User's Guide
ADI-8 DD
SyncAlign
®
®
SyncCheck
Intelligent Clock Control
TM
Hi-Precision 24 Bit / 96 kHz
8 Channel Dual Universal Format Converter
8 Channel Sample Rate Converter
ADAT® optical / TDIF®-1 / AES/EBU Interface
TDIF-1
24 Bit Interface
Contents
1
2
3
4
Introduction.................................................................................................... 3
Supplied Contents ......................................................................................... 3
Brief Description and Characteristics........................................................... 3
Technical Specifications ............................................................................... 4
4.1 Inputs .......................................................................................................... 4
4.2 Outputs ....................................................................................................... 5
4.3 Digital.......................................................................................................... 5
4.4 Sample Rate Converter............................................................................... 5
5
First Usage
5.1 Quick Start .................................................................................................. 6
5.2 The DD plain and simple ............................................................................. 7
5.3 Operating the ADI-8 DD .............................................................................. 8
6
The AES to ADAT/TDIF Converter
6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 9
6.2 Inputs .......................................................................................................... 9
6.3 Input State Display .................................................................................... 10
6.4 Sample Rate Conversion........................................................................... 10
6.5 Outputs ADAT Optical/TDIF ...................................................................... 11
6.6 Inputs ADAT/TDIF (Copy Mode)................................................................ 12
7
The ADAT/TDIF to AES/EBU Converter
7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 13
7.2 Inputs ........................................................................................................ 13
7.3 Input State Display .................................................................................... 14
7.4 Outputs AES/EBU ..................................................................................... 15
7.5 Input AES/EBU (Copy Mode) .................................................................... 16
8
Clock Section
8.1 Clock Configuration................................................................................... 17
8.2 Lock, SyncCheck and SyncAlign ............................................................... 18
8.3 Word Clock Input and Output .................................................................... 19
9
Word Clock
9.1 Operation and Technical Background........................................................ 20
9.2 Cabling and Termination ........................................................................... 21
10
Conversion Modes and Notes
10.1
8-channel AES to ADAT || TDIF Converter (96 kHz) ............................... 22
10.2
8-channel AES to 2 x ADAT || 2 x TDIF Splitter (48 kHz) ........................ 22
10.3
2-channel AES to 8-channel TDIF || ADAT Splitter (96 kHz) ................... 22
10.4
8-channel ADAT/TDIF to 2 x ADAT || 2 x TDIF Splitter (48 kHz) ............. 22
10.5
16-channel ADAT/TDIF to ADAT || TDIF Converter (48 kHz) .................. 23
10.6
8-channel ADAT/TDIF to ADAT || TDIF Converter (96 kHz) .................... 23
10.7
8-channel TDIF/ADAT to ADAT || AES Converter (96 kHz) ..................... 23
10.8
16-channel TDIF/ADAT to ADAT (|| AES) Converter (48 kHz)................. 23
10.9
8-channel AES to AES Sample Rate Converter (96 kHz) ........................ 23
10.10 2-channel AES to 8-channel AES Splitter (96 kHz) ................................. 24
10.11 4-channel AES Double Wire to AES Single Wire Converter (96 kHz)...... 24
10.12 4-channel AES Single Wire to AES Double Wire Converter (96 kHz)...... 24
10.13 8-channel ADAT/TDIF to ADAT || TDIF Sample Rate Conv. (96 kHz) ..... 24
11
Technical Background
11.1
DS – Double Speed ................................................................................ 25
11.2
AES/EBU – SPDIF.................................................................................. 26
11.3
Clock De-coupling using the SRC ........................................................... 27
11.4
The SRC as Signal Conditioner............................................................... 27
12
Controls and Connectors ............................................................................ 28
13
Connector Pinouts ....................................................................................... 29
14
Block Diagram .............................................................................................. 30
15
Warranty ....................................................................................................... 31
16
Appendix ...................................................................................................... 31
2
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
1. Introduction
With the ADI-8 DD you have an incredibly versatile digital interface to your supply. What at first
looks like a simple AES/TDIF/ADAT format converter, turns out to be the universal problem
solver at a closer look. From small project studios to broadcast and television, the Universal
Format Converter is the perfect link between the formats mostly used today.
As a consequent continuation of RME's world-wide successful ADI-8 series, the DD also contains elaborate technology and the latest integrated circuits, delivering 8 full channels in 24 bit
and 96 kHz. The ADI-8 DD is a uniquely powerful and high-quality device, which will excite you
even after many years of operation.
2. Package Contents
Please check that your ADI-8 DD package contains each of the following:
•
•
•
•
ADI-8 DD
Manual
Power chord
2 x 2 m optical cable (TOSLINK)
3. Brief Description and Characteristics
The ADI-8 DD consists of two 8-channel digital format converters in reference quality, in a standard 19" box with 1 unit height. The compact device has numerous extraordinary features like
Intelligent Clock Control (ICC), SyncCheck®, SyncAlign®, Bitclock PLL, patchbay functionality
and active jitter suppression per SD-PLL. Switchable high-end sample rate converters (SRC)
allow for both sample rate conversion in best possible quality, as well as clock-decoupling of all
AES/EBU inputs.
All of the ADI-8 DD's I/Os support 96 kHz/24 bit. As ADAT optical and TDIF are restricted to
48kHz, in DS mode (Double Speed) two channels are being used for the transmission of one
channel's data. The Sample Split algorithm used is also implemented in RME's Hammerfall and
Hammerfall DSP. Thus the ADI-8 DD also serves as an ideal AES/EBU frontend for these interface cards, on both Mac and PC.
The format conversion between AES/EBU and ADAT/TDIF operates in both directions at the
same time, both completely independent or intelligently coupled. LEDs of different colours
show the present state of incoming and outgoing signals and of the internal processing in a
clear way.
The unique Intelligent Clock Control (ICC) allows for a flexible use with internal clock (44.1, 48,
88.2 and 96 kHz), external word clock or the digital input signals. These options being available
for both directions are intelligently coupled in a way typical for RME and easy to apply thanks to
a clear and easily understandable display of the Lock and Sync states. Besides, the unique
Copy Mode allows for operation as digital patchbay and signal distributor. Up to 16 channels
can be distributed and converted at the same time. In few words: The ADI-8 DD is a true Intelligent Audio Solution.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
3
4. Technical Specifications
• Power supply: Internal, 100-240 V AC, 15 Watts
• Dimensions: 483 x 44 x 205 mm
• Weight: 2 kg
4.1 Inputs
AES/EBU
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4 x XLR, transformer balanced, ground-free, according to AES3-1992
High-sensitivity input stage (< 0.3 Vss)
SPDIF compatible (IEC 60958)
Accepts Consumer and Professional format, copy protection will be ignored
Single Wire: 4 x 2 channels 24 bit, up to 96 kHz
Double Wire: 4 x 2 channels 24 bit 48 kHz, equalling 4 channels 96 kHz
Lock range: 27 kHz – 103 kHz
Jitter when synced to input signal: < 3 ns
ADAT Optical
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 x TOSLINK, according to Alesis specification
Standard: 8 channels 24 bit, up to 48 kHz
Copy Mode: up to 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz
Sample Split (S/MUX): 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz, equalling 8 channels 24 bit 96 kHz
Bitclock PLL ensures perfect synchronisation even in varispeed operation
Lock range: 33 kHz – 56 kHz
Jitter when synced to input signal: < 2 ns
TDIF
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2 x D-sub 25 pol., according to TDIF-1
Standard: 8 channels 24 bit, up to 48 kHz
Copy Mode: up to 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz
Sample Split (Dual Line): 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz, equalling 8 channels 24 bit 96 kHz
SD-PLL for low jitter synchronisation even in varispeed operation
Lock range: 27 kHz – 56 kHz
Jitter when synced to input signal: < 3 ns
Word Clock
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
4
BNC, not terminated (10 kOhm)
Automatic Double Speed detection and internal conversion to Single Speed
SD-PLL for low jitter synchronisation even in varispeed operation
AC-coupling, not effected by DC-offsets within the network
Signal Adaptation Circuit: signal refresh through auto-center and hysteresis
Overvoltage protection
Level range: 1.0 Vss – 5.6 Vss
Lock range: 27 kHz – 112 kHz
Jitter when synced to input signal: < 3 ns
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
4.2 Outputs
AES/EBU
•
•
•
•
•
•
4 x XLR, transformer balanced, ground-free, according to AES3-1992
Output voltage Professional 4.5 Vss, Consumer 2.1 Vss
Format Professional according to AES3-1992 Amendment 4
Format Consumer (SPDIF) according to IEC 60958
Single Wire: 4 x 2 channels 24 bit, up to 96 kHz
Double Wire: 4 x 2 channels 24 bit 48 kHz, equalling 4 channels 96 kHz
ADAT Optical
•
•
•
•
2 x TOSLINK
Standard: 8 channels 24 bit, up to 48 kHz
Copy Mode: up to 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz
Sample Split (S/MUX): 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz, equalling 8 channels 24 bit 96 kHz
TDIF
•
•
•
•
2 x D-sub 25 pin, according to TDIF-1
Standard: 8 channels 24 bit, up to 48 kHz
Copy Mode: up to 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz
Sample Split (Dual Line): 2 x 8 channels 24 bit / 48 kHz, equalling 8 channels 24 bit 96 kHz
Word Clock
•
•
•
•
•
BNC
Max. output voltage: 5 Vss
Output voltage @ 75 Ohm: 4.0 Vss
Impedance: 10 Ohm
Frequency range: 27 kHz – 56 kHz
4.3 Digital
• Low Jitter Design: < 1 ns internal
• Internal sample rates: 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz
• Internal resolution: 24 bit
4.4 Sample Rate Converter
•
•
•
•
•
•
Self adjusting, high order aliasing filter (-110 dB)
Resolution: 24 bit
Dynamic range: 128 dBA
Distortion (THD+N): -117 dB (0.00014%)
Input / Output sample rate range: 27 kHz - 103 kHz
Supports varispeed operation through fast tracking
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
5
5. First Usage
5.1 Quick Start
The user interface of the ADI-8 DD is characterized by a clearly structured architecture and an
unambiguous labelling of the front and rear sides. The device can thus be used easily without a
manual, because numerous LEDs show the state of the device and of all incoming and outgoing signals in a strictly logical way.
