Cisco 2511 - Router - EN User guide

About This Guide
This section discusses the objectives, audience, organization, and conventions of the
Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide.
All Cisco technical documentation and additional literature are available on UniverCD,
Cisco’s online library of product information. UniverCD is updated and shipped monthly,
so it might be more up to date than printed documentation. UniverCD is available both as
a single CD and as an annual subscription. To order UniverCD, contact your local sales
representative or call Customer Service.
Document Objectives
This publication will step you through initial site preparation, installation, configuration
and troubleshooting of the Cisco 2500 series access server. It also covers selected
maintenance procedures, such as replacing single in-line memory modules (SIMMs) and
Flash memory. The appendix “Internetworking Primer” has been included to provide the
required background for getting started with your Cisco 2500 series access server.
Audience
This publication is designed for the person installing the access server, who should be
familiar with electronic circuitry and wiring practices and have experience as an electronic
or electromechanical technician.
For a tutorial on initial software configuration, refer to the appendix “Internetworking
Primer,” and the publication Router Products Getting Started Guide. For more advanced
configuration applications, refer to the Router Products Configuration Guide and the
Router Products Command Reference.
About This Guide xvii
Document Organization
Document Organization
The major sections of this user guide are as follows:
•
Chapter 1, “Overview of the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server,” discusses the features
and specifications of the Cisco 2500 series access server.
•
Chapter 2, “Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server,” discusses
environmental requirements and preparation for network connections, and describes the
various ports and how to prepare for connections between networks and ports.
•
Chapter 3, “Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server,” includes cabling and basic
installation information.
•
Chapter 4, “Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server,” discusses configuration
for the console and modems and other asynchronous devices attached to the
Cisco 2500 series access servers using AutoInstall, manually using the automated setup
utility, or manually without using the setup utility.
•
Appendix A, “Internetworking Primer,” includes basic information on the Cisco IOS
operating environment, LANs, WANs, desktop protocols, modems, and asynchronous
protocols.
•
Appendix B, “Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server,” discusses
maintenance procedures, including items such as Flash memory SIMM replacement,
system code upgrades, and DRAM replacement.
•
Appendix C, “Cable Specifications,” lists pinout information for all cables used with
the Cisco 2500 series access server.
•
Appendix D, “Translated Safety Warnings,” contains translations for the warnings that
appear in this manual.
xviii Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
This publication uses the following conventions to convey instructions and information:
Command descriptions use these conventions:
•
•
•
•
Commands and keywords are in boldface font.
Variables for which you supply values are in italic font.
Elements in square brackets ([ ]) are optional.
Alternative but required keywords are grouped in braces ({ }) and are separated by a
vertical bar ( | ).
Examples use these conventions:
•
•
•
•
Terminal sessions are in screen font.
Information you enter is in boldface
screen
font.
Nonprinting characters are shown in angle brackets (< >).
Information the system displays is in screen font, with default responses in
square brackets ([ ]).
Note Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to materials
not contained in this manual.
Timesaver Means the described action saves time. You can save time by performing the
action described in the paragraph.
Caution Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might do something that could
result in equipment damage or loss of data.
About This Guide xix
Document Conventions
Warning This warning symbol means danger. You are in a situation that could cause
bodily injury. Before you work on any equipment, you must be aware of the hazards
involved with electrical circuitry and familiar with standard practices for preventing
accidents. To see translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated
Safety Warnings.”
xx Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
CHAPT E R
1
Overview of the Cisco 2500
Series Access Server
The Cisco 2500 series access server is a full-featured communication server with
multiprotocol routing capability between synchronous serial, LAN, and asynchronous
serial ports.
The Cisco 2500 series access server is available in four models, as follows:
Model 2509
1 Ethernet port
2 synchronous serial ports
8 asynchronous serial ports
Model 2510
1 Token Ring
2 synchronous serial ports
8 asynchronous serial ports
Model 2511
1 Ethernet
2 synchronous serial ports
16 asynchronous serial ports
Model 2512
1 Token Ring
2 synchronous serial ports
16 asynchronous serial ports
Overview of the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 1-1
Access Server Hardware Features
Access Server Hardware Features
The access server has the following hardware features:
•
8 or 16 ports for connection to modems, terminals, or other asynchronous
(EIA/TIA-232) equipment
•
2 MB to 16 MB (depending on the selected feature set) of primary memory, using
dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) single in-line memory modules (SIMMs)
•
•
32-KB nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM) to store configurations
•
•
•
•
2-MB shared packet memory
4-MB to 8-MB Flash memory for running the Cisco Internetwork Operating System
(Cisco IOS) image
Two synchronous serial ports for connection to a WAN
EIA/TIA-232 console port for connection of a console terminal
EIA/TIA-232 auxiliary port for connection of a terminal or modem
Note EIA/TIA-232 and EIA/TIA-449 were known as recommended standards RS-232
and RS-449 before their acceptance as standards by the Electronic Industries Association
(EIA) and Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA).
The serial WAN connections use a proprietary, 60-pin connector. The Ethernet and
Token Ring connections use standard LAN cabling with an attachment unit interface (AUI)
or DB-9 connector.
The console terminal is used to provide basic and emergency local system access. The
auxiliary port is used to provide basic and emergency remote system access.
The access server uses a 68-pin connector and breakout cable, which provides 8 RJ-45 ports
on each cable. These ports use RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters to connect to asynchronous
devices.
1-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Access Server Services
Cisco 2500 Series Access Server (Model 2511 Shown)
H3540
Figure 1-1
DB-15
SCSI II 68-pin
DB-60
Power
RJ-45
On/off
switch
Access Server Services
The access server connects terminals, printers, modems, microcomputers, and remote
LANs over asynchronous serial lines to an internetwork. The access server uses a set of
connection services to allow remote networks access to an internetwork of LANs and
WANs.
The access server supports four types of server operation:
•
•
•
•
Remote node services
Terminal services
Asynchronous routing services
Protocol translation services
Remote Node Services
Remote node services support remote network connectivity with Serial Line Internet
Protocol (SLIP), Point-to-point Protocol (PPP), AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARA
protocol), and XRemote.
Overview of the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 1-3
System Specifications
Terminal Services
Terminal services provide terminal-to-host connectivity with virtual terminal protocols
including Telnet, local-area transport (LAT), TN3270, and rlogin. Terminal services can be
used to connect to a modem in a modem pool for outbound connectivity.
Asynchronous Routing Services
Routing services enable the access server to route packets over LANs and WANs using
asynchronous interfaces to a remote LAN or WAN.
Protocol Translation Services
Protocol translation allows terminal services running over one protocol to be translated to
terminal services running over another protocol such as an X.25 packet
assembler/disassembler (PAD) to Telnet (using Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol [TCP/IP]). Protocol translation on the access server supports Telnet, TN3270,
LAT, X.25, and PAD.
System Specifications
The system specifications of the Cisco 2500 series access server are listed in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1
System Specifications
Description
Specification
Dimensions (H x W x D)
1.75 x 17.5 x 10.56" one rack unit
(4.44 x 44.45 x 26.82 cm)
Weight
10 lb (4.5 kg)
Input voltage, AC power supply
Current
Frequency
Power dissipation
100–240 VAC
0.5–1.0A
50–60 Hz
40W (maximum), 135.5 Btus1/hr
1-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
System Specifications
Description
Specification
Input voltage, DC power supply
Current
Power dissipation
40W, 40–72 VDC
0.5–1.0A
40W (maximum), 135.5 Btus/hr
Processor
20-MHz Motorola 68EC030
Network interface options
Model 2509:1 Ethernet, 2 synchronous serial, 8
asynchronous serial
Model 2510: 1 Token Ring, 2 synchronous serial, 8
asynchronous serial
Model 2511: 1 Ethernet, 2 synchronous serial, 16
asynchronous serial
Model 2512: 1 Token Ring, 2 synchronous serial, 16
asynchronous serial
Ethernet interface
Ethernet AUI IEEE 802.3
Token Ring interface
IEEE 802.5 (DB-9)
Synchronous serial interfaces
EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, X.21 (NRZ/NRZI2
and DTE/DCE3 mode)
EIA-530 (NRZ/NRZI and DTE mode)
All synchronous serial interfaces use the DB-60
connector at the chassis
Asynchronous serial interfaces
EIA/TIA-232,
Asynchronous serial interfaces use RJ-45 connectors
Console and auxiliary ports
Asynchronous serial (RJ-45)
Operating environment
32–104°F (0–40°C)
Nonoperating temperature
–40–185°F (–40–85°C)
Operating humidity
5–95%, noncondensing
Noise level
34 dBa @ 3' (0.914 m)
1. BTU = British thermal unit.
2. NRZ = nonreturn to zero; NRZI = nonreturn to zero inverted.
3. DTE = data terminal equipment; DCE = data communications equipment.
Overview of the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 1-5
System Specifications
1-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
2
CHAPT E R
Preparing to Install the Cisco
2500 Series Access Server
This chapter describes the tasks you must perform before you begin to install the
Cisco 2500 series access server. It includes the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Safety Recommendations
General Site Requirements
Installation Checklist
Creating a Site Log
Cabling Considerations
Console and Auxiliary Port Considerations
Network Connection Considerations
Inspecting the System
Safety Recommendations
Follow these guidelines to ensure general safety:
•
•
•
•
Keep the chassis area clear and dust-free during and after installation.
Put the removed chassis cover in a safe place.
Keep tools away from walk areas where you and others could fall over them.
Do not wear loose clothing that could get caught in the chassis. Fasten your tie or scarf
and roll up your sleeves.
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-1
Safety Recommendations
•
Wear safety glasses if you are working under any conditions that might be hazardous to
your eyes.
•
Do not perform any action that creates a potential hazard to people or makes the
equipment unsafe.
Maintaining Safety with Electricity
Follow these guidelines when working on equipment powered by electricity.
Warning Before working on equipment that is connected to power lines, remove jewelry
(including rings, necklaces, and watches). Metal objects will heat up when connected to
power and ground and can cause serious burns or can weld the metal object to the terminals.
(To see translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety
Warnings.”)
•
Locate the emergency power-off switch for the room in which you are working. Then,
if an electrical accident occurs, you can act quickly to turn off the power.
•
Disconnect all power by turning off the power and unplugging the power cord before
doing the following:
— Installing or removing a chassis
— Working near power supplies
•
•
Do not work alone if potentially hazardous conditions exist.
Never assume that power is disconnected from a circuit. Always check.
Warning Read the installation instructions before you connect the system to its power
source. (To see translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety
Warnings.”)
2-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
General Site Requirements
•
Look carefully for possible hazards in your work area, such as moist floors, ungrounded
power extension cables, frayed power cords, and missing safety grounds.
•
If an electrical accident occurs, proceed as follows:
— Use caution; do not become a victim yourself.
— Turn off power to the system.
— If possible, send another person to get medical aid. Otherwise, assess the condition
of the victim and then call for help.
— Determine if the person needs rescue breathing or external cardiac compressions;
then take appropriate action.
Preventing Electrostatic Discharge Damage
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage equipment and impair electrical circuitry. It
occurs when electronic components are improperly handled and can result in complete or
intermittent failures.
Always follow ESD-prevention procedures when removing and replacing components.
Ensure that the chassis is electrically connected to earth ground. Wear an ESD-preventive
wrist strap, ensuring that it makes good skin contact. Connect the clip to an unpainted
surface of the chassis frame to safely channel unwanted ESD voltages to ground. To
properly guard against ESD damage and shocks, the wrist strap and cord must operate
effectively. If no wrist strap is available, ground yourself by touching the metal part of the
chassis.
Caution For safety, periodically check the resistance value of the antistatic strap, which
should be between 1 and 10 megohms.
General Site Requirements
This section describes the requirements your site must meet for safe installation and
operation of your system. Ensure that your site is properly prepared before beginning
installation.
The access server can be placed on a desktop or mounted in a rack or on a wall.
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-3
General Site Requirements
Site Environment
The location of individual chassis and the layout of your equipment rack or wiring room
are extremely important for proper system operation. Equipment placed too close together,
inadequate ventilation, and inaccessible panels can cause system malfunctions and
shutdowns, and can make system maintenance difficult.
When planning your site layout and equipment locations, keep in mind the precautions
described in the next section, “Preventive Site Configuration” to help avoid equipment
failures and reduce the possibility of environmentally caused shutdowns. If you are
currently experiencing shutdowns or unusually high errors with your existing equipment,
these precautions may help you isolate the cause of failures and prevent future problems.
Preventive Site Configuration
The following precautions will help you plan an acceptable operating environment for your
access server and will help you avoid environmentally caused equipment failures:
•
Electrical equipment generates heat. Ambient air temperature might not be adequate to
cool equipment to acceptable operating temperatures without adequate circulation.
Ensure that the room in which you operate your system has adequate air circulation.
•
Always follow the ESD-prevention procedures described in the section
“Safety Recommendations” earlier in this chapter to avoid damage to equipment.
Damage from static discharge can cause immediate or intermittent equipment failure.
•
Ensure that the chassis cover is secure. The chassis is designed to allow cooling air to
flow effectively within it. An open chassis allows air leaks, which may interrupt and
redirect the flow of cooling air from internal components.
Configuring Equipment Racks
The following tips will help you plan an acceptable equipment rack configuration:
•
Enclosed racks must have adequate ventilation. Ensure that the rack is not overly
congested because each unit generates heat. An enclosed rack should have louvered
sides and a fan to provide cooling air.
2-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
General Site Requirements
•
When mounting a chassis in an open rack, ensure that the rack frame does not block the
intake or the exhaust ports. If the chassis is installed on slides, check the position of the
chassis when it is seated all the way into the rack.
•
In an enclosed rack with a ventilation fan in the top, excessive heat generated by
equipment near the bottom of the rack can be drawn upward and into the intake ports of
the equipment above it in the rack.
•
Baffles can help to isolate exhaust air from intake air, which also helps to draw cooling
air through the chassis. The best placement of the baffles depends on the airflow patterns
in the rack, which are found by experimenting with different arrangements.
Power Supply Considerations
Check the power at your site to ensure that you are receiving “clean” power (free of spikes
and noise). Install a power conditioner if necessary.
Warning The device is designed to work with TN power systems. (To see translated
versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety Warnings.”)
The access server power supply includes the following features:
•
•
Autoselects either 110V or 220V operation.
All units include a 6-foot (1.8-meter) electrical power cord. (A label near the power cord
indicates the correct voltage, frequency, current draw, and power dissipation for your
unit.)
Warning This product relies on the building’s installation for short-circuit (overcurrent)
protection. Ensure that a fuse or circuit breaker no larger than 120 VAC, 15A U.S.
(240 VAC, 10A international) is used on the phase conductors (all current-carrying
conductors). (To see translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated
Safety Warnings.”)
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-5
Installation Checklist
Installation Checklist
The Installation Checklist lists the procedures for initial hardware installation of a new
access server. Make a copy of this checklist and mark the entries as you complete each
procedure. Include a copy of the checklist for each system in your Site Log. (See the
following section, “Creating a Site Log.”)
Installation checklist for site_____________________________________________
Access server name__________________________________________________________
Task
Installation checklist copied
Background information placed in Site Log
Site power voltages verified
Installation site prepower check completed
Required tools available
Additional equipment available
Access server received
Optional UniverCD received or ordered,
printed documentation received
Chassis components verified
Initial electrical connections established
ASCII terminal attached to console port, or
modem attached to console port
(for remote configuration)
Signal distance limits verified
Startup sequence steps completed
Initial system operation verified
Software image verified
2-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Verified by
Date
Creating a Site Log
Creating a Site Log
The Site Log provides a record of all actions relevant to the system. Keep it near the chassis
where anyone who performs tasks has access to it. Use the Installation Checklist (see the
previous section “Installation Checklist”) to verify steps in the installation and maintenance
of your system. Site Log entries might include the following:
•
Installation progress—Make a copy of the Installation Checklist and insert it into the
Site Log. Make entries on the checklist as you complete each procedure.
•
Upgrades and maintenance procedures—Use the Site Log as a record of ongoing system
maintenance and expansion. Each time a procedure is performed on the system, update
the Site Log to reflect the following:
— Configuration changes
— Changes and Updates to Cisco IOS software
— Maintenance schedules and requirements
— Corrective maintenance procedures performed
— Intermittent problems
— Related comments and notes
Cabling Considerations
When setting up your access server, consider distance limitations and potential
electromagnetic interference (EMI) as defined by the Electronic Industries Association
(EIA).
Warning The ports labeled “Ethernet,” “10BaseT,” “Token Ring,” “Console,” and “AUX”
are safety extra-low voltage (SELV) circuits. SELV circuits should only be connected to
other SELV circuits. Because the BRI circuits are treated like telephone-network voltage,
avoid connecting the SELV circuit to the telephone network voltage (TNV) circuits. (To see
translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety Warnings.”)
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-7
Cabling Considerations
Distance Limitations
Following are the distance limitation specifications for Ethernet, Token Ring, and serial
interfaces.
Ethernet Connections
The distance limitations for the IEEE 802.3 (10Base5 coaxial cable) specification indicate
a maximum segment distance of 1,640 feet (500 m) at a transmission rate of 10 megabits
per second (Mbps).
The distance limitations for Ethernet 10BaseT indicate a maximum segment distance of
328 feet (100 m); Ethernet 10Base2 has a maximum segment distance of 656 feet (200 m).
Token Ring Connections
The distance limitations for the IEEE 802.5 specification indicate a maximum segment
distance of 328 feet (100 m) at a transmission rate of 4 or 16 Mbps for unshielded
twisted-pair (UTP) cable. The distance limitation when using shielded twisted-pair (STP)
cabling is 1,640 feet (500 m).
Serial Connections
As with all signaling systems, EIA/TIA-232 signals can travel a limited distance at any
given bit rate; generally, the slower the data rate, the greater the distance. Table 2-1 shows
the standard relationship between baud rate and maximum distance.
Table 2-1
EIA/TIA-232 Speed and Distance Limitations
Data Rate
(Baud)
Distance
(Feet)
Distance
(Meters)
2400
200
60
4800
100
30
9600
50
15
19,200
50
15
2-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Console and Auxiliary Port Considerations
Data Rate
(Baud)
Distance
(Feet)
Distance
(Meters)
38,400
50
15
57,600
25
7.6
115,200
12
3.7
The use of balanced drivers allows EIA/TIA-449 signals to travel greater distances than the
EIA/TIA-232 standard. Table 2-2 lists the standard relationship between baud rate and
maximum distance for EIA/TIA-449 signals. These limits are also valid for V.35 and X.21.
Table 2-2
EIA/TIA-449 Speed and Distance Limitations
Data Rate
(Baud)
Distance
(Feet)
Distance
(Meters)
2400
4,100
1,250
4800
2,050
625
9600
1,025
312
19200
513
156
38400
256
78
56000
102
31
T1
50
15
The EIA/TIA-449 and V.35 interfaces support data rates up to 2.048 Mbps.
Exceeding this maximum could result in loss of data and is not recommended.
Caution
Console and Auxiliary Port Considerations
This section discusses important cabling information that must be considered before you
connect the terminals or modems to console and auxiliary ports. The console port and the
auxiliary port are used to provide access to the system either locally or remotely.
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-9
Network Connection Considerations
Console Port Connections
Each access server system includes an EIA/TIA-232 (RJ-45) console asynchronous serial
port. This port connects to a terminal using an RJ-45 cable and an RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter.
Depending on the cable and the adapter used, this port will appear as a data terminal
equipment (DTE) or data communications equipment (DCE) device at the end of the cable.
To connect to a console terminal, use an RJ-45 rollover cable with a female DTE connector
(labeled “Terminal”) for connection to the console port. For detailed information on
installing the console terminal see the section “Connecting to the Console Port” in the
chapter “Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server.”)
The appendix “Cable Specifications” lists the pinout for the console port. The default
parameters for the console port are 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, and 2 stop bits. The
console port does not support hardware flow control or modem control.
Auxiliary Port Connections
An EIA/TIA-232 (RJ-45) auxiliary asynchronous serial port is included on all access
servers. This port can connect to a modem for remote maintenance, or terminal services.
Use an RJ-45 rollover cable with a male modem (MMOD) adapter (labeled “Modem”) for
this connection. For detailed information on connecting devices to the auxiliary port, see
the section “Connecting a Modem to the Auxiliary Port” in the chapter “Installing the Cisco
2500 Series Access Server.” See the appendix “Cable Specifications” for the pinout for this
auxiliary port.
Network Connection Considerations
This sections describes important cabling information that must be considered before
making your network connections. The Ethernet or Token Ring ports are used to connect
to a LAN; the synchronous serial ports are used to connect to a WAN; and the asynchronous
ports are used to provide remote access to the access server.
Ethernet Connections
The Ethernet port is located on the left of the rear panel of the access server. The port is
labeled AUI. Use an Ethernet transceiver to connect the access server directly to the
network.
2-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Network Connection Considerations
You can use the following equipment to connect to the Ethernet AUI port:
•
•
An Ethernet AUI cable connected to a transceiver
An Ethernet transceiver connected directly to the access server’s AUI port
The connection to the AUI port can be attached using one of two connector types, as
follows:
•
•
Slide latch connectors
Jackscrew connectors
Note Ethernet cables are not shipped as standard with the access server.
Token Ring Connections
The Token Ring port is located on the left of the rear panel and is labeled TOKEN RING.
Use a standard 9-pin Token Ring lobe cable (not supplied) to connect the access server
directly to a media attachment unit (MAU).
Synchronous Serial Connections
The synchronous serial interface ports are located on the rear of the access server to the
right of the Ethernet or Token Ring connector. The ports are labeled SERIAL 0 and
SERIAL 1 (from left to right when facing the rear panel). The serial ports are 60-pin,
D-type connectors. All serial interfaces (except the EIA-530) can be configured as DTE or
DCE, depending on the attached cable. All DTE serial ports require that external clocking
be provided by a channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU) or other DCE device.
You must use a special serial cable to connect the access server to a modem or CSU/DSU.
This cable is available from Cisco and is usually ordered with the system. The cable uses a
DB-60 connector on the chassis end. See the appendix “Cable Specifications” for cable
pinouts. For ordering information, contact a customer service representative.
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-11
Inspecting the System
Note Because of the small size of the pins on the DB-60 serial connector, attempting to
manufacture your own serial cables is not recommended.
Asynchronous Serial Connections
The asynchronous serial ports use one or two 68-pin connectors located on the far left of
the rear panel. Each of the connectors provides eight asynchronous ports. The lower port is
labeled ASYNC 1–8, and the upper port is labeled ASYNC 9–16. Breakout cables that
divide into eight RJ-45 connectors each are connected to the asynchronous connectors.
RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters are used to connect to external devices such as modems, printers,
or terminals. RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters are available from Cisco for either DCE or DTE
connections. See the appendix “Cable Specifications” to select the correct adapter, and for
pinouts for the RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters.
Inspecting the System
Do not unpack the access server until you are ready to install it. If the final installation site
will not be ready for some time, keep the chassis in its shipping container to prevent
accidental damage. When you have determined where you want the access server installed,
proceed with the unpacking.
The access server, cables, UniverCD or printed publications, and any optional equipment
you ordered might be shipped in more than one container. When you unpack each shipping
container, check the packing list to ensure that you received all of the following items:
•
•
•
•
Access server
•
Optional equipment (such as network interface cables, and asynchronous breakout
cables)
6-foot (1.8-meter) power cord
Jackscrews for the AUI connector
Console and auxiliary cabling kit (two RJ-45 roll-over cables, one terminal adapter, and
one modem adapter)
2-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Inspecting the System
•
•
Warranty pack
UniverCD and optional printed publications, as specified on your order
Inspect all items for shipping damage. If anything appears to be damaged, or if you
encounter problems when installing or configuring your system, contact a customer service
representative.
Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 2-13
Inspecting the System
2-14 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
3
CHAPT E R
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series
Access Server
This chapter guides you through the installation of the Cisco 2500 series access server and
includes the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Required Tools and Parts
Installing the Rubber Feet
Rack-Mounting the Chassis
Wall-Mounting the Chassis
Connecting to the Network
Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem
What to Do after Installing the Access Server Hardware
If you plan to place the access server on a desk or table, do not place anything
on top of the access server that weighs in excess of 10 pounds (4.5 kg). Excessive weight
on top could damage the chassis.
Caution
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-1
Required Tools and Parts
Required Tools and Parts
Following are the tools and parts required to install the access server:
•
•
•
Flat-blade screwdrivers: small, 3/16-inch (0.476 cm), and medium, 1/4-inch (0.625 cm)
•
•
Rubber feet for desktop installation.
•
An interface cable for each interface you will connect.
ESD-preventive wrist strap
A thread-forming screw (not included), to attach a ground wire to the protective
grounding terminal on the chassis rear panel
Rack-mount brackets (used for rack-mounting or wall-mounting) and hardware
(optional), including screws you must provide for rack-mounting and wall-mounting.
In addition, you might need the following external equipment:
•
•
•
Channel service unit/digital service unit (CSU/DSU) for the serial interfaces.
•
Modem for remote system access (optional).
Ethernet transceiver or Token Ring media attachment unit (MAU).
