User’s Guide
2005
SLLU090F
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Copyright  2005, Texas Instruments Incorporated
How to Use This Manual
Preface
About This Manual
This document presents the contents of the Dolphin frequency hopping spread
spectrum (FHSS) wireless UART demonstration and development tool kit.
The Dolphin chipset consists of the TRF6903 RF transciever and the DBB03A
baseband ASIC. The term Dolphin will be used in the rest of the document.
The user manual provides information on how to operate the Dolphin demo kit
and describes its hardware and software. Users should understand the
DBB03A baseband ASIC and the TRF6903 to obtain the full benefit of this user
manual.
How to Use This Manual
Different topics covered in this manual may require different levels of
expertise. The first chapter gives an overview of the kit. The second and third
chapters focus on how to use the kit and get started on the development. The
fourth and fifth chapters focus on the hardware and software details of the
Dolphin demo kit respectively. The frequency hopping protocol details are
presented in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 demonstrates applications and
architectures that could use Dolphin.
Chapter 1 – Evaluation Kit Overview
Chapter 2 – Demonstrating a Wireless Link
Chapter 3 – PCB Hardware
Chapter 4 – Software
Chapter 5 –Protocol and Firmware Overview
Chapter 6 – Applications
Appendix A – RF Test Reports
Appendix B – FCC Prescan Documents
Appendix C – Range Results
iii
Related Documentation From Texas Instruments
Related Documentation From Texas Instruments
Other related Texas Instruments documents that may be helpful are:
- TRF6903 data sheet − SWRS022
- DBB03A data sheet – SWRS030
- TRF6903 design guide − SWRU009
- TRF6903 FAQ
- Interfacing Dolphin to an External System Microcontroller application note
− SWRA045
- Dolphin Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Chipset Host Interface
Protocol application note − SWRA043
Product Websites
For design and product information related to the TRF6903 and similar products, go to:
- http://www.ti.com/ismrf
- PDF documents and zip files may be located on Texas Instruments’
website by typing in the literature number in the Search text box; for
example, typing in SWRS022 locates the TRF6903 data sheet.
FCC Warning
This equipment is intended for use in a laboratory test environment only. It
generates radio frequency (RF) energy and has not been tested for
compliance within the limits of computing devices pursuant to Subpart J, Part
15 of United States FCC regulations, which are designed to provide
reasonable protection against radio frequency interference. Operation of this
equipment in other environments may cause interference with radio
communications, in which case the user (at their own expense) will be required
to take whatever measures may be required to correct this interference.
iv
Contents
Disclaimer
Please note that the enclosed demonstration boards are experimental printed
circuit boards and are therefore only intended for device demonstration and
evaluation.
The circuit boards have been manufactured by one or more of Texas
Instruments’ external subcontractors which may not be production qualified.
Device parameters that are measured with these circuit boards may not be
representative of production devices or typical production data. Texas
Instruments does not represent or guarantee that a final hardware version will
be made available after device evaluation.
THE DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT BOARDS ARE SUPPLIED WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESSED, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
TEXAS INSTRUMENTS ACCEPTS NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER ARISING
AS A RESULT OF THE USE OF THESE CIRCUIT BOARDS.
The fee associated with the demonstration boards is a nonrecurring
engineering fee (NRE) to partially defray the engineering costs associated
with circuit board development and applications support for the integrated
circuit semiconductor product(s). The circuit board is a tool for demonstrating
and evaluating the RF semiconductors supplied by Texas Instruments. The
demonstration board is supplied to prospective customers to provide services
and software that will help them to evaluate the RF semiconductors.
The demonstration board may be operated only for product demonstration or
evaluation purposes and then only in nonresidential areas. Texas Instruments’
understanding is that the customer’s products using the RF parts listed shall
be designed to comply with all applicable FCC and appropriate regulatory
agency requirements and will, upon testing, comply with these requirements.
Operation of this device is subject to the conditions that it does not cause
harmful interference and that it must accept any interference.
v
vi
Contents
1
Dolphin Demonstration and Evaluation Kit Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1
Description of Dolphin Chipset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2
Dolphin Chipset vs Dolphin Demo Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3
Dolphin Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
Low Power and High Power Chipset Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5
Evaluation Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.6
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7
Equipment Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-6
2
Demonstrating a Wireless Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
Board Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Operational Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Preparing for Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Power Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 Wireless Demonstration − Link Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.4 Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.5 Error Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-1
2-2
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-4
2-6
2-6
3
PCB Hardware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1
Hardware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.1.1 TRF6903 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.1.2 DBB03A Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.2
Low Power Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.2.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.2.2 Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3.2.3 Top and Bottom Side of the LP Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.2.4 BOM for the LP Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
3.3
High Power Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.3.2 Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.3.3 Different Layers of the HP Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.3.4 BOM for the HP Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3.4
Other Hardware Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4.1 Dolphin Interface Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4.2 Antenna and RF Shield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
3.4.3 Discrete LC Filter for Harmonic Suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
3.4.4 IF Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
3.4.5 Ceramic Discriminator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
3.4.6 TR Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
vii
Contents
3.4.7
External Crystal for the TRF6903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
4
Software Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1
Software Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.2
Software Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.2.1 Setting Device Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.2 RF Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.2.3 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.2.4 Test Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4.2.5 Communication Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.3
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
4.3.1 Single-Ended Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
4.3.2 Round Trip Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
4.3.3 Single Transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.3.4 Save Communication Log to a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
5
Protocol and Firmware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1
Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 RF Transmit / Receive Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 RF Transmit Logic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3 RF Receive Logic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2
Firmware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1 Implementation of Frequency-Hopping Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-5
5-6
5-6
6
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1
Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 Point-Point Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 Broadcast Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Wireless Metering − AMR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-4
6-4
6-4
A
RF Test Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
A.1 RF Test Report for the Low-Power Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
A.2 RF Test Report for the High-Power Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
B
FCC Prescan Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.1 Low-Power Board FCC Prescan Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.1.1 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.1.2 SETUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.1.3 RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.2 High Power Board FCC Prescan Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.2.1 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.2.2 SETUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B.2.3 RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C
Range Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
C.1 Low-Power Board Range Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
C.2 High-Power Board Range Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
D
Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate) Vs Throughtput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1
C.1 Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate Versus Throughput) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
viii
B-1
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-2
B-3
B-3
B-3
B-4
Contents
1−1
1−2
1−3
2−1
2−2
2−3
3−1
3−2
3−3
3−4
3−5
3−6
3−7
3−8
3−9
3−10
3−11
3−12
3−13
3−14
3−15
4−1
4−2
4−3
4−4
4−5
4−6
4−7
4−8
4−9
4−10
4−11
4−12
5−1
5−2
5−3
5−4
5−5
6−1
Dolphin Chipset Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Dolphin Demo Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Evaluation Using Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Top Side of the Demonstration Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Top Side of the Serial Interface Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Link Mode Demonstration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
TRF6903 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
DBB03A Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Dolphin Low Power Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Low Power Board Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Top Side (LP Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Bottom Side (LP Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
High Power (HP) Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
HP Board Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Top Layer and Layer 2 (HP Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Bottom Layer and Layer 3 (HP Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Dolphin Interface Board Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Top-Side Assembly of the Interface Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Discrete LC Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Recommended IF Filter Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Murata Ceramic Discriminator – Frequency Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Evaluation Software− Main Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Communication Setup Screen Under Settings Pull Down Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
RF Settings Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Statistics Settings Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Test Settings Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Test Settings Transmit Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Test Settings Receive Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Transceiver Bit Rate Settings Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
ID Setup for Single-Ended Link Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
ID Setup for Round−Trip Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Enabling the Save Log To File Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Saving the Log File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
RF Overhead in Hop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
RF Overhead in Single-Channel Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Transmit-Side Logic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Receive-Side Logic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Star Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
ix
Contents
6−2
6−3
6−4
6−5
6−6
C−1
C−2
Ring Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Complete Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Broadcast Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Overview of the AMR System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Wireless Metering (AMR) Application Using Dolphin Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Low-Power Board – Outdoor Range Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
High-Power Board – Outdoor Range Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
3−1
3−2
3−3
3−4
3−5
3−6
B−1
B−2
B−3
B−4
C−1
x
Initial System Design Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Low Power (LP) Board Performance Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
HP Board Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Murata IF Filter SFECS10M7EA00−R0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Murata Ceramic Discriminator CDSCB10M7GA119−R0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Example Crystal Information: Crystek 017119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Fundamental Emissions: (15.249 limit = 94 dBmV/m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
FCC Part 15.247 – Maximum Power (A = 0 dB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
FCC Part 15.249 – Minimum Power (A = 20 dB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
FCC Part 15.247 − Transmit Mode, Maximum Power (A = 0 dB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-4
Range Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1
Chapter 1
This chapter provides an overview of the Dolphin demonstration and
development kit.
Topic
Page
1.1
Description of Dolphin Chipset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.2
Dolphin Chipset vs Dolphin Demo Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
1.3
Dolphin Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.4
Low Power and High Power Chipset Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.5
Evaluation Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.6
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.7
Equipment Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Dolphin Demonstration and Evaluation Kit Overview
1-1
Description of Dolphin Chipset
1.1 Description of Dolphin Chipset
The Dolphin is a frequency hopping wireless universal asynchronous
receiver/transmitter (UART) chipset solution and can be used to implement a
wireless link that end applications can interface to as a peripheral, shielding
the end-application from the implementation details. The Dolphin chipset
solution eases wireless system development while keeping the end
application highly integrated and flexible.
The Dolphin is a FCC pre-certified reference design and the chipset solution
consists of a Texas Instruments TRF6903 single-chip multi-band RF
transceiver and a digital baseband ASIC (DBB03A) with frequency hopping
firmware residing on its ROM-based program memory.
The DBB03A can be controlled through an external evaluation software or
system microcontroller through the hardware UART interface of the DBB03A.
This is illustrated in Figure 1−1. For further details on the interfacing system
micro to the Dolphin chipset and example firmware, see the application note
SWRA045.
Figure 1−1. Dolphin Chipset Architecture
Wireless UART − Dolphin
RF
TRF6903
DBB03A
Digital
Baseband ASIC
Host Interface
Protocol via UART
System Micro
Software
Application Layer
Data Link Layer
MAC Layer
PHY Layer
Note:
1-2
See the DBB03A data sheet (SWRS030) for information on how to order these
ROM-coded parts.
Dolphin Chipset vs Dolphin Demo Kit
1.2 Dolphin Chipset vs Dolphin Demo Kit
It is important to understand the difference between Dolphin chipset and the
Dolphin demo kit.
- The Dolphin demo kit as name indicates is used for demonstration/
evaluation purposes and consists of a TRF6903 RF transceiver and the
DBB03A digital baseband ASIC. For demo purposes, Texas Instruments
provides sofware to evaluate Dolphin. This evaluation software interfaces
with the DBB03A via UART as shown in Figure 1−2.
Figure 1−2. Dolphin Demo Kit
Wireless UART –Dolphin
RF TRF6903
DBB03A
Digital
Baseband ASIC
Host Interface Protocol
via UART
Evaluation
Software
Application Layer
Data Link Layer
MAC Layer
PHY Layer
- See the http://www.ti.com/ismrf website for information on how to obtain
the Dolphin demo kits.
