Cisco Aironet Antennas and Accessories

Reference Guide
Cisco Aironet Antennas and Accessories
Overview
Executive Overview
®
®
This antenna reference guide explains issues and concerns about antennas used with a Cisco Aironet wireless
LAN system or wireless bridge system. It details deployment and design, limitations and capabilities, and basic
theories of antennas. This document also contains information about the Cisco antennas and accessories, as well
as installation scenarios, regulatory information, and technical specifications and diagrams of the available
antennas.
Overview of Antennas
Each Cisco Aironet radio product is designed to perform in a variety of environments. Implementing the antenna
system can greatly improve coverage and performance.
To optimize the overall performance of a Cisco wireless LAN, it is important to understand how to maximize radio
coverage with the appropriate antenna selection and placement. An antenna system comprises numerous
components, including the antenna, mounting hardware, connectors, antenna cabling, and in some cases, a
lightning arrestor. For a consultation, please contact a Cisco Aironet partner at:
http://tools.cisco.com/WWChannels/LOCATR/jsp/partner_locator.jsp.
Cisco partners can provide onsite engineering assistance for complex requirements.
Radio Technologies
In the mid-1980s, the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) modified Part 15 of the radio spectrum
regulation, which governs unlicensed devices. The modification authorized wireless network products to operate in
the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands using spread spectrum modulation. This type of modulation had
formerly been classified and permitted only in military products. The ISM frequencies are in three different bands,
located at 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5 GHz. This document covers both the 2.4- and 5-GHz bands.
The ISM bands typically allow users to operate wireless products without requiring specific licenses, but this will
vary in some countries. In the United States, there is no requirement for FCC licenses. The products themselves
must meet certain requirements to be certified for sale, such as operation under 1-watt transmitter output power
(in the United States) and maximum antenna gain or effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) ratings.
The Cisco Aironet product lines utilize both the 2.4- and 5-GHz bands. In the United States, three bands are
defined as unlicensed and known as the ISM bands. The ISM bands are as follows:
●
900 MHz (902-928 MHz)
●
2.4 GHz (2.4-2.4835 GHz) - IEEE 802.11b
●
5 GHz (5.15-5.35 and 5.725-5.825 GHz) - IEEE 802.11a, HIPERLAN/1 and HIPERLAN/2. This band is also
known as the UNII band, and has three subbands: UNII1 (5.150-5.250 GHz), UNII2 (5.250-5.350 GHz), and
UNII3 (5.725-5.825 GHz).
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 1 of 73
Each set of bands has different characteristics. The lower frequencies exhibit better range, but with limited
bandwidth and hence lower data rates. The higher frequencies have less range and are subject to greater
attenuation from solid objects.
802.11 Modulation Techniques
The IEEE 802.11 standard makes provisions for the use of several different modulation techniques to encode the
transmitted data onto the RF signal. These modulation techniques are used to enhance the probability of the
receiver correctly receiving the data and thus reducing the need for retransmissions. The techniques vary in their
complexities and robustness to RF signal propogation impairments.
Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum
The direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) approach involves encoding redundant information into the RF
signal. Every data bit is expanded to a string of chips called a chipping sequence or Barker sequence. The
chipping rate, as mandated by the U.S. FCC, is 10 chips at the 1- and 2-Mbps rates and 8 chips at the 11-Mbps
rate. So, at 11 Mbps, 8 bits are transmitted for every one bit of data. The chipping sequence is transmitted in
parallel across the spread spectrum frequency channel.
Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum
Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) uses a radio that moves or hops from one frequency to another at
predetermined times and channels. The regulations require that the maximum time spent on any one channel is
400 milliseconds. For the 1- and 2-Mb FHSS systems, the hopping pattern must include 75 different channels, and
must use every channel before reusing any one. For wide-band frequency hopping (WBFH) systems, which permit
up to 10-Mb data rates, the rules require the use of at least 15 channels, and they cannot overlap. With only 83
MHz of spectrum, WBFH limits the systems to 15 channels, thus causing scalability issues.
In every case, for the same transmitter power and antennas, a DSSS system will have greater range, scalability,
and throughput than an FHSS system. For this reason, Cisco has chosen to support only direct-sequence systems
in the spread spectrum products.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) used in 802.11a and 802.11g data transmissions offers
greater performance than the older direct-sequence systems. In the OFDM system, each tone is orthogonal to the
adjacent tones and therefore does not require the frequency guard band needed for direct sequence. This guard
band lowers the bandwidth efficiency and wastes up to 50 percent of the available bandwidth. Because OFDM is
composed of many narrow-band tones, narrow-band interference degrades only a small portion of the signal, with
little or no effect on the remainder of the frequency components.
Antenna Properties and Ratings
An antenna gives the wireless system three fundamental properties - gain, direction, and polarization. Gain is a
measure of increase in power. Direction is the shape of the transmission pattern. A good analogy for an antenna
is the reflector in a flashlight. The reflector concentrates and intensifies the light beam in a particular direction
similar to what a parabolic dish antenna would do to a RF source in a radio system.
Antenna gain is measured in decibels, which is a ratio between two values. The gain of a specific antenna is
compared to the gain of an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is a theoretical antenna with a uniform threedimensional radiation pattern (similar to a light bulb with no reflector). dBi is used to compare the power level of a
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 2 of 73
given antenna to the theoretical isotropic antenna. The U.S. FCC uses dBi in its calculations. An isotropic antenna
is said to have a power rating of 0 dB, meaning that it has zero gain/loss when compared to itself.
Unlike isotropic antennas, dipole antennas are real antennas. Dipole antennas have a different radiation pattern
compared to isotropic antennas. The dipole radiation pattern is 360 degrees in the horizontal plane and 75
degrees in the vertical plane (assuming the dipole antenna is standing vertically) and resembles a donut in shape.
Because the beam is “slightly” concentrated, dipole antennas have a gain over isotropic antennas of 2.14 dB in
the horizontal plane. Dipole antennas are said to have a gain of 2.14 dBi (in comparison to an isotropic antenna).
Some antennas are rated in comparison to dipole antennas. This is denoted by the suffix dBd. Hence, dipole
antennas have a gain of 0 dBd (= 2.14 dBi).
Note that the majority of documentation refers to dipole antennas as having a gain of 2.2 dBi. The actual figure is
2.14 dBi, but is often rounded up.
Types of Antennas
Cisco offers several different styles of antennas for use with access points and bridges in both 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz
products. Every antenna offered for sale has been FCC-approved. Each type of antenna will offer different
coverage capabilities. As the gain of an antenna increases, there is some tradeoff to its coverage area. Usually
high-gain antennas offer longer coverage distances, but only in a certain direction. The radiation patterns below
will help to show the coverage areas of the styles of antennas that Cisco offers: omnidirectional, Yagi, and patch
antennas.
Omnidirectional Antennas
An omnidirectional antenna (Figure 1) is designed to provide a 360-degree radiation pattern. This type of antenna
is used when coverage in all directions from the antenna is required. The standard 2.14-dBi “Rubber Duck” is one
style of omnidirectional antenna.
Figure 1.
Omnidirectional Antenna
Directional Antennas
Directional antennas come in many different styles and shapes. An antenna does not offer any added power to the
signal; it simply redirects the energy it receives from the transmitter. By redirecting this energy, it has the effect of
providing more energy in one direction, and less energy in all other directions. As the gain of a directional antenna
increases, the angle of radiation usually decreases, providing a greater coverage distance, but with a reduced
coverage angle. Directional antennas include patch antennas (Figure 2), Yagi antennas (Figure 3), and parabolic
dishes. Parabolic dishes have a very narrow RF energy path, and the installer must be accurate in aiming these
types of antennas these at each other.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 3 of 73
Figure 2.
Directional Patch Antenna
Figure 3.
Yagi Antenna
Diversity Antenna Systems
Diversity antenna systems are used to overcome a phenomenon known as multipath distortion or multipath
interference. A diversity antenna system uses two identical antennas, located a small distance apart, to provide
coverage to the same physical area.
Multipath Distortion
Multipath interference occurs when an RF signal has more than one path between a receiver and a transmitter.
This occurs in sites that have a large amount of metallic or other RF reflective surfaces.
Just as light and sound bounce off of objects, so does RF. This means there can be more than one path that RF
takes when going from a transmit (TX) and receive (RX) antenna. These multiple signals combine in the RX
antenna and receiver to cause distortion of the signal.
Multipath interference can cause the RF energy of an antenna to be very high, but the data would be
unrecoverable. Changing the type of antenna and location of the antenna can eliminate multipath distortion
(Figure 4).
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 4 of 73
Figure 4.
Multipath Distortion
You can relate multipath distortion to a common occurrence in your car. As you pull up to a stop, you may notice
static on the radio. But as you move forward a few inches or feet, the station starts to come in more clearly. By
rolling forward, you move the antenna slightly, out of the point where the multiple signals converge.
How Diversity Antenna Systems Reduce Multipath Distortion
A diversity antenna system can be compared to a switch that selects one antenna or another, never both at the
same time. The radio in receive mode will continually switch between antennas listening for a valid radio packet.
After the beginning sync of a valid packet is heard, the radio will evaluate the sync signal of the packet on one
antenna, and then switch to the other antenna and evaluate. Then the radio will select the best antenna and use
only that antenna for the remaining portion of that packet.
On transmit, the radio will select the same antenna it used the last time it communicated to that given radio. If a
packet fails, it will switch to the other antenna and retry the packet.
