PVI Industries PV 500-6 Operating instructions

Handbook for Gel-VRLA-Batteries
Part 2:
Installation, Commissioning and Operation
“Sonnenschein A 400”
“Sonnenschein A 500”
“Sonnenschein A 600”
“Sonnenschein A 700”
./.
„Sonnenschein SOLAR“
„Sonnenschein SOLAR BLOCK“
“Sonnenschein A 600 SOLAR“
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Rev. 5, December 2003
CONTENT
Handbook for Gel-VRLA-Batteries
Part 2: Installation, Commissioning and Operation
1. Delivery / Reception
Page
5
2. Safety
6
3. Storage
7
3.1 Preconditions
3.2 Storage Conditions
3.3 Storage Time
3.4 Measures for Battery Storage
7
8
8
10
4. Installation
12
4.1 Battery Rooms, Ventilation and General Requirements
4.2 Preliminary Steps
4.3 Actual Assembly
4.4 Parallel Arrangements
12
12
13
14
5. Commissioning
15
6. Operation
16
6.1 Float Voltage and Float Current
6.2 Charging Conditions
6.3 Efficiency of Re-Charging
6.4 Equalizing Charge
6.5 Discharge
6.6 Cyclical Application
6.6.1 General Items
6.6.2 Special Considerations about Gel-Solar Batteries
6.7 Internal Resistance R i
6.8 Influence of Temperature
6.9 Inspections and Maintenance
6.9.1 General Items and Checks
acc. to “Operating instructions”
6.9.2 “Battery Testers” and “Battery Monitoring”
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16
21
23
25
26
27
27
31
34
35
39
39
40
Rev. 5, December 2003
7. Recycling
42
8. List of References
42
Appendix
A 1 “Battery Rooms, Ventilation, Installations”
44
A 2 “Charging Time vs. Voltage and Current”
50
A 3 Instructions
page 56 following
“Installation Instruction”
“Operating Instruction – Stationary valve regulated
lead acid batteries”
“Operating Instruction…SOLAR, SOLAR BLOCK,
A 600 S OLAR”
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DESIGN OF A
Gel VALVE-REGULATED LEAD ACID CELL (TYPE OPzV)
(Gel = with gelled electrolyte, is not visible in the picture below.
Other details are symbolical.)
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1. DELIVERY / RECEPTION
• EXIDE Technologies’ valve regulated batteries are delivered from our
factories, logistic centers or via our distributors.
• The delivery items can be identified either by the number and type of
cells / monoblocs or by referring to a battery drawing.
• Check the package or pallet for integrity.
• Do not stack one pallet above the other.
• Keep handling instructions stated on the packages.
• During transportation take all precaution to avoid breaking those
products which are considered to be „fragile“ and have been identified
as such.
• If any damage is observed during unloading the goods, the carrier
should be notified within 48 hours. Parcels are insured up to the delivery
address written on the order. Damage coverage depends on the sales
contract.
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2. SAFETY
For any operation on the batteries, from storage to recycling, the
following safety rules should be observed:
• Do not smoke.
• Use tools with insulated handles to tighten connections.
• Check that the connections between the cells / monoblocs are fitted
correctly.
• Never place tools on the batteries (metal tools are particularly
dangerous).
• Never lift the cells / monoblocs at the terminals.
• Never use a synthetic cloth or sponge to clean the cells / monoblocs.
Use water (wet cloth) without additives.
• Avoid shocks.
• Even when disconnected, a battery remains charged.
• Always wear insulating gloves and glasses.
• Read the “Installation Instruction” and “Operating Instruction” carefully.
See Appendix A 3 for more information.
A500, < 25 Ah only
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3. STORAGE
In the users interest the storage period should be as short as
possible.
3.1
Preconditions
The storage location should provide the following functions:
• Shelter the cells / monoblocs from harsh weather and risk of flooding.
• Protect the batteries against any overheating risk induced by direct
exposure to the sun radiation or by their amplification through glass
walls.
• Protect the batteries from any risk of electric shock resulting from shortcircuiting by a conductive object or from a building up of conductive
dust.
• Avoid any risk of mechanical shock caused by dropping objects onto the
cell / monobloc or by dropping the cell / monobloc itself.
• Avoid contamination of the lids by dust etc.
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3.2
Storage Conditions
• The temperature has an impact on the self-discharge rate (see fig. 1 and
2). Hence, it is important to store the batteries in a fully charged
condition in a cool but frost-free room.
• Storage on a pallet wrapped in plastic material is authorized. It is not
recommended however in rooms where the temperature fluctuates
significantly, or if high relative humidity can cause condensation under
the plastic cover. With time, this condensation can cause a whitish
hydration on the poles and lead to high self-discharge by leakage
current. This hydration has no affect on the battery operation or service
life if no corrosion occurs.
• It is forbidden to stack one pallet above the other.
• Avoid storing unpacked cells / monoblocs on sharp-edged supports.
• It is recommended to have the same storage conditions within a batch,
pallet or room.
3.3
Storage Time
The maximum storage time at ≤ 20° C is
24 months for standard Gel-batteries (fig. 1) and
17 months for Gel-solar batteries (fig. 2).
The shorter storage time of solar-batteries is due to a small amount of
phosphoric acid added to the electrolyte. Phosphoric acid increases the
number of cycles but increases the self-discharge rate slightly.
Higher temperatures cause higher self-discharge and shorter storage time
between recharging operations.
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100
90
80
10° C
Capacity [%]
70
60
40° C
30° C
20° C
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
Storage time [Months]
Fig. 1: Self-Discharge vs. Temperature (standard Gel-batteries)
100
90
80
Capacity [%]
70
60
40° C
20° C
30° C
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Storage time [Months]
Fig. 2: Self-Discharge vs. Temperature (Gel-solar batteries)
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3.4
Measures for Battery Storage
• The storage area and ambient, respectively, must be clean and well
maintained.
• Appropriate inventory turnover based on a FIFO-method (“First In – First
Out”) will result in a higher operating quality of the products.
• If the battery casings must be cleaned (prior to their installation) never
use solvents or abrasives. Use water (wet cloth) without additives.
• For extended storage periods it is recommended to check the „opencircuit“ voltage in the following intervals:
storage at 20° C: after a storage period of 12 months, then every 3
months afterwards
storage at 30° C: after a storage period of 6 months, then every 2
months afterwards.
Trickle charging *) should be considered necessary when the measured
open circuit voltage (OCV) is < 2.07 Vpc.
*) Trickle charging means continuous charge at a low rate, approximately equivalent to the
internal losses of the battery and suitable to maintain the battery in a fully charged state. It can
be carried out either by IU-charging (= float charging) or I-charging (constant current) with
limited current.
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• Trickle charging mode in storage
Constant current- constant voltage (IU-) charging (15 to 35° C)
Max. voltage Min. voltage
[Vpc]
[Vpc]
2.25
2.30 *)
2.40
Max. current
[A]
Charging
time [h] at
max. voltage
3.5 * I10
48
*) SOLAR, SOLAR BLOCK
Depending on the chargers the charging time shall be extended by 24
hours for every 0.04 V less than the maximum voltage, in which 2.25 Vpc
(2.30 Vpc respectively) is still the minimum voltage.
Constant current (I-) charging (15 to 30° C)
Measured OCV
[Vpc]
2.05
2.06
2.07
Current Charging time
[A]
[h]
0.5 * I10
14
0.5 * I10
13
0.5 * I10
12
For temperatures below 15° C it is recommended to charge the battery 20
hours.
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4. INSTALLATION
4.1
Battery Rooms, Ventilation and General Requirements
General rules and guidelines about battery rooms, their ventilation and
electrical requirements regarding installations are mentioned in Appendix
A 1.
For more information see also “Installation Instruction” (Appendix A 3).
4.2
Preliminary Steps
• Check each cell / monobloc separately by measuring the open circuit
voltage.
2 Volt cell:
6 Volt monobloc:
12 Volt monobloc:
U ≥ 2.07 V
U ≥ 6.21 V
U ≥ 12.42 V
• Check that the battery racks are stable and horizontal. For the shelf
assemblies with 4 levels of 2 rows or 5 levels of 3 rows, the assembly
should be anchored with the building.
• If EXIDE Technologies has supplied drawings for the installations, the
cells / monoblocs should be installed accordingly.
• Precautions must be taken if batteries are being installed in metallic
cabinets or on racks. Keep an air safety distance of at least 10 mm
between insulated cables and electrically conductive parts, or use
additional insulation for cell / monobloc connectors.
• The racks or cabinets should provide adequate ventilation above and
below to allow the heat produced by the batteries and their charging
system to escape. The distance between cells or monoblocs shall be
approx. 10 mm, at least 5 mm.
See appendix A 1 and standard EN 50 2727-2 (/1/) especially for battery
room ventilation requirements.
• The use of metal clamps on the cells / monoblocs is not recommended.
A system made of insulating material should be used.
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• The grounding of racks or cabinets should be carried out in accordance
with the technical rules relevant to the country of installation.
• Standards referring to installation, cabinets, equipment or battery rooms
are:
EN 50 091-I (/2/), IEC 896-2 (/3/) (draft IEC 60896-21 (/4/)) and EN
50272-2 (/1/).
4.3
Actual Assembly
• For assembly operations: Use insulated tools. It is recommended to
protect yourself by wearing insulating gloves, protection glasses and to
remove any metal objects such as watches or any other items of
jewelry, especially in the case of installation in a cabinet (see also the
paragraph relating to safety).
• Moderately lubricate the inserts and connections using silicone grease.
The use of a petroleum-based lubricant is not recommended
• The connections should be tightened by means of a torque wrench, set
to the following:
A connections:
G5/M5 connections:
G6/M6 connections:
M8 male connections:
M8 female and M 10 connections:
8 ± 1 Nm
5 ± 1 Nm
6 ± 1 Nm
8 ± 1 Nm
20 ± 1 Nm
• Check the overall battery voltage. It should comply with the number of
series connected cells / monoblocs. The open circuit voltage (OCV) of
individual cells must not vary from each other by more than 0.02 V. With
regard to monobloc batteries, the maximum deviations of OCV are as
follows:
4 V monoblocs:
6 V monoblocs:
12 V monoblocs:
0.03 V per bloc
0.04 V per bloc
0.05 V per bloc
• Batteries with a nominal voltage > 75 V require an EC conformity
declaration in acc. with the low voltage directive (73/23/EEC), which
confirms that the CE marking is applied to the battery. The company
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installing the battery is responsible for the declaration and applying the
CE marking. For more information, see /5/.
4.4
Parallel Arrangements
The most battery manufacturers, standards and guidelines recommend a
maximum of 4 strings in parallel. It is possible to have more strings in
parallel without reducing the life of the battery or getting problems with the
battery.
Preconditions and features for 2 up to 10 strings in parallel:
• General: The same voltage drops must be realized from each string to
the end connector regardless if a string consists of one unit (single cell /
monobloc) or several units. This can be achieved by proper choice of
cable lengths, cable diameters and arrangement (for instance, by crosswise configuration).
• The connector cables for positive and negative terminals of each battery
string must have the same length.
• The minimum cable size for the end connectors of a string is 25
mm²/100 Ah string capacity.
• The end-connector cables must be placed on a copper bar with at least
100 mm²/100 Ah string capacity with the lowest possible distance.
• It is a must to have a circuit breaker for each string or every two strings.
• The strings must have all the same number of cells and temperature
If these requirements are fulfilled paralleling of up to 10 strings is possible.
All battery performance data have to be applied to the end terminal of each
string. By using the parallel strings the reliability of the system is increased
due to the redundancy. Neither the lifetime nor the reliability will be
reduced.
Parallel connection of strings with different capacities as well as different
age is possible. The current during both, discharge and re-charging, will be
split acc. to the capacity or age, respectively. For more information, see /6/.
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Also, the type of lead-acid batteries may differ as long as the requested
charging voltage (Vpc) per string is fulfilled.
Always connect the individual series strings first and check that the
different strings are at the same potential before connecting them together.
5. COMMISSIONING
• For float charge applications, commissioning after a storage period or
assembly in accordance with the conditions specified above,
commissioning consists merely of connecting the battery to its charging
system.
The charge voltage should be adjusted in accordance with the
specifications as described in chapter 6.1.
The safety systems: Fuses, circuit breakers and insulation monitoring
shall be all tested independently.
• If a capacity test is requested, for instance, for an acceptance test on
site: In order to make sure the battery is fully charged the following
IU-charge methods can be applied:
Option 1:
Option 2:
Float charge ≥ 72 hours.
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 hours (max. 48 hours) followed by float
charge ≥ 8 hours.
The current available to the battery should be between 10 A/100 Ah and
35 A/100Ah of the nominal capacity.
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6. OPERATION
6.1
Float Voltage and Float Current
• A temperature related adjustment of the charge voltage within the
operating temperature of 15° C to 35° C is not necessary. If the
operating temperature is permanently outside this range, the charge
voltage has to be adjusted as shown in figures 3, 4 and 5.