- However in end-user applications, an external host/system microcontrol-
ler is needed to interface with the Dolphin. This is the Dophin Chipset and
is shown in Figure 1−1.
Dolphin Demonstration and Evaluation Kit Overview
1-3
Dolphin Features
1.3 Dolphin Features
The end-system can treat Dolphin as a peripheral capable of establishing a
wireless link. The system microcontroller focuses on the end application level
protocol. Any catalog microcontroller can be used as a system microcontroller
which provides added flexibility. The interface between the system
microcontroller and the DBB03A digital baseband ASIC is a simple UART. The
Dolphin demo kit has been provided with evaluation software that
communicates with the DBB03A using a UART interface that follows a defined
protocol. This host interface protocol document is detailed in Dolphin Host
Interface Protocol Definition application report (SWRA043). The DBB03A
digital baseband ASIC contains the frequency hopping firmware and handles
the wireless communication protocols in the MAC and data link layer.
The Dolphin demo kit is used to demonstrate a FCC compliant (Sec 15.247)
frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) wireless data link. The firmware
resides on the DBB03A device and supports point-point, broadcast networks
with acknowledgement and retries. The reference design (schematics and
layout of the board) has been FCC precertified and can be used to ramp up
the FCC certification process and lower system development hurdles.
1.4 Low Power and High Power Chipset Solutions
The Dolphin chipset solution is offered in two versions; low power (LP) and
high power (HP). The low-power version generates an output power of
+7 dBm, while the high-power version generated an output power of +23 dBm
(at VCC = 3.6 V) and +20 dBm (at VCC = 3 V) using an external PA.
Both LP and HP versions of the Dolphin demo kit are offered for evaluation.
The Dolphin demo kit provides an option to be powered from either a 3-V
battery or from an external dc-power supply.
Both the LP and HP designs are FCC precertified. For hardware descriptions
of low-power and high-power versions, see Chapter 3. The schematics,
Gerber’s, and BOM for both low-power and high-power versions can be
downloaded from the http://www.ti.com/ismrf website.
1-4
Evaluation Software
1.5 Evaluation Software
Texas Instruments provides software to evaluate the performance of the
Dolphin demo kit. This software interfaces to the DBB03A using a simple
UART. This is shown in Figure 1−3. A protocol has been developed to
establish communication between any external evaluation software (or
system microcontroller) and the DBB03A. This is called Dolphin Host Interface
Protocol and is documented in detail in application report SWRA043.
Figure 1−3. Evaluation Using Software
Wireless UART − Dolphin
RF
TRF6903
DBB03A
Digital
Baseband ASIC
RX
Interface Board With
Serial Line Driver
TX
TX
PC With Evalution
Software Installed
Serial Cable
DB−9
The evaluation software is dealt in detail in Chapter 4. The important features
provided by the evaluation software are:
- Single channel / frequency hopping mode of operation selection
- Enable acknowledgement / retries for reliable data transfer
- Programmable transceiver baud rate and serial port baud rate selection
- Test mode selection
- Packet error rate statistics with and without retries
- Save / retrieve communications log to/from a file
- ACSII / hex message transfer and reception
Dolphin Demonstration and Evaluation Kit Overview
1-5
Contents
1.6 Contents
The Dolphin demonstration and development kit contains:
- Two Dolphin (TRF6903 + DBB03A) demonstration boards
- User’s manual (this document)
- Two interface boards (to connect Dolphin demonstration boards to com-
puters)
- Host Protocol interface software
- TRF6903 and DBB03A data sheets
- Two serial port cables
The part numbers of the demonstration and development kit are as follows:
- DOLPHIN−LP−EVM for the low-power Dolphin kit.
- DOLPHIN−HP−EVM for the high-power Dolphin kit.
In order to demonstrate the broadcast capability of the Dolphin, the user will
need a total of three Dolphin boards. Additional individual boards are available
and may be used with either a low-power or high-power kit. The adder board
part numbers are as follows:
- DOLPHIN−LP−ADDER for the low-power adder board.
- DOLPHIN−HP−ADDER for the high-power adder board.
The DBB03A is already loaded with the frequency hopping firmware.
Hardware and Software documentation related to this kit are documented in
Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 respectively. For more information visit the ISM band
product website at http://www.ti.com/ismrf.
1.7 Equipment Requirement
The following equipment is not included in this kit and may be required to
operate the Dolphin demo kit:
- DC power supply
- AA Batteries
1-6
Chapter 2
This chapter explains how to operate Dolphin demo kit to demonstrate a RF
bidirectional link.
Topic
Page
2.1
Board Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.2
Operational Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Demonstrating a Wireless Link
2-1
Board Description
2.1 Board Description
The Dolphin demo kit consists of two circuit boards. One circuit board consists
of a TRF6903 RF transceiver and a DBB03A digital basband ASIC as shown
in Figure 2−1. The second circuit board is a serial interface board which
consists of a RS232 serial line driver, low voltage detector, and two AA battery
holder. The interface board has an option to be powered up from an external
dc-power supply or two 1.5-V AA batteries. The interface board has a LED
which turns off when the supply voltage falls below 2.3 V.
Each board is capable of sending and receiving half-duplex wireless data on
North American/US ISM bands. The DBB03A firmware is configured to use the
902- to 928-MHz ISM frequency band. Figure 2−1 shows top-side view of the
circuit board.
Figure 2−1. Top Side of the Demonstration Board
2-2
Board Description
Figure 2−2. Top Side of the Serial Interface Board
Dolphin demo kit features:
- TRF6903 RF transceiver
- DBB03A digital basband ASIC
- Simple wire antenna
- Manual reset pin for the DBB03A digital baseband ASIC
- Header for external dc-power supply
- Battery holder for two 1.5-V AA batteries (batteries not included)
- Serial interface board
- Low battery voltage indicator
- SMA connector footprint for an external antenna or test equipment (SMA
connector not included)
- RS232 line driver/receiver
- Serial port connector
- External PA and SAW filter (HP version)
Demonstrating a Wireless Link
2-3
Operational Overview
2.2 Operational Overview
The Dolphin kit was designed to quickly demonstrate a wireless link between
two or more unique devices. The interface board provides dc-power via the
onboard batteries and a serial link via RS232. This platform allows the user to
easily connect to the chipset and start communication. A detailed description
to set up the chipset software can be found in Chapter 4. The Dolphin demo
kit can operate in two modes.
- Link Mode –Section 2.2.3
- Test Mode − Section 2.2.4
2.2.1
Preparing for Operation
Before you start operating the units as a demonstration make sure that you
have done the following:
- Connect Dolphin demo board to the serial interface board by inserting the
headers into the header recepticle provided on the interface board.
- The Dolphin interface board requires two 1.5-V AA size batteries.
Batteries need to provide a minumum of 2.3 VDC.
- Supply power to the interface board using either a DC power supply or 2
AA batteries.
- Connect the serial port cable between the host PC (with the evaluation
software installed) and the DB−9 connector on the interface board.
- Start the evaluation software and choose the appropriate serial port used
for communication. (Auto Detect feature can be used)
2.2.2
Power Up
Insert batteries into interface board and verify LED1 blinking in two second
intervals. Upon power up, both units go into receive mode to monitor for any
transmit activity.
2.2.3
Wireless Demonstration − Link Mode
The link mode setup is shown in Figure 2−3. Upon power up of the devices and
before communication can take place the individual devices must have the
following parameters properly programmed using the Texas Instruments
evaluation software.
- Destination ID (transceiver ID of the device you want to talk to)
- Network ID (identical to each other)
- System ID (identical to each other)
- Hop table (identical to each other)
- Transceiver ID (must be unique)
2-4
Operational Overview
After the proper parameters have been programmed the user must enter data
into the RF data text box and press the Send Single Msg. Upon successful
transmission the communications log display’s an acknowledgement. For
more details on link mode demonstration, see Chapter 4 section 4.3.
Figure 2−3. Link Mode Demonstration
Serial
Cable
TX Antenna
Interface Board
with DB−9
Connector
Dolphin
Demo board
TX PC with Evaluation
Software
RX Antenna
Serial
Cable
Interface Board
with DB−9 C
onnector
Dolphin
Demo board
RX PC with Evaluation
Software
Demonstrating a Wireless Link
2-5
Operational Overview
2.2.4
Test Mode
The Dolphin can be configured to be in the test mode to evaluate the RF
performance of the TRF6903. The test mode provides an option to configure
and program the TRF6903 registers. This allows the system designers
additional flexibility to evaluate all the features of the TRF6903 for their
application-specific needs.
The test settings page can be selected by clicking the Test Settings tab in the
evaluation software. This is shown in NO TAG in Chapter 4.
In order to evaluate the TRF6903 in test-mode, the Dolphin evaluation board
needs to be connected to the spectrum analyzer through an SMA connector.
See Chapter 4 for detailed transmit and receive test plans to evaluate the
TRF6903.
2.2.5
Error Conditions
If communication does not exist after numerous attempts, shutdown and
restart evaluation software and cycle power on the evaluation board. Next
select auto detect in the communication settings menu to establish
communications.
2-6
Chapter 3
! " This chapter provides the default PCB hardware documentation in detail and
provides alternate configurations that the user may want to implement.
Topic
Page
3.1
Hardware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
3.2
Low Power Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.3
High Power Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
3.4
Other Hardware Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
PCB Hardware Overview
3-1
Hardware Overview
3.1
Hardware Overview
The Dolphin demonstration and development kit (Dolphin demo) provides a
stand-alone demonstration of a bidirectional frequency hopping link using the
DBB03A digital baseband ASIC and the TRF6903 RF transceiver.
The TRF6903 ISM-band transceiver IC operates from 315 MHz to 950 MHz.
It has low power consumption and an operating voltage of 2.2 V to 3.6 V. It
features an integer-N PLL synthesizer and supports FSK and OOK operation.
Other features include on-chip clock recovery, brownout detector, and XTAL
frequency trimming in software.
The default Dolphin system design parameters are shown in Table 3−1.
Table 3−1. Initial System Design Specifications
Operating Band
Crystal Frequency
19.6608 MHz
Reference Divider
48
PLL Reference Frequency
Charge Pump Current
409.6 kHz
0.5 mA
Modulation
FSK
Coding Scheme
NRZ
Peak-to-Peak Frequency Deviation
Default RF Data rate
3-2
915 MHz
100 kHz (±50 kHz)
38.4 kbps
Hardware Overview
3.1.1
TRF6903 Block Diagram
Figure 3−1 shows the block diagram of the TRF6903 ISM transceiver IC.
Figure 3−1. TRF6903 Block Diagram
PCB Hardware Overview
3-3
Hardware Overview
3.1.2
DBB03A Block Diagram
Figure 3−2 shows the block diagram of the DBB03A digital baseband ASIC.
