Sea-Bird Electronics SBE 38 Specifications

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Module 0:
Sea-Bird Electronics
SBE 9-11 plus CTD Boot Camp
Introduction
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
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Introductions
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At the end of this course,
we will have covered
•
Setup, Configuration and Real Time Sampling with the SBE 9-11 plus
CTD System
- Review of SEASAVE and Configuration Files
•
Sources of error in CTD data
- Static Error (Calibration – brief overview)
- Dynamic Errors (More detailed discussion, symptoms and corrections)
- Sampling Errors (not correctable, ways to minimize)
•
Understanding Data Characteristics and the Basic Data Processing
Steps to Achieve Highest Accuracy Data
– Recognize a real problem versus a data processing issue
Troubleshooting
– Using Data to evaluate a problem
– Using instrument diagnostics to evaluate problem
– Field Repairs
•
•
Instructional examples and hands on demonstrations
Open to questions
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Sea-Bird Resources
Brief Web Tour
Boot Camp PDF - Booklet
SBE Training PDF - Manual
Data Exercises
Software
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Sea-Bird Website
www.seabird.com
•
Manuals:
– Instrument and Software manuals
– upload free from online
•
98+ Application Notes, by topic, sensor type/number etc.
– i.e. App-Note 64-3 Hysteresis Corrections for Dissolved Oxygen
•
•
FAQs – commonly asked questions
Software – upload from FTP site, Free!!!
– Update to be sure you have latest version with most capability
•
Customer Service
– Service technicians can answer many questions regarding instrument
problems and data processing
– Oceanography staff assist with more difficult problems
– RMA forms for service online, email contacts
•
Technical Papers and Presentations
– Sourced literature relevant to SBE products
– SBE presentations, papers, and course materials
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Application Notes
•Instrument
Configuration
•Data Corrections
•Troubleshooting
•Other relevant topics
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FAQs
Frequently Asked Questions
EXAMPLES of General instrument questions
How do instruments that can be internally or externally powered handle
external power if internal batteries are installed?
For an RS-232 Sea-Bird instrument, what is the maximum cable length
for real-time data?
Why do some instruments have zinc anodes, while others do not?
What is Triton? Does it harm sensors? Do I need to purchase it from
Sea-Bird?
My CTD has a Digiquartz pressure sensor. Can I use it above its rated
pressure?
Why am I getting negative density values when testing the instrument?
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Updating Software
•
•
•
•
Descriptions
Sea-Bird FTP file descriptions
Instructions
Downloading (using your browser) and installing:
SEASOFT V2 (SBE Data Processing, Seasave V7,
Seasave-Win32, SEATERMV2, SEATERM,
SEATERMAF, Deployment Endurance Calculator,
Plot39)
SEASOFT for Waves - Win32
SEASOFT-DOS
SEASOFT for Waves - DOS
• Downloading via FTP utility
• Sending data to Sea-Bird
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Subset of Published Technical Papers and
Publications on SBE sensors:
Considerations for CTD Spatial and Temporal Resolution on Moving
Platforms
Carol Janzen, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Ocean News & Technology, Volume 15, Issue 6, September 2009.
Assessing the Calibration Stability of Oxygen Sensor Data on Argo
profiling floats using routine WOCE monitoring data from HOT
Carol Janzen and Nordeen Larson, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
From Poster Presentation, 2008 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Orlando
Florida,2 - 7 March 2008.
Temperature Measurements in Flowing Water: Viscous Heating of Sensor
Tips Nordeen Larson and Arthur Pederson, Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
1st IGHEM Meeting, Montreal, Canada, June 1996
The Correction for Thermal-Lag Effects in Sea-Bird CTD Data
Morison, J., R. Andersen, Larson, N., D'Asaro, E., and Boyd, T.,
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT),
V11(4), August 1994, 1151-1164.
Dynamic Response of Sea-Bird CTD Pressure Sensors to Temperature
Chiswell, S.M.,
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology (JAOT),
V8(5), October 1991, p 659-668.
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Terms and Definitions
Commonly Used
Training Materials
Spec Sheets
Calibration Records
Parameter Reporting Definitions
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Terminology
• Time Constant (response time) – time to reach
63% of step input change
• Sampling frequency or Sample rate – number of
measurements per second (reported in Hz)
• Accuracy (error) – reported value, true value
• Resolution – smallest measurable change
• Repeatability – difference in reading when input
reapplied
• Precision – repeatability & resolution, independent of
accuracy
• Stability – accuracy over time
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Reporting Temperature
Application Note 42
• Output and Report Temperature in ITS-90
– Calibration Reports show both sets of coeff.
• Use IPTS-68 to compute salinity
– SBE software does this automatically for you
• What is difference?
– IPTS-68 Versus ITS-90…1968 standards vs. 1990
– ITS-90 (1990) standards include water triple-point and gallium melt cell,
SPRT, and ASL F18 Temperature Bridge
– Sea-Bird software and instrument converts between IPTS-68 and ITS90 according to the linear relationship:
T68 = 1.00024 * T90
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Reporting Salinity
• Output, report and archive Practical Salinity
• Practical Salinity Scale 1978 (App-Note 14)
– Adopted by UNESCO in January 1980 in effort to obtain a uniform
repeatable salinity based upon electrical conductivity, temperature
(IPTS-68) and pressure measurements.
– All instruments delivered by Sea-Bird since February 1982 have
been supplied with calibration data based upon this standard
• Absolute Salinity 2010 (App-Note 90)
http://www.marine.csiro.au/~jackett/TEOS-10/
– Refers to the total mass of dissolved constituents
– Algorithm used to estimate Absolute Salinity in terms of Practical
Salinity, Latitude/Longitude and Pressure
– SBE is developing this capability in software 2012
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SBEDataProcessing Software
Seawater Calculator: SeaCalc II
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Module 1:
Hardware Setup and CTD
Configuration
Water Samplers
Cabling
Deployment
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
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SBE 9 -11 Plus
Profiling CTD System
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System Diagram for
Real-Time Profiling
Winch &
slip ring
single conductor sea
cable
T
P
SBE 11plus
Deck Unit
Computer
Real-Time means the
data is viewed as it is
collected
SBE 9plus
(no memory)
C
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SBE 9plus / 11plus Data Channel
• Transmission rated for up to 10 km of
sea cable
• Each data scan is 30 bytes, transmitted at
24 times per second
• Each scan contains status bits denoting:
pump on, water sampler channel carrier
detect, bottom contact, water sampler
closure occurred
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SBE 9plus / 11plus
Water Sampler Channel
• Channel is 300 bps, 8 data bits, 1 stop;
water sampler commands are transmitted
with 8th bit set
• Other data is passed to connector JT7 on top
end cap for use by instrument
• Successful bottle closure confirmation is
sent back via SBE 11plus to computer
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SBE 9plus Frequency Counters
• 24-bit signal acquisition for T, C, and P
• Resolution in terms of degrees C / bit or
Siemens/meter/bit depend on the magnitude
of temperature or conductivity
• Equations for determining resolution and
examples are included in the notes
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SBE 9plus Voltage Channels
• 0 - 5V signal input, 12-bit A/D
• Each bit = 0.0012V
• Each of 8 channels has a 5.5 Hz low pass
filter on input, allowing us to resolve
features that change at a rate of 2.75 Hz
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End Caps
Top End Cap
Bottom End Cap
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Core Sensors
Conductivity, Temperature, Pressure
• Depth is derived from a pressure sensor
– Pressure sensor is typically internal to the
main pressure housing of the CTD
• Conductivity and temperature sensors
may be mounted internally or externally
SBE 4 Conductivity Sensor
SBE 3
Temperature Sensor
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The SBE 43 is
DO Clark Type
Sensor
15 mm
Sea-Bird Sensor
Without Plenum Housing
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Digiquartz Pressure Sensors
SBE 9+ CTDs
• Digiquartz Bourdon tube
transforms pressure to force
• Connected to environment
through a capillary tube filled
with mineral oil
• Pressure generates a force across
a quartz resonator as the tube tries
to unwind with applied pressure
• The measured change in the
frequency of the quartz oscillator
is a measure of applied pressure
Schematic of Digiquartz pressure sensor
Courtesy of Paroscientific, Inc.
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SBE 17plus V2:
Autonomous Sampling
Back Up
• SBE 17plus V2 provides memory and
power for SBE 9plus, has
– 16 Mb of nonvolatile memory, supports
conductivity advance and suppression of
channels
– Also features Carousel auto fire capability
• Use SBE 17plus Version 2 SEARAM with SBE 32
Carousel
– SBE 17plus V2 receives pressure information from SBE
9plus
• Receives closure protocol from user via SeatermAF
• Refer to Sea-Bird Training Manual for more details
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Cabling the 9plus to the 11plus
• Use #20 twisted pair or coax to cable between
SBE 11plus and winch
• Seacable is typically single or multi-conductor
armored cable up to 10,000 meters, with less than
350 ohms resistance
• Grounding considerations
– Use armor of sea cable for ground
– Remember, salt water conducts, ship is metal (usually)
– Ground chassis of your deck unit to hull of ship
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Cabling the 9plus to the 11plus
250 V DC
Recommended Cabling
Coax or twisted pair
Center conductor (power + data)
~220 V
DC
Armor (ground)
SBE 11plus
Chassis connected to hull
Winch
PIN 1
PIN 2
Seacable
bulkhead
connector
9plus
250 V DC
Coax or twisted pair
Center conductor (power + data)
~220 V
DC
Center conductor (ground)
PIN 2
SBE 11plus
Winch
PIN 1
Seacable
bulkhead
connector
9plus
~30 V DC
Not Recommended
Cabling
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What is a Slip Ring?
