VESPA ET4 50 Technical information

PIAGGIO USA, Inc.
Training Material for Vespa ET2/ET4
INDEX
FAULT FINDING....................................................................................................................... 3
SYMPTOMS. ................................................................................................................................................................3
POSSIBLE REASONS. ...............................................................................................................................................3
TESTS. ..........................................................................................................................................................................3
Choke staying on. .................................................................................................................................................3
Carburetor flooding. .............................................................................................................................................3
Faulty vacuum tap. ..............................................................................................................................................3
Air filter clogged....................................................................................................................................................3
AUTOMATIC CHOKE OPERATION ................................................................................................ 4
OPERATION .................................................................................................................................................................4
Vespa ET2 50cc engine. .....................................................................................................................................4
Vespa ET4 1 5 0cc LEADER engine. ..................................................................................................................4
FAULTS .........................................................................................................................................................................4
To check if the choke unit is operating. ..........................................................................................................4
Diagram 1 – Choke unit operation ........................................................................................................5
To check the choke circuit. ................................................................................................................................5
Diagram 2 – Choke unit power supply. Vespa ET4 ...........................................................................5
Diagram 3 – Choke unit power supply. Vespa ET2 ...........................................................................6
Diagram 4 – Checking carburetor fuel level .......................................................................................6
150cc L.E.AD.E.R. Engine......................................................................................................... 7
IGNITION, CHARGING & IMMOBILIZER ................................................................................................................7
Ignition. ...................................................................................................................................................................7
Immobilizer. ...........................................................................................................................................................7
Indicators. ..............................................................................................................................................................7
Choke unit. .............................................................................................................................................................7
Carburetor choke. ................................................................................................................................................7
TESTING. ......................................................................................................................................................................8
Immobilizer. ...........................................................................................................................................................8
Examples. ...............................................................................................................................................................8
Stator. .....................................................................................................................................................................9
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
CDI. ..........................................................................................................................................................................9
HT Coil.....................................................................................................................................................................9
WHAT TO DO IF YOU NEED TO CHANGE AN ET4 LOCK BARREL..................................................... 10
IF YOU DO NOT HAVE THE ORIGINAL RED KEY: ............................................................................................. 1 0
IF YOU HAVE THE ORIGINAL RED KEY: ............................................................................................................. 1 0
L.E.AD.E.R. 150cc IGNITION / CHARGING................................................................................... 11
ET2 CHARGING CIRCUIT ......................................................................................................... 12
ET2 & ET4 FUEL GAUGE SENDER AND CIRCUIT ......................................................................... 13
L.E.AD.E.R. 150cc ENGINE SECTION ........................................................................................ 14
VESPA ET2 CRANKSHAFT COMPONENTS (Range 3.9)................................................................. 15
ET2 / 4 SPECS. CHART ............................................................................................................ 16
ASSISTENZA TECHNICAL INFORMATION BULLETIN S................................................................... 17
NUMBER 001, OCTOBER 2 0 0 1 .......................................................................................................................... 1 7
Vespa ET4 sealed battery ............................................................................................................................... 1 7
NUMBER 002, OCTOBER 2 0 0 1 .......................................................................................................................... 1 8
Vespa ET2 & ET4 carburetors ........................................................................................................................ 1 8
ET2 Carburetor Problems .......................................................................................................................... 1 8
ET4 Carburetor Problems .......................................................................................................................... 1 9
NUMBER 003, OCTOBER 2 0 0 1 .......................................................................................................................... 2 0
Programming ET4 immobilizer system ........................................................................................................ 2 0
NUMBER 004, DICEMBER 2 0 0 1........................................................................................................................ 2 2
Vespa ET2 spare parts catalog update ........................................................................................................ 2 2
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
FAULT FINDING
ENGINE RUNNING RICH
S YMPT OMS .
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Vehicles will not start or has cut out and will not restart - The plug is found to be very black and
fouled.
High fuel consumption - The plug is found to be very black and fouled.
