LEVEL
12
9
15
LEVEL
18
12
ODEP
21
9
15
18
21
ON
24
6
24
6
OFF
SIGNAL / IOC
27
3
0
30
27
3
CH1
CH2
0
30
ENABLE
Model:
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
Some models may be exported under the name Amcron.®
© 1997 by Crown International, Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elkhart, IN 46515-1000 U.S.A. Telephone: 219-294-8000.
Fax: 219-294-8329. Macro-Tech amplifiers are produced by the Professional Audio Division of Crown
International, Inc. Trademark Notice: SmartAmp™ and Grounded bridge™ are trademarks and Amcron,®
Crown,® Macro-Tech,® IOC,® ODEP,® IQ System,® P.I.P.® and TEF ® are registered trademarks of Crown
International, Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
E106377
®
Applies to 120 VAC
North American Units
125113-1
8/97
3
YEAR
THREE YEAR
FULL WARRANTY
3
YEAR
WORLDWIDE
NORTH AMERICA
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West
Mishawaka Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you,
the ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each
NEW Crown1 product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of
purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new
Crown product is free of defects in materials and workmanship, and we
further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the reason for
failure, except as excluded in this Crown Warranty.
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West Mishawaka
Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the ORIGINAL
PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original
purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new Crown product is free of defects
in materials and workmanship. We further warrant the new Crown product
regardless of the reason for failure, except as excluded in this Warranty.
1
Note: If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the
name “Crown” in this warranty.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product
which occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product
which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident,
negligence, or loss which is covered under any of your insurance
contracts. This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown
product if the serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product which
occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product which has
been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or
loss which is covered under any of your insurance contracts. This Crown
Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown product if the serial number
has been defaced, altered, or removed.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except
as excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund
unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and
repair is not practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then
you must make the defective or malfunctioning product available to us
free and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal
to the actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing
costs, and other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the
product from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be
performed at our authorized service centers. We will remedy the defect
and ship the product from the service center within a reasonable time
after receipt of the defective product at our authorized service center.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund unless
you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not
practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then you must make
the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free and clear of all liens
or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price,
not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less
a reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase.
Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at
the factory. We will remedy the defect and ship the product from the service
center or our factory within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective
product at our authorized service center or our factory. All expenses in
remedying the defect, including surface shipping costs in the United States,
will be borne by us. (You must bear the expense of shipping the product
between any foreign country and the port of entry in the United States and all
taxes, duties, and other customs fees for such foreign shipments.)
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be
shipped in a factory pack. Corrective action will be taken within a
reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by our
authorized service center. If the repairs made by our authorized service
center are not satisfactory, notify our authorized service center
immediately.
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90)
days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be shipped
in a factory pack, which, if needed, may be obtained from us free of charge.
Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt
of the defective product by us or our authorized service center. If the repairs
made by us or our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify us or
our authorized service center immediately.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT
OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT OR
PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. SOME STATES DO
NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATIONS OF INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR
EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown
Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time
which you are deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and
replacement parts provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall
carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time
without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than
ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
9/90
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown Warranty.
This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which you are
deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and replacement parts
provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the unexpired
portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time
without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
THIS CROWN WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, YOU
MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than
ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
9/90
The information furnished in this manual does not include all of the details of design, production, or variations of
the equipment. Nor does it cover every possible situation which may arise during installation, operation or maintenance. If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the name “Crown” in this manual. If you
need special assistance beyond the scope of this manual, please contact our Technical Support Group.
Crown Audio Division Technical Support Group
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Phone: 800-342-6939 (North America, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) or 219-294-8200
Fax: 219-294-8301 Fax Back (North America only): 800-294-4094 or 219-293-9200
Fax Back (International): 219-294-8100 Internet: http://www.crownintl.com
IMPORTANT
CLASS 1 OUTPUT WIRING REQUIRED.
COMPLY WITH LOCAL ELECTRICAL CODES
WHEN WIRING THIS DEVICE.
CAUTION
AVIS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RISQUE DE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’OUVREZ PAS
TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DO
NOT REMOVE TOP OR BOTTOM
COVERS. NO USER SERVICEABLE
PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING
TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. DISCONNECT POWER CORD
BEFORE REMOVING REAR INPUT
MODULE TO ACCESS GAIN SWITCH.
À PRÉVENIR LE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’ENLEVEZ PAS LES COUVERCLES.
IL N’Y A PAS DES PARTIES
SERVICEABLE À L’INTÉRIEUR. TOUS
REPARATIONS DOIT ETRE FAIRE PAR
PERSONNEL QUALIFIÉ SEULMENT.
DÉBRANCHER LA BORNE AVANT
D’OUVRIR LA MODULE EN ARRIÈRE.
Magnetic Field
WARNING
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC
SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS
EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE!
The lightning bolt
triangle is used to
alert the user to the
risk of electric shock.
CAUTION! Do not locate sensitive high-gain equipment such as preamplifiers or tape decks directly
above or below the unit. Because this amplifier has
a high power density, it has a strong magnetic field
which can induce hum into unshielded devices that
are located nearby. The field is strongest just above
and below the unit.
If an equipment rack is used, we recommend locating
the amplifier(s) in the bottom of the rack and the
preamplifier or other sensitive equipment at the top.
The exclamation point
triangle is used to alert the
user to important operating or
maintenance instructions.
Printed on
recycled paper.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
CONTENTS
1 Welcome ............................................................................ 6
1.1 Unpacking ................................................................... 6
1.2 Features ...................................................................... 7
2 Facilities ............................................................................ 8
3 Installation ....................................................................... 10
3.1 Mounting ................................................................... 10
3.2 Cooling ...................................................................... 10
3.3 Wiring ........................................................................ 11
3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation ..................... 11
3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation .................................. 12
3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 13
3.3.4 Input Connection ............................................. 14
3.3.5 Output Connection .......................................... 16
3.3.6 Additional Load Protection .............................. 18
3.3.7 AC Power Requirements ................................. 18
4 Operation......................................................................... 19
4.1 Precautions ............................................................... 19
4.2 Indicators .................................................................. 19
4.3 Protection Circuits ...................................................... 20
4.3.1 Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) ... 20
4.3.2 Standby Mode ................................................ 21
4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection ...................... 21
4.3.4 Circuit Breaker ................................................ 21
4.4 Controls ..................................................................... 22
4.5 Filter Cleaning ............................................................ 23
5 Technical Information ..................................................... 24
5.1 Overview ................................................................... 24
5.2 VZ Power ................................................................... 24
5.2.1 Background .................................................... 24
5.2.2 The VZ Supply ................................................. 25
5.3 Circuit Theory ............................................................ 25
5.3.1 Stereo Operation ............................................. 25
5.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation .................................. 27
5.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 27
6 Specifications ................................................................. 28
7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation ...................... 35
8 Accessories .................................................................... 36
8.1 P.I.P. Modules ............................................................ 36
8.2 Level Control Security Kit ........................................... 38
9 Service ............................................................................. 39
9.1 Worldwide Service ..................................................... 39
9.2 North American Service ............................................. 39
9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center ... 39
9.2.2 Factory Service ............................................... 39
Page 4
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
ILLUSTRATIONS
1.1
2.1
2.2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
4.1
4.2
4.3
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7.1
8.1
8.2
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Amplifier ................................................... 6
Front Facilities ........................................................................... 8
Rear Facilities ........................................................................... 9
Mounting Dimensions ............................................................. 10
Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit ........................................... 10
Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet ........................................... 10
Stereo Wiring .......................................................................... 11
Bridge-Mono Wiring ................................................................ 12
Parallel-Mono Wiring ............................................................... 13
Unbalanced Input Wiring ........................................................ 14
Balanced Input Wiring ............................................................ 14
Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs ................................ 14
Subsonic Filter Capacitors ...................................................... 15
Unbalanced RFI Filters ........................................................... 15
Balanced RFI Filters ................................................................ 15
Wire Size Nomograph ............................................................. 16
Inductive Load (Transformer) Network .................................... 17
Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph .............................................. 18
Indicators ................................................................................ 19
Macro-Tech Indicator States ................................................... 20
Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches .............................. 22
A Typical Power Supply .......................................................... 25
Music Waveforms are Complex .............................................. 25
VZ Supply in Parallel Mode ..................................................... 25
VZ Supply in Series Mode ....................................................... 25
Circuit Block Diagram ............................................................. 26
Minimum Power Matrix ............................................................ 31
Maximum Power Matrix ........................................................... 32
Typical Frequency Response .................................................. 33
Typical Damping Factor .......................................................... 33
Typical Output Impedance ...................................................... 33
Typical Phase Response ......................................................... 34
Typical Crosstalk ..................................................................... 34
Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation ............... 35
Installing a P.I.P. Module .......................................................... 36
Installing an MA-LOCK Level Control Shaft Lock .................... 38
Page 5
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
LEVEL
12
9
15
LEVEL
18
12
ODEP
21
15
18
9
21
3
27
ON
24
6
24
6
OFF
SIGNAL / IOC
27
3
0
30
CH1
CH2
0
30
ENABLE
Fig. 1.1 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Amplifier
1 Welcome
Congratulations on your purchase of the Macro-Tech®
3600VZ® professional power amplifier. It is the first audio amplifier to offer Crown’s patented Variable Impedance (VZ) power supplies. The new power supplies,
along with new semiconductor technology, enable the
Macro-Tech 3600VZ to pack more power into a mere
31¦2 inches of vertical rack space than ever before. Because it’s a Macro-Tech, you have the added benefit of
P.I.P.® compatibility for access to custom input modules and ODEP® protection to keep the show going
long after other amplifiers would fail (see the Section 8
for available input modules).
This manual will help you successfully install and use
your new amplifier. We strongly recommend you read
all instructions, warnings and cautions contained
within. Be sure to read Sections 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 if you
plan to use the amplifier in one of its two mono modes.
Also for your protection, please send in your warranty
registration card today and save your bill of sale since
it is your official proof of purchase.
Page 6
1.1 Unpacking
Please unpack and inspect your new amplifier for any
damage that may have occurred during transit. If damage is found, notify the transportation company immediately. Only you, the consignee, may initiate a claim
with the carrier for damage resulting during shipment.
Crown will be happy to cooperate fully as needed. Save
the shipping carton as evidence of damage for the
shipper’s inspection.
Even if the unit arrived in perfect condition, as most do,
save all packing materials so you will have them if you
ever need to transport the unit. NEVER SHIP THE UNIT
WITHOUT THE FACTORY PACK.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
1.2 Features
The Macro-Tech 3600VZ amplifier uses the latest technology and miniaturized design to deliver the highest
power and value for its size, weight and price. Crown’s
grounded bridge™ output and patented ODEP protection circuitry combine to provide performance and reliability that surpass all conventional amplifier designs.
Macro-Tech amplifiers also have an independent high
voltage power supply for each channel. This design
provides ultra-low crosstalk specifications and makes
it possible to treat each channel as a separate amplifier. Features:
❏ Full protection against shorted outputs, open circuits, mismatched loads, general overheating, high
frequency overloads and internal faults; loudspeaker protection against low frequency and DC
output.
❏ Crown’s grounded bridge™ circuitry generates incredible voltage swings while avoiding stressful output transistor configurations common to
conventional amplifiers. The results are lower distortion and superior reliability.
❏ Efficient heat sinks and a self-contained forced air
cooling system dissipate heat quickly and evenly to
prevent overheating, prolong component life and
deliver greater power output.
❏ Patented ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuitry compensates for overheating and
overload to keep the amplifier working long after
others would fail.
❏ IOC® (Input/Output Comparator) circuitry immediately alerts of any distortion exceeding 0.05%, providing dynamic proof of performance.
❏ P.I.P. (Programmable Input Processor) connector
accepts accessories that tailor your amplifier to suit
individual applications.
❏ Two mono modes (Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono)
for driving a wide range of load impedances.
❏ Very low harmonic and intermodulation distortion
result in the best dynamic transfer function in the
industry.
❏ High damping factor provides superior control over
low frequency drivers for a clean, accurate low end.
❏ An articulated VZ power supply for each channel
provides excellent crosstalk characteristics and the
best power matching to your load.
❏ Extra rugged, extruded aluminum front panel with
ODEP and Signal Presence/IOC indicators for each
channel, as well as an Enable Indicator.
❏ Separate voltage supplies for each channel provide
low crosstalk and improved reliability.
❏ Balanced inputs and adjustable front panel level
controls.
❏ 31 detents in the level controls reduce the likelihood
of settings being inadvertently disturbed.
❏ Ground lift switch to isolate chassis and phone jack
audio input grounds.
❏ Multiple dual binding posts provide easy and versatile output connection.
❏ Internal three position input sensitivity switch provides settings of 0.775 volts and 1.4 volts for rated
output, and 26 dB voltage gain.
❏ Mounts in a standard 19 inch (48.3 cm) equipment
rack with rear support, or units can be stacked.
❏ All specifications are guaranteed for the duration of
the warranty period.