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Configure Sensors and CTD Hardware
for Clean Data Collection
• Understanding how the CTD samples
• Insure that sensors sample the same water
– Plumbing
– Place T, C sensors together and duct
• CTD deployment orientations (vertical vs. horizontal)
• Insure that sensors sample undisturbed water
– No flow blockage/distortion on frame
– No foreign thermal mass or wakes
• Provide for independent data validation
– Redundant T,C, and DO sensors
– Rosette water bottle samples
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SBE 9+ CTD Sample Scheme
• SBE 9plus measures C,
T, and P simultaneously
• Can sample as fast as
24 Hz
– Recommend to sample at
maximum rate
– Average later
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Plumbing for Success
• Sea-Bird conductivity cells and
oxygen plenums rely on water passing through
them, usually via a pump
• Pump is magnetically coupled impeller type, not
self-priming
• Arrange tubing on instrument package to allow all
air to escape from plumbing
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Coupling T and C
Measurements using the TC Duct
• Deliberate sampling of the water
column at the location of the intake of
the pipe
• Water is pumped past active element of
temperature sensor and into
conductivity cell at a fixed, constant rate
(same for DO)
• Plumbing setup greatly lessens effects
of ship heave (reduces sloshing through
cell)
• Filtering and other data manipulation is
much more successful because flow rate
is constant (Constant response times
regardless of lowering rate)
– This helps match response times of T and C
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Connecting the TC Duct
How TC Duct should look
When it is connected correctly
This TC Duct is disconnected
Conductivity cell will not get flow
If flow problem appears in
data, (you will see poorly
aligned data when this
happens), check the TC Duct
apparatus
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Plumbing for Success
Y Fitting Detail
Vinyl Tubing
Air release valve
Vinyl Tubing
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Bernoulli Balanced
Plumbing
We plumb so that the intake and
exhaust of the plumbed system are
flush (balanced).
Controls flow on descent of CTD
Reduces Bernoulli Flushing (which
would be additive to pump
Flow)
Alace float CTDs use same
Principal to prevent flushing
Of CTD during deep
Lagrangian drifting phase. This
Allows antifoulant to remain
in the trapped water, making it
it more effective. Also prevents
fouled water from entering cell.
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Plumbing for Success
vertical
Vinyl
tubing
Pump outlet
Pump (vertically
above DO outlet)
DO sensor
(vertically above
T & C outlet)
Conductivity
sensor
Temperature
sensor
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Horizontal Mount
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SBE 9+ CTD Mounting on a
Carousel
• An SBE 9plus CTD that is
deployed with the Carousel
shown mounted in a
horizontal position
• This provide sensors a clear
flow path of fresh sample
water
• Does not place sensors
behind objects with
thermal mass
• Minimizes Bernoulli flow
accelerations
• Helps avoid the urge to
attach sensors past the pump
exhaust!
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Make a Neat
Underwater Package
• Cable tie or tape all loose cabling to frame
of package
– Loose cables flap as package rises or drops,
resulting in wire fatigue
• Make sure no cables are in path of inlet to
temperature sensors
• Instrument with aluminum housing:
check zinc anodes occasionally; grounding
problems can cause them to disappear
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Carousel and ECO
Maintenance
• Wash with fresh water
after each use
– Tiodized trigger surface
is water lubricated
• Oil will gum triggers
• Replace worn lanyards
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How Do I Make the
Wet End Connection?
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Mating Habits of
Underwater Connectors
Lubricate molded ridge on
bulkhead connectors with
100% silicone grease
Do not over do it!
Slide hand toward
end cap to burp air
Note bulge due to
entrapped air
Practice Table Exercise
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When Underwater
Connectors Go Bad
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Module 2
SEASAVE Data Acquisition
Software
Setup and Configuration
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
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Real-Time Data — Seasave
• Instrument configuration
–
–
–
–
What kind of instrument
How many sensors
What type of sensors
Communication issues
• Which computer interface
• What data transmission protocol
• How does Seasave know all this stuff?
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Setup Parameters Stored in
Configuration (.con or .xmlcon) File
• Configuration data and calibration
coefficients for sensors are stored in the
.con or xmlcon file
(i.e., seasoft.con)
• You may edit .con or .xmlcon files directly
from Seasave or in SBE Data Processing
– You can also double click on the .xmlcon file to
edit
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Seasave Instrument
Configuration
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Examining the Configuration File
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Default Display for Seasave
To modify, right click
on the display you
want to change.
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Archived Data Dialog
Reduces data resolution of
viewed profile only
Slows down the playback so
you can watch for changes
easier
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Activity: Display an Archived
Data File from an SBE 9-11
• Use Seasave to display the some SBE 9-11 CTD data
– GO to Data folder (i.e., F:/Data/Module4/)
– Display Hawaii.dat in Seasave
– Use the Hawaii.con file for configuration
– Right Click on the plot to set plot types and depth ranges
– Plot Type single Y multiple X, 4 axes
– Y
Pressure
0-1200 dbar
X1
X2
X3
Temperature
Conductivity
Salinity
0-30 deg C
0-6 S/m
26-36 psu
– Right click on scrolled display to do similar
– Play around with displays to see what there is offered
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Things to Configure for
Real-Time Data Collection
Configure Inputs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Instrument configuration (.con file) – discussed already
Serial ports – can set up in Configure Inputs or Configure Outputs
Water sampler
TCP/IP ports – can set up in Configure Inputs or Configure Outputs
Miscellaneous
Pump control (SBE 9plus with pump control option only)
Configure Outputs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Serial data output
Shared file output
Mark variable selection
TCP/IP output
SBE 11plus alarms – pressure, altimeter, bottom contact switch
SBE 14 Remote display / alarms – pressure, altimeter, bottom contact switch
PC alarms – pressure, altimeter, bottom contact switch
Header form / prompts
Diagnostics
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Serial Ports
• Define up to 5 ports:
– Communicate with CTD
(required)
– Communicate with water
sampler and/or CTD for pump
control (9plus must have pump
control option)
– Output data to serial port
– Output data to SBE 14 Remote
Display
– Input data from NMEA device
connected to PC
• Define in Configure Inputs or
Configure Outputs
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Real-Time Water Sampling
• Water sampler
configuration
– Type: SBE 32 Carousel,
GO 1015, GO 1016
• Bottle closure protocol
–
–
–
–
–
Sequential
User Input
Table Driven
Auto Fire
Firing bottles from a
remote computer
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TCP/IP Ports
• Connect hosts over
ship’s networks
– Communicate with
water sampler
– Output data to
TCP/IP port
• Define in
Configure Inputs or
Configure Outputs
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Miscellaneous
• These parameters
are needed to
calculate specific
variables
• Entries are used
only if outputting
associated variable
to display window,
shared file, remote
device, TCP/IP port,
etc.
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Serial Data Output
• Selected text data
can be sent from
computer running
Seasave to another
computer, in ASCII
or in XML format
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Shared File Output
• Selected text data
can be sent to a
file, in ASCII or
in XML format
• Allows for output
data into a shared
file directory, so
others can use it
when completed
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Mark Variable Selection
• Mark variables are
placed onto real-time
plot when Mark Scan
is clicked
– Used to annotate plot
at points of interest
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TCP/IP Output
• Selected text data
can be sent from
computer running
Seasave to another
location on
shipboard network
in ASCII or in
XML format
– For example:
PI’s State Room
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SBE 11plus Alarms
• Alarm (11plus makes
an irritating noise to
notify you)
– Pressure -minimum and/or
maximum
– Altimeter
– Bottom contact
switch (no setup
required)
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SBE 14 Remote Display
• Remote display
variables are
transmitted to an
SBE 14 in a remote
location (i.e., bridge)
• Also has alarm based
on pressure,
altimeter, and/or
bottom contact
switch data
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Remote Display Cabling and
Communication
CTD /
Deck Unit
CTD Channel
Computer
Water Sampler
Channel
(if applicable)
SBE 14
Remote Display
OR
CTD Channel
SBE 11plus
Deck
Unit
Water Sampler
Channel
(if applicable)
Remote Output
Channel
Computer
SBE 14
Remote Display
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PC Alarms
• Set up alarms in
your computer
– alarm based on
pressure,
altimeter, and/or
bottom contact
switch data
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Cast Headers
• Header form and
prompts
– Information that is
appended to
beginning of data
saved to file
– Operator may select
prompts appropriate
to his or her work
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Saving Your Setup
• Data collection parameters and display
setup parameters may be saved in a file
with a name of your choosing, with a
.psa extension
• Each display setup may be saved separately
in a file with a name of your choosing, with
a .dsa extension
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Acquiring Real-Time Data
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What Files Does Seasave Create?
Always
• Data file, .hex (ASCII representation of binary)
• Header file, .hdr
• Configuration file, .con or .xmlcon
– instrument configuration for cast of matching file name
Depends on Setup
• Mark file, .mrk
• Bottle file, .bl
• Navigation file, .nav
All these files have the same name as the .hex data file,
but different extensions
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Header Files: .hdr
• Lines beginning with:
– * have information from raw data file
– ** have user-input header information
– *END* flags end of header
• Same file name as data (.hex) file
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Mark Files: .mrk
• Contains 1 data scan for each time Mark
Scan button is clicked (variables set up on
Mark Variables tab of Configure Outputs)
• Same file name as data (.hex) file
e:\hot-101\0008A001.MRK:
Pressure
TempP90
CondPS/m
SalnP,P
Scan
mark number 1, system time is Jan 15 1999 02:41:57
44617
1021.872
4.1177
3.268962
34.4987
mark number 2, system time is Jan 15 1999 02:47:06
52033
770.993
4.7046
3.294753
34.3185
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Bottle Data File: .bl
• Created when water sampling is enabled
• Contains bottle fire sequence number and
position, date and time, and beginning and
ending scan number corresponding to
1.5-second duration for each bottle
• Data written to .bl file each time confirm bit in
data stream is set or when a confirmation is
received from water sampler
– Same file name as data (.hex) file
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Cross-Check
Correct Configuration Files and
Inspect Data Regularly
• Inspect data routinely by converting to scientific units (or
output as such in SEASAVE)
– Be sure correct CON file with the correct sensor calibration
coefficients is being used by software
– If sensors are changed mid-cruise, be sure to change the CON
file to reflect these changes
– Examine data on each cast to evaluate performance and to notice
if any problems (like MODULO ERRORS) occur.
• ALWAYS keep an archive copy of RAW, non-corrected
data
– This allows a return to the original data for correction or
reprocessing
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Module 3:
Troubleshooting
Real-time systems
SBE 911plus
Carousel Water Sampler
NMEA Boxes
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
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Troubleshooting: The Basics
• The first step is determining
which part of the system has
the problem:
– Do the sensors have valid output?
– Is the data properly acquired,
formatted, and telemetered
or stored?
– Is the data properly received and
converted to scientific units?
