WHA-5500CPE
802.11a Multi-Function Outdoor CPE
Version 2.0
User’s Manual
Copyright and Disclaimer
Copyright & Disclaimer
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, whether
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or recording without the written consent of OvisLink
Corp.
OvisLink Corp. has made the best effort to ensure the accuracy of the information in this
user’s guide. However, we are not liable for the inaccuracies or errors in this guide.
Please use with caution. All information is subject to change without notice
All Trademarks are properties of their respective holders.
AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................1
1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................1
1.2 How to Use This Guide ........................................................................1
1.3 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support ..................................................3
1.4 Features...............................................................................................4
1.5 Wireless Operation Modes...................................................................5
1.5.1 Access Point Mode..................................................................................................... 5
1.5.2 Repeater Mode ........................................................................................................... 5
1.5.3 WDS Bridge Mode .................................................................................................... 6
1.5.4 Bridge Infrastructure Mode........................................................................................ 6
1.5.5 Client Infrastructure Mode......................................................................................... 7
1.5.6 Client Ad Hoc Mode .................................................................................................. 8
1.5.7 WISP Router Mode .................................................................................................... 8
1.5.8 AP Router Mode......................................................................................................... 9
2. Installing the WHA-5500CPE...................................................................10
2.1 Before You Start .................................................................................10
2.2 Package Content ...............................................................................11
2.3 Hardware Installation .........................................................................11
2.3.1 Mounting Configuration .......................................................................................... 14
2.3.2 Antenna polarization ................................................................................................ 15
3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE ..............................................................16
3.1 Important Information.........................................................................16
3.2 Prepare your PC ................................................................................17
3.3 Management Interface .......................................................................17
Web Management (HTTP):............................................................................................... 17
Secured Web Management (HTTPS):............................................................................... 18
Command Line Interface (Telnet):.................................................................................... 19
3.4 Introduction to Web Management......................................................19
3.4.1 Getting into Web Management ................................................................................ 20
3.4.2 Welcome Screen and Login ..................................................................................... 22
3.5 Initial Configurations ..........................................................................24
3.5.1 Choose the wireless Operation Modes..................................................................... 24
3.5.2 Change the Device’s IP Address .............................................................................. 25
3.5.3 Change the Country Code........................................................................................ 26
3.5.4 Set the Time and Date .............................................................................................. 27
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3.5.5 Change System Management................................................................................... 27
3.5.6 Change Password ..................................................................................................... 28
4. Web Management: Wireless and WAN Settings ...................................29
4.1 About WHA-5500CPE’s Menu Structure............................................29
4.2 Operation Modes (Wireless and WAN Settings) ................................30
4.2.1 Regulatory Domain.................................................................................................. 31
4.2.2 Network SSID.......................................................................................................... 31
4.2.3 Site Survey ............................................................................................................... 32
4.2.4 Signal Survey ........................................................................................................... 33
4.2.5 Lock-to-AP .............................................................................................................. 33
4.2.6 Radio Mode (11a, SuperA, TurboA)........................................................................ 33
4.2.7 SuperA Option ......................................................................................................... 34
4.2.8 Channel .................................................................................................................... 34
4.2.9 Channel Width ......................................................................................................... 36
4.2.10 Security Settings .................................................................................................... 36
4.2.11 Distance.................................................................................................................. 40
4.2.12 Transmit Power ...................................................................................................... 40
4.2.13 Advance Settings (Wireless) .................................................................................. 41
4.2.14 Access Control (ACL)............................................................................................ 43
4.2.15 Multiple SSID ........................................................................................................ 44
4.2.16 WMM QoS............................................................................................................. 48
4.2.17 RADIUS Settings................................................................................................... 51
4.2.18 Bandwidth Control................................................................................................. 52
4.3 WDS Settings ....................................................................................57
4.4 Router Mode Settings ........................................................................59
4.4.1 WISP Router Mode .................................................................................................. 59
4.4.2 AP Router Mode....................................................................................................... 59
4.4.3 WAN Port Settings ................................................................................................... 60
4.4.4 Dynamic DNS Settings ............................................................................................ 61
4.4.5 Remote Management Settings ................................................................................. 61
4.4.6 IP Routing Settings .................................................................................................. 62
4.4.7 DHCP Server............................................................................................................ 63
4.4.8 Multiple DMZ.......................................................................................................... 64
4.4.9 Virtual Server Settings ............................................................................................. 64
4.4.10 Special Applications............................................................................................... 65
4.4.11 IP Filtering Settings................................................................................................ 66
5. Web Management 2: System Configuration, Tools and Status ...........67
5.1 System Configuration.........................................................................67
5.1.1 Device IP Settings.................................................................................................... 67
5.1.2 Time Settings ........................................................................................................... 69
5.1.3 Password Settings .................................................................................................... 69
5.1.4 System Management................................................................................................ 70
5.1.5 Ping Watchdog ......................................................................................................... 71
5.1.6 Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................... 72
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Table of Contents
5.1.7 Configuration Save and Restore .............................................................................. 72
5.1.8 Factory Default ........................................................................................................ 73
5.2 Tools...................................................................................................74
5.2.1 Network Ping ........................................................................................................... 74
5.2.2 Network Traceroute ................................................................................................. 74
5.3 Device Status .....................................................................................76
5.3.1 Device Information .................................................................................................. 76
5.3.2 Wireless Information................................................................................................ 77
5.3.3 Internet Information ................................................................................................. 77
5.3.4 Wireless Client Table ............................................................................................... 78
5.3.5 System Log .............................................................................................................. 78
6. Command Line Interface .........................................................................79
6.1 System Commands............................................................................79
6.2 Debugging Commands ......................................................................81
6.3 Show Commands...............................................................................82
6.4 Set Commands ..................................................................................87
6.5 Enable/Disable Commands ...............................................................94
6.6 Add/Delete Commands ......................................................................95
7. Application Example: Infrastructure ......................................................99
7.1 Application Environment ....................................................................99
7.2 Device A: Access Point Mode ..........................................................100
7.2.1 Device A Wireless Settings .................................................................................... 101
7.2.2 Device A Bandwidth Management ........................................................................ 103
7.3 Device B: Bridge Infrastructure Mode ..............................................105
7.3.1 Device B Wireless Settings.................................................................................... 105
7.3.2 Device B Total Bandwidth Control........................................................................ 107
7.4 Device C: Client Infrastructure Mode ...............................................108
7.4.1 Device C IP Address .............................................................................................. 108
7.4.2 Device C Wireless Settings.................................................................................... 109
8. Application Example 2: Bridge Network ..............................................111
8.1 Preparation for Building Outdoor Bridge Networks .......................... 111
8.2 WDS Bridge vs. Bridge Infrastructure ..............................................113
8.3 WDS Bridge Network Example ........................................................115
9. Application Example 3: Router and Repeater .....................................121
9.1 Application Environment ..................................................................121
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9.2 WHA-5500CPE in WISP Router Mode ............................................122
9.2.1 WISP Router: Wireless Settings............................................................................. 122
9.2.2 WISP Router: WAN Port and Virtual Server ......................................................... 124
9.3 WHA-5500CPE in Repeater Mode ..................................................127
9.3.1 Repeater Router: Wireless Settings........................................................................ 127
10. Emergency Firmware Recovery .........................................................130
10.1 How Emergency Upgrade Works...................................................130
10.2 Emergency Upgrade Procedure ....................................................130
11. Frequent Asked Questions .................................................................133
12. Specifications.......................................................................................136
12.1 Hardware Features ........................................................................136
12.1.1 General Hardware Feature ................................................................................... 136
12.1.2 Antenna ................................................................................................................ 136
12.1.3 Power Supply ....................................................................................................... 136
12.1.4 Dimension and Weight......................................................................................... 136
12.2 Radio Specifications ......................................................................137
12.2.1 Frequency Band ................................................................................................... 137
12.2.2 Rate and Modulation............................................................................................ 137
12.2.3 TX Output Power ................................................................................................. 137
12.2.4 Receiver Sensitivity ............................................................................................. 137
12.2.5 Supported WLAN Mode...................................................................................... 137
12.3 Software Feature ...........................................................................138
12.3.1 Operation Mode ................................................................................................... 138
12.3.2 Management Interface ......................................................................................... 138
12.3.3 Channel Width (Rate Mode) ................................................................................ 138
12.3.4 Advance Functions............................................................................................... 138
13. Wireless Network Glossary.................................................................140
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1. Introduction
1. Introduction
1
1.1 Overview
The WHA-5500CPE is a wireless outdoor multi-function device based on IEEE 802.11a
5-GHz radio technologies. When installed in upright position, it is rain and splash proof.
It features an integrated 18dBi patch antenna and 802.3af to simplify the installation. .
The firmware of the AP provides up to 8 operations modes* to satisfy different application
environments. This guide is for firmware version V2.00e01a or newer. If you have older
firmware, please go to www.airlive.com to download the latest version.
1.2 How to Use This Guide
WHA-5500CPE is an advanced wireless CPE with many functions. It is recommended
that you read through the entire user’s guide whenever possible. The user guide is
divided into different chapters. You should read at least go through the first 3 chapters
before attempting to install the device.
Recommended Reading
‰
Chapter 1
„
1.5 Operation Modes: This section explains the usage of each wireless
operation mode. It is a must read.
‰
Chapter 2: This chapter is about hardware installation.
through the entire chapter.
‰
Chapter 3:
‰
You should read
„
3.1 Important Information: This section has default settings information
suchs as IP, password, SSID, and recommended browser
„
3.3 Management Interface: This section introduces Web, HTTPS, and
Telnet.
„
3.4 Introduction to Web Management: This section tells you how to get into
the Web UI using HTTP and HTTPS. In addition, it also explains about the
basic menu structure.
„
3.5 Initial Configurations: This section guide you through the essential initial
configurations such as choosing operation mode, set device IP, password,
and change frequency domain.
Chapter 4 Web Management – Wireless and WAN Settings: This chapter
explain the wireless functions and router mode settings in the WHA-5500CPE.
time permitted, you should read through the entire chapter.
1
If
AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
1. Introduction
„
‰
4.2 Operation Mode (wireless): Operation mode is the page where all the
wireless settings and router mode settings are. Therefore, it is advised that
you must read through the entire section.
z
4.2.3 Site Survey: Site Survey is the connection wizard that will search
for available networks and let you connect with the select network by
simply clicking. It also includes RSSI signal survey for antenna
alignment.
z
4.2.8 and 4.2.9 Channel and Channel Width: This part explains the
concept of variable Channel Width and how to use them. Channel
Width can be 40MHz, 20MHz, 10MHz, or 5MHz.
z
4.2.13 Bandwidth Management: Be sure to read about
WHA-5500CPE’s powerful Bandwidth Control that allow you to limit
up/downlink speed by interface, IP, MAC address, or IP segment. This
section provides step-by-step examples also.
„
4.3 WDS Settings: Here explans the WDS setting page. After reading this
section, please go to Chapter 8: Bridge Network example to see
step-by-step instructions on setting up a multi-point WDS Bridge network.
„
4.4 Router Modes: This section includes WAN port, virtual server, remote
management, virtual servers and all router related settings.
Chapter 5: Web Management 2: Configurations, Tools and Status
This chapter explains all the non-wireless settings and status such as IP settings,
Ping Watchdog.
‰
„
5.1.5 PING Watchdog: PING watchdog is a crucial function to keep your
wireless connection alive. When WHA-5500CPE can’t get a response
from remote devices, it will attempt to re-establish the connection.
WHA-5500CPE’s PING watchdog goes the extra step to allow 2 sets of IP
to avoid false alarm.
„
5.1.7 Configuration Save and Restore: You should always backup your
configurations so you can restore in the event of system crash.
Chapter 6: Command Line Interface
This chapter explains all the commands in the Telnet interface. Be sure to “save
config” after making all changes. In case you forget a command, just type “help” to
display all available commands and their usage.
‰
Chapter 7: Application Example: Infrastructure
In this chapter, you will learn how to use AP mode, Client Infrastructure Mode, and
Bridge Infrastructure mode in one application example. In addition, you will also
learn how to make multiple SSID and bandwidth control.
‰
Chapter 8: Application Example 2: WDS Bridge
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2
1. Introduction
This chapter tells you the basic knowledge about building a long distance connection.
Then it will describe the differences between WDS bridge and Bridge Infrastructure
mode, and how to make a choice between them. At last, a step-by-step instruction
on how to build a multipoint WDS network is provided.
‰
Chapter 9: Application Example 3: Repeater and WISP Router
A step-by-step application example on Repeater and WISP router
‰
Chapter 10: Emergency Firmware Recovery
It your WHA-5500CPE can no longer be access due to firmware crash.
be able to recover it following the procedure on this chapter.
‰
You might
Chapter 11: Frequent Asked Questions
If you have a question about WHA-5500CPE that is not found on other part of this
guide, you might find your answer here. Including how to make connection with
Mikrotik AP, how to save password settings on the browser...etc.
.
‰
Chapter 13: Wireless Network Glossary
Explanations on wireless network technical terms from A to Z. Highly recommeded
for referencing when you encounter an unfamiliar term.
1.3 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support
If you encounter a technical issue that can not be resolved by information on this guide, we
recommend that you visit our comprehensive website support at www.airlive.com. The
tech support FAQ are frequently updated with latest information.
In addition, you might find new firmwares that either increase software functions or provide
bug fixes for WHA-5500CPE. You can reach our on-line support center at the following
link:
http://www.airlive.com/support/support_2.jsp
Since 2009, AirLive has added the “Newsletter Instant Support System” on our website.
AirLive Newsletter subscribers receives instant email notifications when there are new
download or tech support FAQ updates for their subscribed airlive models. To become an
AirLive newsletter member, please visit: http://www.airlive.com/member/member_3.jsp
3
AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
1. Introduction
Figure 1.4: AirLive Newsletter Suppport System
1.4 Features
„ Atheros AR-2313 + AR-5112 108mbps 802.11a chipset
„ 4MB Flash and 32MB SDRAM
„ 8 wireless multi-function modes: Access Point, Repeater, WDS Bridge, Bridge
Infrastructure, Client Infrastructure, Client Ad Hoc, WISP Router, AP Router.
„ 18dBi Integrated Antenna: Vertical Polarization, Horizontal Polarization, External
Antenna options switchable by software. 15 degree Horizontal and Vertical coverage
in the forward direction.
„ Built from High Temperature resistant ABS material with Anti-UV protection
„ Power by 48V 802.3af PoE system
„ Support Super Channels
„ Support 5/10/20/40MHz Channel Width
„ Slide out housing design for easy maintenance.
„ Metal Wall Mount and Pole Mount included
„ Total Bandwidth and Per-User Bandwidth Control
„ Limit Bandwidth of HTTP, FTP, Torrent, and eDonkey traffic in router mode
„ Site Survey, RSSI signal Survey, and RSSI LED indicator.
„ Multi-SSID, TAG VLAN, WMM, TOS
„ ACK Timeout Adjustment for long distance connection.
„ Emergency firmware recovery mode
„ Web, HTTPS, and Telnet
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1. Introduction
1.5 Wireless Operation Modes
The WHA-5500CPE can perform as a multi-function wireless device. Through the
AirLogic web interface, users can easily select which wireless mode they wish the
WHA-5500CPE to perform.
The WHA-5500CPE can be configured to operate in the following wireless operation
modes:
1.5.1 Access Point Mode
When operating in the Access Point mode, the WHA-5500CPE becomes the center hub of
the wireless network. All wireless cards and clients connect and communicate through
WHA-5500CPE. This type of network is known as “Infrastructure network”. Other
WHA-5500CPE or 802.11a CPE can connect to AP mode through “Client Infrastructure
Mode” or “Bridge Infrastructure Mode”. The Access Point mode will act as “WDS AP”
when connecting with the “Bridge Infrastructure mode”. Please see Chapter 8 for step-by-step
application example of this operation mode.
1.5.2 Repeater Mode
In Repeater mode, the WHA-5500CPE functions as a repeater that extends the range of
remote wireless LAN. The WHA-5500CPE’s repeater mode is a universal repeater, not
WDS repeater. Because the radio is divided into client + AP mode, the Repeater mode
will have less performance and distance. We recommended using a dual radio product
like Airlive WLA-9000AP or WH-9200AP if you require full performance in this application.
Please see Chapter 10 for step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
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AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.5.3 WDS Bridge Mode
This mode is also known as “WDS Pure MAC mode”. When configured to operate in the
Wireless Distribution System (WDS) Mode, the WHA-5500CPE provides bridging functions
with remote LAN networks in the WDS system . The system will support up to total of 8
bridges in a WDS network (by daisy chain). However, each bridge can only associate with
maximum of 4 other bridges in the WDS configuration. This mode is best used when you
want to connect LAN networks together wirelessly (for example, between office and
warehouse). If you have more than 2 AP in WDS Bridges mode, please remember to turn
on the “802.1d Spanning Tree” or “STP” option on to avoid network loop. This mode
usually delivers faster performance than infrastructure mode. Please see Chapter 9 for
step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
1.5.4 Bridge Infrastructure Mode
This mode is also known as "WDS Station" or "Client mode with MAC address
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6
1. Introduction
transparency". The Bridge Infrastructure mode can only connect with “Access Point”
mode. 2 Bridge Infrastructure can not connect with each other. It works like client mode
with MAC address transparency function. In another word, the MAC addresses of the PCs
will be passed instead of the AP's wireless MAC address. If you require Bridge connection
with WPA-PSK or WPA-PSK2 connection, please use this mode instead. However, this
mode might not work with some outdoor APs. If it occurs, please use Client Infrastructure
or WDS Bridge instead. Please see Chapter 8 for step-by-step application example of this
operation mode.
1.5.5 Client Infrastructure Mode
This mode is also known as “Client” mode. In Client Infrastructure mode, the
WHA-5500CPE acts as if it is a wireless adapter to connect with a remote Access Point.
Users can attach a computer or a router to the LAN port of WHA-5500CPE to get network
access. This mode is often used by WISP on the subscriber’s side. Please see Chapter 8
for step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
For WHA-5500CPE, there are 2 types of Client Infrastructure Mode: “Single User” and
“Multiple-User”. When “Single User” is chosen, only one PC that is connected behind the
AirMax can get IP address from remote DHCP server. When “multiple user” is chosen,
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AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
1. Introduction
more than one PC can get IP address from remote DHCP server. However, in Client
Infrastructure mode, the WHA-5500CPE always sends the WHA-5500CPE’s wireless MAC
address to the remote AP. If you want the WHA-5500CPE to send the PC’s MAC
addresses to remote AP, then you should use the “Bridge Infrastructure” mode. Bridge
Infrastructure provides the “Mac Address Transparency” functionality.
