 8-2
Appendix A
AMI Overview
A.1.1 Login from Serial Port .............................................................................A-3
A.1.2 Login from Telnet.....................................................................................A-4
A.2 AMI Commands Not Available When Running Remotely.........................A-6
A.3 AMI Root Menu for an Open Session .............................................................A-7
A.3.1 About Command .....................................................................................A-8
A.3.2 Close Command.......................................................................................A-9
A.3.3 Configuration Commands....................................................................A-10
A.3.4 Exit Command........................................................................................A-10
A.3.5 Help Command......................................................................................A-10
A.3.6 History Command ................................................................................. A-11
A.3.7 Open Command.....................................................................................A-12
A.3.8 Operation Commands...........................................................................A-13
A.3.9 Ping Command ......................................................................................A-13
A.3.10 Redo Command ...................................................................................A-14
A.3.11 Rows Command...................................................................................A-16
A.3.12 Statistics Commands ...........................................................................A-16
A.3.13 Top Command......................................................................................A-16
A.3.14 Up Command .......................................................................................A-16
Appendix B
AMI Configuration Commands
B.1.1 Displaying Alarm Conditions..................................................................B-2
B.1.2 Enabling an Alarm.....................................................................................B-3
B.1.3 Disabling an Alarm ...................................................................................B-4
B.1.4 Resetting an Alarm ....................................................................................B-5
B.2 ATM ARP Configuration Commands...............................................................B-6
B.2.1 ARP Server Configuration Commands ..................................................B-6
B.2.2 Deleting an ARP Entry..............................................................................B-7
B.2.3 Flushing the ATM ARP Cache .................................................................B-8
B.2.4 Getting the NSAP Address for a Classical IP Interface ........................B-8
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Contents
B.2.5 Creating an IP to NSAP Address Mapping ...........................................B-8
B.2.6 Creating a Classical IP PVC .....................................................................B-9
B.2.7 Creating a FORE IP PVC ARP Entry .....................................................B-9
B.2.8 Displaying the ATM ARP Entries..........................................................B-10
B.3 Switch Board Configuration Commands ....................................................... B-11
B.3.1 Configuring the Clock Scaling Factor on a Switch Board.................. B-11
B.3.2 Displaying the Board Configuration ....................................................B-12
B.3.3 Displaying the Board Topology.............................................................B-13
B.4 IP Configuration Commands...........................................................................B-14
B.4.1 Configuring the IP Address ...................................................................B-14
B.4.2 Configuring the IP State .........................................................................B-15
B.4.3 Configuring the IP Broadcast Address .................................................B-15
B.4.4 Configuring IP Forwarding ...................................................................B-16
B.4.5 Configuring the IP Subnet Mask ...........................................................B-16
B.4.6 Configuring IP Routes ............................................................................B-17
B.4.7 Displaying the IP Interface Configuration...........................................B-19
B.5 LAN Emulation Configuration Commands ..................................................B-20
B.5.1 Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS) Configuration Commands.B-20
B.5.2 LAN Emulation Client (LEC) Configuration Commands.................B-24
B.5.3 LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS) Commands ..............B-31
B.5.4 LAN Emulation Server (LES) Configuration Commands .................B-36
B.6 Network Module Configuration Commands................................................B-42
B.6.1 Displaying Network Module Configuration Information ................B-42
B.6.2 Configuring Distributed Timing on a Network Module ...................B-43
B.6.3 Configuring Traffic on a Network Module..........................................B-48
B.7 NSAP Configuration Commands....................................................................B-53
B.7.1 NSAP Route Configuration Commands ..............................................B-53
B.7.2 NSAP Prefix Configuration Commands ..............................................B-56
B.7.3 NSAP ILMI Configuration Command .................................................B-59
B.8 Port Configuration Commands .......................................................................B-60
B.8.1 CDVT Port Configuration Commands.................................................B-60
B.8.2 E-3 Port Configuration Commands ......................................................B-61
B.8.3 TP25 Port Configuration Commands ...................................................B-66
B.8.4 DS-3 Port Configuration Commands ...................................................B-68
B.8.5 J-2 Port Configuration Commands .......................................................B-73
B.8.6 Port Policing Configuration Command ...............................................B-76
B.8.7 SONET Port Configuration Commands ..............................................B-77
B.8.8 Showing the Port Configuration ...........................................................B-82
B.8.9 TAXI Port Configuration Commands...................................................B-85
B.8.10 Traffic Port Configuration Commands...............................................B-87
B.8.11 VBROB Port Configuration Commands.............................................B-93
B.8.12 VBRBuffOB Port Configuration Commands.....................................B-93
B.9 Serial Port Configuration Commands ............................................................B-94
B.9.1 Displaying Serial Port Information.......................................................B-94
B.10 SNMP Configuration Commands .................................................................B-95
B.10.1 Configuring the SNMP Community Access......................................B-95
B.10.2 Configuring SNMP Traps.....................................................................B-95
B.11 SPANS Configuration Commands ................................................................B-98
B.11.1 Deleting a SPANS Signalling Path ......................................................B-98
B.11.2 Creating a SPANS Signalling Path ......................................................B-99
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Contents
B.11.3 Showing the SPANS Signalling Path Configuration.......................B-101
B.12 SPVC Configuration Commands.................................................................B-104
B.12.1 Deleting an SPVC ................................................................................B-104
B.12.2 Creating an SPVC ................................................................................B-105
B.12.3 Displaying SPVC Information ...........................................................B-107
B.13 Switch Configuration Commands...............................................................B-108
B.13.1 Setting or Changing the Switch Name .............................................B-108
B.13.2 Setting the Minimum Number of Reserved VCIs for PMPs .........B-109
B.13.3 Setting the Maximum Number of Reserved VCIs for PMPs.........B-110
B.13.4 Displaying the Switch Configuration ............................................... B-111
B.14 System Configuration Commands ..............................................................B-112
B.14.1 Displaying System Information.........................................................B-112
B.14.2 System Log Configuration Commands ............................................B-113
B.14.3 AMI Timeout Configuration Command ..........................................B-117
B.14.4 Configuring the Units for UPC Contracts........................................B-117
B.15 Topology Configuration Commands ..........................................................B-118
B.15.1 ForeThought PNNI Configuration Commands ..............................B-118
B.15.2 SPANS Topology Configuration Commands ..................................B-126
B.16 UNI 3.0 Configuration Commands .............................................................B-128
B.16.1 Deleting a UNI 3.0 Signalling Path ...................................................B-128
B.16.2 Creating a UNI 3.0 Signalling Path ...................................................B-129
B.16.3 Displaying UNI 3.0 Signalling Paths ................................................B-131
B.17 Usage Parameter Control Configuration Commands ..............................B-134
B.17.1 Deleting a UPC Traffic Contract ........................................................B-134
B.17.2 Creating a UPC Traffic Contract ........................................................B-135
B.17.3 Displaying the UPC Traffic Contracts...............................................B-137
B.18 Virtual Channel Configuration Commands...............................................B-138
B.18.1 Deleting a Virtual Channel.................................................................B-138
B.18.2 Modifying a Virtual Channel .............................................................B-139
B.18.3 Creating a Virtual Channel.................................................................B-139
B.18.4 Displaying the Virtual Channel Configuration ...............................B-141
B.19 Virtual Path Configuration Commands .....................................................B-143
B.19.1 Deleting a Virtual Path........................................................................B-143
B.19.2 Modifying a Virtual Path....................................................................B-144
B.19.3 Creating a Virtual Path .......................................................................B-145
B.19.4 Displaying Virtual Paths.....................................................................B-149
Appendix C
AMI Operation Commands
C.1.1 Backing Up the Database ........................................................................ C-2
C.1.2 Initializing the Database.......................................................................... C-3
C.1.3 Resetting the Database ............................................................................ C-4
C.1.4 Restoring the Database............................................................................ C-4
C.2 Environment Commands .................................................................................. C-5
C.2.1 CPU Operation ......................................................................................... C-5
C.2.2 Switch Fabric Operation.......................................................................... C-6
C.2.3 Showing Switch Fabric Temperature Information .............................. C-6
C.2.4 Configuring the Switch Fabric Temperature Thresholds ................... C-7
C.2.5 Fan Operation ........................................................................................... C-8
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Contents
C.3
C.4
C.5
C.6
C.7
C.8
Appendix D
C.2.6 Power Supply Operation ........................................................................ C-9
C.2.7 Temperature Sensor Operation ............................................................ C-10
C.2.8 Panic Acknowledgment Commands...................................................C-11
C.2.9 Clearing the Panic Flag ..........................................................................C-11
C.2.10 Displaying the Panic Dump File........................................................ C-12
Displaying and Setting the Date and Time................................................... C-14
FLASH Operation Commands....................................................................... C-15
C.4.1 Copying a File to FLASH Memory...................................................... C-15
C.4.2 Deleting a File from FLASH Memory ................................................. C-16
C.4.3 Displaying the FLASH Memory Directory ........................................ C-17
C.4.4 Displaying Free Space on the FLASH File.......................................... C-17
C.4.5 Getting a FLASH File............................................................................. C-17
C.4.6 Initializing the FLASH File ................................................................... C-18
C.4.7 Putting a FLASH File on a Remote Host ............................................ C-18
C.4.8 Renaming a FLASH File........................................................................ C-19
Setting or Changing the Password ................................................................ C-19
Upgrading the Switch...................................................................................... C-20
Displaying and Changing the Version of Software ..................................... C-21
Rebooting the Switch ....................................................................................... C-21
AMI Statistics Commands
D.2
D.3
D.4
D.5
D.6
D.7
D.8
D.9
D.10
D.11
D.12
D.13
D.14
D.15
D.16
D.17
D.18
D.19
D.20
D.21
AAL4 Statistics ................................................................................................... D-2
AAL5 Statistics ................................................................................................... D-3
ATM Statistics..................................................................................................... D-4
Switch Board Statistics ...................................................................................... D-5
Control Port Statistics ........................................................................................ D-5
DS-3 Statistics ..................................................................................................... D-6
E-3 Statistics ........................................................................................................ D-9
ICMP Statistics.................................................................................................. D-12
Interface Statistics .......................................................................................... D-15
IP Statistics ...................................................................................................... D-17
Network Module Statistics ........................................................................... D-20
Port Statistics .................................................................................................. D-22
SONET Statistics ............................................................................................ D-23
SPANS Statistics ............................................................................................. D-26
TCP Statistics .................................................................................................. D-27
TP25 Statistics ................................................................................................. D-29
UDP Statistics ................................................................................................. D-30
UNI 3.0 Statistics ............................................................................................ D-31
VCC Statistics ................................................................................................. D-32
VPC Statistics.................................................................................................. D-33
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Contents
Appendix E
SNMP Configuration
E.2
Appendix F
SNMP Traps ..........................................................................................................E-3
E.2.1 Adding SNMP Trap Destinations..........................................................E-11
E.2.2 Displaying SNMP Trap Destinations....................................................E-11
E.2.3 Removing SNMP Trap Destinations .....................................................E-12
ForeThought PNNI
F.1.1 Hello Protocol .............................................................................................F-2
F.1.2 Topology Database Exchange...................................................................F-2
F.1.3 Flooding.......................................................................................................F-2
F.1.4 Hierarchical Routing..................................................................................F-3
F.2 The Physical Network..........................................................................................F-5
F.2.1 Peer Groups.................................................................................................F-8
F.2.2 Peer Group Topology.................................................................................F-8
F.2.3 Border Switches ..........................................................................................F-8
F.2.4 Peer Group Summary Node (PGSN) ......................................................F-9
F.2.5 Backbone Topology ....................................................................................F-9
F.2.6 Single Switch Perspective .........................................................................F-9
xii
PREFACE
This manual provides the technical information needed to configure the ATM
Switches, the LAN and WAN network modules, and the accompanying
software. This document also provides general ATM information and general
product information. This document was created for users with various levels
of experience. If you have any questions or problems, please contact
Cabletron Systems’ Technical Support.
Chapter Summaries
Chapter 1 - Configuring PVCs - Describes how to create PVCs on a switch
through the ATM Management Interface (AMI).
Chapter 2 - Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network - Describes how to
design, configure, and maintain a Classical IP ATM network.
Chapter 3 - Configuring an Emulated LAN - Provides an overview of LAN
Emulation and gives an example of how to configure an Emulated LAN.
Chapter 4 - SONET Configuration - Contains configuration information for
supporting SONET network modules.
Chapter 5 - DS-3 and DS-1 Configuration - Contains configuration information for supporting DS-3 and DS-1 network modules.
Chapter 6 - E-3 and E-1 Configuration - Contains configuration information
for supporting E-3 and E-1 network modules.
Chapter 7 - J-2 Configuration - Contains configuration information for supporting J-2 network modules.
Chapter 8 - TP25 Configuration - Contains configuration information for supporting TP25 network modules.
Chapter 9 - TAXI Configuration - Contains configuration information for
supporting TAXI network modules.
Appendix A - AMI Overview - Provides an overview of AMI and contains a
text and graphical description of the root level AMI commands.
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PREFACE
Appendix B - AMI Configuration Commands - Contains a text and graphical
description of the configuration level AMI commands.
Appendix C - AMI Operation Commands - Contains a text and graphical
description of the operation level AMI commands.
Appendix D - AMI Statistics Commands - Contains a text and graphical
description of the statistics level AMI commands.
Appendix E - SNMP Configuration - Describes the remote SNMP configuration of a switch.
Appendix F - PNNI - Describes how this scalable routing and signalling protocol can be used to simplify large network topologies.
Technical Support
If you need additional support with these products, or if you have any
questions, comments or suggestions concerning this manual, feel free to
contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support:
xiv
By phone:
(603) 332-9400
By CompuServe:
GO CTRON from any ! prompt
By Internet mail:
support@ctron.com
By mail:
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 5005
Rochester, NH 03867-0505
PREFACE
Typographical Styles
Throughout this manual, all specific commands meant to be entered by the
user will appear on a separate line in bold typeface. In addition, use of the
Enter or Return key will be represented as <ENTER>. The following example
demonstrates this convention.
cd /usr <ENTER>
Commands or file names that appear within the text of this manual will be
represented in the following style: “...the fore_install program will install this
distribution”.
As in the following example, any messages that appear on your screen during
software installation and network interface administration will appear in
Courier font to distinguish them from the rest of the text.
.... Are all four conditions true?
Important Information Indicators
To call your attention to safety and otherwise important information that
must be reviewed to ensure correct and complete installation, as well as to
avoid damage to the ATM Switch or your system, this manual utilizes the following WARNING/CAUTION/NOTE indicators.
WARNING statements contain information that is critical to the safety of the
operator and/or the system. Do not proceed beyond a WARNING statement
until the indicated conditions are fully understood or met. This information
could prevent serious injury to the operator, damage to the Switch, the system, or currently loaded software, and will be indicated as follows:
WARNING!
Hazardous voltages are present. To reduce the
risk of electrical shock and danger to personal
health, follow the instructions carefully.
Information contained in CAUTION statements is important for proper
xv
PREFACE
installation/operation. CAUTION statements can prevent possible equipment damage and/or loss of data and will be indicated as:
CAUTION
You risk damaging your equipment and/or
software if you do not follow these
instructions.
Information contained in NOTE statements has been found important
enough to be called to the special attention of the operator and will be set off
from the text as follows:
NOTE:
xvi
It is strongly recommended that you disconnect the serial cable once you have configured
the ATM switch and then access the switch
over the ATM network.
PREFACE
Laser Warning
Class 1 Laser Product:
This product conforms to
applicable requirements of
21 CFR 1040 at the date of
manufacture.
Class 1 lasers are defined as products which do not permit human access to
laser radiation in excess of the accessible limits of Class 1 for applicable wavelengths and durations. These lasers are safe under reasonably foreseeable
conditions of operation.
The following network modules contain Class 1 lasers:
NM-2/155SMSRA-1
NM-2/155SMSRB-1
NM-2OC3/SMSRA-1
NM-4/155SMSRA-1
NM-4/155SMSRB-1
NM-4OC3/SMSRA-1
NM-4OC3/SMSRA-1A NM-4OC3/SMSRB-1
NM-2/155SMSRC
NM-4/155SMSRC
NM-2/155SMLRA-1
NM-2/155SMLRB-1
NM-2/155SMLRC-1
NM-2OC3/SMLRB-1
NM-2OC3/SMMRA-1
NM-4/155SMLRB-1
NM-4/155SMLRC-1
NM-4OC3/SMLRB-1
NM-4OC3/SMMRA-1 NM-1/622SMIRC
NM-4/155LR3SCC
NM-4/155SR3SCC
xvii
PREFACE
Safety Agency Compliance
This preface provides safety precautions to follow when installing a product.
Safety Precautions
For your protection, observe the following safety precautions when setting up
your equipment:
• Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the equipment.
• Ensure that the voltage and frequency of your power source matches
the voltage and frequency inscribed on the equipment’s electrical rating label.
• Never push objects of any kind through openings in the equipment.
Dangerous voltages may be present. Conductive foreign objects
could produce a short circuit that could cause fire, electric shock, or
damage to your equipment.
Symbols
The following symbols appear in this book.
xviii
CAUTION
If instructions are not followed, there is a risk
of damage to the equipment.
WARNING!
Hazardous voltages are present. If the instructions are not heeded, there is a risk of electrical
shock and danger to personal health.
PREFACE
Modifications to Equipment
Do not make mechanical or electrical modifications to the equipment.
Cabletron Systems, Inc., is not responsible for regulatory compliance of a
modified product.
Placement of a Product
CAUTION
To ensure reliable operation of the product
and to protect it from overheating, openings
in the equipment must not be blocked or covered. The product should never be placed near
a radiator or heat register.
Power Cord Connection
WARNING!
These products are designed to work with single-phase power systems having a grounded
neutral conductor. To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not plug these products into
any other type of power system. Contact your
facilities manager or a qualified electrician if
you are not sure what type of power is supplied to your building.
WARNING!
This product is shipped with a grounding
type (3-wire) power cord. To reduce the risk of
electric shock, always plug the cord into a
grounded power outlet.
xix
PREFACE
xx
CHAPTER 1
Configuring PVCs
In order to interoperate with other vendors’ equipment, it is often necessary
to create Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) on a Cabletron switch. This can
be accomplished through the ATM Management Interface (AMI). This chapter will discuss the creation of PVCs through AMI on a Cabletron switch.
1.1
General Concepts
Each ATM cell contains a virtual path identifier (VPI) and a virtual channel
identifier (VCI) as part of its five-byte ATM header. The VPI and VCI are used
to route the cell through the ATM network. When a switch fabric receives a
cell, it examines the ATM header to determine the correct output port, VPI,
and VCI for the cell. For example, an ATM switch fabric can be configured
such that any cell received on port A1 with VPI|VCI = 0|32 is switched to
port B2 with VPI|VCI = 0|35. The translation from input port, VPI, and VCI
to output port, VPI, and VCI is achieved via a mapping table in the switch
fabric’s memory.
The VCI value of cells does not change as the cell is switched through the
ATM network via a virtual path. In a single switch environment, a cell’s VPI
and VCI are translated only once, but in a multiple switch environment a
cell’s VPI and VCI are translated many times. It is important to remember that
a cell’s VPI and VCI are of local significance only (i.e., link-by-link). It is also
important to note that virtual connections are unidirectional; that is, they are
valid in one direction only. The VPI and VCI may change as the cell is
switched through the network.
1-1
Configuring PVCs
VPI: 1, VCI: 37
cell
Cabletron ATM
Switch B
port B4
port C1
Cabletron ATM
Switch C
port D1
port B1
port A1
VPI: 2, VCI: 33 cell
port A4
cell VPI: 1, VCI: 35
Cabletron ATM
Switch A
port C1
cell
Cabletron ATM
Switch D
VPI: 0, VCI: 32
VPI: 0 , VCI: 36 cell
port B3
Workstation Q
Workstation P
Figure 1.1 - The Cell
The set of mappings in the ATM network used to route cells from a source to a
destination are generally referred to as virtual channels and virtual paths. The
switch control software will normally use the SPANS protocol, FORE Systems‘ pre-standard signalling protocol, to create the virtual channels and virtual paths needed to establish a connection between two ATM endpoints. Not
all ATM equipment supports the SPANS protocol, so it is sometimes necessary to create virtual paths and virtual channels manually in order to establish a connection between two ATM endpoints. The focus of the following
sections is to explain how to create the necessary mappings to establish virtual paths and virtual channels in a network of Cabletron switches.
1-2
Configuring PVCs
1.2
Virtual Paths
Virtual paths are used to establish connections between two switch fabrics in
an ATM network. Once the switch fabrics are connected via a virtual path,
they can use this virtual path to route virtual channels.
Virtual
Path
Virtual
Channels
Medium
Figure 1.2 - Virtual Channels in a Virtual Path
A single virtual path can be used to route many virtual channels through the
ATM network. Because a virtual path simply routes virtual channels through
the network, a cell is guaranteed to have the same VCI when it exits the virtual path as it had when it entered the virtual path.
Cabletron ATM Switch
ATM
Network
Cabletron ATM Switch
cell
cell
VPI: X, VCI: Y
VPI: Z, VCI: Y
Figure 1.3 - An Example of a Virtual Path
1-3
Configuring PVCs
The VCI value of cells does not change as the cell is switched through the
ATM network via a virtual path. Each virtual path must originate at a switch
fabric, pass through zero or more switch fabrics and terminate at another
switch fabric. The origination and termination points are referred to as originating and terminating paths. Virtual paths are switched through switch fabrics via through paths. Virtual paths are made up of an originating path, zero
or more through paths, and a terminating path.
Originating Path
Through Path
Terminating Path
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Virtual Path
Figure 1.4 - Composition of a Virtual Path
1.2.1
Through Paths
Through paths route an entire virtual path through an ATM switch fabric.
When a cell is received by a switch fabric on a through path, the VPI is examined to determine the output port and VPI. The VCI component of the ATM
header remains unchanged and can have any value. So, all of the channels
within the through path will be switched correctly without altering the VCI
value of cells on these channels.
Four parameters are needed to define a through path on a Cabletron switch
fabric: input port, input VPI, output port, and output VPI. Through paths are
represented as follows:
<iport> <ivpi> <oport> <ovpi>
1-4
Configuring PVCs
The VCI value remains unchanged when cells are switched via a through
path. For example, the through path A4|10 -> B4|20 will map cells received
on port A4 with VPI: 10 and any VCI to port B4 with VPI: 20 and the same
VCI.
A4
switch fabric
B4
cell
cell
VPI: 10
VCI: X
VPI: 20
VCI: X
Through Path
A4|10 -> B4|20
Figure 1.5 - An Example of a Through Path
By definition, through paths will only switch cells in one direction; they are
unidirectional. For example, switch fabric X is configured with the through
path B1|20 -> C1|20. If a cell is received on port C1 with VPI: 20, it will not be
transmitted on port B1 with a new VPI: 20. In order for this to happen, the
through path C1|20 -> B1|20 must exist as well. Since through paths are unidirectional, two through paths are necessary for bidirectional communication.
B1|20 -> C1|20
B1
C1
C1|20 -> B1|20
Figure 1.6 - Through Paths are Unidirectional
1-5
Configuring PVCs
1.2.2
Originating and Terminating Paths
As previously noted, originating and terminating paths are points at which a
virtual path originates and terminates. For example, if a virtual path exists
from switch fabric A to switch fabric B, then there must be an originating path
on switch fabric A and a terminating path on switch fabric B.
An originating path is defined by two parameters: output VPI and output
port. Similarly, a terminating path is defined by the parameters: input VPI
and input port. Because originating and terminating paths do not define the
way cells are switched through an ATM switch fabric, virtual channels must
exist to switch cells from a terminating path to an originating path. (See the
section about virtual channels for more information). Originating and terminating paths are the endpoints of virtual paths and are used primarily for
bandwidth allocation.
The bandwidth allocated to originating and terminating paths is used to control the amount of bandwidth entering or leaving a virtual path. The total
bandwidth used by virtual channels on an originating path or a terminating
path cannot exceed the amount of bandwidth allocated to that path. For
example, as illustrated in Figure 1.7, if each of the four virtual channels
shown is using 10 Mbps of bandwidth, then the originating and terminating
paths must have at least 40 Mbps of bandwidth allocated.
Originating Path
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Terminating Path
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Virtual Channels
Figure 1.7 - Using Originating and Terminating Paths for Bandwidth Allocation
1-6
Configuring PVCs
1.3
Listing Virtual Paths
By logging in to AMI (see Appendix A of this manual for information about
logging into AMI), it is possible to display either all of the existing virtual
paths on an individual switch fabric or all of the existing virtual paths on a
specified port. To list all of the existing virtual paths on an individual switch
fabric, enter the following parameters:
configuration vpc show
Input
Port VPI
1C1
0
1C2
0
1C3
0
1C4
0
1D1
0
1D2
0
1D3
0
1D4
0
1CTL
0
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
Output
Port VPI
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
1C1
0
1C2
0
1C3
0
1C4
0
1D1
0
1D2
0
1D3
0
1D4
0
1CTL
0
MaxBW
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
N/A
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
0.0K
155.0M
155.0M
155.0M
N/A
BW MaxVCs
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
511
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
256
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
255
0.0K
511
VCs
4
4
4
4
2
5
4
4
28
4
4
4
4
3
4
4
4
36
UPC
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Prot
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Input Port
Lists the number of the input port of the virtual
path. Lists originate if it is an originating path.
Input VPI
Indicates the input virtual path.
Output Port
Lists the number of the output port of the virtual
path. Lists terminate if it is a terminating path.
Output VPI
Shows the output virtual path.
1-7
Configuring PVCs
MaxBW
Shows the maximum amount of bandwidth (in
megabits/second) that is available for the virtual
channels using this path.
BW
Shows the amount of bandwidth (in megabits/
second) that has been reserved for the virtual
channels using this path.
MaxVCs
Lists the maximum number of virtual channels
that may use this originating or terminating path.
VCs
Lists the number of virtual channels that are currently using this originating or terminating path.
UPC
Shows the integer index that refers to a specific
traffic contract assigned to this path.
Protocol
Indicates pvc for a Permanent Virtual Circuit,
spans for a Switched Virtual Circuit, or uni for a
UNI 3.0 signalling path.
To list advanced information about all of the existing virtual paths, enter the
following parameters:
configuration vpc show advanced
Input
Port VPI
1C1
0
1C2
0
1C3
0
1C4
0
1D1
0
1D2
0
1D3
0
1D4
0
1CTL
0
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
originate
1-8
Output
Port VPI
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
terminate
1C1
0
1C2
0
1C3
0
1C4
0
1D1
0
1D2
0
1D3
0
1D4
0
1CTL
0
Shape VBROB BuffOB
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Configuring PVCs
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Input Port
Lists the number of the input port of the virtual
path. Lists originate if it is an originating path.
Input VPI
Indicates the input virtual path.
Output Port
Lists the number of the output port of the virtual
path. Lists terminate if it is a terminating path.
Output VPI
Shows the output virtual path.
Shape
Indicates whether or not traffic shaping has been
enabled for this originating path.
VBROB
Lists the bandwidth overbooking level assigned
to this path, specified as a percentage. Valid values are integers greater than or equal to 1. The
default is 100, which means that no overbooking
has been defined. Values less than 100 cause
underbooking. Values greater than 100 denote
overbooking.
BuffOB
Shows the buffer overbooking level assigned to
this path, specified as a percentage. Valid values
are integers greater than or equal to 1. The
default is 100, which means that no overbooking
has been defined. Values less than 100 cause
underbooking. Values greater than 100 denote
overbooking.
1-9
Configuring PVCs
1.4
Virtual Channels
Virtual channels “ride” inside of virtual paths. The combination of the two
specifies a virtual connection. On a switch fabric, each virtual channel
switches cells with a specific VPI and VCI received on a specific port to
another port with a new VPI and a new VCI. Unlike through paths, virtual
channels describe a single virtual connection between two endpoints connected to a switch fabric.
cell
VPI: X, VCI: Y
Cabletron
ATM Switch
cell
VPI: A, VCI: B
Figure 1.8 - An Example of a Virtual Channel
Six parameters are needed to define a virtual channel: input port, input VPI,
input VCI, output port, output VPI, and output VCI. Virtual channels are represented by the following notation:
<iport> <ivpi> <ivci> <oport> <ovpi> <ovci>
1-10
Configuring PVCs
Virtual channels switch cells using both the VPI and VCI values. Both the VPI
and VCI values may change when a cell is switched via a virtual channel. For
example, the virtual channel C2|1|20 -> D2|9|25 will switch cells received
on port C2 with VPI: 1 and VCI: 20 such that they are transmitted out port D2
with VPI: 9 and VCI: 25.
switch fabric
C2
D2
cell
cell
VPI: 1
VCI: 20
VPI: 9
VCI: 25
Virtual Channel
C2|1|20 -> D2|9|25
Figure 1.9 - Example of a Virtual Channel
In order to establish two-way communications between two ports on a switch
fabric, two virtual channels are necessary because virtual channels are unidirectional. For example, switch fabric A is configured with the virtual channel
C3|7|12 -> D1|8|2. If a cell is received on port D1 with VPI: 8 and VCI: 2, it
will not be transmitted out port C3 with VPI: 7 and VCI: 12. An additional
channel, namely D1|8|2 -> C3|7|12, would have to exist.
C3|7|12 -> D1|8|2
C3
D1
D1|8|2 -> C3|7|12
Figure 1.10 - Virtual Channels are Unidirectional
1-11
Configuring PVCs
Before a virtual channel can be created, the corresponding terminating and originating paths must exist. For example, before the channels shown on the switch
fabric in Figure 1.11 can be created, the terminating path C3|3 must exist.
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Term.
Orig.
Switch or
Host B
Switch or
Host C
C3|3|45 -> A3|9|100
Switch or
Host A
C3|3|50 -> C2|3|98
C3|3|80 -> A1|7|88
Switch or
Host D
C3|3|123 -> A1|3|123
Switch or
Host E
Figure 1.11 - Virtual Channels Created on Terminating Path C3|3
Similarly, before the virtual channels shown in Figure 1.12 can be created, the
originating path C2|2 must exist.
.
Switch or
Host A
Switch or
Host B
Cabletron
ATM Switch
Term.
Orig.
A2|7|120 -> C2|2|120
Switch or
Host C
C2|3|67 -> C2|2|37
C3|11|50 -> C2|2|102
Switch or
Host E
B1|2|99 -> C2|2|99
Switch or
Host D
Figure 1.12 - Virtual Channels Created on Originating Path C2|2
Furthermore, in these examples, the terminating path C3|3 and originating
path C2|2 must have enough bandwidth allocated to support the total bandwidth used by the virtual channels (Reference Figure 1.7, Using Originating
and Terminating Paths for Bandwidth Allocation).
1-12
Configuring PVCs
1.4.1
Listing Virtual Channels
By logging in to AMI (see Appendix A of this manual for information about
logging into AMI), it is possible to display either all of the existing virtual
channels on an individual switch fabric or all of the existing virtual channels
on a specified port. To list all of the existing virtual channels on an individual
switch fabric, enter the following parameters:
configuration vcc show
Input
Port VPI
1C1
0
1C1
0
1C1
0
1C1
0
1C2
0
1C2
0
1C2
0
1C2
0
1C3
0
1C3
0
1C3
0
1C3
0
1C4
0
1C4
0
1C4
0
1C4
0
1D1
0
Output
VCI Port
5 1CTL
14 1CTL
15 1CTL
16 1CTL
5 1CTL
14 1CTL
15 1CTL
16 1CTL
5 1CTL
14 1CTL
15 1CTL
16 1CTL
5 1CTL
14 1CTL
15 1CTL
16 1CTL
14 1CTL
VPI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
VCI
34
33
32
58
37
36
35
59
40
39
38
60
43
42
41
61
45
UPC
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Protocol
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
spans
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Input Port
Displays the incoming port number of the virtual
channel.
Input VPI
Shows the incoming virtual path number.
Input VCI
Indicates the incoming virtual channel number.
Output Port
Displays the outgoing port number of the virtual
channel.
Output VPI
Shows the outgoing virtual path number.
1-13
Configuring PVCs
Output VCI
1-14
Indicates the outgoing virtual channel number.
UPC
Shows the integer index that refers to the specific
traffic contract assigned to this VCI.
Protocol
Displays what type of protocol is running on this
channel. Can be spans, pvc, or uni30.
Configuring PVCs
1.5
Creating Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)
This section contains examples of the steps necessary to create a virtual path
or a virtual channel through the network.
NOTE:
1.5.1
When these virtual paths and virtual channels are created, a command is entered automatically into the current configuration
database, which means that this PVC will be
created every time the switch control processor (SCP) is restarted. Note that this configuration database can not be edited. The user
can, however, enter AMI and manually delete
the PVC that was created. It is recommended
that users back up the configuration database
frequently.
Creating a Virtual Path
To create a new virtual path, log in to AMI (see Appendix A of this manual for
information about logging into AMI), and enter the following parameters:
configuration vpc new <iport> <ivpi> <oport> <ovpi> [-upc <index>]
or
configuration vpc new <port> <vpi> term [-reserved <Kbs>] [-maxvci <maxvci>]
or
configuration vpc new <port> <vpi> orig [-reserved <Kbs>] [-maxvci <maxvci>]
advanced options:
[-shapeovpi <vpi>] [-vbrob <percent>] [-vbrbuffob <percent>]
or
[-shapeivpi <vpi>]
iport
ivpi
oport
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
Indicates the outgoing port number.
1-15
Configuring PVCs
ovpi
-upc <index>
Indicates the outgoing virtual path number.
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific traffic contract. If no index is specified, then
no traffic policing will take place on this VPI. It is
assigned a UPC index of 0, and all traffic on this
VPI is treated as UBR traffic. This is the default.
or
port
vpi
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
term
Specifies the virtual path to be created as a terminating path.
-reserved <Kbs>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth specified in
Kbps that the user wants to reserve on this path.
-maxvci <maxvci>
Indicates the maximum number of channels that
can be created on this path.
or
port
vpi
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
orig
Specifies the virtual path to be created as an originating path.
-reserved <Kbs>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth specified in
Kbps that the user wants to reserve on this path.
-maxvci <maxvci>
Indicates the maximum number of channels that
can be created on this path.
The advanced options are as follows:
-shapeovpi <vpi>
1-16
Indicates the output port of a traffic shaping
originating path. Setting this value configures
traffic shaping on the originating path. Cells
bound for the network leave the traffic shaping
port with this value. When the traffic shaping
port is the WAN port, this value equals the input
VPI of the through path form the traffic shaping
port to the WAN port.
Configuring PVCs
-vbrob <percent>
Indicates the bandwidth overbooking level
assigned to this path, specified as a percentage.
Enter an integer value greater than or equal to 1.
The default is 100, which means that no overbooking has been defined. Values less than 100
cause underbooking. Values greater than 100
denote overbooking.
-vbrbuffob <percent>
Indicates the buffer overbooking level assigned
to this path, specified as a percentage. Enter an
integer value greater than or equal to 1. The
default is 100, which means that no overbooking
has been defined. Values less than 100 cause
underbooking. Values greater than 100 denote
overbooking.
-shapeivpi <vpi>
Indicates the incoming VPI. This can only be set
when creating a through path. When the traffic
shaping port is not the port connected to the
WAN, a through path must be created from the
WAN port to the traffic shaping port. Cells arrive
from the network at the traffic shaping port with
this value identical to the VPI of the terminating
path at the traffic shaping port.
NOTE:
Traffic can be shaped only on originating
paths on Series C network module ports.
1-17
Configuring PVCs
The following is an example of how to create a virtual path on an SFCS-1000.
To create a through path going in port 2A1, vpi 1 on on the switch board
installed in slot 2 and going out port 4B1, vpi 1 on on the switch board
installed in slot 4, enter the following:
localhost::configuration vpc> new 2a1 1 2e4 1
localhost::configuration vpc> new 2e4 1 2a1 1
localhost::configuration vpc> new 4b1 1 4e2 1
localhost::configuration vpc> new 4e2 1 4b1 1
In the first line in the first pair, notice that the output port is 2E4. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 2 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 2 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 4 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 4. 2E4
then becomes the input port in the second line.
In the first line in the second pair, notice that the output port is 4E2. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 4 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 4 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 2 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 2. 4E2
then becomes the input port in the second line.
At the same time, a command is entered automatically into the current configuration database, which means that this virtual path will be created every
time the SCP is restarted.
1.5.1.1 Terminating a PVC at a Switch
Sometimes it is necessary to create a PVC between a host and a switch fabric
that is at a remote location. In this case, the PVC should be created from the
host to the control port (CTL) of the SCP and vice versa.
Some additional configuration is necessary for communication to be established between the host and the switch fabric. The SCP needs an entry in its
ATM ARP cache in order to send cells destined for the host with the correct
VPI and VCI and to pass received cells with a specific VPI and VCI to IP. This
configuration can be done using AMI as shown in the following subsections.
(See the atmarp (8c) man page for more information.)
1-18
Configuring PVCs
1.5.1.2 Creating ATM ARP Entries
To create a FORE IP PVC ARP entry, log in to AMI (see Appendix A of this
manual for information about logging into AMI). Data on this PVC is encapsulated using null encapsulation (also known as VC-based multiplexing) as
specified in RFC-1483. Enter the following parameters:
configuration atmarp newforeip <host> <vpi> <vci> (4|5) [<interface>]
host
Indicates the IP address of the remote host.
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number. This must be 0.
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number.
4|5
Designates the connection’s ATM Adaptation
Layer (AAL) type.
interface
Indicates the FORE IP interface to be used. The
default is asx0.
Once the parameters are entered, the FORE IP PVC ARP entry is created
instantly by the SCP. At the same time, a command is entered automatically
into the current configuration database which creates this ATM ARP entry
every time the SCP is restarted.
To create a new Classical IP PVC ARP entry, log in to AMI. All data is sent
LLC/SNAP encapsulated. Enter the following parameters:
configuration atmarp newclassicalip <host> <vpi> <vci> [<interface>]
host
Indicates the host IP address of the remote IP
endstation.
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number of the Classical
IP PVC.
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number of the Classical IP PVC.
interface
Indicates the name of the Classical IP interface to
be used for this connection. The default is qaa0.
Once the parameters are entered, the Classical IP PVC ARP entry is created
instantly by the SCP. At the same time, a command is entered automatically
into the current configuration database which creates this ATM ARP entry
every time that the SCP is restarted.
1-19
Configuring PVCs
1.5.1.3 Listing ATM ARP Entries
To verify that the ARP entries exist correctly for the outgoing PVC connection
from the SCP to the host, log in to AMI (see Appendix A of this manual for
information about logging into AMI). To display the ATM ARP cache, enter
the following parameters:
configuration atmarp show
IPaddress
198.29.22.9
198.29.22.15
198.29.22.37
IPaddress
198.29.17.3
198.29.17.10
198.29.17.15
198.29.17.52
If
asx0
asx0
asx0
If
qaa0
qaa0
qaa0
qaa0
VPI
VCI
AAL
Type
Direction
0
63
aal5
foreIpSVC
pending
0
231
aal5
foreIpSVC
pending
0
65
aal34 foreIpSVC
pending
NSAP Address
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0138.002048102754.00
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0137.002048100be6.00
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0137.00204810048d.00
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0138.0020481b0138.00
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
IPaddress
If
Shows the name of the IP interface for this connection.
VPI
Displays the virtual path number.
VCI
Displays the virtual channel number.
AAL
Displays the AAL type of the given connection.
Type
Lists the kind of connection. Can be foreIpPVC,
foreIpSVC, classicalIpPVC, or classicalIpSVC.
Direction
Pending means that a connection has not (yet)
been established. Incomplete means that the
IP-to-ATM address mapping is not yet known
for the given IP address.
NSAP Address
1-20
Indicates the IP address for this connection.
Lists the NSAP address for this connection.
Configuring PVCs
1.5.2
Creating a Virtual Channel
To create a new virtual channel, log in to AMI and enter the following parameters:
configuration vcc new <iport> <ivpi> <ivci> <oport> <ovpi> <ovci> -upc <index>
iport
Indicates the incoming port number.
ivpi
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
ivci
Indicates the incoming virtual channel number.
oport
Indicates the outgoing port number.
ovpi
Indicates the outgoing virtual path number.
ovci
Indicates the outgoing virtual channel number.
-upc<index>
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific traffic contract. If no index is specified, then
no traffic policing will take place on this VCI. It
will be assigned a UPC index of 0, and all traffic
on this VCI will be treated as UBR traffic. This is
the default.
1-21
Configuring PVCs
The following is an example of how to create a virtual channel on an
SFCS-1000. To create a vcc going in port 2A1, vpi 0, vci 100 on the switch
board installed in slot 2 and going out port 4B1, vpi 0, vci 100 on the switch
board installed in slot 4, enter the following:
localhost::configuration vcc> new 2a1 0 100 2e4 0 100
localhost::configuration vcc> new 2e4 0 100 2a1 0 100
localhost::configuration vcc> new 4b1 0 100 4e2 0 100
localhost::configuration vcc> new 4e2 0 100 4b1 0 100
In the first line in the first pair, notice that the output port is 2E4. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 2 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 2 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 4 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 4. 2E4
then becomes the input port in the second line.
In the first line in the second pair, notice that the output port is 4E2. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 4 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 4 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 2 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 2. 4E2
then becomes the input port in the second line.
Once the parameters are entered, the virtual channel will be created instantly
by the SCP. At the same time, a command is entered automatically into the
current configuration database, which means that this virtual channel will be
created every time the SCP is restarted.
1-22
Configuring PVCs
1.6
Traffic Types
Quality of Service (QOS) Management is based on the bandwidth parameters
associated with a virtual connection and the class of service and ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) used for that connection. In order to support voice, video,
and data, the ATM Forum has defined four classes of service, or traffic types:
Constant Bit Rate (CBR), Variable Bit Rate (VBR), Available Bit Rate (ABR),
and Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR).
• At connection set-up time, traffic that uses a CBR parameter, such as a
voice signal, makes a request for a dedicated Peak Cell Rate (PCR).
Once the amount is defined, the ATM network must be able to guarantee that amount for the duration of the connection.
• At connection set-up time, traffic that uses a VBR parameter, such as a
video and data, makes a request for a dedicated PCR, Sustainable
Cell Rate (SCR), and Maximum Burst Size (MBS). Once these
amounts are defined, the ATM network must be able to guarantee
these rates for the duration of the connection.
• Connections that use an ABR parameter, such as pure data, must
adjust to changing network conditions and can only use the bandwidth that is available at the time after the CBR and VBR traffic is serviced. This traffic is the most difficult to accommodate since the
switches that carry it must constantly update the endpoints as to the
amount of available bandwidth at a given point in time.
• UBR traffic, such as broadcast information and ARP messages, is also
known as “best effort” service. UBR provides no bandwidth guarantees.
Because ATM is designed to provide a single network to transport this variety
of traffic classes, Cabletron’s traffic policing and Connection Admission Control (CAC) schemes are vital to allowing this mix of traffic to flow smoothly.
1-23
Configuring PVCs
1.7
Traffic Policing (Usage Parameter Control)
Traffic policing, also known as Usage Parameter Control (UPC), is a method
of assessing the cells entering the switch for conformance with pre-established traffic bandwidth contracts. Those cells that exceed the specified contract are “tagged” or “dropped,” depending on what is defined in the
contract. This ensures that the connections with reserved bandwidth are not
exceeding their reservations. Cabletron Systems’ switches use a combination
of “leaky bucket,” or Generic Cell Rate Algorithm (GCRA) hardware in the
switch fabric and user-configurable parameters in AMI to perform these
policing functions.
1.7.1
Setting the CLP Bit
First, it is important to understand the concept of tagging and dropping.
Each ATM cell has a Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit which indicates if the network can drop it under congested conditions. When the CLP bit is set to 0 (or
CLP = 0), the cell will be assessed for compliance with traffic parameters. If
the traffic parameters dictate that non-compliant cells should be “tagged,” the
CLP bit will be set to 1 (or CLP = 1), which means that upon experiencing congestion further in the network, these CLP = 1 cells will be dropped (because
you cannot tag them again).
1.7.2
Leaky Bucket Algorithm
The next important concept is the leaky bucket algorithm. Leaky buckets are a
mechanism by which cells entering the switch fabric are monitored for compliance with UPC traffic contracts that have been negotiated at connection
set-up time. Before the leaky buckets are discussed, it is important to understand the parameters that are being measured by the buckets. They are as follows:
• Peak Cell Rate (PCR) - the maximum number of cells per second.
• Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT) - the tolerance for variation in
the inter-arrival time of these cells, or the amount of jitter that can be
accepted by the network.
• Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) - the average rate of cell transmission for
this connection, taking bursting into account.
• Maximum Burst Size (MBS) - the maximum amount of cells that can
be transmitted at the PCR.
1-24
Configuring PVCs
The leaky bucket algorithm is a timer which measures the cells entering the
switch fabric against the parameters listed above. As a cell arrives, the timer
assesses if the cell is on time, late, or early. If the cell is determined to be on
time or late (within the traffic parameters specified), the cell is allowed to pass
and no changes are made to its CLP bit. If the cell is early (which exceeds the
specified parameters and would create congestion), the cell is either dropped
or tagged (the CLP bit is set to 1), depending on the specified contract.
The first bucket in this analogy measures the PCR, or the rate at which the
bucket drains. It also considers the CDVT, or the depth of the bucket. The second bucket measures the SCR, or the rate at which the bucket drains, and the
MBS, or the depth of the second bucket.
1.7.3
UNI 3.0 UPC Traffic Contract Parameters
The ATM Forum has defined different types of traffic contracts to be used in
conjunction with these leaky buckets. The parameters that make up these
types of contracts are defined as follows:
• pcr0 - measures PCR for cells with CLP = 0
• pcr01 - measures PCR for cells with CLP = 0 + cells with CLP = 1 (all
cells)
• scr0 - measures SCR for cells with CLP = 0
• scr01 - measures SCR for cells with CLP = 0 + cells with CLP = 1 (all
cells)
• mbs0 - measures MBS for cells with CLP = 0
• mbs01 - measures MBS for cells with CLP = 0 + cells with CLP = 1 (all
cells)
• tag - sets CLP bit = 1 for non-compliant CLP = 0 cells
The specific combinations of these parameters that make up the ATM Forum
contracts are defined as follows:
1.
ubr
2.
cbr <pcr01>
3.
cbr0 <pcr0> <pcr01> [tag]
4.
vbr <pcr01> <scr01> <mbs01>
5.
vbr0 <pcr01> <scr0> <mbs0> [tag]
1-25
Configuring PVCs
The ubr contract is for UBR traffic. Since this is best-effort traffic with no
bandwidth guarantees provided, this type of traffic can not be policed against
bandwidth parameters.
The cbr <pcr01> contract is for CBR traffic. It only uses the first leaky bucket
to assess the PCR of the combination of CLP = 0 cells plus the CLP = 1 cells.
All non-compliant cells are dropped.
The cbr0 <pcr0> <pcr01> [tag] contract is for CBR traffic. It uses the first
leaky bucket to assess the PCR of the combination of CLP = 0 cells plus the
CLP = 1 cells and to assess the group of CLP = 0 cells separately. All non-compliant cells in both groups are dropped if the tag option is not set. If the tag
option is set, the non-compliant CLP = 0 cells in both groups are tagged and
the non-compliant CLP = 1 cells are dropped.
The vbr <pcr01> <scr01> <mbs01> contract is for VBR traffic. It uses both
leaky buckets simultaneously. The first bucket assesses the PCR of the combination of CLP = 0 cells plus the CLP = 1 cells and the second bucket assesses
the SCR and MBS of this same combination. All non-compliant cells are
dropped even if they comply with one bucket.
The vbr0 <pcr01> <scr0> <mbs0> [tag] contract is for VBR traffic. It uses
both leaky buckets simultaneously, as well. The first bucket assesses the PCR
of the combination of CLP = 0 cells plus the CLP = 1 cells, but the second
bucket assesses the SCR and MBS of CLP = 0 cells only. All non-compliant
cells are dropped even if they comply with one bucket, provided that the tag
option is not set. If the tag option is set, the non-compliant CLP = 0 cells in all
groups are tagged and the non-compliant CLP = 1 cells are dropped.
1-26
Configuring PVCs
1.7.4
AMI UPC Commands
AMI allows the user to create a UPC contract using these combinations of
traffic parameters. To create a UPC contract, log into AMI and enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration upc> new <index> [<UPC>] [-cdvt <us>] [aal5epd] [-name <name>]
Where UPC is one of the following combinations of traffic parameters:
ubr
cbr <pcr01>
cbr0 <pcr0> <pcr01> [tag]
vbr <pcr01> <scr01> <mbs01>
vbr0 <pcr01> <scr0> <mbs0> [tag]
The <index> parameter is an arbitrary, user-assigned integer that represents
this particular contract. This number will be entered as a parameter when creating a VPC, VCC, or SPANS signalling path that you want this contract to
assess.
NOTE:
Remember, when you create this UPC contract, it is not actually used until you assign it
to a VPC, VCC, or SPANS path.
The [<UPC>] parameter is one of the five combinations of traffic parameters
outlined in Section 1.7.3.
The [-cdvt <us>] parameter is an optional CDVT rate assigned by the user
and specified in microseconds.
The [aal5epd] parameter is also optional. If entered, Early Packet Discard
(EPD) is enabled on this connection. If it is not entered, then EPD is not
enabled on this connection.
The [-name <name>] parameter is an optional, user-assigned name that
helps the user remember for what kind of connection this particular contract
should be used.
For example, to create a contract for VBR traffic in which the tagging option is
used, you would enter the following:
localhost::configuration upc> new 1 vbr 1000 500 100 tag -name video-vbr
1-27
Configuring PVCs
1-28
CHAPTER 2
2.1
Configuring a Classical IP ATM
Network
Introduction
This chapter describes how to design, configure, and maintain a Classical IP
ATM network. The term classical indicates that the ATM network has the
same properties as existing legacy LANs. That is, even though ATM technology allows for large, globally connected networks, for example, it is only used
in the LAN environment as a direct replacement of existing LAN technology.
The classical model of LANs connected through IP routers is maintained in
ATM networks. RFC-1577 provides the standard for Classical IP over ATM.
Classical IP over ATM is different than IP in legacy LANs in that ATM provides a virtual connection environment through the use of Permanent Virtual
Circuits (PVCs) and/or Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs). SVC management
is performed via the ATM Forum UNI 3.0 Specification, which specifies
Q.2931. Q.2931 is a broadband signalling protocol designed to establish connections dynamically at the User-Network Interface (UNI). Q.2931 uses Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) as a reliable transport
protocol, and all signalling occurs over VPI: 0, VCI: 5. Q.2931 connections are
bidirectional, with the same VPI/VCI pair used to transmit and receive.
Once a Classical IP connection has been established, IP datagrams are encapsulated using IEEE 802.2 LLC/SNAP and are segmented into ATM cells using
ATM Adaptation Layer type 5 (AAL5). In addition, the default Maximum
Transmission Unit (MTU) is 9,180 bytes (the SNAP header adds 8 more bytes)
with a maximum packet size of 65,535 bytes.There is currently no support for
IP broadcast datagrams or IP multicast datagrams in a Classical IP environment.
2-1
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.1.1
Logical IP Subnets
An important concept in Classical IP networks is that of a Logical IP Subnet
(LIS). An LIS is a group of hosts configured as members of the same IP subnet
(that is, they have the same IP network and subnetwork numbers). In this
sense, one LIS can be equated to one legacy LAN. It is possible to maintain
several overlaid LISs on the same physical ATM network. Therefore, in a
Classical IP ATM network, placing a host on a specific subnet is a logical
choice rather than a physical one. In this type of environment, communication between hosts in different LISs is only permitted by communicating
through an IP router which is a member of both LISs (as per RFC-1577).
The number of LISs, and the division of hosts into each LIS, is purely an
administrative issue. Limitations of IP addressing, IP packet filtering, and
administrative boundaries may guide a manager into establishing several
LISs onto a single ATM network. Keep in mind, though, that communication
between LISs must occur through IP routers.
2.1.2
Classical IP Interfaces
In order to support routing between multiple LISs, the host adapter software
allows a host to be configured as a member of (and a router between) up to
four distinct LISs per physical ATM interface. Each LIS membership is
through a separate Classical IP network interface. Existing system level IP
routing configuration tools are used to control routing through each of the
Classical IP interfaces in the same manner as routing among several physical
interfaces. Note that even though each Classical IP interface associated with a
given physical interface uses the same physical hardware, they are each configured separately with their own MTU, IP address, and ATM address.
The name of each of the Classical IP interfaces begins with qa. All of the Classical IP interfaces associated with physical unit zero will have a as the next
letter. All of the Classical IP interfaces associated with physical unit one will
have b as the next letter, and so forth. Finally, each Classical IP interface has
its interface number as a suffix. As an example of the above naming convention, the name of the third Classical IP interface (unit 2) on physical unit one is
qab2.
2-2
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.1.3
SPANS Interface
While each of the qa interfaces for a given physical interface is designed to
support Classical IP using Q.2931 signalling, a SPANS interface (usually
called fa, but user configurable) also exists for each physical interface. The fa
interface supports FORE IP on top of SPANS signalling. FORE IP allows communication using AAL4 or AAL5 with no encapsulation, uses a broadcast
ARP for SPANS address resolution, and supports direct communication of all
hosts on a physical ATM network without the use of IP routers. Since SPANS
and Q.2931 signalling use different VCIs, a host can simultaneously support
FORE IP over SPANS as well as Classical IP over Q.2931 on the same physical
interface.
As a result of standard IP routing, all traffic sent out an fa interface will use
FORE IP, while all traffic sent out a qa interface will use Classical IP. Each of
the fa interfaces should be assigned an IP address on a subnet different than
the subnets of any of the qa interfaces. It is permissible to place multiple fa
interfaces on the same subnet, and the driver will load balance connections
across these interfaces.