SENSORS
ACQUISITION
AND
TELEMETRY
POWER &
TELEMETRY
DECODING
INTERNAL
RECORDING
REAL
TIME
IBM Compatible
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SBE 9/11plus System Diagram
AUX
AUX
AUX
AUX
AUX
AUX
AUX
AUX
SENSOR 0
SENSOR 1
SENSOR 2
SENSOR 3
SENSOR 4
SENSOR 5
SENSOR 6
SENSOR 7
8 CHANNEL ANALOG FILTERS AND
ANALOG / DIGITAL CONVERTERS
FLOW OF DATA
5 FREQUENCY
COUNTERS
PRIMARY TEMPERATURE
PRIMARY CONDUCTIVITY
PRESSURE
SECOND TEMPERATURE
SECOND CONDUCTIVITY
PAR
GPS
(NMEA)
RS232
SERIAL DATA
FLOW OF DATA
LOGIC TIMING,
STATUS BITS AND
DATA TRANSMISSION
SEACABLE
SBE11PLUS
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Note about 9/11plus Data Flow
• 9plus data is transmitted serially
– First are the status bits
– Second are the frequency channels
– Last are the A/D channels
• A bad printed circuit card will shorten the length
of each data scan
– A bad A/D board will result in no A/D data
– If the first frequency counter is bad, there will be
no A/D data and the first frequency will be missing
– If the third frequency counter is bad, there will be
no A/D data and the first and second frequency will
be missing
– And so on….
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SBE 11plus Deck Unit
• No lights on the deck unit front panel
– Check the main power fuse (2 A slow blow for 120 V
and 1A slow blow for 240 V supply).
– Check that power is being supplied to the
deck unit (120 or 240 VAC)!
• Most lights on, but green data light not lit
– Check the sea cable fuse (1/2 A fast blow).
– Check that the underwater unit is receiving power –
be careful (250 VDC)!
5
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Auxiliary Sensor (0 – 5V analog)
Not Working (no signal)
• Could be the sensor
– Swap sensor for another on a working channel, check deck
unit. Note: 4095 A/D counts = 0 V, 0 A/D counts = 5 V
• Could be the cable
– Check bulkhead connectors for signs of corrosion
– If possible, swap in a spare cable
• Could be the low pass filter card or the A/D card
– Channels 0 – 3 are on one low pass filter card, 4 – 7 on
other; try both cards
– If no channels are working, it is probably A/D card or first
frequency counter card is not passing A/D data to next
counter card
6
Page 81 of 258
Auxiliary Sensor (0 – 5V analog)
Not Working (no signal) (continued)
• Test the voltage channel with a ‘D’ Cell battery
– Referencing the end cap drawing for the SBE 9plus, connect the
positive terminal to signal and the negative terminal to signal
ground
– A new ‘D’ cell should read approximately 2800 on the deck unit
display or 1.5VDC for the voltage channel in Seasave
• Check that power is being supplied to the sensor
– Referencing the end cap drawing for the SBE 9plus, connect a
voltmeter between pins 1 and 6 of the 6-pin connector
– There should be approximately 14VDC between pins 1 and 6 with
the deck unit powered on
7
Page 82 of 258
Temperature, Conductivity, or
Pressure Not Working (no signal)
• Check the sensor
– Swap the sensor for another on a working channel, check the deck unit
• Check the cable
– If the sensor works on another channel, swap cables
• Check the counter card
– If the primary T or C is affected, switch to the secondary T or C
– If pressure is affected, open the SBE 9plus, swap counter cards, and
check the deck unit display
• Check that power is being supplied to the sensor
– Referencing the end cap drawing for the SBE 9plus, connect a
voltmeter between pins 1 and 3 (for temperature or conductivity
channel) of the 3-pin connector
– There should be approximately 14VDC between pins 1 and 3 with the
deck unit powered on
8
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Pump Not Working
• Could be the pump
– Hook the pump up directly to a 12 VDC power
supply, and verify the pump impeller is
spinning
– Swap the pump out if a spare is available
• Could be the cable
– Install a spare cable if possible
9
Page 84 of 258
Pump Not Working (continued)
• Test the pump on deck (standard pump circuitry)
– Temporarily connect the primary temperature sensor to
the primary conductivity channel (JB2)
– The primary conductivity frequency must be greater
than 3500 Hz for 60 seconds to turn the pump on
(monitor the frequency on the deck unit display)
– Turn the deck unit on
– The pump should be powered after 60 seconds
– Verify the pump impeller is spinning
10
Page 85 of 258
Pump Not Working (continued)
• Test the pump on deck (water contact pin)
– Connect a jumper from the contact pin to one of the end
cap screws
– Turn the deck unit on
– After 60 seconds the pump should be powered
– Verify the pump impeller is spinning
• Test the pump on deck (modem controlled turn-on)
– Start real-time acquisition in Seasave (second
communication port must be connected to the modem
channel)
– Select Pump On in the Real-Time Control menu
– Verify the pump impeller is spinning
11
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Modulo Errors
• Modulo errors are normally a symptom of sea
cable issues
– A modulo error will normally cause a spike in ALL of
the sensors installed on the SBE 9plus
– If the number of modulo errors increases over time, it
may be necessary to re-terminate the sea cable
connection
– All cables and connectors on the SBE 9plus and sensors
should be inspected for any signs of corrosion or
excessive wear
12
Page 87 of 258
How Can I Tell if My
Wet End Termination Needs
to be Replaced?
• Intermittent data dropouts, error light blinks on
deck unit, check modulo errors
• Sea cable fuse blows in deck unit
• 9+ works fine on test cable
• 9+ works on deck, but not underwater
13
Page 88 of 258
How Do I Know It Isn’t
the Slip Ring?
• Disconnect 9+ and 11+ deck unit
• Connect volt meter to signal wire and sea cable
armor; check for small DC voltage
– Wet end terminations usually fail when seawater intrudes
into splice between underwater connector and cable.
Dissimilar metals and seawater will cause a battery to be
formed. This manifests itself as a small DC voltage
between signal wire and armor.
14
Page 89 of 258
Why Can’t I Use the Ohm
Setting on My Multimeter?
• You can BUT:
– 10 kilometers of cable has capacitance, and
when wound on winch spool may have
some inductance
– These properties can give confusing readings
on your multimeter in Ohm setting
15
Page 90 of 258
SBE 9/11plus Communication
CAROUSEL
CAROUSEL
POWER
AND CONTROL
SBE 9plus
SEACABLE MODEM
GPS
RECEIVER
SEA CABLE DATA
WATER
SAMPLER
MODEM
DATA
RECEIVER
CPU, GPS
(NMEA)
INTERFACE,
PAR
GPIB PARALLEL
OR
RS232 SERIAL
IBM Compatible
16
Page 91 of 258
SBE 11plus Fish/Tape Switch
• Fish/tape switch
– If the fish/tape switch is accidentally moved to
the tape position, the display will show all 0’s
17
Page 92 of 258
SBE 11plus Deck Unit
Communications
• Baud Rates
– Normally 19200 baud from the computer to the deck unit
– Modem channel is 300 baud from the computer to the
deck unit
• Two communication ports must be available to
acquire real-time data and fire bottles from the
computer
18
Page 93 of 258
SBE 11plus Deck Unit,
No Communication with Computer
• Green Computer Interface Receive LED does not flash
– Check cable
– Check serial port
– Wrong interface selected
• Red Underwater Unit Error LED does not flash
during initialization
– Wrong baud rate
19
Page 94 of 258
SBE 11plus Keeps Blowing Fuses
• Main power fuse
– If the main power fuse continues to blow when the deck
unit is powered on and the sea cable is not connected,
the main supply transformer could be bad
• Sea cable fuse
– Disconnect equipment until fuse does not blow
• Disconnect the SBE 9plus
• Disconnect the sea cable
• Connect the SBE 9plus to the deck unit using a test sea cable
20
Page 95 of 258
Troubleshooting
NMEA Interface
• Navigational data must be in the proper format,
NMEA 0183
• It must transmit at the proper speed,
4800 baud (9600 also available for SBE 11plus),
with 8 data bits and 1 stop bit, no parity
• Use the NMEA simulator program NMEATest
(supplied with the software CD and installed in the
SBE Data Processing folder on your computer)
• Capture some data from your GPS for comparison
21
Page 96 of 258
Connecting the GPS into the
SBE 11plus Box
22
Page 97 of 258
NMEA Simulation
• Sea-Bird provides a simulation program that
you can run on a second computer or on the
same computer if the computer has a spare
COM port
– Cable your computer to the NMEA port on
the deck unit
– Run the simulator program; if it works, the
problem is with your cabling or your GPS
23
Page 98 of 258
Capture Some Data
for Comparison
• Cable your computer to your GPS
• Use Seaterm to check the transmit speed,
data bits, etc.
• Use Seaterm to capture some data to
compare with the standard NMEA formats
shown in the deck unit manual
24
Page 99 of 258
Water Sampler Physical Problems
• Soak triggers in soap and water
• Never lubricate triggers
• Check 3 screws holding trigger
assembly to pylon for overtightening, which causes
distortion of trigger assembly
• Lanyards must run straight
from trigger to water sampler
Check screws for
over-tightening
25
Page 100 of 258
Water Sampler Electrical Problems
• SBE 11plus carrier detect LED must be lit and
9plus carrier detect bit must be set
• Computer must have a functioning second
communication port for sampler control
• SBE 11plus modem board switch settings must
match sampler type (G.O. 1016, SBE 32, etc.)
• Check cables
– If the cable is suspected, install a spare cable if possible
26
Page 101 of 258
NMEA Box Troubleshooting
• Most problems are setup or cable related
• Configuring baud rates
– Box with firmware version < 3.0
• Configure baud rates using dip switches
– Box with firmware version > 3.0
• Configure baud rates in Seaterm; in the Configure
menu, select the instrument being used with the Box
27
Page 102 of 258
ASIDE: Troubleshooting TSG
SBE 45 / 38 / NMEA Box
• Most issues are
setup related
– Baud rates must
be configured
properly
– Box must be in
the proper format
– See manual for
setup and
troubleshooting
information
28
Page 103 of 258
Troubleshooting I/O Cable
• Perform a loop-back test to test the
computer, comm port, and cable
• With the I/O cable connected to the
computer:
– Disconnect the I/O cable from the CTD
– Use a bent paper clip to insert into
pins 2 and 3 at the CTD end of the cable
– Any characters typed in terminal
program should echo on the screen (the
paper clip creates a loop back to the
computer)
29
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Troubleshooting Data Problems
• There are only two ways you can ruin
your data:
– Deleting your .dat or .hex file
– Opening and then saving your .dat file with a
word processor
• There are many ways you can produce
useless data by making errors in processing
– Mismatching instrument setup and
configuration (.con or .xmlcon) file
– Having errors in calibration coefficients in
.con or .xmlcon file
30
Page 105 of 258
Data Scan Mismatch
• The SBE 9plus has varying scan length, because
unused voltage or frequency channels can be
suppressed
• However, Seasave and Data Conversion both check
the scan length of the configuration (.con or .xmlcon)
file against the .dat or .hex file.
