Sierra Products UV360FP Specifications

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Product Overview
Catalogue
!
2!
!
!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Sierra CP Engineering Ltd.
UK: +44 (0) 1684 584 850 / USA: +1 (0) 517 669 0514
India: +91 8600 148 055 / China: +86 10 6059 3951
www.sierra-cp.com / info@sierra-cp.com
!
3!
We Specialize in Flexibility
Thirty!years!of!successfully!meeting!tough!
customer!challenges!has!taught!us!at!Sierra!CP!
Engineering!that!the!concept!of!“one!solution!fits!
all”!just!doesn’t!work!in!the!auto!test!industry.!!!!!!!
As!a!result,!we!have!positioned!our!company!to!
embrace!the!critical!role!that!flexibility!plays!at!
every!stage!of!design!and!development.!And!it!all!
starts!with!creating!an!open!atmosphere!for!client!
interaction!that!breeds!innovation.!!
!
Whether!upgrading!existing!test!cells!or!planning!
new!installations,!Sierra!CP!works!in!partnership!
with!global!clients!to!develop!custom!products!
and!systems!or!provide!complete!turnkey!!
focused!on!matching!the!customer!requirements!
of!today!with!tomorrow’s!needs!to!guarantee!a!
solution!that!can!expand!with!the!test!of!time.!
!
To!help!meet!the!challenges!of!a!rapidly!changing!
industry,!Sierra!CP!has!developed!advanced!
hardware!and!software!solutions!covering!the!complete!scope!of!test!applications.!
Innovative,!open!design!and!a!common,!easy!to!use!interface!allows!us!to!integrate!
seamlessly!with!existing!instrumentation!and!other!manufacturers’!equipment,!or!build!
powerful!turnkey!systems!designed!to!our!customers’!specific!requirements.!
!
At!the!heart!of!many!Sierra!CP!solutions!is!our!powerful!CADET!automation!technology,!
which!combines!accurate!multiLchannel!control!and!highLspeed!data!acquisition!to!
deliver!optimised!solutions!for!engine,!powertrain,!emissions!and!component!test!rig!
applications.!
!
Headquartered!in!the!UK,!Sierra!CP!designs!and!manufactures!all!our!own!solutions!and!
supports!them!globally!with!technical!locations!in!the!USA,!China,!India!and!Malaysia.!
!
Sierra Core Values
!!!!!!!!
!
Every!one!of!our!customer!solutions!is!built!on!an!
Uncompromising!Focus!on!Quality,!Delivery,!
People,!Innovation!and!Customer!Service;!our!
core!values.!We!believe!that!by!always!staying!
true!to!QDPICS!during!every!project,!we!will!build!
highly!creative!and!productive!relationships!with!
customers!that!endure.!
!
Visit!www.sierraLcp.com!for!more!information.!!
4!
Lansing,!Michigan!/!USA!
Malvern,!Worcestershire!/!UK!
!
Monterey,!California!/!USA!
!
!!!!!!
Contents!
!!!!!
INTRODUCTION TO SIERRA CP TECHNOLOGY ..................................................................................... 6!
Engine!Testing!Overview..............................................................................................................7!
Vehicle!Testing!Overview.............................................................................................................8!
Powertrain!and!E!Motor!Testing!Overview..................................................................................9!
In!Cell!Support!Products!Overview ............................................................................................10!
CADET V14 ................................................................................................................................... 11!
CADET!Edge................................................................................................................................17!
CADET!V14!Compact ..................................................................................................................21!
TLS!–!Test!Laboratory!System ....................................................................................................27!
IN CELL EQUIPMENT ...................................................................................................................... 33!
Dynamometers...........................................................................................................................35!
Valve!Manifold!and!Cooling!Post ...............................................................................................41!
Mechanical!Throttle!Actuator ....................................................................................................45!
Exhaust!Back!Pressure!and!Air!Valves........................................................................................49!
AirTrak........................................................................................................................................55!
ExhaustTrak................................................................................................................................59!
FUEL SYSTEMS .............................................................................................................................. 65!
FuelTrak!1000!&!3000 ................................................................................................................67!
FuelTrak!Transient!100!&!300 ....................................................................................................73!
Fuel!Conditioning!Units!1000!&!3000 ........................................................................................79!
Fuel!Pressure!Regulation............................................................................................................83!
Fuel!Dosing!Rig ...........................................................................................................................87!
Independent!Fuel!Controller......................................................................................................91!
TEST CELL SERVICES....................................................................................................................... 95!
Combustion!Air!Handling!Unit!(CAHU).......................................................................................97!
Ventilation!Systems..................................................................................................................105!
Test!Cell!and!Facility!Services...................................................................................................109!
Transient!Single!Cylinder!Test!Systems....................................................................................113!
VEHICLE TESTING SYSTEMS .......................................................................................................... 125!
Chassis!Dynamometers ............................................................................................................127!
Motorcycle!Chassis!Dynamometer ..........................................................................................133!
Vehicle!Robot ...........................................................................................................................139!
EMISSIONS PARTICULATE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT................................................................... 145!
!
BG3...........................................................................................................................................147!
SootTrak ...................................................................................................................................155!
BG3!Particulate!Sampling!Support!Equipment ........................................................................159!
!
5!
INTRODUCTION TO SIERRA CP TECHNOLOGY!
!
The!CADET!control!system!has!been!installed!in!test!
facilities!worldwide,!providing!full!control!and!data!
logging!capability!to!the!engine!and!vehicle!testing!
market.!Both!hardware!and!software!has!been!
designed!and!developed!specifically!for!engine!and!
vehicle!testing,!it!is!all!manufactured,!written!and!
tested!inLhouse.!!
!
CADET!V14!is!a!constantly!evolving!software!package!
which!is!designed!specifically!to!meet!the!needs!of!
engine!and!vehicle!testing.!Sierra!CP!provide!two!
general!enhancement!releases!every!year,!these!are!
free!to!customers!on!our!Service!Contracts!Scheme.!Some!of!the!benefits!of!CADET!V14!are!below:!!
!
• Over!1000!physical!datalogging!channels!supported!
• MultiLscreen!user!interface!
• OnLline!editing!of!tests,!calibration!procedures,!PID!channels!
• Drag!and!drop!User!Display!creation.!
!
CADET!V14!utilises!Direct!Digital!Control,!to!provide!absolute!realLtime!operation!on!a!Windows!7!
platform,!through!our!dedicated!I/O!Control!and!Monitoring!System!called!CP128.!CADET!V14!will!
enable!operational!personnel!to!easily!compile!test!programs,!automatically!protect!the!bed!
against!out!of!limits!operation,!record!data!during!the!test!and!analyse!the!data!during!or!at!the!
completion!of!the!test.!!The!core!software!is!written!in!C++,!with!user!interfaces!written!in!Visual!
Basic,!custom!functions!can!be!developed!by!the!test!engineer!to!run!during!the!test,!these!can!
provide!additional!calculated!data!that!is!stored!together!with!real!data!from!the!test!bed.!
!
Data!processing!is!performed!on!CP128!rather!than!by!the!system!computer.!All!the!CP128!cards!
are!driven!by!a!common!interrupt!signal!that!allows!time!aligned!averaged!data!to!be!captured,!
rather!than!sequential!snapshot!data.!Additionally,!all!channels!are!optically!isolated.!This!enables!
Sierra!CP!to!offer!a!high!resolution!and!reduce!the!chance!of!monitoring!noise!levels.!
!
Sierra!CP!Engineering!policy!is!one!of!continual!development!for!both!hardware!and!software.!As!
any!changes!are!designed!with!existing!systems!in!mind,!older!systems!can!easily!be!upgraded!to!
the!latest!technology,!either!by!exchanging!cards!and/or!minimal!system!modification,!to!ensure!
backwards!compatibility.!By!designing!dedicated!hardware!rather!than!using!proprietary!
equipment,!Sierra!CP!provide!a!test!system!designed!specifically!for!automotive!testing!purposes.!
The!current!specification!has!evolved!to!the!latest!generation!with!input!from!our!own!engineers!
and!by!working!closely!with!our!many!users.!
!
• Sierra!CP!design!and!manufacture!all!hardware!–!full!control!
• Backward!compatible!L!Any!Developments!consider!requirement!for!existing!users!
• Designed!for!engine!testing!with!integrated!protection!features!
!
Sierra!CP!Engineering!can!therefore!control!all!future!developments!and!designs!for!future!
customer!requirements!as!well!as!safeguard!support!and!provide!upgrade!routes!for!existing!
customers.!
6!
ENGINE TESTING OVERVIEW
!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!and!interface!to!a!wide!range!of!dynamometers!for!steady!state,!transient,!
highly!dynamic!testing!and!vehicle!simulation,!including!AC,!DC,!Eddy!Current!and!Hydraulic.!The!
range!of!applications!includes:!
!
• Emissions!and!Fuel!Consumption!
• Endurance! !
• Performance!tests!
• Noise!Vibration!and!Harshness!
• Climatic!
!
• Quality!Audit!
• Auxiliary!unit!!
• Special!Purpose!
!
!
7!
VEHICLE TESTING OVERVIEW
!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!for!chassis!dynamometers!for!passenger!cars,!motorcycle,!SUV,!MPV,!LDV,!
MDV,!HDV!and!off!road!vehicles.!The!range!of!applications!includes:!
!
• Emissions!and!Fuel!Consumption!
• Mileage!Accumulation!and!Endurance!
!
• Performance!tests!
• Noise!Vibration!and!Harshness!
• Climatic!
!
• Wind!Tunnel!
• Quality!Audit! !
• EMC!
• Flat!belt!dynamometer!
• Tracked!vehicle!dynamometer!
• Special!Purpose!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
8!
POWERTRAIN AND E MOTOR TESTING OVERVIEW
!
!
!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!powertrain!test!solutions!from!single!gearbox,!engine!and!transmission!units!to!
full!4x4!as!installed!in!vehicle!test!solutions.!The!range!of!applications!includes:!
!
• Emissions!and!Fuel!Consumption!
• ELmotor!and!hybrid!unit!testing!
• Endurance!
!
• Performance!tests!
• Noise!Vibration!and!Harshness!
• Climatic!
!
• Quality!Audit!
• Special!Purpose!
!
!
!
!
9!
IN CELL SUPPORT PRODUCTS OVERVIEW
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Sierra!CP!supply!peripheral!support!items!for!inLcell!use!including:!
!
• Fuel!measurement!and!conditioning!
• Engine!coolant,!lubrication,!intercooler!fluid!temperature!control!
• Combustion!air!handling!for!temperature,!humidity!and!pressure!control!
• Extensive!data!acquisition!
• Vehicle!cooling!fans!
• Robot!driver!
• Tyre!burst!detectors!
• Vehicle!retention!
• Extensive!interfaces!for!third!party!equipment!
• Emissions!sampling!and!reporting!hardware!and!software!
10!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
CADET V14
Control, Automation and Datalogging for
Automotive Test
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
11!
More!detailed!CADET!hardware!and!software!documentation!is!available!on!request.!Please!contact!
Sierra!CP!for!further!details.!!!
!
INTRODUCTION
!
CADET!is!Sierra!CPs!in!house!designed!
hardware!and!software,!specifically!designed!
for!the!automotive!testing!industry.!The!
CADET!software!has!been!extensively!
developed!over!the!last!20+!years,!to!include!
the!latest!features!demanded!by!the!
automotive!test!community.!The!latest!release!
of!CADET!software!is!currently!V14.4a.!
!
CADET!V14!utilises!Direct!Digital!Control,!to!
provide!realLtime!operation!on!a!Windows!7!
platform,!through!our!dedicated!I/O!Control!
and!Monitoring!System.!CADET!V14!enables!
operational!personnel!to!easily!compile!test!
programs,!automatically!protect!the!bed!
against!out!of!limits!operation,!record!data!
during!testing!and!analyse!the!data!during!or!
at!the!completion!of!the!test.!!
!
Custom!functions!can!be!developed!by!the!test!engineer!(using!Visual!Basic)!to!run!during!the!test,!
these!can!provide!additional!calculated!data!that!is!stored!together!with!real!data!from!the!test!
bed.!
!
Data!processing!is!performed!on!the!CADET!hardware!rather!than!by!the!system!computer.!All!the!
control!and!datalogging!cards!are!driven!by!a!common!interrupt!signal!that!allows!time!aligned!
averaged!data!to!be!captured,!rather!than!sequential!snapshot!data.!Additionally,!all!channels!are!
optically!isolated.!This!enables!CADET!to!offer!a!high!resolution!and!reduce!the!chance!of!
monitoring!noise!levels.!
!
Sierra!CP!Engineering!policy!is!one!of!continual!development!for!both!hardware!and!software.!As!
any!changes!are!designed!with!existing!systems!in!mind,!older!systems!can!easily!be!upgraded!to!
the!latest!technology,!either!by!exchanging!cards!and/or!minimal!system!modification.!All!service!
contract!holders!are!entitled!to!the!latest!release!of!the!CADET!software!for!free,!which!generally!
has!two!releases!a!year.!
!
By!designing!dedicated!hardware!rather!than!using!proprietary!equipment,!Sierra!CP!provide!a!test!
system!designed!specifically!for!engine!and!vehicle!testing!purposes.!The!current!specification!has!
evolved!to!the!latest!generation!with!input!from!our!own!engineers!and!by!working!closely!with!our!
many!users.!Sierra!CP!design!and!manufacture!all!hardware!and!write!all!software!in!house,!so!
maintain!full!control!of!the!supply!and!development!chain.!!
!
!
!
12!
SPECIFICATION
!
The!maximum!capability!of!the!current!build!of!CADET!(V14.4)!is!detailed!in!the!table!below:!
!
Description!
Maximum!Channel!Count,!V14.4!
Physical!Input!
1028*!
Physical!Output!
128*!
Digital!Input!
256*!
Digital!Output!
256*!
Primary!Setpoints!
2!
Secondary!Setpoints!
60!
PIDs!
64!
Logical!Channels!
2048!
User!Variables!
2000!
Independently!controlled!dynamometers!
10*!
Control!Functions!
32!
Pseudo!Variable!Calculations!
64!
Hardware!Protection!Channels!
24!
ASAPL3!Monitored!Channels!
200*!
ASAPL3!Set!Points!
50*!
CAN!Ports!
8*!
CAN!Variables!–!Per!Port!
300!
!
*Channel!counts!depend!on!the!CADET!hardware!installed.!CADET!systems!will!be!built!to!the!
channel!count!required!by!the!customer.!
!
The!major!features!of!CADET!V14.4!and!the!available!software!interfaces!are!detailed!below,!text!in!
italics!denotes!that!the!component!is!available!as!an!option.!
!
Standard!Sierra!CP!CADET!User!Interfaces!
Values!display!tab!
Instrumentation!display!tab!
Digital!input!display!tab!
Trakker!display!tab!
User!display!tabs!
Calibration!functionality!!
PID!tuning!functionality!
Test!history/datalog!manager!
Test)manager)(TLS)interface))
Calibration!history!
Test!scheduler!editor!
Transient!scheduler!editor!
Test!schedule!upLgrader!
Test!stage!control!
Test!schedule!sequencing!
Transient!scheduler!
Datalog!exporter!
Datalog!to!CSV!exporter!
TRACE!
Trace!To!CSV!exporter!
Data!archiver!
TTAS)(Transmission)Shift)test))
TLS)(Regulatory)calcs))
!
Sierra)CP)iCAM)
Sierra)CP)TVS)mapper)
CADET!Hardware!
CAN)
Ethernet!TCP/IP!&!UDP!
Serial!(RS232/RS422/RS285)!
GPIB)
Modbus)
Profibus)DP)
!
!
Standard!Sierra!CP!CADET!Tools!
Engine!Mapping!and!Modelling!
Sierra)CP)VSIM)
CADET!Interfaces!
13!
Application!Protocols!
ASAPE3)
ASAP)CCP)DAQ)functions)
J1939)DTC)functions)
OBD)II)
AK)protocols)
MATLAB)
Sierra)CP)Cell)Services)
)
)
Horiba)Mexa)6000)Series)
Horiba)Mexa)7000)Series)
Horiba)Mexa)9000)Series)
Horiba)EXSA)1500)
AVL)AMA)i60)
AVL)SESAM)i60)FT)
Fischer)Rosemount)NGA)2000)
Signal)Instruments)series)3)
Signal)Instruments)series)4)
Sierra)CP)Emissions)bench)controller)
)
)
Horiba)9000)series)
Horiba)7000)series)
Signal)Instruments)
Fischer)Rosemount)
Pierburg)PSE)2000)series)
Sierra)CP)CVS)controller)
Emissions!Equipment!Interfaces!
CVS!Interfaces!
Combustion!Analysis!and!Ignition!Timing!
AVL)620)Indiset)
AVL)647)Indiskop)
Sierra)CP)iCAS)
IC)5460)ignition)controller)
Sierra)CP)EMaCs)ignition)controller)
)
Particulate!Measurement!Interfaces!
Sierra)BGE2)and)BGE3)particulates)
Sierra)BGE3)particle)counter)
AVLE415/415S)Smoke)meter)
AVL)439)Opacity)meter)
AVL)472)particulates)
AVL)489)particle)counter)
TIS)3790)particle)counter)
NOVA)microtrol)4)particulates)
Horiba)MDLT130xT)particulates)
Fuel!Measurement!and!Conditioning!
Sierra)CP)FuelTrak)
Sierra)CP)FuelTrak)Transient)
Sierra)CP)Fuel)Conditioning)Units)
AVL)730)Fuel)meter)
AVL)733)Fuel)meter)
AVL)722)Fuel)Conditioning)Unit)
Pierburg)KMA)4000)Fuel)Meter)
)
)
Miscellaneous!Instrumentation!Interfaces!
LA3)Lambda)Meter)
AVL)442)BlowEby)meter)
Horiba)MEXA)1170)HFID)
Horiba)MEXA)J)series)portable)
)
)
Yokogawa!WT!series!analyser!
AVL!Battery!Simulator!
E!Motor!Testing!Interfaces!
AeroVironment!PPS!
Instrumentation!and!Rig!Systems!
Sierra)CP)Combustion)Air)Handling)
Unit)
Sierra)BGE2)&)BGE3)particulates)
Sierra)CP)Brake)test)rig)
Horiba)synthetic)catalyst)rig)
Horiba)SIGU)synthetic)catalyst)rig)
Oribital)synthetic)catalyst)rig)
Sierra)CP)Transmission)Robot)
)
)
Sierra)CP)CDS)
Burke)Porter)CDS)using)AK)
Maha)CDS)using)AK)
Sierra)CP)CDS)Power)checker)
Sierra)CP)Drivers)Aid)
Sierra)CP)Tracked)vehicle)Drivers)Aid)
Sierra)CP)NVH)
Sierra)CP)Vehicle)Robot)
)
Chassis!Dynamometer!Interfaces!
!
For!further!details!on!any!of!the!specifications!listed,!please!contact!Sierra!CP.!
!
!
!
!
!
14!
APPLICATIONS
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Engine!test!
o Petrol/Gasoline!
o Diesel!
o LPG!and!other!specialist!fuels!
o E!Motor!and!Hybrid!
Vehicle!test!
o 2WD!up!to!8WD!
o Tracked!systems!
o Independent!rollers!
o Hub!mounted!systems!
Powertrain!testing!
Vehicle!robots!
Fuel!systems!
Emissions!control!and!testing!
Test!cell!and!facilities!control!
Combustion!air!handling!
Component!testing!
Specialist!rigs!(injectors,!pump!test!
etc)!
Production!test!
Hot!test!
Cold!test!
!
Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!specific!application!requirements!for!further!information!on!
CADETs!capability.!!
!
OPTIONS
!
Hardware!is!custom!designed!from!standard!modules!to!meet!the!customer’s!control!and!
datalogging!requirements.!A!CADET!questionnaire!is!available!on!request!to!aid!with!the!
specification!of!the!CADET!channels.!Similarly,!the!CADET!software!interfaces!to!3rd!party!devices!
required!should!be!specified!on!order!placement.!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!for!further!details.!
Similarly!if!special!software!functions!or!tests!are!required!then!they!can!be!programmed!on!
request.!
!
CADET!hardware!and!software!can!be!upgraded!at!any!time!to!accommodate!additional!channels!
and!interfaces.!Sierra!CP!provides!backwards!compatibility!hardware!upgrades!and!continued!
software!upgrade!path.!An!extensive!stock!of!obsolete!cards!is!also!kept!to!support!existing!
customers!with!older!systems.!All!service!contract!holders!are!issued!with!the!latest!CADET!
software!updates!free!of!charge,!meaning!that!new!features!and!enhancements!are!continually!
introduced!in!line!with!the!ever!changing!demands!of!the!automotive!test!industry.!
!
!
15!
!
16!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
CADET Edge
Dynamometer and Engine Controller
Issue 4.2
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
17!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!CADET!Edge!is!part!of!the!CADET!
range!of!control!systems!(see!separate!
datasheet),!designed!specifically!for!
dynamometer!control!and!engine!
throttle!actuation.!The!CADET!system!can!
actuate!eddy!current,!hydraulic,!AC!or!DC!
dynamometers!and!will!be!supplied!with!
the!appropriate!power!modules.!!
!
Control!of!the!dynamometer!and!throttle!
is!either!automatic!or!manual.!When!in!
automatic!mode!the!throttle!and!
dynamometer!setpoints!follow!a!preL
programmed!test!cycle.!In!manual!mode!
the!throttle!and!dynamometer!setpoints!can!be!adjusted!by!demand!encoders!mounted!either!on!
the!control!enclosure!(as!shown),!or!a!winged!keyboard.!Alternatively!setpoints!can!be!adjusted!on!
the!control!screen.!Setpoints!can!either!be!torque,!power,!speed!or!direct!%,!with!bumpless!
transfer!between!modes!at!any!point!during!testing.!CADET!Edge!can!act!as!a!closed!loop!
dynamometer!controller!receiving!setpoints!from!a!3rd!party!host!or!non!real!time!control!software!
(available!as!an!option,!please!contact!Sierra!CP!for!further!details).!!
!
The!unit!is!housed!in!a!desk!or!4U!rack!mountable!unit,!allowing!for!easy!integration!into!existing!
test!cells.!The!CADET!Edge!package!includes!CADETs!software!and!hardware!independent!safety!
systems!to!ensure!safe!operation!of!the!dynamometer!and!engine!under!test.!All!control!channels!
and!datalogging!channels!(if!selected!as!an!option)!can!be!configured!as!safety!channels!on!a!stage!
by!stage!basis.!The!CADET!system!can!also!link!into!existing!cell!safety!
systems,!for!example!ELstop!chains,!fire!suppression!systems,!test!cell!doors!
interlocks!etc,!via!volts!free!contacts.!
!
An!inLcell!enclosure!is!provided,!which!will!provide!a!marshalling!point!for!the!
throttle!and!dynamometer!connections.!Additional!Sierra!CP!modules!can!
also!be!integrated!into!this!box,!as!required.!Sierra!CP!can!provide!up!to!11!
channels!of!user!specific!datalogging!capability.!These!channels!will!be!
displayed!on!the!CADET!screen!and!logged!with!the!key!parameters.!
!
The!CADET!Engine!electrics!panel!can!also!be!integrated!into!the!inLcell!box.!
This!allows!up!to!4off!engine!circuits!to!be!switched!on!and!off!by!CADET,!this!
is!generally!used!for!ignition,!ECU,!fuel!pumps,!crank!etc.!Indicator!LEDs!show!
activity!and!resettable!fuses!protect!the!circuits.!A!customer!supplied!12/24V!
battery/power!source!is!required.!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
18!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Integrates!with!any!dynamometer,!new!or!existing!
Mechanical!or!electrical!throttle!actuation!
Compact!4U!module!with!integrated!industrial!PC!
Manual!or!automatic!control!modes!
Integrated!software!independent!safety!shutdowns!
Easy!to!use!CADET!control!software!
21!point!form!based!calibration!system!with!various!‘best!fit’!options!
PID!tuning!!
Datalogging!options!–!up!to!12!channels!
Trace!feature!allows!power!curve!generation!or!multiple!channels!to!be!viewed!in!real!time!
on!a!single!plot!
!
Please!see!the!CADET!V14!datasheet!for!further!details!on!benefits!and!features.!
!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eddy!current!dynamometers!
Hydraulic!dynamometers!(1!and!2!valve)!
AC!dynamometers!
Gas!stands!
Endurance!test!cycles!
Retro!fit!existing!dynamometers!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
Normally!the!customer!will!be!responsible!for!the!following!as!required:!
!
• Installation!(Sierra!CP!will!provide!drawings.!Sierra!CP!can!quote!for!this!if!necessary)!
• Monitor!with!VGA!connection,!supporting!1024!x!768!pixels!(Customer!can!select!this!as!
option!H1)!
• Fully!functional!engine!for!commissioning!phase!
• Calibration!system!and!weights!for!commissioning!
• Provide!Sierra!CP!with!information!on!the!type!and!model!of!dynamometer.!The!
dynamometer!should!have!some!form!of!speed!pickup!and!generally!a!loadcell/torque!
transducer!!
• Provide!Sierra!CP!with!wiring!diagrams/terminal!layouts!of!the!dynamometer!!
• 230/110!V!power!to!control!module!and!in!cell!enclosure!
• 12/24V!engine!power!supply,!if!Engine!Electrics!option!(D1)!is!selected!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
19!
OPTIONS
!
The!dynamometer!controller!will!be!supplied!with!a!control!enclosure,!inLcell!box,!keyboard!and!
mouse.!The!dynamometer!controller!can!be!specified!by!selecting!one!option!from!each!of!the!rows!
below.!Customer!specific!options!may!also!be!available,!please!contact!Sierra!CP.!
!
Dynamometer!
Type!
A1!!Eddy!Current!
A2!Hydraulic!–!Single!
Valve!
Mechanical!
Throttle!
Actuation*!
C0!Not!Required!
A4!AC!or!DC!
!
B1!AT12!Mechanical!Throttle!Actuator!(See!
separate!datasheet)!
B0!Not!Required!
Additional!
Datalogging!
(Transducer!
Panel!integrated!
into!inLcell!box)!
A3!Hydraulic!–!
Double!Valves!
!
!
C1!7!Thermocouples,!
4!Analogue!Inputs!
Engine!Electrics!
panels!(12/24V!
CADET!controlled!
relay!driven!
circuits)!
E1!Encoder!Panel!Mounted!
on!Control!Enclosure!
!
E2!Loose!Encoder!Panel!(1U)!
for!integration!into!customer!
cabinet/desk.!
Enclosure!
Mounting!
F1!4U!Rack!Mountable!Unit!
Loom!Lengths!
Between!Control!
Enclosure!and!In!
Cell!Box!!
G1!2!Metres!
CADET!Monitor!
H0!No!Monitor!(Customer!supplies!their!own)!
G2!5!Metres!
!
!
C3!3!Thermocouples,!
8!Analogue!Inputs!
!!!
!
D1!Engine!Electrics!Panels!Integrated!into!inL
cell!box!
D0!No!Engine!Electrics!Panel!
Throttle!and!
Dynamometer!
Manual!Control!
Encoders!!
!
C2!7!Thermocouples,!
2!Analogue!Inputs,!2!
PRTs!
!
E3!Sierra!CP!Winged!
Keyboard!with!Integrated!
Encoders!
F2!Desktop!Case!
G3!10!Metres!
!
*Single!analogue!throttle!channel!provided!as!standard!
!
!
20!
G4!15!Metres!
H1!19”!Flat!Screen!Monitor!
G5!20!Metres!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
CADET V14 Compact
Starter Control, Automation and Datalogging System
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
21!
INTRODUCTION
!
CADETLCompact!offers!an!easily!expandable!solution!to!meet!the!needs!of!educational!
establishments,!smaller!companies!or!those!who!require!accurate!dynamometer,!engine!and!
coolant!control!but!with!limited!monitoring!channels.!CADET!Compact!uses!the!same!control!and!
data!logging!system!and!base!structure!as!the!Full!CADET!V14!systems!but!with!a!reduced!channel!
count!and!associated!cost.!AC,!eddy!current!or!hydraulic!dynamometers!can!be!controlled!via!
CADET!compact!and!the!associated!control!modules.!!
!
CADETLCompact!Modular!components!are:!
!
• 12U!Cabinet!including!
o 3U!Control!rack!
o 3U!Datalogging!rack!with!space!for!
expansion!
o System!Controller!PC!
• CADETLCompact!Software!
• Winged!Keyboard!Operator!Interface!
• In!Cell!Box!including!
o 12/24V!switched!relays!(ignition,!fuel!pumps,!ECU!etc)!
o Coolant!control!and!feedback!connections!
o 12!channel!CADET!Compact!transducer!interface!panel!(various!options!available)!
o Dynamometer!power!module!(Eddy!current!or!hydraulic)!
• AT12!mechanical!throttle!actuator!(Optional!L!system!also!support!analogue!throttle!
outputs)!
• Single!19”!monitor!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Latest!CADET!software,!not!‘previous!version’!!
Retro!fit!to!existing!dynamometers!to!provide!precision!control!
Compact!Design!
Minimal!installation!required!
Easily!Expandable!
Extensive!software!and!hardware!safety!features!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
•
•
•
•
Dynamometer!and!engine!test!cell!control!with!Protection!and!limited!Data!logging!
Durability!Work!
Additional!Beds!to!Compliment!Other!Research!Beds!
Initial!purchase!that!can!be!upgraded!to!a!full!CADET!system!
22!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
Cabinet!
!
The!CADETLCompact!12U!(600mm!x!600mm)!cabinet!houses!the!two!
Sierra!CP!i/o!racks!and!also!the!rack!mounted!system!controller!PC.!
The!cabinet!includes!all!the!termination!for!the!control,!safety!and!
dataLlogging!subLsystems!such!as!the!Engine!Protection!Panel.!Any!
wiring!associated!with!inLcell!equipment!is!terminated!into!modules!
within!the!cabinet!that!provide!a!multiLway!connection!for!onward!
connection!using!the!supplied!looms.!The!looms!have!multiLway!
connectors!at!each!end,!which!allows!easy!onsite!installation!of!the!
cabinet!and!in!cell!enclosure.!
!
Operator!Interface!
!
The!winged!keyboard,!display,!mouse!and!system!control!PC!
are!all!connected!to!the!CADETLCabinet!by!3m!flying!leads.!
The!winged!keyboard!enables!the!operator!to!enter!test!
information!with!the!QWERTY!keyboard,!abort!tests!using!
the!ELstop!mushroom,!enter!a!RESET!condition!after!a!
shutdown!and!silence!the!Alarm.!Incremental!Optical!
