User's Guide
®
CDS
Constant Double Speed
Analog Processing
Digital Processing
Hi-Precision
24 Bit / 96 kHz Stereo
DSP based Analog / Digital-Converter
Contents
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Introduction............................................................ 3
Supplied Contents ................................................. 3
Brief Description and Characteristics................... 3
Technical Specifications
4.1 Analog Specs ...................................................... 4
4.2 Digital Specs ....................................................... 4
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First Usage - Quick Start........................................ 5
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Operation and DSP Functions............................... 6
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General DSP Functions
7.1 Input.................................................................... 7
7.2 Output ................................................................. 8
7.3 Setup .................................................................. 9
7.4 Boot other Function ............................................10
7.5 Information.........................................................11
7.6 Correlator ...........................................................12
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Serial Interface ......................................................13
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DSP Software Dual Mono A/D
9.1 Brief Description and Characteristics ..................14
9.2 Low Cut..............................................................15
9.3 Delay..................................................................16
9.4 Expander............................................................17
9.5 De-esser.............................................................18
9.6 Non Linear Compressor......................................19
9.7 Auto Level Control..............................................20
9.8 Look Ahead ........................................................21
9.8.1 Expander......................................................21
9.8.2 Auto Level Control........................................22
9.9 Remote Control ..................................................23
9.10 Table of Parameters (Presets)............................24
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DSP Software Stereo A/D
10.1 Brief Description and Characteristics ..................26
10.2 Remote Control ..................................................26
10.3 Table of Parameters (Presets) ............................27
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DSP-Software Audio Analyser
11.1 Brief Description and Characteristics ..................28
11.2 Keyboard Operation............................................28
11.3 Software Audio Analyser.....................................29
11.4 Settings Spectrum Analyser................................30
11.5 Notes on Operation.............................................31
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Controls and Connectors .....................................32
13
Warranty ................................................................32
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Addendum .............................................................32
Copyright  RME, Matthias Carstens, 12/02. Version 1.5
All entries in this User´s Guide have been thoroughly checked, however no guarantee for correctness can be given. RME
cannot be held responsible for any misleading or incorrect information provided throughout this manual. Lending or copying
any part or the complete manual or its contents as well as the software belonging to it is only possible with the written permission from RME. RME reserves the right to change specifications at any time without notice.
Trademarks
All trademarks or registered trademarks belong to their respective owners.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
1. Introduction
Congratulations on your purchase of a ADI-96 PRO. This hi-quality analog to digital converter uses the unique Constant Double Speed technology to precisely convert analog audio
data into different digital audio formats. Newest circuit technology combined with modern integrated circuits resulted in a unique and outstanding device, meeting highest quality standards.
The ADI-96 PRO will excite you even after many years of operation.
2. Supplied Contents
Please ensure that all the following parts are included in ADI-96 PRO's packaging box:
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ADI-96 PRO
Manual
Power cord
Serial cable 9-pin D-type
RME Driver CD including Windows and BeOS software Remote Control
3. Brief Description and Characteristics
The ADI-96 PRO is a 2-channel analog to digital converter in a 19" rackmount enclosure
of 1 U height. Newest 24 bit converters using 64 times oversampling result in 115 dBA dynamic
ratio. This value is not only printed in the brochure, thanks to our Low Jitter Design it is available with every sold unit.
The servo balanced line inputs are fitted with both XLR and 1/4" TRS jacks separately. The
signal path from the jacks to the ADC is totally balanced. A super low noise amplifier stage
provides 20 dB adjustable gain, set by two hi-precision potentiometers on the front panel. This
brings a perfect adaptation to the most used levels -10 dBV and +4 dBu for each channel separately.
The discrete low noise and low distortion microphone preamp works totally independent from
the line circuits. A high quality relais connects the output of the line and mic electronics directly
to the AD-converter. The Mic XLR jacks also provide +48 V of phantom power for condenser
microphones.
The clearly structured front panel design ensures an easy start when working with the device
for the first time. The Peak Level Meter is visualized by a hi-precision LED chain with reliable
Over detection. The AD-converter is able to sample at 32, 44.1, 48, 64, 88.2 and 96 kHz. The
digital output is available at SPDIF (coaxial and optical) and AES/EBU (XLR) connectors.
Thanks to the unique Constant Double Speed technology the crystal clear sound of 96 kHz
sample rate is preserved even when using common sample rates below 64 kHz, as the ADI96 PRO samples and calculates in double speed. RME's exclusive Analog Processing
brings typical analog behaviour and sound to the digital domain. When using Look Ahead our
Digital Processing technology minimizes changes in sound even with heavy processing.
The DSP adds phase shift, low cut and mid/side processing in pure digital 48 bit quality. Processing all data in the DSP avoids all unwanted effects typical for analog circuitry, like additional
noise, distortions, changes in frequency response and deviations between both channels. Calculating Phase, Low Cut, Expander, De-esser, M/S-Processing and Compressor by a 48 bit/96
kHz DSP results in a previously unreached sound quality.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
3
4. Technical Specifications
• Power supply: Internal, 110 / 230 V AC, 30 Watts
• Dimensions 483 x 44 x 205 mm
• Weight: 2 kg
4.1 Analog Specs
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Resolution AD: 24 bit
Dynamic ratio: > 115 dBA
THD+N: > 100 dB, < 0.001 %
Maximum input level AD: +22 dBu
Minimum Line input level for 0 dBFS: +2 dBu
Minimum Mic input level for 0 dBFS: -50 dBu
Frequency response AD, -0.1 dB: 10 Hz - 21 kHz (sf 44.1 kHz)
Frequency response AD, -0.5 dB: 5 Hz – 44.8 kHz (sf 96 kHz)
Input Line: XLR, 1/4" TRS, servo balanced
Input impedance Line: 10 kOhm
Input Mic: XLR, servo balanced, +48 V phantom power switchable
Input impedance Mic: 2 kOhm
4.2 Digital Specs
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Super Low Jitter Design: < 3 ns in word clock PLL operation
Output voltage: coaxial 0.5 Vpp, XLR 5 Vpp
Output format: Consumer with/without copyright, Professional
Supported sample rates: 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 64 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz
Supported sample rates by word clock: 25 kHz - 105 kHz
Internal resolution: 48 bit
Resolution on digital output: 8, 16, 20, 24 bit
Dither: 0 / 0.5 / 1 LSB triangular switchable
Dither method: DC-offset free adding and rounding
Output optical (TOSLINK), coaxial, XLR
Format output SPDIF and AES/EBU (Consumer/Professional)
Word clock input or output switchable
Serial RS-232 interface
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
5. First Usage - Quick Start
Connect your analog signal source to the ADI-96 PRO's XLR or TRS input jacks. First
adjust the knobs fully counterclockwise and try to achieve an optimum input level by adjusting
the source itself. Fine adjusting the input level can easily be done by watching the Peak Level
Meter while turning the knobs. The best input level is present when all LEDs except the Over
LEDs are lit at the loudest parts of the signal. When there is no level indication at all, check the
actual input state (Mic/Line) in menu INP for left and right channel.