It is only necessary to configure the fa and qa interfaces if the specific service
provided by that interface is required. A host sending only Classical IP would
not need to configure the fa interfaces. Likewise, a host sending only FORE IP
would not need to configure the qa interfaces. Both the fa and qa interfaces
may be configured simultaneously, but they must be in separate subnets.
Remember that Classical IP specific configuration changes can only be done
with the qa devices, while SPANS specific configuration changes can only be
done with the fa devices.
2-3
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.2
Address Registration and ILMI
Before a host can establish connections over a physical interface, the host
must know the NSAP address for that interface. The primary purpose of
Interim Local Management Interface (ILMI) is to discover and register these
NSAP addresses dynamically.
2.2.1
NSAP Addresses
For private ATM networks, addresses uniquely identify ATM endpoints. The
UNI 3.0 address format is modeled after that of an OSI Network Service
Access Point, hence the name NSAP address.
Three address formats have been specified: DCC, ICD, and E.164. Cabletron
implements the ICD ATM format. Per the UNI 3.0 specification, all private
networks should accept initial call set-up messages containing ATM
addresses with any of the approved formats and forward the calls as necessary.
An NSAP address consists of the following:
• a 13-byte network-side prefix - The prefix is the NSAP prefix of the
SCP to which the host is attached.
• a seven-byte user-side part - This consists of the following:
- a six-byte End System Identifier (ESI) - The ESI is the unique IEEE
MAC address of the interface.
- a one-byte selector - Although each Classical IP interface for a
given physical interface uses the same prefix and ESI, the selector
field is the part that indicates the number of the specific Classical
IP interface. The selector field is 00 for qaa0, 01 for qaa1, 02 for
qaa2, and 03 for qaa3.
2-4
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.2.2
Operating with ILMI Support
Cabletron Systems switches running software version 3.0 or greater provide
support for ILMI. If ILMI is supported on all of the switches and hosts in a
given network, when a switch control processor (SCP) boots up, ILMI enables
the SCP to discover all of the hosts attached to it and to send its NSAP prefix
associated with the port to those hosts dynamically. In return, the host
prepends that prefix to its ESI and selector fields, forming a complete NSAP
address. The host then notifies the SCP of its complete NSAP address. These
registration SNMP messages are sent and received over AAL5 using VPI: 0,
VCI: 16. Once ILMI registration has been completed, then connection setup
can occur.
If a host changes network ports after an NSAP address has been registered for
its interface, all existing connections will be closed. If the new port is on a different SCP, a new NSAP address (with a different network address prefix)
will be registered. The host can then begin to establish new connections.
2.2.3
Operating without ILMI Support
If ILMI is not supported on a particular SCP or host in a given network, then
the NSAP addresses must be manually configured. Because a non-Cabletron
switch does not support ILMI, it can not supply an NSAP prefix to the hosts.
Therefore, the user must assign a unique, valid prefix to the switch. Additionally, the same prefix should be used for all hosts in the LIS.
On the host, atmarp -n (8c) is used to configure the NSAP address for a specific interface. The SCP directly attached to this interface is then informed of
this NSAP address/port combination through commands in the ATM Management Interface (AMI). Once the host and network have both been
informed of this NSAP address/port pair, the host may begin signalling.
Once an interface’s NSAP address has been set, it is possible to change it by
first running atmarp -n to set the new address, and then bringing the interface down and back up (ifconfig qaXX down; ifconfig qaXX up) for the
address change to take effect.
2.2.4
Configuration
The choice to use ILMI for address registration is made at software installation time. Since ILMI uses SNMP as its management protocol, the use of ILMI
is tied into snmpd. The choice can be made to run FORE’s SNMP agent and
use ILMI (snmpd), run FORE’s SNMP agent without using ILMI (snmpd -n),
or just use ILMI (snmpd -i or ilmid -i). The commands to run the chosen daemon, or to configure a host’s NSAP address statically when not running ILMI,
are placed in the firmware download script.
2-5
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.3
ARP and ARP Servers
2.3.1
Theory
In order for a host to establish a connection to another host, it must first determine the other host’s NSAP address. ATM ARP (ATM address resolution protocol) is the procedure used to resolve an IP address into an ATM address.
Since the ATM standards do not currently support broadcast on an ATM
LAN, address resolution is performed by direct communication with a special
ARP server, rather than broadcasting ARP requests as is done in legacy LANs.
Each LIS must have only one ARP server configured, but a single ARP server
can be the server for several LISs.
Each host in an LIS must be configured with the NSAP address of the host
providing ARP service for its LIS. On a host ARP server, the NSAP address of
the ARP server can be obtained by running atmarp -z (remember to use the
interface associated with the given LIS). The ARP server address is normally
configured into each host at installation time (the appropriate commands are
placed in the firmware download script), but it may be done at any time by
running atmarp -p. If the ARP server address is configured in the firmware
download script, it will be persistent across reboots, but if it is configured
using atmarp -p, it will not be persistent across reboots.
Since only one ARP server can be functioning at a time in a given LIS, and
since the ARP server’s address is manually configured into each host, it is not
possible to use multiple, redundant ARP servers to improve robustness. If an
ARP server becomes nonfunctional, a new ARP server must be configured,
and then each host within the LIS must be configured to use the new ARP
server. To configure a new ARP server address on a host, run atmarp -p to
set the new address, then bring the appropriate interface down and back up
(ifconfig qaXX down; ifconfig qaXX up) for the change to take effect.
2-6
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.3.2
Configuring a Host to be an ARP Server
The following procedures list the required steps to configure a host as an ARP
server. Before proceeding, several preconditions MUST be met. You must also
obtain both the interface name and ARP server NSAP address.
The preconditions are as follows:
1.
A FORE adapter must be installed in the network.
2.
The FORE Systems software has been installed and the system has
been successfully booted.
3.
The network must contain devices that recognize ILMI and
RFC-1577, such as FORE switches and adapters.
4.
When the host was initially configured, Classical IP should have
been specified. By specifying Classical IP, ILMI and RFC-1577 are
automatically active in the Rev. 3.0 adapter code.
ARP server/client configurations are run on the Classical IP interfaces. Classical IP interface names are of the form qaaN, where N is from 0 to 3. Once the
prerequisites have been met, the steps for configuring a host as an ARP server
are as follows:
1.
If not already done during installation, configure the IP, netmask,
and broadcast address for the interface using the ifconfig command as follows:
ifconfig qaa0 <ip address> netmask <mask> broadcast <broadcast_address>
2.
Using the host interface name from the previous step, determine
the NSAP address of the interface name you wish to make the
ARP server with the following command (assuming the interface
name is qaa0):
/usr/etc/fore/atmarp -z qaa0
A typical response is shown below:
NSAP addr for qaa0 is 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.0ce5.002048100c47.03
2-7
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
NOTE:
If the response is all zeros, this indicates that
the NSAP address has not been assigned.
Check the other qaaN interfaces to see if any
have been configured. If not, then manually
assign an NSAP address as in step 1 above.
If you are using a windowed graphical user interface, keep the window with
the NSAP address open because you will need to cut and paste this address
into several locations. If not, carefully write down the address so you can add
it correctly to the other locations. If you are not registered with ILMI, you will
need to assign or manually configure an NSAP address to the interface.
With the preconditions met and the required information obtained, ARP servers may be created with the following steps. Two methods are shown. An
ARP server can be configured for a one-time use, which is deactivated if the
ARP server is rebooted. This method is shown first. An ARP server can also
be permanently configured to be active on boot. This method is shown second.
2.3.2.1
2-8
Configuring a Host as an ARP Server for One-Time Use
1.
On the host you wish to configure as an ARP server, log in as root.
2.
On the host, change to the directory in which the ATM boot file is
stored. To determine the location of this directory, use your system
specific find command and search for the location of the atmarp
utility. The ATM boot files are stored in this directory. (See the list
below for the names of the system specific boot files.)
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
3.
From the command prompt in this directory, issue the following
command:
atmarp -p <NSAP address> <interface name>
The location of the ATM boot file is a function of the type of host in
which the FORE adapter has been installed. On your system, the
files may have been copied to another location during the installation process. The following list shows the default locations:
-
4.
Solaris
/etc/rcS.d/S99rc.sba200
SunOS
/usr/etc/fore/rc.sba200
IRIX
/etc/init.d/fore_atm
HP-UX
/etc/fore_atm
On each host requiring service from the ARP server, use the following command:
atmarp -p <ARP Server NSAP address> <interface name>
2.3.2.2
Configuring a Host as a Permanent ARP Server
To configure an ARP server so that it persists across reboots, use the following
procedure:
1.
On the host you wish to configure as an ARP server, log in as root.
2.
In the directory in which the ATM boot file is stored, edit the ATM
boot file. Note where this file is in the directory structure from the
list of operating systems above. For example, for an ESA-200
adapter, the file name is fore_atm. In this file, add the following
line:
atmarp -p <NSAP_address> <interface_name>
where the correct NSAP address and interface names are used.
2-9
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
3.
On each host requiring service from the ARP server, in the directory in which the ATM boot file is stored, edit the boot file. For
example, for an ESA-200 adapter, the file name is fore_atm. In this
file, add the following line:
atmarp -p <ARP_server_NSAP_address> <interface_name>
where the correct NSAP address and interface names are used.
For example:
atmarp -p 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.0ce5.002048100c47.03 qaa0
Once these changes have been made, the ARP server will be active on boot.
Similarly, each host attached to the ARP server can access the ARP server on
boot.
2.3.2.3
Configuring a Hewlett-Packard Computer as an ARP Server
On a Hewlett-Packard host, use the program /usr/etc/fore/config_atm to
configure the host as either being connected to the ARP server or being the
ARP server itself. Prior to running config_atm, see Section 2.3.2 for instructions on how to determine the host NSAP address and interface names to be
used. The discovery process is the same for all computers.
2-10
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.3.3
Configuring a Cabletron Switch to be an ARP Server
Cabletron’s ATM switches also have the capability of being an ARP server. To
configure a Cabletron ATM switch as an ARP server, perform the following
steps on only one of the SCPs:
1.
On one of the SCPs, determine the NSAP address of that SCP for
the relevant interface (qaa0 -> qaa3) using the following AMI command:
configuration atmarp> getnsap <interface>
For example:
configuration atmarp> getnsap qaa0
qaa0 NSAP address: 47000580ffe1000000f12400de0020481900de00
2.
Set the NSAP address of the ARP server to be the NSAP address
of the interface that you displayed in step 1 using the following
AMI command:
configuration atmarp arpserver> set <NSAPaddress> [<interface>]
For example:
configuration atmarp arpserver> set 0x47000580ffe1000000f12400de0020481900de00
qaa0
2-11
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.3.4
Classical IP Operation
Once a host knows its own ATM address and the ATM address of its ARP
server it will attempt to establish a connection to the ARP server, which will
be used to send ARP requests and receive ARP replies. When the connection
to the ARP server has been established, the ARP server sends an inverse ARP
(InARP) request on the new VC to learn the host’s IP address. When an
InARP reply is received, the ARP server places that host’s IP address to ATM
address mapping in its ARP cache. Therefore, over time, the ARP server
dynamically learns the IP-to-ATM address mappings of all the hosts in its LIS.
It can then respond to ARP requests directed toward it for hosts in its LIS.
NOTE:
In order for a host to communicate with an
ARP server, it must have learned its own
ATM address and have been configured with
the ATM address of the ARP server.
A host can not resolve the ATM addresses of
hosts in its LIS unless it can communicate
with its ARP server.
Since there is no mechanism for ARP servers
to exchange mapping information with each
other, it is imperative that each LIS be
configured with only one ARP server.
When a host wants to communicate with another host in its LIS, it first sends
an ARP request to the ARP server containing the IP address to be resolved.
When an ARP reply is received from the ARP server, the host creates an entry
in its ARP cache for the given IP address and stores the IP-to-ATM address
mapping. This ARP cache entry will be marked as complete. To ensure that
all of the IP-to-ATM address mappings known by a certain host are
up-to-date, hosts are required to age their ARP entries. A host must validate
its ARP entries every 15 minutes (20 minutes on an ARP server).
A host validates its SVCs by sending an ARP request to the ARP server. A
host validates its PVCs, and an ARP server validates its SVCs, by sending an
InARP request on the VC. If a reply is not received, the ARP entry is marked
invalid. Once an ARP entry is marked invalid, an attempt is made to revalidate it before transmitting. Transmission will proceed only when validation
succeeds. If a VC associated with an invalid ARP entry is closed, the entry is
removed.
2-12
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.3.5
Operational Issues
Certain hosts in an LIS may not support Classical IP. It is still possible to communicate with these hosts (and for these hosts to communicate with one
another) by using static ARP entries. If a host does not support Classical IP, its
IP-to-ATM address mapping should be placed in its ARP server’s cache as a
static entry. This allows other hosts that do support Classical IP to contact
their ARP server as usual and obtain the correct address mapping. If a host
that does not support Classical IP wants to initiate connections, the IP-toATM address mappings of the destination hosts should be put in its ARP
cache, again as static entries. By using static ARP entries in the above fashion,
the ability for all hosts to communicate is maintained.
There are some restrictions on the number of hosts that can be maintained as
static ARP entries. They are as follows:
• In the default configuration, a host can only have approximately 250
virtual connections open simultaneously. This means that an ARP
server can only serve 250 clients, since each client must maintain a
connection with its ARP server. This may be a limitation if the ARP
server is servicing multiple LISs.
• On the host, it is possible to increase the number of connections
allowed by first using cpath (8c) to delete path 0 for the given port,
and then using cpath to recreate path 0 for the given port, but using
the -v option to cpath to specify the number of connections to allow
over that path.
• Hosts support a maximum of 1,024 connections.
2-13
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.4
Classical IP PVCs
2.4.1
Theory and Configuration
Normally, ATM connections in a Classical IP environment are established
dynamically using Q.2931. ARP, ILMI, and Q.2931 all work together as
described previously to set up an SVC. If a host from another vendor does not
support Classical ARP or ILMI, it is still possible to set up an SVC using
work-arounds. If a host or a switch in an LIS does not support Q.2931, however, it is not possible to establish an SVC. In this case, a Classical IP PVC can
be used for communication.
On each of the hosts, atmarp -c is used to establish the PVC. An unused
VPI/VCI pair must be chosen for each host. PVCs using the chosen VPI/VCI
pairs must also be set up from each of the hosts to their connecting switch,
and then on all of the switches between the two connecting switches.
NOTE:
2-14
Both the incoming and outgoing connections
are set up simultaneously on the host, but
they must be set up individually on the
switches. The same VPI/VCI pair is used by a
host to send on the PVC as well as receive on
the PVC. The IP datagrams are sent over the
PVC using AAL5 with LLC/SNAP
encapsulation.
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.4.2
Revalidation and Removal
Normally, the device driver periodically checks that its PVCs are still established and functioning. A host revalidates a PVC every 15 minutes by sending
InARP requests over the PVC, if the user specifies that revalidation should
occur by choosing 1 as the revalidate option to atmarp -c. If the equipment
attached to the Cabletron equipment supports revalidation, the user must
choose 1 as the revalidate option to atmarp -c. If an InARP reply is not
received, the revalidation fails, the PVC is marked invalid (as shown through
atmarp -a), and communication over the PVC is no longer possible.
Once a PVC is marked invalid, an attempt is made to validate the PVC before
transmitting. Transmission will proceed only when validation succeeds. It is
possible to disable this revalidation feature by specifying 0 as the revalidate
option to atmarp -c. This is often desirable when the remote end of the PVC
(such as a video camera) does not support InARP.
A Classical IP PVC is removed on the host side using atmarp -r. Both the
incoming and outgoing connections are removed simultaneously. The PVC
must then be removed from each of the network switches involved.
2-15
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.5
Debugging
The atmarp utility on the host provides a number of useful options to aid
communication debugging. Some of this information can also be displayed
for the SCP using various AMI commands. If an equivalent AMI command is
available, it will be listed here.
• On the host, atmarp shows the IP address of the entry, the associated ATM address if the mapping is known, the VPI/VCI pair for an
established connection, and various flags. The “Classical IP” flag
indicates connections using Classical IP over Q.2931. Two other flags
are especially important for connection state: “incomplete” indicates
that the IP-to-ATM address mapping is not yet known for the given
IP address; “pending” indicates that a connection has not (yet) been
established. For the switch, AMI command configuration atmarp
show provides the same information.
• On the host, atmarp -z displays the ATM address of the given interface. If the host is using ILMI for address registration, the ATM
address will be displayed as nonzero when the host has successfully
registered its address with the network. For the switch, AMI command configuration atmarp getnsap interface provides the same
information.
• On the host, atmarp -g displays the ATM address of the current ARP
server for the LIS associated with the given interface. For the switch,
AMI command configuration atmarp arpserver show interface
provides the same information.
• On the host, atmarp -t indicates whether this host is the ARP server
for the LIS associated with the given Classical IP interface. For the
switch, AMI command configuration atmarp arpserver show
interface provides the same information.
• On the host, atmarp -v displays the status of the ARP server connection. One of the first things to check in a trouble state is that a connection to the ARP server is fully established. If the ARP server
connection is established, the ARP VPI/VCI will be nonzero. The
CALLING_SERVER flag indicates whether or not an attempt is currently being made to connect to the ARP server. The retry count indicates the number of attempts to connect to the ARP server which
have been unsuccessful since the last successful attempt. The InARP
count indicates the number of InARP requests that have been sent on
the ARP server connection without a response.
2-16
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.6
Configuring the Network
In an ATM network, before any connections can be made, the two parties
must know each other’s NSAP address in order to set up that connection.
To allow those connections to work, the ideal scenario is for all hosts and
switches in the network to have support for both ILMI and for RFC-1577
(Classical IP over ATM). However, when using non-Cabletron equipment,
this may not be the case. This section will describe how to configure a network with the following scenarios:
• Configuring a third-party host that has no ILMI and no RFC-1577
support
• Configuring a third-party switch that has ILMI support, but no
RFC-1577 support
• Configuring a third-party switch that has no ILMI support, but has
RFC-1577 support
2-17
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.6.1
Third-Party Host with No ILMI and No RFC-1577 Support
To configure a network with a third-party vendor’s host (or an edge device)
that supports neither ILMI nor RFC-1577 (as shown in Figure 2.1), perform
the following steps:
Cabletron Switch
FORE
Cabletron Switch
FORE
(ARP server)
Third-Party Host
(no ILMI, no RFC-1577)
Figure 2.1 - Configuring a Third-Party Host with No ILMI and No RFC-1577 Support
1.
Before beginning this process, be sure that FORE software is
installed and running on the host that is the ARP server and on all
of the other equipment.
2.
Using the configuration software of the third-party host, assign
that host an NSAP address that has the same prefix as the switch
fabric to which it is connected.
3.
Configure the switch so that it has a static route to the third-party
host using the following AMI command:
configuration nsap route new <NSAP> <mask> -port <port> -vpi <vpi>
Be sure to use a host mask value of 152.
4.
2-18
Configure the ARP server (edit the firmware download script)
with a static IP to NSAP mapping for the third-party host.
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.6.2
Third-Party Switch with ILMI and No RFC-1577 Support
To configure a network with a third-party vendor’s switch that supports
ILMI, but not RFC-1577, (as shown in Figure 2.2), perform the following
steps:
Cabletron
Switch A
Cabletron
Switch B
Third-Party Switch
ILMI, no RFC-1577
= FORE Systems host
Figure 2.2 - Configuring a Third-Party Switch with ILMI Support and No RFC-1577
1.
Be sure that FORE software has been installed on all of the hosts
and that ILMI was set in the process. Let ILMI dynamically perform address registration for all of the hosts.
2.
Configure a static NSAP route to the third-party switch on
Cabletron switch “B” that is physically connected to the thirdparty switch using the following AMI command:
configuration nsap route new <NSAP> <mask> -port <port> -vpi <vpi>
Be sure to use a network mask value of 104.
3.
Configure two static NSAP routes on the third-party switch, one
to each of the Cabletron switches to which the third-party switch
is connected, using the third-party vendor’s configuration
software.
2-19
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2.6.3
Third-Party Switch with RFC-1577 and No ILMI Support
To configure a network with a third-party vendor’s switch that does not support ILMI, but does support RFC-1577 (as shown in Figure 2.3), perform the
following steps:
Cabletron
Switch A
Cabletron
Switch B
*
Third-Party Switch
RFC-1577, no ILMI
*
*
*
= FORE Systems host
Figure 2.3 - Configuring a Third-Party Switch with RFC-1577 and No ILMI Support
1.
Be sure that FORE software has been installed on all of the FORE
hosts and that ILMI was set in the process. Let ILMI dynamically
perform address registration for all of the FORE hosts and
Cabletron switches.
2.
Statically configure the non-FORE (*) hosts with NSAP addresses
(edit the firmware download script), using the same switch prefix
for all of the hosts.
3.
Configure a static NSAP route to the third-party switch on
Cabletron switch “B” that is physically connected to the thirdparty switch using the following AMI command:
configuration nsap route new <NSAP> <mask> -port <port> -vpi <vpi>
Be sure to use a network mask value of 104. Also, be sure to use
the same prefix that was used to configure the hosts.
2-20
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
4.
Configure two static NSAP routes on the third-party switch, one
to each of the Cabletron switches to which the third-party switch
is connected, using the third-party vendor’s configuration
software.
2-21
Configuring a Classical IP ATM Network
2-22
CHAPTER 3
3.1
Configuring an Emulated LAN
Introduction
This chapter describes how to design, configure, and maintain an Emulated
LAN (ELAN) over an ATM network. An ELAN provides communication of
user data frames among all members of the ELAN, similar to a physical LAN.
One or more ELANs may run simultaneously (and independently) on the
same ATM network. Just as with physical LANs, communication between
ELANs is possible only through routers or bridges.
The current software release supports emulation of Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
LANs only. Each ELAN is composed of a set of LAN Emulation Clients
(LECs), a LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS), a LAN Emulation
Server (LES), and a Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS). Each LEC resides
on an ATM host system (PC, Macintosh, UNIX workstation, switch, or bridge
device). In the current software release, the LECS, LES, and BUS may reside
either in a Cabletron switch or in a UNIX workstation running SunOS version
4.1.x. Additional software features include a colocated BUS (also referred to as
an intelligent BUS or a LES/BUS pair) and a LEC “failover” mechanism that
can provide redundancy to an ELAN.
3-1
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.2
Emulated LAN Components
The components of an emulated LAN include LECs, and LAN Emulation Services consisting of: a LECS, a LES, and a BUS. Each of these services may
reside in the same physical system or in separate physical systems. For example, the LECS could reside in a switch, while the LES and BUS reside in a
workstation. In the current 4.0 software, the LECS, LES, and BUS are supported only for switches and for SunOS. The functional interconnections of a
simple ELAN consisting of two LECs, an LECS, a LES, and a BUS are shown
in Figure 3.1.
Workstation
LAN Emulation
Configuration Server
(LECS)
Bridge
LAN Emulation Server
(LES)
LAN Emulation
Client
(LEC)
Broadcast and Unknown
Server
(BUS)
LAN Emulation
Client
(LEC)
LAN Emulation Services
Figure 3.1 - Basic Emulated LAN Interconnections
3-2
Legacy
LAN
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.2.1
LAN Emulation Client (LEC)
The LEC is the component in an end system that performs data forwarding,
address resolution, and other control functions when communicating with
other components within the ELAN. It also provides a MAC level emulated
Ethernet interface and appears to higher level software as though a physical
Ethernet interface is present. Each LEC must register with both the LES and
BUS associated with the ELAN it wishes to join before it may participate in
the ELAN. 4.0 supports a maximum of 16 LECs per adapter card.
3.2.2
LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS)
The LECS is responsible for the initial configuration of LECs. It provides
information about available ELANs that a LEC may join, together with the
address of the LES associated with each ELAN. With 4.0, the user may also
use the LECS to associate multiple LESs with a given ELAN. This feature
allows LECs to “failover” to a hierarchy of redundant services if the primary
LES for an ELAN goes down.
3.2.3
LAN Emulation Server (LES)
The LES implements the control coordination function for the ELAN. The LES
provides the service of registering and resolving MAC addresses to ATM
addresses. A LEC registers its own address with the LES. A LEC also queries
the LES when the client wishes to resolve a MAC address to an ATM address.
The LES either responds directly to the client or forwards the query to other
clients so they may respond. There is only one instance of an active LES per
ELAN.
3.2.4
Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS)
Unlike traditional shared-media LAN architectures such as Ethernet, ATM is
connection based. Therefore, it has no built-in mechanism for handling connectionless traffic such as broadcasts, multicasts, and unknown unicasts. In
an emulated LAN, the BUS is responsible for servicing these traffic types by
accepting broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast packets from the LECs
to the broadcast MAC address (FFFFFFFFFFFF) via dedicated point-to-point
connections, and forwarding the packets to all of the members of the ELAN
using a single point-to-multipoint connection. Each LEC is associated with
only one active BUS. 4.0 also supports the use of a colocated BUS (also
referred to as an intelligent BUS or a LES/BUS pair) that allows the BUS to
use the LES’s registration table to direct unknown unicast traffic.
3-3
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.3
Emulated LAN Operation
This section describes the operation of an ELAN and its components from the
point of view of a LEC. The operation of an ELAN may be divided into three
phases:
1.
Initialization
2.
Registration and Address Resolution
3.
Data Transfer
ELAN components communicate with each other using ATM connections.
LECs maintain separate connections for traffic control functions and data
transfer. The following connection types are used by the LEC when operating
in an ELAN:
• Configuration-Direct Connection: a bidirectional point-to-point VCC
set up by the LEC to the LECS.
• Control-Direct Connection: a bidirectional point-to-point VCC set up
by the LEC to the LES. This connection must be maintained for the
duration of the LEC’s participation in the ELAN.
• Control-Distribute Connection: a unidirectional point-to-multipoint
VCC set up by the LES to the LEC. This connection must be maintained for the duration of the LEC’s participation in the ELAN.
• Multicast-Send Connection: a bidirectional point-to-point VCC set up
by the LEC to the BUS for sending multicast data to the BUS. The LEC
must attempt to maintain this connection while participating in the
ELAN.
• Multicast-Forward Connection: a unidirectional point-to-multipoint
VCC set up from the BUS to LECs participating in the ELAN. This
VCC must be established before a LEC participates in an ELAN. The
LEC must attempt to maintain this connection while participating in
the ELAN.
• Data-Direct Connection: a bidirectional point-to-point VCC set up
between LECs that want to exchange unicast data traffic.
For the following discussion, please refer to Figure 3.2.
3-4
Configuring an Emulated LAN
LEC1
➊ CONFIGURATION - DIRECT
➋ CONTROL - DIRECT
LECS
LES
➌ CONTROL - DISTRIBUTE
➍ MULTICAST - SEND
BUS
➎ MULTICAST - FORWARD
➏ DATA - DIRECT
engineering
LEC2
Figure 3.2 - ELAN Operation
3-5
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.3.1
Initialization
Upon initialization, LEC1 obtains its own ATM address via address registration. LEC1 obtains the address of the LECS in one of three ways: via manual
configuration, via the “well-known” address defined by the ATM Forum’s
LANE standards (47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00A03E000001.00), or via
PVC (0,17).
Once it knows the location of the LECS, LEC1 establishes a configurationdirect connection ➊ to the LECS. When connected, the LECS provides LEC1
with the information necessary to connect to the ELAN it wishes to join. This
information includes such parameters as: the ATM address of the ELAN’s
LES, the type of LAN being emulated, the maximum packet size, and the
name of the ELAN (engineering, for example). This configuration information is contained in a configuration file that must be built and maintained by
the network administrator.
NOTE:
3.3.2
Detailed information about the LECS
configuration file may be found in Section
3.4.1.
Registration and Address Resolution
After obtaining the address of the LES, LEC1 establishes a control-direct connection ➋ to the LES. The LES assigns LEC1 a unique identifier, and LEC1
registers its own MAC and ATM addresses with the LES. (The LES maintains
a table containing the MAC addresses and corresponding ATM addresses of
all members of the ELAN.) At this point, LEC1 has “joined” the ELAN.
The LES then establishes a control-distribute connection ➌ back to LEC1.
Connections ➋ and ➌ can now be used by LEC1 to send LAN Emulation
ARP (LE_ARP) requests to the LES, and receive replies.
LEC1 now sends an LE_ARP request to the LES to get the ATM address of the
BUS corresponding to the broadcast MAC address (FFFFFFFFFFFF). The LEC
then establishes a multicast-send connection ➍ to the BUS. The BUS responds
by setting up a multicast-forward connection ➎ to the LEC.
At this point, the LEC is ready to transfer data.
3-6
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.3.3
Data Transfer
When LEC1 receives a network-layer packet from a higher layer protocol to
transmit to some destination MAC address (for example, LEC2), LEC1 initially does not know the corresponding ATM address of the destination. Consequently, LEC1 transmits an LE_ARP request to the LES.
NOTE:
The example shown in Figure 3.2 assumes
that LEC2 has already registered with the
LES, and that connections similar to those
described for LEC1 already exist.
While waiting for the LES to respond, LEC1 forwards the packet to the BUS.
The BUS broadcasts the packet to all LECs on the ELAN. This is done to avoid
data loss, and to minimize connection set-up latency (due to the LE_ARP process) that may not be acceptable to some network protocols.
If the LE_ARP response is received, LEC1 establishes a data-direct connection
➏ to the destination address of LEC2. This path will be used for subsequent
data transfers. Before LEC1 begins to use this connection, it first sends a
“flush” packet via the BUS to the destination, LEC2. When LEC2 acknowledges receipt of this packet, signifying that the BUS path is empty, only then
does LEC1 begin to use the data-direct connection ➏ for data transfer. This
process ensures that the network protocol’s frames arrive in the proper order.
If no response is received to the LE_ARP, LEC1 continues to send data via the
BUS, while continuing to LE_ARP until a response is received and a datadirect connection to LEC2 is established.
If LEC1 already has a data-direct connection to a MAC address it wishes to
reach, it need not go through the LE_ARP process again. Instead, it continues
to use the current connection. This is possible because each LEC maintains a
cache of MAC address to ATM address mappings that it receives in response
to the LE_ARPs it has sent. Entries in this cache are “aged” out over a period
of time. Data-direct connections are also cleared if they remain inactive for a
period of time.
3-7
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4
Configuring an ELAN
To configure an ELAN on a switch, you must log into AMI on a switch running software version 4.0 and use the commands found under configuration
lane.
NOTE:
More information about each of these
commands may be found in Appendix B of
this manual.
There are three major steps that the system administrator should follow in
order to configure and maintain ELANs:
1.
Configure an LECS configuration database file.
2.
Start the LAN Emulation Services (LECS, LES, and BUS).
3.
Start the LEC(s) and join an ELAN.
NOTE:
Steps 1 may be performed using a text editor
on any system. However, for software version
4.0, the resulting file can be used only on
systems running under SunOS Version 4.1.x
or on a switch.
The remainder of this section gives a practical example of configuring and
administering an ELAN using software version 4.0.
3-8
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.1
Configuring an LECS Configuration Database File
The LECS uses a text configuration file to contain the configuration information needed by LECs that wish to participate in an ELAN. The LECS configuration file may be built and edited using a text editor such as vi or emacs.
3.4.1.1 Before You Begin
Before building or modifying the LECS configuration file, you should first
determine the topology of the ELAN or ELANs that you want to administer.
You must supply the following information when building or editing the
LECS configuration file:
• Provide the name of each ELAN (engineering, marketing, etc.).
• Provide the ATM address of the LES for each ELAN.
• If LEC failover is to be made available to clients on a given ELAN, the
ATM addresses for all LESs in that ELAN’s failover sequence must be
included.
• Provide the address of each LEC that may participate in each ELAN.
• If you wish LECs to use a default ELAN, the default LES information
must also be included.
• Provide various other configurable parameters.
CAUTION
NOTE:
Do not attempt to edit an existing functional
LECS configuration file without first making a
backup copy of the file. Incorrect modification
of the configuration file could result in loss of
communication between one or more members of a defined ELAN. It may also result in
one or more of the ELAN(s) defined in the file
going “down”.
You may make changes to the LECS
configuration file while the LECS process is
running. The configuration file is reread
periodically by the LECS process (the default
period is ten minutes). Consequently, any
changes that you make to the configuration
file are not recognized until the file is reread.
3-9
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.1.2 LECS Configuration File Syntax
Each line that you enter in the configuration file takes the general form:
[[group].]key : value
The group field may represent:
• ELANs (by name) - ELAN names are case-sensitive, and may not
exceed 32 characters in length
• clients ATM or MAC addresses
• miscellaneous LECS control information specified by using a group
name of LECS
The key field is used to denote an individual parameter within a group.
The value field contains the value assigned to the key.
Omitting the group implies that the key and value apply to all groups in the
configuration file. Leading and trailing spaces, as well as spaces on either side
of the “:”, are ignored.
For example, to specify a maximum frame size of 1516 bytes for the ELAN
named engineering, enter the following:
engineering.Maximum_Frame_Size : 1516
Similarly, to specify a default maximum frame size of 1516 bytes for all
ELANs defined in a given configuration file, enter the following:
.Maximum_Frame_Size : 1516
3-10
Configuring an Emulated LAN
Table 3.1 defines the various key parameters that may be entered in the configuration file. The default value for each parameter is also given.
Table 3.1 - LECS Configuration File Parameters
Parameter
Definition
.LAN_Type: Ethernet/IEEE 802.3
Identifies the type of emulated LAN, either Ethernet/
IEEE 802.3 or Token Ring.
.Maximum_Frame_Size: 1516
The length (in number of bytes) of the largest frame
field. Selections are: 1516, 4544, 9234, and 18190. Currently, only the default value of 1516 is supported.
.Control_TimeOut: 120
Specifies the timing out of request/response control
frame interactions, in seconds. Default is 120 seconds.
.Maximum_Unknown_Frame_Count: 1
Limits the number of unicast frames sent to the BUS.
Default is 1 frame.
.Maximum_Unknown_Frame_Time: 1
Limits the number of unicast frames sent to the BUS in
the specified number of seconds. Default is 1 second.
.VCC_TimeOut_Period: 1200
Specifies the length of time that an idle data connection
remains open before being closed. Default value is 1200
seconds.
.Maximum_Retry_Count: 1
Limits the number of LE_ARP requests. Default is 1.
.Aging_Time: 300
Specifies the period that LE_ARP cache table entries
remain valid, in seconds. Default value is 300 seconds.
.Forward_Delay_Time: 15
Specifies the timing out of non-local ARP cache entries
in seconds. Default value is 15 seconds.
.Expected_LE_ARP_Response_Time: 1
Specifies the maximum time a LEC expects an LE_ARP
request/response will take, in seconds. Default value is
1 second.
.Flush_TimeOut: 4
Specifies the maximum time a LEC expects an
LE_FLUSH request/response will take, in seconds.
Default value is 4 seconds.
.Path_Switching_Delay: 6
Minimum time between switching BUS and data paths,
in seconds. Default value is 6 seconds.
.Multicast_Send_VCC: Best Effort
Specifies the multicast send mode, either Best Effort,
Variable, or Constant.
.Connection_Complete_Timer: 4
Specifies the time period in which data or READY_IND
is expected, in seconds. The default is 4 seconds.
3-11
Configuring an Emulated LAN
Lines beginning with # may be inserted if you wish to include comments or
to improve the clarity of the presentation when the file is viewed or printed.
These lines are ignored when the file is read. Lines may be continued by
escaping the end-of-line with a backslash “\” (do not enter the quote marks).
3.4.1.3 Defining an ELAN
Each ELAN is defined by an address statement whose value denotes the ATM
address of the ELAN’s LES. For example:
engineering.Address: 47000580ffe1000000f21a01b90020480605b211
If you wish to define multiple instances of an ELAN for use by the LEC
failover mechanism, the address statements would appear as follows:
marketing|0.Address: 47000580ffe1000000f21a01b90020480605b221
marketing|1.Address: 47000580ffe1000000f21a01b90020480605b223
marketing|2.Address: 47000580ffe1000000f21a01b90020480605b225
In this example, redundant LES addresses for the marketing ELAN have
been defined. Note that the group name, marketing, ends with the metacharacter |, followed by a number indicating the position of the LES in the
failover sequence. If the marketing|0 LES were to fail, LECs could “failover”
to the marketing|1 LES. The LEC then periodically tries to reconnect with
marketing|0. If marketing|1 also failed, the LEC would then failover to
marketing|2, (and periodically attempt to reconnect to marketing|0 and
marketing|1).
In addition, you may instruct a given ELAN to override any of the default
values. For example, the engineering ELAN could override the default
Maximum_Frame_Size of 1516; thus:
engineering.Maximum_Frame_Size: 4544
3-12
Configuring an Emulated LAN
If you want to control which clients may or may not join a given ELAN, two
additional keys, Accept and Reject, whose values are comma-separated
lists of matching elements, may be used. These values may be:
a MAC address,
engineering.Accept: 0020480605b2 , 002048080011 , 0020481020ef
an ATM address and equal-length bit mask,
engineering.Accept: 47000580FFE10000000000000000204800000000 \
FFFFFFFFFFFFFF000000000000FFFFFF00000000
or an ATM address containing “don’t-care” semi-octets denoted by an “X”.
marketing.Accept: 47000580FFE100XXXXXXXXXXXX002048XXXXXXXX
The last two forms of ATM-address matching elements are functionally the
same. The latter is shorter but only allows for masks whose semi-octets are all
ones or all zeros, while the former allows for arbitrary masks. A prospectiveclient address is “captured” by an ELAN name if the client’s address matches
one of the Accept elements but not one of the Reject elements (if present).
Finally, an ELAN may be configured to accept any client that wishes to join by
including the following statement:
default.Accept:XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
The order in which to apply the Accept and Reject rules is given by a
Match.Ordering group.key statement, whose value is a comma-separated
list of ELAN names. For example:
Match.Ordering: default, engineering, marketing|0, marketing|1,\
marketing|2
The names of all ELANs that have Accept keys must be included in
Match.Ordering. Names of all of the members of a LEC failover sequence
must be included so that LECs may use them.
3-13
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.1.4 Defining a Client
Clients need not be defined in the LECS configuration file. Typically, you
would define a client for the purpose of overriding one or more of the default
configuration parameters for that particular client.
A client is defined by using its ATM or MAC address in the group field, and
perhaps giving the name of its ELAN as the value of the LAN_Name key. For
example:
47000580FFE10000000000000000204822222222.LAN_Name: engineering
002048ABCDEF.LAN_Name: marketing
Configuration parameter overrides can also be given on a per-client basis. For
example,
the
following
statements
override
the
default
VCC_TimeOut_Period and Aging_Time configuration parameters for a client whose MAC address is 002048080011 on the engineering ELAN:
002048080011.LAN_Name:engineering
002048080011.VCC_TimeOut_Period:1200
002048080011.Aging_Time: 30
3-14
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.1.5 LECS Control Parameters
Specifying values for keys in the LECS group provides control over the operation of the LECS process.
NOTE:
If you change the values of the LECS control
parameters while the LECS process is
running, the new values do not take effect
until the LECS process is stopped, and then
restarted.
When a client contacts the LECS, the connections established are known as
Configuration Direct VCCs. To override the default value of the
VCC_TimeOut_Period key (the number of seconds before an idle Configuration Direct VCC is automatically closed by the LECS), enter a statement similar to the following:
LECS.VCC_TimeOut_Period: 1200
The LECS periodically checks whether its configuration file has been modified, and, if it has, the file is reread. The length of this period, in seconds, is
given by the Reload_Period key:
LECS.Reload_Period: 600
The Permanent_Circuits key holds a comma-separated list of VPI.VCI pairs
denoting the local ends of 0.17 PVCs on which the LECS should listen. For
example:
LECS.Permanent_Circuits: 0.42, 0.112
The LECS can provide the client with a fourteen-bit pattern to permute the
MAC-address generation algorithm. This bit pattern is specified with the
MAC_Address_Base key.
LECS.MAC_Address_Base: 38fe
3-15
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.2
Sample LECS Configuration File
CAUTION
NOTE:
Do not attempt to edit an existing functional
LECS configuration file without first making a
backup copy of the file. Incorrect modification
of the configuration file could result in loss of
communication between one or more members of a defined ELAN. It may also result in
one or more of the ELAN(s) defined in the file
going “down”.
For a detailed discussion of how to configure
an LECS configuration file similar to the one
given in this section, please refer to Section
3.4.1.
The sample LECS configuration file shown at the end of this section in Figures
3.3 and 3.4 defines three ELANs:
• default
• engineering
• marketing
The Match.Ordering statement specifies the ELAN names in the order that
prospective clients will attempt to join. Note that redundant marketing
ELANs have been included. This allows clients attempting to join the marketing ELAN to “failover” to one of the redundant LES instances if the primary LES fails.
The default configuration parameters are shown with their default values.
These values apply to all ELANs in this configuration file, unless overridden
for a particular ELAN or client.
ELAN default is configured to accept any client that wishes to join. The
administrator must substitute the ATM address of the default LES in place of
the “4”s in the default.Address statement.
ELAN engineering has overridden the default Maximum_Frame_Size with
a new size of 4544 bytes. Consequently, this frame size applies only to traffic
on the engineering ELAN. The default and marketing ELANs continue to
use the default frame size of 1516 bytes.
3-16
Configuring an Emulated LAN
ELAN marketing has three instances, |0, |1, and |2. These three instances
provide LECs that join the ELAN marketing the information necessary to
implement the LEC “failover” mechanism. marketing|0 defines the primary
services for the ELAN. If marketing|0 fails, LECs connected to it can automatically switch to marketing|1 and continue operating (while periodically
attempting to rejoin marketing|0). If marketing|1 were also to fail, the
LECs could then switch to services on marketing|2.
Two LECs, whose MAC addresses are 002048080011 and 0020481020ef, are
identified as acceptable clients for the engineering and marketing ELANs.
#
# The search ordering of elan names
#
Match.Ordering: default, engineering, marketing|0, marketing|1, marketing|2
#
# the default configuration parameters
#
.Control_TimeOut: 120
.Maximum_Unknown_Frame_Count: 1
.Maximum_Unknown_Frame_Time: 1
.VCC_TimeOut_Period: 1200
.Maximum_Retry_Count: 1
.Aging_Time:
300
.Forward_Delay_Time: 15
.Expected_LE_ARP_Response_Time: 1
.Flush_TimeOut: 4
.Path_Switching_Delay: 6
.Multicast_Send_VCC_Type: Best Effort
.Connection_Complete_Timer: 4
.LAN_Type:
Ethernet/IEEE 802.3
.Maximum_Frame_Size: 1516
#
# Parameters for the active default elan
#
default.Address:4444444444444444444444444444444444444444
default.Accept: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Figure 3.3 - Sample LECS Configuration File (Part One of Two)
3-17
Configuring an Emulated LAN
#
# Parameters for elan: engineering
#
engineering.Address: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.01b9.0020480605b2.11
engineering.Accept: 002048080011 , 0020481020ef
engineering.Maximum_Frame_Size: 4544
#
# Parameters for elan: marketing|0
#
marketing|0.Address: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.01b9.0020480605b2.21
marketing|0.Accept:
002048080011 , 0020481020ef
#
# Parameters for elan: marketing|1
#
marketing|1.Address: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.01b9.0020480605b2.23
marketing|1.Accept:
002048080011 , 0020481020ef
#
# Parameters for elan: marketing|2
#
marketing|2.Address: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.01b9.0020480605b2.25
marketing|2.Accept:
002048080011 , 0020481020ef
Figure 3.4 - Sample LECS Configuration File (Part Two of Two)
3-18
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.3
The Default LECS Configuration File
A default LECS configuration file is installed with software version 4.0. It is
reproduced below for reference.
#
# This sample LECS configuration file contains the minimum information
# needed to start a default ELAN that all clients can join. You MUST
# replace the '4's below with the ATM address of the LES.
#
#
# The search ordering of ELAN names
#
Match.Ordering: default
#
# Parameters for the default ELAN
#
default.Address: 4444444444444444444444444444444444444444
default.Accept: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
Figure 3.5 - Default LECS Configuration File
NOTE:
Make a backup copy of the supplied LECS
configuration file and work with the copy.
3-19
Configuring an Emulated LAN
As supplied, this file allows you to set up a default ELAN that accepts any
client that wants to join. Before you can use the supplied file, you must modify it as follows:
1.
Obtain the ATM address of the machine where the LES for the
default ELAN will be started. You must then modify the
machine’s ATM address by changing the selector byte. This modified address is the same address that is used when starting the
default LES.
2.
Substitute the address determined in step 1 for the string of “4”s
in the default.Address statement of the LECS configuration file.
The default.Accept string of “X”s should not be changed as this
parameter allows any client who wishes to join the default ELAN.
3.
Save the modified file.
NOTE:
3-20
For a detailed discussion of how to configure
an LECS configuration file other than the
supplied default file, please refer to Section
3.4.1.
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.4
Starting the LAN Emulation Services
LAN Emulation services include the LECS, LES, and BUS. Once the LECS
configuration database file has been configured, each of these services must
be started so that they are available for LECs to attempt to use. These services
may, but need not, run in the same machine.
3.4.4.1 Starting the LECS
Once an LECS configuration file has been configured, you need to retrieve the
LECS configuration database file that you built by using the following AMI
command:
configuration lane lecs get <host>:<remotefile> [<localfile>]
For example, you would enter something similar to the following:
configuration lane lecs get 198.29.22.46:lecs.cfg
NOTE:
The default local file for a 9A000, an
SFCS-200BX, an SFCS-200WG, and an
SFCS-1000 is lecs.cfg.
NOTE:
On a 9A000, an SFCS-200BX, an SFCS200WG, and an SFCS-1000, this file is
retrieved via tftp.
After you have retrieved the LECS configuration database file, use the following AMI command to start the LECS service on the switch:
configuration lane lecs new <LECS Selector byte (HEX)> [-db <LECS database file>]
[-default <LES atm address>]
For example, to start the LECS service using only the -db option, you would
3-21
Configuring an Emulated LAN
enter something similar to the following:
configuration lane lecs new 0x0c -db lecs.cfg
Use the following AMI command to verify that the LECS has been started and
is running. The OperStatus field should display up, meaning that the LECS
is enabled. Because the -default option has not been specified, the Default
LES field is all zeros. If you use the -default option, then that LES address
would be displayed in the Default LES field.
configuration lane lecs show
Index
1
3-22
AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector Database
up
up
0x0c lecs.cfg
Default LES :0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.4.2 Creating a LES and a BUS
Next, the LES and BUS services must be started for the ELAN. The preferred
method is to use the colocated_bus option when creating the LES, which
means that the LES and BUS services for a particular ELAN will be started
together and will be running on the same switch. This configuration may provide better BUS performance. To do this, use the following AMI command:
conf lane les new <LES Selector byte (HEX)> <BUS ATM address> <LES name> \
[(colocated_bus)]
For example, you would enter something similar to the following:
conf lane les new a b default colocated_bus
NOTE:
By using the colocated_bus option, you are
creating a LES and BUS using a single AMI
command. There is no need to create a BUS
separately.
Use the following AMI command to verify that the LES and the BUS have
been started and are running. The OperStatus field in this listing should display up, meaning that the LES and the BUS are enabled.
configuration lane les show
Index
1
AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector ELAN
up
up
0x0a default
BUS:0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.0b (Co-Located)
3-23
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.5
Starting the LEC(s) and Joining an ELAN
Now that the ELAN services have been started, you can have LECs join the
ELAN that you have created.
NOTE:
The switch software only allows you to create
an instance of a LEC on a switch. To create an
instance of a LEC on a host, you must use the
ForeRunner VLAN Manager or use a
ForeRunner host adapter. Please refer to the
respective User’s Manual for instructions.
3.4.5.1 Creating a LEC
To start a LEC that will attempt to join the ELAN, use the following AMI command:
conf lane lec new <LEC Selector byte (HEX)> <ELAN name> [(automatic | manual)]
manual mode options: [-lecs <LECS address>] or [-les <LES address>]
NOTE:
The recommended method for starting a LEC
is to use the automatic mode, meaning that
the LEC will attempt to contact the LECS on
the “well-known” address as defined by the
ATM Forum’s LAN Emulation standards
(47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00A03
E000001.00).
For example, to start a LEC that attempts to join the default ELAN called
default (assuming that a default ELAN has been defined in the LECS configuration file), enter the following:
configuration lane lec new 0 default
3-24
Configuring an Emulated LAN
If you decide to use the manual mode, you must enter either a LECS address
other than the well-known address or you must enter a LES address. If you
enter a LES address, this means that the LEC bypasses the LECS and directly
contacts the specified LES.
For example, you would enter something similar to the following:
configuration lane lec new aa default manual -les
47000580ffe1000000f21a00d50020481a00d50c
Regardless of which way you start the LEC, you can verify that the LEC has
joined the ELAN by using the following AMI command:
configuration lane lec show
Index
1
Admin
Oper
Status Status Sel
Mode
MACaddress
IfName
up
up
0x00 automatic
000000000000
el0
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.a0
ELAN
default
Because the OperStatus field is displaying joining, this means that the LEC is
still registering with the ELAN. When it has finished, the OperStatus field
displays up.
After the first LEC has joined the ELAN, you can use the VLAN Manager or
the host software to add more LECs to this ELAN. Once all the LECs have
joined, the ELAN is complete.
3-25
Configuring an Emulated LAN
3.4.5.2 Configuring the LEC Failover Mechanism
An added feature of 4.0 software is the LEC failover mechanism. This feature
allows multiple redundant services to be configured for an ELAN as shown in
the sample LECS configuration file in 3.4.2. Consequently, to start LECs that
join ELAN marketing and make use of the failover mechanism set up in the
sample LECS configuration file, enter the following AMI commands:
configuration lane lec new aa marketing|0
followed by,
configuration lane lec new ab marketing|1
and then,
configuration lane lec new ac marketing|2
The above commands start three LECs. Initially, the LEC that connects to
ELAN marketing|0 services is the active LEC. If marketing|0 services fail,
the LEC associated with ELAN marketing|1 services becomes active. Periodically, the LEC associated with ELAN marketing|0 attempts to re-establish service. If both marketing|0 and marketing|1 services fail, the LEC
associated with ELAN marketing|2 then becomes active. You may define as
much redundancy into your system as resources allow.
CAUTION
3-26
Deleting (stopping) the currently active
failover LEC removes the network interface
(e.g., el0) associated with all of the failover
LECs, causing the other LECs in the failover
mechanism to lose IP connectivity.
CHAPTER 4
SONET Configuration
SONET network modules may require some additional configuration. There
are several parameters that can be configured in order to work with other
SONET equipment or to perform testing on the SONET ports.
4.1
SONET Front Panel LEDs
There is an LED corresponding to both the transmit and receive lines of each
SONET port. These LEDs provide some information about the state of the
port depending on their color.
4.1.1
Transmit Indicators
The LED corresponding to the transmit line of the port has the following
meanings depending on its color:
off
Indicates that there are currently no cells being transmitted from
the port.
green
Indicates that a cell is being transmitted on the port. The intensity
of the green light increases as the traffic on the port increases.
yellow
Indicates that a yellow alarm is being received from the far end of
the connection. A yellow alarm indicates that the transmit signal
is not being received by the far end.
NOTE:
There is no red LED on the transmit indicators. However, a yellow LED may sometimes
appear to be red.
4-1
SONET Configuration
4.1.2
Receive Indicators
The LED corresponding to the receive line of the port has the following meanings depending on the color:
off
Indicates that a carrier has been detected on the
line. A carrier is detected when there is a proper
light signal on the line.
green
Indicates that a cell is being received on the port.
The intensity of the green light increases as the
traffic on the port increases.
red
4.2
Indicates a loss of carrier.
Configuring SONET Mode
There are two modes of operation that the SONET ports support: sonet and
sdh. These modes of operation affect the significance of the header bits in the
SONET frames. The default mode of operation is sonet.
CAUTION
4-2
During standard system operation, sonet
mode transmits unassigned cells and sdh
mode transmits idle cells. If the type of operation is changed from sonet to sdh, the type of
cells being transmitted does not automatically
change. The user must be aware if they wish
to be sending unassigned or idle cells for both
sonet and sdh operation. If the type of cell
currently selected is not the type the user
wants to send, they can change the cell type
being sent via the ATM Management Interface
(AMI).
SONET Configuration
To change the mode of a SONET port, log in to AMI. (Please refer to Appendix A of this manual for information about logging into AMI). Enter the following parameters:
configuration port sonet mode <port> (sonet|sdh)
The <port> variable indicates the SONET port that is to be modified and the
(sonet|sdh) variable indicates the mode of operation that is to be used for
the specified port. If there are no SONET ports on the switch fabric, then this
option is disabled.
After the mode of operation is modified on a SONET port, the switch control
processor (SCP) immediately puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the change will be put into effect every time the
switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
4.3
Configuring SONET Empty Cells
To change the type of cells sent as empty cells (filler that is sent when a port is
not sending data) on a SONET network module port, log in to AMI and enter
the following parameters:
configuration port sonet emptycells <port> (idle | unassigned)
The <port> variable indicates the SONET port that is to be modified and the
(idle|unassigned) variable indicates the type of cells that the specified port
sends as filler when the port is not sending data. The default setting is unassigned. If there are no SONET ports on the switch fabric, then this option is
disabled.
After the type of empty cells is modified on a SONET port, the SCP immediately puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that
information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that
the change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts
on that particular SCP.
4-3
SONET Configuration
4.4
Configuring SONET Loopback
To facilitate testing of the SONET ports, there are two different loopback configurations available: line and diagnostic. When a SONET port is in loopback mode, it no longer passes normal traffic.