One caution with diversity antenna systems is that they are not designed for using two antennas covering two
different coverage cells. The problem in using it this way is that if antenna number 1 is communicating to device
number 1 while device number 2 (which is in the antenna number 2 cell) tries to communicate, antenna number 2
is not connected (due to the position of the switch), and the communication fails. Diversity antennas should cover
the same area from only a slightly different location.
With the introduction of the latest direct-spread physical layer chips, and the use of diversity antenna systems,
direct-spread systems have equaled or surpassed frequency-hopping systems in handling multipath interference.
While the introduction of WBFH does increase the bandwidth of frequency-hopping systems, it drastically affects
the ability to handle multipath issues, further reducing its range compared to present direct-spread systems in
sites that are highly RF reflective.
Wireless LAN Design
Before the physical environment is examined, it is critical to identify the mobility of the application, the means for
coverage, and system redundancy. An application such as point-to-point, which connects two or more stationary
users, may be best served by a directional antenna, while mobile users will generally require a number of
omnidirectional micro cells. These individual micro cells can be linked together through the wired LAN
infrastructure or by using the wireless repeater functionality built into every Cisco Aironet access point.
The Physical Environment
After mobility issues are resolved, the physical environment must be examined. While the area of coverage is the
most important factor for antenna selection, it is not the sole decision criterion. Building construction, ceiling
height, internal obstructions, available mounting locations, and the customer’s aesthetic desires also must be
considered.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 5 of 73
Cement and steel construction have different radio propagation characteristics. Internal obstructions such as
product inventory and racking in warehousing environments are factors. In outdoor environments, many objects
can affect antenna patterns, including trees, vehicles, and buildings, to name a few.
The Network Connections
Cisco Aironet access points use a 10/100/1000-Mb Ethernet connection. Typically the access point is in the same
location as the antenna. While it may seem that the best place to put the access point is in a wiring closet with the
other network components, such as switches, hubs, and routers, this is not the case. The antenna must be placed
in an area that provides the best coverage (determined by a site survey).
Many people new to wireless LANs want to locate the access points in the wiring closet and connect the antenna
using RF coax. Antenna cable introduces losses in the antenna system on both the transmitter and the receiver.
As the length of cable increases, so does the amount of loss introduced. To operate at optimum efficiency, cable
runs should be kept as short as possible. (See the Cabling section in this document for more information.)
Building Construction
The density of the materials used in a building's construction determines the number of walls the RF signal can
pass through and still maintain adequate coverage. Following are a few examples. The actual effect on the RF
must be tested at the site, and therefore a site survey is recommended.
Paper and vinyl walls have very little effect on signal penetration. Solid walls and floors and precast concrete walls
can limit signal penetration to one or two walls without degrading coverage. This may vary widely based on any
steel reinforcing within the concrete. Concrete and concrete block walls may limit signal penetration to three or
four walls. Wood or drywall typically allow for adequate penetration through five or six walls. A thick metal wall
reflects signals, resulting in poor penetration. Steel-reinforced concrete flooring will restrict coverage between
floors to perhaps one or two floors.
Recommendations for some common installation environments are outlined below:
●
Warehousing/manufacturing: In most cases, these installations require a large coverage area.
Experience has shown that an omnidirectional antenna mounted at 20 to 25 feet typically provides the best
overall coverage. Of course, this also depends upon the height of the racking, material on the rack, and
ability to locate the antenna at this height. Mounting the antenna higher will sometimes actually reduce
coverage, as the angle of radiation from the antenna is more outward than down. The antenna should
be placed in the center of the desired coverage cell and in an open area for best performance. In cases
where the radio unit will be located against a wall, a directional antenna such as a patch or Yagi can be
used for better penetration of the area. The coverage angle of the antenna will affect the coverage area.
●
Small office/small retail store: The standard dipole may provide adequate coverage in these areas
depending on the location of the radio device. However, in a back corner office a patch antenna may
provide better coverage. It can be mounted to the wall above most obstructions for best performance.
Coverage of this type antenna depends on the surrounding environment.
●
Enterprise/large retail store: In most cases, these installations require a large coverage area. Experience
has shown that omnidirectional antennas mounted just below the ceiling girders or just below the drop
ceiling typically provide the best coverage (this will vary with stocking, type of material, and building
construction). The antenna should be placed in the center of the desired coverage cell and in an open area
for best performance. In cases where the radio unit will be located in a corner, or at one end of the building,
a directional antenna such as a patch or Yagi can be used for better penetration of the area.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 6 of 73
Also, for areas that are long and narrow - such as long rows of racking - a directional antenna at one end
may provide better coverage. The radiation angle of the antennas will also affect the coverage area.
●
Point-to-point: When connecting two points together (such as a wireless bridge), the distance,
obstructions, and antenna location must be considered. If the antennas can be mounted indoors and the
distance is very short (several hundred feet), the standard dipole or mast mount 5.2 dBi omnidirectional
may be used. An alternative is to use two patch antennas. For very long distances (1/2 mi. or more),
directional high-gain antennas must be used. These antennas should be installed as high as possible, and
above obstructions such as trees, buildings, and so on; and if directional antennas are used, they must be
aligned so that their main radiated power lobes are directed at each other. With a line-of-site configuration,
distances of up to 25 miles at 2.4 GHz and 12 miles at 5 GHz can be reached using parabolic dish
antennas, if a clear line-of-site is maintained. With the use of directional antennas, fewer interference
possibilities exist and there is less possibility of causing interference to anyone else.
●
Point-to-multipoint bridge: In this case (in which a single point is communicating to several remote
points), the use of an omnidirectional antenna at the main communication point must be considered. The
remote sites can use a directional antenna that is directed at the main point antenna.
Cabling
As stated above, cabling introduces losses into the system, negating some of the gain an antenna introduces and
reducing range of the RF coverage.
Interconnect Cable
Attached to all antennas (except the standard dipoles), this cable provides a 50 ohm impedance to the radio and
antenna, with a flexible connection between the two items. It has a high loss factor and should not be used except
for very short connections (usually less than 10 feet). Typical length on all antennas is 36 in. (or 12 in. on some
outdoor antennas).
Low-Loss/Ultra-Low-Loss Cable
Cisco offers two styles of cables for use with the 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz product lines. These cables provide a much
lower loss factor than standard interconnect cable, and they can be used when the antenna must be placed at any
distance from the radio device. While these are low-loss cables, they should still be kept to a minimum length.
There are two types of cable supplied by Cisco for mounting the antenna away from the radio unit. The 100- and
150-foot cables are LMR600 type cable, while the 20- and 50-foot cables are LMR400 type cables. All four lengths
are supplied with one RP-TNC plug and one RP-TNC jack connector attached. This allows for connection to the
radio unit and to the interconnect cable supplied on the antennas.
Connectors
According to the U.S. Federal Code of Regulations, products used in the 2.4- and 5-GHz ISM bands manufactured
after June 1994 must either use connectors that are unique and nonstandard (meaning not readily available on the
market by the average user) or be designed to be professionally installed (“professional” here indicates a person
trained in RF installation and regulations). Since many of the 2.4-GHz products are installed by non-RF trained
personnel, these products must comply with the unique connector ruling. The Cisco outdoor access and bridge
products are designed for installation by a RF professional, and therefore may use a standard N style connector.
Cisco Aironet indoor products use reverse polarity-TNC (RP-TNC) connectors. While they are similar to the normal
TNC connectors, they cannot be mated to the standard connectors.
To ensure compatibility with Cisco Aironet products, use antennas and cabling from Cisco.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 7 of 73
Mounting Hardware
Each antenna requires some type of mounting. The standard dipole antenna simply connects to the RP-TNC
connector on the unit. Mast mount antennas are designed to mount to a variety of mast diameters and each
comes with mounting hardware for attachment. The Yagi antennas have an articulating mount option. Patch
antennas are designed to mount flat against a wall or ceiling, and ceiling-mount antennas are equipped with a
drop-ceiling cross-member attachment. The 2.4-GHz 21-dBi parabolic dish mounts to a 1.625- up to a 2.375-in.
mast. In this dish antenna, fine-threaded turn-buckles allow accurate aiming of the antenna.
For most indoor applications, a .75- or 1-in. electrical conduit provides a suitable mounting. For outdoor
applications, use a heavy galvanized or aluminum wall mast that will withstand the wind-loading rating of the
selected antenna.
Lightning Arrestors
When using outdoor antenna installations, it is always possible that an antenna will suffer damage from potential
charges developing on the antenna and cable, or surges induced from nearby lightning strikes. The Cisco Aironet
lightning arrestor is designed to protect 2.4-GHz to 5.8- GHz radio equipment from static electricity and lightninginduced surges that travel on coaxial transmission lines. Both systems need to be properly grounded as identified
in the hardware installation manuals of the products. These protection mechanisms will not prevent damage in the
event of a direct lightning hit.
Theory of Operation
The Cisco Aironet Lightning Arrestor (Figure 5) prevents energy surges from reaching the RF equipment by the
shunting effect of the device. Surges are limited to less than 50 volts, in about .0000001 seconds (100
nanoseconds). A typical lightning surge is about .000002 (2 micro seconds).
Figure 5.