Gel-solar batteries: See also chapter 6.6.2
The float charge voltage should be set as follows. Hereby, the Volts per
cell multiplied by the number of cells must be measured at the end
terminals of the battery:
2.25 Vpc for A600, A 600 SOLAR and A700
2.27 Vpc for A400
2.30 Vpc for A500, SOLAR and SOLAR BLOCK
All charging (float, boost) must be carried out according to an IUcharacteristic with limit values: I-constant: ± 2%; U-constant: ± 1%.
These limits describes the tolerance of rectifiers used. The charge
voltage shall be set or corrected, respectively, to the values mentioned
above.
• In the case of installation in cabinets or in trays, the representative
ambient temperature measurement is achieved at a height of 1/3. The
sensor should be placed in the center of this level.
• The location of battery temperature sensors depends on the probes.
The measurement shall be carried out either at the negative terminals
(pointed metallic probes or probes with loop-shape) or on the plastic
housing (flat probes to be placed on top or on one side in the center).
• Depending on the electrical equipment (e.g. rectifier, inverter), its
specification and charging characteristics alternating currents flow
through the battery superimposing onto the direct current during charge
operation.
Alternating currents and the reaction from the loads may lead to an
additional temperature increase of the battery and strain the electrodes,
which can shorten the battery life.
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When recharging up to 2.4 Vpc the actual value of the alternating
current is occasionally permitted up to 10 A (RMS)/ 100 Ah nominal
capacity. In a fully charged state during float charge or standby parallel
operation the actual value of the alternating current must not exceed 5 A
(RMS)/ 100 Ah nominal capacity.
2,50
2,45
max. 2.40 Vpc for max. 48 h
Voltage [Vpc]
2,40
Boost/Equalizing for max. 48 h
2,35
2,30
Float
2,25
2,20
2,15
2,10
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 3: A 400, Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
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2,55
2,50
max. 2.45 Vpc for max. 48 h
Voltage [Vpc]
2,45
2,40
Boost/Equalizing for max. 48 h
2,35
2,30
Float
2,25
2,20
2,15
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
40
50
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 4: A 500, Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
2,5
2,45
max. 2.40 Vpc for max. 48 h
Voltage [Vpc]
2,4
2,35
Boost/Equalizing for max. 48 h
2,3
2,25
Float
2,2
2,15
2,1
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 5: A 600 and A 700, Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
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Float Voltage Deviation
• The individual cell or bloc float voltages may deviate within a string from
the average value set as shown in figures 6, 7 and 8. Theses figures are
representative as the variations and limits depends on the battery type
and number of cells per monobloc. The following table gives an
overview about all the battery types and their variations from the
average value under float charge conditions. The “Typical Decrease”
and “Typical Increase” is always equivalent to the progress shown in fig.
6 to 8.
A400
A500
A600
A700
2V
4V
6V
8V
12V
--+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.2/-0.1 +0.28/-0.14 +0.35/-0.17 +0.40/-0.20 +0.49/-0.24
+0.2/-0.1
-+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
-+0.28/-0.14 +0.35/-0.17
---
• This deviation is even stronger after the installation and within the first
two or three years of operation. It is due to different initial states of
recombination and polarization within the cells.
• It is a normal effect and well described in /7/.
2,55
Alarm
2,50
Watch
2,45
Cell Voltage [V]
2,40
Typical Decrease
2,35
2,30
Normal
2,25
2,20
Typical Increase
2,15
Watch
Alarm
2,10
2,05
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
Years in Service
Fig. 6: Float Voltage Deviation in A 600 Batteries
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7,30
Alarm
7,20
Watch
7,10
Bloc voltage [V]
Typical Decrease
7,00
6,90
Normal
6,80
6,70
Watch
Typical Increase
6,60
Alarm
6,50
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
Years in Service
3
3,5
4
4,5
5
Fig. 7: Float Voltage Deviation in A 400 Batteries (6V-blocs)
14,30
Alarm
14,20
Watch
14,10
14,00
Bloc voltage [V]
Typical Decrease
13,90
13,80
13,70
Normal
13,60
13,50
Typical Increase
13,40
Watch
13,30
Alarm
13,20
0
0,5
1
1,5
2
2,5
Years in Service
3
3,5
4
4,5
Fig. 8: Float Voltage Deviation in A 400 Batteries (12V-blocs)
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6.2
Charging Conditions
• The constant current – constant voltage (IU) charging mode is the most
appropriate to achieve a very long service life to VRLA batteries. The
following diagrams below give informative values of time required to
recharge a battery under float voltage or enhanced voltage (Boost
charge) up to 2.40 Vpc (at 20° C) depending on depth of discharge
(DOD) and initial current.
Charging Gel-solar batteries: See chapter 6.6.2.
• How to interpret the diagrams:
At voltages higher than the float charge voltage, an automatic switch
down to the lower float voltage level follows after having reached the
initial U-constant level.
Example: IU-charging with 2.40 Vpc. If the voltage has reached 2.40
Vpc, the voltage will be switched down to 2.25 Vpc.
Parameters: Charge voltage 2.25, 2.3 and 2.4 Vpc
Charging current 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 * I 10
Depth of discharge (DOD) 25, 50, 75 and 100% C 10
Different DODs obtained by different discharge rates:
25%:
50%:
75%:
100%:
10 minutes
1 hour
3 hours
10 hours
Higher currents will not lead to relevant gain of recharging time. Lower
currents will prolong the recharging time significantly.
For how to use the charts see fig. 9 and 10 as examples. Further graphs
are shown in Appendix A 2.
Fig. 9: 2.25 Vpc, 1 * I 10. A battery discharged to 50% DOD would be rechargeable to 80 % available capacity within 4 hours. A full re-charge
would need a little bit more than 24 hours.
Fig. 10: 2.40 Vpc, 1 * I10. The same battery discharged to 50% DOD would
be recharged to 80% within 3.7 hours but full re-charged within 20 hours.
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100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 9: Re-charging at 2.25 Vpc, 1 * I 10
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 10: Re-charging at 2.40 Vpc, 1 * I 10
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6.3
Efficiency of Re-Charging
• Ah-Efficiency
Discharged Ah
Definition: Ah-Efficiency =
Re-charged Ah
Reciprocal value = Charge coefficient (re-charged Ah/discharged Ah)
Normal charge coefficients (pre-set charging time, for instance, 24 hours):
1.05 (discharge rate 10 hours)
1.10 (discharge rate 1 hour)
1.20 (discharge rate 10 minutes)
Ah-efficiency = 1/1.05 …1/1.20 = 95%…83%
Explanations:
The necessary charge coefficient increases with increasing discharge rate
(as the depth of discharge (DOD) decreases). Thus, because ohmic losses,
heat generation by recombination etc. are relatively same for a given
charging time.
• Wh-Efficiency
In addition to item “Ah-Efficiency”, average voltages during discharge and
re-charging to be taken into account.
Discharged Ah * Average Voltage Discharge
Definition: Wh-Efficiency =
Re-charged Ah * Average Voltage Recharge
Example:
Discharge:
Battery C 10 = 100 Ah
10h discharge, rate: I 10 à discharged: C10 = 100 Ah
(100% DOD)
Average voltage during C10-discharge: 2.0 Vpc
(estimated)
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Recharging:
IU-Charging 2.25 Vpc, 1*I10,
Expected re-charging time (incl. charge coefficient 1.05): 32 hours
Estimate for average voltage during re-charging: The voltage increases
from 2.1 Vpc to 2.25 Vpc during 9 hours à average 2.17 Vpc.
The voltage is constant at 2.25 Vpc for (32-9) hours = 23 hours.
Estimated average voltage during 32 hours: 2.23 Vpc
100Ah * 2.0 Vpc
Wh-efficiency =
105 Ah * 2.23 Vpc
= 0.854 = 85 %
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6.4
Equalizing Charge
Because it is possible to exceed the permitted load voltages, appropriate
measures must be taken, e.g. switch off the load.
Equalizing charges are required after deep discharges and/or inadequate
charges or if the individual cell or bloc voltages are outside the specified
range as shown in fig. 6, 7 and 8.
They have to be carried out as follows:
Up to 48 hours at max. 2.40 Vpc.
The charge current must not exceed 35 A/100 Ah nominal capacity.
The cell / bloc temperature must never exceed 45°C. If it does, stop
charging or switch down to float charge to allow the temperature to
decrease.
Gel-solar batteries with system voltages ≥ 48 V
Every one to three months:
Method 1: IUI
I-phase = up to voltage acc. to fig.17 (chapter 6.6.2) at 20°C.
U-phase = until switching at a current of 1.2 A/100Ah to the second Iphase.
I-phase = 1.2 A/100Ah for 4 hours.
Method 2: IUI pulse
I-phase = up to voltage acc. to fig. 17 (chapter 6.6.2) at 20°C
U-phase = until switching at a current of 1.2 A/100 Ah to the second
I-phase (pulsed)
I-phase = charging of 2 A/100 Ah for 4-6 hours where the pulses are
15 min. 2 A/100 Ah and 15 min. 0 A/100 Ah.
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6.5
Discharge
Even if Gel-VRLA-batteries are deep-discharge resistant their service life
can be affected by too many and successive deep discharges.
Therefore…
• Discharge must not be continued below the final discharge voltage
recommended for the discharge time.
• Deeper discharges must not be carried out unless specifically agreed
with EXIDE Technologies.
• Recharge immediately following complete or partial discharge.
• Capacity tests should be carried out acc. to IEC 896-2 (/3/) and draft
IEC 60896-21 (/4/), respectively.
What about the weakest unit during a capacity test ?
• One has to look at single cells and blocs from different point of view.
Statistics must be included when talking about blocs.
•
The weakest single cell can drop down to
(Uf = final voltage, Umin = minimum voltage)
Umin = Final voltage Uf [Vpc] - 0.2 V
Example:
Battery final voltage Uf = 1.75 Vpc
è Weakest cell can have Umin = Uf - 0.2V = 1.55 V
• The weakest bloc can drop to
Umin/bloc = final voltage (Uf * n/bloc) - (√n * 0.2 Vpc)
( n = number of cells per bloc)
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Example:
Battery final voltage Uf = 1.75 Vpc
è Weakest bloc can have Umin = Uf - √n * 0.2V
12 V-bloc: Uf = 1.75 V * 6 = 10.5 V
6 V-bloc: Uf = 1.75 V * 3 = 5.25 V
è a 12 V-bloc can have 10.01 V
è a 6 V-bloc can have 4.90 V
6.6
Cyclical Application
6.6.1 General items
Gel-batteries can be used also in discharge-charging-mode (a cycle
consists of a discharge and a re-charging).
Gel-solar batteries are optimized for cyclical application (additive to
electrolyte: phosphoric acid, - increases the number of cycles).
The following numbers of cycles are specified acc. to IEC 896-2 (/3/)*):
A 500: 600 cycles
A 400: 600 cycles
A 700: 700 cycles
A 600: 1200 cycles
SOLAR:
800 cycles
SOLAR BLOCK: 1200 cycles
A 600 SOLAR: 1600 cycles
*) Discharge conditions acc. to IEC 896-2: 20° C, discharge for 3 h at a current of I = 2.0 * I10 .
This is equivalent to a depth of discharge (DOD) of 60% C10.
The possible numbers of cycles depends on different parameters, i.e.
sufficient re-charging, depth of discharge (DOD) and temperature.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Deeper discharge (higher DOD) results in lower number of cycles because
the active mass is much more stressed and stronger re-charging necessary
(corrosion !). Therefore, lower DODs results in higher numbers of cycles.
See figures 11 to 16 for details (fig. 14 to 16 with other correlation to IEC
896-2 on x-axis).
The correlation between DOD and number of cycles is not always exact
proportional. It depends also on the ratio amount of active material versus
amount of electrolyte.
With regard to influence of temperature on number of cycles the same rules
shall be used as for influence on service life (see chapter 6.8).
Note:
The cycle life (calculated number of years with a specified daily
DOD) can never exceed the service life! Cycle life is rather less
than the service life due to non-expectable influences.
100
90
80
IEC 896-2 cycle test: 600 cycles at 60% DOD
DOD [% C10]
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100 1200
1300 1400 1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
Number of Cycles
Fig. 11: A 500, A 400; Number of Cycles vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD)
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Rev. 5, December 2003
100
90
80
IEC 896-2 cycle test: 700 cycles at 60% DOD
DOD [% C10]
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
300
400 500 600
700
800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200
Number of Cycles
Fig. 12: A 700; Number of Cycles vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD)
100
90
80
IEC 896-2 cycle test: 1200 cycles at 60% DOD
DOD [% C10]
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Number of Cycles
Fig. 13: A 600, Number of Cycles vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD)
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Discharged Capacity [% (acc. to IEC 896-2)]
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
Number of cycles
Fig. 14: SOLAR, Number of Cycles vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD)
Discharged Capacity [% (acc. to IEC 896-2)]
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
Number of cycles
Fig. 15: SOLAR BLOCK, Number of Cycles vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD)
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Discharged Capacity [% (acc. to IEC 896-2)]
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
Number of cycles
Fig. 16: A 600 SOLAR, Number of Cycles vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD)
6.6.2 Special Considerations about Gel-Solar Batteries
Charge Controller
•
•
•
•
Designed to control over-charging
Designed to prevent deep discharge
Optional temperature correction (a must for VRLA batteries)
Critical to battery life (i.e. voltage settings)
Battery Sizing: General considerations
•
•
•
•
•
Minimize voltage drop
Use oversized cables
Locate battery and load close to PV panel
Choose a large enough battery to store all available PV current
Ventilate or keep battery cool, respectively, to minimize storage losses
and to minimize loss of life
• Is a Diesel generator available for boost charge ?