1.5.6 Client Ad Hoc Mode
In Client Ad Hoc mode, WHA-5500CPE can connect to other wireless adapters without
access point. Users can attach a computer or a router to the LAN port of WHA-5500CPE
to get network access.
1.5.7 WISP Router Mode
In WISP Router Mode, WHA-5500CPE connects to the remote Access Point as in Client
Infrastructure Mode. On the LAN side, it acts like a wired router for IP sharing function.
This mode is best used for IP sharing application for WISP subscribers. In this mode, the
WAN is the wireless client side, the LAN is the wired side. Please see Chapter 10 for
step-by-step application example of this operation mode.
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1. Introduction
1.5.8 AP Router Mode
In AP Router Mode, the WHA-5500CPE behaves like a wireless router. The LAN port of
the WHA-5500CPE will become WAN port. The wireless network of WHA-5500CPE
becomes the LAN side. Please note when this mode is used, the only way to manage the
WHA-5500CPE is through the wireless side unless remote management is opened.
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AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
2. Install the WHA-5500CPE
2
2. Installing
the
WHA-5500CPE
This section describes the hardware features and the hardware installation procedure for
the WHA-5500CPE. For software configuration, please go to chapter 3 for more details.
2.1 Before You Start
It is important to read through this section before you install the WHA-5500CPE
„
The WHA-5500CPE comes with everything you need to start installation with
exception of the PoE Ethernet Cable. You can use a good quality CAT-5E
outdoor graded Ethernet cable (shielded with anti-UV) according to the length
you need.
„
The WHA-5500CPE must be installed in the upright position if the unit is located
in outdoor or wet environments.
„
The use of 5GHz spectrum, Turbo modes, and 5/10MHz channel bandwidth
might be prohibited in some countries. Please consult with your country’s
telecom regulation first.
„
You must set the distance parameter to make long distance connection work.
Please refer to chapter 4 of this user’s guide for details.
„
The integrated antenna has forward coverage angle of 30 degree both in vertical
and horizontal direction.
„
The WHA-5500CPE is a 5GHz CPE device only, it can not operate in 2.4GHz.
„
If you choose to use the external antenna, please remember to connect the
external antenna first before power on WHA-5500CPE.
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2. Install the WHA-5500CPE
2.2 Package Content
The WHA-5500CPE package contains the following items:
„
One WHA-5500CPE main unit
„
One 48V 0.4A DC power adapter with a splitter
„
Wall Mounting kit
„
One CD of the WHA-5500CPE Quick Star Guide
WHA-5500CPE
Mounting Kits
PoE Kits
Regarding to the specification of each application, the PoE Ethernet cable is not included in
the package.
You may choose outdoor specification Ethernet cable according to the length you need.
2.3 Hardware Installation
Please take the device unit from the color box, a scroll driver, an Ethernet cable with
adequate length according to your application.
1. A scroll driver and Ethernet Cable, four
2. Open the housing of WHA-5500CPE.
screws and WHA-5500CPE main unit
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AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
2. Install the WHA-5500CPE
3. Turn the WHA-5500CPE to another
side, the RJ-45 jack is at the middle of
LEFT side of main board.
4. Plug one side of RJ-45 cable into the
Ethernet port.
5. Put the Ethernet cable along the module,
6. Make sure that the other side of Ethernet
till the exit (at the bottom of Housing).
AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
cable is out of housing. Close the
housing.
12
2. Install the WHA-5500CPE
7. Scroll up 4 screws well. Be careful, this is
very important; it could protect your
device against the water.
8. Plug the Ethernet to the PoE “P + DATA
OUT” jack of injector.
9. Plug the power cord of adaptor into the
injector “POWER IN” port.
10. Plug the Data Ethernet cable to the port
“DATA IN” of injector.
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AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
2. Install the WHA-5500CPE
2.3.1 Mounting Configuration
Your WHA-5500CPE comes standard with 2 plastic straps for pole mounting. Please
follow the procedure below to install:
1 Antenna body - 1pc
2 M6 washer(φ16mm) - 4 pcs
3 M6 S/W - 6 pcs
4 M6-16 screw - 4 pcs
Pole mount 1
5 M-Shaped mounting - 1 pc
6 Lock frame - 1 pc
7 M6 washer(φ12mm) - 2 pcs
8 M6-60 screw - 2 pcs
2
9 5"/32-16 screw - 4 pcs
3
10 Plastic anchor - 4 pcs
5
4
6
7
3
8
Antenna body - 1pc
M6 washer(φ16mm) - 4 pcs
3 M6 S/W - 6 pcs
4 M6-16 screw - 4 pcs
5 M-Shaped mounting - 1 pc
6 Lock frame - 1 pc
7 M6 washer(φ12mm) - 2 pcs
8 M6-60 screw - 2 pcs
9 5"/32-16 screw - 4 pcs
10 Plastic anchor - 4 pcs
1
2
Wall mount
1
2
3
4
5
9
10
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14
2. Install the WHA-5500CPE
2.3.2 Antenna polarization
„
„
Pease install the CPE in the UP RIGHT position only.
Do not put the CPE into water.
„
Pease do not tilt the CPE more than 15 degree angle from vertical.
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AirLive WHA-5500CPE User’s Manual
3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
3
3. Configuring
the
WHA-5500CPE
The WHA-5500CPE offers many different types of management interface. You can
configure through standard web browser (http), secured web (https), command line (telnet).
In this chapter, we will explain WHA-5500CPE’s available management interfaces and how
to get into them. Then, we will provide the introduction on Web Management and
recommended initial settings. For detail explanations on Web Management functions,
please go to Chapter 4 and 5. For Command-Line interface, please go to Chapter 6.
3.1 Important Information
The following information will help you to get start quickly. However, we recommend you
to read through the entire manual before you start. Please note the password and SSID
are case sensitive.
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
The default IP address is: 192.168.1.1
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
The default user’s name is: airlive
The default password is:
airlive
The default SSID is:
airlive
The default wireless mode is : Client mode
After power on, please wait for 2 minutes for WHA-5500CPE to finish boot up
Please remember to click on “Apply” for new settings to take effect
When you set the “Regulatory Domain” to “All Channels”, the WHA-5500CPE will
display all the available channels. However, please make sure the frequency
you select is legal to use in your country.
Please remember to enter the correct “Distance” parameter in wireless settings.
Failure to do so can result in poor performance.
The default country code is : United Kingdom.
If you are living outside of EU, please go to Operation Mode->Setup->Regulatory
Domain to change country.
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16
3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
3.2 Prepare your PC
The WHA-5500CPE can be managed remotely by a PC through either the wired or wireless
network. The default IP address of the WHA-5500CPE is 192.168.1.1 with a subnet mask
of 255.255.255.0. This means the IP address of the PC should be in the range of
192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.254.
To prepare your PC for management with the WHA-5500CPE, please do the following:
1.
Connect your PC directly to the LAN port on the DC Injector of WHA-5500CPE
2.
Set your PC’s IP address manually to 192.168.1.100 (or other address in the same
subnet)
You are ready now to configure the WHA-5500CPE using your PC.
3.3 Management Interface
The WHA-5500CPE can be configured using one the management interfaces below:
Web Management (HTTP): You can manage your WHA-5500CPE by simply typing
its IP address in the web browser. Most functions of WHA-5500CPE can be accessed
by web management interface. We recommend using this interface for initial
configurations. To begin, simply enter WHA-5500CPE’s IP address (default is
192.168.1.1) on the web browser. The default username and password are both
“airlive”.
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Secured Web Management (HTTPS): HTTPS is also using web browser for
configuration. But all the data transactions are securely encrypted using SSL
encryption. Therefore, it is a safe and easy way to manage your WHA-5500CPE.
We highly recommend WISP and service provider to use HTTPS for management.
To begin, simply enter https://192.168.1.1 on your web browser. A security alert
screen from your browser will pop up. Please grant all permission and get certificate
to WHA-5500CPE. After you pass the security warning screen, you will enter the
secured web management interface. The default username and password are both
“airlive”.
For more information about Web Management and HTTPS, please make sure to
read through “Introduction to Web Management” in this chapter, Chapter 4,
and Chapter 5
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Command Line Interface (Telnet): WHA-5500CPE can be managed through the
command line interface (CLI). It is possible to write a text script file, and then paste
it into the CLI to execute several commands at once. However, Telnet does not
encrypt its message. Therefore, it is not secure. The default Telnet management
port is TCP port 23.
To use the CLI, please open the command line window.
192.168.1.1” to start.
Then type “telnet
When asked for password, please enter “airlive”.
To get a list of available command and their usage, please type “help” on the
command prompt.
For more information about Telnet configuration, please go to Chapter 6
Command Line Interface.
3.4 Introduction to Web Management
The WHA-5500CPE offers both normal (http) and secured (https) Web Management
interfaces. Their share the same interface and functions, and they can both be accessed
through web browsers. The only difference is HTTPS are encrypted for extra security.
Therefore, we will discuss them together as “Web Management” on this guide.
If you are placing the WHA-5500CPE behind router or firewall, you might need to open
virtual server ports to WHA-5500CPE on your firewall/router
„ HTTP:
„ HTTPS:
TCP Port 80
TCP/UDP Port 443
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
This procedure is not necessary in most cases unless there is a router/firewall between
your PC and WHA-5500CPE.
3.4.1 Getting into Web Management
Normal Web Management (HTTP)
To get into the Normal Web Management, simply type in the WHA-5500CPE’s IP address
(default IP is 192.168.1.1) into the web browser’s address field.
Secured Web Management (HTTPS)
To get into the Secured Web Management, just type “https://192.168.1.1 ” into the web
browser’s address field. The “192.168.1.1” is WHA-5500CPE’s default IP address. If the
IP address is changed, the address entered in the browser should change also.
A security warning screen from your browser will then pop-up depending on the browser
you use. Please follow step below to clear the security screen.
‰
Internet Explorer: Select “Yes” to proceed
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
‰
Firefox:
1.
Select “or you can add an exception”
1
2.
Click on “Add Exception”
2
3.
Click on “Get Certificate”. Then, please enter WHA-5500CPE’s IP address.
Finally, please click on “Confirm Security Exception.”
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3
4
3.4.2 Welcome Screen and Login
After the procedure above, the Welcome Screen will appear. Welcome Screen gives a
brief introduction of the WHA-5500CPE’s main function category. By click on the function
category, it will direct you to the corresponding web management menu.
„
Wireless Settings: Click on this part will bring you to the wireless operation mode
menu. The WHA-5500CPE’s wireless settings are different between wireless
modes. Only functions that are applicable to the wireless mode will show to
simplify configuration. For example, multiple SSID option is only workable for
Access Point and AP Router mode. Therefore, the function will only appear in
these 2 modes. For this reason, the first step to configure the WHA-5500CPE is
to select the wireless mode. The router mode specific functions are also in this
menu category. For explanation of different wireless modes, please refer to
Chapter 1.
„
System Configuration: All non-wireless and router mode settings are in this
category. The system configurations including changing password, upload
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
firmware, backup configuration, settings PING watchdog, and setting management
interface. The default management timeout is 10 minutes; we recommend you
should change password and management timeout during the first time login.
„
Tools: Discover network states using ping, traceroute and other tools.
„
Device Status: This section for monitoring the status of WHA-5500CPE. It
provides information on device status, Ethernet status, wireless status, wireless
client table, and system log.
„
Help: This is the online help system for quick reference. We still recommend you
to read this user’s guide for more information.
TIPS: You can choose any menu categories to begin; you can switch to other menu later
When you choose one of the menu categories, the WHA-5500CPE will require you to enter
the username and password. Please enter “airlive” (all lower cases) for both username
and password.
After you enter the correct password, the following screen will appear corresponding to the
menu category you selected.
System Configuration
Language Bar
Wireless Settings
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
‰
Language Menu: You can select the language from the right side of main menu
bar.
3.5 Initial Configurations
We recommend users to browse through WHA-5500CPE’s web management interface to
get an overall picture of the functions and interface. Below are the recommended initial
configurations for first time login:
3.5.1 Choose the wireless Operation Modes
The wireless settings of WHA-5500CPE are dependant on the wireless operation mode you
choose. Therefore, the first step is to choose the operation mode. For explanation on
when to use what operation mode, please refer to Chapter 1
When you click on the “Wireless Settings” on the welcome screen or the “Operation Mode”
on the top menu bar, the following screen will appear.
Current Wireless Mode
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
Follow the example below to change to “Client Infrastructure” mode
1.
Select “Client Infrastructure” mode.
2.
Click on “change mode” button
3.
The AP will reboot, wait for about one minute
3.5.2 Change the Device’s IP Address
The default IP address is at 192.168.1.1. You should change it to the same subnet as
your network. Also, if you want to manage WHA-5500CPE remotely, you have to set the
Gateway and DNS server information.
To setup the IP settings for WHA-5500CPE, please select “System Configuration” ->
Device IP Settings”. After entering the IP information, click on “Apply” to finish.
1
2
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
3.5.3 Change the Country Code
The legal frequency and channels in 5GHz spectrum varies between countries. The
default country code is United Kingdom which should require no changes If you are living
in Europe.
If you are living outside EU, you should change the country code
accordingly. In the example below, we will change the country code to United States
which enables the use of 5.8GHz spectrum.
Step 1.
Select “Operation Mode” -> “Setup”
Step 2.
From the Regulatory Domain, please select your country
Step 3.
Select the United States from the list.
Step 4.
Click on “Apply” to finish.
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3. Configuring the WHA-5500CPE
3.5.4 Set the Time and Date
It is important that you set the date and time for your WHA-5500CPE so that the system
log will record the correct date and time information. Please go to “System
Configuration” ->Time Settings. We recommend you choose “Enable NTP” so the time
will be keep even after reboot. If your WHA-5500CPE is not connected to Internet,
please enter the time manually. Please remember to select your local time zone and
click “Apply” to finish.
1
2
3
4
5
6
3.5.5 Change System Management
It is recommended that you change the system management settings first. Please go to
“System Configuration”-> “System Management”. The default web management time
out is 10 minutes, you can set to longer period if needed. For WISP administrators, you
can consider turning off HTTP and Telnet for security purpose.
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3.5.6 Change Password
You should change the password for WHA-5500CPE at the first login. To change
password, please go to “System Configuration” -> “Password Settings” menu.
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
4
4. Web
Management:
Wireless and WAN
Settings
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings and router mode settings in web
management interface. Please be sure to read through Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web
Management” and “Initial Configurations” first. For system configurations, device status,
and other non-wireless related settings; please go to Chapter 5.
4.1 About WHA-5500CPE’s Menu Structure
The WHA-5500CPE’s web management menu is divided into 3 main menus: Operation
Modes, System Configurations, and Device Status. The main menus are displayed in
“Top Menu Bar”. Within each main menu category, there are sub-menu options which are
displayed on the “Side Menu Bar”
TOP Menu Bar: Main
Language
Side Menu Bar: Sub
„
Operation Mode: This menu is where you will find wireless and WAN settings.
The WHA-5500CPE’s wireless settings are dependant on the wireless operation
mode you choose; only the applicable wireless settings for selected operation
mode are shown. For example; WAN port setting is available only for AP Router
and WISP Router mode, it will only be shown in those modes. To access wireless
settings, click on the “Setup” button within each operation mode. For explanation
on different wireless modes, please refer to Chapter 1. We will talk about
functions in this menu for this chapter.
„
System Configuration: All settings besides Wireless and WAN functions are in
this category. The system configuration including changing password, upload
firmware, backup configuration, settings PING watchdog, and setting management
interface. We will talk about this menu’s function in Chapter 5.
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
„
Device Status: This section for monitoring the status of WHA-5500CPE. It
provides information on device status, Ethernet status, wireless status, wireless
client table, and system log.
„
Logout: Please make sure to Logout after you finish all settings.
„
Language Bar: You can change the web interface to some other languages by
the pull down menu.
4.2 Operation Modes (Wireless and WAN Settings)
The wireless settings of WHA-5500CPE are dependant on the wireless operation mode you
choose. Therefore, the first step is to choose the operation mode. For explanation on
when to use what operation mode, please refer to Chapter 1.
When you select “Wireless Settings” in the welcome screen, or click on the “Operation
Mode” on the top menu; the following screen will appear:
This tells you
what is the
Current
Configure Wireless and WAN
Select one of
the wireless
operation
After you select the
new operation
mode click here to
„
Mode: The available wireless operation modes for WHA-5500CPE.
and click on “Change Mode” button to switch between modes..
„
Setup:
Click here to configure the Wireless and WAN(in router mode) settings.
„
Radio:
This explain how the radio function in the particular operation mode
„
Ethernet: This shows whether the radio
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
Once you click on the “Setup” page, the wireless settings will appear.
4.2.1 Regulatory Domain
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Regulatory Domain
The legal frequency and channels in 5GHz spectrum varies between countries. Please
select your country from here. There is a special domain called “All Channels” which will
show all the channels. It is for compatibility testing only. Please make sure the channel
you used is allowed in your country when select this special domain.
4.2.2 Network SSID
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Network SSID
The SSID is the network name used to identify a wireless network. The SSID must be the
same for all devices in the same wireless network. In WHA-5500CPE; it is possible to
create more than one SSID in AP and AP Router mode, please check the “Multiple SSID &
VLAN” section in this chapter. Conversely, several access points on a network can have
the same SSID. The SSID length is up to 32 characters. The default SSID is “airlive”.
„
Enable Wireless: The default wireless is on.
wireless interface.
„
Disable SSID Broadcast: If you check this box, the SSID will be hidden; only users
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who know the SSID can associate with this network.
4.2.3 Site Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey
The Site Survey function in WHA-5500CPE provides 4 important functions
„
In Client and Bridge Infrastructure mode, site survey will scan for available AP network.
Then allow user to select and connect to the AP. This greatly simplify the installation
„
Once Site Survey displays the available AP or Bridge networks, you can select a
particular SSID to display its RSSI value continuously. This function is called “Signal
Survey”. Signal Survey can be used for antenna alignment. For detail explanation
of about RSSI value, please visit “How to Make Antenna Alignment” Chapter.
„
For WDS Bridge mode, the Site Survey will scan for available AP and Bridge networks.
User can then find the MAC address (BSSID) of the remote Bridges.
„
For AP and AP router mode, the Site Survey allows administrator to check what
channels are already occupied for choosing a cleaner channel.
