Guitar and Bass
Care & Maintenance Manual
ongratulations on your purchase! You are now the owner of a
distinctive instrument renowned for quality craftsmanship, tradition,
and the legendary Rickenbacker name.
In this comprehensive manual, you will find all of the information needed to
fully enjoy and take care of your instrument.
Dual Truss Rod Neck Design Most
Rickenbacker necks are built with
two truss rods for added strength
and adjustability.
Exclusive Head Design Unique and
easy tuning head shape on all 12
string models.
Pickups All guitars equipped with pickups
manufactured by Rickenbacker.
Bridge Assembly Rickenbacker guitars
come with a six-way adjustable bridge,
with individual string saddles for increased adjustability. Basses are
equipped with the professional adjustable bridge/tailpiece assembly.
Nameplate Truss rod adjustment
nuts located under the nameplate.
Pickguard Many Rickenbacker guitars
offer sturdy plastic pick guards. Many
models also have a two-level adjustable
Easy Stringing "R" Tailpiece The
famous Rickenbacker "R" tailpiece,
is built with a no-hole slot design for
easy restringing.
Output Jacks Deluxe models come with
the exclusive Rick-O-Sound jack for
effects and multi-channel capabilities.
Exclusive Fifth Tone Control Some
models come with a fifth tone control for
increased tone adjustment capabilities.
Tone and Volume Controls Most guitars
and basses are equipped with separate tone
and volume controls for each pickup and
have three position pickup selectors.
Balanced and Contoured Body
Superb design provides total playing
comfort, detailed with exclusive high
gloss finishes.
Volume and Tone Controls
When it is in the middle, all three
pickups are on. When it is up, both
the bass and the middle pickup are
Rickenbacker basses with two
pickups have the same volume and
tone controls as the six and twelve
string guitars, as well as a three
position pickup selector.
Most Rickenbacker six and twelve
string guitars come with separate
volume and tone control knobs for
the bass and treble pickups. In
addition, each guitar has a three
position pickup selector which
allows instantaneous selection of
the bass pickup, the treble pickup,
or a tonal blend using both pickups.
When the pickup selector is combined with the tone and volume
controls, three different sounds can
be present and chosen simply by
switching the pickup selector.
When the volume and tone knobs
are turned all the way clockwise,
they are in the wide open "on"
position. When the pickup selector
is down, the treble pickup (closest
to the bridge) is in use. When the
selector is up, the bass pickup is in
use. The middle selector position is
a blend of both pickups. When
using only one pick up, only that
pickup's tone and volume controls
will have an effect.
On Rickenbacker models which
have three pickups, the bass
pickup and the middle pickup are
wired together, and the instrument
is then controlled just as if it had
only two pickups. When the selector is down, the treble pickup is on.
Many Rickenbacker guitars come
with a fifth control knob providing
extra tone adjustment capabilities.
Using this control to adjust the
volume of the bass pickup in relation to a pre-selected treble pickup
lead volume setting, you can set it
at the tone you will use more often.
Or it can function as a bass/treble
equalization control.
To use the fifth knob as a bass
pickup volume equalizer, first place
both volume and both tone controls
on the instrument at their maximum
clockwise positions. Then, move
the pickup selector to the treble
position and set the amplifier to the
desired lead sound. Now, switch
the pickup selector to the bass pick
up. The fifth tone knob can now be
adjusted in order to bring the
rhythm sound to a volume compatible with the already selected lead
sound volume.
To use the fifth knob in a set position, first place both volume controls and both tone controls on the
instrument at their maximum clockwise positions, and move the
pickup selector to the center position. Now adjust the amplifier, by
setting the gain controls at the
desired volume and the bass and
the treble controls at their maxi-
mum positions. Finally, adjust the
fine tone selection knob on the
instrument until the tone which will
be used most frequently is reached,
and leave it in that position. After
the small knob has been set, the
pickup selector may be moved
down for maximum treble or up for
maximum bass. The variable volume and tone controls on either the
amplifier or the instrument can now
be moved to the desired volume
and tone settings.
To use the fifth knob as an equalization control, first place both
volume controls and the treble tone
control on the instrument at their
maximum clockwise positions, and
move the pickup selector to the
center position. Move the bass tone
control on the instrument to its
maximum counter-clockwise positions, and set the volume and tone
controls on the amplifier to their
desired positions. Now, with the
instrument's treble up full and the
bass at its minimum, the fine tone
selection knob can be used as a
tone equalizer, moving the instrument through the entire tonal range
without adjusting the amplifier.