31
Page 106 of 258
Troubleshooting Activity
• What is wrong with this instrument?
32
Page 107 of 258
Troubleshooting Activity
• Use Seasave to examine data in
C:\Data\Module15\Cast1\BadCast1.dat
– Use BadCast1.con
– Plot display: P 0..6000, T 0..10, S 30..36
– Fixed display: add Modulo Error
• Use Seasave to examine data in
C:\Data\Module15\Cast2\BadCast2.hex
– Use BadCast2.con
– Options: Select Check Scan Length
– Plot display: P 0..100, T 0..30, S 24..34
33
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Page 109 of 258
1/14/2012
Module 4:
Best Practices
Collecting Quality CTD Profiles
and
Water Samples
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
1
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Best Practices:
Collecting good CTD Profiles and
Water Samples
• Understanding how your sensors work
– Response times and drift characteristics
• What you need to know about these things
• Calibration
– Factory and In-Field w/ Water Samples
• Minimizing Potential Sampling Errors
– Best Practices
2
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Sensor Components
• Device that allows a physical characteristic
of environment to be converted into an electrical
signal
• Composed of:
– Active element having a property that changes
in response to physical characteristic, and
– Circuit that converts this change into a signal
that may be measured by normal methods
• Normal methods mean frequency measurement
or analog-to-digital conversion
3
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Ideal Sensor vs. What you get
• Perfection:
– Reacts to only one physical characteristic
of environment
– Has a response to physical characteristic that is
easily modeled mathematically
• Reality:
– May react to more than one physical characteristic
of environment
– Response of sensor may be non-linear or may be
parametric, with terms that reflect its reaction to
physical characteristics other than one of interest
4
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Characteristic of all sensors is their
response time
• Sensor response to a step change
in their environment is termed their
time constant
– Sensors do not respond instantaneously to changes
in their environment
• Time constant is typically stated as time to come
to 63% of final value, given a step change in
environment
– Takes 5 tau to reach +99% of final value
5
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Typical Response Time Curve for a Sensor
In this case, and SBE 3 (Temperature)
6
Page 115 of 258
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Conductivity Sensors Measure
Resistance of Water
• Volume in the cell acts as the resistor
– Length/Area = constant
– Measure conductivity directly between wet electrodes
– Need to keep volume of cell constant
• All conductivity sensors responses are
influenced by
–
–
–
–
–
Flow of sample through the cell
Temperature (90% of the C signal T dependent!)
Heat capacity of the cell (cell thermal mass)
Electrode condition (platinization, position)
Cell geometry (keep clean from fouling)
7
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1/14/2012
SBE Conductivity Cells Easier to Control
Because of Zero External Field
• Outer electrodes are connected together so no voltage
difference exists to create an external electrical current
– Immune to proximity errors
– This allows for attaching a pump for flow control
• DO NOT STICK ANYTHING INSIDE THE CELL
A good estimate of SBE 4 time constant is 30 milliseconds
•Typical for all Sea-Bird conductivity cells
•Sea-Bird modifies flow configurations to match thermistor response times
8
Page 117 of 258
1/14/2012
Response of SBE 43 DO Flow Dependent
Boundary layer near sensor when pump turns on
Pump Starts
Boundary Layer Thins
Steady State
9
Page 118 of 258
1/14/2012
SBE 43 Sensor Response
3.5
Pump Off
SBE43 Output Voltage
• blah
3.3
3.1
Step Function
2.9
2.7
Low oxygen Layer Builds
2.5
2.3
2.1
1.9
1.7
Pump On
Steady State
1.5
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Seconds
10
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Pressure
• Step changes in pressure not typically seen in
the ocean environment
• Pressure sensor time constant is not an issue
• Sensors are temperature sensitive, so SBE
mitigates this by insulating the pressure sensor
inside the CTD main electronic housing
11
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Temperature Effect on Pressure
P
T
~ 2.5 hours
Warm to cold
Up to 5 hours
Cold to Warm
If the CTD is brought up from very cold depth, it can take 4-5 hours for pressure
sensor to be completely at equilibrium. If making a pressure check on the ship deck,
do so before making a CTD profile and after the CTD has been at a stable temperature.
12
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Drift In SBE Sensors
• Temperature and Pressure sensors tend to
drift in offset
– Due mostly to aging ~0.001°C per year for
SBE 3 temperature sensors
– Fatigue on mechanical components in
pressure sensors
• Conductivity and Oxygen sensors tend to drift
in slope
– Due mostly to fouling inside cell and on
sensor face (i.e., membrane)
13
Page 122 of 258
1/14/2012
Example of Offset Drift
SBE 3 Temperature Calibration History
<0.000625 deg C / Year
Mk Change
Start
End
3.55 mK difference
Over 8 years with no
Servicing other than
calibration
SBE 3 Factory Specification < 0.001 deg C/yr
14
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1/14/2012
Example of Offset Drift
SBE 9+ Digiquartz Pressure Sensor
8 Year Calibration History
< 0.32 dbar/year
15
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Example of Slope Drift
SBE 4
9-Year Calibration History < -0.003 psu
9 Years of Calibration
Indicates sensor drift
at 3 S/m ≤ 0.0003 S/m
Or
≤ 0.003 psu
16
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1/14/2012
Example of Slope Drift
SBE 43 Dissolved O2 Sensor
Drift
< 1.5% per year
normal for
healthy sensor
17
Page 126 of 258
1/14/2012
Factory Calibration Baths
SBE 4 Calibration Bath
SBE 3
Calibration
Bath
Water sampler on right takes a water
sample at every calibration point
18
Page 127 of 258
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Sea-Bird Calibration Bath
Operations
• Place sensors in a precisely controlled
temperature environment
– T, C, and DO baths
– Temperature measured at 11 points
– Salinity samples taken at each of 6 temperature steps
• Provides means of changing O2 concentration for
dissolved oxygen calibration using gases
– DO calibrated at 18 points (6 temperature steps for 3 oxygen
steps)
– Response time tests are conducted on each sensor using gas
• Compare to either a physical standard (i.e. IAPSO SSW,
triple point of water, Winkler) or a reference sensor (also
called a secondary standard)
19
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Reading SBE
Calibration Sheets
Example SBE 3
IT90
coefficients
IPTS 68 coefficients
Residuals = instrument T - bath T
Calibration Equations
Pre and Post Calibrations
Denoting drift in millidegrees
Residuals shown above plotted against
Bath reference temperatures or Known
Temperature
20
Page 129 of 258
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Pressure Sensor Calibrations
• Digiquartz sensors are
supplied by Paroscientific
with coefficients derived from
a calibration performed over
temperatures between
0 - 125 °C.
• When we calibrate pressure
at Sea-Bird, a dead-weight
pressure generator is used to
subject the sensor to
increments of known
pressures.
A maintained and calibrated Digiquartz
pressure sensor serves as secondary
standard for all instruments
21
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For You to Do
Keeping Track of Pressure Offsets
in the Lab or Field
• Physically locate the instrument in the orientation
that it will have when deployed
– All pressure sensors are sensitive to their orientation
due to gravity on the fluids that fill their capillaries
• Make offset measurement in a constant
temperature environment, with the instrument
temperature the same as the environment
– temperature transient residual effects
• Measure the offset
– Best practice, measure pressure sensor offset
against a barometer
– In a pinch, measure offset against sea level
– Measure offset needed to zero the sensor
• Maintain a log to observe pressure sensor drift
22
Page 131 of 258
1/14/2012
Track the Drift of SBE 9plus
Pressure Offset with Time
0
Offset in Decibars
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
ly-
m
7
r -9
be
98
-9
ch
ce
De
Ju
ar
M
5
-9
er
4
-9
9
8
1
r-9
93
yar
ob
ne
nu
be
m
r -8
be
0
-9
m
e
pt
t
Oc
Ju
Ja
Se
ay
M
ce
De
Drift appears normal through October of 1995. It begins to change more
randomly after that, indicating it is soon in need of calibration test at factory.
23
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1/14/2012
How to Measure Pressure
Offset in the Lab Using a
Barometer
• With offset in .con or .xmlcon file set to 0.0, pressure
measured by CTD should equal barometric pressure
• Calculate offset (db) =
barometer reading – CTD reading
– Conversion of psia to decibars:
decibars = (psia - 14.7) * 0.6894759
• Enter calculated offset in .con or .xmlcon file
• Example:
– CTD reads -2.5 dbars
– Barometer reads 14.65 psia.
Converting to decibars, barometer reads
(14.65 - 14.7) * 0.6894759 = -0.034 dbars
– offset (db) = barometer reading – CTD reading
= -0.034 - (-2.5) = 2.466
– Application Note 73
24
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Entering Pressure Offset in
the CON or XMLCON File
• Pressure offset is
entered with the
calibration coefficients
• Adjust your CON
(XMLCON) files prior
to collecting or
processing data
25
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Profiling and Water Sampling
Best Practices
• How long to soak before profiling
• How long to soak before firing water bottles
closed
• Precautions in cold places
• Reducing sampling errors due to ship heave
• How to recognize a pump is not working
• Where to collect water samples for sensor
comparisons
26
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Soaking Before Profiling
• Always allow CTD to soak at the surface before a profile
– Purge air from plumbing before pumps turn on
• SBE 9+ allows you to turn on CTD after it has soaked in water
• At 10 m, trapped air bubbles are squeezed and are easily expelled from
pump
– This also allows equilibration of entire carousel to ambient
temperature, so you have less risk of shed wakes
– Allows power-on transients in sensors to decay
• 2 secs in SBE T,C sensors for 100 ppm stability
– Oxygen Sensor stabilization for 1% stability
• 30 secs (SBE43) to set up boundary layer flow
• Soaking tip: use 2 display types
– Fixed or scrolled text display
to check all sensors and other parameters on deck and during
soak
– Multi-line plot for the cast
27
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Deploying in Very Cold Places
• Glass conductivity cell is subject to breakage due to
water freezing in cell
• Remove all water from conductivity cell
– Repeated ice formation (film or droplets) on
electrodes will degrade calibration at 0.001 - 0.020
PSU level
• Make a solution of 1% triton in sterile seawater
– Use 0.5 micron filtered seawater or boiled
seawater
• Never use anti-freezes like glycol or alcohol
• SBE 43 Oxygen Sensor – prevent freezing
28
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Data Artifacts Caused by the Underwater
Package
• Ship heave causes
underwater package
to loop through
water
• Accelerations and
decelerations
caused by ship
heave cause water
entrained within
package to blow by
sensors
• Use a higher drop
speed (1.0-1.5 m/s)
to minimize
pressure reversals
– Note: slower
sampling CTDS
have a reduction in
resolution at faster
drop speeds!