When you click on Site Survey, the following screen will appear. It might take a few minutes
to scan all the channels in the 5GHz spectrum.
Click here to select
SSID for Association
or Signal Survey
For antenna
alignment. It will
display and update
RSSI value once a
second.
To connect with the
selected SSID. This
function is available only
in Client Infrastructure or
Bridge Infrastructure
„
Associate: Please choose a SSID before click on this button. This button is
available only in Client Infrastructure or Bridge Infrastructure modes. Once you click
on this button, WHA-5500CPE will attempt to make a connection with the selected
ESSID. If there is encryption needed, the WHA-5500CPE will prompt you to enter
the encryption key. Please make sure you enter the correct encryption key, the
WHA-5500CPE will not check whether the encryption key is correct.
„
RSSI: RSSI is a value to show the Receiver Sensitivity of the WHA-5500CPE. In
general, remote APs with stronger signal will display higher RSSI values. For RSSI
value, the smaller the absolute value is, the stronger the signal. For example,
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“-50db” has stronger signal than “-80dB”. For outdoor connection, signal stronger
than -60dB is considered as a good connection.
4.2.4 Signal Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey -> Signal Survey
The Signal Survey will continuously display the RSSI value of the selected SSID for
antenna alignment purpose. To use Signal Survey function, please enter the “Site
Survey” function first; please refer to the instruction in the above section. Once you select
the ESSID and click on the “Signal Survey” button, the following screen will appear.
„
BSSID: This is the remote AP’s MAC address.
„
Channel: The current scanned channel
„
Signal Strength: This is the RSSI value. It will refresh itself every second. The
smaller the absolute value of the RSSI, the stronger the signal. For example
-38dbm is stronger than -70dBm.
4.2.5 Lock-to-AP
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Lock-to-AP
This function is applicable only to Client mode, Bridge Infrastructure, and WISP Router
mode. When this function is enables, the WHA-5500CPE will put priority to associate with
AP on the list. If “Force connect with AP added below” is selected, the WHA-5500CPE will
only connect with AP on the list.
4.2.6 Radio Mode (11a, SuperA, TurboA)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Radio Mode
WHA-5500CPE has 4 different options for WLAN transmission. All devices in the same
network should use the same WLAN mode.
•
11a mode (normal-A): This is the IEEE standard for WiFi operating in 5GHz
frequency band. 11a is the most stable mode. If you are getting packet loss or
disconnection using Super-A or Turbo-A mode. Please use 11a mode instead.
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
•
SuperA: Super-A add Bursting, Compression, and Fast Frames to increase the
speed over 11a mode. If you live in countries that prohibit the channel binding
technology (i.e. Europe), you should choose “Super-A” If you need more speed than
11a mode. However, this mode is not as stable as 11a mode.
•
Super-A with Static Turbo: Turbo mode uses channel binding technology to
increase the speed further over Super-A mode. This mode might not be allowed in
countries that prohibit channel binding (i.e. some EU countries). This mode will
always turn on the turbo mode in all conditions
•
Super-A with Dynamic Turbo: Dynamic Turbo mode will be turn on only when
adjacent channel is not used. It is also know as intelligent turbo mode. This mode
might not be allowed in countries that prohibit channel binding (i.e. some EU
countries). In addition, this mode does not work in WDS Bridge mode
If you select “11a” or “Super-A” mode, you can still combined
them with Turbo mode when you select “40MHz” Channel Width.
4.2.7 SuperA Option
Operation Mode -> Setup -> SuperA Option
When you select Radio Mode with “Super-A”, the SuperA Options will be available.
„ Bursting:
Allow more data frame to be sent over given period of time by overhead
reduction.
„ Compression: Increasing throughput by compressing data frame in real time
„ Fast Frame: Utilizing frame aggregation and removing interframe pauses to increase
the throughput.
It is recommended to select all 3 options except for compatibility reasons with remote AP.
4.2.8 Channel
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Channel
The channel is the frequency range used by radio. In 802.11a standard, each channel
occupies 20MHz width. For 2 wireless devices to connect, they must use the same
channel. The number of available legal channels might be different between countries.
For example, Channel 149 to 161 are available only to United States and a few other
countries. If you are living outside EU, please change the country from the “Regulatory
Domain” option in this page. Below is the table list of channels and frequency.
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Frequency Domain
5.15 to 5.25GHz
U-NII Low
ETSI Band1
5.25 to 5.35GHz
U-NII Mid
ETSI Band1
5.47 to 5.725GHz
U-NII World Wide
ETSI Band3
U-NII Upper
ISM
„
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
36
5180
40
5200
44
5220
48
5240
52
5260
56
5280
60
5300
64
5320
100
5500
104
5520
108
5540
112
5560
116
5580
120
5600
124
5620
128
5640
132
5660
136
5680
140
5700
149
5745
153
5765
157
5785
161
5805
165
5825
Show All Channels: When you set the “Regulatory Domain” to “All Channles”, it
will display all the channel numbers regardless of what channel width is elected. For
example, when you select “20MHz” for channel width, check this option will display
channels “36,37,38, 39, 40….” Instead of “36, 40, 44…etc). This allow you to use a
non-standard channel to avoid interference or for privacy purpose.
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4.2.9 Channel Width
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Channel Width
In 802.11a spec, each channel occupies 20MHz channel width. Therefore, each channel
will jump by number of 4 (i.e. 36, 40, 44…etc). You can change the Channel Width to
40MHz(Turbo), 10MHz(Half) or 5MHz(Quarter) to either increase performance or reduce
the interference problem.
„
„
„
„
Turbo (40MHz): Each channel will use 40MHz, double the normal size, to increase the
performance by channel binding. This option is not allowed in countries inside EU
Normal (20MHz): This is the default channel width specified by IEEE 802.11a
specification
Half (10MHz): Using this option will double the available channels for deployment in
congested areas. However, the performance will also drop by half when using this
option. When you are in Client mode, you can put the “Regulatory Domain” to “all
Channels” to maintain compatibility with other AP.
Quarter (5MHz): Using this option will increase the available channels by 4 times. It
is a good choice for deployment in very congested areas. However, the performance
will also drop greatly when using this option. When you are in Client mode, you can
put the “Regulatory Domain” to “all Channels” to maintain compatibility with other AP.
4.2.10 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The WHA-5500CPE features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x,
WPA, WPA-PSK, WPA2, WPA2-PSK, WPA-Auto, and WPA-PSK-Auto. Please note not
all security policies are available in all operation modes. For example, only WEP is
available currently in WDS Bridge mode and Client Adhoc mode. All wireless devices on
the same network must use the same security policy. We recommend using WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK whenever possible. For WDS Bridge and Client Adhoc mode, we recommend
using WEP-152 encryption.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method. However, it is also
the least secure. Due to the limitation of the chipset, only WEP encryption is available
for WDS Bridge Pure MAC mode and Client Adhoc mode.
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
„
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
WEP Keys: Please enter the WEP keys used for encryption. You need to fill at least
the “Select WEP Key”. For example; if you choose “Encrypt Data with WEP Key 1” in
the previous field, then it is necessary to fill WEP Key 1. The length of key is
dependant on the Key Length and Key type you choose.
„
Key Length: The WHA-5500CPE offers 64bit, 128 bit, and 152 bit for WEP key
length. The longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type.
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
„
ASCII-152: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 16
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey123”
„
HEX-152: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type.
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Please enter 26
Please enter 32
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Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890abcdef”
802.1x
802.1x allows users to leverage a RADIUS server to do association authentications. You
can also enable dynamic WEP key (128 bit) to have data encryption. You do not have
to enter the WEP key manually because it will be generated automatically and
dynamically.
„
Rekey interval is time period that the system will change the key periodically. The
shorter the interval is, the better the security is.
After you have finished the configuration wizard, you have to
configure the RADIUS Settings in “Operation Mode -> Setup ->
RADIUS Settings” in order to make the 802.1x function work.
WPA, WPA2, WPA-AUTO
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
that provides added security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the
CCMP (AES Encryption). The WPA-AUTO tries to authenticate wireless clients using
WPA or WPA2.
All 3 requires a RADIUS server available in order to do authentication
(same as 802.1x), thus there is no shared key required.
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„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Both to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Group Rekey Interval: A group key is used for multicast/broadcast data, and the
re-key interval is time period that the system will change the group key periodically.
The shorter the interval is, the better the security is. The default is 300 sec.
WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA-PSK-Auto
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) with Pre-Shared Key (PSK) provides better security than
WEP keys. It does not require a RADIUS server in order to provide association
authentication, but you do have to enter a shared key for the authentication purpose.
The encryption key is generated automatically and dynamically. WPA2-PSK adds
CCMP and AES encryption for even better security. WPA-PSK-AUTO tries to
authenticate wireless clients using WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK.
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„
Pre-shared Key: This is an ASCII string with 8 to 63 characters. Please make sure
that both the WHA-5500CPE and the wireless client stations use the same key.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Both to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Group Rekey Interval: A group key is used for multicast/broadcast data, and the
re-key interval is time period that the system will change the group key periodically.
The shorter the interval is, the better the security is. The default is 300 sec.
4.2.11 Distance
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Distance
Please enter the distance to the remote wireless device here. The WHA-5500CPE will
then calculate the appropriate ACK Timeout value autom
atically. It is very important that you enter the correct distance for long distance
connection. Failure to do so will result in poor performance.
4.2.12 Transmit Power
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Transmit Power
You can adjust the transmit output power of the WHA-5500CPE’s radio from 10dBm to
24dBm. The higher the output power, the more distance WHA-5500CPE can deliver.
However, it is advised that you use just enough output power so it will not create excessive
interference for the environment. Also, using too much power at close distance can create
serious performance drop due to signal distortion.
At less than 200meter distance, the best output power is about 14dBm. At 2km distance;
the best output power setting is 18dBm for “11a” and “Super-A without Turbo”, 24dBm for
“Super-A with Static/Dynamic Turbo”.
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4.2.13 Advance Settings (Wireless)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance Settings
This page includes all the wireless settings that change the RF behaviors of
WHA-5500CPE. It is important to read through this section before attempting to make
changes.
„
Beacon Interval: Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to
announce its existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are
transmitted in time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value
should be between 1 and 65,535.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
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„
DTIM Interval: The WHA-5500CPE buffers packets for stations that operate in the
power-saving mode. The Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) informs such
power-conserving stations that there are packets waiting to be received by them. The
DTIM interval specifies how often the beacon frame should contain DTIMs. It should
have a value between 1 to 255, with a default value of 3.
„
User Limitation: This limitation applies to number of wireless clients the device can
associate. If you need to serve wireless connection to large number of users in one
location. You can deploy many APs and limit the number of wireless clients, so any
additional wireless connection attempt will be rejected (therefore, redirect to other AP).
The range of user limitation is from 1 to 100.
„
Age Out Timer: Set the age out timer for the wireless client. If there is no traffic from
client for more than the timer, the wireless client will be dropped. The default is 300
sec. This function is available only for the Access Point and AP router mode.
„
Rate Control: Select here to change the Data Rate for the radio. Lower data rate
sometimes provide longer distance. In most cases, however, we recommend to keep
the setting at “Best”.
„
Noise Immunity: Adaptive Noise Immunity is one of the new function in Atheros
driver to enhance the performance in interference environment.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. If the ACK is
NOT received within that timeout period then the packet will be re-transmitted resulting
in reduced throughput. If the ACK setting is too high, then throughput will be lost due
to waiting for the Ack Window to timeout on lost packets. If the ACK setting is too low
then the ACK window will have expired and the returning packet will be dropped,
greatly lowering throughput. By having the ability to adjust the ACK setting we can
effectively optimize the throughput over long distance links.
The easiest way to enter AckTimeOut value is by entering the distance in “Operation
Mode -> Setup -> Distance”. The WHA-5500CPE will then calculate and enter the
correct value for you.
„
Enable Radio eXtended Range: XR is Atheros eXtended technology to increase
range. When XR is turned on, the radio can increase the receiver sensitivity greatly.
However, performance may be reduced significantly also. Use this mode only if you
can trade more distance for lower performance.
„
Enable privacy separator: Select the check box to prohibit data transmission
between client stations. This function is also known as “Client Isolation”.
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„
Enable 802.1d: Enable the Spanning Tree Protocol to prevent forming a network loop.
This option is especially important for WDS Bridge mode.
„
Enable 802.11d: Also known as “Global Roaming”. 802.11d is a standard for use in
countries where systems using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to
operate.
4.2.14 Access Control (ACL)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The WHA-5500CPE allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or
denied to access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point
and AP Router modes.
„
Disable MAC address control list: When selected, no MAC address filtering will
be performed.
„
Enable GRANT address control list: When selected, data traffic from only the
specified devices in the table will be allowed in the network.
„
Enable DENY address control list: When selected, data traffic from the devices
specified in the table will be denied/discarded by the network.
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To add a MAC address into the table, enter a Mnemonic Name and the MAC Address,
and then click Add. The table lists all configured MAC Filter entries.
To delete entries, check the corresponding Select boxes and then press Delete Selected.
4.2.15 Multiple SSID
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Multiple SSID
This function is available only for Access Point and AP Router modes. Multiple SSID
allows WHA-5500CPE to create up to 4 different wireless networks (SSID). It is also
known as “Virtual AP” function. Each SSID can have its Encryption type, VLAN Tag, and
TOS settings. In the following diagram, the WHA-5500CPE uses Multiple SSID function to
create separate Bridge and Client network. Each has its own encryption policies.
Bridge Network
‰ SSID: BridgeNet
‰ Security: WPA2-PSK
‰ VLAN ID: 200
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Client Network
‰ SSID: ClientNet
‰ Security: WPA-PSK
‰ VLAN ID: 100
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
Configuring the Multiple SSID
When you click on the “Multiple SSID” button, the following screen will appear
Click here to Apply
changes in “VLAN”
and “DiffServe
Marking”
This is the
default SSID
Click here to apply
changes on adding
or deleting SSID
How to add a SSID
You can add up to 4 SSID in WHA-5500CPE.
1.
Enter the SSID name (i.e. BridgeNet)
2.
Select the Security Policy (i.e. WPA2-PSK)
3.
Enter the Security Key (i.e. BridgeNetKey).
4.
Click on “Apply” to add SSID
Please follow the procedure below:
1
2
3
4
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How to Modify or Delete a SSID
Please follow the procedure below:
1.
Select the SSID you want to modify or delete
2.
The SSID’s settings will be displayed in the box area.
3.
Click on “APPLY” to complete the modification
4.
Or click on “Delete Selected” to delete the SSID
Modify any settings.
1
4
2
3
Configure the VLAN and DiffServ Markings
When you check the Enable VLAN for All SSIDs and/or Enable DiffServ Marking, the
following screen will appear:
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Click here to Apply
changes in “VLAN”
and “DiffServe
Marking”
Default SSID and
VLAN Group.
„
Enable VLAN for All SSIDs: Once this function is enabled, you can specify an
individual VLAN ID and priority tag for each SSID. The packets from a SSID will
be forwarded to the Ethernet with the corresponding configured VLAN ID written.
You need to click on the top “APPLY” button after making changes.
„
Enable DiffServ Marking: When this function is enabled, you can configure a
DSCP value for each SSID. Then a packet from a station using this SSID will be
forwarded with the DSCP value labeled. You need to click on the top “APPLY”
button after making changes.
„
VLAN ID: Packets going out of this VLAN will be tagged with the VLAN ID.
Packets coming into the AP will be dropped if the VLAN Tag does not match.
The valid range is between 0 to 4095. The VLAN ID “0” is the default VLAN
group.
„
VLAN IP: Each SSID can be given with different VLAN IP group. Please notice
that the management IP in the VLAN will also be changed. For example, if you
define the VLAN IP to be 192.168.2.X subnet, then the WHA-5500CPE’s
management IP in the group will change to 192.168.2.1.
„
VLAN IP NetMask: Define your VLAN IP scope here
„
802.1p Priority: Define your 802.1p priority Tag here.
„
Select DSCP TYPE: Assign the 6-digit DifferServ Code(DSCP) for the packets
in the SSID network for QoS purpose. There are 8 preset values. To assign
your own value, please select “Best Effort”
„
DSCP Value: When you select “Best Effort” DSCP Type, you can enter the
6-dgit DSCP Value here.
„
Select Security Policy: Select the encryption used for this SSID VLAN group.
This policy can be different in each SSID VLAN group. For example, one SSID
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can be using WEP, the other policy can use WPA-PSK.
Once you enable the VLAN ID. The incoming packet from
Ethernet port to your VLAN group must carry the same VLAN ID tag
or the packet will be dropped.
4.2.16 WMM QoS
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WMM QoS
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM Settings is to specify parameters on multiple data queue for better performance of
differentiated wireless traffic like Voice-over-IP (VoIP), other types of audio, video, and
streaming media as well as traditional IP data over the AP.
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Configure the WMM QoS Parameters
„
AC Type
The queue and associated priorities and parameters for transmission are as follows:
‰
Data 0 (Best Effort, BE): Medium priority queue, medium throughput anddel ay.
Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue.
‰
Data 1 (Background, BK): Lowest priority queue, high throughput. Bulk data
that requires maximum throughput and is not time-sensitive is sent to this queue
(FTP data, for example):
‰
Data 2 (Video, VI): High priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive data
such as Video and other streaming media are automatically sent to this queue.
‰
Data 3 (Voice, VO): Highest priority queue, minimum delay. Time-sensitive
data such as Voice over IP (VoIP) is automatically sent to this queue.
Packets in a higher priority queue will be transmitted before packets in a lower
priority queue.
„
ECWmin and ECWmax
If an access point detects that the medium is in use, it uses the DCF random backoff
timer to determine the amount of time to wait before attempting to access a given
channel again. Each access point waits some random period of time between retries.
The wait time (initially a random value within a range specified as the Minimum
Contention Window increases exponentially up to a specified limit Maximum
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Contention Window.
The random delay avoids most of the collisions that would occur if multiple APs got
access to the medium at the same time and tried to transmit data simultaneously. The
more active users you have on a network, the more significant the performance gains
of the backoff timer will be in reducing the number of collisions and retransmissions.
The random backoff used by the access point is a configurable parameter. To describe
the random delay, a "Minimum Contention Window" (ECWMin) and a "Maximum
Contention Window" (ECWMax) is defined.
‰
‰
ECWmin: The value specified for the Minimum Contention Window is the
upper limit of a range for the initial random backoff wait time. The number used
in the random backoff is initially a random number between 0 and the number
defined for the Minimum Contention Window.