To change the loopback state on a SONET port, log in to AMI and enter the
following parameters:
configuration port sonet loopback <port> (line| diag | none)
The <port> variable indicates the SONET port that is to be modified and the
(line|diag|none) variable indicates the type of loopback to be used on the
specified port. The default loopback setting is none which means that no
loopback will take place on that port. If there are no SONET ports on the
switch fabric, then this option is disabled.
After the loopback mode is modified on a SONET port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the
change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on
that particular SCP.
4.4.1
Diagnostic Loopback
Diagnostic loopback connects the receiver to the transmitter. The SONET
stream being transmitted by the SCP to a port is looped back to the SCP. The
stream is still transmitted over the fiber, but the incoming stream is ignored.
4.4.2
Line Loopback
Line loopback connects the transmitter to the receiver. The data stream
received from the fiber is retransmitted back out to the fiber. In line loopback,
the port acts as if it were an optical repeater. Cells generated by the SCP to this
port are not sent over the fiber.
4-4
SONET Configuration
To Network
TX
Section
Par/Ser
Diagnostic
Line
Ser/Par
RX
Section
From Network
Figure 4.1 - SONET Single Port Loopback Diagram
4-5
SONET Configuration
4.5
Displaying SONET Error Counters
AMI allows the user to display several SONET counters. The counters can be
accessed by logging in to AMI. Enter the following parameters at the prompt
to display the SONET network module statistics:
statistics sonet
sonet Port 1A1 Counter
-----------------------------sonetSectionBIPs
sonetSectionLOSs
sonetSectionLOFs
sonetLineBIPs
sonetLineFEBEs
sonetLineAISs
sonetLineFERFs
sonetPathBIPs
sonetPathFEBEs
sonetPathLOPs
sonetPathAISs
sonetPathYellows
sonetAtmCorrectableHCSs
sonetAtmUncorrectableHCSs
Value
-------------383833630
22103
23991
532
355
23991
6
244
211
1888
23991
23997
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
4-6
Delta
-------------1584162
99
99
0
0
99
0
0
0
0
99
99
0
0
SONET Configuration
4.6
SONET Error Counter Descriptions
sonetSectionBIPs
The number of Section BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved
Parity) errors that have been detected since the
last time the port has been reset. The calculated
BIP-8 code is compared with the BIP-8 code
extracted from the B1 byte of the following
frame. Differences indicate that a section level bit
error has occurred.
sonetSectionLOSs
The number of seconds in which Loss Of Signal
(LOS) has occurred. A LOS is declared when a
pattern of all zeros is detected for 20 +/- 3ms.
LOS is cleared when two valid framing words
are detected and during the intervening time no
LOS condition is detected.
sonetSectionLOFs
The number of seconds in which Loss Of Frame
(LOF) has occurred. A LOF is declared when an
out-of-frame (OOF) condition persists for 3ms.
The LOF is cleared when an in-frame condition
persists for 3ms. While in-frame, the framing
bytes (A1, A2) in each frame are compared
against the expected pattern. Out of frame is
declared when four consecutive frames containing one or more framing pattern errors have
been received.
sonetLineBIPs
The number of Line BIP-24 (Bit Interleaved Parity) errors that have been detected since the last
time the port has been reset. The calculated
BIP-24 code is based on the line overhead and
synchronous payload envelope (SPE) of the
STS-3c stream. The line BIP-24 code is a bit interleaved parity calculation using even parity. The
calculated code is compared with the BIP-24
code extracted from the B2 bytes of the following
frame. Differences indicate that a line layer bit
error has occurred.
sonetLineFEBEs
The number of line Far End Block Errors (FEBE)
that have been detected since the last time the
port has been reset.
4-7
SONET Configuration
4-8
sonetLineAISs
The number of seconds in which line Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) has occurred. A line AIS is
asserted when a 111 binary pattern is detected in
bits 6, 7, 8 of the K2 byte for five consecutive
frames. A line AIS is removed when any pattern
other than 111 is detected in these bits for five
consecutive frames.
sonetLineFERFs
The number of seconds in which line Far End
Receive Failure (FERF) has occurred. A line FERF
is asserted when a 110 binary pattern is detected
in bits 6, 7, 8 of the K2 byte for five consecutive
frames. A line FERF is removed when any pattern other than 110 is detected in these bits for
five consecutive frames.
sonetPathBIPs
The number of Path BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity) errors that have been detected since the last
time the port has been reset. A path BIP-8 error is
detected by comparing the path BIP-8 byte (B3)
extracted from the current frame, to the path
BIP-8 computed for the previous frame.
sonetPathFEBEs
The number of path Far End Block Errors (FEBE)
that have been detected since the last time the
port has been reset. FEBEs are detected by
extracting the 4-bit FEBE field from the path status byte (G1). The legal range of the 4-bit field is
between 0000 and 1000, representing zero to
eight errors. Any other value is interpreted as
zero errors.
sonetPathLOPs
The number of seconds in which path Loss Of
Pointer (LOP) has occurred. A path LOP is
detected when a ‘normal pointer value’ is not
found in eight consecutive frames. The LOP is
cleared when a ‘normal pointer value’ is
detected for three consecutive frames.
sonetPathAISs
The number of seconds in which path Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) has occurred. A path AIS is
asserted when an all-ones pattern is detected in
the pointer bytes (H1 and H2) for three consecutive frames. It is cleared when a valid pointer is
detected for three consecutive frames. AIS indicates an upstream failure has been detected.
SONET Configuration
sonetPathYellows
The number of seconds in which path yellow
alarm has occurred. A path yellow alarm is
detected by extracting bit 5 of the path status
byte. If bit 5 is high for ten consecutive frames, a
yellow alarm is declared. A yellow alarm is
cleared when bit 5 is low for ten consecutive
frames. Yellow signals are used to alert upstream
terminals of a downstream failure in order to initiate trunk conditioning on the failure circuit.
sonetAtmCorrectableHCSs
The number of correctable Header Check
Sequence (HCS) error events that occurred since
the port was reset. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over the first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
sonetAtmUncorrectableHCSs
The number of uncorrectable Header Check
Sequence (HCS) error events that occurred since
the port was reset. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over the first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
4-9
SONET Configuration
4.7
Configuring SONET Timing
The SONET ports on an individual switch fabric can derive timing from one
of two sources: an internal clock (internal) or the incoming SONET data
stream (network). The default setting is internal clocking. Cabletron Systems
recommends that the following clocking conventions be used to configure the
SONET clocking on an individual switch fabric:
• When connecting to a carrier-provided SONET service, the carrier’s
recommendation should be followed. In most cases, the carrier provides a clock and the SCP should be configured for network timing.
• When connecting two switch fabrics over a continuous fiber within
the campus, both ends of the connection should be set to internal
clocking (default).
• When connecting two switch fabrics through other SONET equipment within the campus, it may be necessary to change the clocking
to network (depending on the type of equipment). In this case, the
recommendation of the campus network administration should be
followed.
To change the clocking source for a SONET port, log in to AMI and enter the
following parameters:
configuration port sonet timing <port> (network | internal)
The <port> variable indicates the SONET port that is to be modified and the
(network|internal) variable designates the source of the transmit clock. For
all network modules, network means that the timing for this port is derived
externally from the incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is derived from either the on-board crystal oscillator or is derived from a
specific port number on a Series C network module that is defined by the
user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit clock is derived from that
port if available. If the port source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal
takes over as the transmit clock source. If there are no SONET ports on the
switch fabric, then this option is disabled. For more information about configuring the internal timing source, please refer to the section on Network Module Configuration in Appendix B of this manual.
After the clocking source is changed on a SONET port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the
change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on
that particular SCP.
4-10
CHAPTER 5
DS-3 Configuration
If your Cabletron switch is equipped with one or more DS-3 network modules, some additional configuration may be necessary. There are several
parameters which can be configured in order to work with other DS-3 equipment or to perform testing on the switch‘s DS-3 ports.
5.1
DS-3 Front Panel LEDs
There is an LED corresponding to both the transmit and receive lines of each
DS-3 port. These LEDs provide some information about the state of the port
depending on their color.
5.1.1
Transmit Indicators
The LED corresponding to the transmit line of the port has the following
meaning depending on its color:
off
green
5.1.2
Indicates that there are currently no cells being transmitted from
the port.
Indicates that a cell is being transmitted on the port.
Receive Indicators
The LED corresponding to the receive line of the port has the following meaning depending on the color:
off
green
red
Indicates that a carrier has been detected on the line. A carrier is
detected when there is a proper voltage signal on the line.
Indicates that a cell is being received on the port.
Indicates a loss of carrier.
5-1
DS-3 Configuration
5.2
Configuring DS-3 Mode
There are two modes of operation that the DS-3 ports support: PLCP (physical layer convergence protocol) and HCS (header check sequence). These
modes control the way ATM cells are constructed from the DS-3 data stream.
To change the mode of operation of a DS-3 port, log in to the ATM Management Interface (AMI). (Please refer to Appendix A of this manual for information about logging into AMI). Enter the following parameters:
configuration port ds3 mode <port> (plcp | hcs)
The <port> variable indicates the DS-3 port that is to be modified and the
(plcp|hcs) variable is the mode of operation to be used for the port. It is critical that both ends of the DS-3 link be configured with the same mode, regardless of which one is chosen. If there are no DS-3 ports on the switch fabric,
then this option is disabled.
After the mode configuration is changed, the SCP immediately puts that
change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is
entered into the configuration database file so that the new configuration will
be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
5-2
DS-3 Configuration
5.3
Configuring DS-3 Empty Cells
To change the type of cells sent as empty cells (filler that is sent when a port is
not sending data) on a DS-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the following
parameters:
configuration port ds3 emptycells <port> (idle | unassigned)
The <port> variable indicates the DS-3 port that is to be modified and the
(idle|unassigned) variable indicates the type of cells that the specified port
sends as filler when the port is not sending data. The default setting is unassigned. If there are no DS-3 ports on the switch fabric, then this option is disabled.
After the type of empty cells is modified on a DS-3 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file so that the change will
be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
5.4
Configuring DS-3 Line Length
To change the line length of a DS-3 port to correspond to the physical cable
attached to that port, log in to AMI. Enter the following parameters:
configuration port ds3 length <port> (Lt225 |Gt225)
The <port> variable indicates the DS-3 port that is to be modified and the
(Lt225|Gt225) variable indicates the length of the cable attached to the port.
Lt225 means the cable is less than 225 feet and Gt225 means the cable is
greater than 225 feet. If there are no DS-3 ports on the switch fabric, then this
option is disabled.
After the line length is modified on a DS-3 port, the SCP immediately puts
that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the
change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on
that particular SCP.
5-3
DS-3 Configuration
5.5
Configuring DS-3 Framing
There are two types of framing that the DS-3 ports support: clear channel and
C-bit parity. These types of framing affect the significance of the overhead bits
in the DS-3 frames.
To change the framing of a DS-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the following
parameters:
configuration port ds3 framing <port> (cchannel | cbit)
The <port> variable indicates the DS-3 port that is to be modified and the
(cchannel|cbit) variable is the type of framing for the port. The default setting is cbit (cbitparity). If there are no DS-3 ports on the switch fabric, then
this option is disabled.
After the framing configuration is changed on a DS-3 port, the SCP immediately puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that
information is entered into the configuration database file so that the new
configuration will be put into effect every time the switch control software
starts on that particular SCP.
5-4
DS-3 Configuration
5.6
Configuring DS-3 Payload Scrambling
Some equipment is more sensitive than the 9A000, SFCS-200BX or the SFCS1000 when synchronizing with the network clock. This equipment requires a
greater transition density than the switch fabric. To work with such equipment, it may be necessary to enable payload scrambling on the switch fabric.
If a DS-3 port is configured for HCS cell delineation, scrambling should be
enabled on both ends of the connection.
When payload scrambling is enabled, a scrambling function1 is applied to the
48-byte payload of each cell transmitted. To operate with other equipment,
scrambling must be enabled on the other end of the DS-3 connection as well
so that the data is properly unscrambled. By default, scrambling is disabled.
To enable or disable scrambling on a DS-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the
following parameters:
configuration port ds3 scrambling <port> (on | off)
Using the on variable means that cell payload scrambling is enabled on the
specified port. Using the off variable means that cell payload scrambling is
disabled on the specified port. Only the payload of the ATM cells is scrambled.
After scrambling is enabled or disabled on a DS-3 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file so that the change will
be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
1. Cabletron switches use the recommended self-synchronizing scrambler, x43 + 1.
5-5
DS-3 Configuration
5.7
Configuring DS-3 Loopback
In order to facilitate testing of the DS-3 ports, there are four different loopback
configurations available: cell, payload, diagnostic, and line. When a DS-3
port is in loopback mode, it no longer passes normal traffic.
To change the loopback state on a DS-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the following parameters:
configuration port ds3 loopback <port> (cell | payload | diag | line| none)
The <port> variable indicates the DS-3 port that is to be modified and the
(cell|payload|diag|line|none) variable indicates the type of loopback to
be used on the specified port. The default loopback setting is none, which
means that no loopback will take place on that port. If there are no DS-3 ports
on the switch fabric, then this option is disabled.
After the loopback state is modified on a DS-3 port, the SCP immediately puts
that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file so that the change will be
put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular
SCP.
To
Network
DIAGNOSTIC
From
Network
TRAN
TXCP
SPLT
PAYLOAD
FRMR
CELL
RXCP
ATMF/
SPLR
CPPM
Figure 5.1 - DS-3 Single Port Loopback Diagram
5-6
TXFF
RXFF
System
I/F
DS-3 Configuration
5.7.1
Cell Loopback
When enabled, the DS-3 stream is received from the network, unframed into
ATM cells, reframed, and then transmitted back to the network.
5.7.2
Payload Loopback
When enabled, the DS-3 stream is received from the network, has the DS-3
overhead bits re-inserted, and is retransmitted to the network.
5.7.3
Diagnostic Loopback
This connects the receiver to the transmitter. The DS-3 stream transmitted by
the switch to a port is looped back to the switch. The DS-3 stream is still transmitted to the network, but the incoming DS-3 stream is ignored.
5.7.4
Line Loopback
Line loopback connects the transmitter to the receiver. The data stream
received from the line is retransmitted back out to the line. Cells generated by
the switch to this port are not sent over the line.
5-7
DS-3 Configuration
5.8
Displaying DS-3 Error Counters
The user can display several DS-3 counters by logging in to AMI. Enter the
following parameters to display the DS-3 network module statistics:
statistics ds3
ds3 Port 1C1 Counter
-----------------------------ds3FramingLOSs
ds3FramingLCVs
ds3FramingSumLCVs
ds3FramingFERRs
ds3FramingOOFs
ds3FramingFERFs
ds3FramingAISs
ds3FramingPbitPERRs
ds3FramingCbitPERRs
ds3FramingFEBEs
ds3PlcpFERRs
ds3PlcpLOFs
ds3PlcpBIP8s
ds3PlcpFEBEs
ds3PlcpYellows
ds3AtmHCSs
ds3AtmRxCells
ds3AtmTxCells
Value
-------------0
0
3533754755
122265891
59758
0
0
1713276195
1583241699
976095339
956136
0
252419904
603317432
0
176407092
3709807680
203023
Delta
-------------0
3047081531
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
All of the PLCP counters listed above and the Yellow counter have meaningful values only when the DS-3 network module is running in the PLCP mode.
They are all meaningless when running in the HCS mode.
However, the HCS counter always has meaning, regardless of which mode is
running.
5-8
DS-3 Configuration
5.9
DS-3 Error Counter Descriptions
ds3FramingLOSs
Indicates the number of seconds in which Loss of
Signal (LOS) errors were detected by the DS3
Receive Framer block.
ds3FramingLCVs
Shows the number of Line Code Violations
(LCV) that were detected by the DS3 Receive
Framer block.
ds3FramingSumLCVs
Designates the number of DS3 information
blocks (85 bits) which contain one or more Line
Code Violations (LCV).
ds3FramingFERRs
Lists the number of DS3 framing error (FERR)
events.
ds3FramingOOFs
Indicates the number of DS3 Out Of Frame
(OOF) error events.
ds3FramingFERFs
Shows the number of seconds in which Far End
Receive Failure (FERF) state has been detected
by the DS3 Receive Framer block. The FERF signal alerts the upstream terminal that a failure has
been detected along the downstream line.
ds3FramingAISs
Displays the number of seconds in which Alarm
Indication Signals (AIS) were detected by the
DS3 Receive Framer block. AIS indicates that an
upstream failure has been detected by the far
end.
ds3FramingPbitPERRs
Lists the number of P-bit parity error (PERR)
events.
ds3FramingCbitCERRs
Indicates the number of C-bit parity error
(CERR) events.
ds3FramingFEBEs
Designates the number of DS3 far end block
error (FEBE) events.
ds3PlcpFERRs
Displays the number of Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) octet error events.
5-9
DS-3 Configuration
5-10
ds3PlcpLOFs
Shows the number of seconds in which Loss Of
Frame (LOF) errors were detected by the PLCP
(Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) receiver.
LOF is declared when an Out-Of-Frame state
persists for more than 1ms. LOF is removed
when an in-frame state persists for more than
12ms.
ds3PlcpBIP8s
Displays the number of BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved
Parity-8) error events. The BIP-8 is calculated
over the Path Overhead field and the associated
ATM cell of the previous frame. A BIP-N is a
method of error monitoring. An N-bit code is
generated by the transmitting equipment in such
a manner that the first bit of the code provides
even parity over the first bit of all N-bit
sequences in the previous VT SPE, the second bit
provides even parity over the second bits of all
N-bit sequences within the specified portion, etc.
ds3PlcpFEBEs
Indicates the number of ATM Far End Block
Error (FEBE) events.
ds3PlcpYellows
Designates the number of seconds in which Yellow alarm errors were detected by the PLCP
(Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) receiver.
Yellow alarm is asserted when 10 consecutive
yellow signal bits are set to logical 1. Yellow signals are used to alert upstream terminals of a
downstream failure in order to initiate trunk
conditioning on the failure circuit.
ds3AtmHCSs
Displays the number of header check sequence
(HCS) error events. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over the first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
ds3AtmRxCells
Lists the number of ATM cells that were
received, not including idle/unassigned cells.
ds3AtmTxCells
Shows the number of non-null ATM cells that
were transmitted, not including idle/unassigned
cells.
DS-3 Configuration
5.10 Configuring DS-3 Timing
The DS-3 ports on an individual switch fabric can derive timing from one of
two sources: an internal clock (internal) or the incoming DS-3 data stream
(network). The default setting for ports on the switch is internal clocking.
Cabletron Systems recommends that the following clocking conventions be
used to configure the DS-3 clocking on an individual switch fabric:
• When connecting to a carrier-provided DS-3 service, the carrier’s recommendation should be followed. In most cases, the carrier provides
a clock and the switch should be configured for network timing.
• When connecting two Cabletron switches over a cable within the
campus, both ends of the connection should be set to internal clocking (default).
• When connecting two Cabletron switches through other DS-3 equipment within the campus, it may be necessary to change the clocking
to network (depending on the type of equipment). In this case, the
recommendation of the campus network administration should be
followed.
To change the clocking source for a DS-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the following parameters at the prompt to change the clocking source:
configuration port ds3 timing <port> (network | internal)
The <port> variable indicates the DS-3 port that is to be modified and the
(network|internal) variable designates the source of the transmit clock. For
all network modules, network means that the timing for this port is derived
externally from the incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is derived from either the on-board crystal oscillator or is derived from a
specific port number on a Series C network module that is defined by the
user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit clock is derived from that
port if available. If the port source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal
takes over as the transmit clock source. If there are no DS-3 ports on the
switch fabric, then this option is disabled. For more information about how to
configure the internal timing source, please refer to the section on Network
Module Configuration in Appendix B of this manual.
After the clocking source is changed on a DS-3 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file so that the change will
be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
5-11
DS-3 Configuration
5-12
CHAPTER 6
E-3 Configuration
E-3 network modules may require some additional configuration. There are
several parameters that can be configured in order to work with other E-3
equipment or to perform testing on the E-3 ports.
6.1
E-3 Front Panel LEDs
There is an LED corresponding to both the transmit and receive lines of each
E-3 port. These LEDs provide some information about the state of the port
depending on their color.
6.1.1
Transmit Indicators
The LED corresponding to the transmit line of the port has the following
meaning depending on its color:
off
green
6.1.2
Indicates that there are currently no cells being transmitted from
the port.
Indicates that a cell is being transmitted on the port.
Receive Indicators
The LED corresponding to the receive line of the port has the following meaning depending on the color:
off
green
red
Indicates that a carrier has been detected on the line. A carrier is
detected when there is a proper voltage signal on the line.
Indicates that a cell is being received on the port.
Indicates a loss of carrier.
6-1
E-3 Configuration
6.2
Configuring E-3 Mode
There are two modes of operation that the E-3 ports support: PLCP (also
referred to as G.751) and HCS (also referred to as G.832). These modes control
the way ATM cells are delineated within the E-3 data stream.
To change the mode of operation of an E-3 port, log in to the ATM Management Interface (AMI). (Please refer to Appendix A of this manual for information about logging into AMI). Enter the following parameters to enable PLCP
or HCS framing:
configuration port e3 mode <port> (plcp | hcs)
The <port> variable indicates the E-3 port that is to be modified and the
(plcp|hcs) variable is the mode of operation to be used for the port. It is critical that both ends of the E-3 link be configured with the same mode, regardless of which one is chosen. hcs is the default. If there are no E-3 ports on the
switch fabric, then this option is disabled.
After the E-3 mode configuration is changed, the switch control processor
(SCP) immediately puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the
same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on
the SCP so that the change will be put into effect every time the switch control
software starts on that particular SCP.
6.3
Configuring E-3 Payload Scrambling
Some equipment is more sensitive than the switch when synchronizing with
the network clock. This equipment requires a greater transition density than
the switch. To work with such equipment, it may be necessary to enable payload scrambling on the SCPs.
When payload scrambling is enabled, a scrambling function1 is applied to the
48-byte payload of each cell transmitted. To operate with other equipment,
scrambling must be enabled on the other end of the E-3 connection as well so
that the data is properly unscrambled. By default, scrambling is disabled.
1. Cabletron switches use the recommended self-synchronizing scrambler, x43 + 1.
6-2
E-3 Configuration
To enable or disable scrambling on an E-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the
following parameters:
configuration port e3 scrambling <port> (on | off)
Using the on variable means that cell payload scrambling is enabled on the
port. Using the off variable means that cell payload scrambling is disabled on
the port. Only the payload of the ATM cells is scrambled. If there are no E-3
ports on the switch fabric, then this option is disabled.
After scrambling is enabled or disabled on an E-3 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the
change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on
that particular SCP.
6.4
Configuring E-3 Loopback
To facilitate testing of the E-3 ports, there are four different loopback configurations available: cell, payload, diagnostic, and line. When an E-3 port is in
loopback mode, it no longer passes normal traffic.
To change the loopback state on an E-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the following parameters:
configuration port e3 loopback <port> (cell | payload | diag | line| none)
The <port> variable indicates the E-3 port that is to be modified and the
(cell|payload|diag|line|none) variable indicates the type of loopback on
the port. The default loopback setting is none which means that no loopback
will take place on that port. If there are no E-3 ports on the switch fabric, then
this option is disabled.
After the loopback mode is modified on a E-3 port, the SCP immediately puts
that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the
change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on
that particular SCP.
6-3
E-3 Configuration
.
To
Network
DIAGNOSTIC
From
Network
TXCP
SPLT
TRAN
PAYLOAD
TXFF
CELL
FRMR
RXCP
ATMF/
SPLR
System
I/F
RXFF
CPPM
Figure 6.1 - E-3 Loopback
6.4.1
Cell Loopback
When enabled, the E-3 stream received from the network is unframed into
ATM cells. The cells are then reframed and transmitted back to the network.
6.4.2
Payload Loopback
When enabled, the E-3 stream received from the network has the E-3 overhead bits re-inserted and is retransmitted to the network.
6.4.3
Diagnostic Loopback
This connects the receiver to the transmitter. The E-3 stream transmitted by
the SCP to a port are looped back to the SCP. The E-3 stream is still transmitted to the network, but the incoming E-3 stream is ignored.
6.4.4
Line Loopback
Line loopback connects the transmitter to the receiver. The data stream
received from the line is retransmitted back out to the line. Cells generated by
the SCP to this port are not sent over the line.
6-4
E-3 Configuration
6.5
Configuring E-3 Empty Cells
To change the type of cells sent as empty cells (filler that is sent when a port is
not sending data) on an E-3 port, enter the following parameters in AMI:
configuration port e3 emptycells <port> (idle | unassigned)
The <port> variable indicates the E-3 port that is to be modified and the
(idle|unassigned) variable indicates the type of cells that the specified port
sends as filler when the port is not sending data. The default setting is unassigned. If there are no E-3 ports on the switch, then this option is disabled.
After the type of empty cells is modified on a E-3 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file so that the change will
be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
6-5
E-3 Configuration
6.6
Displaying E-3 Error Counters
The user can display several E-3 counters by logging in to AMI. Enter the following parameters to display the E-3 network module statistics:
statistics e3
e3 Port 1D1 Counter
-----------------------------e3FramingLOSs
e3FramingLCVs
e3FramingFERRs
e3FramingOOFs
e3FramingFERFs
e3FramingAISs
e3FramingBIP8s
e3FramingFEBEs
e3PlcpFERRs
e3PlcpLOFs
e3PlcpBIP8s
e3PlcpFEBEs
e3PlcpYellows
e3AtmHCSs
e3AtmRxCells
e3AtmTxCells
Value
-------------85974
3684415794
85173622
85974
0
0
636877586
2465566
0
171950
0
0
0
0
0
281929
Delta
-------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
All of the PLCP counters listed above and the Yellow counter have meaningful values only when the E-3 network module is running with PLCP framing.
They are all meaningless when running in the HCS mode.
However, the HCS counter always has meaning, regardless of which mode is
running.
6-6
E-3 Configuration
6.7
E-3 Error Counter Descriptions
e3FramingLOSs
Specifies the number of seconds in which Loss
Of Signal (LOS) errors were detected by the E3
Receive Framer block.
e3FramingLCVs
Displays the number of Line Code Violations
(LCV) that were detected by the E3 Receive
Framer block.
e3FramingFERRs
Shows the number of E3 framing error (FERR)
events.
e3FramingOOFs
Lists the number of E3 Out Of Frame (OOF)
error events.
e3FramingFERFs
Indicates the number of Far End Receive Failures
for a port configured with HCS framing.
Indicates the number of Remote Alarm
Indications for a port configured with PLCP
framing.
e3FramingAISs
Specifies the number of seconds in which Alarm
Indication Signals (AIS) were detected by the E3
Receive Framer block. AIS indicates that an
upstream failure has been detected by the far
end.
e3FramingFEBEs
Displays the number of E3 far end block error
(FEBE) events.
e3FramingBIP8s
Shows the number of E3 G.832 BIP-8 errors. This
counter is only valid for a port configured with
HCS framing.
e3PlcpFERRs
Lists the number of Physical Layer Convergence
Protocol (PLCP) octet error events.
e3PlcpLOFs
Indicates the number of seconds in which Loss
Of Frame (LOF) errors were detected by the
PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Protocol)
receiver. LOF is declared when an Out Of Frame
state persists for more than 1ms. LOF is removed
when an in-frame state persists for more than
12ms.
6-7
E-3 Configuration
6-8
e3PlcpBIP8s
Indicates the number of BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved
Parity - 8) error events. The BIP-8 is calculated
over the Path Overhead field and the associated
ATM cell of the previous frame. A BIP-N is a
method of error monitoring. An N-bit code is
generated by the transmitting equipment in such
a manner that the first bit of the code provides
even parity over the first bit of all N-bit
sequences in the previous VT SPE, the second bit
provides even parity over the second bits of all
N-bit sequences within the specified portion, etc.
e3PlcpFEBEs
Displays the number of ATM Far End Block
Error (FEBE) events.
e3PlcpYellows
Shows the number of seconds in which Yellow
alarm errors were detected by the PLCP
(Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) receiver.
Yellow alarm is asserted when 10 consecutive
yellow signal bits are set to logical 1. Yellow
signals are used to alert upstream terminals of a
downstream failure in order to initiate trunk
conditioning on the failure circuit.
e3AtmHCSs
Lists the number of header check sequence
(HCS) error events. The HCS is a CRC-8
calculation over the first 4 octets of the ATM cell
header.
e3AtmRxCells
Indicates the number of ATM cells that were
received, not including idle/unassigned cells.
e3AtmTxCells
Displays the number of non-null ATM cells that
were transmitted, not including idle/unassigned
cells.
E-3 Configuration
6.8
Configuring E-3 Timing
The E-3 ports on an individual switch fabric can derive timing from one of
two sources: an internal clock (internal) or the incoming E-3 data stream
(network). The default is internal. Cabletron recommends that the following
conventions be used to configure the E-3 clocking on an individual switch
fabric:
• When connecting to a carrier-provided E-3 service, the carrier’s recommendation should be followed. In most cases, the carrier provides
a clock and the SCP should be configured for network timing.
• When connecting two Cabletron switch fabrics over a cable within
the campus, both ends of the connection should be set to internal
clocking (default).
• When connecting two Cabletron switch fabrics through other E-3
equipment within the campus, it may be necessary to change the
clocking to network (depending on the type of equipment). In this
case, the recommendation of the campus network administration
should be followed.
To change the clocking source for a E-3 port, log in to AMI and enter the following parameters:
configuration port e3 timing <port> (network | internal)
The <port> variable indicates the E-3 port that is to be modified and the (network|internal) variable designates the source of the transmit clock. For all
network modules, network means that the timing for this port is derived
externally from the incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is derived from either the on-board crystal oscillator or is derived from a
specific port number on a Series C network module that is defined by the
user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit clock is derived from that
port if available. If the port source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal
takes over as the transmit clock source. If there are no E-3 ports on the switch
fabric, then this option is disabled. For more information about how to configure the internal timing source, please refer to the section on Network Module
Configuration in Appendix B of this manual.
After the clocking source is changed on an E-3 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file on the SCP so that the
change will be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on
that particular SCP.
6-9
E-3 Configuration
6-10
CHAPTER 7
TP25 Configuration
If your switch fabric is equipped with one or more TP25 (25 Mbps) network
modules, there is some additional configuration that may be necessary. There
are several parameters which can be configured in order to work with other
TP25 equipment or to perform testing on the TP25 ports.
7.1
TP25 Front Panel LEDs
There is an LED corresponding to both the transmit and receive lines of each
TP25 port. These LEDs provide some information about the state of the port
depending on their color.
7.1.1
Transmit Indicators
The LED corresponding to the transmit line of the port has the following
meaning depending on its color:
7.1.2
off
Indicates that there are currently no cells being transmitted from
the port.
green
Indicates that a cell is being transmitted on the port. The intensity
of the green light increases as the traffic on the port increases.
Receive Indicators
The LED corresponding to the receive line of the port has the following meaning depending on the color:
off
Indicates that a carrier has been detected on the line. A carrier is
detected when there is a proper voltage signal on the line.
green
Indicates that a cell is being received on the port. The intensity of
the green light increases as the traffic on the port increases.
red
Indicates a loss of carrier.
7-1
TP25 Configuration
7.2
Configuring TP25 Loopback
To facilitate testing of the TP25 ports, a line loopback configuration is available. When a TP25 port is in loopback mode, it no longer passes normal traffic.
To change the loopback state on a TP25 port, log in to AMI. (Please refer to
Appendix A of this manual for information about logging into AMI). Enter
the following parameters:
configuration port tp25 loopback <port> (line |none)
The <port> variable indicates the TP25 port that is to be modified and the
(line|none) variable indicates the type of loopback on the port. The default
loopback setting is none which means that no loopback will take place on
that port. If there are no TP25 ports on the switch, then this option is disabled.
After the loopback mode is modified on a TP25 port, the SCP immediately
puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file so that the change will
be put into effect every time the switch control software starts on that particular SCP.
7.2.1
Line Loopback
Line loopback connects the transmitter to the receiver. The data stream
received from the line is retransmitted back out to the line. Cells generated by
the switch to this port are not sent over the line.
7-2
XFRMR
Network
TP25 Configuration
PMD
TC Layer
Cell
Buffer
LINE
Switch
Fabric
Figure 7.1 - TP25 Single Port Loopback Diagram
7-3
TP25 Configuration
7.3
Displaying TP25 Error Counters
The user can display several TP25 counters by logging in to AMI. Enter the
following parameters to display the TP25 network module statistics:
statistics tp25
tp25 Port 1A1 Counter
-----------------------------tp25ErrorSymbol
tp25AtmHCSs
tp25AtmRxCells
tp25AtmTxCells
Value
-------------40452300
8
13722
0
Delta
-------------0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
7.4
7-4
TP25 Error Counter Descriptions
tp25ErrorSymbols
Lists the number of undefined symbols received.
tp25AtmHCSs
Indicates the number of header check sequence
(HCS) error events. The HCS is a CRC-8
calculation over the first 4 octets of the ATM cell
header.
tp25AtmRxCells
Displays the number of ATM cells that were
received.
tp25AtmTxCells
Shows the number of ATM cells that were
transmitted.
CHAPTER 8
TAXI Configuration
The TAXI network modules for the Cabletron ATM switches use the 4B/5B
TAXI format and are shipped preconfigured. No additional configuration is
needed for the TAXI network modules to interoperate with another Cabletron
Systems ATM switch or with any other 4B/5B TAXI interface.
8.1
TAXI Front Panel LEDs
There is an LED corresponding to both the transmit and receive lines of each
TAXI port. These LEDs provide some information about the state of the port
depending on their color.
8.1.1
Transmit Indicators
The LED corresponding to the transmit line of the port has the following
meaning depending on its color:
8.1.2
off
Indicates that there are currently no cells being transmitted from
the port.
green
Indicates that a cell is being transmitted on the port. The intensity
of the green light increases as the traffic on the port increases.
Receive Indicators
The LED corresponding to the receive line of the port has the following meaning depending on its color:
off
Indicates that a carrier has been detected on the line. A carrier is
detected when there is a proper optical signal on the line.
green
Indicates that a cell is being received on the port. The intensity of
the green light increases as the traffic on the port increases.
red
Indicates a loss of carrier.
8-1
TAXI Configuration
8.2
Configuring TAXI Loopback
To facilitate testing of the TAXI ports, a diagnostic loopback configuration is
available. When a TAXI port is in loopback mode, it will no longer pass normal traffic.
To change the loopback state on a TAXI port, log in to the ATM Management
Interface (AMI) and open a session. (Please refer to Appendix A of this manual for information about logging into AMI.) Enter the following parameters:
configuration port taxi loopback <port> (diag | none)
The <port> variable indicates the TAXI port that is to be modified and the
(diag|none) variable indicates the type of loopback to be used on the specified port. The default loopback setting is none, which means that no loopback will take place on that port. If there are no TAXI ports on the switch
fabric, then this option is disabled.
After the loopback state is modified on a TAXI port, the switch control processor (SCP) immediately puts that change into effect on that switch fabric. At
the same time, that information is entered into the configuration database file
on the SCP so that the change will be put into effect every time the switch
control software starts on that particular SCP.
8-2
APPENDIX A AMI Overview
The switch software provides switch and connection management, IP connectivity, and SNMP network management. The Switch Control Software (SCS) is
the “brains” of the switch. The SCS controls the switch board(s) and handles
connection set-up and tear-down duties. The SCS can also communicate with
other FORE Systems switches using the SPANS NNI protocol to learn network topology and establish connections across multiple switches. In addition, there is an SNMP agent built into the SCS to allow SNMP management
and control.
The user interface to the SCS is called the ATM Management Interface (AMI).
AMI can be run on any Cabletron switch running switch software version
3.0.1 or later. This chapter contains a description of how to log in to AMI, how
to open or close an AMI session, and how to perform other AMI root level
commands. AMI allows the user to configure and to make statistical queries
of various hardware and software aspects of Cabletron switches and network
modules by providing a hierarchical menu system similar to a UNIX file system. A single root menu provides a number of commands. Some of those
commands, in turn, call submenus which provide a number of subcommands. At any given time, the user works within a particular submenu which
is indicated by the prompt. The user can traverse a submenu one level at a
time, or can traverse a number of levels simultaneously if the entire command
string is known. For example, to show the current configuration of the network modules, enter the following at the prompt:
localhost::> configuration module show
rather than entering one command line at a time as follows:
localhost::> configuration
localhost::configuration> module
localhost::configuration module> show
A-1
AMI Overview
Additionally, the user only needs to enter the minimum number of letters in a
command which would make the command unique to that level. For example, the user could enter co m s instead of configuration module show.
However, the minimum number of letters entered must also distinguish the
command from global commands, such as top or up. For example, you
would have to enter topo to distinguish topology from the global command
top or upc to distinguish upc from the global command up.
AMI is described throughout this chapter using the following conventions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A-2
All AMI output, including user prompts, is shown in courier font.
All user input; e.g., sub-commands, is shown in avant garde font.
Each submenu is described in a separate section.
Commands that are submenus are immediately followed by a “>”
symbol. The “>” should not be entered as part of the command.
Required parameter values are indicated inside angle brackets “< >”.
Optional parameter values are indicated inside square brackets “[ ]”.
The “[ ]” should not be entered as part of the command.
Parameter values that require a choice are separated by vertical bars
and are enclosed in parentheses “( | )” Neither the vertical bar nor
the parentheses should be entered as part of the command.
Optional parameter names are indicated with dashes “-”.
All port numbers are in BNP (board, network module, port) notation.
AMI Overview
A.1
Initial Login from Serial Port or Telnet
The user can log in to the switch either through the serial port or through the
Ethernet port using telnet.
A.1.1 Login from Serial Port
When connecting to the switch via the serial port, output similar to the following will be displayed on your console:
ForeThought_4.0.0 (1.15) (asx200bx) (fishtank)
Above, ForeThought_4.0.0 (1.15) indicates the version of software,
(asx200bx) indicates what type of switch this is, and (fishtank) indicates the
name that has been assigned to this SCP. If (ATM SWITCH) is displayed for the
switch name, this means that no host name has been assigned yet.
At the login prompt, if a password has been assigned to the switch, the user
should type asx <ENTER> and then type the password. The switch will not
echo the keystrokes of the password for security reasons.
login: asx
Password:
If no password has been assigned, enter asx <ENTER> at the serial port. In
either case, the following is displayed and a session is opened on the SCP:
ATM Management Interface v1.2
Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 FORE Systems, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
General commands:
'?' to get list of commands at the current level
'up' to go up one menu level
'top' to go to the root menu
'exit' to leave AMI
Opening a session for “127.0.0.1”, please wait...
Connected to “127.0.0.1” (asx200bx).
localhost::>
A-3
AMI Overview
A.1.2 Login from Telnet
To telnet to the SCP, enter the following parameters at the > prompt on the
host:
> telnet <name>
name
Enter either the name or the IP address of the SCP.
For example, to telnet to an SCP called fishtank, enter the following:
> telnet fishtank
When the telnet connection is established, something similar to the following
will be displayed:
Trying 204.95.89.231 ...
Connected to fishtank.
Escape character is '^]'.
ForeThought_4.0.0 (1.15) (asx200bx) (fishtank)
Above, ForeThought_4.0.0 (1.15) indicates the version of software,
(asx200bx) indicates what type of switch this is, and (fishtank) indicates the
name that has been assigned to this SCP. If (ATM SWITCH) is displayed for the
switch name, this means that no host name has been assigned yet.
Only one user may open an AMI session on an SCP at a time. The user will be
prompted to log in. The user should enter ami at the prompt.
If a password has been assigned, then the user will be prompted for that password. The keystrokes of the password will not be echoed for security reasons.
If no password has been assigned (e.g., the very first time you log in), then the
user will not be prompted for a password. For more information about how to
assign or to change the password, please refer to the section entitled “Setting
or Changing the Password” under “Operation Commands” in Appendix C of
this manual.
login: ami
Password:
The following is displayed and a session is opened on the SCP:
A-4
AMI Overview
ATM Management Interface v1.2
Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 FORE Systems, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
General commands:
'?' to get list of commands at the current level
'up' to go up one menu level
'top' to go to the root menu
'exit' to leave AMI
Opening a session for “127.0.0.1”, please wait...
Connected to “127.0.0.1” (asx200bx).
localhost::>
If another user already has an AMI session open on that SCP, then you will
not be permitted to log in and will receive the following message:
Another ami is running on this switch. . Exiting...
Connection closed by foreign host.
A-5
AMI Overview
A.2
AMI Commands Not Available When Running
Remotely
Some AMI commands are not available when you telnet or log in to a switch
remotely. For example, if you are logged in locally to a switch called fishtank
(you will see localhost::> as your prompt) and you open a session to a
switch called shark (you will see shark::> as your prompt), there are some
AMI commands that will not work on shark.
The following is a list of the commands that are not available when running a
remote AMI session, and the applicable switch platforms:
For the 9A000, SFCS-200BX, SFCS-200WG, and SFCS-1000 platforms:
•
•
•
•
•
•
configuration lane lecs get
operation cdb backup
operation cdb restore
operation password
operation reboot
operation upgrade
For the 9A000, SFCS-200WG, SFCS-200BX, and SFCS-1000 platforms:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A-6
configuration system syslog
configuration system timeout
operation cdb init
operation flash
operation panic
operation version
AMI Overview
A.3
AMI Root Menu for an Open Session
This menu is the root submenu for an AMI session. When AMI is first entered
from the serial port or telnet, the localhost session is the only open session.
The following information is displayed:
ATM Management Interface v1.2
Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 FORE Systems, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
General commands:
'?' to get list of commands at the current level
'up' to go up one menu level
'top' to go to the root menu
'exit' to leave AMI
Opening a session for “localhost”, please wait...
Connected to “localhost” (asx200bx).
localhost::>
By typing a “?” at any prompt, a list of available commands at the current
level is displayed. By typing a “?” at this root level prompt, the following
command list is shown:
localhost::> ?
about
help
ping
top
close
history
redo
up
configuration>
open
rows
exit
operation>
statistics>
Each of these root level commands is described in the following subsections.
A-7
AMI Overview
A.3.1 About Command
By entering the about command at the root level prompt, the user can display information regarding AMI and how to begin an AMI session on a host
or on a switch.
localhost::> about
ATM Management Interface v4.0
Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 FORE Systems, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
AMI uses SNMP to manage FORE Systems' ATM switches. AMI is platform
independent and runs on hosts and FORE ATM switches. When AMI is
executed on a host, you must first use the OPEN command to
specify the switch to manage. If AMI is started on the switch,
it immediately opens a connection to the local switch.
A-8
AMI Overview
A.3.2 Close Command
Any number of sessions may be opened to remote SCPs from your local SCP.
However, only one AMI session may be open at a time on any given SCP on a
9A000, SFCS-200WG, SFCS-200BX, or an SFCS-1000.
By typing close at the prompt, the user can end the current AMI session.
If an individual session is closed, the user is sent back to the last session that is
still open. For example, if you opened a session on switch1 and on switch2
from your local SCP, and you wanted to close the session on switch2, you
would be sent back to the last open session which is on switch1 as follows:
switch2::> close
switch1::>
If you decided to close the session on switch1, you would be sent back to the
last open session which is on your local SCP as follows:
switch1::> close
localhost::>
If all sessions are closed, the user is sent back to the root prompt as follows:
localhost::> close
>
At this point, the user can open another session or exit the switch.
A-9
AMI Overview
A.3.3 Configuration Commands
By entering configuration at the root level, the user can access several subcommands that allow the user to configure specific parts of the hardware or
specific properties of the software. The configuration commands are
described in detail in Appendix B of this manual.
A.3.4 Exit Command
The exit command lets the user log out of the main AMI system. When
entered, this command ends all open sessions on the SCP. Enter the following:
localhost::> exit
Connection closed by foreign host.
A.3.5 Help Command
By typing help at any submenu level, a list of available commands at the current level, and a short description of each command, is shown. By typing
help at the root level, the following commands and descriptions are shown:
localhost::> help
General commands:
'?' to get list of commands at the current level
'up' to go up one menu level
'top' to go to the root menu
'exit' to leave AMI
about
close
configuration>
exit
help
history
open
operation>
ping
redo
rows
statistics>
top
up
A-10
-
Display program information
Close this connection
System configuration submenu
Exit AMI
Display help for each command
Display command history
Open a connection
Switch operation submenu
Ping a host or switch
Repeat a history command
Get/set number of rows
Switch statistics submenu
Go to the root menu
Go up 1 menu level
AMI Overview
A.3.6 History Command
By typing history at any prompt, the user can list up to the last 20 previously
typed commands for that particular session as follows:
localhost::> history
1 open fishtank
2 stat
3 ?
4 module
5 oc3
6 port
7 spans
8 tcp
9 udp
10 vcc
11 vpc
12 up
13 help
14 history
A-11
AMI Overview
A.3.7 Open Command
The open command lets the user begin a session on a remote switch. At the
prompt, enter the following parameters:
localhost::> open <host> [<community>]
host
Indicates the host name of the remote switch on
which the user wants to open a session.
community
Enter the SNMP community string that indicates
level of access that the user has on the switch. The
default is public, which allows read-only access.
NOTE:
Although the default SNMP community
string is public, you must use the private
SNMP community string if you wish to make
any changes on the remote SCP (e.g., if you
want to create an SPVC to that SCP).
For example, to log in to a remote switch named fishtank using the public
community string, enter the following parameters:
localhost:> open fishtank public
Opening a session for “fishtank”, please wait...
Connected to “fishtank” (asx200wg).
fishtank::>
If another user already has an AMI session open on that SCP, then you will
not be permitted to log in to that SCP. You will receive the following message:
Another ami is running on this switch. . Exiting...
Connection closed by foreign host.
A-12
AMI Overview
A.3.8 Operation Commands
By entering operation at the root level prompt, the user can access several
subcommands that allow the user to manage various parts of the switch. The
operation commands are described in detail in Appendix C of this manual.
A.3.9 Ping Command
The ping command lets the user send a ping to another switch or a host to see
if it is “alive,” or reachable, by sending it an ICMP echo request and waiting
for a response. The user can access this command by entering ping at the root
level. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::> ping <IP-address>
IP-address
NOTE:
Indicates the IP address of the host or switch to
which the ping will be sent.
The ping is always sent from the first switch
or host on which AMI was originally started.
For example, you are logged into switch A.
From there, you open a session to switch B. If
you enter the ping command while in your
session on switch B, the ping is sent from
switch A, NOT from switch B.
A-13
AMI Overview
A.3.10 Redo Command
The redo command can be used in conjunction with the history command. It
lets the user repeat a command that was given in the same open session. The
user can access this command by entering redo at any level. To repeat the last
command that was performed, enter redo with no additional parameters as
follows:
localhost::> redo
To repeat a command given within the last 20 commands in the same open
session, enter the following parameters:
localhost::> redo <command-number>
command-number
A-14
This is the command and the number associated
with that command which was previously performed by the switch during this same session. The
user should enter the history command to list the
previous commands and their associated numbers as
shown in the following example.
AMI Overview
Type history at the prompt to list the last 20 previously typed commands for
that particular session as follows:
localhost::> history
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
open localhost
stat
?
module
oc3
port
spans
tcp
udp
vcc
help
history
Then, to repeat a previously given command, type redo and the command
number at the prompt. For example, to repeat command number 8, which is
listing statistics for tcp, enter the following:
localhost::> redo 8
tcp Counter
Value
------------------------------ -------------------tcpActiveOpens
1
tcpPassiveOpens
49
tcpAttemptFails
0
tcpEstabResets
1
tcpCurrEstab
1
tcpInSegs
14060
tcpOutSegs
9967
tcpRetransSegs
0
A-15
AMI Overview
A.3.11 Rows Command
The rows command allows users to set the number of rows that their terminal
displays. Users can access this command by entering rows at the root level as
follows:
localhost::> rows [<rows>]
Terminal Rows = 24
rows
Indicates the number of terminal rows to be used.
A.3.12 Statistics Commands
By entering statistics at the root level, the user can access several commands
that display operational performance and error information for the various
hardware and software features of the switch and the network modules. The
statistics commands are described in Appendix D of this manual.
A.3.13 Top Command
By entering top at any level, the user is sent to the root level of AMI. For
example, if you are at the operation cdb level and you want to go directly to
the root level, simply enter top at the prompt as follows:
localhost::operation cdb> top
localhost::>
A.3.14 Up Command
Entering up allows the user to go up one menu level. For example, if you are
at the configuration port e3 level and you want to go one level above that to
configuration port, simply enter up at the prompt as shown here.
localhost::configuration port e3> up
localhost::configuration port>
A-16
APPENDIX B AMI Configuration Commands
This chapter contains a detailed description of the AMI configuration commands. The main configuration menu can be found at the root level. There
are several commands available under configuration. Commands that are
submenus are immediately followed by a “>” symbol. Typing configuration
? at the prompt at the root level displays the configuration commands as follows:
localhost::> configuration ?
alarms>
lane>
rs232>
switch>
upc>
atmarp>
module>
snmp>
system>
vcc>
board>
nsap>
spans>
topology>
vpc>
ip>
port>
spvc>
uni30>
Each of these commands has a submenu of commands which are described in
the following subsections.
B.1
Alarms Configuration Commands
This submenu allows the user to configure alarms. The user can display the
list of available subcommands by typing alarms ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration alarms> ?
show
enable
disable
reset
B-1
AMI Configuration Commands
B.1.1
Displaying Alarm Conditions
This command lets the user display the status of all alarms. The linkFailed
and spansFailed alarms are available on all Cabletron switches. The powerSupplyInputFailed and tempSensorOverTemp alarms are available on all
switches. The powerSupplyOutputFailed alarm is only available on a
9A000, SFCS-200BX and an SFCS-1000. The fanBankFailed alarm is only
available on an SFCS-1000. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> show
AlarmType
powerSupplyInputFailed
powerSupplyOutputFailed
fanBankFailed
tempSensorOverTemp
linkFailed
spansFailed
AlarmStatus
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
MinorAlarm
disabled
disabled
disabled
disabled
enabled
enabled
MajorAlarm
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
disabled
disabled
Major alarm relay status: off
Minor alarm relay status: off
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
AlarmType
B-2
Displays the name of the alarm.
AlarmStatus
Shows whether the state of the alarm is active
(alarming) or inactive (not alarming). An alarm is
active if the underlying condition is detected. For
power supplies, the input failed alarm condition is
active if the input voltage is not within the nominal
range for the supply. This does not necessarily mean
that an output failure will result. A power supply
output failure condition is active if any power supply is failing or if it is physically removed.
MinorAlarm
Disabled means that this alarm type will not cause a
minor alarm. Enabled means that this alarm type
will cause a minor alarm.
MajorAlarm
Disabled means that this alarm type will not cause a
major alarm. Enabled means that this alarm type
will cause a major alarm.
AMI Configuration Commands
Major alarm relay status
Off means that no major alarms are currently active.
On means that one or more major alarms are currently active. Look at the AlarmStatus field to see
which condition is in a state of alarm.
Minor alarm relay status
Off means that no minor alarms are currently active.
On means that one or more minor alarms are currently active. Look at the AlarmStatus field to see
which condition is in a state of alarm.
B.1.2
Enabling an Alarm
This command lets the user enable an alarm. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> enable (major | minor) <alarm type>
major|minor
Designates whether the alarm type causes a major
alarm or a minor alarm when that condition occurs.
alarm type
Indicates the kind of alarm condition. Valid parameters are displayed in the AlarmType field when the
command string configuration alarms show is
entered at the prompt.
For example, to enable an overtemperature condition that is detected by the
overtemperature sensor as a major alarm, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> enable major tempSensorOverTemp
To verify that the change has taken effect, you can display the alarms:
localhost::configuration alarms> show
AlarmType
powerSupplyInputFailed
powerSupplyOutputFailed
fanBankFailed
tempSensorOverTemp
linkFailed
spansFailed
AlarmStatus
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
MinorAlarm
disabled
disabled
disabled
disabled
enabled
enabled
MajorAlarm
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
disabled
disabled
Major alarm relay status: off
Minor alarm relay status: off
B-3
AMI Configuration Commands
B.1.3
Disabling an Alarm
This command lets the user disable an alarm. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> disable (major | minor) <alarm type>
major|minor
Designates whether the alarm type causes a major
alarm or a minor alarm when that condition occurs.
alarm type
Indicates the alarm condition. Valid parameters are
displayed in the AlarmType field when the command string configuration alarms show is entered
at the prompt.
For example, to disable a link failure as a minor alarm, enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> disable minor linkFailed
To verify that the change has taken effect, you can display the alarms:
localhost::configuration alarms> show
AlarmType
powerSupplyInputFailed
powerSupplyOutputFailed
fanBankFailed
tempSensorOverTemp
linkFailed
spansFailed
Major alarm relay status: off
Minor alarm relay status: off
B-4
AlarmStatus
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
inactive
MinorAlarm
disabled
disabled
disabled
disabled
disabled
enabled
MajorAlarm
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
disabled
AMI Configuration Commands
B.1.4
Resetting an Alarm
This command lets the user reset either the linkFailed alarm, the spansFailed
alarm, or both alarms. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> reset (<alarm type> | all)
alarm type
all
Indicates which alarm to reset. Enter either link or
spans.
Indicates that both the linkFailed
spansFailed alarms will be reset.
and
the
For example, to reset the linkFailed alarm, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration alarms> reset link
Alarm linkFailed reset.
