Multitech MTPSR3-100 User guide

Internet Access for
LAN-Based Users
Model MTPSR3-100
User Guide
User Guide
S0000000 Revision B
Serial ProxyServer (Model No MTPSR3-100)
This publication may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without prior expressed written permission from
Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1999, by Multi-Tech Systems, Inc.
Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. makes no representations or warranties with respect to the contents hereof and
specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.
Furthermore, Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes from
time to time in the content hereof without obligation of Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. to notify any person or
organization of such revisions or changes.
Record of Revisions
Revision
A
4/14/99
B
11/23/99
Description
Preliminary Revision. All pages subject to change prior to release.
Appendix A updated to show WAN cable diagram; all pages at Rev B.
Patents
This Product is covered by one or more of the following U.S. Patent Numbers: 5.301.274; 5.309.562;
5.355.365; 5.355.653; 5.452.289; 5.453.986. Other Patents Pending.
TRADEMARK
The Multi-Tech logo is a trademark of Multi-Tech Systems, Inc.
Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft.
Multi-Tech Systems, Inc.
2205 Woodale Drive
Mounds View, Minnesota 55112
(612) 785-3500 or (800) 328-9717
Fax 612-785-9874
Tech Support (800) 972-2439
BBS (612) 785-3702 or (800) 392-2432
Internet Address: http://www.multitech.com
Contents
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Description
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
Preview of This User Guide ............................................................................................................................... 6
Front Panel Description ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Back and Side Panel Descriptions .................................................................................................................... 9
Power Connector ........................................................................................................................................ 9
Command Port Connector .......................................................................................................................... 9
Ethernet 10BaseT Connector ..................................................................................................................... 9
WAN Link Connectors ................................................................................................................................. 9
Power Switch .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Specifications .................................................................................................................................................. 10
A Typical Internet Application .......................................................................................................................... 11
Chapter 2 - Installation
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
Unpacking Your ProxyServer .......................................................................................................................... 14
Cabling Your ProxyServer ............................................................................................................................... 15
Chapter 3 - Software Loading and Configuration
Loading Your ProxyServer Software ............................................................................................................... 18
Wizard Setup ................................................................................................................................................... 20
IP Wizard Setup ........................................................................................................................................ 21
WAN Link(s) Wizard Setup ....................................................................................................................... 22
Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
Before You Begin ...................................................................................................................................... 26
Proxy Setup ..................................................................................................................................................... 27
Changing IP Parameters ................................................................................................................................. 28
Changing WAN Port Parameters .................................................................................................................... 29
Changing Internet Parameters ........................................................................................................................ 30
Enabling the DHCP Server .............................................................................................................................. 32
Adding Proxy Applications ............................................................................................................................... 33
Enabling the Virtual Server .............................................................................................................................. 34
Viewing Statistics ............................................................................................................................................ 35
Running Diagnostics ....................................................................................................................................... 36
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 38
Before you Begin ............................................................................................................................................. 38
Configuring in Windows 95/98 ......................................................................................................................... 39
Installing TCP/IP (Win95/98) .......................................................................................................................... 46
Configuring in Windows NT ............................................................................................................................. 47
Installing TCP/IP (WinNT) .............................................................................................................................. 53
iii
Chapter 6 - Warranty, Service and Tech Support
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 56
Limited Warranty ............................................................................................................................................. 56
Online Warranty Registration .................................................................................................................... 56
Tech Support ................................................................................................................................................... 57
Recording ProxyServer Information .......................................................................................................... 57
Contacting Tech Support via E-mail .......................................................................................................... 57
Service ............................................................................................................................................................ 58
The Multi-Tech BBS ........................................................................................................................................ 59
About Multi-Tech’s Internet Presence .............................................................................................................. 60
About Ordering Accessories ............................................................................................................................ 60
About the Multi-Tech Fax-Back Service .......................................................................................................... 60
Appendixes
Appendix A - Cabling Diagrams ....................................................................................................................... 62
Appendix B - Script Commands ...................................................................................................................... 63
Appendix C - Regulatory Information .............................................................................................................. 65
Appendix D - Modifying Command and Response Strings ............................................................................. 66
Glossary of Terms
Index
iv
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Description
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Introduction
Welcome to Multi-Tech’s new Serial ProxyServer, model MTPSR3-100, a single, secure gateway that
provides multiple LAN users with high performance Internet access. The ProxyServer functions as a
TCP/IP proxy server that resides on the outer edge of your firewall. It features a 10BaseT port for
your local LAN connection, command port for local console configuration and management, and
three serial ports for connection to external Data Communications Equipment (DCE), such as
modems or ISDN. The serial ports are capable of being bonded together using MultiLink Point-toPoint Protocol (MLPPP). MLPPP allows the bandwidth of each DCE device to be multiplied by the
number of devices connected to the serial ports. System management is provided by an easy to use
Windows® CD based install wizard.
Figure 1-1. ProxyServer
Preview of This User Guide
This guide describes the ProxyServer and tells you how to install and configure the unit. The
information contained in each chapter is as follows:
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Description
Chapter 1 describes the ProxyServer 100-Series. A description of the front panel indicators, back
panel connectors are provided. A list of relevant specifications is provided at the end of the chapter.
Chapter 2 - Installation
Chapter 2 provides information on unpacking and cabling your ProxyServer. The installation
procedure describes each cable connection.
Chapter 3 - Software Loading and Configuration
Chapter 3 details the software loading and initial configuration. The ProxyServer software CD is
Windows® based. Later chapters, as well as your online Help describe the software in more detail.
6
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Description
Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Chapter 4 describes the ProxyServer software with the approach of how to make changes to the
configuration of your ProxyServer. The major configuration parameters were established during the
loading of the software (Chapter 3), and the ProxyServer software and configuration utilities allow
you to make changes to that initial configuration. For explanations and parameters of each field within
a dialog box, please refer to the online Help provided with the software.
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
Chapter 5 provides information for enabling and configuring multiple Windows 95/98 and NT® PC
users for Internet access via the ProxyServer.
Chapter 6 - Service, Warranty and Tech Support
Chapter 6 provides instructions on getting service for your ProxyServer at the factory, a statement of
the limited warranty, information about our Internet presence, and space for recording information
about your ProxyServer prior to calling Multi-Tech’s Technical Support.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Front Panel Description
The front panel contains LEDs that provide the status of the three channels, receive and transmit
data indicators that define transmission of data to and from the channels and the LAN. The Collision
and Link indicators provide status of the LAN, and the Boot indicator lights when the unit is rebooting.
An On/Off switch is provided on the right side near the rear of the unit.
C3
C2
C1
RD
TD
CL
LK
BT
Figure 1-2. Front Panel
8
Cx
The Channel indicators light indicating activity on the associated serial channel (i.e., C3 for
channel 3, C2 for channel 2, and C1 for channel 1).
RD
Receive Data indicator blinks when packets are being received from either the local area
network or one of the serial channels.
TD
Transmit Data indicator blinks when packets are being transmitted to either the local area
network or one of the serial channels.
CL
Collision indicator lights when a collision is in progress; that is, when two nodes are
transmitting packets at the same time.
LK
Link indicator lights indicating that the ProxyServer is connected to the local area network.
BT
Boot indicator lights when the ProxyServer is loading configuration data either from an initial
power on or a download setup was initiated.
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Description
Back and Side Panel Descriptions
The cable connections for the ProxyServer are made at the back panel. In addition to the Power
(PWR) connector, three groups of connectors are used on the ProxyServer: the Command Port
(CMD), Ethernet (LAN) and WAN Links (WAN1, 2 and 3). The connectors are shown in Figure 1-3
and then described.
USB
PWR
Power
Connector
CMD
LAN
Command
Ethernet
Port (RJ-45) (10BaseT)
Connector Connector
WAN1
PHONE WAN3
LINE
WAN2
WAN Link
(RJ-45)
Connectors
OFF
ON
Power
Switch
Figure 1-3. Back and Side Panels
Power Connector
The Power connector (PWR) is used to connect the external power supply to the ProxyServer.
Command Port Connector
The Command connector (CMD) is used to configure the ProxyServer using a PC with a serial port
and running Windows® software. The Command connector is an RJ-45 jack and is used with the RJ45 to DB-9 command port cable provided with your ProxyServer. The command port is only used to
connect the ProxyServer directly to the PC for local configuration and management.
Note: If your PC has a DB-25 (25-pin) serial port connector, you will need to obtain a DB-9 (9-pin,
male) to DB-25 adapter. Connect the DB-25 end of this adapter to the serial port on your PC, and
then connect the DB-9 (9-pin, female) end of the Command Port cable to the adapter.
Ethernet 10BaseT Connector
The Ethernet 10BaseT connector (LAN) is used to connect the ProxyServer to a LAN using
unshielded twisted cable. This connector is an RJ-45 connector.
WAN Link Connectors
The WAN Link connectors (WAN1, WAN2, WAN3) are used to connect the ProxyServer to a WAN.
These connectors are RJ-45 connectors.
Power Switch
The Power switch is located on the right side of the chassis. Settings are ON (switch moved toward
the rear of the unit) and OFF (switch moved toward the front of the unit).
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Specifications
Protocols
Point-To-Point Protocol (PPP), MultiLink Point-To-Point Protocol
(MLPPP), and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
Ethernet Lan Interface
10BaseT (twisted pair) RJ-45 connector
WAN Interface
3 asynchronous Links (RJ-45 connectors)
Command Port
Single 19.2K bps asynchronous Command Port (uses a short
RJ-45 to DB-9 cable to connect directly to PC)
WAN Links
Three asynchronous serial ports support up to 230K per port,
and MultiLink Point-to-Point Protocol (MLPPP)
Electrical/Physical
Voltage
- 115 V AC (Standard)
240 V AC (Optional)
Frequency
- 47 to 63 Hz
Power
- 700 mA
Consumption
Requirement
10
Dimensions
- 1.625" high x 6" wide x 9" deep
5.63cm high x 22.34cm wide x 33.51cm deep
Weight
- 2 pounds
.92 kg
PC with Windows 3.1, 95/98 or NT
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Description
A Typical Internet Application
A typical Internet application is shown in Figure 1-4. In this example, the workstations are tied to the
HUB (LAN) and the ProxyServer is connected to the HUB via an unregistered IP Address. The WAN
ports were all configured to connect to an external Data Communications Equipment (DCE) device
that was connected to the ISP during the loading of the software.
Dial-Up ISP Accounts
to the Internet
Modem/DSU
Modem/DSU
Modem/DSU
Serial ProxyServer
LAN Connection
IP Address 192.168.0.101
Mask 255.255.255.0
Hub
Workstation
IP Address
192.168.0.107
TM
Novell Server
IP Address
192.168.0.102
Workstation
IP Address
192.168.0.106
TM
Windows NT Server
IP Address
192.168.0.103
Mail Server
IP Address
192.168.0.104
Workstation
IP Address
192.168.0.105
Figure 1-4. Typical Internet Application
Now, let’s talk about some of the specifics that make this application work. Before the workstations
can access the Internet, they have to have an IP stack loaded on the workstation and pointed toward
the Proxy Server. The procedures for loading the IP stack are provided in the Chapter 5 - Client
Setup.
When the ProxyServer software is loaded and the ProxyServer configured, two approaches can be
considered for the IP address of the WAN ports that connect to the ISP. The ISP can dynamically
assign the IP address to the ProxyServer or the ISP can assign a fixed IP address for the
ProxyServer. Probably, the most common approach would be for the ISP to dynamically assign the IP
address, since registered IP addresses are becoming a premium. Since the IP addressing is
established during the loading and configuring of the ProxyServer, it is recommended that you
determine the desired addressing scheme prior to installing the software (see Chapter 3).
After initial configuration (e.g., Wizard Setup) you can view or change the IP Setup parameters for
the LAN and WAN ports by selecting the IP button on the Proxy Setup dialog box (see Chapter 4 ProxyServer Software for a full description of software features).
11
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
The ProxyServer supports scripting on any WAN ports that are configured as asynchronous. This
feature can be very useful when some special handling has to be done on the WAN port (e.g., extra
authentication, special communications equipment, etc.). On the WAN Setup dialog box, click on the
Script button to create or edit a script for the WAN port.
A list of the Script commands by function, and an example of a typical script is provided in Appendix
B - Script Commands. You can click on the Script Enable option to activate a script for the selected
WAN port. You can also enable Restart a Script On Communication Failure by clicking on this option
on the WAN Setup dialog box.
Refer to Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software for more details on configuring your ProxyServer.
12
Chapter 2 - Installation
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Introduction
This chapter is organized to guide you through the unpacking and installation of your ProxyServer.
The unpacking section describes the contents of the shipping box and shows how the ProxyServer is
packaged. The cabling section describes each cable connection and shows where that cable is
connected to the ProxyServer. Software loading and installation will be covered in Chapter 3.
Unpacking Your ProxyServer
The shipping box contains:
• ProxyServer (1)
• Quick Start Guide (1)
• ProxyServer CD with the ProxyServer Software and User Guide in Adobe AcrobatTM format (1)
• RJ-45 to DB-25 cables (3)
• external power supply (1)
• RJ-45 to DB-9 Command Port cable (1)
Inspect the contents for signs of any shipping damage. If damage is observed, do not power up the
unit, contact Multi-Tech’s Technical Support for advice (refer to Chapter 6). If no damage is observed,
place the ProxyServer in its final location and perform the Cabling procedures that follow.
www.multitech.com
Save the shipping box in case reshipment is necessary.
MADE
IN U.
S.A
MADE IN
U.S.A
Figure 2-1. Unpacking
14
Chapter 2 - Installation
Cabling Your ProxyServer
Cabling your ProxyServer involves making the proper Power (PWR), Ethernet (LAN), and WAN
(WAN1, 2, 3) connections. Figure 2-2 shows the back panel connectors and the associated cable
connections. The procedures that follow detail the process of making each connection.
Note: The Command (CMD) port connection is used to connect a PC directly to the ProxyServer for
local configuration and management. The CMD port does not need to be used to set up and
configure the unit.