Figure 3−2. DBB03A Block Diagram
3-4
Low Power Version
3.2 Low Power Version
The Dolphin demo kit is offered in two versions.
- Low power (LP) version (transmit power of +7 dBm max)
- High power (HP) version (transmit power of +23 dBm max) using an
external PA
The low power version board is explained in the following sections. All the
schematics and BOM for the Dolphin LP and HP demonstration boards can
be
found
at
http://focus.ti.com/docs/toolsw/folders/print/dolphin−wuart−ref.html.
3.2.1
Overview
The low power version of the Dolphin demo kit is shown in Figure 3−3.
Figure 3−3. Dolphin Low Power Board
DBB03A Digital
Baseband ASIC
TRF6903 RF Transceiver
The performance of the Dolphin LP board is summarized in Table 3−2. For
detailed LP board performance results, see Appendix A.
Table 3−2. Low Power (LP) Board Performance Summary
Mode
Parameter
Transmit current
Transmit
Receive
Standby
Output power
Value
Units
35.3
mA
7
dBm
210
kHz
Peak-peak deviation
100
kHz
Receive current
18.8
mA
Sensitivity
−101
dBm
LO power level
−97.7
dBm
Standby current
0.1
µA
20-dB modulated bandwidth
PCB Hardware Overview
3-5
Low Power Version
3.2.2
Schematics
The schematic of the LP board is shown in Figure 3−4.
Figure 3−4. Low Power Board Schematic
3-6
Low Power Version
3.2.3
Top and Bottom Side of the LP Board
Figure 3−5 and Figure 3−6 show the top-side and bottom-side circuit board for
the LP version Dolphin demo board.
Figure 3−5. Top Side (LP Version)
PCB Hardware Overview
3-7
Low Power Version
Figure 3−6. Bottom Side (LP Version)
3-8
Low Power Version
3.2.4
BOM for the LP Version
Item
Qty
Reference
Pop
Option
Value
Populated
after
testing
See
drawi
ng
TEX0
2ANT
Tol.
Voltage
/ Power
Manufacturer
Part
Number
Description
Custom
TEX02ANT
Antenna wire
20AWG−3.1
2” Unbent
length
Substitute
PCB
Decal
1
1
ANT1
2
3
C16, C17,
C19
2.2
pF
0.25 pF
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
3
4
C2, C4,
C9, C10
2.7
pF
0.25 pF
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
4
1
C3
4.7
pF
0.25 pF
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
5
1
C15
6.8
pF
0.5 pF
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
6
6
C1, C5,
C8, C18,
C28, C30
22 pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
7
1
C27
27 pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
8
2
C36, C37
39 pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
9
1
C22
68 pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
10
2
C31, C34
82 pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
11
2
C20, C35
100
pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
12
2
C23, C32
120
pF
5%
50 V
NPO
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
13
1
C42
1 nF
10%
50 V
X7R
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
14
1
C29
2.2
nF
10%
50 V
X7R
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
15
1
C24
4.7
nF
10%
50 V
X7R
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
16
1
C26
10 nF
10%
50 V
X7R
Any
0603 Size
Any
0603
SMT ceramic
capacitor
SLLU090.Sect.3.2.4Page 3-9 of NO TAG
SIP−1
P
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
PCB Hardware Overview
3-9
Low Power Version
Item
Qty
Reference
17
16
18
Pop
Option
Value
Tol.
Voltage
/ Power
Manufacturer
C6, C7,
C12, C13,
C21, C25,
C38, C39,
C43, C44,
C45, C46,
C48, C50,
C51, C52
100
nF
10%
16 V
X7R
1
C47
220
nF
10%
10 V
X5R
19
1
C11
10 uF
10%
10
WVDC
Surface
mount tant.
capacitor ’A’
case size
3216
20
3
C14, C40,
C49
10 uF
10%
10
WVDC
Surface
mount tant.
capacitor ’A’
case size
3216
21
1
CF1
Fc =
10.7
MHz,
BW =
330
kHz
Murata
SFECS10M7
EA00−R0
Piezoelectric
ceramic filter
Murat
a−SF
ECS
22
1
CRS1
10.7
MHz
Murata Erie
CDSCB10M
7GA119−R0
2−pin
ceramic
resonator
Murat
a−CD
SCB
23
1
D1
Fairchild
MMBD914
High
condition
ultra fast
diode
SOT2
3
24
1
D2
General
Semiconducto
r
1N4148WS
Small signal
switching
diode
SOD−
323
25
1
D3
NP
Diodes INC
BAT42WS−7
SMT
Schottky
diode
SOD−
323
26
1
J1
NP
Linx
technologies
CONREVSM
A003.031
0.031”
narrow edge
mount SMA
connector
SMA−
Narro
w
27
1
J2
DUO
3M
929834−02−
04
4-pin 0.1”
header
Make from
3M
929834−02
−36
SIP−4
P
28
1
J3
DUO
3M
929647−02−
06
6-pin 0.1”
strip header
Make from
3M
929647−02
−36
SIP−6
P
29
1
J4
DUO
3M
2514−6002U
B
7X2 low
profile
shrouded
male header
Head
er7X2
−POL
30
1
J5
AMP
640456−2
2-pin 0.1”
polarized
friction lock
header
AMP6
4045
6−2
NP
DUO
Not
popul
ated
Part
Number
Description
Substitute
PCB
Decal
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
Any
0603 Size
SMT ceramic
capacitor
Any
0603
SLLU090.Sect.3.2.4Page 3-10 of NO TAG
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
3-10
Low Power Version
Item
Qty
31
1
32
Reference
Pop
Option
Value
Tol.
L4
10
nH
3
L1, L2, L5
33
1
L3
34
2
L6, L7
35
2
LED1,
LED2
36
1
PCB1
37
1
R17
38
2
R4, R39
39
8
R28−R34,
R38
40
1
R52
41
14
R1, R35,
R36,
R40−R50
10 R
42
2
R2, R15
43
2
R26, R27
44
18
R8−R25,
R51, R53
45
1
46
NP
DUO
NP
Manufacturer
Part
Number
Description
Substitute
PCB
Decal
5%
TOKO
LL1608−FS1
0NJ
0603 size
chip inductor
TOKO
LL1608FH
0603
8.2
nH
5%
TOKO
LL1608−FS8
N2J
0603 size
chip inductor
TOKO
LL1608FH
0603
220
µH
10%
Murata
LQH32CN22
1K23L
SMT RF
CHOKE
Murata
LQH32MN
221K23L
1210
4.7
µH
10%
Murata
LQM21NN4
R7K10L
SMT
multilayer
inductor
0805
LITEON
LTST−C170
GKT
0805 SIZE
SMT LED
0805
−LED
TEX02PCB
REV F
Bare printed
circuit board
Gree
n
Voltage
/ Power
2.1 V
10 mA
NP
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
0R
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
DUO
0R
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
NP
0R
when
U3 is
NP
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
100
R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
430
R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
1k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
R6
6.8 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
1
R5
15 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
47
1
R3
100 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
48
1
R37
100 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
DUO
DUO
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
PCB Hardware Overview
3-11
High Power Version
Item
Qty
Reference
49
1
R7
50
1
SHD1
51
1
52
Pop
Option
Value
Tol.
Voltage
/ Power
Manufacturer
220 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
Part Number
Description
Substitute
PCB
Dec
al
0603 surface
mount
resistor
Any
0603
26,2 mm x
26,2 mm x
5,08 mm RF
shield
BMIS−203
F/203C
BMI
S−10
3
BMI
BMIS−103
U1
Texas
Instruments
DBB03AIPMR
Baseband
ASIC
QFP
64
1
U2
Texas
Instruments
TRF6903
Single chip
FHSS RF
transceiver
QFP
48−3
53
1
U3
Texas
Instruments
TPS3838J25
DBV
Nanopower
supervisory
circuit
SOT
23−5
54
1
U4
Skyworks
AS222−92
PHEMT IC
SPDT GaAs
switch
55
1
X1
19.66
08
MHz
±20
ppm
CL 12
pF
Crystek
17119
SMT quartz
crystal
56
1
X2
4.915
2
MHz
±50
ppm
Op
Temp
−40°C
to 85°C
ECS
ECS−49−20−
5PDN
CSM−7 style
SMT crystal
DUO
AS179−92
SOT
363
ECS
−EC
X−64
CRYSTEK
017418
ECS
−CS
M−7
SLLU090.Sect.3.2.4Page 3-12 of NO TAG
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
3.3 High Power Version
3.3.1
Overview
The Dolphin high power board is designed to obtain output powers of up to
+23 dBm using an external PA. The maximum output power of +23 dBm is
obtained with VCC = 3.6 V. If the demo board is powered using two AA batteries
(VCC = 3 V), the output power is +20 dBm. The external PA used is RFMD
RF2172. The data sheet for this external PA can be downloaded from the
http://www.rfmd.com/DataBooks/db97/2172.pdf website.
The high power dolphin board is shown in Figure 3−7.
3-12
High Power Version
Figure 3−7. High Power (HP) Board
DBB03A − Digital
Baseband ASIC
TRF6903
RFMD
RF
External PA Shield
The performance of the HP board is displayed in Table 3−3. For detailed HP
board performance results, see Appendix A.
Table 3−3. HP Board Performance
Mode
Parameter
Transmit current
Transmit
Receive
Standby
VCC = 3 V
VCC = 3.6 V
Units
147.9
190.3
mA
Output power (typical)
20
23
dBm
20-dB modulated bandwidth
206
196
kHz
Peak-peak deviation
100
100
kHz
Receive current
23.1
21.5
mA
Sensitivity
−100
−100
dBm
LO power level
−97.7
−97.7
dBm
Standby current
0.1
0.1
µA
PCB Hardware Overview
3-13
High Power Version
3.3.2
Schematics
The schematic of the HP board is shown in Figure 3−8.
Figure 3−8. HP Board Schematic
3-14
High Power Version
3.3.3
Different Layers of the HP Board
Top, bottom, and middle layers of the four layer HP board are shown in
Figure 3−9 and Figure 3−10.
Figure 3−9. Top Layer and Layer 2 (HP Version)
PCB Hardware Overview
3-15
High Power Version
Figure 3−10. Bottom Layer and Layer 3 (HP Version)
3-16
High Power Version
3.3.4
BOM for the HP Version
Item
Qty
Reference
Population
Option
Value
Tol.
1
1
ANT1
Populated
after testing
2
1
C71, C59
0.5
pF
0.1 pF
3
1
C2
1.2
pF
4
1
C62
5
2
6
Manufacturer
Part No.