Cisco Aironet Lightning Arrestor
The accepted IEEE transient (surge) suppression is .000008 seconds (8 micro seconds). The Cisco Aironet
Lightning Arrestor is a 50-ohm transmission line with a gas discharge tube positioned between the center
conductor and ground. This gas discharge tube changes from an open circuit to a short circuit almost
instantaneously in the presence of voltage and energy surges, providing a path to ground for the energy surge.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 8 of 73
Installation
This arrestor is designed to be installed between your antenna cable and the Cisco Aironet access point.
Installation should be indoors, or inside a protected area. A good ground must be attached to the arrestor. This
can be accomplished by attaching a ground lug to the arrestor and using a heavy wire (number 6 solid copper) to
connect the lug to a good earth ground (see Figure 6).
Understanding RF Power Values
Radio frequency (RF) signals are subject to various losses and gains as they pass from transmitter through cable
to antenna, through air (or solid obstruction), to receiving antenna, cable, and receiving radio. With the exception
of solid obstructions, most of these figures and factors are known and can be used in the design process to
determine whether an RF system such as a WLAN will work.
Decibels
The decibel (dB) scale is a logarithmic scale used to denote the ratio of one power value to another. For example:
X1`dB = 10 log10 (Power A/Power B)
An increase of 3 dB indicates a doubling (2x) of power. An increase of 6 dB indicates a quadrupling (4x) of power.
Conversely, a decrease of 3 dB reduces power by one half, and a decrease of 6 dB results in a one fourth of the
power. Some examples are shown below in Table 1.
Table 1.
Decibel Values and Corresponding Factors
Increase
Factor
Decrease
Factor
0 dB
1 x (same)
0 dB
1 x (same)
1 dB
1.25 x
-1 dB
0.8 x
3 dB
2x
-3 dB
0.5 x
6 dB
4x
-6 dB
0.25 x
10 dB
10 x
-10 dB
0.10 x
12 dB
16 x
-12 dB
0.06 x
20 dB
100 x
-20 dB
0.01 x
30 dB
1000 x
-30 dB
0.001 x
40 dB
10,000 x
-40 dB
0.0001 x
Power Ratings
WLAN equipment is usually specified in decibels compared to known values. Transmit Power and Receive
Sensitivity are specified in “dBm,” where “m” means 1 milliwatt (mW). So, 0 dBm is equal to 1 mW; 3 dBm is equal
to 2 mW; 6 dBm is equal to 4 mW, and so on, as shown in Table 2.
Table 2.
Common mW Values to dBm Values
dBm
mW
dBm
mW
0 dBm
1 mW
0 dBm
1 mW
1 dBm
1.25 mW
-1 dBm
0.8 mW
3 dBm
2 mW
-3 dBm
0.5 mW
6 dBm
4 mW
-6 dBm
0.25 mW
7 dBm
5 mW
-7 dBm
0.20 mW
10 dBm
10 mW
-10 dBm
0.10 mW
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 9 of 73
dBm
mW
dBm
mW
12 dBm
16 mW
-12 dBm
0.06 mW
13 dBm
20 mW
-13 dBm
0.05 mW
15 dBm
32 mW
-15 dBm
0.03 mW
17 dBm
50 mW
-17 dBm
0.02 mw
20 dBm
100 mW
-20 dBm
0.01 mW
30 dBm
1000 mW (1 W)
-30 dBm
0.001 mW
40 dBm
10,000 mW (10 W)
-40 dBm
0.0001 mW
Outdoor Range
The range of a wireless link is dependent upon the maximum allowable path loss. For outdoor links, this is a
straightforward calculation as long as there is clear line of sight between the two antennas with sufficient
clearance for the Fresnel zone. For line of sight, you should be able to visibly see the remote locations antenna
from the main site. (Longer distances may require the use of binoculars). There should be no obstructions
between the antennas themselves. This includes trees, buildings, hills, and so on.
As the distance extends beyond six miles, the curve of the earth (commonly called earth bulge) affects installation,
requiring antennas to be placed at higher elevations.
Fresnel Zone
Fresnel zone is an elliptical area immediately surrounding the visual path. It varies depending on the length of the
signal path and the frequency of the signal. The Fresnel zone can be calculated, and it must be taken into account
when designing a wireless link (Figure 6).
Figure 6.
Fresnel Zone
Based on both line-of-sight and Fresnel zone requirements, Table 3 provides a guideline on height requirements
for 2.4-GHz antennas as various distances. This refers to height above any obstacles located in the middle of the
RF path.
Table 3.
Guideline on Height Requirements for 2.4-GHz Antennas
Wireless Link Distance (miles)
Approx. Value “F” (60% Fresnel
Zone) Ft. at 2.4 GHz
Approx. Value “C” (Earth
Curvature)
Value “H” (mounting Ht.) Ft. with
No Obstructions
1
10
3
13
5
30
5
35
10
44
13
57
15
55
28
83
20
65
50
115
25
72
78
150
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 10 of 73
Cisco.com provides an Outdoor Bridge Range Calculation Utility for both 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz products. This utility
calculates the Fresnel zone and maximum range based upon cable types and lengths, transmitter and receiver
models, and antennas. The utility can be found at:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps458/products_tech_note09186a008009459b.shtml
A 10-dB fade margin is included for 2.4-GHz calculations, while the included 5-dB fade margin for 5-GHz
calculations is sufficient for dependable communications in all weather conditions. The distances given are only
theoretical and should only be used to determine the feasibility of a particular design.
Outdoors, every increase of 6-dB will double the distance. Every decrease of 6-dB will halve the distance. Shortercable runs and higher-gain antennas can make a significant difference to the range. The following links provide
range calculations for the outdoor mesh products:
●
Cisco Aironet 1520 Series:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps11451/products_implementation_design_guides_list.htm
●
Cisco Aironet 1550 Series:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps8368/products_implementation_design_guides_list.html
Regulations
North America
Connectors
In 1985, the FCC enacted standards for the commercial use of spread-spectrum technology in the ISM frequency
bands. Spread spectrum is currently allowed in the 900-, 2400-, and 5200- MHz bands.
In 1989, the FCC drafted an amendment governing spread-spectrum systems in the unlicensed ISM band, and
Congress enacted this amendment into law in 1990. This amendment is commonly referred to as the “new rules”
or “’94 rules” because it impacts all spread-spectrum products manufactured after June 23, 1994. Products
manufactured before June 23, 1994, are not affected by the amendment.
The FCC 1994 rules are intended to discourage use of amplifiers, high-gain antennas, or other means
of significantly increasing RF radiation. The rules are further intended to discourage “home brew” systems that are
installed by inexperienced users and that - either accidentally or intentionally - do not comply with FCC regulations
for use in the ISM band.
Both the original rules and the amendments sought to enable multiple RF networks to “coexist” with minimum
impact on one another by exploiting properties of spread-spectrum technology. Fundamentally, the FCC 1994
rules intend to limit RF communications in the ISM band to a well-defined region, while ensuring multiple systems
can operate with minimum impact on one another. These two needs are addressed by limiting the type and gain of
antennas used with a given system, and by requiring a greater degree of RF energy “spreading.”
Antenna Gain and Power Output
FCC regulations specify maximum power output and antenna gain. For the UNII3 band, the FCC limits the
transmitter power to 1 watt or 30 dBm, and the antenna gain of an omnidirectional antenna to 6 dBi. For directional
antennas operating in a point-to-point system, gains of up to 23 dBi are permitted. For antennas with gain higher
than 23 dBi, the transmitter output power must be reduced 1 dB for every 1 dB above 23 dBi increase in the
antenna gain.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 11 of 73
At 2.4 GHz, the maximum transmitter power is also 1 watt. Using this maximum power, the maximum antenna gain
is 6 dBi. However, the regulations also define the maximum values in regards to the following two different system
scenarios.
Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Systems
In point-to-multipoint systems, the FCC has limited the maximum EIRP to 36 dBm. EIRP = TX power + antenna
gain. For every dB that the transmitter power is reduced, the antenna may be increased by 1 dB. Thus, 29 dBm
TX, +7 dB antenna = 36 dBm EIRP; 28 dBm TX +8 dB antenna = 36 dBm EIRP.
The Cisco Aironet 2.4-GHz bridge transmitter power is 20 dBm, which is 10 dBm lower than maximum. This then
allows the use of antennas up to 10 dB over the initial 6 dBi limit, or 16 dBi.
In point-to-point systems for 2.4-GHz systems using directional antennas, the rules have changed. Because a
high-gain antenna has a narrow beamwidth, the likelihood is great that it will cause interference to other area
users. Under the rule change, for every dB the transmitter is reduced below 30 dBm, the antenna may be
increased from the initial 6 dBi, by 3 dB. Thus, a 29-dB transmitter means 9-dBi antenna; a 28-dB transmitter
means 12-dBi antenna. Because we are operating at 20 dBm, which is 10 dB below the 30 dBm level, we can
increase the antenna gain by 30 dB. Note that Cisco has never tested, and therefore has not certified, any
antenna with gain greater than 21 dBi.
The main issue that comes up here is: What differentiates a point-to-point from a multipoint system.
In Figure 7, point A communicates to a single point (point B), and point B communicates to a single point A;
therefore, it is simple to see that both locations see this as a point-to-point installation.
In Figure 8, point A communicates to more than one (or multiple) points; therefore, point A is operating in a
multipoint configuration, and the largest antenna permitted is 16 dBi. Point B or point C can each communicate to
only one point (point A); therefore, point B and point C actually operate in a single-point or point-to-point operation,
and a larger antenna may be used.
