LEVEL 12 9 15 LEVEL 18 12 ODEP 21 9 15 18 21 ON 24 6 24 6 OFF SIGNAL / IOC 27 3 0 30 27 3 CH1 CH2 0 30 ENABLE Model: Macro-Tech 3600VZ Some models may be exported under the name Amcron.® © 1997 by Crown International, Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elkhart, IN 46515-1000 U.S.A. Telephone: 219-294-8000. Fax: 219-294-8329. Macro-Tech amplifiers are produced by the Professional Audio Division of Crown International, Inc. Trademark Notice: SmartAmp™ and Grounded bridge™ are trademarks and Amcron,® Crown,® Macro-Tech,® IOC,® ODEP,® IQ System,® P.I.P.® and TEF ® are registered trademarks of Crown International, Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. E106377 ® Applies to 120 VAC North American Units 125113-1 8/97 3 YEAR THREE YEAR FULL WARRANTY 3 YEAR WORLDWIDE NORTH AMERICA SUMMARY OF WARRANTY The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West Mishawaka Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown1 product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new Crown product is free of defects in materials and workmanship, and we further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the reason for failure, except as excluded in this Crown Warranty. SUMMARY OF WARRANTY The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West Mishawaka Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new Crown product is free of defects in materials and workmanship. We further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the reason for failure, except as excluded in this Warranty. 1 Note: If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the name “Crown” in this warranty. ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product which occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss which is covered under any of your insurance contracts. This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown product if the serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed. ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product which occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss which is covered under any of your insurance contracts. This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown product if the serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed. WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then you must make the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers. We will remedy the defect and ship the product from the service center within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at our authorized service center. WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then you must make the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at the factory. We will remedy the defect and ship the product from the service center or our factory within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at our authorized service center or our factory. All expenses in remedying the defect, including surface shipping costs in the United States, will be borne by us. (You must bear the expense of shipping the product between any foreign country and the port of entry in the United States and all taxes, duties, and other customs fees for such foreign shipments.) HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be shipped in a factory pack. Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by our authorized service center. If the repairs made by our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify our authorized service center immediately. HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be shipped in a factory pack, which, if needed, may be obtained from us free of charge. Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by us or our authorized service center. If the repairs made by us or our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify us or our authorized service center immediately. DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATIONS OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. WARRANTY ALTERATIONS No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which you are deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and replacement parts provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty. DESIGN CHANGES We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in products previously manufactured. LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period. THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS. 9/90 Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301 WARRANTY ALTERATIONS No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which you are deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and replacement parts provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty. DESIGN CHANGES We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in products previously manufactured. LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER THIS CROWN WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE. No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period. THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS. Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301 9/90 The information furnished in this manual does not include all of the details of design, production, or variations of the equipment. Nor does it cover every possible situation which may arise during installation, operation or maintenance. If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the name “Crown” in this manual. If you need special assistance beyond the scope of this manual, please contact our Technical Support Group. Crown Audio Division Technical Support Group Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A. Phone: 800-342-6939 (North America, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) or 219-294-8200 Fax: 219-294-8301 Fax Back (North America only): 800-294-4094 or 219-293-9200 Fax Back (International): 219-294-8100 Internet: http://www.crownintl.com IMPORTANT CLASS 1 OUTPUT WIRING REQUIRED. COMPLY WITH LOCAL ELECTRICAL CODES WHEN WIRING THIS DEVICE. CAUTION AVIS RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT OPEN RISQUE DE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE N’OUVREZ PAS TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DO NOT REMOVE TOP OR BOTTOM COVERS. NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. DISCONNECT POWER CORD BEFORE REMOVING REAR INPUT MODULE TO ACCESS GAIN SWITCH. À PRÉVENIR LE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE N’ENLEVEZ PAS LES COUVERCLES. IL N’Y A PAS DES PARTIES SERVICEABLE À L’INTÉRIEUR. TOUS REPARATIONS DOIT ETRE FAIRE PAR PERSONNEL QUALIFIÉ SEULMENT. DÉBRANCHER LA BORNE AVANT D’OUVRIR LA MODULE EN ARRIÈRE. Magnetic Field WARNING TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE! The lightning bolt triangle is used to alert the user to the risk of electric shock. CAUTION! Do not locate sensitive high-gain equipment such as preamplifiers or tape decks directly above or below the unit. Because this amplifier has a high power density, it has a strong magnetic field which can induce hum into unshielded devices that are located nearby. The field is strongest just above and below the unit. If an equipment rack is used, we recommend locating the amplifier(s) in the bottom of the rack and the preamplifier or other sensitive equipment at the top. The exclamation point triangle is used to alert the user to important operating or maintenance instructions. Printed on recycled paper. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier CONTENTS 1 Welcome ............................................................................ 6 1.1 Unpacking ................................................................... 6 1.2 Features ...................................................................... 7 2 Facilities ............................................................................ 8 3 Installation ....................................................................... 10 3.1 Mounting ................................................................... 10 3.2 Cooling ...................................................................... 10 3.3 Wiring ........................................................................ 11 3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation ..................... 11 3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation .................................. 12 3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 13 3.3.4 Input Connection ............................................. 14 3.3.5 Output Connection .......................................... 16 3.3.6 Additional Load Protection .............................. 18 3.3.7 AC Power Requirements ................................. 18 4 Operation......................................................................... 19 4.1 Precautions ............................................................... 19 4.2 Indicators .................................................................. 19 4.3 Protection Circuits ...................................................... 20 4.3.1 Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) ... 20 4.3.2 Standby Mode ................................................ 21 4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection ...................... 21 4.3.4 Circuit Breaker ................................................ 21 4.4 Controls ..................................................................... 22 4.5 Filter Cleaning ............................................................ 23 5 Technical Information ..................................................... 24 5.1 Overview ................................................................... 24 5.2 VZ Power ................................................................... 24 5.2.1 Background .................................................... 24 5.2.2 The VZ Supply ................................................. 25 5.3 Circuit Theory ............................................................ 25 5.3.1 Stereo Operation ............................................. 25 5.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation .................................. 27 5.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation .................................. 27 6 Specifications ................................................................. 28 7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation ...................... 35 8 Accessories .................................................................... 36 8.1 P.I.P. Modules ............................................................ 36 8.2 Level Control Security Kit ........................................... 38 9 Service ............................................................................. 39 9.1 Worldwide Service ..................................................... 39 9.2 North American Service ............................................. 39 9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center ... 39 9.2.2 Factory Service ............................................... 39 Page 4 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier ILLUSTRATIONS 1.1 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.1 8.1 8.2 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Amplifier ................................................... 6 Front Facilities ........................................................................... 8 Rear Facilities ........................................................................... 9 Mounting Dimensions ............................................................. 10 Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit ........................................... 10 Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet ........................................... 10 Stereo Wiring .......................................................................... 11 Bridge-Mono Wiring ................................................................ 12 Parallel-Mono Wiring ............................................................... 13 Unbalanced Input Wiring ........................................................ 14 Balanced Input Wiring ............................................................ 14 Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs ................................ 14 Subsonic Filter Capacitors ...................................................... 15 Unbalanced RFI Filters ........................................................... 15 Balanced RFI Filters ................................................................ 15 Wire Size Nomograph ............................................................. 16 Inductive Load (Transformer) Network .................................... 17 Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph .............................................. 18 Indicators ................................................................................ 19 Macro-Tech Indicator States ................................................... 20 Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches .............................. 22 A Typical Power Supply .......................................................... 25 Music Waveforms are Complex .............................................. 25 VZ Supply in Parallel Mode ..................................................... 25 VZ Supply in Series Mode ....................................................... 25 Circuit Block Diagram ............................................................. 26 Minimum Power Matrix ............................................................ 31 Maximum Power Matrix ........................................................... 32 Typical Frequency Response .................................................. 33 Typical Damping Factor .......................................................... 33 Typical Output Impedance ...................................................... 33 Typical Phase Response ......................................................... 34 Typical Crosstalk ..................................................................... 34 Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation ............... 35 Installing a P.I.P. Module .......................................................... 36 Installing an MA-LOCK Level Control Shaft Lock .................... 