However, we have to question this statement a little, because we couldn't stop ourselves and
integrated everything in the ADI-8 DD that we could think of and that was in any way possible.
As a consequence, you will find some application examples in chapter 10 that break up the
logical structure of the front board. Those are however very special applications for professionals, where we anticipate both the understanding of those modes and the ability to read a manual.
When being switched on for the first time, the ADI-8 DD comes up in a default mode, which
should be appropriate for most applications. Both converters are set to their typical format conversion modes, and synchronize to the input signals.
AES to ADAT/TDIF:
• SOURCE: AES
• SRC not active
• Slave mode (CLOCK AES / INPUT)
ADAT/TDIF to AES:
• SOURCE: ADAT
• Slave mode (CLOCK ADAT / INPUT)
• AES STATE PRO
If the device is being used with TDIF, simply select SOURCE TDIF instead of ADAT in the right
part.
The ADI-8 DD remembers all settings before switching off and sets them automatically when
switching on the next time.
A quick guide for operation and functionality of the ADI-8 DD can be found on the next pages.
For transmission of the digital signals into a computer with PCI-bus, we recommend RME's
interface cards of the DIGI96® and Hammerfall® series. These high quality digital audio cards
are available with drivers for all common operating systems, and have the highest reputation
world-wide.
6
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
5.2 The DD plain and simple
With a device as powerful as the ADI-8 DD, it is for sure sometimes difficult to find out what's
going on, or can be done with it. The device is capable of 34 different format conversions –
which nobody can remember. And how are they set up? What can the user do at all?
The key to understanding the ADI-8 DD is the block diagram below. Reduced to the core functionality, it shows clearly and easily to be understood, which inputs and outputs work together
where and when.
The three inputs AES, ADAT and TDIF are shown on the left side. Using one source switch
each, both the left and the right part can access the inputs independently. The output of the left
part is connected to TDIF, and basically also to the ADAT output. The output of the right part is
connected to the AES output. This is the obvious design and functionality of the device, as can
be learned from the front panel and the rear (connectors). The two converter units of the ADI-8
DD operate independently from each other, no matter which of the three inputs they use, sending a signal to their hard-wired outputs.
But there are two special cases, in which the optical ADAT outputs work for the right part instead of the left part. Using the AES STATE key, the AES signal can also be routed to the optical output*. This functionality is activated by switch Opt.2 in the diagram. It is very useful when
a device shall be connected which has only an optical SPDIF input (e.g. Mini-Disc).
The second special function enables an 'ADAT to TDIF and vice versa' converter, i.e.
ADAT/TDIF in both directions simultaneously. So far, the ADI-8 DD can be used bi-directional
as AES to TDIF and AES to ADAT converter. But ADAT to TDIF, as well as TDIF to ADAT, are
both a function of the left part, therefore require to change the input and are thus not available
at the same time. As can be seen in the block diagram the ADAT output can also be fed from
the right part, activated by switch Opt.1 in the diagram. The conversion TDIF to ADAT now
takes place in the right part, and the ADI-8 DD can convert ADAT/TDIF in both directions at the
same time.
*The AES output 1/2 is sent to the second ADAT output AUX.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
7
5.3 Operating the ADI-8 DD
Join us for a small 'tour de ADI', starting on the left side at the AES to ADAT/TDIF converter.
Configuration starts with choosing the input signal (AES, ADAT or TDIF). The state of the input
signal is displayed by 16 LEDs. Shown are Lock (per XLR jack, including SyncCheck), Emphasis and the level of the audio signal.
SRC activates a Hi-End 8-channel Sample Rate Converter. It is especially useful when sources
cannot be synced, or the output signal shall have another sampling frequency.
RME's intelligent clock control (ICC) offers extensive and professional means that are not easily met. To start with, the clock source can be set to Internal (crystal), External (BNC word
clock) and Input, while Input lets you select between AES, ADAT or TDIF. The INT(ernal) clock
rates are 44.1 and 48kHz, which turn to 88.2 and 96kHz after activating the DS mode. After
activating SRC, any AES signal from 32 to 96kHz can be converted to 44.1, 48, 88.2 or 96kHz.
Lock state and clock synchronicity are being displayed by the state of each LED (flashing or
constantly lit).
The ADAT/TDIF to AES section is layed out in a similar way. After choosing the input signal
(AES, ADAT or TDIF), the clock source and the sampling rate, there is a field with 16 LEDs for
displaying the current status. An Emphasis bit at the TDIF input will be automatically set and
indicated for the AES out. The Lock state of the input signals is being displayed at the
SOURCE selector by flashing LED. The Sync LEDs show the synchronicity between both
ADAT or TDIF inputs (or the four XLR inputs), as in double speed mode (DS) 2 I/Os are active
(4 channels each).
The AES output signal can be set to Consumer or Professional subcode. The first output
(channel 1/2) can optionally be output optically (via TOSLINK) using the second ADAT output.
The AES STATE key also allows to connect both ADAT outputs to the AES outputs (OPT. blinking; useful for TDIF to ADAT conversion).
The unit always sends its output signal to ADAT and TDIF simultaneously. Additionally when
operating at no higher than 48kHz, both ADAT outputs and TDIF interfaces get the same signal. Thus the distribution capability is doubled to 2 x ADAT and 2 x TDIF. Thanks to the freely
available inputs all attached devices can send signals to each other without the need to rearrange the cabling between them.
8
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
6. The AES to ADAT/TDIF Converter
6.1 General
This ADI-8 DD's functional unit, which will be called 'left part' further on, is an 8-channel format
converter from AES, TDIF or ADAT to ADAT/TDIF, with the output signal being transmitted
both at the ADAT and TDIF ports in parallel. As long as the device is not working in DS mode
(Double Speed), the output signal is even present at both ADAT and TDIF ports (MAIN/AUX).
Therefore the ADI-8 DD can pass on a 4 x 2 channel AES/EBU input signal to up to two ADAT
and TDIF devices at the same time (splitter 1 to 4). If AES is chosen as source in the right part,
the signal will additionally be passed on to the four AES/EBU outputs as well.
The four AES/EBU inputs process Double Speed (up to 96 kHz) and Double Wire (up to 48
kHz) automatically. Excessive status displays (Lock, SyncCheck, Emphasis, Level) help to
avoid wrong configuration and wrong clock setup.