ECWmax: If the first random backoff time ends before successful
transmission of the data frame, the access point increments a retry counter, and
doubles the value of the random backoff window. The value specified in the
Maximum Contention Window is the upper limit for this doubling of the random
backoff. This doubling continues until either the data frame is sent or the
Maximum Contention Window size is reached.
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„
AIFS
The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing (AIFs) specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for
data frames. 802.11e uses interframe spaces to regulate which frames get access to
available channels and to coordinate wait times for transmission of different types of
data. The AIFs ensures that multiple access points do not try sending data at the same
time but instead wait until a channel is free. Valid values for AIFs are 1 through 255.
„
Transmission Opportunity
The Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) is an interval of time when a WMM client station
has the right to initiate transmissions onto the wireless medium. This value specifies
(in milliseconds) the Transmission Opportunity (TXOP) for client stations; that is, the
interval of time when a WMM client station has the right to initiate transmissions on the
wireless network.
We recommend that you use the default settings on the WMM QoS
page. Changing these values can lead to unexpected blockages of
traffic on your wireless LAN, and the blockages might be difficult to
diagnose.
4.2.17 RADIUS Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> RADIUS Setting
RADIUS servers provide centralized authentication services to wireless clients. Two
RADIUS servers can be defined: one acts as a primary, and the other acts as a secondary
backup. If you choose to use 802.1x, WPA, or WPA2 as security policy, you might need to
set the RADIUS server settings.
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To Enable RADIUS Server:
„
Server IP: The IP address of the RADIUS server.
„
Port Number: The port number that your RADIUS server uses for authentication. The
default setting is 1812.
„
RADIUS Type: RADIUS
„
Shared Secret: This is used by your RADIUS server in the Shared Secret field in
RADIUS protocol messages. The shared secret configured in the WHA-5500CPE must
match the shared secret configured in the RADIUS server. The shared secret can
contain up to 64 alphanumeric characters.
„
RADIUS Server Reattempt Period: The number of times the WHA-5500CPE should
attempt to contact the primary server before giving up
4.2.18 Bandwidth Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Bandwidth Control
Bandwidth Control can limit the maximum speed of entire wireless interface or individual
device. It is also known as Traffic Shaping. The WHA-5500CPE provides both Total
Bandwidth and Per-User Bandwidth Control for both uplink and downlink speed. It
controls the speed of both wireless and wired interface.
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To configure, please click on the “Bandwidth Control” button under wireless settings. The
following screen will appear:
Settings for
Total Bandwidth
Control
Check to enable
Bandwidth
Control
After enabling
Bandwidth Control
and selecting
“Total” or “Per
User” type, click
here to Apply
Select Total or
Per User
control here
Settings for
Per-User Bandwidth
Control
„
Enable Bandwidth: Check to enable Bandwidth Control.
The default value is disabled.
Uncheck to disable it.
You must select between Total Bandwidth and Per-User Bandwidth.
enabled at the same time.
„
They can not be
Total Bandwidth: Total Bandwidth control limit the bandwidth between Wireless and
Ethernet interface. Therefore, it is most suitable for Client Infrastructure Mode, Bridge
Mode, and WISP Router Mode. For WISP operator who use WHA-5500CPE as the
client side device; setting the Total Bandwidth control on the WHA-5500CPE will easy
the loading on the AP for bandwidth management. To begin, please enable the
Bandwidth Management first. Then enter the downlink and uplink speed; click on
Apply to finish.
‰ Total Downlink Speed:
units.
Enter speed you wish to limit the download traffic in Kbps
‰ Total Uplink Speed: Enter the speed you wish to limit the upload traffic in Kbps
units.
„
Per User Bandwidth Control: Per user Bandwidth Control can limit speed of
individual PC and network device. The WHA-5500CPE allows multiple Per-User
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bandwidth rules and can limit the bandwidth by IP address, MAC address, or IP
segment. Please first enable the Bandwidth Control, then select “Per User Bandwidth
Control” to begin. It is recommended to use this type of bandwidth control for Access
Point and AP Router mode.
Per User Control Options
‰
Description:
subscriber
‰
Type:
Enter a description for the bandwidth policy.
For example, “VIP”
WHA-5500CPE offers 3 types of Per-User Control
„
IP Address:
„
IP Segment: To limit the bandwidth the entire IP segment.
To limit the bandwidth of one single IP address.
For example; if you enter the address of 192.168.1.20 with subnet mask of
255.255.255.248, the WHA-5500CPE will limit bandwidth of IP addresses
from 192.168.1.17 to 192.168.1.22. Please use an online IP calculate if you
are not familiar with IP segment calculation. Below is an example link:
http://www.subnet-calculator.com/
Because the Ethernet interface is also controlled by the Bandwidth Manager,
it is recommended that devices on the Ethernet side to use a wider IP subnet
mask that will cover the IP range of the controlled IP segment. Therefore,
the devices on Ethernet interface will not be limited by bandwidth control and
still can communicate with the IP segment. For example, if your IP segment
is set to 192.168.1.20 / 255.255.255.248, then the devices on the Ethernet
side should be 192.168.1.X / 255.255.255.0.
„
„
MAC address:
„
Port Range: This is available only in WISP router and AP Router mode. It
can limit the bandwidth by application ports.
„
Application: This option is available only in WISP router and AP Router
mode. It can limit the bandwidth of HTTP, FTP, BitTorrent, and eDonkey
traffic.
‰
Downlink Max:
units.
‰
Uplink Max:
To limit the bandwidth of one single MAC address.
Enter the speed you wish to limit the download traffic in kbps
Enter the speed you wish to limit the upload traffic in kbps units
Example 1: Total Bandwidth Control
In this example, the WHA-5500CPE is in Client Infrastructure mode connecting to a
remote AP. We want to limit the Bandwidth of the link to 2048Kbps download and
512kbps Upload.
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‰
Step 1 to 3: From Operation Mode menu, select “Setup” -> “Bandwidth Control”
1
2
3
‰
Step 4 to 7: Enable the Bandwidth Control and select the “Total Bandwidth
Control”. Then enter the “2048” for Total Downlink Speed and “512”kbps for
Total Uplink Speed. Click “Apply” to finish
4
5
6
7
„
Example 2: Per User Bandwidth Control
In this example, the WHA-5500CPE is Access Point mode. There is a wireless client
connecting to WHA-5500CPE with MAC address of 00:04:6F:11:11:11. We want to
limit the bandwidth of the wireless client to 1024 downstream and 512K upstream
using WHA-5500CPE’s Per-User Bandwidth Control.
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Step 1. Enable Bandwidth Control and select “Per User Bandwidth Control”
Step 2. Enter Description for this policy (Wireless Client)
Step 3. Select “MAC Address”, then enter the MAC address of the wireless client.
Step 4. Enter the downlink speed as “1024” and uplink speed as “512”.
Step 5. Click on “Add” button to add the bandwidth policy
Step 6. This new policy should appear on the button. You can enable/disable it.
1
2
3
4
5
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4.3 WDS Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WDS Settings
WDS Bridge mode can make Point-to-Point and Multi-Point connections. Because of its
faster performance, it is frequently used to build point-to-point bridge connection and
backbone networks. In a WDS network, each node can have up to 4 connections.
However, the total number of devices in a WDS network should not exceed 8. Currently,
the WDS Bridge mode can only use WEP encryptions policy.
TIPS: For step-by-step instructions on how to build a WDS bridge network, please be
sure to read through Chapter 9: WDS Bridge Example for details.
In this section, we will talk about the WDS Settings which is available only in WDS Bridge
(Pure MAC) mode. WDS Bridges are using BSSID (AP’s Wireless MAC address) to
authenticate each other. Therefore, it is necessary to know the remote Bridge’s wireless
MAC addresses. You can always do a “Site Survey” to find out the MAC Addresses.
When you click on WDS settings, the following screen will appear:
Here are the
encryption key
settings for WEP.
Please make sure
all bridges in the
WDS network enter
the same keys.
This is where you enter
the remote Bridge’s
information. The SSID
must be different between
each Bridge.
After you add a
remote Bridge, it
will be display
here. Up to 4
entries are
possible
‰
WEP Key: You can set up to 4 keys, each key can have different Key Length
and Key type. When you add an entry to the WDS setting and select WEP
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encryption, the system will ask you which key to use. All devices on the network
must have the same sets of keys, but each link can have use different key. We
recommend using WEP-152 whenever possible for better security.
‰
Adding a new WDS link
The WDS link are created by entering the remote Bridge’s information. This
process must be repeated on both side of the bridge.
z
Name: This is the name for the WDS Link.
own reference (i.e. WarehouseLink).
z
SSID: SSID is the network ID for the wireless link. If you have more than
one WDS link or if you want to make WDS connection with Mikrotik devices,
this field is required. Each WDS Link must have a different SSID name. If
you only have one WDS link, you can leave this field empty.
z
MAC Address: Please enter the remote bridge’s wireless MAC address in
this field. This wireless SSID can be found on the device label. You can
also use Site Survey function to assist you.
z
Select Security Settings: You can choose to use WEP encryption for better
security. It is necessary to enter the same set of keys in the same WDS
network. When you select WEP, the WHA-5500CPE will ask you to select
from one of the 4 keys. Please be sure to select the same key on both side
of the link.
z
Press Add to finish
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You can enter any name for your
4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
4.4 Router Mode Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup
This section will explain WAN port settings and other functions that are available only in
WISP router and AP Router mode.
4.4.1 WISP Router Mode
The WISP Router mode is also known as Client Router. The wireless side is connected to
the remote AP as in Client Infrastructure mode. Between the wireless and LAN is the IP
sharing router function. This is used to share WISP connection. The WAN is on the
wireless side.
WAN
LAN
4.4.2 AP Router Mode
In AP Router mode, the POE port of the WHA-5500CPE will turn into the WAN port. The
wireless interface will become the LAN side. It will turn WHA-5500CPE into a wireless
router. Since the Ethernet interface becomes WAN; if your PC is connected to the POE
port, the management IP will change to the WAN IP (192.168.2.1). The remote
management will be automatically turned on to allow you managing the device from the
POE WAN port.
LAN
WAN
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When you select the WISP Router or AP Router mode, additional wireless settings will
appear for WAN port settings.
4.4.3 WAN Port Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WAN Port Settings
The WHA-5500CPE support different authentication and IP assignment standards for the
WAN port. It includes fixed IP, DHCP, PPPoE and PPTP protocols. Please consult with
your ISP about what authentication type is used for the WAN port conection.
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„
Clone MAC Address: Some service provider (Cable Modem provider) lock to
certain MAC address. In this situation, the WAN port of WHA-5500CPE need to
clone the MAC address. Please check the “Clone MAC address” box and enter
the address that need to be cloned.
4.4.4 Dynamic DNS Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Dynamic DNS Settings
Dynamic DNS (DDNS) allows you to create a hostname that points to your dynamic IP or
static IP address or URL. WHA-5500CPE provide Dynamic DNS client using DynDNS,
please visit http://www.dyndns.org for detail.
4.4.5 Remote Management Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Remote Management
Remote Management allows administrator to manage the WHA-5500CPE from WAN side.
You can also change the management port and other settings here.
„
HTTP Port No:
„
Timeout: The default management timeout is 10 minutes. After timeout, the
WHA-5500CPE will ask you to login again. You can change the timeout value here.
The default port for HTTP is Port 80, you can change the value here
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„
HTTP Web Server Access:
You can enable or disable HTTP service from WAN side
„
HTTPS Web server Access:
from WAN side
You can enable or disable HTTPS Web Server Access
„
Response to WAN ping: You can disable or enable whether WHA-5500CPE will
response to PING command.
4.4.6 IP Routing Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> IP Routing Settings
The IP Routing Settings allows you to configure routing feature in the gateway
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„
Dynamic Routing:
Select the routing protocol scheme used for the router’s LAN / WAN port.
„
Static Routing:
This allows you to manually configure static network routes. Static routes will override
routes learned by standard routing protocol discover methods.
„
IP Routing Table:
To delete a static route from the table, select the route and click DELETE SELECTED.
Note: Changes to the routing table will take effect immediately.
4.4.7 DHCP Server
Operation Mode -> Setup -> IP Routing Settings
DHCP Server Settings is to assign private IP address to the devices in your local area
network (LAN). The default LAN IP address of WHA-5500CPE is 192.168.1.1, changing
WHA-5500CPE’s IP address will also change the DHCP server’s IP subnet.
You can also lock IP address to MAC address manually; the DHCP server will keep the IP
for the MAC address.
Change IP range
and IP Lease
Time here
Manually assign
MAC address to
IP here
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4.4.8 Multiple DMZ
Advanced Settings >> Multiple DMZ
Multiple DMZ opens all TCP/UDP ports to particular IP address on the LAN side. It allows
setting up servers behind the WHA-5500CPE.
Select a DMZ type and then enter the local DMZ IP address.
A DMZ server is a common term used to describe the default virtual server. If the DMZ
server is selected, Internet traffic not destined for a valid virtual server is redirected to this
privately addressed LAN client. This can be used together with a separate firewall device to
perform additional security functions.
4.4.9 Virtual Server Settings
Advanced Settings >> Virtual Setting
This allows you to specify one or more applications running on server computers on the
LAN that may be accessed by any Internet user. Internet data destined for the specified
public port will be directed to the specified private port number on the LAN client with the
specified private IP address. For step-by-step example on Virtual Server settings, please
go to section 10.2.2.
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
4.4.10 Special Applications
Advanced Setting >> Special Applications
Some Internet application such as Instant Messaging or games use groups of ports, and
are not easy to work behind a firewall. To work well with these special applications we will
open ports to let traffic pass through.
Note: You can use up to 3 sets of opened ports for a specific application. The opened ports
can be separated by a comma and no spaces are allowed (e.g. 2300-2305, 4300-4305,
5300-5305).
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4. Web Management-Wireless and WAN Settings
4.4.11 IP Filtering Settings
Advanced Setting>>IP Filtering Settings
IP filtering is simply a mechanism that decides which types of IP datagram will be
processed normally and which will be discarded.
This allows you to define rules for allowing / denying access from / to the Internet.
Please do set both inbound/outbound in order to get complete connection. Only inbound or
outbound will not allow to get response from the destination IP.
Disable IP filtering: No IP filtering is performed.
Grant IP access: Data traffic satisfying rules below are allowed/forwarded.
Deny IP access: Data traffic satisfying rules below are denied/filtered.
You can also define IP filtering rule, such as:
Name; IP Protocol; Apply to either Outbound to the Internet or Inbound from the Internet;
Source IP Address and Dest. (Destination) IP Address.
To grant or deny IP address, select ADD or Delete Selected.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5
5. Web
Management 2:
System Configuration,
Tools and Status
In this chapter, we will explain about System Configurations in web management interface.
Please be sure to read through Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and “Initial
Configurations” first. .
5.1 System Configuration
When you click on the “System Configuration” menu on the top menu bar, the following
screen will appear. The system configuration includes all non-wireless settings. We will
explain their functions here.
5.1.1 Device IP Settings
System Configurations>> Device IP Settings
The Device IP Settings screen allows you to configure the IP address and subnet of the
device. Although you can rely on a DHCP server to assign an IP address to the
WHA-5500CPE automatically, it is recommended that you configure a static IP address
manually in most applications.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
Assign Static IP to the Device
If you choose to assign the IP address manually, enable the checkbox of “Assign static IP
to this device” and then fill in the following fields
„
IP Address and IP Subnet Mask: Default values are 192.168.1.1 and
255.255.255.0 respectively. It is important to note that there are similar addresses
falling in the standard private IP address range and it is an essential security
feature of the device. Because of this private IP address, the device can no longer
be accessed (seen) from the Internet.
„
Gateway IP Address: Enter the IP address of your default gateway.
„
DNS Server: The Domain Name System (DNS) is a server on the Internet that
translates logical names such as “www.yahoo.com” to IP addresses like
66.218.71.80. In order to do this, a query is made by the requesting device to a
DNS server to provide the necessary information. If your system administrator
requires you to manually enter the DNS Server addresses, you should enter them
here.
„
Click APPLY to go to the next screen.
Use DHCP Client Protocol to Get IP automatically
If you choose to use a DHCP Server to acquire an IP address for the WHA-5500CPE
automatically, enable the checkbox “Use the DHCP client protocol to automatically get
the IP address for this device”. Then click Next to go to the next screen. As a reminder, you
might loss the IP address of WHA-5500CPE when IP is assigned dynamically.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.1.2 Time Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings
It is important that you set the date and time for your WHA-5500CPE so that the system log
will record the correct date and time information. We recommend you choose “Enable
NTP” so the time will be keep even after reboot. If your WHA-5500CPE is not connected
to Internet, please enter the time manually. Please remember to select your local time
zone and click “Apply” to finish.
5.1.3 Password Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings
To change password, please go to “System Configuration” -> “Password Settings” menu.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.1.4 System Management
System Configuration -> System Management
In this page, administrator can change the management parameters and disable/enable
management interface.
System Administration
„ HTTP Port No:
The default port for HTTP is Port 80, you can change the value here
„ Timeout: The default management timeout is 10 minutes. After timeout, the
WHA-5500CPE will ask you to login again. You can change the timeout value here.
„ HTTP Web Server Access:
You can enable or disable HTTP service from WAN side
„ HTTPS Web server Access:
from WAN side
You can enable or disable HTTPS Web Server Access
„ Response to WAN ping: You can disable or enable whether WHA-5500CPE will
response to PING command.
Telnet: Disable/Enable Telnet Interface.
UPnP: Click here to enable UPnP.
reason.
It is recommended not to open UPnP for security
Syslog: Syslog is an IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force - the Internet standards
body)-conformant standard for logging system events (RFC-3164). When the
WHA-5500CPE encounters an error or warning condition (ie., a log-in attempt with an
invalid password), it will create a log in the system log table. To be able to remotely view
such system log events, you need to check the Enable Syslog box and configure the IP
address of a Syslog daemon. When doing so, the WHA-5500CPE will send logged
events over network to the daemon for future reviewing.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
Syslog server IP address: System event messages generated by the wireless access
point will be sent to a Syslog daemon running on a server identified by this IP address
5.1.5 Ping Watchdog
System Configuration -> Ping Watchdog
The Ping Watchdog will ping remote IP addresses to make sure the wireless connection is
active, if not, it can either reconnect or reboot.
To prevent the AP from power recycling,
the PING watchdog will start 10 minutes after power up to prevent power recycle problem.
„
PING Frequency means: "How often the CPE will PING". For example, it will PING
once every "1" minute.
„
Fail Tries means "How many times fails before the CPE will judge the PING
failed". For example "2" means the CPE will reconnect if the PING doesn't respond for
2 times.