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Battery Sizing: Details
•
•
•
•
•
Hours/days of battery reserve requested?
Final discharge voltage of the battery?
Load/profile: Momentary, running, parasitic current?
Ambient temperature: maximum, minimum, average?
Charging: voltage, available current, time? “Balance” of withdrawn and
returned Ampere-hours?
• Optimum daily discharge: ≤ 30% of C 10, typically 2 to 20 % C 10
Battery Sizing: Guideline
Standard IEEE P1013/D3, April 1997 (/8/) inclusive worksheet and
example
Battery Sizing: Summary
•
•
•
•
System must be well designed. Feel safe !
System must fulfill the expectations throughout the year!
Right design of panel, charge controller and battery!
Load and sun light must be in equilibrium (how many hours/days in
summer/winter ?)
• Automotive batteries are not suitable for use in professional solar
systems
• The whole System with as less as possible maintenance, especially in
rural areas
Temperature Difference
The battery installation shall be made such that temperature differences
between individual cells/blocs do not exceed 3 degree Celsius (Kelvin).
Charging
The charging of Gel-solar batteries shall be carried out acc. to fig. 17.
A temperature related adjustment of the charge voltage within the
operating temperature of 15° C to 35° C is not necessary. If the operating
temperature is permanently outside this range, the charge voltage has to
be adjusted as shown in fig. 17.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Solar batteries have also to be operated at States-of-Charge (SOC) less
than 100% due to seasonal and other conditions, for instance (acc. IEC
61427, /9/):
Summer: 80 to 100% SOC,
Winter: down to 20% SOC.
Therefore, equalizing charges should be given every 3 to 12 months
depending on the actual SOC values over a longer period.
2,60
2,55
2,50
B
Charge voltage [Vpc]
2,45
A
2,40
C
2,35
2,30
2,25
2,20
2,15
2,10
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 17: Charging of Gel-solar batteries depending on charge mode and
temperature
1)
2)
3)
With switch regulator (two-step controller): Charge on curve B
(max. charge voltage) for max. 2hrs per day, then switch over to
continuous charge - Curve C
Standard charge (without switching) - Curve A
Boost charge (Equalizing charge with external generator):
Charge on curve B for max. 5hrs per month, then switch over to
curve C.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
6.7
Internal Resistance Ri
• The internal resistance R i is determined acc. to IEC 896-2 (/3/). It is an
important parameter when computing the size of batteries. A remarkable
voltage drop at the beginning of a discharge, especially at high
discharge rates equal and less than 1 hour, must be taken into account.
• The internal resistance R i varies with depth of discharge (DOD) as well
temperature, as shown in fig. 18 below. Hereby, the R i-value at 0% DOD
(fully charged) and 20° C, respectively, is the base line (R i-factor = 1).
2.2
2
- 20° C
0° C
20° C
40° C
Ri-Factor
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
DOD [% C nominal]
Fig. 18: Internal Resistance R i vs. Depth of Discharge (DOD) and
Temperature
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Rev. 5, December 2003
100
6.8
Influence of Temperature
• Nominal temperature is 20° C and the optimal temperature regarding
capacity and lifetime (= service life). Higher temperatures reduce the
lifetime and number of cycles. Lower temperatures reduce the available
capacity and prolong the re-charge time.
• Expected service life at 20° C and with occasional discharges:
A 500: 6 years
A 400: 10 years
A 700: 12 years
A 600: 15 to 18 years
SOLAR:
SOLAR BLOCK:
A 600 SOLAR:
5 to 6 years
7 to 8 years
12 to 15 years
Even if Gel-solar batteries are not optimized for standby application,
they can be used for that too. The achievable service life is shorter than
for standard Gel-batteries with equivalent design because phosphoric
acid is added in order to increase the number of cycles. Phosphoric acid
increases the corrosion rate and the self-discharge rate slightly.
• Gel-batteries are designed to be operated within a wide temperature
range –40° C and +55° C.
• Below approx. –15° C, there is a risk of freezing in depending on the
depth of discharge. On the other hand it is possible to use the batteries
at lower temperatures, under specific conditions (contact your EXIDE
Technologies representative).
• The battery temperature affects the available capacity, as shown in fig.
19 and 20.
• High temperatures affect batteries’ service life acc. to a common “rule of
thumb” (law of “Arrhenius”):
The corrosion rate is doubled per 10° C. Therefore, the lifetime will be
halved per 10° C increase.
Example:
• 15 years at 20° C becomes reduced to
• 7.5 years at 30° C
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Rev. 5, December 2003
This is even valid for all batteries with positive grid plate design (A 400,
A 500 and A 700; to be applied to SOLAR and SOLAR BLOCK too
regarding influence on number of cycles).
There is one exception where the influence doesn’t follow the law of
“Arrhenius”, - that’s for A 600 with positive tubular plates (to be applied to
A 600 SOLAR too regarding influence on number of cycles). The influence
of temperature is less than for other batteries. In fact, an increase of 10° C
will cause a life reduction of about 30% only.
Reasons:
1.
2.
3.
Casting of the positive spine frame on high-pressure die-casting
machines. Hereby, the injection pressure is 100 bar. That assures a
very fine grain structure high resistant to the corrosion process.
The active material, but also the corrosion layer is under high
pressure by the gauntlets avoiding a growth of corrosion layer as fast
as in positive grid plate designs.
The spines are covered by an approx. 3 mm layer of active material.
Therefore, the spines are not stressed by conversion of active
material and electrolyte as much as in grid plates. The conversion
occurs mainly in the outer parts of the tubular plates.
For more details see figures 21 and 22.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
110
105
100
95
90
Available capacity [%]
85
80
75
70
Freezing
Area
C10
65
C5
60
C1
55
Guide values
50
45
40
35
30
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Bloc temperature [° C]
Fig. 19: A 400, A 500, SOLAR, SOLAR BLOCK:
Capacity (% rated capacity) vs. Temperature
110
105
100
95
Available capacity [%]
90
85
80
75 Freezing
Guide values
70 Area
C10
C5
C3
C1
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Cell temperature [° C]
Fig. 20: A 600, A 600 SOLAR, A 700:
Capacity (% rated capacity) vs. Temperature
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Rev. 5, December 2003
12
Service life [Years]
10
8
6
4
2
0
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 21: A 400, Service Life vs. Temperature (following law of “Arrhenius”).
Equivalent graphs can be established for A 500 and A 700 based
on 6 and 12 years, respectively, at 20° C. The equivalents for
SOLAR and SOLAR BLOCK regarding number of cycles (years at
20° C = 100% number of cycles.
20
Actual test results
"Arrhenius"
Service life [Years]
15
10
5
0
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 22: A 600, Service Life vs. Temperature. A 600 follows the blue curve.
The equivalent for A 600 SOLAR regarding number of cycles
(15 years at 20° C = 100% number of cycles).
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Rev. 5, December 2003
6.9
Inspections and Maintenance
6.9.1 General Items and Checks acc. to “Operating Instructions”
• Periodic inspections and maintenance are necessary regarding:
-
charge voltage and current settings,
the discharge conditions,
the temperature levels,
the storage conditions,
the cleanliness of the battery and equipment
and other conditions relevant to safety issues and battery’s service
life (battery room ventilation, for example).
• Periodic discharges can be used to assess the available operating
endurance, to detect faulty cells / monoblocs and aging symptoms of the
battery, in order to consider battery replacement in due time.
• VRLA-batteries do not require topping-up water. That’s the reason why
they were called “maintenance-free”. Pressure valves are used for
sealing and cannot be opened without destruction. Therefore, they are
defined as “Valve-Regulated” lead-acid batteries (VRLA-batteries).
• Even if VRLA-batteries are called “maintenance-free” sometimes, they
need control (see “Operating Instructions” for details):
Keep the battery clean and dry to avoid leakage currents. Plastic parts
of the battery, especially containers, must be cleaned with pure water
without additives.
At least every 6 months measure and record:
-
Battery voltage
Voltage of several cells / blocs (approx. 20%)
Surface temperature of several cells / blocs
Battery- room temperature
If the cell / bloc voltages differ from the average float charge voltage by
more than a specified +/- tolerance as stated in fig. 6 to 8 or if the
surface temperature difference between cells / blocs exceeds 5 K, the
service agent should be contacted.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
In addition, annual measurement and recording:
- Voltage of all cells / blocs
- Surface temperature of all cells / blocs
- Battery- room temperature
Annual visual checks:
- Screw connections
- Screw connections without locking devices have to be checked for
tightness.
- Battery installation and arrangement
- Ventilation
6.9.2 “Battery Testers” and “Battery Monitoring”
• Sometimes, other methods than capacity tests, are offered for checking
the state-of-health, state-of-charge or capacity of batteries. This equipment is based on any of the following ohmic methods: conductance,
impedance, DC-resistance.
• So-called “Battery Testers” are portable. Any of ohmic methods as
mentioned above can be included in “Battery Monitoring Systems”.
Hereby, “Monitoring” means the system works on-line and is permanently connected to the battery.
• Either “Battery Testers” or “Monitoring System”, the above mentioned
ohmic methods can be used in order to follow up trending of data. But,
they can never replace a standardized capacity test.
Thus, because none of the above mentioned methods can supply
absolute results. In fact, the results of measurements depend on the
concrete method (frequency, amplitude etc.), the operator (“Battery
Testers”!) and other parameters, i.e. temperature and location of probes
on the cells or monoblocs. For more information, see also /10/ and /11/.
•
The following guideline can be used for interpretation of impedance /
conductance / resistance measurements:
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Rev. 5, December 2003
If impedance or conductance measurements are used for VRLA
batteries it is recommended to install the battery and keep it for at least
two days on float charge. After the two days and a maximum of seven
days the first readings should be taken. These readings represent the
initial impedance/conductance values for the blocs or cells.
It is then recommended to take impedance/conductance readings every
6 or 12 months. If the application is considered as very critical in terms
of reliability of power supply the readings can be taken more often.
The interpretation of impedance/conductance values can not end with a
conclusion of full capacity, low capacity or no capacity. Therefore the
following recommendations can be made:
1. If impedance/conductance values of blocs or cells change more than
35 % to negative direction*), compared to the initial value, a boost
charge for 12 hours followed by 2 days on float charge is
recommended firstly. The measurement must be repeated. If the
values are not decreasing below the 35 % criteria, a capacity test
should be carried out for the battery.
2. If impedance/conductance values of blocs or cells measured have a
negative deviation*) of more than 35 %, compared to the average
value (per battery), a boost charge for 12 hours followed by 2 days on
float charge is recommended firstly. The measurement must be
repeated. If the values are not decreasing below the 35 % criteria, a
capacity test should be carried out for the battery.
3. If no initial values are measured for a battery method 2 can be
applied only.
*) impedance to higher values and conductance to lower values
All impedance/conductance measurements can be compared to each
other only if the temperature does not differ more than +/- 2° C.
For positive (impedance lower or conductance higher) deviations no
activity is needed (unless it complies with low DC float voltage) because
this changing is related to the normal capacity increase of batteries put
in float charge operation.
If a bloc or cell is changed based on impedance/conductance
measurement and returned to the manufacturer for investigation we
strongly recommend to write the measured value with permanent ink on
the bloc or cell.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
7. RECYCLING
Lead-acid batteries are recyclable products. Recognizing the need to be
involved in the whole lifecycle of a battery and to protect the environment,
EXIDE Technologies’ factories recycle used lead. Contact your EXIDE
Technologies representative who will advise you on this matter.