When using a Rickenbacker guitar
with the Rick-O-Sound effect, much
of the tonal variation produced by
playing through R.O.S. can be
better controlled through two different amplifiers or through two channels of one amplifier. However,
when using Rick-O-Sound, the fine
tone selection knob now becomes
a balance between the two amplifiers or channels, and can be adjusted to provide the desired blend
of treble and bass.
Reverse Controls
Some replica models have volume
or tone controls which operate in
reverse fashion or are located a
different relative position. In keeping with 1950's specifications, the
Model 325C58, for example, features reverse-wired tone knobs so
the tone is brightest when the
knobs are turned completely counterclockwise.
Vintage Tone Selector on Model
4003 Basses
Prior to 1984, Rickenbacker basses
utilized a capacitor in the treble
pickup circuit to emphasize treble
tones coming from that pickup.
However, changes in tone preference and a call for higher output
led RIC to discontinue the use of
this capacitor in favor of a more
balanced sound. Nevertheless,
many users added this capacitor
back into the circuit, experimenting
with and sometimes preferring the
sound of the older configuration,
despite the resulting drop in volume.
With a simple upwards pull of the
treble tone control, the Vintage
Tone Selector will allow a player to
move between both sounds at the
drop of a hat. Pressed in, one
hears the familiar balanced tone of
the 4003, while pulled out to engage the circuit, the classic 4001
tone is heard.
String Height Adjustment
Most Rickenbacker guitars come
equipped with a six-way bridge.
Individual string saddles allow
extremely critical pitch and action
adjustments. Four bridge height
adjustment screws are located at
each corner of the bridge assembly.
To raise the height of the strings
from the surface of the neck, raise
the bridge by turning each of the
four adjusting screws clockwise
using the adjusting key supplied
with the instrument. Lower the
playing action by turning the adjusting screws counterclockwise.
Modern 4003 Series basses now
allow this capacitor to be easily
added or removed from the circuit.
Some replica instruments with
vibrato assemblies feature bridges
that have individual rollers supporting each string. Just like the original
instruments, it is possible for these
to become loose, vibrate, and
provide undesired string noise.
Pliers may be used to squeeze the
saddle from either side to stop
roller rattle. It is not generally
necessary for the roller to spin
freely as the string will easily slide
across the brass surface during
tuning or vibrato use.
Some models may be equipped
with saddles which have threaded
rollers to allow for string centering.
Lift the string and turn the roller to
move it to either side as appropriate.
String Length and Pitch Adjustment
To adjust one of these bridges, first
loosen the locking screw, if present,
so that an adjustment can be
made. Then, using the metric
wrench supplied with the instrument, turn each of the two adjust-
Hi TekTM Vibrato
First, check the pitch of each string.
If the string pitch sounds flat when
played at the 12th fret as compared
to the open harmonic at the fret,
turn the length adjustment screw
counterclockwise to shorten the
string. If the string sounds sharp to
the harmonic, turn the screw clockwise to lengthen the string.
Rickenbacker basses come
equipped with bridge assemblies
that have just two hex height adjustment screws, located at either
side of the bridge assembly. To
raise the strings, turn each of the
height adjustment screws clockwise. To lower the action, turn the
screws counterclockwise.
Certain models, such as those in
the 650 and 4004 Series, are
equipped with a special bridge/
tailpiece assembly in which the
individual bridges are adjusted
separately for each string. Each
bridge piece is adjusted by two hex
screws, located on either side of
the string it supports.
closer to the tail of the instrument
while round wound strings favor a
position toward the neck. Carefully
re-tighten the baseplate before
ment screws clockwise to raise the
string, or counterclockwise to lower
the string.
Each string saddle on Rickenbacker guitar and bass bridges may
be adjusted for perfect pitch or
intonation. Each saddle is set at the
factory for the gauge of Rickenbacker strings that come with the
instrument. If the pitch should
become slightly sharp or flat, or you
desire a change from standard
Rickenbacker string sizes, you can
readjust the pitch by turning the
saddle adjustment screws on the
back side of the bridge.
