DDI Prodigy Pocket Specifications

Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
m1bfile10/WW1/Techcom/Department/ElecPub/TempXchg.EP/CD-Rom files/Finished/EN/Priority 3/196407001B_view.pdf
1
PROGRA M M ER
Pacemaker
Information and
Programming
Guide
9879E Software
Use to program the
following pacemakers:
PRODIGY ™ DR
PRODIGY ™ D
PRODIGY ™ VDD
PRODIGY ™ SR
PRODIGY ™ S
196407001
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
CAUTION: The Prodigy™ VDD pacemaker is not currently approved
by the FDA.
196407001
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-TOC_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:49 Page i
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Medtronic®
PRODIGY™ Pacemaker Information
And Programming Guide
A Guide To Understanding Prodigy™
Pacemakers And Using
The 9760 and 9790 Programmers
© Medtronic, Inc. 1995
All Rights Reserved
Printed In USA
196407001
Rev A
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
196407001
Rev A
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.
9879EN-TOC_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:49 Page iii
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
How To Use This Guide
The 9879 Pacemaker Information and Programming Guide is the reference
manual of the two-manual set supporting Prodigy* pacemakers. Each
Prodigy pacemaker also has its own product information manual packaged
with the device. This guide provides comprehensive information about the
Prodigy pacing system: Medtronic® Prodigy pacemakers, 9760 and 9790
Programmers, and leads.**
Organization of this guide divides information about the Prodigy pacing
system into three major parts as follows:
Part I — This part describes the programmer capabilities. It provides
instructions on how to set up the programmer and apply its functions for
programming applicable pacemaker features and retrieving data.
Part II — This part describes all pacemaker parameters and features,
including pacing modes, rate response options, special therapy options,
diagnostic reporting features, and information for troubleshooting the
pacing system. It supplements the product information manual, which gives
information needed primarily at pacemaker implantation. In this part, the
clinical intent of Prodigy-specific features is described, as well as
illustrations of operation and programming considerations useful in the
follow-up setting.
NOTE: Part II provides all possible pacing and programming features for
the Prodigy pacemaker family without any specific reference to the Prodigy
models. Refer to Part III to determine which features apply to specific
Prodigy pacemaker models.
Part III — This part includes quick-reference information organized by
topic or feature. To find information on a specific pacemaker model, look
under each topic. Of particular help are “Modes and Parameters” and
“Diagnostics,” which identify which features (presented in Part II) are
applicable to each Prodigy pacemaker model.
* Prodigy, CapSure, Marker Channel, Medtronic, MemoryMod, and Teletrace are all
trademarks of Medtronic, Inc.
** Lead information provided describes pacemaker compatibility. Details are provided in the
applicable lead technical manual.
iii
196407001
Rev A
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
196407001
Rev A
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-TOC_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:49 Page v
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Table of Contents
Part I Using the Programmer
Chapter 1 - Using the Programmer with Prodigy™ Pacemakers
1-1
When to Use Part I of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Conventions Used in Part I of this Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
General Warnings and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Display Screen Format and Interactive Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
A Guide to Using the Menu and Command Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Chapter 2 - Procedures to Know Before You Begin
2-1
Using the Programming Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Programming Emergency Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Interrogating the Pacemaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Canceling the Programming Head Magnet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Printing Reports During a Patient Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Printing Reports After a Session Has Ended. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Transferring Session Data to a Diskette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Using the HELP Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Chapter 3 - Starting and Ending a Patient Session
3-1
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
Turning the Programmer ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Selecting the Pacemaker Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Selecting the Desired Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Ending a Patient Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Chapter 4 - Retrieving Pacing System Data
4-1
Displaying Present Parameter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Displaying a Summary of Pacemaker Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Displaying Battery and Lead Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Displaying a Graph of Recorded Diagnostic Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Chapter 5 - Displaying and Printing the Patient’s ECG and EGM
5-1
Printing the Patient’s ECG and EGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Displaying the Patient’s ECG and EGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Freezing the ECG Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Displaying a Marker Channel™ Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14
Chapter 6 - Programming Pacing Parameters
6-1
Programming Pacing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Programming Additional Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Chapter 7 - Determining and Evaluating Parameter Settings
7-1
Measuring Stimulation Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Determining a Setting for Sensitivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Determining Rate Response Parameter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
Programming Temporary Parameter Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30
Measuring Rate and AV Interval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33
Chapter 8 - Collecting and Retrieving Diagnostic Data
8-1
About the Diagnostics Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Types of Data You Can Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Programmable Parameter Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
About the Setup Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Programming the Pacemaker to Record Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Displaying a Graph of the Recorded Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
Printing the Diagnostic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
Clearing Recorded Data From the Pacemaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
Chapter 9 - Programmer Setup Options
9-1
Setting the Time and Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Connecting an External Recorder or Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Using the CALIBRATE Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Setting Up Site Nominal Parameter Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
Setting the Artifact Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Part II Understanding Pacemaker Operation
Chapter 10 - Pacing Modes
10-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Mode Selection Decision Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Mode Pertinency Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
DDDR Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
DDD Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
DDIR Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
DDI Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
DVIR Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
DVI Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
VDD Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
AAIR Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
AAI Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
VVIR Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26
VVI Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
AAT/VVT Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
DOOR/AOOR/VOOR Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32
DOO/AOO/VOO Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-34
ODO/ OAO/ OVO Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-36
Chapter 11 - Rate Response Therapy Options
11-1
Rate Responsive Pacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Activity Threshold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Activity Rate Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Acceleration and Deceleration Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Chapter 12 - Pacemaker Timing
12-1
Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
AV Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Blanking Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
Refractory Periods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-16
High Rate Atrial Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-23
Chapter 13 - Lead/Cardiac Tissue Interface
13-1
Selecting Pacing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Selecting Sensing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
Monitoring Lead Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Transtelephonic Capture Verification with TMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
Chapter 14 - Special Therapy Options
14-1
Mode Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
PMT Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
Ventricular Safety Pacing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9
Single Chamber Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Chapter 15 - Telemetry Data
15-1
Parameter Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Battery and Lead Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Marker Channel™ Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Intracardiac Electrogram (EGM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Extended Telemetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Chapter 16 - Miscellaneous Operations
16-1
Magnet Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
Temporary Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
Electrical Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Emergency Pacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-9
Chapter 17 - Diagnostics
17-1
Introduction to Prodigy™ Diagnostics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Event Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
Rate Histogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
High Rate Episode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Chapter 18 - Troubleshooting the Pacing System
18-1
Troubleshooting Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Troubleshooting Electrical Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
Troubleshooting Hemodynamic Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
Handling, Storage, and Resterilization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-7
Pacemaker Longevity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-8
Replacing the Pacemaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-10
Patient Information and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-11
PART III Prodigy™ Reference Information
Section A - Basic Description, Radiopaque Identification, Mechanical
Dimensions, Lead Compatibility, and Pacemaker Connectors
A-1
Basic Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Radiopaque Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4
Mechanical Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5
Lead Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-6
Pacemaker Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Section B - Shipping, Nominal, Electrical Reset, and
Emergency Parameters
Shipping Parameter Settings . . . . .
Nominal Parameter Settings. . . . . .
Electrical Reset Parameter Settings
Emergency Parameter Settings. . . .
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Section C - Longevity Projections, Elective Replacement Indicator,
and Battery Specifications
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B-2
B-4
B-6
B-8
C-1
Longevity Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2
Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6
Battery Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7
Section D - Magnet Mode Operations, Telemetry Functions,
Diagnostics, and Event Summaries
D-1
Magnet Mode Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2
Telemetry Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3
Dual Chamber Pacemaker Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4
Single Chamber Pacemaker Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6
Event Summaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7
Section E - Modes and Parameters, Programming Requirements and
Restrictions, and Timing Reference Table
E-1
Dual Chamber Pacemaker Permanent Programmable Modes
and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Single Chamber Pacemaker Permanent Programmable Modes and Parameters. . . . E-6
Programming Requirements and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-8
Nonprogrammable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-10
Temporary Modes and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-11
Timing Reference Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-12
Section F - General Warnings and Precautions
F-1
General Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-2
General Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-5
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Section G - Hospital, Medical, Home, and Job Environment Interference G-1
Hospital or Medical Environment Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-2
Home and Job Environment Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-5
General Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-6
Section H - General Pacing Indications
H-1
Indications for Permanent Pacing in Acquired Atrioventricular Block in Adults . . H-2
Indications for Permanent Pacing After Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-4
Indications for Permanent Pacing in Bifascicular and Trifascicular Block . . . . . . . H-5
Indications for Permanent Pacing in Sinus Node Dysfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-6
Indications for Permanent Pacing in Hypersensitive Carotid Sinus Syndrome and
Neurovascular Syndromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-7
Indications for Permanent Pacing in Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-8
Glossary
I-1
Index
J-1
x
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PART I
USING THE
PROGRAMMER
Part I provides instructions for using the programmer with Prodigy
pacemakers. Sections describe each of the applicable programmer functions
and present step-by-step procedures for using these functions. The
information in this section is organized in the following order.
■
Introductory information
■
General procedures
■
Starting and ending a patient session
■
Retrieving pacing system data
■
Displaying and printing the patient’s ECG and EGM
■
Programming pacing parameters
■
Determining and evaluating parameter settings
■
Using the diagnostic data recording function
■
Programmer setup options, such as setting the time and date
Refer to Parts II and III for information about the operation of Prodigy
pacemakers.
Part I Using the Programmer
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CHAPTER 1
Using the Programmer
with Prodigy™ Pacemakers
About This Chapter
This chapter introduces you to using the 9760 and 9790 programmers with
the Prodigy™ family of pacemakers by providing the following
information:
When to use Part I of this manual (see page 1-2).
The text format conventions used in Part I of this manual (see
page 1-3).
General warnings and precautions (see page 1-4).
The display screen format and interactive features (see page 1-5).
A guide to using the menu and command buttons (see page 1-8).
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Using the Programmer
When to Use Part I of this Manual
Installation of the 9879E software adds several pacemaker family groups
to the programming and follow-up capabilities of your 9760 or 9790 programmer. Several manuals now cover the use of your programmer, each
covering a specific set of pacemaker families and models.
Prodigy™ Pacemakers — If you select one of the following Prodigy
pacemaker models (note that they are listed on the front cover), refer to
Part I of this manual for instructions on using the programmer. Refer to
Parts II and III for specific Prodigy pacemaker information.
Prodigy™ DR
Prodigy™ D
Prodigy™ VDD
Prodigy™ SR
Prodigy™ S
7860, 7861, 7862
7864, 7865, 7866
8168
8158, 8160, 8161, 8162
8164, 8165, 8166
Other Pacemaker Models — If you select a pacemaker other than a
Prodigy model, refer to the appropriate programming guide supplied
with the software presently installed in your programmer. Refer to the
front cover of the manual for a list of the pacemaker families covered
in that manual.
For detailed information on setting up the 9760 or 9790 programmer, refer
to the respective instruction manual, Programmer Description and Setup,
supplied with the programmer.
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Conventions Used in Part I of this Manual
Part I uses the following text format conventions in the instructions for
using the programmer.
[INTERROGATE]
Boldface small capitals within brackets denote an
on-screen button.
THRESHOLD TEST
Boldface capitals without brackets denote a selectable screen option other than a button.
1., 2., 3.
Boldface numbers at the left column margin identify
instructional steps.
This symbol identifies a single instructional
statement.
This symbol is used as a bullet indicating itemized
statements or paragraphs.
Small italics
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Using the Programmer
General Warnings and Precautions
These warnings and precautions apply in general to using the 9760 and
9790 programmers.
Warnings
Pacemaker programming should be done only after careful study of the
pacemaker technical manual and the applicable portions of this manual and
after careful determination of appropriate parameter settings. Improper use
of the programmer could result in erroneous or inadvertent programming
and improper operation of the telemetry and measurement functions.
The 9760 and 9790 programmers must be used only for programming
Medtronic pacemakers listed as applicable units for the software being
used. Direct stimulation via energy coupling may occur if either programmer is used on other implanted devices. These programmers are not compatible with programmable devices of other manufacturers.
Precautions
Loss of Power — If power to the programmer is unexpectedly lost, lifting
the programming head from over the patient’s pacemaker cancels any
temporary parameters or functions in effect and restores the pacemaker to
its permanently programmed state.
Unresponsive Screen — In the unlikely event the programmer display
screen becomes unresponsive or “locked,” turn the programmer off, wait
5 seconds, then turn the programmer on. Normal programmer operation
should resume. Following successful completion of the self test, reselect the
pacemaker model to continue with the application.
Programming Head — Failure to correctly align the programming head
over the pacemaker could result in failure of a programming transmission
and failure to receive telemetry. The programming head should not be
positioned over an implanted pacemaker during electrocautery or defibrillation procedures. Refer to “Using the Programming Head” in Chapter 2
and “Magnet Mode Operation” in Chapter 16 for specific information about
using the programming head.
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Display Screen Format and Interactive Features
This section describes the appearance of the programmer display screen and
the scheme for selecting a function when you have selected one of the
model groups from the Prodigy family of pacemakers.
Display Screen Example
Below is an example of the screen format you will see when you use the
programmer with a Prodigy pacemaker.
Menu Buttons
Pacemaker ID
Screen Title
ECG Display
Function Display
Area
Command Buttons
Message Box
The main elements of this screen format are as follows:
Menu Buttons — The menu buttons, which appear across the top of each
screen, provide direct access to the programmer functions. These buttons
replace the Main Menu screen, which applies to other pacemaker models.
Pacemaker ID — Displays the pacemaker family name and model number.
Screen Title — Title of the current screen generally appears in this
location.
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Using the Programmer
ECG Display — This box continuously displays a low-resolution trace of
the patient’s ECG.
Function Display Area — This area of the screen changes according to the
selected function. It displays the data, buttons, and options that apply to the
selected function.
Command Buttons — Location of the [EMERGENCY], [CANCEL MAGNET],
[INTERROGATE], and [PROGRAM] buttons is the same for all pacemaker
applications. The [EMERGENCY] programming button appears on all
screens; other buttons appear when the command is applicable.
Message Box — The message box continuously displays procedural
prompts and status messages including warnings and precautions, when
appropriate. It is important to read the information presented in the
Message Box whenever you are operating the programmer.
Interactive Screen Features
The interactive display screen features that respond to application of the
“selector pen” are: 1) on-screen buttons and 2) options that appear in
boldface type.* The following are some examples of buttons and options.
Buttons appear as boldface words or
symbols enclosed within a heavy,
black rectangular border. Buttons
with labels ending in an ellipsis (...)
open a window of additional options.
Selectable options, which appear in
boldface type, include pacemaker
models, parameters, parameter
values, and menu options.






INTERROGATE
PROGRAM
SETUP...
PARAMETERS
Prodigy DR
7860, 7861,
7862
Lower Rate
40
70
100
To select a button:
Without touching the screen, move the tip of the selector pen to a
position directly over the button; then press the pen against the screen.
If the button is a “locking” button (one that remains selected), the
button label will change to reverse video to indicate that it is selected.
If a procedure directs you to “press and hold” a button, you must press
the selector pen against the button and continue to press for as long as
you want the related operation to continue.
*The term “selector pen” refers to both the “light pen” used with the 9760 programmer and
the “touch pen” used with the 9790 programmer.
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To select an option:
Without touching the screen, move the tip of the selector pen to a
position directly over any part of the boldface option label (may be a
word or number); then press the pen against the screen.
Audible Signals
Certain events in the operation of the programmer will result in an audible
signal of one or two tones, or “beeps.” These signals are intended to alert
the user to the success or failure of an action.
Single Beep = Success
A single beep following an Interrogate command indicates that the
interrogation was successful.
A single beep following a Program command indicates that the programming was confirmed.
Two Beeps = Failure
Two beeps following an Interrogate command indicate that the interrogation was not successful.
Two beeps following a Program command indicate that the programming was not confirmed.
Two Low-Tone Beeps
Two low-tone beeps sound when the selected command cannot be
executed.
Single Short Beep
A short beep that coincides with pressing the INTERROGATE or PROGRAM
key on the programming head indicates that the programmer acknowledges
the keystroke. If the keystroke is inappropriate, two low-tone beeps will
sound.
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Using the Programmer
A Guide to Using the Menu and
Command Buttons
Using the Menu Buttons
Except for [END SESSION] and [FREEZE],
selecting a menu button at the top of the
screen displays a menu of related function
options. A check mark (ê) next to a
displayed option (see example at right)
indicates that option is currently selected.
NOTE: To close the menu without making a selection, “click” the selector
pen anywhere on the display screen outside the menu box.
Listed below is a description of the options accessible with each of the
menu buttons. Refer to the listed chapter for the procedure associated with
each option.
Menu Buttons
DATA
Retrieving Pacing System Data — See Chapter 4.
Selecting the [DATA] menu button displays options for:
Viewing a summary of interrogated data.
Viewing measured real-time values of battery and lead data.
Viewing a graph of accumulated diagnostic data.
TESTS/ECG
Displaying the Patient’s ECG and EGM — See Chapter 5.
Selecting the [TESTS/ECG] menu button displays an option for viewing and
adjusting the patient’s ECG and the EGM and Marker Channel™ signals
received from the pacemaker via telemetry. The ECG display includes an
option for inhibiting the output of the patient’s pacemaker.
TESTS/ECG
Conducting Pacing System Tests — See Chapter 7.
Selecting the [TESTS/ECG] menu button also displays options for:
Measuring stimulation thresholds.
Determining a setting for pacemaker sensitivity.
Determining a setting for Activity Threshold and Rate Response.
Programming temporary parameter settings.
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Measuring rate and AV interval.
Conducting electrophysiologic studies if 9877A software is installed.
Instructions are covered in a supplement supplied with the software.
PARAMETERS
Programming Parameter Settings — See Chapter 6.
Selecting the [PARAMETERS] menu button displays options for:
Programming pacing parameters and viewing present settings.
Accessing additional parameter options including Extended Telemetry,
Transtelephonic Monitor, Serial Number, and Status Reset.
PARAMETERS
Setting Up the Diagnostics Function — See Chapter 8.
Selecting the [PARAMETERS] menu button also displays an option for
programming the pacemaker to record the selected type of diagnostic data.
END SESSION
Ending the Patient Session — See Chapter 3.
Selecting the [END SESSION] menu button lets you end the patient session
and return to the pacemaker model selection screen.
SPECIAL
Special Options — See Chapters 2 and 9.
Selecting the [SPECIAL] menu button provides access to the following
options:
A Position Head Assist option related to using the programming head
(Chapter 2).
A Calibrate option that sends a Marker Channel or EGM reference
signal to an externally connected recorder or monitor (Chapter 9).
FREEZE
Freezing the ECG Trace — See Chapter 5.
Selecting the [FREEZE] menu button freezes a 10-second segment of the
patient’s ECG and provides the option for viewing a Marker Channel
diagram if the pacemaker is operating in a permanently programmed dual
chamber or VDD mode.
PRINT
Printing Reports — See Chapter 2.
Selecting the [PRINT] menu button displays options for printing the various
data reports generated during the patient session.
HELP
Viewing Help Information — See Chapter 2.
Selecting the [HELP] menu button displays options for viewing information
about the currently displayed screen and other subjects related to using the
programmer.
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Using the Programmer
Using the Command Buttons
Listed below is a description of each of the command buttons located at the
bottom of the display screen. Refer to the listed chapter for the procedure
associated with using a particular command button.
Programming Emergency Parameters — See Chapter 2.
EMERGENCY
Selecting the Emergency command overrides any function and immediately
programs the pacemaker to a fixed set of permanent values that provide
high output pacing in the VVI mode.
Canceling the Programming Head Magnet — See Chapter 2.
CANCEL
MAGNET
INTERROGATE
Selecting the Cancel Magnet command cancels the effect of the programming head magnet and allows the pacemaker to operate in its permanently
programmed state while the programming head is in position. For example,
operation of a pacemaker permanently programmed to the DDD mode will
change from the DOO magnet mode to the DDD mode when this command
is executed.
Interrogating the Pacemaker — See Chapter 2.
Selecting the Interrogate command from a particular function screen
retrieves from the pacemaker the data related to that function.
INTERROGATE
ALL
Interrogating All Data — See Chapter 2.
The Interrogate All command retrieves all data (parameter, battery/lead, and
diagnostic) from the pacemaker. This button appears only on the Pacing
Parameters screen.
PACING
PARAMETERS
Returning to the Pacing Parameters Screen
(not pictured)
On screens other than the Pacing Parameters screen, this button appears in
place of [INTERROGATE ALL]. Selecting this button returns you directly to
the Pacing Parameters screen.
Programming Command — (Covered in the respective procedures).
PROGRAM
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This command executes a temporary or permanent programming transmission based on the procedure being conducted. This button appears only
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CHAPTER 2
Procedures to Know
Before You Begin
About This Chapter
This chapter covers some procedures that you might use at any point during
a patient session. You should be familiar with these procedures before you
begin a patient session. These procedures include:
Using the programming head (see page 2-2).
Programming Emergency parameters (see page 2-6).
Interrogating the pacemaker (see page 2-7).
Canceling the effect of the programming head magnet (see page 2-9).
Printing reports during a patient session (see page 2-10).
Printing reports after a patient session has ended (see page 2-13).
Transferring session data to a computer diskette (see page 2-13).
Using the HELP options (see page 2-16).
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Using the Programmer
Using the Programming Head
In many of the procedures described in the following chapters, you will be
directed to position the programming head over the patient’s pacemaker.
Always position the programming head prior to executing any command that results in a programming or telemetry interaction between
the programmer and the pacemaker.
Improper positioning of the programming head could result in the
inability to program the pacemaker or to receive telemetry.
Positioning the Programming Head
CAUTION: Do not position the programming head over an implanted
pacemaker during electrocautery or defibrillation procedures.
IMPORTANT: Pacemaker operation will return to its permanently programmed settings about 2 seconds after you remove the programming head
from its position over the pacemaker.
For an implanted pacemaker, the programming head should be held directly
against the patient’s skin with the face of the programming head parallel to
the pacemaker. Optimum position of the programming head may not be
directly centered over the pacemaker.
9760 Programmer
Position Head Indicator Light
Position the programming head over the
pacemaker such that the Position Head
indicator light on the head goes out.
Refer to “Magnet Mode Operation” in
Chapter 16 for specific information
about positioning the programming
head.
9790 Programmer
Light Array
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Position the programming head so that
the amber light in the light array on the
head goes out and one or more green
lights come on. Move the head to the
position that lights the greatest number
of green lights. This is the optimum
position.
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2-3
NOTE: Both programmers also have a programming head position indicator light located near the display screen:
On the 9760 programmer, this indicator light is located above the
upper right corner of the screen. This indicator light goes out when a
telemetry link with the pacemaker has been established.
On the 9790 programmer, the indicator light is located near the upper
left corner of the screen. This indicator light also goes out when a
telemetry link with the pacemaker has been established — or it may
change from amber to green — see Using the POSITION HEAD
ASSIST Option below).
Using the POSITION HEAD ASSIST Option
The Position Head Assist function facilitates using the programming head
position lights to locate the optimum head position over the patient’s pacemaker. This function is particularly useful under conditions that adversely
affect the communication link between the programmer and pacemaker.
NOTE: When the Assist function is enabled (“Enhanced” option), continuous interaction between the programmer and pacemaker can cause extraneous artifacts to appear at 250 ms intervals on the patient’s ECG trace. The
9790 programmer automatically filters these artifacts so they do not appear;
the 9760 programmer does not. Although these artifacts can obscure pacing
artifacts or small details on the ECG trace, they have no effect on the pacing
operation of the pacemaker.
9790 Programmer
If you are using a 9790 Programmer, the default setting for the Assist
function is Enhanced. That is, the Assist function will already be in effect
when you start a patient session. If this function results in extraneous
artifacts on other monitoring devices connected to the patient, you can turn
the Assist function off by selecting the “Normal” option as described
below.
NOTE: If the Assist function is enabled, the programming head position
indicator on the 9790 programmer display panel changes from amber to
green when the programming head is properly positioned. If the Assist
function is disabled, the amber light goes out when the programming head
is positioned. The light array on the programming head operates the same
with or without the Assist function.
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Using the Programmer
9760 Programmer
If you are using a 9760 Programmer, the default setting for the Assist
function is Normal. That is, the Assist function will not be in effect when
you start a patient session. If you have trouble receiving telemetry or obtaining a programming confirmation, enabling the Assist function can
facilitate locating a proper programming head position. As stated above,
this function results in the appearance of extraneous artifacts on the patient’s ECG.
Procedure for Selecting the Position Head Assist Setting
1.
Select [SPECIAL] from the menu buttons at the top of the screen.
2.
Select POSITION HEAD ASSIST from the options displayed.
3.
From the window showing two buttons:
Select [ENHANCED] to enable the Assist function.
Or select [NORMAL] to disable the Assist function.
Position Head Assist
Option
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Using PROGRAM and INTERROGATE Keys
The PROGRAM and INTERROGATE keys on the programming head have the
same function as the [PROGRAM] and [INTERROGATE] buttons that appear on
the display screen. Whenever the instructions in this manual direct you to
select the [PROGRAM] or [INTERROGATE] button on the screen, you can
press the corresponding key on the programming head instead, if it is more
convenient.
Programming Head 9760 Programmer
Programming Head 9790 Programmer
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INTERROGATE Key
PROGRAM Key
PROGRAM Key
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Using the Programmer
Programming Emergency Parameters
The Emergency programming command is a safety feature that overrides
all other functions and immediately programs the pacemaker to preset
emergency values intended to provide pacing support under a variety of
conditions. This programming cancels any temporary function in effect and
restores magnet mode operation.
Emergency values are permanent settings that provide higher-than-normal
energy output. It is not intended that the pacemaker be left at these settings.
Emergency Values
Pacing Mode
Rate
V. Refractory Period
V. Pulse Amplitude
V. Pulse Width
V. Sensitivity
V. Pace Polarity
V. Sense Polarity
Single Chamber Hysteresis
VVI
70 ppm
330 ms
7.5 V
1.5 ms
2.8 mV
Unipolar
Unipolar
OFF
The [EMERGENCY] button appears in the lower left corner of all function
screens.*
Emergency Button
Ï
To program Emergency parameters:
1.
Position the programming head over the pacemaker.
2.
Select the [EMERGENCY] button.*
3.
Hold the programming head steady until a confirmation message
appears. If programming is not confirmed, verify that the programming
head is properly positioned and then reselect [EMERGENCY].
*If you are using a 9790 programmer, you can press the square red button on the left side of
the display panel as an alternative to the on-screen [EMERGENCY] button.
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Interrogating the Pacemaker
Before the programmer can display any information about the status of the
patient’s pacing system, you must interrogate the pacemaker. The information you can retrieve by interrogating the pacemaker falls into three
categories:
1.
2.
3.
Parameter settings
Real-time measurements of battery and lead data
Diagnostic data.
As described below, you can retrieve this information all at once or separately as it is needed.
The INTERROGATE ALL Function
The Interrogate All feature retrieves all three types of information for use
during the patient session. This feature may be most helpful at the start of a
patient session, but it can be used at anytime during the session.
Interrogate All
Button
Available on the Pacing
Parameters Screen
Ï
To execute the Interrogate All command:
1.
Select the Pacing Parameters screen (see page 4-2 or 6-2).
NOTE: The Pacing Parameters screen is the first screen to appear
following model selection at the start of a patient session.
2.
Position the programming head over the pacemaker.
3.
Select the [INTERROGATE ALL] button. Continue to hold the programming head steady until success of the interrogation is confirmed.
Auto Printout — An Interrogate All command automatically initiates
printing of the following data: 1) the present programmed pacing and
diagnostic parameter settings, 2) a data summary report which includes an
Event Summary, and 3) Battery/Lead status data. Accumulated diagnostic
data is not included in this printout.
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: Executing an Interrogate All command automatically saves the
present programmed parameter settings. From a parameter programming
screen, you can view the saved values applicable to that screen (select the
[SHOW SAVED] button) or you can recall the values to the screen as pending
values for programming (select the [SAVE/NOMINAL OPTIONS...] button,
then select the [SAVED VALUES] button).
The INTERROGATE Function
From most function screens, you can interrogate the pacemaker for the data
associated with that screen. Even when you have used the Interrogate All
feature, it may be necessary to perform additional interrogations to update
the programmer as you conduct the patient session.
Interrogate Button
Ï
To execute the Interrogate command:
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1.
Position the programming head over the pacemaker.
2.
Select the [INTERROGATE] button. Continue to hold the programming
head steady until success of the interrogation is confirmed.
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Canceling the Programming Head Magnet
“Cancel Magnet” is a temporary programming command that cancels the
effect of the programming head magnet. It allows the pacemaker to operate
in its permanently programmed mode (such as the DDD mode) while the
programming head is held in position.
The [CANCEL MAGNET] button appears near the lower right corner of all
function screens except the Battery/Lead screen described in Chapter 4.
Cancel Magnet
Button
Ï
To execute the Cancel Magnet command:
1.
While the programming head is positioned over the pacemaker, select
the [CANCEL MAGNET] button.
2.
Watch for the “Magnet cancelled” message.
Continue to hold the programming head in place for as long as you
want the magnet canceled. Lifting the programming head terminates
the Cancel Magnet function.
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Using the Programmer
Printing Reports During a Patient Session
The [PRINT] menu button lets you select and print various reports of the data
generated during a patient session. Most data is temporarily stored for the
duration of the patient session and can be printed at any time during the
patient session. However, some types of data, particularly graphic data,
must be printed while it is displayed on the screen. All data stored in programmer memory is cleared when you start a new patient session.
Selecting a Print Option
Selecting a Print option may cause on-screen buttons, except [EMERGENCY],
to be unresponsive for several seconds while data is being formatted for
printing. (The formatting of Diagnostic graphs may take about half a
minute.) Selecting a Print option will cancel an ECG recording in progress.
To print a report, select the [PRINT] menu button, and then select the
appropriate print option from the drop-down menu. All possible options
will be listed, but only those in bold face type are selectable. A report
cannot be selected until data for that report has been generated.
Print Options
About the Print Options
Current Screen Report — If data is
available, selecting this option prints the
report for the function associated with
the presently displayed screen. For
example, selecting this Print option
while the Pacing Parameters screen is
displayed results in the printing of a
Parameter Values report. Use this
option to print graphic reports, which
are available only while the data is displayed. These reports include the
Diagnostic Graph, Strength-Duration Curve, Activity Exercise Test results
graph, and Marker Channel Diagram.
Parameter Values — Selecting this option initiates a printout of all
pertinent parameter values presently programmed and confirmed in the
pacemaker.
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Data Summary — Selecting this option prints a summary of the interrogated data. Included are the event data accumulated since the last patient
session.
Battery/Lead Data — Selecting this option initiates a printout of the
real-time measurements associated with the Battery/Lead data function.
Diagnostics Data Table — This option prints the recorded Diagnostic data
in tabular form. This is the same data the programmer uses to create and
display the Diagnostic Graph.
Threshold Results — Selecting this option prints the data accumulated
during a patient session from the use of the Threshold Test function. The
programmer can store up to 32 test reports for printing during a patient
session.
Sensing Results — Selecting this option prints the data accumulated from
the most recent use of the Sensing Test function.
Activity Thld Results — Selecting this option prints the results of an
Activity Threshold test.
Activity Exercise Test — While the test results screen is displayed following an Activity Exercise test, selecting this option will print the displayed
test results, including the test graph. If the test results screen is not displayed, the printout will not include the graph. (Selecting Current Screen
Report will also print the displayed test results and graph.)
Measured Values — Prints the most recent parameter values obtained from
using the Measure ECG function.
Waveforms — Available only if the current screen is the Freeze screen.
This option prints a 10-second chart of frozen ECG and telemetry traces.
Waveform Segment — Available only if the current screen is the Freeze
screen. This option initiates a printout of only that portion of the 10-second
frozen traces selected with the on-screen calipers.
Full Report — Prints the data accumulated for printing during the patient
session. Reports included in this printout (if the data is available) are
Parameter Values, Data Summary, Battery/Lead Data, Threshold Results,
Sensing Results, Activity Threshold and Exercise Test results, and Measured Values. This printout does not include data, such as waveforms or
graphs, which can only be printed while the respective screen is displayed.
Trace ... — Selecting this option displays two buttons that let you turn the
printer “Trace” mode on or off. The following section describes the printer
Trace mode.
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Using the Programmer
Automatic Printing with the Printer Trace
Mode
To turn the printer Trace mode ON or OFF:
1.
Select TRACE ... from the Print menu options.
2.
From the Trace window, select [TRACE MODE ON] or [TRACE MODE
OFF] as desired.
3.
Select [EXIT] to close the window.
Turning the Trace mode on causes the printer to automatically print information as it is generated during a patient
session. The use of such commands as Program, Interrogate,
Cancel Magnet, Emergency, or Measure ECG are documented
on the printout if confirmation of the command execution is
received. The parameters and values included in a programming, interrogation, or measurement are printed as shown in
this example.
Graphic information such as a Diagnostic report is not printed
by the Trace mode. Using the Trace mode does not affect the
option to print specific reports manually.
During the printing of a real-time ECG recording, the Trace
mode does not function. However, data generated while the
programmer is printing frozen waveforms will be saved and
printed when the frozen waveform printout has completed.
Turning the Trace mode off disables this automatic printing
feature. Printing will occur only when you select a specific
Print option.
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Printing Reports After a Session Has Ended
CAUTION: Selecting a pacemaker model to begin a new patient session or
turning the programmer off will clear all data accumulated in programmer
memory from the last patient session.
Procedure
Once you have ended a patient session, but before you select a new pacemaker model or turn the programmer off, you can print the reports accumulated during that session.
To print the data reports:
1.
Select the [PRINT...] button on the Automatic Model Select screen. This
button appears only if there is data present from the previous patient
session.
2.
Select [PREVIOUS PATIENT DATA] from the option window. Do not select a
pacemaker model until printing of the previous session data is
complete.
Transferring Session Data to a Diskette
CAUTION: Selecting a pacemaker model to begin a new patient session or
turning the programmer off will clear any data accumulated in programmer
memory from the last patient session.
Procedure
Once you have ended a patient session, but before you select a new pacemaker model or turn the programmer off, you can transfer the data reports
accumulated during the session to a computer diskette as described below.
NOTE: When you end a patient session, the Data Transfer To Disk window
(see next page) automatically may appear on the Automatic Model Select
screen. If this window shows, skip steps 1 and 2 of the procedure. If you do
not wish to use this function, select the [CANCEL] button.
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Using the Programmer
To save the data reports to a diskette:
1.
Select the [PRINT...] button on the Automatic Model Select screen.
NOTE: This button appears only if there is data present from the
previous patient session.
2.
From the options displayed, select the [DATA TRANSFER TO DISK] button,
which displays the window shown below.
The “Patient ID,” which will be used in a printed header identifying the
data reports, defaults to the pacemaker serial number if applicable.
Otherwise, the pacemaker model number will show if it is available.
3.
To enter a different patient identifier, select each character of the
desired ID from the on-screen keyboard. Select the [‹- DELETE] button
to delete an entered character.
Up to six characters of the patient ID will be used in the name of the
recorded data file.*
4.
Insert a 3.5-inch computer diskette into the disk drive on the right side
of the programmer.
Diskette Requirements: Use a 3.5-inch computer diskette formatted to
be IBM compatible (formatted with MS-DOS or PC-DOS).
9760 Programmer → Use a 720 Kb diskette (DS, DD) only
9790 Programmer → Use a 720 Kb diskette (DS, DD) or a 1.44 Mb
diskette (DS, HD)
5.
Select the [OK] button to copy the patient session data reports to the
diskette. If an error message appears, refer to “Disk Error Message”
below.
*The name automatically assigned to the session file on the diskette will take the following
format: DS######.MDS, where “######” are the first six characters of the patient ID. If
less than six characters are available, the extra spaces will be filled with zeros. If you save
more than one file for the same patient on the same diskette, letters of the alphabet will be
added to the file name to identify the order of each file. For example, the second file will
have the name DS#####A.MDS, the third DS#####B.MDS, and so on.
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NOTE: Do not select a pacemaker model or remove the diskette until
the file transfer process is complete. The message box will state when
data has been successfully transferred.
6.
To remove the diskette, press the small, rectangular eject button near
the disk drive opening.
Disk Error Message
If a disk error message occurs at step 5, check the following:
Is the diskette the proper capacity and format? See step 4.
Is the diskette full or faulty? Try a new diskette.
Is the diskette write protected? Check the write-protect switch on the
back of the diskette.
Is the programmer in the process of printing? Selecting [OK] in this case
may result in an error message. Wait until printing has stopped.
File Format
When you select the [OK] button, all available text reports from the last
patient session are saved to a file on the diskette in ASCII format. Included
in the file are all the character spacing, line feeds, and form feeds required
to print the saved reports in the same format used by the programmer. An
ASCII “Control-Z” code will mark the end of the file.
The report file will include a header page showing the patient ID, file
format type (which will always be “1” until other formats become available), and the pacemaker model number.
The saved file can be printed from an IBM-compatible computer using the
MS-DOS or PC-DOS PRINT command, or the file can be imported into a
word processing or data base program as an ASCII or DOS text file.
Using the Auto Prompt Feature
The “Auto Prompt” options (OFF and ON) displayed in the Data Transfer
to Disk window allow you to choose whether or not you want this window
to appear automatically when you end a patient session.
If you want the window to appear automatically as a reminder to save
the session data, select the Auto Prompt [ON] button.
If you do not want the window to appear automatically, select the Auto
Prompt [OFF] button.
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Using the Programmer
Using the HELP Options
Selecting the [HELP] Menu button displays options for viewing information
about using the programmer. You can select the [HELP] button at any time
during the patient session.
Help Options
Selecting one of these Help options opens a text window of pertinent
information:
Current Screen — Information about the function screen that is presently
displayed.
Replacement Indicators — Definitions of the battery status messages that
can appear for the selected pacemaker model.
Magnet Modes — Information about the magnet modes and related pacing
rates for the Prodigy family of pacemaker models.
Programmer Info — Information about display conventions used to
convey information on the programmer display screen.
How to Program — General instructions on how to program parameter
settings from the Pacing Parameters, Diagnostic Parameters, and Additional
Parameters screens.
How to Interrogate — General instructions on how to interrogate the
pacemaker when it is required to display pacing data or parameter settings.
NOTE: A [HELP] button also
appears in the value selection
window for certain programmable parameters. Select this
button to view information
about that parameter.
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CHAPTER 3
Starting and Ending a
Patient Session
About This Chapter
This chapter describes how to start a patient session, which involves:
Verifying the programmer setup and turning the programmer on (see
pages 3-2 and 3-3).
Selecting the pacemaker model (see page 3-4).
Using the menu buttons to proceed to a desired function (see page 3-7).
This chapter also describes how to properly end a patient session (see
page 3-9).
3-1
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3-2
Using the Programmer
Before You Begin
Prior to using the programmer in a patient session, verify that the programmer is properly set up. Refer to Chapters 2 and 3 in the “Programmer
Description and Setup” guide supplied with your 9760 or 9790 programmer
for detailed instructions on setting up the programmer and preparing for a
patient session.
Programmer Setup Checklist
Verify that the following components are properly connected:
1.
Programming head
2.
Light pen (9760 programmer) or touch pen (9790 programmer)
3.
ECG cable
4.
Power cord (Connect the programmer to an appropriate power outlet.)
Connecting an External Monitor or Recorder
To connect an external monitor or recorder to the programmer, refer to the
instructions provided in Chapter 9 of this manual.
Connecting Skin Electrodes
For operation of the ECG measurement and display functions, the programmer must be connected to skin electrodes on the patient. Use an electrode
lead to connect each skin electrode to the appropriate port on the ECG
cable. Typical electrode placement is shown below.
RA (R)
LA (L)
C* (C)
( ) = IEC Coding
RL (N)
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Turning the Programmer ON
Procedure
If the programmer is not operating, turn it on by pressing inward on the top
of the power switch.
9760 programmer:
The power switch is located on the right side
next to the power cord.
9790 programmer:
The power switch is located on the left side near
the back of the programmer.
System Self Test
Turning the programmer on results in a self test that takes about a minute or
less. Successful completion of the self test results in the Automatic Model
Select screen (see next page).
System Test Failure — If during the self test the programmer displays a
“System Test Failure” message, contact your Medtronic representative. This
message indicates that programmer service is required.
Printer Test Failure — If the self test discovers a fault within the printer,
the programmer will continue to operate, but the printer will be disabled.
Printer service may be required. Contact your Medtronic representative.
System Setup Options
Refer to Chapter 9 of this manual for information about the system setup
options that are accessible from the Automatic Model Select screen, which
is displayed upon successful completion of the self test. The system setup
information covered in Chapter 9 includes:
Setting the time and date of the programmer’s clock/calendar function.
Connecting an external recorder or monitor and using the Calibrate
option.
Setting up Site Nominal (user selected) parameter values for each of
the Prodigy pacemaker groups.
Setting the pacing artifact display function to on or off.
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Using the Programmer
Selecting the Pacemaker Model
The procedure for starting a patient session begins at the Automatic Model
Select screen shown in the example below. This screen appears after you
turn the programmer on as described in the previous section (or after you
select the [END SESSION] button to end a patient session).
To start a patient session, you must select the appropriate pacemaker model.
Automatic Model
Select Screen
With the programming
head in position, select
this button for automatic model selection.
For manual model
selection, select proper
button to display model
options.
NOTE: When you end a patient session, the Data Transfer to Disk window
may be superimposed on the Automatic Model Select screen. If you do not
wish to use the Data Transfer feature, select [CANCEL] to close the window
(see CAUTION below).
CAUTION: Selecting a pacemaker model or turning the programmer off
will automatically clear all data reports accumulated in memory during the
previous patient session.
If you wish to print these reports, refer to “Printing Reports After a
Session Has Ended” on page 2-13.
If you wish to transfer these reports to a computer diskette, refer to
“Transferring Session Data to a Diskette” on page 2-13.
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3-5
Automatic Model Selection
To use the automatic model selection feature:
1.
Position the programming head over the patient’s pacemaker.
2.
Select the [AUTOMATIC MODEL SELECT] button on the screen or the
INTERROGATE key on the programming head.
NOTE: It is not necessary to select the applicable chamber. The
[ATRIUM] and [VENTRICLE] buttons on the Automatic Model Select
screen do not apply to Prodigy pacemakers.
3.
Continue to hold the programming head steady until a message at the
center of the screen confirms pacemaker identification.
Model Identified — Upon automatic identification of the pacemaker
model (which takes a few seconds), the programmer begins “loading” the
appropriate application program. This process may take up to 15 seconds.
Display of the Pacing Parameters screen (see next section) indicates that
model selection is complete and you may proceed.
NOTE: If the pacemaker model identified is not a model from the Prodigy
family of pacemakers, refer to the appropriate programming guide supplied
with the software installed in your programmer. The front cover of each
guide lists the pacemaker families covered in that guide.
Model Not Identified — If a message states that the pacemaker model
cannot be identified, reposition the programming head and repeat step 2
above or use the Manual Model Selection procedure described below.
Automatic identification of the pacemaker model will not occur if the
programming head is not properly positioned or if the presence of strong
electrical interference interrupts telemetry between the programmer and
pacemaker.
Manual Model Selection
If the pacemaker model cannot be identified by the automatic model selection feature, select the pacemaker manually as follows:
1.
From the Automatic Model Select screen, select the pacemaker type:
[SINGLE CHAMBER MODELS] or [DUAL CHAMBER MODELS].
2.
From the list of options displayed, select the desired Prodigy group.
If there are more model options than can be displayed on one screen,
a [MORE>>] button appears in the lower right corner of the option
window. Select this button to view more options.
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: It is not necessary to select the applicable chamber. The
[ATRIUM] and [VENTRICLE] buttons on the Manual Model Select screen
do not apply to Prodigy pacemakers.
Selecting the pacemaker model initiates loading of the appropriate application program. This process may take up to 15 seconds. Display of the
Pacing Parameters screen (see next section) indicates that model selection
is complete and you may proceed.
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3-7
Selecting the Desired Function
Selecting the pacemaker model displays the Pacing Parameters screen
shown in the example below. This screen allows you to:
View the present pacing parameter settings (see Chapter 4).
Program new pacing parameter settings (see Chapter 6).
Proceed to another function.
To proceed to another function, select the appropriate button from the
“menu” buttons displayed across the top of the screen. These buttons,
which appear on all screens, let you quickly and easily access all functions
applicable to the selected model.
Menu buttons provide
easy access to all
applicable functions.
These buttons always
appear at the top of
every screen.
Î
To display the present
parameter settings as
shown in this example,
you must interrogate
the pacemaker:
Position the
programming
head and press
[INTERROGATE] or
[INTERROGATE ALL].
Navigating with the Menu Buttons
Except for the [END SESSION] and [FREEZE] buttons, selecting a Menu
button displays a list of function options as described on the following
page.
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Using the Programmer
Menu Button
Description and Chapter Reference
Possible Options
DATA
Select this button to display options for viewing
data retrieved from the pacemaker by interrogation, including: a pacing data summary, battery
and lead information, and a graph of Diagnostic
data. Refer to Chapter 4.
Data Summary
(Ch 4)
Battery/Lead
Show Diagnostics Graph
TESTS/ECG
Select this button to display options for viewing
the patient’s ECG and EGM and for conducting
various tests such as determining the patient’s
stimulation threshold. Refer to Chapters 5
and 7.*
ECG/Markers/EGM
Threshold Test
Sensing Test
Temporary Test
Measure ECG
Activity Test
PARAMETERS
Select this button to display options for programming pacing parameter values and for programming and using the Diagnostic function. Refer to
Chapters 6 and 8.
Pacing Parameters
(Ch 6)
Diagnostic Parameters (Ch 8)
Additional Parameters (Ch 6)
END SESSION
Select this button to end a patient session.
SPECIAL
Select to access the Calibrate option, which
applies to using an external recorder, or to access
the Position Head Assist option, which applies to
using the Programming Head. Refer to Chapters
9 and 2, respectively.
FREEZE
Select this button to freeze a 10-second segment
of the patient’s ECG. Refer to Chapter 5.
PRINT
Select this button to display
options for selecting the
type of report you want to
print or the printer Trace
mode. Refer to Chapter 2.
HELP
Select this button to display options for selecting
informational help screens. Refer to Chapter 2.
Current Screen Report
Parameter Values
Data Summary
Battery/Lead Data
Diagnostics Data Table
Threshold Results
Sensing Results
Calibrate
Position Head Assist
(Ch 5)
(Ch 7)
(Ch 7)
(Ch 7)
(Ch 7)
(Ch 7)
(Ch 9)
(Ch 2)
Activity Thld Results (Ch 2)
Activity Exercise Test
Measured Values
Waveforms
Waveform Segment
Full Report
Trace ...
Current Screen
(Ch 2)
Replacement Indicators
Magnet Modes
Programmer Info
How to Program
*An “EPS” option for conducting electrophysiologic studies also will be listed if 9877A software has been installed.
Instructions for using this function are covered in a programming guide supplement supplied with the 9877A software.
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Starting and Ending a Patient Session
3-9
Ending a Patient Session
The programmer accumulates and temporarily stores certain data generated
during a patient session. This data facilitates parameter programming and
provides for the display of session-related information. It is important to
properly end each patient session so that this data will clear from programmer memory when you select a pacemaker model to begin a new patient
session.
To end a patient session, select [END SESSION] from the Menu buttons at the
top of the screen.
1. Select [END SESSION]
Menu button.
2. Select [OK] button to
end patient session.
This action displays a window that allows you to verify your choice.
Select [OK] to end the session, or select [CANCEL] to continue the session.
Ending the session returns you to the Model Selection screen, which is the
starting point for the next patient session.
NOTE: Once you end a patient session, you have two options to retrieve
the data reports generated during that session. You can print the reports or
transfer the reports to a computer diskette (see page 2-13). Selecting a
pacemaker model to start a new patient session or turning the programmer
off will erase all accumulated data from the programmer memory.
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CHAPTER 4
Retrieving Pacing System
Data
About This Chapter
This chapter describes how you can display information retrieved from the
pacemaker by interrogation. You can use the four procedures presented in
this chapter to display the following pacemaker information:
The present programmed parameter settings (see page 4-2).
A summary of battery and lead status and the programmed status of the
Diagnostics function. Included is a summary of certain event data
automatically collected in pacemaker memory (see page 4-5).
Real-time measurements of pacemaker battery condition and of
parameters related to pacemaker output and lead system status (see
page 4-9).
A graphic display of the event data accumulated in pacemaker memory
by the Diagnostics function if it has been programmed to collect data
(see page 4-12).
4-1
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4-2
Using the Programmer
Displaying Present Parameter Settings
You can quickly display the parameter settings to which the patient’s
pacemaker is programmed by selecting the appropriate parameter screen.
There are three such screens: 1) The Pacing Parameters screen, 2) The
Diagnostic Parameters screen, and 3) The Additional Parameters screen.
Displaying Pacing Parameter Settings
To display the Pacing Parameters screen, select the [PACING PARAMETERS]
button if it is displayed in the lower right corner of the present screen,
otherwise select the [PARAMETERS] menu button as illustrated below.
1. Select [PARAMETERS]
menu button.
2. Select PACING
PARAMETERS option.
Parameter settings will not show unless an appropriate interrogation has
occurred. Interrogate the pacemaker, if necessary, to display the settings.
Pacing Parameters
Screen
If the pacemaker has
been interrogated, this
screen displays the
presently programmed
pacing parameter
settings.
To use this screen to
program new pacing
parameter settings,
refer to the instructions
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4-3
A Note About Mode Switch — The subordinate parameter Detect Rate
associated with programming Mode Switch does not show on the Pacing
Parameters screen. To view the setting of this parameter, select Mode
Switch to open its value window. If Mode Switch is set to ON, the present
value for Detect Rate will show in the Mode Switch value window.
Displaying Diagnostic Parameter Settings
To display the present programmed parameter settings controlling the
Diagnostics function, select the [PARAMETERS] menu button, and then
select the DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS option as illustrated below.
1. Select [PARAMETERS]
menu button.
2. Select DIAGNOSTIC
PARAMETERS option.
The Diagnostic Parameters screen appears as shown in the example below.
If the Diagnostics function has not been programmed to collect data, the
Type parameter will show a value of OFF.
Diagnostic Parameters
Screen
Interrogate the pacemaker, if required, to
display settings. Refer
to Chapter 8 for instructions on using the
Diagnostics function.
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Using the Programmer
Displaying Additional Parameters Settings
The Additional Parameters screen displays the present settings for the
following parameters and provides access to the Status Reset command.
Transtelephonic Monitor
Extended Telemetry
Pacemaker Serial Number
Status Reset
(See Chapters 6 and 13)
(See Chapters 6 and 15)
(See Chapter 6)
(See Chapter 6)
To display the Additional Parameters screen, select the [PARAMETERS]
menu button, and then select the ADDITIONAL PARAMETERS option as
illustrated below.
1. Select [PARAMETERS]
menu button.
2. Select ADDITIONAL
PARAMETERS option.
The Additional Parameters screen appears as shown in the example below.
Additional Parameters Screen
Interrogate the pacemaker, if required, to
display settings.
To use this screen for
programming these
parameters, refer to
Chapter 6.
For more about Transtelephonic Monitor and
Extended Telemetry,
refer to Chapters 13
and 15, respectively.
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4-5
Displaying a Summary of Pacemaker Status
You can display a summary of pacemaker battery and lead status and the
programmed status of the Diagnostics function by selecting the Data
Summary screen. This screen includes a display of certain event data
automatically accumulated by the pacemaker since the last patient session.
Selecting the Data Summary Screen
To display the Data Summary screen, select the [DATA] menu button, and
then select the DATA SUMMARY option as illustrated below.
1. Select [DATA]
menu button.
2. Select DATA
SUMMARY option.
The Data Summary screen appears as shown in the example below. Data
will not be displayed unless an appropriate interrogation has occurred. If
necessary, interrogate the pacemaker to display the summary data.
Data Summary
Screen
Select the [BATTERY/
LEAD], [DIAGNOSTIC
PARAMETERS], or [SHOW
DIAGNOSTICS GRAPH]
button to view more
data.
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Using the Programmer
Battery/Lead
This section of the screen includes a summary of pacemaker battery and
lead status.
Estimated Time to Replacement
“Estimated Time to Replacement” is a calculated estimate of the time (in
months) remaining until pacemaker replacement will be required. This
calculated estimate is an average value based on the programmed parameter
settings and the event summary data accumulated by the pacemaker since
the previous patient session.
Select the [MORE INFO] button for information about estimated time to
replacement and the estimated maximum, average, and minimum values.
Refer to page 4-11 for information about the messages that can appear in
place of the estimated time value.