Encoders!allow!the!operator!to!take!manual!control!of!the!
throttle!and!dynamometer!setpoints.!
!
CADET!Compact!V14!Software!
!
At!the!heart!of!the!CADETLCompact!system!is!the!
control!software,!this!enables!full!control!of!the!
dynamometer,!Throttle!Actuator,!oil!and!coolant!
conditioning!circuits!as!well!as!monitoring!the!
datalogging!channels.!
!
CADETLCompact!also!allows!calculated!channels!to!be!
created!using!information!from!the!monitored!
channels.!For!test!writing!CADETLCompact!allows!
transient!schedules!setpoints!to!be!written!in!an!excel!
spreadsheet!format.!Schedules!can!be!looped!and!
combined!and!can!be!called!at!any!time!during!a!test.!At!any!point!in!the!test!manual!control!can!be!
selected,!meaning!that!the!engine!and!dynamometer!setpoints!can!be!varied!via!the!winged!
keyboard.!
!
CADETLCompact!uses!a!reduced!functionality!version!of!the!full!control!CADET!V14!software.!All!
controls!and!displays!are!of!the!same!format!meaning!all!the!design!benefits!of!the!fully!developed!
version!are!available.!The!CADET!compact!system!is!limited!only!in!the!number!of!datalogging!
channels!supported!and!software!interfaces!to!3rd!party!instrumentation!(such!as!emissions!
analysers,!Non!Sierra!CP!fuel!equipment,!CAN!&!OBD!interfaces!etc).!The!system!can!be!upgraded!
to!offer!full!functionality!as!necessary.!!
!
23!
Dynamometer!Control!and!Engine!Electrics!Box!
!
This!inLcell!box!contains!the!power!modules!for!the!
Throttle!Actuator!and!eddy!current!or!hydraulic!
dynamometer.!There!are!four!relay!switched!low!voltage!
terminals,!which!switch!from!a!common!power!source!
connection!such!as!an!inLcell!power!supply!or!battery.!
These!can!be!switched!on!or!off!with!the!associated!Digital!
Outputs!during!tests.!They!are!typically!linked!to!ECU,!
Fuel,!Glowplugs!and!Ignition.!There!are!connections!for!
PRT!sensors!with!analogue!feedback!for!PID!cooling!
control!of!coolant,!oil!and!intercooler!circuits.!The!
datalogging!transducer!panel!is!mounted!within!the!
engine!electrics!box!to!allow!all!termination!at!a!single!
source.!This!panel!can!be!re!located!into!a!transducer!box!
if!the!system!is!expanded!in!the!future.!An!oil!pressure!
switch!is!fitted!to!the!bottom!of!the!enclosure.!
!
Transducer!Panel!
!
The!Sierra!CP!transducer!panel!will!allow!the!customer!termination!for!up!to!12!datalogging!
channels,!as!required.!All!Sierra!CP!panels!are!of!a!standard!size!with!standard!looms,!allowing!
modules!to!the!interchanged!and!relocated!if!the!system!is!expanded.!The!following!transducer!
panels!are!available!for!use!with!the!Compact!system:!
!
7off!K!Type!TC!(+CJC)!
2off!PRT!
2off!Analogue!Inputs!
!
7off!K!Type!TC!(+CJC)!
4off!Analogue!Inputs!
!
3off!K!Type!TC!(+CJC)!
8off!Analogue!Inputs!
!
12off!Analogue!Inputs!
!
Analogue!inputs!can!either!be!voltage!(up!to!10V)!or!current!(up!to!20mA).!These!inputs!can!be!
used!as!pressure!inputs!with!4L20mA!transducers.!All!units!within!CADET!are!configurable.!
!
Throttle!Actuator!S!Option!
!
The!AT12!is!an!enclosed!DC!motor!driven!Throttle!Actuator!
that!can!form!part!of!the!CADETLCompact!system.!The!
actuator!provides!performance!suitable!for!applications!
ranging!from!small!two!stroke!engines!up!to!heavy!diesels!
and!Racing!Engines.!Further!detail!on!the!AT12!throttle!
actuator!can!be!found!in!the!relevant!datasheet.!As!standard!
CADET!compact!provides!one!or!two!analogue!output!
channels!which!can!be!configured!to!give!a!number!of!
throttle!output!signals.!
24!
OPTIONS
!
The!CADET!compact!system!is!of!a!standard!build,!meaning!that!design!costs!can!be!kept!to!a!
minimum.!On!order!placement!the!customer!should!let!Sierra!CP!know!the!type,!make!and!model!
of!dynamometer!being!controlled,!and!select!a!suitable!transducer!panel!(as!detailed!previously).!
The!customer!should!also!detail!the!loom!lengths!required!for!installation.!
!
A!number!of!Sierra!CP!in!cell!engine!test!hardware!is!compatible!with!CADET!compact,!further!
details!on!these!can!be!found!in!the!associated!datasheets:!
!
• FuelTrak!1000!and!3000!gravimetric!fuel!measurement!systems!
• FCU!1000!and!3000!fuel!temperature!conditioning!units!
• Valve!manifold!and!cooling!post,!for!conditioning!of!engine!circuits!
• Air!and!exhaust!back!pressure!valves!
!
All!other!Sierra!CP!equipment,!engine!interfaces!and!3rd!party!software!interfaces!can!be!used!with!
the!CADET!system!once!a!full!CADET!V14!licence!has!been!purchased.!This!also!allows!the!customer!
to!increase!the!control!and!datalogging!capability!as!necessary.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!is!generally!responsible!for!installing!the!system!(although!Sierra!CP!can!quote!for!
this!if!required).!Installation!is!straightforward:!the!CADET!cabinet!and!user!interface!(keyboard,!
monitor!and!mouse)!are!generally!installed!in!the!control!room.!A!single!in!cell!box!is!then!installed!
within!the!test!cell,!with!looms!connecting!the!cabinet!to!the!in!cell!box!(looms!will!be!pre!made!to!
the!required!length).!The!AT12!throttle!actuator!(if!purchased)!and!dynamometer!control!loom!
then!connects!to!the!inLcell!box.!Both!the!CADET!cabinet!and!in!cell!box!require!single!phase!
230/110V!power.!
!
Once!installation!is!complete!a!Sierra!CP!commissioning!engineer!will!commission!the!system.!The!
customer!should!ensure!that!the!dynamometer!and!all!cell!services!are!fully!functional.!The!
customer!should!also!provide!a!functional!engine!for!the!commissioning!along!with!dynamometer!
calibration!system!and!weights.!
!
25!
!
26!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
TLS – Test Laboratory System
Emissions Calculation, Reporting and Test Scheduling
Issue 4.1!
27!
!
Please!note:!a!more!detailed!specification!document!on!the!TLS!system!is!available!on!request,!
please!contact!Sierra!CP!for!further!details.!
!
INTRODUCTION
!
TLS!is!a!software!solution!developed!specifically!to!support!testing!of!Engines,!Vehicles!&!
Components.!It!integrates!seamlessly!with!the!Sierra!CP!Engineering!CADET!Automation!System!to!
provide!a!complete!solution!for!configuring!&!running!tests,!pre!&!post!test!data!entry,!emissions!
calculations!and!report!generation.!The!versatility!of!the!TLS!architecture!and!its!data!management!
allows!prescribed!regulatory!tests!and!custom!procedural!or!manual!style!testing!to!be!
accomplished!within!a!single!working!environment.!TLS!fulfils!the!following!roles!within!the!testing!
environment:!
!
• Centralised!Repository!stores!test!and!configuration!data!
• Creating!and!scheduling!test!activities!
• Operation!of!testing!Process!at!test!cell!Automation!System!host!
• Test!data!input!to!and!extraction/archiving!from!the!test!cell!Automation!System!host!
• Regulatory!emissions!calculations!and!test!cycle!validation!(optional!feature)!
• Generation!of!test!reports!
!
TLS!is!a!distributed!system!running!on!multiple!WINDOWS!PC!platforms!connected!by!Ethernet.!All!
configuration!and!test!data!is!stored!centrally!in!the!TLS!Repository!server!and!accessible!remotely!
by!the!TLS!Lab!Manager!and!TLS!Cell!Manager!clients.!TLS!is!configurable!to!suit!the!organisational!
requirements!through!the!use!of!template!definitions!which!are!created!and!updated!by!editors!
within!the!TLS!Lab!Manager!clients.!This!allows!specific!designs!for!Projects,!test!Processes!and!
dataset!Cards!to!be!implemented!and!full!customisation!of!Report!layouts.!
!
KEY FEATURES
!
Regulatory!Calculations!
Standard!emissions!calculations!are!available!for!regulatory!authorities!such!as!the!EEC,!ECE,!EPA,!
INDIAN,!ISO!and!CARB.!Calculations!are!automatically!performed!on!the!test!data!at!the!completion!
of!the!test!Process!and!results!are!immediately!viewable!online!and!available!for!use!in!Reports.!
!
Report!Generation!
Reports!are!generated!using!preLprepared!layouts!which!are!copied!and!populated!with!actual!test!
data.!Report!layouts!are!created!using!standard!EXCEL!workbook!features!and!may!include!multiple!
worksheets,!formatting!and!macros!etc.!The!generated!report!comprises!an!EXCEL!workbook.!
!
!
Client–Server!Architecture!
A!clientLserver!architecture!combines!centralised!data!management!with!distributed!test!&!analysis!
activities.!This!facilitates!the!distribution!of!user!roles!and!sharing!of!data/activities!within!an!
organisation.!
!
28!
!
Multiple!Test!Cell!Operation!
Testing!activities!may!be!distributed!across!multiple!test!cells!at!the!test!Process!level.!Each!test!cell!
within!the!scope!of!TLS!has!a!local!TLS!Cell!Manager!client!which!communicates!with!the!TLS!
Repository!server!and!the!test!cell!Automation!System.!
!
Project!Model!
Related!test!activities!and!data!are!grouped!within!a!Project!model.!A!single!Project!may!cover!one!
or!more!Units!Under!Test!(UUT)!and!provide!multiLphase!Tests!on!each!one.!
!
Dataset!Cards!
Dataset!Cards!are!used!to!store!information!which!is!regularly!used!and/or!common!to!many!
Projects.!Examples!include!Fuel,!Engine,!Vehicle!and!Manufacturer!data.!This!prevents!unnecessary!
duplication!and!simplifies!operator!tasks.!
!
Pick!lists!
Pick!Lists!are!used!simplify!data!entry!and!dataset!Card!Selection.!This!provides!an!efficient!way!of!
locating!and!selecting!standard!datasets!into!Projects!and!gives!user!friendly!names!to!otherwise!
cryptic!data!values.!
!
Configurable!Data!Repository!
The!TLS!Repository!is!configurable!using!the!TLS!Lab!Manager!client!to!suite!organisational!
requirements.!This!includes!dataset!Card!and!Project!definition!Templates,!Pick!Lists,!Data!IDs!and!
test!Process!sequences.!
!
Easy!to!use!GUI!
The!TLS!client!GUI!makes!extensive!use!of!tabbed!screens,!lists!and!stepLbyLstep!‘Wizards’!for!
performing!operator!tasks.!Automatically!created!PDF!versions!of!reports!are!viewable!directly!
within!the!TLS!GUI.!
!
Automation!System!Data!Input!and!Extraction!
TLS!can!be!configured!to!set!and!read!specific!data!values!on!the!test!cell!Automation!System!at!
individual!test!Procedure!level.!This!allows!input!parameterisation!of!Automation!System!test!
sequences!and!extraction!of!pertinent!result!data!upon!completion.!
!
Automation!System!Log!File!Archiving!
Log!files!from!the!test!cell!Automation!System!are!automatically!copied!and!archived!to!the!TLS!
Repository!by!the!local!TLS!Cell!Manager!client.!Selective!log!file!copying,!renaming!and!archive!
hierarchal!folder!structure!is!configured!using!macros!which!may!reference!test!data!values.!
!
Automation!System!calibration!state!and!operator!name!recording!
The!current!overall!calibration!state!&!operator!name!reported!by!the!test!cell!Automation!System!
is!captured!and!stored!at!the!test!Procedure!level!within!TLS.!This!information!can!be!subsequently!
be!used!in!reports!generated!by!TLS.!
!
!
!
!
29!
TEMPLATE BASED DATASET CONFIGURATIONS
!
TLS!uses!configurable!Templates!to!create!dataset!Cards!which!meet!specific!organisational!
requirements.!Templates!and!dataset!Cards!are!stored!in!the!TLS!Repository!server!and!are!
accessible!to!all!connected!clients.!
!
The!TLS!Lab!Manager!client!is!used!to!configure!Templates!and!create/edit!dataset!Cards.!Each!root!
Template!comprises!a!set!of!definable!Data!Fields!and!may!incorporate!a!multiLlayer!hierarchy!of!
SubLTemplates!such!that!the!resulting!dataset!Cards!contain!Data!Fields!with!relevant!context.!
!
For!a!given!Template!type!(e.g.!Fuel)!this!allows!data!fields!common!to!all!types!to!be!contained!
within!the!root!Template!and!additional!type!specific!data!fields!contained!within!SubLTemplates.!
This!approach!allows!type!specific!data!entry!at!the!time!of!dataset!Card!creation!and!during!
subsequent!editing!and!avoids!inclusion!of!data!which!is!not!appropriate!for!a!specific!type.!
!
Fuel!
Gasoline!
Diesel!
Engine!
LPG!
Spark!
Ignition!
Gasoline!
Marine!
Highway!
CNG!
LPG!
CNG!
Non!Road!
Mobile!
Compression!
Ignition!
Compression!
Ignition!
Diesel!
Diesel!
Stationary!
!
For!example:!Fuel!template!may!be!configured!create!datasets!for!Gasoline,!Diesel!and!LPG!which!
have!data!fields!specific!to!the!fuel!type.!The!root!template!is!Fuel;!subLtemplates!used!to!refine!for!
Gasoline,!Diesel,!LPG!and!CNG.!!
!
Engine!template!may!be!configured!to!create!datasets!for!Highway,!Marine,!NonLRoad!and!
Stationary!use,!refined!for!Spark!and!Compression!ignition!types,!and!further!refined!to!include!fuel!
and!after!treatment!type.!The!root!template!is!Engine;!subLtemplates!are!used!to!refine!as!
required.!
!
Each!Data!Field!within!a!Template!may!be!customised.!The!main!customisable!parameters!are!given!
below!and!many!others!are!available:!
!
Key!Field!
Four!data!fields!within!each!dataset!may!be!designated!as!key!fields!for!
selection!and!grouping!purposes.!
Name! !
!
Used!for!display!purposes!and!report!generation.!
Description! !
Used!for!display!purposes.!
Units! !
!
Unit!of!the!value.!
Input!mode!
Method!of!data!entry,!for!example:!edit!box,!date!picker,!Pick!List,!system!
(e.g.!current!time!of!day)!etc.!
Life!Cycle!
Defines!when!the!user!will!be!prompted!for!data!input,!for!example:!at!
creation,!when!scheduling!a!Process,!when!running!a!Process,!when!creating!
a!Report,!etc.!
30!
!
!
Life!Cycle!mode!
Data!type!
Precision!
!
!
!
Defines!whether!the!data!is!optional,!mandatory!(i.e.!must!be!present!to!
continue),!or!read!only!(visible!but!not!editable)!at!each!point!of!the!life!cycle.!
Type!of!data,!for!example:!integer,!decimal,!boolean,!text,!date!etc.!
Number!of!decimal!places!in!decimal!values!
REGULATION EMISSIONS CALCULATIONS
!
TLS!optionally!provides!a!module!for!performing!emissions!calculations!for!test!cycles!which!are!
conducted!in!accordance!with!regulatory!test!protocols.!
!
Process!Log!File!
All!raw!data!and!configuration!required!to!perform!regulatory!emissions!calculations!and!the!
calculated!results!for!a!test!Process!is!stored!in!a!single!Process!Log!file.!
Multiple!modal!sample!points!(e.g.!raw,!dilute,!tracer,!HFID)!with!time!alignment!and!bag!data!are!
supported.!The!Process!Log!file!uses!a!text!format!with!single!line!records!and!may!be!viewed!in!any!
application!capable!of!opening!large!text!files.!
!
TLS!automatically!updates!the!data,!performs!the!required!calculations!and!stores!this!file!on!the!
Repository!server!at!the!end!of!each!test!Process!run.!Results!data!is!automatically!extracted!from!
the!Process!Log!file!and!available!for!immediate!online!viewing!and!reporting.!
!
Supported!test!cycles!S!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!for!the!most!recent!list.!
!
EPA!CFR!40!part!1033!Ramped!Modal!to!EPA!CFR!40!part!1065!
Locomotive)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!1039!Discrete!Mode,!Ramped!Mode!and!Transient!to!EPA!CFR!40!part!1065!
NonEroad)compression)ignition)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!1042!Discrete!Mode!and!Ramped!Mode!to!EPA!CFR!40!part!1065!
Marine)compression)ignition)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!1048!Discrete!Mode,!Ramped!Mode!and!Transient!to!EPA!CFR!40!part!1065!
Large)nonEroad)spark)ignition)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!1054!Discrete!Mode!and!Ramped!Mode!to!EPA!CFR!40!part!1065!
Small)nonEroad)spark)ignition)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!86!Subpart!B!FTP!72,!FTP75,!NYCC,!HWFET,!SC03,!US06!
Light)duty)onEroad)vehicles)and)trucks!
EPA!CFR!40!part!86!Subpart!D!Discrete!Mode!
Gasoline)and)Heavy)duty)Diesel)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!86!Subpart!F!
Motor)cycles!
EPA!CFR!40!part!86!Subpart!I!Smoke!
Gasoline)and)Heavy)duty)Diesel)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!86!Subpart!N!Discrete!Mode,!Ramped!Mode!and!Transient!
OnEroad)Otto)cycle)and)heavy)duty)Diesel)engines!
EPA!CFR!40!part!90!Discrete!Mode!
Small)nonEroad)spark)ignition)engines!
!
EEC!70/220/EC!Type!I!and!VI!MVEGLA!90,!MVEGLA!120,!MVEG!B!90,!MVEG!B!120,!Type!II!Idle!CO!
EEC!97/68/EC!Discrete!Mode!and!Transient!
Road)vehicles!
NonEroad)mobile)engines!
EEC!86/77/EEC!Discrete!Mode,!ELR!and!Transient!
OnEroad)engines!
!
R83!Type!I!and!VI!MVEGLA!90,!MVEGLA!120,!MVEG!B!90,!MVEG!B!120!
Road)vehicles!
!
ISO!8178!Discrete!Mode!
Engines!
!
JAPAN!NLT!2005!10/15!mode,!10!mode,!11!mode,!JC08!
Road)vehicles!
!
Thailand!TIS!2155L2546!I!and!VI!MVEGLA!90,!MVEGLA!120,!MVEG!B!90,!MVEG!B!120,!Bangkok!
!
31!
Road)vehicles)
REPORT GENERATION
!
Reports!are!produced!in!EXCEL!workbook!format!and!a!PDF!copy!is!automatically!created!for!online!
viewing!within!the!TLS!Lab!Manger!and!Cell!Manager!clients.!TLS!generates!reports!by!copying!a!
preLprepared!layout!and!populating!it!with!data.!The!finished!report!is!then!stored!on!the!TLS!
Repository!in!a!folder!hierarchy!specified!using!macros.!
!
Layout!Templates!
Report!layouts!are!created!using!the!EXCEL.!Multiple!worksheets,!embedded!macros!and!
formatting!options!may!be!used.!TLS!uses!NAMES!to!tag!data.!The!layout!design!references!
NAMEed!data!within!individual!cells!to!create!the!desired!format.!Automation!System!data!logs!
may!also!be!automatically!exported!into!reports!using!a!row!(log)!and!column!(channel)!format.!
Layout!templates!are!stored!in!a!folder!hierarchy!specified!using!macros.!This!allows!multiple!report!
templates!and!a!Pick!List!system!to!present!a!subLlist!of!all!available!reports!based!on!the!test!
Process!that!was!run.!
!
TEST PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES
!
A!test!Process!defines!a!set!of!test!Procedures!that!will!be!run!sequentially!on!a!test!cell!
Automation!System.!Each!test!Procedure!within!a!Process!is!a!predefined!operation!that!is!
performed!by!the!test!cell!Automation!System,!for!example!a!power!curve.!TLS!allows!Automation!
System!test!Procedures!to!be!parameterised!and!automatically!extracts!results!data!on!completion.!
For!example!the!speed!interval!of!a!power!curve!may!be!specified!in!the!Process!configuration.!!
!
Automation!System!test!Procedures!are!‘atomic’.!This!means!that!the!only!interaction!between!TLS!
and!the!Automation!System!occurs!at!the!start!and!end!of!each!Procedure.!A!Project!test!Process!is!
scheduled!on!a!specific!test!cell!using!TLS!Lab!Manager.!The!scheduled!test!Process!automatically!
appears!on!the!local!test!cell!TLS!Cell!Manager!client.!The!test!cell!operator!uses!the!Cell!Manager!
module!to!select!a!scheduled!test!Process!and!run!it.!During!a!test!Procedure!the!Automation!
System!may!require!the!operator!to!make!a!decision!to!Abort,!Continue!or!Retry!an!operation.!Test!
Processes!and!Procedures!may!be!added,!deleted!and!modified!using!TLS!Lab!Manager!editors.!The!
configuration!of!the!dataset!Cards!allows!data!to!be!requested!at!appropriate!times.!For!example!a!
UUT!serial!number!may!be!requested!when!scheduling!a!test!Process!and!a!fuel!batch!number!
when!running!it.!
!
Typical!test!Process!Procedure!sequences!that!may!be!configured!are:!
!
8Lmode!steady!state!
Transient!
Performance!
Oil!Carry!Over!
Manual!Development!Test!
Vehicle!
Initialise!
Emissions!Bench!Pre!Check!
Engine!Start!
Engine!Warm!up!
8Lmode!test!cycle!
Emissions!Bench!Post!Check!
!
!
Initialise!
Engine!Start!
CCV!Cycle!
!
Initialise!
Emissions!Bench!Pre!Check!
Engine!Start!
Transient!Cycle!(cold)!
Soak!
Transient!Cycle!(hot)!
Emissions!Bench!Post!Check!
!
Initialise!
Engine!Start!
Manual!Operation!
!
32!
Initialise!
Engine!Start!
Engine!Warm!up!
Power!Map!
Power!Curve!
Engine!Cool!down!
!
!
Initialise!
Emissions!Bench!Pre!Check!
Vehicle!centering!
Vehicle!trim!
Vehicle!coastdown!check!
Test!cycle!
Emissions!Bench!Post!Check!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
In Cell Equipment
Ancillary Equipment to Support
New and Existing Test Cells
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
33!
IN CELL EQUIPMENT
!
Our!philosophy!of!flexibility!and!simplicity!of!design!helps!provide!the!foundation!for!our!range!of!
modular,!ancillary!inLcell!products!to!meet!the!diverse!and!demanding!requirement!of!modern!test!
facilities.!Our!inLcell!support!solutions!are!designed!as!part!of!our!turnLkey!engine!and!vehicle!test!
cell!automation!and!are!also!available!as!standLalone!solutions!suitable!for!use!with!non!CP!host!
test!systems.!
!
Sierra!CP!offer!a!wide!range!of!dynamometers!to!meet!most!testing!requirements.!All!Sierra!CPs!
dynamometers!are!custom!selected!and!designed!to!match!a!customer!requirement,!as!we!
understand!that!a!‘one!size!fit!all’!solution!is!not!ideal!for!most!customers.!
!
Sierra!CPs!range!of!ancillary!products!are!designed!to!accompany!and!integrate!with!any!existing!or!
new!build!engine!or!vehicle!test!cell!installations.!CP!are!able!to!offer!products!to!provide!air!inlet!
and!exhaust!back!pressure!valves,!engine!fluid!conditioning!solutions,!fuel!measurement!and!
conditioning!solutions!as!well!as!mechanical!throttle!actuation!systems.!
!
!
!
!
!
34!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
Dynamometers
AC, Eddy Current or Hydraulic Dynamometers
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
35!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!offers!a!large!range!of!various!dynamometers!which!are!suitable!for!a!wide!range!of!petrol!
and!diesel!engines!and!other!rotating!test!requirements.!Sierra!CP!can!supply!motoring!and!
absorbing!AC!Dynamometers!and!inverter!drives!up!to!1,000!kW!and!8,000!Nm.!Eddy!Current!
Dynamometers!with!a!performance!ranging!from!5!to!3,000!kW!and!torques!up!to!20,000!Nm!can!
be!offered.!Hydraulic!machines!are!also!available!to!meet!most!requirements!with!powers!in!excess!
of!20MW!available.!!!Sierra!CP!select!and!design!dynamometers!based!on!customer!requirements.!
For!further!details!and!quotation!please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!maximum!engine!power,!torque!and!
speed!requirements.!Alternatively!provide!Sierra!CP!with!engine!performance!curves.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
!
•
•
Low!Inertia!
High!Performance!to!Cost!Ratio!
Bespoke!design!to!meet!specific!customer!requirements!
APPLICATIONS
!
•
•
•
•
•
Emissions!Certification!Work!
Transient!Test!Cycles!
Drive!Cycles!
Vehicle!Simulation!Work!
Endurance!and!Reliability!
!
When!operating!with!Sierra!CP!Engineering’s!CADET!V14!test!systems!all!machines!are!suitable!to!
generate!the!dynamic!test!requirements!for!Federal!and!European!emissions!tests.!!!!!
!
AC DYNAMOMETERS
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!offer!a!vast!selection!of!
AC!dynamometers!ranging!from!15kW!to!
over!1,000kW!with!bespoke!dynamometer!
designing!capabilities!to!cater!for!all!testing!
requirements.!!!
!
Standard!AC!dynamometer!construction!
includes!dynamometer!base!frames!of!
desired!centre!height,!capable!of!various!
mounting!arrangements.!!
!
Torque!measurement!is!most!commonly!
from!an!in!line!torque!flange!for!high!accuracy!and!speed!measurement!from!an!optical!encoder.!
Calibration!arms!and!weights!pan!are!included!as!standard.!Calibration!weights!can!be!provided!by!
Sierra!CP!on!request.!Above!is!shown!a!Sierra!CP!840kW!AC!dynamometer!complete!with!rotor!lock,!
torque!flange!with!calibration!arms!and!pans.!
!
36!
Each!dynamometer!is!matched!to!a!3Lphase!AC!four!quadrant!regenerative!drive.!The!drive!
incorporates!filters!for!high!and!low!order!harmonics!to!prevent!cross!talk!with!adjacent!
equipment.!The!range!of!drives!is!physically!compact!without!sacrificing!outright!performance.!
!
The!standard!range!of!dynamometers!described!in!this!Data!Sheet!has!been!carefully!selected!to!
show!a!range!of!dynamometers!suitable!majority!needs!of!the!engine!testing!industry,!however!
Sierra!CP!would!be!pleased!to!consider!any!requirements!for!special!applications.!This!includes!
performance!enhancements!and!operational!requirements!such!as!water!cooled!motors,!double!
ended!shafts,!provision!of!shaft!guarding!and!drive!shafts,!palletised!dynamometer!systems!and!any!
other!specialist!requirements!which!you!might!have.!!
!
Sierra!CP!treats!each!specification!individually!and!offers!bespoke!dynamometer!solutions!to!best!
suit!the!customer’s!requirement.!
!
High!Speed!Dynamometers!
!
!
!
!
!
!
106kW!
173kW!
223kW!
323kW!
!
Base!
Max!
Base!
Max!
Base!
Max!
Base!
Max!
Speed!rpm!
5,000!
10,000!
4,500!
10,000!
4,000!
10,000!
5,300!
10,000!
Absorbing!Torque!Nm!!
200!
100!
370!
160!
530!
210!
580!
310!
Absorbing!Power!kW!
106!
173!
223!
323!
Free!Accl’n!rpm/sec!
15,917!up!to!Base!
14,976!up!to!Base!
16,465!up!to!Base!
18,112!up!to!Base!
Rotor!Inertia!kg/m !
0.12!
0.22!
0.29!
0.29!
Current!amps!
190!
290!
380!
570!
2
Speeds!of!15,000+!RPM!are!achievable!with!specialist!bearings!and!cooling!
37!
High!Torque!Dynamometers!
!
!
!
!
!
!
145kW!
249kW!
325kW!
423kW!
!
Base!
Max!
Base!
Max!
Base!
Max!
Base!
Max!
Speed!rpm!
1,200!
3,150!
1,200!
3,400!
1,200!
3,500!
1,400!
4,000!
Absorbing!Torque!Nm!!
1,170!
305!
1,960!
480!
2,600!
650!
2,850!
770!
Absorbing!Power!kW!
145!
249!
325!
423!
Free!Accl’n!rpm/sec!
10,541!up!to!Base!
10,173!up!to!Base!
9,441!up!to!Base!
9,652!up!to!Base!
Rotor!Inertia!kg/m !
1.06!
1.84!
2.63!
2.82!
Current!amps!
255!
430!
585!
735!
2
!
Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!requirements!to!receive!a!dynamometer!sized!specifically!for!
your!requirements.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
38!
EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMETERS
!
A!selection!of!eddy!current!dynamometers!that!Sierra!CP!can!supply!are!listed!below:!
!
Max!Speed!
(rpm)!
15,000!
Inertia!(kg.m2)!
5!
Max.!Torque!
(Nm)!at!(rpm)!
17!at!2,800!
20!
40!
120!at!1,600!
150!at!2,500!
15,000!
15,000!
0.02!
0.02!
75!
450!at!1,800!
13,000!
0.05!
110!
190!
450!at!2,300!
800!at!2,300!
13,000!
12,000!
0.05!
0.15!
290!
2,000!at!1,400!
9,000!
0.6!
400!
440!
1,600!at!2,200!
800!at!4,500!
9,000!
12,000!
0.3!
0.29!
500!
580!
3,500!at!1,400!
4,000!at!1,400!
5,500!
9,000!
3.0!
0.9!
580!
1,800!at!3,000!
7,000!
1.1!
660!
870!
1,200!at!5,500!
2,000!at!4,200!
15,000!
9,000!
1.5!
1.5!
870!
1,000!
6,000!at!1,400!
7,000!at!1,400!
6,500!
3,500!
1.7!
5.5!
1,500!
10,500!at!1,400!
3,500!
8.1!
2,500!
3,200!
15,000!at!1,600!
20,000!at!1,900!
3,500!
2,500!
23.0!
33.6!
Power!(kW)!