When making any pitch adjustments, first loosen the string, then
make an adjustment, and finally
bring the string back up to pitch. If
another adjustment is necessary,
repeat the process until the intonation is correct. This method protects
the strings from damage.
Intonation and individual string
height adjustment is accomplished
in the same fashion as the 650
Series fixed bridge assembly.
Simply use the hex key to raise or
lower the saddle and use a small
screwdriver to move the entire
saddle forward or back to correct
for pitch as described above.
This vintage replica vibrato assembly does not have the adjustability
and precision of modern vibrato
assemblies but does eliminate
entirely the friction of springs and
bearings. The only adjustment is
that for handle position which may
be loosened with a screwdriver and
retightened after positioning the
handle to the desired location.
It is vital that the neck is dead
straight before making intonation
adjustments as the location of the
bridge components was chosen on
the basis of a well adjusted instrument.
Additionally, the bridge baseplate
on most 300 and 600 series guitars
is adjustable for coarse intonation
to allow use of a wider range of
strings. Loosen the baseplate and
move it to the position required.
Generally speaking, flat wound
strings require the bridge to be
AccentTM Vibrato
KauffmanTM Vibrato
The height of the handle is a direct
function of string tension and can
be adjusted by removing the cover
on the back of the guitar to access
the vibrato springs. Tightening the
retaining screw will cause the
handle to rise away from the body
while loosening it will bring it closer
to the instrument. It may be necessary to add or remove a spring
when changing to a string type of
significantly different tension.
Note that all adjustments on this
type of bridge are interactive, i.e.
one adjustment may affect another.
Make sure to fully retune the instrument each time an adjustment is
made before making another one to
minimize this effect.
In keeping with 1950's specifications, this is a sideways vibrato,
unlike most vibrato units which
operate in an up-and-down motion.
It can be neutralized by either
removing the bar or gently turning
the tip of the bar towards the pickguard and out of the playing field.
This authentic replica shares the
shortcomings of the original design.
Specifically it may not always
perfectly return to pitch and may
produce some noise of its own
during use.
Neck Adjustment
Most Rickenbacker guitars and
basses are reinforced with twin
truss rods. This exclusive design
gives greater strength and stability
to the neck of the guitar. The truss
rods are separately adjustable,
allowing either side of the neck to
be readjusted independently of the
other, should it become necessary.
Three indications that the neck
may require adjustment are: 1) the
strings begin to buzz against the
frets; 2) the action of the strings
seems too high; or 3) the truss
rods rattle.
With the instrument in tune, sight
the neck for a bow or under-bow by
resting the body on a level table at
an approximate 45 degree angle
holding the top horn near the strap
grooves to allow room to remove
the nameplate from the head of the
instrument. After replacing strings
to the grooves of the nut, retune
the instrument to assure normal
tension on the neck.
position. Do not rely on the rod
itself to provide the bowing force.
This advice actually applies to all
guitar truss rod systems. Adjustments other than these can seriously damage your instrument.
Repeat the sighting step to confirm
the amount of bow or under bow in
the neck. Using 1/4 inch nut driver
wrench, such as the NW1 neck
adjustment tool, turn only a half a
turn at a time. Turn the nut clockwise to correct an under bow,
counterclockwise to straighten an
over bow. Continue this until the
desired angle of the neck is obtained.
Do not use a socket drive or Thandle wrench as damage may
occur. Nut driver tools generally
will slip in your hand prior to truss
rod damage, while these tools can
easily permit excessive force to be
A slight under bow (relief) is common on non-Rickenbacker instruments due to their limited range of
adjustment. Due to their extreme
adjustability you may prefer to
adjust a RIC neck almost dead
straight depending on the playing
action preferred.
Finally, replace the nameplate and
tune the instrument.
Do not hold by the neck or head,
as doing so will change the actual
position of the neck.
Should adjustment be necessary,
take the strings out of the nut
On instruments produced before
September 1, 1984, first loosen the
truss rod nuts, then move the neck
manually to the desired position
and snug the rod up to hold that
Additionally, all Rickenbacker
standard “Hi-Gain” pickups currently have individually adjustable
polepieces. Using the 3/32” hex
wrench included with your instrument, gently turn the individual
polepiece to raise or lower it. This
allows the player to fine-tune the
balance between strings, should
there be any inconsistency.
