Cabletron Systems DLE33-MA Specifications

Network Access
Software Management Guide
9032859
Notice
Notice
Cabletron Systems reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information
contained in this document without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Cabletron
Systems to determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this manual is subject to change without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CABLETRON SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT,
SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOST PROFITS) ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS MANUAL OR THE INFORMATION
CONTAINED IN IT, EVEN IF CABLETRON SYSTEMS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF, KNOWN, OR
SHOULD HAVE KNOWN, THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
© February 1999 by:
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
35 Industrial Way
Rochester, NH 03867
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Order Number: 9032859
The following are trademarks of Compag Computer Corp.: DDCMP, DEC, DECmcc, DECnet,
DECserver, DECsystem, DECwindows, DIGITAL, DNA, LAT, NetRider, OpenVMS, ThinWire,
ULTRIX, VAX, VAXstation, VMS, VMScluster, VT100, VT220,VT320, VT330, and the DIGITAL logo.
The following are third-party trademarks:
AppleTalk and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.
HP and Hewlett-Packard are registered trademarks of Hewlett Packard Company.
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Kerberos is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Microsoft Corporation.
NetBIOS is a trademark of Micro Computer Systems, Inc.
Novell and NetWare are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc.
i
Notice
OS/2 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.
OSF/1 is a registered trademark of Open Software Foundation, Inc.
PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc.
SecurID is a registered trademark of Security Dynamics Technologies, Inc.
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Sun is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries, licensed exclusively through
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Vitalink is a registered trademark of Vitalink Communications Corporation
The following copyrights apply to the CMU BOOTP implementation:
© Carnegie Mellon 1988
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this program for any purpose and without fee is
hereby granted, provided that this copyright and permission notice appear on all copies and
supporting documentation, the name of Carnegie Mellon not be used in advertising or publicity
pertaining to the distribution of the program without specific prior permission, and notice be given in
supporting documentation that copying and distribution is by permission of Carnegie Mellon and
Stanford University. Carnegie Mellon makes no representation about the suitability of this software for
any purpose. It is provided “as is” without express or implied warranty.
© Regents of the University of California 1986, 1987. All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms are permitted, provided that this notice is
preserved by Berkley. The name of the University may not be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written permission. The software is provided “as is”
without express or implied warranty.
ii
Notice
FCC Notice
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any
interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment.
This equipment uses, generates, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed in
accordance with the operator’s manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference in which case the user
will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
WARNING: Changes or modifications made to this device which are not expressly approved by the
party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
VCCI Notice
This is a Class A product based on the standard of the Voluntary Control Council for Interference by
Information Technology Equipment (VCCI). If this equipment is used in a domestic environment,
radio disturbance may arise. When such trouble occurs, the user may be required to take corrective
actions.
Industry Canada Notice
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from digital
apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of
Communications.
Le présent appareil numérique n'émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables
aux appareils numériques de la class A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique
édicté par le ministère des Communications du Canada.
iii
Notice
iv
Contents
Preface
Overview ......................................................................................................................xxiii
Purpose..................................................................................................................xxiii
TSM Users .............................................................................................................xxiii
Using This Manual ..............................................................................................xxiii
Conventions.......................................................................................................... xxiv
Associated Documents......................................................................................... xxv
Chapter 1
CNAS Management
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 1-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 1-1
Configuration Tasks for System Administrators ...................................................... 1-2
Configuration Tasks............................................................................................... 1-2
Management Tasks for System Administrators........................................................ 1-3
System Management Tasks................................................................................... 1-3
User Tasks....................................................................................................................... 1-4
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1-4
Accessing Online Help.......................................................................................... 1-4
Storage of Configuration Settings and Changes in Memory.................................. 1-5
Memory Types........................................................................................................ 1-5
Power Loss.............................................................................................................. 1-5
Commands to Display and Change Configuration Settings .................................. 1-6
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1-6
Types of Commands That Operate on Configuration Settings ....................... 1-6
Chapter 2
Management Tools
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 2-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 2-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 2-1
Access Server Commands............................................................................................ 2-2
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 2-2
Levels of Access Server Commands.................................................................... 2-2
User Groups............................................................................................................ 2-2
Command Definitions........................................................................................... 2-3
Privileged Commands........................................................................................... 2-4
v
Contents
Help................................................................................................................................. 2-5
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 2-5
HELP TUTORIAL Command............................................................................... 2-5
HELP Command .................................................................................................... 2-5
Console Port ................................................................................................................... 2-6
Displaying Port Parameters.................................................................................. 2-6
Remote Console Port .................................................................................................... 2-7
Description.............................................................................................................. 2-7
Features of the Remote Console Port .................................................................. 2-7
Communications Utilities for Remote Console Sessions ................................. 2-7
Network Control Program (NCP) ....................................................................... 2-8
Use of SET HOST/MOP from a DECnet/OSI OpenVMS Node..................... 2-9
Telnet Remote Console ........................................................................................ 2-10
Characteristics of the Telnet Remote Console Port ......................................... 2-11
Access Server Manager............................................................................................... 2-12
Description............................................................................................................ 2-12
Functions ............................................................................................................... 2-12
Related Information............................................................................................. 2-12
Chapter 3
User Interface
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 3-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 3-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 3-1
Command Groups and Menus.................................................................................... 3-2
Description.............................................................................................................. 3-2
Using Command Groups ............................................................................................. 3-3
Creating a Command Group................................................................................ 3-3
Executing a Command Group ............................................................................. 3-3
Displaying a Command Group............................................................................ 3-4
Purging a Command Group................................................................................. 3-4
Using Menus .................................................................................................................. 3-5
Displaying a List of Enabled Menus ................................................................... 3-5
Entering Menu Mode ............................................................................................ 3-5
Assigning a Default Menu to a Port .................................................................... 3-5
Menu Windows ...................................................................................................... 3-6
Defining Menus ............................................................................................................. 3-7
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 3-7
Main Menu.............................................................................................................. 3-7
Main Menu Display ............................................................................................... 3-7
Defining Menu Choices......................................................................................... 3-8
Displaying a Selected Menu ................................................................................. 3-9
Exiting from a Menu............................................................................................ 3-10
Using Menus to Set Up a Captive Port ............................................................. 3-10
Displaying a Menu Definition............................................................................ 3-10
Purging Menu Lines and Entire Menus............................................................ 3-11
vi
Contents
Chapter 4
Managing Load Hosts
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 4-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 4-1
Load Host Procedures .................................................................................................. 4-2
Description.............................................................................................................. 4-2
DSV$CONFIGURE ....................................................................................................... 4-3
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4-3
Backward Compatibility of DSV$CONFIGURE ............................................... 4-3
Executing DSV$CONFIGURE ............................................................................. 4-3
ADD Command ..................................................................................................... 4-4
MODIFY and SET Commands............................................................................. 4-5
DELETE Command ............................................................................................... 4-5
LIST and SHOW Commands ............................................................................... 4-6
CONNECT and USE Commands ........................................................................ 4-6
Using a BOOTP/TFTP Server ..................................................................................... 4-8
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 4-8
IP Address Configuration Via BOOTP................................................................ 4-8
Remote Connection Password ............................................................................. 4-8
Upline Dumping ......................................................................................................... 4-10
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 4-10
Upline Dumps with MOP Hosts ....................................................................... 4-10
Upline Dumps with BOOTP/TFTP Hosts ....................................................... 4-10
Terminal Server Manager (TSM)............................................................................... 4-11
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 4-11
Chapter 5
Managing Directed TFTP
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 5-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 5-1
Configuring Directed TFTP on an Access Server ..................................................... 5-2
Chapter 6
Initializing the Access Server
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 6-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 6-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 6-1
Preparing LAT Services for Initialization .................................................................. 6-2
Do This .................................................................................................................... 6-2
Preparing Telnet Listeners for Initialization.............................................................. 6-3
Do This .................................................................................................................... 6-3
Initializing the Access Server ...................................................................................... 6-4
Using the INITIALIZE Command....................................................................... 6-4
Default Mode for the INITIALIZE Command .................................................. 6-4
Specifying Initialization from a Load Host ........................................................ 6-5
Specifying an Image Name When Initializing................................................... 6-5
Specifying Initialization from Flash RAM.......................................................... 6-5
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Contents
Updating Flash RAM............................................................................................. 6-5
Specifying a Delay Value with INITIALIZE....................................................... 6-5
Using the DIAGNOSE Option with INITIALIZE ............................................. 6-6
INITIALIZE DIAGNOSE Option Tests............................................................... 6-6
Specifying the DISABLE OPTION with INITIALIZE....................................... 6-6
Using NCP to Initialize the Access Server ................................................................. 6-7
NCP Initialization Commands............................................................................. 6-7
NCP Reference........................................................................................................ 6-7
Booting from the Network ........................................................................................... 6-8
Loading the Software Image ................................................................................ 6-8
Determining Boot Protocols ................................................................................. 6-8
Reference ................................................................................................................. 6-8
Booting Using Console Commands ........................................................................... 6-9
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 6-9
Procedure ................................................................................................................ 6-9
Boot Command Options ..................................................................................... 6-10
Chapter 7
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 7-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 7-1
LAT Characteristics....................................................................................................... 7-2
Preparing to Change LAT Characteristics .......................................................... 7-2
LAT Characteristic Summary ............................................................................... 7-2
Displaying LAT Characteristics .................................................................................. 7-4
Command To Use................................................................................................... 7-4
LAT Characteristics Display Example ................................................................ 7-4
ANNOUNCEMENTS Characteristic.......................................................................... 7-5
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7-5
Configure Announcements Example .................................................................. 7-5
CIRCUIT TIMER Characteristic .................................................................................. 7-6
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7-6
Changing the CIRCUIT TIMER ........................................................................... 7-6
IDENTIFICATION Characteristic............................................................................... 7-7
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7-7
Changing the Server Identification String.......................................................... 7-7
Removing an Identification String....................................................................... 7-7
Identification String in a Login Procedure Display .......................................... 7-7
KEEPALIVE TIMER Characteristic............................................................................. 7-8
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7-8
Keepalive Timer Default Values........................................................................... 7-8
Keepalive Timer Example ..................................................................................... 7-8
MULTICAST TIMER Characteristic ........................................................................... 7-9
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 7-9
Multicast Timer Default Values............................................................................ 7-9
Changing Multicast Timer Values Example....................................................... 7-9
viii
Contents
ACCESS SERVER NAME Characteristic ................................................................. 7-10
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-10
Default Access Server Name .............................................................................. 7-10
Changing the ACCESS SERVER NAME .......................................................... 7-10
NODE LIMIT Characteristic...................................................................................... 7-11
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-11
Changing the Access Server NODE LIMIT...................................................... 7-11
Access SERVER NUMBER Characteristic ............................................................... 7-12
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-12
Access SERVER NUMBER Values..................................................................... 7-12
Changing the Access SERVER NUMBER......................................................... 7-12
PASSCHECK Characteristic ...................................................................................... 7-13
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-13
Changing the PASSCHECK Characteristics..................................................... 7-13
PASSCHECK Characteristic Example............................................................... 7-13
QUEUE LIMIT Characteristic ................................................................................... 7-14
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-14
Special QUEUE LIMIT Values ........................................................................... 7-14
Changing the QUEUE LIMIT............................................................................. 7-14
RETRANSMIT LIMIT Characteristic ....................................................................... 7-15
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-15
RETRANSMIT LIMIT Values............................................................................. 7-15
Changing the RETRANSMIT LIMIT Characteristic ....................................... 7-15
RESPONDER Characteristic...................................................................................... 7-16
Access Server Mapping....................................................................................... 7-16
Datagram Types ................................................................................................... 7-16
Changing the RESPONDER Characteristic...................................................... 7-17
Service Groups............................................................................................................. 7-18
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 7-18
Viewing Service Groups...................................................................................... 7-18
Changing Access Server Service Groups.......................................................... 7-18
Changing Service Groups Examples................................................................. 7-18
Chapter 8
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 8-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 8-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 8-1
Configuring the Internet Address and Subnet Mask............................................... 8-3
Tasks......................................................................................................................... 8-3
Alternative: Learning IP Information ................................................................. 8-3
Setting the Internet Address................................................................................. 8-3
Setting an Internet Subnet Mask.......................................................................... 8-4
Displaying the Internet Address and Subnet Mask.......................................... 8-5
Configuring Domain Name System (DNS) Characteristics.................................... 8-6
Tasks......................................................................................................................... 8-6
Displaying DNS Characteristics .......................................................................... 8-6
Displaying the DNS Counters.............................................................................. 8-8
Configuring the Default Name Resolution Domain......................................... 8-9
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Contents
Changing the Time Limit .................................................................................... 8-10
Changing the Retry Limit ................................................................................... 8-11
Changing the Name Resolution Mode ............................................................. 8-11
Configuring a List of Commonly Used Internet Hosts .................................. 8-12
Configuring a List of Internet Name Servers................................................... 8-12
Assigning DNS Server Addresses Automatically ........................................... 8-14
Configuring a List of Internet Gateway Addresses................................................ 8-15
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 8-15
Displaying a List of Gateway Addresses.......................................................... 8-15
Configuring a Default Gateway......................................................................... 8-15
Defining Networks Available Through a Specific Gateway .......................... 8-15
Defining Subnets Available Through a Specific Gateway.............................. 8-16
Defining Hosts Available Through a Specific Gateway.................................. 8-16
Configuring a List of Internet ARP Entries ............................................................. 8-17
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 8-17
Displaying the List of Internet ARP Entries ..................................................... 8-17
Defining an ARP Entry........................................................................................ 8-17
Setting the TCP Keepalive Timer .............................................................................. 8-18
What the Timer Does ........................................................................................... 8-18
Setting the Timer .................................................................................................. 8-18
Disabling the Timer ............................................................................................. 8-18
Setting Timer Retries............................................................................................ 8-19
Displaying Timer Characteristics....................................................................... 8-19
Displaying the Internet Counters ............................................................................. 8-20
Using the SHOW Command .............................................................................. 8-20
Internet Counters Display Example .................................................................. 8-20
Internet Counter Display Fields......................................................................... 8-21
Learning IP Information From a BOOTP Server .................................................... 8-23
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 8-23
BOOTP Server Configuration............................................................................. 8-23
Learning Operation.............................................................................................. 8-23
Setting Up IP Configuration Learning .............................................................. 8-24
Learning IP Information From a DHCP Server ...................................................... 8-25
Description............................................................................................................ 8-25
BOOTP and DHCP Differences.......................................................................... 8-26
DHCP Client Operation ...................................................................................... 8-26
DHCP Proxy Operation ...................................................................................... 8-27
Enabling and Disabling DHCP .......................................................................... 8-28
Displaying the DHCP Setting............................................................................. 8-29
Configuring Default Values................................................................................ 8-29
Overriding DHCP-Learned Values ................................................................... 8-29
Assigning WINS Server Addresses .......................................................................... 8-30
What Does WINS Do? ......................................................................................... 8-30
What Is WINS Autoconfigure?........................................................................... 8-30
Operation .............................................................................................................. 8-30
Assigning WINS Addresses................................................................................ 8-31
Displaying WINS Characteristics ...................................................................... 8-31
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Contents
Chapter 9
Managing AppleTalk
Overview ........................................................................................................................ 9-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 9-1
In This Chapter....................................................................................................... 9-1
Configuring AppleTalk on an Access Server ............................................................ 9-2
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 9-2
AppleTalk Address Format .................................................................................. 9-2
Enabling AppleTalk ............................................................................................... 9-2
Disabling AppleTalk .............................................................................................. 9-3
Setting AppleTalk Address Cache Size ............................................................... 9-3
Displaying AppleTalk Characteristics........................................................................ 9-5
Commands.............................................................................................................. 9-5
Displaying AppleTalk Characteristics Example................................................ 9-5
Fields in the AppleTalk Characteristics Display ............................................... 9-5
Displaying AppleTalk Counters ................................................................................. 9-6
Command ............................................................................................................... 9-6
Displaying AppleTalk Counters Example.......................................................... 9-6
Fields in the AppleTalk Counters Display ......................................................... 9-7
AARP Values .......................................................................................................... 9-8
Displaying AppleTalk Status ....................................................................................... 9-9
Command ............................................................................................................... 9-9
Displaying AppleTalk Status Example ............................................................... 9-9
Fields in the AppleTalk Status Display............................................................... 9-9
Displaying AppleTalk Routes.................................................................................... 9-11
Command ............................................................................................................. 9-11
Displaying AppleTalk Routes Example............................................................ 9-11
Fields in the AppleTalk Routes Display ........................................................... 9-11
Displaying AppleTalk ARP Entries .......................................................................... 9-13
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 9-13
Command ............................................................................................................. 9-13
Displaying AppleTalk ARP Entries Example................................................... 9-13
Fields in the AppleTalk ARP Display................................................................ 9-13
Chapter 10
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 10-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 10-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 10-1
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics ............................................................... 10-2
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 10-2
Command ............................................................................................................. 10-2
Basic Device Characteristic Summary .............................................................. 10-2
Displaying Basic Device Characteristics.................................................................. 10-4
Command ............................................................................................................. 10-4
Displaying Port Characteristics Example......................................................... 10-4
xi
Contents
Configuring the ACCESS Characteristic.................................................................. 10-5
Description............................................................................................................ 10-5
Command.............................................................................................................. 10-5
Defining the ACCESS Characteristic Example ................................................ 10-5
Matching the Port and Device Characteristics........................................................ 10-6
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 10-6
AUTOBAUD ......................................................................................................... 10-6
CHARACTER SIZE ............................................................................................. 10-7
PARITY .................................................................................................................. 10-7
SPEED .................................................................................................................... 10-8
STOP BITS ............................................................................................................. 10-9
TYPE....................................................................................................................... 10-9
Configuring the FLOW CONTROL Characteristic .............................................. 10-10
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 10-10
Flow Control Types............................................................................................ 10-10
XON/XOFF......................................................................................................... 10-10
DSR....................................................................................................................... 10-11
CTS ....................................................................................................................... 10-11
FLOW CONTROL Direction ............................................................................ 10-12
Specifying the Automatic Logout Characteristics ................................................ 10-13
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 10-13
Specifying DSRLOGOUT.................................................................................. 10-13
Specifying LONGBREAK LOGOUT ............................................................... 10-13
Specifying INACTIVITY LOGOUT................................................................. 10-14
Specifying the INACTIVITY TIMER ............................................................... 10-14
Chapter 11
Configuring Modem Signals
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 11-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 11-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 11-1
DTE/DCE Device Configuration.............................................................................. 11-2
Port Configuration ............................................................................................... 11-2
Determining the Supported Modem Signals .......................................................... 11-3
Access Servers and MODEM CONTROL ........................................................ 11-3
Access Server Types and Supported Modem Signals..................................... 11-4
Modem Signals Description....................................................................................... 11-5
Types of Modem Signal....................................................................................... 11-5
Specifying MODEM CONTROL and SIGNAL CONTROL .................................. 11-6
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 11-6
Logging Out the Port with DSRLOGOUT or LONGBREAK LOGOUT...... 11-6
Computer Interface.............................................................................................. 11-6
Specifying SIGNAL SELECT ..................................................................................... 11-8
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 11-8
Determining When to Use a Signal Set............................................................. 11-8
Specifying SIGNAL CHECK...................................................................................... 11-9
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 11-9
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Contents
Specifying DTRWAIT ............................................................................................... 11-10
Description.......................................................................................................... 11-10
Enabling DTRWAIT Example .......................................................................... 11-10
Specifying RING ........................................................................................................11-11
Description...........................................................................................................11-11
Specifying ALTERNATE SPEED............................................................................. 11-12
Description.......................................................................................................... 11-12
Specifying DIALUP .................................................................................................. 11-13
Description.......................................................................................................... 11-13
Sample Modem Configurations.............................................................................. 11-14
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 11-14
Configuring a Dial-In Modem on a Full MODEM CONTROL Server ...... 11-14
Configuring a Dial-In Modem on a MODEM CONTROL Server .............. 11-14
Configuring a Dial-Out Modem on a Full MODEM CONTROL Server ... 11-14
Configuring a Dial-In and Dial-Out Modem on a Full MODEM CONTROL Server
11-15
Configuring a Dial-Out Modem on a MODEM CONTROL Server ........... 11-15
Configuring a Dial-In and Dial-Out Modem on a MODEM CONTROL Server
11-15
MODEM CONTROL Sequences ............................................................................. 11-16
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 11-16
Establishing a Connection ................................................................................ 11-16
Response to Momentary Loss of CTS ............................................................. 11-17
Disconnecting ..................................................................................................... 11-17
Configuring DTR and DSR Signals ........................................................................ 11-18
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 11-18
Port Characteristic Effects on the DTR and DSR Signals ............................. 11-18
Chapter 12
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 12-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 12-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 12-1
Configuring an Interactive Device for LAT Sessions............................................. 12-3
Configuring an Interactive Device for LAT Sessions...................................... 12-3
Sample Network Configuration ........................................................................ 12-4
Configuring LAT Group Codes for Interactive Devices ................................ 12-4
Specifying AUTOCONNECT............................................................................. 12-5
Specifying AUTOPROMPT ................................................................................ 12-6
Specifying the Default Protocol ......................................................................... 12-6
Specifying Failover .............................................................................................. 12-7
Configuring Port Queuing.................................................................................. 12-7
Displaying Access Server Queue Entries ......................................................... 12-8
SHOW QUEUE ALL Display Example............................................................. 12-9
Removing Entries from the Access Server Queue........................................... 12-9
Configuring Port Characteristics ..................................................................... 12-10
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Contents
Configuring an Interactive Device for Telnet Sessions ........................................ 12-11
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 12-11
Configuring a Device on Port 6 for Internet Hosts Example....................... 12-11
Reference ............................................................................................................. 12-12
Configuring a Session Management (TD/SMP) Terminal .................................. 12-13
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 12-13
How to Configure .............................................................................................. 12-13
Benefits and Restrictions Summary................................................................. 12-13
Local Mode Command Restrictions During Session Management............ 12-14
Logging In with Multisessions......................................................................... 12-15
Configuring On-Demand Loading for Asian Terminals ..................................... 12-16
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 12-16
On-Demand Loading Configuration Example .............................................. 12-16
Disable Switch Character .................................................................................. 12-16
Configuring for Block-Mode Terminals ................................................................. 12-17
Description.......................................................................................................... 12-17
Buffer Size ........................................................................................................... 12-17
Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile .......................................................... 12-18
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 12-18
Profiles Types...................................................................................................... 12-18
Profile Characteristics........................................................................................ 12-18
Telnet Client Session Characteristics Predefined for Each Profile .............. 12-19
Configuring Individual Telnet Client Session Characteristics............................ 12-20
Modifying Telnet Session Characteristics....................................................... 12-20
Specifying ECHO Characteristics .................................................................... 12-20
Specifying the BINARY Characteristic............................................................ 12-20
Specifying CHARACTER SIZE........................................................................ 12-21
Mapping Keyboard Characters to Telnet Functions ..................................... 12-21
Telnet Keymapping Functions ......................................................................... 12-22
Specifying AUTOFLUSH .................................................................................. 12-23
Specifying AUTOSYNCH ................................................................................. 12-23
Specifying Telnet Client Newline .................................................................... 12-24
Specifying FLOW CONTROL .......................................................................... 12-24
Specifying MESSAGE VERIFICATION .......................................................... 12-25
Specifying the SWITCH CHARACTER.......................................................... 12-26
Specifying a Preferred Terminal Type ............................................................. 12-26
Managing Access Server User Accounts................................................................ 12-27
Minimal Setup for Local User Accounts......................................................... 12-27
Optional Setup for Local User Accounts ........................................................ 12-27
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR USERACCOUNT Display .................................. 12-28
Service Types and Access Levels ..................................................................... 12-28
Service Permissions Access............................................................................... 12-29
User Account Command Parameters.............................................................. 12-29
Access Command Variables ............................................................................. 12-31
Managing Users......................................................................................................... 12-32
Providing a Contact Name and Access Server Location .............................. 12-32
Specifying Preferred Service for LAT or Telnet Resources........................... 12-32
Specifying the Port USERNAME..................................................................... 12-33
Specifying Keys to Switch Between Sessions................................................. 12-34
Defining the Break Key ..................................................................................... 12-35
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Contents
Specifying a Key to Switch to Local Mode..................................................... 12-35
Specifying BROADCAST.................................................................................. 12-36
Specifying LOSS NOTIFICATION .................................................................. 12-37
Specifying Message Codes ............................................................................... 12-38
Specifying VERIFICATION.............................................................................. 12-38
Specifying Lock .................................................................................................. 12-38
Displaying Information About the Users ....................................................... 12-39
Specifying User Groups .................................................................................... 12-40
Managing Sessions.................................................................................................... 12-42
Initiating a Session to a LAT Service ............................................................... 12-42
Initiating a Session to an Internet Host........................................................... 12-42
Sending Telnet Functions to a Remote Telnet Server.................................... 12-43
Controlling the Number of Sessions ............................................................... 12-44
Displaying Session Information ...................................................................... 12-45
Displaying Session Characteristics.................................................................. 12-46
Displaying Session Status ................................................................................. 12-47
Terminating Sessions ......................................................................................... 12-50
Chapter 13
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 13-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 13-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 13-1
Configuring a Port to Offer a LAT Service .............................................................. 13-3
Configuration Parameters .................................................................................. 13-3
Configuring Access to a LAT Service ....................................................................... 13-4
Assigning a Service Name.................................................................................. 13-4
Enabling Announcements .................................................................................. 13-4
Assigning an Identification String..................................................................... 13-4
Assigning a Port Name ....................................................................................... 13-5
Specifying the Service Password ....................................................................... 13-5
Configuration of Specific Types of Devices As LAT Services ............................... 13-7
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 13-7
Configuring a Personal Computer As a Terminal and LAT Service............. 13-7
Configuring a Computer As a LAT Service ..................................................... 13-8
Configuring a Modem As a LAT Service.......................................................... 13-8