Console terminal (an ASCII terminal or a PC running terminal emulation software)
configured for 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, and 2 stop bits. A terminal is required
unless you are using the AutoInstall procedure. See the section “Connecting the
Console Terminal and Modem” later in this chapter for the procedure to connect a
console terminal.
3-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Installing the Rubber Feet
Installing the Rubber Feet
This section explains how to install the rubber feet on the bottom of the chassis. If you want
to rack-mount the chassis, skip this section and proceed with the next section,
“Rack-Mounting the Chassis.” To wall-mount the chassis, skip this section and proceed
with the section “Wall-Mounting the Chassis” later in this chapter.
Before placing the access server on a desktop, shelf, or other flat, secure surface, perform
the following steps to install the rubber feet:
Step 1 Locate the rubber feet on the black adhesive strip that shipped with the chassis.
(See Figure 3-1.)
Figure 3-1
Identifying the Rubber Feet
H4796
Rubber feet (5)
Black adhesive strip
Step 2 Place the access server upside down on a smooth, flat surface.
Step 3 Peel off one of the rubber feet from the black adhesive strip and place it
adhesive-side down onto one of the five round recessed areas on the back of the
chassis, as shown in Figure 3-2. Repeat this step to install the remaining four feet.
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-3
Rack-Mounting the Chassis
Figure 3-2
Installing the Rubber Feet
H4795
Fan
Rack-Mounting the Chassis
Depending on the rack you are using, attach the rack-mount brackets to the chassis using
one of the following figures as a guide:
•
•
•
Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4 for 19-inch racks
Figure 3-5 for 19-inch center-mount telco racks
Figure 3-6 for installing the chassis in a rack (all rack types)
3-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Rack-Mounting the Chassis
19-Inch Rack
To install the chassis in a 19-inch rack with the front panel forward, attach the rack-mount
brackets as shown in Figure 3-3.
19-Inch Rack Installation—Front Panel Forward
SERIES
H1706
Figure 3-3
Note: The second bracket attaches to the other side of the chassis.
To install the chassis in a 19-inch rack with the rear panel forward, attach the rack-mount
brackets as shown in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4
19-Inch Rack Installation—Rear Panel Forward
Input: 100-240VAC
Freq: 50.60 Hz
Current: 1.2-0.6A
Watts: 40W
0
H1704
1
Note: The second bracket attaches to the other side of the chassis.
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-5
Rack-Mounting the Chassis
Telco Rack
To install the chassis in a 19-inch, center-mount telco rack, attach the rack-mount brackets
as shown in Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-5
Telco Rack Installation—Rear Panel Forward
Input: 100-240VAC
Freq: 50.60 Hz
Current: 1.2-0.6A
Watts: 40W
H1705
1
0
Note: The second bracket attaches to the other side of the chassis.
The brackets can also be installed with the front panel forward.
Using the screws you provide, attach the chassis assemblies to the rack as shown in
Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-6
Attaching the Chassis to the Rack—Rear Panel Forward
Input: 100-240VAC
Freq: 50.60 Hz
Current: 1.2-0.6A
Watts: 40W
1
H1719
0
Note: The second bracket attaches to the
rack at the other side of the chassis.
The brackets can also be installed
with the front panel forward.
3-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Wall-Mounting the Chassis
Wall-Mounting the Chassis
Following is the procedure for wall-mounting the chassis:
Step 1 Attach the brackets as shown in Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-7
Attaching the Wall-Mount Brackets
Input: 100-240VAC
Freq: 50/60 Hz
Current: 1.2-0.6A
Watts: 40W
H1714
1
0
Step 2 Using screws and anchors you provide, attach the chassis assembly to the wall as
shown in Figure 3-8. We recommend the following:
•
For the best support of the chassis and cables, attach the brackets so that the
screws align with a vertical wall stud.
•
For the best ventilation of the chassis, mount the chassis with the power supply
and fan at the top.
To prevent the chassis from pulling away from the wall when cables are attached,
align the brackets and screws with a vertical wall stud. (See Figure 3-8.) To ensure adequate
ventilation, make sure there is clearance between the access server and the wall by adjusting
the brackets on the access server. Mount the access server as shown in Figure 3-8, placing
the chassis fan and power supply at the top.
Caution
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-7
Wall-Mounting the Chassis
Figure 3-8
Wall-Mounting the Chassis
H1718
Power supply
and fan at the top
Vertical
wall stud
3-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Connecting to the Network
Connecting to the Network
Take the following steps to connect the access server to your networks:
Note Refer to the document Cisco 2500 Series Public Network Certification for
information on connection prerequisites and related warnings.
Step 1 Connect the Ethernet or Token Ring port to the transceiver or MAU as shown in
Figure 3-9 or Figure 3-10.
Note If your Ethernet connection requires jackscrews, remove the slide-latch assembly
from the AUI connector and attach the jackscrews provided.
Connecting Ethernet Transition Cables
H3542
Figure 3-9
Ethernet
transition cable
(not supplied)
Access server
Ethernet port
DB-15 connector
(with jackscrews
or slide-latch)
Transceiver
RJ-45 connector
To 10BaseT
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-9
Connecting to the Network
Connecting Token Ring Cables
H3543
Figure 3-10
Token Ring
lobe cable
(not supplied)
Standard
IEEE 802.5
connector
DB-9 Token Ring
port connector
Media
attachment
unit
3-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Access server
Connecting to the Network
Step 2 Connect the synchronous serial ports to the modem or CSU/DSU, as shown in
Figure 3-11. Make certain to connect the 60-pin serial port connector as shown.
Connecting Synchronous Serial Cables
H3544
Figure 3-11
Access server
Serial transition
cable
60-pin serial port
connector
CSU/DSU or
other DCE
RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter
EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-11
Connecting to the Network
Step 3 Connect the asynchronous breakout cable to one of the 68-pin ports, and then use
the RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters to connect the breakout cable and your
asynchronous devices. (See Figure 3-12.)
For additional instructions on connecting asynchronous devices to the breakout
cable, refer to the appendix “Cable Specifications.”
Connecting Asynchronous Serial Cables
H3545
Figure 3-12
Access server
Connector plugged into the
asynchronous port
Modem or terminal
RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter
Caution Make sure that the 68-pin connector on the breakout cable is securely connected
to the access server. A short could occur which might damage the access server if the
connection is disconnected.
Step 4 Using an M 3.5 thread-forming screw (not included), attach a ground wire to the
protective grounding terminal on the rear panel of the chassis, as required by your
installation.
Step 5 Connect the power cable between the access server and the AC source.
3-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem
Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem
The console terminal is used to provide local administrative access to the access server.
Connect the terminal to the console port. The auxiliary port can be used for with a terminal,
or with a modem for remote access.
Connecting to the Console Port
This section explains how to connect a terminal (an ASCII terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software) to the console port on the access server:
Step 1 Connect a terminal to the console port using a roll-over RJ-45 cable and an
RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter. If you are using the cable provided by Cisco, the adapter
will be labeled “Terminal.”
A roll-over cable can be detected by comparing the two modular ends of the cable.
Holding the cables in your hand, side-by-side, with the tab at the back, the wire
connected to the pin on the outside of the left plug should be the same color as the
pin on the outside of the right plug. (See Figure 3-13.) If your cable was purchased
from Cisco, pin 1 will be white on one connector, and pin 8 will be white on the
other (a rollover cable reverses pins 1 and 8, 2 and 7, 3 and 6, and 4 and 5).
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-13
Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem
Figure 3-13
Identifying a Roll-Over Cable
Pin 1 and pin 8
should be the
same color
Pin 8
H3824
Pin 1
Additional information on roll-over cable pinouts is available in the appendix
“Cable Specifications.”
Connection to a terminal will require an RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter, and possibly a
DB-25-to-DB9 adapter. (See Figure 3-14.)
3-14 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem
Figure 3-14
Connecting the Console Terminal
Access server
Console port
connector (RJ-45)
Personal computer
OK
H3823
AUX
SER 0
LAN
ETH
RJ-45 roll-over
RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter
Step 2 Your terminal or PC terminal emulation software should be configured for 9600
baud, 8 data bits, no parity, and 2 stop bits (9600, 8/N/2).
Installing the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 3-15
What to Do after Installing the Access Server Hardware
Connecting a Modem to the Auxiliary Port
This section explains how to connect a modem to the console port on the access server:
Step 1 Connect a modem to the auxiliary port using a roll-over RJ-45 cable with an
RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter. The adapter provided by Cisco will be labeled
“Modem.” (See Figure 3-15.)
Connecting a Modem to the Auxiliary Port
H3822
Figure 3-15
Access server
AUX port
connector (RJ-45)
Modem cable
(MMOD)
Modem
RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter
EIA/TIA-232
Step 2 To configure the auxiliary port for modem operation, see the section “Modems” in
the appendix “Internetworking Primer.” Make sure that the modems and the
auxiliary port are configured for the same transmission speed (38400 baud is
normal) and hardware flow control with standard DCD and DTR operations.
What to Do after Installing the Access Server Hardware
After you install the access server hardware, the system is ready to be powered on and
configured. For information on software configuration, refer to the chapter “Configuring
the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server.”
3-16 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
4
CHAPT E R
Configuring the Cisco 2500
Series Access Server
This chapter describes the procedures for configuring the Cisco 2500 series access server
and contains the following sections:
•
•
•
Booting the Access Server for the First Time
Using the Enable Secret and the Enable Password
Configuring the Access Server
To configure your console, you need to connect a terminal to the access server.
Configuration requires access to the console port.
If You Need More Information
The Cisco IOS software running the access server contains extensive features and
functionality. The effective use of many of many of these features is easier if you have more
information at hand. We recommend to you the following resources:
•
•
•
UniverCD
Cisco Information Online (CIO)
Technical Assistance Center (TAC)
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-1
If You Need More Information
Additional Publications
For more information on configuring the Cisco 2500 series access server, see the appendix
“Internetworking Primer,” or refer to the following publications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Access and Communication Servers Configuration Guide
Access and Communication Servers Command Reference
Configuration Builder Getting Started Guide
Router Products Getting Started Guide
Router Products Configuration Guide
Router Products Command Reference
Troubleshooting Internetworking Systems
These publications are available on UniverCD.
All Cisco technical documentation and additional literature are available on UniverCD,
Cisco’s online library of product information. UniverCD is updated and shipped monthly,
so it might be more up to date than printed documentation. UniverCD is available both as
a single CD and as an annual subscription. To order UniverCD, contact your local sales
representative or call Customer Service.
Contacting Customer Service
To obtain general information about Cisco Systems, Cisco’s products or documentation, or
upgrades, call 800 553-6387 or 408 526-7208. Customer Service hours are 5:00 a.m. to
6:00 p.m. Pacific time, Monday through Friday (excluding company holidays). You can
also send e-mail to cs-rep@cisco.com.
Using Cisco Information Online
Cisco Information Online (CIO) is Cisco Systems’ primary, real-time support channel.
Maintenance customers and partners can self-register on CIO to obtain additional content
and services.
4-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
If You Need More Information
Available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, CIO provides a wealth of standard and
value-added services to Cisco’s customers and business partners. CIO services include
product information, software updates, release notes, technical tips, the Bug Navigator,
configuration notes, brochures, descriptions of service offerings, and download access to
public and authorized files.
CIO serves a wide variety of users through two interfaces that are updated and enhanced
simultaneously—a character-based version and a multimedia version that resides on the
World Wide Web (WWW). The character-based CIO (called “CIO Classic”) supports
Zmodem, Kermit, Xmodem, FTP, Internet e-mail, and fax download options, and is
excellent for quick access to information over lower bandwidths. The WWW version of
CIO provides richly formatted documents with photographs, figures, graphics, and video,
as well as hyperlinks to related information.
You can access CIO in the following ways:
•
•
•
WWW:
Telnet:
http://www.cisco.com.
cio.cisco.com.
Modem: From North America, 408 526-8070; from Europe, 33 1 64 46 40 82. Use the
following terminal settings: VT100 emulation; databits: 8; parity: none; stop bits: 1; and
baud rates up to 14.4 kbps.
For a copy of CIO’s Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), contact
For additional information, contact cio-team@cisco.com.
cio-help@cisco.com.
Contacting the Technical Assistance Center
If you are a system administrator and need personal technical assistance with a Cisco
product which is under warranty or covered by a maintenance contract, contact Cisco’s
Technical Assistance Center (TAC) at 800 553-2447 or 408 526-7209, or send an e-mail
message to tac@cisco.com. Emergency technical assistance (for network-down or severe
network problems) is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
When you contact the TAC for help, have the following information ready:
•
•
Chassis serial number
Maintenance contract number
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-3
Booting the Access Server for the First Time
•
Software version level and hardware configuration (enter the show version command
to display this information)
•
Software configuration (enter the show running config (Release 11.0 or later) or the
write terminal command (Earlier than Release 11.0) to display this information)
Contacting the European Technical Assistance Center
Cisco and its European Service Partners coordinate all customer service in Europe,
including hardware and software telephone technical support, onsite service, and module
exchange and repair. For more information, contact the European TAC.
European TAC numbers and e-mail address are as follows:
•
•
•
Phone: 32 2 778 42 42
Fax: 32 2 778 43 00
E-mail:
euro-tac@cisco.com
Booting the Access Server for the First Time
The access server is administered using the Cisco command interpreter, called the EXEC.
You must log in to the access server before you can enter an EXEC command. For security
purposes the EXEC has two levels of access to commands, user EXEC mode and privileged
EXEC mode.
To enter the privileged mode you must enter the enable secret password on systems running
Cisco Internetwork Operating System (Cisco IOS) Release 10.2(3) or later, or the enable
password on systems running Cisco IOS releases prior to 10.2(3) or when using the boot
ROM monitor.
Using the Enable Secret and the Enable Password
The commands available at the user level are a subset of those available at the privileged
level. Because many privileged-level EXEC commands are used to set operating
parameters, you should password-protect these commands to prevent unauthorized use.
4-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
There are two commands you can use to do this, depending on the release you have of the
Cisco IOS software:
•
•
enable secret password (which is a very secure, encrypted password).
enable password (which is a less secure, or nonencrypted, password).
The enable secret password is available in Cisco IOS Release 10.2(3) or later. The enable
secret password is not available before Release 10.2(3). The enable password is available
in all releases. You must enter the correct password to gain access to privileged-level
commands.
On systems running Release 10.2(3) or later, the enable secret password is used. when you
are running from the boot ROM, the enable password might be used depending on your
ROM level.
The passwords should be different for maximum security. If you enter the same password
for both during the setup script, the system will accept it, but you will receive a warning
message indicating that you should enter a different password.
An enable secret password can contain from 1 to 25 uppercase and lowercase alphanumeric
characters; an enable password can contain any number of uppercase and lowercase
alphanumeric characters. In both cases, a number cannot be the first character. Spaces are
also valid password characters; for example, “two words” is a valid password. Leading
spaces are ignored; trailing spaces are recognized.
If you lose or forget your enable password, see the section “Recovering a Lost Enable
Password” in the chapter “Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server.”
Configuring the Access Server
You can configure the access server following one of the procedures described in the
following sections:
•
•
•
Configuring the Access Server Using the Configuration Mode
Configuring the Access Server Using AutoInstall
Configuring the Access Server Manually Using the Setup Facility
Follow the procedure that best fits the needs of your network configuration.
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-5
Configuring the Access Server
Note You will need to acquire the correct network addresses from your system
administrator or consult your network plan to determine correct addresses before you can
complete the access server configuration. For details on network addressing, see the
appendix “Internetworking Primer.”
Before continuing the configuration process, check the current state of the access server by
entering the show version command. The show version command will display the release
of Cisco IOS software that is available on the access server.
Configuring the Access Server Using the Configuration Mode
You can configure the access server manually if you prefer not to use the setup facility or
AutoInstall. Take the following steps to configure the access server manually:
Step 1 Connect a console terminal by following the instructions described in the section
“Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem” in the chapter “Installing the
Cisco 2500 Series Access Server” and then power up the access server.
Step 2 When you are asked if you would like to enter the initial dialog, answer no to go
into the normal operating mode of the access server:
Would you like to enter the initial dialog? [yes]: no
Step 3 After a few seconds you will see the user EXEC prompt (Router>). Type enable
to enter enable mode. Configuration changes can only be made in enable mode:
Router> enable
The prompt will change to the privileged EXEC prompt:
router#
Step 4 Enter the command config terminal at the enable prompt to enter configuration
mode from the terminal:
router# config terminal
4-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
You can now enter any changes to the configuration that are desired. Press Ctrl-Z
to exit configuration mode. (See the appendix “Internetworking Primer” for
configuration assistance.)
To see the currently operating configuration, enter the command show running-config at
the # prompt if you are running Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later. Enter the command
write terminal at the # prompt if you are running a Cisco IOS release earlier than 11.0:
router# show running-config
To see the configuration in NVRAM, enter the command show startup-config at the enable
prompt.
router# show config
To make your changes permanent, enter the command copy running-config
startup-config at the enable prompt if you are running Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later.
Enter the command write memory if you are running a Cisco IOS release earlier than 11.0:
router# copy running-config startup-config
********
The results of the show running-config and show startup-config commands will differ if
you have made changes to the configuration, but have not yet written them to NVRAM.
The access server is now configured and will boot with the configuration you have entered.
Configuring the Access Server Using AutoInstall
The AutoInstall process is designed to configure the access server automatically after
connection to your WAN. In order for AutoInstall to work properly, a Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) host on your network must be preconfigured to provide
the required configuration files. The TCP/IP host may exist anywhere on the network, as
long as the following two conditions are maintained:
1 The host must be on the remote side of the access server’s synchronous serial
connection to the WAN.
2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) broadcasts to and from the access server and the TCP/IP
host must be enabled.
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-7
Configuring the Access Server
This functionality is coordinated by your system administrator at the site where the TCP/IP
host is located. You should not attempt to use AutoInstall unless the required files have been
provided on the TCP/IP host. See the publication Access and Communication Server
Configuration Guide for information on how AutoInstall works.
Take the following steps to prepare your access server for the AutoInstall process:
Step 1 Attach the synchronous serial cable to the access server.
Step 2 Turn on power to the access server.
The access server will load the operating system image from Flash memory. If the
remote end of the WAN connection is connected and properly configured, the
AutoInstall process will begin.
If the AutoInstall completed successfully, you may wish to write the configuration
data to the access server’s nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM).
Perform the following step to complete this task:
Step 3 At the # prompt, enter the copy running-config startup-config command if you
are running Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later, or the write memory command if
you are running a Cisco IOS release earlier than 11.0:
Hostname# copy running-config startup-config
Taking this step will save the configuration settings that the AutoInstall process
created in the access server. If you fail to do this, your configuration will be lost
the next time you reload the access server.
Configuring the Access Server Manually Using the Setup Facility
If you do not plan to use AutoInstall, do not connect the access server’s serial (WAN) cable
to the channel service unit/data service unit (CSU/DSU). This will prevent the access server
from attempting to run the AutoInstall process. The access server will attempt to run
AutoInstall whenever you start it if the serial (WAN) connection is connected on both ends
and the access server does not have a configuration stored in NVRAM. It can take several
minutes for the access server to determine that AutoInstall is not set up to a remote TCP/IP
host.
4-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
Once the access server has determined that AutoInstall is not configured, it will default to
the setup facility. If the serial (WAN) cable is not connected, the access server will boot
from Flash memory and go into the setup facility.
Note You can run the setup facility any time you are at the enable prompt (#) by entering
the command setup.
Configuring the Global Parameters
When you first start the setup program you must configure the global parameters. The
global parameters are used for controlling system-wide settings. Use the following
procedure to enter the global parameters:
Step 1 Connect a console terminal by following the instructions in the section
“Connecting the Console Terminal and Modem” in the chapter “Installing the
Cisco 2500 Series Access Server” and then boot the access server to the EXEC
prompt (Router>).
Step 2 When you have booted from Flash memory, the following information will appear
after about 30 seconds. When you see this information displayed, you have
successfully booted your access server:
System Bootstrap, Version 4.14(8), SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1986-1995 by cisco Systems
2500 processor with 16384 Kbytes of main memory
Loading igs-c-l.110-0.7 at 0x3000040, size = 3865444 bytes [OK]
F3: 3779532+85880+173868 at 0x3000060
Restricted Rights Legend
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is
subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph
(c) of the Commercial Computer Software - Restricted
Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 and subparagraph
(c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer
Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-9
Configuring the Access Server
cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, California 95134-1706
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
IOS (tm) 3000 Software (IGS-C-L), Version 11.0(0.8), SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1986-1995 by cisco Systems, Inc.
Compiled Mon 19-Jun-95 23:22 by
Image text-base: 0x030200E4, data-base: 0x00001000
cisco 2500 (68030) processor (revision C) with 16380K/2048K bytes of
memory.
Processor board ID 2685538369
SuperLAT software copyright 1990 by Meridian Technology Corp).
TN3270 Emulation software (copyright 1994 by TGV Inc).
X.25 software, Version 2.0, NET2, BFE and GOSIP compliant.
Bridging software.
Authorized for Enterprise software set. (0x0)
1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface.
2 Serial network interfaces.
8 terminal lines.
32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory.
4096K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY)
Notice: NVRAM invalid, possibly due to write erase.
--- System Configuration Dialog ---
At any point you may enter a question mark '?' for help.
Refer to the 'Getting Started' Guide for additional help.
Use ctrl-c to abort configuration dialog at any prompt.
Default settings are in square brackets '[]'.
Step 3 Enter yes or press Return when you are asked if you would like to enter the
configuration dialog and if you would like to see the current interface summary.
Press Return to accept the default (yes):
Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes]:
First, would you like to see the current interface summary? [yes]:
Any interface listed with OK? value "NO" does not have a valid
configuration
4-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
Interface
Ethernet0
Serial0
Serial1
IP-Address
unassigned
unassigned
unassigned
OK?
NO
NO
NO
Method
not set
not set
not set
Status
up
down
down
Protocol
down
down
down
Step 4 Choose what protocols to support on your Ethernet or Token Ring interface. For
IP-only installations, you can accept the default values for most of the questions.
A typical configuration using IP, IPX, and AppleTalk follows:
Configuring global parameters:
Enter host name [Router]: router
Step 5 Enter the enable secret password, the enable password, and the virtual terminal
password:
The enable secret is a one-way cryptographic secret used
instead of the enable password when it exists.
Enter enable secret : shovel
The enable password is used when there is no enable secret
and when using older software and some boot images.
Enter enable password : trowel
Enter virtual terminal password: pail
Enter yes or no to accept or refuse SNMP management:
Configure SNMP Network Management? [no]:
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the most widely supported
open standard for network management. It provides a means to access and set
configuration and run-time parameters of routers and communication servers.
SNMP defines a set of functions that can be used to monitor and control network
elements.
Step 6 Determine if you will be using DECnet on your access server. If you are
configuring for DECnet, enter the appropriate values for your area number, node
number, and area routing:
Configure DECnet? [no]:
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-11
Configuring the Access Server
Step 7 In most cases you will use IP routing. If you are using IP routing, you must also
select an interior routing protocol. You can specify only one of two interior routing
protocols to operate on your system using setup: Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (IGRP) or Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
Enter yes (the default) or press Return to configure IP, and then select an interior
routing protocol for IP:
Configure IP? [yes]:
Configure IGRP routing? [yes]:
Your IGRP autonomous system number [1]: 15
Step 8 In this example, routing will be enabled on AppleTalk and IPX; IP has already
been selected:
Configure AppleTalk? [no]: yes
Multizone networks? [no]: yes
Configure LAT? [yes]: no
Configure IPX? [no]: yes
Configuring the Asynchronous Interface
The access server is equipped with up to 16 asynchronous interfaces, which are referred to
as lines in the setup dialog. The asynchronous lines must be configured to permit
asynchronous devices to be connected to the access server. (See the sections
“Asynchronous Protocols,” and “Modems” in the appendix “Internetworking Primer.”)
The asynchronous ports on the access server are configured to allow connection by TTY
devices, Remote nodes, and Remote LANs.
A variety of devices can connect to the access server using the asynchronous lines.
Terminals and remote nodes (such as PCs, Macintosh computers, workstations, and host
systems) connect to the access server and make use of its services. The access server
provides services allowing access to other asynchronous devices, such as printers, modems,
or terminals.
The following steps configure the lines on the access server to permit use of the
asynchronous lines by the access server or remote devices:
Step 1 Enter yes or press Return to configure asynchronous lines:
Configure Async lines? [yes]:
4-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
Step 2 Set the line speed and the flow control for the asynchronous lines. Hardware flow
control must be configured to allow proper communications with modems.
Async line speed [9600]:57600
Configure for HW flow control? [yes]:
For additional information on configuring modem connections see the section
“Modems” in the appendix “Internetworking Primer.”
Step 3 Enter yes if you will be connecting modems to your access server to allow remote
sessions, and to configure your modems to use the default chat script:
Configure for modems? [yes/no]: yes
Configure for default chat script? [yes]:
Step 4 Configure your system to allow serial line internet protocol (SLIP) and
Point-to-Point protocol (PPP) access, as follows:
Configure for Dial-in IP SLIP/PPP access? [no]: yes
Configure for Dynamic IP addresses? [yes]: no
Configure Default IP addresses? [no]: yes
Configure for TCP Header Compression? [yes]:no
Configure for routing updates on async links? [no]:
For additional information on configuring SLIP and PPP connections, see the
section “Asynchronous Protocols” in the appendix “Internetworking Primer.”