38 Page 5 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier LEVEL 12 9 15 LEVEL 18 12 ODEP 21 15 18 9 21 3 27 ON 24 6 24 6 OFF SIGNAL / IOC 27 3 0 30 CH1 CH2 0 30 ENABLE Fig. 1.1 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Amplifier 1 Welcome Congratulations on your purchase of the Macro-Tech® 3600VZ® professional power amplifier. It is the first audio amplifier to offer Crown’s patented Variable Impedance (VZ) power supplies. The new power supplies, along with new semiconductor technology, enable the Macro-Tech 3600VZ to pack more power into a mere 31¦2 inches of vertical rack space than ever before. Because it’s a Macro-Tech, you have the added benefit of P.I.P.® compatibility for access to custom input modules and ODEP® protection to keep the show going long after other amplifiers would fail (see the Section 8 for available input modules). This manual will help you successfully install and use your new amplifier. We strongly recommend you read all instructions, warnings and cautions contained within. Be sure to read Sections 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 if you plan to use the amplifier in one of its two mono modes. Also for your protection, please send in your warranty registration card today and save your bill of sale since it is your official proof of purchase. Page 6 1.1 Unpacking Please unpack and inspect your new amplifier for any damage that may have occurred during transit. If damage is found, notify the transportation company immediately. Only you, the consignee, may initiate a claim with the carrier for damage resulting during shipment. Crown will be happy to cooperate fully as needed. Save the shipping carton as evidence of damage for the shipper’s inspection. Even if the unit arrived in perfect condition, as most do, save all packing materials so you will have them if you ever need to transport the unit. NEVER SHIP THE UNIT WITHOUT THE FACTORY PACK. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 1.2 Features The Macro-Tech 3600VZ amplifier uses the latest technology and miniaturized design to deliver the highest power and value for its size, weight and price. Crown’s grounded bridge™ output and patented ODEP protection circuitry combine to provide performance and reliability that surpass all conventional amplifier designs. Macro-Tech amplifiers also have an independent high voltage power supply for each channel. This design provides ultra-low crosstalk specifications and makes it possible to treat each channel as a separate amplifier. Features: ❏ Full protection against shorted outputs, open circuits, mismatched loads, general overheating, high frequency overloads and internal faults; loudspeaker protection against low frequency and DC output. ❏ Crown’s grounded bridge™ circuitry generates incredible voltage swings while avoiding stressful output transistor configurations common to conventional amplifiers. The results are lower distortion and superior reliability. ❏ Efficient heat sinks and a self-contained forced air cooling system dissipate heat quickly and evenly to prevent overheating, prolong component life and deliver greater power output. ❏ Patented ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuitry compensates for overheating and overload to keep the amplifier working long after others would fail. ❏ IOC® (Input/Output Comparator) circuitry immediately alerts of any distortion exceeding 0.05%, providing dynamic proof of performance. ❏ P.I.P. (Programmable Input Processor) connector accepts accessories that tailor your amplifier to suit individual applications. ❏ Two mono modes (Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono) for driving a wide range of load impedances. ❏ Very low harmonic and intermodulation distortion result in the best dynamic transfer function in the industry. ❏ High damping factor provides superior control over low frequency drivers for a clean, accurate low end. ❏ An articulated VZ power supply for each channel provides excellent crosstalk characteristics and the best power matching to your load. ❏ Extra rugged, extruded aluminum front panel with ODEP and Signal Presence/IOC indicators for each channel, as well as an Enable Indicator. ❏ Separate voltage supplies for each channel provide low crosstalk and improved reliability. ❏ Balanced inputs and adjustable front panel level controls. ❏ 31 detents in the level controls reduce the likelihood of settings being inadvertently disturbed. ❏ Ground lift switch to isolate chassis and phone jack audio input grounds. ❏ Multiple dual binding posts provide easy and versatile output connection. ❏ Internal three position input sensitivity switch provides settings of 0.775 volts and 1.4 volts for rated output, and 26 dB voltage gain. ❏ Mounts in a standard 19 inch (48.3 cm) equipment rack with rear support, or units can be stacked. ❏ All specifications are guaranteed for the duration of the warranty period. ❏ Units in North America and other select countries are covered by a three year “No-Fault” full warranty which completely protects your investment and guarantees its specifications. Page 7 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier LEVEL 12 15 9 LEVEL 18 12 ODEP 21 15 18 9 21 3 27 ON 24 6 24 6 OFF SIGNAL / IOC 27 3 30 0 A B CH1 CH2 C D D C 30 0 B ENABLE E F Fig. 2.1 Front Facilities 2 Facilities A. Dust Filter The dust filters remove large particles from the air at the air intake. Check filters regularly to be sure they do not become clogged. The filter elements can be easily removed for cleaning by gently pulling them away from the front panel (see Sections 3.2 and 4.5). B. Level Controls The level for each channel is set with these convenient controls mounted on the front panel. Each level control has 31 detents for precise adjustment (see Section 4.4). A security option is available to prevent tampering (see Section 8.2). ergy. They dim proportionally as energy reserves decrease. In the event that energy reserves are depleted, the indicators turn off and ODEP proportionally limits output drive so the amplifier can safely continue to operate even under severe conditions. These indicators can also help to identify more unusual operating problems (see Section 4.2). E. Enable Indicator This indicator lights when the amplifier has been “enabled” or turned on, and AC power is available (see Section 4.2). C. Signal / IOC Indicators F. Enable Switch The presence of an audio signal and the distortion level of each channel is represented by these green multifunction indicators. As signal presence indicators, they flash with normal intensity in sync with the output audio signal to indicate its presence. As IOC (Input/Output Comparator) indicators, they compare the waveform of the input signal to that of the output. They flash brightly with a 0.1 second hold delay if there is a difference (or distortion) of 0.05% or more. Another IOC function is to indicate input overload. If the input signal is too large the indicators will flash brightly (with a 0.5 second hold delay) to indicate input clipping distortion. Note: The Channel 2 IOC indicator will stay on in Parallel-Mono mode (refer to Section 4.2). Depress this push-button to turn the amplifier on or off. When turned on, the output is muted for approximately four seconds to protect your system from start-up transients. (This delay can be changed. Contact the Crown Technical Support Group for details.) D. ODEP Indicators During normal operation of the Output Device Emulation Protection circuitry, these indicators glow brightly to show the presence of reserve thermodynamic enPage 8 G. Power Cord All 120 VAC, 60 Hz North American units include a NEMA TT30P plug. These units also include 30-amp (10 AWG) line cord. Other units are equipped with a power cord and plug that is appropriate for the voltage requirements of the amplifier. H. Stereo/Mono Switch The three operating modes of this amplifier are controlled by this switch. Stereo mode is available for normal two-channel operation. Bridge-Mono mode is available to drive a single load with an impedance equal to or greater than 4 ohms. Parallel-Mono mode is Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 120 VAC / 60 Hz / 30 A IMPORTANT: CLASS 1 OUTPUT WIRING REQUIRED. PUSH PUSH INPUT INPUT 100 VAC / 20 A / 50-60 Hz 120 VAC / 20 A / 50-60 Hz 3 Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) 230 VAC / 10 A / 50-60 Hz ® INTERNATIONAL, INC. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT SERIAL NUMBER CH-1 WARNING: MAXIMUM OUTPUT: 1800 WATTS PER CHANNEL INTO 2 OHMS AT 1 KHz WITH NO MORE THAN 0.1% THD. ELKHART, IN 46517 MADE IN U.S.A. CH-2 FX PUSH TO RESET 000000 STEREO PARALLEL MONO REG. U.S. PAT. OFF. 4,330,809 4,611,180 4,788,452 CH-2 + BRIDGE MONO – GND CH-1 2 UNBALANCED INPUT WIRING + TIP CH-2 OUTPUT BRIDGE-MONO WIRING CH-1 OUTPUT – GND (MONO) SLEEVE J K L M K M 2 SET STEREO/MONO SWITCH + SWITCH TO BRIDGE-MONO. TO PARALLEL-MONO. + 3 ADD JUMPER (14 GAGE OR LARGER) ACROSS RED TERMINALS. RED TERMINALS ONLY. (CH-1 IS POSITIVE.) N – 1 TURN AMPLIFIER OFF. 2 SET STEREO/MONO 4 OUTPUT ACROSS CH-1 TERMINALS ONLY. (AFFECTS PHONE INPUTS ONLY.) I PROTECTIVE COVER MUST BE IN PLACE OVER OUTPUT TERMINALS BEFORE OPERATING AMPLIFIER. PARALLEL-MONO WIRING 1 TURN AMPLIFIER OFF. 3 OUTPUT ACROSS INPUT GROUND LIFT LIFT BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH! H INPUTS TIP RING SLEEVE CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER G 1 THIS AMPLIFIER IS EQUIPPED WITH SELECTABLE INPUT SENSITIVITY. REMOVE P.I.P. MODULE TO ACCESS SENSITIVITY SWITCH. BALANCED INPUT WIRING 0000 GND N N N Fig. 2.2 Rear Facilities available to drive a single load with an impedance less than 4 ohms. Important: Do NOT change this switch unless the amplifier is first turned off (see Section 3.3). I. Reset Buttons (PUSH TO RESET) These reset buttons are used to reset the breakers that safeguard the power supplies from overload (see Section 4.3). J. P.I.P. Module Versatile Programmable Input Processor modules provide flexible expansion features that can be added to customize the amplifier. P.I.P. modules plug into the connector inside the back panel of the amplifier. A P.I.P. module’s input connectors are placed in parallel with the input phone jacks. The P.I.P.-FX is included as a standard feature to provide balanced XLR inputs. It has no internal circuitry and can be used along with the input phone jacks to facilitate “daisy chaining” multiple amplifiers. See Section 8 for a list of available P.I.P. modules. K. Balanced Phone Jack Inputs A balanced ¼ inch phone jack is provided for input to each channel. They may be used with either balanced (tip, ring and sleeve) or unbalanced (tip and sleeve) input wiring (refer to Section 3.3). Because these inputs are in parallel with the P.I.P. connector, they should not be used as inputs if the installed P.I.P. has active circuitry. Caution: The Channel 2 input should NOT be used in either mono mode. L. Ground Lift Switch The input signal ground may be isolated from the AC ground with this switch to help prevent the hum created by unwanted ground loops. It affects only the input phone jacks. It has no affect on the P.I.P. module’s XLR input connectors. Activating the switch inserts an impedance between the sleeve of each phone input jack and the circuit ground. M. Balanced XLR Inputs A balanced 3-pin female XLR connector is provided for input to each channel by the P.I.P.-FX, a standard feature of your amplifier. The XLR connectors are in parallel with the amplifier’s phone jacks. Because there is no active circuitry on the P.I.P., the XLR connectors can be used at the same time as the phone input jacks for “daisy chaining” multiple amplifiers. Caution: The Channel 2 input should NOT be used in either mono mode. N. Output Jacks Two pairs of dual binding posts are provided for the output of each channel so multiple loudspeakers can be connected easily. The connectors accept bare wire or spade lugs. ❑ Input Sensitivity Switch The three position input sensitivity switch inside the amplifier can be accessed by removing the P.I.P. module. Settings include 0.775 volts and 1.4 volts for rated output, and 26 dB voltage gain (see Section 4.4). Page 9 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 3 Installation 3.1 Mounting Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed for standard 19 inch (48.3 cm) rack mounting and “stack” mounting without a cabinet. In a rack cabinet, it is best to mount them one on top of the other. This provides efficient air flow and enables each unit to support the one above. Important: Due to its weight, the back of the amplifier should be supported. LEVEL 12 15 LEVEL 12 18 9 21 3 27 ODEP 15 18 9 21 3 27 ON 24 6 24 6 OFF SIGNAL / IOC 0 30 CH1 CH2 0 30 3.5 in 8.9 cm ENABLE 19 in 48.3 cm SIDE VIEW 16 in 40.6 cm 2.5 in 6.35 cm Fig. 3.1 Mounting Dimensions 3.2 Cooling NEVER block the amplifier’s side vents and front air intake. Under demanding conditions, there should be a minimum air flow of 45 cubic feet (1.3 cubic meters) per minute per amplifier. When mounted in a rack, all empty spaces should be covered with blank panels to prevent improper air flow. The amplifier’s air flow should be augmented with a rack cooling system if its load is less than 4 ohms and it must operate at consistently high output levels as in concert sound reinforcement. When mounting the amplifier in a rack cabinet, the side walls of the rack should be at least 2 inches (5 cm) away from the chassis as shown in Figure 3.2. Tip: An easy way to verify adequate cooling is to observe the ODEP indicators with the amplifier operating under worst-case conditions. If the indicators dim, additional cooling is recommended. If your rack cabinet has a front door that could block air flow to the amplifier’s air intakes, you must provide adequate air flow either with a grille in the door or by pressurizing the air behind the door. Wire grilles are recommended over perforated panels because they have larger openings and cause less restriction. A good choice for increased air flow behind a rack cabinet door is to mount one or more “squirrel cage” blowers in the rack (Option 1 below). The blower is mounted at the bottom of the rack so it blows outside air into the space between the door and the front of the amplifiers. This blower should not blow air into or take air out of the space behind the amplifiers. For racks without a door, mount a blower at the top of the rack so air is drawn out the back (Option 2 below). The blower must provide air flow that exceeds the sum of the air flow required by the individual amplifiers. AIR FLOW EQUIPMENT RACK (SIDE VIEW) IMPORTANT: Be sure rear of amplifier is securely mounted to rack. AIR FLOW FRONT OF RACK DOOR 17 in 43.2 cm 16 in 40.6 cm BLOWER (OPTION 2) AIR FLOW AMPLIFIER (TOP VIEW) AIR FLOW 2 in (5 cm) MIN. RACK CABINET AIR FLOW Fig. 3.2 Top View of a Rack-Mounted Unit Page 10 BLOWER (OPTION 1) Fig. 3.3 Proper Air Flow in a Rack Cabinet If the air supply is unusually dusty, it may be necessary pre-filter it using commercial furnace filters, etc., to prevent rapid loading of the unit’s own air filter. When needed, the unit’s filter can be cleaned with mild dish detergent and water (see Section 4.5). Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 3.3 Wiring The following section describes common ways to install your amplifier in a sound system. The input and output terminals are located on the rear panel. Please use care when making connections, selecting signal sources and controlling the output level. The load you save may be your own! Crown assumes no liability for damaged loads resulting from careless amplifier use or deliberate overpowering. 3.3.1 Stereo (Two-Channel) Operation The installation is very intuitive in Stereo mode. The input of Channel 1 feeds the output of the same channel as does the input of Channel 2. To put the amplifier into Stereo mode, first turn the amplifier off, then slide the Stereo/Mono switch to the center position, and properly connect the output wiring as shown in Figure 3.4. Two sets of binding posts are provided for each channel to facilitate easy connection of multiple speakers to each channel. Observe correct loudspeaker polarity and be very careful not to short the outputs of one channel to that of the other channel while in Stereo mode. CAUTION: Always remove power from the unit and turn the level controls off when making or breaking connections—especially if the load is a loudspeaker system. This reduces the chance of loud blasts or damaged loudspeakers. CAUTION: In Stereo mode, never parallel the two outputs by directly tying them together or paralleling them with the output of any other amplifier. Macro-Tech amplifiers may be operated in one of three modes (Stereo, Bridge-Mono, and Parallel-Mono) by switching the Stereo/Mono switch on the rear panel. There are VERY IMPORTANT wiring differences between these three modes which are discussed next. Such connection does not result in increased power output and can cause premature activation of the protection circuitry to prevent overheating. + – CHANNEL 2 LOUDSPEAKERS + – CHANNEL 1 CHANNEL 2 + MIXER – CHANNEL 1 LOUDSPEAKERS CH-2 INPUTS PUSH CH-2 + CH-1 PUSH FX INPUT INPUT – CH-2 OUTPUT CH-1 OUTPUT CH-1 STEREO PARALLEL MONO BRIDGE MONO (MONO) Macro-Tech 3600VZ STEREO PARALLEL MONO BRIDGE MONO STEREO MODE CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH! Fig. 3.4 Stereo Wiring Page 11 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 3.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation Bridge-Mono mode is intended for driving loads with a net impedance of 4 ohms or greater. (See ParallelMono if the load is less than 4 ohms.) Installing the amplifier in Bridge-Mono mode is very different from the other modes and requires special attention. not defeated in Bridge-Mono mode. Any signal fed into Channel 2 may work against and add to or distort the signal in Channel 1. Connect the load across the Channel 1 and 2 red binding posts with the positive lead from the load attaching to a red post of Channel 1 and the negative lead of the load attaching to a red post of Channel 2 as shown in Figure 3.5. THE TWO BLACK BINDING POSTS ARE NOT USED AND SHOULD NOT BE SHORTED. The load must be balanced (neither side shorted to ground). To put the amplifier in Bridge-Mono mode, turn the amplifier off and slide the Stereo/Mono switch toward the right (as you face the back of the amplifier). Both outputs receive the signal from Channel 1 with the output of Channel 2 inverted so it can be bridged with the Channel 1 output. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or the signal level and quality may be greatly degraded. Keep the Level control of Channel 2 turned completely down (counterclockwise). CAUTION: Be certain all equipment (meters, switches, etc.) connected to the mono output is balanced. To prevent oscillations, both sides of the line must be isolated from the input grounds. Note: The input jack and level control for Channel 2 are USE ONLY CHANNEL 1 INPUT – + MIXER LOUDSPEAKER DO NOT USE CHANNEL 2 INPUTS. CH-2 CH-1 PUSH FX PUSH INPUT CH-2 INPUTS INPUT CH-2 OUTPUT CH-1 STEREO PARALLEL MONO BRIDGE MONO (MONO) Macro-Tech 3600VZ STEREO PARALLEL MONO BRIDGE MONO BRIDGE-MONO MODE CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH! Fig. 3.5 Bridge-Mono Wiring Page 12 CH-1 OUTPUT DO NOT USE BLACK BINDING POSTS. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 3.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation Parallel-Mono mode is used to drive loads with a total impedance of less than 4 ohms. (See Bridge-Mono if the load is 4 ohms or greater.) Installing the amplifier in Parallel-Mono mode is very different from the other modes and requires special attention. Note: It is normal for the IOC indicator of Channel 2 to stay on in Parallel-Mono mode. The input jack and Level control of Channel 2 are not defeated in Parallel-Mono mode. Any signal fed into Channel 2 may work against and add to or distort the signal in Channel 1. CAUTION: Do not attempt to operate in Stereo or Bridge-Mono mode until the Parallel-Mono jumper is first removed. Failure to do so will definitely cause inefficient operation, high distortion and excessive heating. Install a jumper wire between the red binding posts of both Channel 1 and 2 that is at least 14 gauge in size. Then, connect the load to the output of Channel 1 as shown in Figure 3.6. The positive lead from the load connects to the red binding post of Channel 1 and the negative lead from the load connects to the black binding post of Channel 1. To put the amplifier in Parallel-Mono mode, first turn it off, then slide the Stereo/Mono switch to the left (as you face the back). Connect the input signal to Channel 1 only. DO NOT USE THE CHANNEL 2 INPUT or the signal level and quality may degrade greatly. Turn off the Channel 2 Level control (full counterclockwise). CAUTION: Remove the jumper wire before changing to any mode except Parallel-Mono. USE ONLY CHANNEL 1 INPUT + – ADD A 14 GAUGE (OR LARGER) JUMPER BETWEEN THE CHANNEL 1 AND 2 RED BINDING POSTS. MIXER DO NOT USE CHANNEL 2 INPUTS. CH-2 CH-1 PUSH FX PUSH INPUT CH-2 INPUTS LOUDSPEAKER INPUT CH-2 OUTPUT CH-1 OUTPUT CH-1 STEREO PARALLEL MONO BRIDGE MONO (MONO) Macro-Tech 3600VZ STEREO PARALLEL MONO BRIDGE MONO PARALLEL-MONO MODE CAUTION: TURN OFF AMPLIFIER BEFORE CHANGING THIS SWITCH! Fig. 3.6 Parallel-Mono Wiring Page 13 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 3.3.4 Input Connection Both the balanced XLR and phone jack inputs have a nominal impedance of 20 K ohms (10 K ohms with unbalanced wiring) and will accept the line-level output of most devices. Female XLR input connectors are provided on the standard P.I.P.-FX input module (other P.I.P. modules are described in Section 8.1). Correct input wiring will depend on two factors: (1) whether the input signals are balanced or unbalanced, and (2) whether the signal source floats or has a ground reference. Figures 3.7 and 3.8 show the recommended connection techniques for each type of signal source. The amplifier’s built-in ¼-inch phone jack input connectors can be wired similarly for balanced or unbalanced, floating or ground-referenced sources. They have a standard tip-ring-sleeve (TRS) configuration: – + Note: If two or more channels with the same input ground reference are driven from the same INPUT floating source, connect Floating only one shield to the source chassis. source Output 3 1 2 – + 2-wire line cord (or battery power) – + 3 Grounded source Output INPUT 1 2 Shield not connected at this end – + 3-wire grounded line cord (or other ground connection) – + Fig. 3.8 Balanced Input Wiring 3 INPUT 2 + – + 2-wire line cord (or battery power) 3 INPUT Grounded source Output 1 2 Shield is not connected at this end + 3-wire grounded line cord (or other ground connection) Twin-lead shielded cable Shield connected to ground terminal Floating source Output 1 – + 3 Floating source Output 1 2 + 2-wire line cord (or battery power) – + 3 INPUT Grounded source Output 1 2 Input ground terminal not used + Single-conductor coax or twisted pair INPUT Shield connected to both negative (–) and ground input terminals the tip is positive (+), the ring is negative (–) and the sleeve is ground (see Figure 3.9). Wiring for various sources follows the XLR wiring guidelines shown in Figures 3.7 and 3.8. The phone jacks should not be used as inputs when a P.I.P. module with active circuitry is installed. The phone jacks are in parallel with the output of the P.I.P. module, so an input signal connected to the phone jacks can feed backwards into the active circuitry of the P.I.P. and cause undesirable distortion. You can use the phone jacks for signal input with any of the following P.I.P. modules installed: P.I.P.-FX, P.I.P.-BB, P.I.P.-FMX, P.I.P.FXQ and P.I.P.-FPX. All other P.I.P. modules have active circuitry and should not be installed if you plan to connect input signals to the phone jacks. The phone jacks can always be used as “daisy chain” outputs to feed post-processed signals from the P.I.P. to the inputs of other amplifiers. Please follow the instruction in Section 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 if the amplifier will be used in either Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono mode. Remember, do not use the Channel 2 input in either mono mode. + – BALANCED SHIELD 3-wire grounded line cord (or other ground connection) + UNBALANCED SHIELD Fig. 3.7 Unbalanced Input Wiring Page 14 Fig. 3.9 Balanced and Unbalanced Phone Plugs Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier SOLVING INPUT PROBLEMS Sometimes large subsonic (subaudible) frequencies are present in the input signal. These can damage loudspeakers by overloading or overheating them. To attenuate such frequencies, place a capacitor in series with the input signal line. The graph in Figure 3.10 shows some capacitor values and how they affect the frequency response. Use only low-leakage paper, mylar or tantalum capacitors. 910 Ω + A – Balanced Out – 910 Ω 1.8 mH + B Balanced In + .015 µf – Balanced Out – 1.8 mH 2.5 mH + C dB Balanced In + .018 µf – Balanced Out – 2.5 mH 0 0.47 Film 1.8 mH –5 –10 + .003 µf Balanced In + f 1µ .1 µf .05 µf D f 1µ Balanced In .0 + .015 µf – –15 Balanced Out – 0.47 Film 1.8 mH 1 Hz 10 Hz 100 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz Fig. 3.12 Balanced RFI Filters Frequency Fig. 3.10 Subsonic Filter Capacitors Tip: The P.I.P.-FX included with your amplifier has plenty of room on its circuit board for input filters. Another problem to avoid is the presence of large levels of radio frequencies or RF in the input signal. Although high RF levels may not pose a threat to the amplifier, they can burn out tweeters or other loads that are sensitive to high frequencies. Extremely high RF levels can also cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its protection circuitry, resulting in inefficient operation. RF can be introduced into the signal by local radio stations and from the bias signal of many tape recorders. To prevent high levels of input RF, install an appropriate low-pass filter in series with the the input signal. Some examples of unbalanced wiring for low-pass filters are shown in Figure 3.11. 1.8 K ohm Source .003 µf To Amp 6 dB/octave 3.9 mH To Amp A 12 dB/octave –10 B GND C B 5 mH R 600 ohm Source .018 µf Input Wiring Tips 0 GND .015 µf Inductive coupling can occur when input cables are subjected to a magnetic field from a power cord or power transformer. One way to prevent inductive coupling is to lace the input cables together along their length and route them as far away as possible from power transformers and power cords. The use of dB A R 600 ohm Source A third problem to avoid is hum. The two most common sources of hum in an audio system are inductive coupling and ground loops. –20 To Amp GND C 4 kHz Note: A low source impedance (R) can be increased to 600 ohms with an appropriate resistor. 10 kHz 40 kHz 100 kHz Frequency Fig. 3.11 Unbalanced RFI Filters For balanced input wiring use one of the examples in Figure 3.12. Filters A, B and C correspond to the unbalanced filters above. Filter D also incorporates the subsonic filter described previously. 1. Use only shielded cable. Cables with higher density shields are better. Spiral wrapped shield is not recommended. 2. When using unbalanced lines, keep the cables as short as possible. Avoid cable lengths greater than 10 feet (3 meters). 3. Do not run signal cables together with high-level wiring such as loudspeaker wires or AC cords. This greatly lessens the chance of hum or noise being induced into the input cables. 