A switchable high-end 8-channel sample rate converter can both convert the sample rate and
decouple the AES/EBU inputs.
6.2 Inputs
At the rear side of the ADI-8 DD there are four XLR sockets for the AES/EBU inputs. Every
input is transformer-balanced and ground-free. Channel status and copy protection are being
ignored. Thanks to a highly sensitive input stage, also SPDIF signals can be processed by using a simple cable adapter (Phono/XLR).
To achieve this, pins 2 and 3 of an
XLR plug are being connected to
the two contacts of a Phono plug.
The ground shield of the cable is
only connected to pin 1 of the XLR
plug.
The inputs can be used in any combination, e. g. it is sufficient to connect an input signal only
to input 3. In slave mode, this input is automatically being used as clock source. If more than
one signal is present, the one furthest left is being used as clock source, i. e. the active input
with the lowest number.
The inputs are being copied to the 8 channel ADAT/TDIF formats in logical order:
AES/EBU Input
ADAT/TDIF MAIN+AUX
1
1/2
2
3/4
3
5/6
4
7/8
If an input sample rate higher than 56 kHz is detected at the AES/EBU input, the DS LED lights
up and the left part automatically switches to DS mode, using the following channel distribution:
AES/EBU
ADAT/TDIF
1L
1/2
MAIN
1R
3/4
MAIN
2L
5/6
MAIN
2R
7/8
MAIN
3L
1/2
AUX
3R
3/4
AUX
4L
5/6
AUX
4R
7/8
AUX
If a signal in Double Wire format is present at the input, technically no special processing is
activated, because the output signals will be in Sample Split format (S/MUX, Double Line) right
away.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
9
6.3 Input State Display
The input state is displayed by 16 LEDs. Every input has its own SYNC LED. However a missing or invalid input signal is indicated by slow flashing of the SOURCE LED. As soon as a valid
input signal is present the four SYNC LEDs will react per input. If ADAT or TDIF are chosen as
input source, all four SYNC and Emphasis LEDs show the same information. In DS mode, both
two and two LEDs show the state of the MAIN (1/2) and the AUX (3/4) inputs.
If a valid input signal is applied, SyncCheck is active automatically. When more than one input
signal is present, the input with the lowest number serves as reference. If the AES input is not
chosen as clock source, SyncCheck takes the chosen clock as reference and compares it with
the input clocks. Inputs which are not synchronous will be signalled by quick flashing of the
corresponding SYNC LED.
AES/EBU, SPDIF and TDIF can contain an Emphasis information. Audio signals with Emphasis
have a strong high frequency boost and thus require a high frequency attenuation on playback.
If one of the inputs detects Emphasis, this information is being set at the TDIF output (and being transmitted correctly to a DTRS machine). Note that the alerting red colour of the Emphasis
LEDs has a reason:
Emphasis is not available within the ADAT standard! This information is thus neither passed
on to the ADAT output, nor taken into account later on for acoustic transmission!
Each channel's audio level is shown by a LEVEL LED. The green LED becomes active from 90 dBFS and above, a higher level yields brighter light. Thus only one LED is necessary to see
if there is an audio signal or digital zero, only noise floor or a meaningful signal.
6.4 Sample Rate Conversion
Each AES/EBU input has its own sample rate converter (SRC). An SRC allows for a conversion
of the sampling rate in real-time. The 24 bit SRCs used in the ADI-8 DD work virtually without
loss, i. e. there are no audible artefacts or noise signals. The SRC works so well that we could
recommend to leave it switched on all the time, and thus eliminate any clock problem in the
first place.
The ADI-8 DD's SRC yields a maximum conversion ratio of 3:1 or 1:3. 96 kHz can be converted to any sample rate down to 32 kHz, 32 kHz to any rate up to 96 kHz.
If the internal clock is being used, the SRC works as a perfect jitter killer. But the ADI-8 DD
allows for any source as clock reference (except AES/EBU). With other settings than INT, the
device is slave as usual, and the jitter of the output signal thus is depending on the jitter of the
clock source.
An SRC is not only being used for conversion of sample rates and jitter suppression, it is especially useful for the so-called clock decoupling. By means of an SRC, any device which can't be
synchronized (CD-Player, consumer DAT etc.) can be used within a digital audio network as if it
was synchronizable. The SRC decouples any input clocks and sets the output clock to the
common reference (no matter which one), thus allows for bringing together various clock
sources without any clicks or drop-outs.
Further information on sample rate conversion can be found in chapter 11, Technical Background.
10
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
6.5 Outputs ADAT Optical/TDIF
The ADI-8 DD provides two digital outputs, both in ADAT optical and TDIF-1 format. In normal
operation only the MAIN outputs are used. When using more than the first 4 channels at activated DS (Double Speed), the AUX outputs also have to be used.
TDIF and ADAT optical outputs always operate simultaneously and carry the same audio data.
As long as DS isn't activated MAIN and AUX also operate simultaneously and carry the same
audio data. With this it is possible to distribute the output signal to two devices of the same
format. When using all connectors the ADI-8 DD can feed up to 4 devices (2 x ADAT, 2 x
TDIF).
The ADAT optical outputs of the ADI-8 DD are fully compatible to all ADAT optical inputs. A
usual TOSLINK cable is sufficient for connection.
ADAT Main
Interface for the first or only device receiving an ADAT signal from the ADI-8 DD. Carries the
channels 1 to 8. When sending a Double Speed signal, this port carries the channels 1 to 4.
ADAT AUX
Copy of the data at the MAIN output. When sending a Double Speed signal, this port carries
the channels 5 to 8. When AES STATE OPT is selected, ADAT AUX is used from the right part
of the ADI-8 DD to send channels 1/2 in SPDIF format
The TDIF-1 connectors of the ADI-8 DD are fully compatible to all devices with such an interface, for example DA-38 and DA-88. The connection is done through a special TDIF cable,
available at your local dealer (Tascam part number PW-88D).
TDIF Main
Interface for the first or only device with a TDIF-1 interface. Carries the channels 1 to 8. When
transmitting a Double Speed signal, this port carries the channels 1 to 4.
TDIF AUX
Copy of the data at the MAIN interface. Carries the channels 5 to 8 in Bit Split or Double Speed
mode.
General hints on TDIF operation
TDIF and word clock
When the ADI-8 DD is slave no additional word clock connection is necessary. In case DA88
and/or DA38 are slave the word clock output of the ADI-8 DD has to be connected to the word
clock input of the first (master) recorder. When using more than one recorder a special sync
cable (Tascam part number PW-88S) is needed.
Emphasis
The AES/EBU and TDIF interface of the ADI-8 DD support Emphasis. Please note that an Emphasis indication will not be stored or processed on the sound when doing digital transfers between AES/EBU or TDIF and ADAT, because the ADAT standard does not include Emphasis.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
11
6.6 Input ADAT/TDIF (Copy Mode)
By means of the SOURCE button, ADAT and TDIF are available as signal sources in the left
part as well. The ADI-8 DD thus turns into a unique ADAT to TDIF and TDIF to ADAT converter, a digital patch bay and signal distributor. These two source formats are notified with a
yellow LED, because they are the main inputs for the right part ( the ADAT/TDIF to AES/EBU
converter), for which they are still available as inputs.
In this operating mode, which is called Copy Mode due to its identical source and destination
format, the input signal can be forwarded to a same format without having to change cables
externally. The mathematical equation is
(2 x ADAT In or 2 x TDIF In) to (2 x ADAT Out plus 2 x TDIF Out)
In other terms: The ADAT or TDIF input signal appears in parallel at the ADAT and TDIF outputs. And the MAIN and AUX ports can be used to pass through / distribute up to 16 channels
at the same time.
In addition to the already described feature of signal distribution, the ADI-8 DD thus also works
as a patch bay, because the ADAT and TDIF devices connected to the ADI-8 DD can exchange
data directly among each other without re-connecting cables. An ADAT optical or TDIF input
signal is being output at two ADAT optical and two TDIF ports at the same time.
Please take a look at the block diagrams on page 7 and 30. They show the whole signal routing
inside the ADI-8 DD in a clear way, also for this Copy Mode.