To verify that the change has taken effect, you can display the alarms:
localhost::configuration alarms> show
AlarmType
linkFailed
spansFailed
AlarmStatus
inactive
active
MinorAlarm
enabled
enabled
MajorAlarm
disabled
disabled
Major alarm relay status: off
Minor alarm relay status: on
B-5
AMI Configuration Commands
B.2
ATM ARP Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to manage the ATM ARP (address resolution
protocol) features. The user can display the list of available subcommands by
typing atmarp ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> atmarp ?
arpserver>
delete
flush
mapnsap
newclassicalip
newforeip
B.2.1
getnsap
show
ARP Server Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure the RFC-1577 ATM ARP server. The
user can get to this level by entering arpserver at the configuration level. By
entering arpserver ? at this level, the list of available subcommands for
arpserver is displayed.
localhost::configuration atmarp> arpserver ?
show
set
B.2.1.1
Displaying the ARP Server
This command shows the RFC-1577 ATM ARP server for the IP network.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp arpserver> show <interface>
qaa0 ARP server address: 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de.0020481900de.00
qaa0 is enabled for ARP server service
interface
B-6
Enter the name of one of the classical IP interfaces,
such as qaa0, qaa1, qaa2, or qaa3. The default is
qaa0, so that if no interface is entered, the switch
shows the ARP server address for qaa0.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.2.1.2
Setting the ARP Server Address
This command allows the user to set the address of the RFC-1577 ATM ARP
server. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp arpserver> set <NSAPaddress> [<interface>]
NSAPaddress
Indicates the ATM network layer address for the
RFC-1577 ATM ARP server.
interface
Enter the name of one of the Classical IP interfaces,
such as qaa0, qaa1, qaa2, or qaa3. The default is
qaa0.
The switch itself can be used as an ARP server. To do this, set the ARP server
address to be the NSAP address of the switch’s control port.
B.2.2
Deleting an ARP Entry
This command allows the user to remove an ARP entry from the ATM ARP
cache. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> delete <host>
host
NOTE:
Indicates the host name or the IP address of the endstation for which the outgoing ARP entry is to be
deleted.
If you have ILMI enabled on your switch,
ILMI creates an ATM ARP cache entry for
each address that it registers. These entries
cannot be deleted using this command.
B-7
AMI Configuration Commands
B.2.3
Flushing the ATM ARP Cache
This command enables the user to delete the contents of the ATM ARP cache.
Only dynamic ARP cache entries are removed. The switch asks the user to
verify that flushing the ARP cache is the desired action. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> flush
Flush the ATM ARP cache [n]? n
To cancel the command, type n and press <ENTER>, or simply type <ENTER>.
To flush the ARP cache, type y and press <ENTER>.
B.2.4
Getting the NSAP Address for a Classical IP Interface
This command displays the NSAP address of a Classical IP interface. Enter
the following parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> getnsap [<interface>]
qaa0 NSAP address: 47000580ffe1000000f12400de0020481900de00
interface
B.2.5
Indicates the name of the Classical IP interface to be
displayed. If no interface is specified, the NSAP
address of qaa0 is displayed.
Creating an IP to NSAP Address Mapping
This command allows the user to create an ATM ARP cache entry mapping a
particular IP address to its corresponding NSAP address. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> mapnsap <host> <NSAPaddress> [<interface>]
host
NSAPaddress
interface
B-8
Designates the IP address.
Designates the NSAP address.
Designates the Classical IP interface that should be
used to open connections to this NSAP address.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.2.6
Creating a Classical IP PVC
This command allows the user to create a new Classical IP PVC ARP entry.
All data is sent LLC/SNAP encapsulated. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> newclassicalip <host> <vpi> <vci> [<interface>]
B.2.7
host
Indicates the host IP address of the remote IP endstation.
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number of the Classical IP
PVC.
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number of the Classical
IP PVC.
interface
Indicates the name of the Classical IP interface to be
used for this connection. The default is qaa0.
Creating a FORE IP PVC ARP Entry
This command enables the user to create a FORE IP PVC ARP entry. Data on
this PVC is encapsulated using null encapsulation (also known as VC-based
multiplexing) as specified in RFC-1483. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> newforeip <host> <vpi> <vci> (4|5) [<interface>]
host
Indicates the IP address of the remote host.
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number. This must be 0.
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number.
4|5
Designates the connection’s ATM Adaptation Layer
(AAL) type.
interface
Indicates the FORE IP interface to be used. The
default is asx0.
B-9
AMI Configuration Commands
B.2.8
Displaying the ATM ARP Entries
This command displays the current ATM ARP cache. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration atmarp> show
localhost::configuration atmarp>
When the prompt is returned with no information displayed, as shown
above, then the ATM ARP cache is empty.
The following is an example of an ATM ARP cache.
localhost::configuration atmarp> show
IPaddress
If
VPI
VCI
AAL
Type
Direction
198.29.22.9
asx0 0
63
aal5
foreIpSVC
pending
198.29.22.15
asx0 0
231
aal5
foreIpSVC
pending
198.29.22.37
asx0 0
65
aal34 foreIpSVC
pending
IPaddress
If
NSAP Address
198.29.17.3
qaa0 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0138.002048102754.00
198.29.17.10
qaa0 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0137.002048100be6.00
198.29.17.15
qaa0 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0137.00204810048d.00
198.29.17.52
qaa0 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21b.0138.0020481b0138.00
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
IPaddress
If
Shows the name of the IP interface for this connection.
VPI
Displays the virtual path number.
VCI
Displays the virtual channel number.
AAL
Displays the AAL type of the given connection.
Type
Lists the kind of connection. Can be foreIpPVC,
foreIpSVC, classicalIpPVC, or classicalIpSVC.
Direction
Pending means that a connection has not (yet) been
established. Incomplete means that the IP-to-ATM
address mapping is not yet known for the given IP
address.
NSAP Address
B-10
Indicates the IP address for this connection.
Lists the NSAP address for this connection.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.3
Switch Board Configuration Commands
This submenu allows the user to configure default values for the switch
board. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing
board ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> board ?
clockscale
show
B.3.1
topology
Configuring the Clock Scaling Factor on a Switch Board
This is an advanced command that allows the user to set the clock scaling factor for traffic policing on a switch board. The switch board represents units of
time (i.e., burst tolerances) in internal units of clock ticks. Because of the 40
MHz clock used on the switch fabric, the maximum unit of time that can be
used by the traffic policing hardware is 0.838 seconds. However, the burst tolerance of some VBR connections is larger than 0.838 seconds, so they can not
be correctly policed by the switch. To accommodate these cases, it is possible
to scale the clock to represent larger amounts of time with the same number
of ticks. The user must enter the following parameters:
NOTE:
This command is only useful when performing traffic policing on VBR traffic with an
extremely large burst tolerance that is destined for a very low speed link. If these conditions are not represented in your network, it
is recommended that you leave this value at
the default setting.
localhost::configuration board> clockscale <board> <factor>
board
Indicates the number of the board being managed.
factor
Indicates the factor by which you want to scale the
clock. The scaling factor multiplied by 0.838 seconds
should be greater than the burst tolerance of the connection. The default is 1.
B-11
AMI Configuration Commands
B.3.2
Displaying the Board Configuration
This command shows the current configuration of the switch board. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration board> show
Board Version Model
1
1.0
asx200bx
S/N
4465
NMs VPIerrors VCIerrors ClockScale MulticastMode
4
2665
1469
1 extended
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Board
Version
Model
S/N
NMs
B-12
This is the number of the board (switch fabric) being
managed.
Designates the hardware version number.
Displays what type of board this is.
Indicates the serial number.
Shows the number of installed network modules.
VPIerrors
Lists the VPI lookup error cells arriving at the switch
on an unknown VPI.
VCIerrors
Displays the VCI lookup error cells.
ClockScale
Lists the factor by which the clock is being scaled for
traffic policing.
MulticastMode
If the switch contains any Series A or B network
modules, the switch operates in mixed (nonextended) mode. Otherwise, the switch uses the
added Series C functionality and operates in
extended mode. For complete information about
non-extended and extended mode, please see
Appendix A, Hardware Maintenance Procedures, in
the ATM Switch User’s Manual.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.3.3
Displaying the Board Topology
This command displays the SPANS topology of the ATM network of which
this switch is a part. All SPANS-NNI links appear in the topology. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration board> topology
B Source
1 f21a013a.08.0
1 f21a013a.09.0
Ipaddress
198.29.22.46
198.29.22.46
Destination
f21a013a.09.0
f21a013a.08.0
Ipaddress
198.29.22.46
198.29.22.46
Capacity Age
1544
0
1544
0
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B
Source
IpAddress
Destination
Indicates the number of the board (switch fabric).
Lists the source SPANS address of the link.
Shows the IP address mapping to the source SPANS
address, if it is known.
Indicates the destination SPANS address of the link.
IpAddress
Shows the IP address mapping to the destination
SPANS address, if it is known.
Capacity
Displays the link capacity in Kbps. A negative value
in this field indicates that the link has gone down,
but it has not timed out yet.
Age
Shows the age of the link. A value of -1 indicates that
the link is no longer present.
B-13
AMI Configuration Commands
B.4
IP Configuration Commands
These commands let the user change the IP configuration. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing ip ? at the configuration
level.
localhost::configuration> ip ?
address
admin
mask
route>
B.4.1
broadcast
show
forwarding
Configuring the IP Address
This command allows the user to configure the IP address of each of the
switch’s IP interfaces. Enter the following parameters:
NOTE:
On a new switch, the ie0, asx0, qaa0, qaa1,
qaa2, qaa3 interfaces are NOT configured.
An IP address must be configured for at least
one of the interfaces to allow IP access to the
switch, which, in turn, enables SNMP access.
By setting the IP address of the asx0 interface
or one of the qaa interfaces, in-band (over
ATM) access to the switch control processor
(SCP) is enabled. By setting the IP address of
the ie0 interface, out-of-band access to the
SCP is enabled.
NOTE:
The IP addresses must be configured individually on each SCP on an SFCS-1000.
localhost::configuration ip> address <interface> <address>
B-14
interface
Indicates the name of the IP interface to be managed.
Valid interfaces are: ie0 (the Ethernet interface), asx0
(the switch’s SPANS interface), qaa0, qaa1, qaa2,
qaa3 (the Classical IP interfaces), and lo0 (the
switch’s localhost interface that allows AMI to run).
address
Indicates the IP address for this interface. The state of
the interface must be up before setting the address.
AMI Configuration Commands
This can be changed using the configuration ip
admin command.
B.4.2
Configuring the IP State
This command allows the user to change the state of the IP interface to up or
down. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration ip> admin <interface> (up|down)
interface
Indicates the name of the IP interface to be managed.
Valid interfaces are: ie0, asx0, qaa0, qaa1, qaa2,
and qaa3.
up|down
Entering up changes the state of the designated
interface to up. Entering down changes the state of
the designated interface to down.
NOTE:
B.4.3
The switch’s localhost interface, lo0, must
always be up to allow AMI to run on the
switch.
Configuring the IP Broadcast Address
This command allows the user to modify the broadcast address for an IP
interface. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration ip> broadcast <interface> (0|1)
interface
Indicates the name of the IP interface. Valid interfaces are: ie0 , asx0, qaa0, qaa1, qaa2, and qaa3.
0|1
Indicates the IP broadcast type for this interface. This
is the host portion of the IP address that is used for
routing. Entering 1 causes the host portion of the IP
address to be set to all 1s. Entering 0 causes the host
portion of the IP address to be set to all 0s.
B-15
AMI Configuration Commands
B.4.4
Configuring IP Forwarding
This command allows the user to turn IP forwarding on or off. If IP forwarding is turned off, the switch will not forward (i.e., route) IP packets from one
IP interface to another IP interface. It is generally not necessary to turn IP forwarding off, except for security reasons. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration ip> forwarding (on|off)
on|off
B.4.5
Using on turns IP forwarding on. Using off turns IP
forwarding off.
Configuring the IP Subnet Mask
This command allows the user to modify the IP subnet mask. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration ip> mask <interface> <mask>
B-16
interface
Indicates the name of the IP interface. Valid interfaces are: ie0, asx0, qaa0, qaa1, qaa2, and qaa3.
mask
Indicates the subnet mask for this IP interface. It
should be entered in dotted decimal notation (e.g.,
255.255.255.0).
AMI Configuration Commands
B.4.6
Configuring IP Routes
This command allows the user to add a static IP route to the local IP routing
table, delete a static IP route from the local IP routing table, or list the current
static IP routes in the local IP routing table. The user can display the list of
available subcommands by typing route ? at the ip level.
localhost::configuration ip> route ?
new
delete
show
B.4.6.1
Adding an IP Route
This command allows the user to create an IP route. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration ip route> new (default|<destination-ipaddress>) <gateway> [<metric>]
[(host | net)]
default
destination-ipaddress
This parameter must be specified to create a default
route.
Indicates the destination IP network number.
gateway
Indicates the gateway address to the destination IP
network number.
metric
Indicates the number of hops to the destination IP
network. The default value of 1 is used if no value is
entered by the user. If 1 is specified, the route is created with the RTF_GATEWAY flag set.
host|net
Using host indicates that this is a host-specific route
with the destination being a specific node’s IP
address. Using net indicates that this is a networkspecific route with the destination being a network
IP address. The default value of net is used if no
value is entered by the user or if a value is entered
incorrectly (e.g., if a typo is made).
B-17
AMI Configuration Commands
B.4.6.2
Deleting an IP Route
This command lets the user delete an IP route. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration ip route> delete (default|<destination-ipaddress>) <gateway>
default
destination-ipaddress
gateway
B.4.6.3
A default must be specified to delete a default route.
Indicates the destination IP network number.
Indicates the gateway address to the destination IP
network number.
Showing the IP Routes
This command lets the user display the current IP routes. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost:: configuration ip route> show
Destination
default
169.144.48.0
169.144.60.0
169.144.64.0
169.144.200.0
169.144.204.0
169.144.205.0
169.144.206.0
Gateway
169.144.48.1
169.144.48.21
169.144.60.21
169.144.64.21
169.144.200.21
169.144.204.21
169.144.205.21
169.144.206.21
Metric
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Interface
le0
le0
asx0
qaa0
el0
el1
el2
el3
Flags
G
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Destination
B-18
Displays the destination IP network.
Gateway
Shows the gateway address to the destination IP network number.
Metric
Lists the number of hops to the destination IP network. The default is 1.
Interface
Displays the local IP interface used to get to the destination IP network.
Flags
Lists H if the route is host-specific (created with the
RTF_HOST flag set). Lists G if the route is networkspecific (created with the RTF_GATEWAY flag set).
AMI Configuration Commands
B.4.7
Displaying the IP Interface Configuration
This command allows the user to display information about the configuration
of the IP interfaces. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration ip> show
interface
ie0
asx0
qaa0
qaa1
qaa2
qaa3
lo0
el0
el1
el2
el3
state
up
up
up
down
down
down
up
up
up
up
up
address
169.144.48.21
169.144.60.21
169.144.64.21
netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
broadcast
169.144.48.0
169.144.60.0
169.144.64.0
127.0.0.1
169.144.200.21
169.144.204.21
169.144.205.21
169.144.206.21
255.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
127.0.0.0
169.144.200.0
169.144.204.0
169.144.205.0
169.144.206.0
IP Forwarding State: forwarding
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
interface
state
address
netmask
broadcast
Indicates the name of the IP interface.
Lists the administrative state of the IP interface.
Displays the IP address of the IP interface.
Shows the netmask address of the IP interface.
Indicates the broadcast address of the IP interface.
The user may also designate a single interface to be displayed by entering
show and the specific interface name at the prompt as follows:
localhost::configuration ip> show ie0
interface
ie0
state
up
address
169.144.48.21
netmask
255.255.255.0
broadcast
169.144.48.0
IP Forwarding State: forwarding
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for showing the configuration of all of the IP interfaces.
B-19
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5
LAN Emulation Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to configure LAN Emulation (LANE) on a
switch. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing
lane ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> lane ?
bus>
lec>
B.5.1
lecs>
les>
Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS) Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to configure a Broadcast and Unknown
Server (BUS) for an ELAN. The user can reach this level by entering bus at the
lane level. Enter the following parameters and type ? to list the various bus
commands:
localhost::configuration lane> bus ?
admin
delete
new
B.5.1.1
show
Configuring the BUS Administrative Status
This command lets the user change the administrative status of a BUS to up
(start a BUS service) or down (stop a BUS service). Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane bus> admin <BUS index> (up | down)
B-20
BUS index
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
BUS that is dynamically assigned by AMI when a
BUS is created to identify this service from any other
service in the same class. The index can be found
under the Index field when you enter the conf lane
bus show command.
up|down
Entering up changes the administrative status of the
designated BUS index to up. Entering down changes
the administrative status of the designated BUS
index to down. The default is up.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.1.2
Deleting a BUS
This command allows the user to delete a specified BUS. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane bus> delete <BUS index>
BUS index
B.5.1.3
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
BUS that is to be deleted. This number is dynamically assigned by AMI when a BUS is created. The
index can be found under the Index field when you
enter the conf lane bus show command.
Creating a BUS
This command lets the user create a BUS for an ELAN. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane bus> new <BUS Selector byte (HEX)> <BUS name>
BUS Selector byte (HEX)
Indicates the 20th byte of the ATM address of the
switch that is to run a BUS service (entered in hexadecimal format). Use the conf atmarp getnsap
command to display the entire ATM address.
BUS name
Indicates the name for this BUS. It helps the user to
remember which ELAN this BUS services.
B-21
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.1.4
Displaying BUS Information
This command lets the user display the current BUS information in one of
two ways. To display information about every BUS that is currently configured on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane bus> show
Index AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector
1 up
up
0x0b
Name
marketing
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Index
Shows the unique, positive integer index that identifies this BUS. It is dynamically assigned by AMI
when the BUS is created.
AdminStatus
Reflects any changes that the user has made to the
status of the BUS. Up means the user started the BUS.
Down means the user stopped the BUS.
OperStatus
Reflects the actual current status of the BUS. Up
means the BUS is currently active. Down means the
BUS is currently inactive.
Selector
Displays the selector byte portion (20th byte) of the
ATM address of the host or switch that is the BUS in
hexadecimal format.
Name
NOTE:
B-22
Lists the name of the ELAN that this BUS services.
When you change the administrative status
of a BUS from down to up, it takes a few seconds for the operational change to occur and
to be reflected in the OperStatus field. Therefore, it is possible for the information above
to show the AdminStatus as up, but the
OperStatus as down. If you show the information again after two or three seconds, the
change will have taken place and be reflected
here.
AMI Configuration Commands
To display information about a particular BUS that is currently configured on
the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane bus> show [<BUS index>]
For example, to display information about the BUS with an index number of
1, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane bus> show 1
localhost::configuration lane bus> show
Index AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector
1 up
up
0x0b
Name
marketing
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example showing every BUS configured on the switch.
B-23
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.2
LAN Emulation Client (LEC) Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure the LAN Emulation Client (LEC). The
user can display the list of available subcommands by typing lec ? at the
lane level.
localhost::configuration lane> lec ?
admin
arp>
delete
new
show
B.5.2.1
default>
Configuring the LEC Administrative Status
This command lets the user change the administrative status of a LEC to up
(start a LEC) or down (stop a LEC). Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec> admin <LEC index> (up | down)
B.5.2.2
LEC index
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
LEC that is dynamically assigned by AMI when a
LEC is created to identify this LEC from any others
in the same ELAN. The index can be found under the
Index field when you enter the conf lane lec show
command.
up|down
Entering up starts this LEC. Entering down stops
this existing LEC. The default is up.
Configuring LANE ARP Commands
These commands let the user configure the LANE ARP cache. The user can
reach this level by entering arp at the lec level. Enter the following parameters and type ? to list the various ARP commands:
localhost::configuration lane lec> arp ?
delete
show
B-24
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.2.2.1 Deleting LANE ARP Cache Information
This command allows the user to remove an ARP entry from the LANE ARP
cache or to delete the contents of the LANE ARP cache. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec arp> delete all | <MAC address>
all
Indicates that all of the entries are to be flushed from
the LANE ARP cache.
<MAC address>
Indicates the specific entry that is to be flushed from
the LANE ARP cache.
B.5.2.2.2 Displaying LANE ARP Cache Information
This command displays the current LANE ARP cache. The MAC address-toATM address mapping information for each LEC is stored here. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec arp> show [(advanced)]
By entering show without the advanced option, the basic LANE ARP cache
information is displayed as follows:
localhost::configuration lane lec arp> show
MacAddress
AtmAddress
ELAN
0020481a00d5 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d5.0020481a00d5.0b eng-net
By entering show with the advanced option, more LANE ARP cache information, including the VPI/VCI combination and any flags associated with
this entry, is displayed as follows:
localhost::configuration lane lec arp> show advanced
MacAddress
AtmAddress
ELAN
0020481a00d5 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d5.0020481a00d5.0b eng-net
vpi=0, vci=82, flags=valid
If the LANE ARP cache is empty, then the following message is displayed.
No LANE ARP entries are available.
B-25
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.2.3
Deleting a LEC
This command lets the user delete a LEC from an ELAN. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec> delete <LEC index>
LEC index
B.5.2.4
Indicates the unique, integer index of the LEC that is
to be deleted. This number is dynamically assigned
by the switch when a LEC is created and can be
found under the Index field when you enter the
conf lane lec show command.
LEC Default Configuration Mode Commands
These commands allow the user to set or to display the default LEC configuration mode. The user can show the list of available subcommands by typing
default ? at the lec level.
localhost::configuration lane lec> default ?
mode
show
B-26
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.2.4.1 Setting the Default LEC Configuration Mode
This command lets the user set the default mode for configuring all of the
ELANs that may be created on this switch.
NOTE:
If you chose manual mode, you must specify
the LECS address of the machine that will be
used as the LECS. If you choose automatic
mode, then the “well-known” LECS address
is used.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec default> mode (manual | automatic) [<LECS address>]
LECS address is required for manual mode.
manual|automatic
Using manual means that the LECS address specified here is used as the LECS address. Using automatic means that the “well-known” LECS address
(47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00A03E00000
1.00) as defined by the ATM Forum’s LAN Emulation standard is used as the LECS address. The
default is automatic.
LECS address
Indicates the ATM address of the LECS to be used
instead of the “well-known” LECS.
B.5.2.4.2 Displaying the Default LEC Configuration Mode
This command lets the user show whether the default LEC configuration
mode is manual (using a LECS other than the one at the “well-known”
address) or automatic (using the LECS at the “well-known” address). Enter
the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec default> show
LEC Default configuration mode: automatic
B-27
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.2.5
Creating a LEC
This command lets the user create a LEC (join an ELAN). When a LEC is created, a corresponding el interface is created. The interface name (el0, el1, el2,
etc.) is assigned based on the selector byte entered when the LEC is created. The
list of current el interfaces can be displayed using the conf lane lec show
command or the conf ip show command. Enter the following parameters:
NOTE:
This AMI command only allows you to create
an instance of a LEC on a switch. To create an
instance of a LEC on a host, you must use the
ForeRunner VLAN Manager or use a
ForeRunner adapter. Please refer to the respective User’s Manual for instructions.
localhost::conf lane lec> new <LEC Selector byte (HEX)> <ELAN name> [(automatic | manual)]
manual mode options: [-lecs <LECS address>] or [-les <LES address>]
Use ELAN name ''default'' to join default ELAN
LEC Selector byte (HEX)
Indicates the 20th byte of the ATM address of the
LEC (entered in hexadecimal format). Use the conf
atmarp getnsap command to display the entire
ATM address.
ELAN name
Indicates the name of the ELAN that this LEC is joining. If a failover mechanism has been set up in the
LECS configuration file, use the name of the failover
LEC (e.g., eng-net|0). For more information, refer
to Chapter 3 of this manual.
automatic|manual
Indicates the configuration mode that is used when
this LEC joins the ELAN. Using automatic means
that the the LEC attempts to contact the LECS using
the “well-known” address. Using manual and the
-lecs option means that the LEC attempts to contact
the LECS using the LECS address you specified here.
Using manual and the -les option means that the
LEC bypasses the LECS and directly contacts the LES
address specified here. The default is automatic.
-lecs <LECS address>
Indicates the LECS address to use instead of the
“well-known” LECS address.
-les <LES address>
B-28
Indicates the LES address to use for this ELAN.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.2.6
Displaying LEC Information
This command lets the user display the current LEC information in one of
two ways. To display information about all of the LECs that are currently configured on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec> show
Admin
Oper
Index Status Status Sel
Mode
MACaddress
IfName
ELAN
1 up
up
0x00 automatic
000000000000 FAILOVER eng-net|0
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.a0
2 up
up
0x01 automatic
000000000000 FAILOVER eng-net|1
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.a1
3 up
up
0x02 automatic
00204815096b el0
eng-net|2
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.a2
4 up
up
0x03 automatic
000000000000 FAILOVER sw-net|0
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.a0
5 up
joining 0x04 automatic
0a204815096b el1
sw-net|1
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.a1
6 up
joining 0x05 automatic
000000000000 FAILOVER sw-net|2
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.a2
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Index
Shows the unique, integer index that identifies this
LEC. It is dynamically assigned by the switch when
the LEC is created.
AdminStatus
Reflects any changes that the user has made to the
status of the LEC. Up means the user started the
LEC. Down means the user stopped the LEC.
OperStatus
Reflects the actual current status of the LEC. Up
means the LEC is currently active. Down means the
LEC is currently inactive. Joining means that the
LEC is in the process of registering with the ELAN.
Sel
Shows the selector byte portion (20th byte) of the
ATM address of the LEC in hexadecimal format.
B-29
AMI Configuration Commands
Mode
MACaddress
Shows the configuration mode that is used when a
LEC joins the ELAN. Automatic means that the
“well-known” LECS address and the default LES are
used. Manual means that the specified LECS or LES
address is used. The default is automatic.
Shows the Ethernet MAC address for this LEC.
IfName
Shows the el interface name of this LEC. If it is part
of a failover sequence, the the el interface name (e.g.,
el1) is displayed for the active el interface and
FAILOVER is displayed for the others.
ELAN
Shows the name of the ELAN to which this LEC
belongs.
NOTE:
When you change the administrative status
from down to up, it takes a few seconds for
the operational change to occur and to be
reflected in the OperStatus field. Therefore, it
is possible for the information above to show
the AdminStatus as up, but the OperStatus
as down. If you show the information again
after two or three seconds, the change has
taken place and is reflected here.
To display information about a particular LEC that is currently configured on
the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec> show [<LEC index>]
For example, to display information about the LEC with an index number of
3, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lec> show 3
Admin
Oper
Index Status Status Sel
Mode
MACaddress
IfName
ELAN
3 up
joining 0x02 automatic
00204815096b el0
eng-net|2
LECS:0x47.0079.00.000000.0000.0000.0000.00a03e000001.00
LES :0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.a2
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example showing all of the LECs configured on the switch.
B-30
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.3
LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS) Commands
These commands allow the user to configure the LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS). The user can display the list of available subcommands by
typing lecs ? at the lane level.
localhost::configuration lane> lecs ?
admin
delete
new
get
B.5.3.1
show
Configuring the LECS Administrative Status
This command lets the user change the administrative status of the LECS to
up (start a LECS service) or down (stop a LECS service). Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> admin <LECS index> (up | down)
B.5.3.2
LECS index
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
LECS that is dynamically assigned by AMI when a
LECS is created to identify this service from any
other service in the same class. The index can be
found under the Index field when you enter the
conf lane lecs show command.
up|down
Entering up changes the administrative status of the
designated LECS index to up. Entering down
changes the administrative status of the designated
LECS index to down. The default is up.
Deleting a LECS
This command lets the user delete (stop) a specified LECS service. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> delete <LECS index>
LECS index
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
LECS that is to be deleted. This number is dynamically assigned by the switch when a LECS is created
and can be found under the Index field when you
enter the conf lane lecs show command.
B-31
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.3.3
Creating a LECS
This command lets the user create (start) a LECS service. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> new <LECS Selector byte (HEX)> [-db <LECS database file>]
[-default <LES atm address>]
LECS Selector byte (HEX)
Indicates the 20th byte of the ATM address of the
host or switch that is to run a LECS service (entered
in hexadecimal format). Use the conf atmarp getnsap command to display the entire ATM address.
-db <LECS database file>
Indicates the full path to the location and name of the
LECS database file. The default file for a 9A000,
SFCS-200BX, SFCS-200WG, and an SFCS-1000 is
lecs.cfg. For information about configuring this file,
refer to Chapter 3 of this manual.
-default <LES atm address>
Indicates a default LES address to use in case the
LECS configuration file is inaccessible.
NOTE:
B-32
Only one LECS can be created per switch
because the LECS listens for requests on a
well-known address. However, more than
one LEC, BUS, or LES may be created on a
switch.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.3.4
Displaying LECS Information
This command lets the user display the current LECS information in one of
two ways. To display information about all of the LECs that are currently configured on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> show
Index AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector Database
1 up
up
0x0c lecs.cfg
Default LES :0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Index
Shows the unique, integer index of the LECS that is
dynamically assigned by the switch when the LECS
is created.
AdminStatus
Reflects any changes that the user has made to the
status of the LECS. Up means the user started the
LECS. Down means the user stopped the LECS.
OperStatus
Reflects the actual current status of the LECS. Up
means the LECS is currently active. Down means the
LECS is currently inactive.
Selector
Displays the selector byte portion (20th byte) of the
ATM address of the host or switch that is the LECS in
hexadecimal format.
Database
Shows the full path to the location and name of the
LECS database file. The default file for a 9A000,
SFCS-200BX, an SFCS-200WG, and an SFCS-1000 is
lecs.cfg.
Default LES
Shows the default LES address to use in case the
LECS configuration file is inaccessible. If one has not
been specified, shows all zeros for the address.
B-33
AMI Configuration Commands
NOTE:
When you change the administrative status
of a LECS down to up, it takes a few seconds
for the operational change to occur and to be
reflected in the OperStatus field. Therefore, it
is possible for the information above to show
the AdminStatus as up, but the OperStatus
as down. If you show the information again
after two or three seconds, the change will
have taken place and will be reflected here.
To display information about a particular LECS that is currently configured
on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> show [<LECS index>]
For example, to display information about the LECS with an index number of
1, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> show 1
Index AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector Database
1 up
up
0x0c lecs.cfg
Default LES :0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for all of the LECS configured on the switch.
B-34
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.3.5
Getting the LECS Configuration File
This command lets the user download the LECS configuration file. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane lecs> get <host>:<remotefile> [<localfile>]
host
Indicates the name of the host from which the LECS
database file is to be retrieved.
remotefile
Indicates the name of the LECS database file that is to
be retrieved.
localfile
Indicates the name of the file where the retrieved
LECS database file is to be stored.
NOTE:
The default local file for a 9A000,
SFCS-200BX, SFCS-200WG, and an SFCS-1000
is lecs.cfg.
NOTE:
On a 9A000, SFCS-200BX, an SFCS-200WG,
and an SFCS-1000, this file will be retrieved
via tftp.
NOTE:
For information about configuring this file,
refer to Chapter 3 of this manual.
B-35
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.4
LAN Emulation Server (LES) Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to configure the LAN Emulation Server
(LES). The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing les ?
at the lane level.
localhost::configuration lane> les ?
admin
delete
new
B.5.4.1
show
Configuring the LES Administrative Status
This command lets the user change the administrative status of the LES to up
(start a LES service) or down (stop a LES service). Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> admin <LES index> (up | down)
B.5.4.2
LES index
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
LES that is dynamically assigned by AMI when a
LES is created to identify this service from any other
service in the same class. The index can be found
under the Index field when you enter the conf lane
les show command.
up|down
Entering up changes the administrative status of the
designated LES index to up. Entering down changes
the administrative status of the designated LES index
to down. The default is up.
Deleting a LES
This command lets the user delete a specified LES. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> delete <LES index>
LES index
B-36
Indicates the unique, positive integer index of the
LES that is to be deleted. This number is dynamically
assigned by the switch when a LES is created and can
be found under the Index field when you enter the
conf lane les show command.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.4.3
Creating a LES
This command lets the user create a new LES. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::conf
[(colocated_bus)]
lane
les>
new <LES Selector byte (HEX)> <BUS ATM address> <LES name> \
LES Selector byte (HEX)
Indicates the 20th byte of the ATM address of the
host or switch that is to run a LES service (entered in
hexadecimal format). Use the conf atmarp getnsap command to display the entire ATM address.
BUS ATM address
Indicates the ATM address of the BUS associated
with this LES. If you are starting a colocated BUS,
then you only need to enter the BUS selector byte
instead of the full address. If the BUS is running on a
different switch, you must enter the full address. Use
the conf atmarp getnsap command to display the
entire ATM address.
LES name
Indicates the user-defined name associated with this
LES to help the user to remember to what ELAN this
LES belongs.
colocated_bus
If colocated_bus is entered when the LES is created, indicates that the LES and BUS services for a
particular ELAN are running on the same switch. It
is recommended that the colocated_bus option be
used when creating the LES.
NOTE:
By using the colocated_bus option, you are
creating a LES and BUS using a single AMI
command. There is no need to create a BUS
separately.
B-37
AMI Configuration Commands
B.5.4.4
Displaying LES Information
This command lets the user display the current LES information in four different ways. To display information about every LES that is currently configured on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> show
Index
1
AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector ELAN
up
up
0x0a eng-net
BUS:0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.0b (Co-Located)
2 up
up
0x1a eng-net2
BUS:0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.1b (Co-Located)
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Index
Shows the unique, integer index of the LES that is
dynamically assigned by the switch when the LES is
created.
AdminStatus
Reflects any changes that the user has made to the
status of the LES. Up means the user started the LES.
Down means the user stopped the LES.
OperStatus
Reflects the actual current status of the LES. Up
means the LES is currently active. Down means the
LES is currently inactive.
Selector
Displays the selector byte portion (20th byte) of the
ATM address of the host or switch that is the LES in
hexadecimal format.
ELAN
NOTE:
B-38
Shows the name of the ELAN that this LES services.
When you change the administrative status
of a LES up to down, it takes a few seconds
for the operational change to occur and to be
reflected in the OperStatus field. Therefore, it
is possible for the information above to show
the AdminStatus as up, but the OperStatus
as down. If you show the information again
after two or three seconds, the change will
have taken place and is reflected here.
AMI Configuration Commands
To display information about a particular LES that is currently configured on
the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> show [<LES index>]
For example, to display information about the LES with an index number of
2, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> show 2
Index
2
AdminStatus OperStatus
Selector ELAN
up
up
0x1a eng-net2
BUS:0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.1b (Co-Located)
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example showing every LES configured on the switch.
To display advanced information about every LES that is currently configured on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> show advanced
ELAN Name: “eng-net”
LES: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.0a
BUS: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.0b
Non-proxy Control Distribute VCC: 0.80
Proxy Control Distribute VCC: -.LEC #1 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.002048102a78.00 (non-proxy)
00:20:48:10:2a:78 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.002048102a78.00
Control Direct VCC: 0.77
LEC #4 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.10 (non-proxy)
00:20:48:1a:00:d0 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.10
Control Direct VCC: 0.98
LEC #5 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.10 (non-proxy)
00:20:48:15:09:6b -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.10
Control Direct VCC: 0.140
LEC #6 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.0020481013f6.00 (non-proxy)
00:20:48:10:13:f6 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.0020481013f6.00
Control Direct VCC: 0.144
B-39
AMI Configuration Commands
ELAN Name: “eng-net2”
LES: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.1a
BUS: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.1b
Non-proxy Control Distribute VCC: 0.79
Proxy Control Distribute VCC: -.LEC #1 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.002048102a78.02 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:10:2a:78 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.002048102a78.02
Control Direct VCC: 0.76
LEC #4 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.20 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:1a:00:d0 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.20
Control Direct VCC: 0.101
LEC #5 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.20 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:15:09:6b -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.20
Control Direct VCC: 0.141
LEC #6 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.0020481013f6.02 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:10:13:f6 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.0020481013f6.02
Control Direct VCC: 0.145
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B-40
ELAN Name
Shows the names of any ELANs associated with this
switch.
LES
Displays the ATM address of the LES that services
this particular ELAN.
BUS
Displays the ATM address of the BUS that services
this particular ELAN.
Non-proxy Control
Distribute VCC
Identifies the point-to-multipoint connection that the
LES maintains to all of the non-proxy LECs that it
services.
Proxy Control Distribute
VCC
Identifies the point-to-multipoint connection that the
LES maintains to all of the proxy LECs that it services. This entry is blank if no proxy LECs have
joined this ELAN.
LEC
Shows the LEC ATM address, shows the MAC-toATM address mapping for each LEC in this ELAN,
and shows whether or not this LEC is a proxy.
Control Direct VCC
Shows the point-to-point connection that the LES
maintains to this particular LEC.
AMI Configuration Commands
To display advanced information about a particular LES that is currently configured on the switch, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> show [<LES index>] [(advanced)]
For example, to display advanced information about the LES with an index
number of 2, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration lane les> show 2 advanced
ELAN Name: “eng-net2”
LES: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.1a
BUS: 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.1b
Non-proxy Control Distribute VCC: 0.79
Proxy Control Distribute VCC: -.LEC #1 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.002048102a78.02 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:10:2a:78 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.002048102a78.02
Control Direct VCC: 0.76
LEC #4 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.20 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:1a:00:d0 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f21a.00d0.0020481a00d0.20
Control Direct VCC: 0.101
LEC #5 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.20 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:15:09:6b -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.00204815096b.20
Control Direct VCC: 0.141
LEC #6 at 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.0020481013f6.02 (non-proxy)
06:20:48:10:13:f6 -> 47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.096b.0020481013f6.02
Control Direct VCC: 0.145
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example showing advanced information for every LES configured on
the switch.
B-41
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6
Network Module Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure the network modules. The list of
available subcommands can be displayed by typing module ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> module ?
show
timing>
traffic>
B.6.1
Displaying Network Module Configuration Information
This command allows the user to display information about the configuration
of the network modules that are currently installed in a particular switch
board. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module> show
Module Speed Ports Uptime
Type
4B
622.0
1 0d:17:58 NM-C-OC12c/STM4c-TIMING-SMIR-128KB-1PT (Rev. 1.0)
4E
2560.0
4 0d:17:58 NM-ASX1000-BPSwitch Backplane Netmod (Rev. 1551712.1)
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B-42
Module
Shows each network module that is currently in the
switch board. The 4 means that it is the switch fabric
in slot 4. B indicates the position of the physical network module in the switch fabric. E is the intra-fabric
ports to the other switch fabrics in the chassis.
Speed
Shows the speed in Mbps of the ports on the network
module.
Ports
Shows the number of ports on the network module.
Uptime
Displays the length of time that the network module
has been in its current state.
Type
NM stands for network module. C is the series of
network module. OC12c shows what kind of network module it is. TIMING means that it supports
distributed timing. SMIR means singlemode intermediate reach. 128KB is the shared memory size. 1PT
is the number of ports on the module. The E represents the intra-fabric ports to the other switch fabrics
in the chassis. Rev 1.0 is the hardware revision.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.2
Configuring Distributed Timing on a Network Module
These commands enable the user to configure or to display information about
the timing source of the network modules.
NOTE:
These commands apply only to FORE
Systems’ Series C network modules that have
distributed timing support.
Enter the following parameters to show the commands for network module
timing:
localhost::configuration module> timing ?
show
internalclock
exportclock
B.6.2.1
importclock
Displaying the Network Module Timing Source
This command allows the user to display information about the timing source
of the network modules.
NOTE:
These commands apply only to FORE
Systems’ Series C network modules that have
distributed timing support.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module timing> show
Module Internal
1C
export
Import
Primary
N/A
Secondary Current
N/A
N/A
Export
Primary
crystal
Secondary Current
crystal
primary
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Module
Shows each distributed timing network module that
is currently installed in the switch. The 1 means that
it is the first switch fabric. The C indicates the position of the network module in the switch fabric.
B-43
AMI Configuration Commands
B-44
Internal
Shows whether the export clock or the import clock
is being used as the internal clock for this network
module.
Import Primary
Defines the preferred import timing source for the
specified network module. This can be designated as
the export clock of a different network module on the
same switch fabric.
Import Secondary
Defines the backup import timing source to be used
for the specified network module in the event that
the import primary source is unavailable. This can be
designated as the export clock of a different network
module on the same switch fabric.
Import Current
Lists the current import timing source for the specified network module. In the event that the primary
source is unavailable, it reads secondary.
Export Primary
Defines the preferred export timing source for the
specified network module. This clock source may be
either recovered from one of the ports on this network module or this clock source may be the crystal
oscillator on this network module.
Export Secondary
Defines the backup export timing source to be used
for the specified network module in the event that
the export primary source is unavailable. This clock
source may be either recovered from one of the ports
on this network module or this clock source may be
the crystal oscillator on this network module.
Export Current
Lists the current export timing source for the specified network module. Normally, it shows primary. In
the event that the primary source is unavailable, it
reads secondary. If the export primary and export
secondary timing sources are both unavailable (i.e.,
both sources were defined as ports), the on-board
crystal is used as the export timing source. The
default setting is crystal.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.2.2
Configuring the Internal Clock Timing of a Network Module
Each network module installed in a switch has its own internal clock as a timing source. This timing source can be either the export clock or it may be the
import clock. This command allows the user to configure the internal clock on
a specified network module.
NOTE:
These commands apply only to FORE
Systems’ Series C network modules that have
distributed timing support.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module timing> internalclock <module> (export | import)
module
Indicates the specific distributed timing network
module to be configured.
export
Indicates the export clock is being used by this network module as the internal clock. This clock source
may be either recovered from one of the ports on this
network module or this clock source may be the crystal oscillator on this network module.
import
Indicates the import clock is being used by this network module as the internal clock. This clock source
is being taken from the export clock of a different
network module on the same switch fabric.
B-45
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.2.3
Configuring the Export Clock Timing of a Network Module
This command allows the user to configure the timing source for the export
clock on a specified network module.
NOTE:
These commands apply only to FORE
Systems’ Series C network modules that have
distributed timing support.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module timing> exportclock <module> (primary | secondary)
(<mod-port#> |crystal | none)
module
Indicates the specific distributed timing network
module to be configured.
primary|secondary
Using primary designates this as the preferred
export timing source for this network module. Using
secondary designates this as the backup export timing source to be used for this network module in the
event that the primary source is unavailable.
mod-port#|
crystal|none
Specifies the source of the export clock for this network module. Using mod-port# means that the timing source is recovered externally from this specific
port on a distributed timing network module. Using
crystal means that the timing is derived internally
from the crystal oscillator on this network module.
None is only available on the TP25 network module.
Using none allows the TP25 network module to disable transmitting sync pulses.
For example, to configure the fourth port on network module 1B as the secondary source of timing for the export clock, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module timing> exportclock 1B secondary 4
Note that for the final parameter, mod-port# , the user only needs to enter the
port number (e.g., 4), not the module and port number (e.g., 1B4), since the
second parameter is the module number.
B-46
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.2.4
Configuring the Import Clock Timing of a Network Module
This command allows the user to configure the timing source for the import
clock on a specified network module.
NOTE:
These commands apply only to FORE
Systems’ Series C network modules that have
distributed timing support.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module timing> importclock <module> (primary | secondary) (A | B | C | D)
module
Indicates the specific distributed timing network
module to be configured.
primary|secondary
Using primary designates this as the preferred
import timing source for this network module. Using
secondary designates this as the backup import
source to be used for this network module in the
event that the primary source is unavailable.
A|B|C|D
Indicates the import timing source will be taken from
the export clock from another (A - bottom left, B bottom right, C - top left, or D - top right) network
module on this switch fabric.
B-47
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.3
Configuring Traffic on a Network Module
These commands enable the user to configure or to display information about
the traffic on the network modules.
NOTE:
These commands apply to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters to show the commands for network module
traffic:
localhost::configuration module> traffic ?
epd
models
setmodel
fifoblock
B.6.3.1
show
Setting Early Packet Discard on a Network Module
This command lets the user set a threshold value for AAL5 Early Packet Discard (EPD) on a specified network module. This is the static threshold (in
terms of a specified number of cells) at which EPD is activated. AAL5 frames
that arrive when the shared buffer is over this threshold are discarded in
whole.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module traffic> epd <module> <number of cells>
B-48
module
Indicates the network module to be configured for
Early Packet Discard.
number of cells
Indicates the EPD threshold to be set. By default, this
value is set to 90% of the shared buffer size.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.3.2
Displaying Traffic Models for a Network Module
This command allows the user to display the different types of traffic memory
models on a network module.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module traffic> models
Model Unicasts
1
4096
2
6144
3
11264
4
6144
5
2048
6
3072
Mcasts McastOuts
512
1024
512
2048
1024
4096
4096
8192
2048
32768
128
1024
Cells
2048
12288
10240
8192
8192
13312
Name
small memory default
big memory default
big memory, more connections
big memory, more multicast
big memory, VP traffic shaping
big memory, fewer connections
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Model
Lists the memory model for this configuration.
Unicasts
Shows the maximum number of unicast connections
supported for this model.
Mcasts
Displays the number of input multicast connections
to support.
McastOuts
Cells
Name
Lists the number of multicast outputs to support.
Shows the total amount of memory that is available
for cells.
Displays the identifier for this memory model.
B-49
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.3.3
Setting Traffic Models on a Network Module
This command lets the user select one of the traffic memory models for a specific network module.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module traffic> setmodel <module> <model>
module
Indicates which network module is to be configured.
model
Indicates the predefined memory model to be used
for this network module. The various models make
different trade-offs between the number of cell buffers, and the number of unicast and multicast connections.
NOTE:
B-50
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.3.4
Displaying Traffic on a Network Module
This command enables the user to display traffic model information on the
network modules.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module traffic> show
Module Model Unicasts Mcasts McastOuts Cells Shared Used
EPD FIFOblock
1B
1
10
0
0
0
1232
0
1109 normal
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Module
Shows the network module that has been configured.
The number indicates the switch fabric and the letter
indicates the position of the network module in the
switch fabric.
Model
Indicates the memory model used for this network
module.
Unicasts
Displays the current number of active unicast connections on this network module.
Mcasts
Shows the current number of multicast inputs on this
network module.
McastOuts
Lists the current number of active multicast outputs
on this network module.
Cells
Displays the current number of active cells on this
network module.
Shared
Indicates the amount of shared memory allocated to
this network module.
Used
Shows the amount of shared memory currently in
use on this network module.
EPD
Lists the threshold, specified in cells, for Early Packet
Discard on this network module.
FIFOblock
Displays whether or not FIFO blocking is enabled on
this network module.
B-51
AMI Configuration Commands
B.6.3.5
Setting FIFO Blocking on a Network Module
This command lets the user set FIFO blocking on a specific network module
when the queues are full.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration module traffic> fifoblock <module> (normal | enabled)
B-52
module
Indicates which network module is to be configured.
normal|enabled
Normal indicates that the network module passes
traffic normally. Enabled means that FIFO blocking
takes place on the network module when the queues
are full. The default state is normal.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.7
NSAP Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to create, delete, and display NSAP static
routes; to create, delete, and display NSAP prefixes; and to display ILMI registered NSAP addresses. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing nsap ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> nsap ?
route>
B.7.1
prefix>
ilmi>
NSAP Route Configuration Commands
These commands let the user create, delete, and display NSAP static routes.
The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing route ? at
the nsap level.
localhost::configuration nsap> route ?
delete
new
show
B.7.1.1
Deleting an NSAP Route
This command enables the user to remove an existing NSAP static route.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration nsap route> delete <NSAP> <mask> <port> <vpi>
NSAP
Indicates the complete 20-byte NSAP route address
in hexadecimal format.
mask
Indicates the bit mask indicating number of highorder bits to use for routing purposes. The default
mask for the route to the host is 152 and the default
mask for the route to the switch is 104.
port
Specifies the port on which this NSAP route is to be
deleted.
vpi
Specifies the virtual path on which this NSAP static
route is to be deleted.
B-53
AMI Configuration Commands
B.7.1.2
Creating an NSAP Route
This command allows the user to create an NSAP static route. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration nsap route> new <NSAP> <mask> <port> <vpi> [-cost <cost>] [-cbr_cap
<cbr_cap>] [-vbr_cap <vbr_cap>] [abr] [epd]
B-54
NSAP
Indicates the complete 20-byte NSAP route address
in hexadecimal format.
mask
Indicates the bit mask indicating number of highorder bits to use for routing purposes. The default
mask for a static route to a host is 152 and the default
mask for a static route to another switch is 104.
port
Specifies the port through which this NSAP route
can be reached.
vpi
Specifies the UNI 3.0 signalling path through which
this NSAP route can be reached.
-cost <cost>
Indicates the routing metric for this link. There is a
cost for each link in a route. The sum of these link
costs determines the overall cost of a route. To expedite traffic on a route, the user should try to minimize the overall cost of a route. For a critical route,
then, choose a small cost value. For a lesser important route, choose a higher cost value. The default
value is 100.
-cbr_cap <cbr_cap>
Indicates the maximum CBR (Constant Bit Rate)
capacity allowed for any single connection on this
route. This number is limited by the actual CBR
capacity available on the output link specified for
this route.
-vbr_cap <vbr_cap>
Indicates the maximum VBR (Variable Bit Rate)
capacity allowed for any single connection on this
route. This number is limited by the actual VBR
capacity available on the output link specified for
this route.
abr
This is an optional parameter. The abr parameter
should be used for links that support ABR traffic.
The abr parameter should be not be used for links
that do not support ABR traffic.
AMI Configuration Commands
epd
This is an optional parameter. The epd parameter
should be used for links that support Early Packet
Discard. The epd parameter should not be used for
links that do not support Early Packet Discard.
The following is an example of how to create an NSAP static route:
localhost::configuration nsap route> new 0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.11f2.002048100464.00 152
1c2 0 -cost 200 -cbr_cap 20000 -vbr_cap 30000 abr
B.7.1.3
Displaying NSAP Routes
This command lets the user display the current NSAP static routes. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration nsap route> show
localhost::configuration nsap route> show
NSAP-address
Mask Port VPI Cost CBR
Mbs
47000580ffe1000000f21511f200204810046400 152 1C2 0
200 20.0
47000580ffe1000000f21511f20020481ee00000 144 1C3 0
100 70.0
47000580ffe1000000f21511f20020481ff00000 144 1C1 0
100 INF
47000580ffe1000000f21511f20020481ff12300 152 1C3 0
100 INF
VBR
Mbs
30.0
60.0
INF
INF
FLAGS
A
AE
AE
The fields in this display have the following meaning:
NSAP-address
Shows all current NSAP static routes on the switch.
Mask
Lists the bit mask indicating number of high-order
bits to use for routing purposes. The default mask for
a static route to a host is 152 and the default mask for
a static route to another switch is 104.
Port
Lists the port number on which the NSAP route
exists. The 1 indicates that it is the first switch fabric.
The letter C indicates the position of the network
module in the switch. The 1, 2, 3 indicate the specific
port number on the network module.
VPI
Shows the number of the virtual path on which the
NSAP static route exists.
B-55
AMI Configuration Commands
B.7.2
Cost
Shows the routing metric for this link. There is a cost
for each link in a route. The sum of these link costs
determines the overall cost of a route. To expedite
traffic on a route, the user should try to minimize the
overall cost of a route. A small cost value is assigned
to a critical route, while a higher cost value is
assigned to a lesser important route. The default
value is 100.
CBR
Displays the maximum CBR capacity allowed for
any single connection on this route. INF means that
user did not specify a value for this parameter when
the route was created, so the value defaults to the
capacity available on the outgoing link.
VBR
Displays the maximum VBR capacity allowed for
any single connection on this route. INF means that
user did not specify a value for this parameter when
the route was created, so the value defaults to the
capacity available on the outgoing link.
FLAGS
A means this link supports ABR traffic. E means that
this route supports Early Packet Discard (EPD). AE
means this link supports both ABR traffic and EPD.
No flags indicate that neither EPD nor ABR traffic are
supported on this link.
NSAP Prefix Configuration Commands
These commands enable the user to delete an NSAP prefix, create an NSAP
prefix, and display NSAP prefix information. The user can display the list of
available subcommands by typing prefix ? at the nsap level.
localhost::configuration nsap> prefix ?
delete
new
show
B-56
AMI Configuration Commands
B.7.2.1
Deleting an NSAP Prefix
This command lets the user remove an existing NSAP prefix. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::config nsap prefix> delete <port> <vpi> <prefix>
port
Indicates the port number on which the NSAP prefix
is to be deleted.
vpi
Indicates the number of the virtual path on which the
NSAP prefix is to be deleted.
prefix
B.7.2.2
Indicates the NSAP prefix for this entry.
Creating an NSAP Prefix
This command lets the user create an NSAP prefix. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::config nsap prefix> new <port> <vpi> <prefix>
port
Indicates the port number on which the NSAP prefix
is to be created.
vpi
Indicates the number of the virtual path on which the
NSAP prefix is to be created.
prefix
NOTE:
Indicates the NSAP prefix for this entry.
Because multiple prefixes are not supported
on the same port, delete the old prefix before
creating a new one.
B-57
AMI Configuration Commands
B.7.2.3
Displaying NSAP Prefixes
This command enables the user to display the current list of NSAP prefixes.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration nsap prefix> show
Port
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1B1
1B2
1B3
1B4
1B5
1B6
1CTL
VPI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
NSAP-Prefix
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f124.00de
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module
that is currently installed in the switch. The 1 indicates that it is the first switch fabric. The letter A indicates that the network module is installed in the
bottom left-hand slot in the switch. The letter B indicates that the network module is installed in the bottom right-hand slot in the switch. The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
indicate the specific port number on the network
module. CTL indicates the logical control port.
VPI
Indicates the number of the virtual path on which the
NSAP prefix exists.