Black / badly carboned spark plug.
If you see a black plug satisfy yourself that it is due to excess fuel.
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Thick black sooty build up = excess fuel.
Black and obviously oily = Oil pump setting.
Black and shiny, as if it has been polished with shoe polish = weak spark.
If the plug looks wet but you cannot tell if it is gasoline or oil remember that gasoline will evaporate, oil
will not.
POSS IBLE REASONS .
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Choke staying on.
Carburetor flooding.
Faulty vacuum tap.
Air filter clogged.
TES T S .
Choke staying on.
Remember that the choke defaults to ON.
Refer to the information below about testing the choke to answer these questions:
1 . Is the choke getting power when the engine is running?
2 . Is the choke unit working?
Carburetor flooding.
Refer to the information below to understand the test for fuel leve l.
1 . Is the fuel level reasonable with the engine idling?
2 . Does the level begin to drop when the engine is run at high speed for a period?
Faulty vacuum tap.
If the diaphragm in the vacuum tap is split then fuel can be sucked down the vacuum pipe and into
the manifold.
Remove the vacuum pipe from the tap. If the pipe is wet inside the tap must be faulty.
Air filter clogged.
It is unlikely that a reasonably new vehicle will have a clogged filter but is worth checking if you are
running out of ideas. A high mileage vehicle may have collected a lot of dust that is clogging the
element. Replacement is probably the best solution.
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August, 2 0 0 2
AUTOMATIC CHOKE OPERATION
The automatic choke units used on Vespa motor scooters are both basically the same and both work
in the same w ay.
Remember that the choke defaults to being ON so it is unlikely that a cold starting problem is due to a
malfunctioning choke.
OPERATI ON
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The choke unit has a plunger that is pushed down to close off a hole at the bottom of a drilling in
the carburetor.
A wax pellet is heated electrically and expands, as it heats up it pushes out the plunger. As the
wax warms the electrical resistance measured across it increases until it becomes open circuit. In
most circumstances the choke will then remain off purely by the heat of the engine.
The time taken for the choke to turn off is controlled only by the rate at which the wax expands.
The ambient temperature will affect the time taken for the choke to turn off.
The choke is activated once the engine has started and not when the ignition is turned on.
Vespa ET2 50cc engine.
These motor scooters have headlights that are run from 1 2 volts AC.
12 volts AC is used to operate the choke. AC can only be supplied when the engine is running so the
choke cannot begin to turn off until the engine is running.
Vespa ET4 150cc LEADER engine.
ET4 employs a relay so that the choke will be powered by DC but is triggered by the AC supply when
the engine starts.
FAUL T S
The most likely choke fault is the choke remaining ON. Symptoms will be anything that may be caused
by a rich mixture.
1 . High fuel consumption.
2 . Black spark plug.
3 . Rough running when hot. OK when ridden hard but rough and four stroking at 20 mph.
4 . Fails to start. Plug is found to be black and fouled.
To check if the choke unit is operating.
Refer to diagram 1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The
Remove choke unit from the carburetor.
Measure the distance the plunger is protruding from the body, when it is cold.
Attach a 1 2 Volt battery to the socket and leave it for two or three minutes.
The plunger should have extended by 4 -5 mm.
Disconnect the battery.
plunger should retract slowly over a couple of minutes.
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Diagram 1 – Choke unit operation
To check the choke circuit.
Refer to diagram 2 for ET2. Diagram 3 for ET4
1 . Follow wire from the choke unit until you find a grey two-pin plug and socket. Unplug.
2 . Resistance check will confirm continuity through the choke unit.
3 . To prove the choke circuit. Connect a voltmeter across the two pins of the socket. With the engine
running you should have system voltage. If no voltage then the choke will not turn off.
Note . Remember that the choke defaults to being ON. If the choke does not turn off the symptom will
be a black and fouled plug. Or; the scooter starts and idles ok and runs at speed ok. When riding
slowly (2 0 mph) the engine runs very roughly and four strokes badly.