The sample rate converter is a part of the AES/EBU inputs, so when selecting ADAT/TDIF it
is still only available to the AES inputs. The AES inputs (including the SRC) can also be
used by the right part of the ADI-8 DD if necessary.
If the Copy Mode is active, the DS mode can be activated manually with the button for the
sampling frequency. There is a reason for this: normally, the 8 channel input signal of the
ADAT or TDIF MAIN input is copied to both outputs MAIN/AUX (splitter). But if a Sample Split,
S/MUX or Double Wire signal is present at the ADAT or TDIF input, also the data of the AUX
input has to be passed on to the AUX output for full transmission of 8 channels. In other terms:
16 channels are being forwarded 1:1.
In order to make use of all 16 TDIF and ADAT channels in Copy Mode, DS has to be activated, even if the source carries only Single Speed signals.
The level display then works like in Sample Split operation. Two channels are being displayed
on one LED (1+2, 3+4 etc.).
Note: For a bi-directional format conversion ADAT/TDIF set up the left part as ADAT to TDIF,
the right part as TDIF to ADAT converter. See notes on page 15, and remarks on operation
modes 10.7/10.8 on page 22.
Emphasis
The AES/EBU and TDIF interface of the ADI-8 DD support Emphasis. Please note that an Emphasis indication will not be stored or processed on the sound when doing digital transfers between AES/EBU or TDIF and ADAT, because the ADAT standard does not include Emphasis.
12
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
7. The ADAT/TDIF to AES/EBU Converter
7.1 General
This ADI-8 DD's functional unit, called 'right part' further on, is an 8-channel format converter
from ADAT/TDIF or AES to AES/EBU.
Because the Double Wire and Sample Split (S/MUX) formats don't contain a coding, the ADI-8
DD cannot distinguish them from normal (44.1/48 kHz) material. Whether the AES/EBU outputs are supposed to work in Single (44.1/48 kHz) or Double Speed (88.2/96 kHz) has to be set
explicitly by the user. This happens in the clock section with the sample frequency button, activating DS.
Complete status displays (Lock, SyncCheck, Emphasis, Level) help to avoid wrong configuration and wrong clock setup.
7.2 Inputs
The ADI-8 DD provides two digital inputs, both in ADAT optical and TDIF-1 format. The key
SOURCE sets the desired input active.
In normal operation only the MAIN inputs are used. When using more than the first 4 channels
at activated DS (Double Speed), the AUX inputs also have to be used.
The input data is passed on to the four AES/EBU outputs in logical order:
ADAT/TDIF
AES/EBU
1
1L
2
1R
3
2L
4
2R
5
3L
6
3R
7
4L
8
4R
If the input data is encoded with Sample Split, S/MUX or Double Line, the AES output has to be
set to DS mode manually. Every input contains the information of only 4 channels, for full 8
channels MAIN and AUX have to be used. 16 input channels 44.1/48 kHz are being converted
to 8 output channels 88.2/96 kHz. The channels are being distributed in the following manner:
ADAT/TDIF
MAIN+AUX
AES/EBU
1/2
MAIN
1L
3/4
MAIN
1R
5/6
MAIN
2L
7/8
MAIN
2R
1/2
AUX
3L
3/4
AUX
3R
5/6
AUX
4L
7/8
AUX
4R
The ADAT optical inputs of the ADI-8 DD are fully compatible with all ADAT optical outputs.
RME's unsurpassed Bitclock PLL prevents clicks and drop outs even in extreme varipitch operation, and guarantees a fast and low jitter lock to the digital input signal. A usual TOSLINK
cable is sufficient for connection.
ADAT Main
Interface for the first or only device sending an ADAT signal to the ADI-8 DD. Carries the channels 1 to 8. When receiving a Double Speed signal, this input carries the channels 1 to 4.
ADAT AUX
Interface for the second device sending a Double Speed signal to the ADI-8 DD. Carries the
channels 5 to 8. Receives channels 9-16 in Copy Mode.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
13
The TDIF-1 connectors of the ADI-8 DD are fully compatible with all devices offering such an
interface, for example DA-38 and DA-88. A SD-PLL ensures best playback sound quality and
reliable operation. RME's exclusive SyncCheck verifies synchronous operation when using both
TDIF ports. The connection is done through a special TDIF cable, available at your local dealer
(Tascam part number PW-88D).
TDIF Main
Interface for the first or only device with a TDIF-1 interface. Carries the channels 1 to 8. When
transmitting a Double Speed signal, this port carries the channels 1 to 4.
TDIF AUX
Carries the channels 5 to 8 in Double Speed mode. Transmission of channels 9-16 in Copy
Mode.
General hints on TDIF operation
TDIF and word clock
When the ADI-8 DD is slave no additional word clock connection is necessary. In case DA88
and/or DA38 are slave the word clock output of the ADI-8 DD has to be connected to the word
clock input of the first (master) recorder. When using more than one recorder a special sync
cable (Tascam part number PW-88S) is needed.
7.3 Input State Display
The input state is being displayed by means of 16 LEDs. A missing or invalid input signal is
indicated by slow flashing of the SOURCE LED. In case ADAT or TDIF are selected all four
SYNC and Emphasis LEDs are showing the same information. In DS mode both two and two
LEDs show the state of the MAIN (1/2) and the AUX (3/4) inputs.
If MAIN and AUX are not synchronous to each other, the corresponding input's SYNC LEDs will
be quickly flashing. If the input is not chosen as clock reference, SyncCheck takes the chosen
clock (internal, external etc.) as reference and compares it to the clocks of the inputs. Non synchronous inputs will be indicated by quick flashing of the corresponding SYNC LEDs.
If the TDIF input signal contains emphasis information, all four EMPHASIS LEDs in the INPUT
STATE area will light up. The AES/EBU output channel status will then be changed from 'no
emphasis' to '50/15 µs' (emphasis). Because this coding cannot be changed manually, and
unfortunately does not necessarily have to be correct in the source, we chose red LEDs to give
both a note and warning.
Each channel's audio level is shown by a LEVEL LED. The green LED becomes active from 90 dBFS and above, a higher level yields brighter light. Thus only one LED is necessary to see
if there is an audio signal or digital zero, only noise floor or a meaningful signal.
14
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
7.4 Outputs AES/EBU
At the rear side of the ADI-8 DD there are four XLR sockets for the AES/EBU outputs. Every
output is transformer-balanced, ground-free and compatible to all devices with AES/EBU port.
Connection is accomplished using balanced cables with XLR plugs.
If AES STATE PRO (Professional) is chosen, the output level is almost 5V. If CON (Consumer)
is chosen, the output signal will have a channel status compatible to SPDIF. As far as we know,
every SPDIF device should be capable of handling an input signal of up to 5V instead of the
usual 0.5V. Nevertheless the output level will be reduced to 2V when CON is selected.
Connecting devices with coaxial SPDIF ports to the ADI-8 DD is accomplished by simple cable
adapters (XLR/Phono).
To achieve this, pins 2 and 3 of an
XLR plug are being connected to the
two contacts of a Phono plug. The
ground shield of the cable is only connected to pin 1 of the XLR plug.
Besides the audio data, digital signals in SPDIF or AES/EBU format contain a channel status
coding, which is being used for transmitting further information. The output signal coding of the
ADI-8 DD has been implemented according to AES3-1992 Amendment 4.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 64, kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz according to sample rate
Audio use
No Copyright, Copy permitted
Format Consumer oder Professional
Category General, Generation not indicated
2-Channel, No Emphasis oder 50/15 µs
Aux bits Audio use, 24 Bit
Origin: ADI8
Note that most consumer-orientated equipment (with optical or phono SPDIF inputs) will
only accept signals in ‘Consumer’ format!
The status 'Professional' should always be active when sending data to a device with AES/EBU
input (when the XLR connectors are used).
Notes on special functions
Using the AES STATE key the second ADAT output can be configured to act as optical SPDIF
output. When choosing AES STATE OPT., the red LED is lit constantly, and the channels 1/2
will also be transmitted via ADAT AUX.