Configuring a Printer As a LAT Service ........................................................... 13-9
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an OpenVMS Host..................... 13-9
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System................... 13-11
Configuring a Printer with Unannounced Availability....................................... 13-13
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 13-13
Configuring a Printer with Unannounced Availability................................ 13-13
Verifying the LAT Service ........................................................................................ 13-15
Do This ................................................................................................................ 13-15
Problem Solving ................................................................................................. 13-15
Managing Your Access Server As a LAT Node Offering a Service .................... 13-17
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 13-17
Displaying Information About a Service........................................................ 13-17
Displaying Services Characteristics ................................................................ 13-18
xv
Contents
Displaying Services Status................................................................................ 13-19
Displaying Services Summary ......................................................................... 13-21
Chapter 14
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 14-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 14-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 14-1
Sample Device Configurations.................................................................................. 14-3
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 14-3
Configuring a Printer for Access Through a Telnet Listener ......................... 14-3
Configuring a Computer for Access Through a Telnet Listener ................... 14-4
Configuring a Modem for Access Through a Telnet Listener........................ 14-4
ConfiguringaPersonalComputerAsaTerminalandforAccessthroughaTelnetListener
14-6
Sample Configuration ......................................................................................... 14-6
Configuring Personal Computer Access to a Printer...................................... 14-6
Setting User Priority for Devices Using Dynamic Access.............................. 14-7
Configuring a File Transfer Partner................................................................... 14-7
Configuring a Remote Print Queue.......................................................................... 14-9
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 14-9
Configuring a TCP/IP Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System............ 14-9
Printer Port Telnet Server Characteristics......................................................... 14-9
Procedure .............................................................................................................. 14-9
Configuring a Telnet Listener .................................................................................. 14-11
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 14-11
Configuring Telnet Server Session Characteristics............................................... 14-12
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 14-12
Mapping Event Indications to Keyboard Characters ................................... 14-12
Specifying Newline Characteristics................................................................. 14-13
Specifying Character Size ................................................................................. 14-13
Managing Your Access Server As a Telnet Listener Node................................... 14-15
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 14-15
Displaying Telnet Listeners .............................................................................. 14-15
Displaying Telnet Server Characteristics........................................................ 14-15
Removing a Telnet Listener .............................................................................. 14-16
Removing One of Many Devices Assigned to a Telnet Listener ................. 14-16
Reassigning a Port.............................................................................................. 14-17
Supplying User Location Data to Telnet Servers .................................................. 14-18
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 14-18
Configuring a Raw TCP Listener ............................................................................ 14-19
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 14-19
When To Use Raw TCP ..................................................................................... 14-19
Configuring Raw TCP ....................................................................................... 14-19
Displaying Raw TCP Characteristics .............................................................. 14-20
xvi
Contents
Chapter 15
Configuring LPD Printers
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 15-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 15-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 15-1
LPD Operation............................................................................................................. 15-2
Supported File Types........................................................................................... 15-2
Control and Data Files ........................................................................................ 15-2
Operation .............................................................................................................. 15-3
Configuring LPD......................................................................................................... 15-5
Configuring Remote Hosts................................................................................. 15-5
Associating a Printer With a Port ...................................................................... 15-5
Setting Port Characteristics ................................................................................ 15-6
Printer Configuration Example.......................................................................... 15-7
Displaying Printer Characteristics .................................................................... 15-8
Chapter 16
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 16-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 16-1
Packet Forwarding to and from SLIP Hosts............................................................ 16-3
Description............................................................................................................ 16-3
Network Configuration Containing SLIP Hosts ............................................. 16-3
Displaying SLIP Characteristics................................................................................ 16-4
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16-4
Command ............................................................................................................. 16-4
Displaying SLIP Characteristics Example ........................................................ 16-4
Managing Internet Addresses for SLIP Hosts......................................................... 16-5
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16-5
How an Access Server Port Obtains the SLIP Host Internet Address.......... 16-5
Managing the Maximum Transmission Unit .......................................................... 16-7
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16-7
Changing the MTU .............................................................................................. 16-7
Relationship of the TCP Maximum Segment Size and the MTU.................. 16-7
Fragmentation ...................................................................................................... 16-7
Configuring a Port So That a PC Can Function as a Terminal or SLIP Host...... 16-8
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16-8
Configuring a Dedicated SLIP Port .......................................................................... 16-9
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 16-9
Configuring a Device As a Dedicated SLIP Host ............................................ 16-9
Configuring a Dial-In Modem for Use with a SLIP Host.................................... 16-10
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 16-10
Configuring a Dial-In Modem on Port 6 for Use with a SLIP Host............ 16-10
Establishing Terminal Sessions with a PC............................................................. 16-11
Prerequisites ....................................................................................................... 16-11
Establishing a SLIP Session ..................................................................................... 16-12
Enabling a SLIP Session from the PC.............................................................. 16-12
After Making a Connection .............................................................................. 16-12
xvii
Contents
Compressed SLIP ...................................................................................................... 16-13
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 16-13
Enabling CSLIP .................................................................................................. 16-13
Disabling CSLIP ................................................................................................. 16-13
Automatic CSLIP................................................................................................ 16-13
Compression States............................................................................................ 16-13
Displaying SLIP Counters........................................................................................ 16-14
Commands .......................................................................................................... 16-14
SHOW PORT SLIP COUNTERS Display ....................................................... 16-14
SLIP COUNTERS Display Fields..................................................................... 16-14
Disabling SLIP ........................................................................................................... 16-16
Command............................................................................................................ 16-16
Disable SLIP Example........................................................................................ 16-16
Chapter 17
Configuring for SNMP Access
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 17-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 17-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 17-1
Supported SNMP Features ........................................................................................ 17-2
Supported Specifications..................................................................................... 17-2
SNMP Community Names ................................................................................. 17-2
Supported SNMP Operations ............................................................................ 17-2
Supported MIBs ................................................................................................... 17-3
Supported MIB Variables .................................................................................... 17-3
Configuring the Access Server for SNMP Access................................................... 17-5
Enabling and Disabling SNMP .......................................................................... 17-5
Displaying Information About SNMP .............................................................. 17-5
Default Community Name PUBLIC ................................................................. 17-5
Configuring a Community Name for Access by Any NMS .......................... 17-5
Configuring a Community Name with an Address ....................................... 17-6
Configuring Community Names to Send TRAP Messages ........................... 17-6
Sample SNMP Configuration............................................................................. 17-7
Disabling TRAP Messages for a Community Name....................................... 17-8
Removing Community Names .......................................................................... 17-8
Removing an Address from a Community Name .......................................... 17-9
Configuring the NMS ............................................................................................... 17-10
Procedure ............................................................................................................ 17-10
Chapter 18
Managing the Access Server
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 18-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 18-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 18-1
Managing Your Access Server As Part of the LAT Network ................................ 18-2
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 18-2
Distributing Devices on Access Servers............................................................ 18-2
Controlling the Number of Known Service Nodes......................................... 18-2
xviii
Contents
Checking LAT Service Accessibility.................................................................. 18-2
Reducing Memory Usage ................................................................................... 18-3
Viewing LAT Node Status Information............................................................ 18-3
Viewing LAT Node Counters Information ...................................................... 18-5
Viewing LAT Node Summary Information ..................................................... 18-7
Displaying Information About the Access Server ................................................ 18-10
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 18-10
Specifying the Prompt....................................................................................... 18-10
Displaying Access Server Counters ................................................................ 18-10
Displaying Access Server Status...................................................................... 18-15
Displaying Access Server Summary Information ......................................... 18-20
Checking Port Status and Counters ....................................................................... 18-22
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 18-22
Displaying Port Characteristics ....................................................................... 18-22
Displaying Port Counters ................................................................................. 18-23
Displaying Port Status....................................................................................... 18-25
Displaying Port Summary ................................................................................ 18-28
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PORT SUMMARY Display Fields ............................ 18-29
Chapter 19
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation
(TN3270)
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 19-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 19-1
Supported ASCII Terminals....................................................................................... 19-2
Definition .............................................................................................................. 19-2
Definition and Description of a Keyboard Map ..................................................... 19-3
3278 Keyboards .................................................................................................... 19-3
Server-Specific Keyboard Maps......................................................................... 19-3
Configuring Basic 3270 Terminal Emulation .......................................................... 19-4
Setting Up an ASCII Terminal............................................................................ 19-4
Terminal Setup Parameters ................................................................................ 19-5
Indicating the 3270 Model Number .................................................................. 19-5
Specifying the Type of ASCII Terminal Used for Emulation......................... 19-5
IBM Host Communications ....................................................................................... 19-6
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 19-6
Connecting to an IBM Host ................................................................................ 19-6
Entering and Editing Data.................................................................................. 19-6
Status Line Indicator............................................................................................ 19-6
Status Line Indicator Display............................................................................. 19-8
Displaying and Customizing Keyboard Maps ....................................................... 19-9
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 19-9
Server-Wide Keyboard Maps Customization .................................................. 19-9
Default Server-Wide Terminal Types and Keyboard Maps ........................... 19-9
Defining New Server-Wide Terminal Types and Keyboard Maps ............. 19-10
Customizing Server-Wide Keyboard Maps ................................................... 19-11
Selecting and Customizing Keyboard Maps for a Port ................................ 19-13
Keyboard Map and Terminal Type.................................................................. 19-13
Customizing a Default Keyboard Map for a Port ......................................... 19-14
xix
Contents
ASCII-to-EBCDIC and EBCDIC-to-ASCII Translation Tables ............................ 19-16
Commands .......................................................................................................... 19-16
Guidelines for Managing the Use of NVRAM for TN3270................................. 19-17
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 19-17
Storage Requirements for TN3270 Definitions in NVRAM......................... 19-17
TN3270 Commands That Free NVRAM Space.............................................. 19-17
Limiting NVRAM Usage .................................................................................. 19-18
Commands to Manage TN3270 Terminal Emulation .......................................... 19-19
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 19-19
TN3270 Access Server Characteristics ............................................................ 19-19
TN3270 Port Characteristics ............................................................................. 19-20
SHOW Commands ............................................................................................ 19-21
Chapter 20
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP) Ports
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 20-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 20-1
Prerequisites.......................................................................................................... 20-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 20-1
Enabling PPP on an Access Server Port ................................................................... 20-3
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 20-3
Enabling PPP for Mixed Traffic.......................................................................... 20-3
Enabling Dedicated PPP Traffic ......................................................................... 20-4
Enabling Ports with Modems for PPP .............................................................. 20-4
Establishing and Ending a PPP Session ................................................................... 20-5
Using the CONNECT PPP Command .............................................................. 20-5
Displaying PPP Characteristics ................................................................................. 20-6
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 20-6
Displaying LCP Characteristics ......................................................................... 20-6
Displaying IPCP Characteristics ........................................................................ 20-8
ATCP Characteristics ........................................................................................... 20-9
Displaying PPP Status .............................................................................................. 20-11
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 20-11
Displaying LCP Status....................................................................................... 20-11
Displaying IPCP Status ..................................................................................... 20-12
Displaying ATCP Status .................................................................................... 20-14
Displaying PPP Counters......................................................................................... 20-17
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 20-17
Displaying LCP Counters ................................................................................. 20-17
Displaying IPCP Counters................................................................................ 20-19
Displaying ATCP Counters .............................................................................. 20-21
Chapter 21
Managing IPX
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 21-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 21-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 21-1
xx
Contents
IPX Description ........................................................................................................... 21-3
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 21-3
Access Server Configuration .............................................................................. 21-3
Getting Started............................................................................................................. 21-5
Checklist................................................................................................................ 21-5
Hardware and Software Requirements ................................................................... 21-6
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 21-6
Software Requirements ....................................................................................... 21-6
Hardware Requirements..................................................................................... 21-6
Setting Up Your PC ..................................................................................................... 21-7
PC Remote Access Software ............................................................................... 21-7
Novell Workstation Software ............................................................................. 21-7
Novell Utilities for Local Execution .................................................................. 21-7
Setting Up the Network Access Server .................................................................... 21-8
Enabling IPX ......................................................................................................... 21-8
Configuring the Port for an Attached Device .................................................. 21-8
Configuring the Port for the Login Method..................................................... 21-9
Configuring the Port for Login to the Local Prompt ...................................... 21-9
Configuring the Port Dedicated to PPP.......................................................... 21-10
Configuring the Port for PPP/IPXCP Data Link........................................... 21-10
Summary of DECserver IPX Management Commands ...................................... 21-12
Port PPP IPX Commands for LCP................................................................... 21-12
Port PPP IPX Commands for IPXCP............................................................... 21-13
Port PPP Commands for PPP Negotiation Status ......................................... 21-13
Server IPX Commands ...................................................................................... 21-14
Modem Considerations............................................................................................ 21-16
Dial-In Modems ................................................................................................. 21-16
Dial-Out PC Modems........................................................................................ 21-16
Novell Client/Server Operation ............................................................................. 21-18
Establishing Remote Node Access Connection to Novell Network........... 21-18
Novell Operation ............................................................................................... 21-18
Operational Checkout and Diagnosis .................................................................... 21-20
Verifying Configuration .................................................................................... 21-20
Disabling IPX ............................................................................................................. 21-21
Using the DEFINE Command.......................................................................... 21-21
Frame Types ............................................................................................................... 21-22
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 21-22
Standard Ethernet .............................................................................................. 21-22
RAW802............................................................................................................... 21-22
SAP802................................................................................................................. 21-22
SNAP802 ............................................................................................................. 21-22
Displaying IPX Characteristics................................................................................ 21-23
Using the SHOW command............................................................................. 21-23
IPX Characteristics Display .............................................................................. 21-23
IPX Characteristics Display Fields .................................................................. 21-23
Displaying IPX Status............................................................................................... 21-25
Using the SHOW IPX Command .................................................................... 21-25
IPX Status Display ............................................................................................. 21-25
Fields in the IPX Status Display....................................................................... 21-25
xxi
Contents
Displaying IPX Counters.......................................................................................... 21-27
Use the SHOW IPX COUNTERS command .................................................. 21-27
IPX Counters Display ........................................................................................ 21-27
IPX Counters Display Fields ............................................................................ 21-27
Displaying IPX Routes.............................................................................................. 21-30
Using the SHOW IPX ROUTES Command.................................................... 21-30
IPX Routes Display ............................................................................................ 21-30
IPX Routes Display Fields................................................................................. 21-30
Resetting Counters .................................................................................................... 21-31
Using the ZERO Command.............................................................................. 21-31
ZERO Command Options................................................................................. 21-31
Chapter 22
Managing Dial Services
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 22-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 22-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 22-1
Dial Services Command Groups............................................................................... 22-2
Command Groups ............................................................................................... 22-2
Entering the SET PRIVILEGED command....................................................... 22-2
Checking the Current Server Settings ...................................................................... 22-3
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 22-3
Server Configuration Display ............................................................................ 22-3
Defining a Dialer Script .............................................................................................. 22-4
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 22-4
Defining Dialer Script Strings ............................................................................ 22-4
Assigning the Dialer Script to a Port ........................................................................ 22-6
Steps ....................................................................................................................... 22-6
Determining the Current Dialer Script ............................................................. 22-6
Assigning a Dialer Script to a Port .................................................................... 22-7
Verifying Dialer Script Configuration ............................................................... 22-8
Defining the Dialer Service ........................................................................................ 22-9
Steps ....................................................................................................................... 22-9
Showing the Current Dialer Service Characteristics....................................... 22-9
Showing Dialer Service Status ......................................................................... 22-10
Displaying Dialer Counters.............................................................................. 22-11
Modifying the Dialer Service ........................................................................... 22-11
Configuring Interactive Dial Requests................................................................... 22-15
Configuring for Interactive Dial-Back............................................................. 22-15
Interactive Dial-Back (Dial Service) Example ................................................ 22-15
Framed Dial Requests............................................................................................... 22-16
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 22-16
Changing PPP Characteristics Examples........................................................ 22-16
Guidelines ........................................................................................................... 22-16
xxii
Contents
Chapter 23
Managing Access Server Security
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 23-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 23-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 23-1
Security Type Descriptions ........................................................................................ 23-2
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 23-2
Kerberos ................................................................................................................ 23-2
RADIUS................................................................................................................. 23-2
SecurID .................................................................................................................. 23-3
User Accounts....................................................................................................... 23-3
Common Terminology Across Security Realms ..................................................... 23-4
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 23-4
Accounting Host .................................................................................................. 23-4
Authentication Host ............................................................................................ 23-4
Default Realm....................................................................................................... 23-4
Login Retries and Timeouts................................................................................ 23-4
Secrets .................................................................................................................... 23-4
Security Server ..................................................................................................... 23-5
RADIUS Accounting ........................................................................................... 23-5
UDP Ports.............................................................................................................. 23-5
Managing Kerberos..................................................................................................... 23-6
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 23-6
Configuration Prerequisites ............................................................................... 23-6
Configuration of User Authentication .............................................................. 23-7
User Authentication Procedure ......................................................................... 23-9
Changing a User Name and Password........................................................... 23-10
User Authentication Counters ......................................................................... 23-10
Managing RADIUS ................................................................................................... 23-12
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 23-12
Minimal Setup for RADIUS.............................................................................. 23-12
Optional Setup for RADIUS ............................................................................. 23-13
RADIUS User Authorizations .......................................................................... 23-15
User Access to the Access Server ..................................................................... 23-15
Setting User Permissions .................................................................................. 23-16
Additional RADIUS Attributes........................................................................ 23-16
Optional RADIUS User Attributes .................................................................. 23-22
Managing SecurID .................................................................................................... 23-23
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 23-23
Minimal Setup for SecurID............................................................................... 23-24
Optional Setup for SecurID .............................................................................. 23-24
SecurID User Authorizations ........................................................................... 23-25
Setting User Permissions .................................................................................. 23-26
Managing Local Access Server Security ................................................................ 23-27
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 23-27
Defining the Realm ............................................................................................ 23-27
Determining Security Configuration...................................................................... 23-28
Displaying RADIUS, SECURID, and KERBEROS Characteristics ............. 23-28
Displaying Security Summary ......................................................................... 23-30
Showing the Authentication Counters ........................................................... 23-31
xxiii
Contents
Showing the User Port Authorization Profile ................................................ 23-31
Showing Security Counters .............................................................................. 23-31
ManagingDial-UpAccessSecuritywithAUTOLINKandAUTOLINKAuthentication
23-33
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 23-33
Activating AUTOLINK ..................................................................................... 23-33
Enabling AUTOLINK Authentication............................................................. 23-34
Specifying an Authentication Method ............................................................ 23-34
Setting AUTOLINK Timers .............................................................................. 23-35
Timeouts .............................................................................................................. 23-36
Using a Login Script .......................................................................................... 23-36
Specifying Other Security Features ........................................................................ 23-38
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 23-38
Specifying Dedicated Service for LAT or Telnet Resources ......................... 23-38
Specifying Passwords ........................................................................................ 23-39
Specifying PASSWORD LIMIT ........................................................................ 23-40
Chapter 24
Managing Remote Login
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 24-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 24-1
Rlogin Features ............................................................................................................ 24-2
Rlogin Characteristics................................................................................................. 24-3
Configuring a Rlogin Client....................................................................................... 24-4
Chapter 25
Accounting
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 25-1
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 25-1
In This Chapter..................................................................................................... 25-1
Accounting Description ............................................................................................. 25-2
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 25-2
Accounting Log File............................................................................................. 25-2
What Events Are Logged?.......................................................................................... 25-3
Contents of Log Entry Types .............................................................................. 25-3
Event Field Descriptions ..................................................................................... 25-4
When Events Are Logged .......................................................................................... 25-8
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 25-8
Login Events ......................................................................................................... 25-8
Logout Events....................................................................................................... 25-8
Session Connect Attempt Events ....................................................................... 25-8
Session Disconnect Events .................................................................................. 25-8
Password Fail Events........................................................................................... 25-8
SNMP Community Fail Events .......................................................................... 25-8
Password Modified Events ................................................................................. 25-9
User Privilege Level Modified Events .............................................................. 25-9
SNMP Community Modified Events ................................................................ 25-9
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Contents
Managing Accounting .............................................................................................. 25-10
Introduction ........................................................................................................ 25-10
Defining the Accounting Log Size................................................................... 25-10
Changing the Accounting Threshold.............................................................. 25-11
Changing the Accounting Console.................................................................. 25-11
Displaying Accounting Characteristics .......................................................... 25-11
Displaying the Accounting Log ....................................................................... 25-12
Using the Accounting Console Logging Feature.................................................. 25-13
Description.......................................................................................................... 25-13
LAT Remote View of the Accounting Log...................................................... 25-13
Appendix A Cable and Adapter Recommendations
Cable and Adapter Hardware .................................................................................... A-1
Cable and Adapter Table ..................................................................................... A-1
Reference ................................................................................................................ A-2
xxv
Contents
xxvi
Preface
Overview
Purpose
The Network Access Software Management guide is written for the person who sets
up, maintains, and manages any one of the supported family of network access
servers. To use this manual, you must be familiar with using a terminal on an
access server.
TSM Users
If you have the optional network management product, Terminal Server Manager
(TSM) software, review the documentation for the product before you read this
manual and other access server documents. This product affects the way you
install and manage access servers. Note that TSM software is available only for
OpenVMS load hosts.
Using This Manual
This manual details the tasks you perform to manage your access server, and
should be used with the Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference
guide
xxiii
Preface
Conventions
This manual uses the following conventions:
xxiv
•
The Return key, which you must press to execute all commands, is not shown
in command line displays.
•
The Local> prompt, which appears in most examples, is the default access
server prompt. You can change this prompt to something other than Local>
with the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER PROMPT command.
•
All numbers are expressed in decimal notation unless otherwise noted.
•
All Ethernet addresses are shown in hexadecimal notation.
Convention
Meaning
Monospaced
Monospaced type in command examples indicates system
output or user input. User input is in boldfaced text.
UPPERCASE
TEXT
Uppercase text in command lines indicates keywords that must
be entered. You can enter them in either uppercase or lowercase.
You can abbreviate command keywords to the first three
characters or to the minimum unique abbreviation.
lowercase
italics
Lowercase italics in command syntax indicates variables for
which either the user or the network access server supplies a
value.
{}
Braces in the command syntax indicate that you must choose one
of the enclosed options. (Do not type the braces.)
[]
Brackets in the command syntax indicate that the enclosed
values are optional. You can enter one or none. (Do not type the
brackets.)
UPPERCASE
BOLD
Uppercase boldface text in summaries of characteristics indicates
default values.
lowercase bold
Terms in bold face type are defined in the glossary.
Ctrl/n
This syntax indicates a keying sequence for which you must
hold down the Ctrl key while pressing the key specified by the
variable n.
/
A slash indicates related alternate commands or options. For
example, SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT refers to the SET
PORT, DEFINE PORT, and CHANGE PORT commands. The
slash (/) is not part of the command syntax.
Preface
Associated Documents
Refer to the following documentation for additional information:
•
Terminal Server Manager Installation and Use — Provides the procedures to
install and use TSM.
•
DECserver 700 Site Preparation and Maintenance — Provides the procedures to
prepare the site before installing the DECserver 700 hardware.
•
DECserver 90TL/DECserver 90M Owner’s Manual — Provides the procedures to
install and operate the DECserver 90TL/DECserver 90M hardware.
•
DECserver 900TM Installation — Provides the procedures to install and operate
the DECserver 900TM hardware.
•
Cabletron Network Access Software Installation — Describes how to install the
network access software on Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows NT,
OpenVMS, DIGITAL UNIX, or UNIX operating systems.
•
Release Notes — Provide the latest information about the access server. The
release notes are available with the software distribution kit and are stored in
the load host directory with the other software distribution files.
•
Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide — Provides the
commands to operate and manage the access server.
•
Cabletron Network Access Software Problem Solving guide — Describes problemsolving tools and procedures for the various access servers.
xxv
Preface
xxvi
Chapter 1
CNAS Management
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes the tasks that the following types of users perform when
managing the access server:
•
System administrators who configure and manage the access server
•
End users of network services and applications
In This Chapter
This chapter includes the following topics:
•
Configuration Tasks for System Administrators
•
Management Tasks for System Administrators
•
User Tasks
•
Storage of Configuration Settings and Changes in Memory
•
Commands to Display and Change Configuration Settings
1-1
CNAS Management
Configuration Tasks for System Administrators
Configuration Tasks
The following table lists the tasks that system administrators can perform when
configuring an access server and the chapter of this manual that describes each
task:
To Configure:
Refer to:
User interface
Chapter 3
Network access server on the network
Chapter 6
Devices on a port
Chapter 9
Interactive devices
Chapter 11
LAT services
Chapter 12
Telnet listeners
Chapter 13
SLIP ports
Chapter 15
3270 emulation
Chapter 18
PPP
Chapter 19
User authentication
Chapter 22
Default Settings
Although a new access server is configured and operational with factory-set
defaults, you may need to customize the configuration for your use. For a list of
defaults associated with each category of configuration settings, refer to the
chapters listed in the previous table.
1-2
CNAS Management
Management Tasks for System Administrators
System Management Tasks
The following table lists the tasks that system administrators can perform to
manage the access server. This table also lists the chapter that describes each task.
To Manage:
Refer to:
LAT network communications
Chapter 12
TCP/IP network communications
Chapter 7
SLIP port reconfiguration
Chapter 15
SNMP communities
Chapter 16
Network access server maintenance
Chapter 17
Management of load hosts
Chapter 4
Configuring the user interface
Chapter 3
Configuring LPD printers
Chapter 14
Managing point-to-point protocol hosts
Chapter 19
Managing IPX
Chapter 20
Managing dial services
Chapter 21
Managing network access server security
Chapter 22
1-3
CNAS Management
User Tasks
Introduction
The access server enables end users to perform tasks such as connecting to
network resources and managing sessions. For a description of these tasks, refer
to the Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile section in Chapter 11.
Accessing Online Help
The tutorial for online help also describes user tasks. To start the tutorial, enter the
following command on your access server:
Local> HELP TUTORIAL
1-4
CNAS Management
Storage of Configuration Settings and Changes in
Memory
Memory Types
The access server stores configuration settings in two types of memory:
•
Permanent data is stored in nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM).
•
Operational data is stored in volatile random access memory (VRAM).
Power Loss
An initialization or power loss has no effect on NVRAM. When an initialization or
power loss occurs, the access server overwrites the current settings in VRAM with
those from NVRAM.
1-5
CNAS Management
Commands to Display and Change Configuration
Settings
Introduction
This section lists the type of commands that operate on the configuration settings
stored in VRAM and NVRAM.
The CHANGE and SET commands listed in the following chapters have an
immediate effect when you enter them. When you use the DEFINE command,
however, the changes are delayed:
•
If you use the DEFINE command to make changes to a given port, these
changes take place the next time that a user logs in to the port.
•
If you use the DEFINE command to make changes to access server settings,
these changes take effect the next time you initialize or plug in the server.
Reference
The Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide describes the
syntax, range of values, and defaults for all these types of commands. Use the
Command Reference as a source of supplementary information as you go through
the examples and procedures in this manual.
Types of Commands That Operate on Configuration Settings
Figure 1-1 shows the types of commands stored in VRAM and NVRAM:
LIST
PURGE
DEFINE
SHOW
CLEAR
SET
Permanent Database
(NVRAM)
Operational Database
(NVRAM)
CHANGE
Figure 1-1. Types of Commands Stored in VRAm and NVRAM
1-6
Chapter 2
Management Tools
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes the tools for managing the access server. These tools are:
•
Access server commands
•
Help
•
Console port
•
Remote console port
•
Access Server Manager, a PC-based management tool
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Access Server Commands
•
Help
•
Console Port
•
Remote Console Port
•
Access Server Manager
2-1
Management Tools
Access Server Commands
Introduction
The access server has a command line interface. You enter commands at a prompt
on a terminal attached to an access server port. The default for the prompt is:
Local>
Reference
For a complete description of command syntax and use, refer to the Cabletron
Network Access Software Command Reference guide.