❏ Units in North America and other select countries
are covered by a three year “No-Fault” full warranty
which completely protects your investment and
guarantees its specifications.
Page 7
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
LEVEL
12
15
9
LEVEL
18
12
ODEP
21
15
18
9
21
3
27
ON
24
6
24
6
OFF
SIGNAL / IOC
27
3
30
0
A
B
CH1
CH2
C
D
D
C
30
0
B
ENABLE
E
F
Fig. 2.1 Front Facilities
2 Facilities
A. Dust Filter
The dust filters remove large particles from the air at
the air intake. Check filters regularly to be sure they do
not become clogged. The filter elements can be easily
removed for cleaning by gently pulling them away from
the front panel (see Sections 3.2 and 4.5).
B. Level Controls
The level for each channel is set with these convenient
controls mounted on the front panel. Each level control
has 31 detents for precise adjustment (see Section
4.4). A security option is available to prevent tampering (see Section 8.2).
ergy. They dim proportionally as energy reserves decrease. In the event that energy reserves are depleted,
the indicators turn off and ODEP proportionally limits
output drive so the amplifier can safely continue to
operate even under severe conditions. These indicators can also help to identify more unusual operating
problems (see Section 4.2).
E. Enable Indicator
This indicator lights when the amplifier has been “enabled” or turned on, and AC power is available (see
Section 4.2).
C. Signal / IOC Indicators
F. Enable Switch
The presence of an audio signal and the distortion level
of each channel is represented by these green multifunction indicators. As signal presence indicators, they
flash with normal intensity in sync with the output audio
signal to indicate its presence. As IOC (Input/Output
Comparator) indicators, they compare the waveform
of the input signal to that of the output. They flash
brightly with a 0.1 second hold delay if there is a difference (or distortion) of 0.05% or more. Another IOC
function is to indicate input overload. If the input signal
is too large the indicators will flash brightly (with a 0.5
second hold delay) to indicate input clipping distortion. Note: The Channel 2 IOC indicator will stay on in
Parallel-Mono mode (refer to Section 4.2).
Depress this push-button to turn the amplifier on or off.
When turned on, the output is muted for approximately
four seconds to protect your system from start-up transients. (This delay can be changed. Contact the Crown
Technical Support Group for details.)
D. ODEP Indicators
During normal operation of the Output Device Emulation Protection circuitry, these indicators glow brightly
to show the presence of reserve thermodynamic enPage 8
G. Power Cord
All 120 VAC, 60 Hz North American units include a
NEMA TT30P plug. These units also include 30-amp
(10 AWG) line cord. Other units are equipped with a
power cord and plug that is appropriate for the voltage
requirements of the amplifier.
H. Stereo/Mono Switch
The three operating modes of this amplifier are
controlled by this switch. Stereo mode is available for
normal two-channel operation. Bridge-Mono mode is
available to drive a single load with an impedance
equal to or greater than 4 ohms. Parallel-Mono mode is
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
120 VAC / 60 Hz / 30 A
IMPORTANT:
CLASS 1 OUTPUT
WIRING REQUIRED.
PUSH
PUSH
INPUT
INPUT
100 VAC / 20 A / 50-60 Hz
120 VAC / 20 A / 50-60 Hz
3
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
230 VAC / 10 A / 50-60 Hz
® INTERNATIONAL, INC.
ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
SERIAL NUMBER
CH-1
WARNING:
MAXIMUM OUTPUT: 1800
WATTS PER CHANNEL INTO
2 OHMS AT 1 KHz WITH NO
MORE THAN 0.1% THD.
ELKHART, IN 46517
MADE IN U.S.A.
CH-2
FX
PUSH TO RESET
000000
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
REG. U.S. PAT. OFF.
4,330,809
4,611,180
4,788,452
CH-2
+
BRIDGE
MONO
–
GND
CH-1
2
UNBALANCED
INPUT WIRING
+
TIP
CH-2 OUTPUT
BRIDGE-MONO WIRING
CH-1 OUTPUT
–
GND
(MONO)
SLEEVE
J
K
L
M K
M
2 SET STEREO/MONO SWITCH
+
SWITCH TO
BRIDGE-MONO.
TO PARALLEL-MONO.
+
3 ADD JUMPER (14 GAGE
OR LARGER) ACROSS
RED TERMINALS.
RED TERMINALS
ONLY. (CH-1
IS POSITIVE.)
N
–
1 TURN AMPLIFIER OFF.
2 SET STEREO/MONO
4 OUTPUT ACROSS CH-1
TERMINALS ONLY.
(AFFECTS PHONE INPUTS ONLY.)
I
PROTECTIVE COVER
MUST BE IN PLACE
OVER OUTPUT TERMINALS BEFORE OPERATING AMPLIFIER.
PARALLEL-MONO WIRING
1 TURN AMPLIFIER OFF.
3 OUTPUT ACROSS
INPUT GROUND LIFT
LIFT
BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH!
H
INPUTS
TIP
RING
SLEEVE
CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER
G
1
THIS AMPLIFIER IS EQUIPPED WITH SELECTABLE INPUT SENSITIVITY. REMOVE P.I.P. MODULE TO ACCESS SENSITIVITY SWITCH.
BALANCED
INPUT WIRING
0000
GND
N
N
N
Fig. 2.2 Rear Facilities
available to drive a single load with an impedance less
than 4 ohms. Important: Do NOT change this switch
unless the amplifier is first turned off (see
Section 3.3).
I. Reset Buttons (PUSH TO RESET)
These reset buttons are used to reset the breakers that
safeguard the power supplies from overload (see
Section 4.3).
J. P.I.P. Module
Versatile Programmable Input Processor modules provide flexible expansion features that can be added to
customize the amplifier. P.I.P. modules plug into the
connector inside the back panel of the amplifier. A P.I.P.
module’s input connectors are placed in parallel with
the input phone jacks. The P.I.P.-FX is included as a
standard feature to provide balanced XLR inputs. It has
no internal circuitry and can be used along with the
input phone jacks to facilitate “daisy chaining” multiple
amplifiers. See Section 8 for a list of available P.I.P.
modules.
K. Balanced Phone Jack Inputs
A balanced ¼ inch phone jack is provided for input to
each channel. They may be used with either balanced
(tip, ring and sleeve) or unbalanced (tip and sleeve)
input wiring (refer to Section 3.3). Because these inputs are in parallel with the P.I.P. connector, they should
not be used as inputs if the installed P.I.P. has active
circuitry. Caution: The Channel 2 input should NOT
be used in either mono mode.
L. Ground Lift Switch
The input signal ground may be isolated from the AC
ground with this switch to help prevent the hum created by unwanted ground loops. It affects only the input phone jacks. It has no affect on the P.I.P. module’s
XLR input connectors. Activating the switch inserts an
impedance between the sleeve of each phone input
jack and the circuit ground.
M. Balanced XLR Inputs
A balanced 3-pin female XLR connector is provided
for input to each channel by the P.I.P.-FX, a standard
feature of your amplifier. The XLR connectors are in
parallel with the amplifier’s phone jacks. Because there
is no active circuitry on the P.I.P., the XLR connectors
can be used at the same time as the phone input jacks
for “daisy chaining” multiple amplifiers. Caution: The
Channel 2 input should NOT be used in either mono
mode.
N. Output Jacks
Two pairs of dual binding posts are provided for the
output of each channel so multiple loudspeakers can
be connected easily. The connectors accept bare wire
or spade lugs.
❑ Input Sensitivity Switch
The three position input sensitivity switch inside the
amplifier can be accessed by removing the P.I.P. module. Settings include 0.775 volts and 1.4 volts for rated
output, and 26 dB voltage gain (see Section 4.4).
Page 9
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3 Installation
3.1 Mounting
Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed for standard 19
inch (48.3 cm) rack mounting and “stack” mounting
without a cabinet. In a rack cabinet, it is best to mount
them one on top of the other. This provides efficient air
flow and enables each unit to support the one above.
Important: Due to its weight, the back of the amplifier
should be supported.
LEVEL
12
15
LEVEL
12
18
9
21
3
27
ODEP
15
18
9
21
3
27
ON
24
6
24
6
OFF
SIGNAL / IOC
0
30
CH1
CH2
0
30
3.5 in
8.9 cm
ENABLE
19 in
48.3 cm
SIDE VIEW
16 in
40.6 cm
2.5 in
6.35 cm
Fig. 3.1 Mounting Dimensions
3.2 Cooling
NEVER block the amplifier’s side vents and front air
intake. Under demanding conditions, there should be
a minimum air flow of 45 cubic feet (1.3 cubic meters)
per minute per amplifier. When mounted in a rack, all
empty spaces should be covered with blank panels to
prevent improper air flow. The amplifier’s air flow should
be augmented with a rack cooling system if its load is
less than 4 ohms and it must operate at consistently
high output levels as in concert sound reinforcement.
When mounting the amplifier in a rack cabinet, the side
walls of the rack should be at least 2 inches (5 cm)
away from the chassis as shown in Figure 3.2.
Tip: An easy way to verify adequate cooling is to observe the ODEP indicators with the amplifier operating
under worst-case conditions. If the indicators dim, additional cooling is recommended.
If your rack cabinet has a front door that could block
air flow to the amplifier’s air intakes, you must provide
adequate air flow either with a grille in the door or by
pressurizing the air behind the door. Wire grilles are
recommended over perforated panels because they
have larger openings and cause less restriction.
A good choice for increased air flow behind a rack
cabinet door is to mount one or more “squirrel cage”
blowers in the rack (Option 1 below). The blower is
mounted at the bottom of the rack so it blows outside
air into the space between the door and the front of the
amplifiers. This blower should not blow air into or take
air out of the space behind the amplifiers. For racks
without a door, mount a blower at the top of the rack so
air is drawn out the back (Option 2 below). The blower
must provide air flow that exceeds the sum of the air
flow required by the individual amplifiers.
AIR
FLOW
EQUIPMENT
RACK
(SIDE VIEW)
IMPORTANT: Be sure rear of amplifier
is securely mounted to rack.
AIR
FLOW
FRONT
OF
RACK
DOOR
17 in
43.2 cm
16 in
40.6 cm
BLOWER
(OPTION 2)
AIR
FLOW
AMPLIFIER
(TOP VIEW)
AIR
FLOW
2 in
(5 cm)
MIN.
RACK
CABINET
AIR FLOW
Fig. 3.2 Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit
Page 10
BLOWER
(OPTION 1)
Fig. 3.3 Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet
If the air supply is unusually dusty, it may be necessary
pre-filter it using commercial furnace filters, etc., to prevent rapid loading of the unit’s own air filter. When
needed, the unit’s filter can be cleaned with mild dish
detergent and water (see Section 4.5).
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3 Wiring
The following section describes common ways to install your amplifier in a sound system. The input and
output terminals are located on the rear panel. Please
use care when making connections, selecting signal
sources and controlling the output level. The load you
save may be your own! Crown assumes no liability for
damaged loads resulting from careless amplifier use
or deliberate overpowering.
3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation
The installation is very intuitive in Stereo mode. The input of Channel 1 feeds the output of the same channel
as does the input of Channel 2. To put the amplifier into
Stereo mode, first turn the amplifier off, then slide the
Stereo/Mono switch to the center position, and properly connect the output wiring as shown in Figure 3.4.
Two sets of binding posts are provided for each channel to facilitate easy connection of multiple speakers to
each channel. Observe correct loudspeaker polarity
and be very careful not to short the outputs of one
channel to that of the other channel while in Stereo
mode.
CAUTION: Always remove power from the unit and
turn the level controls off when making or breaking
connections—especially if the load is a loudspeaker
system. This reduces the chance of loud blasts or damaged loudspeakers.
CAUTION: In Stereo mode, never parallel the two
outputs by directly tying them together or paralleling them with the output of any other amplifier.
Macro-Tech amplifiers may be operated in one of three
modes (Stereo, Bridge-Mono, and Parallel-Mono) by
switching the Stereo/Mono switch on the rear panel.
There are VERY IMPORTANT wiring differences between these three modes which are discussed next.
Such connection does not result in increased power
output and can cause premature activation of the protection circuitry to prevent overheating.
+
–
CHANNEL 2
LOUDSPEAKERS
+
–
CHANNEL 1
CHANNEL 2
+
MIXER
–
CHANNEL 1
LOUDSPEAKERS
CH-2
INPUTS
PUSH
CH-2
+
CH-1
PUSH
FX
INPUT
INPUT
–
CH-2 OUTPUT
CH-1 OUTPUT
CH-1
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
BRIDGE
MONO
(MONO)
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
BRIDGE
MONO
STEREO MODE
CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER
BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH!
Fig. 3.4 Stereo Wiring
Page 11
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation
Bridge-Mono mode is intended for driving loads with a
net impedance of 4 ohms or greater. (See ParallelMono if the load is less than 4 ohms.) Installing the
amplifier in Bridge-Mono mode is very different from
the other modes and requires special attention.
not defeated in Bridge-Mono mode. Any signal fed into
Channel 2 may work against and add to or distort the
signal in Channel 1.