When you set the Ping Frequency to every "2" minutes and Fail Tries to "2". It means the
CPE will ping every 2 minutes, after the second failure, it will reconnect.
Actions:
„
„
Reconnect: the WHA-5500CPE will attempt to re-establish the connection.
recommend to use this option for WDS Bridge connection.
Reboot: the WHA-5500CPE will do a power recycle.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.1.6 Firmware Upgrade
System Configuration -> Firmware Upgrade
can upgrade the firmware of your WHA-5500CPE (the software that controls your
WHA-5500CPE’s operation). Normally, this is done when a new version of firmware offers
new features that you want, or solves problems that you have encountered with the current
version.
„
Upgrade Firmware:
To update the WHA-5500CPE firmware, first download the firmware from AirLive web
site to your local disk, and then from the above screen enter the path and filename of
the firmware file (or click Browse to locate the firmware file). Next, Click the Upgrade
button to start.
The new firmware will be loaded to your WHA-5500CPE. After a message appears
telling you that the operation is completed, you need to reset the system to have the
new firmware take effect.
Do not power off the device while upgrading the firmware.
It is recommended that you do not upgrade your WHA-5500CPE
unless the new firmware has new features you need or if it has a fix to
a problem that you’ve encountered.
5.1.7 Configuration Save and Restore
System Configuration -> Configuration Save and Restore
You can save system configuration settings to a file, and later download it back to the
WHA-5500CPE by following the steps.
Step 1
Select Configuration Save and Restore from the System Configurations menu.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
Step 2
Enter the path of the configuration file to save-to/restore-from (or click the Browse
button to locate the configuration file). Then click the SAVE TO FILE button to
save the current configuration into the specified file, or click the RESTORE FROM
FILE button to restore the system configuration from the specified file.
5.1.8 Factory Default
System Configuration -> Factory Default
You can reset the configuration of your WHA-5500CPE to the factory default settings.
Step 1 Select Factory Default from the System Configuration menu.
Step 2 Click YES to go ahead and restore the configuration to the factory default.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.2 Tools
5.2.5 Network Ping
Please assign a IP address or a domain name for ping function.
5.2.2 Network Traceroute
Please assign a IP address or domain name for traceroute function.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.3 Device Status
When you click on the “Device Status” on the top menu bar, the sub menu for device status
will appear.
5.3.1 Device Information
This page shows the general information about WHA-5500CPE such as firmware version,
device IP/MAC, WAN IP/MAC(in router modes), Gateway IP(in router modes), DNS IP…etc.
Below are some additional explanations on some status information of this page:
„
CPU Loading
„
Memory Information Display how much memory is used and free.
„
Firmware version: The first WHA-5500CPE firmware release is 1.00e10. In
general, AirLive will refer to its firmware as exx (such as e10) version on the release
note
„
Wireless MAC: This is the wireless MAC address (BSSID) of this AiMax5.
address to enter on the remote WDS Bridge for the WDS link.
„
Uptime: This is the time that the WHA-5500CPE has been running since last power
up.
„
ARP Table
Display the CPU usage.
Display the corresponding IP and MAC address Table.
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This is the
5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.3.2 Wireless Information
This page shows the information about wireless status such as current operation mode,
wireless traffic, error packets, RSSI, Remote device’s BSSD, connecting State, channel,
and encryption used.
5.3.3 Internet Information
This page shows the information about WAN port of the WHA-5500CPE. It includes the
type of WAN port authentication used and the IP address information about the WAN port.
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5. Web Management2: System Configuration, Tools and Status
5.3.4 Wireless Client Table
This function is available in AP mode and AP Router mode only. It displays the information
about wireless clients that are associated with WHA-5500CPE. It includes signal strength,
TX and RX data rate, MAC address, and the state.
5.3.5 System Log
The System Log displays the system activities, login, and system error report. If you need
to report a problem to Air Live, please be sure to send us the System Log information also.
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6. Command Line Interface
6
6. Command
Line Interface
In this chapter, we will explain commands that are available through Telnet interface. We
will provide descriptions for the commands, example settings and the WHA-5500CPE’s
response. The purpose for this chapter is to introduce available CLI commands only.
For detail descriptions on the concept and application of the settings, please refer to
chapter 4 and chapter 5.
Before reading this chapter, please go through Section 3.3 of Chapter 3. It contains
information on how to login Telnet. For quick reference, the login and password is as
bellowed:
„
Telnet
‰ Password: airlive
You can get a list of available commands by typing “help” at the command prompt.
You must remember to save the configurations by typing “save
config” at the command prompt after making changes, otherwise, the
configuration will be lost after reboot.
6.1 System Commands
„ ping <IP address>
This is the command
‰
‰
Here explains the usage
Purpose: to ping a remote IP address
of the command
Example:
Command> ping 192.168.1.1
Example
PING 192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1): 56 data bytes
command and
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=1.8 ms
response
64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=1.0 ms
„
change password
Purpose: Change login password
Example:
‰
‰
Command> change password 123
password is set to: 123
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
ftptest <ssid> 11a <channel>
Purpose: Test if a SSID’s connection is okay
Example:
Command> ftptest airlive 11a 40
Set SSID : airlive , mode = 11a , channel = 40 ok !
„
‰
‰
save config
Purpose: save configuration file.
making changes
Example:
Please remember to “save config” after
Command> save config
None
„
‰
‰
clear config
Purpose: Clear configuration to default
Example:
Command> clear config
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
Write flash block [/dev/mtd3]
Write file is [/etc/defsysconfig.conf]
Rebooting...
„
‰
‰
webservice <lan | wan> <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable or Disable Web management interface on LAN or WAN
Example:
Command> webservice lan enable
webservice from lan enable
„
‰
‰
site survey
Purpose: Site Survey display
Example:
Command> site survey
Please wait a moment for site survey...
ESSID
MAC Address Conn Mode Channel Turbo Super XR WME Signal Strength(dbm) Security Network
=====================================================================================
airlive
00:4f:79:90:00:27
A
36
-- *
-49
None
AP
airlive
00:4f:69:52:a1:ca
A
36
-- *
-61
None
AP
WHA-5500CPE-ap 00:4f:69:90:00:01
A
36
-- *
-56
None
AP
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
signal survey <bssid> <channel>
Purpose : Display continuous RSSI for the remote AP/Bridge
Example :
Command> signal survey 00-4f-69-52-a1-ed 36
BSSID
Channel
Signal Strength(dbm)
================================================
00-4F-69-52-A1-ED
36
-40
BSSID
Channel
Signal Strength(dbm)
================================================
00-4F-69-52-A1-ED
36
-40
…
.
6.2 Debugging Commands
This debugging commands are commands used for manufacturing testing process. If a
z_debug command looks similar to a Set command, please use the Set command instead.
„
‰
‰
z_debug http logout
Purpose : log out HTTP
Example :
Command> z_debug http logout
„
‰
‰
z_debug signature <enable/disable>
Purpose: Enable or disable signature check on firmware
Example:
Command> z_debug signature disable
„
‰
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
Signature check is now DISABLED!!!
z_debug add ssid <ssid>
Purpose: This command will replace the default ssid with the new one. It
will not add an additional SSID. We recommend to use the following
commands instead:
„ add ssid <ssidname> broadcast (enable/disable) to add a new SSID
„ set ssid <ssidname> to replace the current ssid name with a new one
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6. Command Line Interface
‰
Example:
Command> z_debug add ssid air1
„
z_debug reboot
Purpose: reboot your WHA-5500CPE
Example:
‰
‰
Command> z_debug reboot
Rebooting...
„
z_debug set port radio1 11a <ssid> <channel>
Purpose: Set SSID and Channel. We recommend using set commands
instead;
„ set ssid <ssid> : to set the ssid name
„ set rate mode <mode value>: set radio mode to 11a | supera_no_turbo
| supera_static_turbo.| supera_dynamic_turbo
‰
Example:
‰
Command> z_debug set port radio1 11a air2 64
6.3 Show Commands
Show Commands are command that show the settings and status of WHA-5500CPE
„
‰
‰
show arp table
Purpose: Show ARP Table
Example:
Command> show arp table
IP address
Flags HWaddress
Device
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------192.168.1.100
C
00:1D:60:5E:AE:A0
lan
„
‰
‰
show http
Purpose: Show HTTP service settings
Example:
Command> show http
HTTP service port: 80
HTTP session timeout: 10 minutes
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
show upnp
Purpose: Show UPnP information
Example:
Command> show upnp
UPnP is disabled
„
‰
‰
show mac
Purpose: show the MAC address table in MAC filter mode. This might
change to show the wireless MAC address of WHA-5500CPE in future
firmware release
Example:
Command> show mac
Filter Name
MAC address
-----------------------------------------------------ailrive
00-4f-62-24-12-34
„
‰
‰
show mac filter
Purpose: show mac address table in the Access Control List
Example:
Command> show mac filter
Filter Name
MAC address
------------------------------------------------hello
00-4f-62-24-12-34
airlive
00-4f-62-24-11-11
„
‰
‰
show mac filter mode
Purpose: Show whether the current MAC address is enable or not
Example:
Command> show mac filter mode
MAC filter mode: disable
„
‰
‰
show mac filter <string up to 16 characters>
Purpose: show mac filter status with the filter name
Example:
Command> show mac filter hello
Filter Name
MAC address
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6. Command Line Interface
hello
„
‰
‰
00-4f-62-24-12-34
show radius server
Purpose: Show radius server settings
Example:
Command> show radius server
RADIUS Server
State
IP/Port
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Primary
Disabled
0.0.0.0/1812
Secondary
Disabled
0.0.0.0/1812
RADIUS Server reattempt: 60 seconds
„
‰
‰
show radius server <primary | secondary>
Purpose: Show settings of primary or secondary radius server
Example:
Command> show radius server primary
RADIUS Server: primary
State: Disabled
Server IP: 0.0.0.0
Port Number: 1812
Shared Secret:
„
‰
‰
show log level
Purpose: show log level
Example:
Command> show log level
Log level is 8
„
‰
‰
show telnet / system
Purpose: show telnet management information and system status
Example:
Command> show telnet
Telnet session timeout: 0 minutes
Telnet port number: 23
Telnet state: enable
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6. Command Line Interface
Command> show system
System Name: WHA-5500CPE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------S/W Version:
1.00e09a
H/W Version:
S0A
System LAN MAC:
00-4F-79-90-00-16
Wireless MAC:
00-4F-79-90-00-15
WMAC-0:
„
‰
‰
00-4F-79-90-00-15
show rssi
Purpose: Show RSSI signal strength
Example:
Command> show rssi
Please wait a moment for site survey...
ESSID
MAC Address
Signal Strength(dbm)
=======================================================
airlive
0:4f:69:52:a1:ca
-59
WHA-5500CPE-ap
00:4f:69:90:00:01
-47
„
‰
‰
show mode
Purpose: Show what operation is AirMax currently set to
Example:
Command> show mode
operation mode: access point
„
‰
‰
show wireless setting
Purpose: Show wireless settings
Example:
Command> show wireless setting
Radio[1] operation mode: access point
ssid name
: air2
wireless state
: enable
ssid broadcast
: enable
radio[1] mode
: 11a
radio[1] channel
: 64
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
show wireless security
Purpose: Show current wireless security policy
Example:
Command> show wireless security
Radio1 security policy: none
„
‰
‰
show <wan | lan> settings
Purpose: Show LAN or WAN port IP settings
Example:
Command> show lan settings
Lan ip type
:
static
Lan ip address : 192.168.1.1
Lan ip netmask : 255.255.255.0
Lan ip gateway : 192.168.1.254
Lan ip dnsserv : 0.0.0.0
show firmware version
show vlan ssid list
show wds settings
show advanced wireless
show syslogd
„
‰
‰
show ratemode
Purpose: Show whether the AirMax is using 5MHz, 10MHz, or 20MHz
channel width
Example:
Command> show ratemode
Ratemode is Full(20Mhz);
„
‰
‰
show noise immunity
Purpose: Show the noise immunity setting
Example:
Command> show noise immunity
Noise immunity is enable
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6. Command Line Interface
6.4 Set Commands
The Set Commands are to make changes to the WHA-5500CPE’s settings
„
‰
‰
set http timeout <timeout value in minutes, 1-999>
Purpose: Set the timeout value for HTTP management
Example:
Command> set http timeout 10
HTTP timeout: 10 minutes
„
set system <contact |location> <string up to 60 characters>
Purpose: Set the system’s location and contact info
Example:
Command> set system location 60
System Location: 60
„
set system name <string up to 32 characters>
Purpose: Set system’s name
Example:
‰
‰
‰
‰
Command> set system name airlive
System Name: airlive
„
‰
‰
set mac filter mode <MAC filter mode, disabled/grant/deny>
Purpose: Set MAC filter mode or disable MAC filtering.
Example:
Command> set mac filter mode disabled
mac filter mode is set to disabled
„
‰
‰
set radius server reattempt <reattempt interval in minutes, now no limit
in seconds>
Purpose: set radius server reattempt interval in minutes
Example:
Command> set radius server reattempt 20
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RADIUS Server Reattempt Period: 20 Seconds
set telnet port <port number, 1-65535>
Purpose: change the telnet port numer
Example:
Command> set telnet port 23
Changing telnet port may cause current telnet connections to be lost.
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
Telnet port number: 23
„
‰
‰
set telnet timeout <timeout value in minutes, 0-999, 0 for no limit>
Purpose: Set Telnet management timeout
Example:
Command> set telnet timeout 10
Changing telnet timeout may cause current telnet connections to be lost.
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
Telnet session timeout: 10 minutes
„
‰
‰
set wmm qos <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable or Disable WMM QoS
Example:
Command> set wmm qos disable
set wmm qos disable successful!
„
‰
‰
set log level <1-7>
Purpose: Set the log level
Example:
Command> set log level 7
set log level 7 successful
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
set client isolation <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable or Disable client isolation / privacy seperator
Example:
Command> set client isolation disable
Set client isolation disable successful!
„
‰
set operation mode <AP |repeater| client | ad-hoc |bridge_infra|
wds_bridge | wisp | router>
Purpose: set or change operation mode
‰
Example:
Command> set operation mode AP
Operation mode is already setting!
Command> set operation mode wds_bridge
System should be reboot...
Are you sure ? ( y/n ) : y
„
‰
set <wan | lan> <webservice | ping> <enable |disable>
Purpose: enable/disable ping response or web server on the lan/wan side
‰
Example:
Command> set lan ping enable
set lan ping already enable
„
‰
set lan ip <ipaddress> sm <netmask> gw <gateway> dns <dns server>
Purpose: set LAN IP address such as IP, Subnet mask, gateway, and DNS
server
‰
Example:
Command> set lan ip 192.168.1.1 sm 255.255.255.0 gw 192.168.1.254 dns
168.95.1.1
killall: dnsmasq: no process killed
LAN IP address :
192.168.1.1
Netmask
:
255.255.255.0
Gateway
:
192.168.1.254
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6. Command Line Interface
DNS server
„
‰
‰
:
168.95.1.1
set <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable or Disable the wireless interface
Example:
Command> set enable
Radio1 enabled
„
‰
‰
set ssid <ssidname>
Purpose: Replace current main SSID name with a new one
Example:
Command> set ssid WHA-5500CPE
„
‰
‰
set ssid remotessid <remote ssidname> Repeater Mode Only
Purpose: Set the remote SSID name for repeater mode
Example:
Command> set ssid remotessid airlive2
„
‰
‰
set broadcast <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable or disable SSID broadcast
Example:
Command> set broadcast enable
Radio1 broadcast enabled
„
‰
set radio mode <radio mode value>
Purpose: set radio mode to 11a | supera_no_turbo | supera_static_turbo.|
supera_dynamic_turbo
‰
Example:
Command> set radio mode supera_no_turbo
Radio1 radio mode: supera_no_turbo
„
‰
‰
set channel <channel value>
Purpose: set wireless channel
Example:
Command> set channel 36
Radio1 channel: 36
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
set beacon interval <range:20-100>
Purpose: set beacon interval for wireless interface. For explanation on
advance wireless parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set beacon interval 100
Radio1 beacon internal: 100
„
‰
‰
set rts threshold <range:0-2347>
Purpose: set rts threshold. For explanation on advance wireless parameters,
please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set rts threshold 2347
Radio1 RTS threshold: 2347
„
‰
‰
set fragmentation <range:256-2346>
Purpose: set fragmentation value. For explanation on advance wireless
parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set fragmentation 2346
Radio1 fragmentation: 2346
„
‰
‰
set dtim interval <range:1-255>
Purpose: To set dtim interval value. For explanation on advance wireless
parameters, please refer to section 4.2.14
Example:
Command> set dtim interval 1
Radio1 DTIM interval: 1
„
‰
‰
set user limitation <range:1-100>
Purpose: To set the user limit for wireless interface
Example:
Command> set user limitation 100
Radio1 user limitation: 100
„
‰
‰
set age out time <range:1-1000>
Purpose: To set the age timeout for wireless clients.
Example:
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6. Command Line Interface
Command> set age out time 5
Radio1 age out time: 5
„
‰
‰
„
‰
‰
set transmit power <range: 0-24>
Purpose: To set the TX output power value of the radio
Example:
Command> set transmit power 20
Radio1 transmit power: 20
set data rate <best | 6~54>
Purpose: To set the date rate. For example, 54mbps, 36mbps….etc
Example:
Command> set data rate 54
Radio1 data rate: 54
„
‰
‰
set acktimeout <11A>
Purpose: To set the ACK timeout value
Example:
Command> set acktimeout 25
AckTimeOut for radio1: 11A=25
„
‰
‰
set vlan for ssid <enable | disable>
Purpose: Enable VLAN function
Example:
Command> set vlan for ssid enable
„
‰
‰
set diffserv marking <enable | disable>
Purpose: To enable diffserv marking function in multiple SSID & VLAN
configuration.
Example:
Command> set diffserv marking enable
„
‰
‰
set security <ssid> none
Purpose: To remove security policy from a SSID
Example:
Command> set security airlive none
Set Radio1 no security !
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
‰
set security <ssid> wep <key number> <64|128|152> <ascii | hex> <key
string> <defaultkey>
Purpose: To set the WEP security policy
Example:
Command> set security WHA-5500CPE wep 1 64 hex 1234567890
Radio1 authentication type : wep !
„
‰
‰
set security <ssid> <wpa|wpa2> <tkip|aes|both> interval <0~300>
Purpose: to set the WPA or WPA2 security policy
Example:
Command> set security WHA-5500CPE wpa2 tkip interval 300
Radio1 authentication type : wpa2 !