Step 5 Enter yes or press Return at the AppleTalk remote access prompt to configure for
AppleTalk, and then enter the AppleTalk network address and zone name for your
AppleTalk clients.
Configure for Appletalk Remote Access? [yes]:
AppleTalk Network for ARA clients [1]: 99
Zone name for ARA clients [ara-dialins]:
ARA protocol uses an internal nonextended unique network number, and a zone
name for ARA protocol clients. For additional information on configuring ARA
protocol, see the section “Asynchronous Protocols” in the appendix
“Internetworking Primer.”
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-13
Configuring the Access Server
Step 6 Enter yes if you will be using IPX on your asynchronous lines, In this example,
the access server will not be using IPX on the asynchronous lines:
Configure XRemote font servers? [no]:
Configure for Async IPX? [yes]: no
Configuring the Ethernet or Token Ring Interfaces
Take the following steps to configure the Ethernet or Token Ring interface to allow
communication over a LAN. To configure the interface parameters, you need to know your
Ethernet or Token Ring interface network addresses.
Step 1 In the following example, the system is being configured for an Ethernet LAN
using IP. Respond as follows (using your own addresses and mask) to the setup
prompts:
Configuring interface parameters:
Configuring interface Ethernet0:
Is this interface in use? [yes]:
Configure IP on this interface? [yes]:
IP address for this interface: 172.16.72.1
Number of bits in subnet field [0]: 8
Class B network is 172.16.0.0, 8 subnet bits; mask is 255.255.255.0
Step 2 Enter yes if you will be using AppleTalk on the interface, enter yes to configure
for extended AppleTalk networks, and then enter the cable range number. See the
appendix “Internetworking Primer” for additional information on AppleTalk
routing. Enter the zone name, and any other additional zones that will be
associated with your local zone:
Configure AppleTalk on this interface? [no]: yes
Extended AppleTalk network? [no]: yes
AppleTalk starting cable range [0]: 1
AppleTalk ending cable range [1]: 2
AppleTalk zone name [myzone]:
AppleTalk additional zone name: otherzone
AppleTalk additional zone name:
4-14 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
Step 3 Determine if you are going to enable IPX on this interface, enter the unique IPX
network number. See the appendix “Internetworking Primer” for additional
information on IPX routing:
Configure IPX on this interface? [no]: yes
IPX network number [1]: B001
Configure XNS on this interface? [no]
Configuring the Synchronous Serial Interfaces
The synchronous serial interfaces are configured to allow connection to WANs through a
CSU/DSU. Once the Ethernet or Token Ring port on your access server has been
configured, take the following steps to configure the serial port:
Step 1 Enter yes to configure serial port 0:
Configuring interface Serial0:
Is this interface in use? [no]: yes
Step 2 Determine what protocols you will allow on the synchronous serial interface and
enter the appropriate responses:
Configure IP unnumbered on this interface? [no]: no
IP address for this interface: 172.16.73.1
Number of bits in subnet field [8]:
Class B network is 172.16.0.0, 8 subnet bits; mask is 255.255.255.0
Configure AppleTalk on this interface? [no]: yes
Extended AppleTalk network? [yes]:
AppleTalk starting cable range [2]: 3
AppleTalk ending cable range [3]: 3
AppleTalk zone name [myzone]: ZZ Serial
AppleTalk additional zone name:
Configure IPX on this interface? [no]: yes
IPX network number [2]: B000
Step 3 Configure the second synchronous serial interface as follows:
Configuring interface Serial1:
Is this interface in use? [no]:
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-15
Configuring the Access Server
Configure IP unnumbered on this interface? [no]: yes
IP address for this interface: 172.16.74.2
Number of bits in subnet field [8]:
Class B network is 172.16.0.0, 8 subnet bits; mask is 255.255.255.0
Configure AppleTalk on this interface? [no]: yes
Extended AppleTalk network? [yes]:
AppleTalk starting cable range [2]: 4
AppleTalk ending cable range [3]: 4
AppleTalk zone name [myzone]: ZZ Serial
AppleTalk additional zone name:
Configure IPX on this interface? [no]: yes
IPX network number [2]: B002
Entering the Asynchronous Interface Addresses
After the asynchronous lines have been configured and the routing protocols have been
selected, enter the IP addresses for each asynchronous interface.
For information on asynchronous protocols, see the section “Asynchronous Protocols” in
the appendix “Internetworking Primer,” and for information on IP addressing, see the
section “Desktop Protocols” in the appendix “Internetworking Primer.”
Step 1 Enter the IP address for each of the asynchronous interfaces on the access server:
Configuring interface Async1:
Default client IP address for this interface [none]: 172.16.72.11
Configuring interface Async2:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.12]:
Configuring interface Async3:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.13]:
Configuring interface Async4:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.14]:
Configuring interface Async5:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.15]:
4-16 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Configuring the Access Server
Configuring interface Async6:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.16]:
Configuring interface Async7:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.17]:
Configuring interface Async8:
Default client IP address for this interface [172.16.72.18]:
Step 2 The configuration you have entered is now displayed and you are asked if you
want to use the displayed configuration. If you answer no, you can begin the
configuration again. If you answer yes, the configuration will be entered and saved
in the startup configuration:
Use this configuration? [yes/no]:yes
Press RETURN to get started!
[OK]
Use the enabled mode 'configure' command to modify this
configuration.
The access server is now configured properly and is ready to use. Enter the command setup
if you want to modify the parameters after the initial configuration. To perform more
complex configurations, enter the command configure. For information on configuration,
see the publication Access and Communications Servers Configuration Guide.
Checking Your Settings
You can check the value of the settings you have entered by entering at the # prompt the
command show running-config if you are running Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later, or the
command write terminal if you are running a Cisco IOS Release earlier than 11.0:
router# show running-config
.
.
.
configuration register is 0x2102
Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server 4-17
Configuring the Access Server
To store the configuration or changes to your startup configuration, enter at the hostname#
prompt the command copy running-config startup-config if you are running Cisco IOS
Release 11.0 or later, or the command write memory if you are running a Cisco IOS
release earlier than 11.0:
Hostname# copy running-config startup-config
Entering this command will save the configuration settings that the setup process created in
the access server. If you fail to do this, your configuration will be lost the next time you
reload the access server.
4-18 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
A
APPEND IX
Internetworking Primer
This appendix gives an introduction to the technologies used in internetworking. It also
includes basic information about designing and implementing an internetwork with a
Cisco 2500 series access server.
The appendix includes primers on the following topics:
•
•
•
•
•
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
LANs and WANs
Desktop Protocols
Modems
Asynchronous Protocols
These primers give a brief introduction to the technologies involved in building an
internetwork solution. For more information, see the following publications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Access and Communication Servers Configuration Guide
Access and Communication Servers Command Reference
Router Products Getting Started Guide
Router Products Configuration Guide
Troubleshooting Internetworking Systems
Internetworking Technology Overview
Internet Design Guide
Internetwork Case Studies
Internetworking Primer A-1
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
Note To order UniverCD, Cisco’s technical documentation in CD-ROM format, or paper
documentation, refer to “Ordering Cisco Documents,” DOC-OCD, which is in your
warranty pack.
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
This primer will help you become familiar with using Cisco Internetwork Operating
System (Cisco IOS) software, including the following features:
•
•
•
•
Internal memory components
Cisco IOS operating environments
Command modes
Configuration files
Refer to the chapters “Understanding the User Interface,” “Loading System Images and
Configuration Files,” “Configuring Terminal Lines and Modem Support,” and “Managing
the System” in the publication Access and Communication Servers Configuration Guide.
Internal Memory Components
The Cisco 2500 series access server has several kinds of memory—read-only memory
(ROM), Flash memory, nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM), random access
memory (RAM), and shared-packet memory. System software images, configuration files,
and transient data structures such as routing tables and packets are stored in memory.
Table A-1 lists the different kinds of memory and indicates what they are used for.
Table A-1
Internal Memory Components
Memory
Purpose
ROM
Stores the ROM Monitor, and boot ROM
Flash memory
Stores the system image (Cisco IOS)
NVRAM
Stores the configuration file (startup-config)
A-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
Memory
Purpose
RAM
Stores the operating configuration (for example,
running-config), routing tables, caches, queues, packets, and
so forth
Shared packet memory
Stores incoming and outgoing packets
The show version command displays the capacity of each kind of memory.
Proper operation of the access server requires the following memory configuration:
•
The correct system image (Cisco IOS) is loaded and running in Flash memory. See the
following section “Cisco IOS Operating Environments.”
•
The proper configuration file is loaded into RAM. See the section “Configuration Files”
later in this appendix.
Cisco IOS Operating Environments
The access server has three distinct operating environments (see Table A-2).
Table A-2
Cisco IOS Operating Environments
Operating
Environment
Prompt
Configuration
Register
Usage
ROM monitor
>
0x0
Failure or password recovery
Boot ROM
Router(boot)>
0x1
Flash image upgrade
Cisco IOS
Router>
0x2102
Normal operation
The startup process of the access server normally loads and executes each of the operating
environments in turn.
Internetworking Primer A-3
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
The configuration register can be used by system administrators to control some very low
level operations of the access server. When the configuration register is set to specific values
(shown in Table A-2), the access server can be instructed to stop the boot process in any of
the three operating environments. You modify the configuration register value by using the
configuration command config-reg [value].
ROM Monitor
ROM monitor performs the bootstrap process and provides low-level diagnostics. You
cannot use ROM monitor to operate any of the interfaces. You can only access ROM
monitor via the console port. Setting the configuration register value to 0x0 and reloading
causes the access server to operate in the ROM monitor environment. The ROM monitor is
used to recover from system failures, and to recover a lost password.
Boot ROM
Boot ROM is used primarily to modify the Cisco IOS image that is loaded into Flash
memory. Flash memory is read-only when you are running the Cisco IOS software from
Flash memory; boot ROM allows write operations to Flash memory. If you are running in
boot ROM, only a limited subset of the Cisco IOS feature set is available. For example, boot
ROM does not support IP routing or subinterfaces. You can set the configuration register
value to 0x1 and reload to cause the access server to operate in the boot ROM environment.
Timesaver Enter the configuration command ip default-gateway [ipaddress] to tell
Cisco IOS software where to send IP packets when you are running from boot ROM if the
destination address is not directly connected. This command can be left in the configuration
file while you are running from Flash memory because it will be ignored when IP routing
is enabled.
You can modify the Cisco IOS image if you are running in boot ROM by entering the
command copy tftp flash. You can also modify Flash memory while running from Flash
memory by entering the command partition flash or using Flash Load Helper. See the
publication Access and Communication Servers Configuration Guide for more
information.
A-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
Cisco IOS
Normal operation of your access server requires the Cisco IOS image to be stored and
executing in Flash memory. A recommended setting for the configuration register value is
0x2102, which instructs the access server when it boots to do the following:
•
•
•
Operate the image in Flash memory
Ignore the Break key on the console port
Attempt to load the Flash image only five times before reverting to boot ROM
Enter the command show version to display the Cisco IOS image and version that the
access server is running:
Router#show version
Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
Cisco IOS (tm) 3000 Software (IGS-C-L), Version 10.2(6), RELEASE SOFTWARE
(fc2)
...
Command Modes
The Cisco IOS user interface provides several different command modes. Each command
mode provides a group of related commands. Table A-3 summarizes the key command
modes and their purpose.
Table A-3
Key Command Modes and Their Purpose
Command Mode
Prompt
Purpose
How
User EXEC
Router>
User access
First level accessed
Privileged EXEC
Router#
System administration
Enter the command
enable
Configuration mode
Router(config)#
Modify configuration
Enter the command
config
Setup
Prompted dialog
Create the initial
configuration
Enter the command
setup
Internetworking Primer A-5
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
EXEC Modes
The command interpreter of Cisco IOS software is called the EXEC. The EXEC interprets
the commands you type and carries out the corresponding operations. You must log in to
the access server before you can enter an EXEC command. For security purposes, the
EXEC has two basic levels of access to commands, user EXEC mode and privileged EXEC
mode.
In both EXEC modes, you can find what commands are currently available by entering a
question mark (?), as follows:
Router>?
EXEC commands:
connect
disconnect
enable
exit
help
...
Open a terminal connection
Disconnect an existing network connection
Turn on privileged commands
Exit from the EXEC
Description of the interactive help system
To display more detail about a command, enter the command followed by a ?, as follows:
Router>connect ?
WORD IP address or hostname of a remote system
User EXEC Mode
When you connect to the access server (through a console, a Telnet connection, or a dial-in
connection) you are started in user EXEC mode. In general, the user EXEC commands
allow you to connect to other network devices, change terminal settings on a temporary
basis, perform basic tests, and list system information. The user EXEC commands are a
subset of the privileged EXEC commands.
Privileged EXEC Mode
From user EXEC mode, enter the EXEC command enable to enter privileged EXEC mode.
The privileged command set includes all the commands that are available in user EXEC
mode plus the configure command, debugging commands, and the setup command.
Because many of the privileged commands allow you to set operating system parameters,
privileged EXEC mode should be password-protected to prevent unauthorized use (see the
A-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
section “Using the Enable Secret and the Enable Password,” in the chapter “Configuring the
Cisco 2500 Series Access Server”). Enter ? to display the privileged commands. Privileged
commands include the following:
•
•
•
configure—Changes the access server’s software configuration.
debug—Displays process and hardware event messages. Use caution with the debug
command because the additional load of generating debug message can overload the
CPU.
setup—Enter configuration information at the prompts.
Enter the command disable to exit from the privileged EXEC mode and return to user
EXEC mode.
Configuration Mode
You use configuration mode to configure the access server. You can use configuration mode
for initial setup of the system (using the subcommand setup), as well as to change settings
after initial setup, either permanently or temporarily.
Configuration mode has a set of submodes that you use for modifying interface settings,
routing protocol settings (such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), or Open
Shortest Path First (OSPF)), line settings, and so forth. Use caution with configuration
mode because all changes you enter take effect immediately.
Enter the command configure terminal to enter configuration mode and exit by pressing
Ctrl–Z. The following is a sample configuration session:
Router#conf terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Router(config)#hostname RouterA
RouterA(config)#interface e 0
RouterA(config-if)#description Floor 2 LAN
RouterA(config-if)#^Z
RouterA#
End with CNTL/Z.
Internetworking Primer A-7
Cisco Internetwork Operating System
Setup Mode
You use the setup facility of Cisco IOS software to streamline the creation of configuration
files. If Cisco IOS software determines that there is no configuration file stored in NVRAM,
it will automatically enter setup mode when the access server boots. (See the section
“Configuring the Access Server Manually Using the Setup Facility” in the chapter
“Configuring the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server” for more information about the
setup command.)
Configuration Files
You need to create and store a configuration file in order to use the access server. The
configuration file contains commands that enable protocol routing, assign addressing,
perform security, and so forth. Use the following privileged mode commands to work with
configuration files on the access server:
•
•
configure terminal—Modify the running configuration manually from the terminal.
show running-config (Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later) or write terminal (earlier than
Cisco IOS Release 11.0)—Display the running configuration.
•
configure memory—Load the configuration from NVRAM to RAM. This takes place
automatically when the system starts up.
•
copy running-config startup-config (Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later) or write
memory (earlier than Cisco IOS Release 11.0)—Copy the running configuration in
RAM into the startup configuration in NVRAM.
•
copy tftp running-config (Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later) or configure network
(earlier than Cisco IOS Release 11.0)—Load a configuration file stored on a Trivial File
Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server into the running configuration.
•
copy running-config tftp (Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later) or write network (earlier
than Cisco IOS Release 11.0)—Store the running configuration on a TFTP server.
•
show startup-config (Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later) or show configuration (earlier
than Cisco IOS Release 11.0)—Display the saved configuration in NVRAM.
•
erase startup-config (Cisco IOS Release 11.0 or later) or write erase (earlier than
Cisco IOS Release 11.0)—Erase the contents of NVRAM. If you enter the reload
command after the erase startup-config (or write erase) command, the access server
will not have a running configuration.
A-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
LANs and WANs
The interaction of the configuration commands is illustrated in Figure A-1.
Figure A-1
Configuration Command Interaction with Cisco IOS Release 11.0
config term
show running-config
RAM
config mem
NVRAM
erase
startup-config
H3845
copy tftp
running-config
show
startup-config
copy runningconfig tftp
TFTP
server
copy running-config
startup-config
Working storage for
the active configuration
To delete
contents
LANs and WANs
This section briefly describes the common local-area network (LAN) and
wide-area network (WAN) technologies you may encounter when you are building an
internetwork. An important function of an access server is to interconnect LANs and
WANs.
To understand LANs and WANs, you should be familiar with the Open System
Interconnection (OSI) reference model of networks. The OSI reference model is a
seven-layer model designed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
and the International Telecommunications Union Standardization Sector (ITU-T) to aid in
the development and understanding of computer networking and communications. The OSI
reference model divides the issue of moving information between computers into seven
layers.
Internetworking Primer A-9
LANs and WANs
Each layer of the OSI reference model specifies particular network functions such as
addressing, flow control, error control, encapsulation, reliable message transfer, and data
representation. The upper layer (the application layer) is closest to the user; the lowest layer
(the physical layer) is the closest to the cables and wires.
Each layer of the OSI reference model relies on the layers below, and offers its services to
the layers above.Table A-4 summarizes the layers and their functionality.
Table A-4
OSI Reference Model of Networks
Layer
Title
Purpose
Example
7
Application
Services to users
File transfer, e-mail, virtual
terminals
6
Presentation
Data representations
ASCII text, EBCDIC1, ASN.1
5
Session
Control of sessions
Printing, file sharing
4
Transport
Reliable delivery of packets over
networks
TCP2, SPX3, ATP4, and ADSP5
3
Network
Logical addressing, routing
IP, IPX6, AppleTalk DDP7
2
Data link
Physical addressing, topology
(bus or ring), line access method
Ethernet, Token Ring, HDLC8,
PPP9
1
Physical
Electrical, mechanical
10BaseT, 10Base2
1. EBCDIC = Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.
2. TCP = Transmission Control Protocol.
3. SPX = Sequenced Packet Exchange.
4. ATP = AppleTalk Transaction Protocol.
5. ADSP = AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol.
6. IPX = Internetwork Packet Exchange.
7. DDP = Datagram Delivery Protocol.
8. HDLC = High-Level Data Link Control.
9. PPP = Point-to-Point Protocol.
LANs and WANs are generally defined by the lower two layers of the OSI reference model.
Higher layer protocols (such as TCP/IP, IPX, or AppleTalk) can use the foundation laid at
the lower layers to transport data between network devices.
A-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
LANs and WANs
For example, the IEEE standard 802.3 (Ethernet) defines the physical layer (connectors,
voltages, and binary logic to enable communication) as well as the data link layer (framing
data structures, addressing packets for local delivery, and error checking).
Once the physical and data link layers are installed in a network and working correctly, the
network layer and its associated devices can use these services to route packets efficiently
across the room or around the world.
Building a network involves understanding the OSI reference model in each portion of the
network. Sketching the model out on paper is a great help in designing, administering, and
troubleshooting networks. (See Figure A-2.)
The OSI Reference Model
Application
layer
Presentation
layer
Application
layer
Presentation
layer
Session layer
Session layer
Transport layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Network layer
Data link layer
Data link layer
Physical layer
Physical layer
H3801
Figure A-2
LAN Technologies
LANs operate at Layer 1 (the physical layer) and Layer 2 (the data link layer) and are
usually used to connect computing devices within a single building. For example, a LAN
in a small office may include three PCs, a print server, and a file server.
The three most common physical LAN implementations are Ethernet, Token Ring, and
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). These implementations have been standardized by
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI).
Internetworking Primer A-11
LANs and WANs
Ethernet LANs
The IEEE has established Ethernet as standard 802.3. Ethernet uses a 10-Mbps bus.
Ethernet LANs use carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) for bus
access control. Several physical layer implementations have been established for Ethernet;
the more common implementations are as follows:
•
10Base5—Ethernet on thick coaxial cable. This implementation was based on the
original Ethernet and is not in common use today. Maximum segment length is 1,640
feet (500 m).
•
10Base2—Ethernet on thin coaxial cable. 10Base2 cabling is similar in appearance to
TV cable, but uses a different specification. Maximum segment length is 656 feet
(200 m).
•
10BaseT—Ethernet on unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) wiring. 10BaseT is similar to the
wiring used for phones, but must meet certain electrical standards in order to be used.
Maximum segment length is 328 feet (100 m).
Configuring Ethernet
Special configuration commands are not required for the Ethernet interface on the
Cisco 2500 series access server. The Ethernet configuration commands are as follows:
•
show interface—an EXEC command that displays information about the interfaces
attached to the access server.
•
[no] shutdown—a config-interface subcommand, that enables or disables operation of
the configured interface.
Token Ring LANs
The IEEE has established Token Ring as standard 802.5. Different physical
implementations of Token Ring are available, including variations on shielded twisted-pair
(STP) and UTP cabling. Token Ring is very common in IBM environments.
Token Ring can operate at two different ring speeds: 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. All devices on
the ring must agree on the operating speed.
A-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
LANs and WANs
Configuring Token Ring
The only option you must configure Token Ring interfaces is the ring speed. The following
example shows the commands you typically enter to configure the ring speed on a Token
Ring network:
Router(config)# interface tokenring 0
Router(config-if)# ring-speed 16
Other useful commands are:
•
show interface—an EXEC command that displays information about interfaces
attached to the access server.
•
[no] shutdown—a config-interface subcommand, that enables or disables operation of
the configured interface.
Timesaver You may also need to enter the command multiring if the Token Ring
interface on the access server is sending routed packets (such as IP, IPX, or AppleTalk) to
a source-route bridged environment. The command multiring tells the access server or
router to try to find devices on the other side of source-route bridges.
LAN Addressing
The data link layer defines an addressing scheme that is used by all LAN devices. A
device’s address is generally burned into the chips on the network interface components
that connect the device to the LAN. These addresses are 48-bits in length, which is
represented by a hexadecimal string (for example, 0000.0C0A.3E2E).
The IEEE provides each manufacturer of network interface cards with a block of addresses,
and the manufacturers program the cards they make with these unique addresses. These
addresses are called Media Access Control (MAC) addresses, since MAC is a sublayer
within Layer 2 of the OSI reference model.
Cisco products use addresses from the pool 0000.0Cxx.xxxx for all devices and all
interfaces. Enter the EXEC command show interface to see the Layer 2 address:
Router# show interface
Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is Lance, address is 0000.0c14.2622 (bia 0000.0c14.2622)
Internetworking Primer A-13
LANs and WANs
In addition to data link layer addressing, network protocols (Layer 3) were developed to
allow more precise delivery of packets (or routing), within a larger internetwork. This
strategy is similar to the post office’s method of delivering mail. Everyone has a name (like
a MAC address), but that is not enough information to route letters efficiently. Zip codes
(like Layer 3 addresses) help mail reach its exact destination more efficiently by routing
them through the national mail infrastructure.
Bridged LANs
You can use data link layer bridges to extend the physical distance limitations of LANs.
(See Figure A-3.) It is important to note that the network layer logical addressing is not
affected by bridges, and network layer devices (such as access servers and routers) treat a
bridged Ethernet or bridged Token Ring as one data link for addressing purposes. The two
common kinds of bridges are transparent and source-route bridges.
Figure A-3
Two LANs Connected with a Bridge to Form Network 2
Network 2
Network 1
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 2
Layer 1
Layer 1
Router
Layer 2
Layer 1
LAN A
Layer 1
Bridge
LAN B
Layer 2
Layer 2
Layer 1
Layer 1
Network 3
H3570
Layer 3
Router
Translational bridging between two dissimilar LANs such as a Token Ring LAN and an
Ethernet LAN can cause problems for some Layer 3 protocols like AppleTalk and IPX.
Translational bridging should only be implemented after careful design consideration.
WAN Technologies
WANs connect networks together across longer distances, such as between cities, or across
continents. Figure A-4 illustrates a typical WAN architecture.
A-14 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
LANs and WANs
A Typical WAN Architecture
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 2
Layer 1
Layer 1
WAN
CSU/DSU
CSU/DSU
Router
Layer 2
Layer 1
H3569
Figure A-4
Layer 1
Router
WAN Physical Layer (Layer 1)
Most WANs require an interconnection that is provided by a communications service
provider, such as a phone company. This physical layer uses many of the technologies that
have evolved over the last few decades for carrying voice communications. The service
provider circuit typically terminates at a channel service unit (CSU) at the customer site.
Master Clock Timing
Two communicating devices on a synchronous serial cable, such as a CSU and an access
server, must agree on which device will provide the clocking for data transmission timing.
That device (typically an external channel service unit/data service unit [CSU/DSU]) is
called data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE). The other device will be data terminal
equipment (DTE), and is usually an access server or router. The physical layer connectors
(such as EIA/TIA-232 or V.35) together with the mode (DTE or DCE) will determine the
required pinout on the cable connecting the two devices. (See Figure A-5.)