8. LIST OF REFERENCES
/1/
European standard EN 50272-2 “Safety requirements for secondary
batteries and battery installations, Part 2: Stationary batteries”,
June 2001
/2/
European standard EN 50091-1 “Uninterruptible power systems
(UPS); Part 1: General and safety requirements”, 1993
/3/
International standard IEC 896-2 “Stationary lead-acid batteries –
General requirements and methods of test - Part 2: Valve regulated
types”
/4/
International standard (Draft, second edition 2002) IEC 60896-21
“Stationary Lead-Acid Batteries, Part 2: Valve Regulated Types,
Section 1: Functional characteristics and methods of test”
/5/
“Council Directive of 19 February 1973 on the harmonization of laws
of member of states relating to electrical equipment designed for use
within certain voltage limits (73/23/EEC)” (so-called “Low Voltage
Directive”), amended in 1993 by the Directive 93/68/EEC, the socalled “CE marking Directive”
/6/
B. A. Cole, R. J. Schmitt, J. Szymborski (GNB Technologies):
“Operational Characteristics of VRLA Batteries Configured in Parallel
Strings”, proceedings INTELEC 1998
/7/
F. Kramm, Dr. H. Niepraschk (Akkumulatorfabrik Sonnenschein
GmbH): “Phenomena of Recombination and Polarization for VRLA
Batteries in Gel Technology”, proceedings INTELEC 1999
/8/
International Standard IEEE P1013/D3: “IEEE Recommended
Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Photovoltaic (PV)
Systems”, draft April 1997
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Rev. 5, December 2003
/9/
International standard IEC 61427 “Secondary Cells and Batteries for
Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems, - General Requirements and
Methods of Test”, draft (IEC 21/548/CD: 2001)
/10/ B. A. Cole, R. J. Schmitt (GNB Technologies): “A Guideline for the
Interpretation of Battery Diagnostic Readings in the Real World”,
Battconn ’99
/11/ PPT-Presentation “Monitoring” (Exide Technologies, GCS), October
2002
Important Notice: The manufacturer of batteries EXIDE Technologies does
not take over responsibility for any loyalties resulting from this paper or
resulting from changes in the mentioned standards, neither for any different
national standards which may exist and has to be followed by the installer,
planner or architect.
EXIDE Technologies
Network Power
Im Thiergarten
63654 Büdingen (Hessen)
Phone:
+ 49 60 42 81 70
Fax:
+ 49 60 42 81 233
www.exide.com
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
State: Dec. 2003
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Appendix A 1
Battery Rooms, Ventilation, Installations
General: This is a guideline only and consists of excerpts from national and international
standards and guidelines. See EN 50 272-2 and equivalent national standards (for instance,
DIN VDE 0510-1) for further and more detailed information. Also, follow up “Operating
Instructions” and “Installation Instructions”.
1. Temperature
The battery room temperature should be between + 5° C and + 30° C. Optimal temperature is
the nominal temperature 20° C (or 25° C, respectively, for American products).
The maximum temperature difference between cells or blocs, respectively, within a string must
not exceed 5 degree C (Kelvin, K).
2. Room Dimensions and Floors
Battery rooms’ height shall be at least 2 m above the operating floors. Floors shall be
reasonable level and able to support the battery weight.
The floor surface must be electrolyte resistant for usage of vented batteries. This precaution is
not necessary for valve regulated batteries.
Notice:
Electrolyte resistant floor surface is not necessary in case of vented batteries, if
they are placed in trays. Those trays must hold at least the amount of electrolyte
of one cell or block.
From EN 50 272-2: “…The floor area for a person standing within arm’s reach of the battery
(see note 2) shall be electrostatic dissipative in order to prevent electrostatic charge generation.
The resistance to a groundable point measured according to IEC 61340-4-1 shall be less than
10 MΩ.
Conversely the floor must offer sufficient resistance R for personnel safety. Therefore the
resistance of the floor to a groundable point when measured in accordance with IEC 61340-4-1
shall be
for battery nominal voltage ≤ 500 V: 50 kΩ ≤ R ≤ 10 MΩ
for battery nominal voltage > 500 V: 100 kΩ ≤ R ≤ 10 MΩ
NOTE 1 To make the first part of the requirement effective, the personnel shall wear antistatic footwear when carrying out maintenance work on the battery. The footwear shall
comply with EN 345.
NOTE 2 Arm’s reach: 1.25 m distance. (For definition of arm’s reach see HD 384.4.41.)…”
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Rev. 5, December 2003
Room inlets and outlets: The way of air circulation should be as shown below.
A minimum distance between inlet and outlet of 2 m is requested acc. to EN 50 272-2, if inlet
and outlet are located on the same wall.
3. Ventilation
Battery rooms must be vented acc. to EN 50 272-2 in order to dilute gas (hydrogen and
oxygen) evolved with charging and discharging and to avoid explosions. Therefore, the
electrical installation must not be “EX” protected. It must be designed for wet room conditions.
Do not install batteries in airtight enclosures.
Spark generating parts must have a safety distance to cell or bloc openings (respectively
valves) as specified in EN 50272-2.
Heaters with naked flame or glowing parts or devices are forbidden. Heater’s temperature must
not exceed 300° C.
Hand lamps are only allowed with switches and protective glass according to protection class II
and protection class IP 54.
3.1. Ventilation requirements
From EN 50 272-2: „ …The minimum air flow rate for ventilation of a battery
location or compartment shall be calculated by the following formula…:
Q = 0.05 • n • Igas • Crt • 10-3 [m3/h]
With
n
Igas
=
=
number of cells
Ifloat or boost [mA/Ah] relevant for calculation (see Table 1)
Crt
=
capacity C10 for lead acid cells (Ah), Uf = 1.80 V/cell at
20 °C...”
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The following table states the values for Igas to be used:
Operation
Vented cells (Sb < 3%)
5
1
20
8
Float charging
Boost charging
VRLA cells
Table 1: Igas acc. to EN 50 272-2 for IU- and U-charging depending on operation and lead
acid battery type (up to 40° C operating temperature)
The gas producing current Igas can be reduced to 50 % of the values for vented cells in case of
use of recombination vent plugs (catalyst).
With natural ventilation (air convection) the minimum inlet and outlet area is calculated as
follows:
A ≥ 28 x Q [cm²]
(Air convection speed ≥ 0.1 m/s)
Example 1:
Given: 220 V battery, 110 cells, C10 = 400 Ah, vented type, Antimony (Sb) < 3 % (LA) in Float
service
Calculation of fresh air necessary:
Q = 0.05 • n • Igas • Crt • 10-3 [m 3/h]
With n =
Igas =
Crt =
Q = 11 m3/h
110
5
400
(see table 1)
A ≥ 308 cm2
Example 2:
Same battery as in example 1, but VRLA-type.
Igas = 1 to be used (instead of 5).
Q = 2.2 m3/h
A ≥ 62 cm2
Note: A calculation program is available on request.
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Rev. 5, December 2003
3.2 Close vicinity to the battery
From EN 50 272: „…In the close vicinity of the battery the dilution of explosive gases is not
always secured. Therefore a safety distance extending through air must be observed within
which sparking or glowing devices (max. surface temperature 300 °C) are prohibited. The
dispersion of explosive gas depends on the gas release rate and the ventilation close to the
source of release. For calculation of the safety distance d from the source of release the
following formula applies assuming a hemispherical dispersal of gas...
NOTE The required safety distance d can be achieved by the use of a partition
wall between battery and sparking device.
Where batteries form an integral part of a power supply system, e.g. in a UPS system the safety
distance d may be reduced according to the equipment manufacturers safety calculations or
measurements. The level of air ventilation rate must ensure that a risk of explosion does not
exist by keeping the hydrogen content in air below 1%vol plus a safety margin at the potential
ignition source…“.
Taking into account the number of cells results in the following formula for the safety distance d:
d = 28.8 ⋅ 3 N  ⋅ 3 Igas ⋅ 3 Crt [mm] *)


*) “…Depending on the source of gas release the number of cells per monobloc battery (N) or vent openings per cell
involved (1/N) must be taken into consideration, i. e. by the factor
3
N , respectively
3
1/N ...”
Example 3:
Cell, vented type, one vent, 100 Ah. Float charge
à Igas = 5 (acc. to table 1).
Safety distance d = 28.8 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 1.71 ⋅ 4.64 = 228.5 mm
à 230 mm
Example 4:
12V-monobloc, six cells, one opening in the top cover, vented type, 100 Ah,
Float charge à Igas = 5 (acc. to table 1).
3
N
= 1.82, because six cells
Safety distance d = 28.8 ⋅ 1.82 ⋅ 1.71 ⋅ 4.64 = 415.8 mm
à 420 mm
Example 5:
Cell, VRLA-type, one vent, 100 Ah. Float charge
à Igas = 1 (acc. to table 1).
Safety distance d = 28.8 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 4.64 = 133.6 mm
à 135 mm
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 47-
Rev. 5, December 2003
Example 6:
Cell, vented type, one vent, 1500 Ah. Boost charge
à Igas = 20 (acc. to table 1)
Safety distance d = 28.8 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 2.71 ⋅ 11.45 = 893.6 mm
à 895 mm
Example 7:
Cell, vented type, three vents, 3000 Ah. Boost charge
3
1/N =
à Igas = 20 (acc. to table 1)
0.69 because three vents per cell
Safety distance d = 28.8 ⋅ 0.69⋅ 2.71 ⋅ 14.42 = 776.6 mm à 780 mm
4. Electrical Requirements (protection, insulation, resistance etc.)
To prevent a build-up of static electricity when handling batteries, clothing/materials, safety
boots and gloves are required to have
- a surface resistance of ≤ 108 Ω, and
- an insulation resistance of ≥ 105 Ω
From EN 50 272-2: “…The minimum insulation resistance between the battery’s circuit and
other local conductive parts should be greater than 100 Ω per Volt (of battery nominal voltage)
corresponding to a leakage current < 10 mA…
NOTE: The battery system should be isolated from the fixed installation before this
test is carried out. Before carrying out any test check for hazardous voltage
between the battery and the associated rack or enclosure….”
In case of battery systems with > DC 120 V nominal voltage battery racks or cabinets made
from metal shall either be connected to the protective conductor (grounding) or insulated from
the battery and the place of installation (chapter 5.2 in EN 50272-2). This insulation must
withstand 4000 V AC for one minute.
NOTE: Protection against both direct and indirect contact shall only be used for
battery installations with nominal voltages up to DC 120 V. In these cases
the requirements for metal battery stands and cabinets specified in chapter
5.2 of EN 50272-2 do not apply.
Touch protection must be provided for all active parts at voltages > 60 V DC with insulation,
covers or shrouds and distance.
NOTE: Breakers are not necessary in case of small load power (≤ 30 W) if the
nominal voltage does not exceed 12 V. Precautions must be taken to avoid fires
in case of failures.
Insulation is necessary or a distance of at least 10 mm for ≥ 24 V potential difference to avoid
parasitic currents (fire protection !).
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 48-
Rev. 5, December 2003
5. Installation (racks, cabinets)
Batteries shall be installed in clean, dry locations. Batteries must be secured against dropping
items and dirt.
The course width between battery rows is equal to 1.5 times the cell depth (replacement) but
minimum 600 mm (acc. to EN 50 272-2).
The minimum distance for > 120 V between active parts is 1.5 m or insulation, insulated cover
etc.
The recommended minimum distance between cells or blocs (of VRLA type) is 10 mm. At least
5mm are requested acc. to EN 50272-2 (at the largest dimension). Thus, in order to allow heat
dissipation.
Racks and cabinets shall have a distance of at least 100 mm to the wall for a better placement
of connections and better access for cleaning.
Batteries must be easy assessable and must allow service with normal insulated tools
(EN 50272-2).
CE symbol : Any battery with a nominal voltage greater than 75 V requires an EC declaration of
conformity in accordance with the low-voltage directive with the proper CE symbol for the
battery. The installer of the battery system is responsible for the issue of the declaration and
attachment of the CE symbol.
Important Notice: The manufacturer of batteries EXIDE Technologies do
not take over responsibility for any loyalties resulting from this paper or
resulting from changes in the mentioned standards, neither for any different
national standards which may exist and has to be followed by the installer,
planner or architect.
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 49-
Rev. 5, December 2003
Appendix A 2: Charging Time vs. Voltage and Current (see also fig. 9, 10)
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50
50% DOD
75% DOD
40
100% DOD
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 23: Re-charging at 2.25 Vpc and 0.5 * I 10
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charging Time[Hours]
Fig. 24: Re-charging at 2.25 Vpc and 1.5 * I 10
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 50-
Rev. 5, December 2003
24
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 25: Re-charging at 2.25 Vpc and 2 * I10
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 26: Re-charging at 2.30 Vpc and 0.5 * I 10
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 51-
Rev. 5, December 2003
24
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 27: Re-charging at 2.30 Vpc and 1 * I10
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 28: Re- charging at 2.30 Vpc and 1.5 * I 10
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 52-
Rev. 5, December 2003
24
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 29: Re-charging at 2.30 Vpc and 2 * I10
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 30: Re-charging at 2.40 Vpc and 0.5 * I 10
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 53-
Rev. 5, December 2003
24
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 31: Re-charging at 2.40 Vpc and 1.5 * I 10
100
90
Available Capacity [%C10]
80
70
60
25% DOD
50% DOD
75% DOD
100% DOD
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charging Time [Hours]
Fig. 32: Re-charging at 2.40 Vpc and 2 * I10
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 54-
Rev. 5, December 2003
24
Important Notice: The manufacturer of batteries EXIDE Technologies do
not take over responsibility for any loyalties resulting from this paper or
resulting from changes in the mentioned standards, neither for any different
national standards which may exist and has to be followed by the installer,
planner or architect.