Figure 7.
Point-to-Point Wireless Bridge Solution
Figure 8.
Point-to-Multipoint Wireless Bridge Solution
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 12 of 73
Amplifiers
In the FCC rules, Section 15.204-Part C states: “External radio frequency power amplifiers shall not be marketed
as separate products.” Part D states: “Only the antenna with which an intentional radiator (transmitter) is originally
authorized may be used with the intentional radiator." This means that unless the amplifier manufacturer submits
the amplifier for testing with the radio and antenna, it cannot be sold in the United States. If it has been certified, it
must be marketed and sold as a complete system, including transmitter, antenna, and coaxial cable. It also must
be installed exactly this way.
If you are using a system that includes an amplifier, remember that these rules concerning power are still in effect.
If the amplifier is one-half (.5) watt (27 dBm), this means in a multipoint system, the maximum antenna gain is only
9 dBi, and in a point-to-point system it is only 15 dBi.
ETSI
The European Telecommunication Standardization Institute (ETSI) has developed standards that have been
adopted by many European countries as well as many others. Under the ETSI regulations, the power output and
EIRP regulations are much different than in the United States.
Antenna Gain and Power Output
The ETSI regulations specify maximum EIRP as 20 dBm. Since this includes antenna gain, this limits
the antennas that can be used with a transmitter. To use a larger antenna, the transmitter power must be reduced
so that the overall gain of the transmitter, plus the antenna gain, less any losses in coax, is equal to or less than
+20 dBm. This drastically reduces the overall distance an outdoor link can operate.
Amplifiers
Since the ETSI regulation has such a low EIRP, the use of amplifiers is typically not permitted in any ETSI system.
Frequencies and Channel Sets
IEEE 802.11b/g Direct Sequence Channels
Fourteen channels are defined in the IEEE 802.11b/g direct-sequence channel set. Each direct-sequence channel
as transmitted is 22 MHz wide; however, the channel center separation is only 5 MHz. This leads to channel
overlap such that signals from neighboring channels can interfere with each other. In a 14-channel directsequence system (11 usable in the United States), only three nonoverlapping (and hence, noninterfering)
channels, 25 MHz apart, are possible (for example, channels 1, 6, and 11).
This channel spacing governs the use and allocation of channels in a multiple-access-point environment such as
an office or campus. Access points are usually deployed in “cellular” fashion within an enterprise, where adjacent
access points are allocated nonoverlapping channels. Alternatively, access points can be collocated using
channels 1, 6, and 11 to deliver 33 Mbps bandwidth to a single area (but only 11 Mbps to a single client).
The channel allocation scheme is illustrated in Figure 9, and the available channels in the different regulatory
domains are defined in Table 4.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 13 of 73
Figure 9.
IEEE 802.11b/g DSSS Channel Allocations
Table 4 shows the channels permitted in the corresponding approval areas.
Table 4.
DSSS PHY Frequency Channel Plan
Channel Frequency Regulatory Domains (Maximum Conducted Average Power Levels in dBm)
ID
(MHz)
-A
-C
-E
-I
-J
-K
-N
-P
-S
-T
2400-2484 MHz
Mode
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
1
2412
X
X
X
X
X
X
B
G
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2
2417
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
3
2422
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
4
2427
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
5
2432
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
17
X
X
X
X
X
X
6
2437
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
7
2442
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8
2447
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
9
2452
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
17
10
2457
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
11
2462
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
12
2467
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
13
2472
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
14
2484
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
X
X
Page 14 of 73
IEEE 802.11a Channels
The 802.11a specification today specifies four channels for the UNII1 band, four channels for the UNII2 band, and
four channels for the UNII3 band. These channels are spaced at 20 MHz apart and are considered noninterfering;
however, they do have a slight overlap in frequency spectrum. It is possible to use adjacent channels in adjacent
cell coverage, but it is recommended when possible to separate adjacent cell channels by at least 1 channel.
Figure 10 shows the channel scheme for the 802.11 bands, and Table 5 lists the North American frequency
allocations.
Figure 10.
802.11a Channel Allocation
Table 5.
802.11a Frequency Plan
Regulatory Domain
USA
USA
Frequency Band
● UNII lower band
● 5.15-5.25 GHz
● UNII middle + extended
● 5.25-5.700 GHz
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Channel Number
Centre Frequencies
● 36
● 40
● 5.180 GHz
● 5.200 GHz
● 44
● 48
● 5.220 GHz
● 5.240 GHz
● 52
● 56
● 5.260 GHz
● 5.280 GHz
● 60
● 64
● 5.300 GHz
● 5.320 GHz
● 100
● 104
● 5.500 GHz
● 5.520 GHz
● 108
● 112
● 5.540 GHz
● 5.560 GHz
● 116
● 120*
● 5.580 GHz
● 5.600 GHz
● 124*
● 128*
● 5.620 GHz
● 5.640 GHz
● 132
● 5.660 GHz
Page 15 of 73
Regulatory Domain
Channel Number
● 136
● UNII upper band
● 5.725-5.825 GHz
USA
● ISM band
● 5.725-5.825 GHz
USA
*
Frequency Band
Centre Frequencies
● 5.680 GHz
● 140
● 5.700 GHz
● 149
● 153
● 5.745 GHz
● 5.765 GHz
● 157
● 161
● 5.785 GHz
● 5.805 GHz
● 149
● 153
● 5.745 GHz
● 5.765 GHz
● 157
● 161
● 5.785 GHz
● 5.805 GHz
● 165
● 5.825 GHz
Not supported in US due to weather radars.
Cisco Aironet Antenna Descriptions
Table 6 below defines the various 2.4 GHz antennas that are offered by Cisco for the Cisco Aironet product line,
and Table 7 lists the available antennas for the Cisco Aironet 5 GHz bridge products. Table 8 defines the 2
antennas that are offered for use with the Cisco Aironet 1250 Series Access Points.
Table 6.
2.4 GHz Antennas with RP-TNC connectors
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
AIR-ANT2422DB-R
Black dipole, 1 port
Single black dipole antenna with an RP-TNC connector. The antenna
2.2 dBi
provides indoor omnidirectional coverage and is designed for use in the 24002500 MHz frequency band. It has a 90-degree articulation radius. It can be
used with all radios that utilize an RP-TNC antenna connector.
White dipole, 1 port
Single white dipole antenna with an RP-TNC connector. The antenna
2.2 dBi
provides indoor omnidirectional coverage and is designed for use in the 24002500 MHz frequency band. It has a 90-degree articulation radius. It can be
used with all radios that utilize an RP-TNC antenna connector.
Gray dipole, 1 port
Single gray dipole antenna with an RP-TNC connector. The antenna provides
indoor omnidirectional coverage and is designed for use in the 2400-2500
MHz frequency band. It does not articulate as the other dipole antennas. It
can be used with all radios that utilize an RP-TNC antenna connector.
AIR-ANT2422SDW-R=
White monopole, 1
port
Single white monopole antenna with RP-TNC connector. The antenna
2.2 dBi
provides indoor omnidirectional coverage and is designed for use in the 24002500 MHz frequency band. It does not articulate as the other dipole antennas.
It can be used with the 1260 and 3500 access points.
AIR-ANT2450S-R
Sector, 1 port
Wall mount indoor/outdoor antenna with RP-TNC connector for use with any
2.4 GHz radio. Capable of covering large areas. The plenum rated cable is
36” long.
5 dBi
AIR-ANT1728
Omnidirectional
Ceiling-mount indoor antenna with RP-TNC connector - This antenna was
designed for WLAN applications with frequencies of 2400-2500 MHz. The
antenna is omni directional and has a nominal gain of 5.2 dBi. It comes with a
clip that allows it to be mounted to a drop-ceiling cross member.
5.2 dBi
AIR-ANT2506
Omnidirectional, 1
port
Mast-mount indoor/outdoor antenna with a RP-TNC connector - This antenna
was designed for WLAN applications for frequencies of 2400-2500 MHz. The
antenna is omnidirectional and has a nominal gain of 5.2 dBi. It is designed to
be mounted on a round mast.
5.2 dBi
AIR-ANT2460P-R
Patch, 1 port
Wall mount, indoor/outdoor directional patch antenna. Designed for use with
any radio that features an RP-TNC antenna connector. For use in the 24002500 MHz frequency band. The pigtail cable is plenum rated, 36”long.
6 dBi
AIR-ANT2485P-R
Patch, 1 port
Wall mount indoor/outdoor antenna with a RP-TNC connector-Designed for
use with any radio that features a RP-TNC connector. For use in the 24002500 MHz frequency band. The plenum rated pigtail cable is 36”long.
8.5 dBi
AIR-ANT4941
AIR-ANT2422DW-R
AIR-ANT2422DW-R=
AIR-ANT2422DG-R
AIR-ANT2422DG-R=
AIR-ANT2422SDW-R
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Gain
2.2 dBi
Page 16 of 73
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
AIR-ANT2410Y-R
Yagi, 1 port
High-gain outdoor directional antenna with a RP-TNC connector - This WLAN
antenna is a completely enclosed yagi. It is designed to be used as a bridge
antenna between two networks or for point-to-point communications The gain
is 10 dBi and the half-power beamwidth is 55 degrees. This antenna is
normally mounted on a mast and is vertically polarized.