TBD
TEX03ANT
3.06” long unbent 20
AWG antenna wire,
see fabrication
drawing TEX03ANT
rev C for details
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S0R
5BW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
0.1 pF
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S1R
8BW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
2.2
pF
0.1 pF
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S2R
2BW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
C60, C76
3.3
pF
0.1 pF
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S3R
3BW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
3
C1, C3,
C70
3.9
pF
0.25
pF
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S3R
9CW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
7
1
C61
5.6
pF
0.25
pF
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S5R
6CW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
8
1
C77
10 pF
5%
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S10
0JW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
9
1
C72
20 pF
5%
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S20
0JW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
10
1
C73
100
pF
5%
250 V
NPO
ATC
ATC600S10
1JW250
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
0603
11
6
C55, C56,
C57, C67,
C78
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
12
3
C16, C17,
C19
2.2
pF
0.25p
F
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
13
11
C5, C8,
C9, C10
C18, C28,
C30, C53,
C54, C64,
C65
22 pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
14
1
C27
27 pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
15
2
C36, C37
39 pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
16
1
C22
68 pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
17
2
C31, C34
82 pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
18
2
C20, C35
100
pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
19
2
C23, C32
120
pF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
20
2
C42, C68
1 nF
5%
50 V NPO
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
21
1
C29
2.2
nF
10%
50 V X7R
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
22
1
C24
4.7
nF
10%
50 V X7R
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
23
5
C58, C63,
C66, C74,
C75
22 nF
10%
50 V X7R
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
24
7
C7, C25,
C38, C39,
C41, C43,
C48
100
nF
10%
16 V X7R
Any
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
NP
Voltage /
Power
Description
Substitute
PCB Decal
SIP−1P
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
PCB Hardware Overview
3-17
High Power Version
Item
Qty
Reference
25
1
26
Population
Option
Value
Tol.
Voltage /
Power
Manufacturer
C47
220
nF
10%
10 V X7R
Any
5
C4, C6,
C40, C49,
C79
10 uF
10%
27
1
C80
Substitute
PCB Decal
0603 Size SMT
ceramic capacitor
Any
0603
10 WVDC
Surface mount tant.
capacitor ’A’ case size
Any
3216
10 uF
10%
10 WVDC
Surface mount tant.
capacitor ’A’ case size
Any
3216
28
1
CF1
Fc =
10.7
MHz,
BW =
330
kHz
Murata
SFECS10M
7EA00−R0
Piezoelectric ceramic
filter
Any
Murata−SF
ECS
29
1
CRS1
10.7
MHz
Murata
CDSCB10M
7GA119−R0
2−pin ceramic
resonator
30
1
D1
Fairchild
MMBD914
High cond. ultra fast
diode
31
1
D2
General
Semiconducto
r
1N4148WS
Small signal switching
diode
SOD−323
32
1
D
NP
diodeS INC
BAT42WS−
7
SMT Schottky diode
SOD−323
33
1
J1
NP
HUS−TSAN
Group
SMA−10V2
9−TGN−RP
Reverse polarity edge
mount SMA connector
LINX
CONREV
SMA003.
062
SMA−NAR
ROW
34
1
J2
DUO
3M
929834−02−
04
4−pin 0.1” header
Make
from 3M
929834−
02−36
SIP−4P
35
1
J3
DUO
3M
929647−02−
06
6−pin 0.1” strip header
Make
from 3M
929647−
02−36
SIP−6P
36
1
J4
DUO
3M
2514−6002
UB
7X2 low profile
shrouded male header
Header7X2
−POL
37
1
J5
AMP
640456−2
2−pin 0.1” polarized
friction lock header
AMP64045
6−2
38
1
L16
39
2
40
NP
DUO
NP
Part No.
Description
Murata−C
DSCB
SOT23
220
µH
10%
Murata
LQH32CN2
21K23L
Chip inductor
LQH32M
N221K23
L
1210
L6, L7
4.7
µH
10%
Murata
LQM21NN4
R7K10L
Chip inductor
1
L4
10 nH
5%
TOKO
LL1608−FS
10NJ
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
41
1
L14
1.2
nH
0.3
nH
TOKO
LL1608−FS
1N2S
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
42
1
L15
1.8
nH
0.3
nH
TOKO
LL1608−FS
1N8S
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
43
2
L13
3.9
nH
0.3
nH
TOKO
LL1608−FS
3N9S
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
44
1
L11
4.7
nH
0.3
nH
TOKO
LL1608−FS
4N7S
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
45
1
L12
6.8
nH
5%
TOKO
LL1608−FS
6N8J
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
1008
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
3-18
High Power Version
Item
Qty
Reference
Population
Option
Value
Tol.
46
3
L1, L2, L5
8.2
nH
47
2
L9, L10
NP
5.6
nH
48
2
LED1,
LED2
DUO
Green
49
1
Q1
50
5
R1, R2,
R38, R41,
R52
51
8
R28−R34,
R43
52
5
R35, R36,
R40, R60,
R61
10 R
53
1
R51
54
3
55
Voltage /
Power
Manufacturer
Part No.
5%
TOKO
LL1608−FS
8N2J
5%
TOKO
2.1 V 10
mA
Description
Substitute
PCB Decal
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
LL1608−FS
5N6J
0603 Size Chip
inductor
TOKO
LL1608F
SL
0603
LITEON
LTST−C170
GKT
0805 Size SMT LED
R ohm
UMT3906
0805−LED
General purpose PNP
silicon transistor
SOT323
0Ω
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
0Ω
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
18 R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
R55, R63,
R70
100 R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
2
R49, R50
300 R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
56
2
R26, R27
430 R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
57
1
R53
510 R
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
58
18
R8−R25,
R64
1k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
59
2
R54 R56
3.3 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
60
2
R6, R57
6.8 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
61
1
R5
15 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
62
1
R58
22 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
63
1
R59
33 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
64
1
R71
100 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
65
1
R37
100 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
66
1
R7
220 k
5%
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
67
5
R3, R4,
R42, R68,
R69
NP
1/16 W
Any
0603 surface mount
resistor
Any
0603
68
1
R39
NP
69
1
SF1
NP
70
1
71
72
DUO
DUO
DUO
0Ω
when
U3 is
NP
EPCOS
B39921−B4
637−Z610
Low loss filter
Murata−SA
FC
SF2
EPCOS
B39921−B4
637−Z610
Low loss filter
Murata−SA
FC
1
SHD1
BMI
BMIS−105
25 mm x 37,7 mm x
5,08 mm RF shield
BMIS−20
5F/205C
BMIS−105
1
SHD3
BMI
BMIS−102
16,5 mm x 16,5 mm x
3,6 mm RF shield
BMIS−20
2F/202C
BMIS−102
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
PCB Hardware Overview
3-19
Other Hardware Features
Item
Qty
Reference
73
1
74
Population
Option
Manufacturer
Part No.
U1
RF
Microdevices
RF2172
1
U2
Texas
Instruments
TRF6903
75
1
U3
Texas
Instruments
76
1
U4
77
1
U5
78
1
U6
79
1
X1
19.6608
MHz
80
1
X2
4.9152
MHz
81
1
PCB1
DUO
Value
Tol.
Voltage /
Power
Description
Substitute
PCB Decal
ISM band 250−mW
Amp
RFMD−LC
C16_SLU
G
Single chip FHSS RF
transceiver
QFP48−3
TPS3838J2
5DBV
Nanopower
supervisory circuit
SOT23−5
Texas
Instruments
DBB03AIP
MR
Baseband ASIC
QFP64
Skyworks
AS179−92
PHEMT IC SPDT
GaAs switch
SOT363
100 mA
Texas
Instruments /
Burr Brown
REG101NA
−A
Low dropout linear
regulator
SOT23−5
±20
ppm
CL 12 pF
Crystek
017119
SMT quartz crystal
ECS−ECX
−64
±50
ppm
Op Temp
−40°C to
85°C
ECS
ECS−49−20
−5PDN
CSM−7 style SMT
crystal
TBD
TEX03PCB
REV D
Bare printed circuit
board
2.5 V
NP
Crystek
017418
ECS−CSM
−7
Notes: 1. NP indicates component position currently Not populated.
2. DUO indicates component position populated in development units only.
3. ANT1 to be shipped separately (unsoldered) with units until manufacturing establishes testing procedures for units with
antenna mounted.
3.4 Other Hardware Features
The external hardware features used for the Dolphin demo kit are detailed in
this section. See the TRF6903 design guide (SWRU009) for more in depth
discussion of external components used in the transmit and receive path.
3.4.1
Dolphin Interface Board
The Dolphin demo kit consists of an interface board that consists of circuitry
for serial interface between the host PC (with the evaluation software) and the
hardware UART of the DBB03A device. The interface board also supplies
power to the RF module and features a low voltage detector circuit for battery
powered operation. The board features are summarized below. The
schematic is shown in Figure 3−11 and the top side of the PCB is shown in
Figure 3−12.
- On-board DB−9 connector
- Serial Line Driver
- Two AA Battery Holder
- Jumper for External DC Power Supply
- Low Voltage Detector (<2.3 V)
3-20
Other Hardware Features
Figure 3−11. Dolphin Interface Board Schematic
PCB Hardware Overview
3-21
Other Hardware Features
Figure 3−12. Top-Side Assembly of the Interface Board
3.4.2
Antenna and RF Shield
Both the LP and HP boards use a low cost solid 20 gauge wire antenna. The
length has been trimmed to provide an input return loss of at least 10 dB across
the 902-MHz to 928-MHz frequency band. With the wire antenna removed,
room has been provided on the boards to use a commercially available
antenna. In this case, use a reverse polarity SMA connector to remain FCC
compliant. See the TRF6903 design guide (SWRU009) Section 8.6 for a
complete list of various antenna manufacturers/suppliers.
A standard size RF shield has to be used to ensure that the radiated emissions
are FCC compliant. See Section 3.3.4 for information on the manufacturer and
part number for the RF shield used with the Dolphin demo kit.
3.4.3
Discrete LC Filter for Harmonic Suppression
The second and third harmonics generated by the TRF6903 power amplifier
are typically −25 dBc and −30 dBc respectively, see the TRF6903 data sheet
(SWRS022). If higher suppression is needed, the second and third harmonics
3-22
Other Hardware Features
can be attenuated (to meet governmental regulations) through the use of a
discrete LC filter or a SAW filter. However, for most applications an external
SAW filter or discrete LC filter may not be necessary.
A discrete LC filter, if needed, is the preferred method to gain additional
suppression. The discrete LC filter for the low power Dolphin demo kit is shown
in Figure 3−13. The filter must have low insertion loss in the RF pass band to
avoid excessive loss of signal.
This two stage filter attenuates the harmonics to be at least 6 dB below the
estimated conducted FCC limit. The FCC limits are in terms of radiated
emissions (electric field), measured at a three meter distance. It can be shown
that the relationship between the conducted power and the electric field can
be estimated using: P = E – 95.2, where P is in dBm and E is in dB µV/m. An
antenna gain of 0 dBi is assumed.