EXIDE Technologies
Network Power
Im Thiergarten
63654 Büdingen (Hessen)
Phone:
+ 49 60 42 81 70
Fax:
+ 49 60 42 81 233
www.exide.com
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
State: Dec. 2003
- 55-
Rev. 5, December 2003
APPENDIX 3: Instructions
“Installation Instruction”
“Operating Instruction-Stationary valve regulated lead acid batteries
“Operating Instruction…SOLAR, SOLAR BLOCK, A 600 SOLAR”
Industrial Energy, Technical Support
- 56-
Rev. 5, December 2003
Installation instruction
35 0 35340 10
for stationary lead acid batteries
(Batteries / Stands / Cabinets)
• Observe these instructions and keep them located nearby the battery for
future reference. Work on the battery should only be carried out by qualified
personnel.
• Do not smoke.
• Do not use any naked flame or other sources of ignition.
• Risc of explosion and fire.
• While working on batteries wear protective eye-glasses and clothing.
• Observe the accident prevention rules as well as EN 50 272-2, DIN VDE 0510,
VDE 0105 Part 1.
• An acid splash on the skin or in the eyes must be flushed with plenty of clean
water immediately. Then seek medical assistance.
• Spillages on clothing should be rinsed out with water.
• Explosion and fire hazard, avoid shortcircuits.
Caution! Metal parts of the battery are always alive, therefore do not place
items or tools on the battery.
• Electrolyte is very corrosive. In normal working conditions the contact with the
electrolyte is impossible. If the cell or monobloc container is damaged do not
touch the exposed electrolyte because it is corrosive.
• Cells and monoblocs are heavy. Always use suitable handling equipment for
transportation.
• Handle with care because cells and monoblocs are sensitive to mechanical shock.
• Dangerous electric voltage!
1.
Installation preconditions and
preparations
1.1
Prior to commencing installation, ensure that
the battery room is clean and dry and that it
has a lockable door. The battery room must
meet the requirements in accordance with
EN 50 272-2 and be marked as such. Pay
attention to the following aspects:
– Load bearing capacity and nature of the floor
(transport paths and battery room)
– Electrolytic resistance of the area where the
battery is to be installed
– Ventilation
To ensure trouble free installation, coordination
should be made with other personnel working in
the same area.
1.2
Check delivery for complete and undamaged
components. If necessary, clean all parts prior
to installation.
1.3
Follow instructions in the documentation supplied (e.g. installation drawings for battery, stand,
cabinet).
1.4
Prior to removing old batteries always ensure
that all of the leads have been disconnected
(load-break switches, fuses, insulations). This
must be carried out only by personnel authorised to perform circuit operations.
WARNING: Do not carry out any unauthorised circuit operation!
1.5
Carry out open circuit voltage measurements
on the individual cells or monobloc batteries. At
the same time, ensure that they are connected
in the correct polarity. As for unfilled and charged batteries, these measurements can only be
taken after commissioning. The open-circuit
voltages for fully charged cells at an electrolyte
temperature of 20 °C are as follows:
OPzS-cells
OPzS-monobloc batt.
OCSM-cells
GroE-cells
OGi-monobloc batteries
OGi-cells
OGiV-monobloc batt.
Other OGiV-monobloc
batteries
OPzV-cells
OPzV-monobloc batt.
DIN 40736
DIN 40737
2.08±0.01 [Vpc]
2.08±0.01 [Vpc]
2.10±0.01 [Vpc]
DIN 40738
2.06±0.01 [Vpc]
2.10±0.01 [Vpc]
2.10±0.01 [Vpc]
DIN 40741, part 1 2.10±0.01 [Vpc]
Depending on
construction
2.08–2.14* [Vpc]
DIN 40742 (draft) 2.08–2.14* [Vpc]
DIN 40744 (draft) 2.08–2.14* [Vpc]
* according to manufacturer’s information
The open-circuit voltage of the individual cells
must not vary from each other by more than
0.02 V. With regard to monobloc batteries, the
maximum deviations of the open-circuit voltage
are as follows:
4 V monobloc batteries
6 V monobloc batteries
12 V monobloc batteries
0.03 V/bloc
0.04 V/bloc
0.05 V/bloc
Higher temperatures cause the open-circuit
voltage to be lower, whereas lower temperatures cause it to be higher. At a deviation of
15 K from the nominal temperature, the open
circuit-voltage changes by 0.01 Vpc. If the
deviation is any higher, contact the supplier.
2.
Stands
2.1
Locate the stands/racks within the battery room
in accordance with the installation plan. If an
installation plan does not exist, observe the
following minimum distances:
– From the wall: 100 mm all around, with
regard to cells or monoblocs, or 50 mm,
concerning of the stands.
– At a nominal voltage or partial voltage
>120 V: 1.5 metres between non-insulated
leads or connectors and grounded parts (e.g.
water pipes) and/or between the battery
terminals. During the installation of the batteries, ensure that EN 50 272-2 part 2 is
observed (e.g. by covering electrically conductive parts with insulating mats).
– Width of aisles: 1.5 x cell width (built-in
depth), but not less than 500 mm.
2.2
Balance battery stands horizontally, using the
balance parts supplied, or adjustable insulators.
The distances of the base rails must correspond to the dimensions of the cells or monobloc
batteries. Check the stands for stability and all
screwed and clamped joints for firm connection.
Earth (ground) the stand or parts of the stand, if
required. Screwed joints must be protected
against corrosion.
2.3
Check cells or monobloc batteries for perfect
condition (visual check, polarity).
2.4
Place cells or monobloc batteries on the stand
one after another, ensuring correct polarity.
For large cells it is useful to start installing the
cells in the middle of the stand:
– Align cells or monobloc batteries parallel to
each other. Distance between cells or monobloc batteries approx. 10 mm, at least 5 mm.
– If necessary, clean the contacting surfaces of
the terminals and connectors.
– Place and screw intercell or monobloc connectors, using an insulated torque wrench
(for correct torque value refer to battery
operating instructions). If applicable, observe
special instructions with regard to the intercell
connectors (e.g. welded connectors).
– Place the series, step or tier connectors
supplied and screw them together, observing
the given torque values.
– Avoid short circuits! Use leads of at least
3 kV breakdown voltage or keep an air distance of approx. 10 mm between the leads
and electrically conductive parts, or apply
additional insulation to the connectors.
Avoid applying any mechanical force on the
cell/battery poles.
– If applicable, remove transport plugs and
replace by operational plugs.
– Check electrolyte level. (Observe operating
instructions / commissioning instructions).
– Measure total voltage (nominal voltage: sum
of open circuit voltages of the individual cells
or monobloc batteries).
– If necessary sequentially number the cells or
monobloc batteries in a visible place between
the positive terminal of the battery and the
negative terminal of the battery.
– Apply polarity signs for the battery leads.
– Attach safety marking, type lable and operating instructions in a visible place.
– If necessary, fit insulating covers for cell /
monobloc connectors and terminals.
3.
Cabinets
3.1
Cabinets with built-in battery:
– Install the battery cabinet at the location
assigned, observing the accident prevention
rules.
– Leave additional space from the wall for
possible or planned cable entries.
– If applicable, remove transport protection
from the built-in cells or monobloc batteries.
– Check cells or monobloc batteries for correct
positioning and for any mechanical damage.
3.2
4.
CE marking
From 1 January 1997, batteries with a nominal
voltage from 75 V onwards require an EC conformity declaration in accordance with the low
voltage directive (73/23/EWG), which entails
that the CE marking is applied to the battery.
The company installing the battery is responsible for supplying the declaration and applying
the CE marking.
WARNING:
Prior to connecting the battery to the
charger, ensure that all installation work has
been duly completed.
Cabinets with separately delivered cells or
monobloc batteries:
– Only filled and charged cells and/or monobloc batteries (vented or sealed) are built into
cabinets.
– Assemble cabinet, place and align at the
assigned location (observe the accident
prevention rules).
– Place cells or monobloc batteries in the
cabinet, in accordance with the installation
plan and the defined distances, connect
electrically and apply markings (see point
2.4).
EXIDE Technologies
Network Power
Im Thiergarten
63654 Büdingen
Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 60 42 / 81 70
Fax:
+49 (0) 60 42 / 81 233
www.exide.com
issued: April 2002
Operating Instruction
Stationary valve regulated
lead acid batteries
Nominal data:
•
Nominal voltage UN
: 2.0V x number of cells
•
Nominal capacity CN = C10; C20
: 10 h ; 20 h discharge (see type plate on cells/blocs and technical data in these instructions)
•
Nominal discharge current IN=I10; I20 : CN / 10 h; CN / 20h
•
Final discharge voltage Uf
: see technical data in these instructions
•
Nominal temperature TN
: 20°C ; 25°C
Assembly and CE marking by: ____________________EXIDE Technologies order no.:__________________________date:____________
Commissioned by: ________________________________________________________________________________date:____________
Security signs attached by:__________________________________________________________________________date:____________
•
Observe these instructions and keep them located nearby the battery for
future reference. Work on the battery should only be carried out by qualified
personnel.
•
Do not smoke.
Do not use any naked flame or other sources of ignition.
Risk of explosion and fire.
•
While working on batteries wear protective eye-glasses and clothing.
Observe the accident prevention rules as well as EN 50272-2, DIN VDE 0510,
VDE 0105 Part 1.
•
Any acid splashes on the skin or in the eyes must be flushed with plenty of
water immediately. Then seek medical assistance. Spillages on clothing
should be rinsed out with water.
•
Explosion and fire hazard, avoid short circuits.
•
Electrolyte is very corrosive. In normal working conditions the contact with
electrolyte is impossible. If the cell or monobloc container is damaged do not
touch the exposed electrolyte because it is corrosive.
•
Cells and monoblocs are heavy. Always use suitable handling equipment for
transportation.
Handle with care because cells/monoblocs are sensitive to mechanical shock.
•
•
Caution! Metal parts of the battery are always alive, therefore do not place
items or tools on the battery
•
Keep children away from batteries.
Non-compliance with operating instructions, repairs made with other than original parts,
or repairs made without authorization (e. g. opening of valves) render the w arranty void.
Disposal of Batteries
Batteries marked with the recycling symbol should be processed via a recognized
recycling agency. By agreement, they might be returned to the manufacturer.
Batteries must not be mixed with domestic or industrial waste.
Stationary valve regulated lead acid batteries do not require topping-up water.
Pressure valves are used for sealing and cannot be opened without destruction.
Type
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
10-32x0.425
-6 Nm
-----
G-M5
----5 Nm
--
M6
6 Nm
11 Nm
6 Nm
11 Nm
6 Nm
6 Nm
M8
8 Nm
-8 Nm
-8 Nm
8 Nm
M12
25 Nm
------
-------
G-M5
5 Nm
5 Nm
---
M5
---6 Nm
G- M6
6 Nm
6 Nm
---
A / M8
8 Nm
8 Nm
---
M8
--20 Nm
20 Nm
F-M10
20 Nm
----
All torques apply with a tolerance of ± 1 Nm
Table 1: Terminal torque
1. Start Up
Check all cells/blocs for mechanical
damage, correct polarity and firmly seated
connectors. Torques as shown in table 1
apply for screw connectors.
Before installation the supplied rubber covers
should be fitted to both ends of the connector
cables (pole covers).
Control of insulation resistance:
New batteries: > 1M Ω
Used batteries: > 100 Ω/Volt
Connect the battery with the correct polarity to
the charger (pos. pole to pos. terminal). The
charger must not be switched on during this
process, and the load must not be connected.
Switch on charger and start charging following
instruction no. 2.2.
2. Operation
For the installation and operation of stationary
batteries DIN VDE 0510 part1 (draft) and
EN 50 272-2 is mandatory.
Battery installation should be made such that
temperature differences between individual
units do not exceed 3 degrees Celsius/Kelvin.
2.1 Discharge
Discharge must not be continued below the
voltage recommended for the discharge time.
Deeper discharges must not be carried out
unless specifically agreed with the
manufacturer. Recharge immediately following
complete or partial discharge.
2.2 Charging
All charging must be carried out according to
DIN 41773 (IU-characteristic with limit values:
I-constant: ± 2%; U-constant: ± 1%).
Depending on the charging equipment,
specification and characteristics alternating
currents flow through the battery. Alternating
currents and the reaction from the loads may
lead to an additional temperature increase of
the battery, and strain the electrodes with
possible damages (see 2.5) which can shorten
the battery life. Depending on the installation
charging (acc. to DIN VDE 0510 part 1, draft)
may be carried out in following operations.
a.) Standby Parallel Operation
Here, the load, battery and battery charger are
continuously in parallel. Thereby, the charging
voltage is the operation voltage and at the
same time the battery installation voltage. With
the standby parallel operation, the battery
charger is capable, at any time, of supplying
the maximum load current and the battery
charging current. The battery only supplies
current when the battery charger fails. The
charging voltage should be set acc. to table 2
measured at the end terminals of the battery.