Levels of Access Server Commands
The access server has four levels of commands as listed in the following table:
Command
Level
Provides Access to
Commands to
Enable and Disable
Privileged
All access server commands.
SET PRIVILEGED
Nonprivileged
A subset of privileged
commands.
Default
Limited view
All nonprivileged commands
except those that show or list
LAT nodes, LAT services, and
various Internet databases.
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
n LIMITED VIEW ENABLED
Secure
A subset of nonprivileged
commands that apply to the
current port only.
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
n SECURITY ENABLED
User Groups
For practical purposes, the access server command set syntax is divided into
command groups. These groups are:
2-2
•
Command descriptions
•
CLEAR/PURGE commands
Management Tools
•
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE commands
•
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR commands
In the above list, the command descriptions group includes any command that
does not functionally fit into the CLEAR/PURGE, SET/DEFINE/CHANGE or
SHOW/LIST MONITOR groups (for example, DIAL, CONNECT, SEND, and
LOOP).
Command Definitions
The following table describes the commands for the CLEAR/PURGE,
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE and SHOW/LIST/MONITOR groups:
Command
Result
DEFINE
Changes NVRAM (nonvolatile random access memory). The
system must be reinitialized for the changes to take effect.
SET
Changes VRAM.1
CHANGE
Changes both NVRAM and VRAM.
SHOW
Displays current status or information about various options from
the access server operational database.
MONITOR
Displays continuously updated access server information on
various options. Type any character to stop a monitor display. The
MONITOR command displays have the same format as the
corresponding SHOW command displays, but requires the user to
be privileged.
LIST
Displays information about various options from the server’s
permanent database.
CLEAR
Changes VRAM.
PURGE
Changes NVRAM.
1VRAM
is the server’s volatile operational database.
2-3
Management Tools
Reference
For more information about this command group and its qualifiers, please refer to
the Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide.
Privileged Commands
To manage and configure the network, you use privileged commands. To enable
privileged commands, use the SET PRIVILEGED command. The command line
interface prompts you to enter the privileged password (which does not appear
on the screen). If you forget the privileged password, you can reset the access
server to its defaults by plugging the unit in while holding the reset button.
More than one port at a time can be privileged. Therefore, you should not reveal
the privileged password.
Example: Enabling Privileged Commands
This example shows how to use the SET PRIVILEGED command to enable
privileged commands on a port after accessing the access server.
Local> SET PRIVILEGED
Password> (not echoed)
Local>
The factory default value of the privileged password is SYSTEM.
Example: Changing the Privileged Password
To change the password, use the SET SERVER PRIVILEGED PASSWORD
command. The following example shows how to use the SET SERVER
PRIVILEGED PASSWORD command to change the privileged password.
Local> SET SERVER PRIVILEGED PASSWORD
Password> (not echoed)
Verification> (not echoed)
Local>
2-4
Management Tools
Help
Introduction
The access server provides online help about access server commands. This
section describes two types of online help that are available on the access server.
HELP TUTORIAL Command
The command HELP TUTORIAL provides a brief introduction to the access
server. You enter this command as follows:
Local> HELP TUTORIAL
The access server then displays a screen that explains how to use the tutorial.
HELP Command
The HELP command provides reference information for the level of commands
enabled on the port that you are using.
Example: Accessing Online Help Information
The following example shows how to display the online help for the SET
command and the PORT characteristic.
Local> HELP
[A list of topics displays here.]
Topic? SET
SET
SET changes characteristics and options stored in the
server's operational database.
Additional HELP available for:
INTERNET
PORT
NOPRIVILEGED
PRIVILEGED
SERVICE
SESSION
TELNET
SET Subtopic? PORT
2-5
Management Tools
Console Port
Displaying Port Parameters
The console port receives the access server system messages. An access server can
have only one console port at a time. The default console port number is 1. To
change the console port, use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE CONSOLE PORT
command.
To find out the current port number for the console port, use the SHOW SERVER
command.
Reference
The console port helps with troubleshooting as described in the Cabletron
Network Access Software Problem Solving guide.
Example: SHOW SERVER Command
The following example shows how to display the current port number for the
console port. The value in for the Console Port characteristic in the display is the
current port number.
Local> SHOW SERVER
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x Uptime: 0 00:16:18
Address: 08-00-2B-26-AA-99 Name: WWDOCMC Number: 0
Identification:
Circuit Timer:
80
Password Limit:
3
Console Port:
1
Prompt:
Local>
Inactivity Timer:
30
Queue Limit:
100
Keepalive Timer:
20
Retransmit Limit: 8
Multicast Timer:
30
Session Limit:
64
Node Limit:
200
Software:
WWENG2
Service Groups: 42, 46, 66
Enabled Characteristics:
Announcements, Broadcast, Dump, Lock
2-6
Management Tools
Remote Console Port
Description
The remote console port is a logical port that enables you to configure the access
server from a remote terminal on the network.
Features of the Remote Console Port
The following table lists the features that distinguish the remote console port from
other ports:
Feature
Description
Local switch character
~ (Tilde)
Personal computer file transfers
Unsupported
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
characteristics
Available for all ports except for the
remote console port
Number of sessions supported
1 at a time
Communications Utilities for Remote Console Sessions
The following table describes the four utilities you can use to connect to the
remote console port on the access server:
Connection Utility
Host Type
Protocol
Network Control Program (NCP)
Network Control Program (NCP)
OpenVMS Phase IV
MOP
SET HOST/MOP
OpenVMS DECnet/OSI
MOP
Telnet remote console
Internet
Telnet
Access Server Manager
32-bit Microsoft Windows,
Windows 95, and Windows NT
Telnet
2-7
Management Tools
OpenVMS Utility — Terminal Server Manager
For OpenVMS systems, DIGITAL offers the Terminal Server manager (TSM) to
facilitate managing the access server using the MOP remote console. TSM allows
the user to store access information such as the maintenance password, Ethernet
address, and login password for a server in a local database. The user can then
establish a simple USER SERVER command and TSM will retrieve the
information and establish a remote connection to the MOP console of the targeted
server. Since TSM supports command scripts a highly automated interface to the
MOP remote console can be created.
Network Control Program (NCP)
NCP enables you to connect to the remote console port from an OpenVMS
DECnet node that is on the same Ethernet as the access server. The node must be
running DECnet Phase IV software, but does not need to be a LAT service node or
a load host for your access server.
Usage Considerations
Consider the following when using NCP:
•
Do not confuse the SERVICE PASSWORD that you enter in an NCP command
with the access server SERVICE PASSWORD. They are unrelated.
•
If the access server requires that you specify the maintenance password and
you omit it, NCP displays this error message:
Target does not respond
To disconnect from the access server, press Ctrl/D. To exit
NCP, type EXIT or press Ctrl/Z.
For additional information about NCP, refer to the documentation provided with
your system.
2-8
Management Tools
Example: Using NCP to Connect to an Access Server Remote Console Port from
a Load Host
The following example shows a connection from an OpenVMS DECnet Phase IV
load host to an access server that has the DECnet node name SHRIMP. The
maintenance password is FEDCBA. The login password is the default, ACCESS.
$ MCR NCP
NCP> CONNECT NODE SHRIMP SERVICE PASSWORD FEDCBA
Console connected (press CTRL/D when finished)
# ACCESS (not echoed)
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x Uptime: 0 00:16:38
(c) Copyright 1999, Cabletron Systems, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
Please type HELP if you need assistance
Enter username> MANAGER
Local>
Use of SET HOST/MOP from a DECnet/OSI OpenVMS Node
MOP enables you to connect to the remote console port from an DECnet/OSI
OpenVMS node that is on the same Ethernet as the access server.
To disconnect from the access server, enter Ctrl / \ . Refer to the appropriate
DECnet/ OSI manual for information about how DECnet/OSI interprets
passwords on the SET HOST/MOP command line.
2-9
Management Tools
Example: Using MOP to Connect to an Access Server from a DECnet/OSI
OpenVMS Node
The following example shows a connection from a DECnet/OSI OpenVMS node
to an access server remote console port. In this example:
•
The access server has a DECnet node name of DGD700.
•
The maintenance password is FEDCBA. On the SET HOST/MOP command
line, however, the DECnet/OSI software transposes this password into the
string BADCFE.
•
The access server has a password of ACCESS.
$ SET HOST/MOP DGD700/VERIFICATION=%XBADCFE
%CCR-I-CONNEST, connection established to remote system
08-00-2B-26-AE-32 Press CTRL/ \ to disconnect, CTRL/] to send break
# ACCESS (not echoed)
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x
Uptime: 0 00:16:41
(c) Copyright 1999, Cabletron Systems, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
Please type HELP if you need assistance
Enter username> SWINSTALLER
Local>
Telnet Remote Console
If the access server has an Internet address, you can configure it to accept a Telnet
remote console connection. Once you configure the Internet address and Telnet
remote console port, the access server accepts and establishes a Telnet remote
console connection to the remote console through one or more of the Telnet
listeners specified by a TCP port on the access server. By default, TCP port 23 is
the Telnet remote console port.
If you assign Telnet listener 23 to one or more physical ports, using the
CLEAR/PURGE TELNET LISTENER 23 command only reassigns TCP port 23 as
a Telnet remote console port.
2-10
Management Tools
Characteristics of the Telnet Remote Console Port
The following table describes the characteristics for Telnet remote console
connections on the access server:
Characteristic
Description
Number of connections allowed on the
remote console port at one time
1
The port is shared with the MOP remote
console port so it will not be accessible to
Telnet if the remote console port is active.
Default TCP port number
23
By default, the remote console is
accessed via TCP port number 23. You
can make the Telnet remote console port
available to any of the TCP ports used by
the access server Telnet listener feature.
Number of TCP ports configured to
function as a remote console port
More than 1 allowed.
Maintenance password
Not required. In environments where
both MOP and Telnet are used to access
the remote console, setting a
maintenance password for MOP does
not affect Telnet.
Access server login password
Required.
IP address of the Telnet client host
Displayed in the Console User field of
the SHOW SERVER STATUS display if a
Telnet host is using the port. If the port is
idle, this field displays the text “None
Available.”
Privileged user logout
Another privileged user on a local port
can log out on the remote console using
the LOGOUT PORT CONSOLE
command.
2-11
Management Tools
Access Server Manager
Description
The Access Server Manager application is a management tool for access servers. It
runs on 32-bit Windows-based operating systems. The Access Server Manager has
a graphical user interface that allows you to easily configure some access server
features. The Access Server Loader application is integrated with the Access
Server Manager.
Functions
Use the Access Server Manager to:
•
Download firmware from a PC load host to the access server.
•
Download IP address configuration information to the access server.
•
Configure the access server network protocols.
•
Configure ports for remote access and terminal server functions.
•
Configure modems attached to a access server port.
•
Configure access server security.
•
Configure access server dialer services.
•
Make a Telnet console connection to an access server and issue console
commands.
Related Information
See the Cabletron Network Access Software Installation guide for instructions about
installing this application.
Read the Access Server’s online help for information about managing the access
server.
2-12
Chapter 3
User Interface
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes how to customize and manage the user interface to the
access server. The access server provides two features to manage the user
interface:
•
A command group defines a set of commands that a specified group of users
can access and execute.
•
A menu provides a customized selection of commands that a specified group
of users can select on the terminal screen.
Both command groups and menus can help the access server user avoid repetitive
typing.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Command Groups and Menus
•
Using Command Groups
•
Using Menus
•
Defining Menus
3-1
User Interface
Command Groups and Menus
Description
In addition to convenience, command groups and menus provide the access
server with a security feature. Since command groups and menus both have an
associated port list, you can control which users can access them.
Command groups and menus can also enable nonprivileged users to access a
subset of privileged commands. Even if command groups and menus contain
privileged commands, they are available to any nonprivileged user logged in to a
port in the associated port list.
3-2
User Interface
Using Command Groups
Creating a Command Group
To create a command group, follow these steps:
Step
Action
1
Use the CHANGE COMMAND GROUP command to specify a command
group name and port list.
Example: The following defines the command group called SERVICE_A that
is available on ports 2, 3, and 5:
Local> CHANGE COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_A PORT 2, 3, 5
2
Enter the individual commands that define the command group.
Example: Defining a Command Group
The following example shows how to enter individual commands to define a
typical command group. In this command group, the values %P1 and %P2
represent place holders for values that you specify when you execute the
command group.
Local> CHANGE COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_A LINE 10 "CHANGE PORT %P1 LOCK ENABLE"
Local> CHANGE COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_A LINE 20 "CHANGE PORT %P1 DEFAULT PROTOCOL LAT"
Local> CHANGE COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_A LINE 30 "CONNECT LAT %P2"
The command group defined in this example does the following for the specified
port:
1. Enables lock.
2. Sets the default protocol to LAT.
3. Connects to the LAT service specified.
Executing a Command Group
To execute a command group, use the DO command.
Example: Executing a Command Group
3-3
User Interface
The following example executes the command group SERVICE_A defined in the
previous example. When this command executes, it substitutes the value 3 for the
port place holder %P1 and SALES for the service place holder %P2.
Local> DO SERVICE_A 3 SALES
Displaying a Command Group
Use the SHOW COMMAND GROUP command to display a command group.
Example: Displaying a Command Group
The example below shows how to display the SERVICE_A command group.
Local> SHOW COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_A
Command Group: SERVICE_A
Enabled on Ports
2 3 5
Line 10:
CHANGE PORT %P1 LOCK ENABLE
Line 20:
CHANGE PORT %P1 DEFAULT PROTOCOL LAT
Line 30:
CONNECT LAT %P2
Purging a Command Group
Use the PURGE COMMAND GROUP command to purge a command group. Use
this command to delete a line from a command group, delete an entire command
group, or delete all command groups.
Example: Purging Command Groups
The following example shows how to use the PURGE command to delete the
command groups SERVICE_A, SERVICE_B, and all existing command groups:
Local> PURGE COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_A
Local> PURGE COMMAND GROUP SERVICE_B
Local> PURGE COMMAND GROUP ALL
3-4
User Interface
Using Menus
Displaying a List of Enabled Menus
To display a list of the menus enabled on a port, use the SHOW MENU command.
If you are a privileged user, the SHOW MENU command displays the names of
all menus available on the access server.
To enable a menu on a port, you must use the CHANGE MENU command. See
section Defining Menu Choices in this chapter.
Example: SHOW MENU Command
The following example shows how to display a list of menus:
Local> SHOW MENU
MAIN
HOSTS
SERVICES
Entering Menu Mode
To use any menu enabled on the current port, use the nonprivileged ENTER
MENU command. If you are a privileged user, the ENTER MENU command
enables you to use any menu available on the access server.
Example: Entering Menu Mode
The following example shows how to enter the hosts menu:
Local> ENTER MENU HOSTS
Assigning a Default Menu to a Port
To assign a default menu to a port, use the DEFINE PORT n DEFAULT MENU
command. If a port has a default menu, it displays whenever you:
•
Log in to the port.
•
Press the Local Break key or enter the Local Switch character while in a host
session.
•
Log out of a host session.
Example: Assigning a Default Menu
The following example show how to assign the default menu HOSTS to port 2:
3-5
User Interface
Local> DEFINE PORT 2 DEFAULT MENU HOSTS
Menu Windows
Menus are divided into two windows:
•
The menu choices window appears in lines 1 through 20.
•
The directions and user input window appears in lines 22 through 24.
The current selection appears in reverse video. To make a selection, use the upand down-arrow keys to highlight a selection and press the Return key. You can
also make a selection by entering the item number to the left of the selection and
pressing the Return key.
Windows on Access Server Menus
Figure 3-1 shows a typical access server menu:
Menu Choices
Window
(Lines 1-20)
Directions and
User Input
Window
(Lines 22-24)
1 Use DEC Host
2 Use IBM Host
3 Logout
Use <Up Arrow>, <Down Arrow>, or item number to make
your choice. Press <Return> to execute your choice.
LKG-7422-96f
Figure 3-1. Typical Access Server Menu
3-6
User Interface
Defining Menus
Introduction
This section describes how to define menus and provides examples.
Reference
For complete information about the commands mentioned in this section, refer to
the Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide.
Main Menu
Whenever the server has its factory-set default settings, it stores the main menu in
NVRAM. You can display and modify the default menu using the same
commands that you use for any other menu.
You may find it convenient to use the main menu as a starting point and an
example for creating new menus. For example, to create a new menu entitled
SERVICES based on the main menu, enter the following command:
Local> CHANGE MENU SERVICES FROM MAIN
In effect, the command above copies the main menu and gives the copy the name
SERVICES. To modify the menu SERVICES, use the CHANGE MENU command
as shown in the Example: Sample Definition of a Menu Selection in this chapter.
Main Menu Display
Figure 3-2 shows how the Main Menu displays on the screen:
3-7
User Interface
Access Server Main Menu
1 Open Lat Session
2 Open Telnet Session
3 Show Session
4 Next session
5 Close Session
6 Go to Command Line
7 Quit
Use <Up Arrow>, <Down Arrow>, or item number to make
your choice. Press <Return> to execute your choice.
LKG-7421-fh8
Figure 3-2. Main Menu Display
Defining Menu Choices
For each menu choice line, you can define:
•
One line of display text
•
A server command, which can:
-
Specify up to 8 optional input parameters
-
Be a DO command
•
A prompt string for each specified input parameter
•
A default string for each specified input parameter
Example: Sample Definition of a Menu Selection
The following example shows one way to define the selection Open Telnet Session
that appears on line 5 of the main menu:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
3-8
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
MENU
MENU
MENU
MENU
MAIN
MAIN
MAIN
MAIN
LINE
LINE
LINE
LINE
5
5
5
5
DISPLAY "OPEN TELNET SESSION"
P1PROMPT "ENTER HOST NAME OR IP ADDRESS"
P1DEFAULT "16.195.1.1"
EXECUTE "CONNECT TELNET%P1"
User Interface
The menu selection defined in this example does the following:
1. The following text displays on line 5 of the menu choices window:
OPEN TELNET SESSION
2. When you press the Return key, the following prompt displays in the
directions and user input window:
ENTER HOST NAME OR IP ADDRESS
3. The next step depends on whether you simply press the Return key or type a
host name or address before pressing the Return key.
-
If you press the Return key without typing a host name or address, the
access server executes the CONNECT TELNET command with the default
string:
CONNECT TELNET 16.195.1.1
-
If you type a host name or IP address and then press the Return key, the
access server executes the CONNECT TELNET command with the
specified name or address.
Displaying a Selected Menu
The ENTER MENU command enables you to display any menu that is enabled on
the port. If the port is privileged, you can enter a menu whether or not it is
enabled on the port.
For example, if the menu HOSTS is enabled on the current port, you enter the
following command to display this menu:
Local> ENTER MENU HOSTS
The menu display has item numbers for all menu lines that have display and
execute strings. The item numbers are in order (1, 2, 3, etc.) and usually do not
match the line numbers used in SET MENU LINE commands or SHOW MENU
displays.
If the port is type ANSI, menu items can be selected by either using the up- and
down-arrow keys or by entering the item number. To use the arrow keys, press
the up- or down-arrow key until the desired item is highlighted and press Return.
If the port is type SOFTCOPY or HARDCOPY, you can still enter a menu but the
arrow keys are disabled. Enter the item number to select a menu item.
3-9
User Interface
Exiting from a Menu
Unless the system manager wants to set up a captive menu (refer to the following
section), all menus should have an executable line for LEAVE MENU. To exit from
the menu, select this line (which has the display string “GOTO Command Line”
on the default menu MAIN).
If the port is privileged, it is also possible to exit from the menu by entering
Ctrl/C while the menu is displayed. This prevents you from being “trapped” if
you accidentally create and enter a menu without a LEAVE MENU or LOGOUT
command.
Using Menus to Set Up a Captive Port
A system manager can use the menus feature to set up a captive port such that
users can execute commands from within the menus only. To do this, define a
menu that has a LOGOUT command but no LEAVE MENU command, make this
menu the default menu for the port, and define the port nonprivileged.
Displaying a Menu Definition
To display the definition for a given menu, use the SHOW MENU command.
Example: Displaying a Menu Definition
The following example shows how to display the definition for the HOSTS menu:
Local> SHOW MENU HOSTS
Menu:
Hosts
Enabled on ports:
2, 3, 5
Line 5 Execute:
CONNECT LAT HOST_1
Line 5 Display:
Use DEC Host
Line 7 Execute:
CONNECT TELNET 195.20.0.15
Line 7 Display:
TCP/IP Host
3-10
User Interface
Line 9 Display
Logout
Line 9 Logout
LOGOUT
Purging Menu Lines and Entire Menus
Use the PURGE MENU command to delete a string from a menu line, an entire
menu line, an entire menu, or all menus from the access server database.
Example: Commands to Purge Entire Menus and Menu Lines
The following example shows the commands to purge specific menu lines and
entire menus:
Local> PURGE MENU MAIN LINE 5
Local> PURGE MENU HOSTS
3-11
User Interface
3-12
Chapter 4
Managing Load Hosts
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes the command procedures that you use to manage hosts
that load the access server software image on a LAT network.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
DSV$CONFIGURE
•
Using a BOOTP/TFTP Server
•
Upline Dumping
•
Terminal Server Manager (TSM)
4-1
Managing Load Hosts
Load Host Procedures
Description
The specific command procedure that you use to manage the load host depends
on the network version, protocol, and operating system of the load host. The
following table lists the available combinations, with a reference to the related
section in this chapter:
Load Host
Command
Procedure
Network
Protocol
Operating
System
Refer to:
DSV$CONFIGURE
DECnet Phase IV
DECnet/OSI
MDS
OpenVMS
DSV$CONFIGURE
/etc/add_DECserver
TCP/IP
BOOTP/TFTP
UNIX/DIGITAL
UNIX
Using a
BOOTP/TFTP
Server
/etc/list_DECserver
TCP/IP
BOOTP/TFTP
UNIX/DIGITAL
UNIX
Using a
BOOTP/TFTP
Server
/etc/rem_DECserver
TCP/IP
BOOTP/TFTP
UNIX/DIGITAL
UNIX
Using a
BOOTP/TFTP
Server
/etc/upd_DECserver
TCP/IP
BOOTP/TFTP
UNIX/DIGITAL
UNIX
Using a
BOOTP/TFTP
Server
Access Server Loader
and Access Server
Manager
TCP/IP
BOOTP/TFTP
WindowsNT/
Windows 95
Access Server
Manager online help
and the DECserver
Network Access
Software Installation
guide
4-2
Managing Load Hosts
DSV$CONFIGURE
Introduction
DSV$CONFIGURE is a command procedure that runs on a DECnet Phase IV
OpenVMS load host or on a DECnet/OSI OpenVMS load host. This procedure
enables you to:
•
Maintain configuration information about access servers.
•
Modify the local MOP (Maintenance Operation Protocol) client configuration.
•
Access the remote console port of the access server.
DSV$CONFIGURE is provided as part of the access server software. For
information about installing DSV$CONFIGURE, refer to the installation guide
provided with the access server software.
Backward Compatibility of DSV$CONFIGURE
DSV$CONFIGURE supports both DECnet Phase IV and DECnet/OSI Phase V.
Upon installation, DSV$CONFIGURE automatically converts databases created
by DSVCONFIG to the data format required by DSV$CONFIGURE.
Executing DSV$CONFIGURE
The procedure DSV$CONFIGURE.COM is located in the following directory:
SYS$COMMON:[DECSERVER]
Execute this procedure as follows:
$ @SYS$COMMON:[DECSERVER]DSV$CONFIGURE
Defining Symbols
You may find it useful to define a symbol for this procedure in your LOGIN.COM
file. For example:
$ DSV == "@SYS$COMMON:[DECSERVER]DSV$CONFIGURE"
Example: Starting DSV$CONFIGURE and Displaying Help
The following example shows how to use the symbol DSV to start
DSV$CONFIGURE. This example also shows how to use HELP to display a list of
DSV$CONFIGURE commands. The remainder of this section explains each
command shown.
4-3
Managing Load Hosts
$ DSV
%DSV-I-IDENT, executing DSV$CONFIGURE version x.x.x-nnn DSV-I-HELP, type ? any time for help
DSV> HELP
ADD
MODIFY
SET
DELETE
LIST
SHOW
CONNECT
USE
HELP
EXIT
-
Add a server to the system
Modify an existing server's information
Synonym for MODIFY
Remove a comm. server from the system
Display information about one or all servers
Synonym for LIST
Connect to a server via remote console
Synonym for connect
Displays summary of valid commands
Exit this procedure
ADD Command
To add an access server to the system, use the following command format:
ADD [SERVER] [server-name]
The following table describes the command syntax:
Command
Component
Description
SERVER
An optional keyword as in all DSV$CONFIGURE commands.
server-name
An optional way to specify the name. If you do not specify the
name on the command line, DSV$CONFIGURE prompts you for it.
After you enter the ADD command, DSV$CONFIGURE displays a series of
prompts. Some prompts display with defaults specified in square brackets. The
values of the defaults are based on the running system.
Example: DSV$CONFIGURE ADD Command
This example shows the ADD command on a DECnet/OSI system. In this
example, at the end of each line you must press return to continue.
4-4
Managing Load Hosts
DSV> ADD SERVER
_Server Name: DGD700
_Ethernet Address: 08-00-2B-26-AE-32
_Server Type: DS700
_Service Circuit [SVA-0]:
_Maintenance Password [none]: FEDCBA _Dump File
[MOP$DUMP:DS7DGD700.DMP]:
_Load Image [MOP$LOAD:WWENG2.SYS]:
After entering the ADD command, you can display information about the MOP
client with the:
•
DSV$CONFIGURE LIST command
•
NCL SHOW command for DECnet/OSI
•
NCP SHOW NODE command for DECnet Phase IV
If you use DECnet Phase IV, the required DECnet address prompt has a default of
the first unused address in area 13. You no longer need to enter an external SHOW
NODE 13.* command prior to adding an access server.
MODIFY and SET Commands
The MODIFY and SET commands operate in a manner similar to the ADD
command. These commands provide defaults for each prompt. The defaults are
the existing values for the server.
The syntax, prompts, and displays for the SET and MODIFY commands are
similar to those for the ADD command.
DELETE Command
The DELETE command removes an access server. This command clears both the
permanent configuration data stored on disk and the operational data stored in
memory.
The syntax of the DELETE command is identical to that for the ADD command.
Example: DELETE Command for DSV$CONFIGURE
The following example shows the DELETE command. This example omits the
optional SERVER keyword. In this example, NCL displays the message NODE 0
MOP Client DGD700 on a DECnet/OSI system. NCP displays a similar message
on a DECnet Phase IV system.