The analog line inputs of the ADI-96 PRO can be used with +4 dBu and -10 dBV signals.
The ADI provides (stereo) TRS and XLR jacks. Both are internally connected, so not operational at the same time. The electronic input stage is built in a servo balanced design which
handles monaural and stereo jacks correctly. When used unbalanced it automatically corrects
the gain by 6 dB.
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When using unbalanced cables with XLR jacks we recommend to short pin 3 of the cable's
jack to pin 1 (ground). Otherwise noise may occur, caused by the unconnected negative
input of the ADI-96 PRO's input jack.
The Mic XLR jacks also provide +48 V of phantom power for condenser microphones (menu
INP, Mic. Phantom Powered, separately for left and right channel).
When switched on for the first time the DSP software Dual Mono A/D is started. To change to
another DSP software see chapter 7.4 'Boot other function'.
It is more than likely that when using the device for the first time some additional settings in the
digital section have to be changed. The device is shipped with 16 presets, of which preset 1
and 2 are highly compatible to common equipment. Please choose correct sample frequency
and format (Professional, Consumer) in the menu OUT, according to the capabilities of the
device connected to the ADI-96 PRO's output.
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Coaxial, optical and XLR jack of the digital output always carry the same signal. A connection to professional devices with AES/EBU inputs requires the channel status Professional.
With this setting consumer DATs connected in parallel will not start to record, as they require
the format 'Consumer'.
Transferring digital data into a PCI bus equipped computer is best done using RME's digital
interface cards of the DIGI96® and Hammerfall® series. These hi-quality cards come with drivers for all popular operating systems. They have a world wide reputation as ultimate solution for
master and multitrack tasks.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
5
6. Operation and DSP Functions
The ADI-96 PRO's user interface is easy to understand thanks to its clearly structured
front panel design. The big and bright 2 x 20 character LC-display plus a simple and straight
cursor controlled menu structure will probably make you never look into this manual. Because
of the numerous functions found in the ADI and its software, we strongly encourage you to
study this manual.
Let's start with a short introduction into the ADI-96 PRO's user interface philosophy.
After power-on and automatic calibration the Info window will come up and show the currently
loaded DSP software. The device remembers all settings even without saving them. To be sure
a certain setup is being used unaltered, you should first reload it using Recall (see 6.9 Setup).
Press Enter to bring up the Overview window, which displays all configurations and the available DSP functions. Each function is represented by three letters, and is the highest menu of
several submenus.
On this level each function can be activated and de-activated (Bypass) using the +/- keys.
That's why they are also labeled ON/OFF. Below this row of functions two lines out of thin lines,
fat lines and bars can be seen. These two lines represent one channel each. The state of each
function is shown by a thin line (off) and a fat line (on). The screenshot below shows all functions activated except LOC (Low Cut). A global bypass, useful for comparing the sound with
and without DSP functions can be set by pressing the additional key Bypass DSP.
To avoid pan shifts between left and right channel the control paths (sidechains) of some functions can be linked. As shown in the above screenshot, Link is activated for the function EXP
(Expander), because both channel rows are no longer separated, but combined by bars. The
functions OUTPUT and SETUP can not be deactivated nor set up separately, so no lines are
shown at all. INPUT can't be deactivated, but in the stereo version of the DSP software the
channels are linked.
To enter a sub menu first use the arrow keys to move the cursor (shown as a blinking of the
corresponding three letters) in the desired direction. The Overview window will begin to scroll
because not all functions can be displayed simultaneously. An arrow will show up at the left and
right border of the display, indicating that some more functions are available (see picture
above). The submenus are accessed by pressing Enter, a second press on Enter jumps back to
the Overview window.
The button Meter Mode allows to switch the Peak Level Meter and the Correlator before (Input)
or behind (Output) the DSP. This allows to check changes in level and phase caused by the
activated functions without the need to switch the DSP in bypass mode.
Scrolling through the values with the +/- keys becomes accelerated when pressing the buttons
for a longer time. A jump to the highest or lowest possible value is done by first pressing one,
then the other key additional.
On the following pages you'll find detailed informations to all functions currently available in the
factory shipped DSP software Dual Mono A/D.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
7. General DSP Functions
7.1 Input
Function
Choice of input (Mic, Mic phantom powered, Line) per channel, invert phase (180°) per channel, activation of M/S processing.
Application
The setting Mic. Phantom Powered will apply 48 V DC to the XLR Mic jacks, so an operation
with condenser microphones is possible without the need of an external supply.
Inverting the phase allows to correct mics having a wrong polarity, or enables special effects in
'out of phase' technique.
The mid/side principle is a special positioning technique for microphones, which results in a mid
signal on one channel and a side signal on the other channel. The M/S processing transforms
these signals in a normal left/right stereo signal. Thus the mid/side signal is M/S decoded.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on INP and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Choice of Mic or Line input, activation and de-activation of phase invert and M/S processing.
Typical Settings
The mid/side processing automatically operates as encoder or decoder, depending on the signal feed. When processing a usual stereo signal all monaural informations will be shifted into
the left channel, all stereo information into the right channel. Thus the stereo signal is M/S encoded. This gives some very interesting possibilities of manipulating the stereo base and generating stereo effects, as it is possible to process the stereo information with all the functions
found in the ADI-96 PRO, like LOC, EXP, ALC and Delay. To avoid any processing of the
left channel (the monaural information) simply set all parameters to their lowest value (so the
functions won't change the audio data).
After this processing the signal must again run through the M/S processor to convert the
mid/side signal back to a normal stereo signal. Many software audio editors (like Steinberg's
WaveLab) include such an M/S function. That way, the second processing can be done in the
digital domain, for example on a Windows PC.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
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7.2 Output
Function
Configuration of the signal at the digital output: Sample frequency, word length, Dither, word
clock and Channel Status.
Application
Allows to set the parameters of the digitization, and allows to make the ADI-96 PRO fully
compatible to all devices attached to its digital output.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on OUT and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Adjustable are:
• Sample rate 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, word clock < 64 kHz, 64 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz,
word clock > 48 kHz
• Audio word length 8 bit, 16 bit, 20 bit, 24 bit
• Dither OFF, 0.5 LSB, 1.0 LSB
• Word clock output OFF/ON
• Channel Status Professional, Consumer with copyright, Consumer without copyright
Typical Settings
In case the ADI-96 PRO shall be clocked from an external 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz word clock
signal choose the setting Word Clock < 64 kHz.
Consumer devices like DAT and MiniDisc won't accept digital signals in Professional format at
their SPDIF jacks. For this setup please choose Consumer without Copyright.
The choice of the word length determines the maximum resolution of the audio data at the
ADI-96 PRO's output. At less than 24, for example when transferring on a 16 bit DAT, we
recommend to choose Audio Wordlength 16 Bit, and also to activate the Dither function, to
avoid distortions on very low level signals.
What Dither does can be easily shown at the setting Audio Wordlength 8 Bit, which results in a
dynamic of only 48 dB at the output. Low level signals will suffer from high distortion. After
activation of Dither 1.0 LSB a special noise signal is added which removes any audible distortion.