Diagram 2 – Choke unit power supply. Vespa ET4
Note . Choke units all look much the same but are different and it is important to use the correct choke
in the correct carburetor.
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
Diagram 3 – Choke unit power supply. Vespa ET2
Note . Choke units all look much the same but are different and it is important to use the correct choke
in the correct carburetor.
Diagram 4 – Checking carburetor fuel level
If you find the float bowl only half full then the engine will run weak and may be hard to start.
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
150cc L.E.AD.E.R. Engine
I GNITI ON, CHARGI NG & IMMOBI L I ZER
Use these notes in conjunction with the circuit diagram
The electrical system on the new Leader engine is very different to previous two stroke and four stroke
Piaggio engines. The ignition, charging & immobilizer circuits do not function in the same way and do
not share common components with previous versions.
• Ignition is now using the battery circuit. Everything shares one common supply.
• Alternator has three phase (all yellow) and ignition pick up coil (green) outputs only.
• Rectifier / Regulator is very simple. Three phase (yellow) inputs and one (red / blue) output.
• CDI unit has become more complicated. The one unit is responsible for; ignition, immobilizer,
indicators & choke unit.
Ignition.
When the ignition is turned on power is supplied to the CDI via the orange wire (terminal 5).
Ignition pick up is via green wire (terminal 2).
Output to the HT coil is via purple wire (terminal 3).
The unit is earthed via black wire (terminal 8).
Immobilizer.
The wires connected to the unmarked terminals are from the antenna that is mounted around the
ignition lock barrel.
The red / blue wire (terminal 4) supplies battery voltage even with ignition off.
Yellow wire (terminal 6) supplies the LED on the instrument panel. This LED should be flashing with
the ignition turned off to confirm that the immobilizer system is functioning.
See the notes below about using the LED for immobilizer fault finding.
Indicators.
There is no separate indicator relay. The relay function is contained within the CDI unit,
Power to the indicator switch is via the blue / black wire (terminal 1).
Choke unit.
The choke is now controlled by the CDI (not the regulator).
Power is supplied to the choke via the orange wire when the ignition is turned on. The unit will not
function until the engine is running when the CDI will complete the circuit to earth via the white / black
wire (terminal 7).
Carburetor choke.
The carburettor heater will start working as soon as the ignition is turned on. Power is supplied via the
orange wire.
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TES TI NG.
Immobilizer.
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Normally use the blue key for testing.
The diagnostic test socket is on the right hand side and will be seen once the helmet storage
compartment is removed. Use the exiting test box in this socket.
Testing can be done by using the instrument panel mounted LED.
If the system is working normally the LED will be flashing when the ignition is off and it will stop
flashing when the ignition is on.
If the immobilizer system is faulty, when the ignition is switched on there will be a series of
flashes.
The flashes hold a key to the fault.
1 . The first flash will be long (2 seconds) or short (0.7 second). A Long flash means the CDI is not
programmed. Short flash if the CDI is programmed.
2 . Next is a series of short (0.5 second) flashes.
1 flash = CDI not grounded
2 flash = No transponder detected. Fault with Key or antenna.
3 flash = Transponder detected but not recognized.
4 flash = System not programmed.
3 . The last thing to notice is whether the LED finally remains on or off.
OFF = Ignition is possible.
ON = Ignition is not possible.
Examples.
1
2
3
LED off
2 sec
CDI not programmed. Engine will run up to 2000 rpm
2 sec
2 x 0.5 sec
LED off
CDI not programmed. Key transponder not detected.
Fault with transponder or a erial.
Engine will run up to 2 0 0 0 rpm.
LED off
0.7 sec
CDI programmed. System function normally.
0.7 sec
2 x 0.5 sec
LED on
CDI programmed. Key transponder not detected.
Fault with transponder or aerial.
Ignition not possible
CDI programmed.
Key transponder detected but not recognized.