When stepping through all AES STATE options the red LED OPT. begins to blink. The blinking
informs the user, that both ADAT outputs no longer operate with the left part, but with the right
part, and therefore in parallel to the AES/EBU outputs. This mode provides a bi-directional
ADAT/TDIF converter.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
15
7.5 Input AES/EBU (Copy Mode)
With the SOURCE button, AES/EBU can be chosen as the source for the right part, in addition
to ADAT or TDIF. The ADI-8 DD then turns into a unique 8 channel AES/EBU to AES/EBU
sample rate converter, line buffer, signal refresher and signal distributor. This input format is
indicated by a yellow LED, because it is the main input for the left part (the AES/EBU to
ADAT/TDIF converter), for which it is still available as input.
In addition to the already described feature of signal distribution, the ADI-8 DD thus works as a
patch bay, because the AES/EBU devices connected to the ADI-8 DD can exchange data directly among each other without re-connecting cables.
Please take a look at the block diagrams on page 7 and 30. They show the whole signal routing
inside the ADI-8 DD in a clear way, also for this Copy Mode.
Notes on special functions
In the operating mode AES to AES, which is only available in the right part, the ADI-8 DD has
several special features. The right INPUT STATE display then works like the left one, and displays LOCK/SYNC and EMPHASIS per AES input.
If AES is chosen as source and only one AES input is supplied with a valid signal, the ADI-8
DD switches to a distribution mode. The input signal will then be copied to all outputs (splitter 1 to 4). Therefore all level LEDs (instead of only two) will light up.
While in the left part an AES Double Speed signal (sample rate > 56 kHz) is being indicated
automatically by the DS LED, this is not the case in the right part. If you are not sure about the
input sampling frequency, you can still check it in the left part (by switching to AES source for a
moment).
The reason for the missing automatism is the ability to convert Double Wire to Single Wire
and Single Wire to Double Wire. This is steared by manual activation of the DS function.
• If an AES signal in Double Wire format is present (carrier 32 to 48 kHz) and DS is activated,
the data split into up to 8 channels is being converted into the original up to 4 channels Single Wire (64 to 96 kHz, output in Double Speed). As outputs 5 to 8 can't be adressed in this
specific mode, the channels 1-4 are copied onto the outputs 5-8 (AES sockets 3/4). They
can be used to send the converted signal simultaneously to another destination (splitter 1 to
2).
• The formats ADAT (S/MUX) and TDIF (Double Line) can also be converted to single wire
double speed AES/EBU in the right part.
• If a single wire Double Speed AES signal (64 to 96 kHz) is present, the first 4 channels will
be converted to 8 channels Double Wire (32 to 48 kHz) with DS deactivated.
All those conversions are loss-less, the available samples will only be put together or distributed between the channels.
In AES to AES mode the SRC is also available. Although placed on the left side of the front
panel, it then works for the right part of the device. This is indicated by a quick alternating flashing of the SRC LED and the right AES SOURCE LED. If the SRC is active, the conversion
between Single Wire and Double Wire as described above is not available. The DS function
only sets the output sample rate.
16
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
8. Clock Section
8.1 Clock Configuration
The ADI-8 DD has an almost identical clock section in the left and right part, with professional
capabilities that are hard to meet. The unique ICC technology (Intelligent Clock Control) allows
for a flexible use of both functional units with internal clock (44.1 and 48 kHz, 88.2 and 96 kHz
in DS mode), external word clock or the digital input signals. All options are intelligently coupled and easily applicable and understandable, thanks to a clear display of the corresponding
lock state.
As clock source, INTERNAL (crystal), EXTERNAL (BNC word clock) and INPUT (the digital
input signal AES/TDIF/ADAT) can be chosen. If the clock signal is present, the corresponding
LED will light constantly. If not present, the LED will flash.
If the SRC is active and AES is chosen as signal source in both parts, the right part's clock
LEDs will be inactive, because two different clock settings for one signal are not possible.
If AES is chosen as signal source in both parts, and the SRC is not active, both clock sections
remain active. By this it is avoided that the present clock setting is lost for a short moment
when stepping through the inputs on one side. Note that the clock settings on left and right part
should be identical. The clock setting still remains understandable, because SyncCheck indicates reliably if wrong or unequal settings are chosen.
INPUT
As displayed on the front panel, the CLOCK SOURCE for the INPUT setting can be the AES,
TDIF or ADAT input. This selection is independant from the signal source. If the signal source
is set to AES, the clock source can still be ADAT, given that a valid ADAT signal is available. A
missing or invalid clock source signal is indicated by slow flashing of the corresponding LED.
EXT.
With EXTERNAL, the ADI-8 DD's word clock input is used as clock reference. The LED will
flash slowly, if the word clock is missing or unusable.
INT
For INTERNAL, 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz sampling rate is available. If DS is active in the left part,
the data will be transmitted in Sample Split format (S/MUX, Double Line). If DS is active in the
right part, the output sample rate doubles to 88.2 kHz or 96 kHz.
For the INTERNAL clock setting it is mandatory that the clock rate of the sources is synchronous to the ADI-8 DD. Therefore the external device has to be synchronized to the ADI8 DD's word clock out or AES/TDIF/ADAT out.
The ADI-8 DD thus has to be master, all devices connected to it slave (exception: SRC mode).
In order to avoid clicks and drop outs due to faulty or missing synchronicity, a special process
called SyncCheck compares the incoming data and the ADI-8 DD's internal clock. Like LOCK,
SYNC is indicated by flashing (error) or constantly lit (OK) LED. While LOCK is also indicated
with the source LEDs, SyncCheck steers the four SYNC LEDs. Besides, the flashing frequency
is twice as high.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
17
8.2 Lock, SyncCheck and SyncAlign
Digital signals consist of a carrier and the data. If a digital signal is applied to an input, the receiver has to synchronize to the carrier clock in order to read the data correctly. To achieve
this, the receiver uses a PLL (Phase Locked Loop). As soon as the receiver meets the exact
frequency of the incoming signal, it is locked. This Lock state remains even with small changes
of the frequency, because the PLL tracks the receiver's frequency.
If an AES, TDIF or ADAT signal is applied to the ADI-8 DD, the corresponding input LED stops
flashing. The ADI-8 DD indicates LOCK, i. e. a valid input signal.
Unfortunately, LOCK does not necessarily mean that the received signal is correct with respect
to the clock which processes the read out of the embedded data. Example [1]: The ADI-8 DD is
set to 44.1 kHz INT(ernal), and a CD-Player is connected to input AES1. The INPUT LED will
show LOCK immediately, but the CD-Player's sample rate is generated internally, and thus
slightly higher or lower than the ADI-8 DD's internal sample rate. Result: When reading out the
data, there will frequently be read errors that cause clicks and drop outs.
Also when using multiple inputs, a simple LOCK is not sufficient. The above described problem
can be solved elegantly by setting the ADI-8 DD from INT to INPUT (its internal clock will then
be the clock delivered by the CD-Player). But in case a DAT recorder is connected as a second
source, there will again be a slight difference in the sample rate, and therefore clicks and drop
outs [2]. Another example could be connecting to ADAT machines which are not synchronous
to each other due to wrong clock setup [3].
In order to display those problems optically at the device, the ADI-8 DD contains SyncCheck®.
It checks all clocks used for synchronicity. If they are not synchronous to each other (i. e. absolutely identical), the SYNC LED of the asynchronous input flashes. In example 1 it would have
been obvious at once that the SOURCE AES LED was constantly lit when connecting the CDPlayer, but that the SYNC LED was flashing. In example 2, all LEDs would be constantly lit
except the SYNC LED of the input used by the DAT. In example 3, two LEDs are constantly lit,
while two others are flashing.
In practice, SyncCheck allows for a quick overview of the correct configuration of all digital
devices. So one of the most difficult and error-prone topics of the digital studio world finally
becomes easy to handle.
A special problem occurs with devices offering several AES or SPDIF inputs. While with ADAT
and TDIF all 8 channels share the same clock base, with AES there are several completely
independant receivers with their own PLLs and data buffers. Therefore there can be a random
error of ± 1 sample difference between the stereo pairs. The ADI-8 DD's exclusive SyncAlign®
technology avoids this effect and guarantees sample synchronicity among all 4 stereo channels.
Unfortunately this method does not work automatically with activated SRC. After connection of
all AES sources and stable LOCK switch off the SRC and on again. The SRCs are now samplealigned (note that this is only of interest when processing a multitrack signal from a single source, for example a mixing desk or a tape machine).
