Antenna Tuners
(Antenna Couplers)
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
1
What is an Antenna Tuner?
• An antenna tuner (coupler is a more correct term)
is an impedance matching device which minimizes
“mismatch” loss (maximizes power transfer).
• NOT different from any other impedance matching
circuit. It does NOT tune the antenna!
• Old R.L. Drake devices were named MN-4, MN2000, MN-2700. Guess what the MN stands for.
• Also referred to as coupler, antenna coupler,
transmatch, Matchbox, etc.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
2
Basics: Correct or Incorrect?
• An antenna operated at its resonant frequency
doesn’t need a coupler.
– No, resonance only means the feed point is resistive and
does not mean a low SWR.
• Resonant antennas radiate better than nonresonant antennas.
– No, pattern may change from that at resonance and will
need to match.
• Most antennas are resonant at only one frequency.
– No, all antenna have multiple resonances.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
3
Basics: Correct or Incorrect?, Page 2
• The ability to match is more important than
efficiency when choosing a coupler.
– Yes, if the coupler doesn’t match not much else matters.
• Coupler affects magnitude of current to antenna.
– Yes, this is how matching works.
• Coupler does not affect the pattern of the antenna.
– Should be Yes, but only if the ratio of any common
mode current on the feed line to the antenna currents
remains the same.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
4
Basics: Correct or Incorrect?, Page 3
• The SWR presented by an antenna is minimum
at the fundamental resonant frequency.
– No, often SWR is minimum but not a requirement.
• A coupler placed at the antenna will always result
in a more efficient system than one placed at the
transmitter.
– Generally Yes, but impedance at antenna is different
and coupler might not be able to match or be as
efficient for this impedance.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
5
Basics: Correct or Incorrect?, Page 4
• Does 50Ω coax need to be used between coupler
and transmitter?
– No, but do not use SWR meter in coupler if not 50Ω.
• True open wire #12ga. 600Ω transmission line has
lower loss than 1/2” 50Ω coax.
– Generally Yes, however if load is 5+j0, SWR on 50Ω
line is 10:1 & 120:1 on open wire line. Loss for 100’ at
7MHz is 2.12dB (open wire) & 1.02dB (LMR-500).
• Couplers should not be cascaded.
– Yes, if both auto-couplers but no otherwise.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
6
Basics: Correct or Incorrect?, Page 5
• A multiband coupler will have reduced matching at
both the top and bottom of the frequency range.
– Yes!
• A coupler in a radio that is specified to match 3:1
SWRs matches all 3:1 SWRs and not much else.
– No!
• Couplers do not exist at VHF and above.
– No, but construction is done with transmission line
sections and not lumped components.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
7
Does Coupler Use = Incompetency?
• Chest pounding by some would imply so.
– I don’t need a tuner since my antennas are designed
properly. Tuners have too much loss. Idiots abound!
• A coupler is one of many tools that can be used.
• Couplers are more popular today than ever.
– Covenants, small lot sizes, 11 HF bands (inc. 6m), etc.
– The issue of stealth and camouflaged antennas could
easily be another talk.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
8
Choices?
• You don’t have antennas to cover all desired
frequencies with an acceptable SWR for your
equipment.
– Do nothing and just don’t operate on some frequencies.
– Lack of knowledge point of view. Most common and
probably best if there are frequent antenna changes!
– Estimating the impedance(s) needed to match by
analysis or tables.
– Knowing very closely the impedance(s) needed to match
by measurement.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
9
What do you really want/need?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Matches nearly everything?, Match = 1.0:1 SWR?
Improve SWR bandwidth?, Hardly ever adjusted?
Peak/average power (mfg. ratings not reliable)?
Adjust at low power?, Adjust at full power?
Adjusts or can be adjusted very quickly?
160-10m, 80-10m, 6m, single band?
Harmonic or band pass filtering?, Static bleed?
Remotable?, Some combination of the above?
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
10
Matching Network Components
• Generally constructed from reactive components.
– Exceptions: transmission lines, delta match, resistances
such as the 800-900Ω resistor in the B&W terminated
folded dipole, etc.