10 dBi
AIR-ANT24120
Omnidirectional, 1
port
Mast mount outdoor high gain antenna with a RP-TNC connector - This
antenna was designed for WLAN applications for frequencies of 2400-2500
MHz. The antenna is omni directional and has a nominal gain of 12 dBi. This
design uses an elevated center-feed to produce an elevation pattern with very
little “squint” or beam-tilt. It is designed to be mounted on a round mast.
12 dBi
AIR-ANT1949
Yagi, 1 port
High-gain outdoor directional antenna with a RP-TNC connector - This WLAN
antenna is a completely enclosed 16-element yagi. It is designed to be used
as a bridge antenna between two networks or for point-to-point
communications The gain is 13.5 dBi and the half-power beamwidth is 30
degrees. This antenna is normally mounted on a mast and is vertically
polarized.
13.5 dBi
AIR-ANT2414S-R
Sector, 1 port
Mast mount outdoor sector antenna with a RP-TNC connector - This antenna
was designed for WLAN applications for frequencies of 2400-2500 MHz. The
antenna is directional and has a nominal gain of 14 dBi. Its flexible mounting
bracket allows for either mast or wall mounting options.
14 dBi
AIR-ANT3338
Dish, 1 port
Very high-gain outdoor antenna with a RP-TNC connector - This WLAN
21 dBi
antenna is a parabolic dish designed to be used as a bridge antenna between
two networks or for point-to-point communications. It consists of an aluminum
parabolic reflector and feed antenna. The antenna features a rugged mount. It
also offers 20 degree fine adjustment for both horizontal and vertical planes.
The antenna is provided with hardware for mast mounting.
AIR-ANT24020V-R=
Omnidirectional, 2
port
Ceiling mount indoor antenna with two RP-TNC connectors. Supports
diversity antennas in a single package for areas where multipath problems
exist. The pigtail cable is plenum rated and 36” long.
2.0 dBi
AIR-ANT2452V-R
Omnidirectional, 2
port
Pillar-mount diversity, indoor antenna with two RP-TNC connectors. Antenna
is ideal for the retail or hospital environment. Includes 36 in. of white RG-58
cable with a separation of coaxial cables that are joined together to form a 10
in. length. Included are two mounting brackets that will keep the antenna 6 in.
off the wall.
5.2 dBi
AIR-ANT2465P-R
Patch, 2 port
Wall-mount indoor/outdoor antenna with two RP-TNC connectors-Similar to
AIR-ANT2460P-R, but providing diversity antennas in the same package for
areas where multipath problems exist. The pigtail cable is plenum rated and
36” long.
6.5 dBi
AIR-ANT2430V-R=
Omnidirectional, 3
port
Ceiling-mount indoor omni-directional antenna with three cables terminating
in RP-TNC connectors. For use with 802.11n access points. For use in the
2400-2500 MHz frequency band. The pigtail cables are plenum rated and 36”
long each.
3 dBi
Air-ANT2440NV-R=
Omnidirectional, 3
port
Wall or mast -mount 2.4 GHz indoor/outdoor omni-directional antenna with
three cables terminating in RP-TNC connectors. For use with 802.11n access
points. The pigtail cables are plenum rated and 36” long each.
4 dBi
AIR-ANT2460NP-R=
Patch, 3 port
Wall or mast -mount 2.4 GHz indoor/outdoor patch antenna with three cables
terminating in RP-TNC connectors. For use with 802.11n access points. The
pigtail cables are plenum rated and 36” long each.
6 dBi
Table 7.
5 GHz Antennas with RP-TNC connectors
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
AIR-ANT5135DB-R
Omnidirectional, 1
port
Single black dipole antenna with an RP-TNC connector. The antenna
provides indoor omnidirectional coverage and is designed for use in the 5
GHz frequency band. It has a 90-degree articulation radius. It can be used
with radios that utilize an RP-TNC antenna connector.
3.5 dBi
Omnidirectional, 1
port
Single white dipole antenna with an RP-TNC connector. The antenna
provides indoor omnidirectional coverage and is designed for use in the 5
GHz frequency band. It has a 90-degree articulation radius. It can be used
with radios that utilize an RP-TNC antenna connector.
3.5 dBi
Omnidirectional, 1
port
Indoor-only gray, non-articulating dipole like omnidirectional antenna for 5 3.5 dBi
GHz. It can be used with radios that utilize an RP-TNC antenna connector.
AIR-ANT5135D-R
AIR-ANT5135DW-R
AIR-ANT5135DW-R=
AIR-ANT5135DG-R
AIR-ANT5135DG-R=
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 17 of 73
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
AIR-ANT5160V-R
Omnidirectional, 1
port
Indoor or outdoor use omnidirectional 5 GHz antenna for use with the
1200 Series and the 802.11a module (AIR-RM22A). Can be mast or
ceiling mounted.
6 dBi
AIR-ANT5195P-R
Patch, 1 port
Wall or Mast Mount Patch Antenna - Designed for use indoor or outdoors,
this antenna comes with a wall mount and a plate that adapts to
articulating mounting hardware (AIR-ACC2662), which is sold separately.
It has a plenum rated pigtail cable of 36 in.
9.5 dBi
AIR-ANT5145V-R
Omnidirectional, 2
port
Indoor-only ceiling mounted diversity omnidirectional 5 GHz antenna
4.5 dBi
AIR-ANT5170P-R
Patch, 2 port
Wall Mount diversity patch antenna with RP-TNC Connectors - Designed
for use in both indoor and outdoor applications. It comes with wall mount
hardware, and has a gain of 7 dBi. It has a plenum rated pigtail cable of
36”.
7 dBi
AIR-ANT5140V-R=
Omnidirectional, 3
port
Ceiling mount indoor omni-directional antenna with three cables
terminating in RP-TNC connectors. Designed for use with 802.11n access
points. The plenum rated pigtail cables are 36” long each.
4 dBi
AIR-ANT5140NV-R=
Omnidirectional, 3
port
Wall or mast mount 5GHz indoor/outdoor omni-directional antenna with
three cables terminating in RP-TNC connectors. Designed for use with
802.11n access points. The plenum rated pigtail cables are 36” long each.
4 dBi
AIR-ANT5160NP-R=
Patch, 3 port
Indoor or outdoor wall mounted 5 GHz patch antenna. with three cables
terminating in RP-TNC connectors. Designed for use with 802.11n access
points. The plenum rated pigtail cables are 36” long each.
6 dBi
Table 8.
Dual Band Antennas for 2.4 and 5 GHz Access Points with RP-TNC Connectors
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
AIR-ANT2451V-R=
Omnidirectional 4 port
Ceiling Mount Omni-directional Antenna - Designed for use indoor, this
antenna comes with ceiling mount hardware. It has 4 plenum rated
pigtail cables, 18 inches each, with 4 right angle RP-TNC connectors.
2.4 GHz: 2 dBi
Omnidirectional, 6 port Ceiling Mount Omni-directional Antenna - Designed for use indoor, this
antenna comes with ceiling mount hardware. It has 6 plenum rated
pigtail cables, 18 inches each, with 6 RP-TNC connectors.
2.4 GHz: 2 dBi
Patch, 6 port
2.4 GHz: 13 dBi
AIR-ANT2451NV-R=
AIR-ANT25137NP-R=
Table 9.
Designed for high density wireless applications such as stadiums and
arena. Wall mounted patch antenna with 6 plenum rated pigtail cables,
36 inches each and 6 RP-TNC connectors. Only certified for use with
AP3502P access point
5 GHz: 3 dBi
5 GHz: 3 dBi
5 GHz: 7 dBi
2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Access Point and Bridge Antennas with N Type Connectors
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
AIR-ANT2420V-N
Omnidirectional
2.4 GHz omnidirectional antenna for mesh access points. Suitable for
use on Cisco Aironet 1520 Series Mesh Access Points. It is only 5
inches long, mounts directly to the access point, and has no cable
attachments.
2 dBi
AIR-ANT2450V-N (=)
Omnidirectional
2.4 GHz omnidirectional antenna for mesh access points. Suitable for
use on Cisco Aironet 1520 Series Mesh Access Points. It mounts
directly to the access point and has no cable attachments.
5 dBi
AIR-ANT2455V-N=
Omnidirectional
2.4 GHz omnidirectional antenna for mesh access points. Suitable for
use on Cisco Aironet 1520 Series Mesh Access Points. It mounts
directly to the access point and has no cable attachments.
5.5 dBi
AIR-ANT2480V-N (=)
Omnidirectional
2.4 GHz omnidirectional antenna for mesh access points. Suitable for
use on Cisco Aironet 1520 Series Mesh Access Points. It mounts
directly to the access point and has no cable attachments
8 dBi
AIR-ANT5140V-N (=)
Omnidirectional
5 GHz omnidirectional antenna for mesh access points. Suitable for use
on Cisco Aironet 1520 Series Mesh Access Points. It mounts directly to
the access point and has no cable attachments.
4 dBi
AIR-ANT5175V-N (=)
Omnidirectional
A 7.5 dBi antenna which supports 4900-5825 MHz. It has a 12” pigtail
cable and a N-type connector.
7.5 dBi
AIR-ANT5180V-N (=)
Omnidirectional
5 GHz omnidirectional antenna for mesh access points. Suitable for use
on Cisco Aironet 1520 Series Mesh Access Points. It mounts directly to
the access point and has no cable attachments.