Connect the load across the Channel 1 and 2 red binding posts with the positive lead from the load attaching
to a red post of Channel 1 and the negative lead of the
load attaching to a red post of Channel 2 as shown in
Figure 3.5. THE TWO BLACK BINDING POSTS ARE
NOT USED AND SHOULD NOT BE SHORTED. The
load must be balanced (neither side shorted to
ground).
To put the amplifier in Bridge-Mono mode, turn the
amplifier off and slide the Stereo/Mono switch toward
the right (as you face the back of the amplifier). Both
outputs receive the signal from Channel 1 with the output of Channel 2 inverted so it can be bridged with the
Channel 1 output. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or the signal level and quality may be greatly degraded. Keep the Level control of Channel 2 turned
completely down (counterclockwise).
CAUTION: Be certain all equipment (meters,
switches, etc.) connected to the mono output is
balanced. To prevent oscillations, both sides of the
line must be isolated from the input grounds.
Note: The input jack and level control for Channel 2 are
USE ONLY CHANNEL 1 INPUT
–
+
MIXER
LOUDSPEAKER
DO NOT USE
CHANNEL 2
INPUTS.
CH-2
CH-1
PUSH
FX
PUSH
INPUT
CH-2
INPUTS
INPUT
CH-2 OUTPUT
CH-1
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
BRIDGE
MONO
(MONO)
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
BRIDGE
MONO
BRIDGE-MONO MODE
CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER
BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH!
Fig. 3.5 Bridge-Mono Wiring
Page 12
CH-1 OUTPUT
DO NOT
USE BLACK
BINDING
POSTS.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation
Parallel-Mono mode is used to drive loads with a total
impedance of less than 4 ohms. (See Bridge-Mono if
the load is 4 ohms or greater.) Installing the amplifier in
Parallel-Mono mode is very different from the other
modes and requires special attention.
Note: It is normal for the IOC indicator of Channel 2 to
stay on in Parallel-Mono mode.
The input jack and Level control of Channel 2 are not
defeated in Parallel-Mono mode. Any signal fed into
Channel 2 may work against and add to or distort the
signal in Channel 1.
CAUTION: Do not attempt to operate in Stereo or
Bridge-Mono mode until the Parallel-Mono jumper
is first removed. Failure to do so will definitely
cause inefficient operation, high distortion and excessive heating.
Install a jumper wire between the red binding posts of
both Channel 1 and 2 that is at least 14 gauge in size.
Then, connect the load to the output of Channel 1 as
shown in Figure 3.6. The positive lead from the load
connects to the red binding post of Channel 1 and the
negative lead from the load connects to the black binding post of Channel 1.
To put the amplifier in Parallel-Mono mode, first turn it
off, then slide the Stereo/Mono switch to the left (as you
face the back). Connect the input signal to Channel 1
only. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or the signal level and quality may degrade greatly. Turn off the
Channel 2 Level control (full counterclockwise).
CAUTION: Remove the jumper wire before changing to any mode except Parallel-Mono.
USE ONLY CHANNEL 1 INPUT
+
–
ADD A 14 GAUGE
(OR LARGER)
JUMPER BETWEEN
THE CHANNEL 1
AND 2 RED
BINDING POSTS.
MIXER
DO NOT USE
CHANNEL 2
INPUTS.
CH-2
CH-1
PUSH
FX
PUSH
INPUT
CH-2
INPUTS
LOUDSPEAKER
INPUT
CH-2 OUTPUT
CH-1 OUTPUT
CH-1
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
BRIDGE
MONO
(MONO)
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
STEREO
PARALLEL
MONO
BRIDGE
MONO
PARALLEL-MONO MODE
CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER
BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH!
Fig. 3.6 Parallel-Mono Wiring
Page 13
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.4 Input Connection
Both the balanced XLR and phone jack inputs have a
nominal impedance of 20 K ohms (10 K ohms with unbalanced wiring) and will accept the line-level output
of most devices. Female XLR input connectors are provided on the standard P.I.P.-FX input module (other
P.I.P. modules are described in Section 8.1). Correct
input wiring will depend on two factors: (1) whether the
input signals are balanced or unbalanced, and (2)
whether the signal source floats or has a ground reference. Figures 3.7 and 3.8 show the recommended
connection techniques for each type of signal source.
The amplifier’s built-in ¼-inch phone jack input connectors can be wired similarly for balanced or unbalanced, floating or ground-referenced sources. They
have a standard tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) configuration:
– +
Note: If two or more channels with
the same input ground reference
are driven from the same
INPUT
floating source, connect
Floating
only one shield to the
source chassis.
source
Output
3
1
2
–
+
2-wire line cord
(or battery power)
– +
3
Grounded
source
Output
INPUT
1
2
Shield not connected
at this end
–
+
3-wire grounded line cord
(or other ground connection)
– +
Fig. 3.8 Balanced Input Wiring
3
INPUT
2
+
– +
2-wire line cord
(or battery power)
3
INPUT
Grounded
source
Output
1
2
Shield is not
connected
at this end
+
3-wire grounded line cord
(or other ground connection)
Twin-lead shielded cable
Shield connected
to ground terminal
Floating
source
Output
1
– +
3
Floating
source
Output
1
2
+
2-wire line cord
(or battery power)
– +
3
INPUT
Grounded
source
Output
1
2
Input ground
terminal not used
+
Single-conductor coax
or twisted pair
INPUT
Shield connected to both
negative (–) and ground
input terminals
the tip is positive (+), the ring is negative (–) and the
sleeve is ground (see Figure 3.9). Wiring for various
sources follows the XLR wiring guidelines shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8.
The phone jacks should not be used as inputs when a
P.I.P. module with active circuitry is installed. The phone
jacks are in parallel with the output of the P.I.P. module,
so an input signal connected to the phone jacks can
feed backwards into the active circuitry of the P.I.P. and
cause undesirable distortion. You can use the phone
jacks for signal input with any of the following P.I.P.
modules installed: P.I.P.-FX, P.I.P.-BB, P.I.P.-FMX, P.I.P.FXQ and P.I.P.-FPX. All other P.I.P. modules have active
circuitry and should not be installed if you plan to connect input signals to the phone jacks. The phone jacks
can always be used as “daisy chain” outputs to feed
post-processed signals from the P.I.P. to the inputs of
other amplifiers.
Please follow the instruction in Section 3.3.2 and 3.3.3
if the amplifier will be used in either Bridge-Mono or
Parallel-Mono mode. Remember, do not use the Channel 2 input in either mono mode.
+
–
BALANCED
SHIELD
3-wire grounded line cord
(or other ground connection)
+
UNBALANCED
SHIELD
Fig. 3.7 Unbalanced Input Wiring
Page 14
Fig. 3.9 Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
SOLVING INPUT PROBLEMS
Sometimes large subsonic (subaudible) frequencies
are present in the input signal. These can damage
loudspeakers by overloading or overheating them. To
attenuate such frequencies, place a capacitor in series with the input signal line. The graph in Figure 3.10
shows some capacitor values and how they affect the
frequency response. Use only low-leakage paper, mylar or tantalum capacitors.
910 Ω
+
A
–
Balanced Out
–
910 Ω
1.8 mH
+
B
Balanced In
+
.015
µf
–
Balanced Out
–
1.8 mH
2.5 mH
+
C
dB
Balanced In
+
.018
µf
–
Balanced Out
–
2.5 mH
0
0.47 Film 1.8 mH
–5
–10
+
.003
µf
Balanced In
+
f
1µ
.1
µf
.05
µf
D
f
1µ
Balanced In
.0
+
.015
µf
–
–15
Balanced Out
–
0.47 Film 1.8 mH
1 Hz
10 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
10 kHz
Fig. 3.12 Balanced RFI Filters
Frequency
Fig. 3.10 Subsonic Filter Capacitors
Tip: The P.I.P.-FX included with your amplifier has
plenty of room on its circuit board for input filters.
Another problem to avoid is the presence of large levels of radio frequencies or RF in the input signal. Although high RF levels may not pose a threat to the
amplifier, they can burn out tweeters or other loads
that are sensitive to high frequencies. Extremely high
RF levels can also cause your amplifier to prematurely
activate its protection circuitry, resulting in inefficient
operation. RF can be introduced into the signal by local radio stations and from the bias signal of many
tape recorders. To prevent high levels of input RF, install an appropriate low-pass filter in series with the the
input signal. Some examples of unbalanced wiring for
low-pass filters are shown in Figure 3.11.
1.8 K ohm
Source
.003
µf
To
Amp
6 dB/octave
3.9 mH
To
Amp
A
12 dB/octave
–10
B
GND
C
B
5 mH
R 600 ohm
Source
.018
µf
Input Wiring Tips
0
GND
.015
µf
Inductive coupling can occur when input cables are
subjected to a magnetic field from a power cord or
power transformer. One way to prevent inductive coupling is to lace the input cables together along their
length and route them as far away as possible from
power transformers and power cords. The use of
dB
A
R 600 ohm
Source
A third problem to avoid is hum. The two most common sources of hum in an audio system are inductive
coupling and ground loops.
–20
To
Amp
GND
C
4 kHz
Note: A low source impedance (R) can be
increased to 600 ohms with an appropriate resistor.
10 kHz
40 kHz
100 kHz
Frequency
Fig. 3.11 Unbalanced RFI Filters
For balanced input wiring use one of the examples in
Figure 3.12. Filters A, B and C correspond to the unbalanced filters above. Filter D also incorporates the
subsonic filter described previously.
1. Use only shielded cable. Cables with
higher density shields are better. Spiral
wrapped shield is not recommended.
2. When using unbalanced lines, keep the
cables as short as possible. Avoid cable
lengths greater than 10 feet (3 meters).
3. Do not run signal cables together with
high-level wiring such as loudspeaker wires
or AC cords. This greatly lessens the chance
of hum or noise being induced into the input
cables.
4. Turn the entire system off before changing
connections. Turn level controls down
completely before powering the system back
up. Crown is not liable for damage incurred
when any transducer or component is
overdriven.
Page 15
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
shielded pair cable is another effective way to reduce
or eliminate hum resulting from inductive coupling.
Ground loops often result when two or more devices
are improperly grounded. This causes undesirable
stray currents that may produce hum in the output. The
best way to avoid ground loops is to ensure that all
system devices are plugged into the same power strip.
In addition, make sure that all cable shields are
grounded at one end only.
resistance increases. This is very important because
the amplifier’s excellent damping factor can easily be
negated by insufficient loudspeaker cables.
Use the nomograph in Figure 3.13 and the procedure
that follows to find the recommended wire gauge (AWG
or American Wire Gauge) for your system.
.0002
.0004
Input and output grounds are sometimes tied together
for testing or metering. This can cause feedback oscillation from load current in the test loop. In some
systems, even the AC power line may provide this feedback path. Proper grounding, input isolation and isolation of common AC devices in the system is good
practice.
RS
SOURCE
RESISTANCE
(ohms)
.0006
.001
RL
RS
DAMPING
FACTOR
20,000
10,000
.002
.004
.006
.01
5,000
3.3.5 Output Connection
Consider the power handling capacity of your load
before connecting it to the amplifier. Crown is not liable
for damage incurred at any time due to overpowering.
Fusing loudspeaker lines is highly recommended (see
Section 3.3.6). Also, please pay close attention to the
precautions provided in Section 4.1.
.02
2,000
40
RL
LOAD
RESISTANCE
(ohms)
1,000
5000
500
30
.06
.1
200
100
50
2-COND.
CABLE
(feet)
1000
.4
20
1
10
2
5
100
10
50
20
50
100
5
10
3. Connectors that can be plugged into AC
power receptacles should never be used.
4. Connectors with low current-carrying capacity should not be used.
5. Connectors with any tendency to short
should never be used.
Page 16
5
9
4
#8
#6
.5
#4
#2
6
10
6
.1
.05
20
4
40
.01
3
2
#14
#10
1
5
#16
1
5000
8
7
#18
#12
1000
Example Shown:
RL = 8 ohms; RS = 0.016 ohms or D.F. = 500;
Cable Length = 10 ft.; answer: #8 wire
1.5
HOW TO DETERMINE
APPROPRIATE WIRE GAUGE
It is important to use loudspeaker cables with sufficient
gauge (thickness) for the length being used. The resistance introduced by inadequate loudspeaker cables
will reduce both the output power and the motion control of the loudspeakers. The latter problem occurs because the damping factor decreases as the cable
#20
10
2000
2
2. Do not use connectors that might accidentally tie two channels together when making or breaking connections (for example, a
standard three-wire stereo phone plug).
2
#28
#26
#24
#22
200
500
1. To prevent possible shorts, do not expose
the loudspeaker cable connectors.
500
1
.6
Use Good Connectors
(ohms/1000 ft.)
COPPER
WIRE
(AWG)
.2
20
15
8000
.04
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Fig. 3.13 Wire Size Nomograph
#0
#00
#0000
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
1. Note the load resistance of the loudspeakers connected
to each channel of the amplifier. Mark this value on the
“Load Resistance” line of the nomograph.