• Why reactive components?
– Reactive components with high unloaded Qs do not
dissipate much power.
– However physically large components have reduced
ranges and more stray inductance and capacitance.
– Transmission line components ~ Q=100.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
11
DIY Coupler
• In approximate order of ascending cost
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
6/1/2011
Fixed inductor
Small value fixed capacitor
Air variable capacitor
Air differential capacitor
Large voltage fixed capacitor
High voltage/current switch
Vacuum variable capacitor
Roller inductor
Larry Benko, W0QE
12
Types of Tuners
• Auto, semi-auto, manual adjust, or fixed.
• Variable, switched, and/or fixed components.
• Is coupler part of transmitter or antenna?
– If part of the antenna then changing transmitters easy.
•
•
•
•
Included balun, antenna switch, dummy load etc.
Power rating and matching range. Total BS!
Coupler/antenna as a system (military & aircraft).
No mention yet of coupler topology.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
13
Tying it all together
• Reflection Γ = Z L - ZO
Z L + ZO
Coefficient:
ρ=Γ
0 ≤ ρ ≤1
1+ ρ
• SWR: SWR =
ρ=
1− ρ
• Return Loss:
RL dB = −20 × log10 (ρ )
• Mismatch Loss:
 PFwd - PRef
ML dB = −10 × log10 
 PFwd
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
SWR - 1
ρ=
SWR + 1
(R L − R O ) + (X L )
(R L + R O )2 + (X L )2
2
2
PRef = PFwd × ρ 2
PLoad = PFwd − PRef

 = −10 × log10 1 − ρ 2

(
)
14
SWR
ρ
1.1
1.2
1.5
2
2.5
3
5
10
20
50
0.05
0.09
0.20
0.33
0.43
0.50
0.67
0.82
0.90
0.96
Return
Mismatch Power
Loss (dB) Loss (dB) To Load1
26.44
20.83
13.98
9.54
7.36
6.02
3.52
1.74
0.87
0.35
0.01
0.04
0.18
0.51
0.88
1.25
2.55
4.81
7.41
11.14
100%
99%
96%
89%
82%
75%
56%
33%
18%
8%
Note 1: Does not include additional loss in transmission line due to SWR or
any fold back in transmitter.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
15
Voltages and Currents
Vpk = 2 × P × R O
Vpk ≤ 2 × P × R O × SWR
P
Irms =
RO
P × SWR
Irms ≤
RO
6/1/2011
Irms
Coupler
Vpk
Ro
Vpk
Irms
Larry Benko, W0QE
R + jX
16
SWR
Power
Vpk(max)
Irms(max)
1:1
100W
1500W
100W
1500W
100W
1500W
100W
1500W
100W
1500W
100V
387V
173V
671V
316V
1225V
447V
1732V
797V
2739V
1.41A
5.48A
2.45A
9.5A
4.47A
17.3A
6.32A
24.5A
10.0A
38.7A
3:1
10:1
20:1
50:1
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
17
Stresses Within the Tuner @ 1500W
• All are 20:1 SWRs. Stresses & losses are different.
6/1/2011
10.9A
Coupler
Coupler
5.48A
12.63 +/j100Ω
Larry Benko, W0QE
1226Vpk
387Vpk
2.5 +
j0Ω
17.3A
4.99 +/j49.75Ω
1.22A
Coupler
1732Vpk
387Vpk
5.48A
5.48A
387Vpk
Coupler
86.6Vpk
24.5A
1553Vpk
387Vpk
5.48A
1000 +/j0Ω
18
“Small” Antenna Examples
• Example#1
– 1.8MHz using 40m (67.2’) dipole, 50’ high, #12 Cu wire
– Z = 1.60 – j2420 (SWR ~73000:1)
– Irms = 30.6A (1500W), Vpk = 104.7kV
• Example #2
– 1.8MHz using 80m (135’) dipole, 50’ high, #12 Cu wire
– Z = 5.9 – j1080 (SWR ~3950:1)
– Irms = 15.94A (1500W), Vpk = 24.3kV
• No tuners match these impedances well!