IMPORTANT: Elective pacemaker replacement should not be based on
the estimated time to replacement. For this decision, use only the elective
replacement indicators or the battery status “Replace Pacer” message.
When battery voltage indicates that pacemaker replacement is required,
the “Replace Pacer” message automatically appears on the screen in place
of the estimated time to replacement value.
Lead Impedance
“Lead Impedance” is the measured electrical impedance presented by the
pacing lead and electrode/tissue interface. If the pacing mode is a dual
chamber mode, the measured impedance for both lead systems is displayed.
Diagnostic Parameters
This section of the screen indicates the programmed status of the Diagnostics function by displaying the present settings of the Setup and Type
parameters. No value for Setup will be displayed if any changes were made
to the default settings established by the Setup option. A setting of “Off” for
the Type parameter indicates that the Diagnostics function has not been
programmed to collect data.
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Event Summary Data
Event Summary is a non-programmable pacemaker function that operates
continuously to collect the data described below. You can view this event
data only on the Data Summary screen and the Data Summary printout.
Event Summary shows data collected since the last patient session.
This data is automatically cleared from pacemaker memory during
each patient session and cannot be recalled once the session has
ended.
The listed dates, which show the period during which the event data
was collected, are based on the current setting of the programmer’s
calendar function. Data collection stops when ERI occurs. In this case,
the ending date is labeled as the “ERI” date.
Under unusual circumstances, if a data error is detected, “invalid data”
can show in place of certain event values. This condition should clear
itself by the next patient session.
% Total Events
The data under this heading shows the percentage of the total number of
recorded beats that fall into each of the displayed pace/sense event sequence
categories.
For dual chamber pacing modes, the event sequence categories are as
follows:
AS-VS
AS-VP
AP-VS
AP-VP
(Atrial Sense - Ventricular Sense)
(Atrial Sense - Ventricular Pace)
(Atrial Pace - Ventricular Sense)
(Atrial Pace - Ventricular Pace)
For the VDD mode, the event sequence categories are:
AS-VS
AS-VP
VS
VP
(Atrial Sense - Ventricular Sense)
(Atrial Sense - Ventricular Pace)
(Ventricular Sense preceded by a ventricular event)
(Ventricular Pace preceded by a ventricular event)
For single chamber modes, two event categories are used:
Paced
Sensed
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Using the Programmer
PVCs
If the pacemaker has been operating in a dual chamber mode, Event Summary displays the counted number of PVC “singles” and “runs.” A PVC
(premature ventricular contraction) is defined by the pacemaker as a ventricular sense that follows a ventricular pace or sense without an intervening
atrial pace, atrial sense, or atrial refractory sense.
Singles — Show the number of singly-occurring PVCs.
Runs — Show the number of runs consisting of two or more PVCs.
A greater-than symbol (>) appearing in front of the displayed value indicates memory for this data is full and data collection has stopped. Since
PVC data collection applies only to dual chamber modes, this feature will
not be displayed if a single chamber mode was in effect during the monitoring period.
Mode Switch Episodes
“Mode Switch Episodes” is displayed in the Event Summary if the Mode
Switch parameter (see Chapter 14) applies to the pacing mode in effect
during the monitoring period.
If Mode Switch is programmed ON, the number of mode switch episodes
occurring during the monitoring period is displayed. If the number of
episodes exceeds the range maximum (255), data collection stops, and a
greater-than symbol (>) appears in front of the displayed value.
If Mode Switch is programmed OFF, the display shows “Off” in place of
a value.
Displaying More Data
To display more data, select the appropriate button as follows:
Select [BATTERY/LEAD] to view all battery and lead measurements. See
next section, “Displaying Battery and Lead Information.”
Select [DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS] to view the programmed status of all
Diagnostic parameters. Refer to Chapter 8.
Select [SHOW DIAGNOSTICS GRAPH] to display a graph of the diagnostic
data recorded in pacemaker memory. (If the setting for Type is displayed as “OFF,” no data has been collected for display.) Refer to
Chapter 8.
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Displaying Battery and Lead Information
By selecting the Battery/Lead screen, you can display information about the
pacemaker battery and lead system based on real-time measurements and
calculations made at the time of pacemaker interrogation. This information
provides a detailed status of the pacemaker battery and the output conditions pertaining to the pacing lead system.
Selecting the Battery/Lead Screen
To display the Battery/Lead screen, select the [DATA] menu button, and then
select the BATTERY/LEAD option as illustrated below.
1. Select [DATA]
menu button.
2. Select BATTERY/
LEAD option.
Data will not appear unless an appropriate interrogation has occurred.
Interrogate the pacemaker, if necessary, to display or update the battery and
lead data. Interrogation may require several seconds to complete.
Battery/Lead Screen
Interrogate the pacemaker if measurements
are not displayed. This
process may take
several seconds to
complete.
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: During the measurement process, the pacemaker paces at 100 ppm
for several beats. (During these beats in a dual chamber mode, the AV
interval will be 100 ms.)
Parameter Measurements
The Battery/Lead screen displays a battery status message and real-time
measurements and calculations for the pacemaker parameters listed below.
Battery Status
“OK” or “Replace Pacer”
Estimated Time To
Replacement
Calculated estimate of the average time
remaining until pacemaker replacement will be
required. See explanation below.
Battery Voltage
Present voltage of the pacemaker battery.
Battery Current
Present current drain on the pacemaker battery
averaged over a pacing cycle.
Battery Impedance
Internal electrical impedance of the pacemaker
battery.
Pulse Duration
Present programmed value of the pacing pulse
width.
Pulse Amplitude
Present value of the pacing pulse amplitude.
Output Energy
Output energy contained in a single pacing
pulse.
Lead Current
Current delivered during a pacing pulse.
Lead Impedance
Electrical impedance presented by the pacing
lead and electrode/tissue interface.
Pacing Configuration
Present programmed pacing configuration
(unipolar or bipolar).
Estimated Time to Replacement
“Estimated Time to Replacement” is a calculated estimate of the average
time (in months) remaining until pacemaker replacement will be required.
This calculated estimate is based on the programmed parameter settings and
event summary data accumulated by the pacemaker since the previous
patient session.
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Select the [MORE INFO] button for information about estimated time to
replacement and the estimated maximum, average, and minimum values.
IMPORTANT: Elective pacemaker replacement should not be based on
the estimated time to replacement. For this decision, use only the elective
replacement indicators or the battery status “Replace Pacer” message. When
battery voltage indicates that it is time for pacemaker replacement, the
“Replace Pacer” message automatically appears on the screen in place of
the estimated time to replacement value.
The following messages can appear in place of the estimated time value:
“Select MORE INFO ===>>>” — Estimated time to replacement information is available only by selecting the [MORE INFO] button. This
message appears when additional factors that affect the time estimate are
present and require an explanation. If less than 24 hours have elapsed since
the previous patient session, a message will state that there is “insufficient
event summary data accumulated in the pacemaker.” In this case, the
estimated time to replacement calculations assume that the patient is paced
100 percent of the time.
“Replace Pacer” — Low battery voltage in the patient’s pacemaker has
tripped the ERI (elective replacement indicator). Elective replacement of
the pacemaker is now recommended.
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Using the Programmer
Displaying a Graph of Recorded
Diagnostic Data
If the pacemaker has been previously programmed to record data for the
Diagnostics function, a graph of the data collected to date may be viewed
by selecting a Data option as described below. You can also display this
graph from the Diagnostic Parameters screen (see Chapter 8) or from the
Data Summary screen (see page 4-5).
Selecting the Graph Display Screen
To display the Diagnostics graph screen, select the [DATA] menu button,
and then select the SHOW DIAGNOSTICS GRAPH option as shown below.
1. Select [DATA]
menu button.
2. Select SHOW
DIAGNOSTICS GRAPH
The graph will not be displayed unless an appropriate interrogation has
occurred. Interrogate the pacemaker, if necessary, to display the graph.
Diagnostics Graph
The type of information
displayed by the graph
depends on the programmed status of the
Diagnostics function.
Refer to Chapter 8 for
information about the
Diagnostics function
and viewing the graph.
To print the graph, you
must select CURRENT
SCREEN REPORT from
the Print options while
the graph is displayed
(refer to Chapter 2).
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CHAPTER 5
Displaying and Printing
the Patient’s ECG and
EGM
About This Chapter
The procedures presented in this chapter describe using the programmer’s
ECG display and recording functions. The procedures describe:
How to print a real-time recording of the patient’s ECG accompanied
by traces of Marker Channel™ and EGM telemetry (see page 5-2).
How to select a high resolution display of the ECG and the Marker
Channel and EGM traces when present (see page 5-5).
How to inhibit pacemaker output to observe the patient’s underlying
rhythm (see page 5-9).
How to freeze a 10-second segment of the patient’s ECG and how to
use the on-screen calipers (see page 5-10).
How to select a Marker Channel Diagram to view more detailed
information about pacemaker operation (see page 5-14).
5-1
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Using the Programmer
Printing the Patient’s ECG and EGM
At any time during a patient session, you can initiate a continuous, real-time
recording of the patient’s ECG as described below.
Procedure
The procedure is slightly different depending on whether you are operating
a 9760 or 9790 programmer.
NOTE: Step 1 will interrupt any report being printed. Likewise, selecting a
Print option from the display screen will interrupt and cancel an ECG
recording in progress.
9760 Programmer
9790 Programmer
1.
To start a recording of the patient’s
ECG:
9760 — Press the printer RECORD
button.
9790 — Press the desired paper
speed button.
2.
To stop the recording, press the
same button again.
3.
Before you tear off the ECG strip,
press the PAPER ADVANCE button to
advance the paper to a perforation.
To change the recording speed on a 9760 programmer, press the desired
PAPER SPEED button. This can be done prior to or during the recording
process.
NOTE: Because the printed waveform recording provides a higher
resolution, it may show artifacts and events that do not appear on the
display screen.
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5-3
Annotations
ECG
Marker Telemetry
EGM Telemetry
ECG Printout Example with Markers and EGM (9760 Programmer Recording)
About the Recording
Annotation of Executed Commands — Information on the ECG printout
includes an indication of when certain commands to the pacemaker occurred. When confirmation of the command is received, the command name is
printed at the appropriate point in the margin above the waveform grid.
Parameter values are not printed except during a threshold test. A recording
made during threshold measurement will show each programmed test value
at the point it is programmed.
Marker Channel™ and EGM Telemetry — If the programming head is
over the patient’s pacemaker, the recording will include a trace or traces of
the telemetry being received from the pacemaker. In the example above, the
patient’s ECG is accompanied by “Marker” telemetry and EGM telemetry.
This combination of Marker and EGM telemetry (atrial EGM if the pacing
mode is dual chamber) is the default setting and occurs automatically when
you position the programming head. As described later in this chapter, you
can select other types of telemetry to be displayed and recorded.
ECG and EGM Trace adjustment — The ECG and EGM are recorded
according to control settings accessible from the ECG/Markers/EGM
display described in the next section (the ECG/Markers/EGM display
appears on several screens). These control settings include ECG lead
configuration (Lead I, Lead II, or Lead III), amplitude scaling, and a filter
ON/OFF option.
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Using the Programmer
Missing Markers — A programming command or interrogation momentarily interrupts the transmission of Marker Channel telemetry. This interruption can result in missing markers. The point at which the command
occurred is marked above the ECG trace by a “down” and/or “up” arrow.
The down arrow (W) indicates a transmitted command from the programmer; the up arrow (V) indicates a telemetry response from the pacemaker.
Displaying Pacing Artifacts
During processing and amplification of the patient’s ECG signal, the programmer automatically detects and enhances pacing artifact so that they
appear on the ECG display and printout. Under certain conditions, some
types of interference can trigger artifact detection causing false artifacts to
appear on the patient’s ECG.
9790 Programmer
With the 9790 programmer, you can turn the artifact display on or off.
Turning the artifact display off allows you to monitor the patient’s ECG
without the appearance of pacing artifacts. Disabling this function may be
advantageous in the presence of troublesome interference.
For instructions on turning the artifact display on or off, refer to “Setting
the Artifact Display” in Chapter 9. The Artifact Display options are
accessible via the [SETUP...] button on the Automatic Model Select screen.
NOTE: With the artifact display turned off, pacing artifacts will not show
on the programmer ECG display or printout. Once you turn the artifact
display off, it will remain off until you repeat the procedure to turn it back
on.
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5-5
Displaying the Patient’s ECG and EGM
By selecting the ECG/Markers/EGM screen, you can display a high resolution view of the patient’s ECG. The ECG will be accompanied by a trace
of Marker Channel telemetry and EGM telemetry if such telemetry is being
received from the pacemaker. This screen provides waveform trace adjustment controls and an option for inhibiting pacemaker output.
Selecting the ECG/Markers/EGM Screen
To display this screen, select the [TESTS/ECG] menu button, and then select
the ECG/MARKERS/EGM option as illustrated below.
1. Select the
[TESTS/ECG] menu
button.
2. Select the
ECG/MARKERS/EGM
option.
If the programmer is connected to skin electrodes on the patient, the screen
displays the patient’s ECG as shown below. In this example, Marker and
ventricular EGM telemetry are being received from the pacemaker.
ECG/Markers/EGM
Screen
These buttons allow
adjustment of the ECG
and EGM traces and
selection of the
desired telemetry type.
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5-6
Using the Programmer
Adjusting the ECG and EGM Traces
The control buttons at the left of the trace display (see below) let you adjust
the displayed ECG and EGM.
To make an adjustment:
1.
Select the appropriate button (see descriptions below).
2.
Select the desired option from the displayed window of options.
Select to choose a different ECG Lead configuration.
Options:
Lead I, Lead II, Lead III (Lead II is the default setting.)
____________________________
Select to change the ECG amplitude scaling.
ECG LEAD II
Options:
1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05 mV/mm and Automatic.
“Automatic” sets scaling to the highest value that does not result in clipping
of the waveform peaks. Automatic is the default setting.
____________________________
Select to turn the ECG filter ON or OFF.
1.0 mV/mm
Filter ON
75 bpm
V. EGM
1.0 mV/mm
Options:
Filter OFF
(Bandwidth = 0.05 to 100 Hz)
Filter ON
(Bandwidth = 0.5 to 40 Hz)
The ON setting may improve clarity of the displayed and printed ECG in
the presence of interference. “ON” is the default setting.
____________________________
Indicates the patient’s present heart rate. This is not a control. The displayed value is a beat-by-beat measurement derived from Marker Channel
telemetry. For ventricular and dual chamber modes, the value will be the
ventricular rate; for atrial modes, the value will be the atrial rate.
_______________________________
Select to display programmable waveform telemetry options.
(See telemetry programming procedure next page).
____________________________
Select to change the EGM amplitude scaling.
Options for: A. EGM = 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05 mV/mm and Automatic
V. EGM = 5.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2 mV/mm and Automatic
“Automatic” sets scaling to the highest value that does not result in clipping
of the waveform peaks. Automatic is the default setting.
____________________________________________________________
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5-7
Programming the Trace Telemetry Type
Default Telemetry — Positioning the programming head over the patient’s
pacemaker automatically causes the pacemaker to transmit both Marker
telemetry and EGM telemetry (atrial EGM for dual chamber modes). The
combination of Marker telemetry and EGM telemetry is displayed in the
examples on pages 5-3 and 5-5.
Programming Procedure — Use the following procedure to temporarily
program the telemetry to another type:
ECG LEAD II
1.
With the programming head in position over
the pacemaker, select this button.
2.
Select the desired telemetry type from the
options displayed (see below).
3.
Continue to hold the programming head in
place for as long as you want to view the
programmed telemetry.
1.0 mV/mm
Filter ON
75 bpm
V. EGM
The telemetry type will return to its default
setting if the programming head is removed
from the pacemaker site for over 30 seconds.
Telemetry Options — The programmable options for the type of telemetry
that can be displayed and recorded with the patient’s ECG are as follows:
1.0 mV/mm
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A. EGM
This option displays atrial EGM and Marker telemetry.
V. EGM
This option displays ventricular EGM and Marker
telemetry.
MARKER
This option displays Marker telemetry only. The Marker
trace appears in a larger format on the lower trace display
in place of the EGM.
SENSOR
This option displays Sensor telemetry only. The Sensor
trace appears on the lower trace display in place of the
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5-8
Using the Programmer
More About Marker Channel™ Telemetry
NOTE: An interrogation or programming command momentarily interrupts Marker Channel telemetry. If this interruption occurs at the moment a
marker is scheduled, the marker is not displayed.
MARKER Telemetry — A trace of Marker telemetry depicts pacemaker
operation by showing Pace, Sense, and Refractory Sense events as they
occur within the pacemaker. Markers also depict triggered pacing in the
AAT or VVT mode and the beginning and end of a Mode Switch episode
when it occurs. These markers are intended to facilitate interpretation of the
ECG. Each Marker is coded as follows:
Dual Chamber Models
Single Chamber Models
AP = Atrial Pace
VP = Ventricular Pace
P = Pace
AS = Atrial Sense
VS = Ventricular Sense
S = Sense
AR = Atrial Sense
VR = Ventricular Sense
SR = Sense during
during refractory
during refractory
refractory
___________________________________________________________________
TP = Triggered Pace (AAT or VVT pacing mode)
MS = Mode Switch Episode (marks the beginning and the end)
ER = Error Marker (indicates a Marker signal that could not be decoded)
SENSOR Telemetry — Sensor telemetry transmits a single type of marker
to show “Sensor-Detect” events. A Sensor-Detect event occurs each time
the detected level of physical activity exceeds the programmed Activity
Threshold setting. Sensor markers thus show response of the Activity
sensor to physical activity of the patient and are intended to facilitate
evaluation of the Activity Threshold setting.
Sensor markers appear on the lower trace display as shown in the example
below. These markers are not annotated with letter codes.
Example Display
Showing Sensor
Markers
While Sensor markers
are displayed, heart rate
is not measured. This
number remains fixed.
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5-9
Inhibiting Pacemaker Output
INHIBIT
This button, which also appears on other screens
that show the ECG/Markers/EGM display, lets
you temporarily stop the pacing output of the
patient’s pacemaker for such purposes as observing the underlying rhythm.
CAUTION: The Inhibit function is intended for diagnostic and test
purposes. It should be used only under conditions of careful patient
monitoring and control.
IMPORTANT: At any point during use of the Inhibit function, releasing
the [PROGRAM] button or lifting the programming head away from the site
of the pacemaker for at least two seconds will restore pacing output. In the
event of a programmer malfunction or loss of power, lift the programming
head immediately.
Pacemaker blanking periods are minimized during use of the Inhibit
function to increase the window during which cardiac events can be sensed.
Sense markers appearing below the ECG will indicate each sensed event.
Inhibit Procedure — To inhibit pacemaker output:
1.
Make any desired ECG trace adjustments before selecting [INHIBIT].
2.
Position the programming head and hold it steady for the remainder of
this procedure.
NOTE: To observe Sense markers and a display of the sensed rate
while you use the Inhibit function, select the [CANCEL MAGNET] button.
(If pacemaker operation is not changed from the magnet mode, Sense
markers and the patient’s intrinsic rate cannot be displayed.)
3.
Select [INHIBIT] to prepare the programmer.
4.
To inhibit pacemaker output, press and hold [PROGRAM].
A message indicates that the command is causing inhibition. The ECG
trace should show the absence of any pacing stimuli. To obtain an ECG
recording, press the printer RECORD key (9760 programmer) or the
desired paper speed key (9790 programmer).
5.
To restore pacing output, release [PROGRAM].
Watch for confirmation that pacing output has been restored. If confirmation is not received, lift the programming head to ensure that pacing is
restored.
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5-10
Using the Programmer
Freezing the ECG Trace
At any time during a patient session, you can freeze and display 10 seconds
of the patient’s ECG and the accompanying telemetry traces. On-screen
calipers let you accurately measure time intervals on these traces.
Selecting the FREEZE Button
To freeze and display a 10-second segment of the ECG and telemetry trace,
select the [FREEZE] menu button as shown below.
To freeze 10 seconds
of the patient’s ECG,
select the [FREEZE]
menu button.
This action displays the Freeze screen shown in the example below. The
frozen trace will begin to appear immediately or after a pause of 5 or 10
seconds, depending on the selected Freeze Option (see next page).
Freeze Screen
Buttons below the trace
display control the two
vertical cursors to
provide an on-screen
caliper function.
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5-11
Selecting a Freeze Option
FRZ OPTION...
Timing of the 10-second window during which
ECG and telemetry signals are frozen depends
on the present Freeze Option setting.
Procedure — To change the present Freeze Option:
1.
Select the [FRZ OPTION...] button to display the options and the present
setting.
2.
Select the desired timing option (see below).
The selected setting takes effect the next time you use the Freeze
function and remains in effect until you change it.
Freeze Options — Selecting the [FRZ OPTION...] button displays the
following options:
Freeze Previous 10 Seconds — Freezes the 10 seconds of trace that
occurred just prior to selection of the [ FREEZE] button.
Freeze Next 10 Seconds — Freezes the 10 seconds of trace that
occurs just after selection of the [FREEZE] button.
Freeze Previous 5 + Next 5 Seconds — Freezes the 5 seconds of
trace that occurred prior to selection of the [ FREEZE] button plus the 5
seconds that occurs after the button selection.
Printing the Frozen Traces
Before you exit the Freeze screen, you can print the frozen 10-second trace
(WAVEFORMS print option) or the portion of the trace between the on-screen
calipers (WAVEFORM SEGMENT print option). Refer to Chapter 2 for information on printing reports.
Displaying a Marker Channel™ Diagram
SHOW DIAGRAM
If the selected pacemaker is a Prodigy™ DR,
Prodigy™ D, or Prodigy™ VDD model, this
button appears on the Freeze screen.
This button lets you display a Marker Channel Diagram if the pacemaker is
programmed to a dual chamber or VDD mode and Marker Channel telemetry is being received. Refer to the last section in this chapter for information
about this diagram.
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Using the Programmer
Adjusting the Trace Displays
The control buttons at the left of the trace display let you individually adjust
the magnification of the frozen ECG and EGM waveforms and change the
time scale of trace display.
To make an adjustment:
1.
Select the appropriate button (see below) to display a window of
options.
2.
Select the desired option from the displayed window.
____________________________________________________________
ECG LEAD II
1.0 mV/mm
Magnify 1x
25 mm/sec
V. EGM
1.0 mV/mm
Magnify 1x
Indicates the present ECG Lead configuration and ECG amplitude scaling.
This is not a control.
____________________________
Select to change the frozen ECG magnification factor.
Options:
1X, 2X, and 4X (1X is the default setting.)
____________________________
Select to change the frozen display time scale.
Options:
25, 50, 100 mm/sec (25 mm/sec is the default setting.)
____________________________
Indicates the telemetry type displayed on the lower trace display and the
EGM amplitude scaling when applicable. This is not a control.
____________________________
Select to change the frozen EGM magnification factor.*
Options:
1X, 2X, and 4X (1X is the default setting.)
____________________________________________________________
*This button does not appear if the present telemetry type shown in the box above it is
“MARKER” or “SENSOR.”
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5-13
Using the On-Screen Calipers
The position and scroll buttons below the trace display let you control the
position of two vertical cursors appearing on the trace display. With these
controls, you can use the cursors as on-screen calipers to measure the time
interval between events on the displayed traces. The small window above
the POSITION LEFT CURSOR buttons displays the interval between the cursors
in milliseconds.
Left Cursor Ð
Ð Right Cursor
Freeze Screen —
Caliper Cursors
and Controls
•
ýýý➊
ýýý➋
ýýýýýýýýýýý➌
ýýýýýý➍
To use the caliper position and scroll buttons:
Alternately press and release the appropriate button to effect small
movements or press and hold the button to effect larger movements.
Button action reference:
➊ These two buttons move the left cursor to the right or left.
➋ These two buttons move the right cursor to the right or left.
➌ These buttons scroll the calipers to the right or left without changing
the space between them.
Select the [HOME] button to center the calipers on the screen one
second apart. You can use this button to retrieve the calipers if they
have been scrolled off the screen.
➍ To view the portion of the frozen traces not showing on the display,
use these two buttons to scroll the waveform traces to the right or left.
➎ This box displays the time interval between the cursors.
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Using the Programmer
Displaying a Marker Channel™ Diagram
If the selected pacemaker is a Prodigy DR, Prodigy D, or Prodigy VDD
model, the Freeze screen includes the [SHOW DIAGRAM] button as shown in
the example on page 5-10. Under the proper conditions (see NOTE below),
selecting this button displays a Marker Channel Diagram.
NOTE: A Marker Channel Diagram can be displayed only if the pacing
mode is dual chamber or VDD and the display includes Marker telemetry
annotations (the selected telemetry type can be either Marker or EGM).
Selecting the Marker Channel™ Diagram
SHOW DIAGRAM
To display a Marker Channel Diagram, select the
[SHOW DIAGRAM] button on the Freeze screen.
The diagram will be drawn on the lower trace
display as shown in the example below.
Freeze Screen with
Marker Channel™
Diagram
To print the ECG trace
and diagram, select the
[PRINT] menu button, and
then select the CURRENT
SCREEN REPORT option.
SHOW MARKERS/EGM
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To return to the trace of Marker or EGM
plus Marker telemetry, select the [SHOW
MARKERS/EGM] button, which appears in
place of the [SHOW DIAGRAM] button.
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5-15
About the Marker Channel™ Diagram
The Marker Channel Diagram (see example below) shows more details of
pacemaker operation by depicting the various timing intervals, including
blanking and refractory periods. The diagram is intended to further clarify
operation of the pacemaker and simplify analysis of the patient’s ECG.
Example of a
Marker Channel™
Diagram Printout
NOTE: If events portrayed on the diagram occur in very rapid succession,
the Pace and Sense marker annotations (P, S, R) may not appear, and the
supplemental labels (Act., Safe, PVC, and NCAP) that define certain
events may overlap. Overlapping characters or labels displayed on the
screen may not appear exactly the same on the printout.
NOTE: In situations where the event rate is unusually high, the Marker
Channel Diagram may be less than 10 seconds in length due to processing
limitations.
Using the On-Screen Calipers
Operation of the POSITION LEFT/RIGHT CURSOR, CALIPER SCROLL, and
WAVEFORM SCROLL buttons is the same as described in the previous section
of this chapter.
Printing the Marker Channel™ Diagram
To print the Marker Channel Diagram, select the [PRINT] menu button, and
then select the CURRENT SCREEN REPORT option. You can print a diagram
only while it is displayed on the screen.
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Using the Programmer
The printout lists the present parameter settings on which the diagram is
based and includes definitions of the lines, labels, and symbols used in the
diagram.
Interpreting the Diagram
Each Marker Channel Diagram is formed by a series of lines and symbols
that depict pacemaker operation. The pacing mode in effect is printed above
the ECG trace at the top of the chart.
P
P
P
P
A
V
P
P
A
V
P
A
V
P
P
Atrial and Ventricular Baselines — The diagram is formed along two
parallel baselines labeled “A” and “V.” Symbols depicting atrial activity
appear along the top side of baseline A; symbols depicting ventricular
activity appear along the bottom side of baseline V. Sloped lines appearing
between the two baselines depict the timing relationship between atrial and
ventricular events.
P
S
R
ER
(Pace) Output of a pacing stimulus.
(Sense) A sensed event.
(Refractory Sense) An event sensed within the refractory period.
(Error) A marker that could not be decoded because of interference
or interrupted telemetry.
Supplemental Marker Labels — Supplemental labels indicate when a
marker is the result of one of the following conditions:
A c t.
P
P
Rev A
P
Pace and Sense Markers — Short vertical lines extending upward from
baseline A and downward from baseline V are the event markers received
via Marker Channel telemetry. Each marker is labeled according to the
event it represents.
P
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Act.
Safe
PVC
NCAP
An activity-driven pace.
A ventricular safety pace.
A pacemaker-defined premature ventricular contraction.
A non-competitive atrial pace.
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Displaying and Printing the Patient’s ECG and EGM
P
R
5-17
Blanking and Refractory Periods — Rectangles on the A and V baselines
depict atrial and ventricular blanking and refractory periods.
S
Solid Rectangles — Depict blanking periods.
S
S
Open Rectangles — Depict refractory periods. Vertical lines appearing
within the rectangle mark the timing of sense or pace events occurring in
the opposite chamber. Such lines may indicate the start of a new refractory
(and blanking) period.
Timing Lines — The sloped, horizontal, and vertical lines appearing
between the A and V baselines depict the timing relationship between the
atrial and ventricular events.
P
Downward Sloping Lines — Depict A-to-V timing (based on the pacemaker’s operating AV interval) initiated by an atrial pace or sense event.
The course of this line results in a ventricular pace, unless it is interrupted
by a ventricular sense.
P
P
P
Upward Sloping Lines — Depict V-to-A timing (based on the pacemaker’s
operating pacing rate) initiated by a ventricular pace or sense event. Except
as stated below, the course of this line results in an atrial pace unless it is
interrupted by an atrial sense or a PVC.
In the VDD pacing mode, a ventricular pace (not an atrial pace) occurs if
V-to-V timing completes before an atrial sense occurs.
P
S
S
P
Horizontal Lines — Depict any extension in the timing required to maintain
a proper pace schedule. In this example, the upper tracking rate results in an
extension of A-to-V timing. Another example is non-competitive atrial
pacing, which shows as an extension of V-to-A timing.
S
S
S
Timing extensions are common in diagrams of the DDI(R) mode because of
the absence of atrial tracking.
Vertical Lines — Depict interruption of a timing interval by a sense or the
conclusion of a timing extension, which results in a pace.
Error Conditions
Under certain conditions, the programmer may not be able to properly
determine pacemaker operation from the data available. Most such conditions result in the appearance of an error message on the diagram.
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Using the Programmer
If an error message appears, you should reposition the programming
head and freeze another 10-second trace segment to obtain a new Marker
Channel Diagram.
NOTE: A Marker Channel Diagram cannot be displayed if an interrogation or programming transmission occurred during the 10-second interval
of the frozen trace.
Below is an explanation of the messages that indicate an error condition.
“Missing Event” — This message appears if an event did not occur when it
was expected based on the interrogated data registered in programmer
memory. This situation can occur in the presence of interference that
interrupts telemetry.
Interruption of the diagram followed by the appearance of a Threshold
Margin Test (pacing at 100 ppm for three cycles) indicates that movement
of the programming head during recording of the 10-second frozen trace
opened and closed the pacemaker reed switch. In this situation, the Threshold Margin Test depicted on the diagram may be accompanied by one or
more “Missing Event” messages.
“Diagram Error” — This message indicates that a particular sequence of
events portrayed by the Marker trace cannot be processed and properly
displayed by the Marker Channel Diagram.
“Bad Data” — This message indicates that the programmer has not
received the information it requires to complete the Marker Channel
Diagram. This can occur when there is an interruption or fault in the
telemetry being received - possibly due to interference or movement of the
programming head.
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CHAPTER 6
Programming Pacing
Parameters
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the following programming procedures:
How to program the permanent pacing parameters controlling operation of the patient’s pacemaker. This procedure is conducted from the
Pacing Parameters screen (see page 6-2).
How to program nominal and saved parameter values (see page 6-6).
How to program the Transtelephonic Monitor and Extended Telemetry
parameters, which are related to follow-up procedures (see page 6-8).
How to program the Status Reset command to verify or clear an ERI
status or clear a pacemaker full electrical reset condition (see page 6-9).
How to program the pacemaker serial number in the event it is cleared
from pacemaker memory by an electrical reset (see page 6-10).
For instructions on programming the parameters of the Diagnostics
function, refer to Chapter 8.
6-1
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Using the Programmer
Programming Pacing Parameters
To program changes to the permanent pacing parameters, begin by
selecting the Pacing Parameters screen. This screen displays the present
parameter settings and lets you select the parameters and values to be
programmed.
Selecting the Pacing Parameters Screen
You can use either of two methods to select the Pacing Parameters screen:
select the [PACING PARAMETERS] button if it is displayed in the lower right
corner of the present screen, otherwise select the [PARAMETERS] Menu
button, and then select the PACING PARAMETERS option as shown below.
1. Select [PARAMETERS]
menu button.
2. Select PACING
PARAMETERS option.
Present settings will not be shown unless an appropriate interrogation has
occurred. Interrogate the pacemaker, if required, to display these settings.
Pacing Parameters
Screen
Refer to Part II of this
manual for specific
information about the
pacing modes and the
operation of certain
parameters.
Refer to Section E in
Part III for a list of the
parameters and values
available for each
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Programming Pacing Parameters
6-3
Features of the Pacing Parameters Screen
Parameter Display — Following an interrogation, the screen shows the
present pacing parameter settings. The screen displays only those parameters that are applicable to the selected pacemaker model and pertinent to the
present pacing mode. Note that the parameters are divided into labeled
groups according to their general function.
[PROGRAM] Button — This button appears in the lower right corner of the
screen only when one or more new parameter values have been properly
selected (see “Restricted Parameter Interactions” below). The PROGRAM
key on the programming head will respond only when the [ PROGRAM]
button shows on the screen.
Special Options — The three buttons located at the right of the parameter
display may be useful during the programming procedure described on the
next page.
SHOW
PRESENT
When you select new parameter values to program, these
“pending” values are displayed in place of the interrogated
present settings. To temporarily recall the present settings,
press and hold this button.
SHOW
SAVED
If you have saved a set of parameter values (see below), this
button will appear on the screen. Pressing and holding this
button will temporarily display these saved values.
SAVE/
NOMINAL
OPTIONS...
Selecting this button displays options for: 1) clearing all
pending values from the parameter screen, 2) saving a set of
parameter values, and 3) recalling the set of saved values or
nominal values to the screen as pending values. (Refer to
“Programming Nominal and Saved Values” in this chapter.)
Restricted Parameter Interactions
Certain combinations of parameter values are restricted because they are
invalid or result in undesirable interactions. The programmer recognizes
these combinations and does not allow programming until all parameter
conflicts are resolved and all parameter selection requirements are met.
Refer to Section E in Part III for more information on parameter programming requirements and restrictions.
Restricted Parameter Values — Any parameter value that conflicts with
the setting of a present or pending parameter is displayed in italics in the
parameter value option window (see step 2 of the programming procedure).
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Using the Programmer
DDIR
Parameter Interaction — If you select a restricted parameter value, the
display will indicate the interacting parameter values by displaying the
values in reverse video. You must select new values to resolve the conflict
before programming is allowed.
Parameter Entry Requirement — A solid, shaded rectangle appearing
where a parameter value should be displayed indicates that a valid value for
this parameter must be selected before programming is allowed.
General Parameter Programming Procedure
For specific parameter information related to
each pacemaker model, refer to Sections B
and E of Part III.
To program one or more parameter values:
1.
Select the desired parameter from those
displayed — Lower Rate for example.
Press the selector pen directly over the
parameter name or its value.
NOTE: Select Pacing Mode first if you
intend to program a mode. Selecting a
mode displays the programmable parameters pertinent to that mode.
2.
From the window of value options,
select the desired value.
Except for Hysteresis, selecting a value in
italics results in a restricted parameter
interaction.
Selecting a value closes the window. The
selected value appears in place of the
present value and is denoted as “pending”
by a dashed rectangle.
To clear a pending value from the screen,
select that parameter or value, and then
select [CLEAR VALUE] in the value window. To close the value window without
selecting a value, press [ACCEPT VALUE].
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Programming Pacing Parameters
3.
6-5
Repeat steps 1 and 2 to include any other parameters you want to
program.
NOTE: If you try to exit the screen before you program the selected
values, a pop-up window will provide the option to continue with this
procedure or clear the pending values and exit the screen.
4.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM].
Select the [PROGRAM] button to program all pending parameter values.
Hold the programming head in position until the confirmation message
appears.
PROGRAM
NOTE: If the programming is interrupted, it is possible that one or
more of the parameter groups will not be programmed and will still
show pending values. In such cases, the programming will not be
confirmed, and the message box will direct you to reselect [PROGRAM].
Programming Mode Switch — If the present setting for Mode Switch is
or if you select ON, the value window lists the present setting for the
subordinate parameter Detect Rate (see example below) and provides the
option to select a new value. Refer to Chapter 14 for information about the
operation of Mode Switch.
ON
1.
To select a value for Detect
Rate, use the same basic
procedure described in steps
1 and 2 of the general
programming procedure.
2.
When you have selected the
desired value for Detect
Rate, select the [ACCEPT
VALUE] button to close the
primary parameter value
window.
If the present or pending value for Upper Tracking Rate is 165 ppm or
above, the programmer automatically selects a pending value for Detect
Rate. The values of 185 and 190 bpm are not selectable but will respectively appear as the pending value if Upper Tracking rate is 175 or 180 ppm.
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Using the Programmer
Programming Nominal and Saved Values
The procedures below describe using the options available by selecting the
[SAVE/NOMINAL OPTIONS...] button.
Programming Medtronic or Site Nominal Values
To recall Medtronic nominal settings (“Medtronic Values”) or Site Nominal
settings to the screen as pending values for programming:
1.
Select the [SAVE/NOMINAL OPTIONS...] button.
2.
Select [MEDTRONIC VALUES] or [SITE NOMINALS] from the window of
options.
The respective parameter values will appear on the screen as pending
values. You can directly program these values or make any desired changes
prior to programming.
NOTE: The [SITE NOMINALS] button shows only if Site Nominal values
have been set up for the selected pacemaker model. Refer to Chapter 9.
Saving a Set of Parameter Values
To save the displayed present pacing parameter values (those interrogated
from the patient’s pacemaker):
1.
Select the [SAVE/NOMINAL OPTIONS...] button.
2.
Select [SAVE PRESENT VALUES] from the window of options.
The displayed present parameter values will be saved in programmer
memory until you save another set of present values or end the patient
session. You can view the currently saved values by selecting the [ SHOW
SAVED] button on the Pacing Parameters screen.
NOTE: Unless some parameter values have already been saved, using the
[INTERROGATE ALL] button as described in Chapter 2 will automatically
save the present pacing parameter settings.
Programming the Saved Set of Values
To recall the saved parameter values to the screen as pending values for
programming:
1.
Select the [SAVE/NOMINAL OPTIONS...] button.
2.
Select [SAVED VALUES] from the window of options.
The saved parameter values will appear on the screen as pending values.
You can directly program these values or make any desired changes prior to
programming.
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Programming Pacing Parameters
6-7
Programming Additional Parameters
Additional parameters include the Transtelephonic Monitor and Extended
Telemetry follow-up options, the pacemaker Serial Number, and the Status
Reset command. To access these parameter options, select the Additional
Parameters screen.
Selecting the Additional Parameters Screen
To display the Additional Parameters screen, select the [PARAMETERS]
menu button, and then select the ADDITIONAL PARAMETERS option as shown
below.
1. Select [PARAMETERS]
menu button.
2. Select ADDITIONAL
PARAMETERS option.
Parameter settings will not show unless an appropriate interrogation has
occurred. Interrogate the pacemaker, if necessary, to display the settings.
Additional
Parameters Screen
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6-8
Using the Programmer
Programming Transtelephonic Monitor
Transtelephonic Monitor is a feature that can facilitate using transtelephonic
monitoring during a remote patient follow-up procedure. The programmable options for this feature are ON and OFF. Refer to “Enhanced Transtelephonic Monitoring” in Chapter 13 for an explanation of this feature.
WARNING: Do not program Transtelephonic Monitor to ON if the patient
has an implantable defibrillator (see Chapter 13).
To program Transtelephonic Monitor:
1.
Select Trans Tele from the parameters listed on the Additional
Parameters screen.
2.
From the displayed window of options, select ON or OFF as desired.
3.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM]. Hold the programming head steady until you receive a programming confirmation.
Programming Extended Telemetry
Programming Extended Telemetry to ON will cause the pacemaker to
continuously transmit EGM and Marker Channel telemetry for 24 hours.
Refer to Chapter 15 for information about Extended Telemetry.
NOTE: Because Extended Telemetry increases current drain on the pacemaker battery, it should be used only when necessary.
To program Extended Telemetry:
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1.
Select Extend. Telem from the parameters listed on the Additional
Parameters screen.
2.
From the displayed window of options, select ON or OFF as desired.
3.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM]. Hold the programming head steady until you receive a programming confirmation.
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Programming Pacing Parameters
6-9
Programming the Status Reset Command
For information about the Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) or about
Electrical Reset, refer to the respective sections in Chapter 16.
Verifying or Clearing an ERI Status
If a screen message indicates that the pacemaker Elective Replacement
Indicator (ERI) has been set, you can use the Status Reset command to
verify present battery status as follows:
1.
Select the Status Reset from the parameters listed on the Additional
Parameters screen.
2.
From the option window, select RESET.
3.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM]. Continue to
hold the programming head steady while the pacemaker automatically
tests the present condition of its battery.
During this test, the pacemaker paces asynchronously at 100 ppm for
several beats. (During these beats in a dual chamber mode, the AV
interval will be 100 ms.)
If the test verifies the ERI status, no reset will occur.
If battery voltage has recovered, the ERI status is cleared, and you
can proceed to reprogram the parameter settings.
Clearing a Pacemaker Electrical Reset
The Status Reset command can also be used to clear a full pacemaker
electrical reset condition. Indication that a full electrical reset has occurred
is VVI pacing at 65 ppm and, in some cases, a pacemaker serial number
set to all zeros (000000). Refer to Chapter 16 for an explanation of “full
electrical reset” versus “partial electrical reset.”
IMPORTANT: If a full electrical reset has occurred , you should contact
your Medtronic representative after using the Status Reset command to
clear this condition.
To clear a full electrical reset condition:
1.
Select the Status Reset from the parameters listed on the Additional
Parameters screen.
2.
From the option window, select RESET.
3.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM]. Continue to
hold the programming head steady until confirmation is received.
All parameters, including the pacemaker serial number, can now be
reprogrammed to their proper settings.
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Using the Programmer
Programming the Pacemaker Serial Number
Serial number programming should not be used to change the factory
setting. This procedure is intended only for reprogramming the original
serial number in the unlikely event it is lost from pacemaker memory due to
a pacemaker electrical reset (see previous section about programming the
Reset command).
To reprogram pacemaker serial number:
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1.
Select Serial Number from the list of parameters on the Additional
Parameters screen.
2.
Using the on-screen keypad, enter each digit of the original serial
number. The selected numbers will appear in the small window to the
right of the keypad.
3.
If you make a mistake, select [CLEAR VALUE]. Otherwise, select
[ACCEPT VALUE] to register the entered number as a pending value.
4.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM]. Hold the programming head steady until you receive a programming confirmation.
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CHAPTER 7
Determining and
Evaluating Parameter
Settings
About This Chapter
Capabilities of the programmer include test and measurement functions that
can assist you in determining appropriate parameter values for programming the pacemaker or optimizing its operation. This chapter covers the
following test procedures.
Measuring the patient’s stimulation threshold to determine appropriate
values for amplitude and pulse width (see page 7-2).
Measuring the level of R-wave or P-wave sensing to determine
appropriate values for pacemaker sensitivity (see page 7-15).
Conducting an Activity Threshold test and an Exercise test to formulate
parameter settings for programming or optimizing an Activity pacing
mode (see page 7-21).
Using temporary parameter programming to evaluate other parameter
values without changing the permanent settings (see page 7-30).
Directly measuring the actual values of the pacing rate and paced AV
interval (see page 7-33).
7-1
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7-2
Using the Programmer
Measuring Stimulation Thresholds
The Threshold Test function lets you measure the patient’s stimulation
thresholds to determine appropriate settings for amplitude and pulse width.
This measurement procedure begins at the Threshold Test Start screen.
Selecting the Threshold Test Start Screen
To display the Threshold Test Start screen, select the [TESTS/ECG] menu
button, and then select the THRESHOLD TEST option as illustrated below.
1. Select [TESTS/ECG]
menu button.
2. Select THRESHOLD
TEST option.
If you have not yet interrogated the pacemaker for its present parameter
settings, a message will prompt you to do so at this point. If this prompt
appears, position the programming head and select [ INTERROGATE] to
proceed.
Threshold Test Start
Screen
In this example, the
programming head has
been positioned over the
patient’s pacemaker to
display Marker Channel
and EGM telemetry.
Refer to pages 5-6 and
5-7 for instructions on
adjusting the ECG and
telemetry traces.
Selecting a chamber/
mode option and the
desired test type are the
first two steps in conducting a threshold test.
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Determining and Evaluating Parameter Settings
7-3
Threshold Test Options
The first two steps in the procedure for conducting a threshold test are to
select a test chamber/mode option (when applicable) and to select the
desired threshold test type. The buttons for these options appear below the
waveform display on the Threshold Test Start screen.
Chamber/Mode Selection
The chamber/mode options that appear depend on the present permanent
pacing mode.
If the permanent pacing mode is DDD or DDDR, you
can choose to run the threshold test in the atrium or
the ventricle using either DDD or AAI/VVI as the
test mode.
If the permanent mode is a dual chamber mode other
than DDD or DDDR, you can choose the chamber,
but the test mode will be limited to AAI/VVI.
If the permanent mode is a single chamber mode, the
test chamber and mode will be fixed according to
chamber being paced.
Test Type Selection
Test type buttons let you select one of four different threshold tests or the
Inhibit function.
[STRENGTH-DURATION CURVE THRE— Select this test to use automatic, step-by-step reduction of output
energy to measure stimulation thresholds
for both amplitude and pulse width. This
test graphically displays the results as a
computed strength-duration curve. The
results screen lets you select the desired
voltage safety margin and directly program permanent amplitude and pulse
width values.
SHOLDS]
[AUTO AMPL THRESHOLD] — Select this test to measure the patient’s amplitude threshold. Pressing and holding the [ PROGRAM] button results in
automatic, step-by-step reduction of the pacing pulse amplitude.
[AUTO PW THRESHOLD] — Select this test to measure the patient’s pulse
width threshold. Pressing and holding the [ PROGRAM] button results in
automatic, step-by-step reduction of the pacing pulse width.
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[MANUAL THRESHOLD] — Select this test to manually select and test specific
values for amplitude and pulse width. Automatic value reduction is not used
in this test. Only the selected values are tested while you press and hold the
[PROGRAM] button.
[INHIBIT PACING] — This button is available on the Threshold Test Start
screen as a convenience option. You can use it to temporarily inhibit output
of the pacemaker to view the patient’s underlying rhythm or determine the
intrinsic rate. Use of this feature is described on page 5-9.
Before You Begin the Test Procedure
Precautions
At any point during a threshold test, lifting the programming head from
over the pacemaker for at least 2 seconds will return the pacemaker to its
permanently programmed state. This action should be taken in the event of
a programmer malfunction, loss of power, or absence of an appropriate
command confirmation.
Be aware that movement of the programming head during an automatic
threshold test may interrupt communication between the programmer and
pacemaker, which will terminate the test.
A Note About Hysteresis
If Hysteresis has been programmed to ON during previous use of the AAI,
AAT, VVI, or VVT pacing mode, it will be in effect when ever you return
to one of these modes — even temporarily such as during a threshold test.
If a message indicates that Hysteresis is in effect, you can program it to
OFF by returning to the Pacing Parameters screen. To access Hysteresis,
you must select one of the single chamber modes mentioned above.
Waveform Display
During setup and execution of a threshold test, the screen continuously
displays the patient’s ECG and the telemetered waveforms being received
from the pacemaker. Adjust the ECG trace so that you easily can see pacing
artifacts and the resulting depolarization wave. During a threshold test, you
must be able to determine whether or not capture is maintained or lost as
pacemaker output is reduced, either manually or automatically.
Refer to Chapter 5, pages 5-6 to 5-8 for information about using and
adjusting the waveform display and about Marker telemetry.
Selecting Pulses Per Decrement
During a threshold test (except “Manual Threshold”), the programmer
controls the number of pacing cycles it allows to occur at each threshold
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test value before it automatically reduces the test value. As described in the
test procedures that follow, you can adjust the number of pacing cycles
(labeled “Pulses Per Decrement”) from 3 to 15 as desired.
A value should be chosen that allows adequate time to evaluate the patient’s
ECG to determine whether or not capture is maintained or lost.
The programmer uses Marker telemetry to count pacing cycles during the
execution of a threshold test. If “Sensor” telemetry is programmed or Pace
markers are not otherwise being received, pacing cycles cannot be counted.
In such cases, the timing between automatic output reductions will default
to 8 seconds, and the selected number of pulses per decrement will not
apply.
NOTE: If the selected threshold test mode is DDD, the programmer will
count two Pace markers as one pacing cycle. If only one chamber is being
paced (pacing in the other chamber is inhibited), the number of pacing
cycles that occur between each test value reduction will be twice the
number selected for Pulses Per Decrement.
NOTE: The time lapse between automatic test value reductions will not be
greater than 8 seconds, regardless of the selected number of pulses per
decrement.
Conducting a Strength-Duration Curve
Threshold Test
The procedure for conducting a Strength-Duration Curve Threshold test
involves determining a threshold value for both amplitude and pulse width
(see page 7-3). This procedure is divided into four parts: A, B, C, and D.
To conduct this test, you must complete all four parts.
A. Selecting the Threshold Test
This procedure begins at the Threshold Test Start screen (see page 7-2).
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1.
If the permanent pacing mode is a dual chamber mode, select the
desired “chamber/mode” button — [Atrial/DDD] for example.
2.
Select the [STRENGTH-DURATION CURVE THRESHOLDS] button.
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B. Measuring the Amplitude Threshold
Execution of step 2 on the previous page displays the threshold test parameter setup options as shown in this example.
1.
Use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust each of the parameter values to
the desired test setting.
Lower Rate — Adjust to a value high enough to effect consistent
pacing. Loss of capture cannot be determined if the pacemaker is
inhibited.
Paced/Sensed AV — If the test mode is DDD, adjust this interval to a
value short enough to provide a consistently paced ventricular rhythm.
The selected value applies to both Paced AV and Sensed AV intervals.
Pulse Width — Adjust to the pulse width value you want in effect
during the amplitude test. This value cannot be less than 1.0 ms.
Amplitude — Adjust to the value at which you want the amplitude test
to start. This value must be high enough to provide consistent capture.
Pulses Per Decrement — Adjust to the number of pacing cycles you
want to occur at each test value before reduction occurs (see page 7-4).
2.
Position the programming head and hold it steady in position for the
remainder of this procedure. Observe that Marker telemetry appears
below the ECG trace.
3.
Press and hold [PROGRAM] to execute the amplitude threshold test.
The threshold test execution window shows the temporary values in
effect. The arrow (<<<===) points to the value being reduced.
Observe the patient’s ECG trace as the programmer automatically
reduces amplitude one programmable step every 3 to 15 pacing cycles
(as selected in step 1). An audible “beep” indicates confirmation of
each new amplitude value.
4.
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When capture is lost, immediately release [PROGRAM].
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This action restores permanent parameter values and displays the
threshold amplitude, which is one programmable amplitude step
greater than the ending test value.
If the “Ending” test value is not the point at which capture was lost,
you can use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust the displayed threshold
value.
C. Measuring the Pulse Width Threshold
1.
To continue, press and hold [PROGRAM] to execute the pulse width test.
The threshold test execution window shows the temporary values in
effect. The arrow (<<<===) points to the value being reduced.
Again, observe the patient’s ECG trace as the programmer automatically reduces pulse width in steps. An audible “beep” indicates confirmation of each new pulse width value.
NOTE: The amplitude setting in effect will be the selected test value
or twice the threshold value determined in part B above, whichever is
greater. Starting pulse width will be one-half the value used in part B.
2.
When capture is lost, immediately release [PROGRAM].
This action restores permanent parameter values and displays the
threshold pulse width, which is one programmable pulse width step
greater than the ending test value.
If the “Ending” test value is not the point at which capture was lost,
you can use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust the displayed threshold
value.
3.
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To view the amplitude and pulse width threshold test results graphically as a strength-duration curve, select [SHOW STRENGTH-DURATION
CURVE].
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: A message stating that the test results are invalid may indicate
that the patient’s thresholds are too high to be used in the computation
of a strength-duration curve or that product of the threshold amplitude
and pulse width values for both tests (Part B and Part C) are the same
(they must be different for computation of the strength-duration curve).
If the latter is true, running the test again using a lower amplitude test
value should result in a strength-duration curve.
D. Viewing the Test Results and Programming Permanent
Values for Amplitude and Pulse Width
Selecting the button in Step 3 displays the threshold test results in the form
of a strength-duration curve computed by the programmer. Options on this
screen, as shown in the example below, let you select a desired safety
margin and directly program permanent settings for amplitude and pulse
width.
Strength-Duration
Threshold Test
Results Screen
Curves indicating the
2X and 3X safety
margins.