Master Clock Timing
SCTE (suggested)
DSU/CSU
Router
H3115
Figure A-5
Clock
Internetworking Primer A-15
LANs and WANs
Note The cable used on the access server port will configure the port as DTE or DCE. If
it is configured as DCE, enter the command clockrate value to enable the port for use as a
DCE port.
Some WAN technologies, such as Frame Relay, Switched Multimegabit Data Service
(SMDS), or X.25, reuse the DTE and DCE terminology at Layer 2. The DTE/DCE mode
at Layer 1 is independent of the DTE/DCE mode at Layer 2. For example, It is possible for
a single device to be a V.35 DTE and a Frame Relay DCE concurrently.
If the access server is configured as a DTE (default) and is correctly receiving clocking and
Carrier Detect (CD) signals from the CSU, the command show interface will display the
following information:
Router# sh interface
Serial0 is up, line protocol is down
Note In this example, the Serial 0 interface is up, but the line protocol is reported to be
down. For the line protocol to be up, the WAN data link (Layer 2) must also be operational.
WAN Data Link Layer
The WAN data link layer (Layer 2), defines how data is formatted, or framed, for
transmission to remote sites. This formatting is referred to as encapsulation. Common
WAN encapsulations include High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Point-to-Point
protocol (PPP), Frame Relay, and SMDS.
WAN Layer 2 technologies can be grouped into two categories: point-to-point HDLC and
PPP) and multipoint (Frame Relay, SMDS, X.25, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM)). Each category has its own specific design considerations. Multipoint technologies
can also be used in point-to-point topologies.
A-16 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
LANs and WANs
Point-to-Point WANs
Point-to-point WANs only allow two endnodes on the WAN connection (as shown in
Figure A-6). The two common point-to-point WAN encapsulations are HDLC and PPP.
Because there are only two devices, there is no need for addressing at the data link layer.
Point-to-point encapsulations are generally used on leased WAN lines.
Point-To-Point WAN
Router A
CSU
WAN
CSU
Router B
H3572
Figure A-6
High-Level Data Link Control
If both ends of a leased-line connection are routers or access servers running Cisco IOS
software, HDLC encapsulation is typically used. As HDLC encapsulation methods may
vary, use PPP with devices that are not running Cisco IOS software.
HDLC is a bit-oriented, data link layer protocol derived from the Synchronous Data Link
Control (SDLC) encapsulation protocol. HDLC provides an encapsulation method for
synchronous serial links with a 32-bit checksum.
The serial interface on the access server does not require special configuration because
HDLC encapsulation is configured as the default.
Internetworking Primer A-17
LANs and WANs
Point-to-Point Protocol
PPP encapsulation provides Cisco IOS software to devices that are not running Cisco IOS
software, connectivity over leased WAN lines. PPP uses a more complex model than HDLC
to ensure interoperability between networking vendors. This interoperability involves
several additional protocols, including the following:
•
•
Link control protocol for negotiating basic line interoperability
A family of network control protocols for negotiating individual Layer 3 protocols and
their options (such as IPCP for IP and options such as compression)
When the PPP link is negotiated, a link control protocol is negotiated to establish the link
and then additional network control protocols are negotiated. If IP, AppleTalk, or IPX, are
configured on the serial line, IP control protocol (IPCP), AppleTalk control protocol
(ATCP), or IPX control protocol (IPXCP), respectively, is negotiated to conform to the
protocols requirements.
Enter the command show interface to check the status of the link control protocol and the
network control protocol, and test the interoperability of the network layers. There are also
excellent debug ppp commands for troubleshooting. (See the publication Access and
Communication Servers Command Reference.)
To configure the serial line to use PPP, enter the interface subcommand encapsulation ppp
as follows:
Router(config)# interface s0
Router(config-if)# encapsulation ppp
Multipoint WAN Technologies
Advances in technology over the last decade have resulted in a number of additional WAN
solutions being available to network designers. These sections include multipoint WAN
technologies such as Frame Relay, SMDS, X.25, and ATM. (See Figure A-7.)
Selection of an appropriate WAN solutions should involve a discussion of the costs and
benefits of each with your network designer and service providers.
A-18 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
LANs and WANs
Figure A-7
Multipoint WAN
Router A
Router C
Router B
Router D
H3114
WAN
Frame Relay
Frame Relay is a packet-switching data communications technology that can connect
multiple network devices on a multipoint WAN. The design of Frame Relay WANs can
have impact on aspects of higher layer protocols such as IP, IPX, and AppleTalk (for
example, the split-horizon aspect of routing protocols). Frame Relay is called a
nonbroadcast multiaccess technology, because there is no broadcast channel. Broadcasts
are transmitted by sending packets to all network destinations.
Two common topologies that can be used in a Frame Relay solution:
•
Fully meshed topology
Every Frame Relay network device has a permanent virtual circuit (PVC) to every other
device on the multipoint WAN. Any update sent by one device will be seen by every
other. If this design is used, the entire Frame Relay WAN can be treated as one data link.
•
Partially meshed topology
This is also often called a “star” or “hub-and-spoke” topology. In a partially meshed
topology, not every device on the Frame Relay cloud has a PVC to every other device.
In this topology, subinterfaces should be investigated and probably implemented to
solve design issues.
Internetworking Primer A-19
Desktop Protocols
Frame Relay WANs should be carefully designed with the above considerations in mind.
(see the publication Internetwork Design Guide).
Dial-on-Demand Routing
Dial-on-demand routing (DDR) enables you to make a standard telephone connection or an
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) connection only when required by the volume
of network traffic. DDR may be less expensive than a leased-line or multipoint solutions.
See the publication Access and Communication Servers Configuration Guide for assistance
in selecting, designing, and configuring dial-on-demand solutions.
Desktop Protocols
Desktop protocols are the network layer protocols that are commonly used by desktop
workstations and are supported by the Cisco 2500 series access server. This section briefly
describes the three most common desktop protocols—IP, IPX, and AppleTalk.
Network designers and administrators should be familiar with which networking functions
are performed by the data link layer (Layer 2) and which are performed by the network
layer (Layer 3) of the OSI reference model. For more information about the OSI reference
model, see the section “LANs and WANs” earlier in this appendix.
IP, IPX, and AppleTalk are all defined as routed (or routable) protocols. The unique
numbering of each network (data link) and the addressing of each data packet based on this
numbering allow efficient packet routing through the internetwork. This is similar to the use
of zip codes to allow efficient routing of mail through the national mail infrastructure.
This section includes the following information:
•
•
•
The common design goals of each desktop protocol
How each protocol meets these goals
Example configurations of IP, IPX, and AppleTalk
A-20 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
Routed Protocol Design Goals
Each of these three desktop protocols was designed with a common set of goals—unique
network numbering, node addressing, and data link address resolution, routing protocols,
and directory services. Understanding these goals, and how each desktop protocol solves
each goal, aids in the understanding, building, and administration of internetworks.
Unique Network Numbering
Every data link in your internetwork is given a unique network number. Every LAN
(Ethernet or Token Ring), and WAN is assigned its own unique network number for
identification. A bridged or switched LAN is only one network from the perspective of a
network protocol. Routers and access servers use these network numbers to route packets
within an internetwork. IP, IPX, and AppleTalk all use a similar model for assigning each
distinct network a unique network number. Network administrators must develop a
numbering plan for each protocol and control assignment of the unique network
numbering. Duplicate network numbers in a routed network will cause loss of connectivity.
More than one protocol can be implemented on a network. The numbering plan for each
network protocol is independent of the numbering plan used by other network protocols.
Figure A-8 illustrates a numbering plan for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk networks.
Internetworking Primer A-21
Desktop Protocols
172.16.10.0
B010
1001–1002
Network Numbering Plan for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk
172.16.20.0
B020
2001–2002
E0
Token
Ring
Router A
F0
FDDI
172.16.30.0
B030
3001–3002
T0
F0
172.16.1.0
B001
10-10
Router C
S0 E0
S0
172.16.40.0
A001
100–100
Router B S1
172.16.2.0
B002
20–20
S0
E0
Router D
H3546
Figure A-8
Node Addressing and Data Link Address Resolution
Each network protocol needs to able to uniquely address each node on a network. This
network layer node address may be the same as, or independent of, the already unique data
link layer address.
Once a packet has been routed to the correct network (data link), based on the network
number, it must be delivered to the correct node. Delivery of the packet on a network is done
using the Layer 2 (data link layer) address. A companion protocol performs resolution of
Layer 3 node address to the Layer 2 data link address. This companion protocol is called
the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for IP and AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
(AARP) for AppleTalk. IP and AppleTalk both use ARPs but IPX does not, because the IPX
48-bit node address is always the same as the 48-bit data link address. The ARP must be
working correctly in order to maintain connectivity between the devices in an internetwork.
A-22 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
The ARP (or AARP) address mapping process is illustrated in Figure A-9 and works as
follows:
1 A node needs to deliver a packet to a network layer node address. It checks its ARP table
to determine the data link address associated with the node address. If a mapping exists,
it can deliver the packet. If a mapping does not exist, an ARP is performed.
2 To perform an ARP, the requesting node broadcasts an ARP request to all devices on the
connected network to ask who has the specific node address.
3 The device with that node address sends a unicast (a message sent to a single network
destination) ARP reply to the requesting node.
4 The requesting node adds the new mapping to its ARP table and delivers the packet.
Figure A-9
Address Resolution Protocol Mapping Process
Router A
ARP reply
172.16.72.1 = 0080.0010.1111
H3112
ARP request 172.16.72.1 = ?
Routing Protocols
Each network protocol has associated routing protocols that access servers and routers use
to share information about network topologies. Over time, a number of routing protocol
choices have evolved for each network protocol. Network designers should select the
routing protocol for each network protocol.
Internetworking Primer A-23
Desktop Protocols
The function of the routing protocol is to build a complete routing table in each access
server or router. The routing table is a pointer to every network in an internetwork. For
example, the IP routing table for Router B in Figure A-8 might look as follows:
network
172.16.10.0
172.16.20.0
172.16.30.0
172.16.1.0
172.16.2.0
172.16.40.0
172.16.40.0
cost
01
00
00
00
00
01
01
next hop
RouterA
connected
connected
connected
connected
RouterC
RouterD
interface
f0
t0
f0
s0
s1
s0
s1
In order to achieve two-way connectivity between two end nodes and therefore the ability
to exchange packets on an internetwork, every access server or router in the path between
the nodes must have a routing table entry that describes how to forward a packet addressed
to both nodes. Connectivity also depends on the correct operation of ARP to deliver the
packet within the networks at either end of the packet’s path.
Directory Services
Nodes on an internetwork use directory services to locate specific services such as file
servers, printers, and e-mail servers. Each protocol (IP, IPX, and AppleTalk) has a unique
way of doing this. For IPX and AppleTalk, support of directory services is a critical part of
the design considerations.
Internet Protocol
IP is used by the Internet (the world’s largest internetwork, which connects thousands of
networks worldwide) and within many companies. Its addressing scheme scales well for
global addressing although, like the telephone industry, address space is running out.
IP uses centrally administered major network numbers to allow internetworks to connect to
the Internet. If you require Internet connectivity, you will need to get network address space
from an organization called the InterNIC (the InterNIC controls address allocation for the
Internet). If you do not plan to have Internet connectivity, or if you have limited assigned
address space, see RFC 1597 for numbering suggestions.
A-24 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
Design and administration of an IP network requires an understanding of IP subnetting.
Review the document Beginning IP for New Users which is available on CIO to ensure
basic familiarity with the concepts of IP subnetting.
IP Network Numbering
The IP address space is 32 bits long and is used to represent both the network and the node.
An IP address is written as four decimal numbers separated by dots (called dotted decimal
notation); for example, 172.16.10.1. Each of the four numbers is called an octet because it
represents 8 bits, and each octet has a maximum value of 255. For routing purposes, the IP
address is broken into three parts: major network, subnet, and node. (See Figure A-10.)
IP Address Broken into Network, Subnet, and Node Fields
Network
Subnet
Node
172.16
10
1
H3547
Figure A-10
Major networks are allocated by the InterNIC to identify different internetworks that are
connecting to the Internet. Subnets are used to number each data link (network) within an
internetwork, and the bits to the right of the subnet field are used for the node address.
In Figure A-11, the major network is the class B network, 172.16.0.0. The subnet mask is
255.255.255.0. Networks are uniquely numbered at the third octet. In Figure A-11, subnets
1, 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 have been assigned to the distinct networks.
Internetworking Primer A-25
Desktop Protocols
Figure A-11
172.16.10.0
IP Subnetting Plan
172.16.20.0
E0
Token
Ring
Router C
172.16.1.0
S0 E0
Router A
F0
FDDI
T0
F0
S0
172.16.40.0
Router B S1
172.16.30.0
172.16.2.0
E0
Router D
H3795
S0
IP Node Numbering
IP uses the bits to the right of the subnet mask to uniquely number each node on the
network. These addresses are configured manually by the system administrator. Access
servers and routers are also nodes, and require unique node addresses. In Figure A-11, the
fourth octet is used to number the nodes on a subnet, which permits up to 254 nodes on each
subnet (0 and 255 are reserved numbers).
IP ARP requires no special configuration, and will automatically perform Layer 2 address
resolution for IP. Enter the command show arp to check the ARP table on the access server.
IP Routing Protocols
There are several routing protocol options for IP. Network designers should select which
routing protocol to use, taking into consideration such factors as interoperability,
convergence, performance, support of variable length subnet masks (VLSMs), and protocol
overhead.
A-26 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
The IP routing protocol options are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
Enhanced IGRP
OSPF
Integrated Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (integrated IS-IS)
Static routing (a fixed, configured routing table entry)
Enter the command show ip route to examine the IP routing table.
IP Directory Services
The directory service used with IP is called Domain Name System (DNS). DNS resolves
names into IP addresses. Some useful configuration commands used with DNS are as
follows:
•
•
•
ip name-server
ip domain-name
ip domain-lookup
IP Configuration Example
The IP configuration of Router C in Figure A-11 is as follows:
interface ethernet 0
ip address 172.16.40.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 0
ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
!
router igrp 1
network 172.16.0.0
!
ip name-server 172.16.10.100
Internetworking Primer A-27
Desktop Protocols
Because Router D and Router C share a data link, they must agree on the IP network and
the subnet used on that data link, but they must have unique node numbers. The serial link
used by Router D is distinct from the serial link used by Router C, so it uses a unique subnet
number.
The IP configuration of Router D in Figure A-11 is as follows:
interface ethernet 0
ip address 172.16.40.2 255.255.255.0
!
interface serial 0
ip address 172.16.2.1 255.255.255.0
!
router igrp 1
network 172.16.0.0
!
ip name-server 172.16.10.100
Note IP hosts are usually configured with the IP address of the access server (or other IP
router) set as a default gateway. For additional information, see the publication
Internetwork Design Guide.
IPX Protocol
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the Layer 3 protocol developed by Novell to deliver
packets within a Novell internetwork.
The configuration command ipx routing is used to enable IPX routing on the Cisco IOS
software.
IPX Network Numbering
IPX uses 32-bit network numbers to uniquely identify each data link in an IPX
internetwork. An example Novell network numbering plan is shown in Figure A-12.
A-28 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
Figure A-12
IPX Network Numbering Plan
B020
B010
E0
Token
Ring
Router A
F0
FDDI
T0
F0
Router C
B001
S0 E0
S0
A001
Router B S1
B030
S0
E0
Router D
H3796
B002
IPX Node Numbering
IPX uses a 48-bit address for the node. The IPX device will use the data link address of one
interface as its IPX node address. Because the Layer 3 address is the same as the Layer 2
address, there is no need for an ARP process to perform network-to-data link layer address
resolution.
IPX Routing Protocols
Cisco IOS software supports the following IPX routing protocols:
•
•
•
IPX RIP
IPX enhanced IGRP
Novell Link State Protocol
IPX RIP is enabled by default. Enter the EXEC command sh ipx route to examine the IPX
routing table in an access server running Cisco IOS software.
Internetworking Primer A-29
Desktop Protocols
IPX Directory Services
Novell servers advertise their presence throughout the IPX internetwork with the Service
Advertisement Protocol (SAP). Novell servers include file servers, print servers, and
directory servers. Each type of server is advertised by a SAP type number as well as its IPX
address.
SAP works like a distance vector routing protocol. Access servers and routers running IPX
build server tables based on the SAPs they have received, and they advertise the servers they
know to others with SAPs. Enter the command show ipx servers to see the server table in
an access server running Cisco IOS software.
When an IPX client starts up, it sends a Get Nearest Server (GNS) request on its connected
data link to locate the nearest Novell server. If there are no Novell servers on that data link,
the access server responds with the best available server (based on cost) in its server table.
Cisco IOS software has many features to control SAP overhead and GNS functionality. No
special configuration is required for standard SAP and GNS support.
IPX Data Link Encapsulations
Novell has defined four distinct encapsulations, or formats, for placing frames on a data link
such as Ethernet. In order for two or more IPX devices on a data link to communicate, they
must use the same encapsulation. Encapsulation on distinct data links do not have to agree
in order to maintain connectivity. You must determine the encapsulation that will be used
on each data link and network.
Table A-5 shows the four kinds of encapsulation available on Ethernet networks.
Table A-5
Ethernet Encapsulation Keywords
Novell Term
Cisco Term
Common Term
Ethernet_II
arpa
Ethernet
Ethernet_802.3
novell-ether
raw
Ethernet_802.2
sap
802.2
Ethernet_SNAP
snap
snap
A-30 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
For Novell NetWare 3.x and earlier versions, the default encapsulation was Ethernet_II. As
of Netware 4.x, the default encapsulation is Ethernet_802.2.
In the example in Figure A-12, all Novell networks use SAP, or 802.2, except B010 which
uses ARP for compatibility with older devices on the LAN links. These encapsulation
issues do not apply to the WAN links.
IPX Configuration Example
The IPX configuration of Router C in Figure A-12 is as follows:
ipx routing
!
interface ethernet 0
ipx network A001 encapsulation sap
!
interface serial 0
ipx network B001
The IPX configuration of Router D in Figure A-12 is as follows:
ipx routing
!
interface ethernet 0
ipx network A001 encapsulation sap
!
interface serial 0
ipx network B002
AppleTalk Protocol
The AppleTalk protocol uses Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) at the network layer for
addressing. Enter the configuration command appletalk routing to enable AppleTalk.
Cisco IOS support of AppleTalk has extensive features and functionality that are not
covered in this appendix.
Internetworking Primer A-31
Desktop Protocols
AppleTalk Network Numbering
AppleTalk uses a 16-bit number to uniquely identify networks. There are two kinds of
AppleTalk networks, extended and nonextended. Extended networks are used for all LANs
and most WANs.
A single network number, such as 200, identifies a nonextended AppleTalk network.
Nonextended networks can have a maximum of 253 nodes and a single zone name. See the
section “AppleTalk Directory Services” later in this appendix for information on zones.
Nonextended networks are rarely used unless they are required for such support as a
Phase 1 Ethernet (which is now obsolete), X.25, or LocalTalk.
Extended networks allow a cable range that consists of one or more network numbers, such
as 200-201, to be defined and used by nodes on that network.
The access server plays no role in routing packets between network numbers in a range as
all the nodes know the full range of numbers that define the local data link.
Timesaver A good rule of thumb is to have one number in the range for every 50
AppleTalk devices on the LAN. For example, to support 300 devices, use a cable range of
six (such as 201-206).
Figure A-13 shows a sample AppleTalk network numbering and zone naming plan. Zones
are described in the section “AppleTalk Directory Services” later in this appendix.
A-32 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
Figure A-13
1001–1002
Marketing,
Sales
AppleTalk Numbering and Zone Naming Plan
2001–2002
Marketing
E0
Token
Ring
10–10
ZZ Serial
Router C
S0 E0
Router A
FDDI
3001–3002
Backbone
T0
F0
S0
100–100
Field Service,
Sales
Router B S1
20–20
ZZ Serial
S0
E0
Router D
H3797
F0
AppleTalk Node Numbering
The AppleTalk node address is an eight-bit number. AppleTalk devices will dynamically
find a free node address on startup using an extension of the AARP. You do not need to
perform any node address adminstration.
When you are using dialer maps (for dial-on-demand routing) or some multipoint WAN
data links, it is useful to tell the access server what node address to use. This can be done
using an optional field on the appletalk cable-range command as follows:
appletalk cable-range 3-4 1.129
AARP is used to resolve network layer node addresses with data link addresses. Enter the
command show apple arp to examine the AARP table.
Internetworking Primer A-33
Desktop Protocols
AppleTalk Routing Protocols
Several AppleTalk routing protocols are available, including the following:
•
•
•
Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP)
AppleTalk Update Routing Protocol (AURP)
Enhanced IGRP
The default AppleTalk routing protocol on the access server is RTMP. RTMP is a distance
vector algorithm that advertises known extended and nonextended networks in the
internetwork at ten-second intervals. AppleTalk nodes expect to see RTMP packets on the
LAN in order to locate access servers and routers that are routing AppleTalk. Enter the
command show apple route to examine the AppleTalk routing table.
AppleTalk Directory Services
AppleTalk directory services account for a significant portion of the functionality and
usability of AppleTalk. AppleTalk directory services work as follows:
•
•
•
Networks are assigned one or more zone names.
•
•
Each router builds a zone information table.
Zones can appear on multiple networks.
After an access server learns of a new route or network from its routing protocol, it will
query the advertising router for the zones associated with that route (network).
When an AppleTalk node boots up, it uses the Get Net Info (GNI) routine to ask the
AppleTalk routers on the network what zones are defined for that network. The node
then selects one for itself that will be visible to other AppleTalk devices.
When an AppleTalk node needs directory services, it will ask a local access server or router
routing AppleTalk to execute a lookup. For example, to find LaserWriters in the zone
Marketing, the access server or router will create a packet destined for each network that
has the zone Marketing assigned. Any device that matches this criterion will reply with its
address. Once the device is selected and the address is obtained, the routing takes place on
the network layer addresses, and the zone name is no longer involved in the connection.
A-34 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Desktop Protocols
In order to configure AppleTalk correctly, all AppleTalk access server or router interfaces
on a data link must agree on the assigned cable range, default zone, and any additional
zones. If there are any conflicts when a new router or access server using AppleTalk
attempts to connect to the network, the interface will not enable AppleTalk and will report
a port configuration mismatch. Enter the EXEC command show apple interface to confirm
correct startup.
Zones should be named for ease of use. Zone names are logical and do not need to be
unique, allowing logical groupings of users across diverse geographic locations. Because
WAN links offer no AppleTalk services, you should name them to appear at the bottom of
the Macintosh Chooser with a name such as “ZZ Serial.”
For example, in Figure A-13, the following zone name assignments are used:
cable-range
default zone
additional zones
100–100
Field Service
Sales
1001–1002
Marketing
Sales
2001–2002
Marketing
3001–3002
Backbone
10–10
ZZ Serial
20–20
ZZ Serial
Using the zone name assignments above will cause each access server or router in the
AppleTalk internetwork to build a zone information table that looks like this:
Marketing
1001–1002
2001–2002
Sales
1001–1002
100–100
Backbone
3001–3002
Field Service
100-100
ZZ Serial
10–10
20–20
Internetworking Primer A-35
Desktop Protocols
Enter the command show apple zone to look at the zone information table of the access
server or router.
When a node lookup request comes in for the zone Marketing, the device routing AppleTalk
will create two packets for forwarding, one for network 1001–1002 and one for network
2001–2002.
AppleTalk Configuration Example
The AppleTalk configuration of Router C in Figure A-13 is as follows:
appletalk
!
interface
appletalk
appletalk
appletalk
!
interface
appletalk
appletalk
routing
ethernet 0
cable-range 100-100
zone Field Office
zone Sales
serial 0
cable-range 10-10
zone ZZ Serial
The AppleTalk configuration of Router D in Figure A-13 is as follows:
appletalk
!
interface
appletalk
appletalk
appletalk
!
interface
appletalk
appletalk
routing
ethernet 0
cable-range 100-100
zone Field Office
zone Sales
serial 0
cable-range 20-20
zone ZZ Serial
A-36 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Modems
Modems
Modems are used with access servers to allow remote nodes and remote LANs to connect
to internetworks across Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs). (See Figure A-14.)
This section contains the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
EIA/TIA-232 Standard and Cabling
Configuring the Asynchronous Port
Communicating with the Modem
Configuring the Modem
Testing the Dial-In Connection
Dialup access to an internetwork is achieved via modems connected to the asynchronous
port of the access server. Before services such as remote node, remote LAN, and terminal
services can be utilized by a remote device, the modem and access server must be
configured to provide a reliable point-to-point WAN link. This section provides the
background information the is required to resolve modem configuration issues, and step
you through a modem setup.
Connection Between an Access Server and a Modem
Router A
Modem
Access
server
Public Switched
Telephone
Network
H3075
Figure A-14
Modem
PC
EIA/TIA-232 Standard and Cabling
This section discusses the EIA/TIA-232 implementation in detail as it applies to connecting
the access server with the modem. On an EIA/TIA-232 connection between an access
server and a modem, the access server is defined as data terminal equipment (DTE) and the
modem is defined as data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE).