USB
PWR
CMD
LAN
WAN1
PHONE WAN3
LINE
WAN2
Power
Connection
PC
PC Connection
WAN Connections
Hub
Ethernet Connection
Figure 2-2. Back Panel Connections
Step
Procedure
1
Verify that the ON/OFF switch, located on the right side panel of the ProxyServer, is set to
the OFF position (toward the front of the unit).
2
Connect the external power supply (included with the ProxyServer) to a live AC outlet and to
the power connector (PWR) on the back panel of the ProxyServer. See Figure 2-2.
3
Make the network connection by connecting an RJ-45 (UTP) cable (you supply) to the LAN
connector on the back of the ProxyServer. Connect the other end of the cable to your LAN.
4
Connect the three short RJ-45 to DB-25 cables (included with the ProxyServer) between the
WAN ports on the ProxyServer and the serial port on the DCE devices (i.e., modem or DSU).
See Figure 2-2.
5
Turn on power to the ProxyServer by placing the ON/OFF switch to the ON position (toward
the back of the unit). Wait for the Boot LED (BT) to go off before proceeding. This may take a
couple of minutes.
At this time your ProxyServer is completely cabled. Proceed to Chapter 3 to load the ProxyServer
software and run the Wizard Setup.
15
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
16
Chapter 3 - Software Loading and Configuration
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Loading Your ProxyServer Software
The ProxyServer software and User Guide are contained on the ProxyServer CD. The CD is autodetectable, so when you insert it into your CD ROM drive it will start up automatically. When you have
finished configuring your ProxyServer, you can view and print the User Guide by clicking on the
Install Manuals icon.
1
Before you begin installing the software, you need to determine how you are going to
configure your ProxyServer, via the LAN or connected directly to the command port. If you
are configuring your ProxyServer via your network, you need to have your PC configured for
network communications (i.e., TCP/IP stack loaded) and this PC and the ProxyServer must
be on the same physical LAN segment. If you need to load the TCP/IP stack, refer to the
Chapter 5 - Client Setup.
2
Insert the ProxyServer CD into your CD ROM drive. The CD is auto-detectable, so it starts
automatically. It may take 10 to 20 seconds for the Multi-Tech Installation CD screen to
appear.
Note: If your system is not configured to support autorun, you can start the Installation CD by
browsing the contents using My Computer (on your Windows desktop). Double click on My
Computer. Right click on the CD ROM drive icon and select Open. Double click on
Autorun.exe.
The Multi-Tech Installation CD screen appears.
3
18
Click Install Software. The Welcome screen is displayed.
Chapter 3 - Software Loading and Configuration
4
Press Enter or click Next> to continue.
5
Follow the on-screen instructions to install your ProxyServer software.
6
Once the software is loaded, the Serial Proxy Server dialog box asks if you are configuring
your ProxyServer over the LAN or directly connected to the Command port.
If you are configuring the ProxyServer via your network, click OK to continue.
If you need to configure your ProxyServer via the Command port, follow the instructions in
the dialog box for selecting the COM Port and click OK to continue.
The Setup Complete dialog box is displayed.
7
Click Finish to continue. The following dialog is displayed.
Proceed to the next section, Wizard Setup, to continue the software configuration
19
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Wizard Setup
The Wizard Setup provides you with a process to input the basic configuration information needed to
configure your ProxyServer. The Wizard Setup will guide you through the configuration of your LAN
address and net mask information, and through the WAN, DHCP Server, and Domain Name Server
configuration. Once configured, all entries will also be shown in their respective dialog boxes, as
accessed through the Proxy Setup utility (see Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software for a description of
the Proxy Setup utility). To proceed with the Wizard Setup:
8
Click Yes to run the Wizard Setup.
Clicking No takes you to the program group (icons) which allows you to choose a utility from
the program group.
9
If you are configuring your ProxyServer via the network, the IP Address Reconfiguration
dialog box is displayed showing the default IP and MAC addresses in the top window and a
Suggested IP Address in the lower window.
The Suggested IP Address is only a suggestion and you should verify that this address
does not conflict with any other device on your network. If this address conflicts, change it
to a unique address for your ProxyServer.
10
20
Click OK when you are ready to continue. The IP Wizard Setup dialog is displayed.
Chapter 3 - Software Loading and Configuration
IP Wizard Setup
The IP Wizard Setup dialog guides you through the assignment of LAN and WAN IP address
information. In addition, this dialog aids in determining whether or not your LAN is already running a
DHCP Server (which automatically assigns client IP addresses). If not, and if you want to enable the
built-in DHCP Server in the ProxyServer, you do so through this dialog. If you enable the
ProxyServer’s DHCP server, you should also enable the Domain Name Server, as instructed in the
Wizard.
11
By default, the LAN port is highlighted. Follow the on-screen instructions to configure the IP
address and subnetwork mask for the LAN port.
11
Highlight WAN 1 in the Select Port group.
12
The dialog box changes to guide you through setting up the WAN ports. Follow the on-screen
instructions to configure the WAN 1 port IP parameters. Then Highlight WAN 2 and then
WAN 3 to configure the other WAN ports.
13
Click OK when you are satisfied with the IP configuration. The WAN Link(s) Wizard Setup
dialog is displayed.
21
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
WAN Link(s) Wizard Setup
The WAN Link(s) Wizard Setup guides you through two main processes. First you are instructed to
enable (if you choose) MultiLink Point to Point Protocol (MLPPP), which binds the WAN ports
together. And second, you are guided through the configuration of each WAN link, including the
determination of the Data Communications Equipment (DCE) device type attached to each link
(modem, DSU, etc.), and the configuration of the User Name, Password and Dial Number (all
negotiated with the ISP providing the Internet access).
Note: As noted in the Wizard, in order to use MLPPP, the User Name and Password for all WAN
ports must be identical.
22
14
Follow the on-screen instructions to set up your WAN ports.
15
Click OK to finish installing the software. The following dialog box is displayed.
16
Click OK to download load the new configuration. The following dialog box is displayed as
the configuration is written to the ProxyServer.
Chapter 3 - Software Loading and Configuration
17
During the reboot, the BT (Boot) LED will be on. Wait for the BT LED to go off before
proceeding. Once the configuration has been written to the ProxyServer, you are returned to
the Multi-Tech Installation CD screen.
At this time your ProxyServer is fully operational. It is recommended that you verify that each client
PC has an IP stack loaded, workstation IP address assigned, gateway pointed to the ProxyServer,
and that the DNS name(s) supplied by the ISP are entered. Refer to Chapter 5 - Client Setup for
more details. Once verified, your clients are ready to access the Internet.
23
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
24
Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Introduction
This chapter describes the ProxyServer software with the intent to show you how to make
changes to the configuration of your ProxyServer. The major configuration parameters were
established during the loading of the software (Chapter 3), and the ProxyServer software and
configuration utilities allow you to make changes to that initial configuration.
The ProxyServer software allows you to refine your configuration based on your network
connections. The software is based on a main menu (Proxy Setup) that allows you to consider all
the parameters for a particular feature (e.g., Internet access, DHCP Server addressing, and
Virtual Server mappings). These features, along with others are discussed in detail in the
ProxyServer Configuration section later in this chapter.
The other five configuration utilities offer additional functionality. Wizard Setup guides you through
the initial configuration and software downloading, as described in Chapter 3. Download
Firmware allows you to download new versions of firmware when enhancements become
available. The Configuration Port Setup utility allows you to change the method by which you
access the ProxyServer (i.e., direct connection of a PC to the Command Port on the
ProxyServer, or via your Internet connection to the LAN port on the ProxyServer). The Uninstall
Proxy Server Configuration utility is designed to remove the software from your PC. The WAN
Device Configuration utility will open the Print Console, a terminal emulation program that will
enable you to configure any external devices connected to the WAN ports.
Note: The WAN Device Configuration utility is only supported if you are directly connected to the
ProxyServer. This Utility is not supported when accessing the ProxyServer via the network.
Your ProxyServer software includes the ProxyServer Help system. The Help is designed to be
context sensitive, and clicking the Help button within a given dialog will provide definitions and
recommended values for each button, option, and field for that dialog. In some instances, you will
also be presented with a list of related topics (that can be displayed by clicking on the green,
underlined text), as changes in one dialog may sometimes affect another. In addition, you can
search the entire Help system (via the Index tab) for definitions and references to specific terms,
fields, and recommend values where applicable.
Before You Begin
The ProxyServer software operates in a Microsoft Windows® environment. Your Serial Proxy
Server program group contains all of the utilities described above, and is accessible in Windows
by clicking Start | Programs | Serial Proxy Server | (utility), or by double clicking on the utility
icon in the program group in My Computer. The program group is shown here:
26
Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Proxy Setup
The Proxy Setup menu consists of 13 buttons, ten of which allow you to display and change the
IP protocol, define the WAN ports, change features such as the Internet, DHCP server,
ProxyServer, and Virtual servers, display Statistics on the WAN ports, test the communications
link, print messages received from the target ProxyServer, and download setup information to the
ProxyServer.
Note: The Other button is not supported on the MTPSR3-100, and the Built In Test, and Print
Console buttons, shown as active in the screen below, are only active when the ProxyServer is
directly connected to the PC. When connecting via the LAN, these options will be inactive
(grayed out).
In the bottom row, there are two buttons to open the online Help system (Help) and end a Proxy
Setup session (Exit).
27
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Changing IP Parameters
The IP Setup dialog box establishes the IP addressing for your LAN and WAN ports. To change the
IP Setup parameters that were configured during the Wizard Setup, click on the IP button in the
Proxy Setup menu. The IP Setup dialog is displayed.
The Port Selection list displays the ports that are available for IP configuration. Ports include: LAN,
WAN 1, WAN 2 and WAN 3. Once you have chosen a port from this list, its parameters will be
displayed in the group to the right. For the LAN port you must statically assign a valid IP Address
and subnetwork mask (Net Mask) to suit your network setup. Therefore, when the LAN port is
highlighted in the Port Selection list, the ISP Assigns Dynamic Address field is disabled. Normally,
on a WAN port, the ISP assigns a dynamic address when the port comes up. If this is not the case,
you need to uncheck this control and statically assign a valid Internet address and net mask.
The LAN network of the ProxyServer connects to a host of clients that will go through the proxy
server in order to access servers on the internetwork. The Client Side Internet Parameters group
defines the parameters that affect the ProxyServer’s ability to serve these clients.
The ProxyServer supports Domain Name Server (DNS) for the terminal server application. This is a
built-in Telnet client that can connect a call coming in on a WAN port from a Telnet host. When a user
dials into the system to get connected to a Telnet server, the ProxyServer will prompt for a Telnet host
address. The user can type in a dotted decimal IP address, or the domain name of the host.
The Primary Server field defines the IP address of the first host that the ProxyServer will attempt to
connect to upon a user request. If this server is unavailable, the ProxyServer will attempt a
connection with the Secondary Server (if defined). The Secondary Server field defines the IP
address of the DNS server for cases where the primary server is unavailable.
Note: When the Primary and Secondary Server fields are left undefined (default), applications like
terminal server will not support domain names.
28
Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Changing WAN Port Parameters
In order to change the WAN port parameters of Data Communications Equipment (DCE) devices
connected to the WAN connectors on the ProxyServer, click on the WAN button in the Proxy Setup
menu. The WAN Setup dialog box is displayed.
From this dialog, you can configure the parameters of the three WAN ports. To enable a specific
WAN port, click the associated tab (WAN 1, WAN 2, or WAN 3) and click (check) the Port Enable
check box. Once enabled, select the Serial Line Speed, for that port, from the drop down list.
The ProxyServer supports scripting on the WAN ports. The Script Control group can be used to
enable scripting on the selected WAN port (Script Enable) and to cause scripting to restart if the
WAN port is dropped and reactivated. This feature can be useful when special handling is needed on
a WAN port (i.e., extra authentication, special communications equipment, etc.). The default setting
for this option is disabled (unchecked). Scripting is discussed in more detail in Appendix B.
The Connection Method group allows you to configure the port as Direct Connect/Leased Line,
and allows you to select the Modem Type for the DCE device connected to that port (see Appendix
D or the online Help for more information on adding, editing and deleting modem command strings).
The Link Usage Control group, when enabled, causes the ProxyServer to drop the connection on
the selected WAN port after a specified duration without activity (as defined in the Idle Time field).
The default setting is enabled (checked). If you do not wish to use this option, click to disable
(uncheck) it.
The Bring Up Port if More Than group allows you to configure WAN ports 2 and 3 to become active
based on the traffic detected. You can configure this based on Active Connections or Active IP
Host Machines. This group is not applicable to WAN 1, and is therefore inactive (grayed out) when
the WAN 1 tab is selected.
The ProxyServer can be configured to limit certain workstations, based on IP addresses, to the
selected port using the Hosts Restricted Only to This Port group. The first of the two fields in this
group defines the IP address of the workstation to be restricted. To add a new restriction, enter a
valid IP address of a workstation in this field, and click Add. The new entry will appear in the list of
restrictions below. This group is not applicable to WAN 1, and is therefore inactive (grayed out) when
the WAN 1 tab is selected.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Changing Internet Parameters
The Internet Setup dialog box is used to establish the Internet options for the WAN ports. Parameters
for individual ports are configured through their respective tabs (i.e., WAN 1, WAN 2 or WAN 3). The
Advanced tab allows you to configure various general parameters for a Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP).
To change the Internet parameters click on the Internet button in the Proxy Setup menu. The
Internet Setup dialog is displayed.
If the selected WAN port is configured as Dialing, enter the phone number of the peer end in the Dial
Number field.
ProxyServer supports Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on its WAN links. The default setting for this
option is enabled (checked). If you are not planning to use this option, you must click this option to
disable (uncheck) it.
ProxyServer supports the use of two user authentication protocols on PPP connections. One is the
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and the other is the Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol (CHAP). To force the use of either one of these protocols, select the desired option. To
enable the ProxyServer to negotiate the use of a suitable protocol with the remote router or remote
access server software, click PAP or CHAP.