NSAP-Prefix
B-58
Indicates the NSAP prefix for this port.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.7.3
NSAP ILMI Configuration Command
This command enables the user to display the NSAP addresses of all of the
ports on a switch fabric that have been registered via ILMI. ILMI address registration occurs between the switch and host. The switch sends the host its
13-byte NSAP prefix. If the host accepts the prefix, the host builds its own
NSAP address by appending its 7-byte host specific part. The host returns the
complete 20-byte NSAP address to the switch. If the switch accepts the
address, the switch enters that information into its topology tables and all
connections destined for that NSAP address are routed to that host. These
registration messages are sent over the reserved channel VPI 0, VCI 16. The
user can display the available subcommand by typing ilmi ? at the nsap level.
localhost::configuration nsap> ilmi ?
show
B.7.3.1
Displaying NSAP Addresses Registered through ILMI
This command enables the user to display the NSAP addresses of all of the
ports on a switch fabric that have been registered via ILMI. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration nsap ilmi> show
Port NsapAddress
1B1
47000580ffe1000000f215116f00204810046400
1D1
47000580ffe1000000f215116f00204810308600
Port
Lists the port number for which an NSAP address
has been registered via ILMI.
NsapAddress
Shows the NSAP address that has been registered
through ILMI for this port.
To display the NSAP addresses that have been registered via ILMI for a specific port, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration nsap ilmi> show [<port>]
localhost::configuration nsap ilmi> show 1B1
Port NsapAddress
1B1
47000580ffe1000000f215116f00204810046400
B-59
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8
Port Configuration Commands
These commands let the user manage the configuration of the various ports.
The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing port ? at
the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> port ?
cdvt
tp25>
sonet>
vbrob
B.8.1
e1>
ds3>
show
vbrbuffob
e3>
j2>
taxi>
ds1>
policing
traffic>
CDVT Port Configuration Commands
This command lets the user modify the input Cell Delay Variation Tolerance
(CDVT) on a per-port basis. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> cdvt <port> <us>
B-60
port
Indicates the port number on which the CDVT is to
be changed.
us
Specifies the new value for the CDVT setting in
microseconds.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.2
E-3 Port Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of the configuration of the ports on an E-3 network module. The following E-3 commands are
available only when an E-3 network module is installed in the switch fabric.
The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing e3 ? at the
port level.
localhost::configuration port> e3 ?
emptycells
loopback
mode
show
timing
B.8.2.1
scrambling
Configuring E-3 Port Empty Cells
Empty cells are cells that are sent as “filler” or place holders when there is no
real data to send. By sending these cells, network modules that are synchronous in nature can keep an even flow of traffic moving so that distributed timing can work properly. This command lets the user change the type of cells
sent as empty cells on an E-3 network module port. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration port e3> emptycells <port> (idle | unassigned)
port
Indicates the port number on which the type of
empty cells is to be changed.
idle|unassigned
Indicates the type of cells this port sends for filler
when the port is not sending data. Idle cells set the
CLP bit = 1 and unassigned cells set the CLP bit = 0.
Please refer to page 57 of the ATM Forum 3.0 Specification for more information. Idle = invalid cell pattern and unassigned = unassigned. The default is
unassigned. In general, it is not necessary to change
this variable from the default setting.
B-61
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.2.2
Configuring the E-3 Port Loopback
This subcommand allows the user to designate the type of loopback on a port
on an E-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port e3> loopback <port> (cell | payload | diag | line | none)
B-62
port
Indicates the port number on which the loopback
mode is to be changed.
cell
Choosing cell loopback means that the E-3 stream
received from the network is unframed into ATM
cells. The cells are then reframed and transmitted
back to the network.
payload
Selecting payload loopback indicates that the E-3
stream received from the network has the E-3 overhead bits re-inserted and is retransmitted to the network.
diag
Choosing diagnostic loopback connects the receiver
to the transmitter. The E-3 stream transmitted by the
switch to a port is looped back to the switch. The E-3
stream is still transmitted to the network, but the
incoming E-3 stream is ignored.
line
Choosing line loopback connects the transmitter to
the receiver. The data stream received from the line is
retransmitted out to the line. Cells that are switched
to this port are not sent over the line.
none
Selecting none designates that no loopback will take
place on the port. This is the default setting.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.2.3
Configuring E-3 Port Mode
This command allows the user to change the method used for cell delineation
on an E-3 network module port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port e3> mode <port> (plcp | hcs)
B.8.2.4
port
Indicates the port number on which the type of framing is to be changed.
plcp|hcs
Using plcp means the port uses PLCP (Physical
Layer Convergence Protocol) framing (G.751) for cell
delineation. Using hcs means the port uses HCS
(Header Check Sequence) based framing (G.832) for
cell delineation. The default is hcs.
Configuring E-3 Port Scrambling
This subcommand allows the user to change the scrambling mode on a port
on an E-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port e3> scrambling <port> (on | off)
port
Indicates the port number on which the scrambling
mode is to be changed.
on|off
Using on indicates that cell payload scrambling is
enabled on this port. Using off means that cell payload scrambling is disabled on this port. The default
setting is off.
NOTE:
The scrambling mode should be set to the
same status on both the transmitting side and
the receiving side.
B-63
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.2.5
Showing the E-3 Port Configuration
This command allows the user to display current information about an E-3
network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port e3> show
Port
1D1
1D2
1D3
1D4
Carrier
no
no
no
no
Status
0x72
0x72
0x88
0x88
Mode
hcs
hcs
hcs
hcs
Loopback
none
none
none
none
ClockSource
internal
internal
internal
internal
Scrambling
off
off
off
off
IdleCells
unassigned
unassigned
unassigned
unassigned
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B-64
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module
that is currently installed in the switch. The 1 means
that it is the first switch fabric. The letter D means
that the E-3 network module is installed in the bottom right-hand slot in the switch. The 1, 2, 3, 4 specify the port number on the network module.
Carrier
Shows whether or not a carrier has been detected on
the port. If a carrier has been detected, yes is displayed. If a carrier has not been detected, no is displayed. A carrier is detected when a signal is applied
to the receive side of the port. It does not guarantee
that the signal is the proper frequency.
Status
Indicates the E-3 line status of the port.
Mode
Indicates the mode of operation for this port. Plcp
means that the port uses PLCP framing for cell delineation. Hcs means that the port uses HCS cell delineation.
Loopback
Indicates the loopback mode on this port. Can be one
of the following: cell, payload, diagnostic, line, or
none.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.2.6
ClockSource
For all network modules, network means that the
timing for this port is derived externally from the
incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the
timing is derived from either the on-board crystal
oscillator or is set to be derived from a specific port
number on a Series C network module that is defined
by the user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit clock is derived from that port if available. If the
port source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal takes over as the transmit clock source.
Scrambling
On means that payload scrambling is enabled on this
port. Off means that payload scrambling is disabled
on this port.
IdleCells
Shows the type of cells this port sends for filler when
the port is not sending data. Idle cells set the CLP bit
= 1 and unassigned cells set the CLP bit = 0. Please
refer to page 57 of the ATM Forum 3.0 Specification
for more information. Idle = invalid cell pattern and
unassigned = unassigned. The default is unassigned. In general, it is not necessary to change this
variable from the default setting.
Configuring the E-3 Port Timing
This command allows the user to change the timing source on a port on an
E-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port e3> timing <port> (network | internal)
port
Indicates the port number from which the timing is
being derived.
network|internal
Designates the source of the transmit clock. For all
network modules, network means that the timing
for this port is derived externally from the incoming
clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is
set to be derived from either the on-board crystal
oscillator or is derived from a specific port number
on a Series C network module that is defined by the
user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit
clock is derived from that port if available. If the port
source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal
takes over as the transmit clock source.
B-65
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.3
TP25 Port Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of the configuration of the ports on a TP25 network module. The following tp25 commands
are available only when a TP25 network module is installed in the switch fabric. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing tp25 ?
at the port level.
localhost::configuration port> tp25 ?
loopback
show
B.8.3.1
Configuring the TP25 Port Loopback
This subcommand allows the user to designate the type of loopback on a port
on a TP25 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port tp25> loopback <port> (line | none)
B-66
port
Indicates the port number on which the loopback
mode is to be changed.
line
Choosing line loopback, also known as remote loopback, causes received data to be transferred to the
upstream system as well as to be looped back to the
transmitter.
none
Selecting none designates that no loopback will take
place on the port. This is the default setting.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.3.2
Showing the TP25 Port Configuration
This command allows the user to display current information about a TP25
network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port tp25> show
Port Carrier Media Loopback RxTiming
1A1 no
UTP
none
Yes
1A2 no
UTP
none
Yes
1A3 no
UTP
none
Yes
1A4 no
UTP
none
Yes
1A5 no
UTP
none
Yes
1A6 no
UTP
none
Yes
1B1 yes
UTP
none
Yes
1B2 yes
UTP
none
Yes
1B3 no
UTP
none
Yes
1B4 yes
UTP
none
Yes
1B5 no
UTP
none
Yes
1B6 yes
UTP
none
Yes
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module
that is currently installed in the switch.
Carrier
Shows whether or not a carrier has been detected on
the port. If a carrier has been detected, yes is displayed. If a carrier has not been detected, no is displayed. A carrier is detected when a signal is applied
to the receive side of the port. It does not guarantee
that the signal is the proper frequency.
Media
Displays what kind of physical medium is connected
to the TP25 interface. UTP means that it is Unshielded
Twisted Pair.
Loopback
Indicates the loopback mode on this port. Can be
either line or none.
RxTiming
Indicates whether or not the port is receiving an 8kHz
Timing Sync Marker. These markers can be used to
derive an 8kHz signal that can be transmitted from all
ports on the network module and back to the switch
fabric (on switches that support timing features). No
means that the port is not receiving sync pulses. Yes
means that the port is receiving sync pulses.
B-67
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.4
DS-3 Port Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of the configuration of the ports on a DS-3 network module. The following DS-3 commands
are available only when a DS-3 network module is installed in the switch fabric. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing ds3 ? at
the port level.
emptycells
scrambling
B.8.4.1
framing
show
loopback
timing
mode
length
Configuring DS-3 Port Empty Cells
Empty cells are cells that are sent as “filler” or place holders when there is no
real data to send. By sending these cells, network modules that are synchronous in nature can keep an even flow of traffic moving so that distributed timing can work properly. This command lets the user change the type of cells
sent as empty cells on a DS-3 network module port. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> emptycells <port> (idle | unassigned)
B-68
port
Indicates the port number on which the type of
empty cells is to be changed.
idle|unassigned
Indicates the type of cells this port sends for filler
when the port is not sending data. Idle cells set the
CLP bit = 1 and unassigned cells set the CLP bit = 0.
Please refer to page 57 of the ATM Forum 3.0 Specification for more information. Idle = invalid cell pattern and unassigned = unassigned. The default is
unassigned. In general, it is not necessary to change
this variable from the default setting.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.4.2
Configuring the DS-3 Port Framing
This command allows the user to designate the mode to be used on a port on
a DS-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> framing <port> (cchannel | cbit)
B.8.4.3
port
Indicates the port number on which the framing is to
be changed.
cchannel|cbit
Indicates the type of framing for the port. Using
cchannel (clearchannel) means that standard M23
framing is used on this port. The default is cbit
(cbitparity).
Configuring the DS-3 Port Loopback
This command allows the user to designate the type of loopback on a port on
a DS-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> loopback <port> (cell | payload | diag | line | none)
port
Indicates the port number on which the loopback
mode is to be changed.
cell
Choosing cell loopback means that the DS-3 stream
received from the network is unframed into ATM
cells. The cells are reframed and transmitted back to
the network.
payload
Selecting payload loopback mean the DS-3 stream
received from the network has the DS-3 overhead
bits re-inserted and is retransmitted to the network.
diag
Choosing diagnostic loopback connects the receiver
to the transmitter. The DS-3 stream transmitted by
the switch to a port is looped back to the switch. The
DS-3 stream is still transmitted to the network, but
the incoming DS-3 stream is ignored.
line
Selecting line loopback connects the transmitter to
the receiver. The data stream received from the line is
retransmitted out to the line. Cells that are switched
to this port are not sent over the line.
none
Selecting none designates that no loopback will take
place. This is the default setting.
B-69
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.4.4
Configuring the DS-3 Port Mode
This command allows the user to change the type of framing on a port on a
DS-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> mode <port> (plcp | hcs)
B.8.4.5
port
Indicates the port number on which the type of framing is to be changed.
plcp|hcs
Using plcp means the port uses PLCP (Physical
Layer Convergence Protocol) framing for cell delineation. Using hcs means the port uses HCS (Header
Check Sequence) based framing for cell delineation.
The default is hcs.
Configuring the DS-3 Port Scrambling
This command allows the user to change the scrambling mode on a port on
the DS-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> scrambling <port> (on | off)
port
Indicates the port number on which the scrambling
mode is to be changed.
on|off
Using on means that cell payload scrambling is
enabled on this port. Using off means that cell payload scrambling is disabled on this port. Only the
payload of the ATM cells is scrambled.
NOTE:
B-70
The scrambling mode should be set to the
same status on both the transmitting side and
the receiving side.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.4.6
Showing the DS-3 Port Configuration
This command allows the user to display current information about all of the
ports on the DS-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> show
Port Carrier Status Mode Framing Loopback ClockSrc Scrambling IdleCells Length
1A1 no
0x80
hcs cbit
diag
internal off
unassigned Gt225
1A2 no
0x24
plcp cbit
none
internal off
unassigned Gt225
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module
that is currently installed in the switch.
Carrier
Shows whether or not a carrier has been detected on
the port. If a carrier has been detected, yes is displayed. If a carrier has not been detected, no is displayed. A carrier is detected when a signal is applied
to the receive side of the port. It does not guarantee
the signal is the proper frequency.
Status
Indicates the DS-3 line status of the port.
Mode
Plcp means the port uses PLCP (Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) framing for cell delineation. Hcs
means the port uses HCS (Header Check Sequence)
based framing for cell delineation.
Framing
Indicates the type of framing used for the port. Can
be cchannel or cbit. The default is cbit.
Loopback
Indicates the loopback mode of the port. Can be one of
the following: cell, payload, diagnostic, or none.
ClockSource
For all network modules, network means that the
timing for this port is derived externally from the
incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the
timing is derived from either the on-board crystal
oscillator or is derived from a specific port number
on a Series C network module that is defined by the
user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit
clock is derived from that port if available. If the port
source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal
takes over as the transmit clock source.
Scrambling
On means payload scrambling is enabled on the port.
Off means payload scrambling is disabled on the port.
B-71
AMI Configuration Commands
IdleCells
B.8.4.7
Shows the type of cells this port sends for filler when
the port is not sending data. Idle cells set the CLP bit
= 1 and unassigned cells set the CLP bit = 0. Please
refer to page 57 of the ATM Forum 3.0 Specification
for more information. Idle = invalid cell pattern and
unassigned = unassigned. The default is unassigned. In general, it is not necessary to change this
variable from the default setting.
Configuring the DS-3 Port Timing
This command allows the user to change the timing source on a port on a
DS-3 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> timing <port> (network | internal)
port
Indicates the port number from which the timing is
being derived.
network|internal
Designates the source of the transmit clock. For all
network modules, network means that the timing
for this port is derived externally from the incoming
clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is
derived from either the on-board crystal oscillator or
is derived from a specific port number on a Series C
network module that is defined by the user. If set to a
specific port number, the transmit clock is derived
from that port if available. If the port source becomes
unavailable, the on-board crystal takes over as the
transmit clock source.
B.8.4.8
Configuring DS-3 Port Line Length
This command lets the user change the line length of a DS-3 port to correspond
to the physical cable attached to that port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port ds3> length <port> (Lt225 | Gt225)
port
B-72
Indicates the port number on which the line length is
to be changed.
Lt225
Use if the physical cable is shorter than 225 ft.
Gt225
Use if the physical cable is greater than 225 ft. This is
the default.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.5
J-2 Port Configuration Commands
These commands let the user modify various aspects of the configuration of a
J-2 network module. The following J-2 commands are available only when a
J-2 network module is installed in the switch fabric. The user can display the
list of available subcommands by typing j2 ? at the port level.
localhost::configuration port> j2 ?
line
loopback
show
B.8.5.1
timing
Configuring J-2 Port Line Length
This command enables the user to change the line length of a J-2 network
module port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port j2> line <port> (short | long)
port
Indicates the port number on which the line length is
being changed.
short|long
Indicates the length of the physical cable attached to
this port. If the line attached to the receive port has
greater than 4 db of attenuation, then the line must
be configured as long. If otherwise, then it must be
configured as short. In general, if the cable is less
than 20 feet, then configure the line as short.
B-73
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.5.2
Configuring J-2 Port Loopback
This command allows the user to configure the loopback mode on a J-2 port.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port j2> loopback <port> (line | diag | none)
B-74
port
Indicates the port number on which the loopback
mode is to be changed.
line
Selecting line loopback connects the transmitter to
the receiver. The data stream received from the line is
retransmitted out to the line. Cells that are switched
to this port are not sent over the line.
diag
Choosing diagnostic loopback connects the receiver
to the transmitter. The J-2 stream transmitted by the
switch to a port is looped back to the switch. The
stream is still transmitted over the cable, but the
incoming stream is ignored.
none
Selecting none designates that no loopback will take
place. This is the default setting.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.5.3
Showing J-2 Port Configuration
This command allows the user to display information about the configuration
of the ports on a J-2 network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port j2> show
Port
1D1
1D2
1D3
1D4
LineLength
short
short
short
short
Loopback
none
none
none
none
ClockSource
internal
internal
internal
internal
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module.
LineLength
Indicates the length of the physical cable that is
attached to this port. Can be short or long.
Loopback
Indicates the loopback mode of this port. Can be one
of the following: none, line, or diagnostic.
ClockSource
For all network modules, network means that the
timing for this port is derived externally from the
incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the
timing is derived from either the on-board crystal
oscillator or is set to be derived from a specific port
number on a Series C network module that is defined
by the user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit clock is derived from that port if available. If the
port source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal takes over as the transmit clock source.
B-75
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.5.4
Configuring J-2 Port Timing
This command allows the user to change the timing source on a port on a J-2
network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port j2> timing <port> (network | internal)
B.8.6
port
Indicates the port number from which the timing is
being derived.
network|internal
Designates the source of the transmit clock. For all
network modules, network means that the timing
for this port is derived externally from the incoming
clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is
derived from either the on-board crystal oscillator or
is set to be derived from a specific port number on a
Series C network module that is defined by the user.
If set to a specific port number, the transmit clock is
derived from that port if available. If the port source
becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal takes over
as the transmit clock source.
Port Policing Configuration Command
This command lets the user decide whether or not traffic policing is enabled
on a given port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> policing <port> (enabled | disabled)
B-76
port
Indicates the specific port number on which traffic
policing is to be enabled or disabled.
enabled|disabled
Choosing enabled means that traffic policing will
take place on this port. Choosing disabled means
that traffic policing will not take place on this port.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.7
SONET Port Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of the configuration of all of the ports on a SONET network module. The following SONET
commands are available only when a SONET network module is installed in
the switch fabric. The user can display the list of available subcommands by
typing sonet ? at the port level.
NOTE:
All 155 Mbps and 622 Mbps network modules use this same set of commands, regardless of whether they are singlemode,
multimode, OC-3, OC-12, or UTP network
modules.
localhost::configuration port> sonet ?
emptycells
loopback
mode
timing
B.8.7.1
show
Configuring SONET Port Empty Cells
Empty cells are cells that are sent as “filler” or place holders when there is no
real data to send. By sending these cells, network modules that are synchronous in nature can keep an even flow of traffic moving so that distributed timing can work properly. This command lets the user change the type of cells
sent as empty cells on a SONET network module port. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration port sonet> emptycells <port> (idle | unassigned)
port
Indicates the port number on which the type of
empty cells is to be changed.
idle|unassigned
Indicates the type of cells this port sends for filler
when the port is not sending data. Idle cells set the
CLP bit = 1 and unassigned cells set the CLP bit = 0.
Please refer to page 57 of the ATM Forum 3.0 Specification for more information. Idle = invalid cell pattern and unassigned = unassigned. The default is
unassigned. In general, it is not necessary to change
this variable from the default setting.
B-77
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.7.2
Configuring SONET Port Loopback
This command enables the user to configure the type of loopback mode on a
SONET port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port sonet> loopback <port> (line| diag | none)
B.8.7.3
port
Indicates the port number on which the loopback
mode is to be changed.
line
Selecting line loopback connects the transmitter to
the receiver. The data stream received from the fiber
is retransmitted out to the fiber. In line loopback, the
port acts as if it were an optical repeater. Cells that
are switched to this port are not sent over the fiber.
diag
Choosing diagnostic loopback connects the receiver
to the transmitter. The SONET stream transmitted by
the fiber to a port is looped back to the fiber. The
stream is still transmitted over the fiber, but the
incoming stream is ignored.
none
Selecting none designates that no loopback will take
place. This is the default setting.
Configuring SONET Port Mode
This command lets the user designate the mode to be used on a SONET network module port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port sonet> mode <port> (sonet|sdh)
B-78
port
Indicates the port number on which the mode is to be
changed.
sonet|sdh
Indicates the mode of operation for this port. Can be
sonet or sdh.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.7.4
Showing the SONET Port Configuration
This command lets the user display information about the configuration of all
of the ports on a SONET network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port sonet> show
Port
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
Width
sts3c
sts3c
sts3c
sts3c
Carrier
no
no
yes
no
Status
0x2
0x2
0x1
0x2
Line
SMM
SMM
SMM
SMM
Mode
sonet
sonet
sonet
sonet
Loopback
none
none
none
none
ClockSource
internal
internal
internal
internal
Scramb.
on
on
on
on
IdleCells
unassigned
unassigned
unassigned
unassigned
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module
that is currently installed in the switch fabric. The 1
means that it is the first switch fabric. The letter A
means that the SONET network module is installed
in the bottom left-hand slot in the switch fabric. The
1, 2, 3, 4 indicate the specific port number on the network module.
Width
Indicates the type of the SONET path. sts3c is 155.52
Mbps and sts12c is 622.08 Mbps. The SDH transmission rate STM-1 is equivalent to SONET rate STS-3
and STM-4 is equivalent to STS-12. The user can not
change this parameter.
Carrier
Shows whether or not a carrier has been detected on
the port. If a carrier has been detected, yes is displayed. If a carrier has not been detected, no is displayed. A carrier is detected when a signal is applied
to the receive side of the port. It does not guarantee
the signal is the proper frequency.
Status
Line
Indicates the SONET line status of the port.
Displays the line type for this interface. The line type
for optical SONET signals may be SMSR (155 Mbps
single-mode short reach), SMIR (622 Mbps singlemode intermediate reach), other (155 Mbps singlemode long reach), or MM (155 Mbps or 622 Mbps
multi-mode) fiber. For electrical interfaces, the line
type is UTP (155 Mbps Unshielded Twisted Pair).
B-79
AMI Configuration Commands
B-80
Mode
Indicates the mode of operation for this port. Can be
sonet or sdh.
Loopback
Indicates the loopback mode on this port. Can be one
of the following: none, line, or diagnostic.
ClockSource
For all network modules, network means that the
timing for this port is derived externally from the
incoming clock on this port. Internal means that the
timing is derived from either the on-board crystal
oscillator or is derived from a specific port number
on a Series C network module that is defined by the
user. If set to a specific port number, the transmit
clock is derived from that port if available. If the port
source becomes unavailable, the on-board crystal
takes over as the transmit clock source.
Scrambling
On indicates that payload scrambling is enabled on
this port. Off means that payload scrambling is disabled on this port.
IdleCells
Indicates the type of cells this port sends for filler
when the port is not sending data. Idle cells set the
CLP bit = 1 and unassigned cells set the CLP bit = 0.
Please refer to page 57 of the ATM Forum 3.0 Specification for more information. Idle = invalid cell pattern and unassigned = unassigned. The default is
unassigned. In general, it is not necessary to change
this variable from the default setting.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.7.5
Configuring SONET Port Timing
This command allows the user to change the timing source on a port on a
SONET network module.
NOTE:
This option is not available on an OC-12 network module because it always uses internal
timing. To configure distributed timing on an
OC-12 network module, use the configuration module timing commands.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port sonet> timing <port> (network | internal)
port
Indicates the port number from which the timing is
being derived.
network|internal
Designates the source of the transmit clock. For all
network modules, network means that the timing
for this port is derived externally from the incoming
clock on this port. Internal means that the timing is
derived from either the on-board crystal oscillator or
is derived from a specific port number on a Series C
network module that is defined by the user. If set to a
specific port number, the transmit clock is derived
from that port if available. If the port source becomes
unavailable, the on-board crystal takes over as the
transmit clock source.
B-81
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.8
Showing the Port Configuration
This command lets the user display port information about all of the ports on
an individual switch fabric or about just a specified port. To show general
information about all of the ports, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> show
Port
1C1
1C2
1C3
1C4
1D1
1D2
1D3
1D4
1CTL
Carrier
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
Mb/s iVPs iVCs
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
2
155.0
1
5
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
80.0
1
28
iBW oVPs oVCs
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
3
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
155.0
1
4
0.0
1
36
oBw
155.0
155.0
155.0
155.0
0.0
155.0
155.0
155.0
0.0
Model
OC3
OC3
OC3
OC3
OC3
OC3
OC3
OC3
ASX
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B-82
Port
Indicates the port number of the network modules
that are currently installed in the switch fabric. CTL
indicates the control port, which is a logical (not
physical) location where cells that are directed to the
SCP itself are sent.
Carrier
Shows whether or not a carrier has been detected on
the port. If a carrier has been detected, yes is displayed. If a carrier has not been detected, no is displayed. A carrier is detected when a signal is applied
to the receive side of the port. It does not guarantee
the signal is the proper frequency.
Mb/s
Displays the capacity of this port’s link in Mbps.
iVPs
Shows the number of incoming virtual paths on the
port.
iVCs
Indicates the number of incoming virtual channels
on the port.
iBW
Lists the amount of bandwidth (in Mbps) that has
been reserved for the input link on the port.
oVPs
Designates the number of outgoing virtual paths on
the port.
AMI Configuration Commands
oVCs
Indicates the number of outgoing virtual channels
on the port.
oBw
Shows the amount of bandwidth (in Mbps) for the
output link on the port.
Model
Lists the type of network module. For the control
port, lists ASX.
To show advanced information about all of the ports, enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration port> show advanced
Port
1C1
1C2
1C3
1C4
1D1
1D2
1D3
1D4
1CTL
CDVT
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
250
5000
Policing VBROB BuffOB
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
enabled
100
100
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Port
Indicates the port number of the network modules
that are currently installed in the switch fabric.
CDVT
Shows the default value for the cell delay variation
tolerance setting in microseconds.
Policing
Displays whether or not traffic policing is enabled or
disabled for this port.
VBROB
Shows the bandwidth overbooking level configured
on this port, specified as a percentage. Valid values
are integers from 1 to 500. The default is 100, which
means that no overbooking has been defined. Values
less than 100 cause underbooking. Values greater
than 100 denote overbooking.
B-83
AMI Configuration Commands
BuffOB
Indicates the buffer overbooking level configured on
this port, specified as a percentage. Enter an integer
value greater than or equal to 1. The default is 100,
which means that no overbooking has been defined.
Values less than 100 cause underbooking. Values
greater than 100 denote overbooking.
To list port information for just a specified port, (for example, port 1C1), enter
the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> show 1C1
Port Carrier
1C1 no
Mb/s iVPs iVCs
155.0
1
4
iBW oVPs oVCs
155.0
1
4
oBw Model
155.0 OC3
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for all of the ports on an individual switch fabric.
To list advanced port information for just a specified port, (for example, port
1C1), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> show 1C1 advanced
Port
1C1
CDVT
250
Policing VBROB BuffOB
enabled
100
100
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for all of the ports on an individual switch fabric.
B-84
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.9
TAXI Port Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of the configuration of all of the ports on a TAXI network module. The following TAXI commands are available only when a TAXI network module is installed in the
switch fabric. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing taxi ? at the port level.
localhost::configuration port> taxi ?
loopback
show
B.8.9.1
Configuring TAXI Port Loopback
This command allows the user to designate the type of loopback on a port on
a TAXI network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port taxi> loopback <port> (diag | none)
port
Indicates the port number on which the loopback
mode is to be changed.
diag
Choosing diagnostic loopback connects the receiver
to the transmitter. The TAXI stream transmitted by
the fiber to a port is looped back to the fiber. The
stream is still transmitted over the fiber, but the
incoming stream is ignored.
none
Selecting none designates that no loopback will take
place. This is the default setting.
B-85
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.9.2
Showing the TAXI Port Configuration
This command enables the user to display current information about all of the
ports on a TAXI network module. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port taxi> show
Port
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1A5
1A6
Carrier
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
State
up
down
down
down
down
up
Obuf
8192 C
8192 C
8192 C
8192 C
8192 C
8192 C
Version Loopback
Model
none
NM-C-TAXI-100-ST-128KB-6PT
none
NM-C-TAXI-100-ST-128KB-6PT
none
NM-C-TAXI-100-ST-128KB-6PT
none
NM-C-TAXI-100-ST-128KB-6PT
none
NM-C-TAXI-100-ST-128KB-6PT
none
NM-C-TAXI-100-ST-128KB-6PT
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B-86
Port
Indicates the port number of the network module
that is currently installed in the switch fabric. The 4
means that it is the fourth switch fabric. The letter B
indicates that the TAXI network module is installed
in the bottom right-hand slot in the switch fabric.
The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 refer to the specific port number on
the network module.
Carrier
Shows whether or not a carrier has been detected on
the port. If a carrier has been detected, yes is displayed. If a carrier has not been detected, no is displayed. A carrier is detected when a signal is applied
to the receive side of the port. It does not guarantee
the signal is the proper frequency.
State
Displays the current state of the port.
Obuf
Lists the size in cells of the port’s output buffer.
Version
Shows the hardware version of the network module.
Loopback
Indicates the loopback mode of this port. Can be
either none or diagnostic.
Model
Displays the type of network module. NM means
network module, C means that it is series C hardware, TAXI means that it is a TAXI network module,
100 indicates its speed in Mbps, ST indicates the connector type, 128 KB is the shared memory size, and
6PT indicates that it is a six-port version.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.10
Traffic Port Configuration Commands
These commands enable the user to configure various traffic features on an
individual port on a Series C network module on the switch. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing traffic ? at the port level.
localhost::configuration port> traffic ?
cdv
efci
qsize
B.8.10.1
show
Configuring Cell Delay Variation on a Port
On a Series C network module, there are two output queues that are 256 cells
deep, by default, one for Constant Bit Rate (CBR) and one for Variable Bit
Rate (VBR). The Cell Delay Variation (CDV) for CBR is calculated as the CBR
cell queue depth (256 cells by default) multiplied by 1 cell time. The CDV for
VBR is calculated as the VBR cell queue depth (256 cells by default) multiplied by 1 cell time plus the CBR CDV. The CDV also varies depending on the
physical interface on which the link is running (e.g., a 155 Mbps connection
versus a 45 Mbps connection). This command lets the user set the maximum
CDV on a worst case basis that cells for a specified output port and priority
(CBR or VBR) should incur. This number is used to determine the size of the
buffers reserved for CBR and VBR traffic.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port traffic> cdv <port> (CBR | VBR) <CDV in microseconds>
port
Indicates the port on which the CDV will be set.
CBR|VBR
Indicates if the CDV is for output CBR traffic or for
output VBR traffic.
CDV
Specified in microseconds, indicates the cell delay
variation, that an output cell experiences under the
worst conditions.
NOTE:
The switch control software must be restarted
for this command to take effect.
B-87
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.10.2
Configuring EFCI on a Port
This command allows the user to designate the cell buffer threshold over
which Available Bit Rate (ABR) cells and Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) cells
have their explicit forward congestion indicator (EFCI) code point set. When
the EFCI code point is set, this signals congestion to downstream switch fabrics and to future ABR and UBR flow control mechanisms. Once this threshold is surpassed, EFCI continues to be set until the queue empties.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port traffic> efci <port> (on | off) <threshold>
B-88
port
Indicates the port on which the EFCI threshold will
be set.
on|off
On means the EFCI will be set when the threshold
number is reached, signalling congestion. Off means
the EFCI will be cleared when the threshold number
is reached, indicating no congestion.
threshold
Indicates the number of cells over which the ABR
cells and the UBR cells will have EFCI set. The
default value is 64 cells.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.10.3
Configuring Port Queue Size
This command enables the user to designate the dedicated queue size for a
given type of traffic on a specified port.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port traffic> qsize <port> (CBR | VBR | ABR) <number of cells>
port
Indicates the port on which the dedicated queue size
will be set.
CBR|VBR|ABR
Indicates for which type of traffic (CBR, VBR, or
ABR) to set the dedicated queue size.
number of cells
Indicates the queue size to be assigned to the traffic
designated in the previous parameter. The default is
256 cells.
NOTE:
The switch control software must be restarted
for this command to take effect.
B-89
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.10.4
Displaying Port Traffic and Priority Queue Information
This command lets the user display port traffic information and port priority
queue information for all of the ports on all of the Series C network modules.
NOTE:
This command applies to FORE Systems’
Series C network modules only.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port traffic> show
Port configuration:
CBR
Port
Qsize
CDV
4A1
256
700
4A2
256
700
4A3
256
700
4A4
256
700
VBR
Qsize
256
256
256
256
CDV
1400
1400
1400
1400
ABR-UBR
Qsize EFCI-ON EFCI-OFF
256
64
0
256
64
0
256
64
0
256
64
0
Port priority queues:
Port
4A1
4A1
4A1
4A2
4A2
4A2
4A3
4A3
4A3
4A4
4A4
4A4
CLP
Qsize
Qsize
Priority Threshold Dedicated Current
ABR-UBR
256
256
0
VBR
256
256
0
CBR
256
256
0
ABR-UBR
256
256
0
VBR
256
256
0
CBR
256
256
0
ABR-UBR
256
256
0
VBR
256
256
0
CBR
256
256
0
ABR-UBR
256
256
0
VBR
256
256
0
CBR
256
256
0
TxCells
110957
0
0
17930
0
0
17931
0
0
17932
0
0
LostCells
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The fields in the port configuration display are defined as follows:
Port
B-90
Shows the port that has been configured. The 4 indicates the fourth switch fabric, the letter indicates the
position of the network module in the switch fabric,
and the 1, 2, 3, or 4 indicates the specific port num-
AMI Configuration Commands
ber.
CBR Qsize
Displays the reserved queue size for CBR traffic. The
default setting is 256 cells.
CBR CDV
Shows the maximum cell delay variation for CBR
traffic specified in microseconds.
VBR Qsize
Displays the reserved queue size for VBR traffic. The
default setting is 256 cells.
VBR CDV
Shows the maximum cell delay variation for VBR
traffic specified in microseconds.
ABR-UBR Qsize
Displays the reserved queue size for ABR/UBR traffic. The default setting is 256 cells.
ABR-UBR EFCI-ON
Shows the value at which the EFCI will be set
(turned on) when the threshold number is reached,
signalling congestion, for ABR and UBR traffic.
ABR-UBR EFCI-OFF
Shows the value at which the EFCI will be cleared
(turned off) when the threshold number is reached,
indicating no congestion, for ABR and UBR traffic.
The fields in the port priority queues display are defined as follows:
Port
Priority
Shows the port that has been configured. The 4 indicates the fourth switch fabric, the letter indicates the
position of the network module in the switch fabric,
and the 1, 2, 3, or 4 indicates the specific port number.
Indicates the type of traffic for this port.
CLP Threshold
Lists the value at which cells that have been tagged
as non-conforming will be dropped for this priority
and port. This parameter can not be changed.
Qsize Dedicated
Displays the reserved queue size for the type of traffic specified in the Priority field. This parameter can
not be changed.
Qsize Current
Shows the amount of the reserved queue size that
has already been used on this port for the specified
type of traffic.
TxCells
Lists the amount of traffic that has been transmitted
on this port for the specified type of traffic.
LostCells
Shows the number of cells dropped on this port for
the specified type of traffic.
B-91
AMI Configuration Commands
This command also lets the user show port traffic information and port priority queue information for an individual port on a Series C network module.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port traffic> show [<port>]
localhost::configuration port traffic> show 4A4
Port configuration:
CBR
Port
Qsize
CDV
4A4
256
700
VBR
Qsize
256
CDV
1400
ABR-UBR
Qsize EFCI-ON EFCI-OFF
256
64
0
Port priority queues:
Port
4A4
4A4
4A4
CLP
Qsize
Qsize
Priority Threshold Dedicated Current
ABR-UBR
256
256
0
VBR
256
256
0
CBR
256
256
0
TxCells
17932
0
0
LostCells
0
0
0
The fields in these displays are defined in the same manner as those listed
above in the example for displaying traffic on all of the ports on the Series C
network modules.
B-92
AMI Configuration Commands
B.8.11
VBROB Port Configuration Commands
This command is an advanced option that allows the user to set an output
bandwidth overbooking level for VBR traffic on a particular port. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> vbrob <port> <percent>
B.8.12
port
Indicates the port number on which the bandwidth
overbooking level for VBR traffic is to be changed.
percent
Indicates the bandwidth overbooking level assigned
to this port, specified as a percentage. Enter an integer value from 1 to 500. The default is 100, which
indicates that no overbooking will occur. Values less
than 100 cause underbooking. Values greater than
100 denote overbooking.
VBRBuffOB Port Configuration Commands
This command is an advanced option that allows the user to set an output
buffer overbooking level for VBR traffic on a particular port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration port> vbrbuffob <port> <percent>
port
Indicates the port number on which the buffer overbooking level for VBR traffic is to be changed.
percent
Indicates the buffer overbooking level assigned to
this path, specified as a percentage. Enter an integer
value greater than or equal to 1. The default is 100,
which means that no overbooking has been defined.
Values less than 100 cause underbooking. Values
greater than 100 denote overbooking.
B-93
AMI Configuration Commands
B.9
Serial Port Configuration Commands
These commands let the user manage an RS-232 serial port. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing rs232 ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> rs232 ?
show
speed
B.9.1
Displaying Serial Port Information
This command allows the user to show information about the configuration
of the RS-232 serial port on the SCP. The user may type show at the rs232
configuration level to list the settings for the serial port. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration rs232> show [(A|B)]
A|B
Indicates the port letter of the serial port that is to be
displayed.
localhost::configuration rs232> show
Port
A
Type
rs232
Speed
9600
Flow
none
Bits
8
Stops
one
Parity
none
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Port
Type
Indicates the signalling standard used.
Speed
Displays the receive/transmit rate in bits per second.
Flow
Indicates the type of flow control implemented on
the given port.
Bits
B-94
Shows the physical port designation.
Shows the number of bit times in a single character.
Stops
Lists the number of stop bits in a character frame.
Parity
Displays the parity setting for the ports. Can be odd,
even, mark, space, or none.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.10 SNMP Configuration Commands
These commands enable the user to manage the SNMP communities and
traps. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing
snmp ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> snmp ?
community
B.10.1
trap>
Configuring the SNMP Community Access
This command lets the user modify the SNMP community access to AMI.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration snmp> community (read|write) <community>
B.10.2
read|write
Indicates the access level for this community. If set to
read, the AMI session opens with read-only access.
If set to write, the AMI session opens with read-write
access.
community
Indicates the community string associated with read
or with write. The default community string associated with read is public. The default community
string associated with write is private.
Configuring SNMP Traps
These commands help the user to manage SNMP traps. The user can display
the list of available subcommands by typing trap ? at the snmp level.
localhost::configuration snmp> trap ?
delete
new
show
B-95
AMI Configuration Commands
B.10.2.1
Deleting an SNMP Trap Entry
This command allows the user to delete an existing SNMP trap destination.
Before deleting a trap that may need to be recreated later, show the list of current SNMP traps and either copy and save the screen or write down the trap
destinations. You will also need to show the list of current SNMP traps in
order to find the number of the trap to be deleted. Enter the following parameters to delete a trap entry:
localhost::configuration snmp trap> delete <trap>
trap
Indicates the number of the trap destination in the
list of current SNMP traps that is to be removed.
For example, to delete trap 198.29.31.130, first list the traps to find its number
and copy the address in case you want to recreate it later:
localhost::configuration snmp trap> show
Trap
Destination
1
192.88.243.18
2
198.29.16.14
3
198.29.16.18
4
198.29.23.39
5
198.29.31.130
Then enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration snmp trap> delete 5
You can display the list again to verify that the trap has been deleted:
localhost::configuration snmp trap> show
Trap
Destination
1
192.88.243.18
2
198.29.16.14
3
198.29.16.18
4
198.29.23.39
B-96
AMI Configuration Commands
B.10.2.2
Creating an SNMP Trap Entry
This command allows the user to specify a host to which a switch can send
SNMP traps. The SNMP traps supported by this switch are detailed in the
FORE-Switch-MIB. Enter the IP address of the SNMP trap destination to be
added. Repeat this for as many SNMP trap destinations as needed. Traps are
active as soon as they are set. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration snmp trap> new <ipaddress>
ipaddress
Indicates the IP address of the trap destination to be
created.
B.10.2.2.1 Displaying the SNMP Trap Entries
This command enables the user to list all of the current SNMP traps. The
SNMP traps supported by this switch are detailed in the FORE-Switch-MIB.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration snmp trap> show
Trap
Destination
1
192.88.243.18
2
198.29.16.14
3
198.29.16.18
4
198.29.23.39
5
198.29.31.130
If no SNMP traps have been configured, the following message is displayed:
No trap information is available
B-97
AMI Configuration Commands
B.11 SPANS Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to manage SPANS (Simple Protocol for ATM
Network Signalling), FORE Systems’ pre-standard signalling protocol. The
user can display the list of available subcommands by typing spans ? at the
configuration level.
localhost::configuration> spans ?
delete
B.11.1
new
show
Deleting a SPANS Signalling Path
This command lets the user delete an existing SPANS signalling path. Enter
the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> delete <port> <vpi>
B-98
port
Indicates the port number on which the SPANS signalling path is to be deleted.
vpi
This is the number of the SPANS path to be removed.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.11.2
Creating a SPANS Signalling Path
This command allows the user to create a SPANS signalling path.
NOTE:
Before a SPANS signalling path can be created on a given VPI, an originating and a terminating path must exist for that same VPI.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> new <port> <vpi> [-cdvt <cdvt>] [(tag | drop)]
advanced options:
[-sig <vci>] [-cls <vci>] [-aal (4 | 5)]
[-sigbw <Kbps>] [-clsupc <index>]
[-minvci <vci>] [-maxvci <vci>]
port
Indicates the port number on which the SPANS signalling path is to be created.
vpi
Indicates the number of the SPANS path that is to be
created.
-cdvt <cdvt>
Indicates the Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT)
associated with the peak cell rates in microseconds.
(tag|drop)
Using tag means that non-compliant cells will be
tagged. Using drop means that non-compliant cells
will be dropped.
The advanced options are as follows:
-sig <vci>
Indicates the VCI to use for SPANS signalling messages. The default is 15.
-cls <vci>
Indicates the VCI to use for connectionless messages.
The default is 14.
-aal (4|5)
Indicates the AAL type to use for this SPANS signalling path. The default is 4.
-sigbw <Kbps>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth to be reserved on
the VCI for SPANS signalling messages.
B-99
AMI Configuration Commands
B-100
-clsupc <index>
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific
traffic contract that is used to police the connectionless VCI. If no index is specified, then no traffic policing will take place on this VCI. It is assigned a UPC
index of 0, and all traffic on this VCI is treated as
UBR traffic. This is the default.
-minvci <vci>
Indicates the bottom number for the range of VCIs to
be reserved for SPANS SVCs.
-maxvci <vci>
Indicates the top number for the range of VCIs to be
reserved for SPANS SVCs.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.11.3
Showing the SPANS Signalling Path Configuration
This command lets the user list an individual switch fabric’s current SPANS
signalling path information. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> show
Port VPI State Type
CDVT Action RemoteAddress
1C1
0 down uni
250 tag
1C2
0 down uni
250 tag
1C3
0 down uni
250 tag
1C4
0 up
uni
250 tag
169.144.60.108
1D1
0 down uni
250 tag
1D2
0 down uni
250 tag
1D3
0 down uni
250 tag
1D4
0 down uni
250 tag
1CTL
0 up
uni
0 tag
10.10.10.48
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Port
Lists the port number of the SPANS signalling path.
VPI
Shows the path number of the SPANS signalling
path.
State
Shows the current state of the SPANS path.
Type
Designates the type of connection on this SPANS
path. If the type listed is uni, this is a SPANS user-tonetwork interface connection to a SPANS host. If the
type listed is nni, then this is a SPANS network-tonetwork interface connection to another switch.
CDVT
Shows the Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT), in
microseconds.
Action
Tag means that non-compliant cells are tagged. Drop
means that non-compliant cells are discarded.
RemoteAddress
Shows the IP address of the remote endstation, if it is
available.
B-101
AMI Configuration Commands
To show advanced SPANS signalling path information about all of the ports,
enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> show advanced
Port VPI SigVCI CLSVCI AAL MinVCI MaxVCI SigBW CLSUPC
1C1
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1C2
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1C3
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1C4
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1D1
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1D2
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1D3
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1D4
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
1CTL
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Port
Lists the port number of the SPANS signalling path.
VPI
Shows the path number of the SPANS signalling
path.
SigVCI
Indicates the virtual channel number used for
SPANS messages on the SPANS path. The default is
VCI 15.
ClsVCI
Indicates the VCI used for connectionless messages.
AAL
B-102
Lists the AAL type used for SPANS messages.
MinVCI
Displays the bottom number for the range of VCIs to
be reserved for SPANS SVCs.
MaxVCI
Displays the top number for the range of VCIs to be
reserved for SPANS SVCs.
SIGBW
Lists the amount of bandwidth reserved on the VCI
for SPANS signalling messages.
CLSUPC
Shows the integer index that refers to a specific UPC
contract used to police the connectionless VCI.
AMI Configuration Commands
To list SPANS information for a specific port, (for example, port 1C1), enter
the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> show 1C1
Port VPI State Type
CDVT Action RemoteAddress
1C1
0 down uni
250 tag
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for displaying SPANS information on all of the ports on
an individual switch fabric.
To list SPANS information for a specific port and path, (for example, port 1C1
and VPI 0), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> show 1c1 0
Port VPI State Type
CDVT Action RemoteAddress
1C1
0 down uni
250 tag
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for displaying SPANS information on all of the ports on
an individual switch fabric.
To list advanced SPANS information for a specific port and path, (for example, port 1C1 and VPI 0), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spans> show 1c1 0 advanced
Port VPI SigVCI CLSVCI AAL MinVCI MaxVCI SigBW CLSUPC
1C1
0
15
14
4
32
511
0
0
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for displaying advanced SPANS information on all of
the ports on an individual switch fabric.
B-103
AMI Configuration Commands
B.12 SPVC Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to configure SPVCs (Smart Permanent Virtual Circuits). An SPVC is a connection that traverses multiple switch fabrics.
An SPVC looks like a PVC at the local and remote endpoints with an SVC in
the middle. SPVCs are more robust than PVCs. If a link carrying a PVC goes
down, then the PVC goes down. If a link carrying an SPVC goes down and
there is an alternate route, then the end switch fabrics of the SPVC automatically reroute the SPVC around the failed link.
The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing spans ? at
the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> spvc ?
delete
new
B.12.1
show
Deleting an SPVC
This command allows the user to delete an existing SPVC. There are two different ways to delete an SPVC. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spvc> delete <Local SPVC ID> [(source | destination | bidirectional)]
or
localhost::conf spvc> delete <port> <vpi> <vci> \ <dest-session> <dest-port> <dest-vpi> <dest-vci>\
[(source | destination | bidirectional)]
B-104
Local SPVC ID
Indicates the unique number that the SCP assigned
to this SPVC when the SPVC was created.
source|destination|bidirectional
Source means the SPVC to be deleted is a unidirectional SPVC going from the local switch fabric to the
remote switch fabric. Destination means the SPVC
to be deleted is a unidirectional SPVC going from the
remote switch fabric to the local switch fabric. Bidirectional means the pair of unidirectional SPVCs
will be deleted. The default is bidirectional.
port
Indicates the port number on the local switch fabric
on which this SPVC is to be deleted.
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number on the local switch
fabric.
AMI Configuration Commands
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number on the local
switch fabric.
dest-session
Indicates the name of the remote switch session for
this SPVC.
dest-port
Indicates the port number on the remote switch fabric on which this SPVC is to be deleted.
dest-vpi
Indicates the virtual path number on the remote
switch fabric.
dest-vci
Indicates the virtual channel number on the remote
switch fabric.
source|destination|bidirectional
Source means the SPVC to be deleted is a unidirectional SPVC going from the local switch fabric to the
remote switch fabric. Destination means the SPVC
to be deleted is a unidirectional SPVC going from the
remote switch fabric to the local switch fabric. Bidirectional means the pair of unidirectional SPVCs
will be deleted. The default is bidirectional.
B.12.2
Creating an SPVC
This command allows the user to create a new SPVC. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::conf spvc> new <port> <vpi> <vci> <dest-session> <dest-port> <dest-vpi> <dest-vci> \
[-peak <Kb/sec>] [(source | destination | bidirectional)]
port
Indicates the port number on the local switch fabric
on which this SPVC is to be created.
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number on the local switch
fabric.
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number on the local
switch fabric.
dest-session
Indicates the name of the remote switch session.
dest-port
Indicates the port number on the remote switch fabric on which this SPVC is to be created.
dest-vpi
Indicates the virtual path number on the remote
switch fabric.
B-105
AMI Configuration Commands
dest-vci
Indicates the virtual channel number on the remote
switch fabric.
-peak <Kb/sec>
Indicates the amount of peak bandwidth allocated
for this SPVC, specified in kilobits per second. The
default value is 0.
source|destination|bidirectional
Source means a unidirectional SPVC going from the
local switch fabric to the remote switch fabric will be
created. Destination means a unidirectional SPVC
going from the remote switch fabric to the local
switch fabric will be created. Bidirectional means the
pair of unidirectional SPVCs will be created. The
default direction, if the user does not specify one, is
bidirectional.
NOTE:
To create a bidirectional SPVC, you must
either specify bidirectional, or you must set
up two unidirectional SPVCs with one going
in each direction.
To create an SPVC, you need to configure the two ends concurrently on the
two switch fabrics. Therefore, you first need to open an AMI session to the
destination switch fabric by either using the SCP’s IP address or its name,
along with the SNMP read-write community string. The following example
shows how to create a bidirectional SPVC from the local switch fabric (localhost) to a remote switch fabric (198.29.22.46). The user is logged into localhost.
localhost::> open 198.29.22.46 private
Opening a session for “198.29.22.46”, please wait...
Connected to “198.29.22.46” (asx200bx).
198.29.22.46::> localhost
localhost::> configuration spvc new ?
usage: new <port> <vpi> <vci> <dest-session> <dest-port> <dest-vpi>
<dest-vci> \[-peak <Kb/sec>] [(source | destination | bidirectional)]
localhost::configuration spvc> new 1c1 0 49 198.29.22.46 1b1 0 50
B-106
AMI Configuration Commands
B.12.3
Displaying SPVC Information
This command allows the user to display all of the SPVCs on an individual
switch fabric. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration spvc> show
Local
ID
Port VPI VCI
35664 1C1
0 51
65364 1C1
0 49
BW Direction
0.0 bidirectional
0.0 bidirectional
Remote
ID
Port VPI VCI Switch
10427 1B1
0 52 198.29.22.46
42591 1B1
0 50 198.29.22.46
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Local ID
Indicates the unique number that the local switch
fabric’s SCP assigned to this SPVC when the SPVC
was created.
Local Port
Indicates the port number on the local switch fabric.
Local VPI
Indicates the virtual path number on the local switch
fabric.
Local VCI
Indicates the virtual channel number on the local
switch fabric.
Local BW
Indicates the amount of peak bandwidth allocated
for this SPVC, specified in kilobits per second.
Remote ID
Indicates the unique number that the remote switch
fabric’s SCP assigned to this SPVC when the SPVC
was created.
Remote Port
Indicates the port number on the remote switch fabric.
Remote VPI
Indicates the virtual path number on the remote
switch fabric.
Remote VCI
Indicates the virtual channel number on the remote
switch fabric.
Switch
Indicates the IP address or name of the remote
switch fabric’s SCP.
B-107
AMI Configuration Commands
B.13 Switch Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to configure default settings for the switch.
The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing switch ? at
the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> switch ?
name
pmpmaxvci
B.13.1
pmpminvci
show
Setting or Changing the Switch Name
This command enables the user to set or change the name of the switch. The
switch name is shown on the front panel display LED. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration switch> name <name>
name
B-108
Indicates the new host name for the switch.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.13.2
Setting the Minimum Number of Reserved VCIs for PMPs
This command lets the user set the minimum number for the range of VCIs
that are reserved for point-to-multipoint connections. By using this command
in conjunction with conf switch pmpmaxvci, you will allow a block of VCIs
to be reserved for LAN Emulation point-to-multipoint use. This block of VCIs
will be reserved on all paths and on all ports on this switch fabric. PVCs can
be created on these VCIs, but no point-to-point connections may use these
VCIs.
NOTE:
This command is useful only when the switch
is running in non-extended mode. For more
information about non-extended mode,
please see the section on Switch Board Configuration Commands found earlier in this
appendix and the section on Network Module Replacement found in Appendix A of the
Cabletron ATM Switch User’s Manual.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration switch> pmpminvci <vci>
vci
Indicates the bottom number for the range of VCIs to
be reserved for point-to-multipoint connections. The
default is 155.
B-109
AMI Configuration Commands
B.13.3
Setting the Maximum Number of Reserved VCIs for PMPs
This command lets the user set the maximum number for the range of VCIs
that are reserved for point-to-multipoint connections. By using this command
in conjunction with conf switch pmpminvci, you will allow a block of VCIs
to be reserved for LAN Emulation point-to-multipoint use. This block of VCIs
will be reserved on all paths and on all ports on this switch fabric. PVCs can
be created on these VCIs, but no point-to-point connections may use these
VCIs.