• A little loss is desperately needed.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
19
What is the Smith Chart
• A polar plot of the reflection coefficient including
phase.
• This results in:
–
–
–
–
Plots of constant SWRs are circles.
Inductive impedances are above the center line.
Capacitive impedances are below the center line.
The horizontal axis goes from 0Ω at the far left to RO at
the center to infinity at the far right.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
20
Smith Chart Regions
L type circuits
3/2/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
21
Example Smith Chart
showing SWR circles
5:1 = Green
10:1 = Red
20:1 = Orange
50 + j0 (SWR = 1:1)
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
22
Sample Design Goals
• Match all SWRs of at least 20:1 from 160m thru
20m with reduced SWRs up thru 6m.
• Do the basic design on 40m realizing that 4X more
C & L will be needed on 160m etc.
• Ignore stray C & L for now.
• Explain old Johnson Matchbox with open wire line
and large antennas vs today’s use of a coupler.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
23
Low Pass “L” Network
Type “A”
– Shunt “C” on ANT Side
– Series “L”
– Need >Cmax & <Cmin
0.2-5uH
Transmitter
Antenna
50 1000pF
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
24
Low Pass “L” Network
Type “B”
– Shunt “C” on TX Side
– Series “L”
– Need <Lmin & >Cmax
0.1-5uH
Transmitter
Antenna
100 1500pF
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
25
Low Pass “L” Network Results
•
•
•
•
Cmax ~= 8000pF & Lmax ~= 20uH on 160m
Cmin ~= 5pF & Lmin ~= .02uH on 6m
Pretty ugly component values.
This happens when only 2 adjustable components,
wide frequency, & wide matching range are wanted.
• Need some switchable offset components or
variable offset components to help match especially
on the higher frequencies.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
26
High Pass “L” Network
Type “C”
– Shunt “L” on ANT Side
– Series “C”
– Need >Lmax (not good)
Transmitter
100 2000pF
Antenna
0.3-20uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
27
High Pass “L” Network
Type “D”
– Shunt “L” on TX Side
– Series “C”
– Need >Cmax (not good)
Transmitter
100 3000pF
Antenna
0.3-5uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
28
High Pass “L” Network Results
• Worse component values than Low Pass “L”.
• Variable component “L” networks are not commonly
used for wide range matching on the lower
frequencies for good reason.
• Low Pass “L” networks are used in most switched
component tuners with reduced 160m & 80m
matching range.
• Often good choice if match impedance is known.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
29
Adding a 3rd Component
• Does adding a 3rd adjustable component help the
matching range?
• Could the Low Pass “Pi” could be this network?
• A “Pi” network is still a 2 terminal network.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
30
Low Pass “Pi” Network
– Great matching range
– Similar component
values to the Low Pass
“L” network
0.2-5uH
Transmitter
Antenna
100 2000pF
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
31
Low Pass “Pi” Network
– Great matching range
– Notice new scaled
component values!
0.2-20uH
Transmitter
Antenna
100 8000pF
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
32
Low Pass “Pi” Network
– Still good matching range
0.2-20uH
Transmitter
Antenna
100 8000pF
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
33
Low Pass “Pi” Network
– Not good matching range
– Needs <Cmin and <Lmin
0.2-20uH
Transmitter
Antenna
100 8000pF
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
34
Low Pass “Pi” Network
– Very good matching
range
– Modified for Cmin which
includes stray C to Gnd
– Includes stray L on input
and output
Transmitter
0.05uH
6/1/2011
0.05-1uH
20 400pF
Antenna
0.05uH
Larry Benko, W0QE
35
Low Pass “Pi” Network
– Very good matching
range
– Modified for <Cmin which
includes stray C to Gnd
– Includes stray L on input
and output
– 6m range better than
10m due to 0.05uH
Transmitter
0.05uH
6/1/2011
0.05-1uH
20 400pF
Antenna
0.05uH
Larry Benko, W0QE
36
High Pass “Tee” Network
• Neither the “L” or Low Pass “Pi” networks seems
like a good candidate for use as an all band
general matching network.
• The “Tee” network has an effective 3rd node which
increases flexibility at the expense of possible
additional loss.