4-5
Managing Load Hosts
DSV> DELETE DGD700
Server:
DGD700
Circuit:
SVA-0
Address:
08-00-2B-26-AE-32
Maint. Password: FEDCBA
Type:
DS700
Dump File:
MOP$DUMP:DS7DGD700.DMP
Image File:
MOP$LOAD:WWENG2.SYS
Are you SURE you want to delete this server??? [No]: YES
Node 0 MOP Client DGD700 at 1992-10-26-13:31:29.378-05:00I0.176
LIST and SHOW Commands
The LIST and SHOW commands display information about an access server. The
syntax of the LIST command is identical to that for the ADD command with one
exception: server-name can be a wildcard character.
Example: LIST Command for DSV$CONFIGURE
The following example shows the data that the LIST and SHOW commands
display. In this example, the DECnet address would also display if this were a
DECnet Phase IV node.
DSV> LIST SERVER
_Server Name:
DGD700
Server:
DGD700
Circuit:
SVA-0
Address:
08-00-2B-26-AE-32
Maint. Password: FEDCBA
Type:
DS700
Dump File:
MOP$DUMP:DS7DGD700.DMP
Image File:
MOP$LOAD:WWENG2.SYS
CONNECT and USE Commands
The CONNECT and USE commands enable you to communicate with the remote
console port on the access server. DSV$CONFIGURE uses CCR to make the
connection. Once DSV$CONFIGURE makes the connection, you can use most
any access server command supported at any physical port.
Example: CONNECT Command for DSV$CONFIGURE on a DECnet/OSI
System
The following example shows how to use CCR and DSV$CONFIGURE to connect
to a remote console port from a DECnet/OSI system:
4-6
Managing Load Hosts
DSV> USE DGD700
%CCR-I-CONNEST, connection established to remote system 08-00-2B-26-AE-32
Press CTRL/ \ to disconnect, CTRL/] to send break
# ACCESS (not echoed)
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x Uptime: 0
00:16:47
(c) Copyright 1999, Cabletron Systems, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
Please type HELP if you need assistance
Enter username> Dave
Local> SHOW USER
Port
Username Status
Service
3
Connected
10
User 10 Connected
11
TELNET
Local Mode
Local> <Ctrl/\>
Example: CONNECT Command for DSV$CONFIGURE on a DECnet Phase IV
System
The following example shows how to use CCR and DSV$CONFIGURE to connect
to a remote console port from a DECnet Phase IV system. From a user’s
perspective, the only difference between DECnet/OSI and DECnet Phase IV is the
disconnect character:
•
DECnet/OSI Phase V uses Ctrl/ \ (backslash).
•
DECnet Phase IV uses Ctrl/D.
DSV> USE DGD700
Console connected (press CTRL/D when finished) - ACCESS Network
Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x
Uptime: 0 00:16:52
(c) Copyright 1999, Cabletron Systems, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
Please type HELP if you need assistance
Enter username> Dave
Local> <CTRL/D>
Context-Sensitive Help for DSV$CONFIGURE
DSV$CONFIGURE provides context-sensitive help. At any prompt other than the
Local> prompt after a CONNECT/USE command, type a question mark (?) for an
explanation.
4-7
Managing Load Hosts
Using a BOOTP/TFTP Server
Introduction
A BOOTP/TFTP server is a UNIX host that downloads the access server software
using the BOOTP and TFTP protocols. The BOOTP/TFTP server stores the
information necessary to downline load the access server software in the
/etc/bootptab file.
Reference
For information about installing and configuring a BOOTP/TFTP server refer to
the Cabletron Network Access Software Installation guide.
IP Address Configuration Via BOOTP
The Cabletron Network Access Software contains enhanced BOOTP functionality.
The access server stores several important Internet parameters from the BOOTP
server. This ability to store data for future use may be used whether the access
server operating software is loading from FLASH RAM, or via a load host using
the MOP protocol. The factory default settings for this feature now send a BOOTP
request on the network in order to obtain one if the access server unit does not
have an IP address defined in NVRAM. Customers who do not wish to run IP on
their access server, and, therefore, may wish to disable this feature, may issue the
DEFINE INTERNET DISABLE command to explicitly disable it.
The parameters that the access server unit can obtain from the BOOTP server
include the Internet (IP) address, subnet mask, default gateway address, and
domain name server address. The BOOTP server stores the information for the
default domain only; it will always store the IP address. The other parameters are
BOOTP vendor extensions and may or may not be learned, depending on the
capabilities of the BOOTP server used, and the configuration of data in the
BOOTP server database.
Remote Connection Password
CNAS has a password feature for remote logins, similar to the main login
password. CNAS uses a single value for the remote password server-wide that is
separate from the main login password. The factory default value is the same,
however, for both the remote login password and the main login password.
4-8
Managing Load Hosts
Each port enabled for remote or dynamic access, may have its remote password
feature individually enabled or disabled. This feature is useful for both reverse
LAT services or Telnet listeners. CNAS uses the remote password, in addition to
the LAT service password, when the LAT service is password-protected. When a
host initiates a login to a remote password-protected port on the server, the server
displays the '-' prompt. The customer can use this feature in a variety of ways. For
example, the customer can use this feature for creating password-protecting
modem pools that can be accessed via a Telnet listener.
4-9
Managing Load Hosts
Upline Dumping
Introduction
The access server upline dumps its memory when:
•
An unexpected failure occurs.
•
You force a crash.
The access server always dumps to a load host with the protocol that was used for
its download. After an upline dump, the access server automatically reinitializes.
Reference
To send a dump file to your authorized service provider for evaluation, follow the
procedure described in the Cabletron Network Access Software Problem Solving
guide.
Upline Dumps with MOP Hosts
If the access server uses the MOP protocol, check the Dump Address field in the
display for the SHOW SERVER STATUS command. This 12-digit hexadecimal
number is the Ethernet address for the load host that received the most recent
upline dump.
If the dump host is running DECnet software, you can convert the Ethernet
address of the dump host to the DECnet node address of the dump host. A
formula for this conversion appears in the DECnet documentation for the
operating system of the dump host.
When you use the Add option of DSV$CONFIGURE, the command procedure
assigns a name for the access server dump file. When a dump occurs, MOP takes
the data and creates the dump file. If the access server dumps more than once,
MOP creates new versions of the file.
Upline Dumps with BOOTP/TFTP Hosts
Load hosts that use BOOTP and TFTP protocols store upline dumps in the file
that you created when you configured the load host.
Refer to the Cabletron Network Access Software Installation guide.
4-10
Managing Load Hosts
Terminal Server Manager (TSM)
Introduction
TSM is a utility that runs on OpenVMS load hosts. TSM enables you to configure
and manage the access servers on the same extended LAN.
TSM is not included in the access server software and must be purchased
separately.
Reference
For more information about TSM, refer to the Terminal Server Manager
Installation and Use manual.
For TSM Users
If you use TSM, do not use DSV$CONFIGURE or NCP to update the DECnet
database. By not using DSV$CONFIGURE and NCP with TSM, you can avoid
accidentally overwriting access server information from TSM.
4-11
Managing Load Hosts
4-12
Chapter 5
Managing Directed TFTP
Overview
Directed TFTP is a feature that allows the Access Server to load from a single, prespecified TFTP server. Once configured for Directed TFTP, the Access Server ROM
firmware downloads its operating image from the specified TFTP server rather
than soliciting a response from a BOOTP server. Directed TFTP makes it easier for
the Access Server to obtain an operating image over the wide area network
(WAN).
In This Chapter
This chapter includes the following information:
•
How to configure Directed TFTP on an Access Server
5-1
Managing Directed TFTP
Configuring Directed TFTP on an Access Server
Directed TFTP requires a minimum ROM code revision to be resident in the
Access Server. The minimum revision of ROM firmware is V5.1 for the DECserver
90M and V7.1 for the DECserver 700, DECserver 900 models, and Cabletron
Access Server models.
Before you start, you must know the following information:
NOTES
•
The IP address of the Access Server
•
The IP address of the default gateway (for routed access)
•
The IP address of the TFTP server
•
The image name on the TFTP server (if it is not the default)
•
If the Access Server has V2.3 (or later) software preloaded in FLASH RAM or
if a BOOTP server for loading V2.3 (or later) software is available to the Access
Server
You will need the default gateway IP address if the TFTP server is not in the same
IP LAN subnet as the Access Server.
If the Access Server did not ship from the factory with the required minimum
revision of ROM firmware, and the Access Server has not been reset to the factory
default parameters, then you must purge or redefine the existing default gateway
information using the Access Server command line interface PURGE and
DEFINE commands.
For an Access Server that is already running V2.3 (or later) software (e.g. from
FLASH RAM) perform the following steps to configure the Access Server for
Directed TFTP (DTFTP) loading using the Access Server command line interface:
5-2
Step
Action
1
Ensure that the Access Server has an IP address configured (SHOW
INTERNET). If not, use the DEFINE INTERNET MASK nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
and DEFINE INTERNET ADDRESS nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn commands to
define the IP address.
2
Ensure that the Access Server has a default gateway configured, if required
by your network topology (SHOW INTERNET GATEWAY). If not, use the
DEFINE INTERNET GATEWAY nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn ANY command to
define one.
Managing Directed TFTP
Step
Action
3
Define the Directed TFTP server host address using the DEFINE SERVER
TFTP HOST nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn command. For example:
Local> DEFINE SERVER TFTP HOST ADDRESS 192.444.10.2
4
Ensure that the Access Server load image name matches the filename used
at the TFTP server’s default directory location (LIST SERVER). If not, use
the DEFINE SERVER SOFTWARE aaaaaaaaa command to modify the
filename. For example:
Local> DEFINE SERVER SOFTWARE MYDS900
NOTE
You may also configure DTFTP using the Access Server Manager V2.3 (or later)
user interface.
For an Access Server that is not already running V2.3 (or later)software, to
perform a Directed TFTP image load, you must intervene in the boot process
using the ROM firmware Mini-Monitor. Follow these steps:
Step
Action
1
Connect a terminal or terminal emulator to the Access Server console port,
Port 1, at 9600 baud.
2
Boot the Access Server.
3
Once the boot status messages appear, enter Ctrl/B twice. You will receive a
Mini-Monitor command prompt that looks like this: >>>.
4
Temporarily set the Access Server IP address, default gateway IP address, if
required, and the TFTP server IP address, using the "S" command to set the
Access Server IP address (ip=nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn), default gateway address
(gw=nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn), and the TFTP server IP address
(tftp=nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn). For example:
>>> s ip=192.444.2.3
>>> s gw=192.444.5.1
>>> s tftp=192.444.3.3
5-3
Managing Directed TFTP
Step
Action
5
Initiate a boot from using the Access Server’s Ethernet interface, by entering
the "B" command at the prompt. For example:
>>> b eth:mneng2 (for DECserver 90M)
>>> b eth:wweng2 (for DECserver 700 or 900 or Access
Server 316)
6
Once the software load is complete, follow the steps listed in the previous
table to make the configuration of the DTFTP information permanent.
To permanently disable Directed TFTP from the DNAS command line prompt,
DEFINE the TFTP HOST to NONE. For example:
Local> DEFINE SERVER TFTP HOST NONE
To temporarily disable Directed TFTP from the ROM firmware Mini-Monitor
command line prompt, set the TFTP server IP address to zero. For example:
>>> s tftp=0
NOTE
5-4
When DTFTP is configured on an access server and a network load is specified
(excluding a FLASH RAM load), the Access Server ROM firmware will revert to
loading from FLASH RAM after several unsuccessful retries of DTFTP loading.
Chapter 6
Initializing the Access Server
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes how to initialize the access server. Initializing the access
server reloads the software image.
Initializing the access server does not affect the configuration settings stored in
NVRAM. To reset the access server to the factory-set defaults, you need to reboot
the access server and press the appropriate switch on the hardware unit. For
details about this procedure, refer to the hardware documentation provided with
the access server.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Preparing LAT Services for Initialization
•
Preparing Telnet Listeners for Initialization
•
Initializing the Access Server
•
Using NCP to Initialize the Access Server
•
Booting from the Network
•
Booting Using Console Commands
6-1
Initializing the Access Server
Preparing LAT Services for Initialization
Do This
If the access server offers LAT services, follow these steps before you initialize:
Step
Action
1
Enter the following command to disable queuing on the access server:
Local> SET SERVER QUEUE LIMIT 0
2
Disable additional connections to local services. For example, the following
command disables the service LASER:
Local> SET SERVICE LASER CONNECTIONS DISABLED
3
Check that the queue is empty before starting the initialization procedure by
entering one of the following commands:
Local> SHOW QUEUE ALL
or
Local> SHOW SERVER STATUS
The time that it takes for the queue to empty depends upon the number of
requests that it contains.
6-2
Initializing the Access Server
Preparing Telnet Listeners for Initialization
Do This
If the access server has Telnet listeners, follow these steps before you initialize:
Step
Action
1
Disable further Telnet connections. The network access server fails to execute
the SET TELNET LISTENER CONNECTIONS DISABLED command if a
session exists on the specified listener.
Example: The following command disables Telnet connections on TCP port
2005:
Local> SET TELNET LISTENER 2005 CONNECTIONS DISABLED
2
Log out the port.
Example: The following command logs out port 5:
Local> LOGOUT PORT 5
6-3
Initializing the Access Server
Initializing the Access Server
Using the INITIALIZE Command
To use the INITIALIZE command, log in to one of the following:
•
A terminal attached to the access server
•
The remote console port
Login Methods
You can use any of the following methods to log into the remote console port:
•
NCP
•
SET HOST/MOP
•
CCR
•
Telnet remote console
Refer to Remote Console Port section in Chapter 2 for additional information
about the remote console port.
Default Mode for the INITIALIZE Command
To use the INITIALIZE command in its default mode of operation, enter the
following:
Local> INITIALIZE
In this mode of operation, the following steps occur:
Step
Action
1
If the access server has Flash capabilities and the image name stored in
NVRAM matches the image name stored in Flash, the access server loads the
image from Flash RAM.
2
If there is no image in FLASH or the access server lacks FLASH capabilities,
the access server loads the software image from a load host on the network.
If there is no image in FLASH or the access server lacks FLASH capabilities, the
access server loads the software image from a load host on the network.
6-4
Initializing the Access Server
Specifying Initialization from a Load Host
To specify initialization from a network load host, use the following command:
Local> INITIALIZE FROM ETHERNET
This command causes the access server to request the image name stored in its
NVRAM from a load host.
Specifying an Image Name When Initializing
You can specify the name of an image when initializing. For example, the
following command causes the access server to request the image named
WWENG2 from a load host:
Local> INITIALIZE FROM ETHERNET IMAGE WWENG2
Specifying Initialization from Flash RAM
If a access server has Flash capabilities, you can specify initialization from the
image stored in Flash RAM by using the following command:
Local> INITIALIZE FROM FLASHRAM
Updating Flash RAM
If a access server has Flash capabilities, you can update the image stored in Flash
RAM with an image from a network load host. Use the following command:
Local> INITIALIZE FROM ETHERNET UPDATE FLASHRAM
This command causes the access server to request the image name stored in
NVRAM from a load host to update Flash RAM.
Specifying a Delay Value with INITIALIZE
When you enter the INITIALIZE command, you can specify a delay value as
shown in the following example:
Local> INITIALIZE DELAY 10
This command causes the access server to wait 10 minutes before initializing.
The range for the delay value is from 0 to 1440 minutes. The default delay value is
1.
6-5
Initializing the Access Server
Using the DIAGNOSE Option with INITIALIZE
Using the DIAGNOSE option with INITIALIZE enables you to test the access
server hardware. You can specify three types of tests as described in the
INITIALIZE DIAGNOSE Option Tests.
The following example shows the DIAGNOSE option with INITIALIZE:
Local> INITIALIZE DIAGNOSE FULL
This command initializes the access server in the default mode and performs an
extended test.
INITIALIZE DIAGNOSE Option Tests
The following table shows the tests that are available as part of the INITIALIZE
DIAGNOSE option:
Test
Performs
Brief
Internal self-test only.
Full
Extended test including in-depth memory test
Normal (Default)
Standard self-test.
Specifying the DISABLE OPTION with INITIALIZE
Using the DISABLE option with INITIALIZE loads the software image, but
disables the use of the CONNECT command and the AUTOCONNECT function.
The following command shows how to use this option:
Local> INITIALIZE DISABLE
6-6
Initializing the Access Server
Using NCP to Initialize the Access Server
NCP Initialization Commands
The following table shows the NCP commands used to initialize the access server
if you are on a load host:
NCP Initialization
Commands
Description
LOAD
Ensures that the host at which you issue the command is the
node that performs the load.
TRIGGER
Causes the access server to load the software image from
any host on the network.
The NCP LOAD and TRIGGER commands do not have any automatic warning or
delay options. However, you can warn users about an impending initialization by
using the access server BROADCAST command.
NCP Reference
For more information about NCP, refer to the documentation provided with the
host system.
6-7
Initializing the Access Server
Booting from the Network
Loading the Software Image
If your network server is configured with Flash RAM, but does not have the
correct image, the access server performs a network load.
Determining Boot Protocols
During the network boot sequence, the access server searches for a load host. The
access server tries both MOP and BOOTP protocols in a factory-defined order.
The boot sequence includes a wait period after passing through all the boot
protocols. Once the access server finds a load host, it records the protocol and
load host in its permanent database. The software is then downline loaded from
the load host.
Reference
For more information about installing the software, refer to the Cabletron Network
Access Software Installation guide.
6-8
Initializing the Access Server
Booting Using Console Commands
Introduction
Console functions require access server ROM Version 4.0 or greater.
If you program Flash RAM with a nonstandard boot image name and a load host
is not available, pressing the reset-to-factory button may leave the access server
unbootable.
Procedure
To allow booting of a nonstandard boot image name, perform the following steps:
Step
Action
1
During the boot sequence of the access server initialization process, press
Ctrl/B two times consecutively on the port defined as the console port.
The boot process stops and the access server returns the following console
prompt:
>>>
2
At the >>> prompt, you can enter H to invoke help.
Entering H provides help text to describe the interactive boot mode
commands available. The Boot Command Options section in this chapter
lists the boot mode commands and summarizes the help text that appears
when you invoke H.
3
Choose one of the boot command options listed in the Boot Command
Options section in this chapter.
6-9
Initializing the Access Server
Boot Command Options
The following table lists the command options you can select for the boot
command:
Option
Definition
Associated Options
B
This command, without an argument,
starts a new boot sequence to load the
access server with an executable image
using the default boot parameters.
-
B name
This command and the argument
name specifies a nonstandard boot
image. The access server looks for the
software name; first from Flash RAM,
then from the network.
B MNENG — This command instructs
the access server to look for the
MNENG2 software image first in Flash
RAM, then from the network.
b /tftp/serversw — This command
instructs the access server to look for
image /TFTP/SERVERSW; first in
Flash RAM, then from the network. If
you want lowercase letters, you have
to use quotation marks. For example:
b "/tftp/serversw"
B "" — This command and the
quotation marks (explicit null name)
instruct the access server to search for
any image in Flash RAM. If the access
server is unable to find an image in
Flash RAM, then it loads from the
network. The network load host
defines this software and is typically
based on the Ethernet MAC address of
the access server.
6-10
Initializing the Access Server
Option
Definition
Associated Options
B
media:name
In this command, the media part of
media:name specifies which boot
media to use.
FLA: — Use Flash RAM. For example:
B FLA:MNENG2
ETH: — Use the network to find a load
host. For example:
B ETH:MNENG2
FLA:ETH: — Use Flash RAM first, and
if that does not work, then use the
network to find a load host. For
example:
B FLA:ETH:MNENG2
B/M
This command boots the maintenance
mode software for the access server.
The network load host defines this
software and is typically based on the
Ethernet MAC address of the access
server.
-
B/S
This command boots the standard
system software for the access server.
The network load host defines this
software and is typically based on the
Ethernet MAC address of the access
server.
-
H
This command displays the help text
that describes the interactive boot
mode commands.
-
I
This command initializes the access
server using the default boot
parameters. The access server
performs all normal self-tests.
-
6-11
Initializing the Access Server
Option
Definition
Associated Options
R
This command resets the factorysettings and initializes the access
server. This command requires
verification. Enter YES if you want to
reset the access server to factory
settings.
-
S
This command sets parameters for the
current boot cycle only
S ip=nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
This command sets the IP address of
the access server. Use it with the
directed TFTP feature.
S gw=nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
This command sets the IP default
gateway address of the access server.
Use it with the directed TFTP feature.
S tftp=nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
This command sets the IP address of
the TFTP server to be used to load the
access server’s operating image. This
command also sets the directed TFTP
feature to ENABLED.
S tftp=0
This command sets the directed TFTP
feature to DISABLED.
6-12
Chapter 7
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Overview
In This Chapter
This chapter describes how to configure the LAT characteristics for the access
server. This chapter contains the following topics:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LAT Characteristics
Displaying LAT Characteristics
ANNOUNCEMENTS Characteristic
CIRCUIT TIMER Characteristic
IDENTIFICATION Characteristic
KEEPALIVE TIMER Characteristic
MULTICAST TIMER Characteristic
ACCESS SERVER NAME Characteristic
NODE LIMIT Characteristic
Access SERVER NUMBER Characteristic
NODE LIMIT Characteristic
Access SERVER NUMBER Characteristic
PASSCHECK Characteristic
QUEUE LIMIT Characteristic
RETRANSMIT LIMIT Characteristic
RESPONDER Characteristic
Service Groups
7-1
Configuring LAT Characteristics
LAT Characteristics
Preparing to Change LAT Characteristics
Before you change LAT characteristics, make sure to:
•
Install the latest software image on the access server and all load hosts.
•
Read the release notes.
•
Know what devices and cables are connected at the various ports.
•
Enter the SET PRIVILEGED command for the port.
•
Check if the current values or default values are appropriate.
LAT Characteristic Summary
To modify a LAT characteristic, use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE command for
the appropriate characteristic. The following table summarizes the access server
LAT characteristics:
Characteristic
Default
Range
Refer to Section
ANNOUNCEMENTS
Enabled
-
ANNOUNCEMENTS
Characteristic
CIRCUIT TIMER
80 milliseconds
30 to 200
CIRCUIT TIMER
Characteristic
IDENTIFICATION
None
-
IDENTIFICATION
Characteristic
KEEPALIVE TIMER
20 seconds
–
KEEPALIVE TIMER
Characteristic
MULTICAST TIMER
30 seconds
10 to 180
MULTICAST TIMER
Characteristic
NAME
LAT_ethernetaddress
-
SERVER NAME
Characteristic
NODE LIMIT
200
1 to 1000
NODE LIMIT
Characteristic
NUMBER
0
0 to 32,767
SERVER NUMBER
Characteristic
7-2
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Characteristic
Default
Range
Refer to Section
PASSCHECK
200
0 to 200
PASSCHECK
Characteristic
QUEUE LIMIT
100
0 to 200
QUEUE LIMIT
Characteristic
RESPONDER
Disabled
-
RESPONDER
Characteristic
RETRANSMIT LIMIT
8
4 to 120
RETRANSMIT LIMIT
Characteristic
SERVICE GROUPS
0 ENABLED,
1 to 255 DISABLED
0 to 255
Service Groups
7-3
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Displaying LAT Characteristics
Command To Use
To display the current LAT characteristics, use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR
SERVER command as shown in the following example.
LAT Characteristics Display Example
The following example shows a typical display that appears when you use the
SHOW SERVER command:
Local> SHOW SERVER
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x Uptime: 0 00:44:34
Address: 08-00-2B-26-AA-99
Identification:
Circuit Timer:
Console Port:
Inactivity Timer:
Keepalive Timer:
Multicast Timer:
Node Limit:
Service Groups:
Name: WWDOCMC Number: 0
80
1
30
20
30
200
Password Limit:
3
Prompt:
Local>
Queue Limit:
100
Retransmit Limit:
8
Session Limit :
64
Software:
WWENG1
42, 46, 66
Enabled Characteristics:
Announcements, Broadcast, Dump, Lock, Server Responder
Local>
7-4
Configuring LAT Characteristics
ANNOUNCEMENTS Characteristic
Introduction
The ANNOUNCEMENTS characteristic determines if the access server sends
LAT multicast messages about local services over the Ethernet. The access server
does not send any announcements if no local services are defined.
Configure Announcements Example
The following example shows how to enable and disable the announcements
characteristic:
Local> CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS ENABLED
Local> CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS DISABLED
7-5
Configuring LAT Characteristics
CIRCUIT TIMER Characteristic
Introduction
The CIRCUIT TIMER characteristic defines the interval at which the access server
sends virtual circuit messages to the LAT service node. This value is important for
balancing fast response time and network utilization against optimal service node
performance.
The circuit timer value ranges from 30 to 200 milliseconds. The default is 80
milliseconds, which is recommended for normal interactive functions.
Changing the CIRCUIT TIMER
To change the circuit timer, use the command shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE SERVER CIRCUIT TIME milliseconds
Increasing the CIRCUIT TIMER
As you increase the circuit timer value, the LAT protocol overhead decreases on
the access server, service node, and network. A slower terminal response time,
however, is the trade-off for any increased circuit timer value.
Decreasing the CIRCUIT TIMER
If you reduce the circuit timer value, the access server port buffers are less likely
to fill between virtual circuit messages. If you have a file transfer with no flow
control between a port and a device, a lower circuit timer value can mean fewer
data overrun errors at the port. Therefore, a reduced circuit timer value may
enable file transfers to run at increased speeds.
7-6
Configuring LAT Characteristics
IDENTIFICATION Characteristic
Introduction
The IDENTIFICATION characteristic is a string that can be up to 40 characters
long. This string displays:
•
Under the welcome banner during a login procedure
•
In the SHOW SERVER displays
The access server also uses the identification string when it multicasts messages
about the availability of services.
Changing the Server Identification String
To change the server identification string, use the following command:
Local> CHANGE SERVER IDENTIFICATION "newID"
Removing an Identification String
To remove an identification string, specify a null string by using the following
command:
Local> CHANGE SERVER IDENTIFICATION ""
The null string is the default identification string.
Identification String in a Login Procedure Display
The following example shows how the identification string Personnel Printers
displays during a login procedure:
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x Uptime: 0
00:16:58 Personnel Printers
(c) Copyright 1998, Cabletron Systems, Inc. - All Rights Reserved
Please type HELP if you need assistance
Enter username>
7-7
Configuring LAT Characteristics
KEEPALIVE TIMER Characteristic
Introduction
The KEEPALIVE TIMER characteristic maintains a virtual circuit between the
access server and service node when no messages are exchanged over a period of
time. If the keepalive timer expires, the access server sends a message to
determine if the service node is still reachable. If the service node fails to respond,
the access server can time out the virtual circuit.
Keepalive Timer Default Values
The keepalive timer value is a trade-off between fast circuit-down detection and
unnecessary network traffic. The factory-set default value of 20 seconds
represents a good compromise. For a heavily loaded Ethernet, use a value from 60
to 180. For applications that require quick notification of a service node failure,
use 10 seconds.