Internetworking Primer A-37
Modems
RJ-45 Cabling
The access server uses high-density, 68-pin connectors with an 8-connector breakout cable
(with RJ-45 connectors) for its asynchronous ports. To connect to a modem, an MMOD
type RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter is used. The MMOD adapter is labelled “MODEM.” (For
connecting a modem on the auxiliary port, use an RJ-45 roll-over cable and an MMOD
adapter.) For additional information about supported cabling configurations, see the
appendix “Cable Specifications.”
Note RJ-45 cabling for EIA/TIA-232 is not standardized and may vary if purchased from
different vendors. The RJ-45-to-DB25 adapters modify the Cisco RJ-45 standard to the
DB-25 standard.
EIA/TIA-232 Pairs
The EIA/TIA-232 cabling uses three pairs of wires (plus grounding) to connect the modem
(DCE) to the access server (DTE). In each pair, one wire is used as output and one as input
on each end. The three wire pairs are used for the following purposes:
•
•
•
Data transfer (TX/RX)
Hardware flow control (RTS/CTS)
Modem control (DTR/DCD)
Table A-6 lists the signal flow between the two devices and their function for modem
communications.
Table A-6
EIA/TIA-232 Signals and Functions
Signal Name
Asynchronous
Port (DTE)
Modem
(DCE)
Function
Transmit Data (TX)
Output
Input
DTE transmits data to DCE.
Receive Data (RX)
Input
Output
DCE transmits received data to DTE.
Request To Send
(RTS)
Output
Input
DTE signals to DCE it can continue to
accept data into its buffers.
A-38 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Modems
Signal Name
Asynchronous
Port (DTE)
Modem
(DCE)
Clear To Send (CTS)
Input
Output
DCE signals to DTE that it can
continue to accept data into its buffers.
Data Terminal Ready
(DTR)
Output
Input
DTE indicates to DCE that it can
accept a call. Lowering and raising
instructs DCE to drop the active call
and return to the stored configuration.
Data Carrier Detect
(DCD)
Input
Output
DCE indicates to DTE that a call is
now present and established with a
remote modem. Dropping DCD
terminates the session.
(Connected to DSR
input on access
server.)
Function
Both the access server and the modem must be configured for correct operation on each of
the pairs of wires. Understanding the configuration concerns for these signals simplifies
modem setup and troubleshooting.
Data Transfer (TX/RX)
The data transfer wire pair is used for the transmission of user data (characters and packets)
between the access server and the modem. The conditions that must be met when setting
data transfer speeds are as follows:
•
The access server asynchronous port and the modem must agree on the speed of data
transfer used on this wire pair. (The modem must not change the speed on its
EIA/TIA-232 port when a session is negotiated with a remote modem.)
•
The speed used should take into account modulation speed (V.32 bis, V.34),
compression ratio achieved (V.42 bis), and the length of the EIA/TIA-232 cables.
Internetworking Primer A-39
Modems
Hardware Flow Control (RTS/CTS)
Hardware flow control is used between the access server and the modem to start and stop
data transfer on the TX/RX wire pair. Hardware flow control is used to prevent the loss of
data when buffers are full. Hardware flow control is controlled on the RTS/CTS wire pair.
The conditions that must be met when setting hardware flow control are as follows:
•
Both the access server asynchronous port and the modem must be configured for
hardware flow control.
•
Software flow control must be turned off for packet data, because it can cause
communications to stop unexpectedly.
•
No flow control on either end will cause loss of data.
Modem Control (DTR/DCD)
Modem control is used between the access server and the modem to initiate and end calls.
Modem control is performed on the DTR/DCD wire pair. The conditions that must be met
when setting modem control are as follows:
•
The modem should be configured so that if DTR is dropped and then raised, it will
terminate any calls and return to its stored settings. This configuration is the standard
for EIA/TIA-232 operations.
•
The modem should be configured to only send the DCD signal to the access server when
an active call has been negotiated and is established.
Configuring the Asynchronous Port
This section describes how to configure the Cisco 2500 series access server for use with a
modem, and includes information on configuring the line and security commands.
Full configuration of an access server asynchronous port requires the configuration of two
entities—the line and the asynchronous interface. The asynchronous interface is created
and configured for support of Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP. (See the section
“Asynchronous Protocols” later in this appendix.)
A-40 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Modems
Configuring the Line
The goal of line configuration is to prepare the line to test dial-in access to an EXEC
session. In the following example, lines 1 through 8 are configured:
Step 1 From a privileged EXEC session, enter the command configure terminal and
access line configuration mode:
Router# conf terminal
Enter one configuration command per line.
Router(config)# line 1 8
Router(config-line)#
End with CNTL-Z.
Step 2 Configure the lines to meet the EIA/TIA-232 requirements:
Router(config-line)# speed 57600
Router(config-line)# flowcontrol hardware
Router(config-line)# modem inout
Router(config-line)#
Setting the speed at 115200 may offer higher throughput depending on modem speed and
compression achieved. Troubleshooting should include testing at lower speeds.
The command modem ri-is-cd can be used instead of the command modem inout to
enhance security by not allow outgoing connections from the access server to the modem.
Enter the command modem inout during setup to allow configuration of the modem from
the access server, changing to the command modem ri-is-cd when testing is completed, if
desired.
Security Commands
Security allows you to control access to the access server and its services. Each line should
be configured with security. The following are some of the available security commands for
protection of the EXEC sessions:
Global commands
The command username name password password is used for local login (using the
command loginlocal), and protocol-specific (AppleTalk Remote Access (ARA), CHAP,
and so forth) security.
Internetworking Primer A-41
Modems
Line security options
The login tacacs command allows for centralized and enhanced security with a Terminal
Access Controller Access System (TACACS) server.
Use one of the login line subcommands from Table A-7 to control access to your EXEC
session.
Table A-7
Login Line Subcommand Options
Line subcommand
Security Prompts
Function
no login
None
No security
login
Password:
Check the line subcommand password
login local
Username:
Password:
Check the global username/password database
in configuration mode
login tacacs
Username:
Password:
Check the TACACS server1
1. See the publication Access and Communication Server Configuration Guide to set up TACACS support.
Configure security as follows:
Router(config)#username meredith password 123xyz
Router(config)#line 1 8
Router(config-line)#login local
With this configuration, the sign-on dialog from the remote PC appears as follows:
atdt5551234
CONNECT 14400/ARQ/V32/LAPM/V42BIS
User Access Verification
Username: meredith
Password:
Router>
A-42 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Modems
Communicating with the Modem
You must establish communication with your modem before you can configure it, which
requires terminal access to the modem’s command environment. The access server’s
reverse Telnet feature is used to communicate with the modem. This section explains how
to use reverse Telnet to access the modem.
Initiating a Reverse Telnet
To initiate a reverse Telnet, determine the IP address of your LAN (Ethernet) interface, then
enter a Telnet command to port 2000 + n on the access server, where n is the line number
for the modem to be configured. For example, to connect to the modem on line 1, enter the
following command from an EXEC session on the access server:
Router# telnet 172.16.1.10 2001
Trying 172.16.1.10, 2001 ... Open
You can now communicate with the modem on line 1 using the at command set as defined
by the modem vendor.
Timesaver Use the configuration command ip host to simplify reverse Telnets.
For example, ip host modem1 2001 172.16.1.10.
If you are unable to connect to the modem, check the following:
1 The EXEC command show users should not indicate the line is in use.
2 The line should be configured for modem inout.
3 The output of the EXEC command show line value should contain the following two
lines:
Modem state: Idle
Modem hardware state: CTS noDSR
DTR RTS
4 The line virtual terminal connections in the access server configuration may require
passwords. See the publication Troubleshooting Internetworks for additional
information on assigning passwords to virtual terminals.
Internetworking Primer A-43
Modems
Testing the Modem Connection
After connecting to the modem with a reverse Telnet, you need to test the connection. Send
the modem the at command to request its attention. It should respond with OK:
at
OK
If the modem does not reply to the at command, check the following:
1 Look at the output of the command show line 1. If it displays “no CTS” for the modem
hardware state, the modem is not connected, powered on, and waiting for data, or the
modem might not be configured for hardware flow control.
2 You may have problems with your cabling or modem configuration (echo or result codes
may be off). Try entering the command at to view the modem configuration, or entering
the command at&f to return to factory defaults.
Initiating, Suspending, and Terminating Telnet Sessions
The reverse Telnet must be terminated before the line can accept incoming calls. If you
don’t terminate the session, it will be indicated in the output of the command show users,
when it returns a modem state of ready if the line is still in use. If the line is no longer in
use, the output of the command show line value will return a state of idle.
Terminating the Telnet session requires first suspending it, then disconnecting it. To
suspend a Telnet session, enter the escape sequence Ctrl-Shift-6-x. You can then enter the
EXEC command disc to terminate the telnet session.
Note Ensure that you can reliably issue the escape sequence to suspend a Telnet session.
Some terminal emulator packages have difficulty sending the correct sequence,
Ctrl-Shift-6-x.
An example of how to use reverse Telnet to communicate with a modem follows:
Step 1 Initiate the session:
Router#telnet 172.16.1.10 2001
Trying 172.16.1.10, 2001 ... Open
A-44 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Modems
Step 2 Test Communications with the modem:
at
OK
Step 3 Suspend the Telnet session by entering Ctrl-Shift-6-x:
- suspend keystroke Router#
Step 4 Enter the EXEC command where to check for open sessions:
Router#where
Conn Host
* 1 172.16.1.10
Address
172.16.1.10
Byte
0
Idle Conn Name
0 172.16.1.10
Step 5 Enter the EXEC command disc to terminate the session:
Router#disc
Closing connection to 172.16.1.10 [confirm]y
Router#
After you have established and tested the connection to the modem, you can proceed with
configuring the modem.
Configuring the Modem
A modem initialization string is a series of parameter settings that is sent to your modem to
configure it for the desired operation. In this section, you will determine the correct
initialization string for your modem and configure your modem with it.
Modem command sets vary widely. Although most modems use the Hayes command set
(prefixing commands with at), Hayes-compatible modems do not use identical at
command sets.
Refer to your modem manufacturer’s documentation to learn how to examine the current
and stored configuration of the modem you are using. Normally, you enter at commands
such as &v, i4, or *o to view, inspect, or observe the settings.
Internetworking Primer A-45
Modems
Determine the Modem Initialization String
The initialization string is used to configure the modem for use. A sample modem
initialization string for a US Robotics Courier modem would be as follows:
&b1&h1&r2&c1&d3&m4&k1s0=1
Timesaver Initialization strings for other modems are available from CIO.
Locking EIA/TIA-232 Speed
Lock the EIA/TIA-232 port speed of the modem to the port speed of the Cisco 2500 series
access server. This speed must not change when a session is negotiated with a remote
modem. If the speed of the port on the access server is changed, you must perform a reverse
Telnet to the modem and send an at command for the modem to learn the new speed.
Modems differ in the method they use to lock the EIA/TIA-232 speed. In the modem
documentation, vendors use terms such as, port-rate adjust, speed conversion, or buffered
mode. Enabling error correction will often put the modem in the buffered mode. Refer to
your modem documentation (check the settings &b, \j, &q, \n, or s-register settings).
Hardware Flow Control (RTS/CTS)
RTS and CTS must be used between the modem and the access server to control the flow
of data. Misconfiguring flow control for software or setting no flow control, can result in
hung sessions and loss of data.
Modems differ in the method they use to enable hardware flow control. Refer to your
modem documentation (check the settings \q, &e, &k, &h, &r, or s-register).
Correct DCD Operation
The modem must use the DCD wire to indicate to the access server when a session has been
negotiated and is established with a remote modem. Most modems use the setting &c1.
Refer to your modem documentation for the settings used with your modem.
A-46 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Modems
Proper DTR Interpretation
The modem must interpret a toggle of the DTR signal as a command to drop any active call
and return to the stored settings. Most modems use the settings &d2 or &d3. Refer to your
modem documentation for the settings used with your modem.
Other Modem Settings
This section defines other settings that may be needed or desirable depending on your
modem. For these settings refer to your modem documentation.
Best error correction
Error correction can be negotiated between two modems to ensure a reliable data link. Error
correction standards include LAPM and MNP4. V.42 error correction will allow either
LAPM or MNP4 error correction to be negotiated.
Modems differ in the way they enable error correction. Refer to your modem
documentation for the settings used with your modem.
Timesaver If you plan to support ARA v1.0 clients we suggest that you disable MNP4
error correction. Other users will negotiate LAPM.
Best data compression
Data compression can be negotiated between two modems and will allow for greater data
throughput. Data compression standards include V.42 bis and MNP5.
Modems differ in the way they enable data compression. Refer to your modem
documentation for the settings used with your modem.
Answering calls
If a modem will be used to service incoming calls, it must be configured to answer the
phone after a specific number of rings.
Internetworking Primer A-47
Modems
Most modems use the setting s0=1 to answer the call after one ring. Refer to your modem
documentation for the settings used with your modem.
Initializing the Modem
Once the modem initialization string has been determined, take the following steps to
configure the modem. (This example configures a U.S. Robotics Courier modem on line 1):
Step 1 Reverse Telnet to the modem:
Router#telnet modem1
Trying modem1 (172.16.1.10, 2001)... Open
Step 2 Return the modem to its factory defaults (this step is optional):
at&f
OK
Step 3 Configure the modem with an initialization string:
at&b1&h1&r2&c1&d3&m4&k1s0=1
OK
Step 4 Store the modem settings in the modem NVRAM:
at&w
OK
Step 5 Suspend and disconnect your Telnet session:
- suspend keystroke Router#disc
Closing connection to modem1 [confirm]y
Router#
Timesaver The line configuration command script-reset can automate the configuration
of your modems. See the publication Access and Communication Servers Configuration
Guide, or the section “Tech Tips” on CIO for more information.
A-48 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Asynchronous Protocols
Testing the Dial-In Connection
The access server and modem are now correctly configured for dial-in access. Before
configuring any additional protocols for the line (such as SLIP, PPP, or ARA), test the
dial-in connection.
Note Remember, the same configuration issues exist between the client DTE (PC) and
client modem. Make sure you have the correct EIA/TIA-232 cabling and modem
initialization string for your client modem.
The following is an example of a successful connection from a PC using a
U.S. Robotics Courier modem to dial into a Cisco 2500 series access server:
at&f&c1&d3&h1&r2&b1&m4&k1&w
OK
atdt9,5551234
CONNECT 14400/ARQ/V32/LAPM/V42BIS
User Access Verification
Username:
Asynchronous Protocols
The Cisco 2500 series access server supports a number of popular asynchronous protocols
for remote node connectivity. This section provides background information and
configuration guidance for accessing EXEC sessions and the asynchronous protocols PPP,
SLIP, and ARA.
It is important to be familiar with the concepts EXEC, autoselect, lines, and asynchronous
interfaces when you support asynchronous protocols.
Internetworking Primer A-49
Asynchronous Protocols
The EXEC Session
When a dial-in user connects to an asynchronous line on the access server, the session
received after the security dialog is called an EXEC session. From an EXEC session, you
can use terminal services (such as Telnet or rlogin), run an asynchronous protocol over the
line, or use one of many other access server services. For example, you can enter the
command ppp to initiate a PPP session.
Launching Autoselect
The access server can launch three asynchronous protocols (PPP, SLIP, or ARA)
automatically if it detects that the remote device is using one of these protocols. The
automatic detection of the asynchronous protocol is called autoselect. Autoselect will
bypass the EXEC security dialog. If you use autoselect, we strongly recommend that you
use the authentication techniques built into the asynchronous protocols. (See Figure A-15.)
Autoselect
Flowchart for EXEC and AutoSelect Authentication Options
PPP
CHAP/PAP
authentication
EXEC
Login
security
A-50 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
H3111
Figure A-15
Asynchronous Protocols
Configuring Asynchronous Ports
Cisco 2500 series access servers have 8 or 16 asynchronous ports (plus an asynchronous
auxiliary port). These ports use RJ-45 connectors and the EIA/TIA-232 signaling standard.
In the access server configuration, there are two configuration submodes associated with
any asynchronous port—lines and asynchronous interfaces.
Asynchronous Lines
The line configuration subcommands are used to configure the asynchronous port for many
options, including the following:
•
•
•
•
Physical layer options
EXEC security
Autoselect
ARA protocol
Asynchronous Interfaces
Asynchronous interfaces are created and configured in Cisco IOS software to support PPP
and SLIP connections. The creation of an interface structure also allows Cisco IOS
software to use routing functions on the lines as it would with other interfaces. To support
SLIP or PPP on a given port, you must create and configure an asynchronous interface with
the same number as the line. Typically, the asynchronous interface would be configured for
the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
Network protocol support (IP, IPX, or AppleTalk)
Encapsulation support (PPP or SLIP)
IP client addressing options (default and/or dynamic)
IPX network addressing options
PPP authentication (SLIP has no protocol security)
Internetworking Primer A-51
Asynchronous Protocols
Modem Configuration
See the section “Modems” earlier in this appendix for assistance in configuring your access
server and modem for proper operation. This section will involve configuring the line for
EIA/TIA-232 options, and EXEC security.
Testing the Line for EXEC Functionality
Testing for access to EXEC functionality is a critical step in the configuration of the
Cisco 2500 series access server ports. The successful access to an EXEC session can help
ensure that the cabling, modem, and lines have correct configurations. A client should be
able to connect to the line and receive a hostname> prompt. Further testing might include
stress testing flow control and testing error correction.
Configuring PPP, SLIP, and ARA
The following sections discuss configuration options for PPP, SLIP and ARA
Point-to-Point Protocol
PPP allows a remote device to connect to the access server for multiple network (Layer 3)
protocols simultaneously. For example, a PPP user could request IP, IPX, or Appletalk.
You configure PPP by configuring the asynchronous interface associated with the line.
In the following example, asynchronous port 1 is being configured for PPP. These steps are
performed in configuration mode, as follows:
Step 1 Enter the following commands to create and configure the asynchronous interface
for the line:
Router(config)#interface async 1
A-52 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Asynchronous Protocols
Step 2 Enable IP and IPX (or other protocols) by assigning network numbers. (IP can be
configured by entering the command ip unnumbered rather than an IP subnet.)
This example enables PPP to support IP control protocol (ipcp) and IPX control
protocol (ipxcp). Enter the following interface subcommands to configure IP and
IPX (use your administered IPX network number):
Router(config-if)#ip unnumbered ethernet 0
Router(config-if)#ipx network B011
Step 3 Define PPP (or SLIP) encapsulation as the default:
Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
Step 4 Enter the following command to allow the port to support services other than PPP
(such as EXEC, SLIP, or ARA) (This step is optional):
Router(config-if)#async mode interactive
Step 5 Configure a default client IP address. This should be a valid, unique, and unused
IP address for a subnet on a connected LAN:
Router(config-if)#async default ip address 172.16.1.12
You can also enter the following additional configuration commands:
asynchronous dynamic address
(interface subcommand)
Allows you to dynamically select your own IP address
when dialing in. Use caution to ensure that only valid
IP addresses are used by the client.
ip tcp header compression passive
(interface subcommand)
Instructs the access server port to perform compression
of TCP headers if requested by the client.
autoselect ppp
(line subcommand)
Automatically launches a PPP session if the client
starts sending PPP packets after the modems have
connected. If you use autoselect, You should use PPP
authentications to prevent unauthorized access.
ppp authen chap
ppp authen pap
(interface subcommand)
Use CHAP or PAP to authenticate PPP sessions.
Recommended for use with autoselect.
Internetworking Primer A-53
Asynchronous Protocols
Note For additional information on these commands, see the publication Access Server
Configuration Guide.
Serial Line Internet Protocol
Serial line internet protocol (SLIP) is an older protocol that supports IP only. Configuring
SLIP is similar to configuring PPP for IP. To support SLIP, follow the basic configuration
for PPP in the previous section, and ensure that one or both of the following (interactive
asynchronous mode or SLIP encapsulation) is configured:
async mode interactive
encapsulation slip
AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol
AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARA protocol) is used by remote Macintoshes to
connect to an AppleTalk network. The ARA Protocol can only be used for AppleTalk, and
does not support routing. The ARA protocol performs as a single-node bridge for
connecting a single Macintosh to a remote network.
The ARA protocol is configured with global and line commands only. The ARA protocol
does not use any asynchronous interface configuration.
A typical configuration for the ARA protocol would look as follows:
arap network 100 ARA Dialin
username xx password yy
!
line 1
arap enable
arap noguest
autoselect arap
The nonextended AppleTalk network number used with the command arap network must
be unique within the AppleTalk internetwork.
A-54 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Asynchronous Protocols
ARA Authentication
You can use the line configuration command autoselect arap to launch ARA protocol
automatically. The person logging into an access server that is using the ARA protocol, is
authenticated against either the username and password database in the configuration of the
access server, or against a TACACS server. To store the ARA protocol username database
on a TACACS server may require that the tacacs server be enabled with the supplementary
file. The following line command and the tacacs commands are entered to enable the
supplementary file:
arap use-tacacs (single-line)
ARA and Error Correction
The ARA protocol negotiates MNP4 error correction between the two ARA devices
(remote ARA client and Cisco IOS). MNP4 requires special support considerations for
ARA v1.0 clients. Turning off MNP4 support on the access server modem can eliminate
this problem. Refer to the publication ARA Setup and Troubleshooting which is available
on CIO for additional information.
Configuration Example
The following is an example of asynchronous protocol configuration. In this example, the
access server is configured to allow dial-in clients to launch ARA, SLIP, and PPP on line 1.
All the connected modems are U.S. Robotics V.34 Courier modems.
hostname cs
!
appletalk routing
ipx routing
arap network 100 ARA Dialin
!
username Meredith password 7 ASD@#$ASD
chat-script usrv34 at&f1&D2SO=1
!
interface ethernet 0
ip address 172.16.1.10 255.255.255.0
ipx network B010
appletalk cable-range 1001-1002
appletalk zone Marketing
appletalk zone Sales
Internetworking Primer A-55
Asynchronous Protocols
!
interface asynchronous 1
ip unnumbered ethernet 0
ipx network B011
encapsulation ppp
ip tcp header compression passive
asynchronous mode interactive
asynchronous default ip address 172.16.10.101
!
!
line 1 16
login local
modem inout
flow hardware
speed 115200
arap enable
arap noguest
autoselect arap
reset-script usrv34
A-56 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
B
APPEND IX
Maintaining the Cisco 2500
Series Access Server
This appendix contains information about maintenance procedures you might need to
perform on the Cisco 2500 series access server as your internetworking needs change. If
any upgrades requiring hardware or software replacement are necessary, a related
publication called a configuration note will ship to you automatically with the parts.
This appendix contains the following sections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Opening the Chassis
Upgrading the Boot PROMs
Installing Primary-Memory DRAM SIMMs
Replacing System-Code SIMMs
Closing the Chassis
Recovering a Lost Enable Password
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Caution Before opening the chassis, ensure that you have discharged all static electricity
from your body and be sure the power is off. Before performing any procedures described
in this appendix, review the sections “Safety Recommendations,” “Maintaining Safety with
Electricity,” “Preventing Electrostatic Discharge Damage,” and “General Site
Requirements” in the chapter “Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server.”
Warning Before working on a chassis or working near power supplies, unplug the power
cord on AC units; disconnect the power at the circuit breaker on DC units. (To see translated
versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety Warnings.”)
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-1
Opening the Chassis
Opening the Chassis
This section describes the procedure for opening the chassis by removing the chassis cover.
Warning Do not touch the power supply when the power cord is connected. For systems
with a power switch, line voltages are present within the power supply even when the power
switch is off and the power cord is connected. For systems without a power switch, line
voltages are present within the power supply when the power cord is connected. (To see
translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix “Translated Safety Warnings.”)
Warning Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during periods of
lightning activity. (To see translated versions of this warning, refer to the appendix
“Translated Safety Warnings.”)
Tools Required
The following are the tools you will need to open the chassis:
•
•
Medium-size flat-blade screwdriver (1/4 inch [0.625 cm])
Size M 3.5 (metric) hex-head nut driver (optional)
Removing the Cover
You must open the access server chassis to gain access to its interior components: the
system card, system code single inline memory modules (SIMMs), and dynamic random
access memory (DRAM) SIMMs. Following are the steps required to remove the chassis
cover. When opening the chassis, use Parts A and B in Figure B-1 as guides.
Step 1 Turn OFF the power but, to channel electrostatic discharge (ESD) voltages to
ground, do not unplug the power cable.
Step 2 Remove all interface cables from the rear panel of the access server.
Step 3 Turn the unit upside down so that the top of the chassis is resting on a flat surface,
and the front of the chassis is toward you. (See Figure B-1, Part A.)
B-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Opening the Chassis
Step 4 Remove the single screw located on the bottom of the chassis (on the chassis side
closest to you). Note that the chassis is comprised of two sections: top and bottom.
Step 5 If required, insert a medium-size flat-blade screwdriver into the slots shown in
Figure B-1, Part A, and gently rotate the blade so that the top and bottom sections
separate slightly.
Step 6 Holding the chassis with both hands, position it as shown in Figure B-1, Part B.