Patient’s computed
threshold curve.
About the Strength-Duration Curve — The curve formed by the edge of
the shaded area is the computed curve of the patient’s threshold based on
the two measured threshold values (shown as small circles on the curve).
Any combination of amplitude and pulse width values that fall above this
curve will result in capture. Conversely, any values that fall below the
curve, i.e., within the shaded area, will not result in capture.
The graphic symbols used in this graphic display are as follows:
z
Marks the results of the amplitude and pulse width tests.
X Marks the present permanent amplitude and pulse width settings.
+
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Marks the selected pending amplitude and pulse width values.
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About the Safety Margin Curves — The solid, curved lines appearing
above the strength-duration curve indicate the combination of amplitude
and pulse width values that provide a safety margin of two times the amplitude threshold (2X) and three times the amplitude threshold (3X). The 3X
curve may not be displayed in cases where the patient has relatively high
thresholds.
Selecting a Safety Margin and Programming Pending Values —
Options on this screen let you choose pending values for amplitude and
pulse width by either of two methods: by selecting the desired safety
margin, or by manually adjusting the displayed value for each parameter.
The pending values may then be programmed as permanent settings.
To select a safety margin, use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust the
displayed value. Options are 1.0X (no margin), 1.5X, 2.0X, 2.5X and
3.0X. The default setting upon entry to this screen is 2.0X.
NOTE: By selecting a safety margin, the programmer automatically
displays the appropriate pending values for amplitude and pulse width.
The values displayed will be the combination that attains the selected
safety margin at the lowest possible drain on the pacemaker battery.
This combination is indicated by the label “(max battery life values),”
which appears below the pending values.
To select pending values manually, use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to
adjust the amplitude and pulse width values to the desired settings.
The safety margin attained by the selected values will be displayed.
To permanently program the amplitude and pulse width values
selected by either method above:
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1.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM].
2.
Watch for the programming confirmation message.
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Using the Programmer
Estimated Time to Replacement
The “Estimated Time to Replacement” is a calculated estimate of the
average time (in months) remaining until pacemaker replacement will be
required. This calculated estimate is based on the pending values selected
for programming as well as data accumulated by the pacemaker since the
previous patient session.
This estimate provides an indication of how different pulse width and
amplitude settings can affect the projected pacemaker longevity.
NOTE: A value for Estimated Time to Replacement will not be displayed if
up-to-date Battery/Lead data is not available. To obtain a value, position the
programming head and select [ INTERROGATE] as prompted.
Printing the Strength-Duration Threshold Test Results
You can print the strength-duration curve only while it is displayed on the
screen. The graph is not saved for printing later. To print the StrengthDuration Curve and Threshold Results report:
1.
Select the [PRINT] Menu button.
2.
Select the CURRENT SCREEN REPORT option.
You can print the numerical results of the threshold test at any time during
the patient session (see page 7-14). The numerical results are automatically
saved when you exit the threshold test results screen.
Exiting the Strength-Duration Threshold Test Results Screen
If you want to exit the threshold test results screen and conduct another
threshold test, select the [RETURN TO START] button.
To exit the Threshold Test function, select the desired menu button from
the top of the screen.
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Conducting an Auto Amplitude or Auto Pulse
Width Threshold Test
Use this procedure to measure the patient’s threshold using either amplitude
or pulse width. This procedure begins at the Threshold Test Start screen
(see page 7-2).
1.
If the permanent pacing mode is a dual chamber mode, select the
desired “chamber/mode” button — [Atrial/DDD] for example.
2.
Select the desired threshold test type: [AUTO AMPL THRESHOLD] or
[AUTO PW THRESHOLD].
Execution of this step displays the test parameter setup options.
3.
Use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust each of the parameters to the
desired test value. The selected test values will be applied temporarily
during the threshold test.
Lower Rate — Adjust to a value high enough to effect consistent
pacing. Loss of capture cannot be determined if the pacemaker is
inhibited.
Paced/Sensed AV — If the test mode is DDD, adjust this interval to a
value short enough to provide a consistently paced ventricular rhythm.
The selected value applies to both Paced AV and Sensed AV intervals.
Pulse Width — Adjust to the value you want in effect during the test.
If you are conducting an Auto PW test, this will be the starting test
value.
Amplitude — Adjust to the value you want in effect during the test. If
you are conducting an Auto Ampl test, this will be the starting test
value.
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Using the Programmer
Pulses Per Decrement — Adjust to the number of pacing cycles you
want to occur at each test value before reduction occurs (see page 7-4).
4.
Position the programming head and hold it steady in position for the
remainder of this procedure. Observe that Marker telemetry appears
below the ECG trace.
5.
Press and hold [PROGRAM] to execute the threshold test.
The threshold test execution window shows the temporary values in
effect. The arrow (<<<===) points to the value being reduced.
This example shows amplitude test execution. Pulse width test execution is similar.
Observe the patient’s ECG trace as the programmer automatically
reduces the threshold test parameter one programmable step every 3 to
15 pacing cycles (as selected in step 3). An audible “beep” indicates
confirmation of each new test value.
6.
When capture is lost, immediately release [PROGRAM].
This action restores permanent parameter values and displays the
threshold value, which is one programmable step greater than the
ending test value.
If the “Ending” test value is not the point at which capture was lost,
you can use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust the displayed threshold
value.
This example shows the amplitude test results. Pulse width test results are similar.
The adjustable Pending values on the right side of the screen allow you
to directly program permanent settings for amplitude and pulse width.
The default values displayed are the present permanent settings.
7.
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To program permanent values for amplitude and pulse width, use the
[∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to select a desired value for each parameter and
then press the [PROGRAM] button. Do not lift the programming head
until confirmation is indicated.
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To save the test results for printing, select [RETURN TO START] to return to
the Threshold Test Start screen, or select a menu button to exit this
function.
Conducting a Manual Threshold Test
Use this procedure to determine the patient’s threshold by manually testing
various parameter settings. This procedure begins at the Threshold Test
Start screen (see page 7-2).
1.
If the permanent pacing mode is a dual chamber mode, select the
desired “chamber/mode” button — [Atrial/DDD] for example.
2.
Select the [MANUAL THRESHOLD] test type button.
Execution of this step displays the test parameter setup options.
3.
Use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust each of the parameters to the
desired test value.
4.
Position the programming head and hold it steady in position for the
remainder of this procedure.
5.
To temporarily program the selected test values, press and hold the
[PROGRAM] button.
The test execution window shows the parameter settings now in effect.
Observe the patient’s ECG to determine whether or not capture is
maintained.
6.
To cancel the test values and restore permanent operation, release the
[PROGRAM] button.
This action returns you to the test parameter setup options. By using
this manual procedure to check incremental changes in the amplitude
or pulse width test value, you can determine the threshold value.
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: Programmed test values are not saved for printing unless you
select the [SAVE TEST VALUES] button on the test parameter setup
screen. If you want to save a set of tested values, select this button after
you release the [PROGRAM] button.
7.
To end the test and return to the Threshold Test Start screen, select
[RETURN TO START], or select a menu button to exit the Threshold Test
function.
Printing the Threshold Test Results
During a patient session, the programmer can save the results of up to 32
threshold tests (8 pages of data). The results of “automatic” threshold test
are saved when you exit the test results screen. Results of a manual test
must be saved manually as described above.
To obtain a report of the threshold tests:
1.
Select the [PRINT] menu button at the top of the screen.
2.
Select THRESHOLD RESULTS from the listed options.
NOTE: You can print the strength-duration curve only while it is displayed on the screen (see page 7-10).
Maximum Number of Test Results Saved
If the maximum number of threshold test results that can be saved for
printing is reached during the patient session, any attempt to execute
another threshold test will result in a pop-up window that prompts you to
print and then delete the currently saved test results. The window provides
the following options:
[PRINT THRESHOLD VALUES] — Selecting this button initiates a printout of
the stored threshold test values. This option lets you print the test
values before you delete them.
[DELETE THRESHOLD VALUES] — Selecting this button deletes all the stored
threshold test results so that the programmer can save the results of
subsequent threshold tests conducted during the patient session.
[EXIT] — Selecting this button closes the pop-up window. If you close the
window without deleting the stored threshold test results, the results of
subsequent threshold tests conducted during this patient session will
not be saved for print out.
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Determining a Setting for Sensitivity
The Sensing Test can assist you in determining an appropriate setting
for pacemaker sensitivity. This test measures and reports the present level
of R-wave or P-wave sensing and includes the option for selecting and
programming a permanent sensitivity value based on the test results.
Selecting the Sensing Test Setup Screen
To display the Sensing Test Setup screen, select the [TESTS/ECG] menu
button, and then select the SENSING TEST option as illustrated below.
1. Select [TESTS/ECG]
menu button.
2. Select SENSING TEST
option.
If an appropriate interrogation has not occurred, a screen message will
direct you to interrogate the pacemaker to display the setup screen. In this
example, the programming head has been positioned over the patient’s
pacemaker to display Marker Channel and EGM telemetry.
Sensing Test Setup
Screen
Refer to pages 5-6 and
5-7 for instructions on
adjusting the ECG and
telemetry traces.
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Before You Begin the Test Procedure
About the Sensing Test
During execution of the Sensing test, the pacemaker automatically determines whether or not sensing occurs at each of up to four sensitivity settings above the selected test value. The selected test values are in effect
only while the [PROGRAM] button is pressed and held.
NOTE: Because this test is accomplished by a separate sensing test circuit
within the pacemaker, the operating parameters of the pacemaker during the
test (while sensitivity values are being tested) do not vary from the selected
test values. As such, the ECG and Marker Channel traces will not indicate
any changes in pacemaker operation during the test.
Test results are based on which of the tested sensitivity values resulted in,
or did not result in, sensing. For example, if sensing during an atrial test did
not occur at 4.0, 2.8, or 2.0 mV, but did occur at 1.4 mV, the test results
would state that the P-wave amplitude is “between 1.4 and 2.0 mV.” Other
outcomes of the Sensing test are covered following the test procedure.
Precautions
The Sensing test requires that the pacemaker be programmed temporarily to
a pacing rate that will result in predominantly intrinsic heart activity. (This
is necessary to allow sensing during execution of the test.) For this reason,
use of the Sensing test should be limited to patients having an intrinsic
rhythm that will provide adequate support during execution of the test.
NOTE: If the patient’s condition indicates that pacing support is needed at
any time during use of the Inhibit function or execution of the Sensing test,
the procedure can be terminated immediately by releasing the [ PROGRAM]
button or lifting the programming head.
Waveform Display
During setup and execution of a Sensing test, the screen displays the
patient’s ECG and the telemetered waveforms being received from the
pacemaker. Buttons at the left end of the waveform display allow adjustment of the waveform traces as described on pages 5-6 and 5-7.
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Determining the Patient’s Intrinsic Rate
To properly conduct the Sensing test, it is helpful to know the rate of the
patient’s intrinsic rhythm. To evaluate the patient’s intrinsic rhythm and
determine its rate, use the Inhibit function as described on page 5-9. The
Inhibit function is accessible via the [INHIBIT PACING] button on the Sensing
Test Setup screen.
During inhibition of pacemaker output, observe that the waveform display
shows the patient’s intrinsic rhythm with Sense markers (AS and/or VS)
marking each intrinsic depolarization. Note the rate of the intrinsic rhythm
which is displayed in bpm to the left of the waveform display.
If an AS or VS Sense marker does not occur for each intrinsic depolarization, the present setting for sensitivity may be too high (a high millivolt
setting means low sensitivity). A sensitivity test value that provides consistent sensing is required to successfully start the Sensing test.
Conducting the Sensing Test
The following procedure describes how to determine the present level of
R-wave or P-wave sensing.
1.
If the permanent mode is a dual chamber mode or VDD mode, select
the desired chamber/mode button.
- If the permanent mode is DDD or DDDR, you can choose the test
chamber and DDD or AAI/VVI as the test mode.
- If the permanent mode is VDD or a dual chamber mode other than
DDD or DDDR, you can choose only the test chamber.
- If the permanent mode is a single chamber mode, the test chamber
and mode will be fixed, and step 1 does not apply.
2.
Use the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to adjust each of the parameter values to
the desired test settings.
Lower Rate — Adjust rate to a value low enough to obtain consistent
sensing. The Sensing test will not run if the pacemaker is pacing.
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Using the Programmer
Sensed/Paced AV Interval — If the test mode is DDD, adjust this
interval to a value long enough to accommodate normal conduction.
(The selected value also applies to the Paced AV interval during
execution of the test.)
Sensitivity — Select a sensitivity value that provides consistent sensing. This setting can typically be left at the present permanent value.
3.
Position the programming head and verify that the waveform display
shows both the patient’s ECG and Marker telemetry.
Continue to hold the programming head steady in position for the
remainder of this procedure.
4.
To execute the Sensing test, press and hold [PROGRAM].
Continue to hold [PROGRAM] until a screen message indicates that the
test is complete or has otherwise been terminated. During execution of
the test, the screen will display each sensitivity value as it is being
tested. Observe that the Marker Channel trace shows predominantly
Sense markers.
NOTE: Releasing the [PROGRAM] button will terminate the test and
restore the pacemaker to its permanent settings. If termination of the
test is not confirmed, lift the programming head away from the pacemaker for at least 2 seconds.
5.
When the test has ended or has otherwise been terminated, release
[PROGRAM] as prompted by the message box.
If the test was successful, the screen shows the test results and provides
the option for selecting and programming a permanent sensitivity
value.
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Test Successful
The results of a successfully executed test displays the P-wave or R-wave
amplitude as being between two sensitivity settings. This information can
be used to determine an appropriate permanent sensitivity setting.
To program a permanent Sensitivity setting:
1.
Use the [∧
∧] or [∨
∨] buttons to select a desired pending value. (The
default values displayed are the present permanent values).
2.
Position the programming head and press [PROGRAM]. Watch for
confirmation of the programming.
Retest Required
Sensitivity Test Value Too Low — Test results that state that the P-wave
or R-wave amplitudes are “greater than” a particular value indicate that
sensing occurred at all of the four sensitivity values tested. Included on the
display is the message, “Rerun test at a higher sensitivity value.”
In this case, you should:
1.
Return to the Test Setup screen (select [RETURN TO SETUP]).
2.
Select a higher test value for sensitivity.
3.
Repeat the test starting at step 3.
Sensitivity Test Value Too High — If the test determines that sensing did
not occur at the next setting above the test value, the programmer displays
the test results, but also displays the message, “Rerun test at a lower sensitivity value.”
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Using the Programmer
To verify the test results in this case, it is recommended that you:
1.
Return to the Test Setup screen (select [RETURN TO SETUP]).
2.
Select a lower test value for sensitivity.
3.
Repeat the test starting at step 3.
Sense Markers Not Present — If telemetered Sense markers (AS or VS)
are not present at the start of the Sensing test, the test will automatically
terminate.
Verify on the waveform display that sensing of the patient’s intrinsic
rhythm is occurring. If pacing is observed, select [ RETURN TO SETUP] to
return to the setup screen and refer to “Determining the Patient’s Intrinsic
Rate” on page 7-17).
Printing the Sensing Test Result
To print the results of the most recent Sensing test, select the [PRINT] Menu
button and then select the SENSING RESULTS option.
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7-21
Determining Rate Response Parameter Settings
As part of the process of programming a rate responsive pacing mode in a
Prodigy DR or SR model, you can use the two tests described in this section
to help determine appropriate settings for the parameters related to rate
response. You can access these tests by selecting the Activity Tests screen.
Selecting the Activity Tests Screen
To display the Activity Tests screen, select the [TESTS/ECG] menu button,
and then select the ACTIVITY TEST option as illustrated below.
1. Select [TESTS/ECG]
menu button.
2. Select the ACTIVITY
TEST option.
This action displays the screen shown below. From this screen, you can
select the Activity Threshold Test to determine a value for Activity
Threshold or the Exercise Test to determine values for other rate response
parameters.
Activity Tests
Selection Screen
If you intend to conduct
both tests, conduct the
Activity Threshold test
first.
NOTE: If an Exercise
test has already been
conducted during the
session, a [SHOW SAVED
EXERCISE TEST] button
will appear. Selecting a
test execution button
will erase the saved test
results.
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Using the Programmer
About the Activity Tests
The Activity Threshold test and Exercise test are intended to facilitate the
selection of appropriate values when rate response parameters are adjusted
to meet the individual patient’s needs.*
Activity Threshold Test
During the Activity Threshold test, the pacemaker collects heart rate and
sensor output data during a 25-second countdown while the patient is at
rest. Based on the data collected, the programmer will display a suggested
value for Activity Threshold. You can accept and program this value (or
one of your own choosing) directly from the test results screen.
Exercise Test
The Exercise test requires the patient to engage in an exercise, such as a
brisk walk, for at least 2 minutes. During the exercise period, the pacemaker
gathers information on the patient’s heart rate and the output of the activity
sensor.
Results of the test are displayed graphically as a plot of both the patient’s
actual heart rate and the desired sensor rate. The desired sensor rate curve is
based on the displayed parameter settings and can be altered by changing
these settings. Buttons on the test results screen let you manipulate various
parameter values to attain the desired rate response. The selected parameter
values can then be programmed directly from the test results screen.
Important Considerations
If both the Activity Threshold test and the Exercise test are to be
conducted, you must conduct the Activity Threshold test first.
Both tests will clear recorded data accumulated in pacemaker memory
by the Diagnostics function, if it has been programmed to operate.
Prior to conducting the Activity Threshold or Exercise test, you should
display and print the Diagnostic data.
Once you conduct an Exercise test, you can return to the Exercise Test
Results screen by selecting the [SHOW SAVED EXERCISE TEST] button
on the Activity Tests Selection screen (see page 7-21). However,
selecting the [ACT THRESHOLD TEST] or [EXERCISE TEST] button will
erase the previous Exercise test results.
*Rate response parameters are not adjustable in the Prodigy™ VDD model.
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Conducting an Activity Threshold Test
Preparing the Patient
The following procedure involves programming and interrogating the
patient’s pacemaker. The patient should be comfortably seated and be in a
resting state prior to the start of this test.
For this test, the patient’s pacemaker can be operating in either an Activity
or non-Activity pacing mode. During non-Activity modes, the sensor
continues to operate in the background. If the pacing mode is an Activity
mode, lower rate should be programmed to its appropriate permanent
setting.
Test Procedure
To execute the Activity Threshold test:
1.
Select the [ACT THRESHOLD TEST] button on the Activity Tests screen.
2.
With the patient at rest, position the programming head and select
[PROGRAM]. Wait for programming confirmed message.
3.
Lift the programming head away from the site of the pacemaker to start
the test countdown. The screen will indicate the time remaining and a
tone will sound every 5 seconds.
The patient must remain at rest and not move during the 25-second
countdown. If the patient moves during this period, select [RESTART
TEST] and return to step 2.
Except to restart the countdown, do not reposition the programming
head until you are prompted to at the end of the 25-second countdown.
4.
At the end of the countdown and as prompted by the screen, position
the programming head and select [INTERROGATE]. The interrogation
process will take several seconds.
Successful interrogation results in the Activity Test results screen
shown on the next page.
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Using the Programmer
Activity Threshold
Test Results Screen
Interpreting the Activity Threshold Test Results
The test results window displays the following information:
The percentage of heart beats recorded during the test that were paced.
This value is given as a range.
The number of Activity Detects that occurred during the test at each of
the Activity Threshold settings.
The test uses Sensor telemetry (see page 5-8) to monitor sensor output
while each of the Activity Threshold settings is automatically put into
effect.
A suggested Activity Threshold value based on the following rules:
-
If more than 75% of the heart beats were paced during the test, the
suggested Activity Threshold will be one setting above the threshold that produced zero Activity Detects.*
-
If less than 75% of the heart beats were paced during the test, the
suggested Activity Threshold will be two settings above the
threshold that produced zero Activity Detects.*
*The suggested value cannot exceed “High,” which is the upper limit of the Activity Threshold settings.
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Programming the Activity Threshold
To program the suggested Activity Threshold value:
1.
Position the programming head.
2.
Select the [PROGRAM] button.
Use the [∧] or [∨] button if you want to change the value before you
program.
NOTE: If the present permanent mode is not an Activity mode, the
programmed Activity Threshold value will be saved in pacemaker
memory and will become a pending value when you select an Activity
mode for programming.
Printing the Activity Threshold Test Results
To print the results of the Activity Threshold test:
1.
Select the [PRINT] menu button.
2.
Select the ACTIVITY THLD RESULTS option.
Proceeding to the Exercise Test
Upon completion of the Activity Threshold test, you can proceed to the
Exercise test directly from the test results screen.
To proceed to the Exercise test, select the [EXERCISE TEST] button.
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Using the Programmer
Conducting an Exercise Test
Preparing the Patient
The following procedure involves programming and interrogating the
patient’s pacemaker and having the patient complete at least two minutes of
exercise. An appropriate exercise, such as a brisk walk, should be chosen.
The patient should be prepared to engage in this exercise and should be at
rest for several minutes before the test is started.
For this test, the patient’s pacemaker can be operating in either an Activity
or non-Activity pacing mode. Using a non-Activity mode has the advantage
of letting you view the patient’s own response to exercise on the test results
screen. However, an Activity mode may be appropriate if the patient has a
very low exercise tolerance without rate responsive support.
If you program an Activity mode, use the Activity Threshold setting determined during the Activity Threshold test.
NOTE: If the pacemaker is programmed to an Activity mode, the test will
begin (step 3 below) with pacing output at the lower rate setting.
To execute the Exercise Test:
1.
Select the [EXERCISE TEST] button. This button appears on the Activity
Tests option screen and on the Activity Threshold test results screen.
2.
Position the programming head and select [PROGRAM]. Wait for programming confirmed message.
3.
To begin the 2-minute exercise countdown, lift the programming head
away from the site of the pacemaker and advise the patient to begin
exercising. The screen will indicate the time remaining and a tone will
sound every 5 seconds.
NOTE: The patient may continue to exercise beyond the 2-minute
countdown. The pacemaker can collect test data for up to 8 minutes. It
is advantageous to allow the patient to rest for a minute or two before
you interrogate the pacemaker. If it becomes necessary to restart the
exercise period, select [RESTART TEST] and return to step 2.
4.
When the patient has completed the exercise (and rest period, if you
chose to include one), position the programming head and select
[INTERROGATE].
The interrogation process will take several seconds. Upon confirmation
of the interrogation, the programmer displays the Exercise Test Results
screen shown in the example on the next page.
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Exercise Test
Results Screen
Curve shows desired
sensor response rate.
Patient’s heart rate
during the test.
UR = Upper Rate
DR = Desired Rate
LR = Lower Rate
Appearance of a dashed
vertical line indicates
temporary interruption of
data collection by application of the programming head (or magnet).
Interpreting the Exercise Test Results Screen
The Exercise test results screen graphically shows the heart rate data
collected during the exercise period and the desired sensor rate based on the
pending parameter values displayed on the right.
The displayed Rate Response value is the value suggested by this test. The
Activity Threshold value, which is not a pending value, is the present
programmed setting.
Patient’s Heart Rate — The curve formed of rectangular segments shows
the patient’s actual heart rate during the exercise test period. The coded
appearance of the segments indicates what percentage of the heart beats
during each 2 to 6 second segment were paced.
Display Printout
0-12%
Patient’s rate is predominantly intrinsic.
13-87%
Patient’s rate is both paced and intrinsic.
88-100% The patient’s rate is predominantly paced.
Desired Sensor Response — The curve formed by the single solid line
shows desired sensor-driven rate based on the parameter values shown on
the right. This curve is dynamically linked to the listed parameter settings
such that changes to the parameter values will cause a corresponding
change in the shape of the curve. Thus, the desired sensor rate curve can be
used as a visual aid in determining appropriate parameter settings.
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Using the Programmer
Selecting and Programming Parameter Values
By observing how the desired sensor response curve changes as you adjust
the parameters, you can formulate a set of parameter values that provides
the appropriate rate response profile for the patient and the exercise
performed.
To select and program the rate response parameter values:
1.
Adjust the Desired Rate.
Desired Rate is the heart rate the patient
ideally should have achieved for the
exercise performed during this test.
NOTE: The value for Desired Rate
defaults to 100 bpm, which is a reasonable projection for an otherwise healthy
patient engaging in a brisk, 2-minute
walk. Adjusting this value may change
the pending value for Rate Response.
This value cannot be adjusted above the
present Upper Activity Rate setting
(adjust Upper Rate setting if necessary).
NOTE: The interactions of certain parameter values can result in
value selection restrictions that will cause one or both value selection
buttons to disappear. A value selection button also disappears when the
parameter range limit is reached.
Desired Rate:
Cannot be increased if Rate Response is 10.
Cannot be decreased if Rate Response is 1.
Must be greater than Lower Rate.
Cannot be greater than Upper Activity Rate.
Upper Activity Rate: Cannot be less than Desired Rate.
Cannot be adjusted if Mode Switch is programmed to ON.
Lower Rate:
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Cannot be greater than 100 ppm if Mode Switch
is programmed to ON.
2.
Select a value for Upper Activity Rate, Lower Rate, Activity Acceleration, and Activity Deceleration that provides the desired rate response
profile for this exercise.
3.
To program the selected values, position the programming head and
select [PROGRAM].
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If the present permanent mode is an Activity mode, the programmed
values will become the present values in effect. If the present mode is
not an Activity mode, the values will be saved in pacemaker memory
and will become pending values on the screen when you select an
Activity mode for programming.
Printing the Exercise Test Results
To print the results of the Exercise test:
1.
Select the [PRINT] menu button.
2.
Select the ACTIVITY EXERCISE TEST option.
NOTE: To obtain a printout of the test results graph, you must print the
test results while the test results screen is displayed. Once you leave this
screen, the test report will present only the parameter values. You can
return to the Exercise Test Results screen by selecting the [SHOW SAVED
EXERCISE TEST] button on the Activity Tests Selection screen. However,
selecting one of the test execution buttons on this screen will erase the
saved test results.
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Using the Programmer
Programming Temporary Parameter Values
The Temporary Test function lets you evaluate different parameter settings
or use high-rate pacing while having the option to quickly and easily return
to the original permanent settings. The test settings remain in effect only
while the [PROGRAM] button is pressed and held. Releasing [PROGRAM]
returns the pacemaker to its permanently programmed state.
Selecting the Temporary Test Screen
To display the Temporary Test screen, select the [TESTS/ECG] menu button,
and then select the TEMPORARY TEST option as illustrated below.
1. Select [TESTS/ECG]
menu button.
2. Select TEMPORARY
TEST option.
If an appropriate interrogation has not occurred, a screen message will
direct you to interrogate the pacemaker to display the Temporary Test
screen. In this example, Marker and EGM telemetry are being received.
Temporary Test
Screen
Refer to pages 5-6 and
5-7 for instructions on
adjusting the ECG and
telemetry traces.
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Conducting a Temporary Parameter Test
The waveform display lets you view the patient’s ECG and the telemetered
waveforms while you are testing temporary parameter settings. Refer to
pages 5-6 and 5-7 for information about the waveform display and its
control buttons.
WARNING: High-rate stimulation of the ventricles could result in
ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Application of temporary high-rate
pacing should be performed only under careful patient monitoring and
control.
Use the following procedure to program temporary parameter values. Refer
to the table on the next page for parameter information.
1.
If the pacemaker is a dual chamber model, select the desired test
chamber.
2.
Use the [∧
∧] or [∨
∨] button to select the desired test mode.
3.
Using the [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons, select the desired test parameter values.
4.
Position the programming head; press and hold [PROGRAM] for as long
as you want the test parameter to be in effect. The test values in effect
will show on the screen.
5.
To end the test, release [PROGRAM].
A Note About Hysteresis
If Hysteresis has been programmed to ON during previous use of the AAI,
AAT, VVI, or VVT pacing mode, it will be in effect when ever you return
to one of these modes — even during temporary parameter testing. If a
message indicates that Hysteresis is in effect, you can program it to OFF by
returning to the Pacing Parameters screen. To access Hysteresis, you must
select one of the single chamber modes mentioned above.
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Using the Programmer
Test Parameters and Values
The following parameters and values are available for temporary programming depending on the permanent pacing mode and the selected test mode.
Pacing Mode1
DDD, ODO, AAI, AOO, OAO, AAT, VVI, VOO,
OVO, VVT
Lower Rate
DDD test mode — 30 to 175 ppm
(Lower rate values will be limited by the present Upper
Tracking Rate setting.)
Pacing Rate
Single chamber test mode — 30 to 400 ppm
Amplitude
0.5 to 4.0 V (in steps of 0.5 V), 5.0. 7.5 V
Pulse Width
0.03 to 0.15 ms (in steps of 0.03 ms)
0.15 to 1.0 ms (in steps of 0.05 ms)
1.0 to 1.5 ms (in steps of 0.1 ms)
Sensitivity
Atrial — 0.182, 0.25, 0.35, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8,
4.0 mV
Ventricular — 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8.0, 11.2 mV
1
Temporary test modes are available as follows:
DDD is available as a temporary mode only if the permanent mode is DDD or DDDR.
ODO is available if the pacemaker is a dual chamber model, regardless of the permanent
mode.
If the selected pacemaker is a Prodigy VDD model, temporary modes will be limited to
single chamber ventricular modes.
If the pacemaker is a single chamber model, the test modes will be limited to those
applicable to the paced chamber.
2
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Measuring Rate and AV Interval
The Measure ECG test lets you directly measure the pacemaker output
parameters listed below. The measurement for each parameter is averaged
over several pacing cycles.
Dual Chamber Modes
Single Chamber Mode
Pacing Rate
Paced AV Interval
Pacing Interval
Pacing Rate
Pacing Interval
NOTE: For Prodigy pacemakers, this function does not include measurement of pulse width.
Measurement Using the ECG Signal — If the patient’s ECG is present,
the programmer determines the values for each of these parameters from
data processed from the ECG signal.
Measurement Using Marker Channel Telemetry — If the ECG signal is
not present, and the programming head is positioned over the pacemaker,
the programmer will attempt to measure rate and interval using Marker
Channel telemetry.
NOTE: If the pacemaker is not operating asynchronously (magnet mode),
inhibition of the output by intrinsic activity can affect or prevent proper
measurement. Positioning the programming head without use of the Cancel
Magnet function is recommended when you use this function.
Initiating Parameter Measurement
To initiate measurement of the output parameters, select the [TESTS/ECG]
menu button, and then select the MEASURE ECG option as illustrated below.
1. Select [TESTS/ECG]
menu button.
2. Select MEASURE ECG
option.
Selecting the MEASURE ECG option displays the Measure screen and automatically starts the parameter measurement process. Measured values, as
shown in the example on the next page, will not appear on the screen for
about 10 seconds. The message box will state the source of the measured
values, ECG or Marker Channel.
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Using the Programmer
Measure Screen
Select [NEW DATA] to
repeat measurement
if necessary.
Measurement Results
Measurements made using the patient’s ECG are based on data derived
from the detected pacing artifacts. Accuracy of these measurements
depends on the quality of the ECG signal and the stability of the artifact
rate. Accuracy of measurements made using Marker Channel telemetry
depends on the stability of Pace marker intervals.
Three question marks (???) following a measured value indicate that, due to
artifact instability, accuracy of the value is questionable or that the value
represents an abnormal deviation from the expected range for this
parameter.
If the screen displays no measured values or values marked by “???,” verify
asynchronous operation and repeat the measurement by pressing the [ NEW
DATA] button.
Printing the Measured Values
To print the results of the last measurement made, select the [PRINT] menu
button and then select the MEASURED VALUES option. You can obtain this
report at any time during the patient session following the use of the
Measure ECG function.
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CHAPTER 8
Collecting and Retrieving
Diagnostic Data
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the Diagnostics function and the procedures for
programming the pacemaker to record data related to the patient’s heart rate
and operation of the pacemaker. Sections in this chapter cover the following
information:
Important points about the Diagnostic function (see page 8-2).
The various types of data you can record (see page 8-3).
A list of the programmable parameter options (see page 8-8).
The setup options that can simplify programming (see page 8-11).
Procedures for programming the pacemaker to collect diagnostic data
(see page 8-13).
How to display a graph of the recorded data (see page 8-17).
Obtaining a printout of the recorded data (see page 8-19).
Clearing the recorded data stored in pacemaker memory so that new
data can be collected (see page 8-20).
8-1
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Using the Programmer
About the Diagnostics Function
The Diagnostics function is a monitoring feature that lets you program the
pacemaker to record in its memory any one of several types of information
pertaining to the patient’s heart rate and certain pacemaker operations.
Depending on the programmable options available for the selected model,
the pacemaker can be set to record: 1) the patient’s heart rate in the form of
a histogram, 2) the impedance of the pacing lead system, or 3) the details of
up to 15 high-rate episodes.
With the programmer, you can retrieve the recorded information and view
it in a graphic format. You can print the information in its graphic format or
in a tabular summary of the numerical data.
The basic steps for using the Diagnostics function are:
1.
Turn the function on by programming the appropriate parameter
settings based on the type of information you want to record.
2.
Allow time for data collection. Data collection can take from less than
an hour to several weeks or months depending on the type of information being recorded.
3.
Interrogate the pacemaker to view or print the recorded information.
4.
Allow the pacemaker to continue to collect data or perform one of the
following:
- Clear the present data so that collection of new data can begin.
- Change the parameter setup to collect a different set of data.
- Program the function to OFF if its use is no longer required.
Important points about using the Diagnostic function:
Data collection is suspended while the programming head or a magnet
is positioned over the pacemaker. Data collection resumes 30 seconds
after the programming head is lifted from over the patient’s pacemaker.
Data collection stops when the pacemaker reaches ERI status. Accumulated data can still be retrieved for viewing and printing. On those
reports showing a start and end date, the end date will be labeled as the
“ERI” date.
If the ERI condition is reset, data collection can be restarted by using
the [CLEAR DATA] button (see page 8-20) or by reprogramming the
diagnostic parameter settings (see page 8-13).
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If the pacemaker is at ERI status, programming of the Diagnostics
function is not allowed.
The time(s) and date(s) that appear on the display or printout of
diagnostic data are based on the current settings of the programmer’s
clock/calendar function. You can verify that the time and date are set
correctly by selecting any report option on the Print menu. The current
settings appear at the top of the report printout. Refer to Chapter 9 for
instructions on setting the clock/calendar function.
In addition to use of the [ CLEAR DATA] button, any one of the following
will clear the recorded Diagnostic data:
- Programming any Diagnostic parameter.
- Conducting an Activity Threshold test or Exercise test.
- The occurrence of a pacemaker electrical reset.
Types of Data You Can Record
The programmable parameters that control the Diagnostics function include
one referred to as “Type.” The Type parameter lets you choose the type of
data you want the pacemaker to record. The High Rate Episode option is
not available in Prodigy S models.
Programmable Type Options
Prodigy Pacemaker Model
DR
D
VDD SR
S
OFF1
Rate Histogram
Lead Trend
High Rate Episode2
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
1
Programming the OFF option turns the Diagnostics function off and clears any data
accumulated in pacemaker memory. No data is recorded while the Diagnostics function is
programmed off.
2
For dual chamber pacing modes, “-A” and “-V” settings for this type option lets you choose
to monitor the atrium or the ventricle.
The sections that follow describe each Type option and show examples of
the graphic displays used to present the recorded information.
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8-4
Using the Programmer
Rate Histogram
Programming Rate Histogram causes the pacemaker to count heart rate
events according to the rate at which they occur. You can choose to have
event totals include or exclude refractory sensed events.
Rate Histogram Report Example
Graphic display of this information is in the form of a histogram showing
what percentage of the rate events counted during the monitoring period fall
into each 10 ppm segment of the reportable range of 40 to 180 ppm. (The
“<40” ppm group also includes events occurring below 40 ppm; the “180>”
ppm group also includes events occurring above 180 ppm.) Each 10 ppm
event group is coded to show what percentage of the events in that group
are paced events.
NOTE: Printout of this data in the tabular format provides a higher rate
group resolution of 5 ppm.
If data was collected during dual chamber operation, both an atrial and
ventricular histogram are available. The button in the upper right corner of
the screen lets you switch between a display of the Atrial Rate Histogram
and the Ventricular Rate Histogram.
For additional information, refer to “Rate Histogram” in Chapter 17.
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Lead Trend
If you program Lead Trend, the pacemaker measures lead impedance every
three hours and records the maximum and minimum values for each 3-day
sampling period.
The two dashed vertical
lines indicate a temporary interruption in data
collection caused by
application of the programming head (or a
magnet) over the
pacemaker.
Lead Trend Report Example
On the graph, each 3-day impedance sample is indicated by a short, vertical
line representing the range between the minimum and maximum impedance
measured over that 3-day period. Recording time can be up to 360 days if
the pacemaker is a dual chamber model (both atrial and ventricular leads
are monitored) or 720 days if the pacemaker is single chamber model.
If data is collected from a dual chamber model, a button in the upper right
corner of the screen lets you switch between a display of the Atrial Lead
Trend and the Ventricular Lead Trend.
NOTE: Atrial Lead Trend does not apply to the VDD pacing mode.
Selecting the [ATRIAL LEAD TREND] button will not display any data. For the
Prodigy VDD model, the [ATRIAL LEAD TREND] button will not be displayed.
NOTE: You can program Lead Trend monitoring to engage automatically
if lead impedance changes to a value outside the acceptable range of 200 to
3000 ohms. Refer to Lead Monitor under “Programmable Parameter
Options” following this section and “Monitoring Lead Stability” in
Chapter 13.
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8-6
Using the Programmer
High Rate Episode
If you program this Type option, the pacemaker monitors the designated
chamber for “high rate episodes” as defined by the detection criteria
selected during the setup procedure. The pacemaker records data for up to
15 consecutive episodes, or up to 7 episodes if the data for one is to include
a short EGM.
As shown in the example below, the information recorded for display
includes the date and time of detection for each recorded episode, the
episode duration, and the “Tachy Rate.” Tachy Rate is the highest rate
sample obtained during the episode, excluding the first detection beat.
NOTE: In addition to recording information for each of up to 15 episodes,
the pacemaker will provide a count of the total number of episodes detected
since the High Rate Episode recording option was programmed. This total
count appears only on the printout of the Diagnostic data in tabular form
(see page 8-19) and is labeled “Episodes Detected” near the top of the
report. The maximum number for this count is 255.
An episode labeled
“Duration Unknown”
indicates data collection
during the episode was
temporarily interrupted
by application of the
programming head (or
a magnet) over the
pacemaker.
High Rate Episodes Report Example
The SELECT EPISODE [∧
∧] [∨
∨] and [ZOOM IN] buttons let you view an episode
in more detail. The detailed data shows the rate for each of eight consecutive events sampled at the following times: as rate achieved the detection
rate, immediately following detection, and as rate drops below the detection
rate ending the episode. Selecting the [CONVERT GRAPH TO INTERVALS]
button lets you view the data in terms of intervals rather than rate.
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8-7
Detailed View of a High Rate Episode
If the “Collect EGM” option was programmed, one episode will include a
short EGM. This episode is marked by an asterisk (*) preceding the detection date. The number of episodes for which data can be collected in this
case is limited to seven.
The EGM recording, which starts when the episode detection criteria have
been met, captures about 2.5 seconds of cardiac activity.
For additional information, refer to “High-Rate Episode” in Chapter 17.
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Using the Programmer
Programmable Parameter Options
Setting up the Diagnostics function, as described later in this chapter,
involves programming appropriate settings for Type and other associated
parameters. The programmable parameters associated with the Diagnostics
function are defined below.
NOTE: Also refer to the next section for a description of the Setup option,
which you can use as a simple alternative to manually selecting each
parameter setting.
Parameter
TYPE
Definition/Settings
Selects the type of information to be recorded by the pacemaker. Refer to
the previous section for a description of each Type setting. The type settings
available depend on the selected pacemaker model (see table on page 8-3)
Settings:
REFRACT SENS
(Refractory Sensed Events) Programs the pacemaker to include or exclude
events sensed within the refractory period when it counts heart rate events.
This parameter applies only to the Type setting of Rate Histogram.
Settings:
METHOD
Rate Histogram
Lead Trend
High Rate Epis (-A, -V)*
Off
Exclude, Include
“Rolling” programs the pacemaker to record continuously, such that new
data overwrites the old data once memory capacity is reached. “Frozen”
programs the pacemaker to record data until its memory capacity for the
selected Type is reached. Recording then stops, and the collected data is
frozen. This parameter applies to Lead Trend and High Rate Episodes.
Settings:
Rolling, Frozen
*For dual chamber pacing modes, “-A” and “-V” settings let you choose to monitor the
atrium or the ventricle.
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LEAD MONITOR
8-9
If you program Lead Monitor to “On,” data collection will automatically
switch from the programmed Type to Lead Trend if the detected pacing
lead impedance changes to a value outside the acceptable range of 200 to
3000 ohms. Data collection for the programmed Type stops, accumulated
data is cleared, and collection of Lead Trend data begins.
The programmable settings for Lead Monitor include a “Polarity Switch”
option that automatically programs Pace Polarity and Sense Polarity to
Unipolar if Lead Trend is automatically engaged because of unacceptable
lead impedance. For dual chamber models, settings let you select the
chamber for which Lead Monitor and Polarity Switch will be programmed:
both chambers (A+V), the atrium (A.), or the ventricle (V.).
Settings:
Dual Chamber Models
Single Chamber and VDD Models
Off
On
On+Polar. Sw. - A+V
On+Polar. Sw. - A.
On+Polar. Sw. - V.
Off
On
On+Polar. Sw.
WARNING: Do not program a Polarity Switch option if the patient has an
implantable defibrillator (see Chapter 13).
NOTE: If you select the “A+V” Polarity Switch option, the settings for
both atrial and ventricular Polarity will be programmed to Unipolar if the
impedance for either lead system changes to an unacceptable value.
NOTE: Polarity Switch for the atrium cannot be programmed if atrial
sensitivity is programmed to 0.18, 0.25, or 0.35 mV. These settings apply
only to bipolar sensing. Likewise if you have programmed Polarity Switch
for the atrium, the 0.18, 0.25, and 0.35 mV atrial sensitivity settings cannot
be programmed.
NOTE: The following parameters apply only if the selected Type setting is High Rate
Episode or High Rate Episode-A or -V.
DETECT RATE
(Detection Rate) As one of the two detection criteria, this parameter sets the
minimum level that heart rate must reach to qualify as a high rate episode.
Settings:
DETECTION #
(Detection Number) As one of the two detection criteria, this parameter sets
the minimum number of consecutive heart beats that must occur above the
Detection Rate to qualify as a high rate episode.
Settings:
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80 to 400 ppm
2 to 200 events
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Using the Programmer
TERMINATE #
(Termination Number) This parameter sets the minimum number of consecutive heart beats that must occur below the Detection Rate before a high
rate episode is considered terminated.
Settings:
COLLECT EGM
Programming this parameter to ON causes the pacemaker to record a short
EGM trace for one of the recorded high rate episodes. Using this feature
reduces the maximum number of episodes that can be recorded from 15 to
7. The episode that includes the EGM is marked by an asterisk (*).
Settings:
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2 to 20 events
On, Off
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8-11
About the Setup Options
The parameter list on the Diagnostic Parameters screen (see next section)
includes a Setup option that can simplify the programming process.
Choosing a Setup option (see list below) automatically selects an approriate
pending value for Type and a typical preset value for each of the associated
parameters. Instructions for using the Setup feature are presented in the next
section. You can use Setup as an alternative to manually selecting a setting
for each of the required parameters.
The Setup options available depend on the Type options applicable to the
selected pacemaker model (see table on page 8-3).
Setup Option
A. Tachy Monitor
Description/Preset Settings
Select to record high-rate episodes detected in the atrium.
Type
Method
Detection Rate
Detection #
Terminate #
Collect EGM
Lead Monitor
V. Tachy Monitor
Select to record high-rate episodes detected in the ventricle.
Type
Method
Detection Rate
Detection #
Terminate #
Collect EGM
Lead Monitor
Tachy Monitor
High Rate Epis-A.
Rolling
Upper Tracking Rate or Upper Activity Rate*
8
8
On
Off
High Rate Epis-V.
Rolling
Upper Tracking Rate or Upper Activity Rate*
3
3
On
Off
Select to record high-rate episodes detected in the paced chamber. This
Setup option applies when the pacemaker is a Prodigy SR model.
Type
Method
Detection Rate
Detection #
Terminate #
Collect EGM
Lead Monitor
High Rate Episode
Rolling
Upper Activity Rate*
3
3
On
Off
*The values used for Detection Rate will be the programmed value for Upper Tracking Rate or Upper Activity Rate, whichever
is pertinent to the permanent mode. If the permanent mode is DDDR, the greater of the two upper rates will be used. If neither
upper rate parameter is pertinent to the permanent mode, you must select a desired value for Detection Rate.
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8-12
Using the Programmer
Rate Histogram
Select to obtain a Rate Histogram.
Type
Refract Sens
Lead Monitor
Lead Trend
Select to monitor impedance of the pacing lead system.
Type
Method
Lead Monitor
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Rate Histogram
Include
Off
Lead Trend
Rolling
Off (fixed setting)
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8-13
Programming the Pacemaker to Record Data
The procedure to program the pacemaker to begin recording the desired
type of information begins at the Diagnostic Parameters screen.
Selecting the Diagnostic Parameters Screen
To display the Diagnostic Parameters (Diagnostics) screen, select the
[PARAMETERS] menu button, and then select the DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS
option as illustrated below.
1. Select [PARAMETERS]
menu button.
2. Select DIAGNOSTIC
PARAMETERS option.
The Diagnostics screen shows the presently programmed parameter settings
for this function. If the Diagnostics function has not been programmed to
operate, a setting of “OFF” will be listed for the Type parameter as shown
below. If settings are not displayed, interrogate the pacemaker.
Diagnostic Parameters Screen
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: If low battery voltage has set the pacemaker ERI (elective replacement indicator), the programmer will not allow you to program the
Diagnostics function.
Diagnostic Parameter Screen Buttons
The buttons located at the right of the parameter display may be useful
during the programming procedure described on the next page.
SHOW
PRESENT
SHOW
SAVED
SHOW GRAPH
CLEAR DATA
SAVE/
NOMINAL
OPTIONS...
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When you select new parameter values to program, these
“pending” values are displayed in place of the interrogated
present settings. To temporarily recall the present settings,
press and hold this button.
If you have saved a set of parameter values (see below), this
button will appear on the screen. To temporarily display these
saved values, press and hold this button.
If the Diagnostics function was previously programmed to
collect data and if this data has been interrogated, selecting
this button will display a graph of the data retrieved from
pacemaker memory.
Selecting this button displays an option to clear the Diagnostics data presently accumulated in pacemaker memory (see
page 8-20).
Selecting this button displays options for: 1) clearing all
pending values from the parameter screen, 2) saving a set of
parameter values, and 3) recalling the set of saved values or
nominal values (Medtronic or Site) to the screen as pending
values. (Refer to “Programming Nominal and Saved Values”
on page 6-6 for instructions on using these options.)
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Programming Procedure
You can program the pacemaker to begin collecting diagnostic data by
using either of two procedures: 1) Using Setup, which simplifies programming, or 2) Manually selecting the Diagnostic parameter settings.
NOTE: If the pacemaker is presently programmed to collect data, programming the Diagnostic function will erase any data accumulated. Display
and print data before programming.
Procedure for Using Setup
Choosing a Setup option automatically
selects a set of parameter settings that
are typical for the type of data you want
the pacemaker to record.
1.
From the Diagnostic Parameters
screen, select SETUP at the top of
the parameter list.
2.
From the window of Setup options,
select the option for the type of
data you want to collect.
Selecting a Setup option automatically lists a pending value for Type
and each of the associated parameters. Refer to pages 8-11 and 8-12
for information about each of the
Setup options.
3.
At this point, you can modify any
of the pending parameter settings if
they are not appropriate. To do this,
select the parameter you want to
change, and then select the desired
setting from the value window.
NOTE: Altering a pending value
(except the one for Lead Monitor)
will cause the selected setting for
SETUP to disappear. Refer to page
8-8 for information about each of
the Diagnostic parameters.
4.
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To program the pending parameter settings, position the programming
head and select [PROGRAM].
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Using the Programmer
Data collection begins 30 seconds after you lift the programming head.
(Data collection is suspended while the programming head is in position
over the patient’s pacemaker.)
Procedure for Manually Selecting the Parameter Settings
As an alternative to using the Setup feature, you can manually select each
of the parameter settings required to program the Diagnostics function.
NOTE: You can start this procedure
by selecting an appropriate Setup option
as described above and then using this
procedure to modify the preselected
pending parameter values.
1.
From the Diagnostic Parameters
screen, select Type from the
parameter list.
2.
From the window of Type options,
select the option for the type of
data you want to collect. (If you are
programming the Diagnostics
function off, select Off and skip to
step 4.)
3.
The screen now displays the
parameters pertinent to the selected
Type setting.
Select a desired setting for each of
the listed parameters by selecting
the parameter and then selecting
the desired setting from the value
window.
The shaded rectangles, which may
appear depending on the previous
programmed status, indicate where
values must be selected before
programming will be allowed.
4.
To program the selected pending
settings, position the programming
head and select [PROGRAM].
Data collection begins 30 seconds after you lift the programming head.
(Data collection is suspended while the programming head is in position
over the patient’s pacemaker.)
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8-17
Displaying a Graph of the Recorded Data
At any time during a patient session, you can display a graph of the
Diagnostic data presently accumulated in pacemaker memory.
Using Any One of Three Procedures
You can display the graph of Diagnostic data by any one of the following
procedures. In all cases, interrogate the pacemaker if necessary to display
the graph. A message will indicate if the Diagnostics function is programmed off, in which case no graph will be displayed.
Using the [DATA] Menu Button:
Select the [DATA] menu button, and then select the SHOW DIAGNOSTICS
GRAPH option (see page 4-12)
From the Data Summary Screen:
Select the [SHOW DIAGNOSTICS GRAPH] button (see page 4-8).
From the Diagnostic Parameters Screen:
Select the [SHOW GRAPH] button (see pages 8-13, 8-14).
Options for Viewing Additional Information
Some graph displays, depending on the programmed Type setting, provide
one or more options for viewing additional information as described below.
Refer to the display examples in the section starting on page 8-3.
Viewing Options for Rate Histogram
VENTR. RATE
HISTOGRAM
If the pacemaker is operating in a dual chamber mode
during data collection, data will be collected for both
chambers. Select [VENTR. RATE HISTOGRAM] button to
switch to ventricular data; select [ATRIAL RATE HISTOGRAM] to switch back.
Viewing Options for Lead Trend
VENTR.
LEAD TREND
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If the pacemaker is operating in a dual chamber mode,
during data collection, data will be collected for both
chambers. Select [VENTR. LEAD TREND] button to switch
to ventricular data; select [ATRIAL LEAD TREND] to
switch back.
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Using the Programmer
NOTE: Atrial Lead Trend does not apply to VDD pacing. Selecting
[ATRIAL LEAD TREND] will not display any data. For the Prodigy VDD
model, the [ATRIAL LEAD TREND] button will not be displayed.
Viewing Options for High Rate Episodes
On this data displays, a Zoom In option lets you view the data collected for
a particular episode in more detail. To select and view an episode:
1.
Use the SELECT EPISODE [∧
∧] and [∨
∨] buttons to
position the episode selection box next to the
episode you want to view.
2. Select the [ZOOM IN] button to display the
selected episode.
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3.
If you want to view the data in terms of intervals rather than rate, select
the [CONVERT GRAPH TO INTERVALS] button. To return to the rate
display, select [CONVERT GRAPH TO RATE].
4.
To view the detailed data for another episode without returning to the
multiple episodes display, select the [PREVIOUS EPISODE] or [NEXT
EPISODE] button.
5.
To return to the multiple episodes display, select the [ZOOM OUT]
button.
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Collecting and Retrieving Diagnostic Data
8-19
Printing the Diagnostic Data
You can print the diagnostic data retrieved from the pacemaker in either of
two formats: in the same graphic format that appears on the screen, or as a
table of the data used to create the graph.
Printing the Graph
You can print the diagnostic data in its graphic form only while the graph is
displayed on the screen. To print the displayed graph:
1.
Select the [PRINT] menu button from the top of the screen.
2.
Select CURRENT SCREEN REPORT from the listed options.
Formatting of the data for printing may take up to half a minute. Except for
the [EMERGENCY] button, the display screen will be unresponsive to the
selector pen during this data formatting period.