„
‰
‰
set security <ssid> <wpa-psk|wpa2-psk> <tkip|aes|both> interval
<0~300> <key string>
Purpose: to set the WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK security policy
Example:
Command> set security WHA-5500CPE wpa2-psk aes interval 300 12345678
Radio1 authentication type : wpa2-psk !
„
‰
‰
set ratemode <full | half | quarter>
Purpose:
Example:
Command> set ratemode full
Rate mode is Full(20Mhz)
„
‰
‰
set noise immunity <on | off>
Purpose: To enable/disable the noise immunity level
Example:
Command> set noise immunity on
Noise immunity is enable
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6. Command Line Interface
6.5 Enable/Disable Commands
Commands to enable or disable settings
„
‰
‰
( enable/disable ): <enable | disable> upnp
Purpose: To enable or disable UPnP
Example:
Command>enable upnp
(Upnp)descDocName: BD.xml
UPnP Daemon: Intializing UPnP with descDocUrl=http://192.168.1.1:80/BD.xml
UPnP Daemon: ipaddress=192.168.1.1 port=80
UPnP Daemon: conf_dir_path=/var/upnp
Initializing UPnP SDK ...
UPnP SDK Successfully Initialized.
Setting the Web Server Root Directory to /var/upnp
Succesfully set the Web Server Root Directory.
UpnpGetServerPort(): 49152
Registering the root device with descDocUrl http://192.168.1.1:49152/BD.xml
IGD root device successfully registered.
Advertisements Sent. Listening for requests ...
Command> disable upnp
Shutting down on signal 15...
UPnP is disabled
„
‰
‰
<enable | disable> syslogd
Purpose: To enable or disable syslog
Example:
Command> enable syslogd
Invalid configuration specified.
Command> disable syslogd
Syslogd is disabled
„
‰
‰
<enable | disable> radius server <primary | secondary>
Purpose: To enable or disable primary/secondary radius server
Example:
Command> enable radius server primary
Invalid configuration specified.
Command> enable radius server secondary
Invalid configuration specified.
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6. Command Line Interface
6.6 Add/Delete Commands
Commands to add or delete settings
„ ( add/delete ): add mac filter < Mnemonics Name> <MAC address,
XX-XX-XX-XX-X-XX>
‰ Purpose: to add an entry to the MAC address filter
‰ Example:
Command> add mac filter aaa 00-4f-62-24-12-34
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
mac filter aaa(00-4F-62-24-12-34) is added
„
‰
‰
delete mac filter < Mnemonics Name>
Purpose: to delete a mac filter entry
Example:
Command> delete mac filter aaa
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
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<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
mac filter aaa is deleted
„
‰
‰
delete wds <comment>
Purpose: To delete a WDS link
Example:
Command> delete wds bridge
delete wds <comment> successful!
„
‰
‰
add radius server primary
Purpose: to add a primary radius server
Example:
Command> add radius server primary
enter server IP:
192.168.1.100
enter port number (1~65535):
655
enter shared secret:
123
enable server (yes/no):
yes
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
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6. Command Line Interface
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
add radius server primary successfully
„
‰
‰
add radius server <primary | secondary>
Purpose: to add a primary or secondary radius server
Example:
Command> add radius server secondary
enter server IP:
192.168.1.200
enter port number (1~65535):
766
enter shared secret:
234
enable server (yes/no):
yes
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
killall: wpa_supplicant: no process killed
/etc/wlan/ap_service: 17: uname: not found
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_hal.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_rate_atheros.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_dfs.o
Using /lib/modules/2.4.25-LSDK-5.1.0.42/wlan/ath_ahb.o
<mapping sub-ioctl turbo to cmd 0x8BE0-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_installmode to cmd 0x8BE0-75>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslower to cmd 0x8BE0-76>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_threslow to cmd 0x8BE0-77>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbetter to cmd 0x8BE0-78>
<mapping sub-ioctl set_thresbest to cmd 0x8BE0-79>
<mapping sub-ioctl maccmd to cmd 0x8BE0-17>
<mapping sub-ioctl authmode to cmd 0x8BE0-3>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmin to cmd 0x8BE3-1>
<mapping sub-ioctl cwmax to cmd 0x8BE3-2>
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
RTNETLINK answers: No such file or directory
add radius server secondary successfully
„
‰
‰
add wds <comment> <mac>
Purpose: to add a WDS Link
Example:
Command> add wds bridge 00-4f-60-52-12-34
add wds <comment> <mac> successful!
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6. Command Line Interface
„
‰
add ssid <ssid name> broadcast <enable | disable>
Purpose: to add a new ssid (AP and AP Router mode) to the multiple SSID
list.
‰
Example:
Command> add ssid air03 broadcast enable
Add R1 ssid <air03> broadcast enable successful!
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
7
7. Application
Example:
Infrastructure
In this chapter, you will learn how to utilize WHA-5500CPE’s Access Point mode, Client
Infrastructure Mode, and Bridge Infrastructure mode in one application example. In
addition, you will also learn how to configure multiple SSID and bandwidth control.
7.1 Application Environment
In this application example, an WHA-5500CPE in Access Point mode is in the center of an
infrastructure topology with two virtual wireless networks. The first wireless network is the
AP-Client network and the second network is the Bridge network. Each wireless network
has its own SSID, security Policy and Bandwidth policy. On the left hand side is an
WHA-5500CPE in Bridge Infrastructure mode. On the right hand side are an
WHA-5500CPE (Client Mode), a notebook, and a PC.
Below is the general description about the devices of the network.
SSID: airliveclient
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
SSID: bridgeinf
Encryption:
WPA-PSK2
Device A: WHA-5500CPE in Access Point Mode
‰ Using multiple SSID to create 2 wireless network
„ airliveclient: A network for wireless clients with WPA-PSK security policy.
„ bridgeinf: A bridge network with WPA-PSK2 security policy
‰ Enable Per-User bandwidth Control for the “airliveclient” network
„ The wireless client network will be limited to a subnet of 6 IP addresses.
„ Each IP address will be limited to 512Kbps upload and 2MB download speed.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
Device B: WHA-5500CPE in Bridge Infrastructure Mode
‰ Using Total bandwidth Control to limit the Bridge traffic to 10Mbps both way.
‰ Use Site Survey wizard to make the connection in a simple one stop process.
Device C: WHA-5500CPE in Client Infrastructure Mode
‰ Connect to the Access Point using Client Infrastructure Multiple User mode.
‰ Use Site Survey to connect and associate with the AP.
7.2 Device A: Access Point Mode
SSID: airliveclient
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
Distance: 2000m
SSID: bridgeinf
Encryption:
WPA-PSK2
Distance: 2000m
The configuration of Device A involves the followings:
‰
Using multiple SSID to create 2 wireless network
„ airliveclient: A network for wireless clients with WPA-PSK security policy.
„ bridgeinf: A bridge network with WPA-PSK2 security policy
‰
Enable Per-User bandwidth Control for the “airliveclient” network
„ The wireless client network will be limited to a subnet of 6 IP addresses.
„ Each IP address will be limited to 512Kbps upload and 2Mbps download speed.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
7.2.1 Device A Wireless Settings
Step 1
Click on “setup” button on the “Operation Mode” page
Step 2 On the wireless setting page, please enter the SSID, Channel, and distance.
Then press “Apply” to make changes.
100
2000
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
Step 3 Click on the “Security Settings”. Then choose “WPA-PSK” Policy.
“airliveclientkey” as the pre-share key.
Enter the
airliveclientkey
Step 4 Go back to the wireless setting page and click on “Multiple SSID” button
100
2000
Step 5 Follow the procedure below to create a new SSID “bridgeinf”
1. Enter the SSID name “bridgeinf”
2. Select WPA-PSK as the security policy
3. Enter the pre-share key as “bridgeinfkey”
4. Click on “Apply” to add
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
1
2
3
4
7.2.2 Device A Bandwidth Management
This purpose is to limit the bandwidth of each wireless client in “airliveclient” network to
have a download bandwidth of 2048kbps and upload speed of 512kbps. We should set
the policy as followed.
‰
Set the Per-User Bandwidth Control by “IP Segment”. The IP segment here has
address of 192.168.1.100 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.248. The available host
IP addresses will be 192.168.1.96 to 192.168.1.02. If you are not familiar with IP
subnet calculation, please use an on-line IP calculator. Here is an example link:
http://www.subnet-calculator.com/
‰
Set the uplink as 512kbps, downlink as 2048mbps
Step 1
Select the “Bandwidth Control” from the “Operation Mode->Setup” menu
Step 2
Once you have entered the Bandwidth Control menu, please follow the steps
below
1.
Enable Bandwidth Control
2.
Select “Per-User Bandwidth Control.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
3.
Enter “for client” in description
4. Select “IP Segment.
subnet mask.
Enter 192.168.1.100 for IP, and “255.255.255.248” for
5. Enter 2048 for downlink and 512 for uplink
6. Click on “Add” to add the bandwidth policy.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Note: Because the Bandwidth Control will limit devices on both wireless and Ethernet
side, it is recommended to set the IP address of Ethernet side to have a larger IP scope so
it will not be limited by the IP segment policy. In this example, please set the devices on
the Ethernet side to have subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
7.3 Device B: Bridge Infrastructure Mode
SSID: airliveclient
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
Distance: 2000m
SSID: bridgeinf
Encryption:
WPA-PSK2
Distance: 2000m
The configuration settings on the Device B will be as followed
‰
Set it to “Bridge Infrastructure Mode”
‰
Use “Site Survey” function to associate and connect with the Device A.
‰
Set “Total Bandwidth Control” to limit the bandwidth to 10Mbps both upstream and
downstream
7.3.1 Device B Wireless Settings
Step 1
Select “Bridge Infrastructure” mode and Click on “change mode” button
1
2
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
Step 2
Enter the Network ID(SSID) and distance information.
Then click on “Apply”
Step 3 Click on “Site Survey” in wireless settings page and the following screen will
appear. Select “Bridgeinf”, then press “ASSOCIATE” button to connect.
Step 4 The WHA-5500CPE will prompt you to enter security policy information.
WPA2-PSK and enter “bridgeinfkey” for Pre-Shared Key.
Select
Step 3 Click on “Apply”. After a few seconds, the following screen will appear to show
successful connection.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
7.3.2 Device B Total Bandwidth Control
Step 1
Select “Bandwidth Control” from the wireless setting page.
Step 2
Enable Bandwidth Control, then select Total Bandwidth Control. Enter
10000Kbps (10Mbps) for both downlink and uplink bandwidth. Click on Apply to
finish.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
7.4 Device C: Client Infrastructure Mode
SSID: airliveclient
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
Distance: 2000m
SSID: bridgeinf
Encryption:
WPA-PSK2
Distance: 2000m
Device C: WHA-5500CPE in Client Infrastructure Mode
‰ Set device IP to 192.168.1.100 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.248
‰ Connect to the Access Point using Client Infrastructure Multiple User mode.
‰ Use Site Survey to connect and associate with the AP.
7.4.1 Device C IP Address
Step 1 Go to “System Configuration -> Device IP settings”. Select “Assign Static IP to
this device”. Then enter the IP address and Subnet Mask as bellowed. Click Apply when
finished.
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
7.4.2 Device C Wireless Settings
Step 1
Go to “Operation Mode” menu. Select “Client Infrastructure”, and then click on
“Change Mode” button.
1
2
Step 2
Press “Setup” to enter the wireless settings page.
information and click on “APPLY” button.
Enter the distance
3
1
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7. Application Example: Infrastructure
Step 3
Press “Site Survey” button, the following page should appear.
“airliveclient” and press “Associate” button to connect
Select
Step 4 The WHA-5500CPE will prompt you to enter security policy information.
WPA-PSK and enter “airliveclientkey” for Pre-Shared Key.
Select
Step 5 Click on “Apply”. After a few seconds, the following screen will appear to show
successful connection.
You have now setup a successful Infrastructure network with WHA-5500CPE in Access
Point, Bridge Infrastructure, and Client Infrastructure modes
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
8
8. Application
Example 2:
Bridge Network
Before reading this chapter, please read section 4.3 first on WDS settings. In this chapter,
you will learn to how to build a WDS Bridge network by following our step by step example.
In addition, we will talk about the general concepts and knowledge about building a long
distance connection.
This chapter is divided into 3 sections
‰
8.1: Preparation for Building Outdoor Bridge Networks: This section provides
basic knowledge about building long distance outdoor bridge connection.
‰
8.2: WDS Bridge vs. Bridge Infrastructure: Here we will discuss the
differences between the 2 bridge mode.
‰
8.3: WDS Bridge Network Example: A step-by-step guide to building a multiple
link Bridge network.
8.1 Preparation for Building Outdoor Bridge Networks
1.
Write down the WLAN MAC address in advance
Please remember to write down the WLAN MAC addresses of the AP for installation.
The WDS bridge require to enter remote Bridge’s MAC address for WDS
authentication.
2.
Always do a Google Earth search on the intended installation before departing
Please get information on location, elevation, and distance between the points of your
installation site
3.
Bring a pair of high powered binoculars for site survey
You might often find that the installation points are difficult to find over long distance.
A pair of hi powered binocular will help finding the objects. Look for landmarks that
are easy to identify.
4.
Bring Long Distance Walkie-Talkie System
There are hi-powered offering that can work over distance of 5km or more.
Communication is absolutely necessary on both sides during installation.
5.
You need a clear Line of sight
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
More than 60% of First Fresnel Zone must be cleared for acceptable performance.
6.
Secured Mounting is important
If the mounting is not secured and shakes during wind, the performance might be
drastically reduced.
7.
Remember to set correct Distance for long distance connection
Without setting the correct distance parameter (or ACKtimeout), the Bridge might not
even transmit data at all.
8.
Use just enough output power
Excessive output power not only creates serious interference for everyone, it actually
can reduce the performance. An RSSI value around 60dB provides the optimal
performance.
9.
Always do a site survey for antenna alignment
Most AirLive APs have site survey and signal survey function. It is important that the
antennas are aligned properly. If you are setting up 5GHz bridge, please use “11a”
mode first for antenna alignment. You can change to Super or Turbo mode after the
connection is established.
10. Use the correct Super or Turbo modes
•
11a mode (normal-A): This is the IEEE standard for WiFi operating in 5GHz
frequency band. 11a is the most stable mode. If you are getting packet loss or
disconnection using Super-A orTurbo-A mode. Please use 11a mode instead.
•
SuperA without Turbo: Super-A adds Bursting and Compression to increase the
speed over 11a mode. If you live in countries that prohibit the channel binding
technology (i.e. Europe), you should choose “Super-A without Turbo) if you need
more speed than 11a mode. However, this mode is not as stable as 11a mode or
Super-A with Turbo-A modes.
•
Super-A with Static Turbo: Turbo mode uses channel binding technology to
increase the speed further over Super-A and 11-A mode. This mode might not be
allowed in countries that prohibit channel binding (i.e. some EU countries). This
mode will always turn on the turbo mode in al conditions
•
Super-A with Dynamic Turbo: Dynamic Turbo mode will be turn on only when
adjacent channel is not used. It is also know as intelligent turbo mode. This mode
might not be allowed in countries that prohibit channel binding (i.e. some EU
countries).
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
11. For multi-point connection, use bandwidth control to manage the variable
distance problem
Using ACKtimeout for point-to-point connection is no problem. However, for
point to multi-point connection, it becomes a problem at the center point. In the
diagram below, the WHA-5500CPE at point A is the center hub. While wireless
clients at B, C,and D can set correct ACKtimeout values to point A, the center AP
can set only one Acktimeout value.
To illustrate this problem; when you set the ACKtimeout at Point A to 2km distance.
The likely result will be Point B will get about 90% of the bandwidth, Point C gets 10%,
and Point D gets nothing at all.
To solve this problem, please use total bandwidth control at point B, C, D to limit the
bandwidth to about 40% of total bandwidth each maximum. Then set the AP’s(Point A)
ACKtimeout value to 3km distance (the furthest point). All 3 points should then get
acceptable share of the bandwidth.
12. Use XR mode when you can’t connect with the extra sensitivity
Atheros eXtended Range mode will improve the AP’s receiver sensitivity to as high as
-105dB. However, when this mode is used, the performance may be reduced greatly.
8.2 WDS Bridge vs. Bridge Infrastructure
When you want to build a bridge connection, there are 2 choices with WHA-5500CPE:
‰
WDS Bridge (Pure MAC): WDS Bridge mode can make Point-to-Point and
Multi-Point connections. It also delivers faster performance than infrastructure
networks. In a WDS network, each node can have up to 4 connections but the total
number of devices should not exceed 8. Currently, the WDS Bridge mode can only
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
use WEP encryptions policy.
‰
Bridge Infrastructure: Bridge Infrastructure mode connects to AP mode to form a
star topology. Bridge Infrastructure mode can not make a Point-to-Point connection.
However, it works with WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK encryption. This mode is also
unknown as Client Mode with MAC Address Transparency.
When to use which bridge mode:
‰
WDS Bridge Mode:
„ When you making point-to-point connection. For example, when you build
wireless bridge network between office and warehouse.
„ When you require fast performance
„ When you require multiple star topologies.
‰
Bridge Infrastructure
„ When you are connection both Bridge network and wireless client to the remote
Access Point
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
„
When you require more advance security like WPA and WPA2
TIPS: For step-by-step instruction on how to setup Bridge Infrastructure mode, please go
to Chapter 8 Application Example: Infrastructure Mode.
8.3 WDS Bridge Network Example
In this WDS Bridge example, you will learn how to:
‰
‰
‰
‰
Setup the WDS settings
Set to use different encryption key for different Link
SSID’s function for WDS bridge
PING watchdog to maintain the WDS Link.
There are total of 3 bridges; with Bridge1 in the middle of Bridge 2 and Bridge 3.
‰
The link between Bridge 1 and Bridge 3 will be using WEP Key 1 with SSID airlive1-3.
‰
The link between Bridge 1 and Bridge 2 will be using WEP Key2 with SSID airlive1-2.
WDS Bridge 1 Settings
1.
Enter the WEP Encryption Keys. You can enter 4 keys with different key-length
and key type. In this example, we have 4 WEP keys with WEP152-HEX,
WEP152-ASCII, WEP128-ASCII, and WEP64-ASCII. Click on “Apply” after
entering the keys.
2.