Step 7 Gently pull the top section away from the bottom section. (See Figure B-1, Part
B.) The fit is very snug, so it may be necessary to work the chassis sections apart
at one end and then the other, working back and forth.
Figure B-1
Chassis Cover Removal
A
Flat-blade screwdriver
H3556
SERIES
Slot
Screw
Slot
B
H3557
Top section
Bottom section
Rear
Left end
toward you
Front
Step 8 When the top cover is off, set it aside. Figure B-2 shows the layout of the system
card, which is attached to the bottom section of the chassis.
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-3
Upgrading the Boot PROMs
Figure B-2
System Card Layout—Model 2509
System-code SIMMs
(Flash memory or PROMs)
Flash card socket
Boot ROM jumpers
CODE 0
A
B
DRAM
Polarization
notch
Primary memory
(DRAM SIMM)
Shared memory
(fixed DRAM)
FW1
CODE 1
FW2
H3555
Boot ROMs
Ethernet
Serial 0
Serial 1
BRI Console Auxiliary
Upgrading the Boot PROMs
To replace the boot programmable read only memory (PROM) software with a new
software image, you need to replace the existing boot PROMs. Table B-1 lists the part
numbers you need and indicates their installation socket. The part number is printed on a
label attached to the boot PROM.
Table B-1
Boot PROM Part Numbers and Installation Sockets
Boot PROM Part Number
Installation Socket
17-1610-03
FW1
17-1611-03
FW2
B-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Upgrading the Boot PROMs
Tools and Equipment Required for Replacing the Boot PROMs
The following tools and equipment are required to replace the boot PROMs:
•
Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) extraction tool or a small
flat-blade screwdriver
•
Two boot PROMs
Replacing the Boot PROMs
Take the following steps to replace the boot PROMs:
Step 1 To open the chassis and expose the boot PROMs, follow the procedures in the
section “Opening the Chassis” earlier in this appendix.
Step 2 Locate the boot PROMs FW1 and FW2 (see Figure B-2).
Caution The correct placement of the boot PROMs is crucial. If the PROMs are installed
in the wrong sockets, they could be damaged when the system is powered on. To prevent
damage to the PROMs from ESD (when handling the system and its components), follow
the ESD procedures described in the section “Preventing Electrostatic Discharge Damage”
in the chapter “Preparing to Install the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server.” Also, be careful
not to damage or scratch the printed circuit card under the PROMs.
Step 3 Using an EPROM extraction tool or a small flat-blade screwdriver, gently remove
the boot PROMs (see Figure B-3) and set them aside on a nonconductive surface.
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-5
Upgrading the Boot PROMs
Figure B-3
Extracting and Inserting Boot PROMs
Squeeze here
Squeeze here
PLCC extractor slot
PLCC socket
PLCC PROM
PLCC extractor slot
H1579a
PLCC extractor tool
Step 4 Insert each new boot PROM in its socket in the orientation shown in Figure B-4.
Insert the new boot ROMs in their respective sockets so that the beveled edge of
the ROM chip is on the same side as the flat corner on the ROM socket.
Caution Boot PROMs should be installed with the printed label side up. Installing boot
PROMs with the label side down will result in damage to the PROM (see Figure B-4).
B-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Installing Primary-Memory DRAM SIMMs
Figure B-4
Orienting the Boot PROMs to the Socket
Beveled edge
on the boot ROM
ROM socket
Boot ROM
H3804
Flat corner on
boot ROM socket
Step 5 Replace the tray assembly and cover following the instructions in the section
“Closing the Chassis” later in this appendix.
Installing Primary-Memory DRAM SIMMs
The access server contains primary and shared (or packet) memory. Primary memory size,
in kilobytes (KB), is displayed in the system banner on the console screen. Primary and
shared memory are 1 MB each of the DRAM on the system card.
After booting up, your system will indicate in the system banner the amount of primary
memory it has. The following example shows a system with 4 MB (4,096 KB) of primary
memory. (The system does not display shared memory.)
System Bootstrap, Version 4.14(8), SOFTWARE
Copyright (c) 1986-1995 by Cisco Systems
2500 processor with 4096 Kbytes of main memory
If you use very large routing tables or many protocols, you might need to expand primary
memory. This expansion might be necessary with configurations in which the access server
is set up as a connection device between large external networks and your internal network.
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-7
Installing Primary-Memory DRAM SIMMs
Tools and Equipment Required
The following lists the tools required to remove and replace the DRAM SIMMs on the
access server:
•
•
•
Medium-size flat-blade screwdriver (1/4 inch [0.625 cm])
ESD-preventive wrist strap
The appropriate DRAM SIMM for your access server model
Primary Memory Configurations
You can upgrade to 4- or 16-MB DRAM; the 4-MB upgrade kit includes one 1 MB x 36
DRAM SIMM, and the 16 MB kit includes one 4 MB x 36 DRAM SIMM. As primary
memory is expanded to 4- or 16-MB SIMMs, the 2 MB of permanent memory is allocated
as shared memory.
DRAM SIMM Installation
Following is the procedure for installing DRAM SIMMs:
Step 1 Turn OFF power but, to channel ESD voltages to ground, do not unplug the power
cord.
Step 2 Attach an ESD-preventive wrist strap.
Step 3 Open the cover according to the procedure in the section “Opening the Chassis”
earlier in this appendix.
Step 4 Turn the chassis so the system card is opposite the position shown in Figure B-2,
with the primary-memory DRAM SIMM socket toward you.
Step 5 Remove the existing DRAM SIMM by pulling outward on the connectors to
unlatch them, as shown in Figure B-5. Be careful not to break the holders on the
SIMM connector.
Caution To prevent damage, do not press on the center of the SIMMs. Handle each SIMM
carefully.
B-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Installing Primary-Memory DRAM SIMMs
Figure B-5
Removing and Replacing the DRAM SIMM
Connector edge of
the system card
Pull the tabs away with
your thumbs, bracing your
forefingers against the
posts. Raise the SIMM
to a vertical position.
Polarization notch
H3558
DRAM SIMM card
Step 6 Using the system card orientation shown in Figure B-5, position the new SIMM
so that the polarization notch is located at the right end of the SIMM socket. Note
that the orientation of the system card is opposite that shown in Figure B-2.
Step 7 Insert the new DRAM SIMM by sliding the end with the metal fingers into the
SIMM connector socket at approximately a 45-degree angle to the system card.
Gently rock the SIMM back into place until the latch on either side snaps into
place. Do not use excessive force because the connector could break.
Step 8 Replace the access server cover using the procedure in the section “Closing the
Chassis” later in this appendix.
Step 9 Connect the access server to a console terminal.
Step 10 Turn on the power to the chassis. If error messages relating to memory are
displayed, repeat these steps, taking care to firmly seat the SIMM in its socket.
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-9
Replacing System-Code SIMMs
Replacing System-Code SIMMs
The system code (software) is stored on Flash memory or PROM SIMMs. The 80-pin Flash
memory and PROM SIMMs must be purchased from us. Contact a customer service
representative for more information.
Note The system code for all the access server models can be contained on either one or
two 80-pin Flash memory or PROM SIMMs. If only one 80-pin SIMM socket is populated,
it must be the SIMM socket indicated in Figure B-2 (CODE 0).
Tools and Equipment Required
The following lists the tools required to remove and replace the system-code SIMMs on the
access server:
•
•
•
Medium-size flat-blade screwdriver (1/4 inch [0.625 cm])
ESD-preventive wrist strap
The appropriate system-code SIMM(s) for your access server model
Flash memory and PROM SIMMs for the access server are available only from us.
Contact a customer service representative for more information.
System-Code SIMM Replacement
Following is the procedure for upgrading the system-code Flash memory or PROM
SIMMs:
Step 1 Turn OFF power but, to channel ESD voltages to ground, do not unplug the power
cord.
Step 2 Attach an ESD-preventive wrist strap.
Step 3 Open the chassis cover using the tools and procedures in the section “Opening the
Chassis” earlier in this appendix.
Step 4 Turn the chassis so that the system card is opposite the position shown in
Figure B-2, with the system-code SIMMs toward you.
B-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Replacing System-Code SIMMs
Step 5 Locate the system-code SIMMs on the system card. The SIMM sockets are
labeled CODE 0 and CODE 1 (shown in Figure B-2).
Step 6 Remove the existing system-code SIMM by pulling outward on the connector
holders to unlatch them. The connector holds the SIMM tightly, so be careful not
to break the holders on the SIMM connector. (See Figure B-6.)
Caution To prevent damage, do not press on the center of the SIMMs. Handle each SIMM
carefully.
Step 7 Repeat these steps for all the system-code SIMMs to be replaced.
Removing and Replacing the System-Code SIMM
Connector edge of
the system card
Pull the tabs away with
your thumbs, bracing your
forefingers against the
posts. Raise the SIMM
to a vertical position.
Polarization notch
Flash memory SIMM card
H3559
Figure B-6
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-11
Closing the Chassis
Step 8 Using the system card orientation shown in Figure B-6, position the new SIMM
so that the polarization notch is located at the right end of the SIMM socket. Note
that the orientation of the system card is the opposite of that shown in Figure B-2.
Caution To prevent damage, note that some Flash SIMMs have the components mounted
on the rear side; therefore, when inserting the SIMM, always use the polarization notch as
a reference and not the position of the components on the SIMM.
Step 9 Insert the new SIMM by sliding the end with the metal fingers into the appropriate
SIMM connector socket (CODE 0 or CODE 1 shown in Figure B-2) at
approximately a 45-degree angle to the system card. Gently rock the SIMM back
into place until the latch on either side snaps into place. Do not use excessive force
because the connector could break.
Step 10 Replace the access server cover using the procedure in the following section,
“Closing the Chassis.”
Step 11 Connect the access server to a console terminal.
Step 12 Turn on the power to the chassis.
If error messages relating to memory display, repeat these Steps, taking care to
firmly seat the SIMM in the socket.
Closing the Chassis
This section describes the procedure for closing the chassis.
Tools Required
Following are the tools required for replacing the cover:
•
•
Medium-size flat-blade screwdriver (1/4 inch [0.625 cm])
Size M 3.5 hex-head nut driver (optional)
B-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Closing the Chassis
Replacing the Cover
After you perform the maintenance for your system, take the following steps to replace the
cover:
Step 1 Position the two chassis sections as shown in Figure B-7.
Step 2 Referring to Figure B-7, press the two chassis sections together and ensure the
following:
•
•
•
The top section fits into the rear of the bottom section. (See A in Figure B-7.)
The bottom section fits into the front of the top section. (See B in Figure B-7.)
Each side of the top and bottom sections fits together. (See C in Figure B-7.)
Caution To fit the two sections together, it may be necessary to work them together at one
end and then the other, working back and forth; however, use care to prevent bending of the
chassis edges.
Figure B-7
Replacing the Chassis Cover
A
C
Top section
Bottom section
Left end
toward you
Front
H3560
Rear
B
Step 3 When the two sections fit together snugly, turn the chassis so that the bottom is
facing up, with the front panel toward you.
Step 4 Replace the cover screw. Tighten the screw to no more than 8 or 9 inch/pounds of
torque.
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-13
Recovering a Lost Enable Password
Step 5 Reinstall the chassis on the wall, rack, desktop, or table.
Step 6 Replace all cables.
Recovering a Lost Enable Password
This section describes in outline and then in detail how to recover a lost enable password.
Note Recovering a lost password is possible on the enable password. Systems running
Cisco IOS Release 10.3(2) or later use the enable secret password, which is encrypted and
must be replaced with a new enable secret. See the section “Hot Tips” on CIO for
information on replacing enable secret passwords.
•
Enter the command show version to note the existing virtual configuration register
value.
•
Break to the bootstrap program prompt (ROM monitor). This will require a reload of the
image.
•
Change the configuration register to 0x142 (ignore break; ignore NVRAM; boot from
Flash memory).
Note A key to recovering a lost enable password is to set the configuration register so that
the contents of NVRAM are ignored (0x0040), allowing you to see your password.
•
•
•
Enter privileged mode in the system bootstrap program.
Enter the command show configuration to display the enable password.
Change the configuration register value back to its original setting.
B-14 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Recovering a Lost Enable Password
Note To recover a lost enable password if Break is disabled on the router, you must have
physical access to the access server.
Take the following steps to recover a lost enable password:
Step 1 Attach an ASCII terminal to the access server console port, which is located on
the rear panel.
Step 2 Configure the terminal to operate at 9600 baud, 8 data bits, no parity, 2 stop bits.
Step 3 Enter the command show version to display the existing configuration register
value.
Step 4 If Break is disabled, power cycle the access server. (Turn the access server off,
wait five seconds, and then turn it on again.) If Break is enabled on the access
server, send a Break and then proceed to Step 6.
Step 5 Within 60 seconds of turning on the access server, press the Break key. This action
causes the terminal to display the bootstrap program prompt (>).
Step 6 To reset the configuration register to boot from the boot ROMs and ignore
NVRAM, enter o/r at the bootstrap prompt as follows:
> o/r 0x042
Step 7 Initialize the access server by entering the command initialize as follows:
> i
The access server will power cycle; the configuration register will be set to 0x142;
and the access server will boot the boot ROM system image and prompt you with
the system configuration dialog as follows:
--- System Configuration Dialog ---
Step 8 Enter no in response to the system configuration dialog prompts until the
following system message is displayed:
Press RETURN to get started!
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-15
Recovering a Lost Enable Password
Step 9 Press Return. The boot ROM prompt appears as follows:
Router>
Step 10 Enter the enable command to enter the EXEC mode in the boot ROM image. Then
enter the command configure memory as follows:
Router# configure memory
Step 11 Enter the EXEC command configure terminal to display the enable password in
the configuration file and to display any boot system commands.
Router# configure terminal
Step 12 Enter the new passwords:
The enable secret is a one-way cryptographic secret used
instead of the enable password when it exists.
Enter enable secret : shovel
The enable password is used when there is no enable secret
and when using older software and some boot images.
Enter enable password : trowel
Step 13 Set the configuration register to boot from Flash memory and to ignore the break
key:
config-reg 0x2102
Step 14 Exit configuration mode by pressing Ctrl-Z.
Step 15 Reboot the access server and enter the recovered password.
B-16 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
The access server has a 16-bit virtual configuration register, which is written into NVRAM.
You might want to change the virtual configuration register settings for the following
reasons:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set and display the configuration register value
Force the system into the ROM monitor or boot ROM.
Select a boot source and default boot filename
Enable or disable the Break function
Control broadcast addresses
Set the console terminal baud rate
Recover a lost password (ignore the NVRAM startup-config)
Enable booting from a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server
Table B-2 lists the meaning of each of the virtual configuration memory bits and defines
the boot field names.
Caution To avoid confusion and possibly halting the access server, remember that valid
configuration register settings might be combinations of settings and not just the individual
settings listed in Table B-2. For example, the factory default value of 0x2102 is a
combination of settings.
Table B-2
Virtual Configuration Register Bit Meanings
Bit No.1
Hexadecimal
Meaning
00–03
0x0000–0x000F
Boot field
06
0x0040
Causes system software to ignore the contents of NVRAM
(startup-config)
07
0x0080
OEM bit is enabled
08
0x0100
Break is disabled
10
0x0400
IP broadcast with all zeros
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-17
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Bit No.1
Hexadecimal
Meaning
11–12
0x0800–0x1000
Console line speed
13
0x2000
Load the boot ROM software if a Flash boot fails five times
14
0x4000
IP broadcasts do not have network numbers
15
0x8000
Enable diagnostic messages and ignore the contents of
NVRAM
1. The factory default value for the configuration register is 0x2102. This value is a combination of the
following: bit 13 = 0x2000, bit 8 = 0x0100, and bits 00 through 03 = 0x0002.
Changing Configuration Register Settings
You might want to modify the value of the virtual configuration register for the following
reasons:
•
•
•
•
•
Recover a lost password.
Change the console baud rate.
Enable or disable Break.
Allow you to manually boot the operating system using the b command at the bootstrap
program (ROM monitor) prompt.
Force the access server to boot automatically from the system bootstrap software (boot
ROM image) or from its system image in Flash memory, and read any boot system
commands that are stored in the configuration file in NVRAM. If the access server finds
no boot system commands, it uses the configuration register value to form a filename
from which to boot a default system image stored on a network server.
To change the configuration register while running the system software, take the following
steps:
Step 1 Enter the enable command and your password to enter privileged mode:
router> enable
Password:
router#
B-18 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Step 2 At the privileged-level system prompt (access server #), enter the command
configure terminal. You will be prompted as shown in the following example:
router# conf term
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Edit with DELETE, CTRL/W, and CTRL/U; end with CTRL/Z
Step 3 To set the contents of the configuration register, enter the configuration command
config-register value where value is a hexadecimal number preceded by 0x (see
Table B-2 and Table B-3):
config-register 0xvalue
(The virtual configuration register is stored in NVRAM.)
Table B-3
Explanation of Boot Field (Configuration Register Bits 00 to 03)
Boot Field
Boot Process
0x0
Stops the boot process in the ROM monitor
0x1
Stops the boot process in the boot ROM monitor
0x3–0xF
Specifies a default filename for booting over the network from a TFTP
server
Enables boot system commands that override the default filename for
booting over the network from a TFTP server
0x2
Full boot process, load Cisco IOS software in Flash memory
Step 4 Exit configuration mode by pressing Ctrl-Z. The new settings will be saved to
memory; however, the new settings do not take effect until the system software is
reloaded by rebooting the access server.
Step 5 To display the configuration register value currently in effect and the value that
will be used at the next reload, enter the EXEC command show version. The value
will be displayed on the last line of the screen display:
Configuration register is 0x142 (will be 0x102 at next reload)
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-19
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Step 6 Reboot the access server. The new value takes effect. Configuration register
changes take effect only when the server restarts, which occurs when you switch
the power off and on or when you issue a reload command from the console.
Virtual Configuration Register Bit Meanings
The lowest four bits of the virtual configuration register (bits 3, 2, 1, and 0) form the boot
field. (See Table B-3.) The boot field specifies a number in binary form. If you set the boot
field value to 0, you must boot the operating system manually by entering the b command
at the bootstrap prompt, as follows:
> b [tftp] flash filename
The b command options are as follows:
•
•
•
•
b—Boots the default system software from ROM
b flash—Boots the first file in Flash memory
b filename [host]—boots from the network using a TFTP server
b flash [filename]—Boots the file filename from Flash memory
For more information about the command b [tftp] flash filename, refer to the publication
Router Products Configuration Guide.
If you set the boot field value to a value of 0x2 through 0xF, and there is a valid system boot
command stored in the configuration file, then the access server boots the system software
as directed by that value. If you set the boot field to any other bit pattern, the access server
uses the resulting number to form a default boot filename for booting from the network
using a TFTP server. (See Table B-4.)
Table B-4
Default Boot Filenames
Action or Filename
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
bootstrap mode
0
0
0
0
ROM software
0
0
0
1
cisco2-igs
0
0
1
0
cisco3-igs
0
0
1
1
B-20 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Action or Filename
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
cisco4-igs
0
1
0
0
cisco5-igs
0
1
0
1
cisco6-igs
0
1
1
0
cisco7-igs
0
1
1
1
cisco10-igs
1
0
0
0
cisco11-igs
1
0
0
1
cisco12-igs
1
0
1
0
cisco13-igs
1
0
1
1
cisco14-igs
1
1
0
0
cisco15-igs
1
1
0
1
cisco16-igs
1
1
1
0
cisco17-igs
1
1
1
1
In the following example, the virtual configuration register is set to boot the access server
from Flash memory and to ignore Break at the next reboot of the access server:
router# conf term
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Edit with DELETE, CTRL/W, and CTRL/U; end with CTRL/Z
config-register 0x102
boot system flash [filename]
^Z
router#
The server creates a default boot filename as part of the automatic configuration processes.
To form the boot filename, the server starts with cisco and links the octal equivalent of the
boot field number, a dash, and the processor-type name.
Note A boot system configuration command in the access server configuration in
NVRAM overrides the default boot filename.
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-21
Virtual Configuration Register Settings
Bit 8 controls the console Break key. Setting bit 8 (the factory default) causes the processor
to ignore the console Break key. Clearing bit 8 causes the processor to interpret the Break
key as a command to force the system into the bootstrap monitor, thereby halting normal
operation. A break can be sent in the first 60 seconds while the system reboots, regardless
of the configuration settings.
Bit 10 controls the host portion of the IP broadcast address. Setting bit 10 causes the
processor to use all zeros; clearing bit 10 (the factory default) causes the processor to use
all ones. Bit 10 interacts with bit 14, which controls the network and subnet portions of the
broadcast address. (See Table B-5.)
Table B-5
Configuration Register Settings for Broadcast Address Destination
Bit 14
Bit 10
Address (<net> <host>)
Off
Off
<ones> <ones>
Off
On
<zeros> <zeros>
On
On
<net> <zeros>
On
Off
<net> <ones>
Bits 11 and 12 in the configuration register determine the baud rate of the console terminal.
Table B-6 shows the bit settings for the four available baud rates. (The factory-set default
baud rate is 9600.)
Table B-6
System Console Terminal Baud Rate Settings
Baud
Bit 12
Bit 11
9600
0
0
4800
0
1
1200
1
0
2400
1
1
B-22 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Copying to Flash Memory
Bit 13 determines the server response to a bootload failure. Setting bit 13 causes the server
to load operating software from ROM after five unsuccessful attempts to load a boot file
from the network. Clearing bit 13 causes the server to continue attempting to load a boot
file from the network indefinitely. By factory default, bit 13 is set to 1.
Enabling Booting from Flash Memory
To disable break and enable the boot system flash command, enter the config-register
command with the value shown in the following example:
router# config term
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Edit with DELETE, CTRL/W, and CTRL/U; end with CTRL/Z
config-reg 0x2102
^Z
router#
Copying to Flash Memory
Copying a new image to Flash memory might be required whenever a new image or
maintenance release becomes available. To copy a new image into Flash memory (write to
Flash), you must first reboot from ROM and then copy the new image into Flash memory.
You cannot copy a new image into Flash memory while the system is running from Flash
memory. Use the copy tftp flash command for the copy procedure.
Following is the sample output for reloading the access server and then copying a file
(called IJ09140Z) to Flash memory from a TFTP server (called server1):
router# configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Edit with DELETE, CTRL/W, and CTRL/U; end with CTRL/Z
config-reg 0x2101
^Z
The configuration register setting 0x2101 tells the system to boot from ROM, but does not
reset the break disable or check for a default netboot filename.
router# reload
...
router(boot)# copy tftp flash
Maintaining the Cisco 2500 Series Access Server B-23
Copying to Flash Memory
IP address or name of remote host [255.255.255.255]? server1
Name of tftp filename to copy into flash []? IJ09140Z
copy IJ09140Z from 131.131.101.101 into flash memory? [confirm] <Return>
xxxxxxxx bytes available for writing without erasure.
erase flash before writing? [confirm] <Return>
Clearing and initializing flash memory (please wait)####...
Loading from 101.2.13.110: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!... [OK - 324572/524212 bytes]
Verifying checksum...
VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
VVVVVVV...
Flash verification successful. Length = 1204637, checksum = 0x95D9
router(boot)# config term
Enter configuration commands, one per line.
Edit with DELETE, CTRL/W, and CTRL/U; end with CTRL/Z
config-reg 0x2102
^Z
The configuration register setting 0x2102 tells the system to boot from ROM if netboot
fails, disable break, and check for a default netboot filename.
router(boot)# reload
...
The system is now ready to be configured to boot from the new image you copied to Flash
memory. For more information on the copy tftp flash command and other related
commands, refer to the publication Access and Communication Servers Configuration
Guide.
B-24 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
C
APPEND IX
Cable Specifications
This appendix provides the following pinout information:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Console Port Pinouts (RJ-45), Table C-1
Auxiliary Port Pinouts (RJ-45), Table C-2
EIA-530 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-25), Table C-3
EIA/TIA-232 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-25), Table C-4
EIA/TIA-232 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-25), Table C-5
EIA/TIA-449 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-37), Table C-6
EIA/TIA-449 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-37), Table C-7
V.35 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to 34-Pin), Table C-8
V.35 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to 34-Pin), Table C-9
X.21 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-15), Table C-10
X.21 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-15), Table C-11
Ethernet (AUI) Cable Pinout (DB-15), Table C-12
Token Ring Port Pinout (DB-9), Table C-13
Asynchronous Breakout Cable Pinout (8-Pin RJ-45), Table C-14
Asynchronous-Line Cable Pinout (68-Pin SCSI), Table C-15
Pinouts for the RJ-45-to-DB-25 Adapters, Table C-16
Asynchronous Device Cabling Options, Table C-17
Cable Specifications C-1
Console and Auxiliary Port Signals and Pinouts
Console and Auxiliary Port Signals and Pinouts
The console port is configured as data communications equipment (DCE), and the auxiliary
port is configured as data terminal equipment (DTE). The console and auxiliary ports both
use RJ-45 connectors. RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters are available for connection to modems
and other external communications equipment. Both ports are configured as asynchronous
serial ports.
Following are the pinouts for the console port (see Table C-1), the auxiliary port (see
Table C-2), and the adapter (see Table C-16 and Table C-17).