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Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Clicking the Advanced tab brings up the parameters that affect all of the WAN links.
The ProxyServer is capable of performing MultiLink Point-to-Point Protocol (MLPPP). MLPPP
provides the opportunity for greater bandwidth by bundling WAN port links. Check MultiLink PPP
(MLPPP) to enable this option if your ISP provides this support.
Note: In order for link bundling to take place, you need to make sure that the User Name and
Password of all the WAN port links are the same. Verify and or/change using the individual WAN
tabs.
If the Need to Dial Out Initially option is enabled (default) the ProxyServer will dial up on the WAN
link(s) upon start up. If this option is disabled, then the ProxyServer will wait to dial until the first dial
request has been made.
The Message Printing Control group is used to flag specific items for generating messages on
various conditions, including Printing, Alarm, NCP (NetWare Core Protocol), and LCP (Link Control
Protocol) messages. These messages can be useful as troubleshooting tools, however, it is
recommended that under normal circumstances, all items should be disabled to avoid degradation of
ProxyServer performance.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Enabling the DHCP Server
The DHCP Server feature manages all IP address assignments within a workgroup, and is enabled in
the DHCP Server Setup dialog box. To enable the DHCP Server, click on the DHCP Server button in
the Proxy Setup menu. The DCHP Server Setup dialog box appears.
Click Enable to enable the ProxyServer’s built in DHCP server.
The Manage Addresses group defines the IP address range and those addresses that may be
excluded in the Exclude Range. This means you can establish a range of client addresses and then
exclude specific addresses from that range in the Exclude Range field. You can also add, delete,
edit and bind addresses using the corresponding buttons in this group.
The Option Types and Values group on the bottom portion of the menu allows you to customize the
configuration of the client platform. Again, you can add, delete and edit an option by highlighting it
and clicking on the appropriate button. You cannot, however, edit or delete entries provided in the
default list.
Refer to the online Help for definitions of individual fields and buttons.
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Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Adding Proxy Applications
Certain software on your LAN may require a TCP or UDP port usage that is not currently supported
by the ProxyServer. If this is the case, you will need to add the port usage using the Proxy
Applications Configuration dialog. If you want more information about application configuration refer
to RFC 1700 (http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/htbin/rfc/rfc1700.html) which defines the Internet Protocol
suite. RFC 1700 identifies parameters such as Internet address, domain names, autonomous system
numbers, protocol numbers, port numbers, and many others. Once the necessary information has
been determined, you can add the application(s) to the supported list. Without this information, the
ProxyServer will not allow packets through to the Internet from the unknown software.
The default list of protocols includes many of the most common port usages, however, not all are
included because an increase in the number of port usages supported means a possible decrease in
performance speed, and an increased security risk.
If you wish to add ProxyServer applications that are not currently supported, click on the Proxy
Server button in the Proxy Setup menu. The Proxy Applications Configuration dialog box
appears. This menu includes a list of all the applications currently supported by the ProxyServer.
Click on the Add button. The Add/Edit Entry dialog box appears.
This dialog will allow you choose the desired protocol and enter a Port Name/Number and
Description. After you have entered these items, click on OK to add the port usage to the list of
supported usages.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Enabling the Virtual Server
The Virtual Server Setup dialog box allows you to assign a virtual address to a statically assigned
server. For example, if the ISP assigns static address of 200.2.9.1, you can set up a virtual server so
that any requests sent to 200.2.9.1 will access 192.168.0.102. To configure virtual servers, click on
the Virtual Servers button in the Proxy Setup menu.
To add a Virtual Server, type a valid IP address in the Address field and then click on the Add button
in the Global IP Addresses group. The new address appears in the Global IP Addresses list.
Click on the Add button in the IP Address Mapping details group. The Virtual Server Mappings
dialog box appears.
In the Mapping Type group, click on either Static or Dynamic. This will determine whether the Global
IP Address is mapped to only one local IP address or mapped to a number of unique triplets (i.e.,
local address, protocol, and port).
If the Mapping Type is Static, then enter the Local IP Address that the Global Address will be
mapped to in the Local IP Address field, and click on the Map button.
If the Mapping Type is Dynamic, then enter a Local IP Address, Protocol and Port in the
appropriate fields and click on Map.
The new mapping will be displayed in the IP Address Mapping details group list.
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Chapter 4 - ProxyServer Software
Viewing Statistics
The ProxyServer is capable of providing statistics for each port and for the whole system. These
statistics can be useful for troubleshooting and management purposes. To access this information,
click Statistics in the Proxy Setup menu. The Statistics dialog is displayed.
From this menu, you can observe total system statistics such as Total Up Time, and Total Calls. In
addition, you can view the real-time statistics of a specific port by selecting that port from the list and
clicking Details, or click Log... to save current statistics to a log file for future use (i.e.,
troubleshooting, management).
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Running Diagnostics
Proxy Setup lets you perform various hardware tests on the LAN and WAN links. The Diagnostics
dialog box is displayed by clicking on the Built in Test button in the Proxy Setup dialog box.
Diagnostic tests are performed if the Communication type of the Local Port configuration is set to
COM Port. If the Local Port configuration is set for IP, no diagnostic tests are performed by the
ProxyServer.
36
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Introduction
The information provided in this chapter enables multiple users to configure their Windows® PCs to
access the Internet through a ProxyServer. The procedures are divided into two sections, based on
operating platform. The first section covers configuration of Windows 95/98 PCs, and the second
section covers configuration of Windows NT (4.0 Workstation) PCs.
Before you Begin
Before you begin the client setup process, read through the following requirements:
ProxyServer
The ProxyServer was configured by the administrator who, while installing the software, determined
that the ProxyServer would either automatically assign Internet (IP) addresses, or require that they
be assigned manually to each client PC. Also, the administrator assigned an IP address to the
ProxyServer’s Ethernet port, and assigned user names and passwords to the WAN links. All these
factors play a role in client configuration and you should be aware of the decisions made prior to
setting up client PCs.
PC
To access the ProxyServer, your PC must have communications capability including hardware, such
as a network card, and any necessary software.
If the ProxyServer does not automatically assign an IP address to each PC, you will have to obtain it
from your network administrator. You will also need the IP address for the ProxyServer (the Gateway
address), and the IP Address of your organization’s Domain Name Server (DNS). All these items are
needed so your PC can identify the ProxyServer as its gateway and properly set up your network
security.
Checklist
A checklist has been provided towards the end of each procedure (Step 16 for Win95/98, Step 20 for
WinNT). This checklist is included in the setup so that you can record all the pertinent information
required for the connection between your PC and the ProxyServer. Keep this as a reference for
future upgrades.
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Chapter 5 - Client Setup
Configuring in Windows 95/98
Perform the following steps to set up your Windows 95/98 PC:
Note: All of the hardware and screens used in this section are intended as examples only. Please
select options appropriate to your system.
1
Click Start | Settings | Control Panel and then double click on the Network icon.
The Network dialog appears displaying the Configuration tab, which shows all the
components (i.e., clients, adapters, protocols, and any services) installed on your PC.
2
If TCP/IP is listed, proceed to step 3; otherwise, refer to Installing TCP/IP (Win95/98), at the
end of this section.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
3
Check for binding between the adapter and TCP/IP. In the Network dialog, click on your
Ethernet adapter to select it, then click Properties to display the Adapter Properties window.
4
Click the Bindings tab, then if necessary click on the box to the left of TCP/IP so this entry is
enabled (checked).
Note: There may be other protocols listed and enabled under your Ethernet adapter. This
does not affect the TCP/IP protocol. Rather, it simply means your computer will accept
messages using those protocols as well as TCP/IP.
Click OK to return to the Network dialog.
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Chapter 5 - Client Setup
5
Select TCP/IP, then click Properties to open the TCP/IP Properties window.
6
Select the IP Address tab.
The IP addressing method depends on how your ProxyServer’s DHCP Server option was
configured. If DHCP Server is active, your IP address is issued automatically. If your network
administrator did NOT activate DHCP Services on the ProxyServer, you will have to assign
your IP address manually.
Verify the ProxyServer/DHCP status with your network administrator, then proceed to step 7
for DHCP assigned addressing, or to step 8 for manual addressing.
7
If DHCP Services are active on the ProxyServer (default), verify that the Obtain an IP
address automatically option is selected. You are done; go to step 17 to reboot your PC
and attempt to open an Internet session.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
8
If DHCP Services are NOT active on the ProxyServer, you will have to manually enter your
IP address. Select manual addressing by clicking the Specify an IP address option. The IP
Address and Subnet Mask fields become active.
9
In the IP Address field, type the IP address assigned to your PC.
Remove the default IP address (if any), and begin typing the new address. This address is
entered in dotted decimal notation, and is comprised of four groups (octets) separated by
periods or “dots.” If a group has fewer than 3 digits, type the necessary digits an press the
space bar to move to the next group. When you are finished, verify that the IP address is
identical to the IP address you were given for your PC.
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Chapter 5 - Client Setup
10
Click on the Gateway tab.
11
In the New gateway field, enter the IP address of the ProxyServer’s Ethernet port and click
Add. The new gateway address appears in the list of Installed gateways.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
12
Click on the DNS Configuration tab. Verify that Enable DNS is selected (checked).
13
In the Host field, enter your user name (i.e., jerry).
14
In the Domain field, enter your company’s domain name (usually the company name
followed by one of the following extensions: .com, .edu, .gov, .org, .mil, or .net. For example,
multitech.com).
15
In the DNS Server Search Order group, place the cursor in the first group of the address
field and type the IP address of your LAN’s DNS server (provided by your network
administrator). Click Add and the new address appears in the list below the address field.
Your network may have more than one DNS server, allowing you to use a secondary DNS
server if the primary DNS server is not available. If this is the case, add the IP address of the
secondary DNS server using the same procedure as with the first.
Note: The address that appears first (at the top) of the list is the primary server (the first one
searched). You can “drag and drop” the items in the list, if necessary, until the primary DNS
server is listed first.
When this is done, click OK. You are returned to the Network dialog.
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Chapter 5 - Client Setup
16
In the Network dialog, Click OK. You are returned to the Control Panel.
Use the following checklist to record all the configuration settings for future use:
Configuration Checklist
IP Address (PC)
.
.
.
IP Address (ProxyServer)
.
.
.
.
.
.
Host (User Name)
Domain
DNS Server Address
Network Adapter
(Manufacturer/Model Number)
17
Reboot the PC for changes to take effect.
At this point your client setup is complete. Test your setup by following steps 18 and 19. If
you encounter problems, contact you administrator.
18
Initiate an Internet session by double-clicking on your browser icon, or try to FTP a file.
Note: The ProxyServer operates transparently, so there should not be a need for any special
proxy settings on your IP applications (i.e., browser, Telnet, or FTP). Set up each application
as “No Proxy” or equivalent.
19
To further validate your connection to the ProxyServer, “Ping” the IP address of the
ProxyServer.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Installing TCP/IP (Win95/98)
If TCP/IP is not already installed, perform the following steps:
Note: For this procedure you may need your Windows installation disks or CD ROM.
1
In the Network dialog, click Add. The Select Network Component Type dialog is displayed
with a list of installation options.
2
Select Protocol and click Add. The Select Network Protocol dialog is displayed with
protocol options.
3
In the Manufacturers list click on the manufacturer option (Microsoft in the example) to
highlight it. A list of available protocols will appear in the Network Protocols list.
4
In the Network Protocols list, select TCP/IP and click OK.
5
Exit the add option. Click on the OK button.
Note: If Windows does not find the necessary files on the hard drive, click Have Disk and
follow the on-screen instructions for loading TCP/IP from the installation disks/CD-ROM.
46
6
Reboot your PC for changes to take effect.
7
Click Start | Settings | Control Panel and double-click on the Network icon to return to the
Network dialog. Return to step 3 of the Configuring in Windows 95/98 and continue with
the client setup procedure.
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
Configuring in Windows NT
Perform the following steps to set up your Windows NT workstation PC:
Note: All of the hardware and screen samples in this section are intended as examples only. Please
select options appropriate to your network.
1
Click Start | Settings | Control Panel and then double click on the Network icon.
The Network dialog appears.
2
Click on the Protocols tab.
3
A list of protocols currently present on your PC is displayed. Check the installed protocols. If
you find TCP/IP Protocol listed, proceed to step 4. If TCP/IP is not listed, you must install it
prior to proceeding. Refer to Installing TCP/IP (WinNT), at the end of this section.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
4
Click on the Bindings tab.
5
In the Show Bindings for drop down list, select all adapters. A list of all adapters is
displayed.
6
Double click on the entry for your Ethernet card adapter to expand the list of bindings. Verify
that TCP/IP Protocol is included in the bindings below your adapter.
Note: There may be other protocols in the list under your Ethernet adapter. This does not
affect the TCP/IP protocol. Rather, it simply means your computer will accept messages
using those protocols as well as TCP/IP.
7
48
Click on the Protocols tab.
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
8
In the Network Protocols list select TCP/IP, then click Properties. The Microsoft TCP/IP
Properties dialog is displayed.
9
Click on the IP Address tab.
The IP addressing method depends on how your ProxyServer’s DHCP Server option was
configured. If DHCP Server is active, your IP address is issued automatically. If your network
administrator did NOT activate DHCP Services on the ProxyServer, you will have to assign
your IP address manually.
Verify the ProxyServer/DHCP status with your network administrator, then proceed to step 10
for DHCP assigned addressing, or to step 11 for manual addressing.
10
If DHCP Services are active on the ProxyServer (the default), verify that the Obtain an IP
address from a DHCP server option is enabled (checked). At this point, you are done. Go to
step 21 and attempt to open an Internet session.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
11
If DHCP Services are NOT active on the ProxyServer, you will have to manually enter your
IP address. Select manual addressing by clicking the Specify An IP Address option. The IP
Address and Subnet Mask fields become active.
12
In the IP Address field, type the IP address assigned to your PC.