Rapid Descent
Ship Heave Slows
Descent
Rapid Descent
Resumes
Turbulent Wake
Wake is Shed
Downward
Sensor Path Goes Through
Shed Wake
29
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Other Sources of Measurement Misalignment
The CTD samples sensors uniformly in time, but unducted sensors arrive at
corresponding structure at different times. Ducted TC sensors will always see the
same water sample, reducing this effect. DO and Fluorometers will see them at
different times
Physical
Misalignment
CTD Tilted
t1
t1
t0
t0
Internal
Waves Tilt TS
Structure (<
20°)
Mixing Tilts TS
Structure (>
45°)
t0
t1
t0
t1
30
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Optimize Sample Rate and
Descent Speed
• Capture data at 24 Hz for best correction of
salinity spiking error
• Use a higher drop speed (1.0-1.5 m/s) to
minimize pressure reversals is experiencing a lot
of ship heave
– View descent rate output dz/dt realtime to see how
well you are doing
• Know where your sensors are on your carousel
frame
– Measure from the pressure port or TC duct intake
31
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Note position of Bottles with
respect to the CTD sensors
Middle of Bottle
Sample
Holding time
Before
Firing bottles
Closed
Flush time
CTD Sensors
Water column
stabilization
32
Page 141 of 258
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Profile showing
spiking of data due
to drop speed
variation
Example here had a drop
speed average of 0.5 m/s
-Wire Lowered
-Calm Conditions
R/V New Horizon, SCRIPPS
33
Page 142 of 258
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Example of Ship Heave Effects
With and Without the pump on
Pump On, reducing effect of
ship heave
T
Pump Off, heave apparent in all data,
and DO mismatch between up and
down casts shows loss of flow from
pump
S
S
T
DO
DO
dz/dt
dz/dt
34
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Making Independent Comparisons
with Discrete Water Samples
• Take water samples in parts of water column
where change in parameter of interest is small
compared to size of underwater package
• Be sure to allow the carousel to stabilize in the
water column prior to firing bottles
– How long should you hold the carousel before firing
bottles closed?
• Important point: sometimes water sample bottles
leak
35
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Collect water in regions where
conditions are not changing
T
DO
C
36
Page 145 of 258
1/14/2012
Variability in the surface layer can
cause poor agreement with surface
CTD measurements
L. Tupas, et al., Hawaii Ocean Time Series Data Report 9, 1997. University of Hawaii, School
Of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, page 21.
37
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Why bottle samples do not always
match CTD data
• Tracking sensor accuracy is goal
• Problems can arise
– Position of Niskin bottle on frame with respect to
sensors or intake of plumbing
– Rinsing of Niskin bottles and thermal mass
– Hold time at depth of bottle firing
– Leaky Niskin bottles
– Time of water sample draw and order of draw on deck
• Always take DO first!
– Analysis errors (replicates, blanks, standards tracking,
dirty bottles, etc.)
38
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How to Check Niskin Bottles for
Leaks
• Bottle/CTD comparisons bad at one or few
depths
• Run underwater package down deep to
nice, uniform water
• Close all water bottles
• Run salinities on each water bottle
• Compare salinities, fix leakers, and repeat
39
Page 148 of 258
Page 149 of 258
1/14/2012
Module 5:
Basic Maintenance of
Sea-Bird Equipment
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
1
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Annual Preventive Maintenance
• Inspect all cables and connectors.
– Replace as required (usually good for up to 5 years).
• Inspect all anodes.
– Replace as required.
• Inspect the housing for corrosion.
– Remove all installed sensors and clamps for cleaning and
inspection.
• Replace Teflon Tape as required
– Remove, re-lubricate, and re-install the hardware
(use DC4 and Blue Moly).
• Ideally done after each cruise.
– Replace jack-screw plugs as required.
2
Page 151 of 258
1/14/2012
Re-Lubricating Hardware
• Place DC4 in the screw hole to fill the blind end of
the hole.
– This prevents sea water from filling the space and causing
hardware and housing corrosion.
– It also prevents the growth of salt crystals, which can cause
stuck hardware.
• Coat the screw with Blue Moly to prevent corrosion
and prevent binding of the hardware.
• Wipe up any excess from the instrument.
• These coatings dissipate with use, and require
periodic replacement.
3
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Hardware Lubrication
• When installing hardware in titanium
housings:
– DC4 -- No
Blue Moly -- Yes
• When installing hardware in plastic
housings:
– DC4 -- Yes
Blue Moly -- No
• When attaching the ground strap screw and
anodes:
– DC4 -- No
Blue Moly -- Yes
4
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Handling Opened Instruments
• All electronics have
varying levels of ESD
susceptibility.
• When handling any
electronics, observe
ESD precautions.
5
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O-Rings
• Inspect and replace O-rings that are accessed
frequently with regularity.
– For example, battery end cap O-rings.
• Replace O-rings that are not often disturbed at
least every 3 to 5 years.
– SBE 9+ pressure housing
6
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Types of O-Ring Seals used by SBE
• Axial or face seal
• Radial or piston seal
• We use both seals in
most of our instruments
• We also use L-seals
7
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Seals
• Axial and piston seals are usually installed in
conjunction with one another.
• Other instruments use dual piston seals.
• Some instruments use an L-seal.
– L-seals work well for uni-directional pressure, and
are well suited to high pressure.
– L-seals also use a hard Teflon backup ring.
• The rules for handling and installing the seals
are the same.
8
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Open the Instrument
• Disassemble the instrument in accordance
with the manual instructions.
• Remove the O-rings that are being replaced.
– Do not use metal tools; use wood or plastic.
– Clean the old Super O Lube residue from the
instrument’s sealing surfaces, and inspect for
corrosion.
9
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Cleaning O-Ring Surfaces
• Use Kimwipes or the equivalent
when cleaning O-ring sealing
surfaces and O-rings.
– Kimwipes are a low-lint wipe.
• Avoid using paper-towels and
Q-Tips, because they may leave
fibers behind that could bridge
an O-ring.
10
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Inspect the New Seal
• Visually inspect the seal in good light for any
flaws or imperfections.
• Also inspect by feel.
– Perform the feel inspection when lubricating the seal,
just prior to installation.
11
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Flaws to Look and Feel For
Foreign Matter
Parting Line Flash
Voids and Indentations
Flow Marks
12
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Proper O-Ring Lubrication
• SBE uses ONLY Parker
Super O-Lube for lubrication
of O-rings that we install.
• The KEY to proper
application is to use a small
amount and provide a light
film where it is applied.
13
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Applying the Lubricant
• Apply a thin
continuous film of
lubricant over the
entire O-ring surface
by running it through
your fingers, checking
one last time for flaws.
• Install the O-ring in
the O-ring groove.
Excessive lubricant is worse
than too little!
14
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Lubricate the Housing
• Inspect the housing
O-ring surface.
• Apply a light
coating of Parker
O-ring lube.
• This prevents the
O-ring from binding
during installation.
Again, excessive lubricant
is worse than too little!
15
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Closing the Instrument
• Replace or re-condition the desiccant bag.
• Back-fill the instrument with a dry gas if
possible (for example, dry Nitrogen or
Argon).
• Properly lubricate and re-install the
hardware.
• Verify operation of the instrument before
reassembling into cage, etc.
16
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Pump Maintenance
• The pump drive motor is magnetically coupled
to the impeller.
• The shaft has an upper and lower thrust washer,
with the impeller mounted in-between. The
thrust washers and impellers are retained by a
single O-ring installed on the shaft.
• Avoid running the pump when dry.
17
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Pump Impeller
• Periodically inspect the
impeller thrust washers
and the pump impeller
housing.
• Replace the thrust
washers and impeller
retaining O-ring annually
or as required.
18
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What if the Pump isn’t Running?
• The pump impeller can become bound by
sand, sediment, and salt crystals.
• If the pump is not running, remove the
pump head and inspect the impeller and
thrust washers to determine if a clogged
impeller is the problem.
19
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Emergency Maintenance
• Replacing a damaged bulkhead connector is
the most common emergency.
• Re-wiring of CTD connectors is difficult.
We recommend that maintenance on the
instrument’s electronics be left to SBE.
• Connector replacements on modular sensors
are easier to perform.
20
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What to Expect Inside -- SBE 9plus
Bottom End Cap Wiring
Top End Cap Wiring
21
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If you Decide to Replace a Connector
• Remember to observe ESD precautions.
• After removing the damaged connector,
remove all LocTite® residue.
– Use wooden or plastic tools if a tap isn’t
available.
• Prepare the new connector for installation.
– Trim and terminate ends before installing.
22
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Connector Installation
• Connectors installed at
SBE are installed using
LocTite® 242 (Blue).
• This LocTite® is service
removable, but when set,
will keep the connector
firmly in place.
• Use LocTite® or a
substitute thread-locker
when replacing connectors.
23
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Install Connector O-Ring
• Lightly lubricate the
connector O-ring
groove.
• Inspect and lubricate
the connector O-ring.
• Install the connector
O-ring.
Connector with O-Ring
24
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Install Connector
• Apply LocTite® 242 (Blue) to ONLY the bottom two
threads of the connector.
25
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Install Connector
• Check one last time for
any foreign matter that
may get caught under the
O-ring.
• Feed the wires through
and install the connector
vertically; this will allow
the LocTite® to wick up
the length of the threads as
it is screwed in.
• Finger tighten the
connector.
26
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Incorrect use of LocTite®
• Excess LocTite® on the
connector shank will
cause the LocTite® to
overflow the threaded hole
of the end cap, allowing it
to contact the O-ring.
– Contact with the O-ring
may cause damage to or
bridge the O-ring and allow
the instrument to flood.
WRONG !
27
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Excessive Use of LocTite®
• No LocTite® should
overflow the threaded
hole. If this occurs:
– Remove the connector,
– Clean the connector and
spot-face,
– Replace the O-ring and reinstall.
• LocTite® that reaches the
spot-face may bridge the
O-ring, causing the
instrument to flood.
Example of
EXCESS LocTite®
28
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Final Connector Tightening
• Use a socket installed
on a Torque Wrench
(if available) for final
tightening of the
connector.