Table C-1
Console Port Pinouts (RJ-45)
Console Port (DTE)
Pin1
Signal
Input/Output
1
–
–
2
DTR
Output
3
TxD
Output
4
GND
–
5
GND
–
6
RxD
Input
7
DSR
Input
8
–
–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Table C-2
Auxiliary Port Pinouts (RJ-45)
Auxiliary Port (DTE)
Pin1
Signal
Input/Output
1
RTS
Output
2
DTR
Output
3
TXD
Output
C-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
Auxiliary Port (DTE)
Pin1
Signal
Input/Output
4
GND
–
5
GND
–
6
RXD
Input
7
DSR
Input
8
CTS
Input
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
The following illustrations and tables provide assembly drawings and pinouts for the
EIA-530 DCE, and EIA/TIA-232, EIA/TIA-449, V.35, and X.21 DTE and DCE cables.
EIA-530
Figure C-1 shows the EIA-530 serial cable assembly, and Table C-3 lists the pinouts.
Arrows indicate signal direction: —> indicates DTE to DCE, and <— indicates DCE to
DTE.
Cable Specifications C-3
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
Figure C-1
EIA-530 Serial Cable Assembly
J1-46
J1-45
J1-16
J1-15
60-pin connector
25-pin connector
H1972
J2-13
J2-25
J2-14
J2-1
J1-1
J1-30
J1-31
J1-60
Connectors are not to scale
Table C-3
EIA-530 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-25)
60 Pin1
Signal
25 Pin
Signal
Direction
DTE DCE2
J1-11
J1-12
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
J2-2
J2-14
BA(A), TxD+
BA(B), TxD–
—>
—>
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
J2-3
J2-16
BB(A), RxD+
BB(B), RxD–
<—
<—
J1-9
J1-10
RTS/CTS+
RTS/CTS–
J2-4
J2-19
CA(A), RTS+
CA(B), RTS–
—>
—>
J1-1
J1-2
CTS/RTS+
CTS/RTS–
J2-5
J2-13
CB(A), CTS+
CB(B), CTS–
<—
<—
J1-3
J1-4
DSR/DTR+
DSR/DTR–
J2-6
J2-22
CC(A), DSR+
CC(B), DSR–
<—
<—
J1-46
J1-47
Shield_GND
MODE_2
J2-1
–
Shield
–
Shorted
J1-48
J1-49
GND
MODE_1
–
–
–
–
Shorted
C-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
25 Pin
Signal
Direction
DTE DCE2
J1-5
J1-6
DCD/DCD+
DCD/DCD–
J2-8
J2-10
CF(A), DCD+
CF(B), DCD–
<—
<—
J1-24
J1-23
TxC/RxC+
TxC/RxC–
J2-15
J2-12
DB(A), TxC+
DB(B), TxC–
<—
<—
J1-26
J1-25
RxC/TxCE+
RxC/TxCE–
J2-17
J2-9
DD(A), RxC+
DD(B), RxC–
<—
<—
J1-44
J1-45
LL/DCD
Circuit_GN
D
J2-18
J2-7
LL
Circuit_ GND
—>
–
J1-7
J1-8
DTR/DSR+
DTR/DSR–
J2-20
J2-23
CD(A), DTR+
CD(B), DTR–
—>
—>
J1-13
J1-14
TxCE/TxC+
TxCE/TxC–
J2-24
J2-11
DA(A),
TxCE+
DA(B),
TxCE–
—>
—>
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
2. The EIA-530 interface cannot be operated in DCE mode. A DCE cable is not
available for the EIA-530 interface.
EIA/TIA-232
Figure C-2 shows the EIA/TIA-232 cable assembly; Table C-4 lists the DTE pinout; and
Table C-5 lists the DCE pinout. Arrows indicate signal direction: —> indicates DTE to
DCE, and <— indicates DCE to DTE.
Cable Specifications C-5
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
Figure C-2
EIA/TIA-232 Cable Assembly
J1-46
J1-45
J1-16
J1-15
60-pin connector
25-pin connector
H1972
J2-13
J2-25
J2-14
J2-1
J1-1
J1-30
J1-31
J1-60
Table C-4
Connectors are not to scale
EIA/TIA-232 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-25)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
25 Pin
Signal
J1-50
J1-51
J1-52
MODE_0
GND
MODE_DCE
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield GND
Single
–
J2-1
Shield GND
J1-41
Shield
TxD/RxD
–
Twisted pair no. 5
—>
–
J2-2
Shield
TxD
–
J1-36
Shield
RxD/TxD
–
Twisted pair no. 9
<—
–
J2-3
Shield
RxD
–
J1-42
Shield
RTS/CTS
–
Twisted pair no. 4
—>
–
J2-4
Shield
RTS
–
J1-35
Shield
CTS/RTS
–
Twisted pair no. 10
<—
–
J2-5
Shield
CTS
–
J1-34
Shield
DSR/DTR
–
Twisted pair no. 11
<—
–
J2-6
Shield
DSR
–
J1-45
Shield
Circuit GND
–
Twisted pair no. 1
–
–
J2-7
Shield
Circuit GND
–
C-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
25 Pin
Signal
J1-33
Shield
DCD/LL
–
Twisted pair no. 12
<—
–
J2-8
Shield
DCD
–
J1-37
Shield
TxC/NIL
–
Twisted pair no. 8
<—
–
J2-15
Shield
TxC
–
J1-38
Shield
RxC/TxCE
–
Twisted pair no. 7
<—
–
J2-17
Shield
RxC
–
J1-44
Shield
LL/DCD
–
Twisted pair no. 2
—>
–
J2-18
Shield
LTST
–
J1-43
Shield
DTR/DSR
–
Twisted pair no. 3
—>
–
J2-20
Shield
DTR
–
J1-39
Shield
TxCE/TxC
–
Twisted pair no. 6
—>
–
J2-24
Shield
TxCE
–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Table C-5
EIA/TIA-232 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-25)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
25 Pin
Signal
J1-50
J1-51
MODE_0
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield GND
Single
–
J2-1
Shield GND
J1-36
Shield
RxD/TxD
–
Twisted pair no. 9
<—
–
J2-2
Shield
TxD
–
J1-41
Shield
TxD/RxD
–
Twisted pair no. 5
—>
–
J2-3
Shield
RxD
–
J1-35
Shield
CTS/RTS
–
Twisted pair no. 10
<—
–
J2-4
Shield
RTS
–
J1-42
Shield
RTS/CTS
–
Twisted pair no. 4
—>
–
J2-5
Shield
CTS
–
J1-43
Shield
DTR/DSR
–
Twisted pair no. 3
—>
–
J2-6
Shield
DSR
–
Cable Specifications C-7
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
25 Pin
Signal
J1-45
Shield
Circuit GND
–
Twisted pair no. 1
–
–
J2-7
Shield
Circuit GND
J1-44
Shield
LL/DCD
–
Twisted pair no. 2
—>
–
J2-8
Shield
DCD
–
J1-39
Shield
TxCE/TxC
–
Twisted pair no. 7
—>
–
J2-15
Shield
TxC
–
J1-40
Shield
NIL/RxC
–
Twisted pair no. 6
—>
–
J2-17
Shield
RxC
–
J1-33
Shield
DCD/LL
–
Twisted pair no. 12
<—
–
J2-18
Shield
LTST
–
J1-34
Shield
DSR/DTR
–
Twisted pair no. 11
<—
–
J2-20
Shield
DTR
–
J1-38
Shield
RxC/TxCE
–
Twisted pair no. 8
<—
–
J2-24
Shield
TxCE
–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
EIA/TIA-449
Figure C-3 shows the EIA/TIA-449 cable assembly; Table C-6 lists the DTE pinout;
Table C-7 lists the DCE pinout. Arrows indicate signal direction: —> indicates DTE to
DCE, and <— indicates DCE to DTE.
C-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
Figure C-3
EIA/TIA-449 Cable Assembly
60-pin connector (J1)
37-pin connector (J2)
J2-19
J2-37
H1973
J1-46
J1-45
J1-16
J1-15
J1-1
J1-30
J1-31
J1-60
Table C-6
J2-20
J2-1
Connectors are not to scale
EIA/TIA-449 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-37)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
37 Pin
Signal
J1-49
J1-48
MODE_1
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-51
J1-52
GND
MODE_DCE
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield_GND
Single
_
J2-1
Shield GND
J1-11
J1-12
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
Twisted pair no. 6
—>
—>
J2-4
J2-22
SD+
SD–
J1-24
J1-23
TxC/RxC+
TxC/RxC–
Twisted pair no. 9
<—
<—
J2-5
J2-23
ST+
ST–
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
Twisted pair no. 11
<—
<—
J2-6
J2-24
RD+
RD–
J1-9
J1-10
RTS/CTS+
RTS/CTS–
Twisted pair no. 5
—>
—>
J2-7
J2-25
RS+
RS–
J1-26
J1-25
RxC/TxCE+
RxC/TxCE–
Twisted pair no. 10
<—
<—
J2-8
J2-26
RT+
RT–
Cable Specifications C-9
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
37 Pin
Signal
J1-1
J1-2
CTS/RTS+
CTS/RTS–
Twisted pair no. 1
<—
<—
J2-9
J2-27
CS+
CS–
J1-44
J1-45
LL/DCD
Circuit_GND
Twisted pair no. 12
—>
_
J2-10
J2-37
LL
SC
J1-3
J1-4
DSR/DTR+
DSR/DTR–
Twisted pair no. 2
<—
<—
J2-11
J2-29
DM+
DM–
J1-7
J1-8
DTR/DSR+
DTR/DSR–
Twisted pair no. 4
—>
—>
J2-12
J2-30
TR+
TR–
J1-5
J1-6
DCD/DCD+
DCD/DCD–
Twisted pair no. 3
<—
<—
J2-13
J2-31
RR+
RR–
J1-13
J1-14
TxCE/TxC+
TxCE/TxC–
Twisted pair no. 7
—>
—>
J2-17
J2-35
TT+
TT–
J1-15
J1-16
Circuit_GND
Circuit_GND
Twisted pair no. 9
–
–
J2-19
J2-20
SG
RC
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Table C-7
EIA/TIA-449 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-37)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
37 Pin
Signal
J1-49
J1-48
MODE_1
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield_GND
Single
–
J2-1
Shield GND
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
Twisted pair no. 11
<—
<—
J2-4
J2-22
SD+
SD–
J1-13
J1-14
TxCE/TxC+
TxCE/TxC–
Twisted pair no. 7
—>
—>
J2-5
J2-23
ST+
ST–
J1-11
J1-12
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
Twisted pair no. 6
—>
—>
J2-6
J2-24
RD+
RD–
J1-1
J1-2
CTS/RTS+
CTS/RTS–
Twisted pair no. 1
<—
<—
J2-7
J2-25
RS+
RS–
C-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
37 Pin
Signal
J1-24
J1-23
TxC/RxC+
TxC/RxC–
Twisted pair no. 9
—>
—>
J2-8
J2-26
RT+
RT–
J1-9
J1-10
RTS/CTS+
RTS/CTS–
Twisted pair no. 5
—>
—>
J2-9
J2-27
CS+
CS–
J1-29
J1-30
NIL/LL
Circuit_GND
Twisted pair no. 12
—>
–
J2-10
J2-37
LL
SC
J1-7
J1-8
DTR/DSR+
DTR/DSR–
Twisted pair no. 4
—>
—>
J2-11
J2-29
DM+
DM–
J1-3
J1-4
DSR/DTR+
DSR/DTR–
Twisted pair no. 2
<—
<—
J2-12
J2-30
TR+
TR–
J1-5
J1-6
DCD/DCD+
DCD/DCD–
Twisted pair no. 3
—>
—>
J2-13
J2-31
RR+
RR–
J1-26
J1-25
RxC/TxCE+
RxC/TxCE–
Twisted pair no. 10
<—
<—
J2-17
J2-35
TT+
TT–
J1-15
J1-16
Circuit_GND
Circuit_GND
Twisted pair no. 8
_
_
J2-19
J2-20
SG
RC
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Cable Specifications C-11
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
V.35
Figure C-4 shows the V.35 cable assembly; Table C-8 lists the DTE pinout; Table C-9 lists
the DCE pinout. Arrows indicate signal direction: —> indicates DTE to DCE, and <—
indicates DCE to DTE.
V.35 Cable Assembly
60-pin connector (J1)
J1-46
J1-45
J1-16
J1-15
J1-1
J1-30
J1-31
J1-60
Table C-8
15-pin connector (J2)
J2-B
J2-D
J2-A
J2-C
J2-KK
J2-MM
J2-LL
J2-NN
Connectors are not to scale
H1975
Figure C-4
V.35 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to 34-Pin)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
34 Pin
Signal
J1-49
J1-48
MODE_1
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-50
J1-51
J1-52
MODE_0
GND
MODE_DCE
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-53
J1-54
J1-55
J1-56
TxC/NIL
RxC_TxCE
RxD/TxD
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield_GND
Single
–
J2-A
Frame GND
C-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
34 Pin
Signal
J1-45
Shield
Circuit_GND
–
Twisted pair no. 12
–
–
J2-B
Shield
Circuit GND
–
J1-42
Shield
RTS/CTS
–
Twisted pair no. 9
—>
–
J2-C
Shield
RTS
–
J1-35
Shield
CTS/RTS
–
Twisted pair no. 8
<—
–
J2-D
Shield
CTS
–
J1-34
Shield
DSR/DTR
–
Twisted pair no. 7
<—
–
J2-E
Shield
DSR
–
J1-33
Shield
DCD/LL
–
Twisted pair no. 6
<—
–
J2-F
Shield
RLSD
–
J1-43
Shield
DTR/DSR
–
Twisted pair no. 10
—>
–
J2-H
Shield
DTR
–
J1-44
Shield
LL/DCD
–
Twisted pair no. 11
—>
–
J2-K
Shield
LT
–
J1-18
J1-17
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
Twisted pair no. 1
—>
—>
J2-P
J2-S
SD+
SD–
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
Twisted pair no. 5
<—
<—
J2-R
J2-T
RD+
RD–
J1-20
J1-19
TxCE/TxC+
TxCE/TxC–
Twisted pair no. 2
—>
—>
J2-U
J2-W
SCTE+
SCTE–
J1-26
J1-25
RxC/TxCE+
RxC/TxCE–
Twisted pair no. 4
<—
<—
J2-V
J2-X
SCR+
SCR–
J1-24
J1-23
TxC/RxC+
TxC/RxC–
Twisted pair no. 3
<—
<—
J2-Y
J2-AA
SCT+
SCT–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Cable Specifications C-13
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
Table C-9
V.35 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to 34-Pin)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
34 Pin
Signal
J1-49
J1-48
MODE_1
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-50
J1-51
MODE_0
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-53
J1-54
J1-55
J1-56
TxC/NIL
RxC_TxCE
RxD/TxD
GND
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield_GND
Single
–
J2-A
Frame GND
J1-45
Shield
Circuit_GND
–
Twisted pair no. 12
–
–
J2-B
Shield
Circuit GND
–
J1-35
Shield
CTS/RTS
–
Twisted pair no. 8
<—
–
J2-C
Shield
RTS
–
J1-42
Shield
RTS/CTS
–
Twisted pair no. 9
—>
–
J2-D
Shield
CTS
–
J1-43
Shield
DTR/DSR
–
Twisted pair no. 10
—>
–
J2-E
Shield
DSR
–
J1-44
Shield
LL/DCD
–
Twisted pair no. 11
—>
–
J2-F
Shield
RLSD
–
J1-34
Shield
DSR/DTR
–
Twisted pair no. 7
<—
–
J2-H
Shield
DTR
–
J1-33
Shield
DCD/LL
–
Twisted pair no. 6
<—
–
J2-K
Shield
LT
–
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
Twisted pair no. 5
<—
<—
J2-P
J2-S
SD+
SD–
J1-18
J1-17
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
Twisted pair no. 1
—>
—>
J2-R
J2-T
RD+
RD–
J1-26
J1-25
RxC/TxCE+
RxC/TxCE–
Twisted pair no. 4
<—
<—
J2-U
J2-W
SCTE+
SCTE–
J1-22
J1-21
NIL/RxC+
NIL/RxC–
Twisted pair no. 3
—>
—>
J2-V
J2-X
SCR+
SCR–
C-14 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
34 Pin
Signal
J1-20
J1-19
TxCE/TxC+
TxCE/TxC–
Twisted pair no. 2
—>
—>
J2-Y
J2-AA
SCT+
SCT–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
X.21
Figure C-5 shows the X.21 cable assembly; Table C-10 lists the DTE pinout; Table C-11
lists the DCE pinout. Arrows indicate signal direction: —> indicates DTE to DCE, and <—
indicates DCE to DTE.
Figure C-5
X.21 Cable Assembly
J1-46
J1-45
J1-16
J1-15
60-pin connector (J1)
15-pin connector (J2)
H1974
J2-8
J2-15
J1-1
J1-30
J1-31
J1-60
J2-9
J2-1
Connectors are not to scale
Table C-10
X.21 DTE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-15)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
15 Pin
Signal
J1-48
J1-47
GND
MODE_2
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-51
J1-52
GND
MODE_DCE
Shorting group
–
–
–
Cable Specifications C-15
Serial Cable Assemblies and Pinouts
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
15 Pin
Signal
J1-46
Shield_GND
Single
–
J2-1
Shield GND
J1-11
J1-12
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
Twisted pair no. 3
—>
—>
J2-2
J2-9
Transmit+
Transmit–
J1-9
J1-10
RTS/CTS+
RTS/CTS–
Twisted pair no. 2
—>
—>
J2-3
J2-10
Control+
Control–
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
Twisted pair no. 6
<—
<—
J2-4
J2-11
Receive+
Receive–
J1-1
J1-2
CTS/RTS+
CTS/RTS–
Twisted pair no. 1
<—
<—
J2-5
J2-12
Indication+
Indication–
J1-26
J1-25
RxC/TxCE+
RxC/TxCE–
Twisted pair no. 5
<—
<—
J2-6
J2-13
Timing+
Timing–
J1-15
Shield
Control_GND
–
Twisted pair no. 4
–
–
J2-8
Shield
Control GND
–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Table C-11
X.21 DCE Cable Pinout (DB-60 to DB-15)
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
15 Pin
Signal
J1-48
J1-47
GND
MODE_2
Shorting group
–
–
–
J1-46
Shield_GND
Single
–
J2-1
Shield GND
J1-28
J1-27
RxD/TxD+
RxD/TxD–
Twisted pair no. 6
<—
<—
J2-2
J2-9
Transmit+
Transmit–
J1-1
J1-2
CTS/RTS+
CTS/RTS–
Twisted pair no. 1
<—
<—
J2-3
J2-10
Control+
Control–
J1-11
J1-12
TxD/RxD+
TxD/RxD–
Twisted pair no. 3
—>
—>
J2-4
J2-11
Receive+
Receive–
J1-9
J1-10
RTS/CTS+
RTS/CTS–
Twisted pair no. 2
—>
—>
J2-5
J2-12
Indication+
Indication–
J1-24
J1-23
TxC/RxC+
TxC/RxC–
Twisted pair no. 4
—>
—>
J2-6
J2-13
Timing+
Timing–
C-16 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Ethernet Cable Assembly and Pinout
60 Pin1
Signal
Description
Direction
15 Pin
Signal
J1-15
Shield
Control_GND
–
Twisted pair no. 5
–
–
J2-8
Shield
Control GND
–
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Ethernet Cable Assembly and Pinout
Figure C-6 shows an Ethernet (AUI) cable assembly, and Table C-12 lists an AUI cable
pinout.
Figure C-6
Ethernet (AUI) Cable Assembly
J1-1
J1-9
J1
J2
1-15
J1-8
H1031a
J2-1
J2-9
J2-15
J2-8
Table C-12
Ethernet (AUI) Cable Pinout (DB-15)
Pin1
Ethernet
Circuit
Signal
3
DO-A
Data Out Circuit A
10
DO-B
Data Out Circuit B
11
DO-S
Data Out Circuit Shield
5
DI-A
Data In Circuit A
12
DI-B
Data In Circuit B
4
DI-S
Data In Circuit Shield
Cable Specifications C-17
Token Ring Pinout
Pin1
Ethernet
Circuit
Signal
2
CI-A
Control In Circuit A
9
CI-B
Control In Circuit B
1
CI-S
Control In Circuit Shield
6
VC
Voltage Common
13
VP
Voltage Plus
14
VS
Voltage Shield (L25 and M25)
Shell
PG
Protective Ground
1. Any pin not referenced is not connected.
Token Ring Pinout
Table C-13 lists the pinout for the Token Ring interface port.
Table C-13
Token Ring Port Pinout (DB-9)
9 Pin1
Signal
1
Receive
3
+5V2
5
Transmit
6
Receive
9
Transmit
1. Pins 2, 4, 7, and 8 are ground.
2. 600 mA maximum.
C-18 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Asynchronous Serial Ports
Asynchronous Serial Ports
Figure C-7 shows the RJ-45 breakout cable with pinouts for the 68-pin SCSI port and the
RJ-45 serial port. Table C-14 contains the pinout for the RJ-45 end, and Table C-15
contains the pinout for the 68-pin SCSI type connector.
Figure C-7
Asynchronous Serial Interface Breakout Cable Assembly
SCSI 68-pin connector
Pin 68
Pin 34
RJ-45 plugs
Pin 1
Pin 8
Pin 1
Pin 35
RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter
Console Cable
Table C-14
Asynchronous Breakout Cable Pinout (8-Pin RJ-45)
8-Pin
RJ-45
Signal
Direction
1
CTS
<—
2
DSR/DCD
<—
3
RXD
<—
4
RXD/GND
—
5
TXD/GND
—
6
TXD
—>
7
DTR
—>
8
RTS
—>
Cable Specifications C-19
Asynchronous Serial Ports
Note The Asynchronous breakout cable is equivalent to a console or auxiliary port with a
roll-over RJ-45 cable attached. See Table C-17 for asynchronous device connection
options.
Table C-15
Asynchronous-Line Cable Pinout (68-Pin SCSI)
RJ-45
Plug
Pin
Signal
68-Pin
SCSI (J1)
1
1
CTS
39
2
DSR
5
3
RXD
38
4
RXD GND
4
5
TXD GND
37
6
TXD
3
7
DTR
36
8
RTS
2
1
CTS
43
2
DSR
9
3
RXD
42
4
RXD GND
8
5
TXD GND
41
6
TXD
7
7
DTR
40
8
RTS
6
2
C-20 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Asynchronous Serial Ports
RJ-45
Plug
Pin
Signal
68-Pin
SCSI (J1)
3
1
CTS
47
2
DSR
13
3
RXD
46
4
RXD GND
12
5
TXD GND
45
6
TXD
11
7
DTR
44
8
RTS
10
1
CTS
51
2
DSR
17
3
RXD
50
4
RXD GND
16
5
TXD GND
49
6
TXD
15
7
DTR
48
8
RTS
14
1
CTS
55
2
DSR
21
3
RXD
54
4
RXD GND
20
5
TXD GND
53
6
TXD
19
7
DTR
52
8
RTS
18
4
5
Cable Specifications C-21
Asynchronous Serial Ports
RJ-45
Plug
Pin
Signal
68-Pin
SCSI (J1)
6
1
CTS
59
2
DSR
25
3
RXD
58
4
RXD GND
24
5
TXD GND
57
6
TXD
23
7
DTR
56
8
RTS
22
1
CTS
53
2
DSR
29
3
RXD
62
4
RXD GND
28
5
TXD GND
61
6
TXD
27
7
DTR
60
8
RTS
26
1
CTS
67
2
DSR
33
3
RXD
66
4
RXD GND
32
5
TXD GND
65
6
TXD
31
7
DTR
64
8
RTS
30
7
8
C-22 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
RJ-45 Adapter Pinouts
RJ-45 Adapter Pinouts
Refer to Table C-16 for a list of the pins used on the RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapters, used with
an RJ-45 cable, to connect terminals and modems to the Cisco 2500 series access server.
The cable you use may be a roll-over cable or a straight cable.
A roll-over cable can be detected by comparing the two modular ends of the cable. Holding
the cables in your hand, side-by-side, with the tab at the back, the wire connected to the pin
on the outside of the left plug should be the same color as the pin on the outside of the right
plug. If your cable was purchased from Cisco, pin 1 will be white on one connector, and
pin 8 will be white on the other (a roll-over cable reverses pins 1 and 8, 2 and 7, 3 and 6,
and 4 and 5). (See Figure C-8.)
Figure C-8
Identifying a Roll-Over Cable
Pin 1 and pin 8
should be the
same color
Pin 8
H3824
Pin 1
The Cisco 2500 series access server ships with a rolled cable. Connection to a terminal or
a modem will require an RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter, and possibly a DB-25-to-DB9 adapter.
Refer to Table C-17 for the cable and adapter configurations that can be used to connect
terminals and modems to the Cisco 2500 series access server.