Ignition not possible
Vespa Assistenza
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Stator.
Any yellow-to-yellow should give continuity.
Yellow to ground should not give continuity.
CDI.
Note that the ET4 Leader and ET2 use different CDI units.
CDI Unit connections
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Antenna
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Antenna
6
Yellow - diagnostic LED control
1
Black / Blue - Output to indicator switch (1 2v switching on / off)
8
Black - Ground
3
Purple - Output to HT coil
4
Red / Blue - input. Battery voltage even with ignition switched off.
5
White /Red - input. Battery voltage only with ignition on.
7
White / Black - input from choke. To ground only when engine is running.
2
Green - input. Pulse from ignition pickup.
HT Coil.
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Purple to Black - primary winding
HT to Black - secondary winding
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
WHAT TO DO IF YOU NEED TO CHANGE AN ET4 LOCK BARREL
IF Y OU DO NO T HAVE T HE OR I G I NAL RED KEY:
If you do not have the original RED key then the only solution is to change the Immobilizer and CDI unit
as well.
IF Y OU HAVE T HE OR I GINAL RED KEY:
1 . Order a lock barrel set p / n: 5 7 3 4 3 0. This is supplied with a pre cut RED k ey.
2 . Order a BLUE key p / n: 5 7 3 4 2 6.
3.
Fit the new lock barrels.
4 . Remove the flip up transponder from the OLD RED key by separating the two halves of the key
slightly with a screwdriver. Do the same to the NEW RED key and then fit the OLD transponder into
the NEW key. Now the immobilizer system will function as normal (It will not know anything has
changed).
5.
Get the new blue key cut and then program it in the normal way.
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
L.E.AD.E.R. 150cc IGNITION /CHARGING
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
ET2 CHARGING CIRCUIT
Note: oil light remains alight for 15 seconds after turning ignition on
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Alternator stator and control box both have separate components for AC and DC circuits.
AC output is full wave and regulated.
DC output is half wave rectified and regulated.
DC regulation is on negative side of the alternator.
If the voltage on terminal 5 is below 8V DC approx. (flat battery) when starting, the DC
rectifier / regulator will not function so there will be no output from the alternator on the DC
circuit. Connect a booster battery to raise the voltage when starting; this will make the
rectifier / regulator function.
Choke heater will only begin to operate once the engine is running. (AC circuit)
The oil warning light will “self check”. Every time the ignition is turned on the light will come on
for 15 second s.
These vehicles do not have a separate indicator relay.
Tests . 1. Blue / Grey to Ground = 25 – 3 0 volts AC @ 3 0 0 0 rpm.
2. Ammeter between red and battery positive = 1.5 – 2 amps with battery at 1 3 volts
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
ET2 & ET4 FUEL GAUGE SENDER AND CIRCUIT
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
L.E.AD.E.R. 150cc ENGINE SECTION
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
VESPA ET2 CRANKSHAFT COMPONENTS (Range 3.9)
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Crankshaft spline length from shoulder at main bearing to the end is always 7 2.5 mm.
The component stack as shown above must be 7 4.0 mm
Important. The nut must not bottom on the crankshaft shoulder.
Assemble all the components on the shaft without the fan. Check that the splines end 1 mm
below the face of the kick -start plate.
DO NOT grease variator rollers.
Always use a new nut. Use Locktite 2 4 2F or similar and torque to 4 0-44 N.M. by means of the
specific half pulley holding tool P / N 0 2 0 1 6 5Y
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
ET2/4 SPECS. CHART
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
ASSISTENZA TECHNICAL INFORMATION BULLETINS
NUMBER 001, OCT OBER 2001
Vespa ET4 sealed battery
It has come to our attention that there were a number of Vespa ET4 scooters that were fitted with acid
type batteries from the factory. If you receive a Vespa with the wrong battery fitted please remove the
battery and place the VIN # of the vehicle it came out of on it. Please return any wrong batteries that
you have collected at the end of the month and bill Piaggio USA for the shipping. Please order a
replacement battery on a Pre -Sales order form and fax it to (3 1 0) 6 0 4-3 9 8 9 and we will send the
replacement battery to you second day shipment. All Vespa ET4’s shipped after the August 1 9 will
arrive fitted with the proper battery. We at Piaggio would like to apologize for this problem and any
inconvenience that it may have caused.