2. Select an acceptable damping factor and mark it on the
“Damping Factor” line. Your amplifier can provide an excellent damping factor of 1,000 from 10 to 400 Hz in Stereo mode with an 8-ohm load. In contrast, typical damping factors are 50 or lower. Higher damping factors yield
lower distortion and greater motion control over the loudspeakers. A common damping factor for commercial applications is between 50 and 100. Higher damping factors may be desirable for live sound, but long cable
lengths often limit the highest damping factor that can be
achieved practically. (Under these circumstances,
Crown’s IQ System® is often used so amplifiers can be
monitored and controlled when they are located very near
the loudspeakers.) In recording studios and home hi-fi, a
damping factor of 500 or more is very desirable.
3. Draw a line through the two points with a pencil, and continue until it intersects the “Source Resistance” line.
4. On the “2-Cond. Cable” line, mark the length of the cable
run.
5. Draw a pencil line from the mark on the “Source Resistance” line through the mark on the “2-Cond. Cable” line,
and on to intersect the “Annealed Copper Wire” line.
6. The required wire gauge for the selected wire length and
damping factor is the value on the “Annealed Copper
Wire” line. Note: Wire size increases as the AWG gets
smaller.
7. If the size of the cable exceeds what you want to use,
(1) find a way to use shorter cables, like using the IQ System, (2) settle for a lower damping factor, or (3) use more
than one cable for each line. Options 1 and 2 will require
the substitution of new values for cable length or damping
factor in the nomograph. For option 3, estimate the effective wire gauge by subtracting 3 from the apparent wire
gauge every time the number of conductors of equal
gauge is doubled. So, if #10 wire is too large, two #13
wires can be substituted, or four #16 wires can be used
for the same effect.
SOLVING OUTPUT PROBLEMS
Sometimes high-frequency oscillations occur which
can cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its
protection circuitry and result in inefficient operation.
The effects of this problem are similar to the effects of
the RF problem described in Section 3.3.4. To prevent
high-frequency oscillations:
1. Lace together the loudspeaker conductors for
each channel; do not lace together the conductors from different channels. This minimizes the
chance that cables will act like antennas and
transmit or receive high frequencies that can
cause oscillation.
2. Avoid using shielded loudspeaker cable.
3. Avoid long cable runs where the loudspeaker
cables from different amplifiers share a common cable tray or cable jacket.
4. Never connect the amplifier’s input and output
grounds together.
5. Never tie the outputs of multiple amplifiers together.
6. Keep loudspeaker cables well separated from
input cables.
7. Install a low-pass filter on each input line (similar
to the RF filters described in Section 3.3.4.
8. Install input wiring according to the instructions
in Section 3.3.4.
Another problem to avoid is the presence of large subsonic currents when primarily inductive loads are
used. Examples of inductive loads are 70-volt transformers and electrostatic loudspeakers.
Inductive loads can appear as a short circuit at low
frequencies. This can cause the amplifier to produce
large low-frequency currents and activate its protection circuitry. Always take the precaution of installing a
high-pass filter in series with the amplifier’s input when
inductive loads are used. A 3-pole, 18 dB per octave
filter with a –3 dB frequency of 50 Hz is recommended
(depending on the application, an even higher –3 dB
frequency may be desirable). Such a filter is described
with subsonic frequency problems in Section 3.3.4.
Another way to prevent the amplifier from prematurely
activating its protection systems and to protect inductive loads from large low-frequency currents is to connect a 590 to 708 µF nonpolarized capacitor and
4-ohm, 20-watt resistor in series with the amplifier’s
output and the positive (+) lead of the transformer. The
circuit shown below uses components that are available from most electronic supply stores.
4-ohm, 20-watt
Resistor
+
590 to 708 µf Capacitor
120 VAC, N.P.
+
From
Amplifier
Output
Inductive
Load
–
–
Fig. 3.14 Inductive Load (Transformer) Network
Page 17
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
3.3.6 Additional Load Protection
Because the amplifier generates enormous power, it
may be desirable to protect loudspeakers (or other
sensitive loads) from damage due to excessive power.
A common way to do this is to put a fuse in series with
the load. This may be accomplished by using a single
fuse to protect the entire system, or by fusing each
driver.
Fuses help prevent damage due to prolonged overload, but provide essentially no protection against
damage from large transients. To minimize this latter
problem, use high-speed instrument fuses such as the
Littlefuse 361000 series. If the loudspeaker is only susceptible to damage caused by prolonged overload
(such as overheating), use a fuse or circuit breaker
having the same slow thermal response as the loudspeaker itself (such as a slow-blow fuse).
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
20
2
3000
15
2000
2.5
10
1500
8
3
1000
800
6
600
5
5
300
3
200
6
Example:
Impedance = 8 ohms.
Peak Power = 75 W
7
150
2
100
80
1.5
60
8
Answer: Fuse = 1.5 A
9
1
40
.8
10
30
.6
12
20
.5
15
20
25
30
.4
.3
.2
.15
LOUDSPEAKER RATING
16
FUSE
(amps)
LOUDSPEAKER IMPEDANCE
(ohms)
14
10
8
6
4
3
2
.1
.08
1.5
1
40
Fig. 3.15 Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph
Page 18
(Typically 4 times the continuous average power)
400
4
PEAK MUSIC POWER
(watts)
4
The nomograph in Figure 3.15 shows fuse size versus
loudspeaker peak power rating. It can be used to determine the size of the required fuse.
3.3.7 AC Power Requirements
Use an isolated power receptacle whenever possible
with adequate current. North American units are
shipped with a 30 amp (10 AWG) line cord, a NEMA
TT30P plug and a NEMA TT30R receptacle. International units are shipped without a plug connected to
the appropriate line cord. Line voltages of 10% or more
above the specified voltage may damage the amplifier.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
4 Operation
4.1 Precautions
Although the Macro-Tech 3600VZ is protected from external faults, the following precautions should be followed for safety and optimum operation:
LEVEL
12
9
15
LEVEL
18
12
ODEP
21
15
18
9
21
3
27
ON
24
6
24
6
OFF
SIGNAL / IOC
27
3
0
30
CH1
CH2
0
30
ENABLE
1. There are important differences among the Stereo, Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono operating
modes (see Section 3.3).
2. WARNING: Do not change the position of the
Stereo/Mono switch unless the amplifier is
first turned off.
3. CAUTION: In Parallel-Mono mode, a jumper
is used between the Channel 1 and Channel
2 red binding posts (amplifier outputs). Be
sure to remove this jumper for Bridge-Mono
or Stereo mode; otherwise inefficient operation, high distortion and excessive heating
will occur. Check the Stereo/Mono switch on
the back panel for proper position.
4. Turn the amplifier off and unplug it from the
AC mains before removing a P.I.P. card.
5. Use care when making connections, selecting
signal sources and controlling the output level.
The load you save may be your own.
Fig. 4.1 Indicators
Enable indicator. This means that in the improbable
event that one or both channels overheat and cause a
shut down of the high voltage power supply, the Enable indicator will remain on. However, the Signal/IOC
indicator lights to show that the output waveform does
not match the input.
The ODEP indicators provide a visual indication of the
operation of Crown’s patented Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) circuitry. This circuitry protects
the amplifier output stages against heat damage by
proportionally limiting the drive level to the output
stages. This enables the amplifier to operate safely
even under severe operating conditions.
8. Never connect the output to a power supply
output, battery or power main.
During normal operation, the ODEP indicators glow
brightly to indicate that the output stages are operating
within their thermal range (SOA - Safe Operating Area).
However, if an output stage begins to overheat, the
ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive signal and
the LEDs dim. In the unlikely event that the amplifier
exceeds the operating limits, ODEP shuts down the
output stages and the indicators turn off. The indicators also turn off if the power supplies are put in standby
mode.
9. Tampering in the circuit by unqualified personnel, or making unauthorized circuit changes
may be extremely dangerous and may invalidate the warranty.
Note: The high voltage power supplies will temporarily
go into standby mode if their transformers get too hot
or if there is DC or heavy common-mode current in the
output.
Remember: Crown is not liable for damage that results
from overdriving components in your system.
The green Signal/IOC indicators provide the triple
functions of Signal Presence, Distortion, and Input
Overload indicators. As signal presence indicators,
they flash with normal intensity in sync with the audio
outputs. As IOC (Input/Output Comparator) indicators,
they flash brightly if there is any difference between the
input and output signal waveforms greater than 0.05%.
Because transient distortion happens quickly, a 0.1
second “hold delay” keeps the indicators on long
enough to be easily noticed. This IOC function verifies
the amplifier’s performance. As input overload indicators, they flash brightly with a 0.5 second hold delay
6. Do not short the ground lead of an output cable
to the input signal ground. This may form a
ground loop and cause oscillations.
7. Operate the amplifier from AC mains of not
more than 10% variation above or below the selected line voltage and only the specified line
frequency.
4.2 Indicators
The front panel has several helpful LED (light emitting
diode) indicators.
The amber Enable indicator is provided to show the
amplifier has been turned on (or enabled) and that the
low-voltage power supply is working. It does not indicate the high voltage supply status. As a result, disruption of the high voltage supplies has no effect on the
Page 19
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Indicator Status
ODEP
OFF
SIGNAL / IOC
OFF
ODEP
SIGNAL / IOC
ODEP
SIGNAL / IOC
ODEP
SIGNAL / IOC
ON
Amplifier Condition
There is no power to the amplifier and all indicators are off, including the Enable light.
Possible reasons: (1) The amplifier’s enable switch is off. (2) The amplifier is not plugged into the power
receptacle. (3) The AC circuit breaker has been tripped. (4) The amplifier’s low-voltage power supply
fuse has blown.
Normal operation for a channel with NO audio output. Possible reasons: (1) There is no input signal.
(2) The input signal level is very low. (3) The channel’s level control is turned down.
OFF
ON
Normal
ON
Normal operation for a channel with audio output. The ODEP indicator will remain at full intensity
to show that there is reserve thermodynamic energy, and the signal/IOC indicator will flash with normal
intensity to show that the channel has audio output.
The channel’s output is exceeding 0.05% distortion. The input signal level is too high and IOC is
reporting an input overload or output clipping.
OR
Bright
Channel 2 only: The amplifier is in Parallel-Mono mode. The Channel 2 signal/IOC indicator always
turns on to full brightness whenever the amplifier’s stereo/mono switch is set to Parallel-Mono mode.
ODEP
SIGNAL / IOC
OFF
Bright
The amplifier channel is in standby mode. Possible reasons: (1) A P.I.P. module like an IQ P.I.P.
has turned off the channel’s high-voltage power supply. (2) The amplifier has just been turned on and
is still in the four second turn-on delay. (3) The DC / low-frequency protection circuitry has been
activated. (4) The fault protection circuitry has been activated. (5) The transformer thermal protection
circuitry has been activated.
OR
A channel’s circuit breaker has tripped. Transformer overload can cause a channel’s circuit
breaker to trip.
OR
ODEP limiting has been activated. Possible reasons: (1) The amplifier’s air filters are blocked and
need to be cleaned. (2) There is insufficient cooling because of inadequate air flow or air that is too hot.
(3) The load impedance for the channel is too low because the output is shorted or the amplifier is
driving too many loudspeakers for the selected stereo/mono mode. (4) The amplifier channel is
continuously being driven to very high output levels.
ODEP
SIGNAL / IOC
OFF
Normal
ODEP limiting is about to begin. Possible reasons: (1) The amplifier’s air filters are blocked and need
to be cleaned. (2) There is insufficient cooling because of inadequate air flow or air that is too hot.
(3) The load impedance for the channel is too low because the output is shorted or the amplifier is
driving too many loudspeakers for the selected stereo/mono mode. (4) The amplifier channel is
continuously being driven to very high output levels.
Fig. 4.2 Macro-Tech Indicator States
when an input signal that is too large begins to cause
early clipping distortion at the input. Note: the Channel
2 IOC indicator will stay on in Parallel-Mono mode.
4.3 Protection Circuits
4.3.1 Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP)
Crown invented ODEP to solve two long standing problems in amplifier design: To prevent amplifier shutdown
during demanding operation and to increase the efficiency of output circuitry.
Macro-Tech amplifiers provide extensive protection
and diagnostics capabilities. Protection systems include ODEP, “standby”, and an AC circuit breaker.
These features provide protection under any conditions.
To do this, Crown established a rigorous program to
measure the safe operating area (SOA) of each output
transistor before installing it in an amplifier. Crown also
designed intelligent circuitry to simulate the instantaneous operating conditions of those output transistors.
Page 20
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Its name describes what it does: Output Device Emulation Protection or ODEP. It not only simulates the operation of the output transistors but it also compares
their operation to their known SOA. If ODEP sees that
more power is about to be asked of the output devices
than they are capable of delivering under the present
conditions, ODEP immediately limits the drive level until
it falls within the SOA. Limiting is proportional and kept
to an absolute minimum—only what is required to prevent the possibility of output transistor damage.
This level of protection enables Crown to increase output transistor utilization while greatly increasing amplifier reliability.