!
Various!eddy!current!dynamometers!not!listed!are!
also!available!as!well!as!reconditioned!units,!please!
contact!Sierra!CP!for!further!details.!
!
Typically!eddy!current!dynamometers!are!supplied!
with!the!following:!
!
• Toothed!wheel!speed!pickup!
• Swing!frame!construction!with!load!cell!
• Calibration!arms!and!weight!pans!
• Inlet!filters!
• OM12!power!module!
!
!
!
!
!
39!
0.002!
HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETERS
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!a!range!a!hydraulic!dynamometers!suitable!for!most!testing!
applications!up!to!20MW.!For!further!details!please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!specific!
requirements.!ReLconditioned!dynamometers!are!also!available.!
!
Typically!hydraulic!dynamometers!are!supplied!with!the!following:!
!
• Toothed!wheel!speed!pickup!
• Swing!frame!construction!with!load!cell!
• Calibration!arms!and!weight!pans!
• Inlet!filters!
• Inlet/Outlet!control!valve!with!power!module!
!
OPTIONS
!
A!number!of!options!are!available!with!most!dynamometers.!A!selection!of!these!are:!
!
• Drive!cabinets!for!motoring!or!absorbing!from!AC!dynamometers!(new!or!existing!
dynamometers)!
• Dynamometer!control!systems!(see!CADET!V14!and!CADET!Edge!datasheets)!
• Shaft!guards!
• Dynamometer!mounting!frames!
• Load!cells!
• InLline!torque!meters!
• Encoders!and!toothed!wheels!
• Climatic!and!NVH!solutions!
• Chassis!dynamometer!systems!(see!separate!datasheet)!
• Polo!magnetic!water!filters!
!
Sierra!CP!provide!suitable!AC!variable!frequency!4!quadrant!regenerative!drives!sized!to!the!AC!
dynamometer!requirements,!including!any!overload!requirements.!
!
For!a!full!range!of!AC!dynamometers!and!drives!please!contact!Sierra!CP!Engineering!with!any!
specific!requirements.!Sierra!CP!will!provide!a!range!of!dynamometer!and!drive!solutions!for!your!
specific!testing!applications.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!make!available!or!prepare!the!following!services!as!necessary:!
!
• 3!phase!power!and!power!isolation!as!required!(G59!relay!in!UK)!
• Cooling/bed!water!supplies!(Sierra!CP!can!provide!if!necessary)!
• Control!System!with!Safety!Monitoring!(CADET!options!offered!or!3rd!Party!system)!
!
These!will!be!confirmed!and!discussed!during!the!project!phase.
40!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Valve Manifold and Cooling Post
Engine Circuit Temperature Control
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
41!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Sierra!CP!valve!manifold!assembly!is!designed!to!provide!
temperature!control!of!engine!coolant,!engine!oil!and!turbo!
/intercooler!(or!other!cooling!circuits)!in!engine!test!applications,!
from!a!single!bed!water!feed!and!return.!The!compact!module!
supports!the!rapid!control!of!coolant!flow!through!the!three!
independent!bed!water!circuits.!These!circuits!are!usually!
connected!to!suitably!sized!heat!exchangers,!which!in!turn!are!
connected!to!the!engine!circuits.!Sierra!CP!can!offer!a!cooling!
post!which!is!a!single!unit!that!integrates!the!valve!manifold!and!
appropriately!sized!heat!exchangers.!!
!
The!flow!rate!to!the!heat!exchanger!for!each!valve!manifold!
circuit!is!controlled!by!adjusting!a!3!way!electroLpneumatically!
actuated!ball!valve.!The!flow!range/back!pressure!of!each!circuit!
is!manually!preLset!by!adjusting!integral!ball!valves!within!the!
valve!manifold,!which!allows!the!manifold!to!be!used!with!a!wide!
range!of!engine!sizes.!
!
Closed!loop!
temperature!control!is!
achieved!by!integrating!
PRT!sensors!into!the!engine!circuit!supply!pipework.!The!3!
way!valves!are!then!actuated!such!that!the!bed!water!flow!
through!the!heat!exchangers!is!sufficient!to!remove!the!
required!amount!of!heat!and!thus!provide!the!necessary!
engine!circuit!supply!temperatures.!The!valve!manifold!can!
be!controlled!by!a!CADET!system,!CADET!Fuel!Controller!
(see!separate!datasheet)!or!3rd!party!control!system!
(customer!will!need!to!provide!the!required!control!
channels!and!necessary!software).!
SPECIFICATION
!
Cooling!Module!Requirement!
Feed!and!Return!Connections!
Valve!Manifold!Cooling!Circuit!Connections!
Specification!
2”!BSP!Female!x!34mm*!
Large:!1!½”!BSP!Female*!
Small:!¾”!BSP!Female*!
Coolant!Supply!Pressure!
Electrical!Connections!Per!Circuit**!
2!L!6!Bar!!
!
Valve!Actuation!
4L20mA!Control!Signal!(8V!Minimum)!
PRT!Feedback!
3!Wire!PRT!Input!
!
*Hose!end!push!fits!are!also!available!as!an!option!
**Connections!are!provided!on!the!CADET!&!CADET!Compact!Engine!Electrics!Panel!
42!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Only!two!connections!required!for!feed!and!return!water!
Compact!unit!reduces!clutter!in!the!cell!
Proportioning!valves!aid!accurate!flow!control!
Adjustable!for!a!wide!range!of!engine!sizes!
Can!be!expanded!to!offer!additional!cooling!channels!(such!as!dynamometer!cooling)!
Cooling!post!can!be!mounted!on!castors!to!be!moved!around!the!cell!as!required!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
Engine!test!work,!where!air!cooling!of!radiator!is!not!appropriate!!!
Emissions!work!to!control!engine!fluids!to!within!allowable!limits!
Connect!to!existing!Heat!Exchangers!for!automated!PID!control!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!module,!which!supports!both!hose!and!screw!fittings,!requires!one!feed!and!one!return!
connection.!This!allows!for!maintenance,!especially!when!connections!are!via!silicon!rubber!hose.!In!
typical!installations!the!return!flow!from!the!three!cooling!circuits!will!be!via!the!free!end!of!the!
manifold!return!allowing!a!single!point!of!coupling!for!the!test!bed!coolant!feed!and!return.!!
!
The!manifold!will!operate!with!a!large!range!of!coolant!pressure,!as!the!required!maximum!flow!
rate!is!preLset!using!the!manual!range!adjustment!valves.!This!feature!ensures!that!each!circuit!may!
be!optimised!for!the!required!heat!dissipation!and!thus!coolant!circuits!may!be!preLset!for!the!
engine!size!and!power!output!in!use.!!This!ensures!that!the!control!valve!operates!over!its!full!range!
of!travel!
!
The!ability!to!match!the!internal!return!flows!with!the!heatLexchanger!circuit!by!using!the!integral!
balance!valves!ensures!that!the!control!valves!operate!in!a!linear!manner!and!are!therefore!well!
matched!to!the!range!of!flow!control!required.!
The!three!way!control!valves!respond!to!4L20mA!
position!setLpoints!and!provide!fast!and!precise!
positional!control,!resulting!in!responsive!and!
precise!temperature!control.!The!module!is!
suitable!for!vertical!or!horizontal!mounting.!
!
The!cooling!water!circuits!on!the!cooling!post!
are!piped!to!individual!Heat!Exchangers!
mounted!on!the!post.!The!supply!lines!from!the!
engine!can!be!either!via!quickLfit!connectors!or!
traditional!threaded!couplings.!The!capacities!of!
the!various!heat!exchangers!are!sized!on!the!
customers!application.!
!
!
!
43!
OPTIONS
!
As!standard!the!valve!manifold!is!supplied!with!1off!1!½”!
circuit!for!coolant!conditioning!and!2off!¾”!circuits!for!oil!
and!intercooling.!On!request!Sierra!CP!can!provide!2off!
or!3off!1!½”!circuits!instead,!or!provide!valve!manifolds!
with!4+!circuits.!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!
specific!requirements.!!
!
The!Sierra!CP!cooling!post!is!usually!built!with!a!header!
tank!style!heat!exchanger!for!coolant!conditioning!and!a!
lower!mounted!oil!coolant!heat!exchanger.!These!heat!
exchangers!are!sized!to!be!sufficient!for!the!customers’!
largest!engine!size.!The!intercooler!heat!exchanger!is!not!
usually!supplied!however!Sierra!CP!can!integrate!
coolant/air!heat!exchangers!into!the!cooling!post!as!
required.!!
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!custom!conditioning!
solutions.!Examples!of!these!are:!
!
• Systems!with!integrated!heating!and!pumps,!for!
engine!pre!conditioning!
• Oil!pressure!control!
• All!stainless!steel!units!
• Multiple!heat!exchanges!integrated!into!a!single!
cooling!circuit,!which!can!be!bypassed!depending!
on!the!engine!size!under!test!
• Heat!exchangers!built!onto!engine!frames!
• Palletised!cooling!solutions!
• Systems!with!integrated!flow!measurement!
!
Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!specific!requirements!for!further!information.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!be!responsible!for!providing!the!following!services:!
!
• Compressed!air!supply!–!Instrument!grade,!dry,!dust!and!oil!free!
• Bed!or!cooling!water!feed!and!return!
• Pumps,!filters!and!additional!valves!if!required!
!
These!will!be!confirmed!and!discussed!during!the!project!phase.!
44!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Mechanical Throttle Actuator
AT12 and OM22
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
45!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!AT12!is!an!enclosed!DC!motor!driven!fast!acting!
Mechanical!Throttle!Actuator!which!can!be!used!with!
Sierra!CPs!or!3rd!party!control!systems.!The!actuator!
provides!performance!suitable!for!‘pull!cable!type’!
throttle!applications!ranging!from!small!two!stroke!
engines!up!to!heavy!duty!diesels!and!racing!engines.!!
A!lever/rod!actuation!version!of!the!AT12!is!also!
available!for!pedal!or!alternative!actuation!
requirements.!The!OM22!power!module!accompanies!
the!AT12!and!allows!closed!loop!positional!control!of!
the!actuator,!with!the!test!cell!controller!providing!a!
4L20mA!positional!control!signal.!
!
SPECIFICATION
!
The!AT!12!is!built!around!a!permanent!magnet!DC!motor!
with!a!worm!reduction!gearbox!and!servo!
potentiometer.!The!specification!of!the!AT12!and!OM22!
Control!module!can!be!found!below:!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Actuator!Specification!
AT12!Specification!
Units!
Value!
Maximum!Pull!Force!
Maximum!Cable!Travel!
N!
mm!
130!
92!(210!degrees)!
Response!Time!
ms!
120!
0L180!Degrees!Time!
Operating!Temperature!
ms!
°C!
250!
0L40!
AT12!Dimensions!(H!x!W!x!D)!!
Protection!Rating!
mm!
L!
120!x!220!x!120!
IP55!with!Splash!Proof!Connectors!
!
!
!
OM22!Electrical!Requirements!(CADET!Provides!These!Control!Signals!as!Standard)!
Positional!Control!Signal!
mA!
0L20!
Feedback!Signal!(Not!Required!for!Control)!
Shutdown!Signal!(If!removed,!AT12!returns!
to!0%,!assuming!the!AC!supply!is!active)!
Power!Requirement!
mA!
4L20!
V!DC!
24!(at!40mA)!
V!AC!
110/230!±10%!(Specify!on!Order)!
!
46!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
Fast!Acting!
Compact!Unit!
Operates!in!any!Plane!
Easily!Adaptable!to!Various!Throttle!Systems!
Safety!shutdown!system!(24VDC!active!signal)!
Closed!loop!positional!control!with!setpoints!provided!by!CADET!or!3rd!party!control!system!
OPTIONS
!
As!standard!the!throttle!actuation!system!will!be!supplied!with!the!following:!
!
• AT12!mechanical!throttle!actuator!
• OM22!power!module,!built!into!a!wall!mountable!enclosure!(can!also!be!supplied!loose)!
• 1.5!metre!Bowden!cable!with!clevis!pins!to!connect!to!the!customers!throttle!system!
• 1.5!metre!loom!between!AT12!and!OM22!enclosure!
• 5!metre!loom!from!OM22!enclosure!to!110/230V!supply!
• 10!metre!control!loom!from!OM22!to!the!control!system!(please!specify!CADET!or!Other!
control!system!on!order!placement)!
!
AT12!Actuator!–!BLCAA12!
!
!
OM22!Power!Module!in!Enclosure!–!BLEXV12!
!
!
Loom!to!CADET!(9!Way!D!Type!L!BLEXV12C)!or!other!control!system!(Free!ends!L!BLEXV12D)!
!
As!options!Sierra!CP!can!provide!the!following:!
!
• Alternative!throttle!cable!and!loom!lengths!
• AT12!in!a!pedal!actuator!or!motorcycle!throttle!actuator!
• Uprated!performance!(faster!response,!higher!force!or!larger!travel)!
• Ignition!actuation!adaptation!(Key!or!Push!Button!Start!bolt!on!module)!
• OM22!with!alternative!connectors!
47!
!
!
48!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Exhaust Back Pressure and Air Valves
Exhaust and Inlet Air Pressure Simulation
Issue 4.2
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
49!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Exhaust!Back!Pressure!Valves!and!Air!
Valves!are!fast!acting!ALL!Stainless!Steel!
Butterfly!Valves!ranging!from!2”!–!8”!
diameter,!controlled!by!an!AV12!electronic!
actuator.!The!valves!are!used!for!adjusting!
and!simulating!the!effective!pressure!drop!
of!the!test!bed!inlet!and!exhaust!system.!
The!vales!are!supplied!with!OM22!Closed!
loop!control!modules,!which!adjust!the!
position!of!the!valve!in!response!to!a!0L
20mA!control!signal.!Closed!loop!pressure!
control!can!be!achieved!by!installing!a!
pressure!transducer!into!the!intake/exhaust!ductwork.!The!signal!from!the!pressure!transducer!(not!
supplied)!can!then!be!read!by!one!of!CADET!V14’s!fast!analogue!channels,!or!by!a!third!party!
control!system,!to!provide!closed!loop!pressure!control.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
Fast!Acting!
Compact!Unit!
Operates!in!any!Plane!
Easily!Adaptable!to!a!variety!of!Exhaust!Systems!
Different!Diameters!Available!
APPLICATIONS
!
•
•
•
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
•
•
Simulation!of!pressure!drops!
o Exhaust!back!pressure!
o Turbo!pressure!simulation!
o Filter!simulation!
o Ambient!pressure!reduction!
Transient!control!!
Compliments!CAHU!for!exhaust!
pressure!control!
Emissions!Work!
Research!and!Development!work!
!
50!
SPECIFICATION
!
The!specification!for!the!various!sizes!of!valves!
and!electrical!requirements!are!detailed!below.!
Please!note!the!following:!!
!
• Diameter!D!is!the!inner!diameter!of!the!
flange!
• Flange!thickness!is!8mm!for!3”L!8”!valves!
• The!2”!valve!uses!a!VLclamp!coupling!
system,!instead!of!a!bolted!flange!and!is!
cable!driven!to!minimise!weight!and!size!
• Exhaust!and!Air!Valves!have!nominally!
the!same!design,!with!the!exception!of!
the!distance!between!valve!and!
actuator,!which!is!larger!for!exhaust!
valves!
!
Valve!Sizes!
Maximum!Recommended!Airflow!
Dimension!A!
!
2”!
3
m /hr! 500!
mm!
70!
4”!
1,500!
150!
5”!
2,500!
200!
6”!
3,500!
200!
8”!
6,500!
240!
Diameter!B!(Nominal)!
mm!
60!
102!
135!
168!
224!
Diameter!C!
Diameter!D!
mm!
mm!
75!
50!
160!
96!
210!
127!
260!
161!
290!
215!
Diameter!E!(PCD)!
Diameter!F!
mm!
mm!
L!
L!
136!
9!
175!
11!
230!
9!
265!
10!
Angle!G!
°!
L!
60!
60!
45!
45!
Weight:!(with!Actuator)!
kg!
11!
12!
Max!Air!Temperature!
°C!
4.2!
6.7!
8.8!
800!(Exhaust!Valves)!
100!(Air!Valves)!
Response!Time!
Valve!Speed!(0L90!degrees)!
ms!
ms!
120!
150!
!
Electrical!requirements!for!the!OM22!closed!loop!positional!control!module!(CADET!systems!
already!provide!these!signals!as!standard).!
!
Signal!Type!
Positional!Control!Signal!
Unit!
mA!
Value!
0L20!
Positional!Feedback!Signal!(Not!Required!for!
Control)!
mA!
4L20!
V!DC!
24!(at!40mA)!
V!AC!
110/230!±10%!(Specify!on!Order)!
Shutdown!Signal!(If!removed!valve!returns!to!
fully!open,!assuming!the!AC!supply!is!active)!
Power!Requirement!
51!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!valves!are!actuated!by!the!AV12!actuator,!which!
consists!of!a!permanent!magnet!DC!motor,!which!is!
driven!through!a!worm!reduction!gearbox.!Actuator!
position!feedback!is!provided!by!an!internally!mounted!
servo!potentiometer!within!the!AV12,!which!is!directly!
coupled!to!the!output!shaft.!
!
The!unit!is!very!easy!to!install!in!existing!ductwork!due!to!
its!compact!size.!A!single!electrical!loom!between!the!
actuator!and!the!OM22!control!module!is!required!which!
connects!via!a!splashLproof!connector.!The!actuator!can!
be!mounted!in!any!plane,!however!Sierra!CP!recommend!
the!actuator!is!mounted!to!the!side,!to!reduce!heating!
effects!from!the!exhaust!system.!The!valve!is!constructed!
entirely!from!TIG!Welded!stainless!steel!and!the!actuator!
is!rated!to!IP55!to!provide!sufficient!protection!for!most!
environments!in!test!cells.!!!
!
The!2”!valve!can!be!supplied!with!a!high!pressure!insert.!This!further!reduces!the!bore!of!the!valve,!
to!offer!precision!control!for!low!flowing!applications,!such!as!single!cylinder!engine!testing.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
52!
OPTIONS
!
There!are!a!number!of!different!valve!arrangements!available!to!the!customer;!these!are!detailed!in!
the!table!below.!One!variant!should!be!selected!from!each!row:!
!
Valve!and!
Actuator!
!
A14!–!4”!Exhaust!Valve!
A15!–!5”!Exhaust!Valve!
A16!–!6”!Exhaust!Valve!
A18!–!8”!Exhaust!Valve!
!
!
A24!–!4”!Air!Valve!
A25!–!5”!Air!Valve!
A26!–!6”!Air!Valve!
A28!–!8”!Air!Valve!
!
A12!L2”!Cable!Driven!Valve!with!
AT12!Actuator!and!1.5m!Cable!
A30!–!High!Pressure!Insert!(2”!
valve!order!code!also!required)!
Control!
Module!
!
B1!L!OM22!Control!Module!in!Enclosure!with!
Power!(5m)!and!AT12!Control!(1.5m)!Looms!
Control!
System!
Loom!
Mating!
Flanges!
!
B2!L!OM22!Control!Module,!!with!Power!(5m)!
and!AT12!Control!(1.5m)!Looms!
C1!–Loom!to!CADET!(9!Way!DLType!Connector)!10!Metres!
rd
C2!–Loom!to!3 !Party!Control!System!(Free!Ends)!10!Metres!
!
D0!–!No!Mating!Flanges!
D2!–!2”!Mating!Flanges!and!Clamps!
D4!–!4”!Mating!Flanges!
D5!–!5”!Mating!Flanges!
D6!–!6”!Mating!Flanges!
D8!–!8”!Mating!Flanges!
!
Custom!loom!lengths!are!available,!please!specify!on!order!if!required.!Sierra!CP!can!also!offer!
valves!with!custom!flanges!or!custom!diameters.!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!requirements!
for!further!information.!Individual!items!may!also!be!ordered,!simply!quote!the!product!selection!
code!required.!!
53!
!
54!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
AirTrak
Intake and Combustion Air Measurement
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
55!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP’s!AirTrak!628S!Thermal!Mass!Flow!Meter!was!originally!
designed!to!work!specifically!with!our!BG3!Particulate!Partial!Flow!
Sampling!System!as!an!extremely!fast,!accurate,!and!repeatable!engine!
air!intake!mass!flow!meter.!The!instrument!has!proven!to!be!an!
excellent!solution!in!all!engine!testing!applications.!!!
!
The!meter!has!an!extremely!fast!200!millisecond!responseLtime!sensor!
making!it!ideal!for!the!toughest!transient!test!cycles!where!flow!
excursion!can!approach!10:1!within!less!than!two!seconds.!DualLPlate!
laminar!flow!profile!conditioning!elements!inside!the!flow!body!
maintain!top!performance!in!heavily!constrained!piping!environments!
common!in!engine!test!cells,!where!longLstraight!pipe!runs!simply!do!
not!exist.!In!addition,!the!versatile!microprocessorLbased!instrument!
integrates!the!functions!of!easy!flowLrange!adjustment,!meter!
validation!and!diagnostics!in!the!field,!sensor!alignment!gauge!for!
perfect!installation,!and!a!rugged!probeLmounted!NEMA!4X!(IP65)!
housing.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Accuracy!of!Point!Velocity:!+/L!1%!of!reading!above!10%!full!scale!
Repeatability:!
o +/L!0.5%!of!full!scale!below!10%!full!scale!!
o +/L!2%!of!reading!above!10%!full!scale!
Temperature!Coefficient:!
o +/L!0.02%!of!reading!per!°F!within!±!50°F!of!customer!specified!conditions!!
o +/L!0.03%!of!reading!per!°F!within!±!50°F!to!100°F!of!customer!specified!conditions!
o +/L!0.04%!of!reading!per!°C!within!±!25°C!of!customer!specified!conditions!
o +/L!0.06%!of!reading!per!°C!within!±!25°C!to!50°C!of!customer!specified!conditions!
Pressure!Coefficient:!0.02%!per!psi!for!air!
Response!Time:!200!milliseconds!to!63%!of!final!velocity!value!
15:1!turndown!gives!high!accuracy!at!low!idle!conditions!!
Low!pressure!drop!!
DualLplate!laminar!flow!conditioning!element!for!constrained!piping!environments!!
Smart!electronics!permit!field!adjustment!of!critical!flow!meter!settings!!
Field!validation!of!flow!meter!calibration!!
2!x!12!backlit!LCD!display!!
CE!approved!!
Interfaces!&!Calibrates!via!BGL3!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
•
•
Engine!and!Vehicle!Test!Cells!
Plug!and!play!operation!with!Sierra's!Model!BG®L3!particulate!sampling!system!
56!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
Gases:!Air!
Gas!Pressure:!120!psig!(8!barg)!maximum!design!pressure!
Gas!Temperature:!14°!to!176°F!(L10°!to!80°C)!
Ambient!Temperature:!32°!to!120°F!(0°!to!50°C)!
Power!Requirements:!18!to!30!VDC!(regulated),!625!mA!maximum!
Output!Signal!
o Linear!0–5!VDC,!1000!ohms!minimum!load!resistance!or!!
o Linear!4–20!mA!proportional!to!mass!flow!rate,!700!ohms!maximum!resistance!
power!supply!dependent!UserLselectable.!Active!nonLgalvanically!separated!or!
passive!galvanically!separated!(loop!power!required)!!
Alarms:!Hard!contact!userLadjustable!high!and!low!Dead!band!adjustable!with!Smart!
Interface™!software!Relay!ratings.!Maximum!42!VAC!or!42!VDC,!140!mA!
Displays:!
o Alphanumeric!2!x!12!digit!backlit!LCD!
o Adjustable!variables!via!onLboard!switches!(password!protected)!or!with!Smart!
Interface™!software!
o Adjustable!variables.!Full!scale!(50!to!100!%)!
o Time!Response!(1!to!7!seconds)!
o Correction!factor!setting!(0.5!to!5)!!
o Zero!and!span!
Totalizer!
o Eight!digits!(9,999,999)!in!engineering!units!
o Resettable!by!software,!onLboard!switches!or!external!magnet!
Software!
o Smart!Interface™!Windows™Lbased!software!Minimum!8!MB!of!RAM,!preferred!16!
MB!of!RAM!RS!232!communication!
o Additional!features:!
 Alarm!dead!band!adjustment!
 Low!flow!cutLoff!adjustment!
 Linearization!adjustment!
 Save!/!Load!configurations!
 Flow!meter!validation!
Wetted!Material!
o Probe:!316SS!
o Flow!Body:!316SS!tubing!
o Sensor:!304SS,!glass!coating!epoxy!
Enclosure:!NEMA!4X!(IP65)!powderLcoated!cast!aluminium!!
Electrical!Connections:!One!1/2Linch!female!NPT!
57!
!
58!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
ExhaustTrak
Direct Exhaust Mass Flow Meter
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
59!
INTRODUCTION
!!
With!our!roots!in!flow!measurement,!Sierra!has!entered!the!market!with!an!innovative!flow!meter,!
named!ExhaustTrak,!to!handle!this!tough!application.!ExhaustTrak!is!directed!toward!satisfying!
customer!requirements!for!a!rugged,!accurate!and!fast!solution!for!direct!exhaust!mass!flow!
measurement,!and!is!specifically!designed!for!transient!cycle!flow!rate!measurement.!!
!!
The!unit!can!measure!the!mass!flow!rate!of!intake!
air!flow,!diluted!exhaust,!raw!exhaust!(pre!or!postL
aftertreatment),!or!crank!case!combustion!fumes,!
since!instrumentation!pressure!line!plugging!issues!
no!longer!exist.!Taking!clues!from!our!use!of!porous!
media!(sintered!stainless!steel)!in!our!patented!
partial!flow!dilution!tunnel!utilized!by!the!BG3,!we!
use!circumferential!porous!media!as!pressure!
interface!material!to!elevate!subsonic!venturi!flow!
meter!technology!to!a!whole!new!level.!!
!!
The!design!provides!fully!averaged!radial!pressure!
sampling!at!the!throat!and!the!inlet!locations.!!Flow!
inaccuracies!due!to!velocity!profile!skew!are!
minimized.!As!a!result,!straight!length!requirements!
for!installing!the!ExhaustTrak!are!relaxed,!as!it!is!
nearly!immune!to!bias!effects!created!by!bendL!
induced!swirl.!
!
WHAT IS IT?
•
•
•
•
•
!!
InLsitu!direct!exhaust!mass!flow!
measurement!!
Provides!accurate,!realLtime!exhaust!!!!!!!
•
mass!results.!
No!chemical!balance!analysis!needed!!
Produces!proportional!analog!signal!for!PM!sampling!devices!(BG3)!or!other!
Produces!output!in!engineering!units!to!host!
Fuel!H/C!input,!direct!O2!measurement!capability!allows!for!realLtime!exhaust!molecular!
weight!compensation!
WHY MEASURE DIRECT EXHAUST MASS FLOW?
Direct,!inLsitu!measurement!of!exhaust!mass!flow!for!raw!emissions!sampling!is!difficult!to!execute.!
Given!the!allowance!for!chemical!balanceLderived!exhaust!mass!flow!for!raw!emissions!sampling!in!
40CFR!Part!1065,!direct!measurement!was!initially!considered!unnecessarily!problematic.!However!
a!recurring!observed!bias!between!raw!and!dilute!gaseous!emissions!results!on!transient!test!cycles!
has!prompted!reconsideration!of!this!position.!
!!
One!drawback!to!the!use!of!chemical!balance!methods!is!that!instantaneous!exhaust!mass!flow!rate!
is!not!available!until!after!the!emissions!test!has!been!completed.!!Chemical!balance!postLtest!data!
processing!may!be!complicated!due!in!part!to!temporal!delays!in!gaseous!emissions!measurement!
60!
system!response,!created!by!sample!line!length!and/or!individual!analyzer!response!times,!relative!
to!an!engine!operating!event!such!as!an!acceleration!or!load!acceptance.!!This!approach!may!be!
further!complicated!by!required!changes!in!engine!exhaust!mass!flow!rate!due,!for!example,!to!an!
engine!power!rating!change.!Further,!modifications!of!the!exhaust!system!consist!which!may!affect!
intake!or!exhaust!stack!volumes,!or!a!change!in!after!treatment!device!status,!may!be!particularly!
problematic.!Such!changes!may!create!skew,!or!temporal!redistribution,!for!example,!in!the!
relationship!between!measured!combustion!air!mass!flow!rates!and!the!actual!instantaneous!
exhaust!mass!flow!rate!at!the!sample!zone.!!Each!of!the!aforementioned!elements!may!contribute!
to!uncertainty!in!measurement!of!both!exhaust!gas!mass!flow!rate!and!raw!engine!emission!results!
during!engine!development!and!certification.!
!!
Due!in!part!to!the!elements!discussed!above,!it!is!believed!by!SierraLCP!that!enabling!fast!and!
accurate!exhaust!mass!flow!rate!determination!through!direct!measurement!is!a!necessary!step!to!
enable!and!expand!acceptance!of!raw!emissions!measurement!methods.!!It!is!our!position!that!the!
most!robust!method!for!determining!real!time!exhaust!mass!flow!rate!is!to!use!direct!exhaust!mass!
flow!rate!measurement!with!a!minimum!10Hz!update!rate!capability.!!ExhaustTrak!is!our!answer!to!
this!challenge.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!!
•
•
•
•
!!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SubLSonic!Venturi!Technology!(Patent!Pending)!
Eliminates!need!for!chemical!balance!mass!methods!
Eliminates!instantaneous!emissions!error!contributions!due!to!indirect!vs.!direct!exhaust!
mass!flow!determination!
Resolves!temporal!offset!vs.!intake!mass!sources!through!direct!measurement!at!emissions!
sampling!zone!
Plug!and!play!with!BG3!provides!best!possible!proportional!sampling!of!particulate!matter!
Wide!range!of!flow!rate!capabilities!available!
1065Lrecognized!exhaust!mass!measurement!technology!
Fully!averaged!radial!pressure!sampling!
Porous!media!as!pressure!interface!
No!plugging!issues!
Reduced!straight!length!requirements!
Rugged,!accurate!&!fast!measurement!