29
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Torque Specifications
Connector
Torque
2-pin Impulse
18 in-lbs
3-pin Impulse
18 in-lbs
4-pin Impulse
18 in-lbs
6-pin Impulse
15 in-lbs
MCBH (all)
100 in-lbs or 8 ft-lbs
30
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Module 6:
Data Post Processing
Outputting Bottle Data with CTD Data
Recommended Processing Steps
Data Processing for Troubleshooting Data Questions
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
1
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After Data Collection
Converting Data to Engineering Units
Data Conversion
Convert raw data, creating
.cnv file that can be used
by
Sea-Bird’s other data
processing modules.
Converted data includes:
– Pressure, temperature,
and conductivity data
– Auxiliary sensor data
(light transmission,
pH, etc.)
Sea Plot
Check for
Modulo
Errors
(Time
series
Gaps)
Advanced
Data
Processing
Align, filter,
average, etc.
Plot data using
linear or log
(for
fluorescence
and PAR)
scales, in blackand-white
or multi-color
overlaid plots.
2
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Extracting CTD Data with
Data Conversion
• You may create a .cnv
and/or a .ros file
• The source of the data is
your .hex or .dat file
• The indicator of what
data to extract is a status
bit in the data or a file of
type .bl, .afm, or .bsr
• Data written to the .ros
file is specified in the
output variable selection
dialog
3
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Specifying How Much Data Per
Bottle Closure
• Data extraction is referenced to the time
of closure
• Scan range offset is how many seconds
before the bottle closure to begin
extracting data
• Scan range duration is how many seconds
total to extract data
4
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Summarizing and Tabulating Data
• Bottle Summary module creates a table of
averages and standard deviations from data in
.ros file
– .ros file must contain pressure, temperature, and
conductivity or salinity
– Additional parameters may be derived from
averaged variables
– Data is output to a .btl file
– If a .bl file is present, bottle numbers are inserted in
.btl file
5
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Bottle Summary
• Variables created
by Data
Conversion may
be selected for
inclusion in the
.btl file
6
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Bottle Summary,
Deriving Parameters
• Parameters derived
from the averages may
be added to the .btl list
7
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Activity: Create .ros and .btl Files
• Use SBE Data Processing to convert data from an
SBE 9plus and create bottle files; see notes for
instructions
8
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Example of Converted Data
Using Sea Plot
F
T
S
Beam
Attenuation
9
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Example of Converted data in a TS Plot
10
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Plot to Identify Modulo Errors
11
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Brief Overview of Data
Processing for Use in
Troubleshooting
• Sensor alignment, matching measurements of same
water parcel
– TC alignment completed real-time in SBE 11 Deck Unit
– Post processing alignment for auxiliary sensors (i.e., DO)
• Correcting for underwater package-induced errors
– LoopEdit
• Data editing and filtering (i.e. if modulo errors occur)
• Correcting for conductivity cell thermal mass
– Why there is there a mismatch in salinity between up and
down casts when T and C look spot on?
12
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Description of Key
SBEDataProcessing Modules
• DATCNV converts data from hexi-decimal to scientific units
• WILDEDIT or MEDIAN FILTER to remove outliers
• ALIGNCTD coordinates measurements of T, C and P on same parcel of
water
• FILTER (optional) refines response time of mismatched sensors and
•
•
•
•
•
smooths digital noise in Pressure data
LOOPEDIT removes ship heave effects by marking scans “badflag” if the
scan fails pressure reversal or minimum velocity tests
CELLTM corrects cell thermal mass error for a given flow rate on the
conductivity cell
DERIVE takes the newly corrected independent variables (T, C, P, Oxvolts)
and computes the dependent variables (Salinity, Density, Oxygen
Concentration)
BINAVG statistically averaging scheme for binning data into evenly space
or interpolated bins
SPLIT separates up and down casts
13
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Recommended Default SBE 9 plus
Data Processing Parameters
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DATCNV (Module 1)
– Output up and downcasts of all parameters of interest. Only process on independent parameters
(T,C,P, OXVOLTS, Modulo Errors etc.)
– Output converted variables (salinity, DO concentration) if comparing to water samples
ALIGNCTD (Module 3)
– SBE 11 usually advances C +0.073 secs
– Align DO and other sensor data to P and T accordingly in post processing
FILTER (Module 2) only if continuous time series and no P outliers
– Pressure only 0.15 secs
LOOPEDIT (Module 5)
– Only if ship heave a problem
– Select minimum fall speed according to data
CellThermalMass (Module 4)
– ALWAYS
– Alpha = 0.03 and Tau = 7 secs
DERIVE (Module 6)
– This is where you compute final Salinity, DO concentration, anything that is dependent on raw
measured and now processed variables (like T, C, P)
Bin Average (Module 7)
– Do this AFTER running DERIVE
14
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Options in DATCNV:
Enabling Tau & Hysteresis Corrections
for Oxygen
• Weather to enable or disable tau for oxygen
– This term is introduced to sharpen the response of the
sensor to rapid changes in oxygen concentration.
– SBE recommends keeping Tau enabled.
• If working at depths > 1000 dbar, highly recommended to
enable hysteresis correction
– Apply to Oxvolts in DATCNV prior to correcting CTD to
bottle samples
– SBE Recommends Keeping Hysteresis enabled
15
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Examples of Deep Ocean Hysteresis
Dissolved Oxygen (micromoles/liter)
180
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
1000.0
Uncorrected data
shown left, with
mismatched up
and down casts
2000.0
Pressure(db)
3000.0
Corrected data
shown right
overlays Winkler
values (not
corrected to
Winklers)
190
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
Black Line is
hysteresis corrected
CTD
Circles are Winkler
values for oxygen on
the same cast.
from
Equatorial Atlantic
16
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Dissolved O2
Deep-Ocean Hysteresis
These must be in CON file
for Hysteresis Corrections to work
Check these boxes to enable
Tau and Hysteresis corrections
17
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Activity: Practice running Data
Conversion on Raw Data File
• Use the file C:/Data/Module9/AlignC/Faroe.dat
–
–
–
–
For the configuration file, use Faroe.con
Name your output file Faroe.cnv
Convert downcast only
Convert to quantities that stand alone:
- Pressure, Digiquartz
- Temperature,2 [ITS-90] -- (secondary T)
- Conductivity,2 [S/m] -- (secondary C)
– Do not calculate parameters that are functions of
P,T,C!
18
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Gaps in Data and Modulo Errors
• The Modulo errors indicate that there is a gap in the time
series
– A minimum gap of 1 point
– Because of the way the frequency counting works for the
SBE 9+, this means that the point before and after will be
affected
– Gaps can be larger (multiple points)
– Modulo Error count only tells you when it occurred and
how many times…not for how many scans.
– The gaps are not filled in with error flags or NANs
• Requires user to identify the gap and size
• Best to solve Modulo Error Cause Straight Away
19
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Tools for Looking for Size of
Modulo Error Gaps
• Plot Modulo Error against time (select Time
Elapsed (secs) in DATACNV
• In SEASAVE, select append a time stamp to every
scan…this will help find the temporal period of a
gap
• Output descent rate to help determine where and
how big the gaps are
20
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•
• The header only tells
you when there was a
scan or set of scans
dropped
• Need to examine data to
see how big the gap is
by looking at pressure
and descent rate
together
• Can plot pressure
against time
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
# name 11 = flC: Fluorescence, Chelsea Aqua 3 Chl Con
[ug/l]
# name 12 = par: PAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor
# name 13 = spar: SPAR/Surface Irradiance
# name 14 = upoly0: Upoly 0, ISUS
# name 15 = upoly1: Upoly 1, PVM5
# name 16 = pumps: Pump Status
# name 17 = modError: Modulo Error Count
# name 18 = flag: 0.000e+00
# span 0 =
1, 16160
# span 1 = 0.000, 673.292
# span 2 = -22881.363, 205.989
# span 3 = 17.4167, 98.9762
# span 4 = 17.4173, 48.9106
# span 5 = 5.033530, 99.000000
# span 6 = 5.039172, 71.595624
# span 7 = 0.4872, 3.9915
# span 8 = 0.00004, 5.28171
# span 9 = 0.0257, 13.3417
# span 10 = 3.5599, 99.3589
# span 11 = 0.0095, 5.6517
# span 12 = 1.0000e-12, 1.3885e+01
# span 13 = 3.9976e+00, 7.9951e+00
# span 14 = -7.0135105, 49.133926
# span 15 = 0.0000000, 225.76313
# span 16 =
1,
1
# span 17 =
0,
11
21
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Scan Secs
Press
T0 T1
1/14/2012
C0
C1
OxVolt etc….
3534 147.208 123.004 17.4613 17.4613 5.046168 5.046238
1 0.000e+00
3.0171 5.27707
0.6013
86.0424
0.1632 2.6525e-02 5.9963e+00 2.7570016 92.307692
1
3535 147.250 123.057 17.4611 17.4611 5.046168 5.046203
1 0.000e+00
3.0159 5.27708
0.6002
86.0674
0.1648 2.4784e-02 5.9963e+00 2.9550525 92.307692
1
3536 147.292 123.057 17.4612 17.4609 99.000000 5.046203
1 0.000e+00
3.0171 0.00004
0.6013 86.0424
0.1653 2.5363e-02 5.9963e+00 2.9220440 92.307692
1
3537 147.333 123.169 17.4611 17.4611 99.000000 5.046274
1 0.000e+00
3.0171 0.00004
0.6025 86.0173
0.1653 2.5363e-02 5.9963e+00 2.8890356 92.307692
1
3538 147.375 -16829.813 17.4613 25.9087 27.476852 70.449079
1.7094017
1
1 0.000e+00
98.9762 48.9106 5.033530 71.595624
1.6654 0.45796
4.1105 35.7855
5.6517 1.0000e-12 5.9963e+00 49.133926
1.6459 1.95460
4.1105
5.6517 1.0000e-12 5.9963e+00 49.133926 1.7094017
1
3539 147.417 -21176.759
1 0.000e+00
35.7855
3540 147.458 205.989 17.4596 17.8598 5.046193 5.118893
1 0.000e+00
3.0159 5.27829
0.6013
86.0424
0.1658 2.4784e-02 5.9963e+00 2.9220440 92.307692
1
3541 147.500 123.282 17.4609 17.4608 5.046191 5.046314
1 0.000e+00
3.0171 5.27709
0.6013
86.0424
0.1668 2.5363e-02 5.9963e+00 2.9220440 92.307692
1
3542 147.542 123.387 17.4608 17.4608 5.046184 5.046239
1 0.000e+00
3.0147 5.27710
0.6013
86.0424
0.1684 2.4784e-02 5.9963e+00 2.8890356 92.307692
1
3543 147.583 123.387 17.4606 17.4606 5.046168 5.046163
1 0.000e+00
3.0159 5.27712
0.6013
86.0424
0.1694 2.5363e-02 5.9963e+00 2.9220440 92.307692
1
3544 147.625 123.447 17.4606 17.4602 5.046107 5.046279
1 0.000e+00
3.0147 5.27714
0.6013
86.0424
0.1710 2.4207e-02 5.9963e+00 2.9220440 92.185592
1
Depth Difference 123.282-123.169 = 0.113
For this Modulo Error assuming fall speed is 1 m/s
This would amount to about 3 scans lost (or 1 dropped scan)
22
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Plot Modulo Error (11)
Can see if on both down and up cast
Down Cast
T
Oxvolt
Modulo
Error
Up Cast
23
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Plot against Time
T
Oxvolt
Modulo
Error
24
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Filtering Converted Data
• Filtering is used to remove
digital noise from data
(pressure mainly)
– Need to do on P data prior to
running LoopEdit
• Filtering can also be used to
help match response times of
critical paired sensors (T and
C for computing S)
• SBE 9plus
– Filter A time constant
0.15 seconds for pressure to remove
digital noise
– No need to match response of T and
C, already well matched by design
25
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Derived Dependent Quantities
vs.