Finally, this onboard intelligence is monitored in two
ways. First, the front panel ODEP indicators show
whether the amplifier is functioning correctly or if ODEP
is limiting the drive level. Second, ODEP data is fed to
the P.I.P. connector at the back of the amplifier so advanced P.I.P. modules like the IQ-P.I.P. can use it to
make decisions and control the amplifier.
With ODEP you get the maximum power with the maximum protection—the show goes on!
4.3.2 Standby Mode
An important part of a Macro-Tech amplifier’s protection systems is standby mode. Standby protects the
amplifier during potentially catastrophic conditions. It
temporarily removes power from the high-voltage supplies to protect the amplifier and its loads. Standby
mode can be identified using the indicator table in Figure 4.2.
When you turn on the Enable switch, standby mode is
activated to provide turn-on protection. This power-up
delay lets other system components settle before any
signals are amplified, and it provides some “randomness” to the power-up sequence of multiple units which
reduces the system’s current demand during start-up.
If dangerous subsonic frequencies or direct current
(DC) is detected in the amplifier’s output, the unit will
activate its DC/low-frequency protection circuitry and
put the affected channels in standby. This protects the
loads and prevents oscillations. The unit resumes normal operation as soon as the amplifier no longer detects dangerous low-frequency or DC output. Although
it is extremely unlikely that you will ever activate the
amplifier’s DC/low-frequency protection system, improper source materials such as subsonic square
waves or input overloads that result in excessively
clipped input signals can activate this system.
plifier channel into standby mode in rare situations
where heavy common-mode current is detected in a
channel’s output. The amplifier should never output
heavy common-mode current unless its circuitry is
damaged in some way, and putting the channel in
standby mode helps to prevent further damage.
The amplifier’s transformer thermal protection circuitry
is activated where the unit’s transformer temperature
rises to unsafe levels. Under these abnormal conditions, the amplifier will put both channels into standby
mode. In addition, the cooling fan will run at full speed.
The amplifier will return to normal operation after the
transformer cools to a safe temperature. (For more information on transformer thermal protection, refer to
the section that follows.)
4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection
All Macro-Tech amplifiers have transformer thermal
protection which protects the power supplies from
damage under rare conditions where the transformer
temperature rises too high. A thermal switch embedded in each channel’s power transformer removes
power to that channel’s high-voltage power supply if it
detects excessive heat. The switch automatically resets itself as soon as the transformer cools to a safe
temperature.
If your amplifier is operated within rated conditions, it is
unlikely that you will ever see it activate transformer
thermal protection. One reason is that ODEP keeps the
amplifier working under severe conditions. Even so,
higher than rated output levels, excessively low-impedance loads and unreasonably high input signals can
generate excessive heat in the output devices. This
can overheat the transformer and activate its protection system.
Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed to keep working
under conditions where other amplifiers would fail. But
even when the limits of a Macro-Tech are exceeded, it
protects itself—and your investment—from damage.
4.3.4 Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker is provided to prevent excessive current draw by the high-voltage power supplies. A reset
button for the circuit breaker is provided on the back
panel. The rating of the circuit breaker for each amplifier model and each AC mains voltage is provided with
the specifications in Section 6. When operating with
rated loads and output levels, this breaker should only
trip in the incredibly rare instance of a catastrophic
amplifier failure. Other protection systems such as
ODEP keep the amplifier safe and operational under
The amplifier’s fault protection system will put an amPage 21
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
SENSITIVITY SWITCH INSIDE ACCESS HOLE
most other severe conditions. The breaker can also
trip in situations where extremely low-impedance loads
and sustained high output levels result in current draw
that exceeds the breaker’s rating. Again, this should
only be possible when operating outside rated conditions or when an input signal is clipped severely.
1.4 V
26 dB
0.77 V
4.4 Controls
The Enable switch is located on the front panel so you
can easily turn the amplifier on and off. If you ever need
to make wiring or other installation changes, don’t forget to disconnect the power cord. The six steps listed
next should be followed whenever you turn on the amplifier.
1. Turn down the level of your audio source. For
example, set your master mixer’s volume to –∞.
2. Turn down the Level controls of the amplifier (if
they are not already down).
3. Turn on the Enable switch. The Enable indicator
beside the switch should glow. During the four
second mute delay which immediately follows,
the Signal/IOC indicators may flash unpredictably and the ODEP LEDs will stay off. After the
mute delay, the ODEP indicators should come
on with full brilliance and the Signal/IOC indicators should function normally (remain off if no
signal is present; flash if a signal is present). Remember, the Channel 2 Signal/IOC indicator remains on if the amplifier is in Parallel-Mono
mode.
4. After the mute delay, turn up the level of your
audio source to the maximum desired level.
5. Turn up the Level controls of the amplifier until
the maximum desired sound level is achieved.
6. Turn down the level of your audio source to its
normal range.
For ease of use, the Level controls are located on the
front panel. Each control has 31 detents for accuracy.
To secure these controls, the Level Control Security Kit
is available (see Section 8.2). Note: In Bridge-Mono or
Parallel-Mono mode, turn down the Channel 2 Level
control and only use the Channel 1 control.
The Input Sensitivity Switch is located inside the
back of the amplifier (Figure 4.3). It is set at the factory
to 0.775 volts for rated output into 8 ohms. It can also
be switched to a sensitivity of 1.4 volts, or a fixed voltage gain of 26 dB (4.8 volts for rated output).
Page 22
THIS AMPLIFIER IS EQUIPPED WITH SELECTABLE INPUT SENSITIVITY. REMOVE P.I.P. MODULE TO ACCESS SENSITIVITY SWITCH.
BALANCED
INPUT WIRING
+
–
GND
CH-2
INPUTS
CH-1
UNBALANCED
INPUT WIRING
+
TIP
RING
INPUT GROUND LIFT
SLEEVE
LIFT
(MONO)
GND
TIP
SLEEVE
(AFFECTS PHONE INPUTS ONLY.)
INPUT GROUND LIFT SWITCH
Fig. 4.3 Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches
How to change the input sensitivity:
1. Turn off the amplifier and disconnect its power
cord from the AC mains power receptacle.
2. Remove the P.I.P. module (two screws).
3. Locate the sensitivity switch access hole inside
the chassis opening as shown in Figure 4.3. It is
located just above the phone jack inputs.
Note: The Sensitivity switch will not be visible
because it is mounted below the hole. Use your
little finger to reach it.
4. Set the switch to the desired position noted on
the access hole label. The position toward the
front panel sets the sensitivity to 1.4 volts for
rated output, the middle position provides a
voltage gain of 26 dB, and the position toward
the back panel sets the sensitivity to 0.775 volts
for rated output.
5. Replace the P.I.P. module and restore the power.
The Input Ground Lift switch is located on the rear
panel (Figure 4.3) and can provide isolation between
the input signal ground and the AC ground. It affects
only the phone jack inputs and has no affect on the
input connectors on the P.I.P. module. Sliding the switch
to the left isolates or “lifts” the grounds by placing an
impedance between the sleeve of each phone jack
and the circuit ground.
When a P.I.P. module is plugged into the amplifier, only
the noninverted and inverted signal lines are connected in parallel with the corresponding lines of the
input phone jacks. The signal grounds are not paralleled. For example, XLR pins 2 and 3 are connected in
parallel with the tip and ring of the corresponding
phone jack. However, pin 1 of the XLR is not connected
in parallel with the sleeve of the phone jack.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
The Circuit Breaker Reset Buttons (PUSH TO RESET) are located on the back panel to protect the
power supplies against overload. If a circuit breaker
trips, the Signal/IOC indicator of the affected channel
turns on (the Enable indicator remains illuminated).
4.5 Filter Cleaning
Dust filters are provided on the air intakes to the cooling system (Figure 2.1). If these filters become
clogged, the unit will not cool as efficiently as it should
and may produce lower-than-normal output levels due
to high heat diffuser temperature and activation of the
ODEP circuitry.
To clean, remove each of the filter elements by gently
pulling them away from the front panel. Clean with mild
dishwashing detergent and warm water. Replacement
filters may be ordered from the factory.
Dust filters are not 100% efficient—depending on the
local environment, the internal heat sinks of the amplifier will benefit from periodic cleaning by a qualified
technician. Internal cleaning information is available
from our Technical Support Group.
Page 23
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
5 Technical Information
5.1 Overview
Your Macro-Tech VZ amplifier incorporates several new
technological advancements including low-stress output stages, real-time computer simulation of output
transistor conditions, advanced thermal management,
a modular system for signal input and processing, and
the articulated VZ power supplies.
Custom protection circuitry limits temperature and current to safe levels while making the amplifier highly reliable and tolerant of faults. Unlike many lesser
amplifiers, it can operate at its voltage and current limits without self-destructing.
Real-time computer simulation is used to create an
analogue of the junction temperature of the output transistors (hereafter referred to as the “output devices”).
Current is limited only when the device temperature
becomes excessive—and just by the minimum amount
necessary. This patented approach is called ODEP or
Output Device Emulation Protection. It maximizes the
available output power and eliminates overheating, the
major cause of output device failure.
The amplifier is protected from all common hazards
that plague high-power amplifiers including shorted,
open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies, excessive temperature, chain-destruction phenomena, input overload damage and high frequency
blowups. The unit protects loudspeakers from DC in
the input signal, DC in the output, turn-on and turn-off
transients, and it detects and prevents unwanted DC
in the output. The amplifier is also protected from internal faults.
The patented four-quadrant topology used in the
grounded output stages is called the grounded bridge.
The grounded bridge topology takes full advantage of
the power supplies delivering peak-to-peak voltages
to the load that are twice the voltage seen by the output devices and twice the voltage generated by the
power supplies.
The grounded bridge topology is ground-referenced.
Because the required current exceeds the limits of
presently available components, composite output
devices are constructed to function as gigantic NPN
and PNP devices. Each output stage has two composite NPN and two composite PNP devices.
The devices connected to the load are referred to as
“high-side NPN and PNP” and the devices connected
to ground are referred to as “low-side NPN and PNP.”
Page 24
Positive current is delivered to the load by increasing
conductance simultaneously in the high-side NPN and
low-side PNP stage, while decreasing conductance of
the high-side PNP and low-side NPN in synchrony.
The two channels may be used together to double the
voltage (Bridge-Mono) or the current (Parallel-Mono)
presented to the load. This feature gives the user flexibility in maximizing the power available to the load.
A wide-bandwidth multiloop design is used for stateof-the-art compensation. This produces ideal behavior, and results in ultra-low distortion values.
Aluminum extrusions have been widely used for heat
sinks in power amplifiers due to their low cost and reasonable performance. However, measured on a watts
per pound or watts per volume basis, the extrusion
technology doesn’t perform nearly as well as the heat
sink technology developed for Macro-Tech power amplifiers.
Our heat sinks are fabricated from custom convoluted
fin stock that provides an extremely high ratio of area
to volume, or area to weight. All power devices are
mounted directly to massive heat spreaders that are
electrically alive. Electrifying the heat spreaders improves thermal performance by eliminating the insulating interface underneath the power devices. The
chassis itself is used as part of the thermal circuit, and
this maximizes utilization of the available resources.
5.2 VZ Power
VZ means Variable Impedance. It is the name of
Crown’s patented articulated power supply technology.
This technology is what makes it possible to pack such
tremendous power into Crown’s Macro-Tech 3600VZ
and 5000VZ amplifiers.
5.2.1 Background
A power supply must be large enough to handle the
maximum voltage and current necessary for the amplifier to drive its rated power into a specified load. In the
process of fulfilling this requirement, conventional
power supply designs produce lots of heat, are heavy,
and take up precious real estate. And it is no secret
that heat is one of a power amplifiers worst enemies.
Consider the circuit in Figure 5.1.
According to Ohm’s Law, the bigger the power supply,
the more heat the power transistors must dissipate.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
POWER
TRANSISTOR
Also, the lower the resistance of the power
transistors, the more
voltage you can deliver
to the load. But when
you lower the resistance of the transistors,
you increase the current passing through
them, and again increase the amount of
heat they must dissipate.
+
POWER
SUPPLY
SPEAKER
LOAD
–
POWER
TRANSISTOR
Fig. 5.1 A Typical
Power Supply
5.2.2 The VZ Supply
An articulated power supply like VZ avoids much of
this problem by reducing the voltage applied to the
transistors when less voltage is needed. Reducing the
voltage reduces the heat, so the amplifier runs cooler
and more power can be packed in safely.
The VZ supply is divided into segments to better match
the voltage and current requirements of the power transistors. Remember that audio signals like music are
complex waveforms.
VZ POWER SUPPLY
+
POWER
TRANSISTOR
VZ
STAGE
–
SPEAKER
LOAD
+
The power transistors stay cooler
and are not forced
to needlessly dissipate heat. This is
the normal operating mode of the VZ
power supply.
VZ
STAGE
When the voltage
requirements are
–
high, VZ supplies
switch to a series
mode
which proFig. 5.4 VZ Supply in
duces
higher voltSeries Mode
age and less
current. The amplified output signal never misses a
beat and gets full voltage when it needs it—not when it
doesn’t need it.