Correct battery
Incorrect Battery
1 2V-10A maintenance -free type
Vespa Assistenza
1 2V-12A Acid type
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August, 2 0 0 2
NUMBER 002, OCT OBER 2001
Vespa ET2 & ET4 carburetors
We have noticed an increasing number of carburetor change outs in the Warranty claims. Piaggio USA
will not honor the warranty replacement of complete carburetors unless there is a broken part or a
manufacturer’s defect. All carburetors that are not functioning properly must be disassembled and
properly cleaned and reinstalled before approval to replace the carburetor will be given by the Vespa
Assistenza Department. Please see Technical notes below on the symptoms and causes and repair of
the ET2 and ET4 carburetors.
ET2 Carburetor Problems
Symptoms: After PDI the Vespa will not start and gas overflows from the carburetor.
Action: In this case the float needle is most likely stuck to the seat in the carburetor (please see
picture below). To fix this problem you can remove the float bowl and gently pull the float up in order to
release the needle from the seat. Another option is to remove the fuel line to the carburetor and
gently blow compressed air into the line thus causing the needle to push away from the seat. If done
properly, once the needle is separated from the seat and gasoline is able to pass through the seat the
problem should not reoccur.
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
ET4 Carburetor Problems
Symptoms: Vespa will start and idle but dies as soon as the accelerator is turned. This symptom is
very similar to the CDI not being programmed but it will not gain slightly in rpm’s when the throttle is
turned, as it will do if the CDI is not programmed.
Action: In this case the problem is usually a clogged pilot jet. The idle circuit is running off of the
choke jet and this is allowing the scooter to start and idle but as soon as you turn the throttle there is
no transition from the pilot circuit to the main jet and the scooter will die. Turn the carburetor over and
remove the four float bowl screws (A). Remove the jets (B) as pictured below and clean the carburetor
and the jets thoroughly with carburetor cleaner and a jet pick . Please be careful not to get carburetor
cleaner on any of the other engine components as it may ruin surface finishes. After the carburetor
and jets have been thoroughly cleaned and the carburetor refitted (c) the running problem should be
solved.
A
B
C
W arning:
W hen working with gasoline or other harmful chemicals, please be sure to use gloves and proper eye
protection and always work in a well-ventilated area and do not work near an open flame or hot
surfaces.
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
NUMBER 003, OCT OBER 2001
Programming ET4 immobilizer system
We have had a few questions lately on how to properly program keys for the ET4. Review the
instructions and pictures below to help you program new keys. The red key opens and closes the
circuit. All of the un -programmed blue keys should be introduced in between the red keys. You can
program up to seven blue keys.
1. Separate the keys and remove all key chains.
2. Put the red key in the ignition.
3. Turn the key to the “on” position.
4. Turn the key “Off” when the LED comes on.
5. Remove the red key.
6. Place the blue key in the ignition within 6 seconds.
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7. Turn the key to the “On” position.
8. Turn the key “Off’ when the LED comes on.
9. Remove the blue key.
(Repeat steps 6 -9 for additional blue keys)
10. Put the red key in the ignition within 6 seconds.
11. Turn the key to the “On” position.
12. Turn the key “Off” before the LED comes on.
13. Remove the red key to close the circuit.
Vespa Assistenza
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August, 2 0 0 2
NUMBER 004, D ICEMBER 2001
Vespa ET2 spare parts catalog update
On page 2 8, table 7 has been updated to reflect proper part descriptions and part numbers for the
items shown within the graph. Please open the document title Table 7 and add a copy to all of your
ET2 Parts Books.
Vespa Assistenza
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