Keepalive Timer Example
The following example shows how to change the keepalive timer to 10 seconds:
Local> CHANGE SERVER KEEPALIVE 10
7-8
Configuring LAT Characteristics
MULTICAST TIMER Characteristic
Introduction
The MULTICAST TIMER characteristic determines the interval at which a service
node sends service announcements.
Multicast Timer Default Values
You can specify a value from 10 to 180 seconds. The default value is 30 seconds.
Changing Multicast Timer Values Example
The following example shows how to change the multicast timer value:
Local> CHANGE SERVER MULTICAST TIMER 50
7-9
Configuring LAT Characteristics
ACCESS SERVER NAME Characteristic
Introduction
The SERVER NAME characteristic is a string of 1 to 16 characters. This name must
be unique on the LAT network. When the access server offers a service, it
periodically multicasts the name over the local area network.
Default Access Server Name
The default access server name is LAT_ethernet-address. This value is the 12-digit
hexadecimal Ethernet address of the access server. This address does not contain
hyphens.
Changing the ACCESS SERVER NAME
Use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE SERVER NAME command to change this
characteristic. The following example shows how to change the access server
name to “Printing”:
Local> CHANGE SERVER NAME PRINTING
7-10
Configuring LAT Characteristics
NODE LIMIT Characteristic
Introduction
The NODE LIMIT characteristic specifies the maximum number of LAT service
nodes that the access server maintains in its node database. The range is from 1 to
2000, and the default is 200.
You can also specify a node limit of NONE. This keyword indicates that the only
limit is the available memory of the access server.
Changing the Access Server NODE LIMIT
Use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE SERVER NODE LIMIT command to change this
characteristic. The following example shows how to change the node limit to 300:
Local> CHANGE SERVER NODE LIMIT 300
7-11
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Access SERVER NUMBER Characteristic
Introduction
Each access server has a number that uniquely identifies it.
Access SERVER NUMBER Values
This number is a value from 0 to 32,767. The default is 0.
When the access server offers a service, it periodically multicasts the number over
the network.
Changing the Access SERVER NUMBER
Use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE SERVER NUMBER command to change this
characteristic. The following command shows how to change the access server
number to 35:
Local> CHANGE SERVER NUMBER 35
7-12
Configuring LAT Characteristics
PASSCHECK Characteristic
Introduction
The PASSCHECK characteristic determines whether a host is required to provide
a password as part of a host initiated contact (HIC) request to a passwordprotected local service. With PASSCHECK disabled, HIC requests are not
required to supply a password. With PASSCHECK enabled, HIC requests are
required to supply a password.
Changing the PASSCHECK Characteristics
The factory default for the PASSCHECK characteristic is DISABLED. To change
this characteristic, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE SERVER PASSCHECK
command.
PASSCHECK Characteristic Example
The following example shows how to enable the PASSCHECK characteristic:
Local> CHANGE SERVER PASSCHECK ENABLED
7-13
Configuring LAT Characteristics
QUEUE LIMIT Characteristic
Introduction
The LAT QUEUE LIMIT characteristic specifies the maximum number of
outstanding connection requests for remote access to access server ports. The
range is from 0 to 200, and the default is 100.
Special QUEUE LIMIT Values
Two values have special meaning:
•
The value 0 disables the queue.
•
The keyword NONE places no limit on connection requests.
Changing the QUEUE LIMIT
To change queue limit characteristic, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE SERVER
QUEUE LIMIT command. The following example shows how to change the
queue limit to NONE:
Local> CHANGE SERVER QUEUE LIMIT NONE
7-14
Configuring LAT Characteristics
RETRANSMIT LIMIT Characteristic
Introduction
The RETRANSMIT LIMIT characteristic specifies the number of times that the
access server resends a message without an acknowledgment. After the specified
time limit, the access server times out the circuit. If other service nodes offer the
same service that timed out, the access server attempts automatic failover.
RETRANSMIT LIMIT Values
The retransmit limit range is from 4 to 120. If traffic load is heavy or the network
experiences noise problems, set the value higher than the default value of 8. On
the other hand, if rapid error detection is important, you may want to specify a
lower value.
Changing the RETRANSMIT LIMIT Characteristic
To change the RETRANSMIT LIMIT characteristic, use the
DEFINE/SET/CHANGE SERVER RETRANSMIT LIMIT command. The
following example shows how to change the retransmit limit to 100:
Local> CHANGE SERVER RETRANSMIT LIMIT 100
7-15
Configuring LAT Characteristics
RESPONDER Characteristic
Access Server Mapping
In order to connect to other nodes on the LAN, the access server must be able to
map node names, port names, and services to specific nodes.
Datagram Types
LAT provides the following specific types of datagrams that facilitate this
mapping:
Datagram Name
Description
Service Announcement
A mulicasted datagram used by slave nodes to
advertise services
Solicit Information
A multicasted or physically addressed datagram used
by any node to solicit service information from
another node
Response Information
A physically addressed datagram sent in response to a
received Solicit Information message
LAT V5.2 nodes operating as LAT masters can address Solicit Information
datagrams to V5.2 slave nodes and be almost assured of a direct response.
However, nodes operating as V5.1 masters can only address Solicit Information
datagrams to other V5.1 masters since V5.1 slaves do not enable multicast
addresses for the reception of directory service datagrams. Therefore, V5.1 and
V5.2 nodes are allowed to respond to Solicit Information datagrams for slave
nodes that cannot respond for themselves.
The RESPONDER characteristic determines whether the access server may act as
an agent for other nodes. By configuring one or more access servers to act as
responders, the other access servers can operate with a node limit of 1 and still be
assured access to LAT services. This frees up the dynamic memory and reduces
the overhead that would otherwise have been required to maintain the LAT node
database.
7-16
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Changing the RESPONDER Characteristic
The factory default setting for the RESPONDER characteristic is disabled. To
enable it, use the following command:
Local> CHANGE SERVER RESPONDER ENABLED
Use the SHOW SERVER command to determine the current setting. When the
feature is enabled, “RESPONDER” is displayed as one of the enabled
characteristics.
Along with enabling the RESPONDER characteristic, you must set the access
server group codes so that they intersect those of all the nodes offering the
service.
Enabling or disabling the RESPONDER characteristic has no affect on the access
server ability to respond to Solicit Information messages for services it offers
locally.
7-17
Configuring LAT Characteristics
Service Groups
Introduction
A service group defines the access that service nodes and port users have to the
network. Each service group has an identifying number from 0 to 255.
Viewing Service Groups
To view service groups that have access to services on the access server, use the
SHOW SERVER command. (See the LAT Characteristics Display Example section
in this chapter.)
Changing Access Server Service Groups
Use one of the following commands:
•
To enable service groups on the access server, use the following command:
Local> CHANGE SERVER SERVICE GROUPS group-list ENABLED
•
To assign ports to a service group, use the following command:
Local> CHANGE PORT port-list AUTHORIZED GROUPS group-list ENABLED
Changing Service Groups Examples
•
The following example shows how to enable service groups 1, 16, and 18:
Local> CHANGE SERVER SERVICE GROUPS 1,16,18 ENABLED
•
The following example shows how to assign ports 2, 3, and 5 to service groups
1, 16, and 18:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2,3,5 AUTHORIZED GROUPS 1,16,18 ENABLED
7-18
Chapter 8
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes the configuration characteristics for a TCP/IP network. To
enable the access server to operate on a TCP/IP network, you need to:
1. Configure the Internet address and subnet mask.
2. Configure the TCP/IP characteristics, for example:
•
List of commonly used Internet hosts
•
List of gateway addresses
•
List of ARP entries
•
TCP keepalive timer
3. Configure domain name characteristics.
In addition, you can configure the access server to automatically learn IP
information from other types of servers on the network.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Configuring the Internet Address and Subnet Mask
•
Configuring Domain Name System (DNS) Characteristics
•
Configuring a List of Internet Gateway Addresses
•
Configuring a List of Internet ARP Entries
8-1
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
8-2
•
Displaying the Internet Counters
•
Setting the TCP Keepalive Timer
•
Learning IP Information From a BOOTP Server
•
Learning IP Information From a DHCP Server
•
Assigning WINS Server Addresses
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Configuring the Internet Address and Subnet Mask
Tasks
You can perform the following tasks:
•
Set an Internet address.
•
Set a subnet mask.
•
Display the Internet address and subnet mask.
Alternative: Learning IP Information
You can configure the access server to learn IP configuration information from a
BOOTP server or a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server on the
network instead of configuring all of the IP information on the access server
manually. See the following sections in this chapter:
NOTE
•
Learning IP Information From a BOOTP Server
•
Learning IP Information From a DHCP Server
The access server will not acquire its own IP address from a DHCP server. Use a
BOOTP server for this purpose.
Setting the Internet Address
Before the access server can operate on a TCP/IP network, you must assign a
Class A, B, or C Internet address. To assign the address on the access server, use a
command similar to the one shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET ADDRESS 195.1.1.60
!
If you do not intend to use the default subnet mask, you must set or change the
subnet mask before you set or change the Internet address.
CAUTION
8-3
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Setting an Internet Subnet Mask
The Internet subnet mask is used to partition the host section of an Internet
address into subnets. The default subnet mask depends on the class of the
Internet address that you assigned.
The following table lists these defaults:
Internet Address Class
Default Subnet Mask
A
255.0.0.0
B
255.255.0.0
C
255.255.255.0
Do Not Define the Subnet Mask in the /etc/bootptab File
Although some BOOTP implementations allow you to define a subnet mask
using the /etc/bootptab file, the network access server does not support this
feature. For more information, refer to the network access server software
installation documentation for your load host.
Changing the Subnet Mask
To change the subnet mask, use the CHANGE INTERNET SUBNET MASK
command. The following example shows how to change the subnet mask to
255.255.255.0:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0
Changing the Subnet Mask to the Default Value
To return the subnet mask to its default value after changing it, do the following:
Step
Action
1
Enter the following command:
Local> DEFINE INTERNET SUBNET MASK NONE
2
8-4
Reboot the access server.
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Supernetted IP Addresses
The CNAS software supports the use of supernetted IP addresses. Supernetting
allows you to configure the access server and its ports with a subnet mask shorter
than the intrinsic subnet mask (for example, 255.255.255.0 for a Class C address).
With supernetting, you can give a Class C subnet mask a range of 255.255.0.0 to
255.255.255.254. This allows you to address a block of Class C IP addresses as a
“domain” or a single destination address with more than 254 hosts.
Displaying the Internet Address and Subnet Mask
To display the Internet address and subnet mask, use the
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR INTERNET command.
Internet Address and Subnet Mask Display Example
The following example shows how to display the current Internet address and
subnet mask for the access server:
Local> SHOW INTERNET
State
Internet Address:
Subnet Mask:
DHCP:
TCP Keepalive Timer:
TCP Keepalive Retry:
Local>
Enabled
195.1.1.1
255.255.255.0
Enabled
Disabled
8
8-5
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Configuring Domain Name System (DNS)
Characteristics
Tasks
This section describes how to display and set the access server characteristics for
the Internet domain name system (DNS) to resolve host names into Internet
addresses.
You can perform the following tasks:
•
Display DNS characteristics.
•
Display DNS counters.
•
Configure the default name resolution domain.
•
Change the time limit.
•
Change the retry limit.
•
Change the name resolution mode.
•
Configure a list of commonly used Internet hosts.
•
Configure a list of Internet name servers.
Displaying DNS Characteristics
To display the access server characteristics for the DNS, use the SHOW/LIST
INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION command.
Internet DNS Character Display Example
The following example shows how to display the characteristics for the Internet
DNS:
Local> SHOW INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION
NetBIOS (WINS) Name Resolution:
Primary WINS Server:
Secondary WINS Server
16.20.44.55
wins-server-local (from DHCP)
Domain Name Resolution
Domain Name: finance.acme.com (from DHCP)
Resolution Host Limit:
32 Resolution Time Limit: 4
Resolution Mode:
Ordered Resolution Retry Limit: 3
8-6
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Nameservers (Locally configured):
99.99.99.99
Local name.acme.com (from DHCP)
Nameservers (Learned):
99.99.99.99
Local
88.88.88.88
Local
name.acme.com
secondary.acme.com
DHCP server: 16.20.244.250
Local>
The following table describes the DNS characteristics that appear in the previous
example. (See the Displaying WINS Characteristics section in this chapter for an
explanation of the WINS characteristics in the display.)
Field
Description
Domain Name
Name of the access server default domain. If a DHCP
server provides this information, the display includes
“(from DHCP)” at the end of the line
Resolution Host Limit
Maximum number of host names that can be entered using
the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE INTERNET HOST
command. Note that this parameter is currently not
functional.
Resolution Mode
DNS data retrieval preference: LOCAL, REMOTE,
ORDERED, STUB or SLAVE. (See the Name Resolution
Modes table in this chapter.)
Resolution Time Limit
Minimum time in seconds between name server retries.
Resolution Retry Limit
Maximum number of times DNS can retry the same name
server when looking for a particular Internet host name.
Name Servers
(Locally configured)
The Internet address, type (local or root), and absolute
domain name of name servers entered by a user. If a
DHCP server provides this information, the display
includes “(from DHCP)” at the end of the line.
Name Servers (Learned)
The Internet address, type (local or root), and absolute
domain name of name servers learned by DNS.
If a DHCP server provides the Domain Name information, the display includes
“(from DHCP)” at the end of each line of information and the Internet address of
the DHCP server.
8-7
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Displaying the DNS Counters
To display the DNS counters, use the SHOW/LIST INTERNET NAME
RESOLUTION COUNTERS command.
To reset the DNS counter, use the ZERO INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION
COUNTERS command.
DNS Counter Display Example
The following example shows how to display the various DNS counters:
Local> SHOW INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION COUNTERS
Input Packets:
5 Duplicate Responses: 0
Output Packets: 7 Bad Responses:
0
Total Responses: 5 Truncated Responses: 0
OK Answers:
3 Fail Answers:
0
Total Queries:
2 FORMERR Answers:
0
Duplicate Queries:
0
The following table describes the information in the previous example:
Field
Description
Input Packets
Number of packets entering the access server from the
DNS server.
Output Packets
Number of packets exiting the access server into the DNS
server.
Total Responses
Total number of responses received by the access server
from the DNS server. This total includes the bad responses,
truncated responses, and duplicate responses, along with
good responses.
OK Answers
Number of valid answers received from the DNS server.
Total Queries
Number of DNS queries sent by the access server.
Duplicate Responses
Number of identical responses to queries.
Bad Responses
Number of bad responses received. A bad response could
be due to:
1. An unrecognizable response from the DNS server.
2. A fail response from the DNS server.
3. A response indicating that DNS could not
understand the query from the access server.
8-8
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Field
Description
Truncated Responses
Number of incomplete (truncated) responses from the
DNS server. This is not necessarily an error condition.
Fail Answers
Number of fail answers received. This condition could be
caused by a number of events, including:
1.
Unable to find a name server to send particular query.
2.
Unable to find the Internet address of a particular
name server.
3.
Sent a query and received more than maximum
amount of responses.
4.
Query is trapped in a loop of name servers that refer
to each other.
FORMERR Answers
Number of answers received that were either not able to be
decoded or states that DNS did not understand the query.
Duplicate Queries
Number of duplicate queries sent where the original query
is on a pending queue to be sent to its destination.
Configuring the Default Name Resolution Domain
Configuring the default domain name characteristic enables you to abbreviate
Internet host names in commands. To configure the Default Name Resolution
Domain, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION
DOMAIN command.
Configuring and Using Default Name Resolution Domain Example
The following example shows the procedure for and results of configuring the
default name resolution to FINANCE.ACME.COM:
Step
Action
1
Define the default name resolution domain as follows:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION DOMAIN
FINANCE.ACME.COM
2
Enter the following connect command:
Local> CONNECT SALES
8-9
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Step
Action
3
In this situation, the access server automatically appends the default
name resolution domain to SALES. The access server behaves as if
you had typed:
Local> CONNECT SALES.FINANCE.ACME.COM
4
Enter a command with a higher level domain name:
Local> CONNECT SALES.REVENUE
Result: The access server tries a sequence in the following order,
using parts of the default domain name:
SALES.REVENUE.FINANCE.ACME.COM
SALES.REVENUE.ACME.COM
SALES.REVENUE
The name is likely to be resolved correctly as the access server tries
SALES.REVENUE.ACME.COM. The sequence terminates at that
point.
Using Trailing Dots
The access server uses a sequence of name resolution attempts when you enter a
host name without a trailing dot at the end of the domain name. If you end a
name with a trailing dot, the access server does not use a sequence of name
resolution attempts. Instead it uses the domain name as you enter it.
For example, suppose that you enter:
Local> CONNECT SALES.REVENUE.
Because this domain name ends with a dot, the access server does not append the
default name resolution domain or any part of that domain.
Changing the Time Limit
The domain name resolution time limit specifies the time that the access server
waits before it resends a query to a name server. The range is from 1 to 10 seconds,
and the default is 4 seconds.
To change the time limit, enter the command shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION TIME LIMIT 5
8-10
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Changing the Retry Limit
The domain name resolution retry limit indicates the number of times that the
access server resends queries to the same name server when looking for an
Internet host. The range is from 1 to 5, and the default is 3.
To change the retry limit, enter the command shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION RETRY LIMIT 2
Changing the Name Resolution Mode
The name resolution mode describes where the access server searches for host
name and address information. To change the name resolution mode, use the
command shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION MODE LOCAL
Name Resolution Modes
The following table lists and describes the name resolution modes:
Mode
When the access server attempts to resolve a host name or
address, it searches:
Local
Local data, which is host name and address information that
users previously entered with the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
INTERNET HOST command. Use local data when no name
servers are configured.
Remote
Learned data and remote name servers. Learned data is name
and address information that the access server receives from
name servers and enters in its cache. If the access server fails to
resolve the address with the learned data in its cache, it queries
the network name servers for remote data.
Ordered (Default)
Local data, then learned data and remote data from the
network name servers. Local data takes precedence.
Stub
Remote data only, using recursive name service. The access
server performs no DNS caching.
Slave
Local data and remote data, using recursive name service. The
access server performs no DNS caching. When conflicts occur,
the local data takes precedence.
8-11
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Configuring a List of Commonly Used Internet Hosts
You can optionally enter commonly used Internet host names and addresses in
the access server cache.
The following command shows how to do this:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET HOST SALES ADDRESS 195.1.1.72
Two additional commands enable you to manage the list of commonly used
Internet hosts:
•
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR INTERNET HOST
•
CLEAR/PURGE INTERNET HOST
If Using a Name Server
If you are using name servers—that is, if NAME RESOLUTION MODE is set to a
value other than LOCAL—then you should define local host names and
addresses only in exceptional cases. The names received from name servers reflect
recent updates.
Also, they may include the hosts you are likely to define with CHANGE
INTERNET HOST. Undesirable conflicts may result.
Configuring a List of Internet Name Servers
This section describes how to configure a list of Internet local and root name
servers that the access server commonly uses.
Configuring a Root Name Server
A root name server is a name server at the top level domain. To enter a root name
server, you must provide an absolute domain name. The following example
shows how to enter a root name server:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET NAMESERVER C.NYSER.NET ADDRESS
192.33.4.12 ROOT
Configuring a Local Name Server
A local name server is any name server that is authoritative for the default
domain of the access server. Before adding a local name server, you must first
define the access server domain name. The following example shows how to enter
a local Internet name server:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET NAMESERV NAMED.ACME.COM ADDRESS
99.99.99.99 LOCAL
8-12
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
You can use a relative domain name if you are defining a local name server for the
default domain only.
Configuring a Name Server for a Different Domain
To enter a locally defined name server for a domain other than the access server
default domain, follow these steps:
Step
Action
1
Use the SET INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION DOMAIN command
to change the access server default domain name temporarily.
Note:
Temporarily changing the default name affects the ability of other
users in resolving relative domain names.
2
Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE INTERNET NAMESERVER
domain-name ADDRESS n.n.n.n LOCAL command to add the name
server.
3
Change the access server default domain name back to the original
domain name.
Name Resolution and Gateways
The access server uses the learned name servers to perform name resolution when
using REMOTE or ORDERED name resolution modes. The list of learned name
servers for a given domain are, in general, a superset of those explicitly entered
with the CHANGE INTERNET NAMESERVER command. The access server
primes the cache for the server’s default domain by sending queries to the
configured name servers. The queries request the names of all authoritative name
servers for the default domain.
The access server may not be able to reach a learned name server because of
subnet access restrictions on the access server itself. In this case, the access server
flags the unreachable name server and stops using it for name resolution. The
access server cannot reach a name server if it is not in the same subnet or there is
no gateway to it.
If the access server cannot reach a learned name server because of gateway
restrictions outside the server, it does not flag the unreachable name server. This
can often cause name resolution to time out and fail. In this configuration use
either the STUB or SLAVE name resolution mode.
8-13
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Assigning DNS Server Addresses Automatically
The DNS autoconfigure feature on the access server allows dial-up clients to
receive DNS configuration information automatically from the access server
when establishing a remote PPP connection.
The access server assigns a primary and secondary DNS server to the remote PPP
client. The access server uses an algorithm to obtain the addresses of the DNS
servers from its database.
The access server assigns only local name servers to PPP clients. It makes two
passes through a list of local nameservers. The following table describes how the
access server determines which name servers to assign to the PPP client:
Pass
Description
1
a. The access server goes through a list of learned name servers
and searches for name servers that are on its network (by using
the access server’s subnet mask) and have a positive time to live
(ttl).
b. The access server goes through a list of locally-configured name
servers and searches for name servers that are on its network (by
using the access server’s subnet mask) and have a positive time
to live (ttl).
c. The access server assigns the first valid name server as the
Primary Nameserver and the second valid name server as the
Secondary Nameserver.
2
If the access server does not find two valid name servers:
a. The access server goes through the list of learned name servers
and searches for name servers with a positive time to live (ttl).
b. The access server goes through the list of locally-configured
name servers and searches for name servers with a positive time
to live (ttl).
c. The access server assigns the first valid name server as the
Primary Nameserver and the second valid name server as the
Secondary Nameserver.
8-14
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Configuring a List of Internet Gateway Addresses
Introduction
If the access server users need to access hosts in different networks or subnets,
you can define a database of Internet gateways. The access server uses gateways
to route traffic to different networks and subnets.
Displaying a List of Gateway Addresses
To display a list of Internet gateway addresses, use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR
INTERNET GATEWAY command.
Internet Gateway Addresses Display Example
The following example shows how to display a list of Internet gateway addresses
available to the access server for routing network traffic:
Local> SHOW INTERNET GATEWAY
Gateway: 16.20.0.3
Host:
Gateway: 16.20.48.56 Network:
Gateway: 16.20.98.245 Network:
Gateway: 16.20.48.48 Network:
16.30.22.35
16.30.0.0
Any
17.0.0.0
Mask: 255.255.0.0
Mask:
255.0.0.0
Configuring a Default Gateway
The access server uses a default gateway to route a packet when its destination
address:
•
Is on a different subnet than the access server
•
Does not match any of the known gateway network addresses
Default Gateway Definition Example
The following example shows how to define a default gateway:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET GATEWAY 195.1.1.72
Defining Networks Available Through a Specific Gateway
To indicate that the access server can reach a given network through a specific
gateway, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE INTERNET GATEWAY command
with the NETWORK parameter to do this.
8-15
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Default Gateway Definition Example
The following example shows how to define the mapping of the default gateway
to the network:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET GATEWAY 195.1.1.72 NETWORK 197.0.0.0
You can define multiple networks that can be reached through the same gateway
with the same address. You must enter a separate command to each network with
a gateway.
Defining Subnets Available Through a Specific Gateway
To indicate that the access server can reach a given subnet through a specific
gateway, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE INTERNET GATEWAY command
with the NETWORK and MASK keywords.
Subnet Definition Through a Specific Gateway Example
The following example shows how to define a subnet through a specific gateway:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET GATE 195.1.1.72 NETWORK 197.5.7.0
MASK 255.255.255.0
You can define multiple subnets that can be reached through the same gateway
address. You must enter a separate command to associate each subnet with a
gateway.
Defining Hosts Available Through a Specific Gateway
To indicate that the access server can reach a given host through a specific
gateway, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE INTERNET GATEWAY COMMAND
and the HOST parameter.
Host Definition Through a Specific Gateway Example
The following example shows the command to define the host through a specific
gateway:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET GATEWAY 195.1.1.72 HOST 52.53.21.10
You can define multiple hosts that can be reached through the same gateway with
the same address. You must enter a separate command to define each host with a
gateway.
8-16
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Configuring a List of Internet ARP Entries
Introduction
The list of address resolution protocol (ARP) entries maps Internet addresses to
Ethernet hardware addresses for devices on the same network as the access
server. You only need to enter the network hosts that do not support ARP.
Displaying the List of Internet ARP Entries
To display a list of ARP entries, use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR INTERNET
ARP ENTRY command.
Sample List of Internet ARP Entries
The following example shows a typical display list of ARP entries:
Local> SHOW INTERNET ARP ENTRY
Internet Address
Ethernet Address
16.20.0.96
AA-00-04-00-21-10
16.20.0.173
08-00-2B-04-41-9B
16.20.0.96
AA-00-04-00-3B-11
6.20.48.48
AA-00-05-08-3B-20
Status
No Purge
Defining an ARP Entry
To define an ARP entry in the list of entries, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE
INTERNET ARP ENTRY command with the ETHERNET parameter.
ARP Entry Definition Example
The following example shows how to enter a definition in the list of ARP entries:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET ARP ENTRY 195.1.1.72 ETHERNET 08-5456-67-AC-89
This command maps the Internet address of 195.1.1.72 to the Ethernet hardware
address 08-54-56-67-AC-89.
8-17
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Setting the TCP Keepalive Timer
What the Timer Does
The TCP keepalive timer determines whether a TCP connection with a remote
host is active and should remain open.
After the access server and a remote host establish a TCP connection, the access
server waits a set amount of time and sends a keepalive probe to the remote host.
If the access server receives a valid response from the remote host, it waits again
and sends a new keepalive probe.
If the access server does not receive a response from the remote host, it continues
to send keepalive probes until it reaches a set maximum. If the remote host does
not respond after the access server sends the last keepalive probe, the access
server drops the connection.
Setting the Timer
Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE INTERNET [TCP] KEEPALIVE TIMER
command to set the amount of time (in minutes) the access server waits to send
the first keepalive probe after establishing a TCP connection with an idle remote
host. The range is from 1 to 1440 (one day) and the default is 120 (2 hours).
Timer Set Example
The following example shows how to set the TCP keepalive timer to wait one
minute before sending the first keepalive timer:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET TCP KEEPALIVE TIMER 1
Disabling the Timer
By default, the TCP keepalive timer is enabled. Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
INTERNET [TCP] KEEPALIVE TIMER DISABLED command to disable it.