Float Voltage
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.30 Vpc
2.25 Vpc
2.25 Vpc
Nominal
Temp.
20°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
Table 2: Float voltage
To reduce the charging time a boost charging
stage can be applied in which the charging
voltage acc. to table 3 can be adjusted
(standby-parallel
operation
with
boost
recharging stage).
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
Voltage on boost
charge stage
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.35-2.45 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
2.33-2.40 Vpc
Nominal
Temp.
20°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
Table 3: Voltage on boost charging stage
c.) Switch-mode operation
When charging, the battery is separated from the
load. The charge voltage of the battery must be set
acc. to table 5 (max. values). The charging process
must be monitored. If the charge current reduces to
less than 1.5A/100Ah with the values given in table
5 the mode switches to float charge acc. to item 2.3
(switches after reaching value acc to table 5).
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
Max. switch-mode
voltage
2.35 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.35 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.35 Vpc
2.35 Vpc
2.35 Vpc
2.45 Vpc
2.35 Vpc
2.35 Vpc
Nominal
Temp.
20°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
Table 5: Switch-mode operation charge voltage
(max. values)
d.) Battery operation (charge-/discharge
operation)
The load is only supplied by the battery. The
charging process depends on the application
and must be carried out in accordance with the
recommendations of the battery-manufacturer.
2.3 Maintaining the full charge (float charge)
Devices complying with the stipulations under
DIN 41773 must be used. They are to be set so
that the average cell voltage is acc. to table 2.
Automatic change over to charging voltage
acc. to table 2 should be applied.
b.) Buffer operation
With buffer operation the battery charger is not
able to supply the maximum load current at all
times. The load current intermittently exceeds
the nominal current of the battery charger.
During this period the battery supplies power.
This results in the battery not fully charged at
all times. Therefore, depending on the load the
charge voltage must be set acc. to table 4.
This has to be carried out in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions.
Voltage in buffer
operation
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
2.27 Vpc
2.29-2.33 Vpc
2.30 Vpc
2.29-2.33 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.27 Vpc
2.30-2.35 Vpc
2.27-2.30 Vpc
2.27-2.30 Vpc
Nominal
temp.
20°C
25°C
25°C
25°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
20°C
Table 4: Charge voltage in buffer operation
2.4 Equalizing charge
Because it is possible to exceed the permitted load
voltages, appropriate measures must be taken, e.g.
switch off the load. Equalizing charges are required
after deep discharges and/or inadequate charges.
They have to be carried out acc. to table 6
for up to 48 hours as follows:
The cells / bloc temperature must never exceed
45°C. If it does, stop charging or revert to float
charge to allow the temperature to drop.
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
Max. equalizing
charge voltage
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.45 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
2.40 Vpc
Max. charge
current
20A/100Ah
35A/100Ah
20A/100Ah
35A/100Ah
20A/100Ah
20A/100Ah
35A/100Ah
35A/100Ah
35A/100Ah
35A/100Ah
Table 6: Equalizing charge voltage (max. values)
2.5 Alternating currents
When recharging up to 2.40 Vpc under operation
modes 2.2 the actual value of the alternating
current is occasionally permitted to reach
10A (RMS) /100Ah nominal capacity. In a fully
charged state during float charge or standby
parallel operation the actual value of the
alternating
current
must
not
exceed
5 A (RMS) /100 Ah nominal capacity.
2.6 Charging currents
The charging currents are not limited during
standby parallel operation or buffer
operation without recharging stage. The
charging current should range between the
values given in table 7 (guide values).
Charging current
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
10 to 30 A per 100Ah
10 to 35 A per 100Ah
10 to 30 A per 100Ah
10 to 35 A per 100Ah
10 to 30 A per 100Ah
10 to 30 A per 100Ah
10 to 35 A per 100Ah
10 to 35 A per 100Ah
10 to 35 A per 100Ah
10 to 35 A per 100Ah
Table 7: Charging currents
2.7 Temperature
The recommended operation temperature
range for lead acid batteries is 10°C to
30°C (best: nominal temperature ± 5K).
Higher temperatures will seriously reduce
service life. Lower temperatures reduce
the available capacity.
The absolute maximum temperature is
55°C and should not exceed 45°C in
service.
All technical data refer to a nominal
temperature
of
20°C
and
25°C
respectively.
2.8 Temperature related charge voltage
The temperature correction factor has to be
applied acc. to the following figures.
A temperature related adjustment of the
charge voltage must not be applied within a
specified temperature range (see table 8).
If the operation temperature is constantly
outside this range, the charge voltage has to
be adjusted.
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
No temp. correction
to be applied
------------15°C to 35°C
15°C to 35°C
15°C to 35°C
15°C to 35°C
Table 8: No Temperature correction
2,45
Voltage [Vpc]
2,40
2,35
Maximum value
2,30
Nominal Value
Float
2,25
2,20
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Temperature [°C]
The charging voltage should be set to the nominal value, the maximum value must not be exceeded
Fig. 1: Marathon L, Sprinter P and Powerfit S; Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
2,45
2,40
Voltage [Vpc]
2,35
Float
2,30
2,25
2,20
2,15
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
Temperature [°C]
Fig. 2: Marathon M, Sprinter S; Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
40
50
2,50
2,45
max. 2.40 Vpc for max. 48 h
2,40
Boost/Equalizing for max. 48 h
2,30
Float
2,25
2,20
2,15
2,10
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
40
50
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 3: A 400; Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
2,55
2,50
max. 2.45 Vpc for max. 48 h
2,45
2,40
Voltage [Vpc]
Voltage [Vpc]
2,35
Boost/Equalizing for max. 48 h
2,35
2,30
Float
2,25
2,20
2,15
-20
-10
0
10
20
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 4: A 500; Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
30
2,5
2,45
max. 2.40 Vpc for max. 48 h
2,4
Voltage [Vpc]
2,35
Boost/Equalizing for max. 48 h
2,3
2,25
Float
2,2
2,15
2,1
-20
-10
0
10
20
Temperature [° C]
Fig. 5: A 600, A 700; Charging Voltage vs. Temperature
30
40
50
2.9 Electrolyte
The electrolyte is diluted sulphuric acid and fixed
in a glass mat for AGM products or in a gel for
Sonnenschein products.
3. Battery maintenance and control
Keep the battery clean and dry to avoid creeping
currents. Plastic parts of the battery, especially
containers, must be cleaned with pure water
without additives.
6. Storage and taking out of operation
To store or decommission cells/blocs for a
longer period of time they should be fully
charged and stored in a dry frost-free room.
To avoid damage the following chargingmethods can be chosen:
1. Annual equalizing-charge acc. to 2.4. in
average ambient temperatures of more
than 20°C shorter intervals may be
necessary.
2. Float charging as detailed in 2.3.
At least every 6 month measure and record:
- Battery voltage
- Voltage of several cells/blocs
- Surface temperature of several cells/blocs
- Battery-room temperature
If the cell voltage differs from the average float
charge voltage by more than the values in given in
table 9, or if the surface temperature difference
between cells / monoblocs exceeds 5K, the
service agent should be contacted.
Annual measurement and recording:
- Voltage of all cells / blocs
- Surface temperature of all cells/blocs
- Battery-room temperature
- Insulation-resistance acc. to DIN 43539 part1
Annual visual check:
- Screw -connections
- Screw -connections without locking devices
have to be checked for tightness
- Battery installation and arrangement
- Ventilation
4. Tests
Tests have to be carried out according to
IEC 896-2, DIN 43539 part 1 and 100 (draft).
Special instructions like DIN VDE 0107 and DIN
VDE 0108 have to be observed.
Capacity test
Capacity test (for instance, acceptance test on site):
In order to make sure the battery is fully charged,
the following IU-charge methods can be applied.
For different types see table 10
The current available to the battery must be between
10A /100Ah and 35A/ 100Ah of the nominal
capacity.
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
A600
A700
4V
-------+0.28/-0.14
-+0.28/-0.14
6V
8V
12V
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17 +0.40/-0.20 +0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
-+0.49/-0.24
+0.35/-0.17
---
Table 9: Criteria for voltage measurements
Option 1
Marathon L
Marathon M
Sprinter P
Sprinter S
Powerfit S300
Powerfit S500
A400
A500
5. Faults
Call the service agents immediately if faults in
the battery or the charging unit are found.
Recorded data as described in item 3. must be
made available to the service agent. It is
recommended that a service contract is taken
out with our agent.
2V
+0.2/-0.1
------+0.2/-0.1
+0.2/-0.1
--
7. Transport
Cells and blocs must be transported in an
upright position. Batteries without any visible
damage are not defined as dangerous
goods under the regulations for transport of
dangerous goods by road (ADR) or by
railway (RID). They must be protected
against short circuits, slipping, upsetting or
damaging. Cells/blocs may be suitable
stacked and secured on pallets (ADR and
RID, special provision 598). It is prohibited
to staple pallets.
No dangerous traces of acid shall be found
on the exteriors of the packing unit.
Cells/blocs whose containers leak or are
damaged must be packed and transported
as class 8 dangerous goods under UN no.
2794.
A600
A700
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.27 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.30 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
2.25 Vpc
≥ 72 hours
2.25 Vpc
≥ 48 hours
Option2
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.27 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.30 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.25 Vpc ≥ 8h
2.40 Vpc ≥ 16 h (max. 48h)
followed by 2.25 Vpc ≥ 8h
Table 10: Preparation for capacity test
8. Central degassing
8.1 General items
The ventilation of battery rooms and cabinets, respectively, must be carried out acc. to EN 50272-2 always. Battery rooms are to be considered as safe
from explosions, when by natural or technical ventilation the concentration of hydrogen is kept below 4% in air.
This standard contains also notes and calculations regarding safety distance of battery openings (valves) to potential sources of sparks.
Central degassing is a possibility for the equipment manufacturer to draw off gas. Its purpose is to reduce or to delay, respectively, the accumulation of
hydrogen in the ambient of the batteries by conducting hydrogen releasing the vents through a tube system to the outside. On such a way it is also
possible to the equipment manufacturer to reduce the safety distance to potential sources of ignition.
Even if the gas releasing the vents will be conducted through the tube system outside, hydrogen (H2) diffuses also through the battery container and
through the tube wall.
The following calculation shows when the critical limit of 4% H2 can be achieved using central degassing in a hermetic closed room (e.g. battery
cabinet).
Only bloc batteries equipped by a tube junction for central degassing must be used for this application.
The installation of the central degassing must be carried out in acc. with the equivalent installation instructions. During each battery service also the
central degassing must be checked (tightness of tubes, laying in the direction of the electrical circuit, drawing off the end of the tube to the outside).
8.2 Accumulation of hydrogen up to 4% in air
The following calculations are based on measurements and are related to cabinets.
The following equation was determined for calculating the numbers of days for achieving the critical gas mixture:
k/Bloc * c1 * c2
x =
c3
with:
x=
k/Bloc =
c1 =
c2 =
c3 =
Days up to achieving 4% H2 in air
Constant per specific bloc battery type acc. to table11
Coefficient for actual free volume inside the cabinet acc. to table 12
Coefficient for actual battery temperature acc. to table 2
Coefficient for actual numbers of blocs in total
Therefore, it is possible to calculate using the tables 11 and 12 after how many days the 4% H2-limit can be achieved in the cabinet for the mentioned
battery types, different configurations and conditions.
Calculation example:
48 V-battery (e.g. Telecom)
4 * M12V155FT
Free air volume 70%
Battery temperature 20° C
à c3 = 4
à k = 750
à c1= 0.9
à c2 = 1
k/Bloc * c1 * c2
x =
= 168 days
c3
The 168 days are reduced to 99 days only at 30° C because c2 = 0.59.
Battery bloc
type
M12V45
M12V90FT
M12V105FT
M12V125FT
M12V155FT
M6V200
S12V500
A 412/26 FT
A 412/37 FT
A 412/48 FT
A 412/85 FT
A 412/110 FT
A 412/85 F10
Nominal
voltage [V]
12
12
12
12
12
6
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
C10 [Ah],
1.80 Vpc, 20° C
45
85
100
121
150
200
130
26
37
48
85
110
85
Table 11: Constant k for different bloc battery types
having central degassing
Constant k
1842
1324
1107
930
750
873
648
2999
2107
1624
1048
810
786
V free [%]
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
c1
0.13
0.19
0.26
0.32
0.38
0.45
0.51
0.58
0.64
0.70
0.77
0.83
0.90
0.96
1.02
1.09
1.15
T [° C]
≤ 25
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
55
c2
1
0.91
0.73
0.59
0.48
0.40
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.11
0.10
0.09
Table 12: Coefficients for free air volume (c1)
and temperature (c2)
8.3 Special conditions and instructions
The free air volume inside the cabinet has to be determined by the user.
The batteries must be monitored regarding temperature. Exceeding the limit of 55° C is not allowed.