• 80-90% of any coupler loss is in the inductor(s) so
improving inductor Q can offset loss concerns.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
37
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– Pretty easy to see why
the high pass “Tee”
network is popular
– Nice component values
Transmitter
30-250pF
Antenna
30-250pF
0.2-5uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
38
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– Great matching range
Transmitter
30-500pF
Antenna
30-500pF
0.2-20uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
39
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– Still great matching range
Transmitter
30-500pF
Antenna
30-500pF
0.2-20uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
40
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– Very good matching
range
Transmitter
30 -500pF
Antenna
30 -500pF
5uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
41
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– Obvious why the High
Pass “Tee” is popular
Transmitter
30-500pF
Antenna
30-500pF
0.2-20uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
42
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– What if we include the
stray Cs & Ls
– Still great matching range
Transmitter
Both
30-500pF
0.05uH
Antenna
0.05uH
20pF
20pF
0.220uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
43
High Pass “Tee”
Network
– Matching range is poor
– Lmin is too large
(reactance = +j63
@50MHz)
Transmitter
Both
30-500pF
0.05uH
Antenna
0.05uH
20pF
20pF
0.220uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
44
Fixed “L” High Pass
“Tee” Network
– Fixed “L” can cover 2
bands pretty well.
– Inductor easy to make
very high Q.
– Coupler best @ ~5MHz
– Matches all 10:1 SWRs
& 95% of 20:1 SWRs
Transmitter
30 -500pF
Antenna
30 -500pF
5uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
45
Fixed “L” High Pass
“Tee” Network
– Matches all 5:1 SWRs &
75% of 20:1 SWRs
Transmitter
30 -500pF
Antenna
30 -500pF
5uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
46
Fixed “L” High Pass
“Tee” Network
– Matches all 7:1 SWRs,
60% of 10:1 SWRs, &
40% of 20:1 SWRs
Transmitter
30 -500pF
Antenna
30 -500pF
5uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
47
Other Network Topologies
• Lew McCoy W1ICP, Ultimate Transmatch (1970)
Transmitter
Antenna
Not
Diff.
• Doug DeMaw W1FB, SPC Transmatch (1980)
Transmitter
Antenna
Not
Diff.
6/1/2011
Both had minimal to moderate
harmonic suppression with a
reduction in matching range
vs the basic High Pass “Tee”.
Larry Benko, W0QE
48
Other Network Topologies
• Link Coupled (Johnson Matchbox)
– Very good for higher R matches
– Link coupling very efficient
• High Pass Differential Tee (MFJ & later Palstar)
– Only 2 controls to adjust
Transmitter
6/1/2011
Antenna
Slightly to significantly more loss
than standard High Pass Tee &
reduced matching range on higher
frequencies but easier to adjust.
Larry Benko, W0QE
49
High Pass Differential
“Tee” Network
– Based on measurements
and component values of
the Palstar AT-Auto with
last version of inductor
Transmitter
440-25-440pF
0.10uH
20pF
Antenna
0.15uH
20pF
0.224.2uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
50
High Pass Differential
“Tee” Network
– Palstar AT-Auto
Transmitter
440-25-440pF
0.10uH
20pF
Antenna
0.15uH
20pF
0.224.2uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
51
High Pass Differential
“Tee” Network
– Palstar AT-Auto
Transmitter
440-25-440pF
0.10uH
20pF
Antenna
0.15uH
20pF
0.224.2uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
52
High Pass Differential
“Tee” Network
– Palstar AT-Auto
– No longer matches all 5:1
SWRs
– Add 4’ of 50Ω .66VF
coax for 90 deg. CW
rotation if needed.
Transmitter
440-25-440pF
0.10uH
20pF
Antenna
0.15uH
20pF
0.224.2uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
53
High Pass Differential
“Tee” Network
– Palstar AT-Auto
– Matching range severely
reduced
Transmitter
440-25-440pF
0.10uH
20pF
Antenna
0.15uH
20pF
0.224.2uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
54
High Pass Differential
“Tee” Network
– Palstar AT-Auto
– Matching range very
limited
Transmitter
440-25-440pF
0.10uH
20pF
Antenna
0.15uH
20pF
0.224.2uH
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
55
The End!