Pickup Adjustment
In order to achieve more volume by
placing the pickup closer to the
strings, guitar and bass pickups
are height adjustable. Both sides of
the pickup may be raised or lowered to change overall volume.
Just one of the instrument pickups
may be adjusted in order to change
the relative output of the pickups,
or just one side of any pickup may
be adjusted for changing the volume of certain strings with respect
to the others. To do this set the
pickup at an angle.
All Rickenbacker pickups are
adjusted by two screws, one on
each side of the pickup. For the
standard high gain and super high
gain Rickenbacker pickups which
are mounted on a piece of flexible
foam rubber, as on series 300 and
600 guitars, only the middle screw
of the three screws on each side of
the pickup is used for readjustment. To lower the pickup, simply
tighten down each of the two
screws clockwise. To raise the
pickup, loosen both screws counterclockwise.
Better balance adjustment is usually achieved by lowering poles on
strings that are too loud rather than
raising those that are too soft. The
entire pickup assembly may be
raised closer to the strings to
increase overall volume after such
The bass pickup on the 4000
series models is mounted on to the
top pick plate of the instrument.
These pickups have just one screw
on each side, and are adjusted in
the opposite manner. To lower the
pickup, loosen the two side screws
counterclockwise. To raise the
pickup, tighten the screws clockwise.
Do not attempt to adjust the pole
pieces (screw-like studs in the
center of the pickup) on older
Rickenbacker high gain pickups
not equipped with hex socket
polepieces. These are set at the
factory, and any attempt to adjust
them can cause permanent damage to the pickup.
Many Rickenbacker instruments
come equipped with two output
jacks. The jack labeled “Standard”
uses a typical ¼ instrument cable
for normal mono use. The other
jack is a Rick-O-Sound effects
output. This feature allows for
separate output of the bass and
treble position pickups, in conjunction with a quality stereo Y-cable. It
is also designed for use with a
stereo equipped amplifier.
Rick-O-Sound can be used to
produce special effects and multichannel output when used with a
stereo amplifier, a dual channel
amplifier, or two separate amplifiers. Additionally, Rick-O-Sound
can produce many other
sounds with the use of external
effects devices. These effects may
be run through each amplifier or
channel, producing many unique
tonal variations.
It is important to understand that
only one of the two jacks on the
guitar can be used at a time as
some rather complex switching is
done by the jack contacts. If you
wish to use a mono or standard
cable, plug it into the standard jack
To use with a quality stereo Y-cord,
insert the cable’s stereo plug into
the Rick-O-Sound output jack on
the instrument. Then, plug each of
the cable’s standard mono cables
into either 1) two separate amplifiers, or 2) each channel of a dual
channel amplifier.
Rick-O-Sound provides a choice
between three different types of
effects at one time. With the pickup
selector on the bass pickup, RickO-Sound puts out a lush and full
bass sound. With the pickup selector in the middle position, a beautiful blend of highs and lows can be
achieved, much like a clean chorus
effect. The tonal separation is
improved when using two amplifiers. With the pickup selector in the
treble position, Rick-O-Sound
produces a bright and full ringing
lead tone.
An example set-up might have a
soft, full jazz sound with plenty of
reverb at the bass setting in the
amplifier or channel one. Or a loud,
distorted heavy rock sound at the
treble position in the amplifier or
channel two. A big pop rock stereo
chorus type sound could come
from a combination of the two in
the middle position using both
amplifiers or channels.
The Rick-O-Sound may also be
used with a standard stereo cable
to connect directly with amplifiers
equipped with a stereo input.
A standard, quality shielded stereo
Y-cord, sometimes termed an
“insert cable”, is recommended for
use with ROS, but cables of poorer
quality may result in a significant
increase in noise or loss in treble
tone. Low capacitance and a high
degree of shielding comprise the
most important characteristics of a
quality cord.
Strings and tuning
All Rickenbacker instruments come
equipped with Rickenbacker
strings. These strings are specially
designed to bring out the best tonal
properties, playability and overall
fidelity in all Rickenbacker instruments. The strings come on new
Rickenbacker instruments with a
factory specified gauge and tension, designed to provide optimum
performance. Moreover, each
Rickenbacker instrument is specifically adjusted for the type of string
provided. If a different gauge,
tension or brand of string is desired, it may be necessary to
readjust the instrument. To avoid
readjustment of the instrument,
continue to use the RIC strings
designed for use on your model.