Figure 3−13. Discrete LC Filter
C
C1
C=2.7 pF
3.4.4
L
L1
L=8.2 nH
R = TBD
C
C2
C=4.7 pF
L
L2
L=8.2 nH
R = TBD
C
C3
C=2.7 pF
IF Filter
The recommended IF filter is a Murata SFECS10M7EA00−R0, which is a
10.7-MHz ceramic filter with a bandwidth of 330 kHz. The frequency
characteristics of recommended Murata SFECS10M7EA00 330 kHz filter is
shown in the Figure 3−14. The center frequency of this filter varies by ±30 kHz
and the 3-dB bandwidth varies by as much as ±50 kHz. This is summarized
in Table 3−4.
Table 3−4. Murata IF Filter SFECS10M7EA00−R0
Center
Frequency
(MHz)
3-dB
Bandwidth
(kHz)
Attentuation
(kHz)
Insertion Loss
(dB)
Spurious
Attentuation
(dB)
Input/Output
Impedance
(W)
10.7 ±30 kHz
330 ±50 kHz
700 max
3 ±2
30 min
330
PCB Hardware Overview
3-23
Other Hardware Features
Figure 3−14. Recommended IF Filter Response
3.4.5
Ceramic Discriminator
FSK demodulation (frequency to amplitude conversion) is accomplished
through an external ceramic discriminator. The recommended discriminator is
the MURATA CDSCB10M7GA119−R0. The frequency characteristics are
shown in Figure 3−15 and the specifications are tabulated in Table 3−5.
Table 3−5. Murata Ceramic Discriminator CDSCB10M7GA119−R0
Center
Frequency (MHz)
Recovered Audio
3-dB Bandwidth (kHz)
Distortion (%)
Detection Method
10.7 ±30 kHz
500 min
1 max
Quadrature
3-24
Other Hardware Features
Figure 3−15. Murata Ceramic Discriminator – Frequency Characteristics
3.4.6
TR Switch
Using a TR switch allows a separate but individually optimized impedance
match between the antenna and the transmit path or receive path. Transmit
power and receive sensitivity can be degraded by as much as 3 to 5 dB if a
common port configuration is used instead of a TR switch.
The recommended TR switch is Skyworks AS222−92 with a typical insertion
loss of 0.3 dB and isolation of 27 dB at 900 MHz.
3.4.7
External Crystal for the TRF6903
The default clock crystal for the TRF6903 is Crystek 017119, 19.6608 MHz.
The TRF6903 works with other clock frequencies from 9.5 to 20 MHz. Other
crystals include Citizen CS10, HCM49 and HC49US, ECS−196.6−20−5P, SMI
97SMX, and ICM HC45U.
Table 3−6. Example Crystal Information: Crystek 017119
CHARACTERISTIC
Overall tolerance
Operating temperature
Load capacitance
Shunt capacitance
Drive level
VALUE
±45 ppm
40°C to +80°C
12 pF
2 pF
100 µW
PCB Hardware Overview
3-25
3-26
Chapter 4
#$ This chapter describes the external control software used for RF test and
evaluation. This chapter can be used as the Evaluation Software User’s guide.
Topic
Page
4.1
Software Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.2
Software Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.3
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Software Overview
4-1
Software Description
4.1 Software Description
The external control software is used to evaluate the performance of the
Dolphin chipset. It interfaces to the DBB03A using a UART interface as shown
in Figure 1−2. The features provided by this control software are explained in
the following sections.
The Dolphin demo kit is been provided with this Evaluation software to
communicate with the DBB03A using a UART interface with a defined
protocol. This host interface Protocol document is detailed in the Dolphin host
interface protocol definition application report (TI Literature SWRA043).
Figure 4−1. Evaluation Software− Main Screen
4-2
Software Setup
4.2 Software Setup
The following steps need to be followed to install the Dolphin Evaluation
software.
- Download the Dolphin evaluation tool (swrc007.zip) from the Dolphin
product folder at http://focus.ti.com/docs/toolsw/folders/print/dolphin−
wuart−ref.html
- Execute the DolphinEvalTool_Install_V2_0.exe program.
- This starts an Install-shield wizard which will guide you through the rest of
the setup process.
- Once the installation is complete, TI Dolphin Evaluation tool shortcut will
be placed on the desktop.
- Invoke this shortcut to start Dolphin Evaluation tool. A screen shot of the
evaluation software is shown in Figure 4−1.
If the Dolphin demo kit is powered up and connected to the serial port, the
evaluation tool will automatically recognize the serial port. This serial port
information will be displayed in the bottom left corner as shown in Figure 4−1.
It is always recommended to invoke the evaluation tool after the serial cable
is connected and the Dolphin demo kit is powered.
If not, before communication with the module is possible it is necessary to initialize the serial port. Pull down the “Settings” menu and click the “Communications” entry. The screen shown in Figure 4−2 will appear.
Figure 4−2. Communication Setup Screen Under Settings Pull Down Menu
Click the “Auto Detect” button to cause the computer to search for the Dolphin
module. When successful communication occurs the status line on the bottom
Software Overview
4-3
Software Setup
of the screen will update with the name of the COM Port, the baud rate at which
it is communicating, and a status message.
By clicking the “Get Version” Button the module will return the firmware version
number and date.
4.2.1
Setting Device Identification
The Dolphin chipset supports both point-point and broadcast networks and is
configured through the ID’s tab in the evaluation software. The evaluation
software supports hierarchical device definition and is defined as follows.
Each Transceiver is defined by a unique 16-bit ID and can be set by clicking
the Set Txcvr ID button in the IDs tab. Each such transceiver has an associated
16-bit Network ID (set by clicking the Set Network ID button) and 16-bit System
ID (set by clicking the Set System ID button) thus resulting in a 48-bit unique
ID. Up to 65536 transceivers can be configured to operate in a system (with
unique System ID). Only Transceivers with the same system and Network ID’s
will be able to communicate with each other. This is summarized below and
is shown in Figure 4−1.
4.2.1.1
Transceiver ID
- Set Transceiver ID – Set Transceiver ID (0−65534*)
Note: 65535 is reserved for general broadcast address
- Get Transceiver ID – Returns stored value
4.2.1.2
Network ID
- Set Network ID – Range 0 to 65535
- Get Network ID – Returns stored value
4.2.1.3
System ID – Unique Manufacturers ID
- Set System ID – Range 0 to 65535
- Get System ID – Returns stored value
4.2.2
RF Settings
The RF Settings page can be accessed by selecting the RF settings tab in the
software and is shown in Figure 4−3. The following features are provided in
the RF settings page.
- Enable or disable acknowledgements.
- Set the number of message retries (range 0−20).
- Set hop table – (range 0−14)
Note: All devices in the network must use the same hop table.
- Set RF channel operating mode (single-channel or frequency hopping).
4-4
Software Setup
- Enable or disable receive all RF messages.
- Select TRF6903 power output attenuator setting
- Put the Dolphin unit in sleep mode (Both TRF6903 and DBB03A will be
in standby mode)
Figure 4−3. RF Settings Screen
4.2.3
Statistics
The statistics page can be selected by clicking the Statistics tab in the
software. This is shown in Figure 4−4. The statistics option can be used to
evaluate the wireless link for packet success rates and throughput.
Software Overview
4-5
Software Setup
Figure 4−4. Statistics Settings Screen
The various fields in the statistics page are explained below.
1) Packets Sent
Total: Total number of packets transmitted, including retries.
Unique: Number of message sessions initiated.
2) Acknowledgements (ACK) Sent
Total: Total number of acknowledgements sent by receiver.
Unique: Number of unique acknowledgements sent by receiver.
3) Packets Received
Total: Number of packets received, including retries.
Unique: Number of unique sessions seen by receiver.
4) Acks Received
Total: Total number of acknowledgements seen by transmitter.
Unique: Number of unique acknowledgements seen by transmitter
5) Evaluation Program Statistics
The window toward the bottom the page labeled Evaluation Program
contains information about the integrity of the link between the host
computer and the radio board.
4-6
Software Setup
4.2.4
Test Settings
This is shown in Figure 4−5. The Dolphin can be configured to be in the “test
mode” to evaluate the RF performance of the TRF6903. The test mode
provides an option to configure and program the TRF6903 registers. This
allows the system designers additional flexibility to evaluate all the features of
the TRF6903 for their application-specific needs. For detailed definition of the
TRF6903 refer to the TRF6903 data sheet (TI Document SWRS022).
In order to evaluate the TRF6903 in test-mode, the Dolphin evaluation board
needs to be connected to the Spectrum analyzer through an SMA connector.
Figure 4−5. Test Settings Screen
4.2.4.1
Transmit Test Plan
To evaluate the TRF6903 in transmit mode, the following steps are needed
- Connect the SMA connector (PA output) to the spectrum analyzer
- Go the test setting tab in the evaluation software as shown in Figure 4−5.
- Click Test Mode −> Enabled
- Choose Mode −> Mode 0 (Default). All the TRF6903 register values are
set to default values.
- Click Set Registers
- A CW signal at 915.0464 MHz is observed with a power level of 7 dBm in
low power board and +20 dBm in high power board. See the TRF6903
data sheet (SWRS022) for more details on the TRF6903 register settings.
Software Overview
4-7
Software Setup
This is illustrated in Figure 4−6.
Figure 4−6. Test Settings Transmit Mode
Spectrum Analyzer
Serial
Interface Board
with DB−9
Connector
Dolphin
Demo Board
Cable
SMA Cable
TX PC with Evaluation
Software − Transmit Mode
4.2.4.2
Receive Test Plan
To evaluate the TRF6903 in the receive mode, the following steps are
required:
1) Connect the SMA connector (LNA input) to a RF signal generator (Rohde
and Schwartz SMIQ07 for example).
2) Choose Mode −> Mode 1 (receive mode). By default the LO frequency is
set to 904.3968 MHz.
3) Click Set Registers
4) Set the RF signal generator center frequency to 904.3968 + 10.7 =
915.0968 MHz to obtain low-side injection.
5) Set the RF Power level to < −30 dBm to avoid saturating the LNA.
6) Set the modulation settings to 19.2 kHz and frequency deviation of 50 kHz.
7) Turn the RF power and the modulation ON.
8) A demodulated square wave at 19.2 kHz (38.4 kbps NRZ) can be observed at the RXDATA terminal of the TRF6903.
This is illustrated in Figure 4−7.
4-8
Software Setup
Figure 4−7. Test Settings Receive Mode
RF Signal Generator with 19.2 kHz
Modulated FSK at 915.0968 MHz
and 50 kHz deviation.
SMA Cable
Interface
Board With
DB−9
Connector
Dolphin
Demo Board
RXDATA
RX PC with Evaluation
Software – Receive Mode
DCLK
Oscilloscope
4.2.5
Communication Settings
The communication settings page can be selected by clicking the Comm tab
in the software .This is shown in Figure 4−8.The serial port baud rate can be
set by using this option.
Note:
Once the serial port baud rate is changed from the default value (19.2 kbps)
the Settings−>Communications−>AutoDetect option has to be chosen to
synchronize the baud rates between the evaluation software and the
hardware UART of the DBB03.