18
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
8.3 Word Clock Input and Output
Input
The ADI-8 DD's word clock input is available to both the left and the right part. It is active, when
EXT is chosen in the clock section. The signal at the BNC input can be single or double speed,
the ADI-8 DD automatically adapts to it. As soon as a valid signal is detected, the EXT LED is
constantly lit, otherwise it is flashing slowly.
Thanks to RME's Signal Adaptation Circuit, the word clock input still works correctly even with
heavily mis-shaped, dc-prone, too small or overshoot-prone signals. Thanks to automatic signal
centering, 300 mV (0.3V) input level are sufficient in principle. An additional hysteresis reduces
sensitivity to 1.0 V, so that over- and undershoots and high frequency disturbances don't cause
a wrong trigger.
The ADI-8 DD's word clock input is shipped as
high impedance type (not terminated). A push
switch allows to activate internal termination
(75 Ohms). The switch is found on the back
between the ADAT ports. Use a small pencil or
similar and carefully push the blue switch so
that it snaps into its lock position. Another push
will release it again and de-activate the
termination.
Output
The word clock output is constantly active and basically delivers the sample rate of the left part
as word clock signal. As long as it is working with internal clock, the output word clock is extremely stable and jitter-free (< 1 ns). The device can even be used as a central word clock
generator (except for the limitation of having only one output). In slave mode (EXT/INPUT), the
amount of jitter is depending on the input signal.
A word clock signal fed to the ADI-8 DD can even be passed through via the word clock output,
because the output signal is phase locked to the input signal (0°). Thus the usual T-adaptor at
the input is not needed, and the ADI-8 DD can be used as a signal refresher. This application is
even more interesting, because the exceptional input of the ADI-8 DD (1 Vss sensitivity instead
of the usual 2.5 Vss, dc cut, Signal Adaptation Circuit) guarantees a secure function also with
critical word clock signals.
The ADI-8 DD's word clock output is derived from the left part, because the TDIF ports
need a fixed word clock reference.
For this reason, the word clock signal derived from AES, TDIF and ADAT has a phase shift of
90° at the output. This has no effect when being used with AES or ADAT, because these formats don't require a certain relation to the word clock signal.
The wordclock output as well as all ADAT and TDIF ports always operates in Single Speed
mode only. At 96 kHz, the word clock output will therefore be a 48 kHz signal.
Thanks to a low impedance, but short circuit proof output, the ADI-8 DD delivers 4 Vss to 75
Ohms. For wrong termination with 2 x 75 Ohms (37.5 Ohms), there are still 3.3 Vss at the output.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
19
9. Word Clock
9.1 Operation and Technical Background
In the analogue domain one can connect any device to another device, a synchronization is not
necessary. Digital audio is different. Correct interpretation of digital audio data is dependent
upon a definite sample frequency. Signals can only be correctly processed or transferred between devices if these all share the same clock. Otherwise digital signals are misinterpreted,
causing distortion, clicks/crackle and even dropouts.
AES/EBU, SPDIF and ADAT optical are self-clocking (seen from a non-technical view TDIF
too, as word clock is embedded inside the TDIF cable), so an additional line for word clock
could be considered redundant. In practice however, using several devices at the same time
can cause problems. For example, if devices are connected in a loop without there being a
defined ‘master’ device, self-clocking may break down. Besides, the clocks of all devices must
be synchronized from a single source. Devices without SPDIF inputs (typically playback devices such as CD- players) cannot be synchronized via self-clocking. Finally there are 'problematic' devices, which are nearly un-usable without a word clock attached anyway.
In digital studios, synchronization requirements can be met by connecting all devices to a central sync source. For instance, the master device could be a mixing desk, sending a reference
signal - word clock - to all other devices. However, this will only work if all the other devices
have word clock or sync inputs (e.g. some professional CD-players), allowing them to run as
slaves. This being the case, all devices will receive the same clock signal, so there is no fundamental reason for sync problems when they are connected together.
But word clock is not only the 'great problem solver', it also has some disadvantages. The word
clock is based on a fraction of the really needed clock. For example SPDIF: 44.1 kHz word
clock (a simple square wave signal) has to be multiplied by 128 or 256. This signal then replaces the one from the internal quartz crystal. Because of the high multiplication factor the
reconstructed clock will have great deviations called jitter. The jitter caused by word clock is
typically 15 times higher as when using a quartz based clock*.
The end of these problems should have been the so called Superclock, which uses 256 times
the word clock frequency. The PLL for multiplying is no longer needed, and the clock can be
used directly. But in practise Superclock proved to be much more critical than word clock. A
square wave signal of 11 MHz distributed to several devices - this simply means to fight with
high frequency technology. Reflections, cable quality, capacitive loads - at 44.1 kHz these factors may be ignored, at 11 MHz they are the end of the clock network. After all, Superclock
never became popular - and we didn't make up our minds to add this not standardized technique to the ADI-8 DD.
The usage of word clock with ADAT optical is critical too. The ADI-8 DD always uses a Bitclock
PLL, no matter if the clock reference is word clock or ADAT. Thanks to its very fine resolution
this exceptional circuit is able to follow the complete vari-speed range of the ADAT recorder
without losing a sample. Many other devices use a much coarser word clock PLL to track the
ADAT input. When changing the sample rate (speed) fast, some bits are already sampled invalidly before the frequency is corrected. Drop outs and crackling will be the audible result. So
as long as you are working with the ADI-8 DD - no problem. Working with devices of other
manufacturers you may experience drop outs when the sample rate changes only slightly.
* As long as it does not cause functional problems, jitter is only affecting AD- and DA-conversion. For completely digital
devices like the ADI-8 DD jitter is virtually meaningless, because the data remains unaltered even with high jitter.
20
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
The TDIF format is especially critical with respect to word clock. We have mentioned this in
different places of this manual:
When the ADI-8 DD is slave no additional word clock connection is necessary. In case DA88
and/or DA38 are slave the word clock output of the ADI-8 DD has to be connected to the word
clock input of the first (master) recorder. When using more than one recorder a special sync
cable (Tascam part number PW-88S) is needed.
What you do not need to know: the ADI-8 DD takes care of the first DTRS machine's properties, the DA-88, and it can be used together with this device without further settings.
9.2 Cabling and Termination
Word clock signals are usually distributed in the form of a network, split with BNC T-adapters
and terminated with resistors. We recommend using off-the-shelf BNC cables to connect all
devices, as this type of cable is used for most computer networks. You will find all the necessary components (T-adapters, terminators, cables) in most electronics and/or computer stores.
Ideally, the word clock signal is a 5 Volt square wave with the frequency of the sample rate, of
which the harmonics go up to far above 500 kHz.
To avoid voltage loss and reflections, both the cable itself and the terminating resistor at the
end of the chain should have an impedance of 75 Ohm. If the voltage is too low, synchronization will fail. High frequency reflection effects can cause both jitter and sync failure.
Unfortunately there are still many devices on the market, even newer digital mixing consoles,
which are supplied with a word clock output that can only be called unsatisfactory. If the output
breaks down to 3 Volts when terminating with 75 Ohms, you have to take into account that a
device, of which the input only works from 2.8 Volts and above, does not function correctly
already after 3 meter cable length. So it is not astonishing that because of the higher voltage,
word clock networks are in some cases more stable and reliable if cables are not terminated at
all.
Ideally all outputs of word clock delivering devices are designed with very low impedance, but
all word clock inputs with high impedance, in order to not weaken the signal on the chain. But
there are also negative examples, when the 75 Ohms are built into the device and cannot be
switched off. In this case the network load is often 2 x 75 Ohms, and the user is forced to buy a
special word clock distributor. Note that such a device is generally recommended for larger
studios.
Also, 75 Ohm cable is almost impossible to find these days. 50 Ohm cable is standard - this will
also work as long as the termination resistors are 75 Ohm.
The ADI-8 DD's word clock input can be high-impedance or terminated internally, ensuring
maximum flexibility. If termination is necessary (e.g. because ADI-8 DD is the last device in the
chain), push the switch at the back (see chapter 8.3).
In case the ADI-8 DD resides within a chain of devices receiving word clock, plug a T-adapter
into its BNC input jack, and the cable supplying the word clock signal to one end of the adapter.