When activating Word Clock Output ON the device will provide a word clock signal of the current internal sample rate, available at the BNC jack on the rear of the device.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
7.3 Setup
Function
Configuration of Peak Level Meter, LC-display and preset memory.
Application
Allows to change the display behaviour of all elements on the front panel, and to store and
recall different configurations.
Dependent on the used DSP software the ADI-96 PRO includes up to 16 user presets. All
settings except the ones found in the Setup menu will be stored (the setting of contrast and
Level Meter is global). Each preset can be stored under an individual name. The desired number or letter is available by pressing the +/- keys, the arrow keys will move the cursor to the
next position.
Copying one preset to another place can be done by first recalling the desired preset, than
store it to the other location. A security function prevents overwriting data by mistake.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on SET and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Adjustable are:
• Level Meter Peak Hold 0.1 s up to 9.9 s
• Level Meter Release 1 dB/s up to 100 dB/s
• LC-Display Contrast 1 up to 10
• Save Setup 1 up to 16
• Recall Setup 1 up to 16
• Boot other function
Typical Settings
Most people will adjust the hold time of the peak level to around 1 second. A level meter with
fast reaction is also desired by most people, for this the Level Meter Release should be set to
the highest value of 100 dB/s.
Informations to the menu entry Boot other function can be found in the next chapter.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
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7.4 Boot other Function
Function
Starts the Bootloader.
Application
The Bootloader is nearly the same as the BIOS of a PC, it is the ADI's operating system at
lowest level. Its main task is to load the DSP (audio) software after switching on the device. But
there are some more functions it provides:
• Loading other DSP (audio) software from the internal memory
• Loading other DSP (audio) software from the serial interface
• Performing several hardware tests
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on SET and press Enter, then use the right arrow key
to scroll to Boot other function, then press Enter.
Menu
Options
Boot DSP-Software allows to choose from several DSP programs, stored in the ADI-96
PRO. Currently you'll find the DSP software Dual Mono A/D, an identical but easier to use
version called Stereo A/D, and an Audio Analyser providing realtime 1/3 oct analysis. Updates
will be available on our website for free and can easily be uploaded into the ADI-96 PRO
using Load Flash from PC (see chapter 8. Serial Interface).
Reload Presets allows to reload all factory setups of the corresponding DSP software. This will
erase all user settings.
The Test Procedures include the following tests:
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Calculate Checksum Flash (checks the Flash memory)
Samplerate Generator (checks the function of the Clock PLL)
Keyboard (allows to test all keys on the front panel)
Display (lights up all LEDs and all signs of the LC-display)
RAM Pattern Test (checks the RAM memory used by the DSP)
Typical Settings
None
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
7.5 Information
Function
Gives an overview on the current configuration. Shows the DSP software's version and name.
Application
The Information window gives a useful overview on which input is being used (Mic or Line), the
active clock source (internal or word clock), the current sample frequency (shown in kHz) and
word length. The ADI-96 PRO displays the Info window automatically after 100 seconds,
in case no cursor key was pressed during this time.
In word clock operation the Info window shows the actual frequency of the word clock signal
feed, at missing word clock WCK error is shown.
The second Info window is automatically shown after switching on the device and shows name
and version of the currently loaded DSP software.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on INF and press Enter.
Menu
Options
None
Typical Settings
None
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
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7.6 Correlator
Function
Shows the correlation between left and right channel. Simply said: measures the phase between left and right.
Application
Checking mono-compatibility, checking polarity of microphones, detecting sound problems due
to delay and phase settings.
Settings
The Correlator has no settings, its behaviour depends on the release time set for the Peak
Level Meter. Place the cursor in the Overview window on SET and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Level Meter Release 1 dB/s up to 100 dB/s.
Typical Settings
As with the Level Meter a faster setting (100 dB/s) is preferred by most users.
This function calculates the (mathematical) correlation between left and right channel. In simpler terms, the correlation gives an indication of the mono compatibility of the audio signal.
The value 1 measured with a sine corresponds to identical phase on both channels. In this case
summing the channels (mono mode, reduced channel separation or a distant listening position)
won't result in any loss of sound, the channels are 'in phase'. This is different with lower correlation values. In practice values between 1 and 0 indicate problem-free material.
0 corresponds to a phase deviation of 90° between left and right channel. An indication centered around 0 or slightly shifted into the red range (0 to -1) indicates material which might
cause problems when converted to mono, or which might already suffer from frequency cancellations.
-1 means out of phase (180°). In this case a summing of the channels may result in a loss of
sound, a stereo signal will completely erase itself when processed monaural.
The correlation meter can be used not only for the evaluation of existing material, but also for
testing positions of microphones or their polarity before starting a recording.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
8. Serial Interface
Function
Enables connection to and data transfer to and from any Windows PC.
Application
Depending on the used software the ADI-96 PRO can be completely remote controlled,
setups can be loaded/stored/edited, and new DSP software can be loaded into the device.
Settings
To load new DSP software: Place the cursor in the Overview window on SET and press Enter,
then use the right arrow key to scroll to Boot other function, then press Enter, then scroll right to
Load flash from PC.
Menu
Loading new DSP Software
Connect the COM-port of your Windows PC and the RS-232 interface of the ADI-96 PRO
using the supplied D-type 9-pin cable. Start the Windows software adsp_xx.exe and choose
the currently used port of the PC (COM1/COM2). Now the software waits for the ADI-96
PRO to start the transmission. Activate Load Flash from PC by pressing Enter at the ADI,
the data transfer begins and ends automatically.
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To activate the new software the ADI-96 PRO has to reboot with it. Change to the
menu 'Boot DSP-Software' and use the +/- keys to choose the desired DSP software.
Storing / Loading / Editing of Setups
These functions are available through the Windows software Remote Control, see chapter 9.9
Remote Control.
Reset
When tranferring new DSP software over the serial interface into the ADI there is a slight
chance the transmission might fail. In this case the ADI might be unable to boot and will hang
when trying to load the incorrectly transferred software. To correct this, a new transfer or at
least a reload of any internal software must be possible. This requires the Bootloader to be
started. To ensure this the Bootloader is not only available through a menu of the DSP software, but also when switching on the device.
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To activate the Bootloader press the Enter key while switching on the ADI-96 PRO.
The Bootloader now allows to load internal software or a transfer via 'Load flash from PC'.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
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9. DSP Software Dual Mono A/D
9.1 Brief Description and Characteristics
The DSP software Dual Mono A/D adds some outstanding audio functions to the ADI-96
PRO, required for a hi-class and convenient analog to digital conversion. Combined with the
general functions of the ADI-96 PRO result in a versatile, supersonic Microphone/Line
Audio Processor, replacing several external devices.