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
56
Other Topics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Why might a full sized dipole need matching?
Coupler topologies and stresses.
Converting series to parallel impedances.
Johnson Matchbox or other link couplers.
Quarter wave section for variable impedances.
Transmission line only tuner.
Complex conjugate impedances.
Graphical look at reflections.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
57
Does a Full Sized
Dipole Need
Matching?
Chapter 3, ARRL Antenna Book 21st edition
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
58
Dipole Matching
• 7.0MHz = 88.9 –j13.8 7.1MHz = 93.2 +j8.1
7.2MHz = 97.7 +j29.9 7.3MHz = 102.2 +j51.5
• Match with 99 deg. of 75Ω transmission line at
antenna. SWR < 1.4:1 across entire band.
• Match with 2.55uH across antenna and 408pF in
series toward TX. SWR < 1.4:1 across entire band.
• All matches with Q significantly less than the Q of
the dipole will have 1.4:1 band edge SWRs.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
59
Z = 20 – j0 (SWR 2.5:1), 28MHz, 1500W
Type
Transmitter Side
LP-"L"
Cp-Ls
HP-"L"
Lp-Cs
HP-"Tee" 250pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
HP-"Tee" 500pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
LP-"Pi" 200pF
Cp1-Ls-Cp2
Cp = 139.2pF
387Vpk, 6.7A
Lp = 0.23uH
387Vpk, 6.7A
Cs1 = 250pF
176Vpk, 5.5A
Cs1 = 500pf
88Vpk, 5.5A
Cp1 = 188.1pF
387Vpk, 9.1A
6/1/2011
Antenna Side
Ls = 0.14uH
300Vpk, 8.7A
Cs = 232pF
300Vpk, 8.7A
Lp = 0.18uH
426Vpk, 9.4A
Lp = 0.20uH
397Vpk, 8.0A
Ls = 0.18uH
472Vpk, 10.6A
Larry Benko, W0QE
Cs2 = 200pF
348Vpk, 8.7A
Cs2 = 223pF
313Vpk, 8.7A
Cp = 200pF
245Vpk, 6.1A
60
Z = 5 – j200 (SWR 157:1), 1.8MHz, 1500W
Type
Transmitter Side
LP-"L"
Cp-Ls
HP-"L"
Cs-Lp
HP-"Tee" 250pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
HP-"Tee" 500pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
HP-"Tee" 1000pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
LP-"Pi" 100pF
Cp1-Ls-Cp2
LP-"Pi" 1000pF
Cp1-Ls-Cp2
Cp = 5302pF
387Vpk, 16.4A
Cs = 140.3pF
4882Vpk, 5.5A
Cs1 = 50.7pF
13511Vpk, 5.5A
Cs1 = 74.4pF
9205Vpk, 5.5A
Cs1 = 97.2pF
7046Vpk, 5.5A
Cp1 = 6621pF
387Vpk, 20.5A
Cp1 = 18103pF
387Vpk, 56.1A
6/1/2011
Antenna Side
Ls = 19.01uH
5265Vpk, 17.3A
Lp = 13.45uH
4897Vpk, 22.8A
Lp = 37.17uH
13517Vpk, 22.7A
Lp = 25.31uH
9213Vpk, 22.8A
Lp = 19.38uH
7056Vpk, 22.8A
Ls = 15.53uH
5270Vpk, 21.2A
Ls = 5.85uH
5270Vpk, 56.3A
Larry Benko, W0QE
Cs2 = 250pF
8634Vpk, 17.3A
Cs2 = 500pF
4323Vpk, 17.3A
Cs2 = 1000pF
2163Vpk, 17.3A
Cp = 100pF
4897Vpk, 3.9A
Cp = 1000pF
4884Vpk, 39.1A
61
Z = 2000 – j0 (SWR 40:1), 7.0MHz, 1500W
Type
Transmitter Side
LP-"L"
Ls-Cp
HP-"L"
Cs-Lp
HP-"Tee" 250pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
HP-"Tee" 500pF
Cs1-Lp-Cs2
LP-"Pi" 250pF
Cp1-Ls-Cp2
LP-"L"
Ls-Cp
Ls = 7.10uH
2148Vpk, 5.5A
Cs = 72.8pF
2418Vpk, 5.5A
Cs1 = 72.7pF
2421Vpk, 5.5A
Cs1 = 72.8pF
2419Vpk, 5.5A
Cp1 = 250pF
387Vpk, 3.0A
Ls = 7.10uH
2148Vpk, 5.5A
6/1/2011
Antenna Side
Cp = 71.0pF
2449Vpk, 5.4A
Lp = 7.28uH
2449Vpk, 5.4A
Lp = 7.23uH
2452Vpk, 5.4A
Lp = 7.25uH
2450Vpk, 5.4A
Ls = 6.74uH
2610Vpk, 6.2A
Cp = 71.0pF
2449Vpk, 5.4A