POWER
TRANSISTOR
Sensing circuitry watches the voltage of the signal to
determine when to switch VZ modes. The switching
circuitry is designed to prevent audible switching distortion to yield the highest possible dynamic transfer
function—you hear only the music and not the amplifier. You get not only the maximum power with the maximum safety, but you also get the best power matching
to your load.
5.3 Circuit Theory
Fig. 5.2 Music Waveforms Are Complex
For music, the average level is always much less than
the peak level. This means a power supply does not
need to produce full voltage all the time.
VZ POWER SUPPLY
POWER
TRANSISTOR
+
SPEAKER
LOAD
VZ
STAGE
–
+
VZ
STAGE
–
POWER
TRANSISTOR
Fig. 5.3 VZ Supply in Parallel Mode
The VZ supply is
divided into two
parts. When the
voltage requirements are not
high, it operates
in a parallel
mode to produce less voltage and more
current.
Each channel is powered by its own power transformer,
T100 or T200. Both channels share TF-1, a low voltage
transformer. The secondary outputs of each transformer are full-wave rectified by heavy duty bridge rectifiers and are filtered by large computer grade
capacitors. A thermal switch embedded in each transformer protects them from overheating.
The low voltage transformer TF-1 uses a separate fan
motor winding. The TF-1 output is rectified by diodes
D1-4 delivering an unregulated 24 volts. Monolithic
regulators U1-2 provide a regulated ±15 volts.
5.3.1 Stereo Operation
For simplicity, the discussion of stereo operation will
refer to one channel only. Mono operation will be discussed later.
See the block diagram in Figure 5.5 and the schematics at the back of this manual.
The input signal at the phone jack passes directly into
the balanced gain stage (U104-C,D). Use of a P.I.P.
module for input signal causes the input signal to pass
through the P.I.P. and then to the balanced gain stage.
Page 25
Page 26
BALANCED
Fig. 5.5 Circuit Block Diagram
INPUTS
1/4" PHONE
XLR
P.I.P.
VARIABLE
GAIN STAGE
DISPLAY
BALANCE
INPUT STAGE
ERROR
AMP
E
TRANSLATOR
ODEP
TRANSLATOR
A
B
C
D
CURRENT
LIMIT
C
(ODEP)
PNP HI
OUTPUT
STAGE
NPN HI
OUTPUT
STAGE
A
(ODEP)
+
+Vcc
–Vcc
OUTPUT
ONLY ONE CHANNEL SHOWN
–Vcc
LVA
BIAS
LVA
+Vcc
D
(ODEP)
PNP LOW
OUTPUT
STAGE
NPN LOW
OUTPUT
STAGE
B
(ODEP)
BIAS
BRIDGE
BALANCE
–Vcc
+Vcc
DC/ LF
VZ
MODE
POWER CONTROL
SUPPLY
FAULT
CONTROL
E
(ODEP)
+Vcc
–Vcc
SUPPLY
POWER
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
The balanced gain stage (U104-C,D) causes balanced-to-single-ended conversion to take place using
a difference amplifier. From there, gain can be controlled with a potentiometer. The error amp (U104-A)
amplifies the difference between the output signal and
the input signal from the gain pot, and drives the voltage translator stage.
The voltage translator stage channels the signal to the
Last Voltage Amplifiers (LVAs), depending on the signal polarity, from the error amp U104-A. The +LVA
(Q105,Q125) and the –LVA (Q110,Q126), with their
push-pull effect through the bias servo Q318, drive the
fully complementary output stage.
The bias servo Q318 is thermally coupled to the heat
sink, and sets the quiescent bias current in the output
stage to lower the distortion in the crossover region of
the output signal. D301, D302, D303, and D304 are
used to remove the charge on the unused portion of
the output stage, depending on the polarity of the output signal.
With the voltage swing provided by the LVAs, the signal then gains current amplification through the
Darlington emitter-follower output stage.
The bridge-balanced circuit (U104-B) receives a signal from the output of the amplifier, and differences it
with the signal at the Vcc supply. The bridge-balanced
circuit then develops a voltage to drive the bridge-balanced output stage. This results in the Vcc supply having exactly one half of the output voltage added to their
quiescent voltage. D309, D310, D311 and a trimmer
resistor set the quiescent current point for the bridgebalanced output stage.
The protection mechanisms that affect the signal path
are implemented to protect the amplifier under realworld conditions. These conditions are high instantaneous current, excessive temperature, and operation
of the output devices outside safe conditions.
Q107 and Q108 act as a conventional current limiter,
sensing current in the output stage. The allowable current level is also adjusted as a function of voltage.
When current at any one instant exceeds the design
criteria, the limiters remove the drive from the LVAs,
thus limiting current in the output stage to a safe level.
To further protect the output stages, a specially developed ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuit is used. It produces an analog output proportional
to the always-changing safe operating area of the output transistors. This output controls the translator stage
by removing any drive that exceeds the safe operating
area of the output devices.
Thermal sensor S100 gives the ODEP circuits vital information on the operating temperature of the heatsink
on which the output devices are mounted.
Should the amplifier fail in such a way that would cause
DC across the output lead, the DC protection circuit
senses this on the negative feedback loop and shuts
down the power supply until the DC is removed.
5.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation
By setting the back panel Stereo/Mono switch to
Bridge-Mono, the user can convert the Macro-Tech into
a Bridge-Mono amplifier. With a signal applied to the
Channel 1 input and the load between the red binding
posts on the back panel, a double voltage output occurs.
The Channel 1 output feeds the Channel 2 error amp
U204-A. Since there is a net inversion, Channel 2 output is out of polarity with Channel 1. This produces
twice as much voltage across the load. Each of the
channel’s protection mechanisms work independently
if a fault occurs.
5.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation
With the Stereo/Mono switch set to Parallel-Mono, the
output of Channel 2 is paralleled with that of Channel 1. A suitable high-current-handling jumper must be
connected across the red binding posts to gain the
benefits of this mode of operation.
The signal path for Channel 1 is the same as previously discussed, except that Channel 1 also drives the
output stage of Channel 2. The balanced input, error
amp, translators and LVAs of Channel 2 are disconnected and no longer control the Channel 2 output
stage. The Channel 2 output stage and protection
mechanisms are also coupled through S1 and function
as one.
In Parallel-Mono mode, twice the current of one channel alone can be obtained. Since the ODEP circuit of
Channel 2 is coupled through S1, this gives added protection if a fault occurs in the Channel 2 output stage.
The ODEP circuit of Channel 2 will limit the output of
both output stages by removing the drive from the
Channel 1 translator stages.
Page 27
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
6 Specifications
These specifications apply to 120 VAC units in stereo
mode with 8 ohm loads and an input sensitivity of 26 dB
unless otherwise specified.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: These units are equipped with transformers rated for 120 VAC, 60 Hz power.
International Units: These units are equipped with transformers for either 100 VAC, 50/60 Hz, or 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz
power.
Performance
Frequency Response: ±0.1 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz
at 1 watt. See Figure 6.3.
Phase Response: ±10° from 10 Hz to 20 kHz at 1
watt. See Figure 6.6.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Greater than 105 dB below
rated output (20 Hz to 20 kHz, A-weighted); 100 dB
below rated output (20 Hz to 20 kHz, no weighting).
Harmonic Distortion (THD): At rated output, less than
0.05% from 20 Hz to 1 kHz increasing linearly to less
than 0.1% at 20 kHz.
IM Distortion (IMD): Less than 0.05% from 368 milliwatts to full rated output.
Damping Factor: Greater than 1,000 from 10 Hz to
400 Hz. See Figure 6.4.
Crosstalk: See Figure 6.7.
Slew Rate: Greater than 30 volts per microsecond.
Voltage Gain: (At maximum output) 20:1 ±3% or 26
dB ±0.25 dB at +26 dB sensitivity, and 124.6:1 ±12%
or 41.9 dB ±1.0 dB at 0.775 volt sensitivity.
Power
Output Power:
Note: Maximum average watts per channel (unless in
Mono mode) at 1 kHz with 0.1% or less THD.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1800 watts into 2 ohms.
1565 watts into 4 ohms.
1120 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
3505 watts into 4 ohms.
3140 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono mode:
3555 watts into 1 ohm.
3190 watts into 2 ohms.
Page 28
100 VAC International Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1460 watts into 2 ohms.
1300 watts into 4 ohms.
980 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2835 watts into 4 ohms.
2625 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono Mode
2820 watts into 1 ohm.
2585 watts into 2 ohms.
120 VAC International Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1490 watts into 2 ohms.
1300 watts into 4 ohms.
985 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2980 watts into 4 ohms.
2600 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono Mode
2980 watts into 1 ohm.
2600 watts into 2 ohms.
230 VAC International Units:
Stereo mode with both channels driven:
1520 watts into 2 ohms.
1325 watts into 4 ohms.
965 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
2800 watts into 4 ohms.
2515 watts into 8 ohms.
Parallel-Mono Mode
2910 watts into 1 ohm.
2565 watts into 2 ohms.
Load Impedance: Rated for 16, 8, 4, and 2 ohm use
only. Safe with all types of loads, even reactive ones.
AC Power Requirements: 100 VAC, 50/60 Hz; 120
VAC, 50/60 Hz; and 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz units are available. 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz units can be used with 220
and 240 VAC. All versions draw 90 watts or less at idle.
100 and 120 VAC units can draw up to 30 amps of
current; 230 VAC units can draw up to 15 amps. Refer
to the back panel for your unit’s specifications. Refer
to Section 7 for more details.
It is extremely important to provide sufficient AC power
to the amplifier. Power amplifiers cannot create energy—they must have the proper voltage and current
to deliver the clean rated power you expect.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Controls
Enable: A front panel push button used to turn the
amplifier on and off.
Level: A 31-position detented rotary attenuator for
each channel located on the front panel used to control the output level.
Stereo/Mono: A three-position back panel switch used
to select Stereo, Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono operation.
Sensitivity: A three-position switch located inside the
P.I.P. compartment used to select one of three input
sensitivities for both channels: 0.775 volts or 1.4 volts
for standard 1 kHz power or a voltage gain of 26 dB.
Input Impedance: Nominally 20 K ohms, balanced.
Nominally 10 K ohms, unbalanced.
Input Sensitivity: Switchable between 0.775 V (unbalanced) for rated output or a fixed voltage gain of 26
dB. (See subsection 4.4 for more information.)
Output Connector: Color-coded dual binding posts
(banana jacks).
Output Impedance: Less than 10 milliohms in series
with less than 2 microhenries. See Figure 6.5.
DC Output Offset: (Shorted input) ±10 millivolts.
Output Signal
Stereo: Unbalanced, two-channel.
Input Ground Lift: A two position back panel switch
used to isolate the phone jack signal grounds from the
chassis (AC) ground.
Bridge-Mono: Balanced, single-channel. Channel 1
controls are active; Channel 2 controls are inactive and
not removed from operation.
Reset: A back panel button for each channel used to
reset the corresponding power supply. 100 and
120 VAC units have 15 amp circuit breakers. 230 VAC
units have 7.5 amp circuit breakers.
Parallel-Mono: Unbalanced, single-channel. Channel
1 controls are active; Channel 2 controls are inactive
but not removed from operation.
Indicators
Protection
Enable: This amber indicator is on when the amplifier
is switched on to show that the low voltage power supply is operating.
Macro-Tech amplifiers are protected against shorted,
open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies; excessive temperature, chain destruction phenomena, input overload damage and high-frequency
blow-ups. They also protect loudspeakers from input/
output DC and turn-on/turn-off transients.
Signal / IOC: Two green indicators flash with medium
intensity in sync with the amplifier’s outputs to show
signal presence. In the unlikely event the output waveform differs from that of the input by 0.05% or more,
they flash brightly to indicate distortion. As sensitive
distortion indicators they provide proof of performance.
Note: It is normal for the Channel 2 IOC indicator to
remain on in Parallel-Mono mode.
ODEP: Each channel has a multifunction LED (light
emitting diode) indicator that shows the channel’s energy reserve status. Normally, the LEDs are brightly lit
to show that reserve energy is available. In the rare
event that a channel has little reserve, its indicator dims
in proportion to ODEP limiting. An ODEP indicator may
also turn off under other, more unusual circumstances
(see Section 4.2).
Input/Output
Input Connector: Balanced ¼-inch phone jacks on
chassis and internal P.I.P. connector. (Balanced 3-pin
XLR connectors are provided on the P.I.P.-FX which is
a standard feature.)
If unreasonable operating conditions occur, the patented ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive level
to protect the output devices, particularly in the case
of elevated temperature. Transformer overheating results in a temporary shutdown of the offending channel. When it has cooled to a safe temperature, the
transformer automatically resets itself. Controlled slew
rate voltage amplifiers protect against RF burnouts,
and input overload protection is provided by currentlimiting resistance at the input.