Remove the default IP address (if any), and begin typing the new address. This address is
entered in dotted decimal notation, and is comprised of four groups (octets) separated by
periods or “dots.” If a group has fewer than 3 digits, type the necessary digits an press the
space bar to move to the next group. When you are finished, verify that the IP address is
identical to the IP address you were given for your PC.
50
13
In the Subnet Mask field, type the subnetwork mask assigned by your administrator. When
you are finished, verify the new mask.
14
In the Default Gateway field, type the IP address of the gateway assigned to your LAN. When
you are finished, verify the new gateway.
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
15
Click on the DNS tab. The Domain Name System (DNS) properties are displayed.
16
In the Host Name field, type your user name (i.e., jerry).
17
In the Domain field, enter your company’s domain name (usually the company name
followed by one of the following extensions: .com, .edu, .gov, .org, .mil, or .net. For example,
multitech.com).
18
In the DNS Server Search Order group, click Add. The TCP/IP DNS Server dialog is
displayed.
19
In the DNS Server field, place the cursor in the first group and type the IP address of your
LAN’s DNS server (provided by your network administrator).
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
20
Click Add. You are returned to the Microsoft TCP/IP Properties dialog, DNS tab, and the
new address appears in the DNS Search Order list.
Your network may have more than one DNS server, allowing you to use a secondary DNS
server if the primary DNS server is not available. If this is the case, add the IP address of the
secondary DNS server using the same procedure as with the first.
Note: The address that appears first (at the top) of the list is the primary server (the first one
searched). You can use the Up and Down buttons to rearrange the items in the list, if
necessary, until the primary DNS server is listed first.
When this is done, click OK. You are returned to the Network dialog.
Use the following checklist to record all the configuration settings for future use:
Configuration Checklist
IP Address (PC)
.
.
.
IP Address (ProxyServer)
.
.
.
.
.
.
Host (User Name)
Domain
DNS Server Address
Network Adapter
(Manufacturer/Model Number)
21
Reboot the PC for changes to take effect.
At this point your client setup is complete. Test your setup by following steps 22 and 23. If
you encounter problems, contact you administrator.
22
Initiate an Internet session by double-clicking on your browser icon, or try to FTP a file.
Note: The ProxyServer operates transparently, so there should not be a need for any special
proxy settings on your IP applications (i.e., browser, Telnet, or FTP). Set up each application
as “No Proxy” or equivalent.
23
52
To further validate your connection to the ProxyServer, “Ping” the IP address of the
ProxyServer.
Chapter 5 - Client Setup
Installing TCP/IP (WinNT)
If TCP/IP is not already installed, perform the following steps:
Note: For this procedure you may need your Windows NT installation CD ROM.
1
While the Network dialog box is open, click Add.
2
The Select Network Protocol dialog is displayed with a list of available protocol options.
3
Highlight TCP/IP Protocol and click OK.
If necessary (i.e., the operating system does not find the necessary files on the hard drive),
click on the Have Disk button, then follow the instructions provided on-screen.
You are returned to the Network dialog.
4
Reboot your PC for changes to take effect.
5
Open the Control Panel and double-click on the Network icon to return to the Network
Configuration window, then go to step 4 of the Configuring Windows NT procedure.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
54
Chapter 6 - Warranty, Service and Tech Support
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Introduction
This chapter will provide you the resources for receiving service or support for your ProxyServer. The
chapter starts with a description of the warranty, and continues with instructions for contacting the
Service department, Technical Support group, and various Multi-Tech Internet resources.
Limited Warranty
Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. (“MTS”) warrants that its products will be free from defects in material or
workmanship for a period of two years from the date of purchase, or if proof of purchase is not
provided, two years from date of shipment. MTS MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, AND ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED. This warranty does not apply to any
products which have been damaged by lightning storms, water, or power surges or which have been
neglected, altered, abused, used for a purpose other than the one for which they were manufactured,
repaired by the customer or any party without MTS’s written authorization, or used in any manner
inconsistent with MTS’s instructions.
MTS’s entire obligation under this warranty shall be limited (at MTS’s option) to repair or replacement
of any products which prove to be defective within the warranty period, or, at MTS’s option, issuance
of a refund of the purchase price. Defective products must be returned by Customer to MTS’s factory
transportation prepaid.
MTS WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES AND UNDER NO
CIRCUMSTANCES WILL ITS LIABILITY EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE FOR DEFECTIVE
PRODUCTS.
Online Warranty Registration
If you would like to register your ProxyServer electronically, you can do so at the following address:
http://www.multitech.com/support/register.htm
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Chapter 6 - Warranty, Service and Tech Support
Tech Support
Multi-Tech has an excellent staff of technical support personnel available to help you get the most out
of your Multi-Tech product. If you have any questions about the operation of this unit, call 1-800-9722439. Please fill out the ProxyServer information (below), and have it available when you call. If your
ProxyServer requires service, the tech support specialist will guide you on how to send in your
equipment (refer to the next section).
Recording ProxyServer Information
Please fill in the following information on your ProxyServer. This will help tech support in answering
your questions. (The same information is requested on the Warranty Registration Card.)
Model No.: _________________________
Serial No.: _________________________
Software Version: ____________________
The model and serial numbers are on the bottom of your ProxyServer.
Please note the type of external link device that is connected to your ProxyServer before calling tech
support. Also, note the status of your ProxyServer including LED indicators, screen messages,
diagnostic test results, DIP-Switch settings, problems with a specific application, etc. Use the space
below to note the status:
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Contacting Tech Support via E-mail
If you prefer to receive service online, via the Internet, you can contact Tech Support via e-mail at the
following address:
http://www.multitech.com/_forms/email_tech_support.htm
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Service
If your tech support specialist decides that service is required, your ProxyServer can be sent (freight
prepaid) to our factory. Return shipping charges will be paid by Multi-Tech Systems.
Include the following with your ProxyServer:
•
a description of the problem.
•
return billing and return shipping addresses.
•
contact name and phone number.
•
check or purchase order number for payment if the ProxyServer is out of warranty. (Check
with your technical support specialist for the standard repair charge for your ProxyServer).
•
if possible, note the name of the technical support specialist with whom you spoke.
If you need to inquire about the status of the returned product, be prepared to provide the serial
number of the product sent.
Send your ProxyServer to this address:
MULTI-TECH SYSTEMS, INC.
2205 WOODALE DRIVE
MOUNDS VIEW, MINNESOTA 55112
ATTN: SERVICE OR REPAIRS
You should also check with the supplier of your ProxyServer on the availability of local service and/or
loaner units in your area.
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Chapter 6 - Warranty, Service and Tech Support
The Multi-Tech BBS
For customers who do not have Internet access, Multi-Tech maintains a bulletin board system (BBS)
that mirrors its FTP site. Information available from the BBS includes new product information,
product upgrade files, and problem-solving tips. The phone number for the Multi-Tech BBS is (800)
392-2432 (USA and Canada) or (612) 785-3702 (international and local).
The BBS can be accessed by any asynchronous modem operating at 1200 bps to 33,600 bps at a
setting of 8 bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit (8-N-1).
To log on to the Multi-Tech BBS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Set your communications program to 8-N-1.
Dial our BBS at (800) 392-2432 (USA and Canada) or (612) 785-3702 (international and
local).
At the prompts, type your first name, last name, and password; then press ENTER. If you are
a first time caller, the BBS asks if your name is spelled correctly. If you answer yes, a
questionnaire appears. You must complete the questionnaire to use the BBS on your first
call.
Press ENTER until the Main Menu appears. From the Main Menu you have access to two
areas: the Files Menu and News. For help on menu commands, type ?.
To Download a file
If you know the file name
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
From the Main Menu, type F to access the Files Menu, then type D.
Enter the name of the file you wish to download from the BBS.
If a password is required, enter the password.
Answer Y or N to the automatic logoff question.
Select a file transfer protocol by typing the indicated letter, such as Z for Zmodem (the
recommended protocol).
If you select Zmodem, the transfer will begin automatically. If you select another protocol, you
may have to initiate the transfer yourself. (In most data communications programs, the PAGE
DOWN key initiates the download.)
When the download is complete, press ENTER to return to the File Menu.
To exit the BBS, type G and press ENTER.
If you don’t know the file name
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
From the Main Menu, type F to access the Files Menu. For a list of file areas, type L, press
ENTER, then type L and press ENTER again. (If you do not type the second L, you will list all
of the files on the BBS.)
Mark each file area you would like to examine by typing its list number and pressing ENTER.
Enter L to list all the files in the selected file areas. Enter C to go forward in the file list and P
to go back.
To mark one or more files for download, type M, press ENTER, type the list numbers of the
files, and press ENTER again.
Enter D. You will see a list of the files you have marked. Enter E if you would like to edit the
list; otherwise enter D again to start the download process.
Select a file transfer protocol by typing the indicated letter, such as Z for Zmodem (the
recommended protocol).
If you select Zmodem, the file will transfer automatically. If you select another protocol, you
may have to initiate the transfer yourself. (In most data communications programs, the PAGE
DOWN key initiates the download.)
When the download is complete, press ENTER to return to the File Menu.
To exit the BBS, type G and press ENTER.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
About Multi-Tech’s Internet Presence
Multi-Tech is a commercial user on the Internet, and we retrieve messages from our customers on a
periodic basis. Multi-Tech’s presence includes a Web site at:
http://www.multitech.com
and an ftp site at:
ftp://ftp.multitech.com
About Ordering Accessories
SupplyNet, Inc. can supply you with replacement transformers, cables and connectors for select
Multi-Tech products. You can place an order with SupplyNet via mail, phone, fax or the Internet at:
Mail:
SupplyNet, Inc.
614 Corporate Way
Valley Cottage, NY 10989
Phone:
800 826-0279
Fax:
914 267-2420
Email:
info@thesupplynet.com
Internet:
http://www.thesupplynet.com
SupplyNet Online Ordering Instructions
1. Browse to http://www.thesupplynet.com. In the Browse by Manufacturer drop-down list, select
Multi-Tech and click
2. To order, type in quantity, and click
3. Click
4.
to change your order
to finalize the order. The SupplyNet
After you have selected all of your items click
site uses Verisign’s Secure Socket Layer (SSL) technology to ensure your complete shopping
security.
About the Multi-Tech Fax-Back Service
Multi-Tech’s fax-back system provides 24-hour access to sales, marketing, and technical literature.
Dial 612-717-5888, follow the voice prompts, and request document number 10 for a catalog of
available documents. For convenience, have your fax number handy: ________________________.
From the catalog of available documents, you can order newsletters, white papers, press releases,
etc. from the sales and marketing index (pages 1-4), or order basic modem operation and
troubleshooting guides from the technical support and engineering index. Just enter the applicable
FB Doc. # from the left column of the catalog.
60
Appendixes
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Appendix A - Cabling Diagrams
Command Port Cable
RJ-45
DB9F
PIN NO.
PIN NO.
To Command
Port Connector
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
4
2
7
3
8
CLEAR TO SEND
4
3
TRANSMIT DATA
To DTE
Device
5
2
RECEIVE DATA
(e.g., PC)
6
6
7
1
8
5
SIGNAL GROUND
Note: RJ-45 pins 3,4,5, and 8 are the only ones used.
LAN Cable 10BaseT (RJ-45)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Pin
Circuit Signal Name
1
2
3
6
TD+ Data Transmit Positive
TD- Data Transmit Negative
RD+ Data Receive Positive
RD- Data Receive Negative
WAN Cables (RJ-45)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
WAN1
To WAN
Port JACK
62
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
WAN2
RJ-45M
DB25M
PIN NO.
PIN NO.
WAN3
1
20
DTR DATA TERMINAL READY
2
4
RTS REQUEST TO SEND
3
5
CTS CLEAR TO SEND
4
2
TD
TRANSMIT DATA
To DCE
Device
5
3
RD
RECEIVE DATA
(e.g., Modem)
6
6
DSR DATA SET READY
7
8
DCD DATA CARRIER DETECT
8
1,7
SG
SIGNAL GROUND
Appendix B - Script Commands
Appendix B - Script Commands
A script file can be used to automate certain operations. The script file is a text file containing a
sequence of the following commands (listed here according to their functions). This is similar to what
you will find in the Help file in your ProxyServer software. Following the list of commands is an
example script.
Commands (by Function)
Dial, Connection and Remote
BAUDRATE
BREAK
GETCTS
GETDCD
HANGUP
PARITY
RGETC
RGETS
RXFLUSH
SETDTR
SETRTS
STOPBITS
THISLAYERUP
TRANSMIT
TXFLUSH
WAITFOR
Mathematical functions
DEC
INC
Miscellaneous
EXIT
WAIT
Program constructs
FOR
IF
SWITCH
WHILE
PROC
String operations
ATOI
ITOA
STRCAT
STRCMP
STRCOPY
STRFMT
STRLEN
TOLOWER
TOUPPER
63
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Example Script:
proc main;
string login_prompt;
string user_name;
string password_prompt;
string password;
string shell_menu;
string shell_menu_response;
integer timeout;
timeout=10;
login_prompt=”login:”;
user_name=”user1”;
password_prompt=”Password:”;
password=”user1”;
shell_menu=”choice:”;
shell_menu_response=”1”;
transmit(“A”);
wait(1)
transmit(“T^M”);
waitfor (“OK”,10);
transmit (“A”);
wait (1);
transmit (“T”);
wait (1);
transmit (“DT963^M”);
if (waitfor (login_prompt,60)) then
transmit (user_name);
transmit (“^M”);
if (waitfor (password_prompt,timeout)) then
transmit (password);
transmit (“^M”);
if (waitfor (shell_menu,timeout)) then
transmit (shell_menu_response);
transmit (“^M”);
else
transmit (“Shell Menu Not Received^M”);
endif
else
transmit (“Password Prompt Not Received^M”);
endif
else
transmit (“Login Prompt Not Received^M”);
endif
Endproc
64
Appendix C - Regulatory Information
Appendix C - Regulatory Information
FCC Declaration
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a residential installation.