Larry Benko, W0QE
Cs2 = 250pF
111Vpk, 0.9A
Cs2 = 500pF
56Vpk, 0.9A
Cp = 81pF
2449Vpk, 6.2A
62
Series/Parallel Conversion
Rs + Xs
Rp =
Rs
2
2
Rp × Xp
Rs =
2
2
Rp + Xp
2
Rs + Xs
Xp =
Xs
2
2
Rp 2 × Xp
Xs =
2
2
Rp + Xp
Note: If impedance was capacitive in series form then
it is still capacitive in parallel form. Same is true for
inductive impedances. Sign of Xp and Xs is the same.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
63
80m full size dipole
– #12 wire up 40’
– No feedline
– Pink dot = 1.8MHz
What can be expected
when used at all HF
frequencies?
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
64
80m full size dipole
– 50’ of .66VF 50Ω
lossless coax
Very wide range of
impedances!
Even if loss in real coax
is ignored this is a
tough matching
problem.
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
65
80m full size dipole
– 50’ of 600Ω lossless
open wire line
Notice how impedances
are high at all freq.
above 3.5MHz.
The Johnson Matchbox
efficiently matches
higher impedances!
6/1/2011
Larry Benko, W0QE
66
File LosslessReflections-50.asc
V(Vin1) under I(R1)
3/12/2009
V(Vout2) under I(R2)
Larry Benko, W0QE
67
File LosslessReflections-100.asc
V(Vin1) under I(R1)
No further
reflections
due to R1
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
68
File LosslessReflections-25.asc
V(Vin1) under I(R1)
No further
reflections
due to R1
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
69
Smith Chart
• Smith Chart basics
–
–
–
–
Zo at center, constant SWR = circles
X axis is reflection coefficient (-1 to +1)
Top half is inductive, bottom half is capacitive
Need to think in terms of Z = R +/-jX & Y = G +/-jB
• The Smith Chart allows the user to see graphical
solutions to matching problems which enhances
the understanding of impedance matching
• Smith Chart could easily be an entire presentation
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
70
Series
Capacitor
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
71
Series
Inductor
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
72
Shunt
Capacitor
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
73
Shunt
Inductor
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
74
Series
Transmission
Line
(50Ω)
Ω)
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
75
Series
Transmission
Line
(200Ω)
Ω)
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
76
2:1 Turns
Transformer
Step Up
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
77
Open
Stub
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
78
Shorted
Stub
10MHz = Green
20MHz = Red
30MHz = Blue
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
79
Smith Chart Regions
L type circuits
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
80
Surge Impedance Again
• Zo = L/C per unit length, equivalent circuit no loss
 138 
 OD 
 ∗ log10

• Zo = 
 ID 
 ε 
for round coax
• Why a particular impedance?
– Maximum power 30Ω, minimum loss 77Ω, max. voltage
breakdown 60Ω (1929 Bell Laboratories Study)
– Maximum power per pound of copper 52Ω (F. Terman?)
– Today 75Ω, 50Ω, 52Ω, 53.5Ω, 25Ω, 80Ω, 93Ω, etc.
3/12/2009
Larry Benko, W0QE
81