Dual Mono A/D includes the following functions:
Low Cut
High pass for reduction of low frequency noise
Delay
Delay of the audio signal per channel from 0 ms up to 170 ms, activation of Look Ahead
Expander
Dynamic level reduction to reduce noise in low level parts or between tracks
De-esser
Removes disturbing sibilants on speech and vocal recordings
Non Linear Compressor
Non linear compressor or Soft-Limiter. Similar to the effect known as tape saturation
Auto Level Control
Operates as Auto Leveler, Auto Gain and digital Compressor
Windows Software Remote Control
Complete remote control of the ADI-96 PRO through a PC. Visualisation of all external/internal levels. Storing/loading/editing of Setups
Look Ahead
RME's exclusive Analog Processing brings typical analog behaviour and sound to the digital
domain. Our Digital Processing technology with Look Ahead minimizes changes in sound when
using Expander and Auto Level Control.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
9.2 Low Cut
Function
Hi-pass with adjustable corner frequency between 2 Hz and 250 Hz at 12 dB/oct.
Application
Removes low frequency noise in microphone recordings, rumble and flutter when converting
older analog material, hum in speech recordings.
Settings
In the Overview window place the cursor on LOC and press Enter.
Menu
Options
The begin of the bass suppression (corner frequency) is adjustable in each channel from 2 Hz
to 250 Hz.
Typical Settings
In mixing desks values around 120 Hz are usual. As the filter has a smooth roll-off 50 Hz hum
will be noticeably reduced with this setting, but the harmonics at 100 Hz and above won't.
That's why the filter can work up to 250 Hz. In extreme situations such a setting is able to rescue a speech recording.
Noise and the low frequency pops of microphones do not require such an extreme cutoff at
lower frequencies. Recommended values are 50 to 80 Hz.
Low frequency rumble as of turntables (or other signals which lead to slowly pumping loudspeakers) are already suppressed with a setting of 30 Hz, which results in no audible bass reduction. When mastering often all frequencies below 30 Hz are lowered. Several electronic
sound sources, especially Synthesizers and Keyboards, generate high amounts of inaudible low
frequency junk, which stresses power amps and loudspeakers, but has no effect on the feelable
and audible bass bottom.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
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9.3 Delay
Function
Delay of the audio signal per channel from 0 ms up to 170 ms, activation of Look Ahead.
Application
Allows to correct the time alignment of left and right channel, for example when doing microphone recordings. Allows to correct the time alignment of PA systems. Allows to produce stereo
effects by delaying one channel. Activates the Look Ahead mode for optimized sound quality
with Expander and Auto Level Control.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on DLY and press Enter.
Menu
Options
The delay of the audio signal can be set from 0 ms up to 170 ms per channel.
Typical Settings
When doing a stereo microphone recording where the mics don't have an identical distance to
the sound source the Delay function allows to delay one channel so the signal at the digital
output of the ADI-96 PRO is time aligned again.
The speed of sound is about 340 m/s. A difference of one meter in the above situation already
requires a correction by 3 ms! The Correlation meter (see chapter 7.6 Correlator) is a valuable
help in fine tuning the neccessary correction, but for the coarse values you'll also need a
calculator and a foot rule.
Other time alignment problems may require to delay both channels in an identical manner. The
maximum setting of 170 ms enables a simultaneous output of loudspeakers in a distance of 56
meters together with loudspeakers placed near the listening person.
The human ear will detect a signal as monaural when amplitude (loudness) and time related
output of left and right channel are identical. When one channel is delayed up to 10 ms the
signal which formerly seemed to come out of the middle will fall apart into two signals, individually sent by left and right channel. This may be used as some kind of simple stereo effect
generator, but a very good generator needs some more tricks like modulation on the delay,
short reverb and changes in the frequency response, which are not available here.
One way to achieve a very ecfficient stereo manipulation is to use the M/S processing (encoding), as the stereo informations on the right channel can be single processed by Compressor
and Delay within the ADI. See chapter 7.1.
Expander and ALC will enter the Look Ahead mode in case the Delay is activated and the delay
time is at least 0.1 ms. Informations on how to set up the Delay for best performance with Expander and Auto Level Control can be found in chapter 9.8.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
9.4 Expander
Function
Level dependent level reduction, each channel with adjustable threshold (-30 dB to -110 dB),
release (0.1 s to 25.5 s), ratio (1.2 to 5.0) and attack time (Fast 1 ms or Slow 25 ms).
Application
Allows broadband suppression of noise, removal of noise and hum in low level parts or between tracks, and de-compression of highly compressed material.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on EXP and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Adjustable are:
• Threshold -30 dB to -110 dB. When the overall level is lower than this value the Expander
begins to reduce the level.
• Ratio 1.2 to 5.0. Defines the ratio between original and reduced level.
• Release 0.1 s to 25.5 s. Defines the time needed to reach 20 dB level reduction after the
last overall level exceeded the threshold value.
• Attack Fast (1 ms) or Slow (25 ms).
• Link Left/Right. Avoids pan shifts by combined controlling of both channels.
Typical Settings
As opposed to a Noisegate an Expander does not switch off audio when the Threshold is no
longer reached. Instead the level is lowered smoothly according to the chosen ratio. A ratio of
1.2:1 equals nearly no change, because a change in input level of 10 dB leads to a 12 dB change in output level (only 2 dB difference). Typical Ratio values are 2 to 3 at a Release of 2 s.
That way, music can be faded in and out without heavy side effects. Noise between tracks can
be reduced easily.
The Threshold of the Expander has a strong relationship with the audio material and the noise
in it. LPs often require a Threshold of -30 dB (plus Attack Slow, see chapter 9.8), while recordings from hi-quality sources often only need values around -75 dB. At values of -100 dB
the dynamic range of the ADI-96 PRO can be increased.
With more extreme settings like Ratio 5:1 and Release 0.1 s the Expander operates like a Noisegate. With these settings it is possible for example to isolate percussive instruments from
environmental noise.
The settings Ratio 1.5:1 and a Release of around 0.5 s allows to de-compress signals which
were too strong compressed before. This will result in a more natural, open sound, but the original can't be recovered completely.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
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9.5 De-esser
Function
Selective dynamic level limiter with automated relative level control. Removes disturbing sibilants on speech and vocal recordings, or other level peaks present in its operating range.
Application
In general there are several methods used to reduce sibilants:
Fixed bandpass - an Equalizer with fixed cut in the sibilant frequency area. Results in a constant muffled sound. Not useable on masters.
Dynamic lowpass - cuts all high frequencies according to the level found in the sibilant area.
Requires a threshold setting adopted to the actual signal. Not useable on masters.
Dynamic bandpass - Requires a threshold setting adopted to the actual signal.
The method used in the ADI-96 PRO is a dynamic bandpass with all its advantages, but
does no longer need a threshold to be set according to the actual signal. Using an automated
relative function the overall level is compared to the level in the sibilant area, the threshold is
automatically set to always achieve the same sound. The level of the actual signal doesn't matter anymore.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on DES and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Adjustable are:
• Key Listen. Allows to monitor the filtered signal. Helps to find the best filter setting for an
ideal signal reduction within the desired frequency area
• Frequency 0.7 kHz up to 20 kHz. Center frequency of the bandpass
• Q 0.2 up to 10. Quality factor, defines the width of the bandpass (width of controlled area)
• Ratio 0 dB up to -50 dB. Relative level reduction of the bandpass area
Typical Settings
Sibilants will show up between 4 kHz and 8 kHz. Due to the nearly inaudible operation of the
ADI-96 PRO the Q parameter can be set to a lower value (thus resulting in a larger deessed area), for example 1. The Ratio setting depends on the desired sound and the previously
applied equalizing. In an already mastered material a Ratio of up to -10 dB is possible without
getting noticeable reductions. Pure speech and vocals can be processed at settings of up to -30
dB. Too high a value will result in a constant treble reduction, although the De-esser is still
working as a dynamic filter.
Because of the automated relative level control the setting once found to meet your personal
taste does not need any further changes even when the input level is totally different.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
9.6 Non Linear Compressor
Function
Non linear compressor. The input signal is processed with a special amplitude function which
softly cuts the highest level peaks. The resulting third order harmonics are widely masked by
the original signal, thus inaudible in most situations. Similar to the effect known as tape saturation.
Application
Allows to provide additional headroom of up to 5 dB without audible clipping (clipping: brickwall
limiting leading to high distortion). Allows to increase the loudness without increasing the maximum peak level (similar to the effect known as Maximizer).
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on NLC and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Adjustment of the desired gain in loudness (level) from 1 dB to 5 dB.
Typical Settings
As long as not very delicate signals from solo instruments or complete mixes are processed the
Non Linear Compressor is a marvellous tool for every recording and may be always activated
at Gain 5 dB. It helps especially when doing live acoustical recordings to gain additional headroom and operates like a compressor without attack or release time, thus operating virtually
inaudibly.
The NLC may be used to achieve increased loudness without any pumping when processing
material already normalized near 0 dBFS. When used in combination with the ALC and fast
settings the increase in loudness can be more than extreme, but will also result in compacted
death material without any dynamic left.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
19
9.7 Auto Level Control
Function
Automatic level control with adjustable gain range and adjustable operating speed per channel.
Application
Serves as automatic level control for long term recordings, raises the volume to avoid low level
recordings. Useable as Leveler or - at faster settings - digital Compressor.
Settings
Place the cursor in the Overview window on ALC and press Enter.
Menu
Options
Adjustable are:
• Maximum Gain 0 up to 24 dB. Defines the maximum gain in level.
• Headroom 1 up to 12 dB. Ratio between average level and maximum (0 dBFS) level.
• Rise 0.1 s up to 25.5 s. Time needed for a 20 dB gain change.
• Link Left/Right. Avoids pan shifts by combined controlling of both channels.
Typical Settings
A usual compressor reduces the dynamic range above a defined level (Threshold) using a defined Ratio (for example 3:1). The ALC raises all signals beneath the maximum level (0 dBFS)
until they reach 0 dBFS minus Headroom. The maximum level gain is 24 dB, so a signal at -30
dBFS will be raised to a level of -6 dBFS. Because of the finite reaction time the average amplification has to be limited by the parameter Headroom to a value beneath 0 dBFS. In dynamic
material Headroom determines the ratio between peaks (maximum 0 dBFS) and average level.
When doing acoustic recordings the ALC can improve the average level significantly, recommended settings are up to 15 dB Gain. Recordings from uncritical sound sources (like speech)
can be processed up to 24 dB, so the ALC serves as a real automatic level control. The Rise
time should be longer than 10 s to avoid unwanted pumping. The ALC will change the level
slowly and smoothly in a non-disturbing way.
At very short Rise settings the ALC operates as digital compressor. The parameter Rise then
equals the commonly known Release. Most important is the parameter Headroom. A setting of
1 dB increases the loudness, but will also lead to a 3 ms cutoff of all peaks (Clipping). Because
of the short time this is normally inaudible. In case the ALC shall preserve a more natural
sound settings of more than 3 dB are recommended. From 7 dB up to 12 dB the internal attack
time is doubled to 6 ms, because the higher headroom results in very rare clipping. After activation of a sufficient delay time (see chapter 6.3 Delay) the ALC works in Look Ahead mode
without any clipping (see chapter 9.8).
The combination of NLC set to Gain 5 dB and ALC set to Headroom 1 dB, Gain 5 dB and Rise
2 s results in an extreme increase of loudness at very little side effects (pumping), similar to the
effect known as Maximizer.
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
9.8 Look Ahead
9.81 Expander
When set to Fast the Expander has a very fast attack time of less than 1 ms. However such a
low reaction time already leads to a smoother sound when processing percussive signals with
strong attack noises (click). The smoothing depends on the actual Gain Reduction. With high
Gain Reduction the Expander needs a longer time to open (between 0.1 and 1.5 ms). A faster
reaction of the Expander is not possible, as it will cause clicks and pops.
The damping on the beginning of the signal can easily be avoided by delaying the audio signal,
but not the control signal. With this the Expander will open although the audio signal isn't present yet. This method of processing with a preview is called Look Ahead.
The ADI-96 PRO has no extra switch to activate the Look Ahead mode. As Look Ahead
requires a delay of the audio signal we found it both logical and easy to use when Look Ahead
is simply activated by the already implemented function Delay. As soon as the Delay is activated and the delay time is at least 0,1 ms the Expander will work in Look Ahead mode. Please
note that the above problem can only be adressed by a minimum delay time of at least 1,5 ms.
Wheter the chosen delay time is sufficient or not can easily be checked by using the function
Bypass DSP.
When set to Slow the attack time is 25 ms. This is necessary to avoid a reaction (an opening)
on very short noises like cracks and clicks, for example when digitizing LP's. The long attack
time can again easily be compensated by a delay of 25 ms, so there is no loss of sound on
material which starts without any fade in.
G
The usage of Look Ahead leads to a delay of the digitized signal, which might be a serious
problem in recording situations where realtime behaviour is required. Please note that the
function EXP was optimized to give excellent results even without Look Ahead.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
21
9.82 ALC
The ALC operates with two different attack times. Headroom 1 to 6 dB uses an attack time of 3
ms, Headroom 7 to 12 dB of 6 ms. The picture printed below shows the internal operation of
the ALC. The left channel (top) is amplified by the defined Gain (in this case 10 dB), as the
defined average level (0 dBFS minus Headroom) isn't reached. The right channel (bottom)
shows the unprocessed signal.
A higher input level at this gain
setting will either exceed the average level (0 dBFS minus Headroom) or even the maximum level
of 0 dBFS. Then the ALC immediately begins to reduce the amplification to avoid overloads.
After 3 ms (or earlier) the signal
level is back to a correct state.
Exceeding the maximum level in
this short time will cause precise
clipping. Because of the short
time this clipping occures there will normally be no noticeable side effects. In case the input
level drops the ALC will begin to raise the level, with a speed according to the time set under
Rise. This technology results in an extraordinary digital Compressor. The precise and controlled
clipping leads to an analog behaviour and 'punchy' sound characteristic.
A level control without any clipping can be achieved by using the ALC in Look Ahead mode. As
with the Expander activating the Delay and setting a sufficient delay time will avoid any clipping
and lead to an extreme clean processing. Usual settings between 5 and 10 dB Gain need only
4 ms to prevent clipping. Very high Gain settings (up to 24 dB) require greater preview times.
25 ms is enough for secure operation at any possible setting.
The sound difference between Look Ahead and normal operation can easily be checked in
realtime by simply switching the Delay on and off.
G
The usage of Look Ahead leads to a delay of the digitized signal, which might be a serious
problem in recording situations where realtime behaviour is required. Please note that the
function ALC was optimized to give excellent results even without Look Ahead.
The preview time of Look Ahead is internally limited to 25 ms. Higher delay times will not result
in a longer preview time. This guarantees a correct correlation between audio and control signal.
22
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
9.9 Remote Control
Function
Complete remote control of the ADI-96 PRO through a Windows PC. Visualisation of all
external/internal levels. Storing/loading/editing of setups.
Application
Connect the COM-port of your Windows PC and the RS-232 interface of the ADI-96 PRO
using the supplied D-type 9-pin cable. Start the Windows software adipro.exe and choose the
currently used port of the PC (COM1/COM2). The ADI-96 PRO requires no further settings, requests of the software Remote Control via the serial interface are automatically detected.
Operation/Settings
After starting the software the ADI can be set by both the PC software or the keys on the device itself. Any change at the device is shown immediately in the software, all changes in the
software are immediately shown on the ADI's display.
Each function is activated by a single mouse click on the corresponding ON/OFF button.
Changing the parameters is done by a double click onto any parameter, which brings up a window to enter new values using the keyboard. Another method is to keep the left mouse button
pressed when moving up or down from any parameter field. The corresponding value will
change according to the movement of the mouse. Press the shift key while moving the mouse
to change the values in bigger steps.
The picture shows the Windows software Remote Control in Dual Mono A/D mode. The program includes an extensive online help which describes all functions and elements of the user
interface. Most interesting and helpful is the visualisation of the 'control voltages' of Expander,
De-esser and Auto Level Control. At Expander and De-esser two LED chains indicate the actual Gain Reduction. The LED chains of the ALC indicate the amount of amplification. The LED
chains are a valueable help when setting up the functions. Their constantly updated states are
also shown as numerical values in the corresponding fields.
The display of the actual Look Ahead state found in the Delay section depends on ALC, EXP
and Delay. Look Ahead is already active at 0.1 ms delay time, but has no effect at such a small
value. Therefore LA EXP ON is shown at 1 ms, LA ALC at 4 ms or above.
At the bottom of the software the input and output level is displayed according to the setting
'Meter Mode'. This meter displays a level range of 80 dB in steps of 1 dB.
Storing / Loading / Editing of Setups
The software provides the following functions: reading setups from the ADI-96 PRO, saving setups on the PC's storage media, loading setups from PC into ADI-96 PRO.
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
23
9.10 Table of Parameters (Presets Dual Mono A/D)
Setup Name
off
off
LINE
GATE
off
Phase invert right
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
M/S-Processing
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
LOC
on
on
on
on
on
off
on
on
on
EXP
off
off
off
on
on
on
on
on
on
Expander link
off
off
off
on
off
on
on
on
off
NLC
off
off
off
on
on
off
on
on
on
DLY
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
DES
off
off
off
on
on
off
off
off
off
De-esser Key listen
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
ALC
on
on
on
on
on
off
off
on
on
Autolevel link
on
on
on
on
on
on
on
on
on
Phase invert Left
Wordclock Output
LINE
MIC
ACOUSTIC
GENERAL GENERAL
off
off
off
VOCAL
SPEECH
MIC
GATE
off
LINE
COMP
off
MIC
COMP
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
Input Select Left
LINE
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
LINE
MIC
LINE
MIC
Input Select Right
LINE
MIC
MIC
MIC
MIC
LINE
MIC
LINE
MIC
Lowcut Freq. left
2
40
50
80
120
2
100
30
Lowcut Freq. right
2
40
50
80
120
2
100
30
80
80
Exp. Attack
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Exp. Thres. left
-100
-100
-90
-40
-50
-70
-40
-70
-40
Exp. Ratio left
2
2
2
3
3
5
5
2
2
Exp. Release left
5
5
5
2
2
0,1
0,1
2
2
Exp. Thres. right
-100
-100
-90
-40
-50
-70
-40
-70
-40
Exp. Ratio right
2
2
2
3
3
5
5
2
2
Exp. Release right
5
5
5
2
2
0,1
0,1
2
2
NLC left
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
NLC right
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Delay left
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Delay right
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Dees. Freq. left
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Dees. Q left
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-20
-20
0
-20
-20
0
-20
0
-20
Dees. Freq. right
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Dees. Q right
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-20
-20
0
-20
-20
0
-20
0
-20
Dees. Ratio left
Dees. Ratio right
ALC max. Gain left
5
5
5
15
20
0
6
10
15
ALC Headroom left
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-3
-6
-3
ALC Rise left
5
5
5
2
5
20
2
2
2
ALC max. Gain right
5
5
5
15
20
0
6
10
15
ALC Headroom right
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-3
-6
-3
5
5
5
2
5
20
2
2
ALC Rise right
Channel Status
2
CON
CON
PRO
PRO
PRO
PRO
PRO
PRO
PRO
Sample Rate
44.1kHz
44.1kHz
96kHz
96kHz
44.1kHz
96kHz
96kHz
96kHz
96kHz
Wordlength
16Bit
16Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
0LSB
0LSB
0LSB
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
Dither
24
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
Setup Name
MAXIMIZER
LP
CASSETTE
MIC
BYPASS
off
USER
USER
off
LINE
BYPASS
off
Phase invert Left
off
off
Phase invert right
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
M/S-Processing
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
LOC
off
on
on
on
off
off
off
off
EXP
off
on
on
off
off
off
off
Expander link
off
on
on
off
off
off
off
NLC
on
on
off
off
off
off
off
DLY
off
on
on
off
off
off
off
DES
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
De-esser Key listen
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
ALC
on
off
off
off
off
off
off
Autolevel link
on
on
on
off
off
off
off
Wordclock Output
off
off
off
off
off
off
off
Input Select Left
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
MIC
LINE
LINE
Input Select Right
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
MIC
LINE
LINE
Lowcut Freq. left
30
40
30
2
2
2
Lowcut Freq. right
30
40
30
2
2
2
2
2
Exp. Attack
Fast
Slow
Slow
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Exp. Thres. left
-100
-30
-30
-110
-110
-100
-100
Exp. ratio left
2
2,5
2,5
2
2
2
2
Exp. release left
5
2
5
5
5
5
5
Exp. Thres. right
-100
-30
-30
-110
-110
-100
-100
Exp. Ratio right
2
2,5
2,5
2
2
2
2
Exp. Release right
5
2
5
5
5
5
5
NLC left
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
NLC right
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Delay left
0
25
25
0
0
1
0
Delay right
0
25
25
0
0
1
0
Dees. Freq. left
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Dees. Q left
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Dees. Ratio left
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Dees. Freq. right
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Dees. Q right
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Dees. Ratio right
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ALC max. Gain left
5
3
3
0
24
0
0
ALC Headroom left
-1
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
ALC Rise left
2
2
10
25
25
25
25
ALC max. Gain right
5
3
3
0
18
0
0
ALC Headroom right
-1
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
-6
ALC Rise right
Channel Status
2
2
10
25
25
25
25
CON
CON
CON
PRO
PRO
CON
CON
Sample-Rate
44.1kHz
44.1kHz
44.1kHz
96kHz
96kHz
48kHz
44.1kHz
Wordlength
16Bit
16Bit
16Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
24Bit
Dither
0LSB
0LSB
0LSB
0LSB
0LSB
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
25
10. DSP-Software Stereo A/D
10.1 Brief Description and Characteristics
The DSP software Stereo A/D is an easier to configure and to handle version of Dual Mono
A/D. The single setting of each channel was - as far as possible - reduced to a common setting
of both channels. This is sufficient for most applications. The available DSP functions are exactly the same as in Dual Mono A/D, and are explained in detail in chapter 9.
To avoid shifts between left and right normally all functions should operate in a link mode (both
channels always react identical). This is default in Stereo A/D. Please note that the De-esser
does not work linked at all. As the Expander might be used as noise gate, and suffer from one
channel signals, Link can be deactivated.
The number of user definable setups in mode Stereo A/D is limited to six.
10.2 Remote Control
The software Remote Control offers to control all functions and parameters of Stereo A/D mode
through a Windows PC. This includes a visualisation of all external and internal levels and the
storing/loading/editing of setups. Detailed informations can be found in chapter 9.9.
The picture shows the Windows software Remote Control in Stereo A/D mode.
26
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
10.3 Table of Parameters (Presets Stereo A/D)
Setup-Name
Phase invert Left
LINE
MIC
LINE COMP MIC COMP
GENERAL GENERAL
off
off
off
off
MAXIMIZER
LP
off
off
Phase invert right
off
off
off
off
off
off
M/S-Processing
off
off
off
off
off
off
LOC
on
on
on
on
on
on
EXP
off
off
on
on
off
on
Expander link
off
off
on
off
off
on
NLC
off
off
on
on
on
on
DLY
off
off
off
off
off
on
DES
off
off
off
off
off
off
De-esser Key listen
off
off
off
off
off
off
ALC
on
on
on
on
on
off
Wordclock Output
off
off
off
off
off
off
Input Select Left
LINE
MIC
LINE
MIC
LINE
LINE
Input Select Right
LINE
LINE
LINE
MIC
Lowcut Freq. left
LINE
2
MIC
40
30
80
30
40
Exp. Attack
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Fast
Slow
Exp. Thres. left
-100
-100
-70
-40
-100
-30
Exp. Ratio left
2
2
2
2
2
2,5
Exp. Release left
5
5
2
2
5
2
NLC left
5
5
5
5
5
5
Delay left
0
0
0
0
0
25
Delay right
0
0
0
0
0
25
Dees. Freq. left
7
7
7
7
7
7
Dees. Q left
1
1
1
1
1
1
-20
-20
0
-20
0
0
ALC max. Gain left
5
5
10
15
5
3
ALC Headroom left
-6
-6
-6
-3
-1
-6
Dees. Ratio left
ALC Rise left
Channel Status
5
5
2
2
2
2
CON
CON
PRO
PRO
CON
CON
Sample Rate
44.1kHz
44.1kHz
96kHz
96kHz
44.1kHz
44.1kHz
Wordlength
16Bit
16Bit
24Bit
24Bit
16Bit
16Bit
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
0.5LSB
0LSB
0LSB
Dither
User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
27
11. DSP Software Audio Analyser
11.1 Brief Description and Characteristics
The DSP software Audio Analyser transforms the ADI-96 PRO into a powerful Spectrum
Analyser. As opposed to nearly all current PC based solutions no FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)
is used. Although this method needs only little calculation (CPU) power, it offers no useable
translation of sound in vision. The 'bands' of a FFT have a constant frequency distance, which
results in the higher area in numerous bands, but in the lower frequencies in only some bands.
Some manufacturers try to minimize this behaviour, but even then a sine will show an unsymmetrical display and an insufficient band separation.
The DSP of the ADI-96 PRO performes a real bandpass filter calculation, as usual in all
professional 'Audio Spectrum Analyzers'. The distance between the filters is not linear, but scaled according to human hearing. Thanks to the external calculations the Windows software
does only display the results. This allows to run a 30 band Analyser with 50 dB range, sharp
filters and 100 LED's per band even on an older PC, without driving the computer to its limits.
On a Pentium III 800 the CPU load is around 5%.
Thanks to its complete digital operation the Audio Analyser offers features previous unavailable
from analog Analysers. These features include freely adjustable attack and release time, a
display configurable in many ways, different filters and special display modes. Because of the
hi-quality AD-conversion the ADI-96 PRO offers its Audio Analyser will precisely show
levels down to -120 dB.
Please note that the ADI-96 PRO will even in Audio Analyser mode operate as high
end Mic/Line AD-converter! But the functions provided by the 'Dual Mono A/D' software
(Low Cut, Delay, Expander, De-esser, NLC, ALC) are not available in Analyser mode.
G
11.2 Hotkeys
Some functions are directly accessible using predefined shortcuts:
Left
Right
L+R (Mono)
Freeze
RMS/Peak Level
L
R
M
space
D
Furthermore there's direct access to the following menu entries:
Help - Contents
Analyser Settings
F1
F2
The keys F5 to F8 offer a fast switch function between four different setups. The setups can be
changed anytime, as they consist of the four (supplied) files fastkey5.a96 to fastkey8.a96.
Load the according setup using the menu's entry File/Open Setup File, change the settings to
your needs. Then store the settings using Save Setup File, but don't change the name! Those
four files must reside in the same directory as the main program adipro.exe!
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
11.3 Software Audio Analyser
Function
Visualization of the audio signal according to level and frequency.
Application
Connect the COM-port of your Windows PC and the RS-232 interface of the ADI-96 PRO
using the supplied D-type 9-pin cable. Use Boot other function at the ADI-96 PRO to boot
the DSP software Audio Analyser. Another way is to start the Windows software adipro.exe
and choose Boot other function/Audio Analyser in the Options menu of the software. Don't forget to check the currently used port of the PC (COM1/COM2).
Operation/Settings
The visualisation on the screen is not mainly set by the ADI-96 PRO, but by the Windows
software. That's why only some parameters are directly configurable at the device. After starting the software use F2 or the right mouse key to open the window Analyser Settings. Here all
parameters can be adjusted in a convenient way. The guidelines of using Remote Control (see
chapter 9.9) are the same for this software.
Analyser Settings
The window Analyser Settings includes four function areas:
INPUT
Choice of input (Mic, Mic phantom powered, Line) per channel, invert phase (180°) per channel, activation of M/S processing. See chapter 7.1.
SPECTRUM ANALYSER
Holds all parameters controlling the display of the audio signal in the analyser window. Additional the display modes are set. See chapter 10.4.
LEVEL M.
Activation of display and configuration of the the RMS/Peak Level meter: Peak Hold Time 0.1 s
to 9.9 s, Release 1 dB/s to 100 dB/s
OUTPUT
Configuration of the signal at the digital output: Sample frequency, word length, Dither, word
clock and Channel Status. See chapter 7.2.
Storing / Loading / Editing of Setups
The software allows to store, load and edit setups from and to the PC's storage media. No setups will be stored to or loaded from the ADI-96 PRO.
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11.4 Settings Spectrum Analyser
Type
Number and Quality factor of displayed bands. Available are:
•
•
•
•
10 band (1/1 oct. steps), Quality factor 1.4 or 2.5
15 band (2/3 oct. steps), Quality factor 1.4 or 3
20 band (1/2 oct. steps), Quality factor 3 or 5
30 band (1/3 oct. steps), Quality factor 3 or 5
The width of the display window is automatically adjusted to the number of of bands. The values printed on the x-axis are rounded for better readability. At a sample rate of 32 kHz the band
20 kHz isn't available, as no frequencies above 16 kHz are sampled. The choice of Quality
factor defines the crosstalk between the bands.
Source
Sets the channel to be displayed. Adjustable to left, right, left plus right (monaural) and left
minus right (only stereo).
Rise Time
Rise time of the display, adjustable from 0 ms to 200 ms. Values below 5 ms lead to a display
even of shortest peaks. Values around 7 ms will lead to a display which behaves more like the
audio heard. Values greater than 30 ms result in a display similar to a VU meter.
Release
Release time of the display, referenced to 20 dB. Adjustable from 0,3 s to 20 s. A good readable display is achieved at around 2 seconds. When measuring using noise signals 20 seconds
result in a smooth and well readable display.
Hold Time
Hold time of the optional peak level meter (mode Peak Hold), adjustable from 0.1 s to 9.9 s.
Range
Visible display range. Choose between 30 dB and 50 dB.
Top Level
Highest level displayed in the analyser window. Serves to adapt the display to the actual signal
level. Available settings are 0 up to -70 dB in steps of 10 dB.
Mode
Kind of display. Bar shows a solid bar, Point only one LED/segment per band. Peak Hold combines bar and peak display. The peak portion is defined by Hold Time.
Size
Size of the analyser window. Choose between small, medium and big.
Resolution
Range in dB per LED/segment. Choose between 0.5 dB, 1 dB and 2 dB.
Instant Hold
Sets the release time in Bar and Point mode to infinite. In mode Peak Hold only the peak display will be set to infinite release.
Reset
Resets all peak values covered by Hold Time or Instant Hold.
Freeze
Freezes the display to the actual state. Snap shot function.
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11.5 Notes on Operation
The most important application using a Spectrum Analyser is the visualisation of frequencies
and levels found in music or speech. What you see is what your hear! The Analyser shows
levels and frequencies even at the edge of the human ear's abilities. The visual display helps to
train your ears, and avoids serious mistakes when mixing to the master tape. Usual studio
monitors won't let you hear frequencies below 100 Hz. Simply look on the Audio Analyser to
see what's going on in the underground!
Reading the display is not easy for novices because of the huge amount of information it
shows. But after some training you'll agree that this tool is a precious help in every day work.
Analysis of Music
Attack and Release time are the most important parameters when trying to achieve a display
similar to what you hear. At a very fast attack setting the Analyser will show even shortest
peaks down to one sample. But these are only audible when present in several bands and lasting for more than a millisecond. That's why 7 ms Rise Time results in a much better display
behaviour. The release time should be set to three different values. A very fast display (1 s) is
recommended for example when trying to see the bass which normally hides behind the bass
drum. At 2 s the display will be more easier to read and is more friendly to your eyes. Some
special applications (like averaging the sound impression or noise measurements) require values around 10 to 20 seconds.
Special Display Modes
The Audio Analyser offers two different envelope modes. Let's look at this example: You want
to study the frequency distribution of a bass drum sample.
Method 1: Route the bass drum sample to the Analyser and store the display's contents by
hitting Freeze in the right moment. Much more convenient is
Method 2: Use Instant Hold to activate the envelope mode. Play the bass drum sample one
time. Thanks to the infinite release time the analyser's result won't vanish from the screen.
Method 3 is mainly used with music. At active Instant Hold and display mode Peak Hold the
music is shown as usual, but the peak display above the bars won't be reset. When playing
back a 3 minute Pop song an envelope of all frequencies and levels which occured is shown.
Sound Measurements
The combination Equalizer/Analyser is used to correct the misalignment of speakers and room.
A test signal (pink noise) is send from the speakers into a special measurement microphone
placed at the engineer's preferred listening position. At a release time of 20 seconds, Riste
Time 200 ms and active Point mode a display of the overall frequency response is shown. The
external Equalizer is now used to correct this curve to a straight line.
Special Applications
At the highest display range (50 dB) and lowest Top Level setting (-70 dB) the Analyser displays all signals down to -120 dBFS. This allows to examine the hum and noise present in the
studio's environment. Disturbing frequencies can be classified and removed more exactly. In
Left minus Right mode only the stereo signals of a complete mix are shown. This gives some
interesting information on the mixing technique.
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12. Controls and Connectors
Front panel
Pots for gain
adjustment
0 to +20 dB
LC-Display
Keys and
cursor control
Peak Level Meter
Correlator
Rear panel
Word clock
In/Out
Mains
connector
RS-232
interface
Digital
outputs
Line inputs
Microphone
inputs
13. Warranty
Before shipping each ADI-96 PRO is tested individual by RME in a complete test procedure. Using only the best hi-grade components allows us to offer full two years of warranty. The
copy of the sales receipt or the Bill of Sale is your warranty legitimation.
The warranty does not cover damage due to abuse, incorrect installation or incorrect handling.
RME’s liability is limited to the repair or the replacement of the product, and does in no way
include the liability for incidental or consequential damages resulting from use of ADI-96
PRO or its software.
14. Appendix
RME news, newest DSP-software and many information around our products can be found on
our website:
http://www.rme-audio.de
Distributor in Germany:
Synthax Audio AG, Am Pfanderling 62, D-85778 Haimhausen, Tel.: (49) 08133 / 91810
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User's Guide ADI-96 PRO © RME
CE
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits of the European Council Directive on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to electromagnetic compatibility (EMVG) according to EN 55022 class B and EN50082-1..
FCC Compliance Statement
Certified to comply with the limits for a Class B computing device according to subpart J or part
15 of FCC rules. See instructions if interference to radio reception is suspected.
FCC Warning
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation.
This device complies with part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
1. This device may not cause harmful interference
2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this
equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
• Increase the seperation between the equipment and receiver
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
In order for an installation of this product to maintain compliance with the limits for a Class B
device, shielded cables must be used for the connection of any devices external to this product.
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