NOTE:
This command is useful only when the switch
is running in non-extended mode. For more
information about non-extended mode,
please see the section on Switch Board Configuration Commands found earlier in this
appendix and the section on Network Module Replacement found in Appendix A of the
Cabletron ATM Switch User’s Manual.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration switch> pmpmaxvci <vci>
vci
B-110
Indicates the top number for the range of VCIs to be
reserved for point-to-multipoint connections. The
default is 255.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.13.4
Displaying the Switch Configuration
This command lets the user display switch configuration information including the switch name, the type of switch, the hardware version, the software
version, the number of maximum virtual paths, the number of maximum virtual channels, the SPANS address of the switch, and the range of the minimum and maximum number of reserved VCIs for point-to-multipoint
connections. Enter the following parameters:
Switch 'fishtank', Type asx200bx, up 2 days 19:40
Hardware version 1.0, Software version S_ForeThought_4.0.0 (1.19)
Maximum Virtual Path Connections
32768
Maximum Virtual Channels
16384
SPANS address
00000038f2150e87
PMP Minimum Reserved VCI
155
PMP Maximum Reserved VCI
255
NOTE:
If the display reads ‘ATM Switch’ in the first
line, this indicates that the switch name has
not been set. Use the AMI command configuration switch name to assign a name.
B-111
AMI Configuration Commands
B.14 System Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure system message log features, configure the amount of time of non-activity after which an AMI session times out,
and change the units for designating UPC contracts. The user can display the
list of available subcommands by typing system ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> system ?
show
syslog>
B.14.1
timeout
units
Displaying System Information
This command lets the user display the amount of time of non-activity after
which an AMI session will time out and display what type of units will be
used when designating UPC contracts. The user can get to this level by entering show at the system level. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration system> show
AMI Session Timeout
UPC Units
B-112
60
cps
AMI Session Timeout
Shows the number of minutes of no activity after
which an AMI session will time out and exit the user
out of the session. The default is 5 minutes. A value
of off means that the AMI session will not time out.
UPC Units
Cps indicates that UPC contracts are being configured and displayed in cells per second. Kbps means
that UPC contracts are being configured and displayed in kilobits per second. The default is cps.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.14.2
System Log Configuration Commands
Syslog is a tool that can send system messages to be logged to a user-specified
remote host. These commands let the user configure the address of the remote
syslog host and whether or not these messages are sent to the console. Enter
syslog ? at the system level to show the list of available syslog commands.
localhost::configuration system> syslog ?
show
set
delete
B.14.2.1
console
Displaying the Address of the System Log Host
This command allows the user to display the address of the host to which the
switch’s system messages are logged. Enter the following parameters:
NOTE:
This command is only available on the local
switch.
localhost::configuration system syslog> show
Remote Syslog Host: 169.144.1.216
Syslog Facility: daemon
If the host’s address has never been set, or if it has been deleted and not set
again, the following is shown:
localhost::configuration system syslog> show
No remote syslog host set. Syslog messages will not be sent.
Syslog Facility: daemon
B-113
AMI Configuration Commands
B.14.2.2
Setting the Address of the System Log Host
This command sets the address of the host to which the switch’s system messages are being logged. You may also opt to assign a specific facility name so
that the remote syslog can automatically differentiate between switches with
different facilities. Enter the following parameters:
NOTE:
This command is only available on the local
switch.
localhost::configuration system syslog> set <address> [<facility>]
address
Indicates the IP address of the remote host to which
the switch’s system message logs are sent.
facility
Indicates the user-assigned name that identifies the
facility this switch sends syslogs on. The default is
daemon. Other valid values are local0 through
local7. The names may be assigned in any order.
For example, to have a host with the address 192.88.243.118 be the recipient of
the system log messages and to designate this switch’s facility name as
local2, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration system syslog> set 192.88.243.118 local2
Remote Syslog Host: 192.88.243.118
Syslog Facility is now local2
To assign the facility for other switches in your network, you must log in to
each one locally and set the facility. You must keep track of which facility was
assigned to each switch. Then, when you view the contents of the syslog file,
they can be separated according to facility when messages from different
facilities are logged on the same remote host.
NOTE:
B-114
If the switch panics, the panic file is automatically written to the syslog, provided that a
syslog host had been set prior to the panic.
This is especially useful if multiple panics
occur, so that each is recorded.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.14.2.3
Deleting the Address of the System Log Host
This command allows the user to delete the address of the host to which the
switch’s system messages are being logged. Enter the following parameters:
NOTE:
This command is only available on the local
switch.
localhost::configuration system syslog> delete
Remove 192.88.243.118 as remote syslog host [n]? y
Remote syslog host removed. Syslog messages will not be sent.
Syslog Facility: local7
The switch prompts the user to confirm that the address should be deleted.
Entering y causes the switch to delete the address, as shown above. If you do
not want the address to be deleted, enter n or press <RETURN> and you will
be sent back to the syslog prompt.
Once the host’s address has been deleted, the switch’s system messages are
no longer logged until a new host address is set. However, if a facility has
been assigned to the switch, that facility assignment remains intact. So if you
assign another host without changing the facility, the new host will list this
switch’s syslog messages under the same facility. For example,
localhost::configuration system syslog> show
Remote Syslog Host: 169.144.48.41
Syslog Facility: local7
localhost::configuration system syslog> delete
Remove 169.144.48.41 as remote syslog host [n]? y
Remote syslog host removed. Syslog messages will not be sent.
localhost::configuration system syslog> show
No remote syslog host set. Syslog messages will not be sent.
Syslog Facility: local7
localhost::configuration system syslog> set 204.95.89.84
Remote Syslog Host: 204.95.89.84
localhost::configuration system syslog> show
Remote Syslog Host: 204.95.89.84
Syslog Facility: local7
B-115
AMI Configuration Commands
B.14.2.4
Turning Off or Turning On System Log Messages to the Console
On a 9A000, SFCS-200WG, an SFCS-200BX, and an SFCS-1000, the system log
messages may be directed to three places: to syslog, to the console, and to a
remote host. These types of switches are defaulted to send log messages to
both the console and to syslog. The console command can be used in different ways.
To display whether or not log messages are being output to the console, enter
console without any arguments as follows:
localhost::configuration system syslog> console
If the messages are being sent to the console, the following message is shown:
Syslog console output is currently ON.
If the messages are not being directed to the console, the following message is
displayed:
Syslog console output is currently OFF.
To enable log messages to be sent to the console, or to stop log messages from
being output to the console, enter console with the appropriate argument as
follows:
localhost::configuration system syslog> console [enable|disable]
B-116
enable
Indicates that all log messages will be written to the
console.
disable
Indicates that no log messages will be written to the
console.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.14.3
AMI Timeout Configuration Command
This command lets the user set the amount of time of non-activity after which
an AMI session will time out. The user can get to this level by entering
timeout at the system level. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration system> timeout [<minutes>]
minutes
B.14.4
Indicates the number of minutes of non-activity after
which an AMI session will time out and exit the user
out of the session. The default is 5 minutes. To configure the switch so that an AMI session does not
time out, enter 0. It is displayed as off when you use
configuration system show.
Configuring the Units for UPC Contracts
This command allows the user to change the type of units that are being used
when configuring and displaying UPC contracts. The user can get to this level
by entering units at the system level. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration system> units (cps | kbps)
units
Using cps indicates that UPC contracts are being configured and displayed in cells per second. Using kbps
means that UPC contracts are being configured and
displayed in kilobits per second. The default is cps.
B-117
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15 Topology Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to manage the ForeThought PNNI topology
information and the SPANS topology information of the switch fabric. The
user can display the list of available subcommands by typing topology ? at
the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> topology ?
forepnni>
spans>
B.15.1
ForeThought PNNI Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of ForeThought
PNNI on a switch. The user can display the list of available subcommands by
typing forepnni ? at the topology level.
localhost::configuration topology> forepnni ?
prefix
border
swmask
hello
nsapindication
staticupdate
propmult
minthresh
vcmark
B.15.1.1
pgmask
maxhop
show
Setting the ForeThought PNNI Switch Prefix
When using ForeThought PNNI, a switch fabric is identified by a variable
length NSAP switch prefix which ranges in length from 0 to 13 bytes. This
command allows the user to set the ForeThought PNNI prefix on the switch.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> prefix <prefix>
prefix
NOTE:
B-118
Indicates the default NSAP prefix for this ATM
switch that is used in the ILMI address registration
message and in the hello indication SPANS-NNI
message.
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect. Therefore, you must
be in a local AMI session to perform this command.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.1.2
Changing the ForeThought PNNI Border Switch Functionality
A switch that has a link to another switch that belonging to a different peergroup is considered a border switch. A border switch advertises reachability
to its peergroup to switches outside of its peergroup, but it does not share its
peergroup’s topology with the other switches. You should enable border
switch functionality on all switches that are on the outside edges of all of the
peergroups that you have established. This command lets the user designate
whether or not this switch will act as a ForeThought PNNI border switch.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> border (enable | disable)
enable|disable
NOTE:
Entering enable (and rebooting) means that this
switch will act as a ForeThought PNNI border switch.
Entering disable (and rebooting) means that this
switch will not act as a ForeThought PNNI border
switch.
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect. Therefore, you must
be in a local AMI session to perform this command.
B-119
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.1.3
Setting the ForeThought PNNI Switch Prefix Mask
This command allows the user to select the ForeThought PNNI switch prefix
mask value. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> swmask <mask>
mask
NOTE:
B.15.1.4
Indicates the mask that gives the number of leading
bits in the switch prefix used to aggregate the
addresses that belong to the switch in ForeThought
PNNI. The default switch prefix mask value is 104.
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect. Therefore, you must
be in a local AMI session to perform this command.
Setting the ForeThought PNNI Peergroup Mask
A peergroup mask is the length (in the number of bits) of the peergroup ID of
a switch. This command enables the user to set the ForeThought PNNI peergroup mask value. This value should be the same for all members of a peergroup. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> pgmask <mask>
mask
NOTE:
B-120
Indicates the mask that gives the number of leading
bits in the switch prefix used to aggregate the
addresses that belong to this ForeThought PNNI peergroup. The default peergroup mask value is 0.
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect. Therefore, you must
be in a local AMI session to perform this command.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.1.5
Setting the Hello Indication Interval
Hello indication messages are the “keep alive” messages that two switches
send to one another to verify their existence. This command lets the user
change the interval for ForeThought PNNI hello indication messages. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> hello <msec>
msec
B.15.1.6
Indicates the period of time, in milliseconds, between
transmissions of hello indication messages. The
default value is 500 milliseconds.
Setting the NSAP Indication Interval
NSAP indication messages are those messages that update topology information between any two switches. This command allows the user to select the
interval for ForeThought PNNI NSAP indication messages. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> nsapindication <msec>
msec
B.15.1.7
Indicates the period of time, in milliseconds, between
transmissions of NSAP indication messages. The
default value is 10,000 milliseconds.
Setting the Static Route Update Indication Interval
Static route update indication messages are refresh messages that update
topology information about static routes. This command enables the user to
set the interval for ForeThought PNNI static route indication messages. Enter
the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> staticupdate <msec>
msec
Indicates the period of time, in milliseconds, between
transmissions of static route update indication messages. The default value is 10,000 milliseconds.
B-121
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.1.8
Setting the Maximum Hop Count
By setting a maximum hop count, the user tells the switch to consider only
those paths that have less than or equal to the number of hops specified when
setting up a connection. If a connection is routed using a path with a large
hop count, there is a greater chance that the connection may experience congestion and be delayed or discarded. This command lets the user set the maximum hop count for the NSAP router. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> maxhop <hops>
hops
B.15.1.9
Indicates the maximum number of hops to use when
routing a connection for the NSAP router. The
default value is 20 hops.
Setting the Proportional Multiplier
This command enables the user to set the proportional multiplier for the
NSAP router. The proportional multiplier is expressed as a percentage of
Available Cell Rate (ACR) on any given link in the network. If the change in
percentage of the ACR on any given link in the NSAP topology of the network exceeds this percentage threshold, then the change is considered significant. The topology tables are then updated accordingly for that link. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> propmult <percentage>
percentage
NOTE:
B-122
Indicates the threshold, entered as a percentage,
above which you consider the change in ACR on any
link to be significant. The default value is 20%.
If you modify this value, you should modify
it on all switches in the network.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.1.10 Setting a Minimum Threshold for NSAP Updates
The minimum threshold is the smallest capacity value that the threshold
value for determining the significant change in ACR can take. This minimum
value ensures that the threshold value does not become a very small value in
cases in which product of the ACR and the proportional multiplier is a very
small number. The minimum threshold is used to prevent excessively frequent NSAP updates resulting from minor changes in ACR when the value of
ACR is very low. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> minthresh <minthresh>
minthresh
Indicates the minimum threshold bandwidth value
for triggering NSAP updates, entered in kilobits per
second. The default value is 50 kilobits per second.
B.15.1.11 Setting a Minimum Virtual Channel Mark
When the number of available virtual channels on a path drops to zero, a link
state update is sent out to advertise that there are no more VCs available for
use on this path. When the number of VCs indicated by the vcmark is available for use on this path again, another link state update is sent out to advertise that there are VCs available for use on this path once again. This
command lets the user set the vcmark, which is the minimum number of virtual channels that need to be to available on a path to make that path usable
again. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> vcmark <vcmark>
vcmark
Indicates the minimum number of virtual channels
that need to be to available on a path to make that
path usable. The default value is 20 VCs.
B-123
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.1.12 Displaying ForeThought PNNI Parameters
This command let the user display all of the ForeThought PNNI topology
parameters. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology forepnni> show
Switch NSAP prefix
Switch Prefix Mask
Peer Group Mask
Hello Indication Interval
NSAP Indication Interval
Static Route Update Interval
Max hop count for NSAP router
Proportional Multiplier
Minumum Threshold for NSAP updates
Minimum VC level
0x47.0005.80.ffe100.0000.f215.0df6
104
0
500 msec
10000 msec
10000 msec
20 hops
20 %
50 Kbps
20
FORE PNNI border switch functionality is disabled
B-124
AMI Configuration Commands
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Switch NSAP prefix
Displays the switch’s NSAP prefix.
Switch Prefix Mask
Shows the switch prefix mask value of high-order
bits to use for aggregating addresses on the switch
for routing purposes.
Peer Group Mask
Lists the peergroup mask value of high-order bits to
use for aggregating addresses on the switch for routing purposes.
Hello Indication Interval
Displays the period of time between transmissions of
hello indication messages, in milliseconds.
NSAP Indication Interval
Shows the period of time between transmissions of
NSAP indication messages, in milliseconds.
Static Route Update Interval
Lists the period of time between transmissions of
static route update indication messages, in milliseconds.
Max hop count for NSAP
router
Displays the maximum number of hops to use when
routing a connection for the NSAP router.
Proportional Multiplier
Shows the threshold, in percentage, above which the
change in ACR on any link is considered to be significant.
Minimum Threshold for
NSAP updates
Lists the minimum threshold bandwidth value for
triggering NSAP updates, in kilobits per second.
Minimum VC level
Lists the minimum number of VCs that need to be
available on a path to make that path usable again
after the number of available VCs has dropped to
zero.
FORE PNNI border switch
functionality is disabled
If this functionality is enabled, this switch acts as a
ForeThought PNNI border switch. If this functionality
is disabled, this switch does not act as a ForeThought
PNNI border switch.
B-125
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.2
SPANS Topology Configuration Commands
These commands allow the user to modify various aspects of SPANS-NNI on
a switch. The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing
spans ? at the topology level.
localhost::configuration topology> spans ?
border
area
show
NOTE:
B.15.2.1
In order for part of a FORE ATM cloud to be a
hierarchical SPANS area, all switches in that
cloud must be running software version 4.0.
Otherwise, SPANS connectivity between the
hierarchical area and the SPANS area will be
lost.
Setting the SPANS-NNI Border Switch Functionality
A switch that has a link to another switch belonging to a different SPANS area
is considered a border switch. A border switch advertises reachability to its
area to switches outside of its area, but it does not share its area’s topology
with the other switches. You should enable border switch functionality on all
switches that are on the outside edges of all of the areas that you have established. This command lets the user designate whether or not this switch will
act as a SPANS-NNI border switch. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology spans> border (enable | disable)
enable|disable
NOTE:
B-126
Entering enable (and rebooting) means that this
switch will be a SPANS border switch. Entering disable (and rebooting) means that this switch will not
be a SPANS border switch.
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect. Therefore, you must
be in a local AMI session to perform this command.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.15.2.2
Setting the SPANS Area ID
This command enables the user to set the SPANS area ID. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration topology spans> area <area>
area
NOTE:
B.15.2.3
Indicates the ID of the area in the SPANS routing
hierarchy to which this switch belongs. This number goes into the most significant byte of the SPANS
ATM address. The default area ID for all switches is
242 in decimal.
The switch software must be restarted for this
command to take effect. Therefore, you must
be in a local AMI session to perform this command.
Displaying SPANS-NNI Parameters
This command let the user display all of the SPANS-NNI topology parameters. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration topology spans> show
SPANS Area ID
242
SPANS NNI border switch functionality is disabled
The field in this display is defined as follows:
SPANS Area ID
Shows the ID of the area in the SPANS routing hierarchy to which this switch belongs. This number
goes into the most significant byte of the SPANS
ATM address.
SPANS NNI border switch
functionality is disabled
If this functionality is enabled, this switch is a
SPANS-NNI border switch. If it is disabled, this
switch is not a SPANS-NNI border switch.
B-127
AMI Configuration Commands
B.16 UNI 3.0 Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure UNI 3.0 signalling paths. The user can
display the list of available subcommands by typing uni30 ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> uni30 ?
delete
new
show
B.16.1
Deleting a UNI 3.0 Signalling Path
This command allows the user to delete an existing UNI 3.0 signalling path.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration uni30> delete <port> <vpi>
B-128
port
Indicates the port number on which the UNI 3.0 signalling path is to be deleted.
vpi
Indicates the number of the UNI 3.0 signalling path
to be removed.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.16.2
Creating a UNI 3.0 Signalling Path
This command enables the user to create a UNI 3.0 signalling path.
NOTE:
Before a UNI 3.0 signalling path can be created on a given VPI, an originating and a terminating path must exist for that same VPI.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration uni30> new <port> <vpi> [-ilmi (up | down)] [(user | network)]
[(publicUNI | auto | IISP)]
advanced options:
[-sigvci <vci>] [-ilmivci <vci>]
[-minvci <vci>] [-maxvci <vci>]
[-sigbw <Kbps>] [-ilmibw <Kbps>]
port
Indicates the port number on which the UNI 3.0 signalling path is to be created.
vpi
Indicates the number of the UNI 3.0 signalling path
to be created.
-ilmi (up|down)
Enables ILMI NSAP registration for this port (only
when a host is connected). The default is up. However, this parameter must be set to down if you set
the last parameter to IISP.
user|network
Indicates the switch user side or network side. If the
connection is to a host, choose network. If the connection is to another switch, one switch must be user
and the other switch must be network.
publicUNI|auto|IISP
Indicates the configuration type. PublicUNI means
that this link is used between this switch and a public
switch. Auto means that the operation type is determined dynamically. IISP is used for switch-to-switch
signalling for static NNI routes. The default is auto.
The advanced options are as follows:
-sigvci <vci>
Indicates the VCI to use for UNI 3.0 signalling messages. The default reserved VCI is 5.
B-129
AMI Configuration Commands
B-130
-ilmivci <vci>
Indicates the VCI to use for ILMI signalling messages. The default reserved VCI is 16.
-minvci <vci>
Indicates the bottom number for the range of VCIs to
be reserved for UNI 3.0 signalling messages. The
default is 32.
-maxvci <vci>
Indicates the top number for the range of VCIs to be
reserved for UNI 3.0 signalling messages. The
default is 511.
-sigbw <Kbps>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth that will be
reserved on the VCI for UNI 3.0 signalling messages
(VCI 5). The default is 0 Kbps.
-ilmibw <Kbps>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth that will be
reserved on the VCI for ILMI messages (VCI 16). The
default is 0 Kbps.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.16.3
Displaying UNI 3.0 Signalling Paths
This command allows the user to list an individual switch fabric’s current
UNI 3.0 signalling path information. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration
Port VPI State ILMI
1C1
0 down down
1C2
0 down down
1C3
0 down down
1C4
0 down up
1D2
0 down down
1D3
0 down down
1D4
0 down down
1CTL
0 up
down
uni30> show
UNIside Type
network auto
network auto
network auto
network auto
network auto
network auto
network auto
network auto
OperType
RemoteAddress
privateUNI
privateUNI
privateUNI
privateUNI 169.144.64.108
privateUNI
privateUNI
privateUNI
privateUNI
The fields in this display have the following meaning:
Port
Indicates the port number of the network modules
that are currently installed in the switch. The 1 indicates that it is the first switch fabric. The letter indicates the position of the network module in the
switch. The 1, 2, 3, 4 indicate the specific port number. CTL indicates the control port which is a logical
(not physical) location where cells that are directed to
the switch itself are sent.
VPI
Shows the UNI 3.0 signalling path.
State
Shows the current state of the port. If the state is up,
then this port is functional. This is the normal state
for a port that is connected to another Cabletron Systems’ ATM switch or host. If the state is down, then
this port is not functional. This can be due to a lack of
a physical connection or due to a software problem.
ILMI
Up means that ILMI NSAP registration is enabled for
this port (only when a host is connected). Down
means that ILMI NSAP registration is not enabled for
this port.
UNIside
Indicates the switch user side or network side. If the
connection is to a host, network is displayed. If the
connection is to another switch, one switch must be
user and the other switch must be network.
B-131
AMI Configuration Commands
Type
OperType
RemoteAddress
Displays the type of configuration for this port. Can
be publicUNI, auto, or IISP. The default is auto.
Shows the signalling type being used on this port.
Shows the IP address of the remote endstation, if it is
available.
To show advanced UNI 3.0 signalling path information about all of the ports
on an individual switch fabric, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration uni30> show advanced
Port VPI SigVCI ILMIVCI SigAAL MinVCI MaxVCI SigBW ILMIBW
1C1
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1C2
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1C3
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1C4
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1D2
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1D3
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1D4
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
1CTL
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
B-132
Port
Indicates the port number of the network modules
that are currently installed in the switch. The 1 indicates that it is the first switch fabric. The letter indicates the position of the network module in the
switch. The 1, 2, 3, 4 indicate the specific port number. CTL indicates the control port which is a logical
(not physical) location where cells that are directed to
the switch itself are sent.
VPI
Shows the UNI 3.0 signalling path.
SigVCI
Indicates the VCI on the UNI 3.0 signalling path. The
default reserved VCI is 5.
IMLIVCI
Lists the VCI to be used for ILMI signalling messages. The default reserved VCI is 16.
SigAAL
Shows the AAL type being used for this connection.
The default is AAL5.
MinVCI
Displays the bottom number for the range of VCIs to
be reserved for UNI 3.0 signalling messages. The
default is 32.
AMI Configuration Commands
MaxVCI
Displays the top number for the range of VCIs to be
reserved for UNI 3.0 signalling messages. The
default is 511.
SigBW
Shows the amount of bandwidth that is reserved on
the UNI 3.0 signalling VCI. The default is 0.
ILMIBW
Lists the amount of bandwidth that is reserved on
the ILMI VCI. The default is 0.
To list UNI 3.0 signalling path information for a specific port, (for example,
port 1C1), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration uni30> show 1c1
Port VPI State ILMI
UNIside Type OperType
RemoteAddress
1C1
0 down down
network auto privateUNI
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for displaying UNI 3.0 signalling path information on all
of the ports on an individual switch fabric.
To list UNI 3.0 signalling path information for a specific port and path, (for
example, port 1C1 and VPI 0), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration uni30> show 1c1 0
Port VPI State ILMI
UNIside Type OperType
RemoteAddress
1C1
0 down down
network auto privateUNI
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for displaying UNI 3.0 signalling path information on all
of the ports on an individual switch fabric.
To list advanced UNI 3.0 signalling path information for a specific port and
path, (for example, port 1C1 and VPI 0), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration uni30> show 1c1 0 advanced
Port VPI SigVCI ILMIVCI SigAAL MinVCI MaxVCI SigBW ILMIBW
1C1
0
5
16
5
32
511
0
0
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed previously in the example for displaying advanced UNI 3.0 signalling path information on all of the ports on an individual switch fabric.
B-133
AMI Configuration Commands
B.17 Usage Parameter Control Configuration Commands
These commands let the user create or delete usage parameter control (UPC)
traffic contracts. The user can display the list of available subcommands by
typing upc ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> upc ?
delete
B.17.1
new
show
Deleting a UPC Traffic Contract
This command allows the user to delete an existing UPC contract. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration upc> delete <index>
index
B-134
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific
traffic contract.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.17.2
Creating a UPC Traffic Contract
This command allows the user to create a UPC contract. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration upc> new <index> [<UPC>] [-cdvt <us>] [aal5epd] [-name <name>]
Where UPC is one of the following combinations of traffic parameters:
ubr
cbr <pcr01>
cbr0 <pcr0> <pcr01> [tag]
vbr <pcr01> <scr01> <mbs01>
vbr0 <pcr01> <scr0> <mbs0> [tag]
index
Enter an integer index that will be used to refer to
this specific traffic contract.
UPC
Indicates one of the types of traffic contracts shown
above. The parameters in these contracts are defined
as follows:
ubr
Indicates UBR traffic.
cbr
Indicates CBR traffic.
cbr0
Indicates CBR0 traffic.
vbr
Indicates VBR traffic.
vbr0
Indicates VBR0 traffic.
<pcr0>
<pcr01>
<scr0>
Indicates the peak cell rate for cells with CLP = 0.
Indicates the peak cell rate for all cells.
Indicates the sustainable cell rate for cells with CLP = 0.
<scr01>
Indicates the sustainable cell rate for all cells.
<mbs0>
Indicates the maximum burst size for cells with CLP = 0.
<mbs01>
NOTE:
Indicates the maximum burst size for all cells.
The units for pcr0, pcr01, scr0, scr01, mbs0,
and mbs01 are specified either in cells per
second or in kilobits per second, depending
on what you have configured for configuration system units. To display the current setting, use configuration system show. The
default is cps (cells per second).
B-135
AMI Configuration Commands
[tag]
Entering tag means that non-conforming CLP = 0
cells are tagged. Otherwise, they are dropped. Drop
is the default. This option only applies to the PCR0
parameter of the CBR0 contract and to the SCR0 and
MBS0 parameters of the VBR0 contract.
-cdvt <us>
Indicates the Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT)
associated with the peak cell rates, specified in
microseconds.
aal5epd
Entering aal5epd means that Early Packet Discard
is enabled on this connection. If aal5epd is not
entered, then Early Packet Discard is not enabled on
this connection.
-name <name>
Indicates the user-defined name associated with this
UPC traffic contract. This helps the user remember
for what traffic type this specific contract is used. If
the user does not specify a name, a default name that
relates to this type of traffic contract is assigned automatically.
The following is an example of how to create a UPC contract:
localhost::configuration upc> new 5 vbr0 500 200 250 -cdvt 1000 aal5epd -name vbr0_upc
This example specifies a contract named “vbr0_upc”, which is a VBR0 contract with an index of 5, a pcr01 of 500 cells/sec (or kbps), an scr0 of 200 cells/
sec (or kbps), an mbs0 of 250 cells (or kilobits), a CDVT of 1,000 microseconds,
and EPD enabled.
NOTE:
B-136
For more information regarding traffic contracts, please refer to Table 5-7 in the ATM
Forum UNI 3.0 Specification.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.17.3
Displaying the UPC Traffic Contracts
This command lets the user display all of the UPC contracts. Enter the following parameters:
Index
0
1
2
localhost::configuration upc> show
PCR01 SCR01 MBS01
PCR0
SCR0
MBS0
50
500
25
200
Index
250
CDVT Act
drop
tag
1000 drop
EPD
no
no
yes
Name
default_ubr
cbr0_upc
vbr0_upc
Shows the UPC contracts listed by index number.
PCR01
Shows the peak cell rate for all cells for this contract.
SCR01
Lists the sustainable cell rate for all cells in this contract.
MBS01
Lists the maximum burst size for all cells in this contract.
PCR0
Shows the peak cell rate for cells with CLP = 0 for
this contract.
SCR0
Shows the sustainable cell rate for cells with CLP = 0
for this contract.
MBS0
Shows the maximum burst size for cells with CLP = 0
for this contract.
CDVT
Shows the Cell Delay Variation Tolerance (CDVT)
associated with the peak cell rates, in microseconds.
Act
Tag means that non-compliant CLP = 0 cells are
tagged. Drop means that non-compliant cells are
dropped. This option only applies to cells measured
by the PCR0 parameter of the CBR0 contract and to
cells measured by the SCR0 and MBS0 parameters of
the VBR0 contract.
EPD
Yes means that EPD is enabled on this connection. No
means that EPD is not enabled on this connection.
Name
Shows the user-defined name associated with this
UPC traffic contract.
NOTE:
The units for PCR0, PCR01, SCR0, SCR01,
MBS0, and MBS01 are shown either in cps or
in kbps, depending on what you have configured for configuration system units. To display the current setting, use configuration
system show. The default is cps.
B-137
AMI Configuration Commands
B.18 Virtual Channel Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure permanent virtual channels (PVCs).
The user can display the list of available subcommands by typing vcc ? at
the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> vcc ?
delete
B.18.1
modify
new
show
Deleting a Virtual Channel
This command allows the user to delete an existing permanent virtual channel. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vcc> delete <iport> <ivpi> <ivci> <oport> <ovpi> <ovci>
iport
ivpi
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
ivci
Indicates the incoming virtual channel number.
oport
B-138
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the outgoing port number.
ovpi
Indicates the outgoing virtual path number.
ovci
Indicates the outgoing virtual channel number.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.18.2
Modifying a Virtual Channel
This command enables the user to modify the UPC traffic contract of an existing permanent virtual channel without having to delete the channel and then
recreate it. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> modify <port> <vpi> <vci> -upc <index>
port
vpi
Indicates the virtual path number.
vci
Indicates the virtual channel number.
-upc<index>
B.18.3
Indicates the port number.
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific
UPC traffic contract. If no index is specified, then no
traffic policing will take place on this VCI. It is
assigned a UPC index of 0, and all traffic on this VCI
is treated as UBR traffic. This is the default.
Creating a Virtual Channel
This command enables the user to add a new permanent virtual channel.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vcc> new <iport> <ivpi> <ivci> <oport> <ovpi> <ovci> [-upc <index>]
iport
Indicates the incoming port number.
ivpi
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
ivci
Indicates the incoming virtual channel number.
oport
Indicates the outgoing port number.
ovpi
Indicates the outgoing virtual path number.
ovci
Indicates the outgoing virtual channel number.
-upc<index>
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific
UPC traffic contract. If no index is specified, then no
traffic policing will take place on this VCI. It is
assigned a UPC index of 0, and all traffic on this VCI
is treated as UBR traffic. This is the default.
B-139
AMI Configuration Commands
The following is an example of how to create a virtual channel on an
SFCS-1000. To create a vcc going in port 2A1, vpi 0, vci 100 on the switch
board installed in slot 2 and going out port 4B1, vpi 0, vci 100 on the switch
board installed in slot 4, enter the following:
localhost::configuration vcc> new 2a1 0 100 2e4 0 100
localhost::configuration vcc> new 2e4 0 100 2a1 0 100
localhost::configuration vcc> new 4b1 0 100 4e2 0 100
localhost::configuration vcc> new 4e2 0 100 4b1 0 100
In the first line in the first pair, notice that the output port is 2E4. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 2 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 2 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 4 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 4. 2E4
then becomes the input port in the second line.
In the first line in the second pair, notice that the output port is 4E2. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 4 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 4 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 2 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 2. 4E2
then becomes the input port in the second line.
B-140
AMI Configuration Commands
B.18.4
Displaying the Virtual Channel Configuration
This command allows the user to display existing virtual channels. The user
can display either all of the existing virtual channels on an individual switch
fabric or all of the existing virtual channels on a specific port. To list all of the
existing permanent virtual channels on an individual switch fabric, enter the
following parameters:
localhost::configuration vcc> show
Input
Output
Port VPI VCI Port VPI VCI UPC
1C1
0
5 1CTL
0
34
1C1
0
14 1CTL
0
33
0
1C1
0
15 1CTL
0
32
1C1
0
16 1CTL
0
58
1C2
0
5 1CTL
0
37
1C2
0
14 1CTL
0
36
0
1C2
0
15 1CTL
0
35
1C2
0
16 1CTL
0
59
1C3
0
5 1CTL
0
40
1C3
0
14 1CTL
0
39
0
1C3
0
15 1CTL
0
38
1C3
0
16 1CTL
0
60
1C4
0
5 1CTL
0
43
1C4
0
14 1CTL
0
42
0
1C4
0
15 1CTL
0
41
Protocol
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
uni30
spans
spans
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Input Port
Lists the incoming port number of the virtual channel.
Input VPI
Shows the incoming virtual path number.
Input VCI
Indicates the incoming virtual channel number.
Output Port
Lists the outgoing port number of the virtual channel.
Output VPI
Shows the outgoing virtual path number.
Output VCI
Indicates the outgoing virtual channel number.
UPC
Shows the integer index that refers to the specific
UPC traffic contract assigned to this VCI.
Protocol
Displays what type of protocol is running on this
channel, which can be spans, pvc, uni30 or spvc.
B-141
AMI Configuration Commands
To list all of the existing permanent virtual channels on a specific port, (for
example, port 1C1), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vcc> show 1c1
Input
Output
Port VPI VCI Port VPI VCI UPC
1C1
0
5 1CTL
0
34
1C1
0
14 1CTL
0
33
0
1C1
0
15 1CTL
0
32
1C1
0
16 1CTL
0
58
Protocol
uni30
spans
spans
uni30
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for all of the permanent virtual channels on an individual
switch fabric.
To list all of the existing permanent virtual channels on a specific port and
path, (for example, port 1C1 and VPI 0), enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vcc> show 1c1 0
Input
Output
Port VPI VCI Port VPI VCI UPC Protocol
1C1
0
5 1CTL
0
34
uni30
1C1
0
14 1CTL
0
33
0 spans
1C1
0
15 1CTL
0
32
spans
1C1
0
16 1CTL
0
58
uni30
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for all of the permanent virtual channels on an individual
switch fabric.
To list all of the existing permanent virtual channels on a specific port, path,
and channel (for example, port 1C1, VPI 0, and VCI 16), enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration vcc> show 1c1 0 16
Input
Output
Port VPI VCI Port VPI VCI UPC Protocol
1C1
0
16 1CTL
0
58
uni30
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for all of the permanent virtual channels on an individual
switch fabric.
B-142
AMI Configuration Commands
B.19 Virtual Path Configuration Commands
These commands let the user configure virtual paths. The user can display the
list of available subcommands by typing vpc ? at the configuration level.
localhost::configuration> vpc ?
delete
B.19.1
modify
new
show
Deleting a Virtual Path
This command lets the user delete an existing virtual path. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> delete <port> <vpi> (<port> <vpi> | term | orig)
port
Indicates the number of the input port on which the
virtual path is to be deleted.
vpi
Indicates the number of the input VPI to be deleted.
port
Used to delete a through path. Indicates the number
of the output port on which the through path is to be
deleted.
vpi
Used to delete a through path. Indicates the number
of the output VPI to be deleted.
term
Used to delete a terminating path.
orig
Used to delete an originating path.
NOTE:
Virtual Path 0 cannot be deleted on any of the
connections to the intra-fabric ports on an
SFCS-1000.
NOTE:
Before deleting a virtual path, you must first
delete all VCCs which use that path.
B-143
AMI Configuration Commands
B.19.2
Modifying a Virtual Path
This command lets the user modify the UPC contract of a through path or
modify the amount of reserved bandwidth for an existing virtual path without having to delete the path and then recreate it. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> modify <iport> <ivpi> <oport> <ovpi> -upc <index>
or:
localhost::configuration vpc> modify <port> <vpi> (term|orig) -reserved <Kbs>
The following parameters are used to modify the UPC contract on a through
path:
iport
ivpi
oport
ovpi
-upc <index>
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
Indicates the outgoing port number.
Indicates the outgoing virtual path number.
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific
UPC traffic contract.
The following parameters are used to modify the reserved bandwidth on a
terminating or originating path:
port
vpi
B-144
Indicates the port number to be modified.
Indicates the virtual path number to be modified.
term|orig
Indicates whether the virtual path to be modified is
terminating or originating.
-reserved<Kbs>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth, specified in
Kbps, to be reserved for this path.
AMI Configuration Commands
B.19.3
Creating a Virtual Path
This command lets the user add a virtual path in three different ways. The
first line is used for creating a through path. The second line is used for creating a terminating path. The third line is used for creating an originating path.
Both through paths and originating paths have advanced options which may
be used in combination with the required parameters for that type of path.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> new <iport> <ivpi> <oport> <ovpi> [-upc <index>]
advanced options:
[-shapeivpi <vpi>] (through)
or
localhost::configuration vpc> new <port> <vpi> term [-reserved <Kbs>] [-maxvci <maxvci>]
or
localhost::configuration vpc> new <port> <vpi> orig [-reserved <Kbs>] [-maxvci <maxvci>]
advanced options:
[-shapeovpi <vpi>] [-vbrob <percent>] [-vbrbuffob <percent>] (orig)
The following parameters make up a through path:
iport
ivpi
oport
ovpi
-upc <index>
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
Indicates the outgoing port number.
Indicates the outgoing virtual path number.
Indicates the integer index that refers to a specific
UPC traffic contract. If no index is specified, then no
traffic policing will take place on this VPI. It is
assigned a UPC index of 0, and all traffic on this VPI
is treated as UBR traffic. This is the default.
The following is an advanced option for through paths:
-shapeivpi <vpi>
Indicates the incoming VPI. This can only be set
when creating a through path. When the traffic shaping port is not the port connected to the WAN, a
through path must be created from the WAN port to
the traffic shaping port. Cells arrive from the network at the traffic shaping port with this value equal
to the VPI of the terminating path at the traffic shaping port.
B-145
AMI Configuration Commands
The following parameters make up a terminating path:
port
vpi
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
term
Specifies that the virtual path to be created is a terminating path. If this option is not used, an elastic path
is created. Elastic paths allocate and de-allocate
bandwidth for their channels from the link.
-reserved <Kbs>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth specified in Kbps
that the user wants to reserve on this path.
-maxvci <maxvci>
Indicates the maximum number of channels that can
be created on this path.
The following parameters make up an originating path:
port
vpi
Indicates the incoming port number.
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
orig
Specifies that the virtual path to be created is an originating path.
-reserved <Kbs>
Indicates the amount of bandwidth specified in Kbps
that the user wants to reserve on this path.
-maxvci <maxvci>
Indicates the maximum number of channels that can
be created on this path.
The following are advanced options for originating paths:
B-146
-shapeovpi <vpi>
Indicates the output port of a traffic shaping originating path. Setting this value configures traffic shaping
on the originating path. Cells bound for the network
leave the traffic shaping port with this VPI. When the
traffic shaping port is the WAN port, this value
equals the input VPI of the originating path. If the
traffic shaping port is not the WAN port, this value
equals the input VPI of the through path from the
shaping port to the WAN port.
-vbrob <percent>
Indicates the bandwidth overbooking level assigned
to this path, specified as a percentage. Enter an integer value from 1 to 500. The default is 100, which
means that no overbooking has been defined. Values
less than 100 cause underbooking. Values greater
than 100 denote overbooking.
AMI Configuration Commands
-vbrbuffob <percent>
Indicates the buffer overbooking level assigned to
this path, specified as a percentage. Enter an integer
value greater than or equal to 1. The default is 100,
which means that no overbooking has been defined.
Values less than 100 cause underbooking. Values
greater than 100 denote overbooking.
NOTE:
If you want to shape traffic on more than two
ports on a given network module, it is recommended that you set the traffic memory
model to model number 5 for that network
module. Please see the sections, Displaying
Traffic Models for a Network Module, and,
Setting Traffic Models on a Network Module,
found earlier in this chapter for information
about how to do this.
NOTE:
Terminating and originating paths cannot be
created across the intra-fabric ports on an
SFCS-1000; only through paths can be created
across the intra-fabric ports as shown in the
following example.
B-147
AMI Configuration Commands
The following is an example of how to create a virtual path on an SFCS-1000.
To create a through path going in port 2A1, vpi 1 on the switch board installed
in slot 2 and going out port 4B1, vpi 1 on the switch board installed in slot 4,
enter the following:
localhost::configuration vpc> new 2a1 1 2e4 1
localhost::configuration vpc> new 2e4 1 2a1 1
localhost::configuration vpc> new 4b1 1 4e2 1
localhost::configuration vpc> new 4e2 1 4b1 1
In the first line in the first pair, notice that the output port is 2E4. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 2 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 2 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 4 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 4. 2E4
then becomes the input port in the second line.
In the first line in the second pair, notice that the output port is 4E2. This is the
intra-fabric port. The 4 means the connection is coming out of the switch
board in slot 4 through the intra-fabric port. The E represents the intra-fabric
port. The 2 means the connection is destined for switch board in slot 2. 4E2
then becomes the input port in the second line.
B-148
AMI Configuration Commands
B.19.4
Displaying Virtual Paths
This command lets the user display existing virtual paths. The user can show
either all of the existing virtual paths on an individual switch fabric or all of
the existing virtual paths on a specific port. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> show
Input
Output
Port VPI Port VPI
MaxBW
BW MaxVCs
1A1
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1A2
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1A3
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1A4
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1A5
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1A6
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1B1
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1B2
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1B3
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1B4
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
1CTL
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A1
0
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A2
0
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A3
0
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A4
0
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A5
0
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A6
0
N/A
0.0K
511
VCs
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
36
4
4
4
4
4
4
UPC
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Prot
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
pvc
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
Input Port
Shows the number of the input port of the virtual
path. Lists originate if it is an originating path.
Input VPI
Shows the input virtual path.
Output Port
Shows the number of the output port of the virtual
path. Lists terminate if it is a terminating path.
Output VPI
Shows the output virtual path.
MaxBW
Lists the maximum amount of bandwidth (in megabits/second) that is reserved for the virtual channels
using this path. A value of N/A indicates that this
path is an elastic path. Elastic paths allocate and deallocate bandwidth for their channels from the link.
B-149
AMI Configuration Commands
BW
Shows the amount of bandwidth (in megabits/second) that has been reserved for the virtual channels
using this path.
MaxVCs
Lists the maximum number of virtual channels that
may use this originating or terminating path.
VCs
Lists the number of virtual channels that are currently using this originating or terminating path.
UPC
Shows the integer index that refers to a specific traffic
contract assigned to this through path.
Protocol
Lists pvc for a permanent virtual circuit, spans for a
switched virtual circuit, or uni for a UNI 3.0 path.
To list all of the advanced options about existing virtual paths, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> show advanced
Input
Output
Port VPI Port VPI Shape VBROB BuffOB
1A1
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1A2
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1A3
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1A4
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1A5
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1A6
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1B1
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1B2
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1B3
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1B4
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
1CTL
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
originate 1A1
0
100
100
originate 1A2
0
100
100
originate 1A3
0
100
100
originate 1A4
0
100
100
originate 1A5
0
100
100
originate 1A6
0
100
100
Press return for more, q to quit:
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
B-150
Input Port
Shows the number of the input port of the virtual
path. Lists originate if it is an originating path.
Input VPI
Indicates the input virtual path.
AMI Configuration Commands
Output Port
Shows the number of the output port of the virtual
path. Lists terminate if it is a terminating path.
Output VPI
Shows the output virtual path.
Shape
Indicates whether or not traffic shaping has been
enabled for this originating path.
VBROB
Shows the bandwidth overbooking level assigned to
this path, specified as a percentage. Valid values are
integers from 1 to 500. The default is 100, which
means that no overbooking has been defined. Values
less than 100 cause underbooking. Values greater
than 100 denote overbooking.
BuffOB
Shows the buffer overbooking level assigned to this
path, specified as a percentage. Valid values are integers greater than or equal to 1. The default is 100,
which means that no overbooking has been defined.
Values less than 100 cause underbooking. Values
greater than 100 denote overbooking.
To list all of the existing virtual paths on a specific port, (for example, port
1A1, enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> show 1A1
Input
Output
Port VPI Port VPI
MaxBW
BW MaxVCs
1A1
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A1
0
N/A
0.0K
511
VCs
4
4
UPC
N/A
N/A
Prot
pvc
pvc
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for all of the virtual paths on an individual switch fabric.
B-151
AMI Configuration Commands
To list all of the existing permanent virtual paths on a specific port and path,
(for example, port 1A1 and VPI 0) enter the following parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> show 1A1 0
Input
Output
Port VPI Port VPI
MaxBW
BW MaxVCs
1A1
0 terminate
N/A
0.0K
511
originate 1A1
0
N/A
0.0K
511
VCs
4
4
UPC
N/A
N/A
Prot
pvc
pvc
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for all of the permanent virtual paths on an individual switch
fabric.
To list all of the advanced options about existing permanent virtual paths on a
specific port and path, (for example, port 1A1 and VPI 0) enter the following
parameters:
localhost::configuration vpc> show 1A1 0 advanced
Input
Output
Port VPI Port VPI Shape VBROB BuffOB
1A1
0 terminate
N/A
N/A
N/A
originate 1A1
0
100
100
The fields in this display are defined in the same manner as those listed above
in the example for the advanced options for all of the permanent virtual paths
on an individual switch fabric.
B-152
APPENDIX C AMI Operation Commands
This chapter contains a detailed description of the AMI operation commands. The main operation menu can be found at the root level. There are
several commands available under operation. Commands that are submenus are immediately followed by a “>” symbol. Typing operation ? at the
prompt at the root level displays the operation commands for the i960-based
switches as follows:
localhost::operation> ?
cdb>
environment>
flash>
password
reboot
C.1
panic>
upgrade
date
version
Configuration Database (CDB) Operation Commands
These commands allow the user to manage the configuration database (CDB).
Typing cdb ? at the prompt at the operation level displays the cdb commands as follows:
localhost::operation> cdb ?
backup
init
reset
restore
C-1
AMI Operation Commands
C.1.1
Backing Up the Database
This command lets the user make a backup of the configuration database. On
a 9A000, SFCS-200WG, SFCS-200BX, and an SFCS-1000, the remote host to
which the file will be backed up must be running the tftp server code.
Since the SCP on a 9A000, SFCS-200WG, SFCS-200BX, and an SFCS-1000 uses
tftp to perform the CDB backup, you must first create an empty file in the /tftpboot directory on the remote host to receive the CDB. Use the touch command to do this. Then, use the chmod command to change the permissions
of that file so that it will let the switch write the backup CDB to that file.
Perform the following steps to back up your CDB:
1.
First, telnet to your remote host and log in.
2.
Enter the following commands in sequence:
cd /tftpboot
touch <backup file name>
chmod 777 <backup file name>
3.
Then exit from the telnet session.
4.
Telnet to the switch and log into AMI.
5.
Enter the following command:
oper cdb backup <host>:/tftpboot/<backup file name>
You should receive the following message:
CDB backup was successful
Your backup file now resides in the file and on the host you specified.
C-2
AMI Operation Commands
C.1.2
Initializing the Database
This command lets the user initialize the CDB. The switch asks you to verify
this action before it re-initializes the CDB.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation cdb> init
This command will re-initialize the CDB and reboot the switch
Do you really want to remove ALL permanent information from
the database INCLUDING the configuration of all the network
interfaces? [n] n
localhost::operation cdb>
C-3
AMI Operation Commands
C.1.3
Resetting the Database
This command enables the user to reset the configuration database. The only
information that will be retained is the IP configuration which includes the
switch name and interface descriptions. The switch cautions the user that all
ATM information will be deleted. The switch then asks the user to confirm
that resetting the cdb is the desired action. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation cdb> reset
********** W A R N I N G **********
This operation resets the switch configuration database.
As a result, the switch control software will be restarted.
You will lose connectivity with the switch while this
operation is progressing.
Are you sure you want to reset the CDB [n]? n
localhost::operation cdb>
If the user enters yes to the reset question, the switch responds as follows:
Are you sure you want to reset the CDB [n]? y
The switch will restart momentarily.
At this point, the switch resets the CDB, closes the user out of all active sessions, and restarts the switch. The user must then log in to AMI again to perform any more actions on the switch.
C.1.4
Restoring the Database
This command allows the user to restore the configuration database. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::operation cdb> restore [<host>:]<full path to backup file>
C-4
host
Specifies the IP address of the host on which the CDB
file that is to be restored resides.
full path to backup file
Indicates the full path name of the CDB file that is to
be restored.
AMI Operation Commands
C.2
Environment Commands
These commands allow the user to monitor the switch’s environmental
parameters. Typing environment ? at the prompt at the operation level displays the cdb commands as follows:
localhost::operation> environment ?
cpu
fabric>
fans
temperature
C.2.1
power
CPU Operation
This command lets the user display information about the CPU on a 9A000,
SFCS-200WG, an SFCS-200BX, and an SFCS-1000. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation environment> cpu
CPU
Type
State
1X
i960
normal
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
CPU
Indicates the CPU number.
Type
Indicates the type of processor.
State
Shows whether or not the current condition of the
CPU is normal.
C-5
AMI Operation Commands
C.2.2
Switch Fabric Operation
These commands allow the user to monitor the temperature of the individual
switch fabrics on an SFCS-1000 only. Typing fabric ? at the prompt at the
environment level displays the cdb commands as follows:
localhost::operation environment> fabric ?
show
temperature
C.2.3
Showing Switch Fabric Temperature Information
This command displays the current temperatures in degrees Celsius of each
installed switch fabric on an SFCS-1000, the current state of the temperature
sensor, and the current thresholds at which a temperature alarm trips and
then later resets. The current temperature and state values are displayed for
all installed fabrics, even if a fabric has been shut down by the Common
Equipment Card (CEC) because of an over temperature condition. Enter the
following parameters:
localhost::operation environment fabric> show
Fabric
1
2
3
4
Alarm/trap
Alarm/trap
Deg C
State
31
normal
28
normal
37
normal
35
normal
reset threshold (this fabric): 60 degrees C or lower
trip threshold (this fabric): 65 degrees C or greater
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
C-6
Fabric
Shows the number of the fabrics currently installed
in the switch. Switch fabric 1 is in the slot labeled 1
on the enclosure, switch fabric 2 is in the slot labeled
2 on the enclosure, and so on.
Deg C
Lists the current temperature of the switch fabrics in
degrees Celsius.
State
Displays overTemp if an alarm has been tripped
because of this sensor, based on the trip and reset
values that have been configured. Shows normal if
otherwise, or if the alarm has reset.
AMI Operation Commands
Alarm/trap reset threshold
Shows the temperature in oC at which an overtemperature alarm is reset. For example, if the user sets
the reset and trip thresholds to 50 oC and 60 oC,
respectively, then the alarm will trip at 60 oC, and it
will be reset when the temperature drops back down
to 50 oC.
Alarm/trap trip threshold
Shows the temperature in oC at which an overtemperature alarm is tripped. For example, if the user
sets the reset and trip thresholds to 50 oC and 60 oC,
respectively, then the alarm will trip at 60 oC, and it
will be reset when the temperature drops back down
to 50 oC.
C.2.4
Configuring the Switch Fabric Temperature Thresholds
This command allows the user to set the thresholds at which a temperature
alarm will be tripped and then later reset on an SFCS-1000. Any temperature
can cause the switch to display a state of normal or overTemp, depending on
the trip and reset thresholds set by the user. For example, a temperature of 55
oC would show a state of normal if the trip threshold was 60 oC and the
switch fabric temperature never reached 60 degrees, but it would show a state
of overTemp if the switch fabric temperature had reached 60 oC, and then
had dropped to 55 oC, but had not yet reached a reset threshold set at 50 oC.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation environment fabric> temperature <reset threshold> <trip threshold>
reset threshold
Indicates the temperature in oC at which an overtemperature alarm is reset. The default is 60 oC.
trip threshold
Indicates the temperature in oC at which an overtemperature alarm is tripped. The default is 65 oC.
C-7
AMI Operation Commands
C.2.5
Fan Operation
This command enables the user to display information about the fans on an
SFCS-1000 only. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation environment> fans
FanBank
FanBankState
1
normal
2
normal
3
normal
4
normal
C-8
FanBank
FanBank corresponds to a single fan, indicating the
number of the fan.
FanBankState
Displays the current state of the fan. In general, it
reads normal. If the fan has malfunctioned, it reads
failed.
AMI Operation Commands
C.2.6
Power Supply Operation
This command enables the user to display information about power supplies.
Enter the following parameters to display information for a DC-powered
SFCS-1000:
localhost::operation environment> power
PowerSupply Type
InputState
1
ps48VDC
normal
2
ps48VDC
normal
OutputState S/N
normal
107
normal
195
Version
1
1
Enter the following parameters to display information for an SFCS-1000 with
tall AC power supplies:
localhost::operation environment> power
PowerSupply Type
InputState
1
psAutoRangeAC
normal
2
psAutoRangeAC
normal
OutputState
normal
normal
Enter the following parameters to display information for an SFCS-1000 with
short AC power supplies:
localhost::operation environment> power
PowerSupply Type
InputState
1
psRM1000HA
normal
2
psRM1000HA
normal
OutputState S/N
normal
12
normal
22
Version
1
1
Enter the following parameters to display information about an SFCS-200BX:
localhost::> operation environment> power
PowerSupply Type
InputState OutputState
1
psAutoRangeAC
normal
normal
2
psAutoRangeAC
normal
normal
Enter the following parameters to display information about an SFCS200WG:
localhost::> operation environment> power
PowerSupply Type
InputState OutputState
1
psAutoRangeAC
normal
normal
C-9
AMI Operation Commands
The fields in these displays are defined as follows:
PowerSupply
Type
Displays whether it is an AC or a DC power supply.
InputState
Shows if the voltage coming into the power supply is
normal or not.