Software Overview
4-9
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
Figure 4−8. Transceiver Bit Rate Settings Screen
4.3 Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
Operational testing of the unit requires at least 2 units in order to establish a
link. One unit will be the initiator and the other will be the responder. In order
for a link to be established it is necessary to setup the transceiver identification
numbers, hop tables, network identification, and system identification.
Link testing may be performed in either a single ended or a round trip fashion.
This can help to differentiate between real world packet error performance and
raw radio performance. If Acknowledgement settings are not used then it’s a
single-ended test if not it’s a round trip test.
4.3.1
Single-Ended Test
Single ended performance will require 2 computers, since it will be necessary
to read the statistics from each radio.
Start by setting the hop table, system identification, and network identification
to match on both ends of the system as shown in Figure 4−9. If you are unsure
about what values to use, a good default is hop table 0, and network and
system ID’s set to 1. Set different transceiver identification values for each
radio. Values of 1 and 2 will suffice for testing. Figure 4−7 shows the correct
setup screen for the initiating transceiver. The destination transceiver ID has
4-10
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
to be inserted in the Dest ID field. Also note that the Acknowledgements have
to be disabled for a single-ended test.
Any message that is transferred between the host and the transceiver and
from the transceiver back to the host is logged in the Communications Log
window. Each message is fragmented into bytes represented in Hex format.
Refer to the Dolphin Host Interface protocol document (TI App Note
SWRA043) for detailed definition of each of these host messages. This
message log can be saved to a file for further analysis. The “save log to a file”
feature is very useful while analyzing the link performance of the system. This
is further explained in Section 4.3.4.
Place the 2 units in physically separate locations and apply power to them. The
statistics will clear when power is cycled, but they will need to be cleared
manually after each test if power is not cycled.
Connect the PC serial port to one of the units and bring up the “IDs” screen.
Type the transceiver ID number for the remote unit into the “Dest ID” field at
the upper left of the screen.
4.3.1.1
Using Send Single Repeated message Option
Type a short message into the “RF Data” window. The message can be any
text or numbers. If no message is entered it will not be possible to transmit. Set
the “Repeat Delay” to 100 msec if it isn’t already set. Click the “Send Single
Repeated Msg” button to start transmission. The radio will send one message
every 100 msec until the “Stop Repeat” button is clicked.
The received data will be displayed in the RF Data window at the receiver side.
The received data format can be chosen to be ASCII or HEX. Allow the test
to run for some convenient amount of time and then stop transmission. Go to
the “Statistics” screen to read the number of unique messages sent. Record
this number and read the “Packets Received” statistic from the computer connected to the Receiving Transceiver. Link success is simply the ratio of the
“Packets Received” to the “Packets Sent”.
This test will give the raw performance of the link in one direction without retries. It is a good indicator of the RF environment in which the radios are being
used. High levels of noise or other products operating in the 900 MHz ISM
band can cause lower packet success rates.
4.3.1.2
Using Send Random Repeated message Option
This option lets the user sends messages of random length (between 1 and
36 bytes). The message content is also randomly chosen. Since the message
content is randomly chosen some non-printable characters are also generated. If the receive-side is programmed for data reception in ASCII mode, junk
characters will be displayed in the RF data window. It is recommended that
HEX option be chosen when receiving Random messages.
Software Overview
4-11
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
Figure 4−9. ID Setup for Single-Ended Link Test
4.3.2
Round Trip Test
To test the ability of the system to retry messages in a noisy environment it is
necessary to use a round trip test where the remote end can acknowledge receipt of packets. Use the setup screen as shown in Figure 4−9, but enable acknowledgements and retries as shown in Figure 4−10.
Perform the test in the same manner as the single ended test. Run enough
transmissions to get a statistically valid sampling of the radio environment over
a reasonable period of time.
4-12
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
Figure 4−10. ID Setup for Round−Trip Test
Look at the “Statistics” screen on the initiating radio to find the number of
unique transmissions and the total number of transmissions. The total will likely be higher then the unique due to retried messages. The Overall Packet Success Rate and the Packet Success rate with Acks are defined as follows.
Overall Packet Success Rate + # Acks * Received
# Packets * sent
Packet Success rate with ACKS is
(1
# Packets * sent) ) (2
# Acks * Received
#1Retries) ) 3 (2#Retries) ) (4
#3Retries) ) AAA.
The Retries values are obtained from the Retry Distribution window in the Evaluation Program statistics section. It can be observed that if there are no retries
the Overall Packet Success Rate is equal to the Packet Success rate with
Acks.
4.3.3
Single Transmissions
A message may also be sent only once using the “Send Single Msg” button.
The user should be aware that this function contains a feature to reduce network clutter and eliminate redundant messages. If a message is sent with this
function, and it is successfully acknowledged by the remote end, it will not be
Software Overview
4-13
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
possible to send that same message again. The “Pkt ID” field must be manually updated to generate a new message that is different from the last message.
4.3.4
Save Communication Log to a File
In order to better keep track of the link performance of the Dolphin solution, the
evaluation software provides an option to save the entire contents of the communication log screen onto a file. The information in the file is time-stamped
so that the same file can be appended several times to generate a global log.
To enable logging the following steps needed to be followed.
- Power-up the Dolphin demo kit and start the evaluation tool.
- Check the Save Log To File option (top right corner of the evaluation tool)
as shown in Figure 4−11.
- This then opens a Save dialog Box as shown in Figure 4−12. Provide the
name of the log file. All the log files have an extension (.dlf). Any standard
text editor like notepad can be used to view this log file.
- Start the communication by either sending a single repeated message or
a random repeated message.
- Press the Stop Repeat button once enough packets are sent ( 400 packets
is usually a good number)
- Press the Get Statistics button to display the statistics on the evaluation
tool.
- Un-Check the Save Log To File option to stop logging.
- Open the log file name using Notepad or any text editor.
The same procedure can be repeated every time to store logs. By default once
a filename is provided, the log file is appended every time communication happens. All the logs are time-stamped so that they can be distinguished. Logging
to a different file is possible by selecting a new file name from the File−>New
option before logging. Logging to an existing file is possible by selecting the
File−>Open option
4-14
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
Figure 4−11. Enabling the Save Log To File Option
Software Overview
4-15
Setting Up and Testing a Wireless Link
Figure 4−12. Saving the Log File
4-16
Chapter 5
% This chapter describes the system level protocol along with the firmware
implementation for the Dolphin demo kit.
Topic
Page
5.1
Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.2
Firmware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Protocol and Firmware Overview
5-1
Protocol Overview
5.1 Protocol Overview
This section discusses the RF transmit and receive protocols implemented in
the Dolphin firmware. The transmit and receive path logic diagrams are also
presented.
5.1.1
RF Transmit / Receive Protocol Overview
The two modes of operation for the Dolphin chipset are single-channel mode
and hop mode. The main difference between the two modes is the TX
preamble length. Single channel mode requires considerably less preamble
time since the RF Channel for communication is known.
Hop mode uses a 70-ms preamble which consists of 010101… sequence (see
Figure 5−1). This preamble length allows the receive device 1.4 ms per
channel (50 channels x 1.4 ms = 70 ms) to sync up with the transmit device.
Once both devices are on the same channel through the receive device
determining a valid preamble, a sync pattern occurs between the TX and RX
device with a 00110011… sequence. After the devices are in sync, the TX
device communicates with the RX device as stated in the host protocol
document. Note that the next message to be communicated by the TX device
occurs on another channel in the current mode of operation.
Figure 5−1. RF Overhead in Hop Mode
Host Protocol
Preamble 0101....
70 mS
Sync Pattern 00110011.....
Single-channel transmit protocol (see Figure 5−2) is similar to the hop mode
preamble with the exception of the preamble length. Since the RF channel is
preselected, the preamble length required in single channel mode is 4 ms.
5-2
Protocol Overview
Figure 5−2. RF Overhead in Single-Channel Mode
Host Protocol
Preamble 0101....
4 mS
5.1.2
Sync Pattern 00110011.....
RF Transmit Logic Diagram
The RF transmit side logic diagram is shown in Figure 5−3. The logic diagram
shows the various steps performed to transmit a host message from the
evaluation software wirelessly over to the receiver. The RF receive side logic
diagram is shown in Figure 5−4.
Protocol and Firmware Overview
5-3
Protocol Overview
Figure 5−3. Transmit-Side Logic Diagram
Receive Host
Message
Transmit RF
Preamble and
Sync Pattern
N
Ack Timeout
1
2
Y
N
Retries
Enabled
Transmit Header,
Data, and CRC
Y
N
Acks Enabled?
Send Ack
to Host
Go into Receive
Mode
Y
Y
Retry Count =
0?
Send Nack
to Host
N
Set Wait Timer
for Acks
Decrement Retry
Count
Set Retry Count
as Deterimined
by Host
Hop to Next
Channel
Hop to Next
Channel in Hop
Table and Wait for
Acknowledgement
2
Resend RF Msg
N
Received Msg?
N
5-4
Y
Received Ack?
Y
1
Go Into Receive
Mode
Protocol Overview
5.1.3
RF Receive Logic Diagram
Figure 5−4. Receive-Side Logic Diagram
Scan X Channel in
Hop Table
1
N
Receive All
Enabled?
Set 1.4mS
Channel Timer
Scan X+1 Channel
in Hop Table
Y
N
Get Source ID of
TX Device and
Data Payload
CRC Correct?
Y
Send Data
Msg to Host
Is Dest ID
Broadcast
(FF)?
N
Y
Is Dest ID Our
ID?
N
N
Y
Get Source ID of
TX Device and
Data Payload
Y
(TYPE)
Data or Ack?
Y
N
Valid Preamble and
Timer not Equat to 0?
Valid Sync
Pattern?
1
Ack
N
CRC Correct?
Data
Y
N
Valid System
ID?
Send Data
Msg to Host
Y
N
Acks Enabled?
N
Valid Network
ID?
Y
Get Destination ID
Y
Send RF Ack to
Originating Device
1
Protocol and Firmware Overview
5-5
Firmware Overview
5.2 Firmware Overview
This section discusses parts of the firmware implemented in the Dolphin FHSS
chipset solution.
5.2.1
Implementation of Frequency-Hopping Protocol
FHSS is an acronym for frequency-hopping spread spectrum. FHSS system
implements a signal that hops in a random sequence from frequency to
frequency as determined by firmware. The hop table selected determines the
random sequence for the transmitter and the receiver. The Dolphin chipset
firmware implementation specifics are described in the following paragraph
and shown in Figure 5−5.
First, the transmit and receive devices must be set to identical hop tables. The
originating device once activated to transmit transmits data on a random
channel determined by firmware. The receive device scans each channel
looking for the TX preamble consisting of a 0101… sequence. Once the
receive device determines a valid preamble it remains on the valid channel.