8-18
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Setting Timer Retries
Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE INTERNET [TCP] KEEPALIVE RETRY
command to set the number of keepalive probe retries. The TCP keepalive timer
retry number indicates the number of times that the access server sends keepalive
probes to the remote host when it does not receive a valid response. The access
server sends a keepalive probe every minute until the host responds or it reaches
the retry count value. The retry count value range is from 1 to 60 and the default
value is 8. If the access server does not receive a valid response from the remote
host after sending the last probe, the access server drops the connection.
Retry Set Example
The following example show how to set the maximum number of keepalive
probes that the access server sends (10):
Local> CHANGE INTERNET TCP KEEPALIVE RETRY 10
Displaying Timer Characteristics
Use the SHOW/LIST INTERNET command to display the TCP keepalive timer
characteristics.
Timer Characteristics Display
The following shows an example of the display. If you disable the timer, the value
for the Keepalive Timer field is DISABLED.
Local> SHOW INTERNET
State
Internet Address:
Subnet Mask:
DHCP:
TCP Keepalive Timer:
TCP Keepalive Retry:
Local>
Enabled
195.1.1.1
255.255.255.0
Enabled
60
10
8-19
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Displaying the Internet Counters
Using the SHOW Command
Use the SHOW/LIST/MONIITOR INTERNET command to display the Internet
counters. To reset the Internet counters, use the ZERO INTERNET COUNTERS
command.
To reset the Internet counters, use the ZERO INTERNET COUNTERS command.
Internet Counters Display Example
The following example shows a typical Internet counters display:
Local> SHOW INTERNET COUNTERS
TCP Segments:
146
Transmitted
58 Bytes Transmitted:
182
Data:
0 Bytes Data:
182
Data Retransmitted
0 Bytes Data Retransmitted
0
Other:
88 Bytes Received:
9894
Received
144
Segments Discarded:
0 Internet Connections:
0
IP Packets Transmitted: 146 Requested:
2
IP Packets Received:
144 Accepted:
0
IP Fragments Received:
0 Established:
2
IP Fragments Dropped:
0 Closed:
1
IP Error in Header:
0 Dropped:
0
ICMP Message
Transmitted:
Received:
Dropped:
Destination Unreachable:
Local>
8-20
UDP Datagrams
0 Transmitted:
0 Received:
0 Dropped:
0
0
00
0
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Internet Counter Display Fields
The following table describes the fields in a typical Internet counters display:
Field
Description
TCP Segments
The following counters contain statistics on TCP segments:
Transmitted:
Total number of TCP segments transmitted by the access server.
The following counters are a breakdown of this total:
Data: Number of transmitted segments that contained data.
Data Retransmitted: Number of transmitted segments that
contained retransmitted data.
Other: Number of transmitted segments that contained no
data.
Received:
Received: Total number of TCP segments received by the access
server.
Segments Discarded:
Number of received TCP segments that were discarded due to
errors. These errors can include bad checksum and invalid
length of TCP header.
Bytes Transmitted:
Total number of bytes of data transmitted in TCP segments,
including bytes retransmitted. The following counters are a
breakdown of this total:
Bytes Data: Total number of bytes of data transmitted in TCP
segments, not including bytes retransmitted.
Bytes Data Retransmitted: Total number of retransmitted bytes
of data transmitted in TCP segments.
Bytes Received:
IP Packets Transmitted:
Total number of bytes of data received in TCP segments.
Total number of IP datagrams transmitted.
IP Packets Received:
Total number of IP datagrams received.
IP Fragments Received:
Total number of IP fragments received.
IP Fragments Dropped:
Total number of IP fragments dropped due to either a lack of
memory to store the fragment or received a duplicate fragment.
IP Error in Header:
Internet Connections
Requested:
Total number of IP datagrams received with errors in the
header. These are discarded.
The following counters contain statistics on connections:
Number of outgoing Telnet connect attempts made by users.
8-21
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Field
Description
Accepted:
Number of incoming TCP connections accepted by Telnet. This
count includes those connections accepted by Telnet then
dropped due to no physical port available.
Established:
Number of connections established by TCP. This count includes
those connections accepted by Telnet then dropped due to no
physical port available.
Closed:
Dropped:
ICMP Messages
Transmitted
Number of connections dropped, because of a reset from the
remote host, unsuccessful retransmission, keepalive timeout,
protocol error, or aborted by Telnet due to lack of available
physical ports.
The following counters contain statistics on ICMP messages:
Total number of ICMP messages transmitted by the access
server.
Received:
Total number of ICMP messages received by the access server.
Dropped:
Total number of ICMP messages dropped by the access server,
because of an error in the ICMP message, such as incorrect
code, checksum error, or incorrect length.
Destination
Unreachable:
Total number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages
received by the access server. Usually received when a connect
attempt fails because either the TCP or UDP port is unknown at
the remote host, or the host (or the host’s network) is
unreachable.
UDP Datagrams
Transmitted:
8-22
Number of connections closed by a user or remote host.
The following counters contain statistics on connections:
Total number of UDP datagrams transmitted by the network
access server.
Received:
Total number of UDP datagrams received by the network
access server.
Dropped:
Total number of USDP datagrams dropped by the network
access server, because of an error in the UDP header, checksum
fails, or length is incorrect.
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Learning IP Information From a BOOTP Server
Introduction
Instead of manually configuring IP information, you can have the access server
learn its IP address and other IP configuration information from a BOOTP server
on the network. If you use the BOOTP server to load the CNAS software on the
access server, it can also learn its IP configuration from the BOOTP server during
the load operation.
BOOTP Server Configuration
Refer to the CNAS installation instructions for information about configuring a
BOOTP server.
Learning Operation
The following occurs when the access server learns IP configuration information
from a BOOTP server:
•
If you use a BOOTP server to load the software image on your access server,
the access server learns the IP configuration information during the boot
operation.
•
If you use MOP to load the software image on your access server, the access
server learns the IP configuration information after initialization.
•
If you disable INTERNET, the access server does not learn its IP address and
no IP functions work. You can enable INTERNET at any time to start the
address learning process.
•
If you enable INTERNET, you cannot disable it operationally (that is, using a
SET command) because the access server cannot easily ensure that an Internet
function is not pending or occurring. You must use the DEFINE INTERNET
DISABLE command and reboot the access server.
•
When the access server is learning an IP address, you can use the
SHOW/MONITOR INTERNET command to display the status of the learning
operation. If learning is occurring, the IP address displays as “(Learning)”.
8-23
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Setting Up IP Configuration Learning
Do the following to set up your access server to learn IP configuration
information from a BOOTP server on the network:
Step
Action
1
Set up the BOOTP server:
a. Add an entry for the access server’s Ethernet address.
b. Associate the Ethernet address with an IP address.
c. Optionally, associate the Ethernet address with a subnet
mask and default gateway.
Reference: The CNAS installation instructions provide details about
configuring a BOOTP server.
2
Ensure that the access server does not have an IP address stored in
NVRAM. Use the following command:
Local> LIST INTERNET
If the display shows an Internet address, clear it using the following
command:
Local> DEFINE INTERNET ADDRESS NONE
3
Ensure that the Internet characteristic is enabled. Use the following
command:
Local> LIST INTERNET
If the Internet characteristic is not enabled, enable it using the
following command:
Local> DEFINE INTERNET ENABLED
8-24
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Learning IP Information From a DHCP Server
Description
You can use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to automatically
configure TCP/IP characteristics on the access server and remote clients. DHCP
provides dynamic assignment of IP addresses and discovery of IP configuration
parameters (for example, subnet mask or default gateways). A DHCP client
requests and receives this information from a DHCP server on the network.
Enabling DHCP on the access server allows it to learn some of its IP configuration
information from a DHCP server. The access server does not receive its IP address
from the DHCP server; you must manually configure it or use a BOOTP server.
Enabling DHCP on the access server also allows remote dial-up clients to receive
dynamically assigned IP addresses and IP configuration parameters from the
DHCP server. Depending on the situation, the access server acts as a DHCP client
or proxy.
By default, the DHCP setting on the access server is ENABLED. If you do not
have a DHCP server on your network, disable DHCP. (See the Enabling and
Disabling DHCP section in this chapter.)
8-25
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
BOOTP and DHCP Differences
DHCP is an extension of BOOTP; however, using a DHCP server to obtain IP
information differs from using a BOOTP server in the following ways:
Using a BOOTP Server
Using a DHCP Server
The access server can learn its IP address
from a BOOTP server (or you can
configure it directly on the access server).
The access server does not learn its IP
address from a DHCP server. The access
server can learn the following from a
DHCP server:
•
Domain name
•
Default gateway
•
Domain Name System (DNS)
servers
•
Windows Internet Naming
Service (WINS) servers
You configure the IP information to be
learned in the BOOTP server’s database
and associate it with the access server’s
hardware address.
You do not configure the DHCP server
with any access server or client-specific
information. You need only to configure
the DECserver with network information
(for example, a domain name) and a pool
of IP addresses available for assignment.
The access server writes the information
it learns from the BOOTP server to
NVRAM.
The access server does not write the
information it learns from the DHCP
server to NVRAM. This ensures that the
access server receives the most recent
information from the DHCP server.
DHCP Client Operation
During initialization, the access server acts as a DHCP client to obtain IP
configuration parameters (excluding the IP address; use a BOOTP server or the
DEFINE INTERNET ADDRESS command to configure the IP address). The access
server requests the following IP configuration parameters from a DHCP server:
8-26
•
Default gateway
•
Domain name
•
Domain Name System (DNS) servers
•
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) servers
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Figure 8-1 shows what occurs when the access server acts as a DHCP client:
Access Server
(DHCP Client)
1. Requests
IP configuration
parameters
(IP address not
requested).
3. Receives
acknowledgement; operation
complete.
DHCP Server
2. Receives
request and
sends packet
with IP
configuration
information.
LKG-10495-fh8
Figure 8-1. Access Server as a DHCP Client
DHCP Proxy Operation
The access server can act as a DHCP proxy to provide IP address assignment for
most remote clients.
IP Address Assignment
When you enable DHCP, the access server sends requests for IP addresses to a
DHCP server on behalf of the remote client if:
•
You do not configure an IP address on the ports configured for remote access.
•
You do not specify an IP address using RADIUS authentication.
•
The remote client is not configured with an IP address for its PPP session.
When the access server receives the IP address from the DHCP server, it assigns
the address to the remote client.
Figure 8-2 shows what occurs when the access server uses DHCP to assign IP
addresses to remote clients:
8-27
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Remote Client
(DHCP Client)
1. Begins PPP
negotiations
and requests
IP address.
Access Server
2. Receives address
request and
sends a DHCP
Discover packet
to DHCP server.
4. Receives IP
addess offer
and sends a
request to use
the offered
address.
7. Receives IP
address; PPP
negotiations
complete.
6. Resumes PPP
negotiation with
remote client
and assigns the
acknowledged
IP address.
DHCP Server
3. Receives DHCP
Discover packet
and offers an
IP address.
5. Receives request
and acknowledges
use of IP address.
LKG-10498-fh8
Figure 8-2. What Occurs When Access Server Uses DHCP to Assign IP Addresses to Remote Clients
IP Address Renewals
When the DHCP server assigns an IP address to a remote client, it “leases” the
address to the remote client for a finite or infinite amount of time. If the lease is
about to expire and the remote client still has a dial-up connection, the access
server renews the lease on behalf of the remote client. The access server attempts
to renew the lease as long as the remote client maintains a dial-up connection.
Enabling and Disabling DHCP
The default DHCP setting on the access server is DHCP ENABLED. The
following table lists the commands that you use to enable and disable DHCP:
8-28
To Do This:
Use This Command:
Enable DHCP.
DEFINE/SET/CHANGE INTERNET DHCP ENABLED
Disable DHCP.
DEFINE INTERNET DHCP DISABLED
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Displaying the DHCP Setting
Use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR INTERNET command to display the current
DHCP setting. The example in the Displaying the Internet Address and Subnet
Mask section in this chapter shows a typical display.
Configuring Default Values
If you enable DHCP but also want the access server to function in the event that a
DCHP server is not available, you can define default values for some of the
DHCP-learned IP information in NVRAM using DEFINE commands. Follow the
procedures in this chapter for setting the IP address, subnet mask, DNS values,
WINS values, and gateways. You can also use the Access Server Manager to set
these values. See the Access Server Manager’s online help for details.
When the access server initializes, it writes the default values from NVRAM to
RAM. If a DHCP server responds to the access server’s request for information,
the DHCP-learned values overwrite the default values in RAM. If a DHCP server
does not respond, the access server uses the default values.
Overriding DHCP-Learned Values
To override DHCP-learned values, use SET commands after initialization
completes. Follow the procedures in this chapter for setting the IP address, DNS
values, WINS values, and gateways or use the Access Server Manager (see the
Access Server Manager online help for details).
8-29
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Assigning WINS Server Addresses
What Does WINS Do?
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) performs NetBIOS name and IP
address resolution, similar to the Domain Name Service (DNS). WINS allows
systems that use NetBIOS to communicate with each other over TCP/IP.
What Is WINS Autoconfigure?
The WINS autoconfigure feature on the access server allows dial-up clients to
receive WINS configuration information automatically from the access server
when establishing a remote PPP connection.
The access server provides the remote client with the addresses of WINS primary
and secondary servers that it finds in its RAM.
Operation
The access server receives WINS server addresses in one of the following ways:
•
From a DHCP server on the network, if the DHCP is enabled on the access
server.
•
From access server commands that you enter at a local or remote console.
Figure 8-3 shows how the remote client receives WINS server information from
the access server:
8-30
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
Dial-Up Client
1.Client requests
WINS server
addresses
during PPP
negotiation.
3. Client sends
new request
using the
addresses it
recieved from the
access server.
5. Client receives
acknowledgement.
PPP negotiation
continues.
Access Server
2. Server receives
request. Sends
addresses
stored in VRAM.
4. Access Server
compares request
to addresses in
VRAM. If they
match, sends an
acknowledgement.
If no match, sends
new addresses.
LKG-10497-97MF
Figure 8-3. How the Remote Client Receives WINS Server Information from the Access Server
Assigning WINS Addresses
If you enable DHCP on the access server, it receives the WINS server addresses
from a DHCP server on the network and writes the values to VRAM when you
reinitialize the access server. When a remote client sends a request to the access
server for WINS server addresses during PPP negotiation, the access server
responds with the addresses it finds in VRAM.
If you disable DHCP, or need to change the WINS server addresses at a time when
you do not want to reinitialize the access server, you can set the addresses
manually. Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE INTERNET WINS
[PRIMARY|SECONDARY] command for this purpose.
WINS Address Example
The following example shows how to set primary and secondary WINS server
addresses on the access server:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET WINS PRIMARY 12.30.34.10
Local> CHANGE INTERNET WINS SECONDARY 12.150.25.5
Displaying WINS Characteristics
Use the SHOW/LIST INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION command to view the
WINS server addresses stored in the access server’s VRAM (or NVRAM).
8-31
TCP/IP Network Characteristics
WINS Display Example
The following shows a typical example of the WINS display:
Local> SHOW INTERNET NAME RESOLUTION
NetBIOS (WINS) Name Resolution:
Primary WINS server:
Secondary WINS server
6.20.44.55
16.125.14.235 (from DHCP)
Domain Name Resolution:
Domain Name:
finance.acme.com (from DHCP)
Resolution Host Limit:
Resolution Mode:
32
Resolution Time Limit: 4
Ordered Resolution Retry Limit: 3
Nameservers (Locally configured):
99.99.99.99
Local name.acme.com (from DHCP)
Nameservers (Learned):
99.99.99.99
Local name.acme.com
88.88.88.88
Local secondary.acme.com
DHCP server: 16.20.244.250
Local>
The following table lists the WINS characteristics displayed in the previous
example. (See the Displaying DNS Characteristics section in this chapter for a
description of the DNS characteristics shown in the example.)
Field
Description
Primary
The Internet address or host name for the primary WINS server.
Secondary
The Internet address or host name for the WINS server used when the
primary WINS server is not available.
If a DHCP server provides the WINS servers and Domain Name information, the
display includes “(from DHCP)” at the end of each line of information and the
name of the DHCP server at the end of the display.
8-32
Chapter 9
Managing AppleTalk
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure and manage the AppleTalk protocol suite
on an access server.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Configuring AppleTalk on an Access Server
•
Displaying AppleTalk Characteristics
•
Displaying AppleTalk Counters
•
Displaying AppleTalk Status
•
Displaying AppleTalk Routes
•
Displaying AppleTalk ARP Entries
9-1
Managing AppleTalk
Configuring AppleTalk on an Access Server
Introduction
You can configure an access server to act as an AppleTalk node on the network
and many different components can then be monitored. The configuration of the
AppleTalk characteristics can be done only in the NVRAM database. This means
that the manager has to reinitialize the access server after making a change to any
of the AppleTalk characteristics before the changes take effect. This chapter does
not address managing asynchronous connections. For information about ATCP,
see Chapter 19. This chapter assumes you have a basic understanding of the
AppleTalk protocol suite.
AppleTalk Address Format
AppleTalk node addresses consist of two fields: a network number and a node
number. A network number can be in the range 1 to 65534. A node number can be
in the range 1 to 254. The network and node numbers are separated by a period
(.).
Enabling AppleTalk
By default, AppleTalk is not enabled on an access server. In order for the access
server to act as an AppleTalk node on the network, a privileged user has to enable
AppleTalk explicitly with the following DEFINE command:
Local> DEFINE APPLETALK ENABLED
Then the access server has to be reinitialized. Upon reinitialization, the access
server functions as an AppleTalk node by doing the following:
9-2
•
Acquiring an AppleTalk address and zone
•
Registering its AppleTalk name
•
Acquiring and defending AppleTalk addresses for attached hosts
•
Forwarding AppleTalk DDP packets
•
Permitting hosts attached via asynchronous lines to participate in the
AppleTalk protocol
•
Responding to SNMP requests for AppleTalk information
•
Responding to AppleTalk Echo packets
Managing AppleTalk
Disabling AppleTalk
If you decide that your access server should no longer act as an AppleTalk node,
all AppleTalk capabilities can be turned off using the following privileged
DEFINE command:
Local> DEFINE APPLETALK DISABLED
Reinitialize the access server to have this command take effect. Upon
reinitialization, the access server no longer functions as an AppleTalk node. All of
the SHOW AppleTalk commands then give you the following message:
Local -527- AppleTalk is not enabled, no operational
commands allowed
DIGITAL recommends that you disable AppleTalk when the access server is not
used as an AppleTalk node. When you disable AppleTalk:
•
The access server no longer responds to or monitors AppleTalk traffic on the
network, freeing up CPU time.
•
System resources are freed up since they are no longer allocated for AppleTalk
operation.
•
The access server rejects all SNMP queries for AppleTalk information. It
transmits a No Such Name error message.
Setting AppleTalk Address Cache Size
An access server with AppleTalk enabled tries to acquire unused AppleTalk
addresses for any potential hosts attached to the access server with asynchronous
lines. It saves these addresses in a cache and defends them if any other host on the
network tries to use them. When a host attaches to the access server via an
asynchronous port, the access server assigns one of the addresses from the cache
to the attached host.
A privileged user on the access server specifies how many AppleTalk addresses
the access server should acquire on initialization using the following DEFINE
command:
Local> DEFINE APPLETALK [address] CACHE [ size] n
As with the command to enable or disable AppleTalk, this command affects only
the NVRAM database on the access server. The access server has to be
reinitialized for the cache size to take effect operationally.
9-3
Managing AppleTalk
The supported range for n is 1 to the number of asynchronous ports. The access
server always attempts to keep the number of available entries in the address
cache equal to the smaller of either the cache size that you define or the number of
ports that do not already have AppleTalk connections.
The default value for n is the number of access server asynchronous ports divided
by 8. For instance, the default cache size on a 16 port access server would be 2.
The DEFINE APPLETALK ADDRESS CACHE command lets the access server
manager trade off address use versus the probability of simultaneous Appletalk
session requests.
9-4
•
If the value of n is set too high, the access server can acquire too many
addresses, exhausting the supply available for the rest of the network.
•
The access server serializes address acquisition attempts, which typically
require about 2 seconds each. If the access server pre-acquires too few
addresses (the value of n is too low), some client AppleTalk session initiation
attempts may fail if too many arrive at once. When this happens, the access
server may not have enough addresses to assign to all the new sessions.
Managing AppleTalk
Displaying AppleTalk Characteristics
Commands
Use the LIST APPLETALK CHARACTERISTICS command to display the
AppleTalk characteristics. This command is nonprivileged.
Use the SHOW/MONITOR APPLETALK STATUS command to see the values
being used operationally.
Displaying AppleTalk Characteristics Example
The following example shows how to display the latest values configured by the
DEFINE APPLETALK commands:
Local> LIST APPLETALK CHARACTERISTICS
AppleTalk Characteristics Server: LAT_08002B24F24F
State:
Enabled
Cache Size:
2
Fields in the AppleTalk Characteristics Display
The following table describes the fields in the AppleTalk Characteristics display:
Field
Description
State
Indicates whether AppleTalk is enabled the next time you initialize the
access server.
Cache
Shows the number of AppleTalk addresses that the access server will
acquire in cache memory the next time you initialize the access server.
9-5
Managing AppleTalk
Displaying AppleTalk Counters
Command
Use the SHOW/MONITOR APPLETALK COUNTERS command to display the
AppleTalk counters on an access server. The command is nonprivileged.
Displaying AppleTalk Counters Example
The following example shows a typical display when you enter the SHOW
APPLETALK COUNTERS command:
Local> SHOW APPLETALK COUNTERS
AppleTalk Counters
Seconds Since Zeroed: 18207
AARP
Unsent Probes:
0 Unsent Responses:
0
DDP
In Receives:
5510 Out Requests:
19
In Local Datagrams:
1 Forwarded Requests:
0
Too Short Errors:
0 Out Shorts:
0
Too Long Errors:
0 Out Longs:
19
No Protocol Handlers: 0 Out No Routes:
0
Checksum Errors:
0 Hop Count Errors:
0
Short DDP Errors:
0 Broadcast Errors:
0
NBP
Lookups Received:
1850 Lookup Replies:
13
In Errors:
0
RTMP
Router Lost:
0 In Errors:
0
ZIP
In GetNetInfo Response: 1 Out GetNetInfo Requests: 6
In Errors: 0
9-6
Managing AppleTalk
Fields in the AppleTalk Counters Display
The following table describes the fields in the AppleTalk Counters display:
Field
AARP
DDP
Description
Unsent Probes
The number of AARP probes that could not be sent due to
insufficient access server resources.
Unsent Responses
Unsent Responses The number of AARP responses that
could not be sent due to insufficient access server
resources.
In Receives
The number of DDP datagrams the access server has
received, including those received in error.
Out Requests
The number of DDP datagrams DDP sent out on behalf of
access server AppleTalk components.
In Local Datagrams
The number of DDP datagrams the access server has
received that were destined for the access server.
Forwarded Requests
The number of DDP datagrams the access server received
for which this was not their final destination. DDP made
an attempt to forward these packets.
Too Short Errors
The number of DDP datagrams dropped because their
data length was less than the length specified in the DDP
header or because their length was less than that of a DDP
header.
Too Long Errors
The number of DDP datagrams dropped because their
data length exceeded the length specified in the DDP
header or because their length was greater than the
maximum DDP length.
No Protocol Handlers
The number of DDP datagrams the access server received
that were addressed to an upper layer protocol that the
access server does not support.
Checksum Errors
The number of input DDP datagrams dropped because of
a checksum error.
Short DDP Errors
The number of input DDP datagrams dropped because
access server was not final destination and type was short
DDP.
Broadcast Errors
The number of input DDP datagrams dropped because
the access server was not their final destination and they
were addressed to the link level broadcast.
Out Shorts
The number of short DDP datagrams transmitted.
9-7
Managing AppleTalk
Field
NBP
RTMP
ZIP
Description
Out Longs
The number of long DDP datagrams transmitted.
Out No Routes
The number of DDP datagrams dropped because a route
could not be found.
Hop Count Errors
The number of input DDP datagrams dropped because
the access server was not their final destination and their
hop count would exceed 15 if forwarded.
Lookups Received
The number of NBP Lookup Requests the access server
has received.
Lookup Replies
The number of NBP Lookup Replies the access server has
sent.
In Errors
The number of invalid NBP datagrams received.
Router Lost
The number of times the access server lost contact with
every AppleTalk router on its Ethernet.
In Errors
The number of invalid RTMP datagrams received.
In GetNetInfo Responses
The number of GetNetInfo responses the access server
has received.
Out GetNetInfo Requests
The number of GetNetInfo requests the access server has
sent.
In Errors
The number of invalid ZIP datagrams received.
AARP Values
Two important counter values are those for AARP. Unsent AARP probes or
responses can indicate network problems. This happens when the access server is
too overloaded to respond to AARP requests. When there are unsent probes,
other AppleTalk nodes can acquire AppleTalk addresses used by the access server
or its clients. There can be connectivity problems when there are unsent
responses.
9-8
Managing AppleTalk
Displaying AppleTalk Status
Command
Use the SHOW/MONITOR APPLETALK STATUS command to display the
AppleTalk status on the access server. The command is nonprivileged.
Displaying AppleTalk Status Example
The following example shows how to display the AppleTalk status on an access
server:
Local> SHOW APPLETALK STATUS
AppleTalk Status
Server:
State:
Up
Address:
401.78
Network:
401-401
Name:
Object:
LAT_08002B24F24F
Type:
Access Server 316
Zone:
LKG Littleton MA
Cache:
2
Attached Hosts:
0
Last Error:
<no error>
LAT_08002B24F24F
Fields in the AppleTalk Status Display
The following table describes the fields that appear in the AppleTalk Status
display:
Field
Value
State
Description
The status of the access server AppleTalk
implementation.
Off
AppleTalk is not operating.
Acquiring
The access server is acquiring an AppleTalk address.
Learning
The access server is learning its AppleTalk zone.
Reacquiring
The access server is getting itself a new AppleTalk
address.
Registering
Registering The access server is registering its name.
9-9
Managing AppleTalk
Field
Value
Description
Up
AppleTalk is fully operational.
Address
The AppleTalk address of the access server, learned from
the EtherTalk network at initialization. Its value is 0.0
until the Learning state.
Network
The AppleTalk network range the access server learned
at initialization. If no AppleTalk router is on the access
server’s network, the value is 1-65534. The value is 0-0
until the Learning state.
Name
The full AppleTalk name of the access server consists of:
object:type@zone.
Object
The unique name of the access server (for example, LAT
08002B24F24F). You can configure this parameter with
the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NAME
command.
Type
The type of device (for example, DECserver 700-08). This
parameter cannot be configured.
Zone
The zone to which the access server belongs. This is a
learned parameter and cannot be configured.
Cache
The current address cache size.
Attached Hosts
The number of AppleTalk hosts attached to the access
server via asynchronous lines.
Last Error
The last AppleTalk error reported.
9-10
Managing AppleTalk
Displaying AppleTalk Routes
Command
Use the SHOW/MONITOR APPLETALK ROUTES command to display the
available AppleTalk routes to an access server. The command is nonprivileged.
Displaying AppleTalk Routes Example
The following example shows how to use the SHOW APPLETALK ROUTES
command to display available AppletTalk routes:
Local> SHOW APPLETALK ROUTES
AppleTalk Routes
Server: LAT_08002B24F24F
Destination
Next Hop
Status
Interface
Seconds
since
Last
Validated
12344-12350 12346.132
Up
Ethernet
159
<default>
12347.1
Up
Ethernet
20
12349.223
12346.132
Up
Asynch7
29
12348.144
12346.132
Up
Asynch3
116
Fields in the AppleTalk Routes Display
The following table describes the fields in the AppleTalk routes display:
Field
Value
Description
Destination
The route destination. This can be either an AppleTalk
network number range or an AppleTalk host address. A
host address indicates a route to a host attached to the
access server by means of an asynchronous link. The
destination <default> is distinguished from the others. If
the server does not find an appropriate route for a DDP
packet, it sends the packet to the route’s next hop.
Next Hop
The AppleTalk router that is the “next hop” to a
particular network. For the <default> destination, the
next hop corresponds to an AppleTalk router. For all
other destinations, the next hop is the access server’s
own AppleTalk address.
Status
The current state of the route, as follows:
9-11
Managing AppleTalk
Field
Value
Description
Up
The route is known to be valid.
Suspect
The route is thought valid, but has not been refreshed
recently.
Bad
The route has not been refreshed recently enough to
warrant further use.
Down
The route exists in the routing table, but is not being
used.
Interface
The interface the access server uses to route packets to
the destination.
Seconds Since
Last Validated
This will be the time since:
•
•
•
9-12
The “first” RTMP data packet announcing the
route arrived, for a network destination with a
status of “Up”
A connection was established, for a host
destination with a status of “Up”
The most recent RTMP data packet announcing
it, for a network destination with a status of
“Suspect,” “Bad,” or “Down”
Managing AppleTalk
Displaying AppleTalk ARP Entries
Introduction
When an attached host sends a message to an unknown AppleTalk node on the
access server network, the access server creates an entry in the AppleTalk ARP
cache and transmits an ARP request for the node’s data link address. At this time,
the access server does not know the address for the desired node. When it
receives a reply, it fills in the node’s corresponding Ethernet address.
Command
Use the SHOW/MONITOR APPLETALK ARP ENTRIES command to display
entries that the access server creates in the AppleTalk ARP cache.
Displaying AppleTalk ARP Entries Example
The following example shows how to display the entries in the AppleTalk ARP
cache:
Local> SHOW APPLETALK ARP ENTRIES
AppleTalk ARP Entries
Server:LAT_08002B26AE00
ATalk Address Ethernet Address Status
Interface
12345.132
08-00-2B-26-AE-00 Local
Ethernet
12345.28
08-00-2B-26-AE-00 Acquired Ethernet
12346.7
08-00-2B-26-AE-00 Local
Asynch3
12347.18
08-00-2B-26-AE-00 Local
Asynch12
12347.2
<resolving>
Remote
Ethernet
12344.3
AA-00-04-11-21-10 Remote
Ethernet
Fields in the AppleTalk ARP Display
The following table describes the fields in the AppleTalk ARP Entries display:
Field
Value
Description
ATalk Address
The AppleTalk address of a node.
Ethernet Address
The corresponding Ethernet address for the AppleTalk node.
Status
The status of the AppleTalk ARP Entry.
9-13
Managing AppleTalk
Field
Value
Description
Remote
The entry designates an ARP entry for a remote host on the
access server Ethernet. Such an entry usually means the server
recently forwarded a DDP packet to this host.
Local
The entry designates either:
1.
A host that is presently running AppleTalk over its
asynchronous link to the access server
or
2.
Acquired
Interface
9-14
The access server AppleTalk address
The entry has been pre-acquired for later use by an attached
AppleTalk host. It is also possible that the address has already
been used by one or more attached hosts, but has been
returned to the address cache.
The interface with which the address is associated. The access
server’s own AppleTalk address, as well as any remote or
acquired addresses, are always associated with the Ethernet.
This field identifies the asynchronous line with which a local
address might be associated.
Chapter 10
Configuring Basic Device
Characteristics
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure the basic characteristics for all types of
devices that attach to the access server ports. These devices include:
•
Standard ANSI video terminals such as the DIGITAL VT100 and VT220
•
Printers
•
Modems
•
PCs
•
Computers
•
Nonstandard terminals
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
•
Displaying Basic Device Characteristics
•
Configuring the ACCESS Characteristic
•
Matching the Port and Device Characteristics
•
Configuring the FLOW CONTROL Characteristic
•
Specifying the Automatic Logout Characteristics
10-1
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Introduction
If you attach a standard ANSI video terminal to an access server port, the basic
device characteristics described in this chapter are the only ones that you need to
consider.
If you are configuring a port to communicate with a modem, PC, computer
interface, or nonstandard terminal, refer to the signal characteristics described in
Chapter 10 in addition to the characteristics described in this chapter.
Command
To configure or modify a basic device characteristic, use the
SET/CHANGE/MODIFY command for the appropriate characteristic.
Basic Device Characteristic Summary
The following table summarizes the basic device characteristics, and refers you to
related information in this chapter:
Characteristic
Default
Allowed Values
Refer to Section
ACCESS
Local
Local, Remote,
Dynamic, None
Configuring the ACCESS
Characteristic
AUTOBAUD
Enabled
Enabled, Disabled
AUTOBAUD
CHARACTER SIZE
8
7, 8
CHARACTER SIZE
DSRLOGOUT
Disabled
Enabled, Disabled
Specifying DSRLOGOUT
FLOW CONTROL
XON
XON, DSR, CTS,
DISABLED
Flow Control Types
INACTIVITY
LOGOUT
Disabled
Enabled, Disabled
Specifying INACTIVITY
LOGOUT
INPUT FLOW
CONTROL
Enabled
Enabled, Disabled
FLOW CONTROL
Direction
LONGBREAK
LOGOUT
Disabled
Enabled, Disabled
Specifying LONGBREAK
LOGOUT
OUTPUT FLOW
CONTROL
Enabled
Enabled, Disabled
FLOW CONTROL
Direction
10-2
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Characteristic
Default
Allowed Values
Refer to Section
PARITY
None
Even, Odd,
Mark, None
PARITY
SPEED
9600
75,110, 134, 150, 300,
600, 1200, 1800, 2000,
2400, 4800, 9600,
19200, 38400, 57600,
115200
SPEED
STOP BITS
Dynamically set
1, 2
STOP BITS
TYPE
ANSI
Hardcopy, Softcopy,
ANSI
TYPE
10-3
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Displaying Basic Device Characteristics
Command
To display basic device characteristics, use the SHOW PORT command.
Displaying Port Characteristics Example
The following example shows how to display the port characteristics for port 5:
Local> SHOW PORT 5
Port 5:
Character Size:
Flow Control:
Parity:
Stop Bits:
Server:
8
XON
None
Dynamic
Access:
Local
Backwards Switch:
None
Break:
Local
Forwards Switch:
None
Default Protocol:
LAT
Autolink Timer One:12 Two:10
Preferred Service: None
Authorized Groups: 25
(Current) Groups:
25
LAT_123456789ABC
Input Speed:
9600
Output Speed:
9600
Signal Control:
Disabled
Signal Select: CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
Local Switch:
Name:
Session Limit:
Type:
Default Menu:
None
PORT_5
4
ANSI
None
Enabled Characteristics:
Autobaud, Autoprompt, Broadcast, Failover, Input, Flow
Control, Lock, Loss Notification, Message Codes, Output Flow
Control, Verification
Local>
10-4
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Configuring the ACCESS Characteristic
Description
The ACCESS characteristic determines which types of devices can use a port. The
following table lists and defines the possible values for the port ACCESS
characteristic:
Characteristic
Device Type
Examples
Local (default)
Interactive
Terminals
Remote
Noninteractive
Computers, printers
Dynamic
Both interactive and
noninteractive
Personal computers, printers with
keyboards
None
-
Prohibits access to the port
Command
To set the ACCESS characteristic for a port, use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE
PORT command with the ACCESS keyword.
Defining the ACCESS Characteristic Example
The following example shows how to set the access characteristic for port 5 to
remote:
Local> DEFINE PORT 5 ACCESS REMOTE
10-5
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Matching the Port and Device Characteristics
Introduction
You must ensure that the physical characteristics of the access server port match
the physical characteristics of the device as described in this section. If these
characteristics do not match, the device does not operate correctly. The
characteristics that must match are:
•
AUTOBAUD
•
CHARACTER SIZE
•
PARITY
•
STOP BITS
•
SPEED
•
TYPE
AUTOBAUD
The AUTOBAUD characteristic determines if a port automatically detects a
device’s speed, parity, and character size when you log in.
AUTOBAUD Settings
The following table lists the AUTOBAUD settings and the types of devices
associated with them:
Setting
For These Devices
Enabled
Interactive (default)
Disabled
Printers, modems, computers
CHARACTER SIZE and PARITY Settings
10-6
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
The AUTOBAUD characteristic functions only if the input and output speeds of
the port device are the same and the character size and parity settings have the
combinations listed in the following table:
Character Size
Parity
8
None
7
Even
Example: Disabling AUTOBAUD
The following example shows how to disable the autobaud characteristic:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 AUTOBAUD DISABLED
CHARACTER SIZE
The CHARACTER SIZE characteristic indicates the number of bits in a data
character. The access server supports character sizes of 7 or 8 bits, and the default
is 8 bits.
Refer to the operator’s guide for the port device to determine appropriate
character size.
If you enable autobaud, the access server automatically adjusts the character size.
Example: Setting the CHARACTER SIZE
The following example shows how to set the character size:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 CHARACTER SIZE 7
PARITY
The PARITY characteristic determines the type of parity checks that the access
server performs. If you enable autobaud, the access server automatically adjusts
the parity.
PARITY Settings
10-7
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
The following table lists the available parity checks:
Setting
Check Performed Per Character
Even
Even number of one bits
Odd
Odd number of one bits
Mark
A set parity bit
Space
A cleared parity bit
None (default)
No parity checking performed
Example: Changing the PARITY Settings
The following example shows how to change the parity:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 PARITY ODD
SPEED
The SPEED characteristic enables you to configure the port for devices that
operate at the following speeds: 75, 110, 134, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 1800, 2000, 2400,
4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, and 115200 bits per second (bits/s).
If you enable autobaud, the access server automatically adjusts the port speed.
Example: Changing the Port SPEED
The following example shows how to change the port speed:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 SPEED 2400
Example: Configuring Different Input and Output Speeds for a Port
The following example shows how to specify different input and output speeds
for a port:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 INPUT SPEED 2400
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 OUTPUT SPEED 1200
10-8
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
STOP BITS
The STOP BITS characteristic indicates the number of bits that mark the end of a
character transmission. By default, the access server dynamically sets up the
STOP BITS characteristic. The access server automatically uses 2 stop bits for port
speeds up to and including 134 bits/s, and 1 stop bit for port speeds above 134
bits/s.
You can also specify 1 or 2 stop bits for each device.
Example: Setting the STOP BITS for a Device
The following example shows how to set the stop bits for a device:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 STOP BITS 1
TYPE
The TYPE characteristic indicates the device attached to the port.
Device Types
The following table lists device types available for each port of the access server:
Device Type
Applies to:
Hardcopy
Printers
Softcopy
Non-ANSI video terminals
ANSI (default)
Most video terminals such as the VT100. This causes the screen
to clear before each display and enables command-line recall.
Example: Changing the device TYPE
The following example shows how to change the device type:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TYPE HARDCOPY
10-9
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Configuring the FLOW CONTROL Characteristic
Introduction
The FLOW CONTROL characteristic allows the access server to start and stop
data transfer between the port and the attached device. Flow control prevents
data losses due to lack of buffering space.
The FLOW CONTROL characteristic does not apply to data transfer between the
access server and a network resource. For a particular session, however, the
network resource might manage FLOW CONTROL between the port and the
host.
Flow Control Types
The types of FLOW CONTROL that you can configure are:
•
XON/XOFF
•
DSR
•
CTS
•
No Flow Control
•
Flow Control Direction
XON/XOFF
When the access server use XON/XOFF FLOW CONTROL on a port, it sends
•
An XON character to start the data transfer between the port and the attached
device
•
An XOFF character to stop the data transfer between the port and the attached
device
XON/XOFF is the type of FLOW CONTROL that Digital Equipment
Corporation’s terminals, personal computers, printers, and modems use.
When to Use
You must use XON/XOFF FLOW CONTROL when you use:
10-10
•
DSR logout (See Specifying DSRLOGOUT in this chapter.)
•
Signal check (See Specifying SIGNAL CHECK in Chapter 10.)
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Example: Enabling XON/XOFF FLOW CONTROL
The following example shows how to enable XON/XOFF FLOW CONTROL:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 FLOW CONTROL XON
DSR
DSR FLOW CONTROL operates as follows:
•
If the access server receives data too quickly from the port device, it turns off
DTR until it can accept more data.
•
If the port device receives data too quickly from the access server, it turns off
the DSR signal until can accept more data.
Do not enable DSR FLOW CONTROL if modem control, signal control, DSR
logout, or signal check is enabled. DSR FLOW CONTROL overrides these
characteristics.
Example: Enabling DSR FLOW CONTROL
The following example shows how to enable DSR FLOW CONTROL on a port:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 FLOW CONTROL DSR
CTS
CTS is a form of FLOW CONTROL used with null modem (DTE) devices. The
access server only transmits data to an attached device when the device asserts
DTS.
CTS FLOW CONTROL operates as follows:
•
If the access server receives data too quickly from the port device, the access
server deasserts RTS until it can accept more data.
•
If an attached device receives data too quickly from the access server, it
deasserts CTS until it can accept more data.
You can enable CTS/RTS FLOW CONTROL for access servers with attached
modems with a speed of 9600 bits/s or greater. This enables a faster response time
from the access server hardware.
Example: Enabling CTS FLOW CONTROL
The following command shows how to enable CTS FLOW CONTROL on port 7
of an access server:
10-11
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Local> CHANGE PORT 7 FLOW CONTROL CTS
Example: Disabling FLOW CONTROL
The following command shows how to disable FLOW CONTROL on port 5 of an
access server:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 FLOW CONTROL DISABLED
FLOW CONTROL Direction
The access server software allows you to specify flow input and output FLOW
CONTROL:
•
Input FLOW CONTROL refers to the data flow from the attached device to the
access server.
•
Output FLOW CONTROL refers to the data flow from the access server to the
attached device.
By default, the access server enables FLOW CONTROL in both directions.
Example: Enabling Input FLOW CONTROL
The following command shows how to enable input FLOW CONTROL on port 5
of an access server:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 INPUT FLOW CONTROL ENABLED
Example: Enabling output FLOW CONTROL
The following command shows how to disable output FLOW CONTROL on port
5 of an access server:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 OUTPUT FLOW CONTROL DISABLED
10-12
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Specifying the Automatic Logout Characteristics
Introduction
This section describes the characteristics that you can use to log out a port
automatically when the device attached to the port is turned off or when there is
no activity for a specified period of time.
Specifying DSRLOGOUT
The DSRLOGOUT characteristic causes the access server to logout a port device
when the device deasserts DSR. You cannot enable DSR logout if you enable DSR
FLOW CONTROL.
To use DSRLOGOUT, the device and cable must support DSR. For the wiring and
cables that support DSR, refer to the hardware documentation for your terminal
server. For more information about DTR and DSR signals, refer to Configuring
DTR and DSR Signals in Chapter 10.
By default, for DSRLOGOUT is disabled.
Example: Enabling DSRLOGOUT
The following command shows how to enable DSRLOGOUT on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 DSRLOGOUT ENABLED
Specifying LONGBREAK LOGOUT
The LONGBREAK LOGOUT characteristic causes access server to logout a port
device when the device deasserts RxD for 2.5 to 3.5 seconds. You use this
characteristic for devices that do not support the DSR signal.
Use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PORT STATUS command to determine if the
RxD signal is valid. If the signal is valid, it appears in the Input Signals field.
By default, LONGBREAK LOGOUT is disabled.
Example: Enabling LONGBREAK LOGOUT
The following command shows how to enable LONGBREAK LOGOUT on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 LONGBREAK LOGOUT ENABLED
10-13
Configuring Basic Device Characteristics
Specifying INACTIVITY LOGOUT
The INACTIVITY LOGOUT characteristic allows you to enable or to disable
automatic log out for the port. If INACTIVITY LOGOUT is enabled, the access
server automatically disconnects the session and logs out the port if there is no
input or output activity for the time specified by the INACTIVITY TIMER
characteristic.
Example: Enabling INACTIVITY LOGOUT
The following example shows how to enable INACTIVITY LOGOUT on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED
Specifying the INACTIVITY TIMER
The INACTIVITY TIMER characteristic specifies the timeout period for all ports.
You use the INACTIVITY TIMER characteristic when you enable the
INACTIVITY LOGOUT characteristic.
The range for the timeout is from 1 to 120 minutes. The default is 30 minutes.
Example: Changing the INACTIVITY Timeout Period
The following command shows how to change the timeout period:
Local> CHANGE SERVER INACTIVITY TIMER 15
10-14
Chapter 11
Configuring Modem Signals
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes the various port characteristics that you can use to control
the modem signals. You use modem signals to support devices that use these
signals, such as modems, computers, and printers.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
DTE/DCE Device Configuration
•
Determining the Supported Modem Signals
•
Modem Signals Description
•
Specifying MODEM CONTROL and SIGNAL CONTROL
•
Specifying SIGNAL SELECT
•
Specifying SIGNAL CHECK
•
Specifying DTRWAIT
•
Specifying RING
•
Specifying ALTERNATE SPEED
•
Specifying DIALUP
•
Sample Modem Configurations
•
Configuring DTR and DSR Signals
11-1
Configuring Modem Signals
DTE/DCE Device Configuration
Port Configuration
The role of the access server in the communication is determined by the
configuration of the port and the port device:
11-2
•
If the port access characteristic is set to local, the access server appears as a data
terminal equipment (DTE) device to a dial-in modem connected as a port
device, and as a data communication equipment (DCE) device to a personal
computer or terminal.
•
If the port access characteristic is set to REMOTE, the access server appears as
a DCE device to the port device, such as a computer system interface.
•
If the port access characteristic is set to remote, the access server operates as a
DTE device to a dial-out modem connected as a port device.
Configuring Modem Signals
Determining the Supported Modem Signals
Access Servers and MODEM CONTROL
Not all access servers support all modem signals. There are three types of access
servers:
•
Full MODEM CONTROL
•
MODEM CONTROL
Access servers that support MODEM CONTROL can use only one of two sets
of modem signals.
•
DTR/DSR support
11-3
Configuring Modem Signals
Access Server Types and Supported Modem Signals
The following table lists the types of access servers and the modem signals that
each type supports. To determine the type of access server that you have, refer to
the software product description (SPD) for your access server.
Network Access Server Type
Modem Signals Supported
Full MODEM CONTROL (Example:
DECserver 700-08 access server)
Request To Send (RTS)
Clear To Send (CTS)
Data Set Ready (DSR)
Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
Speed Mode Indicator (SMI)
RING Indicator (RI)
Data Signal Rate Selector (DSRS)
MODEM CONTROL (Example:
Access Server 316 access server)
Supports one of two sets of signals (software
selectable):
• Set 1
— Request To Send (RTS)
— Clear To Send (CTS)
— Data Set Ready (DSR)
— Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
• Set 2
— Data Signal Rate Selector (DSRS)
— RING Indicator (RI)
— Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
— Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
DSR/DTR support (Example:
DECserver 90TL access server)
11-4
Data Set Ready (DSR)
Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
Configuring Modem Signals
Modem Signals Description
Types of Modem Signal
The following table describes the various modem signals:
Modem Signal
Description
Request To Send (RTS)
Asserted by the access server to indicate to the port
device that the access server is ready to exchange
further control signals with the port device to
initiate the exchange of data. The RTS signal is the
same state as the DTR signal unless CTS input flow
control is enabled.
Clear To Send (CTS)
Monitored by the access server and asserted by the
port device to indicate that the port device is ready
to receive data.
Data Set Ready (DSR)
Monitored by the access server and asserted by the
port device to indicate that the port device is ready
to exchange further control signals with the access
server.
Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
Asserted by the access server to indicate that the
access server is ready to exchange further control
signals with the port device to initiate the exchange
of data. (DTR is accompanied by RTS and DSRS.)
Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
Monitored by the access server and asserted by the
port device to indicate that the received line signal
is within acceptable limits.
Speed Mode Indicator (SMI)
Monitored by the access server to detect whether
the modem at the access server port has selected
the higher or lower speed in its range for
exchanging data with a remote modem. SMI allows
the use of a primary and alternate (or fallback)
speed.
Ring Indicator (RI)
Monitored by the access server. This indicates that
a calling signal is being received by the port device.
Data Signal Rate Selector (DSRS)
Asserted by the access server to indicate the speed
at which the modem should initiate
communications. On a port configured for a
multispeed modem (where both SPEED and
ALTERNATE SPEED are specified), DSRS indicates
the higher of the two speeds.
11-5
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying MODEM CONTROL and SIGNAL
CONTROL
Introduction
The MODEM CONTROL and SIGNAL CONTROL characteristics are identical,
except that MODEM CONTROL is only used with full MODEM CONTROL
access servers, and SIGNAL CONTROL is used on all other access servers.
These characteristics enable or disable the use of MODEM CONTROL signals on
a port. With MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL CONTROL enabled, the access
server automatically logs out the port whenever a loss of the DSR signal (if used)
is detected or if the DCD signal (if used) is deasserted for more than 2 seconds.
Furthermore, a user must log in to the access server successfully within 120
seconds, or the access server automatically disconnects the call. You should
disable MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL CONTROL when a port is connected to
a device that does not use modem signals, or if the device cable does not support
modem signals.
Logging Out the Port with DSRLOGOUT or LONGBREAK LOGOUT
With MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL CONTROL disabled, you can enable the
access server to log out a port when the attached device is turned off by enabling
port characteristic DSRLOGOUT (see Specifying DSRLOGOUT in Chapter 9) or
LONGBREAK LOGOUT (see Specifying LONGBREAK LOGOUT in Chapter 9).
Computer Interface
For computer interface connections, you need to enable MODEM CONTROL or
SIGNAL CONTROL and configure the host to use the modem signals. This
ensures that session status is passed between the access server and the host
system, which is important to maintain security.
When a user connected to the access server logs out from a system, the computer
terminates the session and deasserts the DTR signal. The access server interprets
this condition as a loss of DSR and terminates the session.
However, when the access server terminates a session, the access server deasserts
the DTR signal. The system interprets this condition as a loss of DSR and logs out
the user. This occurs when you enter a DISCONNECT command from the access
server user interface or turn the power off.
11-6
Configuring Modem Signals
The MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL CONTROL characteristic can only be
configured in the permanent database; therefore, you cannot use the SET or
CHANGE command to configure MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL CONTROL.
Example: Enabling MODEM CONTROL
The following example shows how to enable MODEM CONTROL on port 5:
Local> DEFINE PORT 5 MODEM CONTROL ENABLED
Local> LOGOUT PORT 5
Example: Enabling SIGNAL CONTROL
The following example shows how to enable SIGNAL CONTROL on port 11:
Local> DEFINE PORT 11 SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED
Local> LOGOUT PORT 11
Normally, you should disable SIGNAL CHECK when MODEM CONTROL or
SIGNAL CONTROL is enabled.
11-7
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying SIGNAL SELECT
Introduction
The SIGNAL SELECT characteristic is used only with MODEM CONTROL access
servers. This characteristic determines which of two sets of signals that the access
server uses:
•
CTS, DSR, RTS, and DTR
or
•
RI, DCD, DSRS, and DTR
The port device must be cabled correctly to work with the set of signals that you
choose.
Determining When to Use a Signal Set
The following shows when to use these signals:
NOTE
•
If the modem speed is below 9600 baud, configure the port SIGNAL SELECT
characteristic to RI-DCD-DSRS-DTR.
•
If the modem speed is 9600 baud or above, configure the port SIGNAL SELECT
characteristic to CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR.
A maximum supported baud rate of 9600 on a modem is a guideline for signal set
selection. The signals used are a factor of modem technology, not the actual baud
rate for data tranfer.
Enabling CTS/RTS flow control for access servers with attached modems with
9600 baud or greater enables a faster response time from the access server
hardware.
In order to enable SIGNAL CONTROL, you must configure SIGNAL SELECT.
Example: Enabling SIGNAL SELECT
The following example shows to configure SIGNAL SELECT to CTS-DSR-RTSDTR on port 10:
Local> DEFINE PORT 10 SIGNAL SELECT CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
Local> LOGOUT PORT 10
11-8
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying SIGNAL CHECK
Introduction
The SIGNAL CHECK characteristic allows the access server to check for any
modem signal when a host requests a connection. If any one modem signal is
present, the access server makes a connection; otherwise, a connection is denied.
If all modem signals are dropped at the port once a connection is made, the access
server disconnects the session and logs out the port. With SIGNAL CHECK
disabled, the access server does not look for modem signals, and data might be
lost. The factory-set default for SIGNAL CHECK is disabled.
Example: Enabling SIGNAL CHECK
The following example shows how to enable SIGNAL CHECK on port 7:
Local> CHANGE PORT 7 SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED
You should enable SIGNAL CHECK for ports with printers attached. If SIGNAL
CHECK is disabled, data loss can occur when the device is turned off. However,
you should not enable SIGNAL CHECK if you are using DSR or CTS flow control
or if MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL CONTROL is enabled.
You should enable SIGNAL CHECK along with either DSRLOGOUT or
LONGBREAK LOGOUT and when the computer is turned off. This prevents
users on the network from making a connection to the computer.
11-9
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying DTRWAIT
Description
When functioning with modems and computer interfaces, the access server port
normally asserts the DTR signal at all times except during a disconnect sequence.
However, there are instances when assertion of DTR is undesirable. For example,
when a computer is offered as a service, the automatic reassertion of DTR after a
disconnect sequence might cause the computer to act as if a session is in progress.
If DTRWAIT is disabled, which is the factory-set default, the DTR signal is
asserted on an idle port.
•
When DTRWAIT is enabled, the access server can delay the assertion of DTR
until a connection is detected from a modem when an interactive user logs in
or when the access server receives a connection to the port from the network.