Adding the first WDS Link to WDS Bridge 3
„
Name: WDS3
„
SSID: airlive1-3
„
MAC address: you should enter the MAC address of WDS Bridge 3:
00-4f-79-90-00-23
„
Select Security Policy:
Select “WEP” encryption.
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The WHA-5500CPE will ask
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
you to select which key to use. You can select same key or different key for
different WDS link (however, both side of the same link must use the same key).
In this case, the Link between Bridge 1 and 3 is using Key1.
„
Click on “Add” to add the WDS Link.
1
2
3.
Adding the second WDS Link to WDS Bridge 2
„
Name: WDS2
„
SSID: airlive1-2
„
MAC address: please enter the MAC address of WDS Bridge2:
00-4f-79-90-00-14
„
Select Security Policy: Select “WEP” encryption. The WHA-5500CPE will ask
you to select which key to use. The Link between Bridge 1 and 3 is using Key2.
„
Click on “Add” to add the WDS Link.
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
The following table will be displayed to show the added WDS links:
4.
Setup the PING watchdog. Ping watchdog will reboot or reconnect the
WHA-5500CPE when the remote device does not respond to PING command.
helps maintain the WDS Link. Please setup the PING watchdog according to
graphic below:
192
192
168
168
1
1
It
2
3
.
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
WDS Bridge 2 Settings
1.
Enter the WEP Encryption Keys. In this example, we have 4 WEP keys with
WEP152-HEX, WEP152-ASCII, WEP128-ASCII, and WEP64-ASCII. Click on
“Apply” after entering the keys.
2.
Adding the WDS Link to WDS Bridge 1
„
Name: WDS1
„
SSID: airlive1-2
„
MAC address: you should enter the MAC address of WDS Bridge 1:
00-4f-79-90-00-0b
„
Select Security Policy: Select “WEP” encryption. The WHA-5500CPE will ask
you to select which key to use. You can select same key or different key for
different WDS link (however, both side of the same link must use the same key).
In this case, the Link between Bridge 1 and 2 is using Key2.
„
Click on “Add” to add the WDS Link.
1
2
3.
Setup the PING watchdog.
below:
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Please setup the PING watchdog according to graphic
118
8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
192
168
1
1
.
WDS Bridge 3 Settings
1.
Enter the WEP Encryption Keys. In this example, we have 4 WEP keys with
WEP152-HEX, WEP152-ASCII, WEP128-ASCII, and WEP64-ASCII. Click on
“Apply” after entering the keys.
2.
Adding the WDS Link to WDS Bridge 1
„
Name: WDS1
„
SSID: airlive1-3
„
MAC address: you should enter the MAC address of WDS Bridge 1:
00-4f-79-90-00-0b
„
Select Security Policy: Select “WEP” encryption. The WHA-5500CPE will ask
you to select which key to use. You can select same key or different key for
different WDS link (however, both side of the same link must use the same key).
In this case, the Link between Bridge 1 and 3 is using Key1.
„
Click on “Add” to add the WDS Link.
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8. Application Example2: Bridge Network
1
2
4.
Setup the PING watchdog.
below:
Please setup the PING watchdog according to graphic
192
168
1
1
.
After the above settings, the 3 WDS bridges should connect properly. Be sure to set
the Distance parameter for long distance connection.
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
9
9. Application
Example 3:
Router and Repeater
In this chapter, you will learn how to use Repeater mode and WISP Router mode in one
network example. In addition, some router settings such as how to setup virtual server will
also be demonstrated.
9.1 Application Environment
In the following application, the network is consisted of an Outdoor AP in the center, an
WHA-5500CPE in WISP Router mode on the left, and a WHA-5500CPE in Repeater mode
on the right.
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.254
FTP Server:
192.168.2.100
SSID: OutdoorAP
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
192.168.1.1
WHA-5500CPE in WISP Mode
‰ Make a wireless connection on the wireless WAN side to the Outdoor AP
‰ Use Site Survey wizard to establish connection
‰ Create a virtual server to LAN side FTP Server at 192.168.2.100
WHA-5500CPE in Repeater Mode
‰ Repeat the signal from Outdoor AP. On the WHA-5500CPE settings the Remote AP’s
SSID will be “Outdoor AP”
‰ On the wireless LAN side, the SSID will become “airlive”
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
9.2 WHA-5500CPE in WISP Router Mode
The following is the configuration procedure for the WHA-5500CPE in WISP Router Mode:
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Change the WHA-5500CPE to WISP Router Mode
Change the LAN IP subnet to 192.168.2.X
Change the WAN port IP
Use Site Survey to connect with the Outdoor AP
Open Virtual Server to FTP server on the LAN side
192.168.1.100
FTP Server:
192.168.2.100
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.1
SSID: OutdoorAP
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
9.2.1 WISP Router: Wireless Settings
Step 1
Go to “Operation Mode” menu. Select “WISP Router”, and then click on
“Change Mode” button.
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
Step 2
Go to “System Configurations -> Device IP settings”. Change the LAN IP
address to “192.168.2.1”. Changing this IP address will also change the DHCP
IP range to 192.168.2.x subnet. Note: Please make sure your PC’s IP address
is also changed to 192.168.2.x subnet in order to configure the WHA-5500CPE.
Step 3
Go to “Operation Mode -> Setup” to enter the wireless settings.
AP” and click on the “Associate” button
Step 4
WHA-5500CPE will prompt you to enter the security policy.
and enter “outdoorapkey” for the Pre-Shared Key.
123
Select “Outdoor
Select “WPA-PSK”
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
Step 5 Click on “Apply”. After a few seconds, the following screen will appear to show
successful connection.
9.2.2 WISP Router: WAN Port and Virtual Server
Objective:
1. Change WAN port’s IP address to 192.168.1.100
2. open a virtual server port to the FTP server at 192.168.2.100.
Step 1
Go to “Operation Mode” menu, click on “Setup” button.
page, selecct “WAN port” button.
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On the wireless settings
9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
Step 2
On the WAN port setting pave, Enter the Static IP information as bellowed:
Step 3
Go to “Operation Mode” menu, click on “Setup” button.
page, choose “Virtual Server” button.
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
Step 4
Select “FTP” for Service Name. Enter 192.168.2.100 for the FTP server’s IP
address. Then click on “Add” to finish
Step 5
Once the virtual server is added, it will be displayed in the boxed area.
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
9.3 WHA-5500CPE in Repeater Mode
The following is the configuration procedure for the WHA-5500CPE in Repeater:
‰
‰
‰
Change the WHA-5500CPE to Repeater Mode
Use “Site Survey” function to find remote AP with SSID “OutdoorAP”, then establish
connection
The local wireless network’s SSID is airlive.
192.168.1.100
FTP Server:
192.168.2.100
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.1
SSID: OutdoorAP
Encryption:
WPA-PSK
9.3.1 Repeater Router: Wireless Settings
Step 1
Go to “Operation Mode” menu. Select “Repeater”, and then click on “Change
Mode” button.
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9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
Step 2
Click on the “Setup” button and the wireless setting page will appear.
take a look at the description on the graphic below
Enter the
SSID of the
remote AP
that you
want
WHA-5500
CPE to
repeat
Local wireless
LAN’s SSID.
This can be
the same or
different from
the remote
AP’s SSID.
In this
example,
please enter
airlive for
local SSID.
The wireless
security
policy must
be the same
as the
remote AP
Step 3
Click on Site Survey button, the following screen will appear. Choose
“OutdoorAP”, and then click on “Associate” button to connect.
Step 4
WHA-5500CPE will prompt you to enter the security policy.
and enter “outdoorapkey” for the Pre-Shared Key.
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Please
Use Site
Survey
wizard to
find the
remote AP
and make
connection
Select “WPA-PSK”
9. Application Example3: Routers and Repeater
Step 5 Click on “Apply”. After a few seconds, the following screen will appear to show
successful connection.
Now you should have established successful WISP Router and Repeater connections.
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10. Emergency Firmware Recovery
10
10. Emergency
Firmware
Recovery
The WHA-5500CPE features an Emergency Recovery function in the bootloader to
recovery the AP in case of a firmware crashed.
When you can’t access the
WHA-5500CPE, please first try to repower the CPE or restore the settings to default. You
should find the CPE at 192.168.1.1.
If it still can not solve the problem, you can try to recover the CPE using the method
described in this chapter. Do not power off the WHA-5500CPE or your PC during process.
Please read through this chapter carefully before attempting to perform the upgrade. If the
WHA-5500CPE is damaged by improper use of this procedure, it will void your warranty.
It is recommended to have your dealer or distributor performing this procedure.
10.1 How Emergency Upgrade Works
The WHA-5500CPE’s flash memory is divided into “firmware” and “bootloader” area. The
bootloader area will check if the AP’s firmware is crashed at each bootup. If it detects the
firmware is crashed, the AP will try to download the firmware file “zImage” from remote
TFTP server(with IP address 192.168.1.254) automatically. Therefore, you must prepare
a PC with TFTP server software before performing the upgrade procedure.
10.2 Emergency Upgrade Procedure
1.
Set your PC’s IP address to 192.168.1.254 and connect your PC directly to the
WHA-5500CPE.
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10. Emergency Firmware Recovery
2.
Set the PC as TFTP server, IP address of PC is 192.168.1.254, subnet mask is
255.255.255.0.
3.
We recommend the freeware of tftp server, such as “tftpd32”.
4.
Run the TFTP server application.
Fig. tftpd32 application main window and setting window.
5.
Assign the tftp folder in the tftp server. Click on “browse” the folder to select the
directory
Fig. tftpd32 application: Click on “browse” the folder to select the directory
6.
Copy firmware file into the tftp server folder.
7.
Rename this firmware file as “zImage” without file name extension. Please make
sure the letter case match exactly. To check if the file is available in the tftpd32 folder,
please click in tftpd32 main page “Show Dir”.
Fig. “Show Dir” to check available files in tftp server folder
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10. Emergency Firmware Recovery
8.
Power on the WHA-5500CPE again. If firmware crashed, the device will scan the
192.168.1.254 for TFTP server and read the tftp upload file.
9.
Wait for about 20 seconds, a pop-up window shows the firmware repair progress
screen.(Shown as Fig. 3)
Fig.. Tftpd32 show at the beginning of firmware repair progress.
Do not power off the PC or the WHA-5500CPE during this process!
Any disconnection or interruption can damage the WHA-5500CPE
permanently.
10. Device will continue proceeding. If you click on the “log viewer” of tftpd32, you can see
progress of work shown as Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 Repair progress shown in tftpd32 syslog Log viewer
11. Please wait for 5 minutes for the device to reboot. When finish rebooting, the wireless
LED will be on. The device can then be accessed again at 192.168.1.1. If the
WHA-5500CPE’s not accessible after 5 minutes, please power reboot the
WHA-5500CPE.
12. Open your web browser and type “192.168.1.1” to confirm the WHA-5500CPE is
restored.
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11. Frequent Asked Questions
11
11. Frequent
Asked
Questions
In this chapter, we will address some frequent asked questions about WHA-5500CPE
Question:
I forgot my password or the IP address of WHA-5500CPE.
Answer:
Please restore your settings to default by press the reset button for more than
5 seconds. You should be able to find your WHA-5500CPE at 192.168.1.1
with password “airlive”.
====================================================================
Question:
Where is Super Channels for WHA-5500CPE?
Answer:
Please make sure you have the license to use the Super Channels. When
you select “All Channels” as the Regulatory Domain, the Super Channels will
appear on your channel list.
====================================================================
Question:
I heard WHA-5500CPE can limit the bandwidth of BitTorrent and eDonkey
traffic. But I don’t see the option on the Bandwidth Control.
Answer:
The option to limit bandwidth by application or port is available only on WISP
router and AP Router modes.
====================================================================
Question:
How can I make connection with Mikrotik AP?
Answer:
The WHA-5500CPE can connect with Mirkrotik AP using Bridge Infrastructure
Mode(Supports WEP, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK), Client Infrastructure mode
(support WEP, WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK) and WDS Bridge mode (support
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11. Frequent Asked Questions
WEP). If using Bridge Infrastructure mode (WDS station), please enable
“WDS Dynamic” on Mikrotik’s “AP Bridge” mode. If using WEP, please
choose “Static Key Required” on the Mirkrotik setting. For step-by-step
example, please visit AirLive.com’s support page at:
http://www.airlive.com/support/support_1.jsp. Type “WHA-5500CPE” at the
support search.
====================================================================
Question:
When I plug in the POE cable and power adapter, the WHA-5500CPE’s power
LED is not on?
Answer:
Please make sure you have connected the PoE cable to the correct port on
the DC injector. Moreover, you should use an Ethernet cable with 4 twisted
pairs (CAT5 or better) for POE cable.
====================================================================
Question:
When I use an external antenna with WHA-5500CPE?
Answer:
Yes, you will need our RG-178MXFN converting cable. Please visit the link
for detail procedure:
http://69.64.87.53/airlive_fileserver/uploads/FAQ/WHA-5500CPE_To_Externa
l_Antenna.pdf
====================================================================
Question:
I tried the Emergency Upgrade procedure. But it doesn’t work, why?
Answer:
Please make sure the firmware file is renamed to “zImage” without any file
extension. The file name has to match exactly with the big capital “I”.
====================================================================
Question:
Where is the signal survey function that displays the RSSI value continuously?
Answer:
The “Signal Survey” function is inside the Site Survey function.
access from “Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey” menu.
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You can
11. Frequent Asked Questions
====================================================================
Question:
When do I use Per-User Bandwidth Control by IP, MAC, or IP segment?
Answer:
In general, IP address control limits the devices on the end node (i.e. PC and
WISP router). MAC address control can limit the traffic of a AP/CPE in
wireless client mmode.
‰ IP address: When you want to limit the bandwidth of a single notebook
computer, PC, or WISP router.
‰ MAC address: When you want to limit the bandwidth of a remote
AP/CPE in Client mode. For example, another WHA-5500CPE in client
mode
‰ IP Segment:: When you want to limit the bandwidth of an entire IP range.
For example, all the PCs using the DHCP server to get IP addresses.
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12. Specifications
12
12. Specifications
The specification of WHA-5500CPE is subject to change without notice. Please use the
information with caution.
12.1 Hardware Features
12.1.1 General Hardware Feature
„
Atheros AR-2313 + AR-5112 chipset
„
802.11a/Super A/Turbo-A mode support (Atheros Proprietary)
„
4MB Flash, 32MB SDRAM
„
RoHS compliant
„
One 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Port / PoE Port with Auto MDI/MDI-X support
„
802.3af 48V
„
802.11h compatible
„
DFS and DFSII compliant
„
20dBm Transmit Output power
„
Rain and splash proof housing
„
Metal Wall / Pole Mount Kit
12.1.2 Antenna
„
Integrated 18 dBi patch directional antenna
„
H-Plane Coverage Angle: 13.5° - 15.5 degree in the forward direction
„
E-Plane Coverage Angle: 13° - 16° degree in the forward direction
12.1.3 Power Supply
„
Power Adapter Voltage : input 100~240Vac/50~60Hz , output 12V/1A
„
POE Adapter, DC Injector provided
12.1.4 Dimension and Weight
„
L x W x H : 225mm x 122mm x 225mm
„
Weight :920 g(without Mounting kit)
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12. Specifications
12.2 Radio Specifications
12.2.1 Frequency Band
„
5.15 to 5.25GHz: U-NII Low and ETSI Band1
„
5.25 to 5.35GHz: U-NII Mid and ETSI Band2
„
5.47 to 5.725GHz: U-NII World Wide and ETSI Band3
„
5.745 to 5.825GHz, U-NII Upper Band
12.2.2 Rate and Modulation
„
Data Rate :
„
Modulation: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54Mbps
12.2.3 TX Output Power
„
54 Mbps @ 17 dBm
„
48 Mbps @ 18 dBm
„
36 Mbps @ 19 dBm
„
6, 9, 12, 18, 24 Mbps @ 20 dBm
12.2.4 Receiver Sensitivity
„
54Mbps@-71 dBm
„
12Mbps@-88 dBm
„
6Mbps@-90 dBm
12.2.5 Supported WLAN Mode
„
11a mode
„
SuperA without Turbo
„
SuperA with Dynamic Turbo
„
SuperA with Static Turbo
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12. Specifications
12.3 Software Feature
12.3.1 Operation Mode
„
Access Point Mode (AP mode)
„
Client Infrastructure Mode
„
Client Adhoc Mode
„
WDS Bridge Mode
„
Bridge Infrastructure Mode
„
Repeater Mode
„
WISP Router Mode
„
AP Router Mode
12.3.2 Management Interface
„
Web HTTP
„
Secured Web (HTTPS)
„
Telnet (CLI)
12.3.3 Channel Width (Rate Mode)
„
Turbo: 40Mhz
„
Full: 20 MHz (default)
„
Half: 10 MHz
„
Quarter: 5 MHz
12.3.4 Advance Functions
„
Site Survey with RSSI Signal Survey
„
Total Bandwidth and Per-User Bandwidth Management
„
Noise Immunity
„
Multiple SSID and Tag VLAN
„
QoS (802.11e WMM)
„
Wi-Fi, WPA compatible interoperability
„
WPA with PSK/TKIP/AES support ,WPA2 support
„
Privacy Separator support
„
Support adjustable output power
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12. Specifications
„
152-bit WEP support (Atheros Proprietary)
„
ACK Timeout Adjustment
„
Bootloader Protection and Emergency Firmware Upload Code
„
Radius Supported
„
Firmware upgrade and configuration backup via Web
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13. Wireless Network Glossary
13
13. Wireless
Network
Glossary
The wireless network glossary contains explanation or information about common terms
used in wireless networking products. Some of information in this glossary might be
outdated, please use with caution.
802.11a
An IEEE specification for wireless networking that operates in the 5 GHz frequency range
(5.15 GHz to 5.850 GHz) with a maximum of 54 Mbps data transfer rate. The 5 GHz
frequency band is not as crowded as the 2.4 GHz band. In addition, the 802.11a have 12
non-overlapping channels, comparing to 802.11b/g's 3 non-overlapping channels. This
means the possibility to build larger non-interfering networks. However, the 802.11a deliver
shorter distance at the same output power when comparing to 802.11g.
802.3ad
802.3ad is an IEEE standard for bonding or aggregating multiple Ethernet ports into one
virtual port (also known as trunking) to increase the bandwidth.
802.3af
This is the PoE (Power over Ethernet) standard by IEEE committee. 803.af uses 48V
POE standard that can deliver up to 100 meter distance over Ethernet cable.
802.11b
International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band
(2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput up to 11 Mbps.