Connect the free end to the next device in the chain via a further BNC cable. The last device in
the chain should be terminated using another T-adapter and a 75 Ohm resistor (available as
short BNC plug). Of course devices with internal termination do not need T-adaptor and terminator plug.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
21
10. Conversion Modes and Notes
In this chapter the ADI-8 DD's conversion modes are listed functionally and separated for left
and right part. At first the functions of the left part are described. From chapter 10.7 on the right
part follows. Chapter 10.12 describes a special case where both parts are being operated together.
'ADAT || TDIF' means that the output signal is present at the ADAT and TDIF outputs in parallel, i. e. at the same time. 'ADAT / TDIF' means that either ADAT or TDIF can be used as input
signal.
Left Part
10.1 8-channel AES to ADAT || TDIF Converter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: For sample rates higher than 56 kHz the DS LED lights up, and the outputs automatically work in Sample Split/Double Line mode. Each output port (MAIN/AUX) then carries 4
channels.
10.2 8-channel AES to 2 x ADAT || 2 x TDIF Splitter (48 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: For sample rates below 56 kHz the MAIN and AUX outputs will carry the same data.
Thus two outputs each can be used for ADAT and TDIF (splitter).
10.3 2-channel AES to 8-hannel TDIF || ADAT Splitter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: If only one AES input is being fed, the ADI-8 DD automatically switches to a distribution mode. The input signal will then be copied to all stereo output channels (splitter 1 to 4).
Because MAIN and AUX carry the same data, the input signal is split to eight stereo pairs for
ADAT and eight stereo pairs for TDIF. If AES is selected in the right part, the stereo input signal will also appear at all four AES outputs.
For sample rates above 56 kHz the DS LED lights up, and the outputs operate in Sample
Split/Double Line mode. Every output (MAIN/AUX) then carries 4 channels.
10.4 8-channel ADAT/TDIF to 2 x ADAT || 2 x TDIF Splitter (48 kHz)
SOURCE: ADAT or TDIF
Remark: For sample rates below 56 kHz the MAIN and AUX outputs will carry the same data.
Thus two outputs each for ADAT and TDIF can be used (splitter).
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User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
10.5 16-channel ADAT/TDIF to ADAT || TDIF Converter (48 kHz)
SOURCE: ADAT or TDIF
Remark: If DS is activated manually at sample rates below 56 kHz, the MAIN and AUX outputs
will not carry the same data any longer. Instead the data from the MAIN and AUX inputs will be
passed 1:1 to the MAIN/AUX outputs. It is then possible to transmit and convert 16 channels at
the same time.
10.6 8-channel ADAT/TDIF to ADAT || TDIF Converter (96 kHz)
Remark: Identical to 10.5
Signals in Sample Split (S/MUX) or Double Line format require 16 channels for the transmission of 8 channels in Double Speed. Therefore the data has to be passed on 1:1.
Right Part
10.7 8-channel TDIF/ADAT to ADAT || AES Converter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: ADAT or TDIF
Remark: If the input data is encoded in Sample Split (S/MUX) or Double Line format, the DS
function has to be activated manually in order to have the AES outputs transmit 8 channels in
Double Speed Single Wire.
Note: When the red AES STATE OPT. LED is blinking the ADAT outputs are fed from the right
part. Conversion mode 10.6 and 10.7 then realize a bi-directional ADAT/TDIF converter.
10.8 16-channel TDIF/ADAT to ADAT (|| AES) Converter (48 kHz)
SOURCE: ADAT or TDIF
Remark: identical to 10.7. When operating at sample rates below 56kHz, up to 16 channels can
be processed. But as the unit is limited to 4 AES outputs, only the first 8 channels will be available in parallel at the AES outputs.
Note: When the red AES STATE OPT. LED is blinking the ADAT outputs are fed from the right
part. Conversion mode 10.5 and 10.8 then realize a bi-directional ADAT/TDIF converter.
10.9 8-channel AES to AES Sample Rate Converter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: After activating the sample rate converter (SRC) and using the internal clock (INT),
the desired output sample rate can be chosen with the clock button.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
23
10.10 2-channel AES to 8-channel AES Splitter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: If only one AES input is being fed with a valid signal, the ADI-8 DD automatically
switches to a distribution mode. The input signal will be copied to all stereo output channels
(splitter 1 to 4), i. e. it will appear at all four AES outputs. If AES is selected as input source for
the left part, this also holds true for the ADAT/TDIF outputs (see 10.3).
10.11 4-channel AES Double Wire to AES Single Wire Converter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: If the input signal is present in Double Wire format, DS has to be activated manually
in order to have the AES outputs transmit 4 channels of Double Speed Single Wire data.
10.12 4-channel AES Single Wire to AES Double Wire Converter (96 kHz)
SOURCE: AES
Remark: When DS is not active and the input signal is in Single Wire Double Speed format, the
data will be converted to Double Wire Single Speed. Because only 8 physical output channels
are available, there will only be 4 audio channels effectively. The inputs 5 - 8 cannot be transmitted via AES.
10.13 8-channel ADAT/TDIF to ADAT || TDIF Sample Rate Converter (96 kHz)
The ADI-8 DD's sample rate conversion is a fixed component of the AES inputs. However,
because the device contains two independant format converters, also 8 channels ADAT or
TDIF can be both changed in sample rate and clock-decoupled!
To achieve this, connect the four AES outputs with the four AES inputs (loop-back cabling), i. e.
1 with 1, 2 with 2, 3 with 3 and 4 with 4.
Right part
SOURCE: ADAT or TDIF
Left part
SOURCE: AES
SRC: Active
At first ADAT/TDIF is converted to AES in the right part. The ADI-8 DD's AES outputs are connected to the AES inputs with XLR cables and are being converted back to ADAT||TDIF in the
left part. Now the SRC can also be activated.
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User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
11. Technical Background
11.1 DS - Double Speed
When activating the Double Speed mode the ADI-8 DD operates at double sample rate. The
internal clock 44.1 kHz turns to 88.2 kHz, 48 kHz to 96 kHz. The internal resolution is still 24
bit.
Sample rates above 48 kHz were not always taken for granted, and are still not widely used
because of the CD format (44.1 kHz) dominating everything. Before 1998 there were no receiver/transmitter circuits available that could receive or transmit more than 48 kHz. Therefore
a work-around was used: instead of two channels, one AES line only carries one channel, of
which the odd and even samples are being distributed to the former left and right channels. By
this, you get the double amount of data, i. e. also double sample rate. Of course in order to
transmit a stereo signal two AES/EBU ports are necessary then.
This transmission mode is being called Double Wire in the professional studio world, and is also
known as S/MUX in connection with the ADAT format. The DTRS recorder DA-98HR by Tascam also uses this technique, which is called Dual Line here.
Not before February 1998, Crystal shipped the first 'single wire' receiver/transmitters that could
also work with double sample rate. It was then possible to transmit two channels of 96 kHz data
via one AES/EBU port.
But Double Wire is still far from being dead. On one hand, there are still many devices which
can't handle more than 48 kHz, e. g. digital tape recorders. But also other common interfaces
like ADAT or TDIF are still using this technique.
Because the ADAT interface does not allow for sampling frequencies above 48 kHz (a limitation of the interface hardware), the ADI-8 DD automatically uses the described Sample Split
method in DS mode. One channel's data is distributed to two channels according to the following table:
Original
DS Signal
Port
1
1/2
MAIN
2
3/4
MAIN
3
5/6
MAIN
4
7/8
MAIN
5
1/2
AUX
6
3/4
AUX
7
5/6
AUX
8
7/8
AUX
As the transmission of double rate signals is done at standard sample rate (Single Speed) the
word clock output still delivers 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz.
The wordclock output as well as all ADAT and TDIF ports always operates in Single Speed
mode only. At 96 kHz, the word clock output will therefore be a 48 kHz signal.
The TDIF interface of the ADI-8 DD also supports the 'Double Wire' technique. This allows a
recording with up to 96 kHz at halfed track numbers with every (!) DTRS device.
Note: The ideal combination is an ADI-8 DD together with the digital I/O card RME Hammerfall
Light (DIGI9636), which has Sample Split implemented in hardware. This combination offers 4
AES/EBU I/Os, with 2 channels 24 bit/96 kHz each, using PC or Mac.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
25
11.2 AES/EBU - SPDIF
The most important electrical properties of 'AES' and 'SPDIF' can be seen in the below table.