Check the string guide in this
manual for specific information.
Rickenbacker strings are made
specifically for your instrument.
String Replacement
When installing strings, the first
string should be loosened and
removed, and the new one installed and brought to pitch before
proceeding to the next string.
Replacing strings in this manner
keeps the adjustments in place.
Avoid stretching the string beyond
the intended pitch.
String Type
String Gauge
Proper string winding helps the
instrument stay in tune and produce proper intonation. On the first
turn, wrap the string over the
exposed string tip. This method
helps hold the string in place when
it is brought up to pitch. For unwound strings, wrap them at least
five times around the machine
head. For wound strings, three
times around should prevent string
95406 All Short Scale Guitars
Short Scale NikL
95403 Full Scale Six String Guitars
Round Wound NikL
95404 All Twelve String Guitars
Round Wound NikL
Some Rickenbacker guitars come
with no-hole slot tailpieces for easy
stringing. Simply slip the string
bead into its proper slot and pull
the string up to the key wind,
keeping tension on the instrument.
Then wind the string as discussed
Standard Factory Stringing
12 String Harmony
95511 All Four String Bass Guitars
Round Wound NikL
95515 All Five String Bass Guitars
Round Wound NikL
95405 Mandolin
Round Wound NikL
stringers now feature “slot-through”
peg heads, wherein the channels
for the “sideways” keywinds extend
through the back of the headstock.
This design makes it easier to
string and tune up 12 string mod-
String Guide
The table above shows the gauges
of strings which come on all Rickenbacker guitars and basses when
purchased from the factory.
12 String Tuning
Before changing strings, consult
the table to see what gauge string
each instrument was designed to
use and compare the gauges.
Heavier strings than the original
factory sets may require adjustment of the neck and re-grooving
of the saddles and nut. Less adjustment may be needed if choosing a lighter than standard set.
The most effective way to tune a
twelve string guitar is to begin by
tuning the regular six strings as
would be done on a six string
guitar. After these are brought to
pitch, proceed to tune the strings
that play in unison (the high E and
B set, or numbers 1 and 2.)
Now proceed to tune the remaining
strings, which play at an octave
from their regular string partner.
The strings which play in unison
are of the same gauge, while the
strings that play at the octave are a
lighter gauge than the other string
of their pair. Sometimes it is necessary to go back and repeat this
process again for perfect tuning.
Many newer Rickenbacker 12-
els, as well as improving tone due
to decreased head weight.
Note that on some models the
strings touch the nameplate which
has no adverse effect.
Any quality string set may be
utilized on a Rickenbacker guitar or
bass within a reasonable gauge
range as suggested by the chart
above. Perhaps the most important
characteristic of a quality string is
uniformity of diameter throughout
its length. The varying diameter of
cheap or non-uniform strings
makes it impossible to adjust for
acceptable intonation. So-called
hand-made strings often have
highly imperfect diameter.
General Guitar Care
Rickenbacker instruments are
exquisitely detailed with exclusive
high gloss finishes. With proper
care, these finishes can last the life
of the guitar. Following these
directions will ensure proper care
and protection.
Clean all perspiration, fingerprints,
dust and grime stains, etc. with a
RIC polishing cloth after each use.
RIC cloths are specially treated,
and other cloths may damage the
Polish using any non-abrasive pure
carnauba based auto wax if the
finish becomes stained or dull.
Inexpensive Turtle Wax ® T-123
mixed 50/50 with water works
better than most available specialty
guitar polishes. Wipe in a circular
motion at the speed which is slow
enough to see small water bubbles
form but fast enough to remove the
polish completely before drying.
Protect your purchase from various
chemicals such as household
cleaners, especially chlorine. Many
compounds found in rubber padding or packaging materials, plastic
bags, imported guitar stands, hand
soaps, lotions, sanitizers, etc.,
cause the finish to melt, dissolve,
appear tacky, or color bleed.
The ideal humidity level for Rickenbacker guitar storage is about 3540% while ideal temperature is
around 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
However, humidity is always more
important than temperature, so if a
compromise must be made during
storage, look for the most stable
environment within the optimum
humidity level.