802.1d STP
Spanning Tree Protocol. It is an algorithm to prevent network from forming. The STP
protocol allows net work to provide a redundant link in the event of a link failure. It is
advise to turn on this option for multi-link bridge network.
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13. Wireless Network Glossary
802.11d
Also known as “Global Roaming”. 802.11d is a standard for use in countries where
systems using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to operate.
802.11e
The IEEE QoS standard for prioritizing traffic of the VoIP and multimedia applications.
The WMM is based on a subset of the 802.11e.
802.11g
A standard provides a throughput up to 54 Mbps using OFDM technology. It also
operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band as 802.11b. 802.11g devices are backward
compatible with 802.11b devices.
802.11h
This IEEE standard define the TPC (transmission power control) and DFS(dynamic
frequency selection) required to operate WiFi devices in 5GHz for EU.
802.11i
The IEEE standard for wireless security. 802.11i standard includes TKIP, CCMP, and
AES encryption to improve wireless security. It is also know as WPA2.
802.1Q Tag VLAN
In 802.1Q VLAN, the VLAN information is written into the Ethernet packet itself. Each
packet carries a VLAN ID(called Tag) as it traveled across the network. Therefore, the
VLAN configuration can be configured across multiple switches. In 802.1Q spec, possible
4096 VLAN ID can be created. Although for some devices, they can only view in frames
of 256 ID at a time.
802.1x
802.1x is a security standard for wired and wireless LANs. In the 802.1x parlance, there are
usually supplicants (client), authenticator (switch or AP), and authentication server (radius
server) in the network. When a supplicants request a service, the authenticator will pass
the request and wait for the authentication server to grant access and register accounting.
The 802.1x is the most widely used method of authentication by WISP.
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13. Wireless Network Glossary
Adhoc
A Peer-to-Peer wireless network. An Adhoc wireless network do not use wireless AP or
router as the central hub of the network. Instead, wireless client are connected directly to
each other. The disadvantage of Adhoc network is the lack of wired interface to Internet
connections. It is not recommended for network more than 2 nodes.
Access Point (AP)
The central hub of a wireless LAN network. Access Points have one or more Ethernet
ports that can connect devices (such as Internet connection) for sharing. Multi-function
Access Point can also function as an Ethernet client, wireless bridge, or repeat signals from
other AP. Access Points typically have more wireless functions comparing to wireless
routers.
ACK Timeout
Acknowledgement Timeout Windows. When a packet is sent out from one wireless station
to the other, it will waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The
station will only wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. If the
ACK is NOT received within that timeout period then the packet will be re-transmitted
resulting in reduced throughput. If the ACK setting is too high then throughput will be lost
due to waiting for the Ack Window to timeout on lost packets. If the ACK setting is too low
then the ACK window will have expired and the returning packet will be dropped, greatly
lowering throughput. By having the ability to adjust the ACK setting we can effectively
optimize the throughput over long distance links. This is especially true for 802.11a and
802.11g networks. Setting the correct ACK timeout value need to consider 3 factors:
distance, AP response time, and interference. The WHA-5500CPE provide ACK
adjustment capability in form of either distance or direct input. When you enter the
distance parameter, the WHA-5500CPE will automatically calculate the correct ACK
timeout value.
Bandwidth Management
Bandwidth Management controls the transmission speed of a port, user, IP address, and
application. Router can use bandwidth control to limit the Internet connection speed of
individual IP or Application. It can also guarantee the speed of certain special application
or privileged IP address - a crucial feature of QoS (Quality of Service) function. The
WHA-5500CPE’s features both “Per-user Bandwidth Control” and “Total Bandwidth Control”.
“Per-user Bandwidth Control” allow administrator to define the maximum bandwidth of each
user by IP, IP Group, or MAC address. Total Bandwidth define the maximum bandwidth of
wireless or Ethernet interface.
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Bootloader
Bootloader is the under layering program that will start at the power-up before the device
loads firmware. It is similar to BIOS on a personal computer. When a firmware crashed,
you might be able to recover your device from bootloader.
Bridge
A product that connects 2 different networks that uses the same protocol. Wireless
bridges are commonly used to link network across remote buildings. For wireless
application, there are 2 types of Bridges. WDS Bridge can be used in Point-to-Point or
Point-to-Multipoint topology. Bridge Infrastructure works with AP mode to form a star
topology.
Cable and Connector Loss: During wireless design and deployment, it is important to
factor in the cable and connector loss. Cable and connector loss will reduce the output
power and receiver sensitivity of the radio at connector end. The longer the cable length is,
the more the cable loss. Cable loss should be subtracted from the total output power
during distance calculation. For example, if the cable and connector loss is 3dBm and the
output power is 20dBm; the output power at the cable end is only 17dBm.
Client
Client means a network device or utility that receives service from host or server. A client
device means end user device such as wireless cards or wireless CPE.
CPE Devices
CPE stands for Customer Premises Equipment. A CPE is a device installed on the end
user's side to receive network services. For example, on an ADSL network, the ADSL
modem/router on the subscriber's home is the CPE device. Wireless CPE means a
complete Wireless (usually an AP with built-in Antenna) that receive wireless broadband
access from the WISP. The opposite of CPE is CO.
CTS
Clear To Send. A signal sent by a device to indicate that it is ready to receive data.
DDNS
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Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address
for hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain
name. A router with DDNS capability has a built-in DDNS client that updates the IP
address information to DDNS service provider whenever there is a change. Therefore,
users can build website or other Internet servers even if they don't have fixed IP
connection.
DHCP
Dynamic Hosting Configuration Protocol. A protocol that enables a server to dynamically
assign IP addresses. When DHCP is used, whenever a computer logs onto the network, it
automatically gets an IP address assigned to it by DHCP server. A DHCP server can
either be a designated PC on the network or another network device, such as a router.
DMZ
Demilitarized Zone. When a router opens a DMZ port to an internal network device, it opens
all the TCP/UDP service ports to this particular device. The feature is used commonly for
setting up H.323 VoIP or Multi-Media servers.
DNS
A program that translates URLs to IP addresses by accessing a database maintained on a
collection of Internet servers.
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more
parts, separated by dots. In www.airlive.com, the "airlive.com" is the doman name.
DoS Attack
Denial of Service. A type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic.
Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in
the TCP/IP protocols.
Encryption
Encoding data to prevent it from being read by unauthorized people. The common
wireless encryption schemes are WEP, WPA, and WPA2.
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ESSID (SSID)
The identification name of an 802.11 wireless network. Since wireless network has no
physical boundary liked wired Ethernet network, wireless LAN needs an identifier to
distinguish one network from the other. Wireless clients must know the SSID in order to
associate with a WLAN network. Hide SSID feature disable SSID broadcast,
so users must know the correct SSID in order to join a wireless network.
Firewall
A system that secures a network and prevents access by unauthorized users. Firewalls can
be software, router, or gateway. Firewalls can prevent unrestricted access into a network,
as well as restricting data from flowing out of a network.
Firmware
The program that runs inside embedded device such as router or AP. Many network
devices are firmware upgradeable through web interface or utility program.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. A standard protocol for sending files between computers over a
TCP/IP network and the Internet.
Fragment Threshold
Frame Size larger than this will be divided into smaller fragment. If there are interferences
in your area, lower this value can improve the performance. If there are not, keep this
parameter at higher value. The default size is 2346. You can try 1500, 1000, or 500
when there are interference around your network.
Full Duplex
The ability of a networking device to receive and transmit data simultaneously. In wireless
environment, this is usually done with 2 or more radios doing load balancing.
Gateway
In the global Internet network, the gateways are core routers that connect networks in
different IP subnet together. In a LAN environment with an IP sharing router, the gateway
is the router. In an office environment, gateway typically is a multi-function device that
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integrates NAT, firewall, bandwidth management, and other security functions.
Hotspot
A place where you can access Wi-Fi service. The term hotspot has two meanings in
wireless deployment. One is the wireless infrastructure deployment, the other is the
Internet access billing system. In a hotspot system, a service provider typically need an
authentication and account system for billing purposes, and a wireless AP network to
provide access for customers.
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a Layer 3 protocol to report IP multicast
memberships to neighboring multicast switches and routers. IGMP snooping is a feature
that allows an Ethernet switch to "listen in" on the IGMP conversation between hosts and
routers. A switch support IGMP snooping has the possibility to avoid multicast traffic being
treated as broadcast traffic; therefore, reducing the overall traffic on the network.
Infrastructure Mode
A wireless network that is built around one or more access points to provide wireless clients
access to wired LAN / Internet service. The opposite of Infrastructure mode is Adhoc
mode.
IP address
IP (Internet Protocol) is a layer-3 network protocol that is the basis of all Internet
communication. An IP address is 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of
information that is sent across the Internet. An IP address has two parts: an identifier of a
particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a
server or a workstation) within that network. The new IPv6 specification supports 128-bit
IP address format.
IPsec
IP Security. A set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of
packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private
Networks (VPNs). IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel.
Transport mode encrypts only the data of each packet, but leaves the header untouched.
The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving
side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet.
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LACP (802.3ad) Trunking
The 802.3ad Link Aggregation standard defines how to combine the several Ethernet ports
into one high-bandwidth port to increase the transmission speed. It is also known as port
trunking. Both device must set the trunking feature to work.
MAC
Media Access Control. MAC address provides layer-2 identification for Networking Devices.
Each Ethernet device has its own unique address. The first 6 digits are unique for each
manufacturer. When a network device have MAC access control feature, only the devices
with the approved MAC address can connect with the network.
Mbps
Megabits Per Second. One million bits per second; a unit of measurement for data
transmission
MESH
Mesh is an outdoor wireless technology that uses Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and
Wireless Distribution system to achieve self-forming, self-healing, and self-configuring
outdoor network. MESH network are able to take the shortest path to a destination that
does not have to be in the line of site.
MIMO
Multi In Multi Out. A Smart Antenna technology designed to increase the coverage and
performance of a WLAN network. In a MIMO device, 2 or more antennas are used to
increase the receiver sensitivity and to focus available power at intended Rx.
NAT
Network Address Translation. A network algorithm used by Routers to enables several
PCs to share single IP address provided by the ISP.
The IP that a router gets from the
ISP side is called Real IP, the IP assigned to PC under the NAT environment is called
Private IP.
Node
A network connection end point, typically a computer.
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Packet
A unit of data sent over a network.
Passphrase
Used much like a password, a passphrase simplifies the WEP encryption process by
automatically generating the WEP encryption keys for the company products.
POE
Power over Ethernet. A standard to deliver both power and data through one single
Ethernet cable (UTP/STP). It allows network device to be installed far away from power
ource. A POE system typically compose of 2 main component: DC Injector (Base Unit)
and Splitter(Terminal Unit). The DC injector combines the power and data, and the splitter
separates the data and power back. A PoE Access Point or CPE has the splitter built-in to
the device. The IEEE 802.3af is a POE spec that uses 48 volt to deliver power up to 100
meter distance.
Port
This word has 2 different meaning for networking.
z The hardware connection point on a computer or networking device used for plugging
in a cable or an adapter.
z The virtual connection point through which a computer uses a specific application on a
server.
PPPoE
Point-to- Point Protocol over Ethernet. PPPoE relies on two widely accepted standards:
PPP and Ethernet. PPPoE is a specification for connecting the users on an Ethernet to the
Internet through a common broadband medium, such as a single DSL line, wireless device
or cable modem.
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol: A VPN protocol developed by PPTP Forum. With
PPTP, users can dial in to their corporate network via the Internet. If users require data
encryption when using the Windows PPTP client, the remote VPN server must support
MPPE (Microsoft Point-To-Point Encryption Protocol) encryption. PPTP is also used by
some ISP for user authentication, particularly when pairing with legacy Alcatel / Thomson
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ADSL modem.
Preamble Type
Preamble are sent with each wireless packet transmit for transmission status. Use the
long preamble type for better compatibility. Use the short preamble type for better
performance
Rate Control
Ethernet switches' function to control the upstream and downstream speed of an individual
port. Rate Control management uses "Flow Control" to limit the speed of a port.
Therefore, the Ethernet adapter must also have the flow control enabled. One way to
force the adapter's flow control on is to set a port to half-duplex mode.
RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication and accounting system
used by many Internet Service Providers (ISPs). When you dial in to the ISP, you must
enter your username and password. This information is passed to a RADIUS server, which
checks that the information is correct, and then authorizes access to the ISP system.
Radius typically uses port 1812 and port 1813 for authentication and accounting port.
Though not an official standard, the RADIUS specification is maintained by a working group
of the IETF.
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver sensitivity means how sensitive is the radio for receiving signal. In general; the
slower the transmission speed, the more sensitive the radio is. The unit for Receiver
Sensitivity is in dB; the lower the absolute value is, the higher the signal strength. For
example, -50dB is higher than -80dB.
RJ-45
Standard connectors for Twisted Pair copper cable used in Ethernet networks. Although
they look similar to standard RJ-11 telephone connectors, RJ-45 connectors can have up to
eight wires, whereas telephone connectors have only four.
Router
An IP sharing router is a device that allows multiple PCs to share one single broadband
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connection using NAT technology. A wireless router is a device that combines the
functions of wireless Access Point and the IP sharing router.
RSSI
Receiver Sensitivity Index. RSSI is a value to show the Receiver Sensitivity of the remote
wireless device. In general, remote APs with stronger signal will display higher RSSI
values. For RSSI value, the smaller the absolute value is, the stronger the signal. For
example, “-50db” has stronger signal than “-80dB”.
For outdoor connection, signal
stronger than -60dB is considered as a good connection.
RTS
Request To Send. A packet sent when a computer has data to transmit. The computer will
wait for a CTS (Clear To Send) message before sending data.
RTS Threshold
RTS (Request to Send).
The RTS/CTS(clear to send) packet will be send before a frame
if the packet frame is larger than this value. Lower this value can improve the
performance if there are many clients in your network. You can try 1500, 1000 or 500
when there are many clients in your AP’s network.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A set of protocols for managing complex
networks.
The SNMP network contains 3 key elements: managed devices, agents, and
network-management systems (NMSs). Managed devices are network devices that
content SNMP agents. SNMP agents are programs that reside SNMP capable device's
firmware to provide SNMP configuration service. The NMS typically is a PC based
software such as HP Openview that can view and manage SNMP network device remotely.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer. It is a popular encryption scheme used by many online retail and
banking sites to protect the financial integrity of transactions. When an SSL session
begins, the server sends its public key to the browser. The browser then sends a randomly
generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key exchange for that
session. SSL VPN is also known as Web VPN. The HTTPS interface use SSL for data
encryption.
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Subnet Mask
An address code mask that determines the size of the network. An IP subnet are
determined by performing a BIT-wise AND operation between the IP address and the
subnet mask. By changing the subnet mask, you can change the scope and size of a
network.
Subnetwork or Subnet
Found in larger networks, these smaller networks are used to simplify addressing between
numerous computers. Subnets connect to the central network through a router, hub or
gateway. Each individual wireless LAN will probably use the same subnet for all the local
computers it talks to.
Super A
Super A is an Atheros proprietary turbo mode to increase speed over standard 802.11a
mode. It adds Bursting and Compression to increase the speed. If you live in countries
that prohibit the channel binding technology (i.e. Europe), you should choose “Super-A
without Turbo) if you need more speed than 11a mode
TCP
A layer-4 protocol used along with the IP to send data between computers over the Internet.
While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping
track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing through
the Internet.
Turbo A
Turbo A is an Atheros proprietary turbo mode to increase speed over standard 802.11a
mode. It uses channel binding technology to increase speed. There are 2 types of Turbo
A modes: Dynamic Turbo and Static Turbo. In Dynamic Turbo, the channel binding will be
used only if necessary. In Static Turbo, the channel binding is always on. This protocol
may be combined with Super-A model to increase the performance even more. The used
of channel binding might be prohibited in EU countries.
TX Output Power
Transmit Output Power. The TX output power means the transmission output power of
the radio. Normally, the TX output power level limit for 2.4GHz 11g/b is 20dBm at the
antenna end. The output power limit for 5GHz 802.11a is 30dBm at the antenna end..
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UDP
User Datagram Protocol. A layer-4 network protocol for transmitting data that does not
require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data.
Upgrade
To replace existing software or firmware with a newer version.
Upload
To send a file to the Internet or network device.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator.
The address of a file located on the Internet.
VPN
Virtual Private Network. A type of technology designed to increase the security of
information transferred over the Internet. VPN creates a private encrypted tunnel from the
end user's computer, through the local wireless network, through the Internet, all the way to
the corporate network.
Walled Garden
On the Internet, a walled garden refers to a browsing environment that controls the
information and Web sites the user is able to access. This is a popular method used by
ISPs in order to keep the user navigating only specific areas of the Web
WAN
Wide Area Network. A communication system of connecting PCs and other computing
devices across a large local, regional, national or international geographic area. A WAN
port on the network device means the port (or wireless connection) that is connected to the
Internet side of the network topology.
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy. A wireless encryption protocol. WEP is available in 40-bit (64-bit),
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108-bit (128-bit) or 152-bit (Atheros proprietary) encryption modes.
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity. An interoperability certification for wireless local area network (LAN)
products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The governing body for Wi-Fi is called
Wi-Fi Alliance (also known as WECA).
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. A Wireless Metropolitan Network
technology that complies with IEEE 802.16 and ETSI Hiperman standards. The orginal
802.16 standard call for operating frequency of 10 to 66Ghz spectrum. The 802.16a
amendment extends the original standard into spectrum between 2 and 11 Ghz. 802.16d
increase data rates to between 40 and 70 Mbps/s and add support for MIMO antennas,
QoS, and multiple polling technologies. 802.16e adds mobility features, narrower
bandwidth (a max of 5 mhz), slower speed and smaller antennas. Mobility is allowed up to
40 mph.
WDS
Wireless Distribution System. WDS defines how multiple wireless Access Point or
Wireless Router can connect together to form one single wireless network without using
wired uplinks. WDS associate each other by MAC address, each device
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network. A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio
waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. The most popular standard for
WLAN is the 802.11 standards.
WMM
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM prioritize traffic\ on Voice-over-IP (VoIP), audio, video, and streaming media as well
as traditional IP data over the AP.
WMS
Wireless Management System. An utility program to manage multiple wireless
AP/Bridges.
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WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is an encryption standard proposed by WiFi for advance
protection by utilizing a password key (TKIP) or certificate. It is more secure than WEP
encryption. The WPA-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2. WPA2 is also known as 802.11i. It improves on the WPA
security with CCMP and AES encryption. The WPA2 is backward compatible with WPA.
WPA2-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
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