Malfunctions of equipment and (or) batteries may lead to a faster accumulation of H2 and, therefore, time reduction. In such a case, the above
mentioned calculation methods cannot be applied anymore.
Discharge and re-charging at float voltage level can be carried out as much as necessary during the time (days) determined.
It is allowed to carry out monthly boost or equalizing charging for maximum 12 hours only and at the maximum allowed voltage level specified for the
battery. For all applications in addition to this, e.g. buffer or cyclical operations, consultation with EXIDE Technologies is necessary.
The time (days) is valid for temperature compensated charge voltages acc. to the operating instructions and take into account aging effects of the
battery (increasing residual charge current).
9. Technical Data
The following tables contain values of either capacities (Cn) or discharge rates (constant current or constant power) at different discharge times (tn) and
to different final voltages (Uf).
All technical data refer to either 20° C or 25° C (depends on battery type).
9.1 AGM
9.1.1. Powerfit S
Discharge time tn
10 min
30 min
1h
3h
5h
10 h
20 h
Capacity Cn [Ah]
C1/6
C1/2
C1
C3
C5
C10
C20
Capacity in %
of the nominal
capacity C20
40 %
50 %
55 %
80 %
83 %
86 %
100 %
Uf in Volt per cell
1.60
1.70
1.74
1.78
1.79
1.80
1.75
Example:
C3 (S 512/25) = 80 % * 25 Ah = 20 Ah
All technical data refer to 20° C.
9.1.2. Sprinter P
Type
P12V570
P12V600
P12V875
P12V1220
P12V1575
P12V2130
P 6V1700
P 6V2030
Nominal
voltage
[V]
12
12
12
12
12
12
6
6
15 min.-power,
Uf = 1.60 V per cell
[W]
570
600
875
1220
1575
2130
1700
2030
Capacity C10,
Uf = 1.80 V per cell
[Ah]
21
24
41
51
61
86
122
178
The battery is especially designed for high rate discharges. Further details depending on
the discharge time and cut off voltage must be taken from the actual product brochure.
All technical data refer to 25° C.
9.1.3 Sprinter S
Type
S12V120(F)
S12V170(F)
S12V285(F)
S12V300(F)
S12V370(F)
S12V500(F)
S6V740(F)
Nominal
voltage
[V]
12
12
12
12
12
12
6
C10 [Ah]
Uf = 1.80
V per cell
24
40
70
69
87
131
175
All technical data refer to 25°C.
Constant power [Watt per cell] Uf = 1.67 V per cell
5 min
10 min
15 min
30 min
60 min 90 min
242
323
543
654
723
864
1446
151
215
365
415
484
615
970
117
167
285
306
373
505
746
72
102
169
180
230
310
458
41
58
96
105
131
176
262
29
41
69
76
92
126
184
9.1.4 Marathon L
Discharge time tn
Capacity Cn [Ah]
L12V15
L12V24
L12V32
L12V42
L12V55
L12V80
L6V110
L6V160
L2V220
L2V270
L2V320
L2V375
L2V425
L2V470
L2V520
L2V575
Uf [V] (2 V cell)
Uf [V] (6 V bloc)
Uf [V] (12 V bloc)
10 min
C1/6
6.5
10.7
14.1
19.6
21.6
30.3
48.5
66.6
87.1
104.1
130.7
152.4
160.9
186.6
204.1
220.8
1.60
4.80
9.60
30 min
C1/2
8.1
13.3
17.7
25.0
28.2
40.0
62.0
89.5
120.5
148.5
180.5
212.0
234.0
264.0
290.0
317.5
1.70
5.10
10.20
1h
C1
9.5
15.1
20.5
28.5
34.5
48.8
73.5
105.0
141.0
162.0
214.0
250.0
274.0
305.0
337.0
372.0
1.74
5.22
10.44
3h
C3
12.3
20.4
27.3
37.2
42.9
61.5
98.4
126.3
178.2
218.4
261.0
306.0
345.0
382.2
423.0
468.0
1.78
5.34
10.68
5h
C5
12.5
21.0
29.5
38.5
48.0
69.0
104.0
142.0
194.0
238.0
283.5
332.5
375.0
419.5
466.5
516.0
1.79
5.37
10.74
10 h
C10
14.0
23.0
31.5
42.0
55.0
80.0
112.0
162.0
220.0
270.0
320.0
375.0
425.0
470.0
520.0
575.0
1.80
5.40
10.80
All technical data refer to 20°C.
9.1.5 Marathon M
Type
M12V30T
M12V40(F)
M12V45F
M12V70(F)
M12V90(F)
M6V190(F)
M12V90FT
M12V105FT
M12V125FT
M12V155FT
Nominal
voltage
[V]
12
12
12
12
12
6
12
12
12
12
C8 [Ah]
1.75 V
per cell
28
40
46
72
90
190
90
104
125
155
Constant current discharge [A]. Uf = 1.75 V per cell
0.5 h
1h
1.5 h
3h
5h
10 h
36.9
51.3
57.8
90.8
107.0
246.0
109.0
118.4
145.3
179.4
21.2
30.5
33.2
51.6
65.7
144.9
64.8
71.8
90.4
105.8
15.1
21.5
24.0
36.8
46.6
102.0
46.4
51.6
65.3
77.7
8.4
11.9
13.5
20.6
25.9
56.0
25.3
29.2
38.1
44.4
5.5
7.6
8.7
13.4
16.7
35.9
16.3
19.2
24.0
28.8
All technical data refer to 25°C.
9.2. GEL
9.2.1 A 400
Discharge time tn
Capacity Cn [Ah]
A406/165
A412/5.5
A412/8.5
A412/12.0
A412/20.0
A412/32.0
A412/50.0
A412/65.0
A412/85.0
A412/90.0
A412/100.0
A412/120.0
A412/180.0
A412/26.0
19“ A412/37.0
A412/48.0
A412/85.0
23“
A412/110.0
Uf [V] (6 V bloc)
Uf [V] (12 V bloc)
10 min
C1/6
52.98
1.83
2.67
3.67
6.50
11.25
15.95
19.38
27.70
24.23
30.52
38.08
53.03
9.00
12.20
17.00
27.00
35.00
4.8
9.6
All technical data refer to 20° C.
30 min
C1/2
80.10
2.80
3.85
5.50
39.10
16.55
24.00
28.95
42.65
37.50
45.65
55.90
79.25
13.00
17.00
25.00
40.00
52.00
4.8
9.6
1h
C1
95.1
3.4
4.7
6.8
11.5
20
29.4
41.7
52.2
43.7
53.3
70.6
95.8
16.00
21.00
30.00
51.00
66.00
4.95
9.9
3h
C3
132.0
4.5
6.3
9.0
15.0
26.7
40.8
51.9
68.4
58.8
72.3
87.9
138.0
21.00
29.00
40.00
68.00
88.00
5.1
10.2
5h
C5
143.5
5.0
7.0
10.5
16.5
29.0
44.5
57.5
74.5
66.0
85.0
98.0
152.0
23.00
31.00
43.00
75.00
97.00
5.1
10.2
10 h
C10
165.0
5.5
8.5
12.0
20.0
32.0
50.0
65.0
85.0
90.0
100.0
120.0
180.0
26.00
37.00
48.00
85.00
110.00
5.4
10.8
2.9
4.1
4.7
7.4
9.2
19.5
8.8
10.6
12.7
15.7
9.2.2 A 500
Discharge time tn
Capacity Cn
A502/10.0
A504/3.5
A506/1.2
A506/3.5
A506/4.2
A506/6.5
A506/10.0
A508/3.5
A512/1.2
A512/2.0
A512/3.5
A512/6.5
A512/10.0
A512/16.0
A512/25.0
A512/30.0
A512/40.0
A512/55.0
A512/60.0
A512/65.0
A512/85.0
A512/115.0
A512/120.0
A512/140.0
A512/200.0
Uf [V] (2 V cell)
Uf [V] (4 V bloc)
Uf [V] (6 V bloc)
Uf [V] (8 V bloc)
Uf [V] (12 V bloc)
10 min
C1/6
4.8
1.4
0.5
1.4
1.1
2.6
4.8
1.4
0.5
0.8
1.4
2.6
4.8
7.0
7.8
11.4
14.1
19.3
22.2
22.6
33.1
37.8
44.5
50.5
68.5
1.6
3.2
4.8
6.4
9.6
30 min
C1/2
6.4
1.95
0.67
1.95
1.75
3.5
6.4
1.95
0.67
0.11
1.95
3.8
6.4
9.0
11.45
16.3
19.5
27.5
31.0
33.8
47.5
58.5
62.0
71.5
101
1.6
3.2
4.8
6.4
9.6
1h
C1
7.1
2.3
0.8
2.3
2.5
4.0
7.1
2.3
0.8
1.5
2.3
4.0
7.1
10.6
14.4
20.1
24.0
35.7
37.1
41.0
59.0
67.0
74.0
85.4
120.0
1.65
3.3
4.95
6.6
9.9
3h
C3
9.0
3.0
1.05
3.0
3.8
4.8
9.0
3.0
1.05
1.8
3.0
4.8
9.0
13.8
18.6
24.6
28.5
43.0
48.6
53.7
69.0
84.0
89.7
105.3
151.8
1.70
3.4
5.1
6.8
10.2
5h
C5
9.5
3.15
1.1
3.15
3.95
5.5
9.5
3.15
1.1
1.85
3.15
5.5
9.5
14.5
20.5
26.5
34.0
46.5
52.0
58.5
75.5
95.0
96.0
113.0
164.0
1.70
3.4
5.1
6.8
10.2
10 h
C10
10.0
3.3
1.0
3.3
4.0
6.3
10.0
3.3
1.0
1.9
3.3
6.3
10.0
15.0
22.0
27.0
36.0
50.0
56.0
62.0
80.0
104.0
102.0
119.0
173.0
1.80
3.6
5.4
7.2
10.8
20 h
C20
10.0
3.5
1.2
3.5
4.2
6.5
10.0
3.5
1.2
2.0
3.5
6.5
10.0
16.0
25.0
30.0
40.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
85.0
115.0
120.0
140.0
200.0
1.75
3.5
5.25
7.0
10.5
All technical data refer to 20° C.
9.2.3 A 600
The nominal voltage, the number of cells, the nominal capacity (C10 = CN) and the battery type are described on the cell label. Other capacities (Cn) at
different discharge currents (In) and discharge times (tn) can be calculated with the help of the following example and table below.
Example:
Calculation of the 5h discharge data:
Type plate on cell: 6 OPzV 600
Code : with single cells the nominal
voltage is not shown
6
= n = Number of positive plates (pI)
OPzV = Type = Stationary/tubular/valve regulated
600 = nominal capacity in Ah(C10), capacity of
discharge with 10 h-current (I10) for a time
of 10 h (t10)
Calculation of the plate type:
C10/n = 600 Ah/ 6 pl = 100 Ah/pl
Calculation of the 5h capacity (C5) of the battery:
C5 = (C5/pl) x n = 86Ah/pl x 6 = 516 Ah
Calculation of the 5h discharge current (I5):
I5 = C5/t5 = 516Ah/ 5h = 103.2 A
Calculation of the final discharge voltage (Uf):
The final discharge cell voltage Uf (1.77 V) at a discharge time of tn = 5 h is listed in the table.
Stationary lead acid batteries OPzV (DIN 40742) with pos. tubular plates and neg. grid
plates
Discharge time tn
Capacity [Ah]/plate at tn
50 Ah
70 Ah
100 Ah *
125 Ah
Uf in Volt per cell *
1h
C1
26.5
37.0
52.0
62.0
1.67
3h
C3
37.5
52.5
75.0
93.0
1.75
5 h*
C5
43.0
60.0
86.0
105.0
1.77
10 h
C10
50.0
70.0
100.0
125.0
1.80
* Values for calculation examples
All technical data refer to 20° C.
9.2.4 A 700
Discharge time tn
Capacity Cn [Ah]
A706/21
A706/42
A706/63
A706/84
A706/105
A706/126
A706/140
A706/175
A706/210
A704/245
A704/280
Uf [V] (4 V bloc)
Uf [V] (6 V bloc)
10 min
C1/6
7.1
14.2
21.3
28.3
35.4
42.5
42.3
52.9
63.5
74.1
84.6
3.2
4.8
30 min
C1/2
10.3
20.5
30.8
41.0
51.3
61.5
69.5
86.9
104.3
121.7
139.0
3.2
4.8
1h
C1
12.2
24.4
36.6
48.8
61.0
73.2
85.3
106.6
128.0
149.3
170.6
3.3
4.95
3h
C3
16.5
33.0
49.5
66.0
82.8
99.3
117.0
146.4
175.5
204.9
234.0
3.4
5.1
5h
C5
19.0
38.0
57.0
76.5
95.5
114.5
131.0
163.5
196.0
229.0
261.5
3.4
5.1
10 h
C10
21.0
42.0
63.0
84.0
105.0
126.0
140.0
175.0
210.0
245.0
280.0
3.6
5.4
All technical data refer to 20° C.