DESCRIPTION
ExhaustTrak!is!based!on!exclusive!worldwide!licensed!IP!from!Caterpillar!Inc.,!patent!pending.!!It!is!a!
subLsonic!venturi,!engineered!for!measurement!of!particleLladen!exhaust!streams!applicable!to!raw!
or!diluted!exhaust,!crankcase!fumes!or!combustion!air.!!The!mass!flow!meter!benefits!from!a!
circular!arc!throat!approach!and!tapered!recovery!section!and!uses!short!radial!porous!stainless!
steel!rings!for!pressure!sampling!integral!to!and!concentric!with!the!body,!at!standard!venturi!
pressure!measurement!locations.!The!instrument!communicates!pressure!to!external!averaging!
rings!and!pressure!transducers.!!The!radial!porous!rings!are!machined!and!processed!to!provide!
consistency!in!diameter!versus!the!parent!body!material.!!Other!than!a!slight!change!in!surface!
finish!at!the!pressure!measurement!zones,!the!porous!sections!are!undetectable!by!sight!or!feel!(no!
sharp!edges).!This!feature!provides!radial!pressure!averaging!at!the!high!and!low!pressure!
measurement!zones!and!straight!length!installation!requirements!relaxed.!!Due!to!boundary!layer!
shear,!PM!buildLup!on!the!porous!sections!is!negligible.!!ExhaustTrak!is!equipped!with!a!purge!
61!
mechanism!that!can!be!either!manually!or!automatically!activated!to!address!any!buildLup!
concerns.!
!
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
!!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!!
Accuracy!<1.5%!reading!
Pneumatic!signal!delay!due!to!porous!rings!is!less!than!10!milliseconds!
Permanent!pressure!loss!is!less!than!10%!of!deltaLP!
ExhaustTrak!is!customLsized!by!exhaust!pipe!diameter!and!engine!back!pressure!
requirements.!
Typical!peak!back!pressure!is!less!than!1kPa!
Fuel!H/C!is!userLdefinable!in!the!ExhaustTrak!software!
ExhaustTrak!uses!userLinputted!fuel!H/C!and!measured!exhaust!O2!readings!to!determine!
exhaust!molecular!weight!(density)!and!provide!>10Hz!flow!rate!output!(supports!BG3!
transient!sampling,!raw!gaseous!measurement)!
CALIBRATION
!!
•
•
•
•
•
!!
ExhaustTrak!pressure,!temperature!instrumentation!is!separately!calibrated!against!
reference!standards!
Venturi!body!coefficient!of!discharge,!(Cd)!vs.!Reynolds!number!(Re#)!is!determined!using!
traceable!flow!standards,!on!air!(flowing!calibration)!
ExhaustTrak!instrumentation!and!a!generic!CdLRe#!curveLfit!are!active!
The!!calibrationLbased!Cd!vs.!Re#!results!are!curveLfitted!and!the!calibrationLgenerated!
coefficients!replace!the!generic!curveLfit!in!the!software!
This!method!resolves!small!calibration!errors!from!the!individual!transducer!calibration,!
creating!a!ExhaustTrak!system!calibration!directly!traceable!to!reference!standards!
OPERATION
!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
•
•
•
•
System!is!installed!at!desired!measurement!location!
User!inputs!fuel!H/C!into!setup!screen!
Establish!serial!communications!with!host,!BG3!(if!applicable)!
System!is!ready!to!measure!
62!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
63!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
64!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate to Differentiate.
Fuel Systems
Precision Consumption Measurement
and Conditioning
!
!
!
!
!
65!
FUEL SYSTEMS
!
Sierra!CP!has!a!complete!range!of!measurement!and!conditioning!solutions!for!fuel!and!other!
liquids!and!gasses!associated!with!engine!and!vehicle!testing.!With!over!40!years!of!experience!in!
fluid!flow!measurement,!Sierra!CP!brings!tremendous!expertise!and!passion!to!this!sector.!Sierra!CP!
offer!a!range!of!fuel!temperature!conditioning!and!settable!fuel!pressure!delivery!modules!for!
steady!state!and!transient!testing,!to!compliment!the!range!of!gravimetric,!transient!and!coriolis!
fuel!meters!available.!
!
These!are!modular!units!and!can!be!integrated!into!no!Sierra!CP!host!systems,!and!introduced!to!
the!test!cell!as!requirements!dictate.!As!the!demand!for!fuel!systems!have!increased!Sierra!CP!have!
developed!an!independent!fuel!controller,!which!will!allow!any!Sierra!CP!fuel!system!to!be!used!
with!a!non!Sierra!CP!host!control!system,!via!either!an!Ethernet!AK!protocol!or!analogue!interface.!
This!4U!19”!rack!mountable!fuel!controller!can!be!easily!integrated!into!an!existing!control!system!
cabinet,!to!allow!control!of!fuel!measurement,!fuel!temperature!and!pressure!conditioning,!and!
control!of!other!CP!inLcell!ancillary!equipment,!as!required.!
!
!
!
66!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
FuelTrak 1000 & 3000
Gravimetric Fuel Measurement
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
67!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!FuelTrakL1000!and!3000!Gravimetric!Fuel!
Measuring!Systems!are!compact,!high!precision!
instruments!for!measuring!specific!fuel!
consumption!of!diesel!and!petrol/gasoline!engines.!
The!FuelTrakL1000’s!and!3000’s!wetted!parts!are!all!
stainless!steel!and!Viton,!enabling!standard!
reference!and!ethanol!based!fuels!to!be!used.!
!
The!FuelTrak!range!is!
controlled!and!
monitored!either!by!
a!CADET!V14!host,!or!
the!CADET!V14!Fuel!
Controller,!which!is!detailed!in!a!separate!datasheet.!The!FuelTrak!
operates!by!filling!the!internal!stainless!steel!weigher!vessel!with!
fuel.!The!CADET!system!will!then!record!the!net!fuel!removed!from!
the!vessel,!over!a!set!amount!of!time,!and!calculate!the!average!fuel!
consumption.!Once!the!weigher!lower!limit!is!reached,!the!vessel!
will!refill!with!fuel!and!the!process!will!be!repeated.!
!
SPECIFICATION
!
FuelTrak!Model!
Compatible!Fuel!Types!
Units!
L!
1000!
3000!
Petrol,!Gasoline,!Diesel!(For!Reference!Fuels!Contact!
Sierra!CP)!
Max!Flow!to!Engine!
Measurable!Flow!Rate*!
kg/hr!
kg/hr!
300!
0L200!
1,800!
0L600!
Usable!Tank!Capacity!
litres!
1!
3!
Fuel!Temperature!Range!
Accuracy!
o
C!
L!
0!L!65!
±0.05%!of!reading,!±0.03!grams!
Weigher!Dimensions!(HxWxD)!
mm!
330!x!230!x!180!
!
600!x!310!x!180!
!
*At!maximum!flow!rate,!weigher!will!empty!in!15!seconds!(maximum!recommended!for!accurate!
measurement).!The!customer!fuel!supply!flow!rate!should!be!substantially!greater,!to!fill!the!
weigher!in!minimal!time.!Please!note!flow!rates!have!been!calculated!on!Petrol/Gasoline!density.!!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
68!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
Holding!tank!deLgasses!spill!back!fuel!
Self!calibrating!with!integrated!mass!calibration!capability!
When!run!in!hardware!mode!acts!as!a!header!tank!
Small!size,!wall!or!post!mountable!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
•
Specific!Fuel!Consumption!Measurements!
Special!Fuels!Research!and!Development!
Fuel!Additives!and!Resultant!Effects!
Emissions!Certification!Work!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!FuelTrakL1000!and!3000!systems!are!controlled!and!monitored!by!CADET!V14,!this!records!and!
displays!(or!outputs!to!cell!controller)!the!data!obtained.!The!fuel!weighers!use!20N!and!50N!
loadcells!respectively!to!measure!consumed!fuel.!They!also!cancel!any!vibration!mechanically,!as!
the!construction!is!stiff!and!has!no!moving!parts.!The!benefits!of!this!design!include!a!high!degree!
of!linearity!and!a!reduction!of!inaccuracies!by!not!using!a!vibration!dashpot.!The!fuel!cells!have!
volumes!of!1!and!3!litres!and!are!mounted!underneath!the!loadcells.!The!fuel!cell!has!four!ports!all!
connected!by!lightweight!bellows.!These!ports!are!for!Fuel!Feed,!Fuel!Supply,!Fuel!Return!and!Vent.!!
!
Calibration!is!achieved!by!automatic!removal!of!a!100gram!(1000)!or!480gram!(3000)!calibration!
weight!on!to!the!fuel!vessel.!The!resulting!change!in!the!analogue!output!signal!is!used!to!calibrate!
the!system!at!the!prevailing!fuel!level.!When!the!system!is!not!configured!for!operation!or!CADET!is!
not!active!the!FuelTrak!will!run!in!a!hardware!only!mode!allowing!the!Control!Unit!to!maintain!the!
fuel!between!two!preset!levels,!by!opening!and!closing!the!fuel!‘FILL’!solenoid!valve.!This!enables!
the!FuelTrak!systems!to!run!as!an!inLcell!header/day!tank.!
!
Steady!State!Fuel!Measurement!
!
When!the!FuelTrak!measurement!vessel!is!filled!to!its!maximum!the!CADET!V14’s!fuel!component!
closes!the!fuel!supply!solenoid!valve.!!After!a!short!settling!time,!the!net!mass!of!fuel!taken!from!
the!vessel!is!measured.!Over!the!desired!sampling!time!the!CADET!hardware!samples!the!loadcell!
data!at!10!kHz!and!returns!the!averaged!value!back!to!CADETV14!at!up!to!10!Hz.!!If!the!engine!
power!is!known!under!steady!state!conditions!CADET!V14!will!also!calculate!the!brake!specific!fuel!
consumption.!When!the!FuelTraks!fuel!lower!limit!is!reached!measurement!is!halted!while!the!
vessel!is!automatically!refilled!by!opening!the!fuel!supply!solenoid!valve,!allowing!the!process!to!
restart.!
!
Dynamic!Fuel!Measurement!
!
The!FuelTrakL1000!and!3000!are!capable!of!monitoring!fuel!during!a!period!of!a!test!stage,!or!cycle,!
for!a!specific!time!as!short!as!100!ms.!The!stage,!or!cycle,!is!then!repeated!and!the!average!fuel!
consumption!rate!calculated!as!a!true!dynamic!reading.!
!
69!
OPTIONS
!
The!table!below!shows!the!various!configurations!and!options!available!with!the!FuelTrak!
gravimetric!flow!meters.!One!option!from!each!row!should!be!selected!(multiples!can!be!selected!
from!‘Additional!Equipment’).!Images!are!for!reference!only.!
FuelTrak!
Module!
A1!FuelTrakL1000!
!
Fuel!
Temperature!
Conditioning!
Units!
!
A2!FuelTrakL3000!
B0!No!Fuel!Conditioning!
!
B1!FCUL1000!
See)Separate)Datasheet!
!
B2!FCUL3000!
See)Separate)Datasheet!
!
C1!FuelTrak!1000/3000!
Control!Module!
!
C2!FuelTrak!and!FCU!Control!
Module!
!
C3!FuelTrak!Control!Module!
(Upgradable!to!FCU!Control)!
Control!
Module!
Automation!
System!
!
D1!CADET!Fuel!Cards!and!Daughterboard!
Heat!
Exchangers!
E0!No!Heat!Exchangers!
Additional!
Equipment!
(Contact!
Sierra!CP!for!
Further!
Details)!
F0!No!Options!
!
D2!Fuel!Controller!L!See)Separate)Datasheet!
!
E1!Integrated!Heat!
Exchangers!
!
F1!Fuel!Post!
(Stainless!Steel!and!
pre!plumbed!!
Versions!Available)!
Each!FuelTrak!system!will!be!supplied!with!the!following:!
70!
!
E2!Loose!Heat!Exchangers!
F2!Fuel!Pressure!
Regulation!
See)separate)
datasheet!
!
!
!
!
F3!FCU!Chiller!
!
!
•
•
•
•
Fuel!fill!solenoid!valve!(for!installation!on!the!incoming!fuel!supply)!with!1!metre!loom!to!the!
control!module!
1!metre!signal!loom!between!FuelTrak!Module!and!Control!Module!
5!metre!power!loom!between!Control!Module!and!110/230VAC!single!phase!power!supply!
(3!phase!required!with!FCUL3000)!
10!metre!loom!between!Control!Module!and!Automation!System!
!
Nonstandard!loom!lengths!are!available.!Please!make!Sierra!CP!aware!of!this!on!order!placement.!
!
Sierra!CP!offer!a!wide!range!of!fuel!products!including!gravimetric!meters!up!to!1,000!kg/hr,!
transient!fuel!meters!up!to!300!kg/hr,!fuel!temperature!conditioning!units,!fuel!pressure!regulation,!
fuel!dosing!rigs,!fuel!controllers!as!well!as!offering!custom!fuel!rig!design!and!manufacture.!Sierra!
products!are!also!available!for!flow!measurement!of!other!fluids!and!gasses.!Please!contact!Sierra!
CP!for!further!details!or!refer!to!the!specific!datasheets.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!make!available!or!prepare!the!following!services:!
!
• 110/230V!Single!phase!power!supply!(3!phase!if!FCUL3000!is!purchased)!
• Fuel!supply!line!
• Fuel!return/spillback!line!
• Pipework!between!FCU!and!heat!exchangers!(if!purchased)!
• Fuel!vent!line!
• Fuel!pumps!and!filters,!as!necessary!
• Installation!of!solenoid!valve!into!fuel!supply!pipework!
• Compressed!air!2L5!bar,!filtered!and!dry!(required!for!calibration!only)!
71!
!
72!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
FuelTrak Transient 100 & 300
Continuous Fuel Consumption Measurement
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
73!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Transient!FuelTrak!fuel!consumption!meter!is!a!technical!development!of!the!Sierra!CP!FuelTrak!
1000!gravimetric!fuel!measurement!system.!The!FuelTrak!Transient!enables!continuous!and!
dynamic!fuel!flow!measurement!as!well!as!offering!fuel!density!measurement.!
!
The!meter!utilises!two!measuring!techniques!to!determine!
and!confirm!the!fuel!consumption!of!the!engine;!gravimetric!
and!coriolis.!A!high!speed!2!way!valve!controls!the!fuel!flow!
through!the!coriolis!meter,!such!that!the!fuel!level!in!the!
gravimetric!tank!is!kept!constant.!The!two!measurement!
systems!are!linked!together!to!attain!the!benefits!that!each!
system!can!offer,!namely!coriolis!at!‘normal’!flow!rates!and!
gravimetric!at!low!flow!rates.!They!can!also!be!used!to!verify!
each!other’s!performance!and!operation!for!calibration!
purposes.!The!FuelTrak!and!other!associated!fue!hardware!is!
controlled!by!a!CADET!system!(an!existing!system,!new!
system!or!fuel!controller,!see!separate!datasheets).!
!
!
SPECIFICATION
!
!
Maximum!Consumption!
!
kg/hr!
100!
100!
300!
300!
Maximum!Flow!to!Engine!
kg/hr!
System!instantaneous!accuracy!
%!
300!
±!0.5%!for!flows!from!
10kg/hr!!to!100kg/hr!
±!0.5%!for!flows!from!
30kg/hr!!to!300kg/hr!
System!averaged!accuracy!
Density!Measurement!Range!
%!
kg/m3!
±!0.1%!
0!L!5,000!!
Density!Measurement!Accuracy!
%!
±!2.0!
Compatible!Fuel!Types!
!
Temperature!Range!
°C!
Petrol,!Diesel!(For!reference!fuels!contact!Sierra!
CP)!
0!to!65!
Measurement!Enclosure!Dimensions!
Including!Actuator!(H!x!W!x!D)!
mm!
750!x!600!x!250!
mm!
400!x!400!x!200!
!
3/8"!BSP(P)!Female!
!
Control!Enclosure!Dimensions!!
(H!x!W!x!D)!
Pipe!Connections!
!
!
!
!
!
!
74!
950!x!800!x!300!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
•
•
High!accuracy!measurement!
Continuous!fuel!measurement!capability!
Two!measuring!techniques!allows!cross!referencing!for!calibration!
Fuel!density!measurement!
Bubble!separation!on!return!line!type!fuel!systems!
Stainless!Steel!wetted!parts!for!reference!and!special!fuels!
Integrated!fuel!temperature!conditioning!heat!exchangers!(Supply,!feed!to!engine!and!
spillback!from!engine).!FCU!unit!required!to!provide!conditioned!temperature!circuit!(see!
separate!datasheet)!
Compact!process!unit!allows!positioning!close!to!engine!
PID!control!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
•
Specific!fuel!consumption!measurements!
Special!fuels!research!and!development!
Fuel!additives!and!resultant!effects!
Emissions!certification!work!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!system!provides!all!the!existing!features!of!the!Sierra!CP!FuelTrak!
1000!(see!separate!datasheet)!gravimetric!fuel!measurement!systems,!
such!as!bubble!separation!from!returned!fuel,!together!with!
continuous!flow!operation!and!measurement,!fuel!density!readings!
and!atmospheric!fuel!delivery.!
!
The!two!measuring!techniques!of!a!standard!steady!state!gravimetric!
fuel!meter!and!a!coriolis!meter!are!utilised!to!determine!the!dynamic!
fuel!consumption!of!the!engine.!The!gravimetric!fuel!meter!is!
connected!to!the!engine’s!feed!and!spill!return!lines.!The!coriolis!
meter!is!connected!to!the!supply!port!of!the!gravimetric!fuel!meter!to!
measure!the!amount!of!‘make!up’!fuel!required!to!maintain!the!mass!
of!fuel!in!the!gravimetric!tank!at!500grams!(approximately!half!full).!A!
rotary!positional!control!valve!allows!fuel!to!pass!through!the!coriolis!
meter!into!the!measurement!tank!at!the!required!rate!to!maintain!the!
mass!at!500grams.!In!this!way!any!variation!of!mass!seen!in!the!
åmeasurement!tank!is!corrected!and!measured!by!the!coriolis!meter.!!
!
The!system!is!protected!by!a!solenoid!valve!on!the!incoming!supply!line!and!level!switches!prevent!
fuel!flow!into!the!unit!in!the!event!of!overfill.!The!all!stainless!steel!heat!exchangers!fitted!to!the!
supply,!feed!and!return!lines!can!be!connected!to!the!Sierra!CP!Fuel!Conditioning!Unit!(See!separate!
FCU!1000!&!3000!datasheet).!When!connected!to!a!suitable!chilled!water!supply!the!FCU!will!
provide!conditioning!of!the!fuel!in!the!system!at!three!points,!hence!maintaining!the!correct!
temperatures!for!reproducibility!of!tests!or!to!meet!relevant!standards.!
!
75!
OPTIONS
!
The!table!below!shows!the!various!configurations!and!options!available!with!the!FuelTrak!transient!
flow!meters.!One!option!from!each!row!should!be!selected!(multiples!can!be!selected!from!
‘Additional!Equipment’).!Images!are!for!reference!only.!
!
FuelTrak!
Module!
!
A1!FuelTrak!Transient!100!
Fuel!
Temperature!
Conditioning!
Units*!
B0!No!Fuel!Conditioning!
!
A2!FuelTrak!Transient!300!
!
B1!FCUL1000*!
See)Separate)Datasheet!
!
B2!FCUL3000*!
See)Separate)Datasheet!
Control!
Module!
!
!
C2!FuelTrak!and!FCU!Control!Module!
!
C3!FuelTrak!Control!Module!(Upgradable!to!
FCU!Control)!
!
D1!CADET!Fuel!Cards!and!Daughterboard!
!
D2!Fuel!Controller!L!See)Separate)Datasheet!
Automation!
System!
Additional!
Equipment!
(Contact!
Sierra!CP!for!
Further!
Details)!
E0!No!Options!
E1!Fuel!Post!!
!
!
!
76!
!
E2!Fuel!Pressure!
Regulation!
See)Separate)
Datasheet!
!
!
!
!
E3!FCU!Chiller!
!
!
*FCUL1000!is!suitable!for!the!FuelTrak!100.!FuelTrak!300!can!function!with!either!FCUL1000!or!FCUL
3000,!depending!on!the!temperatures!and!maximum!fuel!supply!and!spillback!rates!required.!
Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!specification!for!further!details.!
Each!FuelTrak!system!will!be!supplied!with!the!following:!
!
• Fuel!fill!solenoid!valve!(for!installation!on!the!incoming!fuel!supply)!with!1!metre!loom!to!the!
control!module!
• 1!metre!signal!loom!between!FuelTrak!Module!and!Control!Module!
• 5!metre!power!loom!between!Control!Module!and!110/230VAC!single!phase!power!supply!
(3!phase!required!with!FCUL3000)!
• 10!metre!loom!between!Control!Module!and!Automation!System!
!
Nonstandard!loom!lengths!are!available.!Please!make!Sierra!CP!aware!of!this!on!order!placement.!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!reLdesign!the!FuelTrak!Transient!unit!to!support!custom!specifications,!such!as!
increased!spillback!or!consumption!capability.!
!
Sierra!CP!offer!a!wide!range!of!fuel!products!including!gravimetric!meters!up!to!1,000!kg/hr,!
transient!fuel!meters!up!to!300!kg/hr,!fuel!temperature!conditioning!units,!fuel!pressure!regulation,!
fuel!dosing!rigs,!fuel!controllers!as!well!as!offering!custom!fuel!rig!design!and!manufacture.!Sierra!
products!are!also!available!for!flow!measurement!of!other!fluids!and!gasses.!Please!contact!Sierra!
CP!for!further!details!or!refer!to!the!specific!datasheets.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!make!available!or!prepare!the!following!services:!
!
• 110/230V!Single!phase!power!supply!(3!phase!if!FCUL3000!is!purchased)!
• Fuel!supply!line!
• Fuel!return/spillback!line!
• Pipework!between!FCU!and!FuelTrak!enclosure!(if!FCU!is!purchased)!
• Fuel!vent!line!
• Fuel!pumps!and!filters,!as!necessary!
• Installation!of!solenoid!valve!into!fuel!supply!pipework!
!
!
77!
!
78!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Fuel Conditioning Units 1000 & 3000
Fuel Temperature Control
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
79!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Sierra!CP!Fuel!Conditioning!Unit!is!designed!to!
enhance!the!features!of!the!FuelTrakL1000,!3000,!
Transient!FuelTrak!or!other!3rd!party!Fuel!
Measurement!Systems.!The!FCU!provides!computer!
controlled!fuel!supply!temperatures,!to!either!
combat!extreme!ambient!conditions,!high!fuel!
return!line!temperatures!or!to!match!specific!test!
requirements.!!
!
The!FCU!provides!a!temperature!conditioned,!pump!
driven!process!loop,!which!is!fed!into!heat!
exchangers!connected!to!the!engine!fuel!supply!line!
and!optionally!the!spillback!and!fuel!tank!supply!
lines.!The!FuelTrak!Transient!and!the!FuelTrak!1000!&!3000!(as!an!option)!have!these!heat!
exchangers!integrated!into!the!measurement!enclosure,!minimising!installation!pipework!required.!
!
SPECIFICATION
!
FCU!Model!
Maximum!Fuel!Temperature!
!
°C!
1000!
60!
3000!
Minimum!Fuel!Temperature!!
Immersion!Heater!Power!
°C!
kW!
10!Above!Chilled!Supply!Temp!
3!
9!
Cooling!Power!
Process!Enclosure!Size!(H!x!W!x!D)!
kW!
mm!
3!
600!x!600!x!250!
Control!Enclosure!Size!(Common!
between!FuelTrak!and!FCU)!
mm!
400!x!400!x!200!
Electrical!Supply!Required!
!
230V!Single!Phase!!!
7!
800!x!800!x!350!
380V!Three!Phase!!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
!
Condition!Fuel!using!set!points!from!CADET!or!3rd!party!control!system!(Via!the!Sierra!CP!Fuel!
Controller)!
Integrate!into!existing!fuel!systems!
Enclosure!allows!wall!or!post!mounting!
Common!control!enclosure!between!Sierra!CP!FuelTrak!and!FCU!systems!
Conditioned!process!loop!means!fuel!is!not!heated/cooled!directly!
APPLICATIONS
!
•
•
•
!
Emissions!Certification!Work!
Simulating!various!environments!
Standardisation!of!test!conditions!
!
80!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!Control!Enclosure!marshals!the!mains!switching!and!i/o!associated!with!the!control!of!the!
Process!Enclosure.!The!Process!Enclosure!requires!one!set!of!Feed!and!Return!lines!for!the!process!
fluid!circuit!and!one!for!the!Chilled!Water!Circuit,!therefore!minimising!the!inLcell!pipework.!The!
temperature!in!the!header!tank!is!maintained!or!adjusted!by!directing!the!conditioning!loop!intake!
to!one!of!two!circuits.!To!cool!the!process!loop,!fluid!is!diverted!through!the!chilled!circuit’s!heat!
exchanger!before!return!to!the!header!tank.!To!warm!the!process!loop!water!circuit,!the!heat!
exchanger!is!byLpassed!and!the!immersion!heater!in!the!header!tank!is!turned!on.!A!PRT!mounted!
in!the!header!tank!constantly!monitors!the!temperature!of!the!process!water.!A!water!level!safety!
switch!in!the!header!tank!prevents!the!Immersion!Heater!being!operated!when!there!is!insufficient!
fluid,!and!provides!feedback!to!the!operator.!
!
The!process!water!from!the!header!tank!is!fed!through!a!second!Heat!Exchanger!to!cool!or!warm!
the!fuel!from!the!FuelTrak!(or!other)!fuel!conditioning!unit,!before!it!is!fed!to!the!engine.!It!is!
assumed!that!the!fuel!delivery!temperature!at!the!engine!is!already!monitored!(by!CADET!or!
another!system).!This!channel!is!required!to!allow!CADET!to!adjust!the!conditioning!accordingly.!As!
an!option!Sierra!CP!can!supply!a!suitable!PRT!probe!and!the!associated!signal!processing!hardware.!
!
OPTIONS
!
If!purchasing!the!FCU!with!a!FuelTrak!meter!then!please!see!the!‘Options’!table!in!the!relevant!
datasheet!for!specific!product!selection!data.!If!purchasing!the!FCU!for!use!with!an!existing!FuelTrak!
product,!or!other!fuel!measurement!system,!then!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!offer!the!following!options:!
!
• Fuel!Controller!(This!will!be!required!unless!the!customer!has!an!existing!CADET!system,!please!
see!the!Fuel!Controller!Datasheet!for!further!details)!
• Heat!exchangers!to!integrate!into!fuel!supply!ductwork!
• Fuel!Delivery!PRT!probe!and!associated!CADET!hardware!
• Chiller!units!–!to!supply!chilled!water!for!cooling!process!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!be!responsible!for!providing!the!following!services:!
• Chilled!fluid!circuit!(capacity!will!be!advised!on!order!placement,!based!on!specific!testing!
requirements).!Generally!between!1!to!10°C!supply!with!3kW!heat!extraction!!for!FCUL1000!and!
7kW!for!FCUL3000!(Sierra!CP!can!provide!a!suitable!unit!if!required)!
• Fuel!heat!exchangers!as!required!
• Pipework,!as!required!(Sierra!CP!can!offer!pre!plumbed!options)!
• Electrical!supply!
• Fuel!delivery!temperature!value!(Sierra!CP!can!provide!a!PRT!probe!and!hardware!if!required)!
• Conditioning!circuit!fluid!(water!and!glycol!mix!recommended)!
!
!
81!
!
82!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Fuel Pressure Regulation
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
83!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Sierra!CP!Fuel!Pressure!Regulation!Unit!has!been!
designed!to!allow!a!range!of!settable!fuel!delivery!
pressures!to!be!achieved.!The!pressure!setpoint!inputted!
by!the!customer!(either!directly!entered!into!CADET,!or!
sent!to!the!fuel!controller)!is!controlled!by!an!electro!
pneumatically!actuated!regulator!valve!and!an!pressure!
transducer!to!provide!pressure!feedback.!A!PRT!probe!is!
also!integrated!to!provide!fuel!temperature!feedback.!A!
pump!on!the!inlet!is!used!to!provide!flow!and!to!increase!
the!fuel!pressure,!prior!to!regulation.!
!
An!integral!manual!selector!can!bypass!the!Fuel!Pressure!
Regulator!hardware!when!not!required.!!When!
bypassed,!fuel!pressure!and!temperature!readings!will!
still!be!taken.!
!
SPECIFICATION
!
Maximum!Delivery!Flow!Rate!
Pressure!Control!Range!
180!kg/hr!
0.5!Bar!to!5.0!Bar!(Gauge)!
Steady!State!Control!Regulation!
Compatible!Fuels!
<±!0.05!Bar!
Gasoline!and!Diesel!
Fuel!Connections!
Dimensions!(H!x!W!x!D)!
½”!Female!BSP!
400!x!300!x!200!mm!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
Combats!supply!pressure!variations!
CADET!Controlled!
Delivery!pressure!and!temperature!logged!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
•
•
Fuel!pump!simulation!
Regulate!varying!supply!pressures!
84!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!regulator!consists!of!a!constant!flow!automotive!fuel!pump.!The!fuel!flows!from!the!pump!to!
the!manifold!block!which!is!used!to!mount!the!pressure!and!temperature!sensors.!The!constant!
flow!rate!from!the!pump!is!typically!greater!than!the!engine!consumption.!This!over!supply!of!fuel!
results!in!an!increase!in!pressure!seen!at!the!regulator.!When!the!resultant!pressure!is!achieved!the!
excess!fuel!is!byLpassed!through!the!regulator!to!the!fuel!meter!return!line.!
!
!Adjustment!of!the!fuel!pressure!is!achieved!by!way!of!an!Electro!Pneumatic!Air!Pressure!fitting.!
This!allows!an!E/P!device!to!control!the!air!pressure!acting!on!the!regulator!diaphragm.!Any!spill!
back!fuel!from!the!engine!is!fed!back!into!the!pressure!control!unit,!and!is!then!fed!to!the!fuel!
meter!return!line.!
!
The!pressure!regulation!unit!is!supplied!with!a!control!box!which!interfaces!with!CADET!Control!
system!to!allow!control!of!the!fuel!pressure.!A!solenoid!valve!is!fitted!on!the!engine!feed!
connection!to!allow!cutoff!of!the!engine!fuel!supply!for!safety.!
!
OPTIONS
!
A!manual!fuel!control!board!is!also!available,!whereby!the!delivery!pressure!is!set!by!manually!
adjusting!the!pressure!regulator.!A!delivery!pressure!gauge!is!supplied!to!determine!fuel!pressure.!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!units!with!increased!flow!rates!or!higher!supply!pressures.!An!existing!CADET!
system,!or!CADET!Fuel!Controller!(See!separate!datasheet)!will!be!required!to!control!the!unit.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!be!responsible!for!providing!the!following:!
!
• Connection!to!supply!and!engine!fuel!lines!
• 110/240V!power!