4. Turn the entire system off before changing connections. Turn level controls down completely before powering the system back up. Crown is not liable for damage incurred when any transducer or component is overdriven. Page 15 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier shielded pair cable is another effective way to reduce or eliminate hum resulting from inductive coupling. Ground loops often result when two or more devices are improperly grounded. This causes undesirable stray currents that may produce hum in the output. The best way to avoid ground loops is to ensure that all system devices are plugged into the same power strip. In addition, make sure that all cable shields are grounded at one end only. resistance increases. This is very important because the amplifier’s excellent damping factor can easily be negated by insufficient loudspeaker cables. Use the nomograph in Figure 3.13 and the procedure that follows to find the recommended wire gauge (AWG or American Wire Gauge) for your system. .0002 .0004 Input and output grounds are sometimes tied together for testing or metering. This can cause feedback oscillation from load current in the test loop. In some systems, even the AC power line may provide this feedback path. Proper grounding, input isolation and isolation of common AC devices in the system is good practice. RS SOURCE RESISTANCE (ohms) .0006 .001 RL RS DAMPING FACTOR 20,000 10,000 .002 .004 .006 .01 5,000 3.3.5 Output Connection Consider the power handling capacity of your load before connecting it to the amplifier. Crown is not liable for damage incurred at any time due to overpowering. Fusing loudspeaker lines is highly recommended (see Section 3.3.6). Also, please pay close attention to the precautions provided in Section 4.1. .02 2,000 40 RL LOAD RESISTANCE (ohms) 1,000 5000 500 30 .06 .1 200 100 50 2-COND. CABLE (feet) 1000 .4 20 1 10 2 5 100 10 50 20 50 100 5 10 3. Connectors that can be plugged into AC power receptacles should never be used. 4. Connectors with low current-carrying capacity should not be used. 5. Connectors with any tendency to short should never be used. Page 16 5 9 4 #8 #6 .5 #4 #2 6 10 6 .1 .05 20 4 40 .01 3 2 #14 #10 1 5 #16 1 5000 8 7 #18 #12 1000 Example Shown: RL = 8 ohms; RS = 0.016 ohms or D.F. = 500; Cable Length = 10 ft.; answer: #8 wire 1.5 HOW TO DETERMINE APPROPRIATE WIRE GAUGE It is important to use loudspeaker cables with sufficient gauge (thickness) for the length being used. The resistance introduced by inadequate loudspeaker cables will reduce both the output power and the motion control of the loudspeakers. The latter problem occurs because the damping factor decreases as the cable #20 10 2000 2 2. Do not use connectors that might accidentally tie two channels together when making or breaking connections (for example, a standard three-wire stereo phone plug). 2 #28 #26 #24 #22 200 500 1. To prevent possible shorts, do not expose the loudspeaker cable connectors. 500 1 .6 Use Good Connectors (ohms/1000 ft.) COPPER WIRE (AWG) .2 20 15 8000 .04 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 Fig. 3.13 Wire Size Nomograph #0 #00 #0000 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 1. Note the load resistance of the loudspeakers connected to each channel of the amplifier. Mark this value on the “Load Resistance” line of the nomograph. 2. Select an acceptable damping factor and mark it on the “Damping Factor” line. Your amplifier can provide an excellent damping factor of 1,000 from 10 to 400 Hz in Stereo mode with an 8-ohm load. In contrast, typical damping factors are 50 or lower. Higher damping factors yield lower distortion and greater motion control over the loudspeakers. A common damping factor for commercial applications is between 50 and 100. Higher damping factors may be desirable for live sound, but long cable lengths often limit the highest damping factor that can be achieved practically. (Under these circumstances, Crown’s IQ System® is often used so amplifiers can be monitored and controlled when they are located very near the loudspeakers.) In recording studios and home hi-fi, a damping factor of 500 or more is very desirable. 3. Draw a line through the two points with a pencil, and continue until it intersects the “Source Resistance” line. 4. On the “2-Cond. Cable” line, mark the length of the cable run. 5. Draw a pencil line from the mark on the “Source Resistance” line through the mark on the “2-Cond. Cable” line, and on to intersect the “Annealed Copper Wire” line. 6. The required wire gauge for the selected wire length and damping factor is the value on the “Annealed Copper Wire” line. Note: Wire size increases as the AWG gets smaller. 7. If the size of the cable exceeds what you want to use, (1) find a way to use shorter cables, like using the IQ System, (2) settle for a lower damping factor, or (3) use more than one cable for each line. Options 1 and 2 will require the substitution of new values for cable length or damping factor in the nomograph. For option 3, estimate the effective wire gauge by subtracting 3 from the apparent wire gauge every time the number of conductors of equal gauge is doubled. So, if #10 wire is too large, two #13 wires can be substituted, or four #16 wires can be used for the same effect. SOLVING OUTPUT PROBLEMS Sometimes high-frequency oscillations occur which can cause your amplifier to prematurely activate its protection circuitry and result in inefficient operation. The effects of this problem are similar to the effects of the RF problem described in Section 3.3.4. To prevent high-frequency oscillations: 1. Lace together the loudspeaker conductors for each channel; do not lace together the conductors from different channels. This minimizes the chance that cables will act like antennas and transmit or receive high frequencies that can cause oscillation. 2. Avoid using shielded loudspeaker cable. 3. Avoid long cable runs where the loudspeaker cables from different amplifiers share a common cable tray or cable jacket. 4. Never connect the amplifier’s input and output grounds together. 5. Never tie the outputs of multiple amplifiers together. 6. Keep loudspeaker cables well separated from input cables. 7. Install a low-pass filter on each input line (similar to the RF filters described in Section 3.3.4. 8. Install input wiring according to the instructions in Section 3.3.4. Another problem to avoid is the presence of large subsonic currents when primarily inductive loads are used. Examples of inductive loads are 70-volt transformers and electrostatic loudspeakers. Inductive loads can appear as a short circuit at low frequencies. This can cause the amplifier to produce large low-frequency currents and activate its protection circuitry. Always take the precaution of installing a high-pass filter in series with the amplifier’s input when inductive loads are used. A 3-pole, 18 dB per octave filter with a –3 dB frequency of 50 Hz is recommended (depending on the application, an even higher –3 dB frequency may be desirable). Such a filter is described with subsonic frequency problems in Section 3.3.4. Another way to prevent the amplifier from prematurely activating its protection systems and to protect inductive loads from large low-frequency currents is to connect a 590 to 708 µF nonpolarized capacitor and 4-ohm, 20-watt resistor in series with the amplifier’s output and the positive (+) lead of the transformer. The circuit shown below uses components that are available from most electronic supply stores. 4-ohm, 20-watt Resistor + 590 to 708 µf Capacitor 120 VAC, N.P. + From Amplifier Output Inductive Load – – Fig. 3.14 Inductive Load (Transformer) Network Page 17 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 3.3.6 Additional Load Protection Because the amplifier generates enormous power, it may be desirable to protect loudspeakers (or other sensitive loads) from damage due to excessive power. A common way to do this is to put a fuse in series with the load. This may be accomplished by using a single fuse to protect the entire system, or by fusing each driver. Fuses help prevent damage due to prolonged overload, but provide essentially no protection against damage from large transients. To minimize this latter problem, use high-speed instrument fuses such as the Littlefuse 361000 series. If the loudspeaker is only susceptible to damage caused by prolonged overload (such as overheating), use a fuse or circuit breaker having the same slow thermal response as the loudspeaker itself (such as a slow-blow fuse). 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 20 2 3000 15 2000 2.5 10 1500 8 3 1000 800 6 600 5 5 300 3 200 6 Example: Impedance = 8 ohms. Peak Power = 75 W 7 150 2 100 80 1.5 60 8 Answer: Fuse = 1.5 A 9 1 40 .8 10 30 .6 12 20 .5 15 20 25 30 .4 .3 .2 .15 LOUDSPEAKER RATING 16 FUSE (amps) LOUDSPEAKER IMPEDANCE (ohms) 14 10 8 6 4 3 2 .1 .08 1.5 1 40 Fig. 3.15 Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph Page 18 (Typically 4 times the continuous average power) 400 4 PEAK MUSIC POWER (watts) 4 The nomograph in Figure 3.15 shows fuse size versus loudspeaker peak power rating. It can be used to determine the size of the required fuse. 3.3.7 AC Power Requirements Use an isolated power receptacle whenever possible with adequate current. North American units are shipped with a 30 amp (10 AWG) line cord, a NEMA TT30P plug and a NEMA TT30R receptacle. International units are shipped without a plug connected to the appropriate line cord. Line voltages of 10% or more above the specified voltage may damage the amplifier. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 4 Operation 4.1 Precautions Although the Macro-Tech 3600VZ is protected from external faults, the following precautions should be followed for safety and optimum operation: LEVEL 12 9 15 LEVEL 18 12 ODEP 21 15 18 9 21 3 27 ON 24 6 24 6 OFF SIGNAL / IOC 27 3 0 30 CH1 CH2 0 30 ENABLE 1. There are important differences among the Stereo, Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono operating modes (see Section 3.3). 2. WARNING: Do not change the position of the Stereo/Mono switch unless the amplifier is first turned off. 3. CAUTION: In Parallel-Mono mode, a jumper is used between the Channel 1 and Channel 2 red binding posts (amplifier outputs). Be sure to remove this jumper for Bridge-Mono or Stereo mode; otherwise inefficient operation, high distortion and excessive heating will occur. Check the Stereo/Mono switch on the back panel for proper position. 4. Turn the amplifier off and unplug it from the AC mains before removing a P.I.P. card. 5. Use care when making connections, selecting signal sources and controlling the output level. The load you save may be your own. Fig. 4.1 Indicators Enable indicator. This means that in the improbable event that one or both channels overheat and cause a shut down of the high voltage power supply, the Enable indicator will remain on. However, the Signal/IOC indicator lights to show that the output waveform does not match the input. The ODEP indicators provide a visual indication of the operation of Crown’s patented Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) circuitry. This circuitry protects the amplifier output stages against heat damage by proportionally limiting the drive level to the output stages. This enables the amplifier to operate safely even under severe operating conditions. 8. Never connect the output to a power supply output, battery or power main. During normal operation, the ODEP indicators glow brightly to indicate that the output stages are operating within their thermal range (SOA - Safe Operating Area). However, if an output stage begins to overheat, the ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive signal and the LEDs dim. In the unlikely event that the amplifier exceeds the operating limits, ODEP shuts down the output stages and the indicators turn off. The indicators also turn off if the power supplies are put in standby mode. 9. Tampering in the circuit by unqualified personnel, or making unauthorized circuit changes may be extremely dangerous and may invalidate the warranty. Note: The high voltage power supplies will temporarily go into standby mode if their transformers get too hot or if there is DC or heavy common-mode current in the output. Remember: Crown is not liable for damage that results from overdriving components in your system. The green Signal/IOC indicators provide the triple functions of Signal Presence, Distortion, and Input Overload indicators. As signal presence indicators, they flash with normal intensity in sync with the audio outputs. As IOC (Input/Output Comparator) indicators, they flash brightly if there is any difference between the input and output signal waveforms greater than 0.05%. Because transient distortion happens quickly, a 0.1 second “hold delay” keeps the indicators on long enough to be easily noticed. This IOC function verifies the amplifier’s performance. As input overload indicators, they flash brightly with a 0.5 second hold delay 6. Do not short the ground lead of an output cable to the input signal ground. This may form a ground loop and cause oscillations. 7. Operate the amplifier from AC mains of not more than 10% variation above or below the selected line voltage and only the specified line frequency. 4.2 Indicators The front panel has several helpful LED (light emitting diode) indicators. The amber Enable indicator is provided to show the amplifier has been turned on (or enabled) and that the low-voltage power supply is working. It does not indicate the high voltage supply status. As a result, disruption of the high voltage supplies has no effect on the Page 19 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Indicator Status ODEP OFF SIGNAL / IOC OFF ODEP SIGNAL / IOC ODEP SIGNAL / IOC ODEP SIGNAL / IOC ON Amplifier Condition There is no power to the amplifier and all indicators are off, including the Enable light. Possible reasons: (1) The amplifier’s enable switch is off. (2) The amplifier is not plugged into the power receptacle. (3) The AC circuit breaker has been tripped. (4) The amplifier’s low-voltage power supply fuse has blown. Normal operation for a channel with NO audio output. Possible reasons: (1) There is no input signal. (2) The input signal level is very low. (3) The channel’s level control is turned down. OFF ON Normal ON Normal operation for a channel with audio output. The ODEP indicator will remain at full intensity to show that there is reserve thermodynamic energy, and the signal/IOC indicator will flash with normal intensity to show that the channel has audio output. The channel’s output is exceeding 0.05% distortion. The input signal level is too high and IOC is reporting an input overload or output clipping. OR Bright Channel 2 only: The amplifier is in Parallel-Mono mode. The Channel 2 signal/IOC indicator always turns on to full brightness whenever the amplifier’s stereo/mono switch is set to Parallel-Mono mode. ODEP SIGNAL / IOC OFF Bright The amplifier channel is in standby mode. Possible reasons: (1) A P.I.P. module like an IQ P.I.P. has turned off the channel’s high-voltage power supply. (2) The amplifier has just been turned on and is still in the four second turn-on delay. (3) The DC / low-frequency protection circuitry has been activated. (4) The fault protection circuitry has been activated. (5) The transformer thermal protection circuitry has been activated. OR A channel’s circuit breaker has tripped. Transformer overload can cause a channel’s circuit breaker to trip. OR ODEP limiting has been