Once the originating device transmits the 70-ms preamble it sends the sync
pattern with the sequence of 00110011… The receive device syncs up with the
originating device and prepares to receive valid data. Upon receiving valid
data the receiver hops to the next channel predetermined by firmware to
transmit an acknowledgement to the originating device. The originating device
goes into receive mode after transmission and listens for the
acknowledgement on the next channel determined by firmware. Upon
successful communication, the originating device passes to the host a
successful transmission acknowledgement from the intended receiver.
(Acknowledgements must be enabled)
Figure 5−5. Protocol Overview
Transmit Device Transmits 70-ms Preamble
On Specific Channel Determined
by Hop Table
Originating Device Transmits Sync
Patter to Eliminate Erroneous Data
From Being Received by the
Receiving Device
Transmits Message Data
Receives ACK on Next
Channel of Hop Table
Receive Message Data
Transmits ACK on Next
Channel of Hop Table
Originating Device Protocol
Receive Device Scans Each Channel Until
It Verifies TX Preamble and Remains On
Current Channel Until Data Is Complete
Receive Device
DeterminesSync Patter
Receive Device Protocol
5-6
Chapter 6
&%
This chapter provides an overview of the architectures that Dolphin supports
along with some examples of sample applications that are based on the
Dolphin solution.
Topic
Page
6.1
Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
6.2
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Applications
6-1
Network Architecture
6.1 Network Architecture
This section discusses the different network topologies supported by the
Dolphin chipset solution.
Dolphin supports the following network architectural topologies.
- Point-Point
- Broadcast
6.1.1
Point-Point Architecture
The point-point architecture can be configured into the following topologies:
- Star (See Figure 6−1)
- Ring (See Figure 6−2)
- Complete (See Figure 6−3)
Note:
The firmware on the Dolphin chipset supports the Complete point-point architecture. The Star and Ring topologies are subsets of the Complete topology and minor changes in the firmware needs to be done to implement them.
Note:
The star topology (see Figure 6−1) is a master-slave configuration. In the
above illustration, the Transceiver ID 0 is the master and the rest of the
transceivers are slaves under the System ID 1. Slaves communicate with each
other through the Master.
Figure 6−1. Star Topology
TxCvr ID 2
TxCvr ID 1
TxCvr ID 0 − Master
TxCvr ID 4
TxCvr ID 3
System ID 1
6-2
Network Architecture
In the ring topology (see Figure 6−2), all the transceivers are connected in the
form of a ring forming a closed network. There is NO central point or the master
in the topology.
Figure 6−2. Ring Topology
TxCvr ID 1
TxCvr ID 2
TxCvr ID 6
TxCvr ID 3
TxCvr ID 4
TxCvr ID 5
System ID 1
In the complete topology (see Figure 6−3), all the nodes are connected to each
other and the system is fully connected. The star and ring topologies are
subsets of the complete topology. The firmware for the Dolphin chipset
supports complete point-point topology. The firmware needs to be customized
for any other network topology.
Figure 6−3. Complete Topology
TxCvr ID 1
TxCvr ID 2
TxCvr ID 6
TxCvr ID 3
TxCvr ID 4
TxCvr ID 5
System ID 1
Applications
6-3
Applications
6.1.2
Broadcast Architecture
The Dolphin is designed to support broadcasting. This is enabled by setting
the transceiver ID as 65535 in the evaluation program, DestID field. No
acknowledgements are supported when broadcast is used. The architecture
is shown in Figure 6−4.
Figure 6−4. Broadcast Topology
TxCvr ID 1
TxCvr ID 2
TxCvr ID 6
TxCvr ID 3
TxCvr ID 5
System ID 1
TxCvr ID 4
In the architecture above, TxCvr ID 6 initiates the broadcast.
6.2 Applications
This section discusses wireless metering application based on the Dolphin
solution.
6.2.1
Wireless Metering − AMR
Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is a fast growing sector of the metering
industry. Increasing the speed and accuracy with which meter readings can be
taken is the key to improving billing efficiency. There are various technologies
which have been proven to be successful in multiple applications: wireless
communication using radio frequency (RF) and inductive transmission
through wireless contact devices, or touch pads are some of them.
Wireless metering is a facility to allow data collection from remote sites. The
technology is particularly suited to automated meter reading for electricity,
water, and gas utilities, but is equally suited to a wide range of remote
monitoring and telemetry applications.
6-4
Applications
Automatic meter reading (AMR) technology enables the meter readers to read
electric meters remotely, via radio signals. AMR meters are read by specially
equipped vehicles, or handheld devices carried by the meter readers. They
allow the metering company to provide accurate and timely meter reads each
month, simply by driving or walking by one’s residence.
An overview of the AMR system is shown in Figure 6−5.
Figure 6−5. Overview of the AMR System
The AMR system can be configured in many ways. Two of them are described
below.
WALK BY
Readings are taken while walking along the route where the meters are
located. The reader is equipped with a special transceiver (transmitter
/receiver) unit and a hand-held terminal/PC loaded with software that enables
him/her to read every meter in the route without having to approach it
physically. An RF interrogating signal is sent and every meter within the
reception range is activated and responds through a transmitter/receiver unit.
The data is later downloaded into the PC in the central office and processed
as desired by the software.
DRIVE BY
The transceiver is installed on a vehicle that is driven along the route where
the meters are located. The process is identical to that of the walk-by
configuration but the data collection is quicker.
An overview of the AMR system using the Dolphin solution is shown in
Figure 6−6.
Applications
6-5
Applications
Figure 6−6. Wireless Metering (AMR) Application Using Dolphin Wireless
Remote Site
Centralized Meter Reader
Dolphin Energy
Meter 1
Dolphin Energy
Meter 2
Dolphin Central
Meter Reader
Dolphin Energy
Meter 3
System Micro
– Application
Processor
Dolphin Energy
Meter n
PC For Data Logging
The Dolphin low cost radio transceiver is fitted to or integrated with existing
metering or monitoring equipment and an interface to that equipment allows
local data storage. The data is then transmitted to a central operations center
for processing.
The energy meters at the remote sites are interfaced to the Dolphin. The DBB
in the Dolphin chipset interfaces to the meter hardware and reads the meter
value. This value is then transmitted wirelessly using the RF chip in the Dolphin
chipset, the TRF6903 RF transceiver.
The periodicity of transmissions from the remote unit can be made
programmable and can be set to occur from several times per hour to daily or
even weekly according to the application. The remote units can go into
standby mode when they are not transmitting (with a STANDBY current of
1 µA) reducing power consumption and extending battery life dramatically.
6-6
Appendix A
The RF test reports for the Dolphin low power and the high power boards are
tabulated in this section.
Topic
Page
A.1
RF Test Report for the Low-Power Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A−2
A.2
RF Test Report for the High-Power Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A−3
RF Test Reports
A-1
A-2
RF Test Reports
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
<250
20 dB mod. BW
0
kHz
−21.0
904.3758
−96.77
−100
15.3
177.1
−4.97
23.9
182.0
−5.8
−23.0
95.0
915.0738
915.1213
915.0263
5.90
30.1
0.05
2.2
−40
−18.2
904.3786
−96.48
−100
16.5
177.1
−3.61
26.3
177.1
−7.0
−19.9
93.8
915.0769
915.1238
915.0300
6.75
33.7
0.08
2.9
−40
7.46
40.2
0.11
3.6
−40
−18.2
904.3786
−97.76
−100
17.3
179.6
−2.39
29.8
207.0
−5.8
−20.5
95.0
915.0763
915.1238
915.0288
Unit 7, Revision A3 used for all tests. Component value changes listed below
IF filter bandwidth = 330 kHz
C27 = 27 pF, C28 = 22 pF, Cint = 17.9 pF
RXS = D<19> = 1 = Closed
Both LED resistors: R26 = R27 + NP
uC section powered with a separate supply.
PC interface removed for all current measurements
LO f error
dBm
MHz
904.3968
dBm
LO frequency
−98
mA
kHz
dBm
mA
kHz
kHz
kHz
kHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
dBm
mA
µA
Units
LO power level
Sensitivity
23 max
−1.0
Receive current
27 typ
Output power (15.249)
<250
Transmit current
SPECTRUM ANALYZER SETTINGS:
Output power:
200 MHz
f data 0 and 1:
500 MHz
20 dB Mod. BW: 1 MHz
Receive LO:
100 kHz
Notes:
Receive
Transmit
20 dB mod. BW
0
100.8
p−p dev
0
915.0968
f center
dev. error
915.1472
f data 1
f center error
915.0464
8.0
40 max
4.0 max
Goal
V
f data 0
Output power (15.247)
Transmit current
Transmit
Parameter
Standby current
Standby
Mode
deg 0
t
Supply V
A.1 RF Test Report for the Low-Power Board
25
−4.5
904.3923
−98.90
−101
17.5
204.5
−4.40
25.7
212.0
−10.3
−8.6
90.5
915.0883
915.1335
915.0430
6.03
32.0
0.03
2.2
25
−2.5
904.3943
−97.70
−101
18.8
204.5
−3.06
28.1
209.8
−8.3
−5.0
92.5
915.0918
915.1380
915.0455
6.96
35.3
0.10
2.9
25
−2.2
904.3946
−96.40
−100
19.6
207.0
−1.85
30.9
217.0
−8.3
−5.0
92.5
915.0918
915.1380
915.0455
7.70
39.8
0.10
3.6
85
5.2
904.4020
−96.36
−99
19.1
204.5
−4.15
27.0
209.5
−7.0
2.6
93.8
915.0994
915.1463
915.0525
5.61
33.4
0.62
2.2
85
7.0
904.4038
−97.60
−99
20.6
207.0
−2.76
29.5
204.5
−7.0
5.1
93.8
915.1019
915.1488
915.0550
6.57
36.5
0.77
2.9
95
7.5
904.4043
−94.08
−99
21.3
204.5
−1.52
32.0
199.5
−7.0
5.1
93.8
915.1019
915.1488
915.0550
7.38
40.1
1.11
3.6
RF Test Report for the Low−Power Band
3
20.7
198.8
19.2
−101
20 dB mod. BW
Receive current
Sensitivity
3) PC interface removed for all current measurements.
2) IF filter bandwidth = 330 kHz
1) Unit 502, Revision B used for all tests.
−25.1
f center error
915.07166
Output power
f center
132.8
Parameter
Supply Voltage (V)
Transmit current
20 dB Mod. BW: HP8596E Spectrum Analyzer, 1-MHz span, video averaging on
f center: HP 53310A Modulation Domain Analyzer 20 µs/division, 50 kHz/division
Output power: HP8596E Spectrum Analyzer, 200-MHz span
Equipment Settings:
Notes:
Receive
Transmit
Mode
−40
Temperature (_C)
A.2 RF Test Report for the High-Power Board
−101
20.9
195
−25.4
915.07136
22.7
179
3.6
−40
−100
23.1
206.3
−14.5
915.08234
20.6
147.9
3
25
−100
21.5
196.3
−12.3
915.08452
22.5
190.3
3.6
25
−100
23.6
206.3
−10.4
915.08641
20
136.8
3
85
−100
24.6
192.5
−8.5
915.08835
22
170.5
3.6
85
dBm
mA
kHz
kHz
MHz
dBm
mA
Units
RF Test Report for the High Power Band
RF Test Reports
A-3
RF Test Report for the Low−Power Band
A-4
RF Test Reports
Appendix B
% The Dolphin low power and high power boards were prescanned for FCC
compliance and passed the prescan in both transmit and receive mode.