• Compressed!air!supply!–!instrument!grade,!dry,!dust!and!oil!free!
!
The!fuel!pressure!regulator!should!be!installed!downstream!of!fuel!measurement!and!!!!!
conditioning!units.!
85!
!
86!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Fuel Dosing Rig
Precision Fuel Additive Control and
Consumption Measurement
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
87!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!SierraLCP!fuel!dosing!rig!is!designed!to!supply!a!continuous,!precise,!controllable!dose!of!
additive/additives!to!fuel!for!delivery!to!an!engine!or!vehicle!under!test.!The!system!is!designed!to!
provide!a!continuous!supply!of!dosed!fuel,!with!high!precision!fuel!consumption!measurement.!The!
dosing!rig!measures!a!batch!of!fuel!to!the!required!dosing!ratio.!This!is!then!mixed!and!deposited!in!
an!integrated!FuelTrak!1000!gravimetric!fuel!measurement!meter,!which!allows!the!fuel!to!be!
delivered!to!the!engine!as!required.!While!the!mixed!fuel!is!being!consumed!by!the!engine!another!
batch!of!fuel!is!being!automatically!pre!mixed,!such!that!continuous!dosed!fuel!delivery!is!achieved.!!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel!dosing!to!required!mixture!levels!
Dosing!levels!can!be!varied!test!to!test!
Large!pre!dosed!fuel!stores!are!not!required!
Gravimetric!fuel!consumption!measurement!
Portable!trolley!based!unit!
Multiple!control!modes!
All!wetted!parts!are!stainless!steel!
Fuel!delivered!at!ambient!pressure!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
•
Catalyst!testing!
Emissions!testing!
Injector!testing!
Additive!and!consumption!testing!
SPECIFICATION
!
Dosing!
Additive/Dosed!Fuel!Measurement!
Accuracy!
Control!Accuracy!of!High!Dose!
Fuel/Additive!Addition!
!
±0.03!g!
±1.7!ml!
Usable!Dosing!Vessel!Capacity!
<2%!of!fuel!mass!required!to!achieve!correct!mixing!
ratio!between!fuel!and!high!dose!fuel/additive!
1!Litre!
!
!
Fuel!Consumption!
Delivered!Fuel!Metering!Accuracy!
!
±0.05%!of!reading,!±0.03!grams!
Measureable!Flow!Rate!
0!L!200!kg/hr!
Maximum!Fuel!Flow!to!Engine!
Fuel!Temperature!Range!
300!kg/hr!
0!L!65°C!
Control!Accuracy!of!Fuel!Addition!
!
88!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!fuel!dosing!system!is!based!on!two!of!Sierra!CPs!high!precision!FuelTrakL1000!gravimetric!fuel!
measurement!meters.!The!dosing!rig!is!connected!to!the!customer’s!standard!fuel!supply!system.!
Prior!to!testing!a!stainless!steel!storage!vessel!is!filled!with!either!a!highly!dosed!fuel!mixture!(of!
known!dosed!ratio)!or!the!pure!additive/additives!mixture,!dependant!on!the!final!additive!
concentration!required.!
!
A!valve!on!the!standard!fuel!supply!is!opened!to!allow!the!FuelTrak!measuring!vessel!to!part!fill.!The!
additive!or!highly!dosed!fuel!is!then!added!into!the!measuring!vessel!at!a!controlled!rate.!Finally!the!
measurement!vessel!is!then!topped!up!with!standard!fuel!to!achieve!the!desired!dosing!ratio.!Once!
this!is!achieved!the!mixture!is!continually!circulated!through!the!first!measuring!vessel!using!a!
stirring!pump,!which!allows!the!additive!to!be!distributed!evenly.!Dosed!fuel!for!the!engine!is!teed!
off!the!stirring!circuit!into!the!second!measurement!vessel,!which!is!then!delivered!to!the!engine.!!
!
The!dosing!rig!can!operate!in!various!modes!and!allows!continuous!mixing,!delivery!and!
measurement!of!dosed!fuel!to!the!engine!(until!the!external!additive!or!highly!dosed!fuel!supply!is!
exhausted).!!The!rig!can!be!switched!to!allow!operation!of!the!rig!as!a!standard!FuelTrakL1000!fuel!
meter!(separate!datasheet!available),!if!dosing!is!not!required!for!certain!tests.!!
!
Control!of!the!Rig!is!via!a!CADET!control!system;!this!can!either!be!a!component!within!a!complete!
CADET!Control,!Automation!and!Datalogging!System!or!the!CADET!Fuel!Controller!(separate!
datasheet!available)!which!would!communicate!with!the!customers!test!cell!control!system!via!an!
Ethernet!AK!interface.!The!rig!is!portable,!meaning!it!can!be!moved!from!cell!to!cell!as!required!
(requires!stand!alone!fuel!controller,!or!CADET!system!with!fuel!controller!component!installed!in!
each!cell).!
!
OPTIONS
!
Sierra!CP!specialise!in!bespoke!systems,!please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!any!dosing!requirements!to!
receive!further!information!on!the!options!and!solutions!available.!
!
The!fuel!dosing!rig!can!be!combined!with!Sierra!CPs!range!of!fuel!temperature!and!pressure!
conditioning!modules!to!allow!standardisation!or!controlled!variation!of!test!cycles!(separate!
datasheets!available).!Sierra!CP!can!provide!fuel!density!measurement!within!the!rig!as!an!option.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!make!available!of!prepare!the!following!services:!
!
• Single!phase!electrical!power!supply!
• Fuel!supply!lines!
• Engine!supply!and!return!lines!
• Dosed!fuel!supply!or!additive!supply!
• CADET!control!system!or!fuel!controller,!with!the!necessary!free!control!and!datalogging!
channels!
89!
!
90!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Independent Fuel Controller
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
91!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Sierra!CP!Independent!AKLFuel!
Controller!has!been!designed!in!response!
to!the!requirement!to!use!models!from!
Sierra!CP’s!comprehensive!range!of!Fuel!
Measurement!and!Conditioning!system!
with!non!Sierra!CP!host!controllers.!This!
controls!Sierra!CP!fuel!equipment!and!
relays!data!to!3rd!party!host!controllers!via!
an!Ethernet!TCP/iP!connection.!The!fuel!
controller!has!been!packaged!into!a!4U!19”!
unit!which!can!be!rack!or!desk!mounted.!
!
!
The!Sierra!CP!Fuel!controller!can!function!with!the!following!Sierra!CP!equipment:!
!
Transient!FuelTrakL100!
Transient!FuelTrakL300!
FuelTrakL1000!
FuelTrakL3000!
FuelTrakL9000!
FCUL1000!
FCUL3000!
Fuel!Pressure!Regulation!
Board!
Instantaneous!fuel!measurement!for!transient!testing!
Averaged!fuel!measurement!for!steady!state!testing!
Stable!temperature!setpoint!of!delivered!fuel!
Stable!pressure!setpoint!of!delivered!fuel!
VFSL1000!
Vehicle!fuel!delivery!consumption!meter!
Fuel!Dosing!Rig!
Cooling!Post/Valve!Manifold!
Controllable!continuous!real!time!fuel!additive!dosing!
Cooling!control!for!engine!oil,!coolant!and!intercooler!circuits!
Throttle!Actuators!
Air/Exhaust!Back!Pressure!
Valves!!
Mechanical!throttle!actuator!for!engine/pedal!actuation!
Cell!Services!
Closed!loop!pressure!control!of!air!inlet!and/or!exhaust!valves!
Control!of!cell!services!equipment!such!as!blast!coolers!and!
chillers!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sierra!CP!equipment!can!be!used!in!any!test!cell!
Multiple!devices!can!be!run!from!a!single!controller!
Windows!based!operating!system!with!CADET!V14!Component!software!
Remote!support!can!be!provided!if!a!fault!develops!
Straight!forward!AK!command!structure!
Analogue!output!option!at!additional!cost!
92!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!Fuel!Controller!is!based!on!the!Sierra!CP!CADET!control!hardware!with!an!integrated!small!
format!industrial!PC,!based!on!the!latest!specification!of!the!standard!CADET!system!controller,!!
running!a!‘component’!version!of!CADET!V14!software.!This!controls!all!aspects!of!the!Fuel!Meters!
and!Conditioners!to!the!same!high!performance!standards!of!a!full!CADET!system,!but!allows!
interfacing!to!alternative!test!system!hosts!using!an!AK!protocol!over!Ethernet!TCP/iP.!
!
The!fuel!controller!is!designed!to!be!able!to!control!other!Sierra!CP!inLcell!equipment!such!as!
cooling!modules,!air!and!exhaust!back!pressure!valves,!with!the!addition!of!the!relevant!standard!
Sierra!CP!control!and!datalogging!cards!and!daughterboards.!
!
A!single!fuel!controller!can!be!used!to!control!multiple!fuel!and!inLcell!products.!Please!specify!the!
products!which!require!control!when!requesting!quotation.!
!
The!controller!is!based!on!the!latest!version!of!the!full!CADET!software.!Therefore!the!controller!
benefits!from!the!latest!software!updates!and!enhancements.!In!the!event!of!a!fault!developing!
Sierra!CP!can!provide!phone!and!remote!assistance!as!part!of!a!service!and!maintenance!contract!
package;!further!details!available!on!request.!!
!
OPTIONS
!
Fuel!controllers!are!based!on!Sierra!CPs!CADET!control!cards,!therefore!systems!will!be!built!to!
match!the!equipment!the!customer!wishes!to!use.!This!can!be!expanded!in!the!future!as!additional!
equipment!is!purchased.!!
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!Fuel!Controllers!with!0L10V/4L20mA!analogue!outputs!and!digital!
outputs!in!addition!to,!or!instead!of!the!AK!protocol.!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!direct!with!your!
specific!requirements!for!further!details.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!will!be!responsible!for!providing!single!phase!power!(110/230V)!to!the!fuel!
controller.!The!customer!should!also!provide!a!suitable!monitor,!keyboard!and!mouse!for!initial!
setup!of!the!system.!Sierra!CP!can!provide!the!customer!with!a!copy!of!the!AK!protocol;!it!is!the!
customer’s!responsibility!to!correctly!configure!the!host!system!to!interface!to!the!fuel!controller.!
The!customer!should!ideally!provide!an!internet!connection,!so!that!remote!commissioning!of!the!
controller!can!be!carried!out.!
93!
94!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Test Cell Services
Cell and Facility Services to Support
Automotive Test Cells and Facilities
!
!
!
95!
TEST CELL SERVICES
!
Driven!by!increasingly!stringent!legislation!around!the!world,!particularly!in!the!area!of!emissions!
validation!and!development,!there!is!a!need!to!minimize!test!variability!by!reducing,!controlling!or!
eliminating!all!external!influences!that!effect!the!accuracy!and!repeatability!of!test!results.!The!
control!and!repeatability!of!test!cell!ventilation!and!engine!combustion!air!conditioning!are!
recognized!as!key!external!influences!that!can!have!a!significant!impact!on!the!test!specimen!and!
the!results!obtained.!
!
Sierra!CP!is!unique!in!our!ability!to!offer!a!suite!of!innovative!modular!solutions!in!this!highly!
specialized!field.!This!enables!existing!test!cells!to!be!upgraded,!or!new!conditioning!systems!to!be!
integrated!into!existing!or!new!turnkey!installations.!Specific!solutions!include!cell!ventilation,!
exhaust!extract!systems,!combustion!air!handling,!intake!air!mass!flow!measurement,!exhaust!back!
pressure!control,!and!engine!fluid!temperature!(fuel,!oil,!coolant,!intercooler).!!!
!
As!part!of!a!turnkey!package!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!the!associated!site!services!required!for!
effective!test!cell!operation,!including!chilled!water!circuits!required!for!air!and!fuel!conditioning!
units,!bed!water!circuits!required!for!engine!and!dynamometer!cooling!services,!steam!generation!
equipment,!required!for!reLhumidification!of!engine!and!test!cell!air.!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!
these!services!in!a!wide!range!of!capacities,!ranging!from!the!smallest!of!test!cells!to!complete!
facility!services.!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!offer!complete!test!cell!design!and!build!facilities!as!part!of!a!
turnkey!package.!
!
!
96!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!!
Combustion Air Handling Unit (CAHU)
Temperature, Pressure and Humidity
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
97!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Combustion!Air!Handling!Unit!(CAHU)!
conditions!the!available!ambient!air!supply!and!
generates!output!air!of!controllable!pressure,!
temperature!and!humidity!levels!(humidity!
control!optional).!Humidity!is!controlled!by!the!
introduction!of!steam,!either!from!an!internal!
generator!or!a!customer!steam!supply.!This!air!
provides!a!standard!operating!condition!for!the!
engine/vehicle,!and!can!be!used!for!emissions!
work,!and!for!standardising!the!engine!intake!air!
conditions!for!mapping!or!optimisation!work.!
The!use!of!a!CAHU!can!also!reduce!the!test!days!
lost!due!to!adverse!atmospheric!conditions.!The!
CAHU!is!controlled!by!a!system!controller!PC!running!CADET!V14!Cell!Services!software.!This!can!
either!be!configured!for!standalone!operation,!with!setpoint!values!being!manually!inputted,!or!can!
receive!setpoints!from!a!non!Sierra!CP!test!cell!host!system!via!an!AK!TCP/iP!protocol.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
98!
SPECIFICATION
!
Below!are!the!specifications!for!the!standard!CAHU!units.!Please!note!that!custom!CAHUs!are!
possible!with!expanded!delivery!conditions,!flow!rates,!accuracies!and!physical!layouts.!Please!
contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!specification!for!further!details.!Details!on!Sierra!CPs!high!performance!
‘Motorsport’!specification!CAHU!can!be!found!in!a!separate!datasheet,!available!on!request.!
!
Conditions!at!CAHU!Outlet!
Units!
Value!
Max!Engine!Flow!Rate!
kg!/!hr!
1,000!1,500,!2,500!and!3,500!
Min!Engine!Flow!Rate!
(to!keep!duct!conditioned!to!±!1C)!
kg!/!hr!
250!
Output!Temperature!Range*!
°C!
20!–!30!(Standard)!
15!–!40!(Available!as!an!option,!!
Humidity!Control!Below!20°C!is!limited)!
Steady!State!Accuracy!
°C!
±!1.0!
Absolute!Humidity*!
g/kg!
6!–!12!(Standard)!
6!–!18!(Optional,!higher!humidness!are!also!
achievable!on!request)!
Relative!Humidity*!
%!RH!
30%!L!60%!(Standard!at!25°C)!
Steady!State!Accuracy!
%!RH!
±!5%!(3%!Typical)!
!
100%!with!facility!steam!
95%!with!onLboard!steam!
Minimum!Pressure!
mBar!
960!(Standard)!
Maximum!Pressure!
mBar!
1050!(Standard)!
Steady!State!Accuracy!
mBar!
±!1.0!of!Setpoint!
Transient!Accuracy!
mBar!
±!1.0!of!Setpoint!with!1!sec!Step!Change!
Delivery!and!Dump!Line!Outlet!Locations!
!
Top,!Front!or!Side,!depending!on!customer!
requirement!
Ambient!Enthalpy!
kJ/kg!
<90!
Minimum!Temperature!
°C!
3!(Duct!heaters!can!be!installed!for!operation!at!
lower!ambient!temperatures)!
mBar!
920!to!1050!
Required!setpoint!may!not!be!achievable!when!
operating!at!high/low!extremes!
W!x!D!x!H!
M!
2.8!x!1.6!x!1.8!
Weight!–!approximate,!models!vary!
kg!
1,200!–!1,500!
Supply!Flow!Rate!
Output!Temperature!
Output!Humidity**!
Humidity!Supply!Duty!
Output!Pressure!
Input!Air!Conditions!for!Normal!Operation!
Ambient!Pressure!!
Physical!Dimensions!
!
*See!delivery!condition!chart!for!standard!output!operating!window!
**If!humidity!control!is!not!requested,!then!the!humidity!of!combustion!air!will!be!6g/kg!or!
ambient,!whichever!is!lower!!
99!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
100!
Standard!CAHU!
Delivery!Range!
Minimum!Achievable!Humidity!
Level!With!1°C!Chilled!Loop!
Maximum!Ambient!
Enthalpy!90kJ/kg!
STANDARD DELIVERY RANGE
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
Control!of!Pressure,!Temperature!and!Humidity!levels!
o Only!conditions!air!for!the!engine!
Simulate!alternative!air!conditions,!such!as:!
o Race!Circuits!
o Foreign!Countries!Ambients!
Fast!condition!response!for!transient!work!
o All!potential!air!is!conditioned!ready!for!use!
Self!contained!unit!
Send!SetLpoints!from!an!Existing!Test!Controller!
Two!sided!access!for!ease!of!installation,!operation!and!servicing!
Four!sizes!as!standard,!1000,!1500,!2500!and!3500!kg/Hour,!
o Passenger!Vehicles,!Race!Engines!and!Heavy!Duty!Vehicles!
Custom!designs!available!
o Extended!operating!ranges!
o Altitude!simulation!versions!
o Custom!size!envelopes!
o Turbo!simulation!units!
Engine!protection!under!fault!conditions!
Stand!alone!or!Ethernet!based!control!
•
•
•
•
Standardise!intake!air!for!repeating!experiments!
Power!pass!off!tests!
Emissions!certification!work!
Conditions!adverse!ambient’s!to!within!the!range!of!correction!factors!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
101!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!most!accurate!method!of!conditioning!the!air!to!the!required!level!is!to!control!the!reLheating!
and!reLhumidification!of!the!ambient!air!to!achieve!the!necessary!output.!In!order!to!do!this,!the!
ambient!air!is!passed!through!the!primary!coil!and!is!cooled!to!a!base!temperature!and!humidity!
level.!This!initial!cooling!of!the!air!causes!a!large!
proportion!of!the!water!content!to!condense!out.!!
The!result!is!cold!relatively!dry!air!that!can!then!be!
conditioned!by!the!CAHU.!
!
ReLHumidification!(if!required)!is!achieved!using!a!
flow!of!high!temperature!steam!either!from!an!
external!steam!supply!provided!by!the!customer,!or!
an!internal!steam!generator!built!into!the!CAHU.!!A!
dual!control!valve!with!three!stages!of!turndown!
controls!the!flow!rate!of!this!steam.!It!is!injected!into!
the!ductwork!just!before!the!first!fan.!The!steam!
mixes!with!the!combustion!air!while!passing!through!the!fan;!this!system!gives!efficient!absorption!
of!the!steam!into!the!combustion!air,!increasing!the!humidity!level!as!required.!If!humidity!control!
is!not!required,!then!air!will!be!supplied!at!the!base!humidity!level!(or!ambient!if!lower).!
!
Air!flow!and!pressure!rise!is!created!with!a!highLspeed!centrifugal!fan.!The!fan!is!capable!of!raising!
the!combustion!air!pressure!by!up!to!120mBar!(12kPa)!above!the!air!inlet!pressure.!!
!
During!pressure!generation!the!fan!generating!the!positive!pressure!‘heats’!the!air!by!several!
degrees!C,!due!the!adiabatic!work!done!on!the!air.!This!heating!effect!during!processing!of!the!air!is!
monitored!and!used!to!reduce!the!amount!of!reLHeating!that!is!required.!!Additional!heating!is!
performed!by!electric!heater!coils!mounted!in!the!ductwork!of!the!CAHU,!these!are!switched!ON!in!
banks!by!the!controller!as!necessary.!
!
The!airflow!passes!into!a!final!delivery!plenum.!Two!butterfly!valves!regulate!the!plenum!pressure,!
one!regulates!inlet!flow!and!one!regulates!the!dump!flow!to!atmosphere,!and!hence!can!adjust!the!
pressure!in!the!plenum!to!the!required!setpoint.!The!delivery!port!is!then!coupled!directly!to!the!
engine.!
!
Under!fault!conditions!the!pressure!plenum!is!protected!by!an!underLpressure!relief!system.!
Following!activation,!the!engine!will!draw!air!from!the!atmosphere,!even!though!it!may!not!be!of!
the!required!conditions,!it!will!eliminate!potential!harm!to!the!engine!and!CAHU.!As!negative!
pressure!generation!is!required!because!the!ambient!air!pressure!may!be!higher!than!the!required!
output!air!pressure,!a!second!centrifugal!fan!in!the!CAHU!is!used!to!create!a!depression!in!the!
delivery!plenum,!seen!at!the!CAHU!outlet.!
!
The!CAHU!is!controlled!by!the!Sierra!CP!CADET!V14!Cell!Services!control!tab,!running!on!a!system!
controller!PC!separate!from!the!CAHU!(communication!via!Ethernet).!The!I/O!circuitry!built!into!the!
CAHU!electrical!cabinet!is!wired!to!accept!the!control!of!the!exhaust!back!pressure!valve!which!can!
be!used!to!provide!a!fixed!exhaust!back!pressure.!It!is!only!possible!to!operate!the!exhaust!at!a!
pressure!above!atmospheric!pressure!as!the!dilution!system!has!limited!negative!pressure!
capability.!
102!
OPTIONS
!
Sierra!CP!can!offer!custom!designed!CAHUs!to!meet!specific!customer!requirements!such!as:!
• Expanded!temperature!and!humidity!ranges!
• Altitude!simulation!with!low!pressure!ranges!
• Weatherproofed!units!for!external!installation!
• Enhanced!transient!stability!for!motorsport!applications!
• Custom!intake/extract!port!locations!
!
Sierra!CP!can!offer!various!combustion!air!handling!units,!such!as!Temperature!or!Temperature!and!
Humidity!versions.!Sierra!CP!also!offer!a!boost!rig!which!can!be!used!to!simulate!high!pressure!
turbochargers.!Details!of!both!arrangements!can!be!found!in!separate!datasheets.!
!
In!addition!to!CAHUs,!Sierra!CP!can!provide!a!variety!of!associated!products!and!services:!
• Intake!air!flow!meters!(see!AirTrak!datasheet!for!further!details)!
• Exhaust!Back!Pressure!Simulation!(see!EBPV!datasheet!for!further!details)!
• Associated!chiller!units!
• CAHU!and!ductwork!installation!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
The!customer!should!make!available!or!prepare!the!following!services:!
• 1°C!chilled!coolant!loop!(Sierra!CP!can!quote!for!a!suitable!chiller!unit!if!required)!
• Electrical!Power!Supply,!380L415V!(3!phase!+!Neutral)!50Hz!to!CAHU!electrical!enclosure!
• Water!to!Humidifier!Unit!(either!tap!water!or!demineralised)!or!steam!supply!
• Condensate!drain!
• Ductwork!to!the!engine!(smooth!bore!–!thermally!lagged)!
• Ductwork!from!CAHU!dump!line!
!
CAHU!Flow!Rate!
Chilled!Water!(1°C!Supply)!
kg/hr!
!
1,000!
!
1,500!
!
2,500!
!
3,500!
!
Minimum!Fluid!Flow!Rate!(>3!Bar)!
Maximum!Heat!Rejection!
Litres/s!
kW!
2.0!
24!
3.0!
35!
5.2!
60!
7.8!
89!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Water/Steam!Supply!Rate!
!
Litres/hr! 17!
!
!
25!
!
42!
!
58!
!
Electrical!Current!(380L415V,!50Hz!
3ph+N+E)!
Amps!
100!
120!
170!
230!
!
Ductwork!Diameter!
!
mm!
!
150!
!
150!
!
150!
!
200!
!
Figures!are!for!reference!only!and!are!based!on!a!Maximum!Ambient!Enthalpy!of!90kJ/kg!at!sea!
level!with!a!supply!voltage!of!380V.!Customer!specific!CAHU!requirements!will!be!confirmed!during!
the!project!phase.!
103!
!
104!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Ventilation Systems
Test Cell Conditioning
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
105!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!offer!bespoke!cell!ventilation!solutions!for!automotive!test!cells.!Ventilation!systems!can!
be!designed!to!fit!around!design!constraints!of!existing!test!cells,!or!can!be!designed!as!part!of!
complete!turnkey!test!cell!installations.!Sierra!CP!ventilation!systems!generally!provide!test!cell!
temperature!and!pressure!regulation.!
!
The!key!components!of!a!typical!ventilation!system!are:!
!
• Intake,!extract!and!recirculation!ductwork!
• Inverter!driven!axial!circulation!fans!on!intake!
and!extract!
• Diverter!louvers!and!actuators!
• Heater!elements!
• Fire!dampers!
• Removable!ductwork!section!for!the!future!
installation!of!cooling!coils!
• Cover!grills!
• Acoustic!elements!(option)!
• Electrical!enclosure!connected!to!CADET!cell!
services!system!controller!
!
The!volumetric!flow!rate!of!ventilation!ductwork!is!based!on!the!power!capability!of!the!largest!
engines!the!customer!wishes!to!test!and!any!additional!treatment!systems!or!hardware!within!the!
test!cell.!Due!to!inverter!driven!fans!being!used,!the!flow!rate!can!be!reduced!for!lower!capacity!
engines!using!the!same!system.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
Heating!and!cooling!options!
Fire!safety!shutdown!
Recirculation!system!reduces!heating!demand!and!offers!higher!precision!control!
Pressure!and!flow!rate!control!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
Engine!test!
Vehicle!test!
E!motor!and!hybrid!testing!
Test!condition!standardisation!
Varying!ambient!simulation!!
106!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!recirculation!
ductwork!as!well!as!traditional!intake!
and!extract!ventilation!systems.!On!a!
colder!day!this!can!reduce!the!amount!
of!duty!required!from!the!heater!
elements,!as!ambient!air!can!be!mixed!
with!reLcirculated!air!(warmed!by!the!
engine)!to!allow!a!stable!cell!
temperature!to!be!maintained.!The!
recirculation!ductwork!also!enables!
test!cell!temperature!soaking!prior!to!
testing,!as!air!can!be!repeatedly!
heated!or!cooled!(with!the!addition!of!
cooling!coils)!during!recirculation!as!required.!
!
Sierra!CP!use!2!inverter!driven!axial!circulating!fans!with!the!standard!ventilation!system!design,!
this!allows!flow!rates!to!be!varied!whilst!maintaining!test!cell!pressure.!
!
Control!of!the!ventilation!system!is!by!the!CADET!V14!ventilation!component!which!is!either!
installed!on!the!CADET!test!cell!or!facilities!system!controller.!This!can!be!operate!as!a!standLalone!
unit!or!receive!setpoints!from!a!CADET!or!3rd!party!test!cell!host!via!an!Ethernet!AK!protocol.!
!
OPTIONS
!
Due!to!the!bespoke!nature!of!Sierra!CP!ventilation!systems!any!requirements!requested!by!a!
customer!can!be!accommodated.!Options!such!as!humidity!control!(above!ambient),!fire!dampers,!
air!flow!meters!and!custom!air!filtering!can!be!accommodated.!
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!integrate!cooling!coils!into!ventilation!ductwork!to!allow!cell!temperatures!
below!ambient!to!be!achieved.!This!may!be!required!for!test!cell!temperature!preLsoaking,!or!to!
allow!lower!than!ambient!cell!temperatures!to!be!maintained!during!engine!operation.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
In!general!the!customer!should!be!responsible!for!providing!the!following:!
!
•
Compressed!air!for!damper!actuation!
•
3!phase!power!to!the!control!enclosure!
•
Chilled!fluid!circuit,!1°C!advised!(if!cooling!coils!are!installed)!and!glycol!
!
The!specifics!of!the!services!required!and!the!extent!of!Sierra!CPs!installation!responsibilities!will!be!
further!discussed!during!the!project!phase.!Sierra!CP!can!provide!the!services!required!as!
necessary.!
!
107!
!
108!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Test Cell and Facility Services
Products and Services for Turnkey Installations
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
109!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!and!install!the!cell!support!services!required!for!test!cell!installations;!
either!as!separate!items,!upgrades!or!as!part!of!a!turnkey!project.!This!includes!bed!and!chilled!
water!circuits,!ventilation!systems!(see!separate!datasheet),!exhaust!extracts!systems,!compressed!
air,!steam!generation!and!fire!suppression!systems.!Sierra!CP!can!also!design!and!construct!test!
cells!in!either!blockwork!or!prefabricated!panels.!
!
TEST CELL DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!design!and!build!test!cells!to!meet!most!customer!specifications.!Typically!this!
will!be!a!structure!within!a!larger!warehouse!type!building.!As!part!of!a!test!cell!design!and!build!
Sierra!CP!can!provide!the!following:!
!
• Test!cell!and!control!room!structure!
• Acoustic!linings!
• Acoustic!doors!and!windows!
• Heating!and!lighting!
• Single!and!three!phase!electrical!
distribution!
• Integrated!cranes!or!lifting!systems!
• Structural!surveys/design!input!
!
For!further!information!please!contact!Sierra!
CP!with!your!requirements.!
!
BED WATER
!
Most!engine!test!cells!generally!require!a!bed!water!cooling!system.!This!is!for!the!various!engine!
cooling!circuits,!such!as!oil,!water!and!intercooler!circuits!(see!the!Sierra!CP!valve!manifold!and!
cooling!post!datasheet)!as!well!as!some!dynamometer!cooling!circuits.!SierraLCP!are!able!to!supply!
dry!air!blast!coolers!for!external!installation!to!provide!cooling!water.!These!typically!result!in!a!
cooling!loop!of!10°C!above!ambient!(35L40°C!supply!is!typical!for!the!UK),!sized!according!to!the!
customers!heat!extraction!requirements.!
Sierra!CP!normally!supply!inverter!driven!
cooling!fans!as!these!increase!the!efficiency!
of!the!cooler,!whilst!keeping!the!noise!level!to!
a!minimum.!Sierra!CP!can!provide!complete!
integration!of!these!systems!on!a!bed!by!bed!
or!facility!basis,!including!pipework,!lagging,!
pump!sets!and!control!valves,!with!facility!
control!provided!by!CADET. !
!
!
!
!
!
!
110!
CHILLER UNITS
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!a!range!of!chilled!plant!equipment,!ranging!from!3kW!(rated!for!the!
Sierra!CP!FCUL1000)!to!100kW+!(rated!for!the!larger!CAHU!and!vent)!to!2,000kW!(multiple!cell!
facilities)!heat!extraction.!The!chiller!units!are!typically!used!to!provide!a!chilled!loop!(generally!1ᴼC)!
required!for!CAHU,!FCU!and!ambient!air!cooling!in!ventilation!systems.!Chiller!units!can!be!specified!
for!internal!or!external!installation!and!will!be!sized!according!to!the!customers!chilling!
requirements.!Sierra!CP!can!provide!complete!installation,!including!pipework,!lagging,!pump!sets!
and!control!valves.!!!!!!
!
EXHAUST EXTRACT
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!and!install!custom!
designed!exhaust!extract!systems!for!new!or!
existing!test!cells.!A!standard!exhaust!extract!
system!would!consist!of!fixed!ductwork!with!a!
flexible!connection!to!the!engine.!A!silencer!and!
bifurcated!fan!with!dilution!system!would!generally!
be!provided!to!aid!the!extraction!of!the!air,!whilst!
reducing!the!noise!and!temperature!levels.!Sierra!
CPs!Exhaust!Back!Pressure!Valves!(see!separate!
datasheet)!can!be!integrated!into!the!ductwork!as!
required. !
!
COMPRESSED AIR
!
Sierra!CP!can!provide!and!install!compressed!air!supplies!(typically!8!Bar)!required!for!turbo!boost!
simulation!rigs.!As!part!of!complete!turnkey!test!cell!installation!Sierra!CP!are!also!able!to!install!
instrumentation!grade!compressed!air!supplies,!required!for!various!test!cell!ancillary!equipment.!
!
STEAM GENERATION
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!and!install!steam!boilers,!as!required!on!site.!These!may!be!used!to!
supply!multiple!CAHU!units!for!steam!humidification!(it!is!generally!more!cost!effective!for!multiple!
CAHU!units!to!have!external!steam!humidification!and!also!provides!100%!CAHU!duty)!or!for!other!
onsite!services!such!as!steam!water!heating!etc.!Sierra!CP!would!also!recommend!the!use!of!a!
reverse!osmosis!water!supply,!as!this!eliminates!any!salts!and!sediments!in!the!steam!supply,!which!
can!clog!or!damage!equipment.!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!and!install!RO!filtration!equipment!as!
required.!
!
FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!fire!suppression!systems!with!temperature,!flame!and!hydrocarbon!
detection!options,!suitable!for!engine!or!vehicle!testing.!The!systems!supplied!are!generally!based!
on!a!high!pressure!water!mist!design,!as!this!causes!the!least!damage!to!any!electrical!systems!
within!a!test!cell.!Sierra!CP!can!supply!passive!(filament!driven)!or!active!(sensor!and!volts!free!
contact)!system!to!suit!the!customer’s!requirement.!Water!can!either!be!provided!by!a!mains!water!
system!(with!the!use!of!a!pump!compressor)!or!a!water!and!compressed!air!tank!based!system.!
111!
!
112!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Transient Single Cylinder Test Systems
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
113!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!have!developed!a!complete!range!of!test!cell!equipment!specially!tailored!towards!single!
cylinder!engine!research!and!development.!Sierra!CP!offer!a!range!of!standard!transient!AC!
dynamometers!with!regenerative!drive!to!allow!transient!motoring!and!absorbing!of!a!single!
cylinder!engine.!The!engine!and!dynamometer!are!generally!mounted!to!a!common!test!frame.!
!
Sierra!CP!offer!a!range!of!complimentary!sub!systems!to!enhance!the!testing!of!single!cylinder!
engines.!Sierra!CP!can!offer:!
!
• Oil!and!coolant!conditioning!circuits!
• Boost!simulation!systems!
• Exhaust!Back!Pressure!Simulation!
• Fuel!measurement!and!conditioning!circuits!
• Datalogging,!expandable!to!over!1,000!physical!channels!
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!a!boost!rig!which!will!allow!simulation!of!turbo!pressures!of!up!to!5!
bar!with!temperature!conditioning.!This!allows!research!to!be!carried!out!into!the!effect!of!high!
boosting!turbo!and!super!chargers!on!engines.!Exhaust!back!pressure!simulation!(see!separate!
datasheet)!can!also!be!offered!with!this!to!give!complete!control!of!the!airflow!through!the!engine.!
!
All!systems!are!controlled!by!a!single!central!CADET!V14!control!and!datalogging!system.!This!
system!is!specially!designed!for!engine!and!vehicle!testing!applications!and!as!such!has!both!
software!and!software!independent!safety!systems!embedded.!The!CADET!software!and!hardware!
offers!control!over!dynamometer!and!throttle!demand!as!well!as!all!systems!within!the!test!cell.!
The!CADET!system!offers!true!real!time!control!and!aligned!data!capture!on!over!1,000!physical!and!
2,000!calculated!channels.!
!
As!will!all!Sierra!CP!systems,!the!designs!are!flexible!and!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!modify!any!of!the!
systems!mentioned!to!cater!for!a!customer’s!specific!testing!requirements,!such!as!extended!
conditioning!ranges,!specific!software!modifications!or!specific!datalogging!requirements!and!
channel!counts.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
• Flexible!system!design!allows!many!test!parameters!to!be!changed!and!investigated!
• Single!source!supply!with!turnkey!project!options!
• All!major!parameters!can!be!altered!individually!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Research!and!development!
Component!testing!
Educational!demonstrations!
Transient!test!cycles!
Emissions!research!
Turbo/Super!charger!research!
114!
AC DYNAMOMETER AND INVERTER DRIVES
!
Sierra!CP!offer!AC!Dynamometers!and!regenerative!drives!are!suitable!for!motoring!and!Absorption!
of!the!engine.!When!in!Absorption!mode!the!drive!!!regenerates!the!electrical!power!back!into!the!
main!electrical!supply.!This!is!deemed!the!most!efficient!method!of!absorbing!the!energy!from!the!
engine!as!heating!does!not!occur.!
!
Systems!typically!include!the!following:!
!
• Swing!Frame!Air!Cooled!AC!
dynamometer!with!loadcell!
based!torque!measurement!
system!
• Speed!measurement!
• Calibration!arms!and!weight!
pans!!
• Common!dynamometer!and!
engine!mounting!frame!
!
Sierra!CP!offer!3!standard!single!cylinder!dynamometer!setups!of!45kW,!60kW!or!75kW!absorbing!
power,!which!are!detailed!in!the!table!below.!Sierra!CP!can!offer!custom!dynamometer!solutions!to!
suit!the!specific!engine!testing!needs!such!as!increased!power,!torque!or!speed!requirements.!
Dynamometer!
Speed!
45kW!
0!/!3300!/!6000!rpm!
60kW!
0!/!3200!/!6000!rpm!
75kW!
0!/!3200!/!6000!rpm!
Power!
Torque!
0!/!45!/!45!kW!
140!/!140!/!83!Nm!
0!/!60!/!!60!!kW!
180!!/!180!/!95!Nm!
0!/!75!/!75!kW!
220!/!220!/!120!Nm!
Accuracy!
Drive!
Speed!<!±1rpm,!Torque!<!±0.25%!of!full!scale!
Overload!Capability!
110%!for!30!seconds!in!5!minutes!
Power!Requirement!
Size!H!x!W!x!D!
3ph,!120A,!380L415V!
2130!x!430!x!646mm!
3ph,!160A,!380L415V!
2130!x!430!x!646mm!
3ph!200A,!380L415V!
2130!x!630!x!646mm!
!
!
MOUNTING FRAMES
!
Sierra!CP!recommends!that!the!engine!is!mounted!on!the!same!frame!as!the!dynamometer.!This!
aids!alignment!and!transportation!issues!as!well!as!reducing!installation!time.!For!single!cylinder!
applications!as!an!option!an!isolating!seismic!mass!can!be!positioned!under!the!engine,!on!the!test!
frame.!!
!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!a!dynamometer!and!engine!mounting!frame!built!to!the!required!dimensions!
for!the!customer’s!specific!engines.!Tee!slotted!rail!mounts!will!be!attached!for!mounting!the!
dynamometer!and!engine/seismic!mass.!!A!drive!shaft!guard!will!normally!be!supplied!with!the!
dynamometer!and!frame!for!safety.!
!
115!
CADET CONTROL AND DATALOGGING SYSTEMS
!
Sierra!CP!single!cylinder!test!beds!are!usually!supplied!with!a!full!CADET!V14!control,!automation!
and!datalogging!system.!CADET!V14!has!been!developed!to!create!a!single!source!integrated,!
flexible!solution!for!engine!test,!research!and!development.!When!used!in!conjunction!with!other!
products!from!the!Sierra!CP!range!it!provides!an!excellent!basis!for!the!specific!needs!of!single!
cylinder!engine!testing!and!research.!
!
The!system!can!also!be!expanded!to!include!the!integration!of!emissions!equipment,!emissions!
analysis!software!or!third!party!devices.!Additional!control!of!Sierra!CP!equipment!can!also!be!
added!such!as!ventilation!systems!or!fuel!systems!without!the!need!for!PLCs.!!
!
The!CADET!system!can!be!expanded!as!required!to!accommodate!any!of!the!following!channel!
types:!
!
• Analogue!inputs:!0L10V,!0L20mA,!4L20mA!
• Analogue!outputs:!0L10V,!0L20mA,!4L20mA!
• Digital!inputs!
• Digital!outputs!
• Thermocouples!
• PRTs!
• PTX!pressure!transducers!with!excitation!
• Frequency!inputs!
• Frequency!outputs!
• CAN!interfaces!
• OBD!interfaces!
• Ethernet!interfaces!
• RS232,!422!or!485!interfaces!
!
CADET!V14!Software!
!
CADET!V14!is!specifically!designed!for!automotive!test!applications.!The!software!is!provided!on!a!
specially!selected!industrial,!rack!mountable!system!controller!PC!running!Windows!7.!The!software!
offers!the!following!features!as!standard!for!engine!testing:!
!
• Programming!capability!
• Bed!protection!using!stage!selectable!high!and!low!alarm!and!shutdown!levels!
• Automatic!and!manual!control!modes!
• Data!logging!
• CP!Trace!V14,!multiple!yLaxis,!realLtime!display!and!analysis!software!
• Bumpless!transfer!between!control!modes!
• Form!based!calibration!mode!
• Instrument!Interfaces!!
• Speed,!Torque!and!Direct/%!control!modes!for!Dyno!and!Throttle!control!
!
Further!details!on!CADET!V14’s!capability!can!be!found!in!the!CADET!datasheet.!
!
!
!
116!
CADET!Integrated!Safety!Features!
!
Many!safety!features!are!built!into!the!CADET!hardware!and!the!software!to!protect!the!test!bed,!
dynamometer!and!the!engine!under!test.!The!system!does!not!simply!use!a!3rd!party!datalogging!
system!with!computer!monitored!protection,!Sierra!CP!offer!dedicated!protection!for!key!channels!
and!systems!on!the!test!bed,!with!8!computer!independent!shutdown!channels.!
!
Each!CADET!channel!(physical!or!calculated)!can!be!set!with!its!own!Low!/!High!Alarm!and!
Shutdown!levels.!These!can!either!be!default!values!or!on!a!Stage!by!Stage!basis.!Typical!safety!
channels!include!the!following!and!others!as!required:!
!
• Engine!and!dynamometer!overspeed!
• Oil!pressure!monitoring!
• Oil!temperature!monitoring!
• Coolant!temperature!monitoring!
• Dynamometer!supply!services,!water!or!electrical!
• Dynamometer!and!drive!temperature!
• Exhaust!and!ventilation!systems!functioning!
• System!controller!PC!failure!
• Emergency!stop!button!
• Test!cell!door!
!
Operator!Interface!
!
CADET!V14!is!designed!for!automatic,!unattended!and!manual!operation.!The!following!equipment!
is!the!only!interface!required!between!the!test!system!and!the!operator:!
!
• CP!‘winged!keyboard’.!This!is!a!preLformed,!alloy!tray!supporting!
o 102LKey!English!(UK)!keyboard!
o Encoders!for!dynamometer!and!throttle!manual!control!setLpoints!
o Engine/!test!bed!emergencyLstop!‘mushroom’!type!pushLbutton!
o Bed!‘Alarm!Accept’,!and!‘Reset’!pushLbuttons!
• 2off!19”!flat!screen!colour!displays!
• PS2!mouse!
!
Mechanical!Throttle!Actuator!
!
The!AT12!is!an!enclosed!DC!motor!driven!Throttle!Actuator!that!
offers!fast!response!(120msec)!and!pull!capabilities!up!to!150N.!
(Further!details!can!be!found!in!the!AT12!Datasheet).!
!
Alternatively!CAN!or!analogue!output!throttle!control!options!
are!available.!
!
Engine!Electrics!Box!
!
CADET!Engine!Test!systems!are!generally!supplied!with!Engine!Electrics!modules!provides.!These!
provide!a!marshalling!point!for!the!inLcell!low!voltage!electrical!systems.!There!are!four!relay!!
!
117!
switched!12V/24V!DC!terminals,!which!switch!from!a!common!power!source!connection!such!as!an!
inLcell!power!supply!or!battery.!These!can!be!switched!on!or!off!with!the!associated!Digital!Output!
during!tests.!They!are!typically!linked!to!ECU,!Fuel,!Glowplugs!and!Ignition.!These!modules!can!
either!be!supplied!in!an!engine!electrics!box,!or!integrated!into!the!datalogging!transducer!layout.!
Datalogging!
!
CADET!is!provided!with!channels!for!in!cell!safety,!dynamometer!control!and!control!of!any!
additional!equipment!supplied!by!Sierra!CP.!The!CADET!system!will!be!provided!with!suitable!
channels!for!controlling!all!Sierra!CP!supplied!equipment.!For!a!typical!single!cylinder!test!system!
Sierra!CP!will!provide!the!following!datalogging!channels!available!to!the!user:!
!
• 7off!K!type!thermocouple!connections!
• 2off!PRT!connections!
• 10off!analogue!inputs!channels!(can!be!used!for!4L
20mA!pressure!transducers)!
• 8off!analogue!output!channels!
!
Customer!specific!channel!counts!are!available;!please!contact!
Sierra!CP!for!further!information.!!
!
Transducer!Panels!
!
!
A!layout!will!be!provided!in!cell,!which!will!accept!the!required! 16!channel!XLR!Panel!–!8!
Analogue!Inputs,!8!Analogue!
data!logging!and!engine!electrics!panels.!Additional!blank!
Outputs!
panels!will!be!supplied!to!allow!future!expansion!of!the!
system.!Panel!sizes!and!looms!are!common!across!CADET!
systems!allowing!for!panels!to!be!swapped!or!upgraded!with!
minimal!effort.!The!panels!supplied!for!a!typical!single!cylinder!
test!cell!are!shown!to!the!right.!
!
Cabinet!
!
The!CADET!cabinet!for!a!standard!single!cylinder!system!is!a!
19”!16U!cabinet!built!onto!castors!(larger!sizes!are!available!
for!systems!with!higher!channel!counts).!The!cabinet!houses!
Sierra!CP!i/o!racks!and!the!system!controller!PC.!!
!
!
Mix!Panel!L!7off!K!type!TC,!2off!
The!cabinet!includes!all!the!termination!for!the!control,!safety!
Analogue!Inputs,!2off!PRT!Inputs!!
and!dataLlogging!subLsystems!such!as!the!Engine!Protection!
Panel.!!
!
Any!wiring!associated!with!inLcell!equipment!is!terminated!into!modules!within!the!cabinet!that!
provide!a!multiLway!connection!for!onward!connection!using!the!supplied!looms.!The!looms!have!
multiLway!connectors!at!each!end,!these!are!then!connected!to!the!corresponding!connector!in!the!
cabinet!the!inLcell!panels.!!
!
!
118!
OIL AND COOLANT CONDITIONING
!
Typically!single!cylinder!engines!do!not!have!oil!or!coolant!conditioning!and!circulating!abilities!as!
standard,!thus!Sierra!CP!have!developed!an!oil!and!coolant!conditioning!unit.!
!
The!cooling!system!allows!the!temperature!of!both!coolant!and!oil!to!be!conditioned!by!either!
heating!or!cooling!the!circulating!fluids.!Oil!pressure!control!on!the!circuits!supply!lines!can!be!
included!as!an!option.!This!is!achieved!by!having!a!bleed!valve!installed!in!the!supply!pipework.!
These!valves!can!either!be!manually!settable!or!electroLpneumatically!actuated!to!allow!transient!
pressure!variation.!
!
Typically!control!temperatures!of!between!80°C!and!100°C!are!possible,!however!as!with!all!Sierra!
CP!products,!flexibility!is!inherent!in!the!design!to!allow!an!amount!of!adaptation,!should!
requirements!change.!The!temperature!is!controlled!using!PID!channels!provided!in!the!CADET!
system.!The!temperature!of!the!oil!and!water/glycol!can!be!set!constant,!or!varied!during!a!test!as!
necessary.!The!system!can!also!be!used!for!conditioning!of!the!engine!prior!to!testing.!The!‘EVENTS’!
feature!in!CADET!can!be!set!to!optimise!the!warm!up!time!for!the!engine.!
!
WATER!
CIRCUIT!
T!
ENGINE!
T!
HEATER!
HEATER!
HEADER!
TANK!
COOLER!
PUMP!
FILTER!
COOLER!
PRESSURE!REG’!
OIL!CIRCUIT!
!
!
!
!
!
119!
FILTER! PUMP!
!
Standard!Supply,!for!the!conditioning!units!
!
• Heaters!
• Heat!exchanger!for!cooling!modes!
• Control!box!
• Flexible!hoses!to!connect!to!the!engine!circuits!
• Circulating!pumps!
• Sump,!aeration!tanks!
• Level,!pressure!and!temperature!monitoring!
• 3way!control!valve!for!cooling!circuits!
Typical!Cooling!system!specifications!
!
Oil!
Max!Oil!Flow!Rate!
Typical!Oil!Supply!Pressure!
!
5!l/min!
4!bar!gauge!
Suggested!Oil!Delivery!Temperature!
Maximum!Heat!Rejection!in!Oil!
80!L!100°C!
5kW!(Δ28°C!at!Max!Flow)!
!
!
Coolant!
Max!Coolant!Flow!Rate!
!
35!l/min!
Typical!Coolant!Supply!Pressure!
Suggested!Coolant!Delivery!Temperature!
1!bar!gauge!
80!L!100°C!
Maximum!Heat!Rejection!in!Coolant!
35kW!(Δ14°C!at!Max!Flow)!
!
In!order!to!allow!cooling!of!the!oil!and!the!coolant!a!customer!supplied!bed!water!circuit!is!
required.!This!should!consist!of!a!feed!and!return!line!complete!with!the!pumps!and!filters!as!
required.!The!connections!should!be!provided!to!a!location!discussed!with!Sierra!CP!during!the!
project!phase.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
120!
HIGH PRESSURE BOOST RIG
!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!provide!a!boost!rig!that!will!allow!dynamic!control!of!pressure!and!steady!state!
control!of!temperature!of!the!engine!supply!air,!to!simulate!turbo!charger!conditions.!High!pressure!
air!is!provided!by!a!compressor!unit!(usually!supplied!by!the!customer).!The!boost!rig!conditions!the!
temperature!of!this!air!by!passing!it!though!a!fluid/air!heat!exchanger,!whereby!the!fluid!circuit!has!
been!suitably!conditioned.!Cooling!of!the!air!is!also!possible!as!an!option.!The!pressure!of!the!air!is!
then!reduced!to!the!desired!level,!using!a!fast!acting!dump!valve.!
!
All!of!the!air!for!the!system!is!temperature!conditioned;!the!air!not!used!by!the!engine!is!dumped!
to!the!atmosphere.!Fast!acting!valves!on!the!dump!and!supply!lines!allow!transient!pressure!
regulation.!
!
The!TOTAL!intake!flow!rate!is!measured!on!the!rig!intake!using!a!venturi!style!flow!meter.!Engine!
Flow!consumption!can!be!achieved!by!putting!an!additional!flow!meter!on!the!dump!line!(located!at!
atmospheric!pressure)!and!using!a!totalising!calculation!within!the!CADET!system.!This!dump!line!
meter!is!NOT!included!as!standard.!Optionally!cooling!heat!exchanger!can!be!installed!in!the!dump!
line!to!provide!a!stable!temperature!for!the!dump!line!air!mass!meter.!
!
Compressed!Air!
Supply!(Not!
Included)!
Venturi!
Flow!
Meter!
AFM!
Heater!
!
Flow!Control!
Valve!
Cooler!
(Optional)!
!
!
!
Engine!
Dump!Pressure!
Control!Valve!
AFM!Chiller!
(Option)!
AFM!
Air!Flow!Meter!
(Option)!
An!additional!control!rack!with!the!required!input!and!output!cards!will!be!installed!on!the!rig,!with!
a!serial!loom!to!the!test!cell!CADET!control!and!automation!system!controller.!A!dedicated!tab!in!
the!operating!system!will!be!added!that!will!allow!control!of!the!entire!boost!rig.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
121!
!
Standard!Delivery!Specification!
!
Delivery!Pressure!
Pressure!Control!Accuracy!(Assuming!
consumption!remains!constant)!
1.2!–!5!bar!Absolute!(Dependant!on!Compressor)!
Maximum!Flow!Rate!
Maximum!Temperature!
700!kg/hr*!
60°C!
Minimum!Temperature!
Compressor!Supply!Temperature!(Standard!Unit)!
6°C!(Unit!with!Cooler!and!1°C!Chilled!Loop)!
Steady!State!Temperature!Accuracy!!
±1°C!
±0.5%!of!Setpoint!
!
Customer!responsibilities!
!
The!customer!should!provide!the!following!in!cell!services!required!for!the!operation!of!the!!!!!!!
boost!rig:!
!
• High!volume,!compressed!air!supply!(Sierra!CP!can!quote!on!request)!
o Oil!free!air!
o At!least!800kg/hr!continuous!air!flow!
o 5.5+!bar!absolute!supply!pressure!
• Chilled!supply!with!a!1°C!supply!temperature!(if!chilling!capability!is!required)!
• Dump!line!air!meter!(if!required,!Sierra!CP!can!quote)!and!dump!line!ductwork!
• Suitable!flexible!ductwork!to!the!engine!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
122!
OPTIONS
!
Sierra!CP!are!also!able!to!adapt!standard!equipment!to!meet!any!specific!requirements.!Please!
contact!Sierra!CP!for!further!details.!Sierra!CP!offer!a!wide!range!of!test!cell!equipment!and!services!
which!will!complement!the!single!cylinder!test!equipment.!Further!information!can!be!found!in!the!
specific!datasheets!which!are!available!on!request.!!
!
Ventilation!Systems!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!bespoke!ventilation!systems!for!existing!and!new!test!cells.!Ventilation!systems!
can!include!heating!and!cooling!coils,!for!test!cell!conditioning!as!well!as!test!cell!pressure!
regulation!by!using!inverter!driven!fans.!Recirculation!systems!are!generally!installed.!
!
Fuel!Measurement!Systems!
Sierra!CP!offer!a!range!of!fuel!measurement!units!which!use!either!gravimetric!or!transient!fuel!
measurement!techniques.!All!systems!deliver!fuel!at!ambient!pressure!and!have!capabilities!for!
engine!spillback.!!
!
Fuel!Conditioning!Units!
Sierra!CP!have!a!number!of!products!to!condition!the!temperature!and/or!pressure!of!an!engine!
fuel!supply.!All!parts!are!stainless!steel!so!a!variety!of!fuels!can!be!used.!
!
Emissions!Analysis!Equipment!
Sierra!CP!can!provide!emissions!analysis!equipment!which!interfaces!to!CADET!V14.!Sierra!CP!are!
able!to!offer!TLS!software!which!allows!emissions!regulatory!test!cycles!to!be!run,!analysed!and!
reported.!
!
Turnkey!Solutions!
Sierra!CP!specialise!in!bespoke!and!turnkey!test!cell!installation!if!required.!
!
Chiller!Units!and!Blast!Coolers!
Sierra!CP!are!able!to!supply!a!variety!of!chiller!units!and!blast!coolers!to!provide!chilled!water!and!
bed!water!conditioned!loops!required!for!various!equipment.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
Customer!responsibilities!are!dependent!on!the!equipment!purchased,!and!will!be!discussed!
further!during!the!project!phase!however!in!general!the!customer!should!be!responsible!for!the!
following:!
!
• Single!phase!power!distribution!
• Three!phase!power!to!the!inverter!drive!and!other!equipment!as!necessary!
• Instrument!grade!compressed!air!
• Test!cell!ventilation,!heating!and!lighting!
• Cable!trays!and!trunking!
• Civil!work,!as!required!
• High!volume!compressed!air!(Boost!rig)!
!
123!
!
124!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Vehicle Testing Systems
Chassis Dynamometers, CADET Control Upgrades,
Robot Vehicle Actuation
125!
VEHICLE TESTING SYSTEMS
!
Since!the!midL1990's,!Sierra!CP!have!been!a!global!supplier!of!chassis!dynamometer!solutions!for!a!
wide!variety!of!Vehicle!Test!applications.!We!can!provide!chassis!dynamometers!to!suit!most!
customer!test!cell!specifications.!Sierra!CP!are!able!to!offer!custom!designed!dynamometers!to!suit!
vehicles!from!motorbikes!to!trucks!and!tracked!vehicles!including!combination!test!sets!that!
accommodate!a!wide!range!of!vehicle!types!in!a!single!installation.!
!
SierraLCP!provides!solutions!for!a!variety!of!test!cell!conditions!ranging!from!climatic!test!cells!with!
temperatures!down!to!L40!degrees!C!to!specialty!NVH!evaluation!test!cells!with!specific!chassis!
dynamometer!noise!constraints.!
!
We!also!offer!a!variety!of!drive!options!to!suit!customer!testing!specifications!and!budget!
requirements.!These!are!supported!by!a!range!of!standard!products!such!as!Robot!Drivers!and!
vehicle!restraints.!Our!chassis!dynamometer!solutions!are!precision!controlled!by!our!advanced!
CADET!V14!CDS!control!system!which!enables!the!total!integration!of!the!chassis!dynamometer!
system!with!third!party!instruments!such!as!Emissions!Measurement!&!Analysis!Systems.!We!also!
have!the!ability!to!be!able!to!offer!control!system!upgrades!of!existing!Chassis!dynamometers!to!
offer!precision!control!via!CADET.!
126!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Chassis Dynamometers
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
127!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!design!and!manufacture!custom!
dynamometers!for!vehicles!ranging!from!
motorbikes!and!heavy!duty!equipment!to!
tracked!vehicles.!As!a!global!provider!of!
custom!systems!flexible!enough!to!meet!a!
range!of!test!specifications!and!budgets,!
we!can!provide!chassis!dynamometers!to!
match!most!customer!test!cell!
installations.!In!addition!to!custom!designs,!
a!range!of!‘Standard’!pre!designed!roller!
sets!are!available!in!a!range!of!sizes!please!
contact!Sierra!CP!for!further!details.!
!
Driven!by!our!CADET!V14!CDS!(Chassis!Dynamometer!System),!our!chassis!dynamometers!cover!all!
certification,!research!and!development!requirements!for!cars,!trucks,!motorcycles,!threeLwheelers,!
offLroad!vehicles,!and!treaded!vehicles.!We!also!offer!costLeffective!upgrades!to!existing!test!stands!
(from!other!manufacturers),!with!new!CADET!control!and!automation!systems,!thereby!
rejuvenating!existing!installations!and!prolonging!useful!operational!life.!
!!
In!addition,!our!range!of!Chassis!Dynamometers!has!been!extended!to!provide!a!costLeffective!
solution!for!testing!motorcycles!and!scooters!on!a!single!roll!set.!We!also!offer!a!twin!roller!version!
for!threeLwheelers,!quadLbikes!and!subLcompact!city!vehicles!(see!separate!‘Motorcycle!Chassis!
Dynamometer’!datasheet).!For!specific!high!performance!motorcycles,!alternative!dynamometer!
options!are!available!upon!request.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
High!accuracy,!fast!response,!repeatability,!low!maintenance!
Meet!local!standard!requirements!
Inline!&!centre!mount!systems!
Twin!and!independent!roll!systems!up!to!4!axles!
Pre!designed!twin!roller!‘Product’!available!
Custom!designs!available!to!meet!specific!
requirements!
Powerful!modular!control!and!automation!system!!
Extensive!range!of!support!equipment!and!
systems!
APPLICATIONS
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Research!&!Development!
Certification!
Emissions!
Mileage!Accumulation!
Climatic!
NVH!
EMC!
128!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
Pre!Designed!Roller!Sets!
!
Sierra!CP!have!a!range!of!pre!
designed!roller!sets!which!can!be!
easily!integrated!into!a!test!cell.!48!
inch!roller!independent!or!twin!roller!
systems!are!available,!suitable!for!
emissions!or!climatic!testing.!Multiple!
axles!can!be!combined!with!wheel!
base!adjustment!to!allow!vehicles!
with!more!than!one!driven!axle!to!be!
tested.!All!control!is!via!a!standard!
CADET!V14!cabinet!which!will!be!
configured!for!a!number!of!operation!
modes.!!
!
Sierra!CP!have!a!standard!packaged!750!mm!twin!roller!product,!which!is!shown!above.!This!is!
suitable!for!testing!cars!and!small!industrial!vehicles!and!is!available!with!either!AC!of!eddy!current!
dynamometer!options.!Two!rollers!can!be!combined!with!wheel!base!adjustment!to!accommodate!
4x4!vehicles.!Optionally!the!unit!can!be!specified!for!temperatures!down!to!L40°C.!!
!
Sierra!CP!can!supply!multiple!axle!systems!with!sliding!floor!systems!which!allow!safe!wheelbase!
adjustment.!For!single!axle!units!Sierra!CP!offer!a!number!of!wheel!clamping!solutions!to!clamp!the!
non!driven!wheels!in!place!for!testing.!These!generally!attach!to!T!slotted!rails!mounted!in!the!floor!
to!allow!for!a!range!of!wheel!bases!to!be!accommodated.!!
!
A!single/double!450mm!roller!chassis!dynamometer!is!also!available!for!testing!motorcycles,!3!
wheeled!vehicles!or!small!4!wheeled!vehicles.!Further!details!for!these!can!be!found!in!the!
‘Motorcycle!Chassis!Dynamometer’!datasheet.!
!
Fully!Custom!Solutions!
!
Sierra!CP!specialise!in!custom!solutions!and!thus!
allows!us!to!design!chassis!dynamometers!to!
meet!whatever!needs!a!customer!may!have.!In!
the!past!Sierra!CP!have!supplied!custom!
designed!dynamometer!for!the!following!
applications:!
!
• NVH!with!specific!noise!constraints!
• Climatic!emissions!testing!down!to!L40°C!
• Large!tracked!vehicle!testing!
• Heavy!duty!multiple!driven!axle!vehicles!
• Hub!mounted!dynamometers!
• Additional!roller!sets!to!existing!dynamometer!system!
• Vehicle!lifting!systems!
129!
!
Sierra!CP!are!used!to!providing!custom!solutions!to!
fit!existing!site!requirements,!such!as!existing!pit!
dimensions!or!building!restrictions.!Complete!
turnkey!installation!can!be!offered!as!necessary.!
!
All!chassis!dynamometers!are!controlled!by!CADET!
V14!CDS,!which!offers!precision!and!flexible!control!
of!your!chassis!dynamometer.!
!
For!further!information!please!contact!Sierra!with!
your!testing!requirements.!
!
Control!System!Upgrades!
!
For!the!past!20!years!Sierra!CP!have!carried!
out!control!system!upgrades!on!existing!
chassis!dynamometers!to!allow!CADET!V14!
to!offer!precision!control!over!an!existing!
system.!This!allows!the!entire!obsolete!
control!system!to!be!removed,!whilst!
maintaining!the!chassis!dynamometer!
hardware.!Sierra!CP!can!then!interface!
directly!to!the!dynamometer!and!drive!
units!to!take!complete!control.!In!addition!
to!this!the!CADET!system!offers!inbuilt!
hardware!protection,!which!will!protect!
the!rig!in!the!event!of!failure.!CADET!has!
dedicated!channels!which!allow!cell!
services!such!as!ventilation!and!E!stop!
chains!to!interface!with!CADET.!
!
Sierra!CP!have!interfaced!and!replaced!the!
control!systems!of!a!large!number!of!
dynamometers!in!the!past!including!AVL,!
Froude,!Horiba!and!Maha!systems!to!name!
a!few.!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!with!your!
chassis!dynamometer!specification!for!further!information!on!the!upgrade!path.!Further!
information!on!CADET!V14!can!be!found!in!the!appropriate!datasheet.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
130!
OPTIONS
!
Sierra!CP!offers!a!range!of!integrated!System!components!and!products!to!support!the!complete!operation!
of!a!Chassis!dynamometer!Facility.!
!
• TLS!–!facility!management!&!emissions!reporting!
software!
• Drivers!Aid!!
• Robot!Driver!
• Pedal!actuators!
• Auto!Fuelling!/!Measurement!system!
• Headwind!fans!to!simulate!air!speeds!
• Wind!tunnels!!
• Particulate!emissions!measurement!equipment!
• Climatic!or!NVH!test!cell!fit!out!
• Road!shells!
• Tyre!burst!detection!
!
Further!details!can!be!found!in!the!relevant!
datasheets,!or!are!available!on!request.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
Generally!the!customer!should!be!responsible!for!
the!following:!
!
• 3!phase!electrical!power!(for!AC!machines)!
• Cooling!water!(for!Eddy!Current!machines,!
or!AC!water!cooled!dynamometers)!
• Pit!construction!(Sierra!CP!will!provide!
drawings!as!required)!
• Fire!suppression!system!
• Test!cell!structure,!lighting!and!heating!
!
Sierra!CP!can!quote!for!offering!these!facilities!and!services!if!necessary.!Please!contact!Sierra!CP!
for!further!information.!!
!
!
131!
!
132!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Motorcycle Chassis Dynamometer
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
133!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!have!developed!a!range!of!Modular!
Chassis!Dynamometers,!controlled!by!CADET!V14!
CDS!software,!which!have!been!designed!and!
developed!to!provide!a!cost!effective!solutions!for!
the!testing!of!motorcycles!&!scooters!on!the!single!
roll!set!and!threeLwheeler,!Quad!bike!and!sub!
compact!city!type!vehicles!on!the!twin!roller!
version.!For!Specific!High!performance!motorcycles!
alternative!dynamometer!options!are!available.!
!
SPECIFICATION
!
Maximum!Test!Speed!
Maximum!Tractive!/Braking!Force!0!–!84!km/h!
2,100!N!
Max!Power! 84!–!200!km/h!
60!kW!
200!km/h!
140!kg!–!Single!Roller!
240!kg!–!Twin!Roller!
Base!Inertia!–!Approximate!
Roller!diameter!
100!–!450kg!–!Single!Roller!
100!–!850kg!–!Twin!Roller!
600!mm!
Tolerance!on!diameter!
Roller!–!Width!
±0,1!mm!
450mm!
Twin!Roller!Track!Width!
850!–!1750mm!
Mass!Simulation!L!Approximate!
!
These!specifications!are!for!the!standard!design.!Custom!designs!are!also!available!to!meet!specific!
customer!requirements.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automatic!compensation!of!bearing!losses!
Reduced!Installation!and!Commissioning!Program!with!minimal!maintenance!requirements!
Compact!design!of!the!Centre!Machine!reduces!the!Pit!/!foundation!requirements!
AC!Drive!&!Motor!technology!–providing!fast!response!and!extended!inertia!Simulation!
Cost!effective!System!solution!
Future!Proof!Dynamometer!and!Control!System!with!CADET!upgrades!
APPLICATIONS
!
This!Range!of!Chassis!Dynamometers!is!suitable!for!the!types!of!testing!indicated!below:!
!
• Emissions!!
• Durability!
• Performance!Testing!!
• Quality!audit!!
134!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
Rollers!
!
The!roller/s!are!manufactured!as!a!steel!fabrication!and!are!
capable!of!supporting!the!axle!loads!detailed.!The!roller!
mass!is!designed!to!provide!the!base!inertia!of!the!
dynamometer;!after!stress!relieving!it!is!machined!and!
balanced.!
!
A!pneumatically!actuated!brake!is!incorporated!into!the!
system!and!acts!upon!the!stiffening!webbing!of!the!roller.!
This!is!designed!for!use!as!a!parking!brake!only.!A!pressure!
switch!and!control!valve!are!included;!both!mounted!on!
the!machine!base!frame.!
!
Speed!is!measured!using!a!precision!incremental!encoder,!directly!connected!to!the!AC!
motor/roller!shaft!end!and!provides!an!accurate!output!of!roller!speed.!
!
Reacted!torque!is!measured!with!a!load!cell,!connected!between!the!dynamometer!base!frame!and!
the!AC!motor!carcass.!As!forces!are!applied!to!the!roller!surface!the!reaction!through!the!motor!
carcass!is!measured!by!the!load!cell.!
!
AC!Motor!
!
The!chassis!dynamometer!utilises!an!AC!motor!as!the!
motor/absorber!unit!and!is!capable!of!working!in!both!
directions!and!simulating!test!vehicle!inertias!electrically.!
The!motor!is!airL!cooled!using!a!fan!mounted!off!the!base!
frame.!The!AC!motor!is!supported!on!torque!reaction!
arms!to!allow!free!rotation!of!the!motor!carcass,!with!
torque!being!measured!by!a!load!cell.!The!torque!reaction!
arms!are!directly!supported!from!the!base!frame.!!
!
All!base!frames!are!of!a!welded!construction!using!hollow!
steel!sections!with!machined!pads!to!accept!the!motor/roller!sub!assembly.!Features!are!included!
to!mount!the!brake!and!roller!encoder.!!
The!base!frame!incorporates!suitable!lifting!eyes!and!
pads/feet!to!allow!it!to!be!bolted!to!concrete!plinths.!
!
Floor!Plates!
!
Steel!floor!plates!and!supporting!beams!can!be!provided!to!
maintain!a!level!floor!around!the!roller!surface!and!are!to!
be!supported!from!the!pit!edge!trimming.!Sierra!CP!will!
provide!drawing!details!of!required!Pit!Edge!Trim.!
Alternatively!a!complete,!raised!assembly,!including!floor!
plates!can!be!provided!to!minimise!required!installation.!
135!
!
CADET!V14!Chassis!Dynamometer!Control!System!
!
The!CADET!system!will!be!supplied!with!the!following!major!assemblies:!
!
• Control!Cabinet!25U,!19”!cabinet!housing!the!control!hardware!and!system!controller!
• Operator!Interface!Monitors!and!Winged!Keyboard,!providing!a!display!of!all!data!and!
manual!control!
• InSCell!Equipment!providing!the!system!interfaces!with!the!chassis!dynamometer!and!
vehicle!
!
Software!
!
Typically!the!following!software!will!be!installed!on!the!
system!controller.!
!
• Microsoft!Windows!7!operating!system!software!
• Microsoft!Visual!Basic!!
• CP!CADET!V14!CDS!Vehicle!Test!System!software!
with:!
o Programming!capability!
o Programmable!bed!protection!
o Automatic!and!Manual!Control!modes!
o Data!logging!
o CP!Trace!V14,!multiple!yLaxis,!realLtime!display!and!analysis!software!
o Bumpless!transfer!between!Auto!and!Manual!control!
o Form!based!Calibration!Mode!
o Low!and!High!Alarm!and!Shutdown!levels!
!
Further!details!on!CADET!V14!can!be!found!in!separate!datasheets.!
!
Motorcycle!Wheel!Clamp!
!
The!Motorcycle!wheel!clamp!enables!an!efficient!positive!
location!of!the!front!motorcycle!wheel!and!also!acts!as!a!
fast!method!of!referencing!the!rear!wheel!on!to!the!apex!
of!the!Chassis!Dynamometer!roll!set!for!repeat!tests!!
!
• The!wheel!clamp!device!is!suitable!for!most!
scooter!/Motor!cycle!wheel!profiles!(See!chart!
below)!
• In!event!of!power!loss,!wheel!clamp!will!stay!locked.!!
!
!
Wheel!Width!!
Min.!
63mm!
Max.!
140mm!
Wheel!Diameter!
350mm! 700mm!
!
Wheel!clamping!devices!to!suit!specific!ranges!of!motorcycles!can!be!offered!on!request!
136!
OPTIONS
!
Sierra!CP!offers!a!range!of!integrated!System!components!and!products!to!support!the!complete!
operation!of!a!Chassis!dynamometer!Facility.!
!
• TLS!–!facility!management!&!emissions!
reporting!software!
• Drivers!Aid!!
• Robot!Driver!
• Hand!Grip!Throttle!Actuator!
• Auto!Fuelling!/!Measurement!system!
• Headwind!fans!to!simulate!air!speeds!
!
Further!details!can!be!found!in!the!relevant!
datasheets,!or!are!available!on!request.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
Generally!the!customer!should!make!available!or!prepare!the!following!services:!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electrical!3!phase!Power!Supply!
Compressed!Air!
Pit!Drainage!
Ductwork!!
Foundations!/!Pit!works!(drawing!supplied!by!Sierra!CP)!
Pit!Edge!Trimmings!(drawing!supplied!by!CP)!
Fire!suppression!systems!
Fire/!vapour!detection!!
!
These!will!be!confirmed!and!discussed!further!during!the!project!phase.!
!
!
137!
!
138!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Vehicle Robot
Vehicle Automation for Emissions and Endurance
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
139!
INTRODUCTION
!
The!Sierra!CP!Vehicle!Robot!is!designed!for!
standLalone!or!integrated!actuation!of!a!vehicle!
under!test!on!a!chassis!dynamometer.!The!
robot!consists!of!a!pedal!module,!gear!shift!
module!and!control!module.!!
!
The!pedal!module!consists!of!up!to!three!DC!
rotary!pedal!actuators!which!can!be!easily!
installed!in!the!foot!well!of!a!vehicle!under!test.!
Clamps!are!supplied!to!attach!to!the!pedals,!
with!a!variable!length!strut!connecting!between!
the!actuator!and!clamp.!!
!
The!torso!module!allows!left/right!and!forward/backward!actuation!of!the!gear!lever!via!two!DC!
actuated!‘Arms’,!which!can!be!installed!in!either!the!driver!or!passenger!seat.!A!light!weight!gear!
cap!attaches!to!the!gear!lever,!which!then!attaches!to!the!actuator!arms!via!variable!length!struts.!
Integrated!clutches!in!the!arms!decouple!when!in!gear,!to!minimize!the!force!on!the!gearbox!and!
transmission.!Looms!from!the!two!actuation!modules!then!connect!to!the!control!module!(which!
can!either!be!inLcell!or!control!room!based)!which!provides!actuation!and!control,!powered!by!the!
CADET!V14!robot!control!software!and!hardware.!
!
Once!installed!the!robot!is!‘taught’!the!gear!positions!by!an!operator!manually!selecting!a!gear!and!
then!pressing!an!‘Acknowledge’!button.!The!gear!positions!relative!to!each!other!and!the!actuator!
current!position!can!be!viewed!in!the!CADET!Robot!tab.!The!clutch!and!brake!bite!points!are!then!
manually!taught!by!the!press!of!a!single!button!on!the!
pedal!module.!CADET!automatically!maps!the!throttle!
with!the!engine!running.!An!engine!speed!signal!is!
required!by!CADET!(Either!from!a!customer!sensor,!
control!system!or!OBD/CAN!interface,!see!options!
section).!!
!
An!additional!module!for!ignition!actuation!can!also!be!
supplied.!This!is!suitable!for!both!key!and!push!button!
style!ignitions.!This!is!based!on!a!push/pull!cable!
system,!driven!by!a!remote!DC!rotary!actuator.!A!
number!of!easily!interchangeable!attachments!are!supplied!which!either!allow!the!actuator!to!
mount!to!a!key,!or!actuate!push!button!ignitions!via!a!lever!arm!(a!short!arm!is!shown,!a!long!arm!
attachment!is!also!supplied).!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
140!
SPECIFICATION
!
Robot!Specification!
Operating!Temperature!
Units!
°C!
Value!
L10!to!+50*!
Maximum!Shift!Force!(Clutch!Protected)!
N!
60!with!350!mm!arms!(Shorter!arms!
are!available!for!increased!force)!
Maximum!Gear!Travel!
mm!
250!(in!X!or!Y)!
Typical!Gear!Shift!Time!
ms!
Gear!Module!Weight!
kg!
440!
19!(can!also!be!split!into!9kg!and!
10kg!modules)!
Gear!Actuation!Module!
Pedal!Actuation!Module!
Maximum!Pedal!Force!
Maximum!Pedal!Travel!
N!
mm!
250!
250!
Typical!Shift!Time!
ms!
Module!Weight!
kg!
350!(Clutch!and!Brake)!
250!(Throttle)!
3!Per!Pedal!
Maximum!Rotation!(key)!
Maximum!Torque!(key)!
Deg!
Nm!
210!
7.5!
Maximum!Actuator!Push!Force!(push!button)!
N!
150!(actual!force!can!be!limited)!
Ignition!Actuation!S!Option!
!
*Lower!temperature!variant!down!to!L40°C!is!available!as!an!option!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Flexible!channel!assignment!to!different!controls,!as!project!requires!
Modular!construction!allows!easy!installation!
Gear!actuation!of!both!left!and!right!handed!vehicles!
Up!to!six!different!actuation!channels!
NonLintrusive!design!
Designed!to!mimic!human!behaviour!
Integrated!gear!shift!actuator!clutches!minimise!gear!lever!force!when!in!gear!
Cost!effective!solution!
Movable!between!test!cells!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
Emissions!Work!
Endurance!Testing!
Mileage!Accumulation!
Research!and!Development!
Climatic!Testing!
141!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
The!Vehicle!Robot!is!made!up!of!the!following!!
subLassemblies:!
•
•
•
•
•
Torso!shift!module.!!XLaxis!gear!shift!position!
Torso!select!module.!!YLaxis!gear!select!position!
Pedal!Box!
o Throttle!
o Clutch!–!optional!
o Brake!–!optional!
Ignition!actuation!module!–!optional!
12U!19”!Control!Cabinet!
o Electronic!Control!Unit.!!Power!supplies!and!control!hardware!for!module!actuation!
o CADET!V14!control,!monitoring!and!automation!system!
o System!controller!PC!(can!also!be!supplied!loose!for!separate!control!room!
installation)!
!
All!the!DC!actuators!are!powered!by!electronic!control!units!which!are!built!into!the!control!
cabinet.!This!is!to!minimise!the!weight!of!the!robot.!Positional!feedback!signals!from!the!actuators!
are!provided!to!CADET!to!allow!closed!loop!control.!!
!
To!minimise!gearbox!wear!and!to!assist!in!gear!training,!magnetic!clutches!are!used!to!deLcouple!
the!gearshift!arms!from!the!drive!actuators.!!By!employing!this!method,!minimum!wear!on!the!
selector!forks!and!hubs!within!the!gearbox!is!achieved.!!The!software!only!engages!the!magnetic!
clutches!when!a!gearshift!is!taking!place!to!ensure!that!the!forces!acting!on!the!gearshift!during!
normal!operation!may!be!ignored.!!A!further!benefit!of!the!clutches!is!their!guaranteed!maximum!
force!transfer!protects!the!transmission!in!fault!conditions.!
!
As!an!option!the!design!can!be!adapted!for!the!inclusion!of!force!sensing!at!the!gear!lever!and!
pedals!by!the!inclusion!of!inLline!load!cells!in!the!actuator!struts.!The!electrical!current!of!each!
actuator!is!measured!by!CADET,!which!can!give!an!approximate!value!for!the!actuation!forces!
required.!
!
Pedal!Box!
!
The!pedal!box!module!provides!up!to!three!actuation!
struts!for!clutch,!throttle!and!brake.!!The!struts!are!
expandable!in!steps!of!25!mm!using!press!release!keys!
and!are!fitted!with!ball!joints!at!each!end.!A!clamp!
bracket!with!integral!ball!end!is!fixed!to!the!pedal!to!
allow!the!strut!to!be!clicked!into!place.!The!pedal!box!
module!is!fixed!to!the!vehicle!by!brackets!clamped!to!
the!seat!subLframe.!!Alternatively,!fixtures!can!be!
provided!to!allow!both!the!torso!and!pedal!modules!to!
be!installed!on!the!driver’s!seat.!A!number!of!LED!
displays!on!the!unit!indicate!the!state!of!the!drive!and!
clutch!control!signals.!The!force!of!the!actuators!can!be!limited!by!restricting!the!current!supplied!
to!the!actuator,!which!is!proportional!to!the!force.!
142!
Torso!Module!
!
The!Torso!module!is!split!into!two!sections!that!are!
locked!together!in!use.!!These!contain!the!Shift!
(leftLright!XLaxis)!and!the!Select!(frontLback!YLaxis)!
modules.!!One!person!may!split!the!torso!to!enable!
lighter!installation!of!the!robot.!
!
The!Torso!gear!selector!module!has!been!designed!
around!the!general!envelope!of!a!human!driver!to!
allow!it!to!be!used!in!the!majority!of!vehicles.!It!is!
restrained!in!the!vehicle!by!the!use!of!a!number!of!
straps!which!attach!around!the!rear!of!the!seat.!
!
Adjustment!of!the!XLaxis!shift!actuator!mechanism!
relative!to!the!seat!is!provided!to!allow!the!maximum!length!of!strut!adjusted.!!Overall!positioning!
may!use!the!vehicle!seat!adjustment!while!actuation!struts,!with!low!friction!ball!joints,!are!
expandable!in!steps!of!25!mm!using!press!release!keys.!
!
The!YLaxis!shift!module!gear!change!arm!may!be!mounted!on!either!end!of!the!actuator!shaft.!This!
allows!rapid!setLup!for!either!rightLhand!or!leftLhand!drive!vehicles.!!It!is!possible!to!convert!from!
leftLhand!drive!to!rightLhand!drive!configuration!in!less!than!two!minutes.!The!torso!module!can!be!
installed!either!on!the!driver!or!passenger!seat.!
!
Robot!Operation!
!
The!strategy!used!by!the!Vehicle!Robot!during!gearshifts!is!set!within!the!program!but!it!is!fully!
configurable.!!This!allows!the!optimum!settings!of!change!times!and!forces!to!be!determined!and!
stored!along!with!calibration!data!for!the!Chassis!dynamometer!rolls!and!engine!speed.!!A!full!
safety!and!automatic!gear!map!may!also!be!stored.!Gear!ratios!are!stored!to!assist!in!detecting!a!
missLshift.!!These!ratios!may!be!determined!from!a!technical!manual!or!by!operating!the!vehicle!
manually!on!the!rolls.!Once!these!settings!have!been!stored!they!may!be!reLcalled!when!the!system!
is!ready!for!use,!once!training!has!been!carried!out.!
!
The!Vehicle!Robot!is!trained!in!a!number!of!simple!steps!to!perform!gearshifts.!!This!is!achieved!by!
the!use!of!a!notebook,!connected!when!required!locally,!allowing!its!use!inside!the!vehicle.!Each!
gear!and!the!neutral!position!are!manually!selected!and!each!then!logged!by!a!single!keystroke!on!
the!notebook.!The!XLY!positions!of!the!centre!point!of!each!gear!position!are!therefore!taught!to!
the!system.!This!process!is!very!simple!and!fast!making!it!possible!to!quickly!reLtrain!the!system!if!
the!position!of!the!Vehicle!Robot!is!changed.!It!is!generally!necessary!to!carry!out!this!training!on!
each!occasion!that!the!Vehicle!Robot!is!installed!in!a!vehicle.!
!
The!pedal!actuators!are!connected!to!the!vehicle!pedals!by!the!drive!rods.!The!drive!rods!are!
adjusted!such!that!at!0%!actuator!travel!represents!0%!pedal!travel.!Once!set!the!robot!will!find!the!
maximum!travel!of!the!Clutch,!Brake!and!Throttle!by!monitoring!the!current!levels!in!the!motors!to!
determine!the!extent!of!travel.!This!position!is!then!saved!as!the!100%!value.!The!robot!is!also!able!
to!determine!the!‘bite’!point!of!the!clutch!and!this!corrects!itself!during!operation!as!the!clutch!
wears.!
!
143!
The!throttle!is!automatically!mapped!to!determine!the!required!throttle!positions!during!the!gear!
changes.!!This!is!achieved!under!the!control!of!the!software!with!the!engine!running.!!A!signal!is!
required!which!represents!the!engine!RPM.!Both!the!clutch,!and!the!brake!biteLpoints!are!taught!to!
the!system!by!the!press!of!a!single!key!as!it!is!determined!manually.!
!
Test!Cycles!
!
Sierra!CP!have!a!large!library!of!test!cycles!such!as!FTP,!Euro!and!Japanese,!already!programmed!
and!ready!to!run!on!the!robot!test!bed.!The!full!set!will!be!supplied!but!if!the!cycles!required!are!
not!available!Sierra!CP!can!program!these!for!the!customer.!This!would!normally!be!chargeable,!
further!details!available!on!request.!Alternatively!the!customer!can!write!and!edit!these!and!new!
test!cycles.!Training!will!be!given!in!this!area!during!the!commissioning!of!the!robot!system.!
!
The!test!schedule!data!is!written!onto!the!CADET!V14!system!controller.!This!is!used!to!drive!the!
test.!The!chassis!dynamometer!should!provide!realistic!resistance!to!the!vehicle!according!to!road!
load!model!and!road!speed.!The!Sierra!CP!robot!is!set!into!a!preLtest!mode!and!the!actual!start!of!
the!test!is!signalled!by!a!digital!output!from!the!host!controller!to!the!CADET!system.!Different!drive!
cycles!are!selected!from!a!test!file!directory!on!the!Robot!Control!PC.!An!Emergency!Stop!is!on!the!
control!keyboard.!It!is!possible!to!link!inLcell!Emergency!Stop!buttons!or!other!external!shut!downs!
signals!to!the!Robot!Control!system.!
!
OPTIONS
!
The!Sierra!CP!vehicle!robot!can!be!supplied!with!the!necessary!actuation!channels!required!by!the!
customer.!A!number!of!options!for!the!robot!system!are!available,!for!example:!
!
• OBDLII!interface!for!engine!speed!and!other!valves!
• CAN!interface!for!engine!speed!(Customer!should!provide!CAN!files!to!Sierra!CP)!
• Datalogging!
• Interface!to!emissions!equipment!
• Emissions!regulatory!calculations!(see!TLS!datasheet)!
• Custom!gear!shift!modules!(such!as!paddle!or!column!shift)!
• UPS!systems!for!failsafe!shutdown!in!the!event!of!power!failure!
• Motorcycle!and!2/3!wheeler!robot!(see!separate!datasheet)!
!
Sierra!CP!can!also!offer!CADET!chassis!dynamometer!control!systems!to!retro!fit!existing!systems!as!
well!as!supplying!complete!Chassis!dynamometer!solutions!up!to!8x8.!Further!details!are!available!
in!a!separate!datasheet.!!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
Generally!the!customer!should!make!available!or!prepare!the!following!services:!
!
• Single!phase!electrical!power!supply!
• Engine!and!roller/vehicle!speed!signals!
• Chassis!Dynamometer,!or!Test!Rig,!operating!in!a!road!load!mode!
• Digital!input!from!control!system!to!signal!the!start/end!of!tests!
!
!
144!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Emissions Particulate Measurement Equipment
Filter Based and Real Time Particulate Measurement
to Meet Emissions Regulation Certification
!
!
!
145!
EMISSIONS PARTICULATE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT
!
Our!mission!is!to!be!your!engine!particulate!emissions!specialist.!We!give!our!customers!throughout!
the!world!a!complete!engine!PM!emissions!sampling!solution!using!our!flagship!BG3!as!the!hub!of!
this!effort.!!
!
Our!goal!is!to!develop!worldLclass!Particulate!Flow!Dilution!(PFD)!systems!that!provide!the!highest!
quality!sample!data,!greatly!increase!testing!efficiency,!drastically!reduce!costs,!and!improve!testL
cell!safety.!!Sierra!CP!has!a!great!track!record.!Throughout!the!1990’s,!Sierra’s!BG®1!and!BG®2!
became!the!leading!PFD!in!the!world.!We!now!support!hundreds!of!BG!systems!used!by!customers!
located!all!over!the!world.
!!
Sierra!CP!has!forged!a!unique!partnership!with!Caterpillar.!Together,!engineers!worked!as!a!team!to!
develop,!design,!and!test!the!BG3!to!meet!the!stringent!needs!of!engine!manufacturers!through!
cuttingLedge!technology!and!patented!inventions.!These!partnerships!have!allowed!Sierra!CP!to!
design!the!most!innovative!and!stateLofLtheLart!PM!product!offering!on!the!market.!Sierra!CP!owns!
the!exclusive!worldwide!license!to!Caterpillar’s!patented!microLdilution!tunnel!technology!Patent!
#5,058,440!and!system!flow!control!features!described!in!United!States!patent!#6,615,677!along!
with!eleven!additional!US!patents!used!in!the!BG3!
!
Our!goal!is!to!offer!customers!throughout!the!world!
a!single!choice!for!their!particulate!measurement!
needs,!offering!solutions!from!sample!collection!to!
final!processing!for!customers!using!the!gravimetric!
method!currently!written!in!the!regulations.!Our!
team!is!set!up!to!rapidly!provide!any!customer!with!
standard!or!custom!solutions.!
!
We!manufacture!a!wide!variety!of!emissions!
measurement!solutions!to!meet!nearly!any!engine!
and!vehicle!testing!application.!We!specialize!in!
particulate!matter!(PM)!partial!flow!dilution!
sampling!with!our!market!leading!BG3!technology!
In!addition,!our!realLtime!diesel!soot!mass!and!
average!soot!agglomerate!size/number/surface!
area!measurement!system!is!a!bestLinLclass!
instrument!for!this!difficult!application.!!We!offer!
seamless!integration!and!control!of!devices!such!as!
CVS!and!gaseous!via!our!flagship!CADET!V14!Test!
Automation!software.!It!is!our!belief!that!this!gives!
our!customers!the!flexibility!to!choose!from!the!
many!different!emissions!instruments,!while!still!
benefiting!from!our!userLfriendly!CADET!V14!
interface!and!test!cell!control.!!
!!
!
146!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
BG3
Partial Flow Dilution
Particulate Sampling System
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
147!
INTRODUCTION
!
In!use!since!2004,!BG3!Partial!Flow!Dilution!(PFD)!technology!effectively!performs!engine!research!
and!development!to!accurately!sample!exhaust!PM!(Particulate!Matter)!emissions!over!both!steady!
state!and!transient!test!cycles.!On!January!7,!2011,!PFD!was!signed!into!law!and!is!now!included!in!
the!United!States!Federal!Register!as!a!legally!recognized!alternative!method!to!CVS!in!40!CFR!part!
1065!for!engine!certification.!The!Direct!Final!Rule!(DFR)!contains,!among!other!things,!the!
unprecedented!allowance!to!use!PFD!for!engine!emissions!PM!transient!certification!testing.!
!!
In!2013,!a!high!performance!version!was!introduced!
as!a!next!generation!PFD!system!called,!BG3!Elite!
(Pictured!Left).!!The!Elite!has!all!the!same!
specifications!as!its!predecessor!the!BG3,!but!is!
refined!for!applications!requiring!47mm!filter!media!
such!as!Part!1065,!and!combines!smaller,!more!
precise!flow!control!valves!and!flow!measurement!
components!with!an!upgraded!pressure!transducer!
suite!to!build!on!its!industryLleading!technology!
base.!!The!Elite!is!available!in!a!65!slpm!version!and!a!
100!slpm!version!to!cover!a!broad!range!of!PM!
sampling!needs.!!SierraLCP’s!proprietary!Cadet!V14!
software!is!being!introduced!on!the!Elite!product,!
along!with!a!patented!feature!that!actively!controls!
diluted!sample!to!an!offLboard!measurement!device!
while!simultaneously!maintaining!Part!1065Lrequired!
metrics!for!proportionality!and!filter!face!velocity!
required!for!gravimetric!sampling.!
!!
The!BG3!system!is!a!highly!flexible!engine!PM!
emissions!sampling!device!protected!by!thirteen!
patents.!BG3!is!the!recognized!standard!in!the!
industry!for!PFD!sampling.!BG3!is!the!most!widely!
used!technology!of!its!kind!and!boasts!an!installed!base!of!more!than!300!units!globally.!!
!!
BG3!is!used!for!proportional!sampling!on!transient!test!cycles!with!any!fuel!(diesel,!gasoline,!natural!
gas,!etc.)!and!can!be!used!on!engines!of!any!size!in!both!engine!and!chassis!test!cells.!BG3!is!also!
equally!effective!for!steadyLstate!test!cycle!PM!measurements.!SteadyLstate!sampling!times!range!
from!two!to!five!minutes!depending!on!the!relative!particulate!emissions!output!of!the!engine!and!
the!size!of!the!filter!holder!used.!Test!cycles!for!any!regulation!can!be!easily!designated,!set!up,!and!
run.!BG3!satisfies!all!ISO!8178,!ISO!16183!and!40CFR!1065!requirements!for!transient!and!steadyL
state!equivalency,!as!well!as!EPA!requirements!for!nonLroad!steadyLstate!(CFR!Part!89),!
supplemental!13Lmode!and!ramp!modal!cycle!testing.!The!system!can!also!be!used!as!a!diluter!for!
particle!sizing!instrumentation!and!for!gaseous!emissions!measurement!systems,!while!
simultaneously!and!accurately!sampling!particulate!matter.!
!
!
!
!
!
148!
BG3!United!States!EPA!Approval!(January!2011)!
!
BG3!PFD!technology!has!been!in!use!since!2004!effectively!performing!engine!research!and!
development!to!accurately!sample!exhaust!particulate!matter!emissions!over!both!steady!state!and!
transient!test!cycles.!On!January!7,!2011,!PFD!was!signed!into!law!and!is!now!included!in!the!United!
States!Federal!Register!as!a!legally!recognized!alternative!method!to!CVS!in!40!CFR!part!1065!for!
engine!certification.!The!Direct!Final!Rule!(DFR)!contains,!among!other!things,!the!unprecedented!
allowance!to!use!PFD!for!engine!emissions!particulate!matter!transient!certification!testing.!
!!
The!Docket!for!the!DFR!shows!that!the!basis!for!the!US!EPA!decision!was!the!correlation!to!FTP!and!
NRTC!CVS!transient!test!cycle!PM!(particulate!matter)!demonstrated!by!SierraLCP's!BG3,!as!required!
by!40!CFR!Part!1065.12.!A!5Lyear!program!conducted!in!cooperation!with!the!US!EPA!resulted!in!a!
BG3!vs!CVS!multiple!engine,!twoLlab!correlation!study!requiring!the!measurement!of!PM!over!a!
twoLdecade!range!in!concentration!levels.!It!was!successfully!performed!to!prove!BG3!complies!as!a!
suitable,!fully!compliant!alternative!method!to!CVS!for!certification!of!engines!tested!on!2007!and!
Tier!IV!transient!test!cycles.!This!historical!milestone!opens!the!door!to!greater!PM!testing!flexibility!
for!all!Heavy!Duty!(HD)!as!well!as!the!Light!Duty!engine!manufacturers!requiring!compliance!to!
40CFR!Part!1065!test!procedures.!For!more!information!on!the!BG3!EPA!approval,!please!visit:!
www.sierrainstruments.com/autotest/products/emissionsLanalytical/bg3_epa_approval!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Compliant!to!US!EPA!40!CFR!Part!1065!
Protected!by!thirteen!US!Patents!
Documented!gravimetric!correlation!to!CVS!
Any!size/type!engine,!any!fuel!
Outstanding!transient!sampling!fidelity!
Supports!lightLduty!bag!sampling!and!Euro6!PN!
Optional!realLtime!solid!particle!mass,!number,!size!
Interface!ExhaustLTrak!raw!exhaust!mass!meter!
Satisfies!IS0!8178!&!16183,!40!CFR!Part!89,!Euro!3,!4,!5!&!6!
Approximately!1/10th!of!HD!CVS!system!cost!of!ownership!
Approximately!1/100th!to!1/1000th!the!annual!energy!usage!of!HD!CVS!
Patented!PFD!(Partial!Flow!Dilution)!tunnel!has!ultraLlow!particulate!loss!and!requires!no!
cleaning!with!proper!operation!
Integrity!of!internal!flow!systems,!proprietary!daily!mirror!calibration!method!
Yields!excellent!accuracy!and!repeatability!over!a!wide!range!of!dilution!ratios!
Portable!from!cell!to!cell!to!maximize!flexibility!and!ROI!
Ability!to!accurately!measure!PM!either!pre!and!post!catalyst!and/or!DPF!for!research!or!!
DF!testing!
Filter!Size:!47!or!70mm!standard!
Sample!Flow!Accuracy:!!Less!than!+/L!3%!at!dilution!ratios!of!15:1!or!below!
System!working!standard!flow!measurement!accuracy:!Less!than!1%!of!reading!
QC!Sample!flow!check!meter!flow!accuracy!(optional):!<3%!of!reading!at!20L50%FS,!!
<2%!of!reading!at!50L100%!FS.!
Sampling!Time:!A!nominal!sampling!time!of!2!to!5!minutes!per!mode!is!recommended!for!
single!filter/!mode!testing!on!a!0.1g/hp/hr!8L!mode!cycleLweighted!emissions!engine!when!
using!70mm!test!filters.!!
Input!Power:!110!or!220!VAC,!50/60!Hz!(Indicate!at!time!of!order)!!
149!
!
•
•
Dilution!Air!Supply:!90!PSI,!3.5!CFM!(6.2!bar,!6!m3/hr)!
Internal!Sample!Update!Rate:!80Hz!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
•
•
•
Transient!and!steady!state!engine!and!vehicle!testing!
Designed!for!diesel,!gasoline!or!natural!gas!engines!of!any!size!
Can!be!used!in!engine!or!chassis!test!cells!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
Technical!Description!
!
The!fundamental!description!of!BG3,!per!ISO8178L1!(5)!is!as!a!“partial!flow!dilution!system!with!
flow!control!and!total!sampling”,!otherwise!known!as!a!‘split,!then!dilute”!methodology.!The!
operational!difference!between!BG3!and!CVS!is!that!a!CVS!first!dilutes!the!full!flow!of!raw!exhaust!
and!then!collects!PM!from!a!small!fraction!of!that!flow!(dilute,!then!split),!while!the!BG3!first!
proportionally!extracts!and!then!dilutes!a!small!fraction!of!the!raw!exhaust!and!then!collects!PM!on!
a!gravimetric!filter!from!that!flow!(split,!then!dilute).!The!BG3!design!premise!is!to!provide!
equivalent!results!to!CVS!by!maintaining!proportionality!of!the!raw!exhaust!sample!mass!flow!
relative!to!the!exhaust!mass!flow!rate!of!the!engine.!
!!
The!primary!purpose!of!BG3!is!to!control!the!flow!rate!of!a!representative!sample!of!exhaust!during!
an!engine!test!cycle!where!engine!speed,!load,!airflow!and!fuel!flow!values!exhibit!high!rates!of!
change!over!very!short!time!frames.!The!magnitude!of!engine!inlet!air!mass!flow!excursions!can!
approach!10:1!within!less!than!two!seconds.!The!challenge!for!any!PFD!technology!is!to!maintain!
constant!proportional!flow!from!an!exhaust!stream!with!a!highly!variable!mass!flow!rate!
throughout!a!typical!test!cycle.!In!order!to!ensure!that!the!total!mass!of!particulate!trapped!at!the!
filter!is!equivalent!to!that!obtained!by!the!use!of!a!full!flow!CVS,!the!sample!flow!rate!must!be!
controlled!in!realLtime!to!be!proportional!to!the!exhaust!mass!flow.!Further,!it!is!necessary!to!
control!this!sample!flow!rate!to!
ensure!that!the!filter!temperature!does!not!exceed!the!regulatory!defined!limit!while!the!dilution!
air!temperature!is!maintained!in!the!range!required!by!the!regulations.!
!!
Near!ZeroLLoss!Dilution!Tunnel:!The!magic!of!BG3!technology!
is!the!patented!dilution!tunnel!which!eliminates!the!major!
Achilles!heel!of!any!PFD,!the!deposition!of!particulate!on!
dilution!chamber!walls!as!the!diluted!exhaust!sample!is!
transferred!to!the!filter!from!the!raw!exhaust!stream.!Ultra!
low!particulate!loss!in!the!patented!radial!inflow!partial!flow!
dilution!tunnel!(Pictured)!and!a!very!short!equilibration!zone!
before!the!filter!set!the!BG!apart!from!all!other!PFSS.!Sierra’s!
patented!dilution!tunnel!technology!is!a!chamber!under!
pressure.!Conditioned!dilution!air!permeates!from!the!
outside!of!the!chamber!in!through!the!walls!of!a!sintered!
metal!tube!carrying!the!diluted!sample,!creating!a!
hydrocarbonLfree!air!barrier.!This!eliminate!s!the!effect!of!the!dilution!system’s!“history”!on!the!
test!sample.!
!!
150!
BG3!is!an!integrated!product!that!incorporates!two!flow!devices!supplying!and!extracting!gas!used!
in!the!dilution!tunnel!design.!The!mass!flow!of!raw!exhaust!sampled!at!the!probe!is!the!difference!
between!the!flow!rates!of!the!dilution!and!total!mass!flow!meters.!This!sample!flow!is!calculated!as!
the!difference!between!the!total!and!dilute!flow.!
!
Data!Quality!Assurance!
!
1) Patented!Transient!Dilution!Airflow!Control:!Allows!the!speed!of!the!dilute!mass!flow!
controller!to!correctly!correlate!the!sample!flow!with!the!actual!engine!exhaust!mass!flow.!
2) Sample!Flow!Rate!Confirmation:!A!third!mass!flow!meter!confirms!the!sample!flow!rate!by!
comparing!the!measured!flow!to!the!set!flow!of!the!BG3.!This!serves!as!a!Go/No!Go!sample!
flow!check!before!each!test.!Third!mass!flow!meter!shown!inside!the!Model!BG3!
3) Validation.!The!Model!BG3!continuously!controls!and!validates!all!critical!operational!and!
calibration!data!parameters!and!readings!during!each!test.!Engineers!can!make!decisions!
during!and!after!a!test.!
4) Calibration!
• Fully!automated!daily!calibration!between!each!test.!
• Fully!automated!leak!check!
• Filter!face!velocity!(sample!mass!flow!rate)!for!filter!size!
!
Software/User!Interface!
!
Based!on!our!flagship!CADET!Automation!Software!platform,!the!BG3!control!software!is!a!user!
friendly!application!that!allows!the!engineer!to!work!independently!of!a!host!system!or!interfaced!
with!a!host.!The!BG3!software!allows!the!knowledgeable!engineer!the!diversity!of!testing!any!size!
of!fuelled!engine!for!particulates,!as!well!as!perform!calibration!and!troubleshooting.!The!user!can!
collect!PM!samples!during!test!programs!and!allow!remote!control!of!the!BG3!by!a!host!PC.!The!
BG3!system!and!software!is!designed!to!allow!novice!users!to!easily!collect!accurate!particulate!
samples,!however!it!is!recommended!that!users!should!have:!
!
• Some!experience!in!the!operation!of!engine!emissions!measurement!systems!
• Engine!test!stand!and/or!chassis!test!cell!experience!
• A!basic!understanding!of!Microsoft!Windows!based!computers!and!text!processing!
!
Main!Status!Screen:!The!status!screen!displays!the!
system!layout!and!all!of!the!realLtime!parameters!
before!and!throughout!the!test.!The!operations!
display!is!a!useful!tool!for!the!operator!as!the!test!is!
being!performed!and!after!completion.!
!
Calibration!Screen:!The!"Tracker"!function!is!a!tool!
that!every!engineer!will!find!irreplaceable.!This!
screen!can!be!used!by!the!engineer!to!track!any!of!
the!functions!(diluted!mass!flow,!delta!pressure,!
engine!exhaust!flow!versus!sample!mass!flow)!or!
other!immediate!test!functions!for!immediate!
reference!to!archival!data.!
!
151!
Tracker!Screen:!The!engineer!will!find!the!calibration!of!the!system!very!manageable!and!efficient.!
The!fully!automated!calibration!routine!can!be!performed!at!any!time.!!!
OPTIONS
!
Sierra!CP!can!offer!a!range!of!options!with!the!BG3!including:!
!
• SootTrak!–!Laser!based!real!time!particle!measurement!system!(See!separate!datasheet)!
• HeatPak!–!Filter!paper!temperature!conditioning!
• Weigh!booths!
• AirTrak!–!Intake!air!measurement!(see!datasheet!in!“In!Cell!Equipment”!section)!
• ExhaustTrak!–!Raw!exhaust!mass!flow!measurement!(see!datasheet!in!“In!Cell!Equipment”!
section)!
• Filter!multi!changer!units!–!enabling!multiple!samples!to!be!taken!during!a!single!test!
!
These!can!be!found!in!the!‘BG3!Support!Equipment’!datasheet.!
!
CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES
!
Sierra!works!closely!with!each!customer!before,!during,!and!after!the!installation!and!
commissioning!of!the!BG3,!ensuring!a!smooth!system!launch!and!ongoing!customer!satisfaction.!
!
Installation!
!
• An!onLsite!Sierra!engineer!performs!all!commissioning!and!training!services!to!achieve!high!
customer!satisfaction!
• Since!the!BG3!is!portable,!it!is!set!up!quickly!in!any!configuration!of!engine!and!test!cell!
environment!
• During!commissioning,!the!Sierra!engineer!calibrates!the!BG3!with!certified!calibration!
equipment!
• Sierra!sends!a!specification!sheet!to!preLempt!future!questions!or!problems!
!
Facility!Requirements!
!
• Input!power!of!230/110!VAC,!20!amp!(2!each),!50/60!Hz!
• Clean!supply!of!dry!air!at!80!psi!minimum!to!100!psi!maximum!L!Sierra!assists!each!customer!
so!that!shop!air!is!optimal!for!BG3!operation!
• The!BG3!is!located!within!the!test!cell!L!The!space!required!to!accommodate!the!cabinet!is!
24!inches!W!x!36!inches!D!x!72!inches!H!
• The!BG3!has!a!19!inch!rack!mount!PC!and!a!17!inch!plasma!screen!monitor!that!can!be!
remotely!placed!in!the!control!room!of!the!testLcell!
!
Four!Step!Sample!Collection!
!
• Step!1:!Load!the!Filters.!Insert!the!sample!filter!pair!into!the!filter!holder!or!load!the!filter!
MultiLChanger!cassette.!
• Step!2:!SetLup!the!Test.!Enter!the!appropriate!flow!sample!parameters!into!the!test!setLup!
screen.!
!
152!
!
•
•
!
Step!3:!Collect!the!Sample.!Press!the!standby!button,!the!BG3!automatically!collects!the!
sample.!
Step!4:!Sample!Complete.!Remove!filter!pairs!for!PM!mass!measurement.!A!filter!weight!
calculation!sheet!is!available!for!the!engineer’s!convenience.!
!
153!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
154!
!
!
!
Innovate to Differentiate.
SootTrak
Laser Based Real Time
Emissions Particulate Sampling
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
155!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP’s!SootTrak™!laser!measures!realLtime!diesel!engine!soot!particle!mass!emissions!and!
performs!characterization!of!average!soot!agglomerate!size,!number!and!surface!area.!SootTrak!
provides!researchers!and!engine!developers!the!accurate!information!they!require!about!particle!
transport.!With!measurement!accuracy!of!5%!using!a!known!calibration!source,!SootTrak!also!sets!
itself!apart!from!other!realLtime!soot!mass!measurement!techniques!with!its!rangeability,!
application!flexibility!and!resolution.!SootTrak!measures!realLtime!soot!particle!mass!emissions!
concentrations!from!1!–!106μg/m3!for!mean!agglomerate!sizes!ranging!from!50!L!500nm!at!data!
rates!up!to!10!Hz.!Obtaining!±1!μg/m3!detectability!requires!0.1!seconds!of!measurement!time!
giving!SootTrak!the!best!sensitivity!and!resolution!available.!!
!
With!five!years!of!development!and!patents!pending!combined!with!fieldLproven!results,!SierraLCP!
was!the!first!company!to!introduce!the!new!and!innovative!SootTrak!laser!scattering!by!two!axis!
ratio!technology!to!the!engine!and!vehicle!testing!industry.!SootTrak!measures!real!time!soot!mass!
emissions,!particle!size!and!number!and!is!positioned!inLline!with!a!gravimetric!filter!holder!to!
assure!the!highest!possible!data!quality.!SootTrak!is!available!as!a!plugLandLplay!version!for!Sierra's!
Model!BG3!partial!flow!dilution!system.!Future!versions!will!be!standLalone!for!integration!with!
other!types!of!dilution!systems!such!as!CVS!or!other!brands!of!partial!flow!sampling!systems.!
!
SootTrak!measurements!are!based!on!first!principles!similar!to!gravimetric,!optical!absorption,!and!
mobility!methods,!giving!comparable!mass!and!size!accuracies!without!calibration.!SootTrak!can!
also!be!used!for!correlation!to!gravimetric!PM!filter!measurements,!soot!modelling,!PM!filter!crossL
checking,!as!well!as!determination!of!soot!number!limits.!SootTrak!has!a!dilution!ratio!rangeability!
exceeding!50:1!when!operated!with!the!BG3,!which!is!capable!of!sampling!PM!from!any!engine!
regardless!of!horsepower,!fuel,!and!PM!concentrations.!SootTrak!is!housed!inside!a!portable,!
heightLadjustable!cabinet!that!includes!the!sample!extraction!vacuum!source!and!1065!compliant!
temperature!control.!A!microprocessor!measures!temperature!and!pressure!automatically!to!
convert!to!STP!conditions.!The!instrument!includes!features!for!remote!operation!and!includes!
userLfriendly!software!that!is!unmatched!in!the!industry.!
!
BENEFITS AND FEATURES
!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
Accuracy:!±5%!error!
Repeatability:!±3%!of!reading!
Wide!Measurement!Range!of!1!L!106!μg/m3!
Minimum!Detection!Limit:!~!0.5!μg/m3!
Fast!Response!Time:!<!0.1!sec!
Plug!and!Play!with!the!Model!BG3!
Continuous!RealLTime!Soot!Curve!
High!Sensitivity!for!Future!Regs!(Tier!5,!EURO!5,!2012!&!later)!
Correlation!to!Gravimetric!Measurements!
PM!Filter!CrossLChecking!
Soot!Modelling!
Soot!Number!Limits!
Unlimited!Dilution!Ratio!Rangeability!
Portable!compact!size!
Simple!and!fast!calibration!with!ambient!clean!air!
156!
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
!
Correlation!to!Gravimetric!Filter!Measurements!L!A!fundamental!model!(patent!pending)!is!
used!to!relate!the!fast!and!sensitive!optical!scattering!measurements!of!SootTrak!to!
equivalent!mass!concentration!measurements!at!EPALdefined!partial!dilution!conditions!
provided!by!the!BG3.!Concentration!measurements!agree!with!gravimetric!filter!results!(see!
Correlation!Testing!section).!
PM!Filter!CrossLChecking!L!SootTrak!gives!the!user!the!ability!to!crossLcheck!gravimetric!PM!
filter!measurements!of!concentration.!SootTrak!is!incorporated!with!the!BG3!sampled!
emissions!flow!stream,!operating!at!the!EPALrequired!temperature!of!47C!just!prior!to!the!
filter!sample.!The!uncertainty!of!PM!gravimetric!results!after!DPF!and!partial!dilution!is!in!
the!range!of!±!30L50%.!(Kittleson,!et!al.,!AST,!October!2009).!SootTrak!can!help!identify!
consistency!of!engine!test!cycle!conditions!in!real!time,!saving!valuable!test!cell!time,!and!
can!help!identify!errant!filter!measurements!following!the!measurements.!
Soot!Modelling!with!SootTrak!L!When!building!a!soot!model,!the!engine!is!run!through!hours!
of!operating!conditions!where!engineers!adjust!a!wide!range!of!combustion!parameters.!
Acquisition!of!detailed!gravimetric!filter!samples!at!each!mode!is!timeLconsuming!and!
costly.!With!the!BG3,!SootTrak!can!rapidly!and!continuously!build!a!detailed!and!accurate!
map!of!engine!soot!production.!
Soot!Number!Limits!L!Upcoming!European!regulations!will!require!soot!number!limits!along!
with!standard!gravimetric!sampling.!In!addition,!the!California!Air!Resources!Board!is!moving!
towards!soot!number!limits!as!well,!and!the!EPA!will!follow.!Unlike!other!systems!that!only!
provide!soot!number!or!mass,!SootTrak!gives!total!mass,!agglomerate!size,!and!primary!
particle!number,!for!carbon!PM!>30nm.!
Unlimited!Dilution!Ratio!Rangeability!L!When!SootTrak!is!run!in!tandem!with!the!BG3,!the!
user!can!set!any!dilution!ratio!desired!well!over!50:1!through!the!BG3!user!software.!The!
BG3!is!capable!of!sampling!PM!from!any!engine!regardless!of!horsepower,!fuel,!and!PM!
concentrations.!
Measurement!Range!L!SootTrak!has!a!wide!soot!concentration!measurement!range!of!1!–!
106!μg/m3,!providing!a!flexible!instrument!for!an!array!of!applications.!
APPLICATIONS
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
•
•
•
•
•
For!any!engine!size!and!fuel!
Steady!state,!ramp!modal!and!transient!test!cycles!
On!engine!and!chassis!dynamometer!test!beds!
Measurement!upstream!and!downstream!of!particulate!filters!
Research!&!development!
!
157!
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
!
While!there!are!other!scattering!techniques,!the!
SootTrak!method!is!unique!in!calculating!soot!
concentration!from!first!principles!(patent!pending),!
without!the!need!for!gravimetric!calibration.!SootTrak!
operates!at!near!ambient!pressure!to!prevent!
evaporation!of!volatile!and!semiLvolatile!particles,!and!
it!requires!no!consumables.!
!
SootTrak!measures!soot!particle!mass!emissions!
concentrations!from!1!–!106!μg/m3!for!mean!
agglomerate!geometric!sizes!ranging!from!50!L!500nm!
at!data!rates!up!to!10!Hz.!When!interfaced!with!Sierra's!
Model!BG3,!SootTrak!is!able!to!provide!accurate!
measurements!for!all!transient!test!cycles.!Obtaining!
±1!μg/m3!detectability!requires!0.1!seconds!of!
measurement!time,!giving!SootTrak!the!best!resolution!
available.!
!
Engineers!can!study!the!dynamic!behaviour!of!particle!
emissions!that!occur!during!transient!test!cycles.!An!
example!includes!the!first!few!seconds!of!a!cold!start,!
or!during!regeneration!of!a!particle!trap!or!diesel!particulate!filter!(DPF).!In!addition,!SootTrak!gives!
the!user!the!ability!to!crossLcheck!gravimetric!PM!filter!weights!(immediate!analysis!of!test!
particulates!prior!to!the!filter!weight!measurement)!and!is!also!an!exceptional!soot!modelling!tool.!
Because!SootTrak!is!a!sensitive!measuring!method,!it!uses!ambient!clean!air!Rayleigh!scattering!to!
confirm!instrument!accuracy!in!less!than!a!minute!prior!to!each!measurement!sequence.!
158!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Innovate
to Differentiate.
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
BG3 Particulate Sampling
Support Equipment
Issue 4.1
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
159!
!
INTRODUCTION
!
Sierra!CP!manufactures!a!complete!offering!of!gravimetric!particulate!filter!sampling!and!postL
processing!solutions!to!complement!our!BG3!Partial!Flow!Dilution!technology.!Our!filter!processing!
solutions!assure!that!this!critical!final!step!of!weighing!the!filter!is!done!with!precise!accuracy.!It!is!
said!that!50%!of!data!variability!is!explained!by!poor!post!sample!filter!processing.!Our!goal!is!to!
drastically!reduce!the!effect!of!poor!post!filter!processing!procedures.!
!
HEATPAK – FILTER SAMPLING TEMPERATURE CONTROL
!
Our!HeatPak!is!a!particulate!sampling!temperature!control!
package!built!to!meet!the!US!EPA!40CFR!Part!1065!regulation.!The!
HeatPak!takes!the!diluted!exhaust!sample!through!a!cyclonic!
separator,!and!controls!the!temperature!and!residence!time!to!the!
filter!face.!HeatPak!is!plugLandLplay!with!the!BG3.!The!system!can!
also!be!used!in!a!manual!mode!with!other!devices.!
!
Benefits!and!Features!
!
• Meets!EPA!1065!Regulation!
• Plug!and!play!control!and!verification!by!the!BG3!
• Can!be!used!in!manual!mode!with!other!devices!
• Can!be!placed!within!the!customer!test!cell!and!close!to!the!exhaust!stack!
• Can!also!be!adapted!to!any!filter!multiLchanger!like!Sierra’s!Automatic!Filter!Changer!
• Maintains!the!47!degrees!C!within!+/L!2!degrees!C!
!
FILTER HOLDERS
!
Sierra!CP!stock!47mm,!70mm,!and!90mm!filter!holders,!as!
well!as!filter!media!for!use!in!particulate!testing.!All!filter!
holders!are!made!of!316L!Stainless!Steel!and!meet!
requirements!set!forth!in!the!Federal!Register.!
!
Filter!element!cartridges!are!available!in!47mm!and!70mm!
sizes.!Cartridges!are!designed!to!fit!into!an!individual!47mm!
and!70mm!filter!holder!or!into!our!Automatic!Filter!Changer!
designed!for!47mm!and!70mm!platters.!The!cartridges!meet!
the!material!set!forth!by!EPA.!
!
Cartridge!separators!as!shown,!are!also!!
available!to!eliminate!damage!to!the!filter!!
holder!and!media.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
160!
FILTER WEIGH CHAMBERS
!
After!a!high!quality!gravimetric!sample!is!made!by!
BG3,!it!is!extremely!important!to!assure!high!quality!
postLprocessing!procedures.!Up!to!50%!of!any!error!
in!data!can!be!attributed!to!these!extremely!
important!procedures.!Our!filter!postLprocessing!
weigh!chamber!is!a!compact,!complete,!readyLtoL
run!package!that!allows!sample!filter!media!to!be!
accurately!weighed!per!regulatory!requirements.!!
Add!the!Filter!Bar!Coding/Scanner!option!to!get!
even!more!control!over!your!filter!media.!
!
Our!weigh!station!is!a!dual!chamber!"Glove!Box"!
style!design!that!allows!the!operator!to!stabilize!and!
accurately!weigh!sample!filter!media!from!any!size!
engine.!A!precision!balance,!such!as!the!Sartorius,!is!
supplied!by!SierraLCP!as!an!option.
!
AIRPAK – AIR SCRUBBING
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Sierrra!CP’s!AirPak™!is!an!air!handling!and!scrubbing!system!
designed!to!clean!compressor!air!(used!for!dilution!air!in!the!
BG3)!before!it!enters!the!BG3!system.!The!AirPak!system!can!
also!be!used!for!other!analytical!equipment!within!the!test!
laboratory.!Even!though!the!BG3!has!an!adequate!air!
purifying!system!onLboard!it!has!been!found!that!many!test!
facilities!require!this!added!measure!of!purification!and!
protection.!
!
The!international!standard!for!compressed!air!quality!
provides!a!simple!system!of!classification!for!the!three!main!
contaminants!present!in!any!compressed!air!system:!dirt,!
water!and!oil.!We!will!work!with!you!to!specify!the!air!
quality!class!you!require!for!a!particular!application!and!
build!an!AirLPack!system!to!suit!your!needs.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
161!
AUTOMATIC FILTER CHANGER
!
Our!Automatic!Filter!Changer!is!a!plugLandLplay!cartridgeLstyle!device!that!allows!the!engineer!to!
complete!several!tests!in!succession.!It!works!seamlessly!with!BG3!Partial!Flow!Dilution!technology!
to!fully!automate!particulate!collection!to!greatly!improve!testing!efficiency!and!more!importantly,!
testing!safety.!The!system!can!hold!up!to!22!single!filter!cartridges!(dependent!on!filter!size,!47mm,!
70mm,!or!90mm).!Sierra!will!customize!the!filter!changer!for!47mm,!70mm!or!90mm!applications.!
For!example,!Sierra!has!designed!the!changer!to!work!interchangeably!with!both!47mm!and!70mm.!
!
Benefits!and!Features!
!
• Compact!Portable!Cabinet!
• Covered!Flow!Compartment!
• Adjustable!height!stand!
• PLC!based!Control!System!
• Host!Control!System!Interface!
• Interfaces!to!Sierra!BG®2!or!BG®3!
• Partial!Flow!Samplers!
• Positive!leak!tight!seal!
• Simple!Test!Set!Up!
• Converts!from!70!mm!to!47!mm!filters!in!less!
than!10!minutes!
• Connects!within!inches!of!the!exhaust!stack!
• Optional!Cabinet!Designs!
• Optional!temperature!controlled!cabinet!
• Optional!heated!sample!inlet!tube!
!
System!Description!
!
• Filter!sizesL!47mm,!70!mm!&!90mm!
• CapacityL!12!x!70mm!16!x!47mm!
• Cassette–!single!or!double!47mm!and!70mm!
• Leak!tight!at!29”!Hg!
• Cycle!Time–!approximately!25!seconds!between!stations!
• Changer!Dimensions–W!18”x!D23”x!H(adjustable)!20”!to!35”!
• Changer!Weight–!40!lbs!
• Controller!Dimensions–W!19”!x!D!20”!x!H!5.5”(3U)!
• Controller!weight!15!lbs!
• Minimum!expected!operations>100,000!cycles!
• Utilities–!Clean!Compressed!air!at!90!psi!(610kpa)!
• Power–!120,!200,240VAC50/60!Hz!
• Remote!control!cable–!25’!
• Meets!Federal!Register!Requirements!
• Built!in!parallel!control!computer!interface!
• Standard!19”!rack!mount!chassis!
• PLC!based!control!Functions:!Advance!L!Rotates!carousel!to!next!position!/!Home!L!Rotates!
carousel!to!start/home!position!
• Status!Indicators:!Power,!Sampling!/!Cassette!cover!on/off!/!Sampling!cone!up/down!/!
Exhaust!cone!up/down!
162!
CONSTANT VOLUME SAMPLER UPGRADE
!
The!Constant!Volume!Sampler!(CVS)!systems!have!been!an!accepted!method!for!measuring!both!
gaseous!and!particulates!for!engine!manufacturers!for!many!years.!Over!that!time,!specifications!
for!the!CVS!systems!have!changed!significantly.!
!
Sierra!CP!Engineering!Automotive!Test!Group!has!identified!the!need!to!upgrade!older!CVS!systems!
to!meet!the!current!specifications!and!requirements!for!both!chassis!and!engine!dynamometer!
testing.!Most!CVS!systems!may!be!upgraded!to!current!regulations!at!a!modest!cost!at!a!customer!
site!or!at!a!Sierra!CP!Engineering!site.!
!
Benefits!and!Features!
!
• System!upgraded!to!meet!current!regulations.!
• Current!flow!of!system!can!be!modified!for!different!fuels!or!usage.!
• System!upgraded!at!a!fraction!of!the!cost!of!a!new!CVS!system.!
• Customer!staff!will!retain!the!knowledge!of!their!current!system,!thereby!reducing!training!
required.!
• Automated!with!current!control!software!and!hardware.!
!
!
163!
!
164!
!
165!
!
!
!
!
!
GLOBAL LOCATIONS
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
www.sierraScp.com!
166!