8 dBi
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 18 of 73
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
AIR-ANT58G9VOA-N
Omnidirectional
An omnidirectional antenna, for use with the Cisco Aironet 1400 Series
9 dBi
Wireless Bridge. This non-diversity, vertically polarized antenna
operates in the UNII-3 band (5725 to 5825 MHz). The antenna is
designed to be mast mounted in an outdoor environment. The antenna
is not compatible with other Cisco Aironet radio products operating in the
5 GHz frequency band.
AIR-ANT58G10SSA-N
Sector
A sector antenna for use with the Cisco Aironet 1400 Series Wireless
Bridge. This non-diversity symmetric antenna operates in the UNII-3
band (5725-5825 MHz). The antenna is designed to be mounted
outdoors on a mast or a suitable vertical surface. The antenna is not
compatible with other Cisco Aironet radio products operating in the 5
GHz frequency band.
9.5 dBi
AIR-ANT5114P-N=
Patch
5 GHz, 14 dBi patch antenna for use in the 4950-5850 MHz frequency
band. The antenna has an N-type connector, and will require a separate
low loss cable for mounting to the access point. Articulating mount
included. Fits mast pole sizes 2” diameter maximum
14 dBi
AIR-ANT5117S-N=
Sector
5 GHz, 17 dBi sector antenna for use in the 4950-5850 MHz frequency
band. The antenna has an N-type connector, and will require a separate
low loss cable for mounting to the access point. Fits mast pole sizes 1.5
to 3” diameter maximum.
17 dBi
AIR-ANT58G28SDA-N
Dish
A parabolic dish antenna for use with the Cisco Aironet 1400 Series
Wireless Bridge. This non-diversity parabolic antenna operates in the
UNII-3 band (5725-5825 MHz). The antenna is designed to be mounted
outdoors on a mast. The antenna is designed to be used at the hub or
client site of a point-to-point installation, or point-to-multipoint client
sites, providing extended range. The antenna is not compatible with
other Cisco Aironet radio products operating in the 5 GHz frequency
band.
28 dBi
Table 10.
Gain
2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Dual-band Antennas with N Type Connectors
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
AIR-ANT2547V-N (=)
Omnidirectional
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi and 5 GHz 7 dBi dual band omnidirectional antenna.
which utilizes an N-type connector. It mounts directly to the access
point and has no cable attachments
2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
Table 11.
5 GHz: 7 dBi
2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Access Point and Bridge Integrated Antennas
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
Integrated AP1130AG
Antenna
Omnidirectional
Diversity antenna package for both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz designed for
high performance in both ceiling and wall mount applications.
Antennas provide hemispherical coverage and cannot be removed
from the Access Point. No connectors are offered for additional
external antennas.
2.4 GHz: 3 dBi
Integrated AP 1040
Antenna
2.4 GHz: 2 dBi
802.11n antenna package for both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz designed
for high performance in both ceiling and wall mount applications.
Antennas provide hemispherical coverage and cannot be removed
from the Access Point. No connectors are offered for additional
external antennas.
2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
Integrated AP 1140
Antenna
Omnidirectional
802.11n antenna package for both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz designed
for high performance in both ceiling and wall mount applications.
Antennas provide hemispherical coverage and cannot be removed
from the Access Point. No connectors are offered for additional
external antennas.
2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
Integrated AP 3500i
Antenna
Omnidirectional
802.11n antenna package for both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz designed
for high performance in both ceiling and wall mount applications.
Antennas provide hemispherical coverage and cannot be removed
from the Access Point. No connectors are offered for additional
external antennas.
2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
Integrated OEAP600
Antenna
Omnidirectional
802.11n antenna package for both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz designed
for high performance in both ceiling and wall and desk mount
applications. Antennas provide hemispherical coverage and cannot be
removed from the Access Point. No connectors are offered for
additional external antennas.
2.4 GHz: 2 dBi
5 Ghz: 4 dBi
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
5 GHz: 4.5 dBi
5 Ghz: 3 dBi
5 Ghz: 3 dBi
5 Ghz: 3 dBi
5 Ghz: 2 dBi
Page 19 of 73
Cisco Part Number
Antenna Type
Description
Gain
Integrated BR1310G
Patch Antenna
Integrated Patch
2402-2497 MHz Patch Array Antenna. When the captured antenna
version is ordered, this antenna is attached to the 1300 AP/Bridge and
provides an integrated solution with exceptional gain. This antenna
cannot be removed for use with other radios.
13 dBi
Integrated BR1410
Patch Antenna
Integrated Patch
5.8 GHz UNII-3 Patch antenna. When the captured antenna version is
22.5 dBi
ordered, this antenna is attached to the BR1410 bridge and provides for
an integrated solution with exceptional gain. The antenna is not
compatible with other Cisco Aironet radio products operating in the 5
GHz frequency band.
Integrated AP 1550
Antenna
Omnidirectional
802.11n antenna package for both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz When the
integrate antenna version is ordered, this antenna is attached to the
Access Point and provides omnidirectional coverage in a low-profile
package. No connectors are offered for additional external antennas.
2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
5 Ghz: 3 dBi
Cisco Aironet Cable Descriptions
Table 12 below defines the cables available for interconnecting the antennas and the radio devices for the Cisco
Aironet product line.
Table 12.
Cisco Cables
Cisco Part Number
Type of Cable
Description
Loss at 2.4 GHz
Loss at 5.8 GHz
AIR-CAB005LL-N
Interconnect
5-ft low loss cable, one straight N connector, one
90-degree N connector
0.5 dB
0.8 dB
AIR-CAB005LL-R
Interconnect
5-ft low loss cable, one RP-TNC plug, one RP-TNC
jack
0.5 dB
0.8 dB
AIR-CAB010LL-N
Interconnect
10-ft low loss cable, one straight N connector, one
90-degree N connector
0.9 dB
1.5 dB
AIR-CAB020LL-R
Interconnect
20-ft low loss cable, one RP-TNC plug, one
RP-TNC jack
1.3 dB
2.5 dB
AIR-CAB050LL-R
Interconnect
50-ft low loss cable, one RP-TNC plug, one
RP-TNC jack
3.4 dB
5.75 dB
AIR-CAB100ULL-R
Interconnect
100-ft ultra low loss cable, one RP-TNC plug, one
RP-TNC jack
4.4 dB
7.25 dB
AIR-CAB150ULL-R
Interconnect
150-ft ultra low loss cable, one RP-TNC plug, one
RP-TNC jack
6.6 dB
11 dB
AIR-ACC2537-060
Bulkhead Extender
5-ft (60 inches) RG-58 type cable with one RP-TNC
plug and one RP-TNC jack
2 dB
3 dB
Table 13.
Accessories
Cisco Part Number
Name
Description
AIR-ACC2662
Yagi Articulating Mount
This mount permits the Yagi antenna to be mounted to a flat surface or a mast, and then be
adjusted in both horizontal and vertical angles.
AIR-ACC245LA-R
Lightning Arrestor
Supports both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz operation. Provides lightning and related energy surges at
the antenna from reaching the radio circuitry. A ground ring is included.
Cisco Aironet Antenna Specifications
The following section provides detailed descriptions, including physical and electrical specifications for the
antennas offered by Cisco for the Cisco Aironet product line. Full detailed installation guides for each antenna can
be found at the following:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps469/prod_installation_guides_list.html
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 20 of 73
2.2 dBi Dipole
AIR-AT2422DB-R=/AIR-ANT4941
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.484 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Power
5 watts
Gain
2.2 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
65 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
5.5 in.
Mounting
To RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 21 of 73
2.2 dBi Dipole
AIR-ANT2422DW-R
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.484 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Power
5 watts
Gain
2.2 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
65 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
None
Dimensions
5.5 in.
Mounting
To RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 22 of 73
2.2 dBi Dipole
AIR-ANT2422DG-R
Dimensions And Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.484 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Power
5 watts
Gain
2.2 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
65 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
None
Dimensions
3.9 in.
Mounting
To RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 23 of 73
2.2 dBi Monopole
AIR-ANT2422SDW-R
Dimensions And Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth and Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2400 - 2500 MHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Gain
2.2 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
50 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
None
Dimensions
1.7 in.