Deutsche EXIDE GmbH
Im Thiergarten
63654 Büdingen - Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 60 42 / 81 544
Fax: +49 (0) 60 42 / 81 398
www.networkpower.exide.com
State: December 2003
35 0 33200 10
Sonnenschein SOLAR, SOLAR BLOCK, A 600 SOLAR
Operating Instruction 33200
Stationary valve regulated lead acid batteries
Nominal data
• Nominal voltage UN
• Nominal capacity CN = C100
• Nominal discharge current IN = I100
• Final discharge voltage Uf
• Nominal temperature TN
:
:
:
:
:
2.0 V x number of cells
100h discharge (see type plate on cells/blocs and technical data in these instructions)
I100 = C100 / 100h
see technical data in these instructions
20°C
Assembly by:
EXIDE Technologies order no.:
date:
Security signs attached by:
date:
•
•
Do not smoke.
Do not use any naked flame or other sources of ignition.
Risk of explosion and fire.
2.1 Discharge
Discharge must not be continued below the voltage recommended for the discharge time.
Deeper discharges must not be carried out
unless specifically agreed with the manufacturer.
Recharge immediately following complete or
partial discharge.
•
•
While working on batteries wear protective eye-glasses and clothing.
Observe the accident prevention rules as well as EN 50 272-2, DIN VDE 0510,
VDE 0105 Part 1.
2.2 Charging
All charging must be carried out acc. to DIN
41773 (IU-characteristic).
•
Any acid splashes on the skin or in the eyes must be flushed with plenty of
clean water immediately. Then seek for medical assistance. Spillages on
clothing should be rinsed out of water!
Recommended charge voltages for cyclical
application: See fig. 1 and item 2.8.
•
•
Observe these Instructions and keep them located near the battery for future
reference.
Work on the battery should be carried out by qualified personnel only.
•
Explosion and fire hazard, avoid short circuits.
•
Electrolyte is very corrosive. In normal working conditions the contact with the
electolyte is impossible. If the cell/bloc container is damaged do not touch
the exposed electrolyte because it is corrosive.
•
Cells are heavy! Always use suitable handling equipment for transportation!
Handle with care because cells are sensitive to mechanical shock.
•
Caution! Metal parts of the battery are always alive, therefore do not place
items or tools on the battery.
Non-compilance with operating instructions, repairs made with other than original parts,
or repairs made without authorization (e. g. opening of valves) render the warranty void.
Disposal of Batteries
Pb
Batteries marked with the recycling symbol should be processed via a recognised
recycling agency. By agreement, they may be returned to the manufacturer.
Batteries must not be mixed with domestic or industrial waste.
Stationary valve regulated lead acid batteries do
not require topping-up water. Pressure valves
are used for sealing and can not be opened without destruction.
1. Start Up
Check all cells/blocs for mechanical damage,
correct polarity and firmly seated connectors.
Apply the following torques for screw connectors:
G5
5 ± 1 Nm
date:
Commissioned by:
G6
6 ± 1 Nm
A
8 ± 1 Nm
M8
20 ± 1 Nm
Rubber covers shall be fitted to both ends of the
connector cables (pole covers) before installation.
Control of insulation resistance:
New batteries: > 1M Ω
Used batteries: > 100 Ω/Volt.
Connect the battery with the correct polarity to
the charger (pos. pole to pos. terminal). The
charger must not be switched on during this process, and the load must not be connected.
Switch on charger and start charging following
item 2.2.
2. Operation
For the installation and operation of stationary
batteries DIN VDE 0510, part 1 (draft) and EN
50 272-2 is mandatory.
Battery installation should be made such that
temperature differences between individual cells/
blocs do not exceed 3 degrees Celsius (Kelvin).
According to the charging equipment, specification and characteristics alternating currents flow
through the battery superimposing onto the
direct current during charge operation.
Alternating currents and the reaction from the
loads may lead to an additional temperature
increase of the battery, and strain the electrodes
with possible damages (see 2.5), which can
shorten the battery life.
2.3 Maintaining the full charge (float charge)
Devices complying with the stipulations under
DIN 41773 must be used. They are to be set so
that the average cell voltage is as follows
(within temperature range 15 to 35° C):
SOLAR, SOLAR BLOCK:
2.30 Vpc ± 1%
A 600 SOLAR:
2.25 Vpc ± 1%
2.4 Equalizing charge
Because it is possible to exceed the permitted
load voltages, appropriate measures must be
taken, e.g. switch off the load. Equalizing charges are required after deep discharges and/or
inadequate charges. They have to be carried out
as follows: Up to 48 hours at max. 2.40 Vpc. The
charge current must not exceed 35 A/100 Ah
nominal capacity. The cell/bloc temperature
must never exceed 45°C. If it does, stop charging or revert to float charge to allow the temperature to drop.
For system voltages ≥ 48 V every one to three
months:
Method 1: IUI
I-phase = up to voltage acc. to fig.1 at 20°C
U-phase = until switching at a current of
1.2 A/100Ah to the second
I-phase
I-phase = 1.2 A/100Ah for 4 hours
Method 2: IUI pulse
I-phase = up to voltage acc. to fig. 1 at 20°C
U-phase = until switching at a current of
1.2 A/100 Ah to the second
I-phase (pulsed)
I-phase = charging of 2 A/100 Ah for 4-6
hours where the pulses are 15
min. 2 A/100 Ah and 15 min.
0 A/100 Ah.
1. Maximum storage time is 17 months at
≤ 20° C. Equalizing charges will be required
at higher temperatures, for instance, after
8.5 months at 30° C.
2. Float charging as detailed in 2.3.
7. Transport
Cells/bloc batteries must be transported in an
upright position. Batteries without any visible
damage are not defined as dangerous goods
under the regulations for transport of dangerous
goods by road (ADR) or by railway (RID). They
must be protected against short circuits, slipping, upsetting or damaging. Cells/bloc batteries
may be suitable stacked and secured on pallets
(ADR and RID, special provision 598). It is prohibited to staple pallets.
No dangerous traces of acid shall be found on
the exteriors of the packing unit.
Cells/bloc batteries whose containers leak or are
damaged must be packed and transported as
class 8 dangerous goods under UN no. 2794.
Fig. 1: Charge voltage vs. temperature for solar mode. Charge modes:
1)
With switch regulator (two-step controller): Charge on curve B (max. charge voltage)
for max. 2hrs per day, then switch over to continuous charge – Curve C
2)
Standard charge (without switching) – Curve A
3)
Boost charge (Equalizing charge with external generator): Charge on curve B for max.
5hrs per month, then switch over to curve C.
2.5 Alternating currents
When recharging acc. to fig.1 the actual value of
the alternating current is occasionally permitted
to reach 10 A (RMS)/ 100 Ah nominal capacity. In
a fully charged state during float charge the
actual value of the alternating current must not
exceed 5 A (RMS)/ 100 Ah nominal capacity.
2.6 Charging currents
The charging current should range between 10 A
to 35 A / 100Ah nominal capacity (guide values).
2.7 Temperature
The recommended operation temperature range
for lead acid batteries is 10° C to 30° C (best 20°
C ± 5 K). Higher temperatures will seriously reduce service life. Lower temperatures reduce the
available capacity. The absolute maximum temperature is 55° C and should not exceed 45° C in
service.
2.8 Temperature-related charge voltage
A temperature related adjustment of the charge
voltage within the operating temperature of
15° C to 35° C is not necessary. If the operating
temperature is constantly outside this range, the
charge voltage has to be adjusted (see fig.1).
2.9 Electrolyte
The electrolyte is diluted sulphuric acid and fixed
in a gel.
3. Battery maintenance and control
Keep the battery clean and dry to avoid leakage
currents. Plastic parts of the battery, especially
containers, must be cleaned with pure water
without additives.
At
–
–
–
–
least every 6 months measure and record:
Battery voltage
Voltage of several blocs/cells
Surface temperature of several blocs/cells
Battery-room temperature
If the bloc/cell voltages differ from the average
float charge voltage by values more than specified in the following table or if the surface temperature difference between blocs/cells exceeds
5 K, the service agent should be contacted.
Type
2 V cells
6 V blocs
12 V-blocs
Upper value
+0.2
+0.35
+0.48
Lower value
-0.1
-0.17
-0.24
In addition, annual measurements and recording:
– Voltage of all blocs/cells
– Surface temperature of all blocs/cells
– Battery-room temperature
Annual visual checks:
– Screw connections
– Screw connections without locking device
have to be checked for tightness.
– Battery installation and arrangement
– Ventilation
4. Tests
Tests have to be carried out according to
IEC 896-2, DIN 43539 part 1 and 100 (draft).
Special instructions like DIN VDE 0107 and DIN
VDE 0108 have to be observed.
Capacity test, for instance, acceptance test
on site: In order to make sure the battery is fully
charged the following IU-charge methods must
be applied: Option 1: float charge (see item 2.3),
≥ 72 hours. Option 2: 2.40 Vpc, ≥ 16 hours (max.
48 hours) followed by float charge (see item 2.3),
≥ 8 hours. The current available to the battery
must be between 10 A/100 Ah and 35 A/100Ah
of the nominal capacity
5. Faults
Call the service agents immediately if faults in
the battery or the charging unit are found.
Recorded data as described in item 3. must be
made available to the service agent. It is recommended that a service contract is taken out with
your agent.
6. Storage and taking out of operation
To store or decommission cells for a longer
Period of time they should be fully charged and
stored in a dry and cold but frost-free room,
away from direct sun light. To avoid damage the
following charging methods can be chosen:
8. Technical data:
Capacities at different discharge times and final discharge voltage.
All technical data refer to 20° C.
8.1 Sonnenschein SOLAR
Discharge time
Capacity
1h
5h
10 h
20 h
100 h
C1 [Ah]
C5 [Ah]
C10 [Ah]
C20 [Ah]
C100 [Ah]
S 12 / 6.6 S
2.9
4.6
5.1
5.7
6.6
S 12 / 17 G5
9.3
12.6
14.3
15
17
S 12 / 27 G5
15
22.1
23.5
24
27
S 12 / 32 G6
16.9
24.4
27
28
32
S 12 / 41 A
21
30.6
34
38
41
S 12 / 60 A
30
42.5
47.5
50
60
S 12 / 85 A
55
68.5
74
76
85
S 12 / 90 A
50.5
72
78
84
90
S 12 / 130 A
66
93.5
104.5
110
130
S 12 / 230 A
120
170
190
200
230
Uf (cell)
1.7 V/Z
1.7 Vpc
1.7 Vpc
1.75 Vpc
1.80 Vpc
8.2 Sonnenschein SOLAR BLOCK
Discharge time
Capacity
1h
5h
10 h
20 h
100 h
C1 [Ah]
C5 [Ah]
C10 [Ah]
C20 [Ah]
C100 [Ah]
SB 12 / 60
34
45
52
56
SB 12 / 75
48
60
66
70
60
75
SB 12 / 100
57
84
89
90
100
SB 12 / 130
78
101
105
116
130
SB 12 / 185
103
150
155
165
185
SB 06 / 200
104
153
162
180
200
SB 06 / 330
150
235
260
280
330
Uf (cell)
1.7 Vpc
1.7 Vpc
1.7 Vpc
1.75 Vpc
1.80 Vpc
8.3 Sonnenschein A 600 SOLAR
Discharge time
Capacity
1h
3h
5h
10 h
100 h
C1 [Ah]
C3 [Ah]
C5 [Ah]
C10 [Ah]
C100 [Ah]
4 OPzV 240
108
151
175
200
240
5 OPzV 300
135
189
219
250
300
6 OPzV 360
162
227
263
300
360
5 OPzV 400
180
252
292
350
400
6 OPzV 500
225
315
365
420
500
7 OPzV 600
270
378
438
490
600
6 OPzV 720
324
454
526
600
720
8 OPzV 960
432
605
701
800
960
10 OPzV 1200
540
756
876
1000
1200
12 OPzV 1400
630
882
1022
1200
1400
12 OpzV 1700
765
1071
1241
1500
1700
16 OPzV 2300
1035
1449
1679
2000
2300
20 OPzV 2900
1305
1827
2117
2500
2900
24 OPzV 3500
1575
2205
2555
3000
3500
1.67 Vpc
1.75 Vpc
1.77 Vpc
1.80 Vpc
1.85 Vpc
Uf (cell)
Service:
Deutsche EXIDE GmbH
Im Thiergarten
63654 Büdingen – Germany
Deutsche EXIDE GmbH
Odertal 35
37431 Bad Lauterberg – Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 180 / 23 94 336
Fax: +49 (0) 60 42 / 81 360
Tel.: +49 (0) 180 / 23 94 338
Fax: +49 (0) 180 / 23 94 339
www.networkpower.exide.com
State: October 2003
NXSSOOE00000000 · Hellersche Druckerei · Printed in Germany · Subject to change
Competence Center: