Proper NMEA 2000 Installation IBEX 2012 Session 813

Proper NMEA 2000 Installation
IBEX 2012 Session 813
Part I
Physical Installation
Dave Morschhauser, Mystic Valley Communications
Pete Braffitt, Gemeco
Overview
• What is NMEA 2000?
• What are its physical characteristics and
limits?
• What makes a good NMEA 2000 network?
• What makes a good NMEA 2000 network
fail?
NMEA 2000
• Marine specific network for navigation,
control, and monitoring
• CAN based, similar to J1939
• Uses industrial quality cabling originally
developed for DeviceNET
• Certified products, based on standard
certification tool
NMEA 2000 Certification
• First certification program applicable to
recreational marine electronic products
• Over 400 products certified to date
• Purpose: ensure products communicate
cooperatively (plug and play)
• Based on common certification tool
• Cabling components are also approved
NMEA 2000
Typical Tee
FEMALE
Backbone
Connection
MALE
Backbone
Connection
Drop Connection to device (FEMALE)- Accepts drop cable.
NMEA 2000
• Single backbone cable snakes throughout
the vessel
• No active network infrastructure to fail
• Standardized message structure and format
– both generic and system specific messages
• Links vessel systems together
– engines, navigation, power distribution, water
& waste, etc.
NMEA 2000 = Vessel Database
What can you do with NMEA 2000?
Physical Construction
•
•
•
•
Building Blocks
Characteristics
Power Availability
Other considerations
NMEA 2000 Building Blocks
Power Tee(s)
Tee Connectors
Termination Resistors
Backbone & Drop Cables
NMEA 2000 Building Blocks
Mini to Micro
Adapter
Field Installable
Connectors
Mini Backbone
w/ Micro Drop
Gender
Changer
NMEA 2000 Characteristics
Overall:
• Capacity - 250K bits-per-second
• Interface operating range - 9 to 15 volts
• Logical network identities - 252
• Minimum node separation - 0 meters
• Maximum bridged backbones - 10
NMEA 2000 Characteristics
Each backbone:
• Length - 200 meters
– 100 meters when using light cable
• Connected products - 50
• Drop cable
– 6 meters per drop
– 78 meters total of all drops
• Power - limited by cable size and the number of
power insertion points
NMEA 2000 Terminology
Power
Insertion
Point
Drop
Length
Segment
Backbone Length
Cable Construction
Shield Braid
Shield / Drain
NET-S
NET-C
NET-H
NET-L
Foil Shield
Name
Pair
Color
Shield
Drain
Bare
NET-L
Data
Blue
NET-H
Data
White
NET-C
Power -
Black
NET-S
Power +
Red
Product Power Sources
Cable Types
Style
Light
Mid
Heavy
Connectors
Micro
Micro/Mini
Mini
Max Length
100 meters
200 meters
200 meters
Capacity
3 amp*
4/8 amp*
8* amp
Signal Wire
Gage
24 AWG
20 AWG
18 AWG
Power Wire
Gage
22 AWG
16 AWG
16AWG
* Maximum power per backbone segment
NMEA 2000 Backbone
NMEA 2000 Backbone
Single Backbone
Two Segments
Power Sources
• Battery (nominally 12.0 VDC)
– Allowed voltage drop = 1.5 VDC
• Typical power supply (13.8 VDC)
– Allowed voltage drop = 3.0 VDC
• Maximum power supply (15 VDC)
– Maximum allowed voltage drop = 5.0 VDC
Other Considerations
• Products may be added to or removed from
the backbone while operational
• No daisy-chaining ensures backbone
remains intact when removing equipment
• Two terminators required, one at each end
of the backbone
Making the Right Selections
Network Design Drivers
• Network power distribution
– Segment voltage drop limit
– Add power insertions points as needed
• Network topology
– Keep it pure
Network Voltage Drop
• Straightforward application of Ohm’s Law
E=IxR
where
E = voltage drop
I = circuit current
R = wire resistance
Network Voltage Drop
• Wire resistance
R = 2 x Length x Power Pair Resistance / 100
• Network current
I = LEN x 0.050 amp
• All together
E = 0.1 x LEN x L x 0.057 (Light)
E = 0.1 x LEN x L x 0.016 (Mid/ Heavy)
Estimated Length - Light
70
60
VD = 1.5 Volts
VD = 3.0 Volts
50
40
30
20
10
Length
96
88
80
72
64
56
48
40
32
24
16
8
0
0
Total LEN
VD = 5.0 Volts
Example Network
5 LEN
3 Meters
Termination
Resistor
2 Meters
6 Meters
2 LEN
6 Meters
5 Meters
Termination
Resistor
3 LEN
6 Meters
Example Summary
• Total load = 10 LEN
• Backbone length = 13 meters
• Using light cable
– Power pair resistance = 0.057 Ω/meter
E = 0.1 x 10 x 13 x 0.057
E = 0.74 Volts
Estimated Length - Light
70
60
VD = 1.5 Volts
VD = 3.0 Volts
VD = 5.0 Volts
LEN = 25
Length = 18
40
30
20
10
Length
96
88
80
72
64
56
48
40
32
24
16
8
0
0
Total LEN
50
Network Layout
• ‘Trunk and Drop’ Topology
• Determine location for each product
• Determine path for trunk/backbone that:
– Passes within 6 meters of each product
– Total of all drops < 78 meters
• Determine number and location of power
insertion points
Network Layout
Layout Issues
•
•
•
•
Multiple connections in confined spaces
Sailboat masts & powerboat towers
Gateways to other protocols
Multiple backbone configurations
Multiple Connections
in Confined Spaces
• Multi-tap tee is used just like multiple tees
• Multi-drop splitter has some limitations
Multi-tap Drop
Termination
Resistor
Termination
Resistor
Power Tee
Drop Cable
(6 Meters max length)
Drop Cable
(x Meters)
6-x Meters
6-x Meters
6-x Meters
4-way Tap
Max length of each drop must be reduced by the length of the drop cable
between the Tee and the multi-tap
Sailboat Masts
• Most masts are greater
than 6 Meters
• Backbone termination at
the top of the mast
• In-Line termination
resistors are used
• Must be within 6 meters
of last device
• Some manufacturers have
a built-in termination
resistors on cables > 6
meters
In-Line
Termination
Resistor
Location
Mast backbone
cable shown in
orange for
illustration
purposes only.
Gateways
NMEA 2000 GPS information is sent to
VHF radio for DSC broadcast
Termination
Resistor
Termination
Resistor
DSC VHF
NMEA 2000
0183 Gateway
Gateways
J1939 data is converted and transmitted
on the NMEA 2000 Network
Termination
Resistor
Termination
Resistor
NMEA
Proprietary
2000
J1939
Gateway
Gateway
NMEA 2000 Network Bridge
•
•
•
•
Connect two networks
> 50 nodes
Backbone > 200 meters
Drops > 78 meters
Useful For:
• Separate mast
backbone from main
• Separate critical
equipment
• Port/stbd redundancy
Power Insertion
•
•
•
•
How many insertion points?
Common reference point
Connect shield to RF ground only once
Each leg has only one power source –
consecutive legs not connected
– Risk of harmonics between power supplies
– Risk of cumulative voltage drop exceeding
common mode offset limits
Power Insertion
Shield/Drain left
unconnected at all
other insertion points
Power Insertion Building Blocks
Testing
Testing Checklist
• Loose connections
• Voltage fluctuations & data errors
– Voltage consistent and > 9 VDC at all tees
• Correct termination
– Approximately 60 Ω across data pair when
power off
• No sustained error rate
Testing Checklist
•
•
•
•
•
50 connected products or less
Drops 6 meters or less
Total drops 78 meters or less
Network 200 meters or less
All power tap leads powered
Plug and Play Limitation
• Layout and power planning rules result in
products communicating non-destructively
• Product configuration ensures data
displayed is data intended
• Manufacturer configurability may vary
• New Label and Configuration messages will
unify methods in use
Acknowledgements
and Contact Information
Photos courtesy of Airmar, Actisense, Garmin, LTW,
Maretron, Molex, Turck
Diagrams courtesy NMEA
Contact Information:
David Morschhauser
dave@netsavvy.com
http://www.nmea2000solutions.com
NMEA Software Utilities
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
The Actisense NMEA Reader is a great utility for testing and evaluating a NMEA 0183
or NMEA 2000™ system.
•
The program is free to download from the Actisense web site and will work great
with a compatible serial or USB adapter.
•
This software will allow the user to view real time data flow and buffer rates.
•
Certain Actisense gateways can be programmed by this software such as the NGW-1
and NGT-1.
•
Manufacturer and LEN numbers can be obtained from this software for certain NMEA
2000™ devices.
Actisense NMEA Reader
Actisense NGT-1-USB
• The Actisense NGT-1-USB is a great product to deliver NMEA 2000™ data
directly into the PC for use with the NMEA Reader Software.
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
The NMEA
Reader is a good
utility to read
what sentences
are located on
the network.
•
The data shown
includes the
specific PGN,
Sentence Name,
Transmit Interval
and the actual
data itself.
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
The top selected
item shows the
com port,
description and
baud rate of the
available NMEA
0183 or NMEA
2000™ Device.
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
The interval
shows how often
the data is being
sent from the
device. This
allows the user to
know how fast a
sender is
transmitting.
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
•
•
Pictured here are
the details of
each individual
data PGN.
This will list what
data is present on
the specific
device as well as
what makes up
the sentence
structure.
Also located on
this page is the
NMEA 2000™ Bus
Load as well as
the PC Load
through the
Gateway.
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
The bus load can
be used to check
how many
devices on the
network.
•
If the NMEA
2000™ network is
not functioning
correctly it could
be due to excess
load or a
defective sender.
•
The NMEA 0183
version allows for
the same reading.
Actisense NMEA Reader
Actisense NMEA Reader
•
This item shows
which instance is
assigned to the
device allowing
for the user to
match it on the
display.
•
Also pictured are
the serial number
and function
which can be
helpful for
identification of
the device.
Actisense NMEA Reader
Sail Soft NEMA Studio
•
The Sail Soft program will allow data to be sent from a PC via NMEA 0183 on a user selected Com Port.
•
This will allow for testing of displays or networks by sending out select amounts of data which is
controlled through the software.
•
The data that is being transmitted via NMEA 0183 can then be converted to NMEA 2000™ using either
an NGW-1, AT-10 or any other NMEA approved device.
Sail Soft NEMA Studio
Actisense NGW-1
•
The Actisense NGW-1 is a great way to convert the data sent from the Sail Soft
program into a NMEA 2000™ Format. It can also send AIS information into a
Bus with the proper Firmware update provided from the Actisense website.
Sail Soft NEMA Studio
Sail Soft NEMA Studio
Sail Soft NEMA Studio
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
•
The Maretron N2KAnalyzer Software is free to download from the Maretron Web site
and offers many valuable options for network evaluation and testing.
•
The N2KAnalyzer requires the use of a Maretron USB100 Gateway to properly connect
to a NMEA 2000™ system.
•
Maretron’s software will allow a user to assign device instances to components directly.
•
The software also shows software version, manufacturer, serial numbers and much
more data specific to a sensor.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
USB100 Gateway
•
The Maretron USB100 Gateway will allow the NMEA 2000™ network to be accessed by
the N2KAnalyzer to show what devices are attached. The Gateway will also allow
devices to be programmed for instances and queried for transmitted and received PGN’s.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2KAnalyzer Software Device Page
•
The Main Device page will show what devices are connected to the Network and the specific information of
that device.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2KAnalyzer Software Device Page
•
The unique instance tab allows for the user to view and assign specific instances to a sender if there are
multiple versions of the same unit on the network.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2K Analyzer Software Device Page
•
The Instancing tool is as simple as setting the number for any applicable device.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2KAnalyzer Software Properties Page
The PGN Page
shows all
transmitted and
received sentences
to ensure proper
operation.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2KAnalyzer Software Properties Page
The Received PGN
Page shows the
specifics of what
data is being sent
and specifics of
that data.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2KAnalyzer Software Properties Page
The transmitted PGN Page will allow for the user to view the live data coming
from a sensor which will show if it is actually transmitting and if the data is
correct.
Maretron N2KAnalyzer
N2KAnalyzer Software Properties Page
N2KAnalyzer also
offers the ability to
simulate a DSM250
display through
the software to
view live data as
well as change
settings just as if a
live display were
onboard.
Maretron N2KBuilder
N2KBUILDER NMEA 2000™ NETWORK DESIGN SOFTWARE
•
Maretron’s unique N2KBuilder program allows dealers and
installers to design and test networks before any cable is
pulled through the vessel.
•
The software will calculate voltage drop, connector gender,
and cable lengths as well as allow the use of custom
parameters to meet most design needs.
•
When used properly, a configuration file can be generated to
create a bill of material that will include all Maretron parts
used in the build that makes ordering parts much more
efficient.
Maretron N2KBuilder
Maretron N2KBuilder
Maretron N2KBuilder
• This build file shows a system where the end user supplies specifics to be used to
generate a complete network. It is a useful program to start a system and explain
to customers not familiar with NMEA 2000™ how the parts are utilized.
Maretron N2KBuilder
•
Attached is a detailed view of how the system can be used to partition specific sections of a
vessel and show possible connection and integration points. The more detailed a
customer’s requirements are, the more data can be added to the builder file. This also
helps generate a very specific BOM to give an accurate estimate of what parts will be
required as well as total component cost.
Maretron N2KBuilder
• The Bill of Materials that is
generated from the Builder
file is an excellent way to
control cost of the build as
well as to generate
equipment costs for a job.
Maretron N2KMeter
• The N2KMeter has the
capability to test the physical
aspects of a network.
• Faults that can be detected by
the N2KMeter include:
• Opens and Shorts
• Incorrect Topology
• Bad Nodes
• Bad Termination
• Improper Shield Connection
• Intermittent Problems
• Excessive Scan Rate
• Common Mode Voltage
Maretron N2KMeter
• The meter offers the ability to
use an Auto-Search tool that
will allow the dealer to locate
faults.
• It works by examining all
measurements and then
pinpointing any that exceed
or are close to specified
limits.
• The N2KMeter tracks network
data transmission errors in
real-time and lets you know if
the error rate is acceptable,
marginal or unacceptable
with the use of a simple signal
interface.
Maretron N2KMeter
• The automated error
detection of the N2KMeter
allows the user to view issues
on the backbone live.
• The technician will be able to
determine if the error was an
isolated event or if it is
recurring which would
indicate a problem on the
NMEA 2000™ network.
• The error detection will scroll
numerically as issues arise
from the time it is connected
to a node.
Maretron N2KMeter
• Any error rate greater than
zero is undesirable (although
your network may still
function since CAN
automatically retransmits
after errors).
• An error rate greater than
10/s indicates a problem that
should be investigated.
• The N2KMeter uses unique
technology to accurately
determine which node was
attempting to transmit when
a bus error occurs.