activated. Possible reasons: (1) The amplifier’s air filters are blocked and need to be cleaned. (2) There is insufficient cooling because of inadequate air flow or air that is too hot. (3) The load impedance for the channel is too low because the output is shorted or the amplifier is driving too many loudspeakers for the selected stereo/mono mode. (4) The amplifier channel is continuously being driven to very high output levels. ODEP SIGNAL / IOC OFF Normal ODEP limiting is about to begin. Possible reasons: (1) The amplifier’s air filters are blocked and need to be cleaned. (2) There is insufficient cooling because of inadequate air flow or air that is too hot. (3) The load impedance for the channel is too low because the output is shorted or the amplifier is driving too many loudspeakers for the selected stereo/mono mode. (4) The amplifier channel is continuously being driven to very high output levels. Fig. 4.2 Macro-Tech Indicator States when an input signal that is too large begins to cause early clipping distortion at the input. Note: the Channel 2 IOC indicator will stay on in Parallel-Mono mode. 4.3 Protection Circuits 4.3.1 Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP) Crown invented ODEP to solve two long standing problems in amplifier design: To prevent amplifier shutdown during demanding operation and to increase the efficiency of output circuitry. Macro-Tech amplifiers provide extensive protection and diagnostics capabilities. Protection systems include ODEP, “standby”, and an AC circuit breaker. These features provide protection under any conditions. To do this, Crown established a rigorous program to measure the safe operating area (SOA) of each output transistor before installing it in an amplifier. Crown also designed intelligent circuitry to simulate the instantaneous operating conditions of those output transistors. Page 20 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Its name describes what it does: Output Device Emulation Protection or ODEP. It not only simulates the operation of the output transistors but it also compares their operation to their known SOA. If ODEP sees that more power is about to be asked of the output devices than they are capable of delivering under the present conditions, ODEP immediately limits the drive level until it falls within the SOA. Limiting is proportional and kept to an absolute minimum—only what is required to prevent the possibility of output transistor damage. This level of protection enables Crown to increase output transistor utilization while greatly increasing amplifier reliability. Finally, this onboard intelligence is monitored in two ways. First, the front panel ODEP indicators show whether the amplifier is functioning correctly or if ODEP is limiting the drive level. Second, ODEP data is fed to the P.I.P. connector at the back of the amplifier so advanced P.I.P. modules like the IQ-P.I.P. can use it to make decisions and control the amplifier. With ODEP you get the maximum power with the maximum protection—the show goes on! 4.3.2 Standby Mode An important part of a Macro-Tech amplifier’s protection systems is standby mode. Standby protects the amplifier during potentially catastrophic conditions. It temporarily removes power from the high-voltage supplies to protect the amplifier and its loads. Standby mode can be identified using the indicator table in Figure 4.2. When you turn on the Enable switch, standby mode is activated to provide turn-on protection. This power-up delay lets other system components settle before any signals are amplified, and it provides some “randomness” to the power-up sequence of multiple units which reduces the system’s current demand during start-up. If dangerous subsonic frequencies or direct current (DC) is detected in the amplifier’s output, the unit will activate its DC/low-frequency protection circuitry and put the affected channels in standby. This protects the loads and prevents oscillations. The unit resumes normal operation as soon as the amplifier no longer detects dangerous low-frequency or DC output. Although it is extremely unlikely that you will ever activate the amplifier’s DC/low-frequency protection system, improper source materials such as subsonic square waves or input overloads that result in excessively clipped input signals can activate this system. plifier channel into standby mode in rare situations where heavy common-mode current is detected in a channel’s output. The amplifier should never output heavy common-mode current unless its circuitry is damaged in some way, and putting the channel in standby mode helps to prevent further damage. The amplifier’s transformer thermal protection circuitry is activated where the unit’s transformer temperature rises to unsafe levels. Under these abnormal conditions, the amplifier will put both channels into standby mode. In addition, the cooling fan will run at full speed. The amplifier will return to normal operation after the transformer cools to a safe temperature. (For more information on transformer thermal protection, refer to the section that follows.) 4.3.3 Transformer Thermal Protection All Macro-Tech amplifiers have transformer thermal protection which protects the power supplies from damage under rare conditions where the transformer temperature rises too high. A thermal switch embedded in each channel’s power transformer removes power to that channel’s high-voltage power supply if it detects excessive heat. The switch automatically resets itself as soon as the transformer cools to a safe temperature. If your amplifier is operated within rated conditions, it is unlikely that you will ever see it activate transformer thermal protection. One reason is that ODEP keeps the amplifier working under severe conditions. Even so, higher than rated output levels, excessively low-impedance loads and unreasonably high input signals can generate excessive heat in the output devices. This can overheat the transformer and activate its protection system. Macro-Tech amplifiers are designed to keep working under conditions where other amplifiers would fail. But even when the limits of a Macro-Tech are exceeded, it protects itself—and your investment—from damage. 4.3.4 Circuit Breaker A circuit breaker is provided to prevent excessive current draw by the high-voltage power supplies. A reset button for the circuit breaker is provided on the back panel. The rating of the circuit breaker for each amplifier model and each AC mains voltage is provided with the specifications in Section 6. When operating with rated loads and output levels, this breaker should only trip in the incredibly rare instance of a catastrophic amplifier failure. Other protection systems such as ODEP keep the amplifier safe and operational under The amplifier’s fault protection system will put an amPage 21 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier SENSITIVITY SWITCH INSIDE ACCESS HOLE most other severe conditions. The breaker can also trip in situations where extremely low-impedance loads and sustained high output levels result in current draw that exceeds the breaker’s rating. Again, this should only be possible when operating outside rated conditions or when an input signal is clipped severely. 1.4 V 26 dB 0.77 V 4.4 Controls The Enable switch is located on the front panel so you can easily turn the amplifier on and off. If you ever need to make wiring or other installation changes, don’t forget to disconnect the power cord. The six steps listed next should be followed whenever you turn on the amplifier. 1. Turn down the level of your audio source. For example, set your master mixer’s volume to –∞. 2. Turn down the Level controls of the amplifier (if they are not already down). 3. Turn on the Enable switch. The Enable indicator beside the switch should glow. During the four second mute delay which immediately follows, the Signal/IOC indicators may flash unpredictably and the ODEP LEDs will stay off. After the mute delay, the ODEP indicators should come on with full brilliance and the Signal/IOC indicators should function normally (remain off if no signal is present; flash if a signal is present). Remember, the Channel 2 Signal/IOC indicator remains on if the amplifier is in Parallel-Mono mode. 4. After the mute delay, turn up the level of your audio source to the maximum desired level. 5. Turn up the Level controls of the amplifier until the maximum desired sound level is achieved. 6. Turn down the level of your audio source to its normal range. For ease of use, the Level controls are located on the front panel. Each control has 31 detents for accuracy. To secure these controls, the Level Control Security Kit is available (see Section 8.2). Note: In Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono mode, turn down the Channel 2 Level control and only use the Channel 1 control. The Input Sensitivity Switch is located inside the back of the amplifier (Figure 4.3). It is set at the factory to 0.775 volts for rated output into 8 ohms. It can also be switched to a sensitivity of 1.4 volts, or a fixed voltage gain of 26 dB (4.8 volts for rated output). Page 22 THIS AMPLIFIER IS EQUIPPED WITH SELECTABLE INPUT SENSITIVITY. REMOVE P.I.P. MODULE TO ACCESS SENSITIVITY SWITCH. BALANCED INPUT WIRING + – GND CH-2 INPUTS CH-1 UNBALANCED INPUT WIRING + TIP RING INPUT GROUND LIFT SLEEVE LIFT (MONO) GND TIP SLEEVE (AFFECTS PHONE INPUTS ONLY.) INPUT GROUND LIFT SWITCH Fig. 4.3 Input Sensitivity and Ground Lift Switches How to change the input sensitivity: 1. Turn off the amplifier and disconnect its power cord from the AC mains power receptacle. 2. Remove the P.I.P. module (two screws). 3. Locate the sensitivity switch access hole inside the chassis opening as shown in Figure 4.3. It is located just above the phone jack inputs. Note: The Sensitivity switch will not be visible because it is mounted below the hole. Use your little finger to reach it. 4. Set the switch to the desired position noted on the access hole label. The position toward the front panel sets the sensitivity to 1.4 volts for rated output, the middle position provides a voltage gain of 26 dB, and the position toward the back panel sets the sensitivity to 0.775 volts for rated output. 5. Replace the P.I.P. module and restore the power. The Input Ground Lift switch is located on the rear panel (Figure 4.3) and can provide isolation between the input signal ground and the AC ground. It affects only the phone jack inputs and has no affect on the input connectors on the P.I.P. module. Sliding the switch to the left isolates or “lifts” the grounds by placing an impedance between the sleeve of each phone jack and the circuit ground. When a P.I.P. module is plugged into the amplifier, only the noninverted and inverted signal lines are connected in parallel with the corresponding lines of the input phone jacks. The signal grounds are not paralleled. For example, XLR pins 2 and 3 are connected in parallel with the tip and ring of the corresponding phone jack. However, pin 1 of the XLR is not connected in parallel with the sleeve of the phone jack. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier The Circuit Breaker Reset Buttons (PUSH TO RESET) are located on the back panel to protect the power supplies against overload. If a circuit breaker trips, the Signal/IOC indicator of the affected channel turns on (the Enable indicator remains illuminated). 4.5 Filter Cleaning Dust filters are provided on the air intakes to the cooling system (Figure 2.1). If these filters become clogged, the unit will not cool as efficiently as it should and may produce lower-than-normal output levels due to high heat diffuser temperature and activation of the ODEP circuitry. To clean, remove each of the filter elements by gently pulling them away from the front panel. Clean with mild dishwashing detergent and warm water. Replacement filters may be ordered from the factory. Dust filters are not 100% efficient—depending on the local environment, the internal heat sinks of the amplifier will benefit from periodic cleaning by a qualified technician. Internal cleaning information is available from our Technical Support Group. Page 23 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 5 Technical Information 5.1 Overview Your Macro-Tech VZ amplifier incorporates several new technological advancements including low-stress output stages, real-time computer simulation of output transistor conditions, advanced thermal management, a modular system for signal input and processing, and the articulated VZ power supplies. Custom protection circuitry limits temperature and current to safe levels while making the amplifier highly reliable and tolerant of faults. Unlike many lesser amplifiers, it can operate at its voltage and current limits without self-destructing. Real-time computer simulation is used to create an analogue of the junction temperature of the output transistors (hereafter referred to as the “output devices”). Current is limited only when the device temperature becomes excessive—and just by the minimum amount necessary. This patented approach is called ODEP or Output Device Emulation Protection. It maximizes the available output power and eliminates overheating, the major cause of output device failure. The amplifier is protected from all common hazards that plague high-power amplifiers including shorted, open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies, excessive temperature, chain-destruction phenomena, input overload damage and high frequency blowups. The unit protects loudspeakers from DC in the input signal, DC in the output, turn-on and turn-off transients, and it detects and prevents unwanted DC in the output. The amplifier is also protected from internal faults. The patented four-quadrant topology used in the grounded output stages is called the grounded bridge. The grounded bridge topology takes full advantage of the power supplies delivering peak-to-peak voltages to the load that are twice the voltage seen by the output devices and twice the voltage generated by the power supplies. The grounded bridge topology is ground-referenced. Because the required current exceeds the limits of presently available components, composite output devices are constructed to function as gigantic NPN and PNP devices. Each output stage has two composite NPN and two composite PNP devices. The devices connected to the load are referred to as “high-side NPN and PNP” and the devices connected to ground are referred to as “low-side NPN and PNP.” Page 24 Positive current is delivered to the load by increasing conductance simultaneously in the high-side NPN and low-side PNP stage, while decreasing conductance of the high-side PNP and low-side NPN in synchrony. The two channels may be used together to double the voltage (Bridge-Mono) or the current (Parallel-Mono) presented to the load. This feature gives the user flexibility in maximizing the power available to the load. A wide-bandwidth multiloop design is used for stateof-the-art compensation. This produces ideal behavior, and results in ultra-low distortion values. Aluminum extrusions have been widely used for heat sinks in power amplifiers due to their low cost and reasonable performance. However, measured on a watts per pound or watts per volume basis, the extrusion technology doesn’t perform nearly as well as the heat sink technology developed for Macro-Tech power amplifiers. Our heat sinks are fabricated from custom convoluted fin stock that provides an extremely high ratio of area to volume, or area to weight. All power devices are mounted directly to massive heat spreaders that are electrically alive. Electrifying the heat spreaders improves thermal performance by eliminating the insulating interface underneath the power devices. The chassis itself is used as part of the thermal circuit, and this maximizes utilization of the available resources. 