OutputState
Shows if the voltage going out of the power supply is
normal or not.
S/N
Version
C.2.7
On an SFCS-200BX, 1 indicates the left power supply
and 2 indicates the right power supply. On an
SFCS-1000, 1 indicates the power supply in slot 1 in
the chassis and 2 indicates the power supply in slot 2
in the chassis.
Indicates the serial number of the power supply.
Lists the power supply’s hardware version number.
Temperature Sensor Operation
This command enables the user to display information gathered by the overtemperature sensors. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation environment> temperature
TemperatureSensor
SensorState
enclosure
normal
power-supply-A
normal
power-supply-B
normal
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
TemperatureSensor
Indicates where the temperature sensor is located on
the unit.
SensorState
Shows if the temperature at the specified location is
normal or not.
NOTE:
C-10
An SFCS-200WG only shows an enclosure
temperature sensor.
AMI Operation Commands
C.2.8
Panic Acknowledgment Commands
On occasion, the SCP may go into a state called panic, in which it reboots,
closes a user out of session, or goes into a hung or frozen state as the result of
a software bug. When the SCP returns to a normal state and an active session
is running again, the first thing the user should do is to use the operation
panic show AMI command to display information about what happened to
the SCP when it panicked. This information helps FORE’s Technical Support
staff to diagnose the problem. Typing panic ? at the prompt at the operation
level displays the panic commands as follows:
localhost::operation> panic ?
clear
show
C.2.9
Clearing the Panic Flag
This command lets the user clear the panic acknowledgment flag without
viewing the contents of the panic dump file. Once the flag is cleared, the user
may return to normal operation.
NOTE:
Do not clear a panic condition until after you
have performed the following three steps.
1.
Use the operation panic show command to display the contents
of the panic file.
2.
Cut and paste this panic file information to another file on a host
and save that file.
3.
Send this information via e-mail to FORE Technical Support along
with a description of the events leading up to the panic. Ask the
Technical Support staff to open a case for you based on that information. Once you have sent them the information, you may clear
the panic.
C-11
AMI Operation Commands
Enter the following parameters to clear a panic condition:
localhost::operation panic> clear
OK.
The message above is shown when a panic has been cleared.
The message below is shown when no panic dump file exists (i.e., the SCP did
not panic).
localhost::operation panic> clear
There is no panic condition to clear.
C.2.10
Displaying the Panic Dump File
This command lets the user view the contents of the panic dump file, which
contains information about what happened to the SCP when it panicked,
without clearing the panic flag. This information can assist FORE’s Technical
Support staff in troubleshooting the cause of the panic. Once the flag is
cleared, the user may return to normal operation.
The following is an example of the kind of message that appears on your console when a panic occurs:
********************************************
ForeThought SCP Software
Copyright (C) 1992-1995 FORE Systems, Inc.
All rights reserved.
********************************************
Starting kernel....
PANIC REBOOT! (Complete)
Panicked at Wed Nov 8 17:38:58 1995
with message: Fault
and 10 trace entries.
Use the AMI command `oper panic clear' to clear the panic.
C-12
AMI Operation Commands
At this point, the user must log in to AMI and enter the following parameters
to display the panic message:
localhost::> oper panic show
The last recorded panic was at Wed Nov 8 17:38:58 1995
Message: [fault]It was for version 3.4.0 revision 1.29 with 2 deltas.
Global registers:
G0 002C284D
G1 001F0000
G2 00000003
G3 00000000
G4 002414A0
G5 00000028
G6 000000D8
G7 003368D0
G8 000001F0
G9 00011D70
G10 00020001
G11 00039B50
G12 00000002
G13 000000FF
G14 00000000
G15 0000CB60
Stack trace:
0. 00245F64
1. 00039B50
2. 00245FE4
3. 00230258
4. 002414A4
5. 00229B04
6. 00229930
7. 00232E60
8. 001111A4
9. 00100088
Once the information has been displayed, follow the steps listed in the previous subsection for clearing a panic.
The message below is shown whenever there is no panic dump file.
localhost::operation panic> show
There is no panic dump to show you. Thank goodness.
NOTE:
If the switch panics, the panic file is automatically written to syslog upon reboot, provided
that a syslog host had been set prior to the
panic. This is especially useful if multiple
panics occur, so that each is separately
recorded and is not overwritten as they are
here. For more information about setting the
syslog host, please refer to Appendix B of this
manual.
C-13
AMI Operation Commands
C.3
Displaying and Setting the Date and Time
This command allows the user to display the current date and time on the
switch. To display this information, enter date at the operation level.
localhost::operation> date
Jan 11
16:32:01 -05:00 1996
This command also enables the user to set the current date and time on the
switch. To set or change this information, enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation> date ?
localhost::operation> date [<mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm:ss> [<(+|-)hh:mm>]]
mm/dd/yyyy
Indicates the current date. Enter the month, the day,
and the year numerically. For example, enter 01/11/
1996.
hh:mm:ss
Indicates the current time. Enter the hour (in terms of
a 24-hour clock; i.e., 1:00 pm is 13), the minutes, and
the seconds. For example, to set the time as 2:02 pm,
enter 14:02:00.
<(+|-)hh:mm>
Indicates your time difference from Greenwich Mean
Time. Enter the hours and minutes. For example, if
your time zone is two and one-half hours ahead of
Greenwich Mean Time, enter +02:30. Currently,
changing this parameter has no effect.
NOTE:
C-14
You must reboot the switch for these changes
to take effect.
AMI Operation Commands
C.4
FLASH Operation Commands
These commands enable management of the FLASH memory system. Typing
flash ? at the prompt at the operation level displays the flash commands as
follows:
localhost::operation> flash ?
copy
get
C.4.1
delete
init
dir
put
free
rename
Copying a File to FLASH Memory
This command allows the user to copy a file within the FLASH memory system. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation flash> copy <from> <to>
localhost::operation flash>
from
to
Indicates the file to be copied.
Indicates the file within the FLASH memory system
to which the first file will be copied.
C-15
AMI Operation Commands
C.4.2
Deleting a File from FLASH Memory
This command allows the user to delete a file from the FLASH memory system. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation flash> delete <file>
file
Indicates the name of the file in FLASH memory that
is to be deleted.
In order to delete a directory from the FLASH memory system (e.g., ft343.24),
you must first delete all files in that directory. For example, you would list all
directories in your FLASH memory system as follows:
localhost::operation flash> dir
FT343.24
FT343.25
CURRENT
Then you need to list all files in the directory that you want to delete as follows:
localhost::operation flash> dir ft343.24
FOREOS.EXE
Now delete the file in the directory as follows:
localhost::operation flash> del ft343.24/foreos.exe
Now you can delete the directory as follows:
localhost::operation flash> del ft343.24
C-16
AMI Operation Commands
C.4.3
Displaying the FLASH Memory Directory
This command enables the user to display the directory listing of the FLASH
memory system. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation flash> dir
ft343.24
ft343.25
CURRENT
C.4.4
Displaying Free Space on the FLASH File
This command lets the user display the amount of remaining free space in the
FLASH memory system. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation flash> free
There are 1891974 bytes of flash still available
C.4.5
Getting a FLASH File
This command lets the user retrieve a file from a remote host.
NOTE:
The remote host must be a tftpboot server.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation flash> get <host:remotefile> <localfile>
host:remotefile
Indicates the name of the host and file from which
the file is to be retrieved.
localfile
Indicates the name of the FLASH file where the
retrieved file is to be stored.
C-17
AMI Operation Commands
C.4.6
Initializing the FLASH File
This command lets the user initialize the FLASH file.
CAUTION
Initializing the FLASH file deletes all information from the FLASH file, including the switch
software.
Because this action results in the removal of data, the switch asks you to verify this action before it re-initializes the FLASH file. Enter the following
parameters:
localhost::operation flash> init
Are you sure you want to format the flash [n]? n
localhost::operation flash>
C.4.7
Putting a FLASH File on a Remote Host
This command allows the user to put a FLASH file on a remote host. Enter the
following parameters:
NOTE:
The remote host must be a tftpboot server.
localhost::operation flash> put <localfile> <host:remotefile>
localfile
host:remotefile
C-18
Indicates the name of the FLASH file to be copied.
Indicates the name of the host and file to which the
FLASH file is to be copied.
AMI Operation Commands
C.4.8
Renaming a FLASH File
This command enables the user to rename a file that is in FLASH memory.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation flash> rename <from> <to>
from
to
C.5
Indicates the current name of the file to be renamed.
Indicates the new name of the file to be renamed.
Setting or Changing the Password
This command allows the user to set or to change the switch’s administrative
password.
NOTE:
Be sure that this is the action you want to take
because you will be prompted for a new password immediately.
If you do not type a long enough password, you will be prompted to do so.
For security reasons, your keystrokes are not echoed when you enter the new
password. You will be asked to verify the change by entering the new password again. If you enter a password less than five characters long, you will be
asked to use a longer password. The user can get to this level by entering
password at the operation level. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation> password
Old password:
New password:
Please use a longer password.
New password:
Retype new password:
password changed.
C-19
AMI Operation Commands
C.6
Upgrading the Switch
This command allows the user to upgrade the software on an individual SCP.
NOTE:
The remote host on which the upgrade file
resides must be a tftpboot server.
NOTE:
To perform the initial switch software
upgrade successfully, the bootp server and
the tftpboot server must be configured properly. For complete instructions about performing a software upgrade, see Chapter 4,
Software Upgrade Instructions, in the ATM
Switch User’s Manual.
The user can get to this level by entering upgrade at the operation level.
Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation> upgrade <remotehost>:<full path to remotefile>
remotehost
full path to remotefile
C-20
Indicates the IP address of the remote host on which
the upgrade file resides.
Indicates the full path name of the upgrade file.
AMI Operation Commands
C.7
Displaying and Changing the Version of Software
This command allows the user to display and/or change the version of software that is currently running on the SCP. To display the current version,
enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation> version
Current software version is FT340.11
Software versions installed : FT330.35 FT340.11
If more than one version is installed, you can type the following parameters
to change the current version:
localhost::operation> version [<new-version>]
new-version
NOTE:
C.8
Indicates the name of the software version with
which the user wants to replace the current version.
For complete instructions about changing
between multiple versions of software, see
Chapter 4, Software Upgrade Instructions, in
the ATM Switch User’s Manual.
Rebooting the Switch
This command enables the user to reboot the SCP. The user can get to this
level by entering reboot at the operation level. You are asked to verify that
you want to take this action. Enter the following parameters:
localhost::operation> reboot
Are you sure you want to reboot this switch [n]? y
Upon reboot, the SCP immediately closes the user out of all open AMI sessions.
C-21
AMI Operation Commands
C-22
APPENDIX D AMI Statistics Commands
This chapter contains a detailed description of the AMI statistics commands
that display operational performance and error information for the various
hardware and software features of the switch and the network modules. The
main statistics menu can be found at the root level. There are several commands available under statistics. Typing statistics ? at the prompt at the root
level displays the statistics commands as follows:
localhost::statistics> ?
aal0
aal4
board
ctlport
e1
e3
ip
j2
sonet
spans
udp
uni30
aal5
ds1
icmp
module
tcp
vcc
atm
ds3
interface
port
tp25
vpc
Each of these commands is described in the following subsections.
D.1 AAL0 Statistics
You can display AAL0 statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
aal0 at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> aal0
Interface
XmtCell
asx0
0
qaa0
0
RcvCell
0
0
CellDsc
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Interface
Displays the AAL0 interface.
XmtCell
Lists the number of transmitted cells.
RcvCell
Shows the number of received cells.
CellDsc
Displays the number of discarded cells.
D-1
AMI Statistics Commands
D.2 AAL4 Statistics
You can display AAL4 statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
aal4 at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> aal4
Intfce XmtCell RcvCell
asx0
291691
236757
XmtPDU
132644
RcvPDU
58303
CRCErr
0
SARErr
0
CSErr CellDsc
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Interface
Displays the AAL4 interface.
XmtCell
Lists the number of transmitted cells.
RcvCell
Shows the number of received cells.
XmtPDU
Indicates the number of PDU packets transmitted.
RcvPDU
Displays the number of PDU packets received.
CRCErr
Lists the number of CRC errors.
SARErr
Shows the number of segmentation and reassembly
errors.
CSErr
Indicates the number of convergence sublayer errors.
CellDsc
D-2
Displays the number of discarded cells.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.3 AAL5 Statistics
You can display AAL5 statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
aal5 at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> aal5
Intfce
asx0
qaa0
XmtCell
77683
1322913
RcvCell
3840
103970
XmtPDU
45888
719509
RcvPDU
16437
215460
CRCErrs
0
0
CSErrs
0
0
CellDsc
718
0
PDUDsc
1247
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Interface
Displays the AAL5 interface.
XmtCell
Lists the number of transmitted cells.
RcvCell
Shows the number of received cells.
XmtPDU
Indicates the number of PDU packets transmitted.
RcvPDU
Displays the number of PDU packets received.
CRCErrs
Lists the number of CRC errors.
CSErrs
CellDsc
PDUDsc
Indicates the number of convergence sublayer errors.
Displays the number of discarded cells.
Shows the number of discarded PDU packets.
D-3
AMI Statistics Commands
D.4 ATM Statistics
You can display ATM statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
atm at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> atm
Interface
asx0
qaa0
XmtCell
412064
6958226
RcvCell
275218
5743816
VPI-OOR
0
0
VPI-Noc
0
0
VCI-OOR
0
0
VCI-Noc
11428
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Interface
Displays the ATM interface.
XmtCell
Lists the number of transmitted cells.
RcvCell
Shows the number of received cells.
VPI-OOR
VPI-Noc
VCI-OOR
VCI-Noc
D-4
Indicates the number of VPIs out of range.
Lists the number of VPIs with no connection which
means that there is no mapping entry listed for them.
Indicates the number of VCIs out of range.
Lists the number of VCIs with no connection which
means that there is no mapping entry listed for them.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.5 Switch Board Statistics
You can display switch board statistics for an individual switch board by
entering board at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> board
Board
1
VPI-Lookup-Errors
1241
VCI-Lookup-Errors
562
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Board
Shows the board (switch fabric number).
VPI-Lookup-Errors
Lists the number of cells that do not match any VPI
lookup tables.
VCI-Lookup-Errors
Displays the number of cells that do not match any
VCI lookup tables.
D.6 Control Port Statistics
You can list the control port statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering ctlport at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> ctlport
Interface
asx0
qaa0
Framing-Errors
0
0
CRC-Errors
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Interface
Framing-Errors
CRC-Errors
Displays the control port interface.
Shows the number of framing errors.
Lists the number of CRC errors.
D-5
AMI Statistics Commands
D.7 DS-3 Statistics
You can list statistics about all of the DS-3 network modules in an individual
switch fabric by entering ds3 at the statistics level. This command is available
only when at least one DS-3 network module is installed in the switch fabric.
localhost::statistics> ds3
ds3 Port 1C1 Counter
-----------------------------ds3FramingLOSs
ds3FramingLCVs
ds3FramingSumLCVs
ds3FramingFERRs
ds3FramingOOFs
ds3FramingFERFs
ds3FramingAISs
ds3FramingPbitPERRs
ds3FramingCbitPERRs
ds3FramingFEBEs
ds3PlcpFERRs
ds3PlcpLOFs
ds3PlcpBIP8s
ds3PlcpFEBEs
ds3PlcpYellows
ds3AtmHCSs
ds3AtmRxCells
ds3AtmTxCells
NOTE:
D-6
Value
-------------0
0
3533754755
122265891
59758
0
0
1713276195
1583241699
976095339
956136
0
252419904
603317432
0
176407092
3709807680
203023
Delta
-------------0
3047081531
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
All of the PLCP counters listed above and the
Yellow counter have meaningful values only
when the DS-3 network module is running in
the PLCP mode; they are all meaningless
when running in the HCS mode. However,
the HCS counter always has meaning, regardless of which mode is running.
AMI Statistics Commands
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
ds3FramingLOSs
Specifies the number of seconds in which Loss Of
Signal (LOS) errors were detected by the DS3 Receive
Framer block.
ds3FramingLCVs
Indicates the number of Line Code Violations (LCV)
that were detected by the DS3 Receive Framer block.
ds3FramingSumLCVs
Shows the number of DS3 information blocks (85
bits) which contain one or more Line Code Violations
(LCV).
ds3FramingFERRs
Displays the number of DS3 framing error (FERR)
events.
ds3FramingOOFs
Specifies the number of DS3 Out Of Frame (OOF)
error events.
ds3FramingFERFs
Indicates the number of seconds in which a Far End
Receive Failure (FERF) state has been detected by the
DS3 Receive Framer block. The FERF signal alerts the
upstream terminal that a failure has been detected
along the downstream line.
ds3FramingAISs
Shows the number of seconds in which Alarm Indication Signals (AIS) were detected by the DS3
Receive Framer block. AIS means that an upstream
failure has been detected by the far end.
ds3FramingPbitPERRs
Lists the number of P-bit parity error (PERR) events.
ds3FramingCbitPERRs
Shows the number of C-bit parity error (PERR)
events.
ds3FramingFEBEs
Indicates the number of DS3 far end block error
(FEBE) events.
ds3PlcpFERRs
Lists the number of Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) octet error events.
ds3PlcpLOFs
Shows the number of seconds in which Loss Of
Frame (LOF) errors were detected by the PLCP
(Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) receiver. LOF
is declared when an Out-Of-Frame state persists for
more than 1ms. LOF is removed when an in-frame
state persists for more than 12ms.
D-7
AMI Statistics Commands
D-8
ds3PlcpBIP8s
Lists the number of BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity - 8)
error events. The BIP-8 is calculated over the Path
Overhead field and the associated ATM cell of the
previous frame. A BIP-N is a method of error monitoring. An N-bit code is generated by the transmitting equipment in such a manner that the first bit of
the code provides even parity over the first bit of all
N-bit sequences in the previous VT SPE, the second
bit provides even parity over the second bits of all
N-bit sequences within the specified portion, etc.
ds3PlcpFEBEs
Specifies the number of ATM Far End Block Error
(FEBE) events.
ds3PlcpYellows
Shows the number of seconds in which Yellow alarm
errors were detected by the PLCP (Physical Layer
Convergence Protocol) receiver. The yellow alarm is
asserted when 10 consecutive yellow signal bits are
set to logical 1. Yellow signals are used to alert
upstream terminals of a downstream failure in order
to initiate trunk conditioning on the failure circuit.
ds3AtmHCSs
Lists the number of the header check sequence (HCS)
error events. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over the
first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
ds3AtmRxCells
Shows the number of ATM cells that were received,
not including idle/unassigned cells.
ds3AtmTxCells
Displays the number of ATM cells that were transmitted, not including idle/unassigned cells.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.8 E-3 Statistics
You can display statistics about all of the E-3 network modules in an individual switch fabric by entering e3 at the statistics level. This command is available only when at least one E-3 network module is installed in the switch
fabric.
localhost::statistics> e3
e3 Port 1D1 Counter
-----------------------------e3FramingLOSs
e3FramingLCVs
e3FramingFERRs
e3FramingOOFs
e3FramingFERFs
e3FramingAISs
e3FramingBIP8s
e3FramingFEBEs
e3PlcpFERRs
e3PlcpLOFs
e3PlcpBIP8s
e3PlcpFEBEs
e3PlcpYellows
e3AtmHCSs
e3AtmRxCells
e3AtmTxCells
Value
-------------85974
3684415794
85173622
85974
0
0
636877586
2465566
0
171950
0
0
0
0
0
281929
Delta
-------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
NOTE:
All of the PLCP counters listed above and the
Yellow counter have meaningful values only
when the E-3 network module is running in
the PLCP mode; they are all meaningless
when running in the HCS mode. However,
the HCS counter always has meaning, regardless of which mode is running.
D-9
AMI Statistics Commands
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
D-10
e3FramingLOSs
Specifies the number of seconds in which Loss Of
Signal (LOS) errors were detected by the E3 Receive
Framer block.
e3FramingLCVs
Displays the number of Line Code Violations (LCV)
that were detected by the E3 Receive Framer block.
e3FramingFERRs
Lists the number of E3 framing error (FERR) events.
e3FramingOOFs
Shows the number of E3 Out Of Frame (OOF) error
events.
e3FramingFERFs
Indicates the number of Far End Receive Failures for
a port configured with HCS framing. Indicates the
number of Remote Alarm Indications for a port configured with PLCP framing.
e3FramingAISs
Lists the number of seconds in which Alarm Indication Signals (AIS) were detected by the E3 Receive
Framer block. AIS indicates that an upstream failure
has been detected by the far end.
e3FramingFEBEs
Displays the number of E3 far end block error (FEBE)
events.
e3FramingBIP8s
Shows the number of E3 G.832 BIP-8 errors. This
counter is only valid for a port configured with HCS
framing.
e3PlcpFERRs
Lists the number of Physical Layer Convergence Protocol (PLCP) octet error events.
e3PlcpLOFs
Indicates the number of seconds in which Loss Of
Frame (LOF) errors were detected by the PLCP
(Physical Layer Convergence Protocol) receiver. LOF
is declared when an Out-Of-Frame state persists for
more than 1ms. LOF is removed when an in-frame
state persists for more than 12ms.
AMI Statistics Commands
e3PlcpBIP8s
Shows the number of BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved Parity-8)
error events. The BIP-8 is calculated over the Path
Overhead field and the associated ATM cell of the
previous frame. A BIP-N is a method of error monitoring. An N-bit code is generated by the transmitting equipment in such a manner that the first bit of
the code provides even parity over the first bit of all
N-bit sequences in the previous VT SPE, the second
bit provides even parity over the second bits of all
N-bit sequences within the specified portion, etc.
e3PlcpFEBEs
Displays the number of ATM Far End Block Error
(FEBE) events.
e3PlcpYellows
Shows the number of seconds in which Yellow alarm
errors were detected by the PLCP (Physical Layer
Convergence Protocol) receiver. Yellow alarm is
asserted when 10 consecutive yellow signal bits are
set to logical 1. Yellow signals are used to alert
upstream terminals of a downstream failure in order
to initiate trunk conditioning on the failure circuit.
e3AtmHCSs
Lists the number of header check sequence (HCS)
error events. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over the
first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
e3AtmRxCells
Indicates the number of ATM cells that were
received, not including idle/unassigned cells.
e3AtmTxCells
Displays the number of ATM cells that were transmitted, not including idle/unassigned cells.
D-11
AMI Statistics Commands
D.9 ICMP Statistics
You can list ICMP statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering icmp
at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> icmp
icmp Counter
Value
Delta
------------------------------ -------------------- -------------------icmpInMsgs
815
2
icmpInErrors
0
0
icmpInDestUnreachs
13
0
icmpInTimeExcds
0
0
icmpInParmProbs
0
0
icmpInSrcQuenchs
0
0
icmpInRedirects
0
0
icmpInEchos
802
2
icmpInEchoReps
0
0
icmpInTimestamps
0
0
icmpInTimestampReps
0
0
icmpInAddrMasks
0
0
icmpInAddrMaskReps
0
0
icmpOutMsgs
802
2
icmpOutErrors
0
0
icmpOutDestUnreachs
0
0
icmpOutTimeExcds
0
0
icmpOutParmProbs
0
0
icmpOutSrcQuenchs
0
0
icmpOutRedirects
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit:
icmpOutEchos
icmpOutEchoReps
icmpOutTimestamps
icmpOutTimestampReps
icmpOutAddrMasks
icmpOutAddrMaskReps
D-12
0
802
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
AMI Statistics Commands
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
icmpInMsgs
Indicates the total number of ICMP messages which
the entity received. Note that this counter includes
all those counted by icmpInErrors.
icmpInErrors
Shows the number of ICMP messages which the
entity received but determined as having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.).
icmpInDestUnreachs
Lists the number of ICMP Destination Unreachable
messages received.
icmpInTimeExcds
Displays the number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received.
icmpInParmProbs
Indicates the number of ICMP Parameter Problem
message received.
icmpInSrcQuenchs
Shows the number of ICMP Source Quench messages received.
icmpInRedirects
Displays the number of ICMP Redirect messages
received.
icmpInEchos
Lists the number of ICMP Echo (request) messages
received.
icmpInEchoReps
Indicates the number of ICMP Echo Reply messages
received.
icmpInTimestamps
Shows the number of ICMP Timestamp (request)
messages received.
icmpInTimestampReps
Displays the number of ICMP Timestamp Reply
messages received.
icmpInAddrMasks
Lists the number of ICMP Address Mask Request
messages received.
icmpInAddrMaskReps
Indicates the number of ICMP Address Mask Reply
messages received.
icmpOutMsgs
Shows the total number of ICMP messages which
this entity attempted to send. Note that this counter
includes all those counted by icmpOutErrors.
D-13
AMI Statistics Commands
D-14
icmpOutErrors
Displays the number of ICMP messages which this
entity did not send due to problems discovered
within ICMP such as a lack of buffers. This value
should not include errors discovered outside the
ICMP layer such as the inability of IP to route the
resultant datagram. In some implementations there
may be no types of error which contribute to this
counter’s value.
icmpOutDestUnreachs
Lists the number of ICMP Destination Unreachable
messages sent.
icmpOutTimeExcds
Indicates the number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent.
icmpOutParmProbs
Shows the number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent.
icmpOutSrcQuenchs
Displays the number of ICMP Source Quench messages sent.
icmpOutRedirects
Lists the number of ICMP Redirect messages sent.
For a host, this object is always zero, since hosts do
not send redirects.
icmpOutEchos
Indicates the number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent.
icmpOutEchoReps
Shows the number of ICMP Echo Reply messages
sent.
icmpOutTimestamps
Displays the number of ICMP Timestamp (request)
messages sent.
icmpOutTimestampReps
Lists the number of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages sent.
icmpOutAddrMasks
Indicates the number of ICMP Address Mask
Request messages sent.
icmpOutAddrMaskReps
Shows the number of ICMP Address Mask Reply
messages sent.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.10 Interface Statistics
You can list interface statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
interface at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> interface
Interface lo0 Counter
Value
Delta
------------------------------ -------------------- -------------------ifInOctets
1211364
20944
ifInUcastPkts
3933
68
ifInNUcastPkts
0
0
ifInDiscards
0
0
ifInErrors
0
0
ifInUnknownProtos
0
0
ifOutOctets
1211364
20944
ifOutUcastPkts
3933
68
ifOutNUcastPkts
0
0
ifOutDiscards
0
0
ifOutErrors
0
0
ifOutQLen
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
ifInOctets
Indicates the total number of octets received on the
interface, including framing characters.
ifInUcastPkts
Shows the number of subnetwork-unicast packets
delivered to a higher-layer protocol.
ifInNUcastPkts
Lists the number of non-unicast (i.e., subnetworkbroadcast or subnetwork-multicast) packets delivered to a higher-layer protocol.
ifInDiscards
Displays the number of inbound packets which were
chosen to be discarded even though no errors had
been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up buffer
space.
D-15
AMI Statistics Commands
D-16
ifInErrors
Indicates the number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them from being deliverable
to a higher-layer protocol.
ifInUnknownProtos
Shows the number of packets received via the interface which were discarded because of an unknown
or unsupported protocol.
ifOutOctets
Displays the total number of octets transmitted out
of the interface, including framing characters.
ifOutUcastPkts
Lists the total number of packets that higher-level
protocols requested be transmitted to a subnetworkunicast address, including those that were discarded
or not sent.
ifOutNUcastPkts
Indicates the total number of packets that higherlevel protocols requested be transmitted to a nonunicast (i.e., a subnetwork-broadcast or subnetworkmulticast) address, including those that were discarded or not sent.
ifOutDiscards
Shows the number of outbound packets which were
chosen to be discarded even though no errors had
been detected to prevent their being transmitted.
One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
ifOutErrors
Displays the number of outbound packets that could
not be transmitted because of errors.
ifOutQLen
Specifies the length of the output packet queue (in
packets).
AMI Statistics Commands
D.11 IP Statistics
You can display IP statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering ip at
the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> ip
ip Counter
Value
Delta
------------------------------ -------------------- -------------------ipInReceives
74056
11
ipInHdrErrors
0
0
ipInAddrErrors
0
0
ipForwDatagrams
0
0
ipInUnknownProtos
0
0
ipInDiscards
0
0
ipInDelivers
74056
11
ipOutRequests
0
0
ipOutDiscards
0
0
ipOutNoRoutes
0
0
ipReasmReqds
0
0
ipReasmOKs
0
0
ipReasmFails
0
0
ipFragOKs
0
0
ipFragFails
0
0
ipFragCreates
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
ipInReceives
Shows the total number of input datagrams received
from interfaces, including those received in error.
ipInHdrErrors
Lists the number of input datagrams discarded due
to errors in their IP headers, including bad checksums, version number mismatch, other format
errors, time-to-live exceeded, errors discovered in
processing their IP options, etc.
D-17
AMI Statistics Commands
D-18
ipInAddrErrors
Shows the number of input datagrams discarded
because the IP address in their IP header’s destination field was not a valid address to be received at
this entity. This count includes invalid addresses
(e.g., 0.0.0.0) and addresses of unsupported Classes
(e.g., Class E). For entities which are not IP Gateways
and, therefore, do not forward datagrams, this
counter includes datagrams discarded because the
destination address was not a local address.
ipForwDatagrams
Indicates the number of input datagrams for which
this entity was not their final IP destination, as a
result of which an attempt was made to find a route
to forward them to that final destination. In entities
which do not act as IP Gateways, this counter
includes only those packets which were SourceRouted via this entity, and the Source-Route option
processing was successful.
ipInUnknownProtos
Displays the number of locally-addressed datagrams
received successfully but discarded because of an
unknown or unsupported protocol.
ipInDiscards
Lists the number of input IP datagrams for which no
problems were encountered to prevent their continued processing, but which were discarded (e.g., for
lack of buffer space). This counter does not include
any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.
ipInDelivers
Shows the total number of input datagrams successfully delivered to IP user-protocols (including
ICMP).
ipOutRequests
Lists the total number of IP datagrams which local IP
user-protocols (including ICMP) supplied to IP in
requests for transmission. This counter does not
include any datagrams counted in ipForwDatagrams.
ipOutDiscards
Displays the number of output IP datagrams for
which no problem was encountered to prevent their
transmission to their destination, but which were
discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space). Note that
this counter would include datagrams counted in
ipForwDatagrams if any such packets met this (discretionary) discard criterion.
AMI Statistics Commands
ipOutNoRoutes
Lists the number of IP datagrams discarded because
no route could be found to transmit them to their
destination. This counter includes any packets
counted in ipForwDatagrams which meet this “noroute” criterion. Note that this includes any datagrams which a host cannot route because all of its
default gateways are down.
ipReasmReqds
Shows the maximum number of seconds which
received fragments are held while they are awaiting
reassembly at this entity.
ipReasmOKs
Indicates the number of IP datagrams successfully
reassembled.
ipReasmFails
Displays the number of failures detected by the IP
reassembly algorithm (for whatever reason: timed
out, errors, etc). This is not necessarily a count of discarded IP fragments since some algorithms (notably
the algorithm in RFC-815) can lose track of the number of fragments by combining them as they are
received.
ipFragOKs
Lists the number of IP datagrams that have been successfully fragmented at this entity.
ipFragFails
Shows the number of IP datagrams that have been
discarded because they needed to be fragmented at
this entity but could not be; e.g., because their Don’t
Fragment flag was set.
ipFragCreates
Indicates the number of IP datagram fragments that
have been generated as a result of fragmentation at
this entity.
D-19
AMI Statistics Commands
D.12 Network Module Statistics
You can list network module statistics about all of the network modules in an
individual switch fabric by entering module at the statistics level. The following statistics are displayed on all switches, except an SFCS-1000:
localhost::statistics> module
Module
1A
1A
1B
1B
1C
1C
1D
Priority
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Status
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
Size
585
585
585
585
585
585
585
QLength Overflows
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The following statistics are displayed on an SFCS-1000 only:
localhost::statistics> module
Module
4A
4A
4A
4A
4B
4B
4B
4B
4C
4C
4C
4C
4D
4D
4D
4D
4CTL
D-20
Priority
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
Status
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
enabled
Size
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
4096
QLength Overflows
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
AMI Statistics Commands
The fields in these displays have the following meanings:
Module
Shows the number of each network module that is
currently installed in the switch fabric. The 1 means
that it is the first switch fabric. The letters show the
position of the network module in the switch fabric.
Priority
Indicates the priority level for each network module.
Status
Size
Shows whether the buffer is enabled or disabled.
Displays the buffer size.
QLength
Lists the number of cells currently in this queue.
Overflows
Indicates the number of overflows in this queue.
D-21
AMI Statistics Commands
D.13 Port Statistics
You can display port statistics about all of the ports on an individual switch
fabric by entering port at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> port
Port
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1B1
1B2
1B3
1B4
1C1
1C2
1CTL
Received-Cells
6386
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
241397
Transmitted-Cells
Port-Errors
49996
16121
16121
16121
0
0
0
0
16121
16121
120581
0
0
0
0
9040
9040
9040
9040
0
0
0
PortOverflows
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Port
Received-Cells
Transmitted-Cells
D-22
Indicates the port number.
Shows the number of cells received on this port.
Shows the number of cells transmitted on this port.
Port-Errors
Lists the number of seconds in which errored cells
were dropped by this port.
Port-Overflows
Shows the number of cells dropped on this port
because of full queues.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.14 SONET Statistics
You can display statistics about all of the SONET network modules on an
individual switch fabric by entering sonet at the statistics level. This command is available only when at least one SONET network module is installed
in the switch fabric.
localhost::statistics> sonet
sonet Port 1A1 Counter
-----------------------------sonetSectionBIPs
sonetSectionLOSs
sonetSectionLOFs
sonetLineBIPs
sonetLineFEBEs
sonetLineAISs
sonetLineFERFs
sonetPathBIPs
sonetPathFEBEs
sonetPathLOPs
sonetPathAISs
sonetPathYellows
sonetAtmCorrectableHCSs
sonetAtmUncorrectableHCSs
Value
-------------383833630
22103
23991
532
355
23991
6
244
211
1888
23991
23997
0
0
Delta
-------------1584162
99
99
0
0
99
0
0
0
0
99
99
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
sonetSectionBIPs
Shows the number of Section BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved
Parity) errors that have been detected since the last
time the port has been reset. The calculated BIP-8
code is compared with the BIP-8 code extracted from
the B1 byte of the following frame. Differences indicate that a section level bit error has occurred.
sonetSectionLOSs
Lists the number of seconds in which Loss Of Signal
(LOS) has occurred. A LOS is declared when 20 +/3ms of all zeros patterns is detected. LOS is cleared
when two valid framing words are detected and during the intervening time no LOS condition is
detected.
D-23
AMI Statistics Commands
D-24
sonetSectionLOFs
Specifies the number of seconds in which Loss Of
Frame (LOF) has occurred. A LOF is declared when
an out-of-frame (OOF) condition persists for 3ms.
The LOF is cleared when an in-frame condition persists for 3ms. While in-frame the framing bytes (A1,
A2) in each frame are compared against the expected
pattern. Out-of-frame is declared when four consecutive frames containing one or more framing pattern
errors have been received.
sonetLineBIPs
Indicates the number of Line BIP-24 (Bit Interleaved
Parity) errors that have been detected since the last
time the port has been reset. The calculated BIP-24
code is based on the line overhead and synchronous
payload envelope (SPE) of the STS-3c stream. The
line BIP-24 code is a bit interleaved parity calculation
using even parity. The calculated code is compared
with the BIP-24 code extracted from the B2 bytes of
the following frame. Differences indicate that a line
layer bit error has occurred.
sonetLineFEBEs
Lists the number of line Far End Block Errors (FEBE)
that have been detected since the last time the port
has been reset.
sonetLineAISs
Shows the number of seconds in which line Alarm
Indication Signal (AIS) has occurred. A line AIS is
asserted when a 111 binary pattern is detected in bits
6, 7, 8 of the K2 byte for five consecutive frames. A
line AIS is removed when any pattern other than 111
is detected in these bits for five consecutive frames.
sonetLineFERFs
Specifies the number of seconds in which line Far
End Receive Failure (FERF) has occurred. A line
FERF is asserted when a 110 binary pattern is
detected in bits 6, 7, 8 of the K2 byte for five consecutive frames. A line FERF is removed when any pattern other than 110 is detected in these bits for five
consecutive frames.
sonetPathBIPs
Indicates the number of Path BIP-8 (Bit Interleaved
Parity) errors that have been detected since the last
time the port has been reset. A path BIP-8 error is
detected by comparing the path BIP-8 byte (B3)
extracted from the current frame, to the path BIP-8
computed for the previous frame.
AMI Statistics Commands
sonetPathFEBEs
Displays the number of path Far End Block Errors
(FEBE) that have been detected since the last time the
port has been reset. FEBEs are detected by extracting
the 4-bit FEBE field from the path status byte (G1).
The valid range for the 4-bit field is between 0000
and 1000, representing zero to eight errors. Any other
value is interpreted as zero errors.
sonetPathLOPs
Lists the number of seconds in which path Loss Of
Pointer (LOP) has occurred. A path LOP is detected
when a “normal pointer value” is not found in eight
consecutive frames. The LOP is cleared when a “normal pointer value” is detected for three consecutive
frames.
sonetPathAISs
Indicates the number of seconds in which path
Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) has occurred. A path
AIS is asserted when an all-ones pattern is detected
in the pointer bytes (H1 and H2) for three consecutive frames. It is cleared when a valid pointer is
detected for three consecutive frames. AIS indicates
that an upstream failure has been detected.
sonetPathYellows
Shows the number of seconds in which path yellow
alarm has occurred. A path yellow alarm is detected
by extracting bit 5 of the path status byte. If bit 5 is
high for ten consecutive frames, a yellow alarm is
declared. A yellow alarm is cleared when bit 5 is low
for ten consecutive frames. Yellow signals are used to
alert upstream terminals of a downstream failure in
order to initiate trunk conditioning on the failure circuit.
sonetAtmCorrectableHCSs
Lists the number of correctable Header Check
Sequence (HCS) error events that occurred since the
port was reset. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over
the first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
sonetAtmUncorrectableHCSs
Displays the number of uncorrectable Header Check
Sequence (HCS) error events that occurred since the
port was reset. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over
the first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
D-25
AMI Statistics Commands
D.15 SPANS Statistics
You can list SPANS statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering spans
at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> spans
Port 1D1 Counter
Value
Delta
---------------------------------- --------------- -------------------sigPathVCCs
0
0
sigPathRestarts
0
0
sigPathCallsCompletions
0
0
sigPathCallsFailures
0
0
sigPathCallsRejections
0
0
sigPathSpansTransmittedMessages
193416
76
sigPathSpansReceivedMessages
0
0
sigPathClsTransmittedMessages
0
0
sigPathClsReceivedMessages
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
sigPathVCCs
sigPathRestarts
Shows the number of times this switch has lost and
regained contact with the other side of the connection.
sigPathCallsCompletions
Displays the number of signalling requests that were
completed.
sigPathCallsFailures
sigPathCallsRejections
D-26
Shows the number of VCCs on this signalling path.
Lists the number of failed signalling calls.
Shows the number of rejected requests.
sigPathSpansTransmittedMessages
Shows the number of SPANS messages that were
sent.
sigPathSpansReceivedMessages
Displays the number of SPANS messages that were
received.
sigPathClsTransmittedMessages
Lists the number of connectionless messages that
were sent.
sigPathClsReceivedMessages
Shows the number of connectionless messages that
were received.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.16 TCP Statistics
You can display TCP statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering tcp
at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> tcp
tcp Counter
Value
Delta
------------------------------ -------------------- -------------------tcpActiveOpens
0
0
tcpPassiveOpens
20
0
tcpAttemptFails
0
0
tcpEstabResets
1
0
tcpCurrEstab
2
0
tcpInSegs
4307
10
tcpOutSegs
3290
7
tcpRetransSegs
0
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
tcpActiveOpens
Shows the number of times TCP connections have
made a direct transition to the SYN-SENT state from
the CLOSED state.
tcpPassiveOpens
Lists the number of times TCP connections have
made a direct transition to the SYN-RCVD state from
the LISTEN state.
tcpAttemptFails
Displays the number of times TCP connections have
made a direct transition to the CLOSED state from
either the SYN-SENT state or the SYN-RCVD state,
plus the number of times TCP connections have
made a direct transition to the LISTEN state from the
SYN-RCVD state.
tcpEstabResets
Indicates the number of times TCP connections have
made a direct transition to the CLOSED state from
either the ESTABLISHED state or the CLOSE-WAIT
state.
D-27
AMI Statistics Commands
D-28
tcpCurrEstab
Shows the number of TCP connections for which the
current state is either ESTABLISHED or CLOSEWAIT.
tcpInSegs
Lists the total number of segments received, including those received in error. This count includes segments received on currently established connections.
tcpOutSegs
Displays the total number of segments sent, including those on current connections but excluding those
containing only retransmitted octets.
tcpRetransSegs
Indicates the total number of segments retransmitted
- that is, the number of TCP segments transmitted
containing one or more previously transmitted
octets.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.17 TP25 Statistics
You can display statistics about all of the TP25 network modules in an individual switch fabric by entering tp25 at the statistics level. The following
TP25 command is available only when at least one TP25 network module is
installed in the switch fabric.
localhost::statistics> tp25
tp25 Port 1A1 Counter
-----------------------------tp25ErrorSymbol
tp25AtmHCSs
tp25AtmRxCells
tp25AtmTxCells
Value
-------------40452300
8
13722
0
Delta
-------------0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit:
The fields in this display are defined as follows:
tp25ErrorSymbol
Shows the number of undefined symbols received.
tp25AtmHCSs
Lists the number of header check sequence (HCS)
error events. The HCS is a CRC-8 calculation over the
first 4 octets of the ATM cell header.
tp25AtmRxCells
Displays the number of ATM cells that were
received.
tp25AtmTxCells
Shows the number of ATM cells that were transmitted.
D-29
AMI Statistics Commands
D.18 UDP Statistics
You can display UDP statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
udp at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> udp
udp Counter
Value
Delta
------------------------------ -------------------- -------------------udpInDatagrams
0
0
udpNoPorts
0
0
udpInErrors
0
0
udpOutDatagrams
0
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
D-30
udpInDatagrams
Shows the total number of UDP datagrams delivered
to UDP users.
udpNoPorts
Lists the total number of received UDP datagrams
for which there was no application at the destination
port.
udpInErrors
Indicates the number of received UDP datagrams
that could not be delivered for reasons other than the
lack of an application at the destination port.
udpOutDatagrams
Displays the total number of UDP datagrams sent
from this entity.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.19 UNI 3.0 Statistics
You can show UNI 3.0 statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering
uni30 at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> uni30
Port 1D1 Counter
Value
Delta
---------------------------------- ---------------- -------------------q2931VCCs
0
0
q2931Restarts
0
0
q2931CallsCompletions
0
0
q2931CallsFailures
0
0
q2931CallsRejections
0
0
q2931TransmittedMessages
0
0
q2931ReceivedMessages
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
q2931VCCs
Indicates the number of Virtual Channel Connections (VCCs) on this signalling path.
q2931Restarts
Displays the number of times the switch has lost and
regained contact with the remote signalling entity on
this path.
q2931CallsCompletions
Shows the number of successfully completed calls on
this signalling path.
q2931CallsFailures
Lists the number of call failures on this signalling
path.
q2931CallsRejections
Indicates the number of connections on this signalling path that were rejected by the far end.
q2931TransmittedMessages
Displays the total number of Q.2931 messages that
have been transmitted over this signalling path.
q2931ReceivedMessages
Shows the total number of Q.2931 messages that
have been received on this signalling path.
D-31
AMI Statistics Commands
D.20 VCC Statistics
You can display virtual channel statistics for an individual switch fabric by
entering vcc at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> vcc
Input
Output
Port VPI VCI Port VPI VCI
4A1
0
5 4CTL
0
34
4A1
0
14 4CTL
0
33
4A1
0
15 4CTL
0
32
4A1
0
16 4CTL
0
86
4A2
0
5 4CTL
0
37
4A2
0
14 4CTL
0
36
4A2
0
15 4CTL
0
35
4A2
0
16 4CTL
0
87
4A3
0
5 4CTL
0
40
4A3
0
14 4CTL
0
39
4A3
0
15 4CTL
0
38
4A3
0
16 4CTL
0
88
4A4
0
5 4CTL
0
43
Uptime
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
0d:01:55
Cells
36168
325392
299002
3702
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RejectedCells
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
D-32
Input Port
Designates the incoming port number.
Input VPI
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
Input VCI
Indicates the incoming virtual channel number.
Output Port
Designates the outgoing port number.
Output VPI
Shows the outgoing virtual path number.
Output VCI
Indicates the outgoing virtual channel number.
Uptime
Displays the length of time that this virtual channel
has been in its current state.
Cells
Lists the number of cells that were transmitted on
this channel.
RejectedCells
Lists the number of cells over this channel that were
rejected (tagged or dropped) by the hardware due to
a traffic policing violation.
AMI Statistics Commands
D.21 VPC Statistics
You can display virtual path statistics for an individual switch fabric by entering vpc at the statistics level.
localhost::statistics> vpc
Input
Output
Port VPI Port VPI Uptime
4A1
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4A2
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4A3
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4A4
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4C1
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4C2
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4C3
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4C4
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4D1
0 terminate 0d:00:08
4D2
0 terminate 0d:00:08
4D3
0 terminate 0d:00:08
4D4
0 terminate 0d:00:08
4E1
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4E2
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4E3
0 terminate 0d:01:56
4CTL
0 terminate 0d:01:56
originate 4A1
0 0d:01:56
Cells
783856
0
0
0
0
0
20049
0
14034
0
7232
0
0
0
0
2518080
778309
RejectedCells
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Press return for more, q to quit: q
The fields in this display have the following meanings:
Input Port
Designates the incoming port number.
Input VPI
Indicates the incoming virtual path number.
Output Port
Designates the outgoing port number.
Output VPI
Shows the outgoing virtual path number.
Uptime
Cells
RejectedCells
Displays the length of time that this virtual path has
been in its current state.
Lists the number of cells transmitted on this path.
Lists the number of cells over this path that were
rejected (tagged or dropped) by the hardware due to
a traffic policing violation.
D-33
AMI Statistics Commands
D-34
APPENDIX E SNMP Configuration
The switch control software for the ATM switches includes an SNMP agent.
The SNMP agent enables the remote monitoring and configuration of these
switches.
E.1
SNMP Indexing
There are two main SNMP indexing schemes used: software port indices and
hardware port indices. Software port indices are single numbers starting at 0
for the first port, incrementing 8 ports per module on a 9A000, SFCS-200WG,
and on an SFCS-200BX. For example, port A1 on a 9A000, SFCS-200WG, or an
SFCS-200BX has a software port index of 0. Port C3 on a 9A000, SFCS-200WG,
or an SFCS-200BX has a software port index of 18, or 8 * 2 + 2 .
Hardware port indices are of the form {board}.{network module}.{port} or
bnp notation. They start at 0.0.0 for the first port and increment across boards,
network modules, and ports. For example, port C3 on a 9A000, SFCS-200WG,
or an SFCS-200BX is hardware port 0.2.2.
Please refer to Table E.1 for a summary of the port number conventions used
in Cabletron switches and related SNMP indexing format.
E-1
SNMP Configuration
Table E.1 - 9A000/SFCS-200WG/SFCS-200BX
Port
Name
Software Port
Number
Board-NetmodPort Index
Port
Name
Software Port
Number
Board-NetmodPort Index
A1
0
0.0.0
C1
16
0.2.0
A2
1
0.0.1
C2
17
0.2.1
A3
2
0.0.2
C3
18
0.2.2
A4
3
0.0.3
C4
19
0.2.3
A5
4
0.0.4
C5
20
0.2.4
A6
5
0.0.5
C6
21
0.2.5
B1
8
0.1.0
D1
24
0.3.0
B2
9
0.1.1
D2
25
0.3.1
B3
10
0.1.2
D3
26
0.3.2
B4
11
0.1.3
D4
27
0.3.3
B5
12
0.1.4
D5
28
0.3.4
B6
13
0.1.5
D6
29
0.3.5
CTL
56
0.7.0
E-2
SNMP Configuration
E.2
SNMP Traps
SNMP traps are used to update the state of the network automatically to
remote network management hosts. The SNMP agent on the switch supports
several SNMP traps.
The traps generated by the switch’s SNMP agent can be sent to as many destinations as needed. These destinations are configurable via the ATM Management Interface (AMI). Each destination must be an IP address of a network
management host. The network management host specified for a trap destination can be any host with which the switch has connectivity. This means
that the host does not have to be a directly connected ATM host. It can be on
any attached network. The following table describes the supported traps.
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
0
asxSwLinkDown
An asxSwLinkDown trap signifies that the sending
protocol entity recognizes a failure in one of the ATM
Switch links that is connected to another switch.
1
asxSwLinkUp
An asxSwLinkUp trap signifies that the sending protocol entity recognizes that one of the ATM Switch links
that is connected to another switch has come up.
2
asxHostLinkDown
An asxHostLinkDown trap signifies that the sending
protocol entity recognizes a failure in one of ATM
Switch links that is connected to a host.
3
asxHostLinkUp
An asxHostLinkUp trap signifies that the sending protocol entity recognizes that one of the ATM Switch
links that is connected to a host has come up.
4
asxNetModuleDown
An asxNetModuleDown trap signifies that the sending protocol entity recognizes a failure in one of the
ATM Switch network modules, that is identified by the
board and the module numbers. This is probably
caused by a hot-swap of a network module.
E-3
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
5
asxNetModuleUp
An asxNetModuleUp trap signifies that the sending
protocol entity recognizes a new operational ATM
Switch network module, that is identified by the board
and the module numbers. This is probably caused by a
hot-swap of a network module.
6
asxPsInputDown
This trap alerts that one ATM switch power supply
failed due to failure in the input voltage. The power
supply that failed is identified by the power supply
index. Note that an input voltage may be out of specification and may not cause a power supply failure if
high loads are not applied.
7
asxPsInputUp
This trap alerts that one ATM switch power supply
that had an AC input failure is up. The power supply
that is back up is identified by the power supply
index.
9
asxPsOutputDown
This trap alerts that one ATM switch power supply
output or the power supply was physically removed.
The power supply that failed is identified by the
power supply index.
10
asxPsOutputUp
This trap alerts that one ATM switch power supply
that had an output failure or was removed is now up.
The power supply that is back up is identified by the
power supply index.
22
asxFanBankDown
This trap alerts that one ATM switch fan bank failed.
The fan bank that failed is identified by the fan bank
index.
23
asxFanBankUp
This trap alerts that one ATM switch fan bank is up.
The fan bank that is back up is identified by the fan
bank index.
28
asxLinkDown
This trap alerts that the link that is identified by
{hwPortBoard, hwPortModule, hwPortNumber} was
configured up but lost its carrier (or the framing bit)
and is currently down.
E-4
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
29
asxLinkUp
This trap alerts that the link that is identified by
{hwPortBoard, hwPortModule, hwPortNumber} is
back up.
30
asxSpansDown
This trap alerts that the SPANS signalling on the link
that is identified by the sigPathPort and sigPathVPI
failed.
31
asxSpansUp
This trap alerts that the SPANS signalling on the link
that is identified by the sigPathPort and sigPathVPI is
up.
32
asxTempSensorOverTemp
This trap alerts that one of the temperature sensors
indicates over temperature. The temperature sensor is
identified by the temperature sensor index.
33
asxTempSensorRegularTemp This trap alerts that one of the temperature sensors
indicates regular temperature. The temperature sensor
is identified by the temperature sensor index.
34
asxFabricTemperatureOverTemp
This trap alerts that one of the temperature sensors
indicates over temperature. The temperature sensor is
identified by the temperature sensor index.
35
asxFabricTemperatureRegularTemp
This trap alerts that one of the temperature sensors
indicates regular temperature. The temperature sensor
is identified by the temperature sensor index.
36
asxSonetLOSon
This trap indicates that the specified SONET port is
experiencing Loss Of Signal. Bellcore Document
TA-NWT-000253 Section 6.3.1.1.1 states that... A
SONET NE shall declare a LOS failure when the LOS
defect persists for 2.5 (+- .5) seconds, or when a LOS
defect is present and the criteria for LOF failure declaration have been met.
37
asxSonetLOSoff
This trap indicates that the LOS condition identified
by trap asxSonetLOSon has been cleared.
E-5
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
38
asxSonetPathLabelOn
This trap indicates that the specified SONET port is
receiving and errored C2 Path Label byte. Reference
Bellcore Document TA-NWT-000253 Section 3.3.2.3
and 6.3.1.1.8 the Path Label (C2) byte should have the
value 0x13.
39
asxSonetPathLabelOff
This trap indicates that the Errored Path Label (C2)
byte error condition signalled by the asxSonetPathLabelOn trap has been cleared.
40
asxSonetLineAISon
This trap indicates that the specified SONET port is
receiving a Line level Alarm Indication Signal from the
far-end equipment.
41
asxSonetLineAISoff
This trap indicates that the Line AIS error condition
signalled by the asxSonetLineAISon trap has been
cleared.
42
asxDS3FERFOn
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port is in the
DS3 Yellow Alarm or FERF state. The FERF or DS3 Yellow alarm is declared if either OOF(LOF), LOS or AIS
is detected and persists for 2.5+- .5 seconds.
43
asxDS3FERFOff
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port is no
longer in the FERF or DS3 Yellow Alarm state.
44
asxDS3PLCPYellowOn
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port is in the
PLCP Yellow Alarm state. The Yellow alarm is
declared if PLCP LOF is detected and persists for
2.5+- .5 seconds.
45
asxDS3PLCPYellowOff
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port is no
longer in the PLCP Yellow Alarm state.