Raw Independent Quantities
• Salinity and Oxygen are computed quantities
– Dependent variables
• For successful computation, inputs need to not only
be accurately measure, AND accurately coordinated
on a point in space, and secondarily coordinated in
time response
– Independent variables (T,C, P, OXVOLTS)
• If done incorrectly, this will have ripple effect in
other computed quantities
– density, buoyancy frequency, etc.
26
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The Challenge:
To get good salinity with only 10% of the
signal
• The electrical measurement of conductivity
– 90% of the signal from temperature
– 10% from salinity based on the conducting ion
content of seawater
• 1% error in Temperature
Causes 10% error in Salinity
27
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Data Misalignment in
CTD Data That Causes Salinity Spiking
1. Sensors (T and C) not seeing same water parcel
–
All SBE CTDs T and C are ducted and pumped, sensors
do sample on the same water
2. Response time of sensors on the CTD package not
well matched
–
On SBE 9+ T and C have well matched response times ~
0.065 secs, by design
3. Travel time of water parcel through plumbing
–
This determined by pump speed and flow volume of the
path between sensors which is known for SBE CTDs
•
•
•
Can advance for this in SBE 11 deck unit
Old SBE 11 units, only primary C values advanced
Newer models, both primary and secondary C values advanced
28
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Examples of Lags and Leads
in T and C Alignment and Effect on
Computed Salinity
0 db
0 db
T
C
S
Pressure
• Evidence of bad
alignments seen in
salinity spikes and
density inversions
• Correction via pressure
shifting of T, C or Both
T Step = 0.05 C; C Step = 0.015 S/m
Pressure Alignment Perfect
0 db
S
C
S
Pressure
C
Pressure
T
T
C lags T 0.084 db
C leads T 0.084 db
29
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Example of how the TC Duct Helps
Alignment of T and C Data
SBE 9+ Ducted Data (Raw Data)
No alignment
SBE 9+ Ducted Data Aligned
Data
30
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Manipulating Data to
Remove Misalignment
Post Processing
• An alignment on T and C is
done automatically in
the 11plus
• Alignment can change from
default due to changes in
plumbing that increase or
decrease pumping speed
• Use Align CTD module to
match temperature and
conductivity data streams
31
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Example of Different Alignments
of T and C
Original Data
27.925
Conductivity Advanced 1 Scan (0.042s)
Density, 2 [sigma-t, Kg/m^3 ]
27.950
27.975
28.000
28.025
28.050
28.075
28.100
27.900
500
500
525
525
550
550
575
600
625
Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
27.900
salinity
density
650
675
700
34.750
34.775
34.800
34.825
34.850
34.875
34.900
34.925
34.950
27.925
Density, 2 [sigma-t, Kg/m^3 ]
27.950
28.000
28.025
salinity
675
700
28.050
28.075
34.775
34.800
27.900
525
525
550
550
575
salinity
density
650
675
700
34.750
34.775
34.800
34.825
34.850
34.875
Salinity, 2 [PSU]
34.825
34.850
34.875
34.900
34.925
34.950
Conductivity Advanced 3 Scans (0.125s)
28.100
500
625
28.100
650
500
600
28.075
density
625
34.750
Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
27.975
28.050
Salinity, 2 [PSU]
Density, 2 [sigma-t, Kg/m^3 ]
27.950
28.025
600
Conductivity Advanced 2 Scans (0.084s)
27.925
28.000
575
Salinity, 2 [PSU]
27.900
27.975
34.900
34.925
34.950
27.925
Density, 2 [sigma-t, Kg/m^3 ]
27.950
27.975
28.000
28.025
575
600
625
28.050
28.075
28.100
salinity
density
650
675
700
34.750
34.775
34.800
34.825
34.850
34.875
34.900
34.925
34.950
Salinity, 2 [PSU]
32
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Dissolved O2 Alignment
• Sensor time constant ~ 2 - 5 secs
– temperature dependent
• Plumbing delay from T and C < 2 secs,
depending on location of sensor in flow path
• For SBE 9+, Advance OXVOLTS (not
concentration)
typically ~ 3- 4 seconds total
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Mismatch down-up Cast Data in
Dissolved Oxygen Profiles
That Might Not be Alignment Issue
1.5
0
2.0
Oxygen, SBE 43 [ml/l]
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
Oxygen, SBE 43 [ml/l]
2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.50
5.0
0
10
50
30
40
T
50
DO
60
70
80
90
100
17.5
20.0
22.5
25.0
27.5
Temperature [ITS-90, deg C]
30.0
This mismatch is likely due to
Transit time alignment issue in
DO sample with respect to T and P
Pressure, Strain Gauge [db]
Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
20
100
150
T
DO
200
250
300
15.0
17.5
20.0
22.5
25.0
27.5
Temperature [ITS-90, deg C]
30.0
Notice the mismatch is in T and DO
Taken near Gulf Stream.
Probably boat drift
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Activity: Align DO Data
• Data Conversion:
– Use C:\Data\Module9\AlignDO\GulfMex.dat and GulfMex.con
– Convert upcast and downcast
– Output P, T, S, and Oxygen Voltage SBE 43
• Align CTD: advance Oxygen Voltage SBE 43 relative to pressure
2, 4, and 6 seconds
– Name append A2, A4, and A6
• Derive: Oxygen, SBE 43 in ml/l for all .cnv
– Name append D
– Accept default 2.0 second window size for oxygen
• Sea Plot :
– De-select Sort input files in Options menu, and then select input files in order
(GulfMexD.cnv, GulfMexA2D.cnv, GulfMexA4D.cnv, and
GulfMexA6D.cnv)
– Overlay plot of T (17 to 28) vs Oxygen (2.5 to 8.0), with 1.0 offset for oxygen
35
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Dissolved Oxygen Advanced 0, 2,
4, 6 Seconds Relative to Pressure
Waterfall Plot
36
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Effect of Conductivity
Cell Thermal Mass on
Computed Salinity Values
•
•
•
•
Glass conductivity cell stores heat
A warm cell warms water moving through it
A cold cell cools water moving through it
This causes water in cell to be a different temperature
than thermometer measured a moment earlier
• All conductivity cells experience this
– SBE can correct for it, because of controlled flow
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Thermal mass errors scale with the
velocity of the flow through the cell
Time
• α parameter scales the
α is Initial magnitude of the
amplitude of the error
fluid thermal anomaly
~3% of ∆T for SBE 9+
α
∫αe –(t/τ) = heat
– 1˚C => 0.03 psu
loss (area under
– α varies as V-1
curve)
– Will be slightly different
Cell Thermal
for different pump flow
Mass
speeds
Functional Form
• τ = Relaxation time of
αe –(t/τ)
response
– Less flow dependent Tau
Temperature Step 1˚ C
varies as V -1/2
V is the flow speed
38
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Cell Thermal Mass Example
Observed as Mismatch Between
Up and Down Casts
Upcast
Downcast
T
S
39
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Removing the Effect of
Conductivity Cell Thermal Mass
Corrects Conductivity
BEFORE
computing Salinity
Again, SBE
recommends
default settings for
starters
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SBE 9+ Salinity
with and without CTM
Green Salinity processed with CTM
correction
Black Salinity unprocessed
Corresponding Temperature (green)
and descent rate (blue)
~+0.02 psu
~0.8 ˚C step
Note: Downcast only,
Data not LoopEdited
Dz/dt ~ 0.40 m/s
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Editing non-Oceanic,
Deployment Related Signals
• Ship Heave
– Flag scan lines of data where yo yo-ing of the
CTD occurred during deployment using
– SBEDataProcessing module LoopEdit
• Edit outliers using WildEdit or MedianFilter
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Distinguishing between
Ship Heave or TC Alignment
ship heave
T C mismatch
Sigma-t
S
Descent
rate
Plotting dz/dt (descent rate computed in DATCNV or DERIVE helps)
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Ship Heave Effects
Enlargement of plot at left
T
S
Descent
rate
Descent
rate
T
S
44
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Removing Package-Induced
Data Artifacts
• Data errors
introduced this
way must be
omitted; there is no
fix
• Loop Edit FLAGS
Scan Lines with
pressure loops
caused by
ship heave
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Activity: Remove Loops
• Data Conversion:
– Use C:\Data\Module9\Loop\AArctic.dat and .con
– Downcast only
– Time, pressure, temperature, and descent rate
• Filter: Filter Pressure with time constant 0.15 seconds
– Use same file name for output file, AArctic.cnv
• Loop Edit: Uncheck Remove surface soak and Exclude scans
marked bad. Run two times -– Name append P, percent mean speed, 300 sec window, 20% mean speed
– Name append F, fixed minimum velocity, 0.25 m/sec
• Sea Plot: Click Plot Setup tab, click
Process options button, and check Lift pen over
bad data. Plot each file separately.
– Y axis Pressure (830 to 860 db)
– X axis 1 Temperature (2.83 to 2.89 °C)
– X axis 2 Descent rate (-5 to 3 m/sec)
46
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Removing PackageInduced Data Artifacts,
Loop Edit
Original
Edit by fixed speed (.25m/s)
Edit by % mean speed (20%)
47
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DERIVE
Dependent Variables
• Dependent Variables
– Salinity, density, dissolved oxygen concentrations,
oxygen saturation, etc.