AES/EBU is the professional balanced connection using XLR plugs. The standard is being set
by the Audio Engineering Society based on the AES3-1992. For the 'home user', SONY and
Philips have omitted the balanced connection and use either Phono plugs or optical cables
(TOSLINK). The format called S/P-DIF (SONY/Philips Digital Interface) is described by IEC
60958.
Type
Connection
Mode
Impedance
Level
Clock accuracy
AES3-1992
XLR
Balanced
110 Ohm
0.2 V up to 5 Vss
not specified
Jitter
< 0.025 UI (4.4 ns @ 44.1 kHz)
IEC 60958
RCA / Optical
Un-balanced
75 Ohm
0.2 V up to 0.5 Vss
I: ± 50ppm
II: 0,1%
III: Variable Pitch
not specified
Besides the electrical differences, both formats also have a slightly different setup. The two
formats are principally compatible, because the audio information is stored in the same place in
the data stream. However, there are blocks of additional information, which are different for
both standards. In the table, the meaning of the first byte (#0) is shown for both formats. Already in the first bit there is the decision, whether the following bits should be read as Professional or Consumer information.
Byte
0
0
Mode
Pro
Con
Bit 0
P/C
P/C
1
Audio?
Audio?
2
3
4
5
Emphasis
Locked
Copy
Emphasis
6
7
Sample Freq.
Mode
As can be seen, the meaning of the following bits differs quite substantially in both formats. If a
device like a common DAT recorder only has an SPDIF input, it usually understands only this
format. In most cases, it will switch off when being fed Professional-coded data. The table
shows that a Professional-coded signal would lead to malfunctions for copy prohibition and
emphasis, if being read as Consumer-coded data. This actually happened in former times, but
if found today then it was implemented to force the costumer to buy a more expensive device.
Nowadays many devices with SPDIF input can handle Professional subcode. Devices with
AES3 input almost always accept Consumer SPDIF (passive cable adapter necessary).
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User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
11.3 Clock De-coupling using the SRC
Master-slave problems occur at the latest with the use of a digital mixer. For 'normal' use of
CD-player, DAT and harddisk recording, the tasks are clearly defined. The device playing back
is the master in each case, the recording device the slave. The CD-player delivers the clock
and the DAT synchronizes to it.
When working with a digital mixer, the CD-player would be the master and the mixer the slave.
This model breaks down with a single stroke, if a DAT is also being connected, which is not
recording, but also playing back. Every digital device can only synchronize to one source, the
audio data of the other sources is processed with errors due to missing synchronization. Clicks
and drop outs are the consequence.
Normally, the mixing console works as master and delivers a reference signal (word clock) to
all other devices. But this is only possile, if the other devices have a sync input, i. e. are capable of being slaved. In a studio with digital tape machine, digital effects and harddisk recording,
common CD-players and DATs cannot be connected to the mix section of the console, simply
because they cannot be synchronized.
This is no problem, if a sample rate converter is being used. It synchronizes any input signal to
the desired sampling rate, re. the desired clock reference.
By this, any device can be connected via the ADI-8 DD to any other device in a studio with a
central clock, independant from its original capabilities. Instead of the CD-player or the DAT,
the ADI-8 DD is the slave now.
11.4 The SRC as Signal Conditioner
DAT tapes often show little formatting errors between the various recorded takes. There can
also be tiny snippets with other sample rates between the recordings. An SRC converts this
patch-work reliably into a continuous permanently valid data stream with a fixed sample rate.
Even if there are unformatted spots on the tape, or the DAT is being stopped or switched off,
the ADI-8 DD delivers a constant signal (which does of course not contain audio information in
this case).
The use as supplier of an uninterrupted data stream is also helpful for applications, that would
otherwise suffer from functional errors or automatic switch-off of devices. Thanks to the SRC,
the ADI-8 DD always delivers a constant output clock, no matter if the inputs are not being used
at the moment, are just being connected or have been used all the time.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
27
12. Controls and Connectors
Front Left Part
Clock Section
Signal source
AES
TDIF
ADAT
Status display
Lock of inputs
Emphasis
Level indication
Sample
Rate
Converter
Clock source
AES
TDIF
ADAT
Clock source
Input
External
(Word clock)
Internal
Internal clock
44.1 / 48 kHz
DS active:
88.2 / 96 kHz
Front Right Part
Clock Section
Signal source
AES
TDIF
ADAT
Clock source
AES
TDIF
ADAT
Clock source
Input
External
(Wordclock)
Internal
Internal clock
44.1 / 48 kHz
DS active:
88.2 / 96 kHz
Status display
Lock of inputs
Emphasis
Level indication
Rear
Power
28
Outputs
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
Inputs
Status AES output
Professional
Consumer
Optical output
13. Connector Pinouts
D-Sub TDIF-1
The 25 pin D-sub connectors are wired according to TDIF-1, version 1.1:
Signal
D-sub
Signal
D-sub
Out
1/2
1
Out
3/4
2
In
FS1
20
In
FS0
8
Out
5/6
3
Out
7/8
4
In
In
EMPH LRCK
21
9
Out
Out
LRCK EMPH
5
18
In
7/8
10
In
5/6
11
Out
FS0
6
Out
FS1
19
In
3/4
12
In
1/2
13
GND is connected to pins 7, 14, 15, 16, 17, 22, 23, 24, 25.
AES/EBU
The XLR connectors are wired according to AES3-1992:
1 = GND (shield)
2 = Signal
3 = Signal
AES/EBU and SPDIF are biphase modulated signals, therefore polarity doesn't matter. Pins 2
and 3 are neither hot nor cold, they carry the same signal. But as AES3 uses a balanced
transmission they are inverted in polarity.
14. Block Diagram
On the following page, there is a block diagram of the ADI-8 DD. It shows a functional overview
of the device in order to help with questions regarding functions and routing. It has been made
simpler in some points and does not show all possible functions in order to remain understandable and overseeable. So, for instance the function of the optical SPDIF output is missing.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
29
14. Block Diagram
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User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
15. Warranty
Before shipping each ADI-8 DD is tested by RME in a complete test sequence. Using only the
best hi-grade components allows us to offer two years of warranty. The copy of the sales receipt or the Bill of Sale is your warranty legitimation.
In case of any error or defect please contact your local dealer. The warranty does not cover
damage due to abuse, incorrect installation or incorrect handling.
RME’s liability is limited to the repair or the replacement of the product, and does in no way
include the liability for incidental or consequential damages resulting from using the ADI-8 DD.
16. Appendix
RME news and further information on our products can be found on our website:
http://www.rme-audio.com
Distributor:
Synthax, Am Pfanderling 62, D-85778 Haimhausen, Tel.: (49) 08133 / 91810
Manufacturer:
IMM Elektronik GmbH, Leipziger Str. 27, D-09648 Mittweida
Trademarks
All trademarks and registered trademarks belong to their respective owners. RME, SyncAlign,
DIGI96, Hammerfall and SyncCheck are registered trademarks of RME Intelligent Audio Solutions. Intelligent Clock Control (ICC) is a trademark of RME Intelligent Audio Solutions. Alesis
and ADAT are registered trademarks of Alesis Corp. ADAT optical is a trademark of Alesis
Corp. TDIF is a trademark of TEAC Corp. S/MUX is copyright Sonorus.
Copyright  Matthias Carstens, 12/2001. Version 1.2
All entries in this User´s Guide have been thoroughly checked, however no guarantee for correctness can be given. RME
cannot be held responsible for any misleading or incorrect information provided throughout this manual. Lending or copying
any part or the complete manual or its contents as well as the software belonging to it is only possible with the written permission from RME. RME reserves the right to change specifications at any time without notice.
User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME
31
CE
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits of the European Council Directive on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to electromagnetic compatibility (EMVG) according to EN 55022 class B and EN50082-1.
FCC Compliance Statement
Certified to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device according to subpart J or part
15 of FCC rules. See instructions if interference to radio reception is suspected.
FCC Warning
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation.
This device complies with part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
• Increase the seperation between the equipment and receiver
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
In order for an installation of this product to maintain compliance with the limits for a Class B
device, shielded cables must be used for the connection of any devices external to this product.
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User's Guide ADI-8 DD © RME