Printing the Data in Tabular Form
At any time during the patient session, you can print a tabular form of the
diagnostic data, provided the pacemaker has been interrogated for this
information. To print the diagnostic data in tabular form:
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1.
Select the [PRINT] menu button from the top of the screen.
2.
Select DIAGNOSTICS DATA TABLE from the listed options.
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Using the Programmer
Clearing Recorded Data From the Pacemaker
The Clear Data command lets you clear the Diagnostic data presently
accumulated in pacemaker memory so that new data collection can begin.
The Clear Data command does not alter the present Diagnostic
parameter settings.
New data collection begins 30 seconds after you lift the programming
head from over the patient’s pacemaker.
For a permanent record of the present data, print the data as described
in the previous section before you execute the Clear Data command.
To clear the Diagnostic data accumulated in pacemaker memory:
1.
Select the [CLEAR DATA] button, which appears on the right side of the
Diagnostic Parameters screen (see page 8-13) and in the same location
on the Diagnostics graph display screen.
2.
Position the programming head over the patient’s pacemaker and select
the [CLEAR DATA] button from the window now showing on the screen.
NOTE: Any one of the following will also clear the recorded Diagnostic
data:
Programming any Diagnostic parameter.
Conducting an Activity Threshold test or Exercise test.
The occurrence of a pacemaker electrical reset.
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CHAPTER 9
Programmer Setup
Options
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the following programmer setup tasks:
How to set the time and date if these settings are not correct on the
display screen and printouts (see page 9-2).
How to connect an external recorder or monitor (see page 9-3).
How to use the Calibrate option associated with the EGM and Marker
Channel signals delivered to an external recorder or monitor (see
page 9-4).
How to set up Site Nominal (user selected) parameter values for each
of the Prodigy pacemaker models (see page 9-6).
How to turn the pacing artifact display function on or off (see
page 9-10).
Information about software installation is covered in a separate booklet
supplied with the software diskettes.
9-1
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9-2
Using the Programmer
Setting the Time and Date
If the time or date displayed and printed by the programmer’s clock and
calendar function is incorrect, use the following procedure to enter the
correct setting.
1.
Display the Automatic Model Select screen (see page 3-4) as follows:
If the programmer is not operating, turn the programmer on. The
start-up sequence will automatically display this screen.
If the programmer is operating and a pacemaker model has been
selected, end the patient session by selecting [END SESSION].
2.
From the Automatic Model Select screen, select the [SETUP...] button.
3.
From the displayed setup options, select [SET TIME AND DATE].
4.
In any order, select the appropriate [∧
∧] increase or [∨
∨] decrease button
to change the time or date setting.
Set Time and Date
Screen
This screen shows
the current settings
for time and date.
Use the [∧] and [∨]
buttons to adjust the
settings.
NOTE: The time must be entered on the basis of a 24-hour clock, with
00:00 being midnight and 12:00 being noon.
5.
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When you have selected the desired settings, press [ACCEPT]. If no
further adjustments are necessary, press [RETURN].
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Programmer Setup Options
9-3
Connecting an External Recorder or Monitor
For the Prodigy family of pacemakers, the waveform signals available at
the programmer output connectors are shown below for the 9760 and 9790
programmers. Refer to the next section of this chapter for information on
the Calibrate option, which may be useful when you view Marker Channel
or EGM telemetry on an externally connected recorder or monitor.
9760 Programmer
On the 9760 programmer, the signal output connectors are located on the
left side of the unit.
Connector
Output Signal
A
Patient’s ECG
B
Telemetered atrial EGM
C
Telemetered ventricular EGM
D
Marker Channel Telemetry
Connector Type:
BNC
Signal Type:
±1 Volt
9790 Programmer
Connecting an external recorder or monitor to the 9790 programmer
requires an optional adaptor. This adaptor connects to the analog output
port located on the right side of the programmer.
Connector (on adaptor) Output Signal
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A
Patient’s ECG
B
Telemetered atrial EGM
C
Telemetered ventricular EGM
D
Marker Channel Telemetry
Connector Type:
BNC
Signal Type:
Switchable to ±1 Volt or ±5 mV
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9-4
Using the Programmer
Using the CALIBRATE Option
The Calibrate option applies to viewing Marker Channel or EGM telemetry
on an externally connected recorder or monitor.
Marker Channel™ Telemetry
On an external recorder or monitor, the trace of Marker Channel telemetry
is not annotated with letter codes. Identification of each marker must be
done on the basis of its relative amplitude.
Selecting the Calibrate option inserts a reference diagram into the Marker
Channel trace to aid in marker identification. Select this option, as shown
below, at the moment you want the reference diagram to appear.
To initiate a calibration
output:
1. Select the [SPECIAL]
Menu button.
2. Select the CALIBRATE
option.
Selecting the Calibrate option inserts the reference diagram shown below.
This diagram shows the relative amplitude of the ascending (atrial) and
descending (ventricular) markers.
NOTE: On the 9790 programmer, you can press the calibrate button
located next to the analog output port on the right side of the programmer
as an alternative to using the 2-step procedure above.
9760 Programmer
9790 Programmer
If you are using a 9760 programmer, the reference diagram appears
only in the marker trace on the externally connected recorder or
monitor.
If you are using a 9790 programmer, the reference diagram appears in
the marker trace on the programmer display and real-time printout as
well as on the externally connected recorder or monitor.
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Programmer Setup Options
9-5
EGM/ECG Signal Calibration
Depending on the displayed waveform trace, selecting the calibrate option
also generates a voltage reference diagram that applies as follows:
If you are using a 9760 programmer, the voltage reference diagram
appears only in the telemetered EGM trace displayed or printed by an
externally connected recorder or monitor.
If you are using a 9790 programmer, the voltage reference diagram
appears in both the ECG and telemetered EGM traces displayed and
printed by the programmer as well as in the ECG and EGM traces
displayed or printed by the externally connected recorder or monitor.
The signal calibration diagram provides a voltage reference for determining
waveform amplitudes.
5 mV Æ
1 mV Æ
0 mV Æ
9760 Programmer
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Using the Programmer
Setting Up Site Nominal Parameter Values
CAUTION: Programming functions, including Emergency, are not available from the Site Nominal Setup screen.
The Site Nominal Setup feature allows you to choose your own set of
nominal parameter values to use as an alternative to preestablished
Medtronic nominal values.
You can choose one set of Site Nominal parameter values for each
group of models. You must repeat the setup procedure for each group
of models that you want to have Site Nominal values.
You can setup Site Nominal values for both pacing parameters and the
parameters used to program the Diagnostics function (see “Other
Options” later in this section).
Once you save a set of Site Nominal values for a group of models, you
have the option (during a patient session) to recall these values to the
screen as pending values for programming.
From the parameter programming screen, you can recall the Site
Nominal values as follows:
1) Select the [SAVE/NOMINAL OPTIONS...] button.
2) Select the [SITE NOMINALS] option.
Site Nominals Setup Procedure
Use this procedure to establish a set of Site Nominal parameter values for a
group of pacemaker models or to change an existing set of Site Nominal
values. The display conventions used in this setup procedure are the same
as those used for programming parameter values (see Chapter 6).
1.
Display the Automatic Model Select screen (see page 3-4):
If the programmer is not operating, turn it on. The start-up sequence
will automatically display this screen.
If the programmer is operating and a pacemaker model has been
selected, select [END SESSION] to display this screen.
2.
Display the Site Nominal Setup screen:
a) Select [SETUP...] from the Automatic Model Select screen.
b) Select [SET SITE NOMINALS] from the setup options.
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Programmer Setup Options
c)
9-7
Select the pacemaker type, [SINGLE CHAMBER MODELS] or [DUAL
CHAMBER MODELS].
d) Select the desired Prodigy pacemaker group from those listed.
Selecting the pacemaker group results in a data loading process
that will take several seconds. The Site Nominal Setup screen for
Pacing Parameters is then displayed (see example below).
Site Nominal Setup
Screen (example)
If Site Nominal values have not been set up for the selected models, the
screen will show Medtronic nominal values with all values pending.
The screen otherwise shows the present Site Nominal values.
3.
To establish the desired set of Site Nominal values, make the required
changes to the parameters settings displayed:
a) Select a parameter you want to change.
For pacing parameters, select Pacing Mode first if you intend to
change it.
b) From the window of value options, select the desired value.
NOTE: Selecting a value of ON for Mode Switch will display the
present setting for Detect Rate within the Mode Switch value
window. To choose a different setting, select Detect Rate to open
its value window. After choosing the desired rate value, select
[ACCEPT VALUE] to close the Mode Switch window (see page 6-5).
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
9-8
Using the Programmer
c)
4.
Repeat a and b until the screen displays the parameter settings you
want to use as Site Nominal values for the selected pacemaker
group.
To save the parameters shown on the setup screen as Site Nominal
values, select the [SAVE PROPOSED] button.
A message at the bottom of the screen and an audible “beep” will
confirm that the values have been saved.
NOTE: The [SAVE PROPOSED] button will not be displayed if any of
the selected values form a restricted parameter interaction (as indicated
by values displayed in reverse video, see page 6-3). All parameter
conflicts must be resolved before the selected Site Nominal values can
be saved.
5.
Select [END SITE NOMINALS] to exit the Site Nominal setup feature.
NOTE: If you want to exit this procedure without saving a set of Site
Nominal values, you can select the [END SITE NOMINALS] button at any
point in the procedure prior to step 4.
Other Options
Site Nominals for the Diagnostics function
Following step 2 of the setup procedure, the Site Nominal Setup screen
automatically opens to the Pacing Parameters setup screen. To establish a
set of Site Nominal parameter values for the Diagnostics function, select
the [DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS] button and proceed with steps 3, 4 and 5.
If you have completed the procedure for setting up and saving values for
Pacing Parameters, you may repeat the procedure for Diagnostic Parameters
by selecting the [DIAGNOSTIC PARAMETERS] button following step 4, rather
than exiting the Site Nominal setup feature.
Convenience buttons
The following buttons may be used during the Site Nominal setup
procedure:
[SET TO MEDTRONIC]
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display Medtronic nominal values as pending
values for all parameters. This feature is useful
if you want to use Medtronic values as a starting
point for setting up a new set of Site Nominal
values.
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Programmer Setup Options
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9-9
[SET TO SITE VALUES]
Select this button if, during modification of an
existing set of Site Nominals, you want to return
to the original values. This button is displayed
only if there is a saved set of Site Nominal
values.
[HELP]
Select this button for a brief description of the
Site Nominal Setup feature.
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9-10
Using the Programmer
Setting the Artifact Display
During processing and amplification of the patient’s ECG signal, the programmer automatically detects and enhances pacing artifacts so that they
appear on the ECG display and printout.
If you have a 9790 programmer, you can turn this artifact display feature
on or off as follows:
1.
Display the Automatic Model Select screen (see page 3-4) as follows:
If the programmer is not operating, turn the programmer on. The
start-up sequence will automatically display this screen.
If the programmer is operating and a pacemaker model has been
selected, end the patient session by selecting [END SESSION].
2.
From the Automatic Model Select screen, select the [SETUP...] button.
3.
From the displayed setup options, select [ARTIFACT DISPLAY].
4.
In the Artifact Display window, select [ON] or [OFF] as desired. (The
present setting appears in reverse video.)
5.
Select [EXIT] to close the window.
The selected option is saved in programmer memory and will remain in
effect until you repeat the procedure above to change it.
NOTE: With the artifact display feature turned off, pacing artifacts will
not show on the programmer ECG display or printout.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
PART II
Understanding Pacemaker
Operation
Part II provides descriptions of Prodigy pacemaker features. This section
supplements Part I (programmer procedures). Part III supplements this
section with specific product information for the Prodigy DR, Prodigy D,
Prodigy VDD, Prodigy SR, and Prodigy S pacemakers. Specific Prodigy
features are organized under the following sections:
■
Pacing modes
■
Rate response therapy options
■
Pacemaker timing features
■
Lead/cardiac tissue interface
■
Special therapy options
■
Telemetry data
■
Miscellaneous operations
■
Diagnostics
■
Troubleshooting the pacing system
Part II Understanding Pacemaker Operations
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
CHAPTER 10
Pacing Modes
About This Chapter
This chapter provides information about the modes available with the
Prodigy pacemaker. The sections are as follows:
■
Introduction (see page 10-3)
■
Mode Selection Decision Tree
(see page 10-5)
■
■
■
■
■
Mode Pertinency Tables
(see page 10-6)
DDDR/DDD Modes
(see pages 10-8 and 10-10)
DDIR/DDI Modes
(see pages 10-12 and 10-14)
DVIR/DVI Modes
(see pages 10-16 and 10-18)
VDD Mode (see page 10-20)
■
AAIR/AAI Modes
(see pages 10-22 and 10-24)
■
VVIR/VVI Modes
(see pages 10-26 and 10-28)
■
AAT/VVT Modes
(see page 10-30)
■
DOOR/AOOR/VOOR Modes
(see page 10-32)
■
DOO/AOO/VOO Modes
(see page 10-34)
■
ODO/OAO/OVO Modes
(see page 10-36)
10-1
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Pacing Modes
10-3
Introduction
Pacing Mode Selection
This chapter provides an introduction to Prodigy pacemaker modes as an
aid to pacing mode selection. The chapter is organized as follows:
■
Mode Selection Decision Tree. This decision tree, based on the 1991
ACC/AHA guidelines for pacemaker implantation,1 provides a simple
means of identifying pacing modes appropriate for given indications.
More specific indications for bradycardia-related pacing are described
under “General Pacing Indications” in Part III.
■
Mode Pertinency Tables. These tables show which features and
parameters apply to each commonly used pacing mode.
■
Mode Descriptions. These descriptions provide indications and
contraindications for modes available with Prodigy pacemakers and
brief descriptions of how these modes operate.
NBG Pacing Codes
Prodigy pacemaker modes are defined in NBG Code.2 Each five-letter
NBG code describes a specific type of operation for implantable
pacemakers. For simplicity, this manual uses only the first three or four
letters, such as DDD, DDIR, DVIR, and so forth. The following chart
describes the first four letters of the NBG code.
1
Dreifus LS, Fisch C, Griffin JC, et al. Guidelines for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and
antiarrhythmia devices. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart
Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular
Procedures (Committee on Pacemaker Implantation). Journal of the American College of
Cardiology. 1991; 18: 1-13.
2 Bernstein A., et al., “The NASPE/BPEG Pacemaker Code,” PACE, 10(4), Jul-Aug 1987.
(“NBG” stands for “The North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology [NASPE]
and the British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group [BPEG] Generic.” NBG’s five-letter
code supersedes the ICHD Code.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
10-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
CHAMBER PACED
MODE OF RESPONSE
V
=
Ventricle
T
=
Triggered
A
=
Atrium
I
=
Inhibited
D
=
Dual Chamber
D
=
Double (Both)
S
=
Single Chamber
O =
O =
None
None
DDDR
CHAMBER SENSED
RESPONSE
PROGRAMMABLE/
RATE
V
=
Ventricle
P
A
=
Atrium
M =
Multiprogrammable
D
=
Dual Chamber
C
=
Communicating
S
=
Single Chamber
R
=
Rate Responsive
None
O =
O =
=
Programmable
None
Further Information
The mode descriptions in this chapter provide only a basic overview of
each mode. For further details on the rate responsive modes, refer to
Chapter 11, “Rate Response Therapy Options.” For further details on
pacemaker timing in all modes, refer to Chapter 12, “Pacemaker Timing.”
For mode and therapy capability for each of the Prodigy models,
refer to Part III.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Pacing Modes
10-5
Mode Selection Decision Tree
Below is a basic decision tree used to select the pacing mode. In the shaded
boxes the preferred mode(s) are listed and the alternate mode(s) appears
below the dashed line.
Symptomatic
Bradycardia
(e.g., persistent
atrial fibrillation,
inexcitable atrium)
No
Can the atrium be sensed
and/or paced reliably?
Yes
VVIR
VVI
Is AV conduction
presently adequate?
Yes
No
(e.g., complete or
transient AV block)
Is SA node conduction
presently adequate?
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Is SA node conduction
presently adequate?
Yes
No
Yes
No
AAI
DDD
AAIR
DDDR
AAIR
DDDR
DDD
DDDR
VDD
DDDR
DDIR
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✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Paced AV Interval
Sensed AV Interval
Rate Adaptive AV (ON/OFF)
PVARP
✓
✓
Post-Ventricular
Atrial Blanking
Post-Atrial
Ventricular Blanking
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
DVIR
DVI
VDD
VVIR
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
VVI
✓
✓
VVT
✓
✓
✓
✓
AAIR
✓
✓
✓
AAI
✓
✓
✓
AAT
NOTE: Standard pacing and sensing parameters (amplitude, pulse width, sensitivity, and pace/sense polarities) are not shown here
but are found in Part III under “Nominal Parameter Settings.” Also, asynchronous modes are not shown.
✓
✓
✓
✓
BASIC OPERATION PARAMETERS*
DDI
* See Chapter 12 for operational descriptions of these timing parameters.
Single Chamber
Atrial Blanking
✓
Ventricular Refractory Period
✓
✓
✓
✓
Upper Activity Rate
Atrial Refractory Period
✓
✓
✓
Upper Tracking Rate
✓
✓
✓
Lower Rate
DDIR
DDD
DDDR
Parameter/Feature
PARAMETERS AVAILABLE FOR EACH MODE
10-6
The following tables indicate which features and parameters apply to each commonly used pacing mode.
All features and parameters are programmable unless otherwise marked.
Mode Pertinency Tables
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✓
Non-Competitive
Atrial Pacing
(ON/OFF)
✓
Ventricular Safety
Pacing
(ON/OFF)
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Activity Rate Response
Acceleration
Deceleration
DVIR
DVI
VDD
VVIR
✓
✓
✓
VVI
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
RATE RESPONSE THERAPY OPTIONS**
✓
✓
✓
SPECIAL THERAPY OPTIONS*
DDI
* See Chapter 14 for operational descriptions of special therapy options.
** See Chapter 11 for operational descriptions of rate response features.
3 Available only in Prodigy DR models.
✓
✓
DDIR
✓
✓
✓
✓
DDD
Activity Threshold
Single Chamber
Hysteresis
Special Pacing Operations
✓
PMT Intervention (ON/OFF)
Managing Ventricular Rhythms
✓
DDDR
(ON/OFF)
Mode Switch3
Managing Atrial Rhythms
Parameter/Feature
PARAMETERS AVAILABLE FOR EACH MODE
✓
VVT
✓
✓
✓
✓
AAIR
✓
AAI
✓
AAT
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Pacing Modes
10-7
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10-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DDDR Mode
Indications for the DDDR Mode
The DDDR mode may be indicated for patients who have chronotropic
incompetence, a stable atrial rhythm, and an anticipated moderate or high
level of physical activity. Specific indications (also applicable to the DDD
mode) are as follows:
■
■
Requirement for AV synchrony over a wide range of rates. Examples
include the following:
- Active or young patients who have atrial rates responsive to clinical
need.
- Patients who have significant hemodynamic need.
- Patients who have experienced pacemaker syndrome during
previous pacemaker experience or a reduction in systolic blood
pressure > 20 mm Hg during ventricular pacing at time of
pacemaker implantation (with or without evidence of
VA conduction).
Complete heart block or sick sinus syndrome and stable atrial rates.
■
When simultaneous control of atrial and ventricular rates can be shown
to inhibit tachyarrhythmias or when the pacemaker can be adjusted to a
mode designed to interrupt the arrhythmia.
■
Intermittent drug-resistant and reentrant tachycardias. (Short AV
interval settings or use of Mode Switching may be useful in responding
to some reentrant atrial tachycardias.)
The DDDR mode is particularly applicable in the presence of persistent VA
conduction during previous pacemaker experience. Also, the mode may be
indicated for patients with intermittent atrial and ventricular ectopic
arrhythmias.
Contraindications for the DDDR Mode
The DDDR mode is contraindicated for the following patient diagnoses:
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■
Chronic or persistent supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including
atrial fibrillation or flutter.
■
An inexcitable atrium.
■
Severe ischemic heart disease, with angina pectoris symptoms
aggravated by rapid heart rates.
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Pacing Modes
10-9
DDDR Mode Operation
In the DDDR mode, the pacemaker tracks the faster of the intrinsic atrial
rate or the sensor-indicated rate. If the intrinsic rate is faster, the DDDR
mode provides atrial synchronous pacing; otherwise, AV sequential pacing
occurs at the sensor-indicated rate. Rate limits for atrial tracking (Upper
Tracking Rate)4 and sensor tracking (Upper Activity Rate) are separately
programmable. The AV intervals that follow sensed atrial events (SAV)
and paced atrial events (PAV) are separately programmable, and they can
be programmed to shorten with increasing rates (Rate Adaptive AV).
A nonrefractory sensed event in either chamber inhibits pacing in that
chamber. A ventricular nonrefractory sensed event in the VA interval that
is not preceded by an atrial sense (AS or AR) may be a pacemaker-defined
PVC, and starts a new VA interval.
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
S
A
P
V
P
V
S
A
P
V
S
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
A
S
V
P
PAV Interval = 200 ms
SAV Interval = 170 ms
PVARP = 280 ms
V
P
200 ms
Example of DDDR Mode Operation.
4
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10-10
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DDD Mode
Indications for the DDD Mode
The DDD mode may be indicated for patients with the following
diagnoses:
■
Requirement for AV synchrony over a wide range of rates. Examples
include the following:
- Active or young patients who have atrial rates responsive to
clinical need.
- Patients who have significant hemodynamic need.
- Patients who have experienced pacemaker syndrome during
previous pacemaker experience or a reduction in systolic blood
pressure > 20 mm Hg during ventricular pacing at time of
pacemaker implantation (with or without evidence of
VA conduction).
■
Complete heart block or sick sinus syndrome and stable atrial rates.
■
When simultaneous control of atrial and ventricular rates can be shown
to inhibit tachyarrhythmias or when the pacemaker can be adjusted to a
mode designed to interrupt the arrhythmia.
■
Intermittent drug-resistant and reentrant tachycardias. (Short AV
interval settings or use of Mode Switching may be useful in responding
to some reentrant atrial tachycardias.)
Contraindications for the DDD Mode
The DDD mode is contraindicated for the following patient diagnoses:
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■
Chronic or persistent supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including
atrial fibrillation or flutter.
■
An inexcitable atrium.
■
Severe ischemic heart disease, with angina pectoris symptoms
aggravated by rapid heart rates.
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Pacing Modes
10-11
DDD Mode Operation
The DDD mode provides atrial synchronous pacing in the presence of
intrinsic atrial activity; otherwise, AV sequential pacing occurs at the
Lower Rate. Each atrial paced or nonrefractory atrial sensed event starts an
AV interval and a Lower Rate interval. The AV intervals that follow sensed
atrial events (SAV) and paced atrial events (PAV) are separately
programmable, and the SAV may be optionally programmed to shorten
with increasing rate (Rate Adaptive AV). Ventricular paced events may
track atrial sensed events up to the programmed Upper Tracking Rate.4
A ventricular nonrefractory sensed event in the VA interval that is not
preceded by an atrial sense (AS or AR) may be a pacemaker-defined PVC,
and starts a new VA interval.
Lower Rate Interval
A
P
Lower Rate Interval
A
S
A
P
V
P
V
S
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
A
P
V
S
PAV Interval = 200 ms
SAV Interval = 170 ms
200 ms
Example of DDD Mode Operation.
4
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10-12
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DDIR Mode
Indications for the DDIR Mode
The DDIR mode may be indicated for patients who require dual chamber
pacing and who have frequent, but not constant, supraventricular
arrhythmias. It may be preferable to the DDI mode in the presence of
chronotropic incompetence and an anticipated moderate-to-high level of
physical activity, particularly when atrial arrhythmias occur fairly
frequently or the patients need dual chamber pacing only intermittently.
Contraindications for the DDIR Mode
The DDIR mode is contraindicated for patients with chronic or persistent
supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation or flutter.
DDIR Mode Operation
The DDIR mode provides dual chamber, sensor-driven, AV sequential
pacing for heart rate variation without atrial tracking. Atrial pacing occurs
at the sensor-indicated rate, with ventricular pacing at the end of the PAV
interval unless inhibited. An atrial event sensed outside the PVARP will
inhibit a scheduled atrial stimulus but will not start an AV interval. That is,
ventricular paced events after such sensed atrial events occur at the sensorindicated rate. A ventricular nonrefractory sensed event in the VA interval
starts a new VA interval.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Pacing Modes
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
Sensor-indicated Sensor-indicated
Interval
VA Interval
A
S
A
P
V
P
V
P
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
V
P
10-13
A
P
V
P
PAV Interval = 200 ms
200 ms
Example of DDIR Mode Operation.
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10-14
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DDI Mode
Indications for the DDI Mode
The DDI mode may be indicated for patients who require dual chamber
pacing and who have frequent, but not constant, supraventricular
arrhythmias.
Contraindications for the DDI Mode
The DDI mode is contraindicated for patients with chronic or persistent
supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation or flutter.
DDI Mode Operation
The DDI mode provides dual chamber AV sequential pacing with atrial
sensing but without atrial tracking. Atrial pacing occurs at the Lower Rate,
with ventricular pacing at the end of the PAV interval unless inhibited. An
atrial event sensed outside the PVARP will inhibit a scheduled atrial
stimulus but will not start an AV interval. Ventricular paced events after
such sensed atrial events occur at the Lower Rate. A ventricular
nonrefractory sensed event in the VA interval starts a new VA interval.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Pacing Modes
Lower Rate Interval
V
P
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Lower Rate
VA Interval
Lower Rate Interval
A
S
A
P
A
P
10-15
A
P
V
P
V
P
PAV Interval = 200 ms
200 ms
Example of DDI Mode Operation.
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10-16
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DVIR Mode
Indications for the DVIR Mode
The DVIR mode may be indicated for patients who have chronotropic
incompetence and an anticipated moderate-to-high level of physical
activity. Specific indications are as follows:
■
The need for synchronous atrial-ventricular contraction in symptomatic
bradycardia and slow atrial rate.
■
Previously documented pacemaker syndrome.
■
Intermittent supraventricular arrhythmias in which combined pacing
and drugs have been shown to be therapeutically effective.
■
Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome, provided adjustment of atrial rate
and AV interval terminates or prevents the emergence of
supraventricular arrhythmias with or without concomitant drug
administration.
■
Intermittent atrial and ventricular ectopic arrhythmias.
■
Inappropriate function in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, or DDI modes
when AV synchrony is desired.
Contraindications for the DVIR Mode
The DVIR mode is contraindicated for patients with frequent or persistent
supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation or flutter.
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Pacing Modes
10-17
DVIR Mode Operation
The DVIR mode provides AV sequential pacing at the sensor-indicated rate
unless inhibited by ventricular sensed events. Atrial pacing occurs at the
sensor-indicated rate, with ventricular pacing at the end of the PAV interval
unless inhibited. The DVIR mode ignores intrinsic atrial events. Sensing
occurs only in the ventricle. A ventricular nonrefractory sensed event
during the VA interval starts a new VA interval.
Sensor-indicated
VA Interval
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
A
P
V
P
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
V
S
A
P
V
P
V
S
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
PAV Interval = 200 ms
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
200 ms
Example of DVIR Mode Operation.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
10-18
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DVI Mode
Indications for the DVI Mode
The DVI mode may be indicated for patients with the following conditions:
■
Need for synchronous atrial-ventricular contraction in symptomatic
bradycardia and slow atrial rate.
■
Previously documented pacemaker syndrome.
■
Intermittent supraventricular arrhythmias in which combined pacing
and drugs have been shown to be therapeutically effective.
■
Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome, provided adjustment of atrial rate
and AV interval terminates or prevents the emergence of
supraventricular arrhythmias with or without concomitant drug
administration.
■
Intermittent atrial and ventricular ectopic arrhythmias.
Contraindications for the DVI Mode
The DVI mode is contraindicated for patients with frequent or persistent
supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation or flutter.
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Pacing Modes
10-19
DVI Mode Operation
The DVI mode provides dual chamber AV sequential pacing without atrial
sensing/tracking. Atrial pacing occurs at the Lower Rate, with ventricular
pacing at the end of the PAV interval unless inhibited. Sensing occurs only
in the ventricle, and intrinsic atrial events are ignored. A ventricular
nonrefractory sensed event during the VA interval starts a new VA interval.
Lower Rate
VA Interval
Lower Rate Interval
A
P
A
P
V
P
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
A
P
V
S
V
S
V
P
PAV Interval = 200 ms
200 ms
Example of DVI Mode Operation
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
VDD Mode
Indications for the VDD Mode
The VDD mode may be indicated for patients with the following
conditions:
■
Requirements for ventricular pacing when adequate atrial rates and
adequate atrial sensing are present; includes the presence of complete
AV block when atrial contribution is needed for hemodynamic benefit
and when pacemaker syndrome has been present or is anticipated.
■
Normal sinus rhythm and normal AV conduction in patients needing
periodic ventricular pacing.
Contraindications for the VDD Mode
The VDD mode is contraindicated for patients with the following
conditions:
■
Chronic or persistent supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, including
atrial fibrillation or flutter.
■
Inadequate atrial sensing.
■
Intact VA conduction.
VDD Mode Operation
The VDD mode provides atrial synchronous pacing (or VVI pacing at the
Lower Rate). The ventricle is paced synchronously up to the programmed
Upper Tracking Rate.4 Sensing occurs in both the atrium and ventricle, but
pacing occurs only in the ventricle. To promote atrial synchronous pacing
at slow rates, a sensed atrial event occurring near the end of the Lower Rate
interval will be followed by the programmed maximum SAV interval. The
result is an extension of the ventricular lower rate (as shown in the
following example). A ventricular nonrefractory sensed event in the V-V
interval that is not preceded by an atrial sense (AS or AR) may be a
pacemaker-defined PVC, and it starts a new V-V interval.
4 The
Total Atrial Tracking Period (TARP) may limit the tracking rate to a lesser value.
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Pacing Modes
10-21
Lower Rate Interval
SAV
Interval
A
S
A
S
V
P
A
S
A
S
V
P
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Upper Tracking Rate = 120 ppm (500 ms)
V
P
SAV Interval = 200 ms
PVARP = 250 ms
Example of VDD Operation
200 ms
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Page 10-22
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
AAIR Mode
Indications for the AAIR Mode
The AAIR mode may be indicated for certain patients who have
chronotropic incompetence and an anticipated moderate to high level of
physical activity, normal AV conduction, and little likelihood of
progression of AV block or induction of AV block as the result of drug
therapy. Specific indications are as follows:
■
Symptomatic sinus node dysfunction, provided AV conduction is
shown to be adequate by appropriate studies.
■
Hemodynamic enhancement through rate adjustment in patients who
have bradycardia and symptoms of impaired cardiac output, provided
AV conduction is shown to be adequate by appropriate studies.
Contraindications for the AAIR Mode
The AAIR mode is contraindicated in the presence of the following
conditions:
■
Pre-existing AV conduction delay or block or if decremental AV
conduction is demonstrated at slow paced rates (e.g., < 140 ppm) by
appropriate tests.
■
Inadequate atrial sensing and atrial pacing threshold.
■
An inexcitable atrium.
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Pacing Modes
10-23
AAIR Mode Operation
The AAIR mode provides atrial-based rate responsive pacing in patients
with intact AV conduction. Sensing and pacing occur only in the atrium. In
the absence of sensed events, the chamber is paced at the sensor-indicated
rate.
NOTE: In the AAIR mode, atrial refractory sensed events do not restart the
programmed Upper Activity Rate interval.
Sensor-indicated Interval
A
P
A
R
Sensor-indicated Interval
A
P
A
S
Operation:
Sensor-indicated Rate = 75 ppm (800 ms)
Upper Activity Rate = 100 ppm (600 ms)
Example of AAIR Mode Operation
A
P
200 ms
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
AAI Mode
Indications for the AAI Mode
The AAI mode may be indicated for patients with the following conditions:
■
Symptomatic sinus node dysfunction, provided AV conduction is
shown to be adequate by appropriate studies.
■
Hemodynamic enhancement through rate adjustment in patients who
have bradycardia and symptoms of impaired cardiac output, provided
AV conduction is shown to be adequate by appropriate studies.
Contraindications for the AAI Mode
The AAI mode is contraindicated in the presence of the following
conditions:
■
Pre-existing AV conduction delay or block or if decremental AV
conduction is demonstrated at slow paced rates (e.g., < 140 ppm) by
appropriate tests.
■
Inadequate atrial sensing and atrial pacing threshold.
■
An inexcitable atrium.
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Pacing Modes
10-25
AAI Mode Operation
The AAI mode provides single chamber inhibited atrial pacing. Sensing
and pacing occur only in the atrium. Pacing occurs at the programmed
Lower Rate unless inhibited by sensed events.
Pacing Rate Interval
A
P
A
R
Pacing Rate Interval
A
P
A
S
Parameter:
Pacing Rate = 75 ppm (800ms)
Example of AAI Mode Operation
A
P
200 ms
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
VVIR Mode
Indications for the VVIR Mode
The VVIR mode may be indicated for certain patients who have
chronotropic incompetence and an anticipated moderate to high level of
physical activity. Specific indications are as follows:
■
Any symptomatic bradyarrhythmias, but particularly when there is no
significant atrial hemodynamic contribution, as in persistent or
paroxysmal atrial flutter/fibrillation or the presence of giant atria.
■
No evidence of pacemaker syndrome due to loss of atrial contribution
or negative atrial kick.
■
Symptomatic bradycardia where pacing simplicity is the prime
concern, as in cases of senility, terminal disease, inaccessibility to a
follow-up center, or absent retrograde ventriculoatrial (VA)
conduction.
■
Patients in whom it is necessary to disable the atrial circuit (for
example, lead fracture, inappropriate function, and so forth).
■
Certain atrial and ventricular ectopic arrhythmias including chronic
atrial fibrillation and flutter.
Contraindications for the VVIR Mode
The VVIRmodes is contraindicated in the presence of the following
conditions:
■
Known pacemaker syndrome or symptoms produced by temporary
ventricular pacing at the time of initial pacemaker implantation.
■
The need for maximum atrial contribution because of congestive heart
failure or a special need for rate response.
■
VVIR pacing is particularly contraindicated in the presence of
retrograde VA conduction or when angina pectoris or congestive heart
failure is aggravated by fast rates.
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10-27
VVIR Mode Operation
The VVIR mode provides ventricular rate responsive pacing in patients for
whom atrial-based pacing is deemed unnecessary or inappropriate. In the
absence of sensed events, the ventricle is paced at the sensor-indicated rate.
NOTE: In the VVIR mode, ventricular refractory sensed events restart the
programmed Upper Activity Rate interval.
Sensor-indicated
Interval
V
P
Sensor-indicated
Interval
Upper Activity
Rate Interval
V
P
V
R
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
Sensor-indicated
Interval
V
P
V
P
Upper Activity Rate = 120 ppm (500 ms)
Ventricular Refractory Period = 300 ms
200 ms
Example of VVIR Mode Operation
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
VVI Mode
Indications for the VVI Mode
The VVI mode may be indicated in the presence of the following
conditions:
■
Any symptomatic bradyarrhythmias but particularly when there is no
significant atrial hemodynamic contribution as in persistent or
paroxysmal atrial flutter/fibrillation or the presence of giant atria.
■
No evidence of pacemaker syndrome due to loss of atrial contribution
or negative atrial kick.
■
Symptomatic bradycardia where pacing simplicity is the prime concern
in cases of senility, terminal disease, inaccessibility to a follow-up
center, or absent retrograde ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction.
■
Patients in whom it is necessary to disable the atrial circuit (for
example, lead fracture, inappropriate function, and so forth).
■
Certain atrial and ventricular ectopic arrhythmias including chronic
atrial fibrillation and flutter.
Contraindications for the VVI Mode
The VVI mode is contraindicated in the presence of the following
conditions:
■
Known pacemaker syndrome or symptoms produced by temporary
ventricular pacing at the time of initial pacemaker implantation.
■
The need for maximum atrial contribution because of congestive heart
failure or a special need for rate response.
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Pacing Modes
10-29
VVI Mode Operation
The VVI mode provides single chamber inhibited pacing at the Lower Rate
unless inhibited by sensed events. Sensing occurs only in the ventricle.
Pacing Rate Interval
V
P
Pacing Rate Interval
V
P
V
S
Parameters:
Pacing Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Ventricular Refractory Period = 300 ms
Example of VVI Mode Operation
V
P
200 ms
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10-30
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
AAT/VVT Modes
Indications for the AAT and VVT Modes
Single chamber triggered modes (AAT and VVT) are diagnostic modes
intended to allow synchronization of an implanted pacemaker with an
external signal generator or to facilitate identification of sensed events with
pacing artifacts. For specific indications, refer to the AAI and VVI mode
descriptions.
Contraindications for the AAT and VVT
Modes
Because of the potential for triggered pacing in response to oversensing,
use of the AAT and VVT modes outside of a diagnostic setting is not
recommended. For specific contraindications, refer to the AAI and VVI
mode descriptions.
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Pacing Modes
10-31
AAT and VVT Mode Operation
Pacing occurs at the programmed rate, but a nonrefractory sensed event
triggers an immediate pacing output (rather than inhibiting such output).
Except that pacing outputs occur when events are sensed, the triggered
modes operate identically to the corresponding inhibited modes.
NOTE: Permanently triggered pacing will not occur faster than 300 ms
(200 ppm) from the previous paced event. Temporary programmed
triggered pacing is not limited to 300 ms (200 ppm).
Pacing Rate Interval
V
P
V
R
Pacing Rate Interval
V
P
T
P
V
P
Parameters:
Pacing Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Ventricular Refractory Period = 300 ms
200 ms
Example of VVT Mode Operation
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10-32
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DOOR/AOOR/VOOR Modes
Indications for the DOOR, AOOR, and VOOR
Modes
The DOOR, AOOR, and VOOR modes provide asynchronous AV
sequential, atrial, or ventricular rate responsive pacing where synchronous
pacing is not possible or practical, such as for patients who exhibit
inappropriate inhibition due to muscle tremors, and so forth, or in patients
who work in environments with excessive electromagnetic interference
(EMI). These sensor-driven modes are intended primarily for use on a
temporary basis, and they may be used in patients who have little or no
intrinsic cardiac activity, thereby minimizing the possibility of competitive
rhythms. Use of asynchronous modes on a chronic basis may result in
potentially dangerous competitive pacing.
Contraindications for the DOOR, AOOR, and
VOOR Modes
The DOOR, AOOR, and VOOR modes are contraindicated in the presence
of the following conditions:
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Likelihood of competition between paced and intrinsic rhythms.
■
Presence of AV conduction disturbances.
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Pacing Modes
10-33
DOOR, AOOR, and VOOR Mode Operation
The DOOR, AOOR, and VOOR modes operate as follows:
■
The DOOR mode provides asynchronous AV sequential pacing at the
sensor-indicated rate. Intrinsic events are ignored.
■
The AOOR and VOOR modes provide single chamber pacing at the
sensor-indicated rate. Intrinsic events are ignored.
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
V
P
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
V
P
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
Sensor-indicated
Interval
A
P
V
P
A
P
V
P
PAV Interval = 200 ms
200 ms
Example of DOOR Mode Operation
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10-34
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
DOO/AOO/VOO Modes
Indications for the DOO, AOO, and VOO
Modes
The DOO, AOO, or VOO mode may be indicated as follows:
■
They may be used intraoperatively to reduce the likelihood of
triggering pacing outputs from electrocautery.
■
Asynchronous modes may also be used in patients who exhibit
inappropriate inhibition due to muscle tremors, and so forth, or in
patients who work in environments with excessive electromagnetic
interference (EMI).
Contraindications for the DOO, AOO, and
VOO Modes
The DOO, AOO, and VOO modes are contraindicated in the presence of
the following conditions:
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Likelihood of competition between paced and intrinsic rhythms.
■
Presence of AV conduction disturbances.
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Pacing Modes
10-35
DOO, AOO, and VOO Mode Operation
The DOO, AOO, and VOO modes operate as follows:
•
The DOO mode provides A-V sequential pacing at the programmed
rate with no inhibition by intrinsic events.
•
The AOO and VOO modes provide pacing at the programmed rate
with no inhibition by intrinsic events in the applicable chamber.
Besides being directly programmable, the DOO mode is the magnet mode
of the corresponding dual chamber modes, except for the VDD mode,
which is the VOO mode. AOO and VOO modes are the magnet modes of
the corresponding atrial and ventricular single chamber modes,
respectively.
Lower Rate Interval
A
P
Lower Rate Interval
Lower Rate Interval
A
P
V
P
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
A
P
V
P
A
P
V
P
PAV Interval = 200 ms
200 ms
Example of DOO Mode Operation
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10-36
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
ODO/OAO/OVO Modes
Indications for the ODO, OAO, and OVO
Modes
The ODO, OAO, and OVO modes are intended for pacemaker diagnostic
and troubleshooting purposes, where the clinician wishes to observe
underlying rhythms. They may also be used to turn the pacemaker OFF
during surgery or other procedures. The patient is without pacing support in
these modes.
WARNING: These modes should never be permanently programmed for
pacemaker-dependent patients. For such patients, the programmer’s Inhibit
function may be used for brief interruption of output(s).
ODO, OAO, and OVO Mode Operation
In the ODO, OAO, and OVO modes, sensing occurs in the designated
chamber(s). When used in conjunction with Marker Channel telemetry and
concurrent ECG, these modes may be used to observe underlying rhythms.
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Blanking periods in these modes are automatically minimized to
maximize the sensing window(s). Thus, Marker Channel telemetry
may display sense markers for cardiac events (for example, far-field
R-waves) that otherwise would not appear due to longer blanking.
■
No timing intervals or refractory periods are used.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
CHAPTER 11
Rate Response
Therapy Options
About This Chapter
This chapter describes how to use Prodigy pacemaker rate response
features. The sections are as follows:
■
Rate Responsive Pacing (see page 11-2)
■
Activity Threshold (see page 11-4)
■
Activity Rate Response (see page 11-6)
■
Acceleration and Deceleration Times (see page 11-8)
11-1
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11-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Rate Responsive Pacing
Overview
Activity-based rate responsive pacing varies the pacing rate in response to
the patient’s detected physical activity. Prodigy pacemakers offer the
following rate responsive modes:
■
Dual chamber modes: DDDR, DDIR, DVIR, DOOR
■
Single chamber modes: AAIR, VVIR, AOOR, VOOR
All of the rate response features discussed in this section apply to all of
these modes.
Sensor-Indicated Rate
In rate responsive modes, pacing occurs at the sensor-indicated rate unless
inhibited by sensed events. The pacing rate may vary as the patient’s
activity level changes. The sensor-indicated rate is determined from the
activity sensor signal and the following programmable parameters:
■
Lower Rate
■
Upper Activity Rate
■
Activity Threshold
■
Activity Rate Response
■
Acceleration
■
Deceleration
The Lower Rate and Upper Activity Rate respectively control the minimum
and maximum sensor-indicated pacing rates. The other parameters are
described in the sections that follow.
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Rate Response Therapy Options
11-3
Typical Rate Response Settings
The nominal rate response parameters will be found adequate for many
patients (Activity Threshold = Medium, Activity Rate Response = 7,
Acceleration = 0.5 minutes, and Deceleration = 5 minutes).
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■
For most patients, the pacemaker may be programmed to operate at or
near the programmed Lower Rate when the patient is lying, sitting,
or standing. If the patient has a elevated pacing rate at rest, Activity
Threshold may need to be programmed to a higher setting.
■
When the patient is walking at a moderate pace, the pacing rate will
typically increase to about 90 ppm, and up to 120 ppm during more
brisk exercise. If the patient has minimal rate response during exercise,
Activity Threshold may need to be programmed to a lower setting.
■
A simple programmer-directed exercise test may be used to tailor rate
response settings to a patient’s needs (refer to “Determining Rate
Response Parameter Settings” in Chapter 7).
■
The Rate Histogram diagnostic may be used to validate programmed
rate response settings.
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11-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Activity Threshold
Overview
The programmable Activity Threshold determines the minimum intensity
of detected physical activity to which the pacemaker responds.
How Activity Threshold Influences Rate
A piezoelectric crystal, bonded to the inside of the titanium pacemaker
shield, is deflected by activity-induced pressure waves within the body. The
sensor converts these pressure waves into electrical signals. The
programmed Activity Threshold screens out activity signals below the
selected setting. Detected sensor signals will vary from patient to patient
due to body structure, placement of pacemaker, and so forth. Only sensor
signals whose amplitude exceeds the programmed Activity Threshold (as
shown below) are used in computing the sensor-indicated pacing rate. The
lower the Activity Threshold, the smaller the signal required to influence
the pacing rate.
Settings
High
MHigh
Med
MLow
Low
Activity
Sensor
Output
Low
MLow
Med
MHigh
High
Time
Activity Threshold = Med
Sensor Signal with Threshold Set to Medium
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Rate Response Therapy Options
11-5
Evaluating the Activity Threshold Setting
Marker Channel telemetry may be used to record or display the activity
sensor signal for evaluation (refer to “More About Marker Channel
Telemetry” in Chapter 5.) Few (or no) sensor detect markers should appear
when the patient is sitting quietly. Refer to “Determining Rate Response
Parameter Settings” in Chapter 7 for Activity Threshold testing.
Typical Rate Performance
The Medium setting for Activity Threshold usually provides satisfactory
rate response while minimizing response to vibration sources when the
patient is inactive. Walking increases pacing rate; sitting results in pacing at
or near the Lower Rate. Use the table below as a guide for selecting an
appropriate setting.
NOTE: External pressure (such as lying prone) coupled with a Low
Activity Threshold setting may cause the pacing rate to increase.
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Programmable
Settings
Typical Rate Performance
Low
Responds to most body activity, including
minimal exertion.
Medium/Low
Limited response to minimal exertion; responds to
moderate or greater exertion.
Medium
Responds to moderate and vigorous body movements
and exertion.
Medium/High
Limited response to moderate body movements
and exertion.
High
Responds to only vigorous body movements
and exertion.
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11-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Activity Rate Response
Overview
The Activity Rate Response slope, in conjunction with the Lower Rate and
Upper Activity Rate, establishes the steady-state pacing rate for a given
level of detected activity (indicated by activity signals that exceed Activity
Threshold).
■
Ten Activity Rate Response slopes are available, with the most
responsive setting (10) providing the greatest beat-to-beat rate change
for a given change in detected activity.
■
In general, more conditioned patients have greater cardiac reserves,
and they may require a lower programmed Activity Rate
Response setting.
Basic Operation
The higher Activity Rate Response settings result in a higher sensorindicated rate for a given level of detected activity, as follows:
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■
All Activity Rate Response slopes are linear and extend from the
Lower Rate to the Upper Activity Rate.
■
The Upper Activity Rate can be attained with any Activity Rate
Response slope.
■
When the activity level stabilizes, the sensor-indicated rate
will stabilize.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Rate Response Therapy Options
11-7
Determining the Steady-State Pacing Rate
For any Activity Rate Response slope, the steady-state rate corresponding
to a given level of activity depends on Lower Rate (LR) and Upper Activity
Rate (UAR). The examples that follow show the Activity Rate Response
slopes for two sets of rate limits, first for an elderly patient and second for a
pediatric patient. For a given Activity Rate Response slope (for example,
slope 7), both patients achieve their Upper Activity Rates for the same level
of sustained sensor-detected activity, but the rates are quite different. Thus,
the clinician can use the programmed rate limits and Activity Rate
Response to match the rate prescription to the patient’s needs. Refer to
“Determining Rate Response Parameters Settings” in Chapter 7 for rate
response testing during exercise.
Pacing Rate (ppm)
180
170
160
150
140
130
UAR 120
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
110
100
90
80
70
LR
60
Increasing Activity
180
UAR 170
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
160
Pacing Rate (ppm)
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
LR
80
70
60
Increasing Activity
Activity Rate Response Settings
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11-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Acceleration and Deceleration Times
Overview
Programmable Acceleration and Deceleration times control how rapidly the
pacing rate changes in response to increased or decreased physical activity.
Acceleration Operation
Acceleration time is the time required to achieve approximately 90% of the
difference between the current rate and a higher steady-state rate consistent
with the current level of activity.
The illustration below shows a graphic representation of the Acceleration
curves at the onset of strenuous exercise.
Upper
Activity
Rate
Rate Range
Acceleration
Programmable Settings
0.25 Minutes
0.5 Minutes
1.0 Minutes
Lower
Rate
0
1
2
3
4
5
Time (Minutes)
Acceleration Curves
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Rate Response Therapy Options
11-9
Deceleration Operation
Deceleration time is the time required to achieve approximately 90% of the
difference between the current rate and a lower steady-state rate consistent
with the current level of activity.
The illustration below shows a graphic representation of the Deceleration
curves at an abrupt cessation of strenuous exercise.
Upper
Activity
Rate
Rate Range
Deceleration
Programmable Parameters
2.5 Minutes
5 Minutes
10 Minutes
Lower
Rate
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Time (Minutes)
Deceleration Curves
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CHAPTER 12
Pacemaker Timing
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the programmable and nonprogrammable timing
intervals that govern the operation of Prodigy pacemakers. Topics
discussed include the following:
■
Rates (see page 12-2)
- Single Chamber Atrial
- A-A Timing
Blanking
■
- Lower Rate
Refractory Periods
- Sensor-indicated Rate
(see page 12-16)
- Post-Ventricular Atrial
- Upper Tracking Rate
Refractory Period (PVARP)
- Upper Activity Rate
Total Atrial Refractory
- Rate Limit
Period (TARP)
- Environmental Vibration
- Ventricular Refractory
- Atrial Competition
Period (VRP)
- Mean Atrial Rate
Atrial Refractory Period
■
AV Intervals (see page 12-8)
(single chamber)
- Paced AV (PAV) Interval
Noise Reversion
- Sensed AV (SAV) Interval
■
High Rate Atrial Tracking
- Rate Adaptive AV (RAAV)
(see page 12-23)
■
Blanking Periods
- 2:1 Block
(see page 12-14)
- Pacemaker Wenckebach
- Nonprogrammable Blanking
- High Rate Operation in the
- Post-Ventricular Atrial
DDDR Mode
Blanking
- Post-Atrial Ventricular
Blanking
12-1
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12-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Rates
Overview
The following programmable rates control timing in Prodigy pacemakers:
■
Normal operating rates:
- Lower Rate
- Upper Tracking Rate
- Upper Activity Rate
■
Other operating rates:
- Hysteresis Rate (single chamber demand modes)
Additionally, rates calculated by the pacemaker are used for some
operations. These are:
■
sensor-indicated rate
■
mean atrial rate
The other operating rates are described in Chapter 14, along with the
functions that use them. The normal rates are described in this chapter.
A-A Timing
In all modes that pace the atrium, Prodigy pacemakers time from atrial
event to atrial event when possible (A-A timing). This timing method
mimics a natural sinus rhythm, producing A-A intervals that are nearly
equal, except when timing is interrupted by:
■
PACs in the DDIR and DDI modes,
■
PVCs in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, and DDI modes, or
■
Ventricular sensed events during the VA interval in the DVIR and DVI
modes.
VA intervals vary due to adjustments by A-A timing operations designed to
achieve sensor-indicated or lower rate operation in the presence of varying
AV conduction.
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12-3
Lower Rate
The programmed Lower Rate defines the slowest rate at which pacing
occurs during a mode’s basic operation. In rate responsive modes, in the
absence of sensor-detected activity, the sensor-indicated rate is equal to the
programmed Lower Rate.
Lower Rate Interval
DDD
A
Lower Rate Interval
P
S
P
P
V
P
S
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
PAV Interval = 200 ms
SAV Interval = 180 ms
S
P
PVARP = 300 ms
200 ms
Ventricular Refractory Period = 240 ms
Example of Lower Rate Operation
Operating Lower Rate
Under certain circumstances, the programmed Lower Rate may be
overridden by an operating lower rate that is higher or lower than the
programmed value. The following rates may become the operating lower
rate:
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■
programmed Hysteresis rate (for single chamber demand modes,
Chapter 14)
■
Threshold Margin Test rate of 100 ppm, (Chapter 13)
■
Magnet Mode rate of 85 ppm, (Chapter 16)
■
Elective Replacement Indicator rate of 65 ppm, (Chapter 16)
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12-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Selecting a Lower Rate
Program the lower rate to maintain adequate heart rates during periods of
inactivity or during pauses in atrial rhythms in the DDDR, DDD, VDD,
AAIR, and AAI modes.
NOTE: In the VDD mode, atrial tracking near the lower rate may result in
V-V intervals that exceed the lower rate interval. This is normal operation.
Lower Rates from 120 to 130 ppm are intended for pediatric patients.
Lower Rates below 50 ppm and above 100 ppm are primarily intended for
diagnostic purposes.
Sensor-indicated Rate
The sensor-indicated rate is the basic pacing rate in all rate responsive
modes (DDDR, DDIR, DVIR, DOOR, VVIR, VOOR, AAIR, and AOOR).
It is determined by the pacemaker based on the sensor-detected level of
patient activity and programmed rate response parameters. The sensorindicated rate will not be greater than the Upper Activity Rate or less than
the Lower Rate.
Sensor-indicated
Interval
DDDR
A
Sensor-indicated
Interval
Act
P
Act
P
Act
P
S
V
P
S
S
Parameters:
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
PAV Interval = 200 ms
SAV Interval = 190 ms
P
200 ms
PVARP = 300 ms
Ventricular Refractory Period = 220 ms
Example of Sensor-indicated Rate Operation
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Pacemaker Timing
12-5
In rate responsive modes, the sensor-indicated rate tracks the activity signal
detected by the piezoelectric crystal sensor's frequency and amplitude.
■
In dual chamber rate responsive modes, the sensor-indicated interval is
the AS-AP or AP-AP interval.
■
In single chamber rate responsive modes, the sensor-indicated interval
is the A-A or V-V interval. In these modes, sensor-indicated rate
intervals start with a sensed or paced event in the chamber being
paced.
NOTE: The sensor-indicated rate is used to determine the value of the Rate
Adaptive paced AV interval (PAV).
Upper Tracking Rate
The programmable Upper Tracking Rate is the maximum rate at which the
ventricle may be paced in response to sensed atrial events in the DDDR,
DDD, and VDD modes. Sensed atrial events below the Upper Tracking
Rate will be tracked at a 1:1 ratio, but sensed events above the Upper
Tracking Rate will result in pacemaker Wenckebach (for example, 6:5, 4:3,
or 3:2) or 2:1 block. The Upper Tracking Rate usually should be
programmed to a value less than the 2:1 block rate. Refer to “High Rate
Atrial Tracking” later in this chapter for details.
Upper Tracking Rate
Parameters:
Sensor-indicated Rate =
75 ppm (800 ms)
Upper Tracking Rate =
100 ppm (600 ms)
SAV Interval = 200 ms
S
S
DDD
A
V
P
P
200 ms
Example of Upper Tracking Rate (Wenckebach) Operation
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12-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Upper Activity Rate
In rate responsive modes, the programmable Upper Activity Rate provides
the upper limit for the sensor-indicated rate during physical activity,
particularly during vigorous exercise. In the DDDR mode, the Upper
Activity Rate may be higher than, lower than, or the same as the Upper
Tracking Rate.
Programming Considerations for
Upper Rates
Programming a combination of high Upper Activity Rate and Upper
Tracking Rate and a long refractory period may result in a shorter “sensing
window.” Loss of sensing in such cases could result in competitive pacing
(unless Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing is programmed ON). See
“Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing” in Chapter 14.
Programming the Upper Tracking Rate to a value greater than the Upper
Activity Rate has the effect of allowing the atrial rhythm to be tracked to a
rate higher than the sensor-driven rate.
Rate Limit
An internal circuit, independent of the pacing timers, limits single chamber
atrial or ventricular pacing rates to 200 ppm for most single component
failures. For dual chamber modes, atrial and ventricular rates are limited
independently to 200 ppm. The rate limit is automatically disabled during
temporary pacing in the AAI, AAT, AOO, VVI, VVT, and VOO modes to
allow high rate pacing for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Limiting Response to Environmental
Vibration
In a rate responsive mode, the Prodigy pacemaker may respond to strong
environmental vibrations (such as from heavy machinery, extreme acoustic
sources, prolonged device palpation, exercise equipment, and so forth) by
pacing at elevated rates. (Such rates will always be limited by the
programmed Upper Activity Rate.) To eliminate this response, move the
patient away from the vibration source. If this is not possible, reprogram
the Upper Activity Rate setting to a value that is appropriate to the patient’s
condition and/or adjust the Activity Threshold to a less sensitive setting.
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12-7
Possible Atrial Competition at High Rates
At high sensor-driven rates in the DDDR and DDIR modes, sensor-driven
pacing may approximate the intrinsic atrial rate, with some intrinsic atrial
events falling into the PVARP. This could result in asynchronous pacing
with the potential for competitive atrial pacing. The potential for
asynchronous pacing at high rates should be considered before selecting an
Upper Activity Rate, especially for patients known to be susceptible to
induction of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The clinician may wish to weigh the
benefits of high rate sensor-driven pacing against the potential for
competitive pacing.
NOTE: Use of the Rate Adaptive AV feature and Non-Competitive Atrial
Pacing (DDDR mode only) can reduce the likelihood of the type of
asynchronous pacing described above.
Mean Atrial Rate
The mean atrial rate (MAR) is a running average of the atrial rate that is
continuously calculated by the pacemaker for use by the Mode Switch and
Rate Adaptive AV features. The average uses all A-A intervals except
those beginning with an atrial sense or atrial refractory sense and ending
with an atrial pace. The illustration below shows how the MAR tracks the
actual intrinsic atrial rate.
Atrial Rate Increasing by 2 bpm/beat
200
Rate (bpm)
180
160
140
120
MAR
Intrinsic Rate
100
80
60
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Time (Seconds)
Mean Atrial Rate
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12-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
AV Intervals
Overview
In dual chamber modes, the AV intervals determine the time between the
occurrence of an atrial event and the scheduled delivery of a ventricular
stimulus. Separate AV intervals for paced and sensed atrial events are
available. The lengths of these intervals may be programmed to fixed
values or (optionally) rate adaptive.
■
Paced AV Interval (PAV). PAV follows an atrial pace in the DDDR,
DDD, DDIR, DDI, DVIR, DVI, DOOR, and DOO modes. The PAV
interval duration may differ from the programmed value due to:
- Rate Adaptive AV operation,
- Ventricular Safety Pacing, or
- Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing operation.
PAV
Interval
P
PAV
PAV
Interval
P
PAV
DDD
A
V
P
P
Example of PAV Interval Operation
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Pacemaker Timing
■
12-9
Sensed AV Interval (SAV). SAV follows an atrial sensed event in atrial
synchronous pacing modes (DDDR, DDD, and VDD). The SAV
interval duration may differ from the programmed value due to:
- Rate Adaptive AV operation or
- Wenckebach operation, where the SAV is extended to avoid
violation of the Upper Tracking Rate or the total atrial refractory
period while tracking a fast intrinsic atrial rate (refer to “High Rate
Atrial Tracking” later in this chapter).
SAV Interval
SAV Interval
SAV
S
SAV
S
DDD
A
V
P
P
Example of SAV Interval Operation
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Selecting PAV and SAV
When programming AV intervals, the general hemodynamic goal is to
assure that, to the extent possible, left-atrial systole is completed before
left-ventricular systole begins. To achieve this, the AV interval durations
may be adjusted independently of each other.
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■
To accommodate the difference in interatrial conduction times, the
SAV usually should be programmed to a shorter duration than the
PAV, typically 30 to 50 ms shorter. (If an SAV greater than the PAV is
selected, the programmer displays a message noting that this is not
usual, but the selected values may be programmed if clinically
warranted.)
■
When the SAV is longer than the PAV, a V-pace following an atrial
sense will always occur after the full SAV, even when the sensorindicated rate or Lower Rate interval expires first.
■
In certain patients, short AV intervals may be used as a prophylaxis for
AV nodal or accessory pathway reentrant tachycardias in dual chamber
modes.
■
AV intervals should be programmed to allow for normal AV
conduction and ventricular depolarization in sick sinus patients.
■
Long PAV intervals (≥ 250 ms) should be used with caution. If
intrinsic ventricular events occur and are not sensed, a long PAV may
result in pacing into the ventricle’s relative refractory period, including
the T-wave, or loss of AV synchrony which may precipitate retrograde
activation of the atria with corresponding hemodynamic consequences
and symptoms.
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Overview of Rate Adaptive AV Operation
In the normal heart, AV conduction times tend to shorten as the heart rate
increases and lengthen as the heart rate decreases. The Rate Adaptive AV
(RAAV) feature, available in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DVIR, DOOR, and
VDD modes, mimics this physiologic response. When RAAV is
programmed ON, the pacemaker shortens AV intervals at higher atrial
rates. This feature provides increased opportunity for atrial sensing, as
follows:
■
Shortened SAV intervals increase the tracking range at fast atrial rates
by shortening the total atrial refractory period (TARP) and increasing
the 2:1 block rate (refer to “Total Atrial Refractory Period” and “High
Rate Atrial Tracking” later in this chapter).
■
Shortened PAV intervals lengthen the atrial sensing window of the VA
interval at higher sensor-driven rates.
RAAV Operations
For RAAV operation, the SAV and PAV are programmed (as applicable) to
the values desired for low rates. At higher rates, RAAV shortens AV
intervals as follows:
■
RAAV operation starts at 60 ppm and ends at 120 ppm.
■
As the rate increases above 60 ppm, the SAV and PAV intervals are
gradually shortened to the minimum values of 80 ms and 110 ms
(respectively) at 120 ppm. The minimum values also apply at all
higher rates above 120 ppm.
Adjustment of the SAV is pertinent to the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes,
while PAV adjustment pertains to the DDDR, DDIR, DVIR, and DOOR
modes. The adjustment of AV interval(s) occurs as follows:
■
The mean atrial rate is used to determine SAV adjustments. Therefore,
the SAV is not adjusted for isolated events (PACs), and SAV
adjustment will lag during rapid increases or decreases in intrinsic
atrial rate.
■
The sensor-indicated rate is used to determine PAV adjustments.
Atrial refractory sensed events may affect the Rate Adaptive SAV because
they are included in the mean atrial rate if the next atrial event is not paced.
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12-12
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
The graph below shows conceptually how the SAV or PAV is adjusted at
higher rates when RAAV is programmed ON.
240
220
200
Programmed PAV
180
Programmed SAV
160
Ra
te
Ad
ap
Ad
ap
140
AV Interval (ms)
te
Ra
tiv
tiv
eS
AV
120
eP
AV
Minimum PAV
100
Minimum SAV
80
60
40
20
0
60
120
Start Rate
180
Stop Rate
Rate (ppm)
Parameters:
Programmed PAV = 200 ms
Programmed SAV = 170 ms
Rate Adaptive AV Operation (DDDR Mode)
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12-13
RAAV Operation in the DDDR and DDD
Modes
The DDDR and DDD modes use both the PAV and SAV intervals:
■
DDDR Mode. Both the SAV and PAV may be adjusted.
■
DDD Mode. The PAV is not adjusted in the DDD mode because atrial
pacing occurs only at the programmed Lower Rate. SAV may be
adjusted.
Application for RAAV
RAAV is primarily intended for AV block patients. Consideration should
be given when using RAAV with sick sinus syndrome since it may promote
unnecessary ventricular pacing.
Using RAAV with Mode Switch
When Mode Switch is programmed ON, RAAV is activated to operate as
follows:
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■
RAAV operation starts at 60 ppm and ends at 150 ppm.
■
The minimum SAV is set to 30 ms. The minimum PAV is set from 30
to 100 ms (DDDR and DDD modes).
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12-14
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Blanking Periods
Blanking periods disable sensing for a programmable or nonprogrammable
interval. Signals that are blanked may originate in either chamber or from
outside sources such as noise from muscle movement.
Note: Black bars indicate blanking
1. Non-programmable Atrial Blanking
P
1
2
DDD
A
V
3
P
4
P
2. Programmable Post-Ventricular
Atrial Blanking
3. Programmable Post-Atrial
Ventricular Blanking
4. Non-programmable Ventricular
Blanking
Example of Dual Chamber Blanking Operation
Nonprogrammable Blanking Periods
Immediately following a sensed or paced event in either chamber, sensing
for that chamber is blanked for a nonprogrammable period that may vary
from 50 to 100 ms. The actual duration of the blanking period is
determined dynamically by the pacemaker, based on the strength and
duration of the signal. Dynamic blanking prevents sensing the same signal
twice while minimizing total blanking time.
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12-15
Post-Ventricular Atrial Blanking
The programmable Post-Ventricular Atrial Blanking (PVAB) period, used
in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DDI, and VDD modes, prevents sensing of
ventricular paced events or far-field R-waves on the atrial lead. Any
ventricular event (paced or sensed) starts the PVAB, which is also the first
portion of the Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory period (PVARP). PVAB
is limited to values equal to or less than the programmed PVARP.
Post-Atrial Ventricular Blanking
The programmable Post-Atrial Ventricular Blanking (PAVB) period, which
follows an atrial pacing stimulus in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DDI, DVIR,
and DVI modes, prevents ventricular inhibition or ventricular safety pacing
due to sensing of the atrial stimulus on the ventricular lead (crosstalk).
■
Long blanking periods (36 ms or greater) increase the possibility of
unsensed ventricular events.
■
Long blanking periods used in conjunction with long PAV intervals
(250 ms or greater) may result in pacing into the T-wave when intrinsic
ventricular events are blanked and not sensed. PAV values (200 ms or
less) should reduce the possibility of T-wave pacing.
Single Chamber Atrial Blanking
The programmable single chamber atrial blanking period, used in the
AAIR, AAI, and AAT mode, prevents sensing of far-field R-waves. It is
started by a paced, sensed, or refractory sensed atrial event.
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Refractory Periods
Overview
A refractory period is an interval during which an intrinsic event sensed on
a particular lead channel cannot start certain timing intervals. Each
refractory period begins with a blanking period, during which no sensing
occurs. During the unblanked portion of a refractory period, sensing occurs,
but sensed events may not directly affect timing operations. Refractory
periods are intended to prevent certain timing intervals from being started
by inappropriate signals such as retrograde P-waves, far-field R-waves, or
electrical noise.
Though they may not start timing intervals, refractory sensed events are
monitored by the pacemaker, and they affect the operation of Mode Switch,
Rate Adaptive AV operation, Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing (NCAP), and
pacemaker-defined PVC for which the periodicity or number of sensed
events are pertinent. Refractory sensed events are included on Marker
Channel recordings and Marker Channel Diagrams.
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Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory Period
The Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory Period (PVARP) follows a paced,
sensed, or refractory sensed ventricular event in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR,
DDI, and VDD modes. It is intended primarily to prevent the sensing of
retrograde P-waves that might promote Pacemaker-Mediated Tachycardias
(PMTs) in atrial tracking modes. In the DDIR and DDI modes, PVARP
prevents atrial inhibition from retrograde P-waves.
The first portion of the PVARP is the programmable Post-Ventricular
Atrial Blanking period (PVAB). During the remainder of the PVARP,
intrinsic atrial events may be sensed as refractory sensed events (AR) and
identified on Marker Channel recordings and Marker Channel Diagrams,
but they do not affect stimulus timing. That is:
■
In the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes, a SAV is not started.
■
In the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, and DDI modes, the scheduled atrial pace
is not inhibited.
PVARP
P
P
DDD
A
V
P
Example of PVARP Operation
The duration of the PVARP may be selected as follows:
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■
The PVARP should be programmed to a value greater than the
patient’s retrograde (VA) time when retrograde conduction is present.
■
Excessively long PVARPs may induce 2:1 block at high intrinsic rates
in atrial tracking modes (DDDR, DDD, and VDD).
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Automatic PVARP Extension After a PVC
The programmed PVARP duration may be overridden when a pacemakerdefined premature ventricular contraction (PVC) occurs. A pacemakerdefined PVC starts an extended PVARP to 400 ms if the programmed
PVARP is less than 400 ms. This extended PVARP causes retrograde Pwaves within 400 ms to be identified as refractory sensed events.
■
In dual chamber modes, except VDD, a pacemaker-defined PVC is any
ventricular sensed event (refractory or nonrefractory) that follows a
ventricular event (pace, refractory or nonrefractory sense) without an
intervening atrial event (pace, refractory or nonrefractory sense).
■
In the VDD mode, a ventricular paced event delivered at the Lower
Rate and not preceded by an atrial sensed event is also considered a
PVC.
In the DDDR mode, a pacemaker-defined PVC always enables NonCompetitive Atrial Pacing (NCAP) for one cycle when NCAP is
programmed OFF. This occurs when the PVARP extension occurs. If Mode
Switch is programmed ON, pacemaker-defined PVCs are not detected
when the pacemaker switches to a non-atrial tracking mode. Detection
resumes upon return to an atrial tracking mode.
NOTE: The pacemaker automatically counts PVCs and runs of two or
more consecutive PVCs. Both counts are included in the Event Summary
report described in Chapter 17.
Automatic PVARP Extension After a PMT
The programmed PVARP duration may be overridden by the PMT
Intervention feature. When PMT Intervention is programmed ON and a
pacemaker-defined PMT is detected, the PVARP is forced to 400 ms after
the ninth paced ventricular event of the PMT.
Refer to Chapter 14 for further details on PMT Intervention and its
interactions with PVARP.
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Total Atrial Refractory Period (TARP)
In dual chamber modes that sense in the atrium, the Total Atrial Refractory
Period (TARP) is the sum of two intervals, as follows:
■
AV Interval. The AV interval begins with an atrial event and ends with
a ventricular event. The first portion is a nonprogrammable blanking
period. Its complete duration is determined as follows:
- In the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes, the PAV or SAV interval is
the AV interval.
- In the DDIR and DDI modes, the AV interval starts with the first
atrial sensed event in the VA interval or with an atrial pacing
stimulus; it ends when the PAV expires, even when ventricular
pacing is inhibited.
■
Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory Period (PVARP). The PVARP is
described above.
TARP
TARP
SAV + PVARP
SAV
PVARP
SAV
PVARP
Total Atrial Refractory Period
During atrial tracking, TARP = SAV + PVARP, and its duration
determines the rate at which 2:1 block occurs (refer to “High Rate Atrial
Tracking” later in this chapter).
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12-20
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Ventricular Refractory Period (VRP)
The programmable Ventricular Refractory Period (VRP) follows paced,
sensed, and refractory sensed ventricular events (including PVCs) in all
modes that sense in the ventricle. The VRP is intended to prevent sensing
of the T-wave or a PVC. The first portion of the VRP is a
nonprogrammable blanking period. A ventricular refractory sensed event
affects pacemaker timing as follows:
■
Ventricular blanking and refractory periods restart in all modes.
■
In the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes, the Upper Tracking Rate
interval, PVARP, and PVAB also restart.
■
In the VVIR mode, the Upper Activity Rate interval restarts.
NOTE: In dual chamber modes, the VRP should be programmed shorter
than the PVARP.
P
P
DDD
A
V
P
VRP
Example of Ventricular Refractory Period Operation
In dual chamber modes, a ventricular refractory sensed event does not
affect a scheduled sensor-driven or Lower Rate atrial output. Thus, a
sensor-driven atrial output pulse will initiate a PAV with a ventricular
output pulse following, unless inhibited.
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Pacemaker Timing
12-21
Atrial Refractory Period (Single Chamber)
The programmable Atrial Refractory Period (ARP) follows paced, sensed,
and refractory sensed atrial events. The ARP is used in the AAIR, AAI, and
AAT modes, is intended to prevent inhibition due to far-field R-wave
sensing. The first portion of the ARP is a programmable blanking period.
The ARP should be programmed to a value long enough (150 ms or
greater) to prevent far-field R-wave sensing but short enough to ensure
atrial sensing up to the programmed Upper Activity Rate.
Noise Reversion
When sensing occurs during the Atrial Refractory Period (ARP) or
Ventricular Refractory Period (VRP), the refractory period (and its
blanking period) are restarted. The operation associated with continuous
refractory sensing in the ARP or VRP is called noise reversion. Multiple
restarts of the ARP or VRP (continuous noise reversion) do not inhibit
scheduled pacing. Pacemaker behavior during continuous noise reversion is
as follows:
■
Pacing occurs at the sensor-indicated rate for all rate responsive modes
(except VVIR).
Sensor-indicated Interval
Act.
P
Act.
P
Act.
P
DDDR
A
V
P
R
R
R
P
P
200 ms
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
PAV Interval = 200 ms
PVARP = 300 ms
Upper Activity Rate = 120 ppm (500 ms)
Ventricular Refractory Period = 240 ms
PVAB = 200 ms
Example of noise reversion in the DDDR mode pacing at the
sensor-indicated rate.
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12-22
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
■
Pacing occurs at the Lower Rate for all nonrate responsive modes and
VVIR.
Lower Rate
VVIR
V
Act.
P
R
R
R
R
P
Act.
P
200 ms
Parameters:
Lower Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
Ventricular Refractory Period = 240 ms
Upper Activity Rate = 120 ppm (500 ms)
Example of noise reversion in the VVIR mode pacing at the Lower Rate.
On the ECG, noise reversion may be difficult to distinguish from loss of
sensing, but Marker Channel recordings will show refractory sense markers
when noise reversion occurs.
NOTE: Atrial sensing during the PVARP, or refractory period following
an atrial paced or sensed event in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DDI, or VDD
modes does not restart the refractory period. An atrial refractory sensed
event however, will start a short blanking period of 50 to 100 ms depending
on the signal strength and duration of the atrial event.
Preventing Noise Sensing
Noise reversion may be caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI),
myopotentials, excessively high output settings, or low sensitivity settings.
When it has been identified, noise reversion usually can be reduced or
eliminated by one of the following actions:
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■
Reprogram the Sensitivity to a less sensitive (higher numerical value)
setting.
■
Reprogram sensing to bipolar polarity (if available).
■
Reduce the amplitude and/or pulse width in the same or opposite
chamber.
■
Remove patient from EMI environment.
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Pacemaker Timing
12-23
High Rate Atrial Tracking
Overview
In the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes, the fastest atrial rate the pacemaker
can track is determined by the Total Atrial Refractory Period (TARP),
which is the sum of the SAV and the PVARP. Pacemaker behavior at high
atrial rates in these modes is determined by the relationship between the
TARP and the interval corresponding to the Upper Tracking Rate (UTR
interval). In the DDDR mode, the interval corresponding to the Upper
Activity Rate (UAR interval) also must be considered.
2:1 Block
When the intrinsic atrial interval is shorter than the TARP, some atrial
events will fall in the PVARP and not be tracked. At the rate where this
first occurs, ventricular tracking occurs only on alternate beats, and 2:1
block ensues. In the DDD and VDD modes, the ventricular pacing rate
drops precipitously.
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■
When Rate Adaptive AV operation is selected, the SAV shortens at
high atrial rates, shortening the TARP and raising the 2:1 block rate.
■
When the 2:1 block rate is less than the Upper Tracking Rate, the
Upper Tracking Rate cannot be achieved.
■
In the DDDR mode, pacing at the sensor-indicated rate may prevent a
precipitous rate drop at the 2:1 block point when activity is present.
■
For patients with a documented propensity for prolonged or sustained
atrial fibrillation or flutter, the clinician may wish to select Upper
Tracking Rate, SAV, and PVARP values that induce 2:1 block at a
desired rate (2:1 block rate = 60,000/TARP). Alternatives for
controlling rates in these patients include use of the Mode Switch
feature and DDIR mode pacing.
■
In the DDDR mode, atrial competition may occur if Upper Activity
Rate exceeds the 2:1 block rate.
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12-24
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Pacemaker Wenckebach
When the 2:1 block rate exceeds the programmed Upper Tracking Rate,
pacemaker Wenckebach may occur. When the intrinsic rate exceeds the
Upper Tracking Rate, a pacing stimulus at the expiration of the SAV would
violate the Upper Tracking Rate. The pacemaker therefore extends the
SAV until the Upper Tracking Rate interval expires. Subsequent SAVs
require greater extension, until an atrial event falls in the PVARP and is not
tracked.
■
In the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes, the result normally is a fixed
ratio between atrial and ventricular rates (3:2, 4:3, and so forth).
■
In the DDDR mode, the pacemaker Wenckebach rate may be
smoothed by sensor-driven ventricular pacing, thereby overriding the
fixed ratio.
The following example shows how pacemaker Wenckebach operation
occurs in the DDDR, DDD, or VDD modes.
Upper Tracking
Rate Interval
Upper Tracking
Rate Interval
Upper Tracking
Rate Interval
SAV
Interval
S
S
S
S
R
Act
P
DDDR
A
V
P
P
Parameters:
Sensor-indicated Rate = 90 ppm (667 ms)
PAV Interval = 230 ms
SAV Interval = 200 ms
P
P
PVARP = 300 ms
Upper Tracking Rate = 100 ppm (600 ms)
P
200 ms
Example of Pacemaker Wenckebach Operation
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Pacemaker Timing
12-25
High Rate Operation in the DDDR Mode
The table that follows summarizes how the Total Atrial Refractory Period
(TARP), the Upper Tracking Rate (UTR) interval, and the Upper Activity
Rate (UAR) interval may interact at high atrial rates in the DDDR mode.
Relationship Between
TARP and Upper
Rate Intervals
Wenckebach
Before 2:1
Block
Achieve Upper
Tracking
Rate
Potential
Atrial
Competition
TARP > both UAR
and UTR intervals
no
no
yes*
UAR interval > TARP
> UTR interval
no
no
no
UAR interval > UTR
interval > TARP
yes
yes
no
UTR interval > both
UAR interval and TARP
yes
yes
yes*
* Unless the Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing is programmed ON (see “Non-Competitive Atrial
Pacing” in Chapter 14).
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
CHAPTER 13
Lead/Cardiac
Tissue Interface
About This Chapter
This chapter discusses programming and follow-up topics relating to the
lead/cardiac tissue interface. Key sections are as follows:
■
Selecting Pacing Parameters
(see page 13-2)
-
■
Selecting Pacing Polarity
Bipolar Pacing Polarity
Confirmation
Determining/Verifying
Stimulation Thresholds
Selecting Output Parameters
Selecting Sensing Parameters
(see page 13-5)
-
Selecting Sensing Polarity
Bipolar Sensing Polarity
Confirmation
Determining/Verifying
Sensing Thresholds
■
Selecting Sensitivity
Monitoring Lead Stability
(see page 13-8)
-
■
How the Monitor Works
How the Polarity Switch
Works
- Recording a Lead Trend
Transtelephonic Capture
Verification with TMT
(see page 13-11)
-
Dual/Single Chamber
Threshold Margin Test
Enhanced Transtelephonic
Monitoring
13-1
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13-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Selecting Pacing Parameters
Overview
Pacing output settings should be adequate to guarantee reliable capture, but
not so high as to inappropriately deplete the pacemaker battery. Whether
selecting pacing outputs at implant or follow-up, the same considerations
apply:
■
Select Pacing Polarity for lead(s)
■
Determine stimulation threshold(s)
■
Select appropriate outputs (Pulse Width and Amplitude)
Selecting Pacing Polarity
Pacing Polarity is programmable for bipolar Prodigy models when used
with bipolar leads. For dual chamber models other than Prodigy VDD,
atrial and ventricular lead polarities are individually programmable for each
chamber.
■
Unipolar Pacing Polarity. The lead tip is the active electrode and the
noninsulated side of the pacemaker case is the common electrode.
Unipolar pacing produces large pacing artifacts that aid in ECG
interpretation. It is more likely to cause muscle stimulation, especially
at high pacing amplitudes.
■
Bipolar Pacing Polarity. The lead tip is the active electrode and the
lead ring is the common electrode. Bipolar pacing is less likely to
produce muscle stimulation, but it produces smaller pacing artifacts on
the ECG.
WARNING: No pacing output results when a unipolar lead is connected to
the pacemaker and Pacing Polarity is programmed to bipolar.
Bipolar Pacing Polarity Confirmation
Before programming from unipolar to bipolar pacing, the programmer
verifies the presence of a functioning bipolar lead by testing lead
impedance for each lead at an Amplitude of 5.0 V and a Pulse Width of
1.0 ms if the permanent settings are at or below this level. If permanent
settings are above these values, the measurement will be made at the
permanent settings. If lead impedance is between 200 Ω and 3000 Ω, a
functional bipolar lead is assumed to be present. If the impedance is outside
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Lead/Cardiac Tissue Interface
13-3
this range, a functional bipolar lead is not present; the programmer warns
that the test failed, and Pacing Polarity remains set to unipolar. This
interlock feature may be overridden to force lead Pacing Polarity to bipolar.
WARNING: Do not override for an implanted lead. The override feature is
intended only as a means to program the pacemaker for bipolar polarity
prior to implant before lead connection.
Determining Stimulation Threshold(s) at
Implant
At implant, a Medtronic Pacing System Analyzer (PSA) may be used to
determine threshold values for capture. Refer to the PSA manual for
detailed instructions.
Verifying Stimulation Threshold(s) at
Follow-up
Medtronic programmers provide both automatic and manual threshold tests
for determining the patient’s stimulation threshold at follow-up.
Stimulation threshold resolution is determined by the available increments
of amplitude and pulse width. Included with the automatic threshold test on
the programmer is a strength-duration graph that shows voltage safety
margins.
For a detailed description of the threshold tests and test procedures, refer to
“Measuring Stimulation Thresholds” in Chapter 7.
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13-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Selecting Output Parameters
Generally, a pacing voltage twice the chronic stimulation threshold voltage
for a given Pulse Width provides an adequate safety margin. For most
patients, pacing outputs are the major contributor to battery depletion. To
maximize battery longevity, select the lowest amplitudes and pulse widths
that provide at least a 2:1 voltage safety margin. When amplitudes greater
than 2.5 V are required during the maturation phase of the lead(s),
threshold(s) and output setting(s) should be carefully re-evaluated at the
first follow-up.
NOTES
Amplitudes of 5.0 V and 7.5 V substantially reduce expected battery
longevity. These amplitudes should be limited to short term uses such as
“Emergency” settings and electrophysiologic studies or long term uses for
specific indications such as exit block.
High output pacing at 7.5 V may affect ECG or electrogram (EGM)
waveform quality and potentially cause crosstalk or self-inhibition (see
“General Warnings and Precautions,” Section F in Part III).
“Longevity Projections,” Section C in Part III, shows longevity for all
Prodigy models under various pacing scenarios.
For Further Information
Refer to the “Modes and Parameters,” Section E in Part III, for Amplitude
and Pulse Width parameter settings.
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13-5
Selecting Sensing Parameters
Overview
Sensitivity determines the minimum intracardiac signal that the pacemaker
can detect when intrinsic atrial or ventricular events occur. Whether
selecting sensing parameters at implant or verifying sensing at follow-up,
the same considerations apply:
■
Select Sensing Polarity for lead(s)
■
Determine sensing threshold(s)
■
Select appropriate Sensitivity settings
Selecting Sensing Polarity
All bipolar Prodigy models connected to bipolar leads, Sensing Polarities
for the atrial and/or ventricular channels are independently programmable
to either bipolar or unipolar. (In the Prodigy VDD device, atrial sensing is
bipolar only.)
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■
Unipolar Sensing Polarity. The lead tip and the noninsulated side(s) of
the pacemaker are the sensing electrodes. Unipolar sensing may allow
sensing of smaller intrinsic signals than does bipolar sensing, and it
may be selected when intrinsic cardiac signals are difficult to detect
with bipolar sensing. Oversensing due to myopotentials is more
common with unipolar sensing than with bipolar sensing.
■
Bipolar Sensing Polarity. The lead tip and the lead ring electrode are
the poles of the sensing circuit. Because bipolar sensing is more
localized, it reduces the likelihood of sensing myopotentials and
electromagnetic interference. It may also permit Sensitivity to be
programmed to a more sensitive setting.
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13-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Bipolar Sensing Polarity Confirmation
Before programming from unipolar to bipolar sensing, the programmer
verifies the presence of a functioning bipolar lead by testing impedance for
each lead at an Amplitude of 5.0 V and a Pulse Width of 1.0 ms if the
permanent settings are at or below this level. If permanent settings are
above these values, the measurement will be made at the permanent
settings. If lead impedance is between 200 Ω and 3000 Ω, a functional
bipolar lead is assumed to be present. If the impedance is outside this
range, a functional bipolar lead is not present; the programmer warns that
the test failed, and Sensing Polarity remains set to unipolar. This interlock
feature may be overridden and lead Sensing Polarity forced to bipolar.
WARNING: Do not override for an implanted lead. The override feature is
intended only as a means to program the pacemaker for bipolar polarity
before lead connection.
Determining Sensing Threshold(s) at Implant
At implant, a Medtronic Pacing System Analyzer (PSA) may be used to
determine sensing threshold values for all Prodigy models except the
Prodigy VDD model. Refer to the PSA manual for detailed instructions.
(Refer to the CapSure VDD Model 5032 lead technical manual for
information on determining sensitivity.)
Prior to lead connection, measure the sensing potentials in the unipolar and
(when appropriate) the bipolar configurations. When using a bipolar
system, an adequate intracardiac signal should be present in both
configurations to ensure proper sensing in either.
Verifying Sensing Threshold(s) at Follow-up
Intracardiac signal amplitudes decrease during the lead maturation process.
Medtronic programmers provide an automatic sensitivity test that allows
the follow-up clinician to verify a patient’s sensitivity setting(s). The
automatic test provides for atrial or ventricular monitoring. The test
provides the sensitivity setting just above and below the point at which
P or R waves are sensed.
For a detailed description of the test procedures, refer to “Determining a
Setting for Sensitivity” in Chapter 7.
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Lead/Cardiac Tissue Interface
13-7
Selecting Sensitivity Setting(s)
Atrial and ventricular Sensitivity are independently programmable in dual
chamber models. In general, a 2:1 to 3:1 sensitivity safety margin
(threshold sensitivity value divided by 2 or 3) will be adequate for newly
implanted or chronic leads. For example, an atrial Sensitivity of 1.0 mV
should be satisfactory for intrinsic atrial signals between 2.0 mV and
3.0 mV. (With the Prodigy VDD device, 3:1 atrial Sensitivity is
recommended.)
■
Always perform an atrial sensing test to determine the appropriate
atrial Sensitivity setting.
■
Excessively sensitive (low) settings can cause some or all of the
following problems:
- oversensing due to electromagnetic interference (EMI),
myopotentials, T-waves, or crosstalk
- undersensing due to overloading of the sensing circuit
- noise reversion operation (as described in Chapter 12)
■
Atrial Sensitivity with bipolar sensing polarity allows 0.18 mV,
0.25 mV, and 0.35 mV atrial Sensitivity settings. (To prevent
oversensing of muscle noise or electromagnetic interference, unipolar
sensing is limited to values no less than 0.5 mV.)
■
Ventricular Sensitivities 1.0 mV or 1.4 mV with wide atrial pulse
widths or high atrial amplitudes may result in Ventricular Safety
Pacing with some lead systems at high sensor-driven pacing rates.
Reprogramming ventricular Sensitivity to a less sensitive setting
(higher numerical value) is one option under such circumstances. Other
options include programming a longer ventricular blanking interval.
For Further Information
In the PSA manual, refer to sensitivity threshold test procedures. In Chapter
12, refer to “Refractory Periods” for a discussion of noise reversion. Refer
to “Modes and Parameters,” Section E in Part III, for Sensitivity parameter
settings.
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13-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Monitoring Lead Stability
Overview
The Lead Monitor is a programmable ON/OFF feature that periodically
measures the pacing impedance of each lead. It is intended for
troubleshooting when an intermittent lead problem is suspected. The Lead
Monitor also has an optional Polarity Switch feature that can automatically
reprogram polarity from bipolar to unipolar for each lead. It is intended to
support backup unipolar pacing and sensing in the event of a bipolar lead
failure.
The Lead Monitor is available in all pacing modes. It is not recommended
to use Lead Monitor with single chamber triggered modes (VVT and
AAT).
CAUTION: If the Lead Monitor detects out-of-range lead impedance,
investigate lead integrity more thoroughly.
WARNINGS
Programming Lead Monitor with the optional polarity switch is
contraindicated for patients with implantable defibrillators. When an
out-of-range lead is detected, the monitor automatically reprograms the
selected lead(s) to unipolar polarity. Pacing in the unipolar configuration
may either provoke inappropriate therapy or withhold appropriate therapy.
Do not program Lead Monitor ON prior to implanting the device in the
patient. With no lead(s) connected, lead impedance is infinitely high and
determined by the pacemaker to be out-of-range. If the device has been
programmed to switch polarity, the resulting unipolar condition will not
support pacing until the pacemaker is placed in the pocket, thereby
completing the circuit.
NOTE: The Lead Monitor is automatically disabled if the elective
replacement indicator (ERI) is tripped.
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13-9
How the Monitor Works
Impedance for each active lead is measured every three hours. The
measurement requires up to three pacing cycles during which Amplitude
and Pulse Width will change to 5.0 V and 1.0 ms respectively, if the
permanent settings are at or below this level. If permanent settings are
above these values, the measurement will be made at the permanent
settings.
■
Sustained intrinsic activity may prevent measurement(s) from
occurring.
■
If a lead impedance measurement falls outside the range of 200 to
3000 ohms, the Lead Trend diagnostic (described below) is
automatically activated.
How the Polarity Switch Works
The polarity of the selected bipolar lead(s) is automatically reprogrammed
by the pacemaker from bipolar to unipolar if the lead impedance
measurement is outside the range of 200 to 3000 ohms. Programmable
options for Polarity Switching are:
■
atrium and ventricle (the atrial and ventricular polarity will switch to
unipolar)
■
atrium (only the atrial polarity will switch to unipolar)
■
ventricle (only the ventricular polarity will switch to unipolar)
Recording a Lead Trend
The Lead Trend attempts to measure and log the impedance of each active
lead every three hours. Lead impedance data collection is the same as for
the Lead Monitor (described above).
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■
The pacemaker can collect up to 720 days of lead impedance data for
single chamber configurations and 360 days of data for dual chamber
configurations.
■
Lead Trend is automatically activated when the Lead Monitor detects
an out-of-range lead.
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13-10
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
The example below shows how the Lead Trend report is presented on the
programmer. The report can be printed out or displayed on the
programmer.
Example of Lead Trend Diagnostic
Overriding Other Diagnostics
If the Lead Trend is activated because the Lead Monitor detects out-ofrange lead impedance(s), any programmed diagnostic is disabled, and its
data are overwritten by Lead Trend data.
For Further Information
Refer to Chapter 8 “Collecting and Retrieving Diagnostic Data” for
information on configuring the Lead Trend diagnostic and collecting its
data.
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13-11
Transtelephonic Capture Verification with TMT
Overview
During transtelephonic monitoring, the Threshold Margin Test (TMT)
provides a check for loss of capture at 25% reduced pulse width(s). The
TMT may indicate that loss of capture is possible but cannot verify that
safety margin is adequate.
WARNING: Loss of capture during TMT indicates that the stimulation
safety margin is inadequate. Have the patient come to the clinic as soon as
possible for threshold evaluation and reprogramming of outputs for a
2:1 voltage safety margin. Imminent loss of ventricular capture for a
pacemaker-dependent patient may constitute an emergency situation.
Dual Chamber TMT Operation
Applying the magnet over the pacemaker initiates a Threshold Margin Test
(TMT). As illustrated below, the pacemaker delivers three asynchronous
AV sequential pulses at a rate of 100 ppm with a paced AV interval of
100 ms. The first two sequences of pulses are delivered at the programmed
Pulse Widths. The third sequence is delivered at a 25% reduction of the
programmed Pulse Widths.
Magnet Applied
Threshold Margin Test
DDD Operation
Rate = 100 ppm
Parameters:
Mode = DDD
Lower Rate = 60 ppm
PAV= 180 ms
PAV = 100 ms
Pulse Widths
Reduced by 25%
Asynchronous (DOO)
Pacing Rate = 85 ppm
200 ms
Dual Chamber TMT Operation
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13-12
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Single Chamber and VDD Mode TMT
Operation
Applying the magnet over the pacemaker initiates TMT. As illustrated
below for ventricular operation, the pacemaker delivers three asynchronous
pulses at a rate of 100 ppm. The first two pulses are delivered at the
programmed Pulse Width. The third pulse is delivered at a 25% reduction
of the programmed Pulse Width.
Magnet Applied
VVIR Operation
Threshold Margin Test
Rate = 100 ppm
Parameters:
Mode = VVIR
Pacing Rate = 60 ppm
Asynchronous (VOO)
Pacing Rate = 85 ppm
Pulse Width Reduced by 25%
200 ms
Single Chamber and VDD Mode TMT Operation
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13-13
Enhanced Transtelephonic Monitoring
The Transtelephonic Monitor is a programmable ON/OFF feature intended
for use with remote pacemaker monitoring services. Programming the
feature OFF does not effect conventional transtelephonic monitoring.
When the Transtelephonic Monitor is programmed ON, the pacemaker
delays the Threshold Margin Test for five seconds upon magnet application
to enhance communication with transtelephonic equipment. If the Pacing
Polarity is permanently programmed to bipolar, it is temporarily set to
unipolar to provide improved ECG artifact detection for the remote
monitoring equipment. (The programmed Polarity is restored when the
magnet is removed.)
WARNING: Programming Transtelephonic Monitor ON is contraindicated
for patients with implantable defibrillators. When it is programmed ON, the
Pacing Polarity is temporarily set to unipolar when the magnet is applied.
Pacing in the unipolar configuration may either cause the defibrillator to
provoke inappropriate therapy or withhold appropriate therapy.
When Transtelephonic Monitor is programmed OFF, the Threshold Margin
Test is not delayed upon magnet application, and conventional
transtelephonic monitoring can occur.
For Further Information
Refer to “Programming Additional Parameters” in Chapter 6 for
programming instructions regarding Transtelephonic Monitor.
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CHAPTER 14
Special Therapy Options
About This Chapter
This chapter describes Prodigy pacemaker features intended for special
patient therapies. These features may be used for the following purposes:
■
Managing Atrial Rhythms
- Mode Switch (see page 14-2)
- Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing (see page 14-5)
■
■
Managing Ventricular Rhythms
- PMT Intervention (see page 14-7)
- Ventricular Safety Pacing (see page 14-9)
Other Operations
- Single Chamber Hysteresis (see page 14-11)
14-1
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14-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Mode Switch
Overview
Mode Switch is a programmable ON/OFF feature designed to prevent the
tracking of paroxysmal atrial tachycardias in the DDDR, DDD, and VDD
modes. (Mode Switch is not recommended for patients known to have
chronic refractory atrial tachyarrhythmias: atrial tachycardia, atrial
fibrillation, or atrial flutter.) When the pacemaker detects an atrial
tachyarrhythmia, it switches from the programmed atrial tracking mode to a
non-atrial tracking mode until the atrial tachycardia ceases. Mode switching
occurs as follows:
Atrial Tracking Mode
Non-atrial Tracking Mode
DDDR
→
←
DDIR
DDD
→
←
DDIR
VDD
→
←
VVIR
How the Pacemaker Defines Atrial
Tachycardia
For mode switching purposes, the pacemaker defines an atrial tachycardia
based on the mean atrial rate (a running average that the pacemaker
continuously updates) and the programmable Detection Rate (the rate at
which pacemaker-defined tachycardia starts):
■
When the mean atrial rate exceeds the programmed Detection Rate,
atrial tachycardia is in progress.
■
When either the mean atrial rate drops below the programmed Upper
Tracking Rate or five consecutive atrial paces occur, the atrial
tachycardia has ceased.
NOTE: Ventricular tracking is limited by the programmed Upper Tracking
Rate or the total atrial refractory period even when the atrial rate rises to the
programmed Detection Rate.
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Special Therapy Options
14-3
Mode Switch Operation
If the pacemaker detects an atrial tachycardia in the DDDR, DDD, or VDD
mode, it switches to the appropriate non-atrial tracking mode after
approximately 15 seconds. To avoid an abrupt drop in ventricular rate, it
smoothly reduces the pacing rate from the atrial synchronous rate to the
sensor-indicated rate. After the rate transition is completed, the pacemaker
continues sensor-driven pacing in the ventricle, operating in the non-atrial
tracking mode until the atrial tachycardia ceases.
When the pacemaker determines that the atrial tachycardia has ceased, it
begins to switch back to the permanently programmed mode. For the
DDDR and DDD modes, abrupt changes in ventricular rate are avoided by
smoothly varying the pacing rate until the A-A interval corresponds to the
mean atrial rate. At that point, the pacemaker switches to the permanently
programmed atrial tracking mode. For the VDD mode, the pacemaker
immediately switches back to the permanently programmed atrial tracking
mode.
Mode Switch Interruption
The typical mode switching sequence may be interrupted by either of two
occurrences:
■
The atrial tachycardia episode ceases before the pacemaker completes
the rate transition to the appropriate non-atrial tracking mode, or
■
the atrial tachycardia episode ceases briefly but resumes before the
permanently programmed atrial tracking mode is restored.
In either case, the pacemaker responds by adjusting the rate transition in the
appropriate direction. The criteria for switching to the permanently
programmed mode are unaffected.
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14-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Preset Parameter Settings
When Mode Switch is programmed ON, several parameters are
automatically set to the following values:
■
Upper Activity Rate is set equal to the Upper Tracking Rate.
■
Post-Ventricular Atrial Blanking is set to a value based on the
programmed Upper Tracking Rate and Post-Ventricular Atrial
Refractory Period is set to a value based on the programmed Detection
Rate.
■
Rate Adaptive AV operates differently in varying AV intervals based
on the programmed Upper Tracking Rate.
NOTE: Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory Period is set to “varied” for
VDD mode switching. During mode switching, the “varied” refractory
period is automatically adjusted to provide optimal tracking of atrial
tachycardias.
The values selected are necessary for proper mode switching operations.
Counting Mode Switch Episodes
Mode switch episodes are always counted by the pacemaker and the total is
presented in the Event Summary (Chapter 17).
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Special Therapy Options
14-5
Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing
Overview
Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing (NCAP) is intended to prevent triggering of
atrial tachycardias by an atrial pacing stimulus that falls within the atrium’s
relative refractory period. This feature may be programmed ON/OFF in the
DDDR mode only.
How NCAP Affects Atrial Timing
When NCAP is programmed ON, a refractory sensed atrial event falling in
the PVARP starts a 300 ms NCAP period, during which no atrial pacing
may occur:
■
If a sensor-driven or lower rate pacing stimulus is scheduled to occur
during the NCAP period, the VA interval is extended until the NCAP
period expires.
■
If no pacing stimulus is scheduled to occur during the NCAP period,
timing is unaffected; pacing occurs at the end of the VA interval unless
inhibited.
■
An atrial refractory sensed event occurring during the NCAP period
starts a new NCAP period.
Pace Atrium safely,
no capture
Relative refractory
period, atrial pace
may induce atrial tachy
Pace Atrium
safely, capture
The Atrium’s Relative Refractory Period
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14-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
How NCAP Affects Ventricular Timing
When an atrial pacing stimulus is delayed by the NCAP operation, the
pacemaker attempts to maintain a stable ventricular rate by shortening the
PAV interval that follows. It will not, however, shorten the PAV interval to
less than 80 ms. When a relatively high lower rate and long PVARP are
programmed, NCAP operation may result in ventricular pacing slightly
below the lower rate.
Sensor-indicated
Interval
Sensor-indicated
Interval
NCAP
300 ms
Act.
P
R
80
ms
NCAP
P
Act.
P
DDDR
A
V
P
P
Parameters:
200 ms
Sensor-indicated Rate = 120 ppm (500 ms)
PAV Interval = 150 ms
PVARP = 230 ms
Post-Ventricular Atrial Blanking (PVAB) = 180 ms
Ventricular Refractory Period = 230 ms
NCAP Operation
NCAP Availability
The Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing feature may be programmed ON/OFF
only in the DDDR mode. Its availability is further qualified as follows:
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■
When Mode Switching is programmed ON, NCAP operations are
temporarily disabled if the pacemaker mode switches to the DDIR
mode. The NCAP feature is reenabled upon return to the DDDR mode.
■
Even when NCAP is programmed OFF, the NCAP operation is
invoked automatically for cycles on which PMT Intervention or
pacemaker-defined PVC operations occur (refer to “PMT Intervention”
later in this chapter).
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Special Therapy Options
14-7
PMT Intervention
Overview
A pacemaker-mediated tachycardia may occur when retrograde P-waves
(due to a loss of AV synchrony) are sensed and tracked in an atrial tracking
mode. Pacemaker-Mediated Tachycardia (PMT) Intervention provides an
automatic way for the pacemaker to detect and interrupt pacemaker-defined
PMTs. This programmable ON/OFF feature is available in the DDDR,
DDD, and VDD modes.
WARNING: Certain PMTs may require intervention such as pacemaker
reprogramming, magnet application, drug therapy, or lead evaluation.
How the Pacemaker Defines PMT
The pacemaker assumes that a PMT may be present when it detects a ninth
ventricular pace following eight consecutive VA intervals that meet all of
the following conditions:
■
duration less than 400 ms
■
start with a ventricular paced event
■
end with an atrial sensed event
PMT Monitoring and Intervention
When PMT Intervention is programmed ON, the pacemaker monitors for
PMT episodes. When a pacemaker-defined PMT is detected, the pacemaker
intervenes, forcing a 400 ms PVARP after the ninth paced ventricular
event. If a PMT is indeed in progress, the extended PVARP ensures that the
next atrial sensed event within 400 ms will be refractory. By interrupting
atrial tracking for one cycle, the PMT may be stopped.
NOTE: A sinus tachycardia could cause a feature intervention, resulting in
a single P-wave falling in the PVARP and therefore not being tracked by
the pacemaker.
Automatic 90-Second Suspension
After an intervention, PMT Intervention is automatically suspended for 90
seconds. This prevents unnecessary intervention in the presence of fast
intrinsic atrial rates.
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14-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
1
2
PVARP
3
PVARP
PVARP
Parameter:
PVARP = 280 ms
8
PVARP
9
PVARP = 400 ms
200 ms
PMT Intervention
Interactions with Other Features in DDDR
Mode
In the DDDR mode, the PMT Intervention feature interacts with other
pacemaker features and operations in the following ways:
■
Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing (NCAP) is automatically enabled for
one cycle after the ninth ventricular pace of a pacemaker-defined PMT
episode. The NCAP feature may shorten the ensuing PAV to maintain
a stable ventricular rate.
■
If Mode Switch is programmed ON, PMT Intervention is temporarily
disabled if the pacemaker switches to the DDIR mode. It is reenabled
upon return to the DDDR mode.
The Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing and Mode Switch features are
described earlier in this chapter.
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Special Therapy Options
14-9
Ventricular Safety Pacing
Overview
Ventricular Safety Pacing (VSP) is intended to prevent ventricular asystole
due to inappropriate inhibition of ventricular pacing. Such inhibition may
be caused by crosstalk or ventricular oversensing. The feature is
programmable ON or OFF in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DDI, DVIR, and
DVI modes.
■
Crosstalk occurs when the ventricular lead senses atrial stimuli. When
crosstalk occurs, the pacemaker may interpret the atrial paced event as
a ventricular depolarization and inappropriately fail to pace the
ventricle.
■
Frequent VSP may be caused by loss of atrial sensing.
WARNING: VSP should always be programmed ON for pacemakerdependent patients.
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14-10
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
How VSP Operates
When VSP is programmed ON, a ventricular sense within 110 ms after an
atrial pacing pulse results in a ventricular pacing pulse at 110 ms (see
illustration below) or at the programmed PAV interval, whichever expires
first. If the sensed event was, in fact, a ventricular depolarization, the
ventricular pacing pulse at 110 ms falls harmlessly into the absolute
refractory period of the ventricle.
110
ms
Act.
P
Act.
P
Act.
P
DDDR
A
V
P
SP
Safe
P
Ventricular Safety Pacing (VSP)
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Special Therapy Options
14-11
Single Chamber Hysteresis
Overview
Single Chamber Hysteresis lets the pacemaker track an intrinsic rhythm
below the programmed Lower Rate. This prevents the pacemaker from
overriding slow but appropriate intrinsic rhythms that may develop during
extended periods of inactivity such as sleep. Hysteresis is programmed to a
rate below the Lower Rate. The feature, which is programmed to a
Hysteresis Rate or OFF, is available in AAI, VVI, AAT, and VVT modes.
How Hysteresis Works
When Single Chamber Hysteresis rate is programmed, a sensed event
temporarily suspends the programmed Lower Rate, and the pacemaker
determines its escape rate from the hysteresis rate instead. As long as the
intrinsic rate remains above the hysteresis rate, pacing is inhibited. The first
occurrence of an escape pace at the hysteresis rate suspends hysteresis
operations and reestablishes the programmed Lower Rate as the escape
rate. The illustration on the next page shows hysteresis operation.