• Once DERIVE is run on data, should not reprocess on
derived variables
– Do NOT align on oxygen concentration, salinity etc.
• In DERIVE, you will have the same options as in
DATCNV for oxygen, except hysteresis correction.
– Deep Ocean Hysteresis needs to be done on the
OXVOLTS (raw oxygen output)
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Bin Averaging
• Reduces size of a data set by statistically estimating
data values at even intervals
(e.g., every meter or 10 meters)
• Can work in depth (meters), pressure (decibars), time,
or by scan
• Can bin average upcast, downcast, or both
– If bin averaging upcast and downcast, keeps upcast
bins and downcast bins separate
• The surface bin is treated separately
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Bin Average: Output Data
# binavg_bintype = meters
# binavg_binsize = 1
# binavg_excl_bad_scans = yes
# binavg_skipover = 0
# binavg_surface_bin = no, min = 0.000, max = 5.000, value = 2.500
# file_type = ascii
*END*
1.000 24.9124 35.2455
100 0.0000e+00
2.000 24.9582 35.2463
90 0.0000e+00
3.000 25.0029 35.2477
36 0.0000e+00
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Data Processing Tips
• Best data is collected at highest rate
instrument is capable of
• Data should not be reprocessed
– Do not run align on data that is already
aligned!
– Do not align or filter derived variables
(salinity)
• Calculation of derived parameters and bin
averaging should be done last
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Assess Quality of data by comparing to
other standards
• Quality assessment using redundant
measurements or unreasonable data signals
–
–
–
–
–
–
Primary and secondary sensors
Water samples - (Salinity and DO)
Other sensors (moored and CTD)
Match to historic TS relationships
TS reproducibility
Look for density inversions or unusual steps in
data
52
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Sensor Tracking and
In-Situ Validation Techniques
• Obtain specific types of CTD data for diagnostic
checks of data quality (covered later)
– Turn CTD on deck with pumps off to take on-deck
pressure readings before using CTD
• Barometer checks prior to cruises
• Tracking pressure sensor drift
– Collect high quality water samples for in-field sensor
drift tracking
– Collect clean (continuous) down-profiles (no stops) to
perform salinity spiking corrections
– Periodically collect clean down-up casts (no stops) to
evaluate cell thermal mass correction parameters
53
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Page 233 of 258
1/16/2012
Module 7:
Care and Maintenance
Pre-cruise inspections/checks of the equipment
Spare parts and tools
Care and maintenance during cruise and between casts
Post-cruise equipment maintenance
Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
Newport, OR Feb. 2012
Carol D. Janzen, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography
David Murphy, M.S. Electrical Engineering and
Oceanography
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Pre-Cruise Equipment Checks
• Helps to prevent last minute problems that
can delay or impact a cruise
• Especially important if you are not the sole
user of the equipment
• Should be done as soon before the cruise as
is reasonably possible
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What should be checked?
(Recommendations)
• All connectors and cabling
• All hardware/fasteners, mount clamps, and
blocks
• Ferrites – Inductive Modem parts
• Instrument plumbing
• Pressure ports / plumbing
• Battery compartment(s) and batteries
3
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Check Connectors
• Disconnect each cable
or dummy plug one at
a time.
– Inspect each exposed
connector for corroded
or damaged pins.
– Make sure the
connector isn’t loose.
4
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Check Cabling
• Inspect each cable
boot or dummy plug
for corrosion.
• Check the cable for
cracks and abrasions
in its outer jacket.
5
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Re-Install Cables and Dummy Plugs
• Clean and re-lubricate
connector boots, dummy
plugs, and connectors.
– Clean with Kimwipes or
other lint free cloth or wipe.
– SBE recommends Dow
Corning® DC4 for
lubrication.
• Never use petroleum-based
products.
6
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Proper Installation Technique
• Clean and very lightly
lubricate the connector
body and cable boot with
DC4.
• Align the pins and press
the connector boot onto
the connector.
• Burp the connector to
remove any trapped air.
7
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Check the External Hardware
• Check that all external hardware, mounting bolts,
mount straps, and cage clamps are tight.
– Check for cracked mounting blocks.
• Check for corrosion damage to the hardware.
• Check the condition of the installed anodes.
– Replace as necessary.
• Verify there are no dissimilar metals in contact with
each other.
– Look for mounting straps touching the cage or housing.
8
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Inspect the Instrument’s Plumbing
• Plumbing should be clean and free of salt and
biological deposits.
– Clean/replace as necessary.
• Ensure the hole in the air bleed valve is open.
– Use a piece of 26 awg wire.
• Make sure all plumbing connections are properly
tie-wrapped.
– DO NOT tie-wrap to the conductivity cell.
• Examine the conductivity cell for damage.
9
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Instruments with Pressure
• Verify that the pressure port is adequately
filled with oil and that the pressure port is
not blocked by salt build-up.
– Re-fill as required.
10
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Verify the Functionality
• Establish communications
with the instrument.
• If possible, use the same
computer that will be used on
the cruise.
• Verify you have the most
recent calibration coefficients
– Check for both electronic and
hard copies.
11
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Record Some Data
• Log and check some data.
• A clean garbage can full of water is a good
way to do this, but it can also be done in air.
• Verify the recorded values seem reasonable.
12
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Prepare the Instrument for Shipping
• Make sure the instrument is dry.
– See App Note 2D for conductivity cell care.
– See App Note 64 for dissolved oxygen sensor care.
• If the instrument is equipped with a magnetic
switch, place a piece of electrical tape across it in
the OFF position.
• Verify all dummy plugs have been re-installed.
• Package the instrument for shipping.
13
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Tools & Spare Parts
Some factors in deciding what spares you need or want to take on
a cruise:
• Your level of expertise / What level of service are you
comfortable with?
• The duration of the cruise/transit time.
• The size / type of the vessel.
– Is it a dedicated research vessel with well-equipped lab facilities?
– Is it a vessel of opportunity with few if any facilities?
• Remoteness of the research area.
– Will you have reliable and timely communications?
– Is it possible to receive shipments of parts and material?
14
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Tools
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Box and open-ended wrench set
Allan wrench set
Assorted screwdrivers
Nut-drivers
Cutters
Pliers
Crescent wrench (medium)
Soldering iron (A small butane iron is good)
Hand-held multimeter
15
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Spare Parts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
O-rings
Tygon® tubing
Set(s) of cables
Full set(s) of spare dummy plugs
Mount straps / blocks
Water sampler latch assembly
Deck Unit fuses
Pump parts (thrust washers & O-ring)
Air bleed valve
Connectors
Back-up sensors or CTD (if possible)
16
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Materials
• Spare batteries
• 1 L pre-mixed Triton X-100
solution, 0.1%
• 500 mL pre-mixed Triton X-100
solution, 1% - 2%
• 1 L pre-mixed Bleach solution,
500 – 1,000 ppm
• Several liters of DI Water
• T/C backfilling syringe(s)
• Oil backfilling kit
• Kimwipes or other lint-free wipes
• Parker Super O Lube
• DC4
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Blue Moly
LocTite® (or equivalent)
Solder
Electrical tape
Air bleed valve cleaning wire
Assorted tie-wraps
Hard copies of Calibration Sheets
Copy of the instrument’s manual
Short test cable (real-time
instruments)
• Small plastic pail
17
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Instrument Care and Maintenance
During the Cruise
• Keep the instrument as protected as possible
during transit.
• If it must be stored on deck, out of the crate,
during transit:
– Avoid ship exhausts (main propulsion, galley vents, and
compartment vents).
– Avoid salt spray if possible.
– Avoid prolonged UV exposure.
– A cover for the CTD can be a good investment.
18
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First Cast of the Day
• Wet the conductivity cell in accordance with
Application Note 2D, approximately 1 hour before
the cast.
• Before taking the first cast:
– Verify all cables and dummy plugs are installed.
– Verify all plumbing is properly connected.
– Remember to remove the soaker tube from the conductivity
cell, covers from PAR sensors, pH bottles, etc.
• Making a checklist that includes all sensors in your configuration
can help prevent things from being overlooked.
19
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After / Between Casts
FRESH
WATER
• Rinse the equipment thoroughly with fresh water.
– On some vessels the amount of fresh water available for
wash-down may be restricted; if so, use as much as the
Ship’s Master will allow.
– Even a bucket full of fresh water is better than no washdown at all.
• Rinse and store the conductivity cell in accordance
with Application Note 2D.
• Rinse and store the dissolved oxygen sensor in
accordance with Application Note 64.
20
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SBE 32 Carousel
Water Sampler Care
• Proper care and maintenance of the latch
assemblies will help ensure reliable operation.
–
–
–
–
Never use any lubricants on the latches.
The latches are water lubricated.
Wash the latches thoroughly between casts.
Depending on the time between casts, store the
latches in a bucket of fresh water.
– Removing the latches also permits proper washing
of the actuator magnets.
21
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Flooded Instruments
• While instrument flooding is rare, it does happen
from time to time.
• A flooded instrument can be under extreme
pressure.
• If you suspect an instrument has flooded, use
extreme caution.
– Point the instrument’s end cap(s) in a safe direction.
– If applicable, loosen the end cap hardware (1/2 turn for
each screw/bolt). If the end cap followed the hardware
out, the instrument may be under pressure.
22
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Releasing the Pressure
• If the instrument is pressurized, the pressure
can be released by backing off one of the
installed I/O connectors several turns.
• This will break the connector’s O-ring seal
and allow the instrument to vent.
– Look for signs of internal pressure
• Hissing
• Leaking water
23
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What to Do with the Instrument
if Flooded
• Pour out any water inside the housing.
• Return the instrument to SBE for evaluation.
• Advise Sea-Bird of possible flood, we don’t
want to get hurt!
24
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Post-Cruise Maintenance
• Profiling instruments
– Soak the instruments in a clean garbage can full of
fresh water. This will help remove / dilute all salt
water that may be trapped in gaps and crevices.
• Install loops of Tygon® tubing on the conductivity cell
and dissolved oxygen sensor to protect them.
• Remove locking sleeves from the cables to allow
flushing.
– Soaking in fresh water especially applies to
Carousel Water Samplers.
• Actuator magnets need thorough cleaning.
• Latches can be washed in a dishwasher.
25
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After Cleaning
• Allow the instrument to dry.
• Open the battery compartment and remove any
exhausted batteries.
– If the instrument is going to be stored for an
extended period, do not replace the batteries.
• Follow all storage guidelines for any installed
sensors and for the conductivity cell.
• Store the instrument in a clean, dry
environment.
26