Mounting
To RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 24 of 73
5 dBi Sector
AIR-ANT2450S-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
1.5 or less
Gain
5.0 dBi
Polarization
Linear vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
135 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
54 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
6 x 3 x 2 in (15.2 x 7.6 x 5 cm)
Mounting
Wall Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 25 of 73
5.2 dBi Ceiling Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT1728
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.83 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1, 1.5:1 Nominal
Gain
5.2 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional 360 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
36 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 m)
Dimensions
11.25 in. x 1 in. (28.57 cm x 2.54)
Mounting
Drop ceiling cross member - indoor only
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 26 of 73
5.2 dBi Mast Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT2506
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.83 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1, 1.5:1 Nominal
Gain
5.2 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional 360 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
36 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft (91 m)
Dimensions
11.5 in. x 1.125 in. (29.21 cm x 2.85 cm)
Mounting
Mast mount - indoor/outdoor
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 27 of 73
6 dBi Wall Mount Directional
AIR-ANT2460P-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Gain
6 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
75 degrees
Elevation Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
73 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
4.1 in. x 3.9 in. x .75 in. (10.41 cm x 9.90 cm x 1.90 cm)
Mounting
Wall Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 28 of 73
8.5 dBi Wall Mount
AIR-ANT2485P-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
2:1 Max, 1.5:1 Nominal
Gain
8.5 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
66 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
56 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
5.3 in. x 5.3 in. x .90 in. (13.5 cm x 13.5 cm x 2.2 cm)
Mounting
Wall Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 29 of 73
10 dBi Wall/Mast Mount YAGI
AIR-ANT2410Y-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.483 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Gain
10 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
55 degrees
Elevations Plan 3dB Beamwidth
47 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
3 in. x 7.25 in. (7.62 cm x 18.42 cm)
Mounting
Wall/Mast Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 30 of 73
12 dBi Mast Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT24120
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2400-2500 MHz
VSWR
1.5:1
Gain
12 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional 360 degrees
Elevation (3dB Beamwidth)
7 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
1 ft. (30.48 cm)
Dimensions
42 in. x 1.25 in. (106.68 cm x 3.17 cm)
Wind Rating
125 MPH
Mounting
Mast Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 31 of 73
13.5 dBi Mast/Wall Mount YAGI
AIR-ANT1949
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.83 GHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1, 1.5:1 Nominal
Gain
13.5 dBi
Front to Back Ratio
Greater than 25 dB
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
30 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
25 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
18 in. x 3 in. (45.72 cm x 7.62 cm)
Wind Rating
110 MPH
Mounting
Mast/Wall Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 32 of 73
14 dBi Mast Mount Sector
AIR-ANT2414S-R
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
1.5:1
Gain
14 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
90 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
8.5 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
5 ft. (152.4 cm)
Dimensions
36 in. x 6 in. x 4 in. (91.44 cm x 15.24 cm x 10.16 cm)
Mounting
Mast Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 33 of 73
21 dBi Mast Mount Parabolic Dish
AIR-ANT3338
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.83 GHz
VSWR
Less than 1.8:1, 15:1 Nominal
Power
5 watts
Gain
21 dBi
Front to Back Ratio
Greater than 25 dB
Maximum Side Lobe
-17 dB
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
12 degrees
Elevation 3dB Beamwidth
12 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
2 ft. (60.96 cm)
Dimensions
24 in. x 15.5 in. (60.96 cm x 39.37 cm)
Wind Rating
110 MPH
Mounting
Mast Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 34 of 73
2 dBi Omnidirectional, 2 element
AIR-ANT24020V-R=
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Left Antenna Patterns
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
1.5:1
Gain
2.2 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
360 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
97 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
6.9 in. x 3 in. x .90 in. (17.5 cm x 7.6 cm x 2.5 cm)
Mounting
Ceiling Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Right Antenna Patterns
Page 35 of 73
5.2 dBi Wall Mount
AIR-ANT2452V-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Left Antenna Patterns
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
< 2:1
Gain
5 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
360 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
27 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
11 in. x 5 in. x 1 in. (27.2 cm x 12.7 cm x 2.5 cm)
Mounting
Wall Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Right Antenna Patterns
Page 36 of 73
6.5 dBi Wall Mount
AIR-ANT2465P-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Left Antenna Patterns
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
1.7:1 Nominal
Gain
6.5 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
75 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
57 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
5 in. x 6.7 in. x .90 in. (12.7 cm x 17.0 cm x 2.2 cm)
Mounting
Wall Mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Right Antenna Patterns
Page 37 of 73
Omnidirectional, 3 element Ceiling Mount
AIR-ANT2430V-R=
Antenna A Radiation Pattern
Antenna B Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2402 - 2485 MHz;
VSWR
2:1
Gain
3 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
60
Antenna Connector
(3) RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
12.1in . x 4.2 in x 1.6 in (30.7 cm x 10.6cm x 4.0 cm)
Mounting
Ceiling
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Antenna C Radiation Pattern
Page 38 of 73
Omnidirectional, 3 element Wall Mount
AIR-ANT2440NV-R=
Antenna A Radiation Pattern
Antenna B Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2402 - 2484 MHz;
VSWR
2:1
Gain
4 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
36
Antenna Connector
(3) RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
8.6 in x 6.3 in dia. (21.8 cm x 16 cm dia.)
Mounting
Wall mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Antenna C Radiation Pattern
Page 39 of 73
6 dBi Patch, 3 element Wall Mount
AIR-ANT2460NP-R=
Antenna A Radiation Pattern
Antenna B Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2402 - 2484 MHz;
VSWR
2:1
Gain
6 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
80 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
75 degrees
Antenna Connector
(3) RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
5.8 in x 11.25 in x 1.13 in (14.7 cm x 28.6 cm x 2.9 cm)
Mounting
Wall mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Antenna C Radiation Pattern
Page 40 of 73
3.5 dBi Dipole
AIR-ANT5135D-R
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.15-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
3.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
40 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
5.3 in. (13.46 cm)
Mounting
RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 41 of 73
3.5 dBi Dipole
AIR-ANT5135DW-R
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.15-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
3.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
40 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
5.3 in. (13.46 cm)
Mounting
RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 42 of 73
3.5 dBi Dipole
AIR-ANT5135DG-R
Dimensions and Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.15-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
3.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
40 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
3.6 in. (9.14 cm)
Mounting
RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 43 of 73
2.2 dBi Monopole
AIR-ANT5135SDW-R
Dimensions And Mounting
Specifications
Azimuth and Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5150 - 5850 MHz
VSWR
Less than 2:1
Gain
2.2 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
40 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
None
Dimensions
1.7 in.
Mounting
To RP-TNC Connector
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 44 of 73
6 dBi Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT5160V-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.15-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
6 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional 360 degrees
Elevation 3dB Beamwidth
17 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
12 in. x 1 in. (30.48 cm x 2.54 cm)
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 45 of 73
9.5 dBi Patch Wall or Articulating Mast Mount
AIR-ANT5195P-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.1-5.8 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
9.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear and vertical
Azimuth Plane
50 degrees
Elevation Plane
43 degrees
Connectors
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
5.1 in. x 5.1 in. x 1.0 in. (12.9 cm x 12.9 cm x 2.5 cm)
Mounting
Wall mount or articulating mast mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 46 of 73
4.5 dBi Diversity Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT5145V-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.15-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
4.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Diversity Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
50 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
6.75 in. x 4.1 in. x 1 in. (17.15 cm x 10.41 x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Drop ceiling cross member mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 47 of 73
7 dBi Diversity Patch Wall Mount
AIR-ANT5170P-R
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Left Antenna Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.1-5.8 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
7 dBi
Polarization
Linear and vertical
Azimuth Plane
70 degrees
Elevation Plane
50 degrees
Connectors
RP-TNC
Cable Length
3 ft. (91 cm)
Dimensions
5.7 in x 4.3 in. x 0.7 in. (14.5 cm x 10.9 cm x 1.8 cm)
Mounting
Wall mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Right Antenna Radiation Pattern
Page 48 of 73
Omnidirectional, 3 element Ceiling Mount
AIR-ANT5140V-R=
Antenna A Radiation Pattern
Antenna B Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
4900 - 5850 MHz
VSWR
1.5:1
Gain
4 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
45 degrees
Antenna Connector
(3) RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
6.9 in . x 3 in x 1 in (17.5 cm x 7.6cm x 2.5 cm)
Mounting
Ceiling
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Antenna C Radiation Pattern
Page 49 of 73
Omnidirectional, 3 element Wall Mount
AIR-ANT5140NV-R=
Antenna A Radiation Pattern
Antenna B Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5150 - 5850 MHz
VSWR
2:1
Gain
4 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
36
Antenna Connector
(3) RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
8.6in x 6.3 in dia. (21.8 cm dia x 16 cm dia.)