Turn On: The four second turn-on delay prevents dangerous turn-on transients. Turn-on occurs at zero
crossing of the AC waveform, so power sequencers
are rarely needed with multiple units. Note: The turn-on
delay time may be changed. Contact Crown’s Technical Support Group for details.
Circuit Breaker: Circuit breaker current ratings vary
based on the AC operating power.
Page 29
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Construction
Durable black powder coated steel chassis and aluminum front panel with Lexan overlay; specially designed
“flow-through” ventilation from front to side panels.
Cooling: Forced-air with custom heat diffusers and
patented circuitry to promote uniform dissipation.
Dimensions: 19 inch (48.3 cm) standard rack mount
(EIA Std. RS-310-B), 3.5 inch (8.9 cm) height, 16 inch
(40.6 cm) depth behind mounting surface and 2.5
inches (6.4 cm) in front of mounting surface.
Approximate Weight: Center of gravity is 6 inches
(15.2 cm) behind the front mounting surface.
Page 30
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units:
Net weight 55 lbs, 1.5 ounces (25.0 kg); shipping
weight 63 lbs, 10 ounces (28.9 kg).
100 VAC International Units:
Net weight 54 lbs, 5 ounces (24.7 kg); shipping
weight 63 lbs, 0.5 ounces (28.6 kg).
120 VAC International Units:
Net weight 55 lbs, 1.5 ounces (25.0 kg); shipping
weight 63 lbs, 10 ounces (28.9 kg).
230 VAC International Units:
Net weight 53 lbs, 6 ounces (24.2 kg); shipping
weight 61 lbs, 15 ounces (28.1 kg).
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Crown specifications are guaranteed for three years.
In an effort to provide you with as much information as possible about the high power-producing capabilities of your amplifier, we have
created the following power matrices.
Minimum Guaranteed Power Specifications
Crown’s minimum power specifications represent the absolute smallest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier
when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. Some spaces in each matrix may be left blank because the same guarantee
is not provided for those conditions—however, your amplifier will perform well under all conditions listed in each matrix.
When measuring power, 0.1% THD appears to be the industry standard for distortion. Two of the maximum average power
specifications shown in each minimum power matrix are measured at 0.1% THD so you can easily compare Crown specifications to
those of other manufacturers. But this high level of distortion actually allows for some clipping which is undesirable. Because of this, a
maximum average power specification at 0.05% THD is included in each minimum power matrix which represents non-clipped
conditions. Although most manufacturers do not give you power specifications at 0.05% THD, we encourage them to provide these
specifications so you will have a more realistic representation of the way amplifiers should be used in the real world—without a clipped
output signal.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units
AC Mains
Load (Ohms)
Many manufacturers publish power specs with a tolerance of ±1 dB or worse. This means their amplifier can deviate more than 20%
in output! A 100 watt amplifier would meet their specification if it only produced 79.4 watts. Other manufacturers qualify their specs by
saying they are “typical,” “subject to manufacturing tolerances,” “single channel driven” or that they are specified with “fuses
bypassed.” Each of these statements effectively
removes any performance guarantee. In fact, some
Macro-Tech 3600VZ – Minimum Power (Watts)
manufacturers use these tactics to generate large
power numbers, and they don’t even print a disclaimer.
Maximum Average
FTC Continuous Average
We take a different approach at Crown—our amplifiers
0.1% THD+N 0.1% THD+N 0.05% THD+N
0.1% THD + Noise
Stereo/Mono
(See note 1)
(See note 2)
(See note 3)
(See note 4)
are guaranteed to meet or exceed their specifications
Mode
for three years. Further, because our published specs
1 kHz
20Hz-20kHz
1 kHz
1 kHz
20Hz-20kHz
are set below our “in-house” measurements, you can
1800
2
1785
expect every Crown amplifier to exceed its published
Stereo
1565
1555
4
(both channels
minimum power specs. We believe you should get what
driven)
you pay for.
1120
1060
885
1035
1110
8
Bridge-Mono
(balanced output)
Parallel-Mono
100 VAC Transformer
Stereo
(both channels
driven)
Bridge-Mono
(balanced output)
Parallel-Mono
230 VAC Transformer
Stereo
(both channels
driven)
Bridge-Mono
(balanced output)
Parallel-Mono
4
3505
3490
8
3140
3110
16
2210
2190
1
3555
3530
2
3190
3155
4
2235
2225
2
1460
1360
4
1300
8
980
4
2835
2825
8
2625
2600
16
1950
1940
1
2820
2810
2
2585
2550
4
1940
1925
1495
Minimum Power Notes:
2115
<680
2140
1290
940
970
2
1520
4
1325
8
965
4
2800
8
2515
16
1900
1
2910
2840
2
2565
2520
4
1935
1915
895
1780
850
<680
930
870
2740
2445
1765
1855
1735
1. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and
the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level
is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this point,
average power per channel is reported.
2. A sine wave is presented to the amplifier over the
range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and the output monitored
for nonlinear distortion. The level at each frequency
is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this point,
average power per channel is reported.
3. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and
the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level
is increased until THD reaches 0.05%. At this point,
average power per channel is reported.
1785
1300
955
All minimum power specifications are based on 0.5%
regulated AC mains with THD of less than 1.0% and an
ambient room temperature of 70° F (21° C). Standard
EIA power (RS-490) is not shown here because it is identical to FTC Continuous Average Power.
275
4. Continuous power in the context of Federal Trade
Commission testing is understood to be a minimum
of five minutes of operation. Harmonic distortion is
measured as the RMS sum total and given as a percentage of the fundamental output voltage. This applies for all wattages greater than 0.25 watts.
1750
Figure 6.1 Minimum Power Matrix
Page 31
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
Maximum Power Specifications
Crown’s maximum power specifications represent the largest amount of output power you can expect from your
amplifier when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. These specifications can be used to prevent
loudspeaker and hearing damage.
The maximum power matrices include specifications for single cycle and 40 millisecond burst sine waves. Burst
signals act like large transient peaks that are present in common source signals. Loudspeakers can respond to a
single cycle burst, so the single cycle burst specifications should be used to help you protect your loudspeakers. In
contrast, a 40 millisecond burst represents the typical response time of the human ear. Your ear will not respond to the
entire dynamic change of a burst that lasts less than 40 milliseconds.
The burst power specifications are provided at 0.05% THD which is a practical low distortion condition. Operating the
amplifier at levels higher than 0.05% THD can result in output power levels that are higher than those listed in the
maximum power matrices.
Stereo/Mono
Mode
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units
Stereo
(both channels
driven)
Bridge-Mono
(balanced output)
Parallel-Mono
100 VAC Transformer
Stereo
(both channels
driven)
Bridge-Mono
(balanced output)
Parallel-Mono
230 VAC Transformer
Stereo
(both channels
driven)
Bridge-Mono
(balanced output)
Parallel-Mono
Load (Ohms)
AC Mains
Macro-Tech 3600VZ – Maximum Power (Watts)
Single Cycle Tone Burst
40 Millisecond Tone Burst
0.05% Distortion + Noise
(See note 1)
0.05% Distortion + Noise
(See note 2)
20 Hz
50 Hz
1 kHz
7 kHz
50 Hz
1 kHz
7 kHz
2
1915
2320
2375
1610
2320
2000
1610
4
1670
2230
3270
3140
1860
1690
1745
8
1260
1460
1830
1760
1295
1175
1235
4
3815
4630
4670
2930
4520
3920
2930
8
3315
4425
6495
6140
3735
3315
3355
16
2375
2915
3605
3460
2565
2325
2420
1
3810
4240
4310
2880
4240
3910
2880
2
3310
4500
6480
6125
3685
3345
3380
4
2475
2920
3655
3485
2545
2355
2425
2
1535
2175
2285
1490
1930
1655
1490
4
1375
2065
3220
3170
1620
1495
1530
8
1110
1370
1810
1770
1155
1110
1155
4
3060
4325
4575
2715
3745
3300
2715
8
2745
4055
6425
6270
3310
2950
3020
16
2190
2725
3625
3510
2330
2215
2285
1
3065
4045
4245
2680
3820
3300
2680
2
2760
4145
6465
6260
3250
2965
3035
4
2210
2755
3645
3500
2325
2210
2275
2
1650
2310
2365
1695
2005
1665
1695
4
1450
2030
3030
2890
1655
1435
1485
8
1060
1330
1695
1615
1160
1060
1095
4
3355
4570
4645
2935
4040
3385
2935
8
2905
4095
6050
5765
3280
2870
2940
16
2115
2675
3345
3215
2890
2095
2160
1
2860
4275
4380
3240
3870
2945
3030
2
2565
3685
6005
5770
3185
2630
2690
4
1955
2515
3390
3230
2270
1975
2035
Figure 6.2 Maximum Power Matrix
Page 32
Maximum Power Notes:
All maximum power specifications
are based on 0.5% regulated AC
mains with THD of less than 1.0%
and an ambient room temperature
of 70° F (21° C). Although it is an
unusual condition, your amplifier
can function well with AC mains
voltages up to 10% over the specified line voltage. With overvoltage
conditions, your amplifier may be
capable of delivering instantaneous power levels up to 20%
greater than the specifications in
the matrix.
1. A single cycle sine wave is presented to the amplifier and
monitored for nonlinear distortion. The average power during
the burst is reported. Loudspeakers must be able to withstand this level if they are to be
safely used with this amplifier.
2. A 40 millisecond sine wave burst
(10 percent duty cycle) is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion.
Average power during the burst
is reported. This power level is a
measurement of the amplifier’s
maximum transient power that
can be perceived by the human
ear.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
+2
+1
0
–1
–2
8 ohm
4 ohm
–3
2 ohm
1 watt
dB
–4
–5
–6
–7
10
100
1K
10 K
100 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.3 Typical Frequency Response
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
8 ohm
200
100
0
100
20
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.4 Typical Damping Factor
504.0
126.8
6 dB
MILLIOHMS
31.8
8.0
2.0
10
100
1K
10 K
100 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.5 Typical Output Impedance
Page 33
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
TEF ®
Measurement
+45˚
0˚
–45˚
100
TECHRON TEF ®
1K
10 K
20 K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.6 Typical Phase Response
(Measured with a TEF® Analyzer)
TEF ®
–60
Measurement
–66
–72
–78
dB
–84
–90
–96
100
TECHRON TEF ®
1K
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 6.7 Typical Crosstalk
Page 34
10 K
20 K
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
7 AC Power Draw and
Thermal Dissipation
Here are the equations used to calculate the data presented in Figure 7.1:
This section provides detailed information about the
amount of power and current drawn from the AC mains
by the Macro-Tech 3600VZ, and the amount of heat
produced under various conditions. The calculations
presented here are intended to provide a very realistic
and reliable depiction of the amplifier. The following assumptions were made:
• The amplifier’s available channels are loaded, and full,
standard 1 kHz power is being delivered.
• Quiescent power draw is 90 watts (an almost
negligible amount for full-power calculations).
AC Mains Power =
Draw (watts)
Total output power with all x Duty
channels driven (watts)
Cycle
+ Quiescent Power
Draw (watts)
Amplifier Efficiency
The quiescent power draw of 90 watts is typical, and
assumes the cooling fans are not running.
Thermal
Dissipation =
(btu/hr)
[
]
( 1 – Power to Load ) + Quiescent Power
Draw (watts)
x 3.415
or
Thermal
Dissipation =
(btu/hr)
(
Total output power with all x Duty x Amplifier
channels driven (watts)
Cycle Inefficiency
Amplifier Efficiency
+
)
Quiescent Power
Draw (watts)
x 3.415
The constant 3.415 converts watts to btu/hr. Thermal
dissipation in btu is divided by the constant 3.968 to
get kcal.
• Quiescent heat dissipation equals 105 btu/hr at
90 watts.
• Duty cycle of pink noise is 50%.
• Duty cycle of highly compressed rock ‘n’ roll midrange
is 40%.
To convert the power draw in watts to current draw in
amperes, use the following equation:
AC Mains Power
Draw (watts)
Current Draw =
(amperes)
AC Mains x
Power
Voltage
Factor (.83)
• Duty cycle of rock ‘n’ roll is 30%.
• Duty cycle of background music is 20%.
• Duty cycle of continuous speech is 10%.
• Duty cycle of infrequent, short-duration paging is 1%.
The current draw values shown in Figure 7.1 depend
on the AC mains voltage (power draw and thermal dissipation are typical for any AC power voltage).