Cable Specifications C-23
RJ-45 Adapter Pinouts
Table C-16
Pinouts for the RJ-45-to-DB-25 Adapters
Adapter
DTE M/F Pins1
DCE M/F Pins
MMOD Pins2
RJ-45 Pins
DB-25 Pins
1
4
5
5
2
20
6
8
3
2
3
3
4
7
7
7
5
7
7
7
6
3
2
2
7
6
20
20
8
5
4
4
1. The female data terminal equipment (FDTE) adapter that is available from Cisco is
labeled “Terminal.”
2. The MMOD adapter that is available from Cisco is labeled “Modem.”
Table C-17
Access Server
Port
Asynchronous Device Cabling Options
RJ-45 Cable
Type
DB-25 Adapter
1
End Device
Console or
auxiliary
Rolled
FDTE
Terminal
Console or
auxiliary
Straight
FDCE
Terminal
Auxiliary or
console
Rolled
MMOD2
Modem3
1. The FDTE RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter is labeled “Terminal.”
2. The MMOD RJ-45-to-DB-25 adapter is labeled “Modem.”
3. The asynchronous breakout cable (see Table C-14 and Table C-15) is functionally
equivalent to a roll-over cable.
C-24 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
APPEND IX
D
Translated Safety Warnings
This appendix repeats in multiple languages the warnings in this publication.
Warning Definition
Warning This warning symbol means danger. You are in a situation that could cause
bodily injury. Before you work on any equipment, be aware of the hazards involved with
electrical circuitry and be familiar with standard practices for preventing accidents.
Waarschuwing Dit waarschuwingssymbool betekent gevaar. U verkeert in een situatie die
lichamelijk letsel kan veroorzaken. Voordat u aan enige apparatuur gaat werken, dient u
zich bewust te zijn van de bij elektrische schakelingen betrokken risico's en dient u op de
hoogte te zijn van standaard maatregelen om ongelukken te voorkomen.
Varoitus Tämä varoitusmerkki merkitsee vaaraa. Olet tilanteessa, joka voi johtaa
ruumiinvammaan. Ennen kuin työskentelet minkään laitteiston parissa, ota selvää
sähkökytkentöihin liittyvistä vaaroista ja tavanomaisista onnettomuuksien
ehkäisykeinoista.
Attention Ce symbole d'avertissement indique un danger. Vous vous trouvez dans une
situation pouvant causer des blessures ou des dommages corporels. Avant de travailler sur
un équipement, soyez conscient des dangers posés par les circuits électriques et
familiarisez-vous avec les procédures couramment utilisées pour éviter les accidents.
Translated Safety Warnings D-1
Jewelry Removal Warning
Warnung Dieses Warnsymbol bedeutet Gefahr. Sie befinden sich in einer Situation, die zu
einer Körperverletzung führen könnte. Bevor Sie mit der Arbeit an irgendeinem Gerät
beginnen, seien Sie sich der mit elektrischen Stromkreisen verbundenen Gefahren und der
Standardpraktiken zur Vermeidung von Unfällen bewußt.
Avvertenza Questo simbolo di avvertenza indica un pericolo. La situazione potrebbe
causare infortuni alle persone. Prima di lavorare su qualsiasi apparecchiatura, occorre
conoscere i pericoli relativi ai circuiti elettrici ed essere al corrente delle pratiche standard
per la prevenzione di incidenti.
Advarsel Dette varselsymbolet betyr fare. Du befinner deg i en situasjon som kan føre til
personskade. Før du utfører arbeid på utstyr, må du vare oppmerksom på de faremomentene
som elektriske kretser innebærer, samt gjøre deg kjent med vanlig praksis når det gjelder å
unngå ulykker.
Aviso Este símbolo de aviso indica perigo. Encontra-se numa situação que lhe poderá
causar danos físicos. Antes de começar a trabalhar com qualquer equipamento,
familiarize-se com os perigos relacionados com circuitos eléctricos, e com quaisquer
práticas comuns que possam prevenir possíveis acidentes.
¡Atención! Este símbolo de aviso significa peligro. Existe riesgo para su integridad física.
Antes de manipular cualquier equipo, considerar los riesgos que entraña la corriente
eléctrica y familiarizarse con los procedimientos estándar de prevención de accidentes.
Varning! Denna varningssymbol signalerar fara. Du befinner dig i en situation som kan
leda till personskada. Innan du utför arbete på någon utrustning måste du vara medveten om
farorna med elkretsar och känna till vanligt förfarande för att förebygga skador.
Jewelry Removal Warning
Warning Before working on equipment that is connected to power lines, remove jewelry
(including rings, necklaces, and watches). Metal objects will heat up when connected to
power and ground and can cause serious burns or weld the metal object to the terminals.
Waarschuwing Alvorens aan apparatuur te werken die met elektrische leidingen is
verbonden, sieraden (inclusief ringen, kettingen en horloges) verwijderen. Metalen
voorwerpen worden warm wanneer ze met stroom en aarde zijn verbonden, en kunnen
ernstige brandwonden veroorzaken of het metalen voorwerp aan de aansluitklemmen
lassen.
D-2 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Jewelry Removal Warning
Varoitus Ennen kuin työskentelet voimavirtajohtoihin kytkettyjen laitteiden parissa, ota
pois kaikki korut (sormukset, kaulakorut ja kellot mukaan lukien). Metalliesineet
kuumenevat, kun ne ovat yhteydessä sähkövirran ja maan kanssa, ja ne voivat aiheuttaa
vakavia palovammoja tai hitsata metalliesineet kiinni liitäntänapoihin.
Attention Avant d’accéder à cet équipement connecté aux lignes électriques, ôter tout
bijou (anneaux, colliers et montres compris). Lorsqu’ils sont branchés à l’alimentation et
reliés à la terre, les objets métalliques chauffent, ce qui peut provoquer des blessures graves
ou souder l’objet métallique aux bornes.
Warnung Vor der Arbeit an Geräten, die an das Netz angeschlossen sind, jeglichen
Schmuck (einschließlich Ringe, Ketten und Uhren) abnehmen. Metallgegenstände erhitzen
sich, wenn sie an das Netz und die Erde angeschlossen werden, und können schwere
Verbrennungen verursachen oder an die Anschlußklemmen angeschweißt werden.
Avvertenza Prima di intervenire su apparecchiature collegate alle linee di alimentazione,
togliersi qualsiasi monile (inclusi anelli, collane, braccialetti ed orologi). Gli oggetti
metallici si riscaldano quando sono collegati tra punti di alimentazione e massa: possono
causare ustioni gravi oppure il metallo può saldarsi ai terminali.
Advarsel Fjern alle smykker (inkludert ringer, halskjeder og klokker) før du skal arbeide
på utstyr som er koblet til kraftledninger. Metallgjenstander som er koblet til kraftledninger
og jord blir svært varme og kan forårsake alvorlige brannskader eller smelte fast til polene.
Aviso Antes de trabalhar em equipamento que esteja ligado a linhas de corrente, retire
todas as jóias que estiver a usar (incluindo anéis, fios e relógios). Os objectos metálicos
aquecerão em contacto com a corrente e em contacto com a ligação à terra, podendo causar
queimaduras graves ou ficarem soldados aos terminais.
¡Advertencia! Antes de operar sobre equipos conectados a líneas de alimentación,
quitarse las joyas (incluidos anillos, collares y relojes). Los objetos de metal se calientan
cuando se conectan a la alimentación y a tierra, lo que puede ocasionar quemaduras graves
o que los objetos metálicos queden soldados a los bornes.
Varning! Tag av alla smycken (inklusive ringar, halsband och armbandsur) innan du
arbetar på utrustning som är kopplad till kraftledningar. Metallobjekt hettas upp när de
kopplas ihop med ström och jord och kan förorsaka allvarliga brännskador; metallobjekt
kan också sammansvetsas med kontakterna.
Translated Safety Warnings D-3
Installation Warning
Installation Warning
Warning Read the installation instructions before you connect the system to its power
source.
Waarschuwing Raadpleeg de installatie-aanwijzingen voordat u het systeem met de
voeding verbindt.
Varoitus Lue asennusohjeet ennen järjestelmän yhdistämistä virtalähteeseen.
Attention Avant de brancher le système sur la source d'alimentation, consulter les
directives d'installation.
Warnung Lesen Sie die Installationsanweisungen, bevor Sie das System an die
Stromquelle anschließen.
Avvertenza Consultare le istruzioni di installazione prima di collegare il sistema
all’alimentatore.
Advarsel Les installasjonsinstruksjonene før systemet kobles til strømkilden.
Aviso Leia as instruções de instalação antes de ligar o sistema à sua fonte de energia.
¡Atención! Ver las instrucciones de instalación antes de conectar el sistema a la red de
alimentación.
Varning! Läs installationsanvisningarna innan du kopplar systemet till dess
strömförsörjningsenhet.
TN Power Statement
Warning The device is designed to work with TN power systems.
Waarschuwing Het apparaat is ontworpen om te functioneren met TN energiesystemen.
Varoitus Koje on suunniteltu toimimaan TN-sähkövoimajärjestelmien yhteydessä.
Attention Ce dispositif a été conçu pour fonctionner avec des systèmes d'alimentation
TN.
Warnung Das Gerät ist für die Verwendung mit TN-Stromsystemen ausgelegt.
Avvertenza Il dispositivo è stato progettato per l’uso con sistemi di alimentazione TN.
D-4 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Circuit Breaker (15A) Warning
Advarsel Utstyret er utfomet til bruk med TN-strømsystemer.
Aviso O dispositivo foi criado para operar com sistemas de corrente TN.
¡Atención! El equipo está diseñado para trabajar con sistemas de alimentación tipo TN.
Varning! Enheten är konstruerad för användning tillsammans med elkraftssystem av
TN-typ.
Circuit Breaker (15A) Warning
Warning This product relies on the building’s installation for short-circuit (overcurrent)
protection. Ensure that a fuse or circuit breaker no larger than 120 VAC, 15A U.S.
(240 VAC, 10A international) is used on the phase conductors (all current-carrying
conductors).
Waarschuwing Dit produkt is afhankelijk van de installatie van het gebouw voor
kortsluit- (overstroom)beveiliging. Controleer of er een zekering of stroomverbreker van
niet meer dan 120 Volt wisselstroom, 15 A voor de V.S. (240 Volt wisselstroom, 10 A
internationaal) gebruikt wordt op de fasegeleiders (alle geleiders die stroom voeren).
Varoitus Tämä tuote on riippuvainen rakennukseen asennetusta oikosulkusuojauksesta
(ylivirtasuojauksesta). Varmista, että vaihevirtajohtimissa (kaikissa virroitetuissa
johtimissa) käytetään Yhdysvalloissa alle 120 voltin, 15 ampeerin ja monissa muissa
maissa 240 voltin, 10 ampeerin sulaketta tai suojakytkintä.
Attention Pour ce qui est de la protection contre les courts-circuits (surtension), ce produit
dépend de l'installation électrique du local. Vérifier qu'un fusible ou qu'un disjoncteur de
120 V alt., 15 A U.S. maximum (240 V alt., 10 A international) est utilisé sur les
conducteurs de phase (conducteurs de charge).
Warnung Dieses Produkt ist darauf angewiesen, daß im Gebäude ein Kurzschluß- bzw.
Überstromschutz installiert ist. Stellen Sie sicher, daß eine Sicherung oder ein Unterbrecher
von nicht mehr als 240 V Wechselstrom, 10 A (bzw. in den USA 120 V Wechselstrom,
15 A) an den Phasenleitern (allen stromführenden Leitern) verwendet wird.
Avvertenza Questo prodotto dipende dall’installazione dell’edificio per quanto riguarda
la protezione contro cortocircuiti (sovracorrente). Verificare che un fusibile o interruttore
automatico, non superiore a 120 VCA, 15 A U.S. (240 VCA, 10 A internazionale) sia stato
usato nei fili di fase (tutti i conduttori portatori di corrente).
Translated Safety Warnings D-5
SELV Circuit Warning
Advarsel Dette produktet er avhengig av bygningens installasjoner av
kortslutningsbeskyttelse (overstrøm). Kontroller at det brukes en sikring eller strømbryter
som ikke er større enn 120 VAC, 15 A (USA) (240 VAC, 10 A internasjonalt) på
faselederne (alle strømførende ledere).
Aviso Este produto depende das instalações existentes para protecção contra
curto-circuito (sobrecarga). Assegure-se de que um fusível ou disjuntor não superior a
240 VAC, 10A é utilizado nos condutores de fase (todos os condutores de transporte de
corrente).
¡Atención! Este equipo utiliza el sistema de protección contra cortocircuitos (o
sobrecorrientes) deló propio edificio. Asegurarse de que se utiliza un fusible o interruptor
automático de no más de 240 voltios en corriente alterna (VAC), 10 amperios del estándar
internacional (120 VAC, 15 amperios del estándar USA) en los hilos de fase (todos aquéllos
portadores de corriente).
Denna produkt är beroende av i byggnaden installerat kortslutningsskydd
(överströmsskydd). Kontrollera att säkring eller överspänningsskydd används på fasledarna
(samtliga strömförande ledare) ¥ för internationellt bruk max. 240 V växelström, 10 A
(i USA max. 120V växelström, 15 A).
Varning!
SELV Circuit Warning
Warning The ports labeled “Ethernet,” “10BaseT,” “Token Ring,” “Console,” and “AUX”
are safety extra low voltage (SELV) circuits. SELV circuits should only be connected to
other SELV circuits. Because the BRI circuits are treated like telephone-network voltage,
avoid connecting the SELV circuit to the telephone-network-voltage (TNV) circuits.
Waarschuwing De poorten die "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console" en
"AUX" zijn gelabeld, zijn veiligheidscircuits met extra lage spanning (genaamd SELV =
Safety Extra Low Voltage). SELV circuits mogen alleen met andere SELV circuits
verbonden worden. Omdat de BRI circuits op dezelfde manier als
telefoonnetwerk-spanning behandeld worden, mag u het SELV circuit niet verbinden met
de Telefoonnetwerk-spanning (TNV) circuits.
D-6 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
SELV Circuit Warning
Varoitus Portit, joissa on nimet "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console" ja
"AUX", ovat erityisen pienen jännityksen omaavia turvallisuuspiirejä (SELV-piirejä).
Tällaiset SELV-piirit tulee yhdistää ainoastaan muihin SELV-piireihin. Koska perusluokan
liitäntöjen (Basic Rate Interface- eli BRI-liitännät) jännite vastaa puhelinverkoston
jännitettä, vältä SELV-piirin yhdistämistä puhelinverkoston jännitepiireihin
(TNV-piireihin).
Attention Les ports étiquetés « Ethernet », « 10BaseT », «
oken
T Ring », « Console » et
« AUX » sont des circuits de sécurité basse tension (Safety Extra Low Voltage ou SELV).
Les circuits SELV ne doivent être interconnectés qu'avec d'autres circuits SELV. Comme
les circuits BRI sont considérés comme des sources de tension de réseau téléphonique,
éviter de connecter un circuit SELV à un circuit de tension de réseau téléphonique
(telephone-network-voltage ou TNV).
Warnung Die mit "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console" und "AUX"
beschrifteten Buchsen sind Sicherheitsschaltungen mit extraniedriger Spannung (Safety
Extra Low Voltage, SELV). SELV-Schaltungen sollten ausschließlich an andere
SELV-Schaltungen angeschlossen werden. Da die BRI-Schaltungen wie
Telefonnetzspannung behandelt werden, ist die SELV-Schaltung nicht an
Telefonnetzspannungsschaltungen (TNV) anzuschließen.
Avvertenza Le porte contrassegnate da “Ethernet”, “10BaseT”, “TokenRing”, “Console”
e “AUX” sono circuiti di sicurezza con tensione molto bassa (SELV). I circuiti SELV
(Safety Extra Low Voltage - Tensione di sicurezza molto bassa) devono essere collegati
solo ad altri circuiti SELV. Dato che i circuiti BRI vengono trattati come tensioni di rete
telefonica, evitare di collegare il circuito SELV ai circuiti in cui è presente le tensione di
rete telefonica (TNV).
Advarsel Utgangene merket "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console" og "AUX"
er lavspentkretser (SELV) for ekstra sikkerhet. SELV-kretser skal kun kobles til andre
SELV-kretser. Fordi BRI-kretsene håndteres som telenettspenning, unngå å koble
SELV-kretsen til kretser for telenettspenning (TNV).
Aviso As portas "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console", and "AUX" são
circuitos de segurança de baixa tensão (SELV). Estes circuitos deverão ser apenas ligados
a outros circuitos SELV. Devido ao facto de os circuitos BRI (Interface de Ritmo Básico)
serem tratados como sendo de tensão equivalente à da rede telefónica, evite ligar o circuito
SELV aos circuitos TNV (tensão de rede telefónica).
Translated Safety Warnings D-7
Power Supply Disconnection Warning
¡Atención! Los puertos "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console" y "AUX" son
circuitos de baja señal (Safety Extra Low Voltage = SELV) que garantizan ausencia de
peligro. Estos circuitos SELV deben ser conectados exclusivamente con otros también de
tipo SELV. Puesto que los circuitos tipo BRI se comportan como aquéllos con voltajes de
red telefónica, debe evitarse conectar circuitos SELV con circuitos de voltaje de red
telefónica (TNV).
Varning! De portar som är märkta "Ethernet", "10BaseT", "Token Ring", "Console" och
"AUX" är SELV-kretsar, d.v.s. skyddskretsar med extra låg spänning (SELV: Safety
Extra-Low Voltage = skyddsklenspänning). SELV-kretsar får endast anslutas till andra
SELV-kretsar. Eftersom BRI-kretsar behandlas liksom telefonnätsspänning bör
SELV-kretsen inte anslutas till telefonnätsspänningskretsar (TNV-kretsar).
Power Supply Disconnection Warning
Warning Before working on a chassis or working near power supplies, unplug the power
cord on AC units; disconnect the power at the circuit breaker on DC units.
Waarschuwing Voordat u aan een frame werkt of in de nabijheid van voedingen, dient u
bij wisselstroom toestellen de stekker van het netsnoer uit het stopcontact te halen en voor
gelijkstroom toestellen dient u de stroom uit te schakelen bij de stroomverbreker.
Varoitus Kytke irti vaihtovirtalaitteiden virtajohto tai katkaise tasavirtalaitteiden virta
suojakytkimellä, ennen kuin teet mitään asennuspohjalle tai työskentelet virtalähteiden
läheisyydessä.
Attention Avant de travailler sur un châssis ou à proximité d'une alimentation électrique,
débrancher le cordon d'alimentation des unités en courant alternatif ou couper
l'alimentation des unités en courant continu au niveau du disjoncteur.
Warnung Bevor Sie an einem Chassis oder in der Nähe von Netzgeräten arbeiten, ziehen
Sie bei Wechselstromeinheiten das Netzkabel ab bzw. schalten Sie bei
Gleichstromeinheiten den Strom am Unterbrecher ab.
Avvertenza Prima di lavorare su un telaio o intorno ad alimentatori, scollegare il cavo di
alimentazione sulle unità CA o scollegare l'alimentazione all’interruttore automatico sulle
unità CC.
D-8 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Power Supply Disconnection Warning
Advarsel Før det utføres arbeid på kabinettet eller det arbeides i nærheten av
strømforsyningsenheter, skal strømledningen trekkes ut på vekselstrømsenheter, eller
strømmen kobles fra ved strømbryteren på likestrømsenheter.
Aviso Antes de trabalhar num chassis, ou antes de trabalhar perto de unidades de
fornecimento de energia, desligue o cabo de alimentação nas unidades de corrente
alternada, ou desligue a corrente no disjuntor nas unidades de corrente contínua.
¡Atención! Antes de manipular el chasis de un equipo o trabajar cerca de una fuente de
alimentación, desenchufar el cable de alimentación en los equipos de corriente alterna
(CA), o cortar la alimentación desde el interruptor automático en los equipos de corriente
continua (CC).
Varning! Innan du arbetar med ett chassi eller nära strömförsörjningsenheter skall du för
växelströmsenheter dra ur nätsladden och för likströmsenheter bryta strömmen vid
överspänningsskyddet.
Power Supply Warning
Warning Do not touch the power supply when the power cord is connected. For systems
with a power switch, line voltages are present within the power supply even when the power
switch is off and the power cord is connected. For systems without a power switch, line
voltages are present within the power supply when the power cord is connected.
Waarschuwing U dient de voeding niet aan te raken zolang het netsnoer aangesloten is.
Bij systemen met een stroomschakelaar zijn er lijnspanningen aanwezig in de voeding,
zelfs wanneer de stroomschakelaar uitgeschakeld is en het netsnoer aangesloten is. Bij
systemen zonder een stroomschakelaar zijn er lijnspanningen aanwezig in de voeding
wanneer het netsnoer aangesloten is.
Varoitus Älä kosketa virtalähdettä virtajohdon ollessa kytkettynä. Virrankatkaisimella
varustetuissa järjestelmissä on virtalähteen sisällä jäljellä verkkojännite, vaikka
virrankatkaisin on katkaistu-asennossa virtajohdon ollessa kytkettynä. Järjestelmissä,
joissa ei ole virrankatkaisinta, on virtalähteen sisällä verkkojännite, kun virtajohto on
kytkettynä.
Translated Safety Warnings D-9
Power Supply Disconnection Warning
Attention Ne pas toucher le bloc d'alimentation quand le cordon d'alimentation est
branché. Avec les systèmes munis d'un commutateur marche-arrêt, des tensions de ligne
sont présentes dans l'alimentation quand le cordon est branché, même si le commutateur est
à l'arrêt. Avec les systèmes sans commutateur marche-arrêt, l'alimentation est sous tension
quand le cordon d'alimentation est branché.
Warnung Berühren Sie das Netzgerät nicht, wenn das Netzkabel angeschlossen ist. Bei
Systemen mit Netzschalter liegen Leitungsspannungen im Netzgerät vor, wenn das
Netzkabel angeschlossen ist, auch wenn das System ausgeschaltet ist. Bei Systemen ohne
Netzschalter liegen Leitungsspannungen im Netzgerät vor, wenn das Netzkabel
angeschlossen ist.
Avvertenza Non toccare l’alimentatore se il cavo dell’alimentazione è collegato. Per i
sistemi con un interruttore di alimentazione, tensioni di linea sono presenti all’interno
dell’alimentatore anche quando l’interruttore di alimentazione è en posizione di
disattivazione (off), se il cavo dell’alimentazione è collegato. Per i sistemi senza un
interruttore, tensioni di linea sono presenti all’interno dell’alimentatore quando il cavo di
alimentazione è collegato.
Advarsel Berør ikke strømforsyningsenheten når strømledningen er tilkoblet. I systemer
som har en strømbryter, er det spenning i strømforsyningsenheten selv om strømbryteren
er slått av og strømledningen er tilkoblet. Når det gjelder systemer uten en strømbryter, er
det spenning i strømforsyningsenheten når strømledingen er tilkoblet.
Aviso Não toque na unidade abastecedora de energia quando o cabo de alimentação
estiver ligado. Em sistemas com interruptor, a corrente eléctrica estará presente na unidade
abastecedora, sempre que o cabo de alimentação de energia estiver ligado, mesmo quando
o interruptor se encontrar desligado. Para sistemas sem interruptor, a tensão eléctrica dentro
da unidade abastecedora só estará presente quando o cabo de alimentação estiver ligado.
¡Atención! No tocar la fuente de alimentación mientras el cable esté enchufado. En
sistemas con interruptor de alimentación, hay voltajes de línea dentro de la fuente, incluso
cuando el interruptor esté en Apagado (OFF) y el cable de alimentación enchufado. En
sistemas sin interruptor de alimentación, hay voltajes de línea en la fuente cuando el cable
está enchufado.
Varning! Vidrör inte strömförsörjningsenheten när nätsladden är ansluten. För system
med strömbrytare finns det nätspänning i strömförsörjningsenheten även när strömmen har
slagits av men nätsladden är ansluten. För system utan strömbrytare finns det nätspänning
i strömförsörjningsenheten när nätsladden är ansluten.
D-10 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide
Lightning Activity Warning
Lightning Activity Warning
Warning Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during periods of
lightning activity.
Waarschuwing Tijdens onweer dat gepaard gaat met bliksem, dient u niet aan het systeem
te werken of kabels aan te sluiten of te ontkoppelen.
Varoitus Älä työskentele järjestelmän parissa äläkä yhdistä tai irrota kaapeleita
ukkosilmalla.
Attention Ne pas travailler sur le système ni brancher ou débrancher les câbles pendant
un orage.
Warnung Arbeiten Sie nicht am System und schließen Sie keine Kabel an bzw. trennen
Sie keine ab, wenn es gewittert.
Avvertenza Non lavorare sul sistema o collegare oppure scollegare i cavi durante un
temporale con fulmini.
Advarsel Utfør aldri arbeid på systemet, eller koble kabler til eller fra systemet når det
tordner eller lyner.
Aviso Não trabalhe no sistema ou ligue e desligue cabos durante períodos de mau tempo
(trovoada).
¡Advertencia! No operar el sistema ni conectar o desconectar cables durante el transcurso
de descargas eléctricas en la atmósfera.
Varning! Vid åska skall du aldrig utföra arbete på systemet eller ansluta eller koppla loss
kablar.
Translated Safety Warnings D-11
Lightning Activity Warning
D-12 Cisco 2500 Series Access Server User Guide