This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used
in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined
by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one
or more of the following measures:
•
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment to an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
(1)
This device may not cause harmful interference.
(2)
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
Warning: Changes or modifications to this unit not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
Modem CE Mark EMC and Safety Compliance
The CE mark is affixed to the enclosed Multi-Tech product to confirm compliance with the following
European Community Directives:
Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of Member States
relating to electromagnetic compatibility;
and
Council Directive 73/23/EEC of 19 February 1973 on the harmonization of the laws of Member States
relating to electrical equipment designed for use within certain voltage limits;
both amended by
Council Directive 93/68/EEC of 22 July 1993 on the harmonization of CE marking requirements.
65
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Appendix D - Modifying Command and Response Strings
Modem Types
To add, edit or delete a modem configured for use on the WAN links, click on the Advanced tab in
the WAN Setup dialog. Select the desired function by clicking the associated button (Add, Edit,
Delete). The Modem Types dialog is displayed.
This dialog allows you to configure the command and response strings of connectable modems on
the WAN ports. ProxyServer stores the information about all types of modems in a common modem
configuration file called modems.cnf. This configuration file contains the commands that you want
sent to the modem before dialing out.
You will notice that the modem highlighted in this dialog box is the modem you specified on the
current communication link. Additionally, you will see the selected modem’s communication strings.
You may program the Dial Prefix and Suffix, the Ring Message, the Hang-up String, and the Modem
Command responses. Check your modem’s owner manual for precise information on your modem’s
capabilities.
The Tilde, ~, signifies a delay of 0.5 seconds before transmission of the rest of the string. Sum
consecutive tildes to increase the delay (i.e., ~~ equals one second). The caret, ^, signifies a control
character, i.e., ^M means Control M, or carriage return.
66
Glossary of Terms
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
A
B
Access: The T1 line element made up of two pairs of wire that
the telephone company brings to the customer premises. The
Access portion ends with a connection at the local telco (LEC or
RBOC).
B7ZS (Bipolar 7 Zero Suppression) line coding: One method
of T1 line coding (see also “B8ZS” and “AMI”). B7ZS line coding
does not place restrictions on user data (AMI does).
Accunet Spectrum of Digital Services (ASDS): The AT&T 56K
bps leased (private) line service. Similar to services of MCI and
Sprint. ASDS is available in nx56/64K bps, where n=1, 2, 4, 6, 8,
12.
ACK (ACKnowledgement code) (pronounced “ack”): A
communications code sent from a receiving modem to a
transmitting modem to indicate that it is ready to accept data. It
is also used to acknowledge the error-free receipt of transmitted
data. Contrast with NAK.
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code (ADCPM): In multimedia
applications, a technique in which pulse code modulation
samples are compressed before they are stored on a disk.
ADCPM, an extension of the PCM format, is a standard encoding
format for storing audio information in a digital format. It reduced
storage requirements by storing differences between successive
digital samples rather than full values.
Address: A numbered location inside a computer. It’s how the
computer accesses its resources, like a video card, serial ports,
memory, etc.
AMI line coding: One of two common methods of T1 line coding
(with B8ZS). AMI line coding places restrictions on user data
(B8ZS does not).
Analog signal: A waveform which has amplitude, frequency and
phase, and which takes on a range of values between its
maximum and minimum points.
Analog Transmission: One of two types of telecommunications
which uses an analog signal as a carrier of voice, data, video,
etc. An analog signal becomes a carrier when it is modulated by
altering its phase, amplitude and frequency to correspond with
the source signal. Compare with digital transmission.
Application Program Interface (API): A software module
created to allow dissimilar, or incompatible applications programs
to transfer information over a communications link. APIs may be
simple or complex; they are commonly required to link PC
applications with mainframe programs.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
(pronounced “askey”): A binary code for data that is used in
communications and in many computers and terminals. The code
is used to represent numbers, letters, punctuation and control
characters. The basic ASCII code is a 7-bit character set which
defines 128 possible characters. The extended ASCII file
provides 255 characters.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM): A very high-speed
method of transmission that uses fixed-size cells of 53 bytes to
transfer information over fiber; also known as cell relay.
AT Commands: A standard set of commands used to configure
various modem parameters, establish connections and
disconnect. The “AT” is used to get the “attention” of the modem
before the actual command is issued.
Availability: The measure of the time during which a circuit is
ready for use; the complement of circuit “outage” (100% minus %
outage = % available).
68
B8ZS (Bipolar 8 Zero Suppression) line coding: One of two
common methods of T1 line coding (with AMI). B8ZS line coding
does not place restrictions on user data (AMI does). A coding
method used to produce 64K bps “clear” transmission. (See also
“B7ZS” and “AMI” line coding)
Backbone: 1. A set of nodes and their interconnecting links
providing the primary data path across a network. 2. In a local
area network multiple-bridge ring configuration, a high-speed link
to which the rings are connected by means of bridges. A
backbone may be configured as a bus or as a ring. 3. In a wide
area network, a high-speed link to which nodes or data switching
exchanges (DSEs) are connected. 4. A common distribution core
that provides all electrical power, gases, chemicals, and other
services to the sectors of an automated wafer processing
system.
Background: An activity that takes place in the PC while you are
running another application. In other words, the active user
interface does not correspond to the ‘background’ task.
Bandwidth: The transmission capacity of a computer channel,
communications line or bus. It is expressed in cycles per second
(hertz), the bandwidth being the difference between the lowest
and highest frequencies transmitted. The range of usable
frequencies that a transmission medium will pass without
unacceptable attenuation or distortion. Bandwidth is a factor in
determining the amount of information and the speed at which a
medium can transmit data or other information.
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN): A bit that
tells you that a certain frame on a particular logical connection
has encountered heavy traffic. The bit provides notification that
congestion-avoidance procedures should be initiated in the
opposite direction of the received frame. See also FECN
(Forward Explicit Congestion Notification).
Basic Rate Interface (BRI): An ISDN access interface type
comprised of two B-channels each at 64K bps and one Dchannel at 64K bps (2B+D).
Bell Operating Companies (BOC): The family of corporations
created during the divestiture of AT&T. BOCs are independent
companies which service a specific region of the US. Also called
Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs).
Bell Pub 41450: The Bell publication defining requirements for
data format conversion, line conditioning, and termination for
direct DDS connection.
Bell Pub 62310: The Bell publication defining requirements for
data format conversion, line conditioning, and termination for
direct DDS connection.
Binary Synchronous Communication (BSC): A form of
telecommunication line control that uses a standard set of
transmission control characters and control character sequences,
for binary synchronous transmission of binary-coded data
between stations.
Bit (Binary digIT): A bit is the basis of the binary number
system. It can take the value of 1 or 0. Bits are generally
recognized as the electrical charge generated or stored by a
computer that represent some portion of usable information.
Glossary
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT): A device or routine that measures
the quality of data transmission. A known bit pattern is
transmitted, and the errors received are counted and a BER (bit
error rate) is calculated. The BER is the ratio of received bits in
error relative to the total number of bits received, expressed in a
power of 10.
Bit robbing: The use of the least significant bit per channel in
every sixth frame for signaling. The line signal bits “robbed” from
the speech part conveys sufficient pre-ISDN telephony signaling
information with the remaining line signal bits providing sufficient
line signaling bits for recreating the original sound. See “robbed
bit signaling”.
Blue Alarm: An error indication signal consisting of all 1s
indicating disconnection or attached device failure. Contrast “Red
Alarm” and “Yellow Alarm”.
Bps (bits per second): A unit to measure the speed at which
data bits can be transmitted or received. Bps differs from baud
when more than one bit is represented by a single cycle of the
carrier.
Bridges: 1. A functional unit that interconnects two local area
networks that use the same logical link protocol but may use
different medium access control protocols. 2. A functional unit
that interconnects multiple LANs (locally or remotely) that use
the same logical link control protocol but that can use different
medium access control protocols. A bridge forwards a frame to
another bridge based on the medium access control (MAC)
address. 3. In the connection of local loops, channels, or rings,
the equipment and techniques used to match circuits and to
facilitate accurate data transmission.
Buffer: A temporary storage register or Random Access Memory
(RAM) used in all aspects of data communications which
prevents data from being lost due to differences in transmission
speed. Keyboards, serial ports, muxes and printers are a few
examples of the devices that contain buffers.
Bus: A common channel between hardware devices either
internally between components in a computer, or externally
between stations in a communications network.
Byte: The unit of information a computer can handle at one time.
The most common understanding is that a byte consists of 8
binary digits (bits), because that’s what computers can handle. A
byte holds the equivalent of a single character (such as the letter
A).
C
Call Setup Time: The time to establish a circuit-switched call
between two points. Includes dialing, wait time, and CO/long
distance service movement time.
Carrier Group Alarm (CGA): A T1 service alarm generated by a
channel bank when an OOF condition occurs for a predefined
length of time (usually 300mS to 2.5 seconds). The CGA causes
the calls using a trunk to be dropped and for trunk conditioning to
be applied.
Carrier signal: An analog signal with known frequency,
amplitude and phase characteristics used as a transport facility
for useful information. By knowing the original characteristics, a
receiver can interpret any changes as modulations, and thereby
recover the information.
CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telephone
and Telegraph): An advisory committee created and controlled
by the United Nations and headquartered in Geneva whose
purpose is to develop and to publish recommendations for
worldwide standardization of telecommunications devices. CCITT
has developed modem standards that are adapted primarily by
PTT (post, telephone and telegraph) organizations that operate
telephone networks of countries outside of the U.S. See also
ITU.
Central Office (CO): The lowest, or most basic level of switching
in the PSTN (public switched telephone network). A business
PABX or any residential telephone connects to the PSTN at a
central office.
Centrex: A multi-line service offered by operating telcos which
provides, from the telco CO, functions and features comparable
to those of a PBX for large business users. See also “Private
Branch Exchange”, “Exchange”.
Channel: A data communications path between two computer
devices. Can refer to a physical medium (e.g., UTP or coax), or
to a specific carrier frequency.
Channel Bank: A device that acts as a converter, taking the
digital signal from the T1 line into a phone system and converting
it to the analog signals used by the phone system. A channel
bank acts as a multiplexer, placing many slow-speed voice or
data transactions on a single high-speed link.
Circuit-switched Network: A technology used by the PSTN that
allocates a pair of conductors for the exclusive use of one
communication path. Circuit switching allows multiple
conversations on one talk path only if the end-users multiplex the
signals prior to transmission.
Circuit Switching: The temporary connection of two or more
communications channels using a fixed, non-shareable path
through the network. Users have full use of the circuit until the
connection is terminated.
Clear Channel: A transmission path where the full bandwidth is
used (i.e., no bandwidth needed for signaling, carrier framing or
control bits). A 64K bps digital circuit usually has 8K bps used for
signaling. ISDN has two 64K bps circuits, and a 16K bps packet
service of which part is used for signaling on the 64K channels.
Client-Server: In TCP/IP, the model of interaction in distributed
data processing in which a program at one site sends a request
to a program at another site and awaits a response. The
requesting program is called a client; the answering program is
called a server.
Cluster Controller: A device that can control the input/output
operations of more than one device connected to it. A cluster
controller may be controlled by a program stored and executed in
the unit, or it may be entirely controlled by hardware.
Committed Burst Size: The maximum number of bits that the
frame relay network agrees to transfer during any measurement
interval.
Committed Information Rate (CIR): An agreement a customer
makes to use a certain minimum data transmission rate (in bps).
The CIR is part of the frame relay service monthly billing, along
with actual usage, that users pay to their frame relay service
provider.
69
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Compression: 1. The process of eliminating gaps, empty fields,
redundancies, and unnecessary data to shorten the length of
records or blocks. 2. In SNA, the replacement of a string of up to
64-repeated characters by an encoded control byte to reduce the
length of the data stream to the LU-LU session partner. The
encoded control byte is followed by the character that was
repeated (unless that character is the prime compression
character). 3. In Data Facility Hierarchical Storage Manager, the
process of moving data instead of allocated space during
migration and recall in order to release unused space. 4.
Contrast with decompression.
COMx Port: A serial communications port on a PC.
congestion: A network condition where there is too much data
traffic. The ITU I.233 standard defines congestion managemennt
in terms of speed and burstiness.
congestion notification: The function in frame relay that
ensures that user data transmitted at a rate higher than the CIR
are allowed to slow down to the rate of the available network
bandwidth.
Consecutive Severely Errored Seconds (CSES): An error
condition that occurs when from 3 to 9 SES (Severely Errored
Seconds) are logged consecutively.
Customer Premise Equipment (CPE): The generic term for
data comm and/or terminal equipment that resides at the user
site and is owned by the user with the following exclusions: Over
voltage protection equipment, inside wiring, coin operated or pay
telephones, “company-official” equipment, mobile telephone
equipment, “911” equipment, equipment necessary for the
provision of communications for national defense, or multiplexing
equipment used to deliver multiple channels to the customer.
D
D4: the T1 4th generation channel bank.
D4 channelization: Refers to the compliance with AT&T TR
62411 for DS1 frame layout.
D4 framing: The T1 format for framing in AT&T D-Series channel
banks, in which there are 12 separate 193-bit frames in a superframe. A D4 framing bit is used to identify the channel and the
signaling frame. Signalling for voice channels is carried in-band
for every channel, along with the encoded voice. See “robbed-bit
signaling”.
Data Communications Equipment (DCE): Any device which
serves as the portal of entry from the user equipment to a
telecommunications facility. A modem is a DCE for the telephone
network (PSTN) that is commonly on site at the user’s premises.
Packet Switched Networks have another level of DCE which is
most often located at a central office.
Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI): One of the six
components of a frame relay frame. Its purpose is to distinguish
separate virtual circuits across each access connection. Data
coming into a frame relay node is thus allowed to be sent across
the interface to the specified “address”. The DLCI is confirmed
and relayed to its destination, or if the specification is in error,
the frame is discarded.
Dataphone Digital Service (DDS): A private line digital service
that offers 2400, 4800, 9600 and 56K bps data rates on an interLATA basis by AT&T and on an intra-LATA basis by the BOCs.
Data Service Unit (DSU): A device that provides a digital data
service interface directly to the data terminal equipment. The
DSU provides loop equalization, remote and local testing
capabilities, and a standard EIA/CCITT interface.
70
Dedicated Line: A communication line that is not switched. The
term leased line is more common.
Default: This is a preset value or option in software packages, or
in hardware configuration, that is used unless you specify
otherwise.
Device driver: Software that controls how a computer
communicates with a device, such as a printer or mouse.
Digital Cross-connect System (DCS): The CO device which
splits and redistributes the T1 bandwidth. The DCS takes time
slots from various T1 lines and alters them to provide the needed
connectivity. DCS connections are made with software at an
administrator’s workstation.
Digital Data: Information represented by discrete values or
conditions (contrast “Analog Data”).
Digital Loopback: A technique used for testing the circuitry of a
communications device. Can be initiated locally, or remotely (via
a telecommunications device). The tested device decodes and
encodes a received test message, then echoes the message
back. The results are compared with the original message to
determine if corruption occurred en route.
Digital PBX: A Private Branch Exchange that operates internally
on digital signals. See also “Exchange”.
Digital Service, level 0 (DS0): The worldwide standard speed
(64K bps) for digital voice conversation using PCM (pulse coded
modulation).
Digital Service, level 1 (DS1): The 1.544M bps voice standard
(derived from an older Bell System standard) for digitized voice
transmission in North America. The 1.544M bps consists of 24
digitally-encoded 64K bps voice channels (north America) and
2.048M bps (30 channels) elsewhere.
Digital Signal: A discrete or discontinuous signal (e.g., a
sequence of voltage pulses). Digital devices, such as terminals
and computers, transmit data as a series of electrical pulses
which have discrete jumps rather than gradual changes.
Digital Signaling Rates (DSn): A hierarchical system for
transmission rates, where “DS0” is 64K bps (equivalent to ISDN
B channel), and DS1 is 1.5 Mbps (equivalent to ISDN PRI).
Digital Transmission: A method of electronic information
transmission common between computers and other digital
devices. Analog signals are waveforms: a combination of many
possible voltages. A computer’s digital signal may be only “high”
or “low” at any given time. Therefore, digital signals may be
“cleaned up” (noise and distortion removed) and amplified during
transmission.
Digitize: To convert an analog signal to a digital signal.
DIP switch (pronounced “dip switch”): A set of tiny toggle
switches, built into a DIP (dual in-line package), used for setting
configurable parameters on a PCB (printed circuit board).
Driver: A software module that interfaces between the Operating
System and a specific hardware device (e.g., color monitors,
printers, hard disks, etc.). Also known as a device driver.
Drop and Insert: The process where a portion of information
carried in a transmission system is demodulated (“Dropped”) at
an intermediate point and different information is included
(“Inserted”) for subsequent transmission.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment): A term used to include any
device in a network which generates, stores or displays user
information. DTE is a telecommunications term which usually
refers to PCs, terminals, printers, etc.
Glossary
DTMF (Dual-Tone MultiFrequency): A generic push-button
concept made popular by AT&T TouchTone.
E
E&M: A telephony trunking system used for either switch-toswitch, or switch-to-network, or computer/telephone system-toswitch connection.
EIA: The Electronics Industries Association is a trade
organization in Washington, DC that sets standards for use of its
member companies. (See RS-232, RS-422, RS530.)
Encapsulation: A technique used by network-layer protocols in
which a layer adds header information to the protocol data unit
from the preceding layer. Also used in “enveloping” one protocol
inside another for transmission. For example, IP inside IPX.
Errored Seconds (ES): Any second of operation that all 1.544M
bits are not received exactly as transmitted. Contrast “Error Free
Seconds”.
Error Free Seconds (EFS): Any second of operation that all
1.544M bits are received exactly as transmitted. Contrast
“Errored Seconds”.
ESF Error Event: A T1 error condition that is logged when a
CRC-6 error or an Out-Of-Frame (OOF) error occurs.
Ethernet: A 10-megabit baseband local area network that allows
multiple stations to access the transmission medium at will
without prior coordination, avoids contention by using carrier
sense and deference, and resolves contention by using collision
detection and transmission. Ethernet uses carrier sense multiple
access with collision detection (CSMA/CD).
Excess Zeros: A T1 error condition that is logged when more
than 15 consecutive 0s or fewer than one 1 bit in 16 bits occurs.
Exchange: A unit (public or private) that can consist of one or
more central offices established to serve a specified area. An
exchange typically has a single rate of charges (tariffs) that has
previously been approved by a regulatory group.
Exchange Area: A geographical area with a single uniform set of
charges (tariffs), approved by a regulatory group, for telephone
services. Calls between any two points within an exchange area
are local calls. See also “Digital PBX”, “PBX”.
Exchange Termination (ET): The carrier’s local exchange
switch. Contrast with “Loop Termination - LT”.
Explicit Congestion Management: The method used in frame
relay to notify the terminal equipment that the network is overly
busy. The use of FECN and BECN is called explicit congestion
management. Some end-to-end protocols use FECN or BECN,
but usually not both options together. With this method, a
congestion condition is identified and fixed before it becomes
critical. Contrast with “implicit congestion”.
Extended Super Frame (ESF): One of two popular formats for
framing bits on a T1 line. ESF framing has a 24-frame superframe, where robbed bit signaling is inserted in the LSB (bit 8 of
the DS-0 byte) of frames 6, 12, 18 and 24. ESF has more T1
error measurement capabilities than D4 framing. Both ESF and
B8ZS are typically offered to provide clear channel service.
F
Failed Seconds: A test parameter where the circuit is
unavailable for one full second.
Failed Signal: A T1 test parameter logged when there are more
than 9 SES (Severely Errored Seconds).
Fax (facsimile): Refers to the bit-mapped rendition of a
graphics-oriented document (fax) or to the electronic
transmission of the image over telephone lines (faxing). Fax
transmission differs from data transmission in that the former is a
bit-mapped approximation of a graphical document and,
therefore, cannot be accurately interpreted according to any
character code.
Firmware: A category of memory chips that hold their content
without electrical power, they include ROM, PROM, EPROM and
EEPROM technologies. Firmware becomes “hard software” when
holding program code.
Foreground: The application program currently running on and
in control of the PC screen and keyboard. The area of the screen
that occupies the active window. Compare with “background”.
Fractional T1 (FT1): A digital data transmission rate between
56K bps (DS0 rate) and 1.544M bps (the full T1 rate - in North
America). FT1 is typically provided on 4-wire (two copper pairs)
UTP. Often used for video conferencing, imaging and LAN
interconnection due to its low cost and relatively high speed. FT1
rates are offered in 64K bps multiples, usually up to 768K bps.
Frequency: A characteristic of an electrical or electronic signal
which describes the periodic recurrence of cycles. Frequency is
inversely proportional to the wavelength or pulse width of the
signal (i.e., long wavelength signals have low frequencies and
short wavelength signals yield high frequencies).
Foreign Exchange (FX): A CO trunk with access to a distant
CO, allowing ease of access and flat-rate calls anywhere in the
foreign exchange area.
Foreign Exchange Office (FXO): provides local telephone
service from a CO outside of (“foreign” to) the subscriber’s
exchange area. In simple form, a user can pick up the phone in
one city and receive a tone in the foreign city. Connecting a
POTS telephone to a computer telephony system via a T1 link
requires a channel bank configured for the FX connection. To
generate a call from the POTS set to the computer telephony
system, a FXO connection must be configured.
Foreign Exchange Station (FXS): See FX, FXO. To generate a
call from the computer telephony system to the POTS set, an
FXS connection must be configured.
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN): A bit that
tells you that a certain frame on a particular logical connection
has encountered heavy traffic. The bit provides notification that
congestion-avoidance procedures should be initiated in the same
direction of the received frame. See also BECN (Backward
Explicit Congestion Notification).
Frame: A group of data bits in a specific format to help network
equipment recognize what the bits mean and how to process
them. The bits are sent serially, with a flag at each end signifying
the start and end of the frame.
Frame Relay: A form of packet switching that uses small packets
and that requires less error checking than other forms of packet
switching. Frame relay is effective for sending “bursty” data at
high speeds (56/64K, 256K, and 1024K bps) over wide area
networks. Frame Relay specifications are defined by ANSI
documents ANSI T1.602, T1.606, T1S1/90-175, T1S1/90-213,
and T1S1/90-214. In using frame relay, blocks of information
(frames) are passed across a digital network interface using a
“connection number” that is applied to each frame to distinguish
between individual frames.
Frame Relay Forum: A nonprofit organization of 300+ vendors
and service providers, based in Foster City, CA, that are
developing and deploying frame relay equipment.
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Frame Relay Implementors Forum: A group of companies
supporting a common specification for frame relay connection to
link customer premises equipment to telco network equipment.
Their specification supports ANSI frame relay specs and defines
extensions such as local management.
Frame Relay Access Device (FRAD): A piece of equipment that
acts as a concentrator or frame assembler/dissassembler that
can support multiple protocols and provide basic “routing”
functions.
G
Gateway: 1. A functional unit that interconnects two computer
networks with different network architectures. A gateway
connects networks or systems of different architectures. A bridge
interconnects networks or systems with the same or similar
architectures. 2. A network that connects hosts.
Graphical User Interface (GUI): A type of computer interface
consisting of a visual metaphor of a real-world scene, often of a
desktop. Within that scene are icons, representing actual objects,
that the user can access and manipulate with a pointing device.
H
Handshaking: A process that two modems go through at the
time of call setup to establish synchronization over the data
communications link. It is a synchronization and negotiation
process accomplished by the exchange of predefined, mutually
recognized control codes.
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC): An ISO standard, bitoriented data communications protocol that provides nearly
error-free data transfers.
I
Hexadecimal: A base 16 numbering system used to represent
binary values. Hex uses the numbers 0-9 and the letters A-F:
usually notated by an “h” (e.g., “4CF h”, read “four charley fox,
hex”). The result is that one hex digit represents a 4-bit value.
Implicit congestion management: A method of informing the
terminal that the network is busy. This method relies on the endsystem protocol to detect and fix the congestion problem. (TCP/
IP is an example of a protocol using only implicit congestion
management.) See also “explicit congestion management”.
In-band: Refers to the type of signalling over the conversion
path on an ISDN call. Contrast “out-of-band”.
Insufficient Ones: A T1 error condition that is logged when
fewer than one 1 in 16 0s or less than 12.5 % average 1s density
is received.
Inter Exchange Carrier (IEC): The long distance company (LE)
who’s central office provides the point of reference for T1 access.
Any common carrier authorized by the FCC to carry customer
transmissions between LATAs.
Internet: Refers to the computer network of many millions of
university, government and private users around the world. Each
user has a unique Internet Address.
Internet Address (IP Address): A unique 32-bit address for a
specific TCP/IP host on a network. Normally printed in dotted
decimal format (e.g., 129.128.44.227).
72
Internet Protocol (IP): A protocol used to route data from its
source to its destination in an Internet environment. The Internet
Protocol was designed to connect local area networks. Although
there are many protocols that do this, IP refers to the global
system of interconnecting computers. It is a highly distributed
protocol (each machine only worries about sending data to the
next step in the route).
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX): A NetWare
communications protocol used to route messages from one node
to another. IPX packets include network addresses and can be
routed from one network to another. An IPX packet can
occasionally get lost when crossing networks, thus IPX does not
guarantee delivery of a complete message. Either the application
has to provide that control, or NetWare’s SPX protocol must be
used.
Inter-operable: Devices from different vendors that can
exchange information using a standard’s base protocol.
I/O Addresses: Locations within the I/O address space of your
computer used by a device, such as an expansion card, a serial
port, or an internal modem. The address is used for
communication between software and a device.
IRQ Level (Interrupt Request Level): The notification a
processor receives when another portion of the computer’s
hardware requires its attention. IRQs are numbered so that the
device issuing the IRQ can be identified, and so IRQs can be
prioritized.
ISA (Industry Standards Architecture) (pronounced “ice a”):
The classic 8 or 16-bit architecture introduced with IBM’s PC-AT
computer.
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network): An International
telecommunications standard for transmitting voice, video and
data over a digital communications line. ISDN is a worldwide
telecommunications service that uses digital transmission and
switching technology to support voice and digital data
communications. Frame relay was partially based on ISDN’s data
link layer protocol (LAPD). Frame relay can be used to transmit
across ISDN services offering circuit-switched connection at 64K
bps and higher speeds. Contrast Public Switched Telephone
Network (PSTN).
ITU-TSS (formerly CCITT): International Telecommunications
Union-Telecommunications Sector; the United Nations
organization that prepares standards (“Recommendations”) for
resolving communications issues and problems.
J
No Entries.
K
Key Telephone System (KTS): Phone devices with multiple
buttons that let you select incoming or outgoing CO phone lines
directly. Similar in operation to a PBX, except with a KTS you
don’t have to dial a “9” for a call outside the building.
Key Service Unit (KSU): A small device containing the switching
electronics for a business key telephone system (KTS).
Key Set: A telephone set with several buttons for call holding,
line pickup, intercom, autodialing, etc. Also called a touchtone
phone (Ericsson) and a KTS (Key Telephone Set).
Glossary
L
LAPB: Link Access Procedure Balanced; based on the X.25
Layer 2 specification. A full-duplex point-to-point, bit-synchronous
protocol commonly used as a data link control protocol to
interface X.25 DTEs. LAPB is the link initialization procedure that
establishes and maintains communications between the DTE
and the DCE.
LAPD: Link Access Protocol for the D-Channel; based on the
ISDN Q.921 specification. A full-duplex, point-to-point bitsynchronous link-level protocol for ISDN connections; different
from LAPB in its framing sequence. Transmission is in units
called “frames”, and a frame may contain one or more X.25
packets.
Line Coding: The representation of 1s and 0s on a T1 line. The
two methods of line coding commonly used, B8ZS and AMI,
differ in the restrictions placed on user data. T1 line coding
ensures that sufficient timing information is sent with the digital
signal to ensure recovery of all the bits at the far end. Timing
information on the T1 line is included in the form of 1s in the data
stream; a long string of 0s in the data stream could cause
problems recovering the data.
Line Termination (LT): The electronics at the ISDN network side
of the user/network interface that complements the NT1 at the
user side. The LT and the NT1 together provide the high-speed
digital line signals required for BRI access.
Listed Directory Number (LDN): The main number assigned by
the telco; the number listed in the telephone directory and also
provided by Directory Assistance. Some devices can have more
than one LDN, such as ISDN devices that have one LDN for
voice and another LDN for data.
Local Area Network (LAN): 1. A computer network located on a
user’s premises within a limited geographical area.
Communication within a local area network is not subject to
external regulations; however, communication across the LAN
boundary may be subject to some form of regulation. 2. A LAN
does not use store-and-forward techniques. 3. A network in
which a set of devices are connected to one another for a
communication and that can be connected to a larger network.
Local Access and Transport Area (LATA): A post-divestiture
geographical area generally equivalent to a Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area. At divestiture, the territory served
by the Bell system was divided into approximately 161 LATAs.
The Bell Operating Companies (BOCs) provide Intra-LATA
services.
Local Exchange Carrier (LEC): The local phone company
which provides local (i.e., not long distance) transmission
services. AKA “telco”. LECs provide T1 or FT1 access to LDCs
(unless the T1 circuit is completely intra-LATA). Inter-LATA T1
circuits are made up of a combination of Access and Long Haul
facilities.
Local Management Interface (LMI): A specification for frame
relay equipment that defines status information exchange.
Local Loop: A transmission path, typically twisted-pair wire,
between an individual subscriber and the nearest public
telecommunications network switching center. The wires provide
ISDN service, but require an NT1 at the user end and an LT at
the network end. (AKA, “loop” or “subscriber loop”.)
Logical Link Control (LLC2): In a local area network, the
protocol that governs the exchange of transmission frames
between data stations independently of how the transmission
medium is shared. The LLC2 protocol was developed by the
IEEE 802 commitee and is common to all LAN standards.
Logical Unit (LU): A type of network accessible unit that enables
end users to gain access to network resources and communicate
with each other.
Long Haul: The T1 element that connects to the Access portion
of the long distance company’s (LDC’s) central office. The LDC is
commonly called the point of presence (POP). Each LDC has a
number of POPs, located throughout the country. The LDC is
also called an IEC (Inter Exchange Carrier).
Long Haul Communications: The type of phone call reaching
outside of a local exchange (LE).
M
Management Information Base (MIB): A database of network
management information used by the Common Management
Information Protocol (CMIP) and the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
Megacom: An AT&T service with a normal WATS line (typically
T1) between the customer premise and the AT&T serving class 4
CO are the customer’s responsibility.
MegaLink: BellSouth’s leased T1 service.
Message: Associated with such terms as packet, frame, and
segment. 1. In information theory, an ordered series of
characters intended to convey information. 2. An assembly of
characters and sometimes control codes that is transferred as an
entry from an originator to one or more recipients.
Modem: A communications device that enables a computer to
transmit information over a telephone line. It converts the
computer’s digital signals into analog signals to send over a
telephone line and converts them back to digital signals at the
receiving end. Modems can be internal and fit into an expansion
slot, or external and connect to a serial port.
Multiplexer (Mux): 1. A device that takes several input signals
and combines them into a single output signal in such a manner
that each of the input signals can be recovered. 2. A device
capable of interleaving the events of two or more activities or
capable of distributing the events of an interleaved sequence to
the respective activities. 3. Putting multiple signals on a single
channel.
Multiprotocol: A device that can interoperate with devices
utilizing different network protocols.
Multithreading: The ability of a software system to be able to
handle more than one transaction concurrently. This is
contrasted to the case where a single transaction is accepted
and completely processed before the next transaction processing
is started.
N
Nailed Connection: A permanent or dedicated circuit of a
previously switched circuit or circuits.
Nailed-up Circuit: A semi-permanent circuit established through
a circuit-switching facility for point-to-point connectivity.
NAK (Negative Acknowledgment): Communications code used
to indicate that a message was not properly received, or that a
terminal does not wish to transmit. Contrast with ACK.
Network: A group of computers connected by cables or other
means and using software that enables them to share
equipment, such as printers and disk drives to exchange
information.
Node: Any point within a network which has been assigned an
address.
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MTPSR3-100 User Guide
O
Object-Oriented: A method for structuring programs as
hierarchically organized classes describing the data and
operations of objects that may interact with other objects.
Office Channel Unit - Data Port (OCU-DP): The CO channel
bank used as the interface between the customer’s DSU and the
channel bank.
Off-hook: The condition of a device which has accessed a
phone line (with or without using the line). In modem use, this is
equivalent to a telephone handset being picked up. Dialing and
transmission are allowed, but incoming calls are not answered.
Contrast “on-hook”.
Off Premise Extension (OPX): An extension or phone that
terminates in a location other than that of the PBX. Commonly
used to provide a corporate member with an extension of the
PBX at home.
Ones Density: the measure of the number of logical 1s on a T1
line compared to a given total number of bits on that line; used
for timing information in data recovery in AMI and B8ZS.
On-Hook: The condition of a device which has not accessed a
phone line. In modem use, this is equivalent to a telephone
handset that has not been picked up. In other words, it can
receive an incoming call. Contrast “off-hook”.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF): A hierarchical Interior
Gateway Protocol (IGP) routing algorithm for IP that is a
proposed standard for the Internet. OSPF incorporates least-cost
routing, equal-cost routing, and load balancing.
Outage: The measure of the time during which a circuit is not
available for use due to service interrupt. Outage is the
complement of circuit “availability” (100% minus % available = %
outage).
Out-of-band: Signaling that is separated from the channel
carrying the information (e.g., the voice/data/video signal is
separate from the carrier signal). Dialing and various other
“supervisory” signals are included in the signaling element.
Contrast “In-band” signaling.
Out of Frame (OOF): A T1 alarm condition that is logged on the
loss of 2, 3 or 4 of 5 consecutive FT framing bits.
P
Packet: 1. In data communication, a sequence of binary digits,
including data and control signals, that is transmitted and
switched as a composite whole. The data, control signals and,
possibly, error control information are arranged in a specific
format. 2. Synonymous with data frame. 3. In TCP/IP, the unit of
data passed across the interface between the Internet layer and
the link layer. A packet includes an IP header and data. A packet
can be a complete IP datagram or a fragment of an IP diagram.
4. In X.25, a data transmission information unit. A group of data
and control characters, transferred as a unit, determined by the
process of transmission. Commonly used data field lengths in
packets are 128 or 256 bytes. 5. The field structure and format
defined in the CCITT X.25 recommendation.
Packet Assembler/Dissembler (PAD): Used by devices to
communicate over X.25 networks by building or stripping X.25
information on or from a packet.
Packet Data: The information format (“packetized”) used for
packet-mode calls.
74
Packet Mode: Refers to the switching of chunks of information
for different users using statistical multiplexing to send them over
the same transmission facility.
Parity bit: An extra bit attached to each byte of synchronous
data used to detect errors in transmission.
Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC): A connection between two
endpoints dedicated to a single user. In ISDN, PVCs are
established by network administration and are held for as long as
the user subscribes to the service.
Physical Unit (PU): The component that manages and monitors
the resources (such as attached links and adjacent link stations)
associated with a node, as requested by an SSCP via an SSCPPU session. An SSCP activates a session with the physical unit
in order to indirectly manage, through the PU, resources of the
node such as attached links. This term applies to type 2.0, type
4, and type 5 nodes only.
Point of Presence (POP): The central office’s end points of the
long distance carriers.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP): A protocol that lets a PC user
access TCP/IP (Internet member) using an ISDN terminal
adapter or a high-speed modem over a standard telephone line.
Port: A location for input or output data exchange. Computers,
muxes, etc. have ports for various purposes.
Primary Rate Interface (PRI): Used on ISDN. In North America,
and Japan, PRI is one 64Kbps D channel and 23 B channels.
Elsewhere, it is one D channel and 30 B channels.
Primitive: An abstract representation of interaction across the
access points indicating that information is being passed
between the service user and the service provider. The OSI
Reference Model defines four types of primitives: Request,
Indication, Response and Confirm.
Private Branch Exchange (PBX): A telephone exchange
located on the customer’s premises. The PBX provides a circuit
switching facility for telephone extension lines within the building,
and access to the public telephone network. See also
“Exchange”.
PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory - pronounced
“prom”): A permanent memory chip that can be programmed or
filled by the customer after by the manufacturer has set initial
values. Contrast with ROM.
Protocol: 1. A set of semantic and syntactic rules that
determines the behavior of functional units in achieving
communication. 2. In Open Systems Interconnection
architecture, a set of semantic and syntactic rules that determine
the behavior of entities in the same layer in performing
communication functions. 3. In SNA, the meanings of and the
sequencing rules for requests and responses used for managing
the network, transferring data, and synchronizing the states of
network components. 4. Synonymous with line control discipline.
Proxy Server: A secure gateway that provides multiple LAN
users with high performance Internet access by functioning as a
TCP/IP proxy server that resides on the outer edge of a firewall.
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network): A worldwide
public voice telephone network that is used as a
telecommunications medium for the transmission of voice, data
and other information.
Public Data Network (PDN): A packet-switched network that is
available to the public for individual (“subscriber”) use. Typically,
controlled by a government or a national monopoly.
Glossary
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN): The group of
circuit-switching voice carriers, which are commonly used as
analog data communications services.
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM): 1. In data communication,
variation of a digital signal to represent information; for example,
by means of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse duration
modulation (PDM), or pulse position modulation (PPM). 2.
Transmissions of analog information in digital form through
sampling and encoding the samples with a fixed number of bits.
Robbed Bit Signaling: The popular T1 signaling mechanism
where the A and B bits are sent by each side of the T1
termination and are “buried” in the voice data of each voice
channel in the T1 circuit. Since the bits are “robbed” infrequently,
voice quality remains relatively uncompromised. See “bit
robbing”. The robbed-bit signaling technique is used in D4
channel banks to convey signaling information. The eighth (least
significant) bit of each of the 24 8-bit time slots is “robbed” every
sixth frame to convey voice-related signaling information such as
on-hook, off-hook, etc., for each channel.
Pulse dialing: One of two methods of dialing a telephone,
usually associated with rotary-dial phones. Compare with “tone
dialing”.
Router: A device that connects two networks using the same
networking protocol. It operates at the Network Layer (Layer 3)
of the OSI model for forwarding decisions.
Q
Routing Information Protocol (RIP): A distance vector-based
protocol that provides a measure of distance, or hops, from a
transmitting workstation to a receiving workstation.
Quantizing: The process of analog-to-digital conversion by
assigning a range, from the contiguous analog values, to a
discrete number.
R
Random Access Memory (RAM): A computer’s primary
workspace. All data must be stored in RAM (even for a short
while), before software can use the processor to manipulate the
data. Before a PC can do anything useful it must move programs
from disk to RAM. When you turn it off, all information in RAM is
lost.
Rate Enforcement: The concept in frame relay where frames
sent faster than the CIR are to be carried only if the bandwidth is
available, otherwise they are to be discarded. (The frame relay
network assumes that anything exceeding the CIR is of low
priority.) Rate enforcement makes sure that the network will not
get so congested that it isn’t able to meet the agreed on CIR.
Recognized Private Operating Agency (RPOA): A corporation,
private or government-controlled, that provides
telecommunications services. RPOAs, such as AT&T, participate
as non-voting members in the CCITT.
Red Alarm: A T1 error condition generated when a local failure
(e.g., loss of synchronization) exists for 2.5 seconds, causing a
Carrier Group Alarm (CGA). See also “Blue Alarm” and “Yellow
Alarm”.
Request for Comment (RFC): A set of papers in which Internet
standards (published and proposed), along with generallyaccepted ideas, proposals, research results, etc. are published.
Ring Down Box: A device that emulates a CO by generating
POTS calls for testing and product demos.
Ring Down Circuit: A tie line connecting phones where picking
up one phone automatically rings another phone. A feature used
for emergencies to alert the person at the other phone of the
incoming call.
RJ-11: An industry standard interface used for connecting a
telephone to a modular wall outlet; comes in 4-and 6-wire
packages.
RJ-45: An 8-wire modular connector for voice and data circuits.
RS-232C: An EIA standard for a serial interface between
computers and peripheral devices (modem, mouse, etc.). It uses
a 25-pin DB-25, or a 9-pin DB-9 connector. The RS-232 standard
defines the purposes, electrical characteristics and timing of the
signals for each of the 25 lines.
RS-422: The EIA standard for a balanced interface with no
accompanying physical connector. RS-422 products can use
screw terminals, DB-9 various DB-25 and DB-37 connectors.
RS-530: The EIA standard for the mechanical/electrical interface
between DCEs and DTEs transmitting synchronous or
asynchronous serial binary data. RS-530 provides for high data
rates with the same connector used for RS-232; however, it is
incompatible with RS-232.
S
Serial Port: The connector on a PC used to attach serial devices
(those that need to receive data one bit after another), such as a
mouse, a printer or a modem. This consists of a 9- or 25-pin
connector that sends data in sequence (bit by bit). Serial ports
are referred to as “COMx” ports, where x is 1 to 4 (i.e., COM1
through COM4). A serial port contains a conversion chip called a
“UART” which translates between internal parallel and external
serial formats.
Service: The requirements offered by an RPOA to its customers
to satisfy specific telecommunications needs.
Severely Errored Seconds (SES): Refers to a typical T1 error
event where an error burst occurs (a short term, high bit-error
rate that is self-clearing). Per the ITU-T (CCITT) G.821: any
second in which the BER is less than 1x10 -3 .
Signaling: The process of establishing, maintaining, accounting
for, and terminating a connection between two endpoints (e.g.,
the user premises and the telco CO). Central office signals to the
user premises can include ringing, dial tone, speech signals, etc.
Signals from the user’s telephone can include off-hook, dialing,
speech to far-end party, and on-hook signals. In-band signaling
techniques include pulse and tone dialing. With common channel
signaling, information is carried out-of-band.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): TCP/IP
protocol that allows network management.
Simultaneous Voice Data (SVD): A technology for letting a user
send data via a modem, and use a handset to talk to another
user at the same time over the same connection. The alternative,
making a second call, can be expensive or even impossible. The
uses for SVD are telecommuting, videoconferencing, distant
learning, tech support, etc.
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Stop Bit: One of the variables used for timing in asynchronous
data transmission. Depending on the devices, each character
may be trailed by 1, 1.5, or 2 stop bits.
Superframe (D4): A T1 transmission format that consists of 12
DS1 frames, or 2316 bits. A DS1 frame consists of 193 bit
positions. A frame overhead bit is in the first position, and it is
used for frame and signaling phase alignment only.
Subscriber Loop: See “Local loop”.
Switched 56: A circuit-switched (full duplex digital synchronous
data transmission) service that lets you dial a number and
transmit data to it at 56K bps. It is a relatively low cost service,
widely used in North America for telecommuting,
videoconferencing and high speed data transfers. Many phone
companies are (or will be) phasing out Switched 56 in favor of
ISDN service.
Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC): A type of data transmission
where the connection is maintained only until the call is cleared.
Switched Line: In communications, a physical channel
established by dynamically connecting one or more discrete
segments. This connection lasts for the duration of the call after
which each segment can be used as part of a different channel.
Contrast with leased line.
Switched Network: A network in which a temporary connection
is established from one point via one or more segments.
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC): A discipline
conforming to subsets of the Advanced Data Communications
Control Procedures (ADCCP) of the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) and High-level Data Link Control
(HDLC) of the International Organization for Standardization, for
managing synchronous, code-transparent, serial-by-bit
information transfer over a link connection. Transmission
exchanges may be duplex, or half-duplex over switched or
nonswitched links. The configuration of the link connection may
be point-to-point, multipoint, or loop.
Synchronous Transmission: The transmission of data which
involves sending a group of characters in a packet. This is a
common method of transmission between computers on a
network or between modems. One or more synchronous
characters are transmitted to confirm clocking before each
packet of data is transmitted. Compare to Asynchronous
Transmission.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA): The description of the
logical structure, formats, protocols, and operational sequences
for transmitting information units through, and controlling the
configuration and operation of networks.
T
Tariff: The rate/availability schedule for telephone and ISDN
services from a regulated service provider.
TCP/IP: A set of communication protocols that support peer-topeer connectivity functions for both local and wide area
networks.
T Carrier: The generic name for a digitally multiplexed carrier
system. In the North American digital hierarchy, a T is used to
designate a DS (digital signal) level hierarchy. Examples: T1
(DS1) is a 1.544 M bps 24-channel designation. In Europe, T1 is
called E1. The T Carrier system was originally designed for
transmitting digitized voice signals, but has since been adapted
for digital data applications.
76
T1: A digital transmission link capable of 1.544M bps. T1 uses
two pairs of normal UTP, and can handle 24 voice conversations,
each digitized at 64K bps. T1 is a standard for digital
transmission in the U.S., Canada, Japan and Hong Kong. T1 is
the access method for high-speed services such as ATM, frame
relay, and SMDS. See also T Carrier, T1 line and FT1.
T1 Channel Tests: A set of diagnostics that vary by carrier, used
to verify a T1 channel operation. Can include Tone, Noise Level,
Impulse Noise Level, Echo Cancelers, Gain, and Crosstalk
testing.
T1 Framing: To digitize and encode analog voice signals
requires 8000 samples per second (twice the highest voice
frequency of 4000 Hz). Encoding in an 8-bit word provides the
basic T1 block of 64K bps for voice transmission. This “Level 0
Signal, as its called, is represented by “DS-0”, or Digital Signal at
Level 0. 24 of these voice channels are combined into a serial bit
stream (using TDM), on a frame-by-frame basis. A frame is a
sample of all 24 channels; so adding in a framing bit gives a
block of 193 bits (24x8+1=193). Frames are transmitted at 8000
per second (the required sample rate), creating a 1.544M
(8000x193=1.544M) transmission rate.
T1 Line: A digital communications facility that functions as a 24channel pathway for data or voice transmission. A T1 line is
composed of two separate elements: the Access element and
the Long Haul element.
T1 Mux: A device used to carry many sources of data on a T1
line. The T1 mux assigns each data source to distinct DS0 time
slots within the T1 signal. Wide bandwidth signals take more
than one time slot. Normal voice traffic or 56/64K bps data
channels take one time slot. The T1 mux may use an internal or
external T1 DSU; a “channel bank” device typically uses an
external T1 CSU.
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Program (TCP/IP): A
multi-layer set of protocols developed by the US Department of
Defense to link dissimilar computers across dissimilar and
unreliable LANs.
Terminal: The screen and keyboard device used in a mainframe
environment for interactive data entry. Terminals have no “box”,
which is to say they have no file storage or processing
capabilities.
Terminal Adapter (TA): An ISDN DTE device for connecting a
non-ISDN terminal device to the ISDN network. Similar to a
protocol converter or an interface converter, a TA connects a
non-ISDN device between the R and S interfaces. Typically a PC
card.
Tie line: A dedicated circuit linking two points without having to
dial a phone number (i.e., the line may be accessed by lifting the
telephone handset or by pushing a button).
Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM): Division of a transmission
facility into two or more channels by allotting the common
channel to several different information channels, one at a time.
Time Slot: One of 24 channels within a T1 line. Each channel
has a 64K bps maximum bandwidth. “Time slot” implies the time
division multiplexing organization of the T1 signal.
Toll Call: A call to a location outside of your local service area
(i.e., a long distance call).
Tone dialing: One of two methods of dialing a telephone,
usually associated with Touch-Tone® (push button) phones.
Compare with pulse dialing.
Glossary
Topology: Physical layout of network components (cables,
stations, gateways, and hubs). Three basic interconnection
topologies are star, ring, and bus networks.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): A communications
protocol used in Internet and in any network that follows the US
Department of Defense standards for internetwork protocol. TCP
provides a reliable host-to-host protocol between hosts in packetswitched communications networks and in interconnected
systems of such networks. It assumes that the Internet protocol
is the underlying protocol.
Transport Layer: Layer 4 of the Open Systems Interconnection
(OSI) model; provides reliable, end-to-end delivery of data, and
detects transmission sequential errors.
Transport Protocol Data Unit (TPDU): A transport header,
which is added to every message, contains destination and
source addressing information that allows the end-to-end routing
of messages in multi-layer NAC networks of high complexity.
They are automatically added to messages as they enter the
network and can be stripped off before being passed to the host
or another device that does not support TPDU’s.
W
Wide Area Network (WAN): 1. A network that provides
communication services to a geographic area larger than that
served by a local area network or a metropolitan area network,
and that may use or provide public communication facilities. 2. A
data communications network designed to serve an area of
hundreds or thousands of miles; for example, public and private
packet-switching networks, and national telephone networks.
Contrast with local area network (LAN).
Wide Area Telecommunications Service (WATS): A low-cost
toll service offered by most long distance and local phone
companies. Incoming (800 call service, or IN-WATS) and
outgoing WATS are subscribed to separately, but over the same
line.
X
X.25: ITU-T’s definition of a three-level packet-switching protocol
to be used between packet-mode DTEs and network DCEs. X.25
corresponds with layer 3 of the 7-layer OSI model.
Trunk: Transmission links that interconnect switching offices.
Y
TSR (terminate and stay resident): A software program that
remains active and in memory after its user interface is closed.
Similar to a daemon in UNIX environments.
Yellow Alarm: An error indication sent by the T1 device when it
has not gotten a receive signal, or cannot synchronize on the
receive signal received. Contrast “Red Alarm” and “Blue Alarm”.
Tunneling: Encapsulation data in an IP packet for transport
across the Internet.
Z
Twisted pair wiring: A type of cabling with one or more pairs of
insulated wires wrapped around each other. An inexpensive
wiring method used for LAN and telephone applications, also
called UTP wiring.
Zero Byte Time Slot Interchange (ZBTSI): A method for
allowing 64K bps unrestricted user data (allowing all 0s in the
user data). An alternative to (but not as popular as) B8ZS.
U
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter)
(pronounced “you art”): A chip that transmits and receives data
on the serial port. It converts bytes into serial bits for
transmission, and vice versa, and generates and strips the start
and stop bits appended to each character.
UNIX: An operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that
features multiprogramming in a multi-user environment.
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP): Telephone-type wiring.
Transmission media for 10BaseT
V
V.25bis: An ITU-T standard for synchronous communications
between a mainframe or host and a modem using HDLC or other
character-oriented protocol.
V.54: The ITU-T standard for local and remote loopback tests in
modems, DCEs and DTEs. The four basic tests are:
• local digital loopback (tests DTE send and receive
circuits),
• local analog loopback (tests local modem operation),
• remote analog loopback (tests comm link to the
remote modem), and
• remote digital loopback (tests remote modem
operation).
Virtual Circuit: A logical connection. Used in packet switching
wherein a logical connection is established between two devices
at the start of transmission. All information packets follow the
same route and arrive in sequence (but do not necessarily carry
a complete address).
77
MTPSR3-100 User Guide
Index
A
Accessories ........................................................... 60
Adding Proxy Applications ..................................... 33
B
Back and Side Panel Descriptions .......................... 9
BBS ....................................................................... 59
Boot LED ................................................................. 8
Built in Test ............................................................ 36
C
Cabling Diagrams .................................................. 62
Cabling Your ProxyServer ..................................... 15
Changing Internet Parameters .............................. 30
Changing IP Parameters ....................................... 28
Changing WAN Port Parameters .......................... 29
Channel LED ........................................................... 8
Client Setup ........................................................... 38
Configuring in Windows 95/98 ........................ 39
Configuring in Windows NT ............................ 47
Installing TCP/IP (Win95/98) ........................... 46
Installing TCP/IP (WinNT) ............................... 53
Client Side Internet Parameters ............................ 28
Collision LED ........................................................... 8
Command Port Connector ....................................... 9
Configuration Port Setup ....................................... 26
Configuration Utilities ............................................ 26
Connection Method ............................................... 29
Connectors .............................................................. 9
Command Port .................................................. 9
Ethernet (10Base-T) ......................................... 9
Power ................................................................ 9
WAN Link .......................................................... 9
D
DCHP Server Setup .............................................. 32
Domain Name Server (DNS) ................................. 28
Download Firmware .............................................. 26
Dynamic Mapping .................................................. 34
E
E-mail Tech Support .............................................. 57
Enabling the DHCP Server .................................... 32
Enabling the Virtual Server .................................... 34
Ethernet Connector ................................................. 9
F
Fax-Back Service .................................................. 60
Front Panel Description ........................................... 8
78
G
Global Address ...................................................... 34
I
Idle Time ................................................................ 29
Installing TCP/IP (Win95/98) ................................. 46
Installing TCP/IP (WinNT) ..................................... 53
Internet Presence .................................................. 60
Internet Setup ........................................................ 30
IP Setup ................................................................ 28
IP Wizard Setup .................................................... 21
ISP Assigns Dynamic Address .............................. 28
L
LEDs ....................................................................... 8
Limited Warranty ................................................... 56
Link LED .................................................................. 8
Link Usage Control ................................................ 29
Loading Your ProxyServer Software ..................... 18
Local Address ........................................................ 34
M
Mapping Type ........................................................ 34
Message Printing Control ...................................... 31
MLPPP ........................................................... 22, 31
Modifying Command and Response Strings ......... 66
MTPSR3-100 .......................................................... 6
Multi-Tech BBS ...................................................... 59
Multi-Tech Fax-Back Service ................................. 60
Multi-Tech’s Internet Presence .............................. 60
O
On-line Warranty Registration ............................... 56
Ordering Accessories ............................................ 60
P
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) ................................ 30
Power Connector .................................................... 9
Power Switch .......................................................... 9
Preview of This User Guide ..................................... 6
Primary Server ...................................................... 28
Proxy Applications Configuration ........................... 33
Proxy Setup ........................................................... 27
ProxyServer ............................................................ 6
ProxyServer Software .................................... 18, 26
R
Receive Data LED ................................................... 8
Regulatory Information .......................................... 65
RFC 1700 .............................................................. 33
Running Diagnostics ............................................. 36
Index
S
Scripting ......................................................... 29, 63
Secondary Server ................................................. 28
Service .................................................................. 58
Software ......................................................... 18, 26
Built in Test ..................................................... 36
DCHP Server Setup ........................................ 32
Description ...................................................... 26
Internet Setup ................................................. 30
IP Setup .......................................................... 28
Loading ........................................................... 18
Proxy Applications Configuration .................... 33
Proxy Setup .................................................... 27
Statistics ......................................................... 35
Virtual Server .................................................. 34
WAN Setup ..................................................... 29
Wizard Setup .................................................. 20
Specifications ........................................................ 10
Static Mapping ...................................................... 34
Statistics ................................................................ 35
Support .................................................................. 57
T
Tech Support ......................................................... 57
E-mail .............................................................. 57
Transmit Data LED .................................................. 8
U
Uninstall Proxy Server Configuration .................... 26
Unpacking Your ProxyServer ................................ 14
V
Virtual Server ........................................................ 34
W
WAN Device Configuration .................................... 26
WAN Link Connectors ............................................. 9
WAN Link(s) Wizard Setup ................................... 22
WAN Setup ............................................................ 29
Warranty ................................................................ 56
On-line Warranty Registration ......................... 56
Wizard Setup ......................................................... 20
IP Wizard Setup .............................................. 21
WAN Link(s) Wizard Setup ............................. 22
79