5.2 VZ Power VZ means Variable Impedance. It is the name of Crown’s patented articulated power supply technology. This technology is what makes it possible to pack such tremendous power into Crown’s Macro-Tech 3600VZ and 5000VZ amplifiers. 5.2.1 Background A power supply must be large enough to handle the maximum voltage and current necessary for the amplifier to drive its rated power into a specified load. In the process of fulfilling this requirement, conventional power supply designs produce lots of heat, are heavy, and take up precious real estate. And it is no secret that heat is one of a power amplifiers worst enemies. Consider the circuit in Figure 5.1. According to Ohm’s Law, the bigger the power supply, the more heat the power transistors must dissipate. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier POWER TRANSISTOR Also, the lower the resistance of the power transistors, the more voltage you can deliver to the load. But when you lower the resistance of the transistors, you increase the current passing through them, and again increase the amount of heat they must dissipate. + POWER SUPPLY SPEAKER LOAD – POWER TRANSISTOR Fig. 5.1 A Typical Power Supply 5.2.2 The VZ Supply An articulated power supply like VZ avoids much of this problem by reducing the voltage applied to the transistors when less voltage is needed. Reducing the voltage reduces the heat, so the amplifier runs cooler and more power can be packed in safely. The VZ supply is divided into segments to better match the voltage and current requirements of the power transistors. Remember that audio signals like music are complex waveforms. VZ POWER SUPPLY + POWER TRANSISTOR VZ STAGE – SPEAKER LOAD + The power transistors stay cooler and are not forced to needlessly dissipate heat. This is the normal operating mode of the VZ power supply. VZ STAGE When the voltage requirements are – high, VZ supplies switch to a series mode which proFig. 5.4 VZ Supply in duces higher voltSeries Mode age and less current. The amplified output signal never misses a beat and gets full voltage when it needs it—not when it doesn’t need it. POWER TRANSISTOR Sensing circuitry watches the voltage of the signal to determine when to switch VZ modes. The switching circuitry is designed to prevent audible switching distortion to yield the highest possible dynamic transfer function—you hear only the music and not the amplifier. You get not only the maximum power with the maximum safety, but you also get the best power matching to your load. 5.3 Circuit Theory Fig. 5.2 Music Waveforms Are Complex For music, the average level is always much less than the peak level. This means a power supply does not need to produce full voltage all the time. VZ POWER SUPPLY POWER TRANSISTOR + SPEAKER LOAD VZ STAGE – + VZ STAGE – POWER TRANSISTOR Fig. 5.3 VZ Supply in Parallel Mode The VZ supply is divided into two parts. When the voltage requirements are not high, it operates in a parallel mode to produce less voltage and more current. Each channel is powered by its own power transformer, T100 or T200. Both channels share TF-1, a low voltage transformer. The secondary outputs of each transformer are full-wave rectified by heavy duty bridge rectifiers and are filtered by large computer grade capacitors. A thermal switch embedded in each transformer protects them from overheating. The low voltage transformer TF-1 uses a separate fan motor winding. The TF-1 output is rectified by diodes D1-4 delivering an unregulated 24 volts. Monolithic regulators U1-2 provide a regulated ±15 volts. 5.3.1 Stereo Operation For simplicity, the discussion of stereo operation will refer to one channel only. Mono operation will be discussed later. See the block diagram in Figure 5.5 and the schematics at the back of this manual. The input signal at the phone jack passes directly into the balanced gain stage (U104-C,D). Use of a P.I.P. module for input signal causes the input signal to pass through the P.I.P. and then to the balanced gain stage. Page 25 Page 26 BALANCED Fig. 5.5 Circuit Block Diagram INPUTS 1/4" PHONE XLR P.I.P. VARIABLE GAIN STAGE DISPLAY BALANCE INPUT STAGE ERROR AMP E TRANSLATOR ODEP TRANSLATOR A B C D CURRENT LIMIT C (ODEP) PNP HI OUTPUT STAGE NPN HI OUTPUT STAGE A (ODEP) + +Vcc –Vcc OUTPUT ONLY ONE CHANNEL SHOWN –Vcc LVA BIAS LVA +Vcc D (ODEP) PNP LOW OUTPUT STAGE NPN LOW OUTPUT STAGE B (ODEP) BIAS BRIDGE BALANCE –Vcc +Vcc DC/ LF VZ MODE POWER CONTROL SUPPLY FAULT CONTROL E (ODEP) +Vcc –Vcc SUPPLY POWER Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier The balanced gain stage (U104-C,D) causes balanced-to-single-ended conversion to take place using a difference amplifier. From there, gain can be controlled with a potentiometer. The error amp (U104-A) amplifies the difference between the output signal and the input signal from the gain pot, and drives the voltage translator stage. The voltage translator stage channels the signal to the Last Voltage Amplifiers (LVAs), depending on the signal polarity, from the error amp U104-A. The +LVA (Q105,Q125) and the –LVA (Q110,Q126), with their push-pull effect through the bias servo Q318, drive the fully complementary output stage. The bias servo Q318 is thermally coupled to the heat sink, and sets the quiescent bias current in the output stage to lower the distortion in the crossover region of the output signal. D301, D302, D303, and D304 are used to remove the charge on the unused portion of the output stage, depending on the polarity of the output signal. With the voltage swing provided by the LVAs, the signal then gains current amplification through the Darlington emitter-follower output stage. The bridge-balanced circuit (U104-B) receives a signal from the output of the amplifier, and differences it with the signal at the Vcc supply. The bridge-balanced circuit then develops a voltage to drive the bridge-balanced output stage. This results in the Vcc supply having exactly one half of the output voltage added to their quiescent voltage. D309, D310, D311 and a trimmer resistor set the quiescent current point for the bridgebalanced output stage. The protection mechanisms that affect the signal path are implemented to protect the amplifier under realworld conditions. These conditions are high instantaneous current, excessive temperature, and operation of the output devices outside safe conditions. Q107 and Q108 act as a conventional current limiter, sensing current in the output stage. The allowable current level is also adjusted as a function of voltage. When current at any one instant exceeds the design criteria, the limiters remove the drive from the LVAs, thus limiting current in the output stage to a safe level. To further protect the output stages, a specially developed ODEP (Output Device Emulation Protection) circuit is used. It produces an analog output proportional to the always-changing safe operating area of the output transistors. This output controls the translator stage by removing any drive that exceeds the safe operating area of the output devices. Thermal sensor S100 gives the ODEP circuits vital information on the operating temperature of the heatsink on which the output devices are mounted. Should the amplifier fail in such a way that would cause DC across the output lead, the DC protection circuit senses this on the negative feedback loop and shuts down the power supply until the DC is removed. 5.3.2 Bridge-Mono Operation By setting the back panel Stereo/Mono switch to Bridge-Mono, the user can convert the Macro-Tech into a Bridge-Mono amplifier. With a signal applied to the Channel 1 input and the load between the red binding posts on the back panel, a double voltage output occurs. The Channel 1 output feeds the Channel 2 error amp U204-A. Since there is a net inversion, Channel 2 output is out of polarity with Channel 1. This produces twice as much voltage across the load. Each of the channel’s protection mechanisms work independently if a fault occurs. 5.3.3 Parallel-Mono Operation With the Stereo/Mono switch set to Parallel-Mono, the output of Channel 2 is paralleled with that of Channel 1. A suitable high-current-handling jumper must be connected across the red binding posts to gain the benefits of this mode of operation. The signal path for Channel 1 is the same as previously discussed, except that Channel 1 also drives the output stage of Channel 2. The balanced input, error amp, translators and LVAs of Channel 2 are disconnected and no longer control the Channel 2 output stage. The Channel 2 output stage and protection mechanisms are also coupled through S1 and function as one. In Parallel-Mono mode, twice the current of one channel alone can be obtained. Since the ODEP circuit of Channel 2 is coupled through S1, this gives added protection if a fault occurs in the Channel 2 output stage. The ODEP circuit of Channel 2 will limit the output of both output stages by removing the drive from the Channel 1 translator stages. Page 27 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 6 Specifications These specifications apply to 120 VAC units in stereo mode with 8 ohm loads and an input sensitivity of 26 dB unless otherwise specified. 120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: These units are equipped with transformers rated for 120 VAC, 60 Hz power. International Units: These units are equipped with transformers for either 100 VAC, 50/60 Hz, or 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz power. Performance Frequency Response: ±0.1 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz at 1 watt. See Figure 6.3. Phase Response: ±10° from 10 Hz to 20 kHz at 1 watt. See Figure 6.6. Signal-to-Noise Ratio: Greater than 105 dB below rated output (20 Hz to 20 kHz, A-weighted); 100 dB below rated output (20 Hz to 20 kHz, no weighting). Harmonic Distortion (THD): At rated output, less than 0.05% from 20 Hz to 1 kHz increasing linearly to less than 0.1% at 20 kHz. IM Distortion (IMD): Less than 0.05% from 368 milliwatts to full rated output. Damping Factor: Greater than 1,000 from 10 Hz to 400 Hz. See Figure 6.4. Crosstalk: See Figure 6.7. Slew Rate: Greater than 30 volts per microsecond. Voltage Gain: (At maximum output) 20:1 ±3% or 26 dB ±0.25 dB at +26 dB sensitivity, and 124.6:1 ±12% or 41.9 dB ±1.0 dB at 0.775 volt sensitivity. Power Output Power: Note: Maximum average watts per channel (unless in Mono mode) at 1 kHz with 0.1% or less THD. 120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: Stereo mode with both channels driven: 1800 watts into 2 ohms. 1565 watts into 4 ohms. 1120 watts into 8 ohms. Bridge-Mono mode: 3505 watts into 4 ohms. 3140 watts into 8 ohms. Parallel-Mono mode: 3555 watts into 1 ohm. 3190 watts into 2 ohms. Page 28 100 VAC International Units: Stereo mode with both channels driven: 1460 watts into 2 ohms. 1300 watts into 4 ohms. 980 watts into 8 ohms. Bridge-Mono mode: 2835 watts into 4 ohms. 2625 watts into 8 ohms. Parallel-Mono Mode 2820 watts into 1 ohm. 2585 watts into 2 ohms. 120 VAC International Units: Stereo mode with both channels driven: 1490 watts into 2 ohms. 1300 watts into 4 ohms. 985 watts into 8 ohms. Bridge-Mono mode: 2980 watts into 4 ohms. 2600 watts into 8 ohms. Parallel-Mono Mode 2980 watts into 1 ohm. 2600 watts into 2 ohms. 230 VAC International Units: Stereo mode with both channels driven: 1520 watts into 2 ohms. 1325 watts into 4 ohms. 965 watts into 8 ohms. Bridge-Mono mode: 2800 watts into 4 ohms. 2515 watts into 8 ohms. Parallel-Mono Mode 2910 watts into 1 ohm. 2565 watts into 2 ohms. Load Impedance: Rated for 16, 8, 4, and 2 ohm use only. Safe with all types of loads, even reactive ones. AC Power Requirements: 100 VAC, 50/60 Hz; 120 VAC, 50/60 Hz; and 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz units are available. 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz units can be used with 220 and 240 VAC. All versions draw 90 watts or less at idle. 100 and 120 VAC units can draw up to 30 amps of current; 230 VAC units can draw up to 15 amps. Refer to the back panel for your unit’s specifications. Refer to Section 7 for more details. It is extremely important to provide sufficient AC power to the amplifier. Power amplifiers cannot create energy—they must have the proper voltage and current to deliver the clean rated power you expect. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Controls Enable: A front panel push button used to turn the amplifier on and off. Level: A 31-position detented rotary attenuator for each channel located on the front panel used to control the output level. Stereo/Mono: A three-position back panel switch used to select Stereo, Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono operation. Sensitivity: A three-position switch located inside the P.I.P. compartment used to select one of three input sensitivities for both channels: 0.775 volts or 1.4 volts for standard 1 kHz power or a voltage gain of 26 dB. Input Impedance: Nominally 20 K ohms, balanced. Nominally 10 K ohms, unbalanced. Input Sensitivity: Switchable between 0.775 V (unbalanced) for rated output or a fixed voltage gain of 26 dB. (See subsection 4.4 for more information.) Output Connector: Color-coded dual binding posts (banana jacks). Output Impedance: Less than 10 milliohms in series with less than 2 microhenries. See Figure 6.5. DC Output Offset: (Shorted input) ±10 millivolts. Output Signal Stereo: Unbalanced, two-channel. Input Ground Lift: A two position back panel switch used to isolate the phone jack signal grounds from the chassis (AC) ground. Bridge-Mono: Balanced, single-channel. Channel 1 controls are active; Channel 2 controls are inactive and not removed from operation. Reset: A back panel button for each channel used to reset the corresponding power supply. 100 and 120 VAC units have 15 amp circuit breakers. 230 VAC units have 7.5 amp circuit breakers. Parallel-Mono: Unbalanced, single-channel. Channel 1 controls are active; Channel 2 controls are inactive but not removed from operation. Indicators Protection Enable: This amber indicator is on when the amplifier is switched on to show that the low voltage power supply is operating. Macro-Tech amplifiers are protected against shorted, open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies; excessive temperature, chain destruction phenomena, input overload damage and high-frequency blow-ups. They also protect loudspeakers from input/ output DC and turn-on/turn-off transients. Signal / IOC: Two green indicators flash with medium intensity in sync with the amplifier’s outputs to show signal presence. In the unlikely event the output waveform differs from that of the input by 0.05% or more, they flash brightly to indicate distortion. As sensitive distortion indicators they provide proof of performance. Note: It is normal for the Channel 2 IOC indicator to remain on in Parallel-Mono mode. ODEP: Each channel has a multifunction LED (light emitting diode) indicator that shows the channel’s energy reserve status. Normally, the LEDs are brightly lit to show that reserve energy is available. In the rare event that a channel has little reserve, its indicator dims in proportion to ODEP limiting. An ODEP indicator may also turn off under other, more unusual circumstances (see Section 4.2). Input/Output Input Connector: Balanced ¼-inch phone jacks on chassis and internal P.I.P. connector. (Balanced 3-pin XLR connectors are provided on the P.I.P.-FX which is a standard feature.) If unreasonable operating conditions occur, the patented ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive level to protect the output devices, particularly in the case of elevated temperature. Transformer overheating results in a temporary shutdown of the offending channel. When it has cooled to a safe temperature, the transformer automatically resets itself. Controlled slew rate voltage amplifiers protect against RF burnouts, and input overload protection is provided by currentlimiting resistance at the input. Turn On: The four second turn-on delay prevents dangerous turn-on transients. Turn-on occurs at zero crossing of the AC waveform, so power sequencers are rarely needed with multiple units. Note: The turn-on delay time may be changed. Contact Crown’s Technical Support Group for details. Circuit Breaker: Circuit breaker current ratings vary based on the AC operating power. Page 29 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Construction Durable black powder coated steel chassis and aluminum front panel with Lexan overlay; specially designed “flow-through” ventilation from front to side panels. Cooling: Forced-air with custom heat diffusers and patented circuitry to promote uniform dissipation. Dimensions: 19 inch (48.3 cm) standard rack mount (EIA Std. RS-310-B), 3.5 inch (8.9 cm) height, 16 inch (40.6 cm) depth behind mounting surface and 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) in front of mounting surface. Approximate Weight: Center of gravity is 6 inches (15.2 cm) behind the front mounting surface. Page 30 120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: Net weight 55 lbs, 1.5 ounces (25.0 kg); shipping weight 63 lbs, 10 ounces (28.9 kg). 100 VAC International Units: Net weight 54 lbs, 5 ounces (24.7 kg); shipping weight 63 lbs, 0.5 ounces (28.6 kg). 120 VAC International Units: Net weight 55 lbs, 1.5 ounces (25.0 kg); shipping weight 63 lbs, 10 ounces (28.9 kg). 230 VAC International Units: Net weight 53 lbs, 6 ounces (24.2 kg); shipping weight 61 lbs, 15 ounces (28.1 kg). Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Crown specifications are guaranteed for three years. In an effort to provide you with as much information as possible about the high power-producing capabilities of your amplifier, we have created the following power matrices. Minimum Guaranteed Power Specifications Crown’s minimum power specifications represent the absolute smallest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. Some spaces in each matrix may be left blank because the same guarantee is not provided for those conditions—however, your amplifier will perform well under all conditions listed in each matrix. When measuring power, 0.1% THD appears to be the industry standard for distortion. Two of the maximum average power specifications shown in each minimum power matrix are measured at 0.1% THD so you can easily compare Crown specifications to those of other manufacturers. But this high level of distortion actually allows for some clipping which is undesirable. Because of this, a maximum average power specification at 0.05% THD is included in each minimum power matrix which represents non-clipped conditions. Although most manufacturers do not give you power specifications at 0.05% THD, we encourage them to provide these specifications so you will have a more realistic representation of the way amplifiers should be used in the real world—without a clipped output signal. 120 VAC, 60 Hz Units AC Mains Load (Ohms) Many manufacturers publish power specs with a tolerance of ±1 dB or worse. This means their amplifier can deviate more than 20% in output! A 100 watt amplifier would meet their specification if it only produced 79.4 watts. Other manufacturers qualify their specs by saying they are “typical,” “subject to manufacturing tolerances,” “single channel driven” or that they are specified with “fuses bypassed.” Each of these statements effectively removes any performance guarantee. In fact, some Macro-Tech 3600VZ – Minimum Power (Watts) manufacturers use these tactics to generate large power numbers, and they don’t even print a disclaimer. Maximum Average FTC Continuous Average We take a different approach at Crown—our amplifiers 0.1% THD+N 0.1% THD+N 0.05% THD+N 0.1% THD + Noise Stereo/Mono (See note 1) (See note 2) (See note 3) (See note 4) are guaranteed to meet or exceed their specifications Mode for three years. Further, because our published specs 1 kHz 20Hz-20kHz 1 kHz 1 kHz 20Hz-20kHz are set below our “in-house” measurements, you can 1800 2 1785 expect every Crown amplifier to exceed its published Stereo 1565 1555 4 (both channels minimum power specs. We believe you should get what driven) you pay for. 1120 1060 885 1035 1110 8 Bridge-Mono (balanced output) Parallel-Mono 100 VAC Transformer Stereo (both channels driven) Bridge-Mono (balanced output) Parallel-Mono 230 VAC Transformer Stereo (both channels driven) Bridge-Mono (balanced output) Parallel-Mono 4 3505 3490 8 3140 3110 16 2210 2190 1 3555 3530 2 3190 3155 4 2235 2225 2 1460 1360 4 1300 8 980 4 2835 2825 8 2625 2600 16 1950 1940 1 2820 2810 2 2585 2550 4 1940 1925 1495 Minimum Power Notes: 2115 <680 2140 1290 940 970 2 1520 4 1325 8 965 4 2800 8 2515 16 1900 1 2910 2840 2 2565 2520 4 1935 1915 895 1780 850 <680 930 870 2740 2445 1765 1855 1735 1. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this point, average power per channel is reported. 2. A sine wave is presented to the amplifier over the range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level at each frequency is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this point, average power per channel is reported. 3. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level is increased until THD reaches 0.05%. At this point, average power per channel is reported. 1785 1300 955 All minimum power specifications are based on 0.5% regulated AC mains with THD of less than 1.0% and an ambient room temperature of 70° F (21° C). Standard EIA power (RS-490) is not shown here because it is identical to FTC Continuous Average Power. 275 4. Continuous power in the context of Federal Trade Commission testing is understood to be a minimum of five minutes of operation. Harmonic distortion is measured as the RMS sum total and given as a percentage of the fundamental output voltage. This applies for all wattages greater than 0.25 watts. 1750 Figure 6.1 Minimum Power Matrix Page 31 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier Maximum Power Specifications Crown’s maximum power specifications represent the largest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. These specifications can be used to prevent loudspeaker and hearing damage. The maximum power matrices include specifications for single cycle and 40 millisecond burst sine waves. Burst signals act like large transient peaks that are present in common source signals. Loudspeakers can respond to a single cycle burst, so the single cycle burst specifications should be used to help you protect your loudspeakers. In contrast, a 40 millisecond burst represents the typical response time of the human ear. Your ear will not respond to the entire dynamic change of a burst that lasts less than 40 milliseconds. The burst power specifications are provided at 0.05% THD which is a practical low distortion condition. Operating the amplifier at levels higher than 0.05% THD can result in output power levels that are higher than those listed in the maximum power matrices. Stereo/Mono Mode 120 VAC, 60 Hz Units Stereo (both channels driven) Bridge-Mono (balanced output) Parallel-Mono 100 VAC Transformer Stereo (both channels driven) Bridge-Mono (balanced output) Parallel-Mono 230 VAC Transformer Stereo (both channels driven) Bridge-Mono (balanced output) Parallel-Mono Load (Ohms) AC Mains Macro-Tech 3600VZ – Maximum Power (Watts) Single Cycle Tone Burst 40 Millisecond Tone Burst 0.05% Distortion + Noise (See note 1) 0.05% Distortion + Noise (See note 2) 20 Hz 50 Hz 1 kHz 7 kHz 50 Hz 1 kHz 7 kHz 2 1915 2320 2375 1610 2320 2000 1610 4 1670 2230 3270 3140 1860 1690 1745 8 1260 1460 1830 1760 1295 1175 1235 4 3815 4630 4670 2930 4520 3920 2930 8 3315 4425 6495 6140 3735 3315 3355 16 2375 2915 3605 3460 2565 2325 2420 1 3810 4240 4310 2880 4240 3910 2880 2 3310 4500 6480 6125 3685 3345 3380 4 2475 2920 3655 3485 2545 2355 2425 2 1535 2175 2285 1490 1930 1655 1490 4 1375 2065 3220 3170 1620 1495 1530 8 1110 1370 1810 1770 1155 1110 1155 4 3060 4325 4575 2715 3745 3300 2715 8 2745 4055 6425 6270 3310 2950 3020 16 2190 2725 3625 3510 2330 2215 2285 1 3065 4045 4245 2680 3820 3300 2680 2 2760 4145 6465 6260 3250 2965 3035 4 2210 2755 3645 3500 2325 2210 2275 2 1650 2310 2365 1695 2005 1665 1695 4 1450 2030 3030 2890 1655 1435 1485 8 1060 1330 1695 1615 1160 1060 1095 4 3355 4570 4645 2935 4040 3385 2935 8 2905 4095 6050 5765 3280 2870 2940 16 2115 2675 3345 3215 2890 2095 2160 1 2860 4275 4380 3240 3870 2945 3030 2 2565 3685 6005 5770 3185 2630 2690 4 1955 2515 3390 3230 2270 1975 2035 Figure 6.2 Maximum Power Matrix Page 32 Maximum Power Notes: All maximum power specifications are based on 0.5% regulated AC mains with THD of less than 1.0% and an ambient room temperature of 70° F (21° C). Although it is an unusual condition, your amplifier can function well with AC mains voltages up to 10% over the specified line voltage. With overvoltage conditions, your amplifier may be capable of delivering instantaneous power levels up to 20% greater than the specifications in the matrix. 1. A single cycle sine wave is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion. The average power during the burst is reported. Loudspeakers must be able to withstand this level if they are to be safely used with this amplifier. 2. A 40 millisecond sine wave burst (10 percent duty cycle) is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion. Average power during the burst is reported. This power level is a measurement of the amplifier’s maximum transient power that can be perceived by the human ear. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier +2 +1 0 –1 –2 8 ohm 4 ohm –3 2 ohm 1 watt dB –4 –5 –6 –7 10 100 1K 10 K 100 K FREQUENCY (Hz) Fig. 6.3 Typical Frequency Response 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 8 ohm 200 100 0 100 20 1K 10 K 20 K FREQUENCY (Hz) Fig. 6.4 Typical Damping Factor 504.0 126.8 6 dB MILLIOHMS 31.8 8.0 2.0 10 100 1K 10 K 100 K FREQUENCY (Hz) Fig. 6.5 Typical Output Impedance Page 33 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier TEF ® Measurement +45˚ 0˚ –45˚ 100 TECHRON TEF ® 1K 10 K 20 K FREQUENCY (Hz) Fig. 6.6 Typical Phase Response (Measured with a TEF® Analyzer) TEF ® –60 Measurement –66 –72 –78 dB –84 –90 –96 100 TECHRON TEF ® 1K FREQUENCY (Hz) Fig. 6.7 Typical Crosstalk Page 34 10 K 20 K Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 7 AC Power Draw and Thermal Dissipation Here are the equations used to calculate the data presented in Figure 7.1: This section provides detailed information about the amount of power and current drawn from the AC mains by the Macro-Tech 3600VZ, and the amount of heat produced under various conditions. The calculations presented here are intended to provide a very realistic and reliable depiction of the amplifier. The following assumptions were made: • The amplifier’s available channels are loaded, and full, standard 1 kHz power is being delivered. • Quiescent power draw is 90 watts (an almost negligible amount for full-power calculations). AC Mains Power = Draw (watts) Total output power with all x Duty channels driven (watts) Cycle + Quiescent Power Draw (watts) Amplifier Efficiency The quiescent power draw of 90 watts is typical, and assumes the cooling fans are not running. Thermal Dissipation = (btu/hr) [ ] ( 1 – Power to Load ) + Quiescent Power Draw (watts) x 3.415 or Thermal Dissipation = (btu/hr) ( Total output power with all x Duty x Amplifier channels driven (watts) Cycle Inefficiency Amplifier Efficiency + ) Quiescent Power Draw (watts) x 3.415 The constant 3.415 converts watts to btu/hr. Thermal dissipation in btu is divided by the constant 3.968 to get kcal. • Quiescent heat dissipation equals 105 btu/hr at 90 watts. • Duty cycle of pink noise is 50%. • Duty cycle of highly compressed rock ‘n’ roll midrange is 40%. To convert the power draw in watts to current draw in amperes, use the following equation: AC Mains Power Draw (watts) Current Draw = (amperes) AC Mains x Power Voltage Factor (.83) • Duty cycle of rock ‘n’ roll is 30%. • Duty cycle of background music is 20%. • Duty cycle of continuous speech is 10%. • Duty cycle of infrequent, short-duration paging is 1%. The current draw values shown in Figure 7.1 depend on the AC mains voltage (power draw and thermal dissipation are typical for any AC power voltage). Macro-Tech 3600VZ L O A D 8 Ohm Stereo 4 Ohm Stereo / 8 Ohm BM / 2 Ohm PM* Current Draw (Amps) Thermal Dissipation 100-120 V 220-240 V btu/hr kcal/hr AC Mains Power Draw (Watts) 1300 330 2160 21.6 10.8 6.3 1105 280 1745 17.5 9.6 4.8 905 230 1330 675 6.7 3.4 705 180 380 3.8 1.9 505 130 Duty Cycle AC Mains Power Draw (Watts) 50% 1545 15.5 7.8 40% 1255 12.6 30% 965 20% 10% 2 Ohm Stereo / 4 Ohm BM / 1 Ohm PM* Current Draw (Amps) Thermal Dissipation 100-120 V 220-240 V btu/hr kcal/hr AC Mains Power Draw (Watts) 1720 435 2340 23.4 11.7 8.8 1440 365 1890 18.9 13.3 6.7 1155 295 1440 920 9.2 4.6 875 225 505 5.0 2.5 590 150 Current Draw (Amps) Thermal Dissipation 100-120 V 220-240 V btu/hr kcal/hr 1845 465 9.5 1535 390 14.4 7.2 1230 310 990 9.9 5.0 920 235 540 5.4 2.7 615 155 *BM=Bridge-Mono, PM=Parallel-Mono Fig. 7.1 Power Draw, Current Draw and Thermal Dissipation at Various Duty Cycles Page 35 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 8 Accessories FTE CH-2 INPUT + CH-1 INPUT – + – 8.1 P.I.P. Modules One advantage of Macro-Tech amplifiers is the ability to customize them using P.I.P. (Programmable Input Processor) and PIP2 modules. Macro-Tech amplifiers are equipped with an edge card connector inside the back panel P.I.P. compartment. The modules install easily: L BACK PANE ER OF AMPLIFI Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) P.I.P.–FTE uses balanced 1:1 transformers to isolate the amplifier from the input signal. It also includes 12 dB/octave RFI filters, 18 dB/octave high pass filters, and 6 dB/octave 3 kHz shelving networks for “constant-directivity” horn equalization. Screw terminal plugs are provided for input. P.I.P. LE MODU P.I.P.- MEM PUSH IN DSPI CROWN OUT BUS PUSH AUX 3 2 2 2 1 GND 3 GND Fig. 8.1 Installing a P.I.P. Module WARNING: Disconnect power to the amplifier when installing or removing a P.I.P. module. P.I.P.s carrying the PIP2 logo are configured to use one or more of the PIP2 enhanced features. These features are only available in a PIP2-compatible amplifier. Of course, the exact features used will depend upon the function of the PIP2 module. Here are some of the available P.I.P. and PIP2 modules: 3 1 OUT 2 IN C H - 2 AUDIO IN C H - 1 1 1 GND MEM#.### IQ–P.I.P.–MEM is PIP2-compatible and integrates the amplifier into Crown’s patented IQ System®. The IQ System provides computer control of 1 to 2000 amplifiers. For example, each amplifier channel can be monitored and controlled from a personal computer attached to an IQ System. A memory backup feature enables the IQ–P.I.P.–MEM to remember all configuration settings when the power is turned off. P.I.P.- SMT PUSH IN DSPI CROWN OUT BUS PUSH AUX 3 AMC 1 GND 3 GND PUSH Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) OUTPUT INPUT 3 GND 1 2 P.I.P.–AMCb unites many features of the P.I.P.-XOV and P.I.P.– CLP. It offers a variable 4th-order Linkwitz-Riley crossover and an IOC-driven, variable threshold compressor. In addition, it provides “constant-directivity” horn equalization and filter-assisted B6 vented box equalization. Biamping and triamping capabilities are provided via XLR connectors. EDCb 2 2 2 CH-2 C H - 2 AUDIO IN C H - 1 1 3 OUT 2 IN 1 1 GND SMT#.### IQ–P.I.P.–SMT is also PIP2-compatible and includes all the features of the IQ–P.I.P.–MEM plus SmartAmp™ capability. Once the unit has been configured by an IQ System, its SmartAmp capabilities enable it to function autonomously. We call this distributed intelligence™. The SmartAmp features include a smooth output limiter for transparent loudspeaker protection, power supply gates for energy savings, ODEP conservation to protect output devices with precision input signal control, interrupt-driven reporting that lets you define error conditions, and configurable short circuit detection. CH-1 P.I.P.- DSP PUSH IN DSPI CROWN OUT BUS PUSH AUDIO OUT PUSH PUSH INPUT INPUT 3 Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) GND 1 2 CH-2 2 1 3 GND P.I.P.–EDCb combines a sophisticated error-driven compressor and smooth limiter with a maximum level setting and a subsonic filter for each channel. The compressors have adjustable attack and release times, and can be set to track each other. The compressors activate when a signal would otherwise clip the input, an IOC error occurs, or the output exceeds the selected threshold. The subsonic filters have corner frequencies of 24, 28, 32 and 36 Hz. Page 36 CH-1 TIP = RING = EXT. POWER INPUT C H - 2 AUDIO IN C H - 1 24 VDC / 400 mA DSP#.### IQ–P.I.P.–DSP is PIP2-compatible and provides digital signal processing capabilities to your amplifier, replacing the need for outboard signal processing equipment such as equalizers, crossover networks, signal delays and compressors. In addition, the IQ–P.I.P.–DSP includes all the SmartAmp features of the IQ–P.I.P.–SMT to give you access to standard IQ System amplifier functions and autonomous operation. Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier CH-1 PUSH PUSH INPUT PUSH INPUT FMX 3 Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) GND 1 P.I.P.–CLP detects and prevents overload. Its compressor is driven by the amplifier’s built-in IOC error detection circuitry. Unlike typical signal-driven compressors, it only compresses the signal to prevent overload. It can deliver up to 13 dB of additional headroom without being noticeable. ISO CH-2 INPUT + + 3 CH-1 INPUTS GND 1 2 P.I.P.–FMX facilitates “daisy-chaining” balanced amplifier inputs. Female to male three-pin XLR connectors are used to passively bridge the inputs. PA – CH-1 INPUT – CH-2 INPUTS Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) 2 PUSH CH-2 CLP + – LINE – + MIC CH-2 MIC LEVEL CH-1 REMOTE MIC LEVEL – + – MIC CH-2 INPUTS + LINE CH-1 INPUTS —WARNING— THIS P.I.P. PROVIDES FULL ISOLATION FOR ISO-MODIFIED AMPLIFIERS ONLY! DO NOT CONNECT THE OUTPUT GROUND LUG TO THE INPUT COMMON OR CHASSIS GROUND. REFER TO P.I.P.–ISO OWNER’S MANUAL FOR FURTHER INFORMATION. Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) P.I.P.–ISO is designed especially for 25 to 140 volt distributed systems where UL®-listed isolation is required. Installation requires minor amplifier modifications. With the P.I.P.–ISO installed, the amplifier outputs are safely isolated from the input terminals and the chassis. P.I.P.–PA adds a switchable balanced low-impedance mic input, a balanced line-level input and a compressor to each channel. Remote switching circuitry provides quick and quiet fades from mic to line and back. BEQ – ATNB + – ATTENUATION 14 16 18 21 24 30 50 12 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ∞ dB 0 .5 + ATTENUATION 14 16 18 21 24 30 50 9 8 12 11 7 ∞ dB 0 + – IN + OUT CH-2 CH-1 .5 CH-1 INPUT (CH-1) TIE INPUT A (CH-2) RMT B RMT A OUT IN OUT MIC LINE PHAN MIC LINE PHAN (CH-2) INPUT B LEVEL (CH-1) PUSH P.I.P.–XOV is a versatile 18 dB/octave mono crossover/filter with biamping and triamping capabilities + – + – + – + – MIC LINE PHAN 2 MIC LINE PHAN 1 AUDIO BUS INPUT C LEVEL RING SLEEVE 3 GND CH-1 IN INPUT D TIP Programmable Input Processor INPUTS CH-2 RMT C – GND RPA RMT D XOV + P.I.P.–BEQ is a two-channel module providing equalization for BOSE® loudspeakers. For example, the P.I.P.–BEQ can be used in place of a BOSE 102 controller. Screw terminal plugs provide balanced connections. Each input channel has an output from the P.I.P. that can be independently configured for output with no processing, loudspeaker equalization or loudspeaker equalization with bass-cut. +10 V P.I.P.–ATNB uses balanced 1:1 transformers to isolate the amplifier from the input signal. It also includes 12 dB/octave RFI filters, variable 18 dB/octave high-pass filters, and 6 dB/ octave 3 kHz shelving networks for “constant-directivity” horn equalization. The module also includes a calibrated 21-step precision attenuator for each channel. Screw terminal plugs are provided for input. OUTPUTS – Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) Programmable Input Processor (P.I.P.) + OUT 6 5 4 3 2 1 CH-2 INPUT + – IN – P.I.P.–RPA adds the features of a 4x2 mixer to your amplifier. Its four inputs accept mic- or line-level input. It offers priority switching (“voice-over”) of each input and remote level control with the RPA–RMT. Other features include bus inputs and outputs, adjustable input sensitivity, phantom power and RFI suppression. Input isolation transformers are optional. For more information on these or other P.I.P.s under development, contact your local dealer or Crown’s Technical Support Group. Page 37 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 8.2 Level Control Security Kit The MA-LOCK security accessory can be used to secure your amplifier’s level controls in situations where the front panel controls are subject to tampering. The MA-LOCK security kit includes the necessary hard- ware to lock the two level controls on the front panel of any Macro-Tech amplifier. For more information, contact your local Crown dealer or Crown’s Technical Support Group. Fig. 8.2 Installing an MA-LOCK Level Control Shaft Lock Page 38 Macro-Tech 3600VZ Power Amplifier 9 Service This unit has very sophisticated circuitry which should only be serviced by a fully trained technician. This is one reason why each unit bears the following label: CAUTION: To prevent electric shock, do not remove covers. No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to a qualified technician. Factory Service Shipping Instructions: 1. When sending a Crown product to the factory for service, be sure to fill out the service information form that follows and enclose it inside Always use the original factory pack to transport the unit. 9.1 Worldwide Service Service may be obtained from an authorized service center. (Contact your local Crown/Amcron representative or our office for a list of authorized service centers.) To obtain service, simply present the bill of sale as proof of purchase along with the defective unit to an authorized service center. They will handle the necessary paperwork and repair. Remember to transport your unit in the original factory pack. 9.2 North American Service Service may be obtained in one of two ways: from an authorized service center or from the factory. You may choose either. It is important that you have your copy of the bill of sale as your proof of purchase. 9.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center This method usually saves the most time and effort. Simply present your bill of sale along with the defective unit to an authorized service center to obtain service. They will handle the necessary paperwork and repair. Remember to transport the unit in the original factory pack. A list of authorized service centers in your area can be obtained from our Technical Support Group. 9.2.2 Factory Service To obtain factory service, fill out the service information page that follows and send it along with your proof of purchase and the defective unit to the Crown factory. For warranty service, we will pay for ground shipping both ways in the United States after receiving copies of the shipping receipts. Shipments should be sent “UPS ground.” (If the unit is under warranty, you may send it C.O.D. for the cost of freight via UPS ground.) The factory will return it via UPS ground. Please contact us if other arrangements are required. your unit’s shipping pack. Do not send the service information form separately. 2. To ensure the safe transportation of your unit to the factory, ship it in an original factory packing container. If you don’t have one, call or write Crown’s Parts Department. With the exception of polyurethane or wooden crates, any other packing material will not be sufficient to withstand the stress of shipping. Do not use loose, small size packing materials. 3. Do not ship the unit in any kind of cabinet (wood or metal). Ignoring this warning may result in extensive damage to the unit and the cabinet. Accessories are not needed—do not send the instruction manual, cables and other hardware. If you have any questions, please call or write the Crown Technical Support Group. Crown Audio Division Technical Support / Factory Service Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A. Telephone: 219-294-8200 800-342-6939 (North America, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only) Facsimile: 219-294-8301 (Technical Support) 219-294-8124 (Factory Service) Fax Back: 219-293-9200 (North America only) 800-294-4094 (North America only) 219-294-8100 (International) Internet: http://www.crownintl.com Page 39 Crown Factory Service Information Shipping Address: Crown Factory Service, Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, IN 46517 Phone: 1-800-342-6939 or 1-219-294-8200 Fax: 1-219-294-8124 Owner’s Name: _________________________________________________________________________ Shipping Address: ______________________________________________________________________ Phone Number: _____________________________ Fax Number: _____________________________ Model: ________________________ Serial Number: _____________ Purchase Date: ___________ NATURE OF PROBLEM (Be sure to describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Detach and send with unit. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Other equipment in your system: _________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ If warranty has expired, payment will be: ❏ Cash/Check Card Number:___________________________ ❏ VISA ❏ MasterCard ❏ C.O.D. Exp. Date:_______ Signature:____________________________ ENCLOSE THIS PORTION WITH THE UNIT. DO NOT MAIL SEPARATELY.