46
asxDS3PLCPYellowDetected This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port has
detected incoming Yellow Alarm.
47
asxDS3PLCPYellowCleared
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port has
detected clearance of incoming Yellow Alarm.
48
asxDS3PLCPLOFDetected
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port has
detected incoming LOF Alarm.
E-6
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
49
asxDS3PLCPLOFCleared
This trap indicates that the specified DS3 port has
detected clearance of incoming LOF Alarm.
50
asxDS3LOFDetected
This trap indicates that Loss Of Frame(LOF) is
detected on the incoming signal.
51
asxDS3LOFCleared
This trap indicates that Loss Of Frame is cleared on the
incoming signal.
52
asxDS3AISDetected
This trap indicates that AIS Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
53
asxDS3AISCleared
This trap indicates that AIS Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
54
asxDS3LOSDetected
This trap indicates that LOS Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
55
asxDS3LOSCleared
This trap indicates that LOS Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
56
asxDS1YellowOn
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port is in the
Yellow Alarm state. The Yellow alarm is declared if
either OOF or AIS is detected and persists for 2.5+- .5
seconds.
57
asxDS1YellowOff
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port is no
longer in the Yellow Alarm state.
58
asxDS1PLCPYellowOn
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port is in the
PLCP Yellow Alarm state. The Yellow alarm is
declared if PLCP LOF is detected and persists for
2.5+- .5 seconds.
59
asxDS1PLCPYellowOff
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port is no
longer in the PLCP Yellow Alarm state.
60
asxDS1PLCPYellowDetected This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port has
detected an incoming Yellow Alarm.
61
asxDS1PLCPYellowCleared
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port has
detected clearance of an incoming Yellow Alarm.
62
asxDS1PLCPLOFDetected
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port has
detected an incoming LOF Alarm.
E-7
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
63
asxDS1PLCPLOFCleared
This trap indicates that the specified DS1 port has
detected clearance of an incoming LOF Alarm.
64
asxDS1YellowDetected
This trap indicates that Yellow Alarm is detected on
the incoming signal.
65
asxDS1YellowCleared
This trap indicates that Yellow Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
66
asxDS1AISDetected
This trap indicates that AIS Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
67
asxDS1AISCleared
This trap indicates that AIS Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
68
asxDS1LOSDetected
This trap indicates that LOS Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
69
asxDS1LOSCleared
This trap indicates that LOS Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
70
asxDS1LOFDetected
This trap indicates that LOF Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
71
asxDS1LOFCleared
This trap indicates that LOF Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
74
asxDS3FERFDetected
This trap indicates that FERF Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
75
asxDS3FERFCleared
This trap indicates that FERF Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
110
asxJ2YellowOn
This trap indicates that the specified J2 port is in the
Yellow Alarm state. The Yellow alarm is declared if
either LOF or LOS or AIS is detected and persists for
2.5+- .5 seconds.
111
asxJ2YellowOff
This trap indicates that the specified J2 port is no
longer in the Yellow Alarm state.
112
asxJ2YellowDetected
This trap indicates that Yellow Alarm is detected on
the incoming signal.
E-8
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
113
asxJ2YellowCleared
This trap indicates that Yellow Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
114
asxJ2AISDetected
This trap indicates that AIS Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
115
asxJ2AISCleared
This trap indicates that AIS Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
116
asxJ2LOSDetected
This trap indicates that LOS Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
117
asxJ2LOSCleared
This trap indicates that LOS Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
118
asxJ2LOFDetected
This trap indicates that LOF Alarm is detected on the
incoming signal.
119
asxJ2LOFCleared
This trap indicates that LOF Alarm is cleared on the
incoming signal.
1024
asxOutputQueueCongested
This trap indicates that the output queue for the given
priority has exceeded its dedicated length, and has
begun overflowing into the shared buffer space on the
network module.
1025
asxOutputQueueCellLoss
This trap indicates that the output queue for the given
priority has overflowed and cells have been dropped.
1026
asxExtendedModeViolation
This trap indicates that a series A or B network module was inserted into a switch board running in
extended mode.
1027
asxNonextendedModeWarning
This trap indicates that a series C or greater network
module was inserted into a switch board running in
non-extended mode.
1028
q2931AVRejectTrap
This trap is generated whenever any UNI3.x with
AddressValidation enabled rejects a Setup Request call
more than q2931AVRejectTrapThreshold times in any
given q2931AVRejectTrapPeriod.
E-9
SNMP Configuration
Table E.2 - SNMP Traps Supported on the SFCS Switches
Trap
Number
Trap Name
Description
1029
crConfMemoryOflow
This trap is generated when the allocated call record
memory (as indicated by crMemoryAllocated) is
exceeded.
1030
crXfrPrimaryXfrFailed
This trap is generated when the call record transfer to
the primary host (as indicated by crXfrPrimaryUrl)
fails.
1031
crXfrSecondaryXfrFailed
This trap is generated when the call record transfer to
the secondary host (as indicated by crXfrSecondaryUrl) fails.
1032
crConfMemAllocFail
This trap is generated when Callrecord functionality is
unable to allocate memory as specified by crMemoryAllocated. This can happen when the crConfAdminStatus changes state from “off” or when the switch
reboots when Callrecords is configured “on”.
1033
crGeneralFailure
This trap is generated when any of the callrecord
related functionality fails for any reason. One example
would be when the Callrecord Module fails to schedule an interval timer.
E-10
SNMP Configuration
E.2.1 Adding SNMP Trap Destinations
To create one or more SNMP trap destinations on a Cabletron switch, log in to
AMI and open a session on the switch. Enter the following parameters:
configuration snmp trap new <ipaddress>
The <ipaddress> variable indicates the IP address of the SNMP trap destination that is to be created. Repeat this for as many SNMP trap destinations as
needed. Traps are active as soon as they are set.
E.2.2 Displaying SNMP Trap Destinations
To list all of the current SNMP trap destinations, log in to AMI and open a session on the switch. The SNMP traps supported by this switch are detailed in
the FORE-Switch-MIB. Enter the following parameters:
configuration snmp trap show
Trap
1
2
3
4
5
Destination
192.88.243.18
198.29.16.14
198.29.16.18
198.29.23.39
198.29.31.130
E-11
SNMP Configuration
E.2.3 Removing SNMP Trap Destinations
To delete one or more SNMP trap destinations for a Cabletron switch, log in
to AMI and open a session on the switch. Prior to deleting any trap that may
need to be recreated later, as a precaution, a recommended practice is to list
all trap destinations using AMI and either copy the screen or write down the
destinations. To delete a trap, enter the following parameters:
configuration snmp trap delete <trap>
The <trap> variable indicates the IP address of the SNMP trap destination
that is to be removed. Repeat this for as many SNMP trap destinations as
needed.
E-12
APPENDIX F ForeThought PNNI
PNNI (Private Network Node Interface or Private Network-to-Network
Interface) is a protocol defining interoperability between private ATM
switches. PNNI defines both the routing and signalling standards for interswitch interoperability.
This appendix provides a broad overview of Cabletron Systems’ version of
PNNI, ForeThought PNNI (FT-PNNI), and its use in a multiple-switch network. FT-PNNI is a scalable routing and signalling protocol used in networks
containing multiple Cabletron switches. FT-PNNI simplifies large network
topologies by organizing the nodes (switches) in that network into smaller
groups.
It is this reorganization of the network topology that makes FT-PNNI’s simplified routing possible. By segmenting a large network into smaller groups
of nodes, FT-PNNI reduces the amount of topology information that those
very nodes must maintain.
To understand FT-PNNI, it is important to first understand how a large network topology can be simplified by grouping the nodes contained therein.
Once the organization of the physical network is determined, FT-PNNI’s
routing and signalling protocols can be better understood.
This appendix examines the routing and signalling that FT-PNNI utilizes. It
also looks at the physical network and how it can be simplified through the
use of peer groups.
F-1
ForeThought PNNI
F.1
FT-PNNI Routing
The FT-PNNI routing protocol serves to distribute topology and address
reachability information between switches and groups of switches in a network. This topology and addressing information is used by switches to compute paths through the network. FT-PNNI routing has the following aspects:
•
•
•
•
F.1.1
Hello Protocol
Topology Database Exchange
Flooding
Hierarchical Routing
Hello Protocol
At regular intervals, each switch transmits a hello indication on each of its
FT-PNNI routing channels. The time between these hello indications is called
the Hello Indication Interval. When a switch receives a hello indication from
one of its neighbors, it initializes the logical link (loglink) from that neighbor
to itself in the topology database.
Since hello indications are sent periodically, loglinks are also refreshed periodically. Note that loglinks discovered as a result of hello indications are unidirectional. Each switch initializes unidirectional loglinks that have an
adjacent switch as the destination.
F.1.2
Topology Database Exchange
At regular intervals, called the NSAP map indication interval, each switch
sends to each of its neighbors a group of loglinks taken from its topology
database. This is done to ensure that the topology databases of the switches
stay synchronized.
F.1.3
Flooding
Whenever a new loglink is discovered by a switch, the switch immediately
broadcasts the existence of this link to all of its neighbors. The neighboring
switches then broadcast the existence of the same link to all of their neighbors. Very quickly, the existence of the new loglink is flooded immediately to
all of the switches in the network.
Similarly, when a link goes down, that information is propagated through the
network immediately. Also, when a significant change is seen in the metrics of
a loglink, the latest state of the loglink is propagated immediately throughout
the network.
F-2
ForeThought PNNI
F.1.4
Hierarchical Routing
Hierarchical routing is a method of routing that uses hierarchical addressing
of nodes (switches), thereby enabling the logical partitioning of networks,
topology information hiding between the partitions, and increased scalability
of the routing protocol. FT-PNNI supports hierarchical node identifiers and,
therefore, the hierarchical organization of networks.
104 bits
Peer Group ID
Switch Summary Prefix
Switch Prefix
Figure F.1 - Example of a 13-byte Switch Prefix
F.1.4.1
Hierarchical Addressing
FT-PNNI uses private ATM address prefixes (NSAP prefixes) as node identifiers. FT-PNNI does not distinguish between node identifiers and reachability
information. Thus, the IDs of nodes in the FT-PNNI addressing map are
NSAP prefixes. In the default case at the lowest level peer group, the switches
have a 13-byte prefix as their node ID and end systems (hosts) have a 19-byte
prefix as their node ID.
F.1.4.1.1 Switch Prefix
Each switch in a FT-PNNI network is configured with a 13-byte prefix called
the switch prefix. Hosts that are attached to the switch are presented with this
prefix during ILMI address registration. It is in this way that end systems are
configured with a private ATM address that includes the 13-byte switch prefix.
F-3
ForeThought PNNI
F.1.4.1.2 Switch Summary Prefix
Each switch is configured with a switch mask (swmask) which gives the length
of the switch summary prefix within the switch prefix. The swmask gives the
number of most significant bits of the switch prefix that constitute the switch
summary prefix. Since all end system addresses attached to a switch have the
same switch summary prefix, their reachability information can be summarized by this prefix (i.e., by the switch summary prefix).
F.1.4.1.3 Peer Group ID
Each switch is configured with a peer group mask (pgmask) which gives the
length of the peer group ID within the switch summary prefix. The pgmask
gives the number of most significant bits of the switch summary prefix that
constitute the peer group ID.
The peer group ID is a unique identifier for every node (switch or end system)
in a particular peer group. Every switch and host in peer group A, for example, will have the same peer group ID.
A simple example of summarizing by peer group ID can be seen in Figure F.3,
where every switch (and end system, although not shown) in peer group A is
identified starting with “A.”
F.1.4.2
Path Computation
Path computation is performed on demand whenever FT-PNNI signalling
requests a path to a given destination. The Bellman-Ford Shortest Path algorithm is used to compute the shortest path tree of all nodes in the topology
with the local node as the source. The administrative weight metric in the
loglinks is used as the minimizing criterion in computing the shortest path
route. In the case of finding multiple equal-cost paths to a given destination,
available cell rate is used to break ties.
F-4
ForeThought PNNI
F.2
The Physical Network
In an ATM network, data is sent and received over virtual circuits, or circuits
that only exist when needed. This communication over these virtual circuits is
made possible by signalling that occurs between the switches in the network.
In a network of Cabletron switches, any new addition to the topology is recognized immediately by all nodes (switches) having a direct connection to the
new node. Then each switch that has recognized the new switch sends a message to each of its direct connections, and so on. Eventually, and within a very
brief period of time, every switch in the network is aware of the new addition
and the links by which that new addition can be reached. This topology is
stored by each switch in a topology database.
In a small, local area network (LAN), the topology is relatively simple, meaning that the switches in the LAN have a relatively small topology database to
maintain. As the LAN grows, however, and more switches are added, that
same database can grow to be very large in a short period of time.
As this topology database grows, the amount of information a switch must
consult when searching for an address also grows. In the end, this can result
in delayed connection set-up, congestion in the network, and even lost data.
Figure F.2 depicts a typical ATM network, containing 21 Cabletron switches
( ). The hierarchy of this network is flat, meaning that each switch must be
aware of all the other switches in the network, as well as all the possible
routes to those switches. As more switches are added to this network, the
hierarchy will become more complex and the switches will have to contend
with larger topology databases.
F-5
ForeThought PNNI
Figure F.2 - Private ATM Network with 21 Switches and 34 Bidirectional Links
It is in these large, single-level networks that FT-PNNI is most useful, because
it lets you simplify large network topologies by creating a two-level hierarchy.
In this hierarchy, communities of contiguous switches are grouped together
and they are collectively summarized by a single, logical node.
Figure F.3 shows the same network as in Figure F.2 after being organized into
peer groups, now having a two-level hierarchy. The subsections that follow
explain the organization of these peer groups, how they simplify the overall
network topology, and how they change the logical view of the network.
F-6
ForeThought PNNI
Peer Group C
Peer Group
C.6
Peer Group D
Border Switch
Switch/Node
D.4
C.5
D.3
Logical Link
(loglink)
C.4
C.3
D.2
D.1
C.2
C.1
A.1
B.2
B.3
A.2
A.3
Peer Group A
B.8
B.4
B.1
B.7
B.5
B.6
Peer Group B
Figure F.3 - Example of FT-PNNI Hierarchy Showing Lowest-Level Peer Groups
F-7
ForeThought PNNI
F.2.1
Peer Groups
The FT-PNNI hierarchy begins with a network of switches, organized into
peer groups. A peer group is a collection of interconnected switches that are
organized into a group. Peer group organization can be determined by a network administrator, but switches that are located close to one another are
usually made into a peer group.
The network shown in Figure F.3 is organized into four lowest-level peer
groups: A, B, C, and D. The switches within a certain peer group are numbered according to that particular group. For example, the switches in peer
group A are identified as A.1, A.2, and A.3.
Peer groups have a peer group identifier (ID), assigned at configuration time
and exchanged in hello indication messages. Switches can determine in which
peer group they are located by comparing these peer group IDs.
Switches in a peer group are aware of the topology of their own peer group
and the existence of all other peer groups. They recognize the links between
their peer group and others, but they are not aware of internal topology information of other peer groups. Instead, the topologies of other peer groups are
summarized as a single, reachable location, known as a peer group summary
node (PGSN).
F.2.2
Peer Group Topology
To maintain an accurate and updated view of its relative location and status, a
switch sends hello indication messages to every other switch with which it
has a direct connection. These hello indications contain the switch prefix, peer
group membership information, and link metrics (attributes) for the physical
link between the two switches.
Through this exchange of messages, each switch learns which switches are its
immediate neighbors, to what peer groups they belong, and whether or not
the link between itself and its neighbors is valid.
F.2.3
Border Switches
A border switch is any switch that has at least one link to a switch in another
peer group. Border switches play an important role in FT-PNNI because they
are responsible for summarizing reachability information for their respective
peer groups, appropriately filtering the flow of topology database information across peer group boundaries, and building the lowest level source route
for call setups entering the peer group.
F-8
ForeThought PNNI
F.2.4
Peer Group Summary Node (PGSN)
A PGSN is a hypothetical or imaginary node that summarizes a peer group’s
reachability information. The PGSN has the peer group ID of its peer group as
its switch summary prefix. Each border switch in the peer group advertises a
logical link (loglink) to the PGSN. The PGSN is a logical representation of the
switches contained in a peer group.
F.2.5
Backbone Topology
Loglinks between border switches and loglinks from border switches to
PGSNs are called backbone links and considered part of the backbone topology. Information regarding these backbone links is propagated across peer
group boundaries during database exchange and flooding.
F.2.6
Single Switch Perspective
The main reason for grouping switches in large networks is to simplify each
individual switch’s view of the topology. For example, each switch in peer
group A is aware of every other switch in peer group A, the border switches
in the rest of the network, the links between them, and the backbone topology.
Switches in peer group A are not aware, however, of the internal topology of
other peer groups. Instead, individual switches see a PGSN (see Figure F.4).
Backbone Link
Peer Group Summary
Node (PGSN)
D
C
D.2
C.2
C.1
A.1
B.8
A
A.2
B.1
A.3
B
Figure F.4 - View of the Network from Switches in Peer Group A
F-9
ForeThought PNNI
F-10
GLOSSARY
802.1d Spanning Tree Bridging - the IEEE standard for bridging; a MAC
layer standard for transparently connecting two or more LANs (often called
subnetworks) that are running the same protocols and cabling. This arrangement creates an extended network, in which any two workstations on the
linked LANs can share data.
802.3 Ethernet - the IEEE standard for Ethernet; a physical-layer standard that
uses the CSMA/CD access method on a bus-topology LAN.
802.5 Token Ring - the IEEE physical-layer standard that uses the token-passing access method on a ring-topology LAN.
AAL (ATM Adaptation Layer) - the AAL divides the user information into
segments suitable for packaging into a series of ATM cells. There are several
types of AALs in use. Cabletron Systems currently supports AAL 5 and AAL
3/4. AAL 3/4 supports connection-oriented VBR data transfer and connectionless VBR data transfer, respectively. AAL 5 is defined as Simple and Efficient Adaptation Layer (SEAL).
AAL Connection - an association established by the AAL between two or
more next higher layer entities.
ABR (Available Bit Rate) - a type of traffic for which the ATM network
attempts to meet that traffic's bandwidth requirements. It does not guarantee
a specific amount of bandwidth and the end station must retransmit any
information that did not reach the far end.
Address Mask - a bit mask used to identify which bits in an address (usually
an IP address) are network significant, subnet significant, and host significant
portions of the complete address. This mask is also known as the subnet mask
because the subnetwork portion of the address can be determined by comparing the binary version of the mask to an IP address in that subnet. The mask
holds the same number of bits as the protocol address it references.
Agent (SNMP) - a component of network- and desktop-management software, such as SNMP, that gathers information from MIBs.
AIS (Alarm Indication Signal) - a line AIS is asserted when a 111 binary pattern is detected in bits 6, 7, 8 of the K2 byte for five consecutive frames. A line
AIS is removed when any pattern other than 111 is detected in these bits for
five consecutive frames.
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GLOSSARY
AMI (ATM Management Interface) - the user interface to Cabletron Systems’
switch control software (SCS). AMI lets users monitor and change various
operating configurations of Cabletron Systems switches and network module
hardware and software, IP connectivity, and SNMP network management.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) - a private organization that
coordinates the setting and approval of some U.S. standards. It also represents the United States to the International Standards Organization.
API (Application Program Interface) - a language format that defines how a
program can be made to interact with another program, service, or other software; it allows users to develop custom interfaces with Cabletron products.
APP (application program) - a complete, self-contained program that performs a specific function directly for the user.
AppleTalk - a networking protocol developed by Apple Computer for communication between Apple’s products and other computers. Independent of
the network layer, AppleTalk runs on LocalTalk, EtherTalk and TokenTalk.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) - a method used to resolve higher level
protocol addressing (such as IP) into the appropriate header data required for
ATM; i.e., port, VPI, and VCI; also defines the AAL type to be used.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - a standard
character set that (typically) assigns a 7-bit sequence to each letter, number,
and selected control characters.
Assigned Cell - a cell that provides a service to an upper layer entity or ATM
Layer Management entity (ATMM-entity).
asxmon - a FORE program that repeatedly displays the state of the switch and
of all its active ports.
Asynchronous time division multiplexing - a multiplexing technique in
which a transmission capability is organized into a priori, unassigned time
slots. The time slots are assigned to cells upon request of each application’s
instantaneous real need.
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) - a transfer mode in which the information is organized into cells. It is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence
of cells containing information from an individual user is not necessarily periodic.
ATM Forum - an international non-profit organization formed with the objective of accelerating the use of ATM products and services through a rapid
convergence of interoperability specifications. In addition, the Forum promotes industry cooperation and awareness.
ATM Layer link - a section of an ATM Layer connection between two adjacent active ATM Layer entities (ATM-entities).
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GLOSSARY
ATM Link - a virtual path link (VPL) or a virtual channel link (VCL).
ATM Peer-to-Peer Connection - a virtual channel connection (VCC) or a virtual path connection (VPC) directly established, such as workstation-to-workstation. This setup is not commonly used in networks.
ATM Traffic Descriptor - a generic list of parameters that can be used to capture the intrinsic traffic characteristics of a requested ATM connection.
ATM User-to-User Connection - an association established by the ATM Layer
to support communication between two or more ATM service users (i.e.,
between two or more next higher layer entities or between two or more ATM
entities). The communication over an ATM Layer connection may be either
bidirectional or unidirectional. The same Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) is
used for both directions of a connection at an interface.
atmarp - a FORE program that shows and manipulates ATM ARP entries
maintained by the given device driver. This is also used to establish PVC connections.
atmconfig - a FORE program used to enable or disable SPANS signalling.
atmstat - a FORE program that shows statistics gathered about a given
adapter card by the device driver. These statistics include ATM layer and
ATM adaptation layer cell and error counts. This can also be used to query
other hosts via SNMP.
Backbone - the main connectivity device of a distributed system. All systems
that have connectivity to the backbone connect to each other. This does not
stop systems from setting up private arrangements with each other to bypass
the backbone for cost, performance, or security.
Bandwidth - usually identifies the capacity or amount of data that can be sent
through a given circuit; may be user-specified in a PVC.
BGP (Border Gateway) Protocol - used by gateways in an internet, connecting autonomous networks. It is derived from experiences learned using the
EGP.
BIP (Bit Interleaved Parity) - an error-detection technique in which character
bit patterns are forced into parity, so that the total number of one bits is
always odd or always even. This is accomplished by the addition of a one or
zero bit to each byte, as the byte is transmitted; at the other end of the transmission, the receiving device verifies the parity (odd or even) and the accuracy of the transmission.
B-ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network) - a common digital network suitable for voice, video, and high-speed data services running at
rates beginning at 155 Mbps.
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GLOSSARY
Bridge - a device that expands a Local Area Network by forwarding frames
between data link layers associated with two separate cables, usually carrying
a common protocol. Bridges can usually be made to filter certain packets (to
forward only certain traffic).
Broadband - a service or system requiring transmission channels capable of
supporting rates greater than the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
primary rate.
Broadband Access - an ISDN access capable of supporting one or more
broadband services.
Brouter (bridging/router) - a device that routes some protocols and bridges
others based on configuration information.
BUS (Broadcast and Unknown Server) - in an emulated LAN, the BUS is
responsible for accepting broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast packets
from the LECs to the broadcast MAC address (FFFFFFFFFFFF) via dedicated
point-to-point connections, and forwarding the packets to all of the members
of the ELAN using a single point-to-multipoint connection.
CAC (Connection Admission Control) - the procedure used to decide if a
request for an ATM connection can be accepted based on the attributes of both
the requested connection and the existing connections.
Call - an association between two or more users or between a user and a network entity that is established by the use of network capabilities. This association may have zero or more connections.
CBR (Constant Bit Rate) - a type of traffic that requires a continuous, specific
amount of bandwidth over the ATM network (e.g., digital information such
as video and digitized voice).
cchan - a FORE program used to manage virtual channels on a FORE Systems
ATM switch running asxd.
CCITT (International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee) the international standards body for telecommunications.
CDV (Cell Delay Variation) - a quantification of cell clumping for a connection. The cell clumping CDV (yk) is defined as the difference between a cell’s
expected reference arrival time (ck) and its actual arrival time (ak). The
expected reference arrival time (ck) of cell k of a specific connection is
max [ c { k – 1 } + T , a k ] . T is the reciprocal of the negotiated peak cell rate.
CE (Connection Endpoint) - a terminator at one end of a layer connection
within a SAP.
CEI (Connection Endpoint Identifier) - an identifier of a CE that can be used
to identify the connection at a SAP.
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GLOSSARY
Cell - an ATM Layer protocol data unit (PDU).
Cell Header - ATM Layer protocol control information.
Cell Transfer Delay - the transit delay of an ATM cell successfully passed
between two designated boundaries.
CLP (Cell Loss Priority) - the last bit of byte four in an ATM cell header; indicates the eligibility of the cell for discard by the network under congested
conditions. If the bit is set to 1, the cell may be discarded by the network
depending on traffic conditions.
Concentrator - a communications device that offers the ability to concentrate
many lower-speed channels into and out of one or more high-speed channels.
Connection - the concatenation of ATM Layer links in order to provide an
end-to-end information transfer capability to access points.
Connectionless Service - a type of service in which no pre-determined path
or link has been established for transfer of information, supported by AAL 4.
Connection-Oriented Service - a type of service in which information always
traverses the same pre-established path or link between two points, supported by AAL 3.
Corresponding Entities - peer entities with a lower layer connection among
them.
cpath - a FORE program used to manage virtual paths on a FORE Systems
ATM switch running asxd.
cport - a FORE program used to monitor and change the state of ports on a
FORE Systems ATM switch running asxd.
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) - an error detection scheme in which a
number is derived from the data that will be transmitted. By recalculating the
CRC at the remote end and comparing it to the value originally transmitted,
the receiving node can detect errors.
CS (Convergence Sublayer) - a portion of the AAL. Data is passed first to the
CS where it is divided into rational, fixed-length packets or PDUs (Protocol
Data Units). For example, AAL 4 processes user data into blocks that are a
maximum of 64 kbytes long.
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) - the US government agency that funded the ARPANET.
DCS (Digital Cross-connect System) - an electronic patch panel used to route
digital signals in a central office.
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GLOSSARY
Demultiplexing - a function performed by a layer entity that identifies and
separates SDUs from a single connection to more than one connection. (See
multiplexing.)
DIP Switch (Dual In-line Package) - a device that has two parallel rows of
contacts that let the user switch electrical current through a pair of those contacts to on or off. They are used to reconfigure components and peripherals.
Domain Name Server - a computer that converts names to their corresponding Internet numbers. It allows users to telnet or FTP to the name instead of
the number.
DNS (Domain Name System) - the distributed name and address mechanism used in the Internet.
DSn (Digital Standard n (0, 1, 1C, 2, and 3)) - a method that defines the rate
and format of digital hierarchy.
Asynchronous data rates are defined as follows:
DS0
64kb/s
1 voice channel
DS1
1.544Mb/s
24 DS0s
DS1C
3.152 Mb/s
2 DS1s
DS2
6.312 Mb/s
4 DS1s
DS3
44.736 Mb/s
28 DS1s
Synchronous data rates (SONET) are defined as:
STS-1/OC-1
51.84 Mb/s
28 DS1s or 1 DS3
STS-3/OC-3
155.52 Mb/s
3 STS-1s byte interleaved
STS-3c/OC-3c
155.52 Mb/s
Concatenated, indivisible payload
STS-12/OC-12
622.08 Mb/s
12 STS-1s, 4 STS-3cs, or any mixture
STS-12c/OC-12c
622.08 Mb/s
Concatenated, indivisible payload
STS-48/OC-48
2488.32 Mb/s
48 STS-1s, 16 STS-3cs, or any mixture
EGP (Exterior Gateway) Protocol - used by gateways in an internet, connecting autonomous networks.
EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) - a bus architecture for
desktop computers that provides a 32-bit data passage while maintaining
compatibility with the ISA or AT architecture.
elarp - a FORE program that shows and manipulates MAC and ATM address
mappings for LAN Emulation Clients (LECs).
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GLOSSARY
elconfig - a FORE program that shows and modifies LEC configuration.
Allows the user to set the NSAP address of the LAN Emulation Configuration
Server (LECS), display the list of Emulated LANs (ELANs) configured in the
LECS for this host, display the list of ELANs locally configured along with the
membership state of each, and locally administer ELAN membership.
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (See PROM.)
ES (End System) - a system in which an ATM connection is terminated or initiated. An originating end system initiates the ATM connection, and a terminating end system terminates the ATM connection. OAM cells may be
generated and received.
Ethernet - a 10-Mbps, coaxial standard for LANs in which all nodes connect
to the cable where they contend for access.
Fairness - as related to Generic Flow Control (GFC), fairness is defined as
meeting all of the agreed quality of service (QoS) requirements by controlling
the order of service for all active connections.
FCC - a board of commissioners appointed by the President under the Communications Act of 1934, with the authority to regulate all interstate telecommunications originating in the United States, including transmission over
phone lines.
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - high-speed data network that uses
fiber-optic as the physical medium. Operates in similar manner to Ethernet or
Token Ring, only faster.
FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) - a method of dividing an available
frequency range into parts with each having enough bandwidth to carry one
channel.
FEBE (Far End Block Error) - an error detected by extracting the 4-bit FEBE
field from the path status byte (G1). The legal range for the 4-bit field is
between 0000 and 1000, representing zero to eight errors. Any other value is
interpreted as zero errors.
FERF (Far End Receive Failure) - a line error asserted when a 110 binary pattern is detected in bits 6, 7, 8 of the K2 byte for five consecutive frames. A line
FERF is removed when any pattern other than 110 is detected in these bits for
five consecutive frames.
FIFO (First-In, First-Out) - a method of coordinating the sequential flow of
data through a buffer.
Flag - a specific bit pattern used to identify the beginning or end of a frame.
Frame - a variable length group of data bits with a specific format containing
flags at the beginning and end to provide demarcation.
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GLOSSARY
Frame Relay - a fast packet switching protocol based on the LAPD protocol of
ISDN that performs routing and transfer with less overhead processing than
X.25.
FT-PNNI (ForeThought PNNI) - a FORE Systems routing and signalling protocol that uses private ATM (NSAP) addresses; a precursor to ATM Forum
PNNI (see PNNI).
ftp (File Transfer Protocol) - a TCP/IP protocol that lets a user on one computer access, and transfer data to and from, another computer over a network. ftp is usually the name of the program the user invokes to accomplish
this task.
GCRA (Generic Cell Rate Algorithm) - an algorithm which is employed in
traffic policing and is part of the user/network service contract. The GCRA is
a scheduling algorithm which ensures that cells are marked as conforming
when they arrive when expected or later than expected and non-conforming
when they arrive sooner than expected.
GFC (Generic Flow Control) - the first four bits of the first byte in an ATM
cell header. Used to control the flow of traffic across the User-to-Network
Interface (UNI), and thus into the network. Exact mechanisms for flow control
are still under investigation and no explicit definition for this field exists at
this time. (This field is used only at the UNI; for NNI-NNI use (between network nodes), these four bits provide additional network address capacity,
and are appended to the VPI field.)
GIO - a proprietary bus architecture used in certain Silicon Graphics, Inc.
workstations.
Header - protocol control information located at the beginning of a protocol
data unit.
HEC (Header Error Control) - a CRC code located in the last byte of an ATM
cell header that is used for checking cell integrity only.
HIPPI (High Performance Parallel Interface) - an ANSI standard that
extends the computer bus over fairly short distances at speeds of 800 and 1600
Mbps.
HPUX - the Hewlett-Packard version of UNIX.
HSSI (High-Speed Serial Interface) - a serial communications connection
that operates at speeds of up to 1.544 Mbps.
Hub - a device that connects to several other devices, usually in a star topology.
g-8
GLOSSARY
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) - the protocol that handles errors
and control messages at the IP layer. ICMP is actually a part of the IP protocol
layer. It can generate error messages, test packets, and informational messages related to IP.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) - the world’s largest
technical professional society. Based in the U.S.A., the IEEE sponsors technical
conferences, symposia & local meetings worldwide, publishes nearly 25% of
the world’s technical papers in electrical, electronics & computer engineering,
provides educational programs for its members, and promotes standardization.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) - a large, open, international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers whose purpose
is to coordinate the operation, management and evolution of the Internet to
resolve short- and mid-range protocol and architectural issues.
ILMI (Interim Local Management Interface) - the standard that specifies the
use of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and an ATM management information base (MIB) to provide network status and configuration
information.
Interface Data - the unit of information transferred to/from the upper layer
in a single interaction across a SAP. Each Interface Data Unit (IDU) controls
interface information and may also contain the whole or part of the SDU.
internet - while an internet is a network, the term “internet” is usually used to
refer to a collection of networks interconnected with routers.
Internet - (note the capital “I”) the largest internet in the world including
large national backbone nets and many regional and local networks worldwide. The Internet uses the TCP/IP suite. Networks with only e-mail connectivity are not considered on the Internet.
Internet Addresses - the numbers used to identify hosts on an internet network. Internet host numbers are divided into two parts; the first is the network number and the second, or local, part is a host number on that particular
network. There are also three classes of networks in the Internet, based on the
number of hosts on a given network. Large networks are classified as Class A,
having addresses in the range 1-126 and having a maximum of 16,387,064
hosts. Medium networks are classified as Class B, with addresses in the range
128-191 and with a maximum of 64,516 hosts. Small networks are classified as
Class C, having addresses in the range 192-254 with a maximum of 254 hosts.
Addresses are given as dotted decimal numbers in the following format:
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
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GLOSSARY
In a Class A network, the first of the numbers is the network number, the last
three numbers are the local host address.
In a Class B network, the first two numbers are the network, the last two are
the local host address.
In a Class C network, the first three numbers are the network address, the last
number is the local host address.
The following table summarizes the classes and sizes:
Class
First #
Max# Hosts
A
1-126
16,387,064
B
129-191
64,516
C
192-223
254
Network mask values are used to identify the network portion and the host
portion of the address. For:
Class A - the default mask is 255.0.0.0
Class B - the default mask is 255.255.0.0
Class C - the default mask is 255.255.255.0
Subnet masking is used when a portion of the host ID is used to identify a
subnetwork. For example, if a portion of a Class B network address is used for
a subnetwork, the mask could be set as 255.255.255.0. This would allow the
third byte to be used as a subnetwork address. All hosts on the network
would still use the IP address to get on the Internet.
IP (Internet Protocol) - a connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol
that offers a common layer over dissimilar networks.
IPX Protocol (Internetwork Packet Exchange) - a NetWare protocol similar to
the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocol that provides datagram delivery
of messages.
IS (Intermediate system) - a system that provides forwarding functions or
relaying functions or both for a specific ATM connection. OAM cells may be
generated and received.
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GLOSSARY
ISA Bus - a bus standard developed by IBM for expansion cards in the first
IBM PC. The original bus supported a data path only 8 bits wide. IBM subsequently developed a 16-bit version for its AT class computers. The 16-bit AT
ISA bus supports both 8- and 16-bit cards. The 8-bit bus is commonly called
the PC/XT bus, and the 16-bit bus is called the AT bus.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - an emerging technology that
is beginning to be offered by the telephone carriers of the world. ISDN combines voice and digital network services into a single medium or wire.
ISO (International Standards Organization) - a voluntary, non treaty organization founded in 1946 that is responsible for creating international standards
in many areas, including computers and communications.
Isochronous - signals carrying embedded timing information or signals that
are dependent on uniform timing; usually associated with voice and/or video
transmission.
Jumper - a patch cable or wire used to establish a circuit, often temporarily,
for testing or diagnostics; also, the devices, shorting blocks, used to connect
adjacent exposed pins on a printed circuit board that control the functionality
of the card.
LAN (Local Area Network) - a data network intended to serve an area of only
a few square kilometers or less. Because the network is known to cover only a
small area, optimizations can be made in the network signal protocols that
permit higher data rates.
lane - a program that provides control over the execution of the LAN Emulation Server (LES), Broadcast/Unknown Server (BUS), and LAN Emulation
Configuration Server (LECS) on the local host.
LAN Access Concentrator - a LAN access device that allows a shared transmission medium to accommodate more data sources than there are channels
currently available within the transmission medium.
Layer Entity - an active layer within an element.
Layer Function - a part of the activity of the layer entities.
Layer Service - a capability of a layer and the layers beneath it that is provided to the upper layer entities at the boundary between that layer and the
next higher layer.
Layer User Data - the information transferred between corresponding entities
on behalf of the upper layer or layer management entities for which they are
providing services.
le - a FORE program that implements both the LAN Emulation Server (LES)
and the Broadcast/Unknown Server (BUS).
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GLOSSARY
LEC (LAN Emulation Client) - the component in an end system that performs data forwarding, address resolution, and other control functions when
communicating with other components within an ELAN.
lecs - a FORE program that implements the assignment of individual LECs to
different emulated LANs.
LECS (LAN Emulation Configuration Server) - the LECS is responsible for
the initial configuration of LECs. It provides information about available
ELANs that a LEC may join, together with the addresses of the LES and BUS
associated with each ELAN.
leq - a FORE program that provides information about an ELAN. This information is obtained from the LES, and includes MAC addresses registered on
the ELAN together with their corresponding ATM addresses.
LES (LAN Emulation Server) - the LES implements the control coordination
function for an ELAN. The LES provides the service of registering and resolving MAC addresses to ATM addresses.
LLC (Logical Link Control) - a protocol developed by the IEEE 802 committee for data-link-layer transmission control; the upper sublayer of the IEEE
Layer 2 (OSI) protocol that complements the MAC protocol; IEEE standard
802.2; includes end-system addressing and error checking.
LOF (Loss Of Frame) - a type of transmission error that may occur in widearea carrier lines.
looptest - a program that tests the interface for basic cell reception and transmission functionality. It is usually used for diagnostic purposes to determine
if an interface is functioning properly.
LOP (Loss Of Pointer) - a type of transmission error that may occur in widearea carrier lines.
LOS (Loss Of Signal) - a type of transmission error that may occur in widearea carrier lines.
MAC (Media Access Control) - a media-specific access control protocol
within IEEE 802 specifications; currently includes variations for Token Ring,
token bus, and CSMA/CD; the lower sublayer of the IEEE's link layer (OSI),
which complements the Logical Link Control (LLC).
Metasignalling - an ATM Layer Management (LM) process that manages different types of signalling and possibly semipermanent virtual channels (VCs),
including the assignment, removal, and checking of VCs.
Metasignalling VCs - the standardized VCs that convey metasignalling
information across a User-to-Network Interface (UNI).
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GLOSSARY
MIB (Management Information Base) - the set of parameters an SNMP management station can query or set in the SNMP agent of a networked device
(e.g., router).
MIC (Media Interface Connector) - the optical fiber connector that joins the
fiber to the FDDI controller.
MicroChannel - a proprietary 16- or 32-bit bus developed by IBM for its PS/2
computers’ internal expansion cards; also offered by others.
MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) - the largest unit of data that can be
sent over a type of physical medium.
Multi-homed - a device that has both an ATM and another network connection, typically Ethernet.
Multiplexing - a function within a layer that interleaves the information from
multiple connections into one connection. (See demultiplexing.)
Multipoint Access - user access in which more than one terminal equipment
(TE) is supported by a single network termination.
Multipoint-to-Point Connection - a Point-to-Multipoint Connection may
have zero bandwidth from the Root Node to the Leaf Nodes, and non-zero
return bandwidth from the Leaf Nodes to the Root Node. Such a connection is
also known as a Multipoint-to-Point Connection.
Multipoint-to-Multipoint Connection - a collection of associated ATM VC or
VP links, and their associated endpoint nodes, with the following properties:
1. All N nodes in the connection, called Endpoints, serve as a Root Node in a
Point-to-Multipoint connection to all of the (N-1) remaining endpoints.
2. Each of the endpoints on the connection can send information directly to
any other endpoint, but the receiving endpoint cannot distinguish which of
the endpoints is sending information without additional (e.g., higher layer)
information.
Network Module - ATM port interface cards which may be individually
added or removed from any Cabletron ATM switch to provide a diverse
choice of connection alternatives. Each network module provides between
one and six full-duplex ATM physical connections to the Cabletron switch.
NMS (Network Management Station) - the system responsible for managing
a network or a portion of a network. The NMS talks to network management
agents, which reside in the managed nodes.
NNI (Network-to-Network Interface or Network Node Interface) - the interface between two public network pieces of equipment.
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GLOSSARY
NuBus - a high-speed bus used in the Macintosh family of computers, structured so that users can put a card into any slot on the board without creating
conflict over the priority between those cards
OAM (Operation and Maintenance) Cell - a cell that contains ATM LM
information. It does not form part of the upper layer information transfer.
OpenView - Hewlett-Packard’s network management software.
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) - the 7-layer suite of protocols
designed by ISO committees to be the international standard computer network architecture.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Protocol - a routing algorithm for IP that
incorporates least-cost, equal-cost, and load balancing.
Out-of-Band Management - refers to switch configuration via the serial port
or over Ethernet, not ATM.
Packet Switching - a communications paradigm in which packets (messages)
are individually routed between hosts with no previously established communications path.
PBX (Private Branch Exchange) - a private phone system (switch) that connects to the public telephone network and offers in-house connectivity. To
reach an outside line, the user must dial a digit like 8 or 9.
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) - a local-bus standard created by
Intel.
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) - a modulation scheme that samples the
information signals and transmits a series of coded pulses to represent the
data.
PDN (Public Data Network) - a network designed primarily for data transmission and intended for sharing by many users from many organizations.
PDU (Protocol Data Unit) - a unit of data specified in a layer protocol and
consisting of protocol control information and layer user data.
Peak Cell Rate - at the PHY Layer SAP of a point-to-point VCC, the Peak Cell
Rate Rpis the inverse of the minimum inter-arrival time T0 of the request to
send an ATM-SDU.
Peer Entities - entities within the same layer.
PHY (Physical Layer) - the actual cards, wires, and/or fiber-optic cabling
used to connect computers, routers, and switches.
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GLOSSARY
Physical Layer (PHY) Connection - an association established by the PHY
between two or more ATM-entities. A PHY connection consists of the concatenation of PHY links in order to provide an end-to-end transfer capability to
PHY SAPs.
PMD (Physical Medium Dependent) - a sublayer concerned with the bit
transfer between two network nodes. It deals with wave shapes, timing
recovery, line coding, and electro-optic conversions for fiber based links.
PNNI (Private Network Node Interface or Private Network-to-Network
Interface) - a protocol that defines the interaction of private ATM switches or
groups of private ATM switches
ping (Packet Internet Groper) - a program used to test reachability of destinations by sending them an ICMP echo request and waiting for a reply.
Point-to-Multipoint Connection - a collection of associated ATM VC or VP
links, with associated endpoint nodes, with the following properties:
1. One ATM link, called the Root Link, serves as the root in a simple tree
topology. When the Root node sends information, all of the remaining nodes
on the connection, called Leaf nodes, receive copies of the information.
2. Each of the Leaf Nodes on the connection can send information directly to
the Root Node. The Root Node cannot distinguish which Leaf is sending
information without additional (higher layer) information. (See the following
note for Phase 1.)
3. The Leaf Nodes cannot communicate directly to each other with this connection type.
Note: Phase 1 signalling does not support traffic sent from a Leaf to the Root.
Point-to-Point Connection - a connection with only two endpoints.
Primitive - an abstract, implementation-independent interaction between a
layer service user and a layer service provider.
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory) - a chip-based information storage area that can be recorded by an operator but erased only through a physical process.
Protocol - a set of rules and formats (semantic and syntactic) that determines
the communication behavior of layer entities in the performance of the layer
functions.
Protocol Control Information - the information exchanged between corresponding entities using a lower layer connection to coordinate their joint
operation.
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GLOSSARY
Proxy - the process in which one system acts for another system to answer
protocol requests.
Proxy Agent - an agent that queries on behalf of the manager, used to monitor
objects that are not directly manageable.
PSN (Packet Switched Network) - a network designed to carry data in the
form of packets. The packet and its format is internal to that network.
PT (Payload Type) - bits 2...4 in the fourth byte of an ATM cell header. The PT
indicates the type of information carried by the cell. At this time, values 0...3
are used to identify various types of user data, values 4 and 5 indicate management information, and values 6 and 7 are reserved for future use.
PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit (or Channel)) - a circuit or channel through
an ATM network provisioned by a carrier between two endpoints; used for
dedicated long-term information transport between locations.
Q.2931 - Derived from Q.93B, the narrowband ISDN signalling protocol, an
ITU standard describing the signalling protocol to be used by switched virtual circuits on ATM LANs.
Relaying - a function of a layer by means of which a layer entity receives data
from a corresponding entity and transmits it to another corresponding entity.
RFCs (Requests For Comment) - IETF documents suggesting protocols and
policies of the Internet, inviting comments as to the quality and validity of
those policies. These comments are collected and analyzed by the IETF in
order to finalize Internet standards.
RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) - the unintentional transmission of radio
signals. Computer equipment and wiring can both generate and receive RFI.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) - a distance vector-based protocol that
provides a measure of distance, or hops, from a transmitting workstation to a
receiving workstation.
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) - a generic name for CPUs that
use a simpler instruction set than more traditional designs.
Router - a device that forwards traffic between networks or subnetworks
based on network layer information.
SBus - hardware interface for add-in boards in later-version Sun 3 workstations.
SAP (Service Access Point) - the point at which an entity of a layer provides
services to its LM entity or to an entity of the next higher layer.
SAR (Segmentation And Reassembly) - the SAR accepts PDUs from the CS
and divides them into very small segments (44 bytes long). If the CS-PDU is
less than 44 bytes, it is padded to 44 with zeroes. A two-byte header and
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GLOSSARY
trailer are added to this basic segment. The header identifies the message type
(beginning, end, continuation, or single) and contains sequence numbering
and message identification. The trailer gives the SAR-PDU payload length,
exclusive of pad, and contains a CRC check to ensure the SAR-PDU integrity.
The result is a 48-byte PDU that fits into the payload field of an ATM cell.
SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) - a standard for a controller bus
that connects disk drives and other devices to their controllers on a computer
bus. It is typically used in small systems.
SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) - IBM’s data link protocol used in
SNA networks.
SDU (Service Data Unit) - a unit of interface information whose identity is
preserved from one end of a layer connection to the other.
SEAL (Simple and Efficient Adaptation Layer) - also called AAL 5, this ATM
adaptation layer assumes that higher layer processes will provide error recovery, thereby simplifying the SAR portion of the adaptation layer. Using this
AAL type packs all 48 bytes of an ATM cell information field with data. It also
assumes that only one message is crossing the UNI at a time. That is, multiple
end-users at one location cannot interleave messages on the same VC, but
must queue them for sequential transmission.
Segment - a single ATM link or group of interconnected ATM links of an ATM
connection.
Semipermanent Connection - a connection established via a service order or
via network management.
SGMP (Simple Gateway Management Protocol) - the predecessor to SNMP.
Shaping Descriptor - n ordered pairs of GCRA parameters (I,L) used to
define the negotiated traffic shape of an APP connection. The traffic shape
refers to the load-balancing of a network. In this context, load-balancing
means configuring the data flows to maximize the efficiency of the network.
SIR (Sustained Information Rate) - the long-term average data transmission
rate across the User-to-Network Interface.
SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) - a high-speed, datagrambased, public data network service expected to be widely used by telephone
companies in their data networks.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) - the Internet electronic mail protocol
used to transfer electronic mail between hosts.
SNAP - SubNetwork Access Protocol
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) - the Internet standard protocol for managing nodes on an IP network.
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GLOSSARY
snmpd - an SMNP agent for a given adapter card.
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) - a new and growing body of standards that defines all aspects of transporting and managing digital traffic over
optical facilities in the public network.
Source Traffic Descriptor - a set of traffic parameters belonging to the ATM
Traffic Descriptor used during the connection set-up to capture the intrinsic
traffic characteristics of the connection requested by the source.
Spanning Tree Protocol - provides loop-free topology in a network environment where there are redundant paths.
SPANS (Simple Protocol for ATM Network Signalling) - FORE Systems’
proprietary signalling protocol used for establishing SVCs between FORE
Systems equipment.
SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture Reduced instruction set Computer) - a powerful workstation similar to a reduced-instruction-set-computing (RISC) workstation.
SPE (Synchronous Payload Envelope) - the payload field plus a little overhead of a basic SONET signal.
SPVC (Smart PVC) - a generic term for any communications medium which
is permanently provisioned at the end points, but switched in the middle. In
ATM, there are two kinds of SPVCs: smart permanent virtual path connections (SPVPCs) and smart permanent virtual channel connections (SPVCCs).
Static Route - a route that is entered manually into the routing table.
STM (Synchronous Transfer Mode) - a transport and switching method that
depends on information occurring in regular and fixed patterns with respect
to a reference such as a frame pattern.
STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) - two or more insulated wires that are twisted
together and then wrapped in a cable with metallic braid or foil to prevent
interference and offer noise-free transmissions.
STS (Synchronous Transport Signal) - a SONET electrical signal rate.
Sublayer - a logical subdivision of a layer.
SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit (or Channel)) - a channel established on
demand by network signalling, used for information transport between two
locations and lasting only for the duration of the transfer; the datacom equivalent of a dialed telephone call.
Switched Connection - a connection established via signalling.
Symmetric Connection - a connection with the same bandwidth value specified for both directions.
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GLOSSARY
Synchronous - signals that are sourced from the same timing reference and
hence are identical in frequency.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA) - a proprietary networking architec
TAXI - Transparent Asynchronous Transmitter/Receiver Interface
TC (Transmission Convergence) - generates and receives transmission
frames and is responsible for all overhead associated with the transmission
frame. The TC sublayer packages cells into the transmission frame.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) - a specification for software that bundles and unbundles sent and received data into packets, manages the transmission of packets on a network, and checks for errors.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - a set of communications protocols that has evolved since the late 1970s, when it was first
developed by the Department of Defense. Because programs supporting
these protocols are available on so many different computer systems, they
have become an excellent way to connect different types of computers over
networks.
TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) - a traditional digital multiplexing in
which a signal occupies a fixed, repetitive time slot within a higher-rate signal.
Token Ring - a network access method in which the stations circulate a token.
Stations with data to send must have the token to transmit their data.
Traffic - the calls being sent and received over a communications network.
Also, the packets that are sent on a data network.
Trailer - the protocol control information located at the end of a PDU.
Transit Delay - the time difference between the instant at which the first bit of
a PDU crosses one designated boundary, and the instant at which the last bit
of the same PDU crosses a second designated boundary.
trap - a program interrupt mechanism that automatically updates the state of
the network to remote network management hosts. The SNMP agent on the
switch supports these SNMP traps.
UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) - a type of traffic that is not considered time-critical (e.g., ARP messages, pure data), allocated whatever bandwidth is available at any given time. UBR traffic is given a “best effort” priority in an ATM
network with no guarantee of successful transmission.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) - the TCP/IP transaction protocol used for
applications such as remote network management and name-service access;
this lets users assign a name, such as “RVAX*2,S,” to a physical or numbered
address.
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GLOSSARY
Unassigned Cells - a cell identified by a standardized virtual path identifier
(VPI) and virtual channel identifier (VCI) value, which has been generated
and does not carry information from an application using the ATM Layer service.
UNI (User-to-Network Interface) - the physical and electrical demarcation
point between the user and the public network service provider.
UNI 3.0 - the User-to-Network Interface standard set forth by the ATM Forum
that defines how private customer premise equipment interacts with private
ATM switches.
UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) - a cable that consists of two or more insulated conductors in which each pair of conductors are twisted around each
other. There is no external protection and noise resistance comes solely from
the twists.
VBR (Variable Bit Rate) - a type of traffic that, when sent over a network, is
tolerant of delays and changes in the amount of bandwidth it is allocated
(e.g., data applications).
VC (Virtual Channel (or Circuit)) - a communications path between two
nodes identified by label rather than fixed physical path.
VCC (Virtual Channel Connection) - a unidirectional concatenation of VCLs
that extends between the points where the ATM service users access the ATM
Layer. The points at which the ATM cell payload is passed to, or received
from, the users of the ATM Layer (i.e., a higher layer or ATMM-entity) for
processing signify the endpoints of a VCC.
VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) - the address or label of a VC.
VCL (Virtual Channel Link) - a means of unidirectional transport of ATM
cells between the point where a VCI value is assigned and the point where
that value is translated or removed.
VINES (Virtual Network Software) - Banyan’s network operating system
based on UNIX and its protocols.
Virtual Channel Switch - a network element that connects VCLs. It terminates VPCs and translates VCI values. The Virtual Channel Switch is directed
by Control Plane functions and relays the cells of a VC.
Virtual Path Switch - a network element that connects VPLs, it translates VPI
(not VCI) values and is directed by Control Plane functions. The Virtual Path
Switch relays the cells of a Virtual Path.
VPT (Virtual Path Terminator) - a system that unbundles the VCs of a VP for
independent processing of each VC.
VP (Virtual Path) - a unidirectional logical association or bundle of VCs.
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GLOSSARY
VPC (Virtual Path Connection) - a concatenation of VPLs between virtual
path terminators (VPTs). VPCs are unidirectional.
VPDN (Virtual Private Data Network) - a private data communications network built on public switching and transport facilities rather than dedicated
leased facilities such as T1s.
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) - the address or label of a particular VP.
VPL (Virtual Path Link) - a means of unidirectional transport of ATM cells
between the point where a VPI value is assigned and the point where that
value is translated or removed.
VPN (Virtual Private Network) - a private voice communications network
built on public switching and transport facilities rather than dedicated leased
facilities such as T1s.
VT (Virtual Tributary) - a structure used to carry payloads such as DS1s that
run at significantly lower rates than STS-1s.
WAN (Wide-Area Network) - a network that covers a large geographic area.
X.25 - a well-established data switching and transport method that relies on a
significant amount of processing to ensure reliable transport over metallic
media.
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GLOSSARY
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