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14-12
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Hysteresis Rate Interval
Lower Rate Interval
V
P
V
P
Parameters:
Modes = VVI
Pacing Rate = 70 ppm (857 ms)
V
S
Lower Rate Interval
V
P
Ventricular Refractory Period = 300 ms
Hysteresis Rate = 60 ppm (1000 ms)
V
P
200 ms
Single Chamber Hysteresis Operation
Programming Considerations
Hysteresis is intended for patients with a predominately normal sinus
rhythm without ventricular irritability. Some patients may experience
undesirable cardiac arrhythmias near the Hysteresis Rate (such as
bigeminal beats). Therefore, the clinician should verify adequate cardiac
support at the programmed Hysteresis Rate before programming. The
difference between the Hysteresis Rate and the programmed Lower Rate is
typically not greater than 30 ppm.
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CHAPTER 15
Telemetry Data
About This Chapter
This chapter describes telemetered information available from the
pacemaker for routine monitoring and problem solving. The telemetered
data are as follows:
■
Parameter Summary (see page 15-2)
■
Battery and Lead Information (see page 15-4)
■
Marker Channel Telemetry (see page 15-6)
■
Intracardiac Electrogram (EGM) (see page 15-8)
■
Extended Telemetry (see page 15-10)
15-1
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15-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Parameter Summary
Overview
When interrogated by the programmer, the pacemaker telemeters its
permanently programmed parameter settings along with battery status and
device identification.
Parameters Reported
The programmer will report only parameters pertinent to the programmed
mode. Depending on the Prodigy model and the programmed mode, the
telemetered parameters and pacemaker data may include:
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■
Mode
■
Activity Rate Response
■
Pacing Rate(s)
■
Activity Threshold
■
AV Interval(s)
■
Acceleration/Deceleration
■
Refractory Period(s)
■
Therapy Features
■
Blanking Period(s)
■
Device Identification
■
Pulse Amplitude(s)
■
Serial Number
■
Pulse Width(s)
■
Battery Status
■
Sensitivity(ies)
■
Event Summaries
■
Polarity(ies)
■
Diagnostics
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Telemetry Functions
15-3
Possible Variation from Programmed Values
In general, the reported parameters will be set to the same values from the
previous programming session. Exceptions are as follows:
■
Electrical Reset. If the pacemaker has undergone a full or partial
Electrical Reset, the reported parameters will differ from their
previously programmed settings, as described in the section “Electrical
Reset” in Chapter 16.
■
Elective Replacement Indication. If the Elective Replacement Indicator
(ERI) is set, the reported parameters will be the ERI values, as
described in the section “Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI)” in
Chapter 16.
For Further Information
Refer to Chapter 4, “Retrieving Pacing System Data,” to retrieve
pacemaker parameters and data.
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15-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Battery and Lead Information
Overview
The pacemaker can telemeter measured and calculated values for battery
parameters, pacing output(s), and lead(s) to the programmer. These data
may be used both for routine assessment of pacing system performance and
for evaluating suspected problems.
Telemetered Data
The battery and lead data for atrial and/or ventricular channels are as
follows:
■
Battery Status:
-
■
Atrial and/or ventricular output:
-
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Voltage (V)
Current (µA)
Impedance (Ω)
Estimated Time to Replacement (months)
Pulse Duration (ms)
Pulse Amplitude (V)
Output Energy (µJ)
Lead Current (mA)
Lead Impedance (Ω)
Pacing Configuration (Unipolar/Bipolar)
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Telemetry Functions
15-5
Preserving Battery and Lead Data
The Battery/Lead Data Report should be printed out at every follow-up
session and kept in the patient record. Significant changes in chronic lead
data could indicate a lead dislodgement or fracture. Battery status changes
could indicate that the battery is nearing depletion.
For Further Information
Refer to “Displaying Battery and Lead Information” in Chapter 4 for
instructions on retrieving battery and lead data.
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15-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Marker Channel™ Telemetry
Overview
Marker Channel telemetry provides simple depictions of paced and sensed
events that aid in the evaluation of pacemaker timing and operations. The
annotations are most useful when considered in conjunction with a
simultaneous ECG and/or EGM. Marker Channel telemetry is available in
all modes. Marker Channel Diagrams is available in all dual chamber
modes, including the VDD mode.
Selections
The following Marker Channel selections are provided:
■
Marker Channel Recordings. Two types of recordings are available:
- Marker Telemetry. When Marker Telemetry is selected, annotated
vertical markers show paced, sensed, and refractory sensed events.
Atrial markers and ventricular markers have distinctive placements
and heights to denote the type of event marked. Marker Telemetry
may be used to identify which ECG events are treated as paced or
sensed events by the pacemaker and to measure timing intervals.
- Sensor Telemetry. When Sensor Telemetry is selected,
nonannotated markers identify whether and to what extent the
activity sensor is stimulated. Markers appear when detected activity
exceeds the programmed threshold.
■
Marker Channel Diagrams. These diagrams illustrate programmable
and fixed dual chamber timing intervals for a frozen portion of an
ECG. The diagrams use distinctive annotations, symbols, and
placements appropriate for the type of atrial or ventricular operations.
NOTE: The surface ECG is not diagnosed by the Marker Channel
Diagram. For example, the ECG may show an intrinsic event that is not
marked as sensed or refractory on the Marker Channel Diagram. In such
cases, pacemaker troubleshooting is suggested (refer to Chapter 18
“Troubleshooting the Pacing System”).
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Telemetry Functions
15-7
Marker Annotations
AP
=
Atrial pace
AS
=
Atrial sense
AR
=
Atrial sense in refractory
VP
=
Ventricular pace
VS
=
Ventricular sense
VR
=
Ventricular sense in refractory
TP
=
Triggered Pace (AAT or VVT pacing mode)
MS
=
Mode Switch Episode (marks the beginning and the end)
ER
=
Error Marker (flags a Marker signal that could not be decoded)
For Further Information
Marker Channel Recordings and Diagrams are further described in
Chapter 5. Information for interpreting Marker Channel Diagrams is
provided there.
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15-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Intracardiac Electrogram (EGM)
Overview
The intracardiac electrogram (EGM) is a real-time waveform as detected by
the atrial or ventricular lead(s) accompanied by Marker Channel
annotation. Pacing stimuli are not detected by the EGM circuitry, but the
programmer inserts simulated pacing pulses in the appropriate locations on
the EGM recording. The EGM can be displayed on the programmer or
printed out as shown below.
NOTE: The simulated pacing pulses on the EGM should not be interpreted
as representing the actual amplitude of paced events. Use an ECG to
determine such events.
Electrogram with Marker Channel Recordings
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Telemetry Functions
15-9
Uses for Electrogram
The intracardiac electrogram shows intracardiac waveforms and their
timing as the pacemaker sees them. It may be used as follows:
■
Atrial and ventricular waveforms may be evaluated for the following:
-
■
Relative amplitude of intrinsic signals
Myopotentials or electromagnetic interference (EMI)
Loss of atrial capture
Retrograde P-waves
Supraventricular tachycardias
Timing intervals may be evaluated as follows:
- Appropriate Paced AV and Sensed AV parameters may be
determined by measuring AV conduction times.
- An appropriate Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory Period (DDDR,
DDD, DDIR, DDI, and VDD modes) may be determined by
measuring VA conduction times.
NOTE: Absolute intracardiac amplitudes measured from the EGM should
not be used to assess programmed Sensitivity. Use the Sensing Threshold
Test instead.
Maintaining Telemetry
The programming head must be held in place over the pacemaker while
telemetering the EGM. Enabling the programmer “inhibit” function will
inhibit pacing and display intrinsic events only.
WARNING: Use the programmer “inhibit” function with care when
obtaining intrinsic EGMs, because the patient is without pacing support.
For Further Information
For additional information, refer to “Displaying the Patient's ECG and
EGM” in Chapter 5.
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15-10
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Extended Telemetry
Overview
Extended Telemetry is a programmable ON/OFF feature intended for
frequent patient monitoring in the permanently programmed mode during a
24-hour period.
■
When Extended Telemetry is programmed ON, the pacemaker
continuously transmits telemetry data regardless of whether the
programming head is applied or not.
■
Extended Telemetry is automatically programmed OFF by the
pacemaker after 24-hours. (A programmer command can terminate the
feature prior to automatic shutoff.)
Extended Telemetry Options
When Extended Telemetry is programmed ON, one of the following
telemetry types may be selected for automatic transmission:
■
EGM with Marker Channel annotations
■
Marker Telemetry
■
Sensor Telemetry
Additional Battery Drain
Extended Telemetry significantly increases pacemaker battery current
drain.
■
The pacemaker’s longevity will be reduced by approximately a day for
each day that Extended Telemetry is used.
■
Extended Telemetry should not be used when the Elective
Replacement Indicator is set.
For Further Information
Refer to “Programming Additional Parameters” in Chapter 6 for
programming instructions regarding Extended Telemetry.
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CHAPTER 16
Miscellaneous Operations
About This Chapter
This chapter describes certain special operations of the Prodigy pacemaker,
as follows:
■
Magnet Mode Operation (see page 16-2)
■
Temporary Programming (see page 16-5)
■
Electrical Reset (see page 16-6)
■
Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) (see page 16-8)
■
Emergency Pacing (see page 16-9)
16-1
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16-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Magnet Mode Operation
Overview
When the programming head (or other powerful magnet) is placed over the
pacemaker, an internal reed switch closes to initiate Magnet Mode
operation. Magnet application initiates a Threshold Margin Test and may
temporarily suspend the operation of specific features.
Magnet Mode Functions
When the magnetic reed switch closes during normal operations, the
pacemaker performs the following actions:
■
A Threshold Margin Test (TMT) is performed at 100 ppm, with pulse
width reduced by 25% on the third pacing cycle as a check for loss of
capture.
WARNING: Loss of capture during TMT indicates that the
stimulation threshold safety margin is inadequate. Immediately
perform a Pacing Threshold Test and reprogram outputs to establish a
2:1 voltage safety margin.
■
The pacemaker switches to an asynchronous mode and paces at the
magnet rate.
- Magnet modes are as follows: DOO in modes with dual chamber
pacing, VOO in the VDD mode, and VOO/AOO in single chamber
modes.
- Magnet rate for normal operation is 85 ppm for all modes.
- Magnet rate is 65 ppm when the Elective Replacement Indicator is
set or a full electrical reset has occurred.
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■
Telemetry is enabled.
■
Diagnostic data collection is suspended.
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16-3
Magnet Mode remains in effect as long as the programming head (or other
magnet) remains in position unless canceled by a programmer command.
When the magnet is removed, the pacemaker resumes programmed
operation within two seconds.
Establish Magnet Mode Operation
Magnet mode operation is established by placing the programming head
over the implant site and moving the head along the axis as shown below
until the head light indicates telemetry is possible. Also, Magnet Mode
operation can be confirmed by a head-positioning feature that sends
telemetry confirmation signals continuously. Refer to “Using the
Programming Head” in Chapter 2.
Axis
Prodigy DR (7860/61/62)
Prodigy D (7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD (8168)
Axis
Prodigy SR (8158, 8160/61/62)
Prodigy S (8164/65/66)
Positioning the Programming Head
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16-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Special Operation with Extended Telemetry
When the Extended Telemetry feature is programmed ON, the pacemaker
responds to magnet application by sending telemetry data, as described in
the “Extended Telemetry” section of Chapter 15.
For Further Information
“Transtelephonic Capture Verification with TMT” in Chapter 13 provides a
detailed discussion of the Threshold Margin Test.
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Miscellaneous Operations
16-5
Temporary Programming
Overview
Pacing mode and certain other parameters may be programmed temporarily
for diagnostic purposes or to test their effects on pacing operations prior to
permanent programming. Permanent settings are restored automatically
when the programming head is removed or the telemetry link is broken.
Temporarily Programmable Parameters
Five pacing parameters may be programmed temporarily:
■
Mode. Temporary modes are DDD, ODO, VVI, AAI, VVT, AAT,
OVO, OAO, VOO, and AOO.
■
Rate. High rates up to 400 ppm are programmable in VVI, AAI, VVT,
AAT, VOO, and AOO modes.
■
Pulse amplitude(s). All values are available.
■
Pulse width(s). All values are available.
■
Sensitivity(ies). All values are available.
NOTE: Available modes are dependent on the permanent mode.
Temporary Refractory Settings
Temporary programming of the VVI, AAI, VVT, or AAT mode
temporarily sets the appropriate refractory period (Atrial Refractory Period
and/or Ventricular Refractory Period) to 150 ms. The DDD mode
temporarily sets PVARP to 400 ms. Atrial modes have Atrial Blanking set
to 100 ms. It also enables pacing rates up to 400 ppm.
For Further Information
Refer to “Programming Temporary Parameter Values” in Chapter 7 for
additional information on temporary programmable parameters.
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16-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Electrical Reset
Overview
Under extreme conditions, a momentary interruption of electrical power to
the pacemaker’s control circuitry may cause an electrical reset. Pacing
parameters are reset to specific values when power is restored. An electrical
reset may occur when the pacemaker is exposed to cold temperatures,
electrocautery, external defibrillation, or therapy from an implanted
defibrillator.
Two types of electrical reset are possible:
■
Partial reset. Polarity, pacing mode, and certain other parameters are
preserved. Lower (Pacing) Rate is at 65 ppm.
■
Full reset. Pacing resumes in the VVI mode at 65 ppm with reset
parameters.
The programmer detects and reports any reset condition when the
pacemaker is interrogated. A full reset also may be inferred when the ECG
shows VVI pacing at 65 ppm and the battery is not depleted (Elective
Replacement Indicator [ERI] is not set).
Partial Electrical Reset
If a partial electrical reset occurs, the pacemaker automatically preserves
the following parameters to their previously programmed states:
■
pacing and sensing polarities
■
pacing mode
■
Mode Switch selection
■
ERI status
All other parameters are changed to their Electrical Reset values (refer to
the “Electrical Reset Parameter Settings,” Section B in Part III).
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16-7
Full Electrical Reset
If a full electrical reset occurs, all programmed values are lost. When power
is restored, the pacemaker automatically performs the following reset
recovery operations:
■
Mode is set to VVI at 65 ppm.
■
In bipolar models, the pacemaker determines whether a functioning
bipolar lead is present in the ventricle. If so, it sets ventricular pacing
and sensing polarities to bipolar. If not, pacing and sensing polarities
are set to unipolar.
All other parameters are set to Electrical Reset values (see “Electrical Reset
Parameter Settings,” Section B in Part III).
NOTE: If the pacemaker is found in the VVI mode at 65 ppm, use the
programmer “Status Reset” command to clear the reset condition and
reprogram the pacemaker. If after interrogating the pacemaker a message
appears on the programmer screen/printout indicating the Date/Time
memory has been altered, contact your Medtronic representative for further
information.
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16-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI)
Overview
The Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) is reported upon interrogation
with the programmer when the pacemaker battery is nearly depleted. When
the ERI is set, the pacemaker is automatically reprogrammed to a
distinctive set of parameters. For the Prodigy pacemaker, ERI is permanent
VVI mode at 65 ppm.
Basis for Setting ERI
ERI is set when the battery voltage drops below a certain limit and remains
there. (The ERI criteria for all Prodigy pacemaker models are listed in the
“Elective Replacement Indicator [ERI],” Section C in Part III.) When ERI
is set, diagnostic data collection is suspended, but data previously collected
is retained in the pacemaker’s memory.
WARNING: When ERI is set, Prodigy DR, Prodigy D, and Prodigy VDD
pacemakers should be replaced within 3.0 months, whereas, Prodigy SR
and Prodigy S pacemakers should be replaced within 2.5 months. For
projected time remaining until cessation of pacing, refer to “Longevity
Projections,” Section C in Part III.
ERI Verification
When the programmer detects that ERI is set, it displays a message. Upon
command, the programmer will attempt to reset the ERI. The programmer
first performs a stress test to determine the battery’s condition. If the
battery fails the stress test, the programmer will not reset ERI. Because ERI
is set only after multiple voltage measurements, it is unlikely to be set
prematurely. Therefore, it is anticipated that most attempts to reset it will
fail.
For Further Information
Refer to the section “Displaying a Summary of Pacemaker Status” in
Chapter 4 to interrogate the pacemaker’s battery and ERI status. Refer to
the section “Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI),” Section C in Part III,
for further information on ERI parameter settings for all Prodigy models.
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16-9
Emergency Pacing
Overview
Emergency pacing provides VVI pacing at high output settings in
emergency situations for pacemaker-dependent patients.
For Further Information
Refer to “Emergency Parameter Settings,” Section B in Part III, for more
information.
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CHAPTER 17
Diagnostics
About This Chapter
This chapter describes diagnostic capabilities of Prodigy pacemakers, as
follows:
■
Introduction to Prodigy Diagnostics (see page 17-2)
■
Event Summary (see page 17-4)
■
Rate Histogram (see page 17-6)
■
High Rate Episode (see page 17-8)
17-1
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17-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Introduction to Prodigy™ Diagnostics
Overview
The Prodigy pacemaker offers both background and programmable
diagnostics intended for evaluation of the patient’s intrinsic rhythms and
the pacemaker’s operation. All Event Summary diagnostics run
continuously in the background. Only one of the three programmable
diagnostics can be selected at a time.
Event Summary
Event Summary is a nonprogrammable, pacemaker function that provides
summary counts. At the first data summary “Interrogate” or “Interrogate
All” command at each follow-up session, the Event Summary data are
automatically telemetered to the programmer and the counters are cleared.
Thus, data collection is independent of the programmable diagnostics.
Event Monitoring Diagnostics
Three programmable event monitoring diagnostics are listed below. Two
are described in this chapter (depending on the Prodigy model and
programmed mode), the other diagnostic is described elsewhere. They are
as follows:
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Rate Histogram. Collects heart rate and percent-paced data for the
atrium and/or ventricle.
■
High Rate Episode. Collects data on high-rate episodes occurring in
the atrium or ventricle.
■
Lead Trend. Collects lead impedance data over time (Chapter 13).
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17-3
Exceptional Conditions
Under exceptional conditions, the pacemaker may discontinue or suspend
the programmed diagnostic:
■
If the Lead Monitor is programmed ON and abnormal lead impedance
is detected (Chapter 13), the pacemaker automatically activates the
Lead Trend diagnostic, overriding any other diagnostic choice. Any
previously collected data are overwritten.
■
If the Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) is tripped (Chapter 16),
diagnostic data collection is suspended and the date ERI was tripped is
recorded. Any data already collected are preserved.
■
Programming of any diagnostic is disabled if ERI is tripped.
■
Data collection is suspended during magnet application.
Clearing Diagnostic Data
All data for the currently programmed diagnostic are erased by any of the
following actions:
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■
programming another diagnostic,
■
using the programmer’s “Clear Data” command, or
■
initiating the activity threshold test or exercise test.
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17-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Event Summary
Overview
The Event Summary reports certain pacing and sensing statistics
automatically collected by the pacemaker and telemetered to the
programmer at interrogation. The summary data complements and
supplements data collected by the programmable diagnostics. This data is
displayed on the Data Summary screen of the programmer or may be
printed.
Types of Data Summarized
The types of data collected and summarized depend on the programmed
mode and other options. The possible data types are as follows:
■
% Total Events. Presents percentages of the types of AV event
sequences (dual chamber modes) or paced and sensed events (single
chamber modes), as follows:
- Dual Chamber Modes (Except VDD): AS-VS, AS-VP, AP-VS, and
AP-VP sequences
- VDD Mode: AS-VS and AS-VP sequences
VS (ventricular sense preceded by ventricular event)
VP (ventricular pace preceded by ventricular event)
- Single Chamber Modes: Sensed and paced events
The percentages are based on actual counts (refractory sensed events are
excluded), which may be printed out with the programmer. Counting ceases
when any counter reaches the maximum count. Reaching the maximum
count limit is unlikely since each counter can store several years of data.
■
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Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC). In dual chamber modes,
counts pacemaker-defined PVCs (a sensed ventricular event following
any ventricular event with no intervening atrial event) and runs of two
or more consecutive PVCs with no intervening atrial event (dual
chamber modes). The combined maximum count of single PVCs and
PVC runs is at least 65,536.
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■
17-5
Mode Switches. Counts mode changes from the DDDR, DDD, or VDD
mode to a non-atrial tracking mode (available only when Mode Switch
is programmed ON). The maximum count is 255.
Collecting Event Summary Data
Event Summary data are automatically telemetered to the programmer
when the pacemaker is first interrogated by the data summary “Interrogate”
or “Interrogate All” command at each follow-up session. The counters are
cleared automatically by the programmer at each follow-up session, so
Event Summary data should be reviewed and/or printed out before the end
of a follow-up session, or it will be lost.
The example below shows how Event Summary data is displayed on the
Data Summary screen of the programmer. The data also may be printed out
on the programmer.
Example of Event Summary Data
For Further Information
Refer to “Displaying a Summary of Pacemaker Status” in Chapter 4 for
information on retrieving Event Summary data.
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17-6
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Rate Histogram
Overview
The Rate Histogram counts and collects atrial and/or ventricular events and
classifies them by rate range and the percentage paced out of the total beats
counted. This diagnostic is intended for ambulatory monitoring uses,
including the following:
■
assessing chronotropic incompetence
■
monitoring rate distribution
■
evaluating programmed rate response parameters
Data Collection
The Rate Histogram counts all paced and sensed atrial and/or ventricular
events. The event counts and percentage paced information are recorded in
event groups (bins) between the rates of 45 and 185 ppm. Events at rates
below 45 ppm are counted in the lowest event group; rates above 185 ppm
are counted in the highest event group. Refractory sensed events can be
included or excluded by programming the desired option. The collection
period for the Rate Histogram is indicated by the starting and ending dates.
NOTE: In dual chamber modes, some events below the programmed
Lower Rate may be recorded on the ventricular histogram when intrinsic
activity alternates with Lower Rate pacing. This is normal with A-A
timing.
Each Rate Histogram bin can store several years of event data. Data
collection ceases when any rate bin is filled.
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17-7
Events Displayed Outside Lower and
Upper Rate Limits
The diagnostic’s displayed rate for each event is based on the interval from
the previous event. When refractory sensed events are included, AR-AP or
VR-VP intervals result in displayed paced beats which are significantly
higher than the actual pacing rate. These displayed rates can appear above
the programmed Upper Activity Rate in rate responsive modes or above the
programmed Lower Rate in non-rate responsive modes.
The diagnostic also displays paced and sensed events of the actual pacing
rate below the programmed Lower Rate during any of the following
scenarios: A-A timing, Single Chamber Hysteresis rates, and VDD mode
operation.
Retrieving the Rate Histogram
When the Rate Histogram is interrogated, the programmer retrieves the
histogram data and presents a rate profile. Each segment of the reportable
rate-range is annotated with its percentage-paced category (0%, 1 to 49%,
50 to 99%, and 100% paced). The example below shows how Rate
Histograms are presented on the programmer. The report can be printed or
displayed on the programmer.
Example of Rate Histogram Display
For Further Information
Refer to Chapter 8, “Collecting and Retrieving Diagnostic Data,” for
information on configuring the Rate Histogram diagnostic and collecting its
data.
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17-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
High Rate Episode
Overview
The High Rate Episode monitor is intended for detection and assessment of
episodes of atrial or ventricular tachycardia. It can record data for up to 15
High Rate Episodes, or 7 High Rate Episodes and one Electrogram (EGM)
associated with an episode.
Episode Data Collected
Atrial or ventricular sensed, refractory sensed, and paced events may be
counted as part of a high rate episode. For each high rate episode detected,
the pacemaker records the following data:
■
date, time, and duration
■
highest sampled rate (Tachy Rate)
■
rates for 24 events, as follows:
- the eight events immediately preceding the episode
- the first eight events of the episode
- the last eight events of the episode
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17-9
How High Rate Episodes Are Defined
For the purposes of this diagnostic, a “high rate episode” begins when a
specified number of sequential heart beats exceeds a specified rate. The
episode ends when a specified number of sequential heartbeats occur below
the specified rate. The table that follows describes the programmable
parameters that define a high rate episode.
Programmable Parameters for High Rate Episode Detection
Parameter
Range
Meaning
Detection Rate
80 to 400 ppm
The minimum rate above which the atrial or
ventricular rate is declared a high rate
episode.
Detection
Number
2 to 200 events
The number of sequential events above the
Detection Rate required for a high rate
episode.
Termination
Number
2 to 20 events
The number of sequential events below the
Detection Rate required to end a high rate
episode.
Programmable Data Collection Options
The following programmable options control how episode data are
collected:
Programmable Options for High Rate Episode Data Collection
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Parameter
Values
Meaning
Type
Atrial or
ventricular
Chamber for which episode data are
collected.
Data collection
method
Frozen or
Rolling
episodes
The Frozen method collects data for the
first 15 High Rate Episodes (seven when
EGM is selected). The Rolling method
continuously collects data for the mostrecent 15 High Rate Episodes (seven when
EGM is selected), overwriting the oldest
data if necessary.
EGM
OFF or ON
When ON, the number of episodes
collected is reduced to seven with an
approximately two second EGM
with simulated pacing pulses
for one High Rate Episode.
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17-10
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Collecting EGM Data
If the EGM option is programmed ON, an approximately two second EGM
with simulated pacing pulses is recorded for one episode, and the number
of episodes for which data can be recorded is reduced to seven. The episode
for which the EGM is recorded is selected as follows:
■
Frozen Episodes. An EGM is recorded for the first episode detected.
■
Rolling Episodes. An EGM is recorded for the first episode detected.
Once every 24 hours, a new EGM will be recorded if another episode
occurs. When episodes occur infrequently, the EGM will be for the last
episode. To avoid ambiguity, the programmer always identifies the
episode for which EGM data was recorded.
Recording High Rate Atrial Episodes in Dual
Chamber Modes
In the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DDI, and VDD modes, atrial sensing is
blanked for a programmable interval (the Post-Ventricular Atrial Blanking)
following any ventricular event. Detection of high rate atrial episodes in
these modes may be inhibited by blanking when high Detection Counts are
programmed and may result in a periodic rate drop on the displayed graph
or printed tabular report.
Events Displayed Outside Upper Rate Limit
The High Rate Episode displayed rate for each event is based on the
interval from the previous event. AR-AP or VR-VP intervals result in
displayed paced beats which are significantly higher than the actual pacing
rate. These displayed rates can appear above the programmed Upper
Activity Rate in rate responsive modes or above the programmed Lower
Rate in non-rate responsive modes. (For example, an AR-AP event at a rate
of 200 ppm (300 ms) can be an indicator of Non-Competitive Atrial Pacing
therapy.)
Retrieving High Rate Episode Data
The first example below shows how High Rate Episode data are
summarized on the programmer. The next example shows how the
programmer presents detailed data for a selected episode. All reports can be
printed out or displayed on the programmer.
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17-11
Example of High Rate Episodes Display
Example of Detailed View of High Rate Episode
For Further Information
Refer to Chapter 8, “Collecting and Retrieving Diagnostic Data,” for
information on configuring the High-Rate Episode diagnostic and
collecting its data.
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CHAPTER 18
Troubleshooting the
Pacing System
About This Chapter
This chapter describes how to isolate and correct problems with the
Prodigy pacing system. The sections are as follows:
■
Troubleshooting Strategy (see page 18-2)
■
Troubleshooting Electrical Problems (see page 18-3)
■
Troubleshooting Hemodynamic Problems (see page 18-5)
■
Handling, Storage, and Resterilization (see page 18-7)
■
Pacemaker Longevity (see page 18-8)
■
Replacing the Pacemaker (see page 18-10)
■
Patient Information and Service (see page 18-11)
–
–
–
–
Registration
Patient Manual
Establishing a Patient Record
Assistance Information
18-1
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18-2
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Troubleshooting Strategy
Overview
When troubleshooting pacemaker problems, the clinician must consider
both electrical problems and the effect of various parameter settings on
cardiac hemodynamics. Determining the nature of the troubleshooting
problem is the first step toward solving it. The following questions may
help pinpoint the type of problem:
■
Is the pacing system operating per design?
■
Is this operation appropriate for this patient?
The answer to the first question helps determine whether the patient has a
conduction disorder or the pacemaker has an electrical problem. The
answer to the second question helps to assess the hemodynamic
appropriateness of the pacemaker’s settings. For example, when a DDD
pacemaker tracks an atrial tachycardia, it is operating as it was intended to
perform. While its electrical function is appropriate, the hemodynamic
result may not be appropriate (for example, if the patient also has angina).
While troubleshooting may sometimes be challenging, the steps in the
troubleshooting process are simple, and they are the same for each type of
problem:
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1.
Define the problem
2.
Identify the cause of the problem
3.
Correct the problem
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Troubleshooting the Pacing System
18-3
Troubleshooting Electrical Problems
Defining Electrical Problems
When investigating an electrical problem, the clinician will need data from
a wide variety of sources, including the following:
■
Patient Data. Determine the patient’s medical history, especially the
underlying cardiac rhythm.
■
Pacemaker Data. Determine the device model and serial number and,
especially, its elective replacement characteristics.
■
Lead Data. Determine the lead type and serial number and, most
importantly, the impedance data on each lead.
Identifying the Cause of an Electrical
Problem
Electrical problems have only six potential causes. Pinpointing the actual
cause, however, is sometimes difficult. During the problem-identification
phase of troubleshooting, one should consider not only the surface ECG,
but also the intracardiac electrograms and Marker Channel recordings.
The six causes of electrical problems are as follows:
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■
Undersensing. If the pacemaker fails to reset or start timing operations
when P- and/or R-waves are apparent on the surface ECG,
undersensing is the likely cause. If undersensing is occurring, Marker
Channel telemetry will fail to display appropriate sense markers (AS,
AR, VS, and VR). One possible cause would be inappropriate
programming of the sensitivity settings(s). Refer to “Determining a
Setting for Sensitivity” in Chapter 7.
■
Oversensing. If the pacemaker resets or starts timing intervals when no
P- or R-waves are apparent on the surface ECG, oversensing is the
likely cause. If so, Marker Channel telemetry will display
inappropriate sense markers. A sensitivity setting programmed to a
very low number might be the cause. Refer to “Determining a Setting
for Sensitivity” in Chapter 7.
■
Noncapture. When pacing occurs with no evidence of a depolarization
after each pacing artifact/spike on the surface ECG, loss of capture has
occurred. Investigate the output settings. Are the amplitude and pulse
width settings adequate to consistently capture cardiac tissue? When
capture is lost, a threshold test may be used to determine appropriate
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18-4
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
output settings (refer to “Measuring Stimulation Thresholds” in
Chapter 7). If a lead problem is suspected, the Prodigy pacemaker’s
Lead Trend diagnostic can provide trend data on the integrity of the
lead.
■
No output. If pacing artifacts do not appear on the ECG, even though
Marker Channel telemetry shows pacing markers (AP or VP), output to
the cardiac tissue may be compromised. If pacing stimuli are not being
delivered (digitized ECGs sometimes miss pacing artifacts), a lead
wire fracture or a faulty lead connection might be the source of the
problem. Determine the lead impedance and compare to values from
previous followup sessions.
■
Altered Parameter. If the pacing mode or other parameter differs from
what appears on the latest entry in the patient’s record (for example,
the patient presents with the pacemaker in the VVI mode), battery
depletion or full electrical reset might be the cause.
■
Undesirable Side Effects. This category that covers a broad range of
situations. For example, a patient might present with a pectoralis
muscle being stimulated at the programmed pacing rate due to high
amplitude output(s) with a unipolar pacemaker. Or, another might have
all the classic symptoms of pacemaker syndrome, due to retrograde
P-waves that may occur with the loss of AV synchrony.
Correcting the Problem
Four types of solution apply to electrical problems, two non-invasive and
two invasive.
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Reprogramming. For example, pocket stimulation usually occurs with
unipolar pacing. In some systems the device may be programmed to
bipolar pacing, if available.
■
Changing the patient’s medication or diet. Some anti-arrhythmic
drugs, for example, may alter the patient’s stimulation threshold. Diet
may alter the patient’s electrolyte balance, having a direct effect on the
stimulation threshold.
■
Repositioning the lead. If a lead slips out of position, it may be
impossible to pace and/or sense consistently. If this is confirmed, the
lead must be repositioned or replaced.
■
Replacing the lead or the pacemaker. If the lead wire is fractured or
the battery is depleted, there is no other recourse than to replace one or
both.
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Troubleshooting the Pacing System
18-5
Troubleshooting Hemodynamic Problems
Defining a Hemodynamic Problem
When investigating a hemodynamic problem, data will be needed from
many sources, including:
■
Patient Data. Determine the patient’s condition and daily routine. Is
the patient active or relatively sedentary? Is the patient on drug
therapy? If the problem is activity-related, what is the patient doing
when the problem occurs, and what are the symptoms?
■
Pacemaker Data. Determine the device’s model and serial number, its
diagnostic capabilities, and its programmed settings.
Identifying the Cause of a Hemodynamic
Problem
Identifying the cause of a hemodynamic problem can be challenging.
Prodigy diagnostic features, however, simplify the evaluation of such
problems by providing immediate long term information about pacemaker
settings and function. The three most common causes of hemodynamic
problems are listed below.
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Pacemaker Syndrome. This occurs when the pacemaker mode or
parameter settings result in a loss of AV synchrony. Most commonly,
in dual chamber modes, the problem is related to an inappropriate AV
interval, but it may also result from premature onset of 2:1 block or
loss of atrial capture or sensing. Use of atrial Electrogram, the Marker
Channel recording, or the Marker Channel Diagram can help determine
the exact cause.
■
Inappropriate Rate Response. This may result when programmed rate
response settings do not match the patient’s activity needs. The activity
threshold may be set too low or high. Other causes are rate response
settings that are too aggressive or not aggressive enough. A simple
exercise test may be used to establish rate response settings (refer to
“Determining Rate Response Parameter Settings” in Chapter 7). The
Rate Histogram (Chapter 17) diagnostic may be used to validate and
fine tune the patient’s rate response prescription.
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
■
Changes in Patient Condition. A common example is the development
of chronic atrial flutter or fibrillation post-implant. If the clinician
suspects this condition, the Prodigy pacemaker’s High Rate Episode
diagnostic can provide information on atrial tachycardias that are
sensed, including the rates at which they occur and the number of
occurrences (refer to Chapter 17 for more information). If Mode
Switch is programmed ON, the Event Summary will include a count of
mode switch events.
Correcting a Hemodynamic Problem
Solutions to hemodynamic problems are invariably non-invasive.
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Alter Rate Response Settings. A patient who feels lightheaded while
walking up a flight of stairs may have a rate response setting that is not
responsive enough. A possible solution may be to change the patient’s
Activity Rate Response setting or Activity Threshold.
■
Change the Patient’s Medication. In patients with intermittent atrial
tachycardias, drug therapy can reduce the frequency of SVTs.
■
Reprogram. In dual chamber modes, if the patient experiences
intermittent sudden ventricular tachycardia, it may be necessary to
program the Mode Switch feature ON.
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18-7
Handling, Storage, and Resterilization
Handling and Storage
Do not implant the pacemaker if the package is damaged, or if the
pacemaker has been dropped from a height of 30 cm (12 inches) or more.
Damaged packages must be returned to the manufacturer.
Storage temperature range from -18˚C (0˚F) to 55˚C (131˚F).
Exposure to temperatures below -18˚C (0˚F) or intense electrical
interference may cause the pacemaker’s parameter settings to change to full
or partial electrical reset conditions. Refer to “Electrical Reset” in
Chapter 16 for more information.
Resterilization
The pacemaker has been delivered in a sterile condition. Sterilization has
been performed using ethylene-oxide. If sterility of the package has been
compromised, place the pacemaker in an ethylene-oxide permeable
package and resterilize the pacemaker using ethylene-oxide. Sterilizer
effectiveness should be verified by using a validated sterilization process.
Resterilization and cleaning of the pacemaker or the torque wrench
should not:
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be performed using autoclaving, gamma radiation, organic cleaning
agents (e.g., alcohol, acetone, etc.), or ultrasonic cleaners, and
■
exceed a temperature of 60˚C (140˚F) or a pressure of 103k Pa (15 psi)
above ambient.
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18-8
Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Pacemaker Longevity
Background
The Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) establishes the point in time
when the physician should schedule replacement of the pacemaker as soon
as possible.
Elective Replacement Indicator
The Elective Replacement Indicator consists of a pacing mode and
distinctive rate, as follows:
■
Pacing Mode
VVI
■
Lower Rate
65 ppm
When ERI is set due to battery depletion, the pacemaker will continue to
operate under elective replacement conditions unless the programmer
“Status Reset” command clears the ERI.
Time from ERI to Cessation of Pacing
From the point that the ERI is set, the pacemaker will continue to operate at
ERI conditions for a minimum of 3.0 months for Prodigy DR, Prodigy D
and Prodigy VDD pacemakers and 2.5 months for Prodigy SR and
Prodigy S pacemakers until the battery fully depletes. At full battery
depletion, erratic pacing will ensue. The patient should be scheduled for
immediate pacemaker replacement when the ERI is first detected.
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18-9
Distinguishing ERI from Full Electrical Reset
Like the Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI), a full electrical reset puts a
Prodigy pacemaker in VVI mode at 65 ppm, as described in the section
“Electrical Reset” in Chapter 16. Prodigy pacemakers are designed to be
less susceptible to electrocautery, defibrillation, and so forth, than previous
generation Medtronic pacemakers, and only extreme electromagnetic
disturbances can trigger a full electrical reset. If the pacemaker is in a full
electrical reset condition and the ERI status is not set, use the programmer
“Status Reset” command to clear the reset condition and reprogram the
pacemaker. If after interrogating the pacemaker a message appears on the
programmer screen/printout indicating the Date/Time memory has been
altered, contact your Medtronic representative for further information.
For Further Information
See Section G in Part III, “Hospital, Medical, Home, and Job Environment
Interference”. See Section C in Part III under “Elective Replacement
Indicator (ERI)” applicable to the ERI for the specific Prodigy pacemaker
model. Also, see Section C in Part III under “Longevity Projections” for
Prodigy pacemaker operating life.
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Replacing the Pacemaker
To replace the pacemaker:
1.
Program the old pacemaker to a nonrate responsive pacing mode prior
to explantation. This avoids any potential rate increase while handling
the pacemaker.
2.
Insert the proper white-handled hex wrench through each slit in the
rubber grommets and loosen each set screw by turning
counterclockwise.
3.
Gently retract the lead from the pacemaker.
4.
If the lead pin shows signs of pitting or corrosion, the entire lead
should be replaced to ensure the integrity of the pacing system.
5.
Measure stimulation thresholds and sensing potentials. Pacemaker
dependent patients will be without pacing support when the lead is
disconnected. Therefore, the physician should have a temporary
external pacing device available for use.
A Medtronic Lead Adaptor Kit may be required to connect the new
pacemaker to the chronic leads. The kit allows connection of lead from
other manufacturers to Medtronic pacemakers.
WARNING: Use of electrocautery units when replacing Prodigy
pacemakers may cause permanent loss of output prior to explanting the
device. Refer to “Hospital, Medical, Home, and Job Environment
Interference,” Section G in Part III, for information on electrocautery use.
For Further Information
For further information on implanting Prodigy pacemakers, consult the
implantation manual packaged with each device. For information on
available adaptor kits, consult the Pacemaker and Connector Encyclopedia
(a Medtronic publication).
Refer to Section A in Part III under “Pacemaker Connectors” for the
different types of Prodigy connectors.
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18-11
Patient Information and Service
Patient Registration Information
A registration form is included in the shipping package for each Medtronic
implantable pacemaker. Upon completion by the physician, the form serves
as a permanent record of facts related to the implanted device. A copy of
this form should be returned to Medtronic, where vital information will be
transferred to a wallet-size, permanent Pacemaker Identification Card
which will be mailed directly to the patient. A temporary identification card
is included in the shipping package for use by the patient until the
permanent card arrives. Note that in some areas, the pacemaker package
may not contain the registration form.
Patient Manual
In addition, a patient manual and patient card are provided in the
pacemaker shipping package. Specifically, the manual provides patientoriented explanations about the heart, pacemaker operation, typical
pacemaker implantation procedures, the Pacemaker Identification Card,
and tips for effectively living with a pacemaker. The patient card shows
what the pacemaker looks like and its name. Note that in some areas, the
pacemaker package may not contain the patient materials.
Establishing a Patient Record
At the time of implant the clinician should establish a record of the
patient’s pacemaker programmed parameter settings for later reference. The
registration form should not serve this purpose since the form is intended
for registering the patient and pacemaker with Medtronic.
A patient record can give the clinician an accurate account of the patient’s
medical history at subsequent follow-ups when evaluating the pacemaker’s
performance.
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Understanding Pacemaker Operations
Assistance Information
Medtronic representatives and engineers, located throughout the world, are
highly trained and available to serve you. Upon request, representatives
will train qualified hospital personnel in the use of Medtronic products. In
addition, Medtronic maintains a professional staff of consultants to provide
technical and medical consultation to product users in the United States at
1 (800) 328-2518 (24-hour consultation service). Refer to the appropriate
number on the back cover of this manual for consultation in other
countries.
For Further Information
For supplemental information, contact your local Medtronic representative,
or call or write Medtronic (see back cover for addresses and phone
numbers).
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PART III
Prodigy™ Reference
Information
Part III provides functional, parameter, and precautionary product
information for the Prodigy DR, Prodigy D, Prodigy VDD, Prodigy SR,
and Prodigy S pacemakers. This section supplements Part I (programmer
procedures) and Part II (pacemaker operations and features). Specific
Prodigy product information is organized under the following sections:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Basic description, radiopaque identification, mechanical dimensions,
lead compatibility, and pacemaker connectors
Shipping, nominal, electrical reset, and emergency parameters
Longevity projections, elective replacement indicator, and battery
specifications
Magnet mode operations, telemetry functions, diagnostics, and event
summaries
Modes and parameters, programming requirements and restrictions,
and timing reference table
General warning and precautions
Hospital, medical, home, and job environment interference
General pacing indications
Glossary
Index
Part III Prodigy Reference Information
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SECTION A
Basic Description,
Radiopaque Identification,
Mechanical Dimensions,
Lead Compatibility, and
Pacemaker Connectors
Section A contains basic descriptions, radiopaque identifications,
mechanical dimensions, lead compatibility, and pacemaker connectors for
each of the Prodigy pacemakers listed below.
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
A-1
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A-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Basic Description
The Medtronic Prodigy family of pacemakers consists of multiprogrammable, implantable pacemakers. The five pacemakers in the
Prodigy family offer a wide range of therapeutic features and diagnostic
capabilities based on a common platform. Physicians may choose the
appropriate pacemaker for the patient and expect similar programming and
follow-up operations between the five pacemakers.
Medtronic programmers allow the clinician to change pacing therapies and
assess pacing and diagnostic data by communicating with the pacemaker
via telemetry. In addition, the clinician can perform system functions such
as interrogating the pacemaker, measuring stimulation thresholds, and
inhibiting the pacemaker.
Prodigy DR pacemakers are dual chamber, activity-based rate responsive
DDDR pacemakers.
■
Model 7860 is compatible with IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
■
Model 7861 is compatible with 5 or 6 mm leads.
■
Model 7862 is compatible with low-profile 3.2 mm bipolar leads and
IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
Prodigy D pacemakers are dual chamber, DDD pacemakers.
■
Model 7864 is compatible with IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
■
Model 7865 is compatible with 5 or 6 mm unipolar leads.
■
Model 7866 is compatible with low-profile 3.2 mm bipolar leads and
IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
Prodigy VDD pacemakers are dual chamber VDD pacemakers that utilize
a single lead pacing system. In addition, single chamber, activity-based rate
responsive VVIR pacing is ON/OFF programmable. The Prodigy VDD
pacemakers are designed for use with the CapSure VDD (Model 5032)
lead, which provides bipolar atrial sensing and ventricular pacing and
sensing. The pacemaker’s ventricular port is IS-1* compatible. The atrial
port is a bipolar connector which meets the mechanical requirements of the
IS-1 standard but is only designed to sense.
* IS-1 refers to an International Connector Standard (See Document No. ISO 5841-3; 1992)
whereby pulse generators and leads so designated are assured of a basic mechanical fit.
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Basic Description, Radiopaques, Dimensions, Lead Compatibility, and Connectors
A-3
Prodigy SR pacemakers are single chamber, activity-based rate responsive
VVIR/AAIR pacemakers.
■
Model 8160 is compatible with IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
■
Model 8161 is compatible with 5 or 6 mm unipolar leads.
■
Model 8162 is compatible with low-profile 3.2 mm bipolar leads and
IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
■
Model 8158 is compatible with 5 mm bifurcated bipolar leads.
Prodigy S pacemakers are single chamber VVI/AAI pacemakers.
■
Model 8164 is compatible with IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
■
Model 8165 is compatible with 5 or 6 mm unipolar leads.
■
Model 8166 is compatible with low-profile 3.2 mm bipolar leads and
IS-1* bipolar/unipolar leads.
* IS-1 refers to an International Connector Standard (See Document No. ISO 5841-3; 1992)
whereby pulse generators and leads so designated are assured of a basic mechanical fit.
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A-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Radiopaque Identification
A standard X-ray displays the pacemaker’s radiopaque code block as black
characters on a white background (see radiopaque illustration below). This
code identifies the Prodigy models as follows:
Model
Radiopaque I.D.
Prodigy DR
Model 7860
Model 7861
Model 7862
PDH
PDJ
PDK
Prodigy D
Model 7864
Model 7865
Model 7866
PDL
PDM
PDN
Prodigy VDD
Model 8168
PEK
Prodigy SR
Model 8158
Model 8160
Model 8161
Model 8162
PEM
PED
PEE
PEF
Prodigy S
Model 8164
Model 8165
Model 8166
PEG
PEH
PEJ
Model 7860 Radiopaque Identification
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A-5
Mechanical Dimensions
Prodigy Model
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Height (mm)
Length (mm)
Thickness (mm)
Mass (g)
Vol (cc)
Prodigy DR
7860
7861
7862
44.7
50.3
46.7
47.9
47.9
47.9
7.5
7.5
7.5
27.1
28.5
28.0
12.1
14.2
13.0
Prodigy D
7864
7865
7866
44.7
50.3
46.7
47.9
47.9
47.9
7.5
7.5
7.5
26.9
28.3
27.8
12.1
14.2
13.0
Prodigy VDD 8168
44.7
47.9
7.5
27.1
12.1
Prodigy SR
8158
8160
8161
8162
45.8
40.2
43.3
42.9
42.9
42.9
42.9
42.9
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
22.5
21.5
22.5
22.5
11.2
9.7
11.0
10.5
Prodigy S
8164
8165
8166
40.2
43.3
42.9
42.9
42.9
42.9
7.5
7.5
7.5
21.3
22.3
22.3
9.7
11.0
10.5
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Prodigy Reference Information
Lead Compatibility
Prodigy Model Polarity
Primary Lead
Lead Adaptor
Prodigy DR
Model 7860
IS-1* BI
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
5866-45 for IS-1 lead
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
Model 7861
Model 7862
Prodigy D
Model 7864
Model 7865
Model 7866
Prodigy VDD
Model 8168
Prodigy SR
Model 8160
Model 8161
Model 8162
Model 8158
Prodigy S
Model 8164
Model 8165
Model 8166
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Unipolar
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Unipolar 5/6 mm
Low-profile 3.2 mm
bipolar or IS-1* BI
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Unipolar
IS-1* BI
Unipolar 5/6 mm
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Low-profile 3.2 mm
bipolar or IS-1* BI
Unipolar/
Bipolar**
5032 CapSure
VDD lead
N/A
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Unipolar
IS-1* BI
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
5866-45 for
IS-1 lead
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
5866-22 for low-profile
3.2 mm bipolar lead
Unipolar 5/6 mm
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Low-profile 3.2 mm
bipolar or IS-1* BI
5 mm bifurcated
bipolar or two
standard unipolar 5 mm
(epicardial)
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Unipolar
IS-1* BI
Unipolar 5/6 mm
Unipolar/
Bipolar
Low-profile 3.2 mm
bipolar or IS-1* BI
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
5866-45 for
IS-1 lead
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
5866-45 for
IS-1 leads
5866-24M for
bifurcated bipolar lead
* IS-1 refers to an International Connector Standard (See Document No. ISO 5841-3; 1992)
whereby pulse generators and leads so designated are assured of a basic mechanical fit.
**Ventricular channel is unipolar or bipolar programmable. Atrial channel is permanently set
to bipolar.
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A-7
Pacemaker Connectors
Prodigy DR (7860)
Prodigy D (7864)
Prodigy VDD* (8168)
Ø 1.93 mm (2x) Ø 3.5 mm (2x)
19.1 mm (2x)
25.9 mm (2x)
Bipolar Connector (IS-1†)
Prodigy DR (7861)
Prodigy D (7865)
Ø 2.46 mm (2x)
Ø 4.5 mm (2x)
Ø 6.0 mm (2x)
Ø 5.0 mm (2x)
17.9 mm (2x)
26.4 mm (2x)
6.1 mm (2x)
Unipolar Connector (5/6 mm)
* Prodigy VDD connector is atrial bipolar sensing only and ventricular bipolar or unipolar
pacing and sensing.
† IS-1 refers to an International Connector Standard (See Document No. ISO 5841-3; 1992)
whereby pulse generators and leads so designated are assured of a basic mechanical fit.
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A-8
Prodigy Reference Information
Prodigy DR (7862)
Prodigy D (7866)
Ø 1.88 mm (2x)
Ø 3.5 mm (2x)
16.7 mm (2x)
25.6 mm (2x)
Bipolar Connector (low-profile 3.2 mm)
Prodigy SR (8160)
Prodigy S (8164)
Ø 1.93 mm
Ø 3.5 mm
17.5 mm
24.3 mm
Bipolar Connector (IS-1*)
*
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A-9
Prodigy SR (8161)
Prodigy S (8165)
Ø 2.46 mm
Ø 6.0 mm
Ø 4.5 mm
Ø 5.0 mm
17.9 mm
26.4 mm
Unipolar Connector (5/6 mm)
Prodigy SR (8162)
Prodigy S (8166)
Ø 1.88 mm
Ø 3.5 mm
17.5 mm
26.4 mm
Bipolar Connector (low-profile 3.2 mm)
Prodigy SR (8158)
22.9 mm
13.7 mm
Ø 5.1 mm (2x)
Ø 1.7 mm (2x)
16.8 mm
25.9 mm
Bifurcated Bipolar (5 mm)
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
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Medtronic Confidential
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
SECTION B
Shipping, Nominal,
Electrical Reset, and
Emergency Parameters
Section B contains tables which present parameter settings for Shipping,
Nominal, Electrical Reset, and Emergency conditions. The clinician may
refer to these tables to validate pacemaker operation following:
■
removal of the pacemaker from the package (shipping parameter
settings),
■
use of the Medtronic nominal programming command,
■
a full or partial electrical reset of the pacemaker, and
■
use of the emergency programmer command.
The Prodigy pacemaker parameter settings are given for the following
models:
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
B-1
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
B-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Shipping Parameter Settings
NOTE: Parameter settings not appearing for a specific Prodigy pacemaker are not applicable to that
device. Some parameter settings are dependent on mode or other parameters.
Parameter
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
Mode
DDD
Mode Switch
OFF
Lower (Pacing)
Rate
60 ppm
Upper Activity
Rate*
120 ppm
Upper Tracking
Rate
120 ppm
(8164/65/66)
DDD
VDD
VVI
VVI
60 ppm
50 ppm
60 ppm
60 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
Paced AV (PAV) 150 ms
Sensed AV (SAV) 120 ms
RAAV
OFF
150 ms
120 ms
OFF
120 ms
OFF
PVARP
Ventricular
Refractory
Period
310 ms
230 ms
310 ms
230 ms
OFF
OFF
3.5 V
0.4 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
0.25 mV
220 ms
310 ms
230 ms
PMT Intervention OFF
Atrial
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Blanking
(PVAB)
Pacing Polarity
3.5 V
0.4 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
See package
label
Sensing Polarity See package
label
196407001
Rev A
Prodigy S
See package
label
See package
label
330 ms
330 ms
Bipolar
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9879EN-B_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:37 Page B-3
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Shipping, Nominal, Electrical Reset, and Emergency Parameters
Parameter
Ventricular
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Blanking
(PAVB)
Pacing Polarity
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
28 ms
See package
label
Sensing Polarity See package
label
Rate Response*
Activity Rate
Response
Activity
Threshold
Acceleration
Deceleration
Ventricular
Safety Pacing
(8168)
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
(8164/65/66)
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
28 ms
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
See package
label
See package
label
See package
label
See package
label
See package
label
See package
label
See package
label
See package
label
7
7
Medium
Medium
0.5 min
5 min
0.5 min
5 min
ON
B-3
Prodigy S
ON
Non-Competitive* ON
Atrial Pacing
Lead Monitor
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Transtelephonic
Monitor
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Extended
Telemetry
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Single Chamber
Hysteresis
OFF*
OFF*
OFF*
OFF
OFF
Diagnostics
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Serial Number
Factory set
Factory set
Factory set
Factory set
Factory set
* Parameter is not pertinent to the shipping mode.
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9879EN-B_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:37 Page B-4
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
B-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Nominal Parameter Settings
NOTE: Parameter settings not appearing for a specific Prodigy pacemaker are not applicable to that
device. Some parameter settings are dependent on mode or other parameters.
Parameter
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
Mode
DDDR
Mode Switch
OFF
Lower (Pacing)
Rate
Upper Activity
Rate
Upper Tracking
Rate
60 ppm
(8164/65/66)
DDD
VDD
VVIR
VVI
60 ppm
50 ppm
60 ppm
60 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
Paced AV (PAV) 150 ms
Sensed AV (SAV) 120 ms
RAAV
OFF
150 ms
120 ms
OFF
120 ms
OFF
PVARP
Ventricular
Refractory
Period
310 ms
230 ms
310 ms
230 ms
OFF
OFF
3.5 V
0.4 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
3.5 V
0.4 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
Bipolar
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
28 ms
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
28 ms
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
310 ms
230 ms
PMT Intervention OFF
Atrial
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Blanking
(PVAB)
Pacing Polarity
Sensing Polarity
Ventricular
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Blanking
(PAVB)
Pacing Polarity
Sensing Polarity
196407001
Rev A
Prodigy S
330 ms
330 ms
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
3.5 V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Shipping, Nominal, Electrical Reset, and Emergency Parameters
Parameter
Rate Response
Activity Rate
Response
Activity
Threshold
Acceleration
Deceleration
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
(8168)
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
7
7
Medium
Medium
0.5 min
5 min
0.5 min
5 min
Prodigy S
(8164/65/66)
Ventricular
Safety Pacing
ON
ON
Non-Competitive
Atrial Pacing
ON
Lead Monitor
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Transtelephonic
Monitor
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
Extended
Telemetry
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Single Chamber
Hysteresis
196407001
B-5
OFF
Diagnostics
Rate Histogram,
Include Ref.
Sense
Rate Histogram,
Include Ref.
Sense
Rate Histogram,
Include Ref.
Sense
Rate Histogram,
Include Ref.
Sense
Rate Histogram,
Include Ref.
Sense
Serial Number
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
B-6
Prodigy Reference Information
Electrical Reset Parameter Settings
NOTE: Parameter settings not appearing for a specific Prodigy pacemaker are not applicable to that
device. Some parameter settings are dependent on mode or other parameters.
Parameter
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
Mode
As programmed
(or VVI1)
Mode Switch
As programmed
(or OFF1)
175 bpm
Detect Rate
Lower (Pacing)
Rate
Upper Activity
Rate
Upper Tracking
Rate
65 ppm
(8168)
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
(8164/65/66)
As programmed
(or VVI1)
As programmed
(or VVI1)
As programmed
(or VVI1)
As programmed
(or VVI1)
65 ppm
65 ppm
65 ppm
65 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
120 ppm
Paced AV (PAV) 150 ms
Sensed AV (SAV) 120 ms
RAAV
OFF (or ON2)
150 ms
120 ms
OFF
120 ms
OFF
PVARP
Ventricular
Refractory
Period
310 ms
230 ms
310 ms
230 ms
OFF
OFF
5.0V
0.4 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
310 ms
230 ms
PMT Intervention OFF
Atrial
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Blanking
(PVAB)
Pacing Polarity
5.0V
0.4 ms
0.5 mV
220 ms
(or 150ms2)
As programmed
(or Unipolar1)
Sensing Polarity As programmed
(or Unipolar1)
196407001
Rev A
Prodigy S
As programmed
(or Unipolar1)
As programmed
(or Unipolar1)
330 ms
(or 400 ms3)
330 ms
(or 400 ms3)
220 ms
220 ms
Bipolar
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Shipping, Nominal, Electrical Reset, and Emergency Parameters
Parameter
Ventricular
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
(8168)
5.0V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
5.0V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
Blanking
28 ms
(PAVB)
Pacing Polarity4 As programmed
Sensing Polarity4 As programmed
Rate Response
Activity Rate
Response
Activity
Threshold
Acceleration
Deceleration
B-7
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
Prodigy S
(8164/65/66)
5.0V
0.4 ms
2.8 mV
5.0V3
0.4 ms3
2.8 mV
(or 0.5 mV3)
5.0V3
0.4 ms3
2.8 mV
(or 0.5 mV3)
As programmed
As programmed
As programmed3
As programmed3
As programmed3
As programmed3
28 ms
As programmed
As programmed
7
7
Medium
0.5 min
5 min
Medium
0.5 min
5 min
Ventricular
Safety Pacing
ON
ON
Non-Competitive
Atrial Pacing
ON
Lead Monitor
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Transtelephonic
Monitor
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Extended
Telemetry
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Single Chamber
Hysteresis
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Diagnostics
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
Serial Number
As programmed
(or zeros)
As programmed
(or zeros)
As programmed
(or zeros)
As programmed
(or zeros)
As programmed
(or zeros)
1
Parameter setting if a full electrical reset occurs.
Parameter setting if mode switch is ON after a partial electrical reset.
3 Atrial parameter if programmed to a single chamber atrial mode.
4 Polarity for the Models 7860/62, 7864/66, 8168, 8158, 8160/62, and 8164/66 connected to a bipolar lead and if a full electrical
reset occurs. All models connected to a unipolar lead reset to unipolar.
2
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
B-8
Prodigy Reference Information
Emergency Parameter Settings
5
196407001
Rev A
Parameter
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
Prodigy VDD
Prodigy SR5
Prodigy S5
Mode
VVI
Pacing Rate
70 ppm
Ventricular Refractory Period
330 ms
Ventricular
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Pacing Polarity
Sensing Polarity
7.5V
1.5 ms
2.8 mV
Unipolar
Unipolar
Single Chamber Hysteresis
OFF
Pacemaker reverts to VVI mode with atrial implants.
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9879EN-C_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:38 Page C-1
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
SECTION C
Longevity Projections,
Elective Replacement
Indicator, and Battery
Specifications
Section C contains information on longevity projections and elective
replacement indicator operations and messages that aid in determining
when to replace Prodigy pacemakers. In addition, battery specifications are
given. Information is provided for the following Prodigy models:
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
C-1
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
C-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Longevity Projections
Projected Longevity from Implant to ERI
The following tables show the estimated time from implant to the elective replacement indicator (ERI)
being set at nominal and low output settings for Prodigy pacemakers. The estimated time varies based
on the lead impedance, the programmed amplitudes, and the percent paced.
Prodigy DR and Prodigy D Pacemakers’ Projected Longevity from Implant to ERI
Programmed Settings
Percent Paced
Rate: 60 ppm
Mode:
Pulse Width
Atrial: 0.4 ms
Ventricular: 0.4 ms
Projected Longevity (Years)
Prodigy DR
Prodigy D
(7860/61/62)
(7864/65/66)
DDDR
DDD
500
ohms
600
ohms
Lead Impedance
1000
500
ohms
ohms
600
ohms
1000
ohms
Nominal Amplitudes
100%
7.2
7.7
9.2
7.3
7.8
9.3
Atrial: 3.5 V
Ventricular: 3.5 V
50%
9.2
9.6
10.8
9.3
9.8
10.9
100%
9.7
10.1
11.1
9.8
10.2
11.3
50%
11.2
11.4
12.1
11.3
11.6
12.3
Low Amplitudes
Atrial: 2.5 V
Ventricular: 2.5 V
WARNING: When the elective replacement indicator (ERI) is set, the pacemaker will continue to
operate at ERI conditions for a minimum of 3 months until the battery depletes.
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9879EN-C_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:38 Page C-3
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Longevity Projections, Elective Replacement Indicator, and Battery Specifications
C-3
Prodigy VDD Pacemakers’ Projected Longevity from Implant to ERI
Programmed Settings
Percent Paced
Projected Longevity (Years)
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
VDD
Rate: 60 ppm
Mode:
Pulse Width: 4.0 ms
Lead Impedance
600
ohms
Nominal Amplitude: 3.5 V
Low Amplitude: 2.5 V
100%
9.8
50%
11.2
100%
11.5
50%
12.4
Prodigy SR and Prodigy S Pacemakers’ Projected Longevity from Implant to ERI
Programmed Settings
Percent Paced
Rate: 60 ppm
Mode:
Pulse Width: 0.4 ms
Nominal Amplitude: 3.5 V
Low Amplitude: 2.5 V
Projected Longevity (Years)
Prodigy SR
Prodigy S
(8158, 8160/61/62)
(8164/65/66)
VVIR
VVI
Lead Impedance
1000
500
ohms
ohms
500
ohms
600
ohms
600
ohms
1000
ohms
100%
7.8
8.2
9.3
7.9
8.4
9.4
50%
9.3
9.6
10.3
9.4
9.7
10.4
100%
9.6
9.9
10.5
9.8
10.1
10.7
50%
10.5
10.7
11.1
10.7
10.9
11.3
WARNING: When the elective replacement indicator (ERI) is set, the pacemaker will continue to
operate at ERI conditions for a minimum of 3.0 months for the Prodigy VDD pacemaker and a
minimum of 2.5 months for the Prodigy SR and Prodigy S pacemakers until the battery depletes.
NOTE: The values above are based on calculations using deliverable battery capacity. These values
are estimates of longevity projections from implant to ERI and are intended to assist the clinician in
understanding the effects of various pacing conditions on battery longevity. These values should not
be interpreted as precise numbers.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
C-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Projected Longevity From ERI to Erratic Pacing
The following tables show the estimated time from the ERI to erratic pacing for the Prodigy
pacemakers. Regardless of the patients programmed settings, virtually all (i.e., 99.9%) Prodigy DR,
Prodigy D, and Prodigy VDD pacemakers will achieve a minimum (min) of 3.0 months longevity after
ERI is set, while Prodigy SR and Prodigy S pacemakers will achieve a minimum (min) of 2.5 months
longevity after ERI is set. Additional longevity may be gained depending on the patient’s individual
pacing conditions. Note that the average (avg) time in the table below refers to the projected mean
longevity of pacemakers at the stated conditions.
Prodigy DR and Prodigy D Pacemaker’s Projected Longevity from ERI to Erratic Pacing
Previously
Programmed Settings
Percent
Paced
Rate
(ppm)
Nominal Settings
Mode: DDDR/DDD
Amplitudes
Atrial and Ventricular: 3.5 V
Pulse Widths
Atrial and Ventricular: 0.4 ms
Single Chamber Settings
Mode: VVIR/VVI
Amplitude: 3.5 V
Pulse Width: 0.4 ms
Projected Longevity (Months)
Prodigy DR (7860/61/62)
Prodigy D (7864/65/66)
500 ohms
60
100%
Min
4.5
Avg*
9.5
60
100%
Min
3.5
Avg
7.5
* Current data show that combinations of extreme pacing conditions (high output values [≥ 5.0V] and high pulse widths or low
impedance values [300 ohms]) may increase the average projection in the DDDR/DDD modes.
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9879EN-C_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:38 Page C-5
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Longevity Projections, Elective Replacement Indicator, and Battery Specifications
C-5
Prodigy VDD Pacemaker’s Projected Longevity from ERI to Erratic Pacing
Previously
Programmed Settings
Percent
Paced
Rate
(ppm)
Nominal Settings
Mode: VDD
Amplitude: 3.5 V
Pulse Width: 0.4 ms
Single Chamber Settings
Mode: VVIR/VVI
Amplitude: 3.5 V
Pulse Width: 0.4 ms
Projected Longevity (Months)
Prodigy VDD (8168)
500 ohms
60
100%
Min
3.5
Avg*
7.5
60
100%
Min
3.5
Avg
7.5
Prodigy SR and Prodigy S Pacemakers’ Projected Longevity from ERI to Erratic Pacing
Previously
Programmed Settings
Percent
Paced
Rate
(ppm)
Single Chamber Settings
Mode: VVIR/VVI
Amplitude: 3.5 V
Pulse Width: 0.4 ms
60
Projected Longevity (Months)
Prodigy SR (8158, 8160/61/62)
Prodigy S (8164/65/66)
500 ohms
100%
Min
2.5
Avg†
6.5
* Lower impedances will decrease the average projections. At 300 ohms and a rate of 60 ppm, the average projected longevity
is about 6.9 months in the VDD mode.
† Current data show that combinations of extreme pacing conditions (high output values [≥ 5.0V] and high pulse widths or low
impedance values [300 ohms]) may decrease the average projection of the Prodigy SR and Prodigy S pacemakers in the
SSIR/SSI modes, potentially below 2.5 months. Under extreme conditions, the projections can be as short as 1.9 months for
these pacemakers.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
C-6
Prodigy Reference Information
Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI)
The Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) is set when the battery voltage
drops below 2.62 V (all models).
Listed below are the ERI for nonmagnet and magnet modes for the Prodigy
pacemakers.
Elective Replacement Indicator Conditions
Nonmagnet Mode
VVI mode at 65 ppm rate
Magnet Mode
VOO mode at 65 ppm rate
Telemetry
Replacement message on programmer
Battery/Lead Information
Replacement message and displayed
battery voltage on programmer
From the point that the ERI is set, the pacemaker will continue to operate
at ERI conditions for a minimum of 3.0 months for the Prodigy DR,
Prodigy D, and Prodigy VDD pacemakers and 2.5 months for the
Prodigy SR and Prodigy S pacemakers until the battery fully depletes.
At full battery depletion, erratic pacing will ensue. The patient should be
scheduled for immediate pacemaker replacement when the ERI is first
detected.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Longevity Projections, Elective Replacement Indicator, and Battery Specifications
C-7
Battery Specifications
196407001
Prodigy DR (7860/61/62)
Prodigy D (7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD (8168)
Prodigy SR (8158, 8160/61/62)
Prodigy S (8164/65/66)
Type
Lithium-iodine
Lithium-iodine
Voltage
2.8 V
2.8 V
Available Capacity
1.5 amp-hr
1.1 amp-hr
Average Projected
Capacity
1.2 amp-hr
0.90 amp-hr
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
196407001
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9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-1
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
SECTION D
Magnet Mode Operations,
Telemetry Functions,
Diagnostics, and
Event Summaries
Section D contains Prodigy magnet mode operations, telemetry functions,
and diagnostics that are available for patient follow-up sessions. These
capabilities are used to assess the patient’s cardiac profile and the
pacemaker’s operation for the following Prodigy pacemakers:
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
D-1
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-2
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
D-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Magnet Mode Operations
Listed below are the magnet mode operations in dual and single chamber
modes for the Prodigy pacemakers.
Magnet Mode Operations
Dual Chamber Modes
DOO mode at 85 ppm
VDD Mode
VOO mode at 85 ppm
Single Chamber Modes
VOO/AOO mode at 85 ppm
Magnet mode operations is established by placing the programming head
over the implant site and moving the head along the axis as shown below
until the head light indicates telemetry is possible.
Axis
Prodigy DR (7860/61/62)
Prodigy D (7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD (8168)
Axis
Prodigy SR (8158, 8160/61/62)
Prodigy S (8164/65/66)
Positioning the Programming Head
196407001
Rev A
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-3
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Magnet Mode Operations, Telemetry Functions, Diagnostics, and Event Summaries
D-3
Telemetry Functions
Listed below are Marker Channel telemetries, battery and lead telemetry,
diagnostics, and event summaries for each of the Prodigy pacemakers.
Marker Channel Telemetry
Prodigy
DR
Prodigy
D
Prodigy
VDD
Prodigy
SR
Prodigy
S
Marker Telemetry
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Sensor Telemetry
✓
✓
✓
Marker Channel
Diagrams
✓
✓
✓
EGM
(A or V)
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
Battery and Lead Information
Prodigy DR, Prodigy D, Prodigy VDD, Prodigy SR, Prodigy S
Battery Status
Value
Message
“OK” or “Replace Pacer”
Tolerance*
Voltage
V
± 10%
Current
µA
± 30%
Impedance
Ohms
± 10% (± 100 ohms)
Est. Time to Replace
Months
Atrial and/or
Ventricular Chambers
Value
Tolerance*
Pulse Width
ms
± 1%
Amplitude
V
± 10%
Output Energy
µJ
± 45%
Lead Current
mA
± 35%
Lead Impedance
Ohms
± 20%
Pacing Polarity
UNI/BI
* Based on a 200 to 1250 ohm load at the time of manufacture until ERI.
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-4
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
D-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Dual Chamber Pacemaker Diagnostics
NOTE: Prodigy diagnostics are programmed using the diagnostic setups
listed below that set the diagnostic type and associated parameters listed
under “setup values”. Alternately, other programmable values can be
selected for the diagnostic type and parameters.
Diagnostic Setup
A. Tachy Monitor
Type:
Method:
Detection Rate1:
Detection
Number:
Termination
Number:
Collect EGM:
Lead Monitor2:
V. Tachy Monitor
Type:
Method:
Detection Rate1:
Detection
Number:
Termination
Number:
Collect EGM:
Lead Monitor2:
196407001
Rev A
Setup Values
Other Programmable Values
High Rate Episode-A.
Rolling
Upper Tracking Rate
or Upper Activity Rate,
whichever is greater
Frozen
80 - 400 ppm
8
2 - 200
8
ON
OFF
2 - 20
OFF
ON,
ON + Polar. SW.
(A+V, A, or V)
High Rate Episode-V.
Rolling
Upper Tracking Rate
or Upper Activity Rate,
whichever is greater
Frozen
80 - 400 ppm
3
2 - 200
3
ON
2 - 20
OFF
OFF
ON,
ON + Polar. SW.
(A+V, A, or V)
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-5
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Magnet Mode Operations, Telemetry Functions, Diagnostics, and Event Summaries
Diagnostic Setup
Setup Values
Rate Histogram
Type:
Refractory:
Lead Monitor2:
Rate Histogram
Include
OFF
Lead Trend
Type:
Method:
Lead Trend
Rolling
Lead Monitor2:
D-5
Other Programmable Values
Exclude
ON,
ON + Polar. SW.
(A+V, A, or V)
Frozen
OFF (fixed setting)
1
The values used for Upper Tracking Rate and Upper Activity Rate are the most recent
programmed values registered in pacemaker memory. These values will be used even when
they are not pertinent to the present permanent mode.
2 “ON” and ventricular “ON + Polar. SW-V.” are the only programmable Lead Monitor
values for the Prodigy VDD pacemaker.
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-6
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
D-6
Prodigy Reference Information
Single Chamber Pacemaker Diagnostics
NOTE: Prodigy diagnostics are programmed using the diagnostic setups
listed below that set the diagnostic type and associated parameters listed
under “setup values”. Alternately, other programmable values can be
selected for the diagnostic type and parameters.
Diagnostic Setup
Setup Values
Other Programmable Values
Monitor3
Tachy
Type:
Method:
Detection Rate4:
Detection
Number:
Termination
Number:
Collect EGM:
Lead Monitor:
3
2- 200
3
ON
OFF
2 - 20
OFF
ON,
ON + Polar. SW.
Rate Histogram
Include
OFF
Lead Trend
Type:
Method:
Lead Trend
Rolling
3
4
Rev A
Frozen
80 - 400 ppm
Rate Histogram
Type:
Refractory:
Lead Monitor:
Lead Monitor:
196407001
High Rate Episode
Rolling
Upper Activity Rate or
120 ppm, whichever is greater
Exclude
ON,
ON + Polar. SW.
Frozen
OFF (fixed setting)
Diagnostic is only applicable to the Prodigy SR pacemaker.
The value used for the Upper Activity Rate is the most recent programmed value registered
in pacemaker memory. This value will be used even when it is not pertinent to the present
programmed mode.
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-D_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:39 Page D-7
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Magnet Mode Operations, Telemetry Functions, Diagnostics, and Event Summaries
D-7
Event Summaries
Prodigy
DR
Prodigy
D
Prodigy
VDD
Prodigy
SR
Prodigy
S
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
✓
PVC and PVC Run
Events
✓
✓
✓
Mode Switch
Event
✓
Percent Total Events
AV Sequence
Pace/Sense
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-1
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
SECTION E
Modes and Parameters,
Programming
Requirements and
Restrictions, and
Timing Reference Table
Section E provides programmable, nonprogrammable, and temporary
parameter capabilities for the Prodigy pacemakers. The parameters are
divided into the dual chamber pacemakers and the single chamber
pacemakers listed below. In addition, programming requirements and
restrictions are given for the programmer software and an event timing
reference table by mode.
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
E-1
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-2
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
E-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Dual Chamber Pacemaker Permanent
Programmable Modes and Parameters
In the table below are the Prodigy DR, Prodigy D, and Prodigy VDD permanent programmable modes
and parameters. Parameters listed under separate columns apply only to the specific Prodigy model.
Parameters common to two or three Prodigy models are listed once under the respective models.
Parameter
Prodigy DR
(7860/61/62)
Prodigy D
(7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
Pacing Mode
DDDR, DDD,
VDD, DDIR, DDI,
DVIR, DVI, DOOR,
DOO, VVIR, VVI,
VVT, VOOR, VOO,
AAIR, AAI, AAT,
AOOR, AOO,
ODO, OVO, OAO
DDD, VDD, DDI,
DVI, DOO,
VVI, VVT, VOO,
AAI, AAT, AOO,
ODO, OVO, OAO
VDD, VVIR,
VVI, VVT,
VOOR, VOO,
ODO, OVO, OAO
Mode Switch
Detect Rate
ON/OFF
120, 125, 130,
… 175 bpm
Lower Rate
PAV
80, 90, 95,
100, ... 180 ppm
Not applicable
30, 40, 50, … 350 ms
RAAV
196407001
80, 90, 95, 100, … 180 ppm
30, 40, 50, … 350 ms
SAV
ON/OFF
Rev A
Applies to DDDR,
DDD, and VDD modes;
Detect Rates of 185 or
190 bpm are available
if UTR is set to 175 or
180 ppm, respectively.
30, 35, 40, … 180 ppm (except 65 and 85 ppm)
Upper Tracking
Rate
Upper Activity
Rate
Not Applicable
Notes
DDDR, DDD,
and VDD modes
120 ppm
Applies to rate
responsive modes,
including DDD and
VDD with Mode
Switch ON
Not applicable
Dual chamber
modes, except VDD
DDDR, DDD,
and VDD modes
DDDR, DDD,
DDIR, DVIR,
DOOR, and
VDD modes
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-3
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
Parameter
Prodigy DR
(7860/61/62)
Prodigy D
(7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
E-3
Notes
PVARP
150, 160, 170, … 500 ms
DDDR, DDD, DDIR,
DDI, and VDD modes
Ventricular
Refractory
Period
150, 160, 170, … 500 ms
Dual chamber and
ventricular modes,
except DOOR, DOO,
VOOR, and VOO
modes
Atrial
Refractory
Period
PMT Intervention
Atrial
Amplitude*
150, 160, 170, … 500 ms
Not applicable
ON/OFF
AAIR, AAI,
and AAT modes
DDDR, DDD,
and VDD modes
0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5,
3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5 V
Not applicable
Pulse Width
0.03, 0.06, 0.09,
0.12 ms
0.15, 0.20, 0.25, … 1.0 ms
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 ms
Not applicable
Sensitivity
0.18, 0.25, 0.35, 0.5,
0.7, 1.0, 1.4, 2.0,
2.8, 4.0 mV
0.18, 0.25, 0.35,
0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4,
2.0, 2.8, 4.0 mV
Blanking
(PVAB)
100, 110, 120, … 350 ms
100, 110, 120,
… 350 ms
Pacing
Polarity
Unipolar, Bipolar
Not applicable
Sensing
Polarity
Unipolar, Bipolar
Not applicable
0.18, 0.25 and 0.35 mV
sensitivity applies to
bipolar atrial sensing
only
Models 7861 and
7865 unipolar pacing
and sensing only;
Model 8168 is bipolar
atrial sensing only
* Tolerance is based on 37°C and a 510 ohm load for the following: 0.5 V (± 10%), 1.0 V (± 10%), 1.5 V (± 10%),
2.0 V (± 10%), 2.5 V (+ 2/- 13%), 3.0 V (± 10%), 3.5 V (+ 9/- 7%), 4.0 V (± 10%), 5.0 V (+ 1/- 13%), 7.5 V (+ 1/- 13%).
196407001
Rev A
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-4
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
E-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Parameter
Prodigy DR
(7860/61/62)
Prodigy D
(7864/65/66)
Ventricular
Amplitude*
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
Notes
0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0,
3.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5 V
Pulse Width
0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 ms
0.15, 0.20, 0.25, … 1.0 ms
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 ms
Sensitivity
1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8.0, 11.2 mV
Blanking
(PAVB)
20, 28, 36, 44 ms
Ventricular blanking
not applicable to the
Model 8168
Pacing
Polarity
Unipolar, Bipolar
Models 7861 and 7865
unipolar pacing and
sensing only
Sensing
Polarity
Unipolar, Bipolar
Rate Response
Activity Rate
Response
1, 2, 3, … 10
Not Applicable
Applies to rate
responsive modes,
including DDD and
VDD with Mode
Switch ON
7
Activity
Threshold
Low,
Medium/Low,
Medium,
Medium/High,
High
Medium
Acceleration
0.25 min, 0.5 min,
1.0 min
0.5 min
Deceleration
2.5 min, 5.0 min,
10 min
5.0 min
Ventricular Safety
Pacing
Non-Competitive
Atrial Pacing
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Applies to DDDR,
DDD, DDIR, DDI,
DVIR, and DVI modes
DDDR mode
* Tolerance is based on 37°C and a 510 ohm load for the following: 0.5 V (± 10%), 1.0 V (± 10%), 1.5 V (± 10%),
2.0 V (± 10%), 2.5 V (+ 2/- 13%), 3.0 V (± 10%), 3.5 V (+ 9/- 7%), 4.0 V (± 10%), 5.0 V (+ 1/- 13%), 7.5 V (+ 1/- 13%).
196407001
Rev A
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Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-5
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
Parameter
Lead Monitor
Prodigy D
(7864/65/66)
ON, OFF,
ON + Polar. SW. - A+V,
ON + Polar. SW. - A,
ON + Polar. SW. - V
Transtelephonic
Monitor
ON/OFF
Extended
Telemetry
ON/OFF
Single Chamber
Hysteresis
196407001
Prodigy DR
(7860/61/62)
Rev A
40, 50, 60 ppm, OFF
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
E-5
Notes
Ventricular Polarity
Switching applies to
Model 8168
VVI, VVT, AAI,
and AAT modes
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-6
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
E-6
Prodigy Reference Information
Single Chamber Pacemaker Permanent
Programmable Modes and Parameters
In the table below are the Prodigy SR and Prodigy S permanent programmable modes and parameters.
Parameters listed under separate columns apply only to the specific Prodigy model. Parameters
common to both Prodigy models are listed once.
Parameter
Modes
Lower (Pacing) Rate
Upper Activity Rate
Refractory Period
Amplitude*
Pulse Width
Sensitivity
Atrial
Ventricular
Blanking
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
Prodigy S
Notes
VVIR, VVI, VVT, VOOR
VOO, AAIR, AAI, AAT
AOOR, AOO, OVO, OAO
VVI, VVT, VOO
AAI, AAT, AOO,
OVO, OAO
(8164/65/66)
30, 35, 40, … 180 ppm (except 65 and 85 ppm)
80, 90, 95, 100, … 180 ppm
Not Applicable
Rate responsive modes
150, 160, 170, … 500 ms
0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5 V
0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 ms
0.15, 0.20, 0.25, … 1.0 ms
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 ms
0.25, 0.35, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0 mV
1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8.0, 11.2 mV
100, 110, 120, … 350 ms
Pacing Polarity
Bipolar, Unipolar
Sensing Polarity
Bipolar, Unipolar
0.25 and 0.35 mV
sensitivity for bipolar
sensing only
AAIR, AAI, and
AAT modes
Models 8161 and 8165
unipolar pacing and
sensing only
* Tolerance is based on 37°C and a 510 ohm load for the following: 0.5 V (± 10%), 1.0 V (± 10%), 1.5 V (± 10%),
2.0 V (± 10%), 2.5 V (+ 2/- 13%), 3.0 V (± 10%), 3.5 V (+ 9/- 7%), 4.0 V (± 10%), 5.0 V (+ 1/- 13%), 7.5 V (+ 1/- 13%).
196407001
Rev A
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-7
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
Parameter
Rate Response
Activity Rate
Response
Activity
Threshold
Acceleration
Deceleration
Lead Monitor
Prodigy S
1, 2, 3, … 10
Not Applicable
Rate responsive modes
Low, Medium/Low,
Medium, Medium/High,
High
0.25 min, 0.5 min, 1.0 min
2.5 min, 5.0 min, 10 min
ON, OFF,
ON + Polar. SW.
ON/OFF
Extended
Telemetry
ON/OFF
Rev A
Notes
(8164/65/66)
Transtelephonic
Monitor
Single Chamber
Hysteresis
196407001
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
E-7
40, 50, 60 ppm, OFF
VVI, VVT, AAI,
and AAT modes
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-8
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
E-8
Prodigy Reference Information
Programming Requirements and Restrictions
The following requirements and restrictions insure that parameter settings selected for programming
do not form an invalid combination or cause an undesirable interaction. An invalid combination of
pending parameter values is indicated when the pending values of the parameters involved appear on
the screen in reverse video (see pages 6-3 and 6-4). Programming will not be allowed until valid
parameter values have been selected.
Parameter
Programming Restriction/Requirement
Atrial Blanking
Atrial Blanking cannot be greater than PVARP.
Atrial Blanking must be at least 50 ms shorter than Atrial Refractory.
The programmed value for Atrial Blanking cannot be changed when Mode Switch is ON.
Lower Rate
Lower Rate must be less than Upper Activity Rate and/or Upper Tracking Rate.
The following combinations of Lower Rate and Paced AV Interval cannot be
programmed:
Lower Rate
140 ppm
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
Paced AV Interval
340 - 350 ms
330 - 350
310 - 350
300 - 350
290 - 350
280 - 350
260 - 350
250 - 350
240 - 350
Pacing Mode
If an interrogation for the present parameter settings has not occurred, the programmer will
not allow you to program a pacing mode unless you also select values for certain other
parameters, such as Lower Rate. Interrogating the pacemaker from the Pacing Parameters
screen eliminates this requirement.
Mode Switch
Certain parameter values automatically are made pending when you select ON as the
Mode Switch value:
■
Upper Activity Rate is set equal to Upper Tracking Rate.
■
Rate Adaptive AV Interval is set to ON.
■
Atrial Blanking is set to a value based on the Upper Tracking Rate and PVARP is set
to a value based on the Detect Rate. If the pacing mode is VDD, PVARP is set to
“varied.”
Upper Tracking Rate cannot be less than 100 ppm.
Lower Rate cannot be less than 35 ppm or greater than 100 ppm.
Sensed AV cannot be less than 40 ms or greater than 160 ms.
196407001
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-9
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
E-9
Detect Rate must be at least 10 bpm greater than the Upper Tracking Rate, except for the
combination of 175 bpm (Detect Rate) and 170 ppm (Upper Tracking Rate), which is
valid. If the Upper Tracking Rate is 165 ppm or above, a pending value for Detect Rate is
automatically selected by the programmer.
Paced AV cannot be less than the Sensed AV or greater than the Sensed AV plus 70 ms.
PVARP
The programmed value for PVARP cannot be changed when Mode Switch is ON.
Rate Adaptive
AV Interval
Rate Adaptive AV Interval cannot be programmed OFF when Mode Switch is ON.
Sensitivity
Permanent Atrial Sensitivity cannot be less than 0.5 mV if Atrial Sense Polarity is
Unipolar or if Polarity Switch for the atrium is programmed.
Upper Rate
Upper Activity Rate and/or Upper Tracking Rate must be greater than
(Activity, Tracking) Lower Rate.
Upper Activity Rate cannot be selected for programming while Mode Switch is ON.
If Mode Switch is programmed ON or is pending, Upper Tracking Rate must be at least 10
ppm less than the Mode Switch Detect Rate, except for the combination of 170 ppm
(Upper Tracking Rate ) and 175 bpm (Detect Rate), which is valid.
196407001
Rev A
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-10
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
E-10
Prodigy Reference Information
Nonprogrammable Parameters
Parameter
Prodigy DR
(7860/61/62)
Prodigy D
(7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD
(8168)
Notes
Atrial Blanking
Period
50 - 100 ms
Paced AV and
Sensed AV intervals
pacemaker-determined
Ventricular
Blanking
Period
50 - 100 ms
Ventricular Refractory
Period pacemakerdetermined
Rate Limit
200 ppm
Atrial and ventricular
rates, tolerance is
± 20 ppm
Parameter
Ventricular Blanking Period
Rate Limit
196407001
Rev A
Prodigy SR
(8158)
(8160/61/62)
Prodigy S
Notes
(8164/65/66)
50 - 100 ms
200 ppm
Ventricular Refractory
Period pacemaker-determined
Atrial and ventricular rates,
tolerance is ± 20 ppm.
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Medtronic Confidential
9879EN-E_9501043EN/CTC.qxd 5/10/99 11:40 Page E-11
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
E-11
Temporary Modes and Parameters
Parameter
Pacing Mode
Prodigy DR (7860/61/62)
Prodigy D (7864/65/66)
Prodigy VDD (8168)
Prodigy SR (8158, 8160/61/62)
Prodigy S (8164/65/66)
Notes
DDD*, VVI, VVT, VOO, AAI, AAT, AOO,
ODO*, OVO, OAO
DDD and ODO modes are
not applicable to Models
8168, 8158, 8160/61/62,
and 8164/65/66; Atrial
modes are not applicable to
the Model 8168
Pacing Rate†
Amplitude
Pulse Width
Atrial Sensitivity
Ventricular Sensitivity
30, 35, 40, … 180 ppm (except 65 and 85 ppm),
190, 200, 210, … 280 ppm,
300, 310, 320, 330, 350, 370, 380, 400 ppm
0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5 V
0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 ms,
0.15, 0.20, 0.25, … 1.0 ms,
1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 ms
0.18‡, 0.25, 0.35, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0 mV
Not applicable to the
Model 8168
1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8.0, 11.2 mV
* Availability of mode is dependent on the permanent mode.
† Pacing rate is limited to 5 ppm below the programmed Upper Tracking Rate in the DDD mode.
‡ Available with Models 7860/61/62 and 7864/65/66.
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E-12
Prodigy Reference Information
Timing Reference Table
Event
Modes
Timing Description
1.
A-sense outside
refractory period
DDD, DDDR, VDD
Starts atrial refractory (including the associated
50 to 100 ms atrial blanking) period and SAV.
2.
A-sense outside
refractory period
AAIR, AAI, AAT
Starts Upper Activity Rate (AAIR only),
programmed Atrial Refractory (including the
associated programmed Atrial Blanking)
period, and A-A escape interval; emits pacing
pulse up to 200 ppm (300 ms) in AAT only.
3.
A-sense outside
refractory period
DDI, DDIR
Starts atrial refractory (including the associated
50 to 100 ms atrial blanking) period.
4.
A-sense
ODO, OAO
Starts a 50 to 100 ms atrial blanking period.
5.
A-sense refractory in
SAV
DDD, DDDR, VDD
Starts a 50 to 100 ms atrial blanking period.
The atrial refractory period remains active.
6.
A-sense refractory in
PAV
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR
Starts a 50 to 100 ms atrial blanking period.
The atrial refractory period remains active.
7.
A-sense refractory
after nonrefractory
A-sense and before
V-pace occurs
DDIR, DDI
Starts a 50 to 100 ms atrial blanking period.
The atrial refractory period remains active.
8.
A-sense refractory
in PVARP
(NCAP is OFF)
DDD, DDDR,
VDD, DDI, DDIR
Starts a 50 to 100 ms atrial blanking period.
9.
A-sense refractory
in PVARP or
NCAP interval
A-pace.
(NCAP is ON)
DDDR
(Re)Starts 300 ms NCAP interval. A-pace will
be delayed until NCAP timeout. Subsequent
PAV will be shortened in case of delayed
10. A-sense in atrial
refractory period
AAI, AAIR, AAT
Starts programmed Atrial Refractory
(including the associated programmed
Atrial Blanking) period.
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Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
Event
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Modes
Timing Description
11. A-pace
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR
Starts atrial refractory (including the associated
50 to 100 ms atrial blanking) period,
programmed Ventricular Blanking Period,
and PAV.
12. A-pace
DVI, DVIR,
DOO, DOOR
Starts programmed Ventricular Blanking
period (DVI and DVIR only) and PAV.
13. A-pace
AAI, AAIR, AAT
Starts Upper Activity Rate (AAIR only),
programmed Atrial Refractory
(including the associated programmed Atrial
Blanking) period, and A-A escape interval.
14. A-pace
AOO, AOOR
Starts Upper Activity Rate (AOOR only) and
A-A escape interval.
15. V-sense outside
SAV, PAV or refractory
period (not PVC)
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR, VDD
Restarts VA interval, Upper Tracking Rate
(DDD, DDDR, and VDD only), PVARP
(including the associated programmed PVAB
period), and programmed Ventricular
Refractory (including the associated 50 to
100 ms ventricular blanking) period.
16. V-sense
ODO, OVO
Starts a 50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking
period.
17. V-sense outside
PAV or refractory
period
DVI, DVIR
Restarts VA interval and programmed
Ventricular Refractory (including the
associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking)
period.
18. V-sense outside
refractory period
VVI, VVIR, VVT
Restarts Upper Activity Rate (VVIR only),
programmed Ventricular Refractory
(including the associated 50 to 100 ms
ventricular blanking) period, and V-V
escape interval; emits pacing pulse up to
200 ppm (300 ms) in VVT only.
19. PVC (V-sense
outside refractory,
not preceded by
A-sense, A-pace
or A-sense in
PVARP)
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR, VDD
Restarts VA interval and starts minimum
PVARP of 400 ms; starts the associated
programmed PVAB period, programmed
Ventricular Refractory (including the
associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking)
period, and Upper Tracking Rate
(DDD, DDDR, and VDD only).
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E-14
Prodigy Reference Information
Event
Modes
Timing Description
20. PVC (refractory
V-sense not
preceded by
A-sense, A-pace
or A-sense in
PVARP)
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR, VDD
Starts minimum PVARP of 400 ms; starts the
associated programmed PVAB period,
programmed Ventricular Refractory (including
the associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular
blanking) period, and Upper Tracking Rate
(DDD, DDDR, and VDD only).
21. V-sense in SAV
DDD, DDDR,
VDD
Starts VA interval, Upper Tracking Rate,
PVARP (including the associated PVAB
period), and programmed Ventricular
Refractory (including the associated
50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking) period.
22. V-sense in PAV
outside 110 ms
VSP window or
VSP is OFF
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR, DVI,
DVIR
Starts VA interval, Upper Tracking Rate
(DDD and DDDR only), PVARP (including
the associated programmed PVAB period,
but not in DVI and DVIR), and programmed
Ventricular Refractory (including the
associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking)
period.
23. V-sense in PAV
inside 110 ms
VSP window with
VSP is ON
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR, DVI,
DVIR
Starts Upper Tracking Rate (DDD and DDDR
only), PVARP (including the associated
programmed PVAB period, but not in DVI and
DVIR), and programmed Ventricular
Refractory (including the associated 50 to
100 ms ventricular blanking) period. Emits
safety pace at 110 ms or at PAV timeout,
whichever is less. Starts VA interval at the
Safety Pace.
24. V-sense after
A-sense and before
V-pace occurs
DDIR, DDI
Restarts VA interval, programmed Ventricular
Refractory (including the associated 50 to
100 ms ventricular blanking) period, and
PVARP (including the associated programmed
PVAB period).
25. V-sense in
refractory period
(not PVC)
DDD, DDDR,
DDI, DDIR, VDD
Restarts Upper Tracking Rate (DDD, DDDR,
and VDD only), PVARP (including the
associated programmed PVAB period),
and programmed Ventricular Refractory
(including the associated 50 to 100 ms
ventricular blanking) period.
26. V-sense in
refractory period
DVI, DVIR, VVI,
VVIR, VVT
Restarts programmed Ventricular Refractory
(including the associated 50 to 100 ms
ventricular blanking) period and Upper
Activity Rate (VVIR only).
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Programmable, Nonprogrammable, and Temporary Parameters, Restrictions, and Timing
Event
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Modes
Timing Description
27. V-pace
VDD
Starts V-V interval, Upper Tracking Rate, a
400 ms PVARP or the programmed PVARP if
greater than 400 ms (including the associated
programmed PVAB period), and programmed
Ventricular Refractory (including the
associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking)
period.
28. V-pace (not ventricular
safety pace)
DDD, DDDR, DDI,
DDIR
Starts VA interval, Upper Tracking Rate
(DDD and DDDR only), PVARP (including
the associated programmed PVAB period),
and programmed Ventricular Refractory
(including the associated 50 to 100 ms
ventricular blanking) period.
29. V-pace (not
ventricular
safety pace)
DVI, DVIR,
DOOR, DOO
Starts VA interval and programmed
Ventricular Refractory (including
the associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular
blanking) period (DVI and DVIR only).
30. V-pace
VVI, VVIR, VVT,
VOOR, VOO
Starts Upper Activity Rate (VVIR, and
VOOR only), V-V escape interval, and
programmed Ventricular Refractory (including
the associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular
blanking) period (VVI, VVIR, and VVT only).
31. V-pace
(ventricular
safety pace)
DDDR, DDIR,
DDD, DDI,
DVIR, DVI
Starts VA interval, Upper Tracking Rate
(DDDR, DDD only), PVARP (including the
associated programmed PVAB period, but
not in DVI and DVIR), and programmed
Ventricular Refractory (including the
associated 50 to 100 ms ventricular blanking)
period.
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E-16
Prodigy Reference Information
The Prodigy pacemaker’s timing in dual chamber modes can be
summarized by the following rules:
■
In the DDDR, DDIR, DVIR, DDD, DDI, and DVI modes, an atrial
pace starts a PAV that times out only in the absence of a sensed
ventricular event. That is, the VA interval always begins with the next
sensed or paced ventricular event, whichever comes first. In the VDD
mode, an atrial sense starts a SAV that times out only in the absence of
a sensed ventricular event.
■
In the DDDR, DDD, and VDD modes, a nonrefractory sensed atrial
event starts an SAV that times out only in the absence of a sensed
ventricular event. That is, the VA interval (V-V escape interval in
VDD mode) always begins with the next sensed or paced ventricular
event, whichever comes first.
■
In the DDDR, DDIR, DVIR, DOOR, DDD, DDI, and DVI modes,
VA interval adjustments are made on a beat-by-beat basis to maintain a
constant atrial pacing rate (A-A timing). These VA adjustments are
made whenever:
The AV interval is shorter than the PAV interval, which will be
started by the next scheduled atrial pace (next scheduled PAV
interval).
■
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When the Rate Adaptive AV feature is programmed ON in the DDDR,
DDD, DDIR, DVIR, DOOR or VDD mode, the pacemaker modifies
the AV intervals (scheduled PAV or SAV intervals) step-by-step as the
heart rate increases or decreases. The scheduled PAV or SAV intervals
are determined at every V-pace or nonrefractory V-sense event. The
resulting operating PAV interval is based upon the current sensor rate,
whereas the operating SAV is based upon the mean atrial rate (a
running average atrial rate).
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
SECTION F
General Warnings
and Precautions
Section F contains general warnings and precautions that the clinician
should consider when programming Prodigy pacemakers. Specific mode or
parameter warnings and precautions are covered under the specific topic in
Section II of this manual. Information is provided for the following Prodigy
pacemakers:
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
F-1
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F-2
Prodigy Reference Information
General Warnings
General Warning
Medtronic implantable pacemakers and leads are implanted in the
extremely hostile environment of the human body. This environment places
severe limitations on the design and function of the pacemaker and lead.
These limitations unavoidably reduce the potential performance and
longevity of the pacemaker and lead despite the exercise of due care in
design, component selection, manufacture and testing prior to sale.
Reference is hereby made to published data on predictable failure rates of
the pacemaker and lead and their implantation which have either been
furnished by Medtronic or are otherwise available to physicians. The
pacemaker includes a nonseparable power source which will ultimately
cease to function due to exhaustion or premature failure thereby
necessitating removal of the pacemaker. The lead is necessarily very small
in diameter and very flexible, which unavoidably increases the likelihood
of breakage or breach of its insulation. Other reasons for failure of the
pacemaker or lead include, but are not limited to: body rejection
phenomena; change in performance characteristics due to component
changes or failures; unusual physiological variations in patients; medical
complications; lead displacement; lead fracture; fibrotic tissue formation;
erosion of the pacemaker or lead through body tissue or interference from
transmitters, tools, appliances, instruments, equipment or other devices
which use electricity or electromagnetic wave transmission. Consequently,
no representation or warranty is made that failure or cessation of function
of the pacemaker or lead will not occur, that the body will not react
adversely to the implantation of the pacemaker or lead, that medical
complications will not follow the implantation of the pacemaker or lead or
that the pacemaker and lead will, in all cases, restore adequate cardiac
function.
Side Effects
Possible side effects include, but are not limited to, body rejection
phenomena including local tissue reaction, muscle and nerve stimulation,
infection, erosion of pacemaker lead through skin, transvenous lead-related
thrombosis, embolism and cardiac tamponade.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Warnings and Precautions
F-3
Implantable Defibrillator
Some pacemaker patients may also require therapy from an implantable
defibrillator. Only bipolar pacing should be used with these patients. In
some cases, pacing in the unipolar configuration may cause the defibrillator
either to deliver inappropriate therapy or withhold appropriate therapy.
Regarding the use of Prodigy models in patients having an implanted
defibrillator, see below.
■
Prodigy DR
(Model 7861)
Prodigy D
(Model 7865)
These models are unipolar-only devices and
should not be used in patients having an
implantable defibrillator.
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7862)
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7866)
These models implanted with unipolar
lead(s) should not be used in patients
having an implantable defibrillator.
These models implanted with bipolar leads
automatically switch to ventricular bipolar
pacing polarity following a full VVI,
65-ppm electrical reset (e.g., due to a
defibrillation shock). Atrial and ventricular
bipolar pacing polarities are unaffected by a
partial electrical reset. Use of these models
may be recommended for such patients
provided bipolar leads are implanted.
■
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Prodigy VDD
(Model 8168)
The Model 8168 implanted with the Model
5032 Lead automatically switches to
ventricular bipolar pacing polarity
following a full VVI, 65-ppm electrical
reset (e.g., due to a defibrillation shock). A
partial electrical reset will not affect
ventricular bipolar pacing polarity. Use of
the Model 8168 may be recommended for
such patients. A full electrical reset will not
change the permanent atrial bipolar pacing
polarity.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
F-4
Prodigy Reference Information
■
Prodigy SR
(Model 8161)
Prodigy S
(Model 8165)
These models are unipolar-only devices and
should not be used in patients having an
implantable defibrillator.
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158,
8160, 8162)
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8166)
These models implanted with unipolar
lead(s) should not be used in patients
having an implantable defibrillator.
These models implanted with a bipolar lead
automatically switch to bipolar pacing
polarity following a full VVI, 65-ppm
electrical reset (e.g., due to a defibrillation
shock). Bipolar pacing polarity is
uneffected by a partial electrical reset. Use
of these models may be recommended for
such patients provided a bipolar lead is
implanted.
WARNINGS
Programming Lead Monitor with the optional polarity switch is
contraindicated for patients with implantable defibrillators. When an
out-of-range lead is detected, the monitor automatically reprograms
selected leads to unipolar polarity. Pacing the unipolar configuration may
cause the defibrillator either to deliver inappropriate therapy or to withhold
appropriate therapy.
Programming Transtelephonic Monitor ON is contraindicated for patients
with implantable defibrillators. When it is programmed ON, the pacing
polarity is temporarily set to unipolar when the magnet is applied. Pacing in
the unipolar configuration may cause the defibrillator either to deliver
inappropriate therapy or to withhold appropriate therapy.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Warnings and Precautions
F-5
General Precautions
Failure Mechanisms
The clinician should be aware that all pacemakers ultimately cease to
function. There is minimal risk that they may also fail at any time due to
random component or battery failure(s) which cannot be predicted prior to
occurrence. Also, the pacing system may cease to function at any time due
to lead-related problems such as displacement, fracture, fibrotic tissue
formation, elevated thresholds or medical complications, such as
myocardial infarction occurring at the site of the electrode. Proper
operation in the demand (inhibited) or triggered modes may be affected by
interference from electrical equipment.
ODO/OVO/OAO Modes
The ODO, OVO, and OAO modes (Prodigy DR, Prodigy D, and Prodigy
VDD pacemakers), and the OVO and OAO modes (Prodigy SR and
Prodigy S pacemakers) may be permanently programmed for use as a
temporary diagnostic mode; each of these modes provide atrial and/or
ventricular sensing without pacing.
Use these modes with caution. They should not be used with
pacemaker dependent-patients. Use of a magnet with this mode causes
OOO operation, that is, no sensing or pacing. Do not leave the patient
in any of these modes without constant monitoring and supervision.
High-Rate Pacing
When using high-rate pacing above 130 ppm, the clinician should
interrogate the pacemaker to determine the battery status before and after
such use to check for the presence of the Elective Replacement Indicator
(ERI) condition. High-rate pacing over several years may set the ERI
prematurely.
High pacing rates with the battery partially depleted may cause premature
triggering of the ERI.
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F-6
Prodigy Reference Information
Crosstalk and Self-Inhibition
Crosstalk occurs in dual chamber systems (except with the Prodigy VDD
pacemaker) when atrial pacing output pulses are sensed by the ventricular
lead. Special circuitry in Prodigy pacemakers prevents crosstalk and selfinhibition during normal operation. Crosstalk is more likely to occur at high
sensor-driven pacing rates, high atrial amplitudes, and wide atrial pulse
widths. Crosstalk will result in Ventricular Safety Pacing (VSP) when
programmed ON, or self-inhibition when VSP is programmed OFF.
Programming a longer Ventricular Blanking period will usually resolve the
problem.
Self-inhibition in single chamber modes results from the sensing of the
pacing output pulse. This is more likely to occur with high amplitudes,
wide pulse widths, and low sensitivity settings. Reprogramming the
Sensitivity to a less sensitive setting (higher numeric value) will usually
resolve the situation.
In addition, inhibition can occur when far-field R-waves are sensed in the
AAIR and AAI modes. This can be prevented by properly programming of
the Atrial Refractory Period.
Rate Increase Caused by “Twiddler’s
Syndrome”
“Twiddler’s syndrome,” i.e., patient manipulation of the device after
implant, may cause the pacing rate to increase temporarily, if the device is
programmed to a rate responsive mode.
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Warnings and Precautions
F-7
Potential Effects of Pressure on the
Pacemaker
Clinical studies of activity rate responsive pacemakers have reported
instances of increased sensitivity to muscle motion (such as heart
contractions) when external pressure is exerted on the device. This
increased sensitivity to muscle motion can potentially cause an increase
in the pacing rate up to the programmed Upper Activity Rate. This
might occur when the patient is lying on the pacemaker while sleeping,
or by pressing the programmer head over the pacemaker.
Implantation of the pacemaker near the patient’s skeletal system (e.g., in a
very thin patient), may augment the effect when pressure is applied. During
such occurrences, the Prodigy pacemaker is operating as it was designed.
This phenomenon does not indicate device malfunction or inappropriate
programming. Relieving the abnormal pressure on the device will restore
the appropriate pacing rate. Reprogramming the Activity Threshold to
Medium High or High has been shown to resolve the situation if the
patient’s observed rate response is not significantly effected.
Muscle Stimulation with Unipolar Pacing
■
Prodigy DR
Under certain circumstances (e.g.,
(Model 7861)
high output settings, etc.) these
Prodigy D (Model 7865) unipolar-only pacemakers may
Prodigy SR (Model 8161) induce muscle stimulation at the
Prodigy S (Model 8165) pocket site.
■
Prodigy DR
These bipolar Prodigy pacemaker models
(Models 7860, 7862)
programmed to unipolar pacing may
Prodigy D
exhibit muscle stimulation also.
(Models 7864, 7866)
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8162)
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8166)
Such stimulation may reach and be limited to rates of 80 or 90 ppm when
the programmed Upper Activity Rate is 80 or 90 ppm. At programmed
Upper Activity Rates greater than 100 ppm, rate elevation due to
pacemaker-induced muscle stimulation may reach a maximum of 95 ppm.
Pacemaker-induced muscle stimulation may be effectively controlled
and/or eliminated by programming Pulse Width to a narrower setting or
programming a lower Amplitude.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
F-8
Prodigy Reference Information
Effects of Myopotentials During
Unipolar Pacing
Myopotentials could affect the operation of Prodigy models programmed to
unipolar sensing, especially atrial Sensitivity settings of 0.5 thru 1.0 mV
and ventricular Sensitivity setting of 1.0 and 1.4 mV.
Myopotentials sensed on the atrial channel outside of the total atrial
refractory period (SAV + PVARP) start Sensed AV intervals in the DDDR,
DDD, and VDD modes.
Continuous myopotentials cause reversion to asynchronous operation
when sensed in the refractory period:
■
on the ventricular channel at intervals less than the Ventricular
Refractory Period, in the DDDR, DDD, DDIR, DDI, DVIR, DVI,
VVIR, VVI, and VVT modes or
■
on the atrial channel at intervals less than the Atrial Refractory Period
in the AAIR, AAI, and AAT modes.
In the VVIR mode, the resulting asynchronous pacing occurs at the Lower
Rate, otherwise such asynchronous pacing occurs at the sensor-indicated
rate for rate responsive modes or the Lower Rate for nonrate responsive
modes.
The effects of myopotentials may be effectively controlled by
programming a less sensitive Sensitivity setting (higher numerical setting).
Premature Elective Replacement Conditions
Continuous pacing at high rates (i.e., greater than 100 ppm) and at wide
pulse widths (i.e., up to 1.0 ms) may cause the battery to deplete rapidly
and indicate that the pacemaker should be replaced. If the Elective
Replacement Indicator (ERI) is set, the pacemaker operates in the VVI
mode at a rate of 65 ppm. While operating at ERI, the battery voltage may
gradually rise above 2.62 V, allowing the pacemaker to be reset and
reprogrammed.
Mode at Elective Replacement Indication
For dual chamber pacemakers, pacing reverts to the ventricular channel
(VVI mode) when the Elective Replacement Indicator is set, even when
programmed to AAIR, AAI, AAT, AOOR, or AOO mode.
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Warnings and Precautions
F-9
Potential Complications
Prodigy pacemaker/lead system may operate inappropriately or fail
completely due to several potential complications. Note the following
potential complications:
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■
Potential effects of premature battery depletion are decreased output
voltage, no pacing output, loss of capture, elective replacement
indication, and eventual erratic pacing.
■
Potential effects of pacemaker component(s) failure are loss of pacing
output, pacing rate and other parameter changes, reversion to
asynchronous mode, loss of capture, loss of programming capability,
elective replacement indication, and erratic pacing.
■
Potential effects of the sensor detecting muscle or mechanical
stimulation is increased pacing rate to levels higher than expected for a
given patient activity. In addition, an open or shorted sensor may cause
activity detection and rate responsive pacing to cease operating.
■
Potential effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) on the
pacemaker’s circuitry are pacing output inhibition, reversion to
asynchronous mode, pacing synchronized to the EMI source, and a
partial or full electrical reset condition. EMI from electrocautery and
defibrillation may cause pacing output inhibition, temporary pause in
pacing, permanent loss of pacing output, reversion to asynchronous
mode, pacing synchronized to the EMI source, set the elective
replacement indicator, and a partial or full electrical reset condition.
■
Potential effects of poor connection of lead to pacemaker connector
block are intermittent or continuous loss of capture, failure to sense
properly or loss of sensing, crosstalk between leads, and inhibition of
pacing.
■
Reversed connection of the atrial and ventricular leads will result in
improper pacing and sensing operations.
■
Potential effects of displaced or fractured lead are intermittent or
continuous loss of capture and/or sensing, and inhibition of pacing.
Cardiac perforation may cause intermittent or continuous loss of
capture and/or sensing, inhibition of pacing, cardiac tamponade, and
muscle or nerve stimulation. Myocardial irritability at the time of lead
insertion may cause fibrillation or flutter. Elevation of pacing
thresholds may cause a loss of capture.
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SECTION G
Hospital, Medical, Home,
and Job Environment
Interference
Section G contains information on potential effects of electromagnetic
interference on Prodigy pacemakers in the hospital or medical environment
and in the home or job environment. Also, general recommendations are
given for follow-up frequency (Medicare guidelines). Listed below are the
Prodigy models for which this information applies.
■
Prodigy DR
(Models 7860, 7861, 7862)
■
Prodigy D
(Models 7864, 7865, 7866)
■
Prodigy VDD (Model 8168)
■
Prodigy SR
(Models 8158, 8160, 8161, 8162)
■
Prodigy S
(Models 8164, 8165, 8166)
G-1
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G-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Hospital or Medical Environment Interference
Prodigy pacemakers are designed to ensure immunity from most common
sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Because many different
EMI sources exist or could become common in the future, it is impossible
to characterize all EMI sources. Moreover, due to the everchanging
electrical environment, severe EMI sources presently rare or unknown
could become common in the future. If the pacemaker is inhibited or has
reverted to asynchronous operation in the presence of EMI, turning off the
source or moving away from the source will return the pacemaker to
normal operation.
Listed below are typical EMI sources. Additional information is available
upon request from your Medtronic representative.
X-Ray and Fluoroscopy
Testing of pacemakers similar to Prodigy devices by exposure to diagnostic
X-ray or fluoroscopic radiation has not affected those pacemakers.
Irradiation
The pacemaker should not be directly irradiated by therapeutic levels of
ionizing radiation (such as produced by cobalt machines or linear
accelerators used for cancer treatment) because of the risk of permanent
damage to the pacemaker circuitry. If such therapy is required in the
vicinity of the pacemaker, shield the device and confirm its function after
treatment.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
WARNING: The use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) among
pacemaker patients has been contraindicated by MRI manufacturers.
Medtronic does not recommend subjecting pacemaker patients to MRI
scanning. Clinicians should carefully weigh the decision to use MRI with
pacemaker patients. The following information is provided to the clinician
to assist in careful consideration of the risks and benefits of subjecting
pacemaker patients to MRI scanning, should the clinical circumstances
arise. No objective studies of the effects of MRI on pacemakers have been
performed. Limited Medtronic testing has observed:
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Hospital, Medical, Home or Job Environment Interference
G-3
a) Magnetic and radio frequency (RF) fields produced by MRI may
adversely affect the operation of the pacemaker, including total
inhibition of pacing output.
b) Magnetic fields may activate magnet mode operation and cause
asynchronous pacing.
Limited published studies1 on the effects of MRI on pacing have observed
increased ventricular pacing beyond the rate limit. Pacemaker patients who
are treated with MRI should be closely monitored and programmed
parameters should be verified upon cessation of MRI.
Lithotripsy
Permanent damage to the pacemaker may occur if the device is at the focal
point of the lithotripsy beam. Since this situation is easily avoided,
lithotripsy may be used safely with Prodigy pacemakers provided:
■
the pacemaker is programmed to a single chamber nonrate responsive
mode (VVI/AAI or VOO/AOO) prior to treatment; and
■
the pacemaker is at least 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) away from the
focal point of the lithotripsy beam.
Diathermy
Do not use diathermy directly over the pacemaker implant site because of
the heating effects of internal components and possible damage to the
pacemaker.
External Defibrillation
Place the defibrillation paddles at least 5 inches (13 cm) from the
pacemaker and confirm normal operation after defibrillation. Defibrillatory
discharges may result in temporary and/or permanent myocardial damage
at the electrode-tissue interface, as well as temporary and/or permanent
elevated pacing thresholds. The pacemaker may be damaged by
defibrillatory discharges if the paddles are placed over the pacemaker.
1
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Holmes, Hayes, Gray, et al. The effects of magnetic resonance imaging on implantable pulse
generators. PACE. 1986; 9 (3): 360-370.
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G-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Electrocautery
Electrocautery can induce ventricular fibrillation. The electrocautery tip
should never be used within 15 cm (6 inches) of an implanted Prodigy
pacemaker/lead system. The use of electrocautery may cause a
temporary pause in output, the rate exceed the 200 ppm rate limit, set
the elective replacement indicator or electrically reset the device.
The pacemaker may also be inhibited, triggered, or revert to asynchronous
operation due to the use of electrocautery. Because of these potential
complications, alternatives to electrocautery should be used when available.
Effects to the pacemaker vary considerably based on the type of
electrocautery unit, coagulation and cutting current settings, current
pathway from the cautery tip to the indifferent plate, and the
pacemaker/lead system. Electrocautery units could also interfere with ECG
monitoring equipment. Monitor cardiac activity via blood pressure or
pressure pulses when using electrocautery.
If electrocautery cannot be avoided, follow these steps to minimize
complications:
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1.
program the device to the VOO/AOO (nonrate responsive) mode
beforehand and avoid direct contact with the pacemaker or leads to
avoid induction of tachyarrhythmias and/or fibrillation,
2.
position the ground plate so that the current pathway does not pass
through or near the pacemaker system, i.e., place ground plate under
the patient’s buttocks or legs during abdominal surgery,
3.
use short, intermittent, and irregular bursts at the lowest feasible
energy levels,
4.
where possible, use a bipolar electrocautery system, and
5.
have temporary pacing and defibrillation equipment available.
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Hospital, Medical, Home or Job Environment Interference
G-5
Home and Job Environment Interference
Based on laboratory tests of Prodigy pacemakers, the device should not be
affected by the normal operation of electrical equipment, household
appliances, electric machine shop tools, microwave ovens, spark-ignited
internal combustion engines, low-powered radio, and microwave frequency
transmitters. All such equipment should be kept in good repair and properly
grounded to avoid the possibility of electrical shock or interference with the
proper operation of the pacemaker.
Some types of theft prevention equipment, such as those found at store
entrances and exits, may temporarily inhibit Prodigy pacemakers or cause it
to revert to asynchronous operation. This response, however, is temporary;
the pacemaker returns to normal operation when the patient moves away
from such equipment.
Consult Medtronic when the patient will be in an area where contact with
current carrying conductors is possible or when near high-powered
electromagnetic fields radiated by arc welding units, induction furnaces,
induction stoves, resistance welders, radio or microwave frequency
transmitters, etc.
Cellular Phones
Recent studies have indicated there may be a potential interaction between
cellular phones and pacemaker operation. Potential effects may be due to
either the radio frequency signal or the magnet within the phone and could
include inhibition or asynchronous pacing when the phone is within close
proximity (within 6 inches or 15 centimeters) to the pacemaker.
It is important to note, based on testing to date, that any effect resulting
from an interaction between the cellular phone and the implanted
pacemaker is temporary. Simply moving the phone away from the
implanted device will return it to its previous state of operation. Because of
the great variety of cellular phones and the wide variance in patient
physiology, an absolute recommendation to cover all patients cannot be
made.
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G-6
Prodigy Reference Information
The following information provides a general guideline to patients having
an implanted pacemaker who desire to operate a cellular phone:
■
Maintain a minimum separation of 6 inches (15 centimeters) between a
hand-held personal cellular phone and the implanted device. Portable
and mobile cellular phones generally transmit at higher power levels
compared to hand-held models. For phones transmitting above three
watts, a minimum separation of 12 inches (30 centimeters) between the
antenna and the implanted device is advised.
■
Patients should hold the phone to the ear opposite the side of the
implanted device. Patients should not carry the phone in a breast
pocket or on a belt over or within 6 inches (15 centimeters) of the
implanted device as some phones emit signals when they are turned
ON but not in use (i.e., in the listen or standby mode). Storing the
phone in a location opposite the side of implant is recommended.
General Recommendations
The first few months after implanting a new pacing system the patient may
require close monitoring. In the U.S.A., the physician may wish to use the
individual state’s or Medicare’s maximum frequency table for dual
chamber pacemakers under Guideline I, i.e., every two months from the
second month through three years post-implant, and monthly thereafter
(Ref. Carriers Manual, Part 3, Claims Process, Transmittal No. 1051, or a
later publication, if available). Note that Guideline I applies to those pacing
systems (i.e., the pacemaker and the lead used) for which 5 years of clinical
data are not yet available.
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SECTION H
General Pacing
Indications
The indications for long-term cardiac pacing as recommended by the
American Heart Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and
Therapeutic Cardiovascular Procedures (Committee on Pacemaker
Implantation)1 are presented below.
Indications for permanent pacemakers have been grouped according to the
following classifications:
■
Class I: Conditions for which there is general agreement that
permanent pacemakers should be implanted.
■
Class II: Conditions for which permanent pacemakers are frequently
used but there is divergence of opinion with respect to the necessity of
their insertion.
■
Class III: Conditions for which there is general agreement that
pacemakers are unnecessary.
1
Dreifus LS, Fisch C, Griffin JC, et al. Guidelines for implantation of cardiac pacemakers and
antiarrhythmia devices. A report of the American College of Cardiology / American Heart
Association Task Force on Assessment of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Cardiovascular
Procedures (Committee on Pacemaker Implantation). Journal of the American College of
Cardiology. 1991; 18: 1-13.
H-1
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H-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Indications for Permanent Pacing in
Acquired Atrioventricular Block in Adults
Class I:
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■
Complete heart block, permanent or intermittent, at any anatomic
level, associated with any one of the following complications:
- Symptomatic bradycardia. In the presence of complete heart block,
symptoms must be presumed to be due to the heart block unless
proved to be otherwise.
- Congestive heart failure.
- Ectopic rhythms and other medical conditions that require drugs
that suppress automaticity of escape pacemakers and result in
symptomatic bradycardia.
- Documented periods of asystole ≥ 3 seconds or any escape rate
< 40 bpm in symptom-free patients.
- Confusional states that clear with temporary pacing.
- Post A-V junction ablation, myotonic dystrophy.
■
Second-degree AV Block, permanent or intermittent, regardless of the
type or the site of block with symptomatic bradycardia
■
Atrial fibrillation, flutter or rare cases of supraventricular tachycardia
with complete heart block or advanced AV block, and any other
conditions described above under complete heart block. The
bradycardia must be unrelated to digitalis or drugs known to impair
AV conduction.
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General Pacing Indications
H-3
Class II:
■
Asymptomatic complete heart block, permanent or intermittent, at any
anatomic site with a ventricular rate of > 40 bpm or faster.
■
Asymptomatic Type II second-degree AV block, permanent or
intermittent.
■
Asymptomatic Type I second-degree AV block at intra-His or infraHis levels.
Class III:
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■
First degree AV block.
■
Asymptomatic Type I second-degree AV block at the supra-His
(AV node) level.
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H-4
Prodigy Reference Information
Indications for Permanent Pacing After
Myocardial Infarction
Class I:
■
Persistent advanced second-degree AV block or complete heart block
after acute myocardial infarction with block in the His-Purkinje system
(bilateral bundle branch block).
■
Patients with transient advanced AV block and associated bundle
branch block.
Class II:
■
Patients with persistent advanced block at the AV node.
Class III:
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■
Patients with persistent first-degree AV block in the presence of bundle
branch block not previously demonstrated.
■
Transient AV conduction disturbances in the absence of
intraventricular conduction defects.
■
Transient AV block with isolated left anterior hemiblock.
■
Acquired left anterior hemiblock without AV block.
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General Pacing Indications
H-5
Indications for Permanent Pacing in
Bifascicular and Trifascicular Block
Class I:
■
Bifascicular block with intermittent complete heart block associated
with symptomatic bradycardia.
■
Bifascicular or trifascicular block with intermittent Type II seconddegree AV block without symptoms attributable to the heart block.
Class II:
■
Bifascicular or trifascicular block with syncope that is not proved to be
complete heart block, but other possible causes for syncope are not
identifiable.
■
Marked prolonged HV interval > 100 ms.
■
Pacing-induced infra-His block.
Class III:
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■
Fascicular block without AV block or symptoms.
■
Fascicular block and first-degree AV block without symptoms.
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H-6
Prodigy Reference Information
Indications for Permanent Pacing in
Sinus Node Dysfunction
Class I:
■
Sinus node disfunction with documented symptomatic bradycardia. In
some patients this will occur as a consequence of long-term (essential)
drug therapy of a type and dose for which there are no acceptable
alternative.
Class II:
■
Sinus node dysfunction occurring spontaneously or as a result of
necessary drug therapy with heart rate < 40 bpm when a clear
association between symptoms consistent with the bradycardia and the
actual presence of bradycardia has not been documented.
Class III:
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■
Sinus node dysfunction in asymptomatic patients, including those in
whom substantial sinus bradycardia (heart rate < 40 beats/minute) is a
consequence of long term treatment.
■
Sinus node dysfunction in patients in whom symptoms suggestive of
bradycardia are clearly documented not to be associated with a slow
heart rate.
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General Pacing Indications
H-7
Indications for Permanent Pacing in
Hypersensitive Carotid Sinus Syndrome and
Neurovascular Syndromes
Class I:
■
Recurrent syncope associated with clear, spontaneous events provoked
by carotid sinus stimulation; minimal carotid sinus pressure induces
asystole of > 3 seconds (in the absence of any medication that
depresses the sinus node or AV conduction).
Class II:
■
Recurrent syncope without clear, provocative events and with a
hypersensitive cardioinhibitory response.
■
Syncope with associated bradycardia reproduced by a head-up tilt with
or without isoproterenol or other forms of provocative maneuvers and
in which a temporary pacemaker and a second provocative test can
establish the likely benefits of a permanent pacemaker.
Class III:
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■
A hyperactive cardioinhibitory response to carotid sinus stimulation in
the absence of symptoms.
■
Vague symptoms, such as dizziness or light-headedness, or both, with
a hyperactive cardioinhibitory response to carotid sinus stimulation.
■
Recurrent syncope, light-headedness or dizziness in the absence of a
cardioinhibitory response.
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H-8
Prodigy Reference Information
Indications for Permanent Pacing in Children
Class I:
■
Second or third-degree heart block with symptomatic bradycardia.
■
Advanced second or third-degree AV block with moderate to marked
exercise intolerance.
■
External ophthalmoplegia with bifascicular block.
■
Sinus node dysfunction with symptomatic bradycardia.
■
Congenital AV block with wide QRS escape rhythm or with block
below the His bundle.
■
Advanced second or third-degree AV block persisting 10-14 days after
cardiac surgery.
Class II:
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■
Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome with the need for an antiarrhythmic
drug other than digitalis or phenytoin.
■
Second or third-degree AV block within the Bundle of His in an
asymptomatic patient.
■
Prolonged subsidiary pacemaker recovery time.
■
Transient surgical second or third-degree AV block that reverts to
bifascicular block.
■
Asymptomatic second or third-degree AV block and a ventricular rate
< 45 beats/minute when awake. Complete AV block when awake, with
an average ventricular rate < 50 beats/minute.
■
Complete AV block with double or triple rest cycle length pauses or
minimal heart rate variability.
■
Asymptomatic neonate with congenital complete heart block and
bradycardia in relation to age.
■
Complex ventricular arrhythmias associated with second or thirddegree AV block or sinus bradycardia.
■
Long Q-T syndrome.
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General Pacing Indications
H-9
Class III:
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■
Asymptomatic postoperative bifascicular block.
■
Asymptomatic postoperative bifascicular block with first-degree AV
block.
■
Transient surgical AV block that returns to normal conduction in one
week.
■
Asymptomatic Type I second-degree AV block.
■
Asymptomatic congenital complete heart block without profound
bradycardia in relation to age.
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GLOSSARY
About This Glossary
The following terms have meanings pertaining to 1) certain general pacing
concepts, 2) Medtronic products, and 3) special usage in this guide.
I-1
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I-2
Prodigy Reference Information
activity - 1) patient body motion as detected by the pacemaker’s
piezoelectric crystal sensor in rate responsive modes. 2) type of rate
responsive pacemaker that increases or decreases pacing rate in
proportion to levels of detected patient body motion.
artifact - the pacemaker’s electrical output recorded as a vertical spike on
the electrocardiogram.
atrial kick - contribution of an atrial contraction to ventricular late enddiastolic filling volume and pressure.
atrial tracking - a pacing operation (in the DDDR, DDD, and VDD
modes) in which the ventricles are paced in synchrony with sensed atrial
events.
AV synchrony - the activation sequence of the heart in which the atria
contract first and then, after an appropriate delay, the ventricles.
Pacemakers which utilize the atrium for sensing and/or pacing are
designed to replicate the heart’s normal contraction sequence.
battery capacity - a battery’s capability for current delivery, expressed in
Ampere hours, i.e., current x time. The battery capacity is one
determinant of pacemaker longevity, along with current drain (see later).
blanking - a time interval during which the pacemaker’s sensing circuitry
is turned off and no sensing can occur.
calibrate - a reference signal sent to an externally connected recorder or
monitor used to facilitate the measurement of telemetered EGM or ECG
tracings.
chronotropic incompetence - inability of the heart to vary its rate
appropriately in response to exercise.
clipping - the truncation of displayed waveform peaks which can occur on
the ECG/Markers/EGM screen of the full-screen programmer when the
selected amplitude scaling option is set too high.
configuration - the programmable state for a pacemaker operation option.
Specifically applies to 1) polarity, i.e., unipolar or bipolar, 2) threshold
test choices for execution and printing results.
confirmation - programmer display of message(s) to verify permanent
programming and storage of selected pacing parameter values after
engaging the PROGRAM button.
crosstalk - in dual chamber pacemakers, the sensing of a pacing stimulus
delivered in the opposite chamber, which results in undesirable
pacemaker response, e.g., false inhibition or resetting of the refractory
period.
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Glossary
I-3
current - in pacemakers, the continuing flow of electricity through the
pacemaker circuit (esp. through the lead conductor) as measured in
milliamperes; high current is associated with high voltage, low current
with low voltage. Current cannot be directly controlled, but can be
indirectly controlled by altering the voltage or the resistance
(impedance).
current drain - 1) depletion of electricity from the pacemaker battery
measured in microjoules caused by: the continuous low-level “selfdischarge” from the battery, pacing and sensing circuit efficiency, and
programmable factors under the control of the follow-up clinician: a)
pacing rate; b) output voltage (amplitude); c) pulse duration (pulse
width); d) percent of time pacing, and e) other programmable features;
2) one determinant of pacemaker longevity along with battery capacity.
Current drain is inversely proportional to pacemaker longevity.
demand modes - any pacemaker mode which, after sensing a spontaneous
depolarization, withholds its pacing stimulus.
electrical reset - automatic setting of pacing parameters to specific values
upon pacemaker detection of a momentary interruption of electrical
power to the pacemaker’s control circuitry; can be either a partial or a
full reset. partial reset - pacing mode, polarity, and certain other
parameter settings are preserved; all other parameters are changed to
their Electrical Reset values. full reset - pacing resumes in the VVI
mode with all values changed to Electrical Reset values.
electrogram - in pacing, the recording of the cardiac waveforms as taken at
the lead (electrode) site within the heart. Electrograms may be
transmitted from implanted pacemakers by telemetry.
electromagnetic interference (EMI) - radiated or conducted energy either electrical or magnetic - which can interfere with or disrupt the
function of a pacemaker.
emergency - for the pacing system, programming EMERGENCY delivers
maximal energy output in the VVI mode in an attempt to provide pacing
support to the ventricle. NOTE: Programming EMERGENCY for single
chamber systems applied in the atrium results in emergency AAI pacing.
episode - usually applied to a series of cardiac events; here used to mean
certain pacemaker-defined series of cardiac events, such as PMT
episodes and Mode Switch episodes, are reported via programmer
diagnostics.
escape interval - a pacemaker-defined time between a paced or sensed
cardiac event and the subsequent scheduled pacing stimulus; the longest
interval associated with the base pacing rate.
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I-4
Prodigy Reference Information
escape rate - a pacing rate which is a function of the “escape interval” (see
above); the slowest pacing rate possible.
exit block - failure of a pacemaker to capture the heart because the
patient’s stimulation threshold exceeds the output of the pacemaker.
freeze - to stop and collect a portion of the patient’s ECG trace on a fullscreen programmer.
frozen - characterizes a type of “cumulative” diagnostic data collection
(e.g., frozen trend) whereby data is recorded by the pacemaker
continuously until its memory capacity for the diagnostic is reached,
whereupon recording stops.
hysteresis - a pacing operation and programmable parameter that allows a
longer escape interval after a sensed event, giving the heart a greater
opportunity to beat on its own.
impedance - the total opposition that a circuit presents to current flow in
the pacing system.
inhibit - a temporary function which causes the cessation of pacing output
pulses.
interlock - a safety restriction in the pacemaker programmer software that
aids in the choice of proper values, usually by initiating a screen
message informing the user of important value interrelationships.
interrogate - a programmer command used to retrieve and display
information about the status of the patient’s pacing system.
longevity - duration of the normal service life of the pacemaker.
Marker Channel™ Diagram - a pacing system feature used to simplify
pacemaker operation evaluation by identifying pacing and/or sensing
operations as well as timing intervals and by providing special notations
for certain detected and paced events (e.g., PVCs, NCAPs, etc.).
Marker Channel™ recording - a pacing system feature used to simplify
ECG interpretation by identifying pacing and/or sensing operations.
mean atrial rate - a running average of the atrial rate that is continuously
calculated by the pacemaker for use by the Mode Switch and Rate
Adaptive AV features. The average uses all A-A intervals except those
beginning with either an atrial sense or atrial refractory sense and then
ending with an atrial pace.
myopotential - a term used to describe electrical signals that originate in
body muscles; these signals may be sensed by the pacemaker and falsely
interpreted as cardiac depolarizations.
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Glossary
I-5
noise - any electromagnetic interference, myopotentials, or crosstalk
detected by a pacemaker’s sensing amplifier.
noise reversion - continuous restarting of the refractory period (and its
blanking period) caused by continuous sensing at intervals less than the
refractory period.
nominal - in pacing, the term describes a set of programmable parameter
values considered reasonable for the majority of uncomplicated patients.
nonrefractory - describes atrial or ventricular events sensed outside of a
refractory period (in dual chamber modes, outside of AV intervals and
Post-Ventricular Atrial Refractory Period; in single chamber modes
outside of the Atrial Refractory Period or Ventricular Refractory
Period).
oversensing - inappropriate sensing of non-cardiac signals, e.g.,
myopotentials, electromagnetic interference, crosstalk, etc., which can
cause inhibition of the pacemaker stimulus.
pacemaker-defined PVC (premature ventricular contraction) - any
ventricular sensed event (refractory or nonrefractory) that follows a
ventricular event (pace, refractory sense, or nonrefractory sense) without
an intervening atrial event (pace, refractory sense, or nonrefractory
sense).
pacemaker-mediated tachycardia (PMT) - a paced rhythm, usually rapid,
which can occur with loss of AV synchrony. This circus rhythm begins
with and is sustained by ventricular events which are conducted
retrogradely (i.e., backwards) to the atria. The pacemaker senses this
retrograde atrial depolarization, starts an AV interval, and then delivers
a stimulus to the ventricle, causing a ventricular depolarization, which
again is conducted retrogradely to the atria. The cycle repeats itself to
produce tachycardia.
pacemaker syndrome - a collection of signs and symptoms (often
described as dizziness and/or weakness) related to the adverse
hemodynamic effects of ventricular pacing, usually attributed to the
absence of synchrony between the atrial and ventricular contractions.
piezoelectric crystal - crystal that produces electrical signals when it is
subjected to mechanical deformation. In pacing, piezoelectric crystals
are used in sensors to detect motion, changes in pressure, etc., in certain
rate responsive pacemakers.
PMT - (see “pacemaker-mediated tachycardia” earlier.)
196407001
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
I-6
Prodigy Reference Information
radiopaque ID - a small metallic plate (inside the pacemaker connector)
bearing both the Medtronic logo and a code for identifying the
pacemaker under fluoroscopy.
real-time measurement - a pacing system function that presents measured
and calculated data at the time of the clinician’s query via programmer
telemetry.
retrograde conduction - the propagation of ventricular depolarization to
the atria, also known as “VA conduction.”
rolling trend - a type of continuous diagnostic data collection whereby
data is recorded by the pacemaker continuously such that new data
overwrites the old data once memory capacity is reached.
safety margin - 1) the difference between the measured stimulation
threshold and the programmed output voltage. Output settings that
produce a margin of twice the stimulation threshold are necessary
because of threshold variability due to exercise, eating, sleeping, drug
therapy, and other changes in cardiac condition. 2) safety margin,
voltage - a factor defined as the ratio of the programmed output voltage
divided by the stimulation threshold voltage (see “Strength-Duration
Test”) to achieve adequate pacing voltage and duration to prevent loss of
capture.
sensing threshold - the minimum signal strength (highest Sensitivity
setting) that allows continuous sensing of intrinsic depolarizations.
sensitivity - the degree to which a pacemaker’s sense amplifiers are
responsive to levels of electrical activity in the heart (or other electrical
signals).
sensor-indicated rate - the pacing rate determined by the sensor-detected
level of patient activity and on programmed rate response parameters;
this rate is never greater than the Upper Activity Rate or less than the
operating lower rate.
status reset - a pacing system command which attempts to reset an
electrical reset or the elective replacement indicator.
stimulation threshold - the minimum electrical stimulus needed to
consistently capture the heart. It can be expressed in terms of amplitude
(volts, milliamps), pulse width (milliseconds), and/or energy
(microjoules).
196407001
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Glossary
I-7
strength-duration - refers to a curve that is a plot of at least two
pacemaker stimulation-threshold test results, each test defining
amplitude (strength) and pulse width (duration). The narrower the pulse
width, the greater the voltage required to stimulate the heart, and vice
versa. (See “Strength-Duration Test.”)
Strength-Duration Test - the full-screen programmer’s Strength-Duration
Test plots. 1) a stimulation threshold strength-duration curve from
minimum output settings (voltages and pulse widths) needed to capture
the myocardium; if values below the curve are programmed, loss of
capture will occur. 2) the same test’s safety margin strength-duration
curve is plotted by the programmer based on the programmed
stimulation threshold amplitudes and pulse widths and a selected SafetyMargin Factor (e.g., X2.0). (See “safety margin” and “strength-duration”
earlier.)
telemetry - the transmission of data from the pacemaker to the programmer
by radio waves. Information transmitted includes programmed status,
real-time measurements, and diagnostic data.
temporary (settings) - nonpermanent parameters programmed for brief
diagnostic purposes or to quickly test their effects on pacing operations
prior to permanent programming. Permanent settings are restored
automatically when the programming head is removed or the telemetry
link is broken.
trigger - in pacing, to start a process, operation, or a collection of data.
triggered mode - a pacemaker mode that, upon detecting a spontaneous
depolarization or other signal, delivers an electrical stimulus to the heart.
troubleshooting - a strategy and methodology for isolating and correcting
problems with the pacing system.
2:1 block rate - the rate at which intrinsic atrial events are sensed as
refractory in the TARP causing synchronization of V-pacing to every
other atrial event. Determined by the total atrial refractory period
(TARP: the sum of the AV interval and the PVARP). The operation
results in a ventricular rate one half as fast as the atrial rate.
undersensing - failure of the pacemaker to sense the P-wave or R-wave
may cause the pacemaker to not withhold pacing output pulses.
value window - box-like display listing specific programmable options for
a selected parameter from a programmer screen (such as from the
Programmable Parameters screen).
196407001
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
I-8
Prodigy Reference Information
Wenckebach operation - in dual chamber atrial tracking modes, an upper
rate operation which limits the average ventricular pacing rate when
intrinsic atrial rates rise above the programmed Upper Tracking Rate.
The pacemaker does this by gradually prolonging the pacemaker’s AV
interval until one atrial event falls into the PVARP and is not tracked.
Since no AV interval is started by the refractory event, there will be no
ventricular output synchronized to this atrial event.
196407001
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
INDEX
2:1 block, 12-23
A
A-A timing, 12-2
Acceleration time, 11-8
Act Threshold Test button, 7-21
Activity
rate response, 11-6
threshold, 11-4
tests, 7-21
options, 7-21
screen, 7-21
Threshold test, 7-22
conducting an, 7-23
Adaptor compatibility, A-6
Assistance, 18-12
Additional parameters, 4-4, 6-9
option, 6-9
screen, 4-4
Adjusting
ECG/EGM, 5-6
frozen trace, 5-12
Atrial
blanking (single chamber), 12-15
refractory period (single chamber), 12-21
Audible signals, 1-7
Auto amplitude test, 7-3, 7-11
Auto pulse width test, 7-3, 7-11
Automatic Model Select button, 3-4
Automatic PVARP Extension, 12-18
AV Intervals
paced (PAV), 12-8
sensed (SAV), 12-9
rate-adaptive (RA-AV), 12-11
B
Battery status, 4-6, 4-10
Battery/lead
data, 4-7, 4-9
information, 15-4, D-3
screen, 4-9
Battery depletion, 16-8, 18-8
Battery longevity, C-2, C-4
Battery specifications, C-7
Blanking periods
nonprogrammable, 12-14
post-atrial ventricular blanking (PAVB), 12-15
post-ventricular atrial blanking (PVAB), 12-15
single chamber atrial blanking, 12-15
Block, 2:1, 12-23
Buttons
Act Threshold Test, 7-21
Automatic Model Select, 3-4
Cancel Magnet, 1-10, 2-9
Clear Data, 8-2, 8-3, 8-20
command, 1-10
Data, 1-8, 3-7, 3-8, 4-5, 4-9, 4-12
Emergency, 1-10, 2-6
End Session, 1-9, 3-7, 3-8
Enhanced, 2-3, 2-4
Exercise Test, 7-26
J-1
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
J-2
Prodigy Reference Information
Freeze, 1-9, 3-7, 5-10
Help, 1-9, 2-13, 3-7
Inhibit, 5-9
Interrogate, 1-10, 2-5, 2-7
Interrogate All, 1-10, 2-7
Normal Assist option, 2-3, 2-4
Pacing Parameters, 1-10
Parameters, 1-9, 3-7, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 6-2, 6-7
Print, 1-9, 2-10, 3-7
Program, 1-10, 2-5, 6-3
Save Present Values, 6-6
Show Diagram, 5-14
Show Graph, 8-14, 8-17
Save/Nominal Options, 6-3, 6-6
Show Present, 6-3
Show Saved, 6-3, 6-6
Special, 1-9, 2-4, 3-7, 9-4
Tests/ECG, 1-8, 3-7, 7-2, 7-15, 7-21, 7-30, 7-33
C
Calibrate option, 9-4
Calibration output, 9-4
Calipers, on-screen, 5-10, 5-13
Cancel Magnet
button, 1-10, 2-9
function, 2-9
Cellular phones, G-5
Cessation, pacing, 18-8
Clear Data button, 8-2, 8-3, 8-20
Clearing an electrical reset, 6-9
Clock and calendar function, 9-2
Codes, Marker, 5-8
Command buttons, 1-10
Complications, pacemaker/lead, F-9
Conducting
Activity Threshold test, 7-21
Auto Amplitude threshold test, 7-11
Auto Pulse Width threshold test, 7-11
Exercise test, 7-26
Manual threshold test, 7-13
Sensing test, 7-17
Strength-Duration threshold test, 7-5
Temporary parameter test, 7-31
196407001
Rev A
Connecting
external monitor, 3-2, 9-3
external recorder, 3-2, 9-3
skin electrodes, 3-2
Contraindications
AAI Mode, 10-24
AAIR Mode, 10-22
AAT Mode, 10-30
DDD Mode, 10-10
DDDR Mode, 10-8
DDI Mode, 10-14
DDIR Mode, 10-12
DOO/AOO/VOO Modes, 10-34
DOOR/AOOR/VOOR Modes, 10-32
DVI Mode, 10-18
DVIR Mode, 10-16
ODO/OAO/OVO Modes, 10-36, F-5
VDD Mode, 10-20
VVI Mode, 10-28
VVIR Mode, 10-26
VVT Mode, 10-30
Convention, format, 1-3
Crosstalk, F-6
Cursors, caliper, 5-13
D
Data button, 1-8, 3-7, 4-5, 4-9, 4-12
Data summary screen, 4-5
Data types, diagnostic recording, 8-3
Deceleration time, 11-9
Defibrillator warnings
external, G-3
implantable, F-3
Desired sensor response, 7-27
Detection Rate, 14-2
Device identification, A-4
Diagnostics
event summary, 17-2, 17-4
function, 8-2
graph screen, 4-12
high rate episode, 17-10
lead trend, 13-9
model specific, D-4, D-6
overview, 17-2
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Index
parameter options, 8-14
parameters screen, 4-3, 8-13
programming, 8-15
rate histogram, 8-4, 17-6
recording data types, 8-3
setup options, 8-11
Diagram, Marker channel, 5-14
Diathermy interference, G-3
Dimensions, A-5
Display screen, 1-5
E
ECG
adjustment, 5-6
amplitude scaling, 5-6
cable, 3-2
filter, 5-6
lead configuration, 5-6
recording, 5-2
ECG/EGM display, 5-5
ECG/Markers/EGM screen, 5-5
EGM, also see electrogram, 5-3, 5-5, 5-7
amplitude scaling, 5-6
telemetry, 5-3, 5-7
Elective replacement indicator (ERI), 15-3, 16-8,
18-8, C-6, F-8
Electrical reset, 6-9, 15-3, 16-6, 18-9, B-6, F-3
Electrocautery interference, G-4
Electrodes, skin, 3-2
Electrogram, 5-3, 5-5, 15-8
Electromagnetic interference, G-2
Emergency
button, 1-10, 2-6
pacing, 16-9, B-8
parameter programming, 2-6
parameters, 2-6
programmed parameters, B-8
End Session button, 1-9, 3-7, 3-8
Ending a patient session, 3-9
Enhanced button, 2-3, 2-4
Environmental
interference, G-2, G-5
vibration, 12-6
ERI, see elective replacement indicator
196407001
Rev A
J-3
ERI status, clearing an, 6-9
Event summary, 4-7, 17-2, 17-4, D-9
Exercise test, 7-22
conducting an, 7-26
Exercise Test button, 7-21, 7-26
Extended telemetry, 4-4, 6-8, 15-10
External monitor, connecting, 3-2, 9-3
External recorder, connecting, 3-2, 9-3
F
Failure mechanisms, F-5
Filter, ECG, 5-6
Fluoroscopy interference, G-2
Format conventions, 1-3
Freeze
button, 1-9, 3-7, 5-10
function, 5-10
option, 5-10
Freezing the ECG trace, 5-10
G
General
indications, H-1
precautions, 1-4, F-5
warnings, 1-4, F-2
Graph, diagnostics, 4-12
H
Help
button, 1-9, 2-13, 3-7
options, 2-13
High rate atrial tracking, 12-23
High rate episode, 17-10
High rate episodes report, 8-7, 8-9
High rate operation, 7-31, 12-6, 12-25, F-5
Home environment interference, G-5
Hospital environment interference, G-2
Hysteresis, 14-11
I
Identification, A-4
Implantable defibrillator, F-3
Indications
AAI Mode, 10-24
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
J-4
Prodigy Reference Information
AAIR Mode, 10-22
AAT Mode, 10-30
DDD Mode, 10-10
DDDR Mode, 10-8
DDI Mode, 10-14
DDIR Mode, 10-12
DOO/AOO/VOO Modes, 10-34
DOOR/AOOR/VOOR Modes, 10-32
DVI Mode, 10-18
DVIR Mode, 10-16
ODO/OAO/OVO Modes, 10-36
VDD Mode, 10-20
VVI Mode, 10-28
VVIR Mode, 10-26
VVT Mode, 10-30
Indications, general pacing, H-1
Indicator, Position Head, 2-2
Inhibit
button, 5-9
function, 5-9
Inhibiting output, 5-9
Inhibition, F-9
Installation, software, 1-2
Interrogate
button, 1-10, 2-5, 2-7
key, 2-5
Interrogate All
button, 1-10
command, 2-7
feature, 2-7
Intracardiac electrogram, see EGM, electrogram
Irradiation interference, G-2
J
Job environment interference, G-5
K
Keys
Interrogate, 2-5
Paper Advance, 5-2
Paper Speed, 5-2
Program, 2-5
196407001
Rev A
L
Lead Monitor, 13-8
Polarity Switch, 13-9
Lead Trend, 13-9
Lead
compatibility, A-6
monitor, 13-8
trend, 8-5, 13-9
Lead configuration, ECG, 5-6
Lithotripsy interference, G-3
Longevity
pacemaker, 18-8
projections, C-2, C-4
Lower rate, 12-3
M
Magnet mode, 16-2, D-2
Magnet resonance imaging (MRI), G-2
Manual threshold test, 7-4, 7-13
Marker Channel
annotations and codes, 5-8
diagram, 5-14
telemetry, 5-3, 5-7, 5-8, 15-6, D-3
Mean atrial rate, 12-7
Measure ECG test, 7-33
Measuring parameters, 4-10, 7-33
Mechanical dimensions, A-5
Medical environment interference, G-2
Medicare guideline, G-6
Menu buttons, 1-5, 1-8
Mode operation
AAI Mode, 10-25
AAIR Mode, 10-23
AAT Mode, 10-31
DDD Mode, 10-11, 12-13
DDDR Mode, 10-9, 12-13
DDI Mode, 10-14
DDIR Mode, 10-12
DOO/AOO/VOO Modes, 10-35
DOOR/AOOR/VOOR Modes, 10-33
DVI Mode, 10-19
DVIR Mode, 10-17
ODO/OAO/OVO Modes, 10-36
VDD Mode, 10-20
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Index
VVI Mode, 10-29
VVIR Mode, 10-27
VVT Mode, 10-31
Mode pertinency, 10-6
Mode selection, 10-3
Mode selection, tree 10-5
Mode switch, 14-2
RAAV activation, 12-13
Preset parameters, 14-4
Monitor
lead, 13-8
transtelephonic, 13-11
MRI interference, G-2
Muscle stimulation, F-7
Myopotentials, F-8
N
NBG pacing codes, 10-3
NCAP, see non-competitive atrial pacing
Noise reversion, 12-21
Nominal settings, B-4
programming, 6-6
Non-competitive atrial pacing (NCAP), 14-8
mode switch interaction, 14-8
Nonprogrammable blanking periods, 12-14
Normal Assist button, 2-3, 2-4
O
ON/OFF switch, 3-3
On-screen calipers, 5-10, 5-13
Output, 13-2
Output connectors, 9-3
P
Paced AV interval (PAV), 12-8
Pacemaker replacement, 18-10
Pacemaker timing
A-A timing, 12-2
AV intervals, 12-8
blanking periods, 12-14
high-rate atrial tracking, 12-23
rates, 12-2
refractory periods, 12-16
reference by mode, E-12
196407001
Rev A
J-5
Pacemaker electrical reset, 6-9
Pacemaker ID, 1-5
Pacemaker serial number, 4-4, 6-10
Pacing
cessation, 18-8
codes, 10-3
general indications, H-1
mode selection, 10-3
modes, 10-1
output, 13-4
rate responsive, 11-2
timing, 12-1, E-12
Pacing output
bipolar polarity confirmation, 13-2
selecting outputs, 13-4
selecting polarity, 13-2
stimulation thresholds, 13-3
Pacing Parameters button, 1-10
Package Handling, 18-7
Package Storage, 18-7
Paper Advance key, 5-2
Paper Speed key, 5-2
Parameter
interactions, 6-3, E-8
settings, Diagnostics, 4-4
settings, displaying, 4-2
subgroups, 6-3
summary, 15-2
Parameters
electrical reset settings, B-6
emergency settings, 2-6, B-8
nominal settings, B-4
nonprogrammable, E-10
output, 13-4
pacing, 13-2
programmable E-2, E-6
selection of, 13-2
sensing, 13-5
shipping settings, B-2
temporary settings, 16-5, E-11
Parameters button, 1-9, 3-7, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 6-7
Patient
information, 18-11
record, 18-11
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
J-6
Prodigy Reference Information
service, 18-11
PAV, see paced AV interval
PAVB, see post-atrial ventricular blanking
PVAB, see post-ventricular atrial blanking
Percent total events, 4-7
PMT intervention, 14-7
mode switch, 14-8
non-competitive atrial pacing, 14-8
PVARP extension, 12-18
Polarity confirmation, 13-2, 13-6
Polarity Switch, 8-9, 13-9
Position Head
Assist option, 2-3
indicator light, 2-2
Positioning the programming head, 2-2
Post-atrial ventricular blanking (PAVB), 12-15
Post-ventricular atrial blanking (PVAB), 12-15
Post-ventricular atrial refractory period (PVARP),
12-17
automatic extension, 12-18
Power switch, 3-3
Precautions, pacemaker, F-5
Precautions, general, 1-4
Premature elective replacement conditions, F-8
Pressure on pacemaker, F-7
Print button, 1-9, 2-10, 3-7
Print options
Activity Exercise Test, 2-11
Activity Threshold Results, 2-11
Battery/Lead Data, 2-11
Current Screen Report, 2-10
Data Summary, 2-11
Diagnostics Data Table, 2-11
Full Report, 2-11
Measured Values, 2-11
Parameter Values, 2-10
selecting, 2-10
Sensing Results, 2-11
Threshold Results, 2-11
Trace, 2-11
Waveform Segment, 2-11
Waveforms, 2-11
Printing
Activity Threshold test results, 7-25
196407001
Rev A
Exercise test results, 7-29
measured results, 7-34
recorded diagnostics data, 8-19
reports, 2-10
sensing test results, 7-20
threshold test results, 7-14
Prodigy D
description, A-2
diagnostics, D-4
nonprogrammable parameters, E-10
programmable parameters, E-2
Prodigy DR
description, A-2
diagnostics, D-4
nonprogrammable parameters, E-10
programmable parameters, E-2
Prodigy S
description, A-3
diagnostics, D-6
nonprogrammable parameters, E-10
programmable parameters, E-6
Prodigy SR
description, A-3
diagnostics, D-6
nonprogrammable parameters, E-10
programmable parameters, E-6
Prodigy VDD
description, A-2
diagnostics, D-4
nonprogrammable parameters, E-10
programmable parameters, E-2
Program
button, 1-10, 2-5, 6-3
key, 2-5
Programmable telemetry options, 5-7
Programmer, setting up, 3-2
Programming
diagnostics function, 8-15
Emergency parameters, 2-6
nominal values, 6-8
requirements, E-8
restrictions, E-8
serial number, 6-10
temporary parameters, 7-30
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7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Index
Programming head, 2-2
positioning, 2-2
PVAB, see post-ventricular atrial blanking
PVARP, see post-ventricular atrial refractory period
PVCs, 4-8
R
RA-AV, see rate adaptive AV
Radiopaque identification, A-4
Rate adaptive AV (RA-AV)
operation, 12-11
operations in DDDR & DDD modes, 12-13
used with mode switch, 12-13
with sick sinus syndrome, 12-13
Rate histogram, 8-4, 17-6
Rate limit, 12-6
Rate response
activity, 11-2
parameter settings, 11-3
Rate responsive pacing, 11-2
Rates
lower rate, 12-3
mean atrial, 12-7
operating lower rate, 12-3
sensor-indicated, 12-4
upper activity, 12-6
upper tracking, 12-5
Real-time
measurements, 4-10
ECG recording, 5-2
Real-time telemetry, see battery/lead
Refractory periods
atrial (single chamber), 12-21
post-ventricular atrial (PVARP), 12-17
total atrial (TARP), 12-19
ventricular (VRP), 12-20
Registration, 18-11
Replacing the pacemaker, 18-10
Resterilization, 18-7
S
Safety margin curve, 7-9
SAV, see sensed AV interval
Save/Nominal Options button, 6-3, 6-6
196407001
Rev A
J-7
Save Present Values button, 6-6
Selecting a model, 3-4, 3-5
Selecting a safety margin, 7-9
Self test, 3-3
Self-inhibition, F-6
Sensed AV interval (SAV), 12-9
Sensing parameters
bipolar polarity confirmation, 13-6
selecting polarity, 13-5
selecting sensitivity, 13-7
sensing thresholds, 13-6
Sensing test, 7-15
conducting a, 7-17
setup screen, 7-15
Sensing threshold, 13-5
Sensitivity settings, 13-7
Sensor-indicated rate, 11-4
Sensor telemetry, 5-8
Serial number, 6-7, 6-10
Service, 18-11
Setting the time and data, 9-2
Setting up Site Nominal parameters, 9-6
Setting up the programmer, 3-2
Shipping parameters, B-2
Show Graph button, 8-14
Show Diagram button, 5-14
Show Present button, 6-3
Show Saved button, 6-3
Sick Sinus Syndrome, 12-13
Side effects, F-2
Single chamber atrial blanking, 12-15
Single chamber hysteresis, 14-11
Site Nominal parameter settings, 9-6
Skin electrodes, 3-2
Software
9879E, 1-2
installation, 1-2
Special button, 1-9, 2-4, 3-7, 9-4
Starting a patient session, 3-4
Status reset, 4-4, 6-9
command, 6-9
Stimulation threshold, 13-2
Strength-Duration
curve, 7-8
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J-8
Prodigy Reference Information
test, 7-3, 7-5
Subordinate parameters, 6-5
Switch, ON/OFF, 3-3
System setup options, 3-3
System test, 3-3
U
T
V
TARP, see total atrial refractory period
Technical assistance, 18-12
Telemetry
EGM, 5-3, 5-7
functions, D-3
Marker Channel, 5-3, 5-7, 5-8
options, programmable, 5-7
programmable, 5-7
Sensor, 5-7, 5-8
Temporary
function, 7-30
modes, E-11
parameters, 16-5, E-11, 7-30
test, 7-30
conducting a, 7-31
Tests/ECG button, 1-8, 3-7, 7-2, 7-15, 7-21, 7-30,
7-33
Threshold
activity, 11-4
margin test (TMT), 13-11
sensing, 13-5
stimulation, 13-2
Threshold curve, 7-8
Threshold margin test (TMT), 13-11
Threshold test function, 7-2
options, 7-3
Timing, pacemaker, 12-1, E-12
TMT, see threshold margin test
Total Atrial Refractory Period (TARP), 12-19
Transtelephonic
capture verification, 13-11
monitor, 13-13
Troubleshooting
electrical problems, 18-3
hemodynamic problems, 18-5
strategy, 18-2
Twiddler’s syndrome, F-6
Ventricular refractory period (VRP), 12-20
Ventricular safety pacing, 14-9
Vibration, environmental, 12-6
196407001
Rev A
Unipolar pacing
muscle stimulation, F-7
myopotentials, F-8
Upper tracking rate, 12-5
W
Warning, high rate stimulation, 7-31
Warnings, general, 1-4
Warnings, pacemaker, F-2
Waveform print option, 2-11, 5-11
Waveform Segment print option, 2-11, 5-11
Waveform telemetry options, 5-7
Wenckebach, 12-24
X
X-Ray interference, G-2
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
196407001
Rev A
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.
Medtronic Confidential
7 x 9 inches (178 mm x 229 mm)
Europe
Medtronic Europe S.A./N.V.
Woluwe Office Garden
Woluwedal 26
1932 St. Stevens Woluwe
Belgium
Telephone: (32-2) 716 88 11
FAX: (32-2) 716 88 15
Latin America
Medtronic, Inc.
450 Fairway Drive
Suite 103
Deerfield Beach, FL 33441
USA
Telephone: (305) 428-8556
FAX: (305) 428-8984
Asia-Pacific
Japan
Medtronic Asia-Pacific
Shuwa Kioi-cho Park Building, 5F
3-6 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 102, Japan
Telephone: (81-3) 3230-2701
FAX: (81-3) 3230-0446
North America
Canada
Medtronic of Canada Ltd.
6733 Kitimat Road
Mississauga, Ontario L5N 1W3
Canada
Telephone: (905) 826-6020
FAX: (905) 826-6620
Toll-free: 1-800-268-5346
(24-hour consultation service)
Australia
Medtronic Australasia Pty. Ltd.
50 Strathallen Avenue
Northbridge NSW 2063
Australia
Telephone: 61-2-9582999
FAX: 61-2-9587077
Asia
Medtronic International Ltd.
2002 CC Wu Building
308 Hennessey Road, Wanchai
Hong Kong, B.C.C.
Telephone: (852) 2891-4068
FAX: (852) 2891-6830
1
196407001
Rev A
United States
Medtronic, Inc.
7000 Central Avenue, NE
Minneapolis, MN 55432-3576
USA
Telephone: (612) 574-4000
FAX: (612) 574-4879
Toll-free: 1-800-328-2518
(24-hour consultation service)
September 1995
UC9501043EN 196407-001
Refer to the “Reference man.” category in doc#163256 for Printing
Instructions.