Do not expose your instrument
during use or storage to environmental extremes such as heat,
cold, moisture, dryness, harsh
direct sunlight, rain, etc. (These
harmful conditions may cause
finish damage that is not covered
by warranty.)
Do not loosen string tension when
storing or transporting your instrument. The neck and body are
designed to remain under tension
at all times at full concert pitch.
Do not let damp clothing with noncolorfast dyes touch lighter guitars.
Do not place anti-moisture packets
or formulas with the instrument.
These items contain harmful
chemicals and could dry out the
guitar to a damaging degree.
Oil Finish Maintenance
Beyond routine cleaning, the best
way to maintain a hand rubbed oil
finish (as seen on Rickenbacker
Models 650D, 650S, and some
older models), is with Tung oil and
a 3M Scotch-Brite™ Ultra Fine
Hand Pad (#7448.)
Using small amounts of oil at a
time, wipe down the instrument
until there is a relatively uniform
coating on the surface of the guitar.
Going with the wood grain, use the
Scotch-Brite™ pad to lightly sand
the surface until it begins to take
on its original silky smooth feel.
Before setting the instrument aside
to dry, use a clean, lint free cloth to
wipe down any excess oil or grit.
Allow 8 – 12 hours for proper
This procedure can also be performed using ultra fine, light or gray
colored sandpaper. A minimum
grade of 1200 should be used to
avoid damaging the surface of the
wood. It is also important to avoid
black sandpaper, as the residue is
likely to stain the instrument as the
oil sets in.
Use of steel wool is not recommended as the ferrous residue
can cling to pickups. Particles of
this residue can also become
suspended in the finish and rust
over time.
Warranty Repair
Should any warranty repairs be
necessary, we must have your
warranty card on file or you must
supply the original sales slip showing the date of purchase, model,
and serial number.
All warranty repairs must be performed by the factory. We do not
authorize warranty repairs elsewhere.
Before returning your purchase for
warranty service within the United
States, please phone our Customer Service Department at 714545-5574 or communicate by email to
to obtain a Return Authorization.
Items shipped without an RA
number will be refused and returned to sender unopened.
This will expedite the repair of your
guitar and allow us to work on your
guitar as soon as it arrives. Also be
sure to enclose a complete description of the damage if additional information beyond that
contained in the RA number is
available. Be sure to insure the
instrument for the full value, as you
perceive it, when returning it to the
Currently, Rickenbacker does not
accept instruments outside of
warranty for repair work.
Rickenbacker parts, or their exact
equivalents are used. The use of
any parts, including strings, failing
to meet original specifications may
void the warranty.
First, consult the dealer where you
purchased your Rickenbacker.
Often the dealer will take responsibility for shipping your instrument.
Otherwise, contact our Customer
Service Department for a Return
Authorization Number and further
instruction on returning your Rickenbacker to the factory for warranty work.
Manual Updates
Rickenbacker maintains an extensive inventory of genuine replacement parts. Our Customer Service
Department is pleased to help you
select the proper part for your
model as well as provide current
pricing information.
You will need to know the correct
model and serial number when
ordering parts directly from the
factory. On most models, the serial
number is located on the output
jack plate and includes the digits at
each end of the plate.
You may also buy parts from any
authorized Rickenbacker dealer.
In some limited cases, warranty
exchanges for defective small parts
can be made after consulting with
Customer Service.
Note: Whenever you need replacement parts, make sure that
This manual may be revised at any
time and is also available online at
manual.pdf in the most current
Rickenbacker® , the "R" Design, Triangular
Name Crescent Design, RIC, Hamburg,
Atlantis, Colorado, Dakota, Frisco, Sierra,
Liverpool, Shasta, Comstock, Shiloh,
Cheyenne, Laramie, Jazz-bo, Laredo,
Miami, Jetglo, Fireglo, Mapleglo, Autumnglo,
Toaster, Toaster-Top, Horseshoe, Astron,
Kauffman and logotypes are among the
trademarks and service marks in the United
States and other countries of Rickenbacker
International Corporation. This is not a
comprehensive list of all trademarks and
service marks of RIC.
RIC reserves the right to discontinue
models, parts and accessories, and other
items or change specifications at any time
without prior notice.
Rickenbacker International Corp.
3895 S. Main Street
Santa Ana, CA. 92707
Tel: 714-545-5574
Fax: 714-754-0135
SKU 19001 Rev I