Macro-Tech 3600VZ
L O A D
8 Ohm Stereo
4 Ohm Stereo / 8 Ohm BM / 2 Ohm PM*
Current Draw (Amps)
Thermal Dissipation
100-120 V 220-240 V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
AC Mains
Power
Draw
(Watts)
1300
330
2160
21.6
10.8
6.3
1105
280
1745
17.5
9.6
4.8
905
230
1330
675
6.7
3.4
705
180
380
3.8
1.9
505
130
Duty
Cycle
AC Mains
Power
Draw
(Watts)
50%
1545
15.5
7.8
40%
1255
12.6
30%
965
20%
10%
2 Ohm Stereo / 4 Ohm BM / 1 Ohm PM*
Current Draw (Amps)
Thermal Dissipation
100-120 V 220-240 V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
AC Mains
Power
Draw
(Watts)
1720
435
2340
23.4
11.7
8.8
1440
365
1890
18.9
13.3
6.7
1155
295
1440
920
9.2
4.6
875
225
505
5.0
2.5
590
150
Current Draw (Amps)
Thermal Dissipation
100-120 V 220-240 V
btu/hr
kcal/hr
1845
465
9.5
1535
390
14.4
7.2
1230
310
990
9.9
5.0
920
235
540
5.4
2.7
615
155
*BM=Bridge-Mono, PM=Parallel-Mono
Fig. 7.1 Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles
Page 35
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
8 Accessories
FTE
CH-2 INPUT
+
CH-1 INPUT
–
+
–
8.1 P.I.P. Modules
One advantage of Macro-Tech amplifiers is the ability
to customize them using P.I.P. (Programmable Input
Processor) and PIP2 modules. Macro-Tech amplifiers
are equipped with an edge card connector inside the
back panel P.I.P. compartment. The modules install
easily:
L
BACK PANE
ER
OF AMPLIFI
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
P.I.P.–FTE uses balanced 1:1 transformers to isolate the amplifier from the input signal. It also includes 12 dB/octave RFI
filters, 18 dB/octave high pass filters, and 6 dB/octave 3 kHz
shelving networks for “constant-directivity” horn equalization.
Screw terminal plugs are provided for input.
P.I.P. LE
MODU
P.I.P.- MEM
PUSH
IN
DSPI
CROWN OUT
BUS
PUSH
AUX
3
2
2
2
1
GND
3
GND
Fig. 8.1 Installing a P.I.P. Module
WARNING: Disconnect power to the amplifier when
installing or removing a P.I.P. module.
P.I.P.s carrying the PIP2 logo are configured to use one
or more of the PIP2 enhanced features. These features
are only available in a PIP2-compatible amplifier. Of
course, the exact features used will depend upon the
function of the PIP2 module. Here are some of the available P.I.P. and PIP2 modules:
3
1
OUT
2 IN
C H - 2 AUDIO IN C H - 1
1
1
GND
MEM#.###
IQ–P.I.P.–MEM is PIP2-compatible and integrates the amplifier into Crown’s patented IQ System®. The IQ System provides computer control of 1 to 2000 amplifiers. For example,
each amplifier channel can be monitored and controlled from
a personal computer attached to an IQ System. A memory
backup feature enables the IQ–P.I.P.–MEM to remember all
configuration settings when the power is turned off.
P.I.P.- SMT
PUSH
IN
DSPI
CROWN OUT
BUS
PUSH
AUX
3
AMC
1
GND
3
GND
PUSH
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
OUTPUT
INPUT
3
GND
1
2
P.I.P.–AMCb unites many features of the P.I.P.-XOV and P.I.P.–
CLP. It offers a variable 4th-order Linkwitz-Riley crossover
and an IOC-driven, variable threshold compressor. In addition, it provides “constant-directivity” horn equalization and
filter-assisted B6 vented box equalization. Biamping and
triamping capabilities are provided via XLR connectors.
EDCb
2
2
2
CH-2
C H - 2 AUDIO IN C H - 1
1
3
OUT
2 IN
1
1
GND
SMT#.###
IQ–P.I.P.–SMT is also PIP2-compatible and includes all the
features of the IQ–P.I.P.–MEM plus SmartAmp™ capability.
Once the unit has been configured by an IQ System, its
SmartAmp capabilities enable it to function autonomously.
We call this distributed intelligence™. The SmartAmp features
include a smooth output limiter for transparent loudspeaker
protection, power supply gates for energy savings, ODEP
conservation to protect output devices with precision input
signal control, interrupt-driven reporting that lets you define
error conditions, and configurable short circuit detection.
CH-1
P.I.P.- DSP
PUSH
IN
DSPI
CROWN OUT
BUS
PUSH
AUDIO OUT
PUSH
PUSH
INPUT
INPUT
3
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
GND
1
2
CH-2
2
1
3
GND
P.I.P.–EDCb combines a sophisticated error-driven compressor and smooth limiter with a maximum level setting and a
subsonic filter for each channel. The compressors have adjustable attack and release times, and can be set to track
each other. The compressors activate when a signal would
otherwise clip the input, an IOC error occurs, or the output
exceeds the selected threshold. The subsonic filters have
corner frequencies of 24, 28, 32 and 36 Hz.
Page 36
CH-1
TIP =
RING =
EXT. POWER INPUT
C H - 2 AUDIO IN C H - 1
24 VDC / 400 mA
DSP#.###
IQ–P.I.P.–DSP is PIP2-compatible and provides digital signal processing capabilities to your amplifier, replacing the
need for outboard signal processing equipment such as
equalizers, crossover networks, signal delays and compressors. In addition, the IQ–P.I.P.–DSP includes all the SmartAmp
features of the IQ–P.I.P.–SMT to give you access to standard
IQ System amplifier functions and autonomous operation.
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
CH-1
PUSH
PUSH
INPUT
PUSH
INPUT
FMX
3
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
GND
1
P.I.P.–CLP detects and prevents overload. Its compressor is
driven by the amplifier’s built-in IOC error detection circuitry.
Unlike typical signal-driven compressors, it only compresses
the signal to prevent overload. It can deliver up to 13 dB of
additional headroom without being noticeable.
ISO
CH-2 INPUT
+
+
3
CH-1 INPUTS
GND
1
2
P.I.P.–FMX facilitates “daisy-chaining” balanced amplifier inputs. Female to male three-pin XLR connectors are used to
passively bridge the inputs.
PA
–
CH-1 INPUT
–
CH-2 INPUTS
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
2
PUSH
CH-2
CLP
+ –
LINE
–
+
MIC
CH-2
MIC
LEVEL
CH-1
REMOTE
MIC
LEVEL
–
+ –
MIC
CH-2 INPUTS
+
LINE
CH-1 INPUTS
—WARNING—
THIS P.I.P. PROVIDES FULL ISOLATION
FOR ISO-MODIFIED AMPLIFIERS ONLY!
DO NOT CONNECT THE OUTPUT GROUND
LUG TO THE INPUT COMMON OR CHASSIS
GROUND. REFER TO P.I.P.–ISO OWNER’S
MANUAL FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
P.I.P.–ISO is designed especially for 25 to 140 volt distributed systems where UL®-listed isolation is required. Installation requires minor amplifier modifications. With the P.I.P.–ISO
installed, the amplifier outputs are safely isolated from the
input terminals and the chassis.
P.I.P.–PA adds a switchable balanced low-impedance mic
input, a balanced line-level input and a compressor to each
channel. Remote switching circuitry provides quick and quiet
fades from mic to line and back.
BEQ
–
ATNB
+
–
ATTENUATION
14
16
18
21
24
30
50
12 11
9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
∞
dB
0
.5
+
ATTENUATION
14
16
18
21
24
30
50
9 8
12 11
7
∞
dB
0
+ –
IN
+
OUT
CH-2
CH-1
.5
CH-1 INPUT
(CH-1)
TIE
INPUT A
(CH-2)
RMT B
RMT A
OUT
IN
OUT
MIC
LINE
PHAN
MIC
LINE
PHAN
(CH-2)
INPUT B
LEVEL
(CH-1)
PUSH
P.I.P.–XOV is a versatile 18 dB/octave mono crossover/filter
with biamping and triamping capabilities
+
– +
–
+
– +
–
MIC
LINE
PHAN
2
MIC
LINE
PHAN
1
AUDIO BUS
INPUT C
LEVEL
RING
SLEEVE
3
GND
CH-1
IN
INPUT D
TIP
Programmable
Input Processor
INPUTS
CH-2
RMT C
–
GND
RPA
RMT D
XOV
+
P.I.P.–BEQ is a two-channel module providing equalization
for BOSE® loudspeakers. For example, the P.I.P.–BEQ can
be used in place of a BOSE 102 controller. Screw terminal
plugs provide balanced connections. Each input channel
has an output from the P.I.P. that can be independently configured for output with no processing, loudspeaker equalization or loudspeaker equalization with bass-cut.
+10 V
P.I.P.–ATNB uses balanced 1:1 transformers to isolate the
amplifier from the input signal. It also includes 12 dB/octave
RFI filters, variable 18 dB/octave high-pass filters, and 6 dB/
octave 3 kHz shelving networks for “constant-directivity” horn
equalization. The module also includes a calibrated 21-step
precision attenuator for each channel. Screw terminal plugs
are provided for input.
OUTPUTS
–
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
Programmable
Input Processor (P.I.P.)
+
OUT
6
5
4
3
2
1
CH-2 INPUT
+ –
IN
–
P.I.P.–RPA adds the features of a 4x2 mixer to your amplifier.
Its four inputs accept mic- or line-level input. It offers priority
switching (“voice-over”) of each input and remote level control with the RPA–RMT. Other features include bus inputs and
outputs, adjustable input sensitivity, phantom power and RFI
suppression. Input isolation transformers are optional.
For more information on these or other P.I.P.s under
development, contact your local dealer or Crown’s
Technical Support Group.
Page 37
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
8.2 Level Control Security Kit
The MA-LOCK security accessory can be used to secure your amplifier’s level controls in situations where
the front panel controls are subject to tampering. The
MA-LOCK security kit includes the necessary hard-
ware to lock the two level controls on the front panel of
any Macro-Tech amplifier. For more information, contact your local Crown dealer or Crown’s Technical Support Group.
Fig. 8.2 Installing an MA-LOCK
Level Control Shaft Lock
Page 38
Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier
9 Service
This unit has very sophisticated circuitry which should
only be serviced by a fully trained technician. This is
one reason why each unit bears the following label:
CAUTION: To prevent electric shock, do not remove
covers. No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to a qualified technician.
Factory Service Shipping Instructions:
1. When sending a Crown product to the factory
for service, be sure to fill out the service information form that follows and enclose it inside
Always use the
original factory pack
to transport the unit.
9.1 Worldwide Service
Service may be obtained from an authorized service
center. (Contact your local Crown/Amcron representative or our office for a list of authorized service centers.) To obtain service, simply present the bill of sale
as proof of purchase along with the defective unit to an
authorized service center. They will handle the necessary paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport your unit in the original factory
pack.
9.2 North American Service
Service may be obtained in one of two ways: from an
authorized service center or from the factory. You may
choose either. It is important that you have your copy
of the bill of sale as your proof of purchase.
9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center
This method usually saves the most time and effort.
Simply present your bill of sale along with the defective
unit to an authorized service center to obtain service.
They will handle the necessary paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport the unit in the original factory
pack. A list of authorized service centers in your area
can be obtained from our Technical Support Group.
9.2.2 Factory Service
To obtain factory service, fill out the service information page that follows and send it along with your proof
of purchase and the defective unit to the Crown factory. For warranty service, we will pay for ground shipping both ways in the United States after receiving
copies of the shipping receipts. Shipments should be
sent “UPS ground.” (If the unit is under warranty, you
may send it C.O.D. for the cost of freight via UPS
ground.) The factory will return it via UPS ground.
Please contact us if other arrangements are required.
your unit’s shipping pack. Do not send the service information form separately.
2. To ensure the safe transportation of your unit to
the factory, ship it in an original factory packing
container. If you don’t have one, call or write
Crown’s Parts Department. With the exception
of polyurethane or wooden crates, any other
packing material will not be sufficient to withstand the stress of shipping. Do not use loose,
small size packing materials.
3. Do not ship the unit in any kind of cabinet (wood
or metal). Ignoring this warning may result in extensive damage to the unit and the cabinet. Accessories are not needed—do not send the
instruction manual, cables and other hardware.
If you have any questions, please call or write the
Crown Technical Support Group.
Crown Audio Division
Technical Support / Factory Service
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd.,
Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Telephone: 219-294-8200
800-342-6939 (North America,
Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only)
Facsimile: 219-294-8301 (Technical Support)
219-294-8124 (Factory Service)
Fax Back: 219-293-9200 (North America only)
800-294-4094 (North America only)
219-294-8100 (International)
Internet:
http://www.crownintl.com
Page 39
Crown Factory Service Information
Shipping Address: Crown Factory Service, Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, IN 46517
Phone: 1-800-342-6939 or 1-219-294-8200
Fax: 1-219-294-8124
Owner’s Name: _________________________________________________________________________
Shipping Address: ______________________________________________________________________
Phone Number: _____________________________
Fax Number: _____________________________
Model: ________________________ Serial Number: _____________ Purchase Date: ___________
NATURE OF PROBLEM
(Be sure to describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.)
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Detach and send with unit.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Other equipment in your system: _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
If warranty has expired, payment will be: ❏ Cash/Check
Card Number:___________________________
❏ VISA
❏ MasterCard
❏ C.O.D.
Exp. Date:_______ Signature:____________________________
ENCLOSE THIS PORTION WITH THE UNIT. DO NOT MAIL SEPARATELY.