Topic
Page
B.1
Low-Power Board FCC Prescan Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-2
B.2
High-Power Board FCC Prescan Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-3
FCC Prescan Results
B-1
B.1 Low-Power Board FCC Prescan Results
B.1.1 SUMMARY
The Dolphin low power board passed an FCC prescan in transmit mode with
shielding.
B.1.2 SETUP
A 2.9 inch, 22-gauge solid strand wire antenna was used for all testing. The
length was determined empirically using a vector network analyzer (HP
8753E). A minimum return loss of 17 dB was achieved across the 902-MHz
to 928-MHz band. The antenna was orientated in the same direction as the
longer dimension of the board. Note that, the above minimum return loss was
achieved with the antenna also orientated in the same direction as the shorter
dimension of the board.
The transceiver was only tested in transmit mode between 0.9 − 6 GHz at the
maximum supply voltage of 3.6 V, at a single carrier frequency of 915.1 MHz.
The transceiver was orientated with the antenna perpendicular to the floor.
This operational mode, supply voltage, orientation, carrier frequency, and
frequency range represents the highest compliance risk. All combinations of
the above test variables are examined in a full certification of a final product.
The transceiver was tested at full output power (0-dB attenuation setting) as
a frequency hopping spread spectrum transmitter under FCC Part 15.247. The
transceiver was also tested at low output power (20-dB attenuation setting) as
non−spread spectrum transmitter under FCC Part 15.249.
A calibrated receive antenna and an EMI receiver (HP8546A and HP 85460A)
were used to measure the radiated electric field at a 3-meter distance. The
device rotational angle and receive antenna height was varied to determine
the maximum radiated fields. For measurements above 1 GHz, an additional
1-GHz high pass filter was added to the EMI receiver to prevent overloading
the front-end while measuring the low radiated signal levels of the harmonics.
B.1.3 RESULTS
The measurement results are tabulated on the next page. The first table shows
the radiated field at the fundamental for different power level settings. Note that
the 15.249 limit is 94 dBµV. The radiated output at the middle power level
(10-dB attenuation setting) is 6 dB over the Part 15.249 fundamental signal
limit.
The second table includes the radiated emissions at the harmonics. Entries
for example < 44 indicate that no emissions at the particular harmonic were
observed below the indicated analyzer noise floor level. In all cases, the
analyzer noise floor level was at least 6 dB below the limit. Finally, the levels
of the radiated harmonics above 6 GHz were measured at a one meter
distance. All emissions were below the noise floor of the analyzer.
B-2
Table B−1.Fundamental Emissions: (15.249 limit = 94 dBmV/m)
A (dB)
Conducted P (dBm)
Measured E (dBmV/m)
0
7
109.1
10
−2.5
99.9
20
−12.2
90.5
Table B−2.FCC Part 15.247 – Maximum Power (A = 0 dB)
Vertical Polarization
Horizontal Polarization
f (MHz)
E-Field Limit
E-Field
Angle
Height
E-Field
Angle
Height
1
915
125.2 dBµV/m
109
154
1
99
151
1
2
1830
20 dBc
60
29
1
49
9
1
3
2745
54 dBµV/m
48
160
1
45
0
1.6
4
3660
54 dBµV/m
< 44
NM
5
4575
54 dBµV/m
< 46
NM
6
5490
54 dBµV/m
< 48
NM
Note:
NM = Not measured
Table B−3.FCC Part 15.249 – Minimum Power (A = 20 dB)
Vertical Polarization
Horizontal Polarization
f (MHz)
E-Field Limit
E-Field
Angle
Height
E-Field
1
915
94 dBµV/m
91
160
1
NM
2
1830
54 dBµV/m
40
23
1
< 38
3
2745
54 dBµV/m
< 43
NM
4
3660
54 dBµV/m
< 44
NM
5
4575
54 dBµV/m
< 46
NM
6
5490
54 dBµV/m
< 48
NM
Note:
Angle
Height
NM = Not measured
B.2 High Power Board FCC Prescan Results
B.2.1 SUMMARY
The Dolphin high power board passed an FCC prescan in transmit mode with
shielding.
B.2.2 SETUP
A 3.1 inch, 22-gauge solid strand wire antenna was used for all testing. The
length was determined empirically using a vector network analyzer
(HP 8753E). A minimum return loss of 12 dB was achieved across the
902-MHz to 928-MHz band. The antenna was orientated in the same direction
as the shorter dimension of the board.
The transceiver was tested in transmit mode between 0.9 – 5 GHz at the
maximum supply voltage of 3.6 V, at a single carrier frequency of 915.1 MHz.
The transceiver was orientated with the antenna perpendicular to the floor.
FCC Prescan Results
B-3
This operational mode, supply voltage, orientation, carrier frequency, and
frequency range represents the highest compliance risk. All combinations of
the above test variables are only examined in a full certification of a final
product.
The transceiver was tested at full output power (0-dB attenuation setting) as
a frequency hopping spread spectrum transmitter under FCC Part 15.247.
A calibrated receive antenna and an EMI receiver (HP8546A and HP 85460A)
were used to measure the radiated electric field at a 3-meter distance. The
device rotational angle and receive antenna height was varied to determine
the maximum radiated fields. For transmit mode measurements above 1 GHz,
an additional 1-GHz high-pass filter was added to the EMI receiver to prevent
overloading the front-end while measuring the low radiated signal levels of the
harmonics.
B.2.3 RESULTS
The measurement results are tabulated on the next page. The first table shows
the radiated field at the fundamental at the maximum power level settings.
Table B−4.FCC Part 15.247 − Transmit Mode, Maximum Power (A = 0 dB)
Vertical Polarization
Mode
Horizontal Polarization
f (MHz)
Limit
d (m)
E-Field
(dBµV/m)
Angle
(deg)
Height
(m)
E-Field
(dBµV/m)
Angle
(deg)
Height
(m)
1
CW
915.1
24 dBm
3
123.9
256
1.1
119.3
335
1.5
2
CW
1830.2
20 dBc
3
45.3
199
1.2
41.7
0
1.1
3
Hopping
2745.3
54 dBµV/m
3
47.1
0
1
43
95
1.3
4
CW
3660.4
54 dBµV/m
3
48.6
220
1.3
44.1
120
1
CW
4575.5
54 dBµV/m
3
50.5
302.5
1
52
321
1
5
Note:
Hop set 15 (five channels) used hopping modes to test the third harmonic. This hop set should only be used for FCC
testing.
B.2.3.1 FCC Part 15.109 − Receive Mode LO and Harmonics
The local oscillator and all harmonics were at least 6 dB below the
46.4 dBµV/m limit.
B-4
Appendix C
The Outdoor Line of sight Range test results for the Dolphin Low Power and
High Power boards are presented in this Appendix. A simple wire antenna
(See Section B.1.2) was used for range testing.
The range test results are tabulated in Table C−1.
Table C−1. Range Test Results
BOARD
MAXIMUM TX
POWER (dBm)
RX SENSITIVITY (dBm)
LINK BUDGET
(dB)
RANGE (Feet)
RANGE (Mile)
Low Power
7
100
107
1050
0.2
High Power
20
100
120
5500
1
Topic
Page
C.1
Low-Power Board Range Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
C.2
High-Power Board Range Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3
Range Tests
C-1
Low-Power Board Range Results
C.1 Low-Power Board Range Results
This is shown in Figure C−1. It can be observed that more retries results in better range at the cost of additional power consumption and increased transmit
duty cycle.
Figure C−1.Low-Power Board – Outdoor Range Results
LP TI Dolphin Range Verification
110.00
3 Retries LP
100.00
90.00
80.00
Success Rate (%)
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0
200
400
600
Distance in Feet (ft)
C-2
800
1000
1200
High-Power Board Range Results
C.2 High-Power Board Range Results
This is shown in figure C−2.
Note:
Since the range tests were done in an outdoor mobile environment, the transmit and receive units were 3.0V battery powered. Thus the transmit power was
about +20 dBm. If the units are powered using a +3.6V supply the transmit
power is 3 dB better (+23 dBm) yielding significantly better range. Based on
calculations the expected range at 3 dB higher output power will be approximately 1.4 mile (40% increase in range)
Figure C−2.High-Power Board – Outdoor Range Results
Two Direction Packet Success Rate (%)
Dolphin High Power Board − Range Results
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
20 Reties
30
3 Retries
20
6 Retries
10
0
Distance (feet)
The Dolphin HP solution typically achieves a maximum range of 1 mile line-ofsight outdoors. However, the actual range is highly dependant upon the environment and, in harsh environments where there are many obstacles or interference, the range could be much lower.
Range Tests
C-3
C-4
Appendix D
Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate) Vs
Throughput
Topic
D.1
Page
Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate) Versus Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate) Vs Throughput
D-1
Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate) Versus Throughput
D.1 Dolphin Bit Rate (Data Rate) Versus Throughput
Bit Rate (or Data rate) is defined as the speed at which bits are sent over-theair.
In Dolphin this Bit rate is fixed at 38.4 kbps (38400 bits/sec).
The Dolphin protocol is detailed in the graph below.
Packet 1
Time for Acquisition and ACK
Packet 2
36 byte payload + 8
36 byte payload + 8
byte overhead
byte overhead
9.1 msec
85 msec – Inter Packet Delay
Wireless Data Transmission
Acquisition + ACK + Processing Delays
It takes at least 85 msec before another packet can be sent via Dolphin.
It is recommended that the inter packet delay be a few msec higher than this
absolute requirement. The Dolphin Evaluation Tool for example uses 100
msec inter−packet delay for example purposes.
This 85 msec consists of
1. Time needed to transmit the 36 bytes (maximum) packet + overhead
8 bytes (44 bytes at 38.4 kbps = 9.1 msec)
2. 70 msec needed for acquisition
3. 4 msec needed for ACK
4. Processing delays in the micro
The Throughput of the system is defined as the amount of data bytes (payload)
sent per second. In the case of Dolphin, 36 payload bytes are sent every 85
msec, which translates to a throughput of 3.39 kbps.
Throughput and bit rate (data rate) are two different entities.
Almost all RF transceivers define only the bit rate because the throughput of
the system is highly application dependant.
D-2
Mouser Electronics
Authorized Distributor
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Texas Instruments:
DOLPHIN-LP-ADDER DOLPHIN-HP-EVM DOLPHIN-LP-EVM DOLPHIN-HP-ADDER