Mounting
Wall mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Antenna C Radiation Pattern
Page 50 of 73
6 dBi Patch, 3 element Wall Mount
AIR-ANT5160NP-R=
Antenna A Radiation Pattern
Antenna B Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5150 - 5850 MHz
VSWR
2:1
Gain
6 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
65 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
65 degrees
Antenna Connector
(3) RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
4 in x 7 in x 1 in (10.2 cm x 17.8 cm x 2.5 cm)
Mounting
Wall mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Antenna C Radiation Pattern
Page 51 of 73
Dual Band Ceiling Mount Omnidirectional, 2 element
AIR-ANT2451V-R=
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz; 5.1-5.8GHz
VSWR
2:1
Gain
● 2 dBi in 2.4 GHz
● 3 dBi in 5 GHz
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
● 80 degrees in 2.4 GHz
● 50 degrees in 5 GHz
Antenna Connector
(4) Right angle RP-TNC male
Cable Length
18in (45.7 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
8.5 in. x 6 in. x .93 in (21.5 cm x 15.2 cm x 2.4cm)
Mounting
Ceiling
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 52 of 73
Dual Band Ceiling Mount Omnidirectional, 3 element
AIR-ANT2451NV-R=
2.4 GHz Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz Radiation Pattern
5 GHz Radiation Pattern
5 GHz Radiation Pattern
5 GHz Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.400 - 2.500 GHz;
5.150 - 5.850 GHz
VSWR
Gain
2:1
● 2.5 dBi in 2.4 GHz
● 3.5 dBi in 5 GHz
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
● 63 degrees in 2.4 GHz
● 55 degrees in 5 GHz
Antenna Connector
(6) Right angle RP-TNC male
Cable Length
36 in (91.4 cm) plenum rated
Dimensions
8.6 in dia. x 1.8 in (21.8 cm x 4.6cm)
Mounting
Ceiling
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 53 of 73
Dual Band Patch Antenna
AIR-ANT25137NP-R=
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
5 GHz, 3 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
● 2.4-2.5GHz
● 5.15-5.85 GHz
Gain
● 2.4 GHz: 13 dBi
● 5 GHz: 7 dBi
5 GHz, 3 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Polarization
Cable A = Horizontal, Cables B and C = Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
2.4 GHz = 36 degrees 5 GHz = 55 degrees
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
2.4 GHz = 36 degrees 5 GHz = 48 degrees
Antenna Connector
RP-TNC
Mounting
Integrated
Dimensions (w/out mount)
18 in x 13 in x 2 in (45.7 cm x 33 cm x 5.1 cm)
Antenna Type
MIMO Patch Array
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 54 of 73
2 dBi Direct Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT2420V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
<2:1
Gain
2 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
TBD degrees
Antenna Connector
N-male
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
5 in. x 1 in. (12.7 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Direct Mount
Wind Rating (Operational)
125 mph
Wind Rating (Survival)
165 mph
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 55 of 73
5 dBi Direct Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT2450V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
1:7:1
Gain
5dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
30 degrees
Antenna Connector
N-male
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
11 in. x 1 in. (27.93 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Direct Mount
Wind Rating (Operational)
125 mph
Wind Rating (Survival)
165 mph
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 56 of 73
5.5 dBi Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT2455V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.83 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
5.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth Plane
Omnidirectional
Elevation Plane
25 degrees
Connectors
N
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
12.5 in. x 1 in. (31.75 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Direct mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 57 of 73
8 dBi Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT2480V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.5 GHz
VSWR
1:6:1
Gain
8 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
10 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
Omnidirectional
Antenna Connector
N-male
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
19.5 in. x 7/8 in. (49.52 cm x 2.22 cm)
Mounting
Direct Mount
Wind Rating (operational)
100 mph
Wind Rating (survival)
165 mph
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 58 of 73
4 dBi Direct Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT5140V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Frequency Range
5.25 - 5.875 GHz
VSWR
<2:1
Gain
4 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
TBD degrees
Antenna Connector
N-male
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
5 in. x 1 in. (12.7 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Direct Mount
Wind Rating (Operational)
125 mph
Wind Rating (Survival)
165 mph
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 59 of 73
7.5 dBi Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT5175V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
4.9-5.8 GHz
VSWR
2:1 or better
Gain
7.5 dBi for 5GHz bands. 6 dBi for 4.9GHz bands.
Polarization
Linear
Azimuth Plane
Omnidirectional
Elevation Plane
16 degrees
Connectors
N
Cable Length
1 ft. (0.30 m)
Dimensions
11.65 in. x 1 in. (29.5 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Direct mount
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 60 of 73
8 dBi Direct Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT5180V-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
4.9-5.85 GHz
VSWR
1:7:1
Gain
8 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations Plane (3dB Beamwidth)
16 degrees
Antenna Connector
N-male
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
11 in. x 1 in. (27.93 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Direct Mount
Wind Rating (operational)
125 mph
Wind Rating (survival)
165 mph
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 61 of 73
9 dBi MAST Mount Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT58G9VOA-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.725-5.825 GHz
Antenna Connector
N-Male
VSWR
1.5:1 Nominal
Maximum Power
4 watts
Gain
9 dBi
Polarization
Vertical
Dimensions
20.25 in x .64 in.
Cable Length
4.9 ft. (1.5 m)
Mounting
1.5-2.5 in. Mast mount
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Wind Speed (operational)
100 MPH
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
6 degrees
Wind Speed (survival)
125 MPH
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Beamtilt
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 62 of 73
9.5 dBi Mast Mount Sector
AIR-ANT58G10SSA-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.725-5.825 GHz
VSWR
1.5:1 Nominal
Gain
9.5 dBi
Polarization
H or V
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
60 degrees
Elevations Plan (3dB Beamwidth)
60 degrees
Antenna Connector
N-Male
Dimensions
4.9 ft. (1.5 m)
Maximum Power
4 watts
Temperature (Operating)
-20°F Min, +60°C Max
Mounting
1.5-2.5 in. Mast mount
Wind Speed (Operational)
100 MPH
Wind Speed (Survival)
125 MPH
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 63 of 73
14 dBi Patch
AIR-ANT5114P-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
4.9-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1
Gain
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
● 4.9-5.4 GHz: 13 dBi
● 5.4-5.85 GHz: 14 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
25 degrees
Elevations Plane (3dB Beamwidth)
29 degrees
Antenna Connector
N-female
Cable Length
1 ft. (0.30 m)
Dimensions
4 1/8 in. x 4 1/8 in. (1.27 cm x 1.27 cm)
Mounting
Wall or mast
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 64 of 73
17 dBi Sector
AIR-ANT5117S-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
4.9-5.85 GHz
VSWR
2:1
Gain
17 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
90 degrees
Elevations Plane (3dB Beamwidth)
8 degrees
Antenna Connector
N-female
Cable Length
None
Dimensions
24 1/2 in. x 2 1/2 in. (30.48 cm x 2.54 cm)
Mounting
Mast mount
Wind Rating (Operational)
125 mph
Wind Rating (Survival)
165 mph
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 65 of 73
28 dBi Mast Mount Dish - 5.8 GHz
AIR-ANT58G28SDA-N
Dimensions and Mounting Specifications
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.725-5.825 GHz
Wind Speed (survival)
125 MPH
VSWR
1.5:1 Nominal
Antenna Connector
N-Male
Dimensions
4.9 ft (1.5 m)
Gain
28 dBi
Maximum Power
4 watts
Polarization
V or H
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
4.75 degrees
Mounting
1.5-2.5 in. Mast mount
Elevations Plan (3dB BW)
4.75 degrees
Wind Speed (operational)
100 MPH
Dimensions
29 in. Diameter
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Page 66 of 73
Dual Band Omnidirectional
AIR-ANT2547V-N=
2.4 GHz Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
5 GHz Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5 GHz Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
2400-2483 MHz
5150 - 5875 MHz
VSWR
Gain
2:1
● 4 dBi in 2.4 GHz
● 7 dBi in 5 GHz
Polarization
Linear, vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omni
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
● 30 degrees in 2.4 GHz
● 14 degrees in 5 GHz
Antenna Connector
N-type male
Cable Length
none
Dimensions
11.1 in. x 1.25 in.dia. (28.2 cm x 3.2 cm dia)
Mounting
Direct mount
Wind Rating (operational)
100 mph (161 km/h)
Wind Rating (survival)
165 mph (265 km/h)
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 67 of 73
Cisco Aironet 1130 Series Integrated Antenna
2.4 GHz, 3 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
5 GHz, 4.5 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz, 3 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
● 2.4-2.5GHz
● 5.15-5.8 GHz
Gain
● 2.4 GHz: 3 dBi
● 5 GHz: 4.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
50 degrees
Antenna Connector
Integrated
Mounting
Integrated
Antenna Type
Omnidirectional
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
5 GHz, 4.5 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Page 68 of 73
Cisco Aironet 1040, 1140, 3500i Series Integrated Antennas*
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
5 GHz, 3 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
● 2.4-2.5GHz
● 5.15-5.85 GHz
Gain
● 2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
● 5 GHz: 3 dBi
5 GHz, 3 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
2.4 GHz = 120 degrees, 5 GHz = 120 degrees
Antenna Connector
Integrated
Mounting
Integrated
Antenna Type
Omnidirectional
Note:
Same integrated antennas used on these devices but AP-1040 only has two elements per band
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 69 of 73
Cisco Aironet OEAP600 Series Integrated Antenna
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
5 GHz, 3 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
● 2.4-2.5GHz
● 5.15-5.85 GHz
Gain
● 2.4 GHz: 2 dBi
● 5 GHz: 2 dBi
5 GHz, 3 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
2.4 GHz = 120 degrees, 5 GHz = 120 degrees
Antenna Connector
Integrated
Mounting
Integrated
Antenna Type
Omnidirectional
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 70 of 73
Cisco Aironet 1300 Series Integrated Antenna
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
2.4-2.83 GHz
Antenna Type
2 x 2 Patch Array
Gain
13 dBi
Polarization
Linear Vertical
VSWR
1.5:1 VSWR Nominal
E-Plane 3 dB Beamwidth
36 degrees
H-Plane 3 dB Beamwidth
38 degrees
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 71 of 73
Cisco Aironet 1400 Series Integrated Antenna
Azimuth Plane Radiation Pattern
Elevation Plane Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
5.725 to 5.825 GHz
Antenna Type
Patch Array
Gain
22.5 dBi
Polarization
Linear Vertical
VSWR
1.5:1 VSWR Nominal
E-Plane 3 dB Beamwidth
10 degrees
H-Plane 3 dB Beamwidth
12 degrees
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
Page 72 of 73
Cisco Aironet 1550 Series Integrated Antenna
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
5 GHz, 3 dBi Azimuth Plane
Radiation Pattern
2.4 GHz, 4 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Frequency Range
● 2.4-2.5GHz
● 5.15-5.85 GHz
Gain
● 2.4 GHz: 4 dBi
● 5 GHz: 3 dBi
5 GHz, 3 dBi Elevation Plane
Radiation Pattern
Polarization
Linear, Vertical
Azimuth 3dB Beamwidth
Omnidirectional
Elevations 3dB Beamwidth
2.4 GHz = 120 degrees, 5 GHz = 120 degrees
Antenna Connector
Integrated
Mounting
Integrated
Antenna Type
Omnidirectional
Printed in USA
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information.
C07-60002-16
06/11
Page 73 of 73