•
With DTRWAIT enabled, the access server supports autoanswering equipment
on a modem-control port. Upon detecting the RI signal from the modem, the
access server asserts DTR and RTS, which allows the modem to answer the call.
Then, upon detection of DSR, DCD, and CTS from the modem, the access
server enables data transfer.
•
DTRWAIT should be enabled for ports connected to computers and PCs. In
order to enable DTRWAIT, you must enable MODEM CONTROL or SIGNAL
CONTROL.
Enabling DTRWAIT Example
The following command shows how to enable DTRWAIT on port 3:
Local> CHANGE PORT 3 DTRWAIT ENABLED
11-10
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying RING
Description
The RING characteristic is supported only on those access servers that support
the DSRS signal.
Certain terminal switches and computers need to detect a RING indicator signal
(RI) before they activate. The access server can emulate the RI signal when the
port is used with a BC22R or equivalent cable that crosses the DSRS signal of the
access server over to the RI pin on the device. For information on this cable, refer
to the access server hardware documentation.
When the port RING characteristic is set to enabled and MODEM CONTROL or
SIGNAL CONTROL is enabled, the access server asserts and deasserts DSRS once
every 2 seconds. This continues until either the access server detects DSR or 30
seconds have elapsed. Upon receiving DCD, the access server establishes the
connection. DTR and RTS are asserted unless DTRWAIT is enabled.
11-11
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying ALTERNATE SPEED
Description
The ALTERNATE SPEED characteristic is only used with full MODEM
CONTROL access servers.
Two speeds for a modem port can be defined in the access server database:
primary and alternate (or fallback). The primary speed is defined with the speed
characteristic; the ALTERNATE SPEED is defined with the ALTERNATE SPEED
characteristic. You normally set up the primary speed as the high speed and the
ALTERNATE SPEED as the low speed. For ALTERNATE SPEED to work, you
must specify a single input/output speed for the speed characteristic.
If an ALTERNATE SPEED is specified, the access server asserts the DSRS signal
along with DTR and RTS when receiving a connection. DSRS indicates that the
higher primary speed should be used.
The access server monitors the SMI signal to determine whether to use the higher
or lower speed. When SMI is asserted, the access server selects the higher speed;
when SMI is deasserted, the communications selects the lower speed. The modem
connected to the access server must support the SMI signal in order for
ALTERNATE SPEED to work; otherwise, erroneous data transmission can occur.
To determine whether the modem supports the SMI signal, refer to your modem’s
documentation.
The ALTERNATE SPEED feature can be used with dial-out (sends calls) modems.
For dial-in (receives calls) modems, you should enable autobaud and disable
ALTERNATE SPEED. This allows you to configure the dial-in modem to any
speed supported by both the modem and the access server.
11-12
Configuring Modem Signals
Specifying DIALUP
Description
The DIALUP characteristic is used to notify LAT service nodes that a port user
connected to the service through a dial-in modem. The service node can use this
information to implement system security. With DIALUP enabled, the access
server sends DIALUP notification to service nodes. With DIALUP disabled (the
default), the access server does not notify the service nodes. If you do not enable
DIALUP, the service node could treat the user’s service sessions as local
connections at the service node itself. Ask the network manager and the service
node system manager if they require this notification when there are dial-in
modems at access server ports. The DIALUP characteristic is not used for
resources on the TCP/IP network.
11-13
Configuring Modem Signals
Sample Modem Configurations
Introduction
This section provides sample modem configurations for access servers that
support full MODEM CONTROL.
Configuring a Dial-In Modem on a Full MODEM CONTROL Server
The following example provides a sample configuration for a dial-in modem
operating at 57600 baud. Note that when the port password characteristic is
enabled, you must have previously defined a server login password (refer to
Specifying Passwords in Chapter 22).
Local> DEFINE PORT 6 ACCESS LOCAL ALTERNATE SPEED NONE AUTOBAUD ENABLED
Local> DEFINE PORT 6 INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED MODEM CONTROL ENABLED
Local>
Configuring a Dial-In Modem on a MODEM CONTROL Server
The following example provides a sample configuration for a dial-in modem
operating at 9600 baud and configured for the RI-DCD-DSRS-DTR signals. Note
that when the port password characteristic is enabled, you must have previously
defined a server login password (refer to Specifying Passwords in Chapter 22).
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
6
6
6
6
ACCESS LOCAL AUTOBAUD ENABLED SPEED 9600
INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED
PASSWORD ENABLED SIGNAL SELECT RI-DCD-DSRS-DTR
SPEED 9600
Configuring a Dial-Out Modem on a Full MODEM CONTROL Server
The following example provides a sample configuration for a dial-out modem
operating at 1200 baud with an ALTERNATE SPEED of 300 baud:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
11-14
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
3
3
3
3
3
3
ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED
AUTOPROMPT DISABLED BREAK DISABLED
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT ENABLED
MODEM CONTROL ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
SPEED 1200 ALTERNATE SPEED 300
Configuring Modem Signals
Configuring a Dial-In and Dial-Out Modem on a Full MODEM
CONTROL Server
The following example provides a sample configuration for a dial-in and dial-out
modem operating at 2400 baud:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
4
4
4
4
4
ACCESS DYNAMIC AUTOBAUD DISABLED
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
INACTIVITY ENABLED MODEM CONTROL ENABLED
PASSWORD ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED SPEED 2400
Configuring a Dial-Out Modem on a MODEM CONTROL Server
The following example provides a sample configuration for a dial-out modem
operating at 2400 baud and configured for the RI-DCD-DSRS-DTR signals:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED
AUTOPROMPT DISABLED BREAK DISABLED
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT ENABLED
SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
SIGNAL SELECT RI-DCD-DSRS-DTR
SPEED 2400
Configuring a Dial-In and Dial-Out Modem on a MODEM CONTROL
Server
The following example provides a sample configuration for a dial-in and dial-out
modem operating at 115200 baud and configured for the CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
signals:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
ACCESS DYNAMIC AUTOBAUD DISABLED
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
INACTIVITY ENABLED SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED
PASSWORD ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
SIGNAL SELECT CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
SPEED 115200
11-15
Configuring Modem Signals
MODEM CONTROL Sequences
Introduction
Modem-controlled communication requires that the access server recognize what
type of device is on a port and detect when this device is ready to communicate
and when the device has ceased to communicate. The following section describes
the general sequences of modem signals involved in establishing, in monitoring,
and in ending communications.
Establishing a Connection
When a connection is initiated at a port, the access server follows the signaling
sequence described in this section.
1. First, the access server examines the DTRWAIT characteristic to determine
whether to assert data terminal-ready signal (DTR) and the request-to-send
signal (RTS) while the port is idle.
If DTRWAIT is DISABLED, the access server asserts DTR and RTS while the
port is logged out.
If DTRWAIT is enabled, the access server delays assertion of DTR and RTS
until either it detects any modem signal or a connection occurs. Then, the
access server asserts DTR and RTS.
When asserting DTR and RTS, if conditions require the data-signal-rateselector signal (DSRS), the access server asserts DSRS at the same time.
2. After asserting DTR and RTS, the access server waits 2 seconds and monitors
the data-set-ready signal (DSR), which helps the access server identify the
type of device on the port. The presence of DSR indicates a null modem
device. A delay of DSR indicates a modem.
If DSR is delayed, the access server watches for one of the following
situations:
— A clear-to-send signal (CTS), which indicates a V.25/bis compatible
modem.
— The absence of a signal, which indicates a DIGITAL modem.
11-16
Configuring Modem Signals
NOTE
For dial-out modems, the access server enables data communication before
detecting DSR. Otherwise, the access server waits until detecting DSR to enable
data communication.
3. After first detecting DSR, the access server monitors the port for CTS and
DCD. If it detects CTS and DCD within 30 seconds, the access server enables
data flow on the line. If it does not detect CTS and DCD within 30 seconds, the
access server disconnects the line.
4. At this point, if an ALTERNATE SPEED is defined, the access server examines
the state of the SMI signal. The modem asserts SMI if it has accepted the
higher port speed. When it requires a fallback speed, the modem does not
assert SMI, and the access server sets the port to the fallback (lower) speed.
5. For dial-in lines, the user must log in to the access server successfully within
120 seconds, or the access server automatically disconnects the call.
Response to Momentary Loss of CTS
If the port device drops CTS (but not DCD), the access server suspends data
transmission on the line until the port device reasserts CTS.
Disconnecting
The access server disconnects the sessions on a port when any of the following
events occur on the port: DCD is lost for more than 2 seconds, DSR is lost, or a
LOGOUT command is received.
Disconnecting involves the following series of events:
1. The access server disables data exchanges on the port and waits 300
milliseconds for the stop bit of the last transmitted character to be given to the
port device.
2. The access server logs out the port, thereby disconnecting all sessions.
3. The access server drops DTR, RTS, and DSRS for 5 seconds.
4. After 5 seconds, the access server resumes the port device interaction as
described in step 1 of the Establishing a Connection sequence in this section.
11-17
Configuring Modem Signals
Configuring DTR and DSR Signals
Introduction
This section describes how to configure DTR and DSR signals for those access
servers that do not support the other modem signals. DSR flow control must be
disabled when you are using the various port characteristics to control the DSR
and DTR signals. DSR flow control can override the port characteristics.
Port Characteristic Effects on the DTR and DSR Signals
The following table shows the enabled port characteristic effect on DTR and DSR
signals:
Enabled Characteristic
DTR and DSR Actions
SIGNAL CONTROL
DTR is deasserted for 5 seconds as a consequence
of a logout; otherwise, it is always asserted.
(SIGNAL CHECK and
DTRWAIT disabled)
Solicited remote connection is established
regardless of the state of DSR. Reception of
asynchronous data is accepted once the connection
is established.
Port is logged out if DSR is deasserted after initial
assertion.
11-18
DSRLOGOUT
DTR is always asserted.
(SIGNAL CONTROL and
SIGNAL CHECK disabled
Solicited remote connection is accepted regardless
of the state of DSR.
Port is logged out if DSR is deasserted after initial
assertion.
Reception of asynchronous data is not be accepted
unless DSR is asserted.
SIGNAL CHECK
DTR is always asserted.
(SIGNAL CONTROL disabled)
Solicited remote connection will not be accepted
unless DSR is asserted.
Port is logged out if DSR is deasserted after initial
assertion.
Port status indicates “Signal Wait” if connections
cannot be accepted because DSR is deasserted.
DTRWAIT
Has no affect unless SIGNAL CONTROL is
enabled.
Configuring Modem Signals
Enabled Characteristic
DTR and DSR Actions
SIGNAL CONTROL and
DTRWAIT
DTR is asserted only if there is a solicited remote
connection.
(SIGNAL CHECK disabled)
Solicited remote connection is established
regardless of the state of DSR. Reception of
asynchronous data is accepted once the connection
is established.
Port is logged out if DSR is deasserted after initial
assertion.
DTR is deasserted for 5 seconds minimum as a
consequence of a logout. DTR can only be
reasserted when a connection is accepted.
Reception of asynchronous data is not accepted
unless DSR and DTR are asserted.
SIGNAL CONTROL and
SIGNAL CHECK
DTR is deasserted for 5 seconds minimum as a
consequence of a logout; otherwise, it is always
asserted.
(DTRWAIT disabled)
Port is logged out if DSR is deasserted after initial
assertion.
Reception of asynchronous data is not accepted
unless DSR and DTR are asserted.
Port status indicates “Signal Wait” if connections
cannot be accepted because DSR is deasserted.
Solicited remote connection is not accepted unless
DSR is asserted.
SIGNAL CONTROL, SIGNAL
CHECK, and DTRWAIT
DTR will only be asserted if there is a solicited
remote connection.
Port is logged out if DSR is not asserted within 60
seconds of connection acceptance.
Port is logged out if DSR is deasserted after initial
assertion.
DTR is deasserted for 5 seconds minimum as a
consequence of a logout. DTR can only be
reasserted when a connection is accepted.
Reception of asynchronous data is not accepted
unless DSR and DTR are asserted.
Port status indicates “Signal Wait” if connections
cannot be accepted because DSR is deasserted.
Solicited remote connection is not accepted unless
DSR is asserted.
SIGNAL CONTROL and
DSRLOGOUT
Same as SIGNAL CONTROL.
SIGNAL CONTROL, SIGNAL
CHECK, and DSRLOGOUT
Same as SIGNAL CONTROL and SIGNAL
CHECK.
11-19
Configuring Modem Signals
11-20
Enabled Characteristic
DTR and DSR Actions
SIGNAL CONTROL, DTRWAIT,
and DSRLOGOUT
Same as SIGNAL CONTROL and DTRWAIT.
SIGNAL CONTROL, SIGNAL
CHECK, DTRWAIT, and
DSRLOGOUT
Same as SIGNAL CONTROL, SIGNAL CHECK,
and DTRWAIT.
SIGNAL CHECK and
DSRLOGOUT
Same as SIGNAL CHECK.
Chapter 12
Configuring and Managing
Interactive Devices
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure and manage interactive devices, such as
terminals, terminal-like devices, and personal computers (PCs) in terminal
emulation mode. Before you use the procedures in this chapter, you must:
•
Connect and test the devices.
•
Enable privileged status.
•
Configure the port and device characteristics to match.
For More Information
For information about connecting device cables, refer to your access server
hardware documentation.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Configuring an Interactive Device for LAT Sessions
•
Configuring an Interactive Device for Telnet Sessions
•
Configuring a Session Management (TD/SMP) Terminal
•
Configuring On-Demand Loading for Asian Terminals
•
Configuring for Block-Mode Terminals
12-1
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
12-2
•
Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile
•
Configuring Individual Telnet Client Session Characteristics
•
Managing Access Server User Accounts
•
Managing Users
•
Managing Sessions
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Configuring an Interactive Device for LAT Sessions
Configuring an Interactive Device for LAT Sessions
The following example shows a sample configuration of a device connected to
LAT services:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE PORT 6 ACCESS LOCAL AUTHORIZED GROUPS 10,24,46
CHANGE PORT 6 AUTOBAUD ENABLED AUTOPROMPT ENABLED
CHANGE PORT 6 BREAK LOCAL DEDICATED NONE DEFAULT PROTOCOL LAT
CHANGE PORT 6 DSRLOGOUT ENABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
CHANGE PORT 6 INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED INTERRUPTS DISABLED
CHANGE PORT 6 LIMITED VIEW DISABLED PASSWORD DISABLED
CHANGE PORT 6 QUEUING ENABLED REMOTE MODIFICATION DISABLED
SET PORT 6 GROUPS ALL ENABLED
12-3
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Sample Network Configuration
Figure 12-1 shows the sample network configuration for LAT and Telnet sessions:
UNIX host
(TCP/IP and
Telnet)
ULTRIX host
(LAT)
VMS host
(LAT)
Ethernet
transceiver
LAN
Access Server
WAN
(TCP/IP)
Terminal
TD/SMP
terminal
Asian
terminal
Personal
Computer
UNIX host
(TCP/IP and
Telnet)
LJ-05094.fh8
Figure 12-1. Sample Network Configuration for LAT and Telnet Sessions
Configuring LAT Group Codes for Interactive Devices
Group codes are subdivisions of a LAT network. Group codes are used to
partition the network into combinations of service nodes, service-node services,
and access server ports.
12-4
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
To configure group codes on an access server, perform the following steps:
Step
Action
1
Determine the group codes of the LAT services that a port user needs by
entering the SHOW NODE STATUS command.
2
Enable the applicable groups on the port as illustrated by the following
commands:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 AUTHORIZED GROUPS 10,24,46
Local> SET PORT 5 GROUPS ALL ENABLED
3
If necessary, disable any unwanted group that was previously enabled.
The following commands show how to disable group 0 on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 AUTHORIZED GROUPS 0 DISABLED
Local> SET PORT 5 GROUPS ALL ENABLED
Specifying AUTOCONNECT
When you disable the AUTOCONNECT characteristic on a given port, the access
server displays the local mode prompt after you log in. You can then enter the
CONNECT command to use a network resource.
When you enable the AUTOCONNECT characteristic on a given port and a
dedicated or preferred service is enabled, the port automatically connects a port
to that service at log in. The port also attempts to reestablish the current session if
the connection fails. You must enable AUTOCONNECT for a dedicated service
port.
With preferred and dedicated service disabled, enabling AUTOCONNECT allows
the access server to attempt to reestablish any service connection that terminates
abnormally. If a service is not available when a connection attempt is made, the
access server repeatedly retries to connect as specified by the CONNECT
command. This feature is helpful when a user wants the access server to repeat
connection attempts to a currently non-operational service node. When a session
is established with the node, the access server notifies the user with a beep signal
and a message.
Attempts to reconnect upon LAT session failure are made every 30 seconds. The
attempts continue until the user enters local mode by using the Break key or the
local switch key. Unless a dedicated service is in effect, a status message appears
at the port device indicating that the access server is trying to restart a session.
The new connection can be made to any service node that supplies the same
service, unless a node or destination was supplied in the CONNECT command or
when the preferred service was set up.
12-5
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Example: Enabling AUTOCONNECT
The following example shows how to enable AUTOCONNECT on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 AUTOCONNECT ENABLED
Specifying AUTOPROMPT
The AUTOPROMPT characteristic is only used with the LAT protocol. This
characteristic controls the initiation of a login process on some service nodes
when a session begins. The access server sends the status of the AUTOPROMPT
characteristic whenever you establish a new LAT service session.
By default, AUTOPROMPT is enabled. If the service node supports
AUTOPROMPT, the service node performs a system-specific login sequence, such
as displaying a service announcement or login prompt.
If you disable AUTOPROMPT and the service node recognizes this, the service
node does not perform any login sequence. Since devices without keyboards
cannot respond to a login sequence, you should disable AUTOCONNECT for
these devices.
Example: Disabling AUTOPROMPT
The following example shows how to disable AUTOPROMPT:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 AUTOPROMPT DISABLED
Specifying the Default Protocol
The following options are available with the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
DEFAULT PROTOCOL command:
12-6
•
LAT — The access server defaults to the LAT protocol when the user does not
specify a protocol in the CONNECT command.
•
SLIP — The access server defaults to the SLIP protocol when the user does not
specify a protocol in the CONNECT command.
•
TELNET — The access server defaults to the Telnet protocol when the user
does not specify a protocol in the CONNECT command.
•
ANY — The access server first searches the network resources on the LAT
network when the user does not specify a protocol in the CONNECT
command. If unsuccessful, the access server then searches the network
resources on the TCP/ IP network. The AUTOCONNECT characteristic must
be disabled when the default protocol is set to ANY.
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
•
PPP — The access server defaults to the PPP protocol if the user does not
specify a protocol with the CONNECT command.
•
AUTOLINK — The access server passively examines characters received from
the attached device. If the access server detects a PPP or SLIP connection, it
attempts to change the current session into the appropriate data link session
type, PPP or SLIP. If the access server cannot identify the data as PPP or SLIP,
it starts and interactive session.
An adjunct to the AUTOLINK protocol is AUTOLINK authentication. See
Managing Dial-Up Access Security with AUTOLINK and AUTOLINK
Authentication in Chapter 21 for details.
Specifying Failover
If a LAT service node suddenly becomes unavailable during a session, the access
server searches for another LAT service node that offers the same service. If the
access server finds one or more suitable nodes, it attempts to connect to the
service on the node with the highest service rating. This process is called failover.
When used with a VAXcluster computer network, failover provides a flexible
terminal connection to the VAXcluster service.
This feature can be disabled on each port.
Example: Disabling Port Failover
The following example shows how to disable failover on port 2:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 FAILOVER DISABLED
Configuring Port Queuing
When a user on the access server tries to connect to a busy service on an access
server, the Port Queuing characteristic allows the connect request to be queued.
The service must be on an access server, either the same one as the user’s or a
different one.
The queuing of the connect request also depends on whether the access server
offering the service has reached its queue limit or has queuing disabled. In this
case, the connection is not queued and the user receives a message that indicates
that service is not available.
12-7
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
If the access server offering the service has queuing enabled and has not reached
its queue limit, the request is queued. If more than one access server offers the
service, your access server will attempt to connect to the target access server that
has the highest service rating. For access servers that offer queuing, service
ratings are higher for access servers that have the greatest number of open
positions in their connection queues.
If the port queuing characteristic is disabled, your access server cannot request a
queue connection when a service is busy. Therefore, if the service is busy, your
user receives a message that indicates that service is not available.
The factory-set default is disabled.
Example: Enabling Queuing on a Port
This example shows how to enable queuing on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 QUEUING ENABLED
The Service Connections Characteristic
The service connections characteristic allows you to disable additions to the
connection queue when a given service is busy. Changing this characteristic does
not affect requests that are already in the queue.
Example: Disabling Port Queuing
The following example shows how to disable additional queued connections for
the service LN03_PRINT:
Local> CHANGE SERVICE LN03_PRINT CONNECTIONS DISABLED
Server Queue Limit Characteristics
The server queue limit characteristic the maximum number of entries permitted
at one time in the queue. The access server can queue up to 200 connection
requests.
Example: Changing Queue Limit Characteristics
The following example shows how to change the queue limit to 150:
Local> CHANGE SERVER QUEUE LIMIT 150
Displaying Access Server Queue Entries
The SHOW/MONITOR QUEUE command displays the status of requests in the
connection queue.
Options for the SHOW/MONITOR QUEUE Command
12-8
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
The following table lists the SHOW/MONITOR QUEUE commands:
Option
Displays Entries For
PORT port-number
A specific port
NODE node-name
A specific node
SERVICE service-name
A specific service
ALL
All types of requests
For example, to display information about the entries for the service LASER, enter
the following command:
Local> SHOW QUEUE SERVICE LASER
The entry identification numbers in a SHOW/MONITOR QUEUE display can
range from 1 to 9999. They are not related to the queue depth or the queue limit.
SHOW QUEUE ALL Display Example
The following example shows how to generate a queue display. For each queued
request, the displays have one line of information arranged in columns under
fixed headings.
Local> SHOW QUEUE ALL
Position
1
2
3
Entry
128
130
131
Source Node
ORANGE
BANANA
PEACH
Service
Port
TIMESHARING4 2
SALES
4
ENGINEERING
Name
PORT_NAME
PORT_NAME
Removing Entries from the Access Server Queue
Use the REMOVE QUEUE command to modify the connection queue by
selectively removing entries from the queue. When you remove an entry from the
access server queue, the access server notifies either the requesting service node
(for a host-initiated request) or the terminal user (for a local-access request) that
the request is being rejected.
12-9
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
No default entry exists for the REMOVE QUEUE command, and failure to specify
what entry or entries are to be removed from the queue results in an error. The
following sets of entries can be removed:
•
A specific entry by using the REMOVE QUEUE ENTRY entry-number
command for each entry
•
The entries from a specific requesting node by using the REMOVE QUEUE
NODE node-name command
•
The entries for a specific requested service by using the REMOVE QUEUE
SERVICE service-name command
•
All queue entries by using the REMOVE QUEUE ALL command
Effect on the Queue
The REMOVE QUEUE ALL command deletes all queue entries, but it does not
disable the queue; the next connection request takes position 1 in the queue.
Example: Remove Queue
The following example shows how you can remove entry number 10 by using the
following privileged command:
Local> REMOVE QUEUE ENTRY 10
Configuring Port Characteristics
The port characteristic, remote modification, when enabled, allows a LAT node to
modify particular access server port characteristics. These characteristics include
speed, character size, parity, and LOSS NOTIFICATION. The LAT node must also
support this feature. The factory-set default is disabled.
You should avoid enabling remote modification and security on the same port.
Enabling these characteristics allows a secure user to modify the port from the
host; normally the secure user cannot modify the port.
Example: Configuring Remote Modification for Port Characteristics
The following example shows how to enable remote modification on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 REMOTE MODIFICATION ENABLED
12-10
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Configuring an Interactive Device for Telnet
Sessions
Introduction
User-oriented characteristics, such as forward switch and VERIFICATION and
the various Telnet session characteristics (see Configuring Individual Telnet
Client Session Characteristics in this chapter), are not included in this example.
Also, this example assumes that the port and device characteristics match. (See
the Matching the Port and Device Characteristics section in Chapter 9.)
The following are variables that you should substitute with the appropriate value:
•
Access server port number
•
FLOW CONTROL (you cannot enable DSR FLOW CONTROL when the
DSRLOGOUT characteristic is enabled, as described in FLOW CONTROL
Types)
Reference
For a description of each command, refer to the Cabletron Network Access Software
Command Reference guide.
NOTE
Not all commands can be combined on one line.
Configuring a Device on Port 6 for Internet Hosts Example
The following example shows a sample configuration of a device connected to
Internet hosts, which is illustrated in the Sample Network Configuration section
in this chapter:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
ACCESS LOCAL AUTOBAUD ENABLED
BREAK LOCAL DEDICATED NONE
DEFAULT PROTOCOL TELNET
DSRLOGOUT ENABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED INTERRUPTS DISABLED
LIMITED VIEW DISABLED PASSWORD DISABLED
TELNET CLIENT PROFILE CHARACTER
To connect to any host available on the TCP/IP network, the user enters the
CONNECT, OPEN, or TELNET command.
12-11
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Enable DSRLOGOUT or LONGBREAK LOGOUT (see Specifying DSRLOGOUT
and Specifying LONGBREAK LOGOUT in Chapter 9) if you wish the access
server to log out the port when the device is turned off. Note that the access
server, device, and device cable must support the DSR signal if you use
DSRLOGOUT.
Reference
For a description of the default protocol characteristic, refer to Specifying the
Default Protocol in this chapter.
For a description of the Telnet client profiles, refer to Specifying the Telnet Client
Session Profile in this chapter.
12-12
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Configuring a Session Management (TD/SMP)
Terminal
Introduction
The MULTISESSION characteristic allows a session management terminal using
the terminal device/session management protocol (TD/SMP) to manage each
terminal session at the terminal itself, not at the access server. A terminal session
is a single session on an access server port that is operating under session
management control.
Session management terminals can have more than one terminal session with the
access server, but each terminal session can have one service session. A service
session is a session between a network resource and the terminal session.
With session management terminals, TD/SMP maintains the context of a service
session when the user switches to another terminal session. Session data from a
service node continues even though the service session is currently inactive. You
can visualize a session management terminal as two or more standard terminals
using the same physical access server port. For terminals that do not implement
TD/SMP, the access server suspends service session data until the user resumes
the session.
How to Configure
Configure the session management terminal for a LAT session as described in the
Configuring an Interactive Device for LAT Sessions section in this chapter.
Configure a Telnet session as described in the Configuring an Interactive Device
for Telnet Sessions section in this chapter. In addition you enable
MULTISESSIONs on the port, as follows:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 MULTISESSIONS ENABLED
Benefits and Restrictions Summary
The following is a summary of the benefits and restrictions for session
management terminals:
•
Context preservation for terminal sessions and their corresponding service
sessions.
•
Multiple local modes (one for each terminal session) to manage service
sessions and port characteristics.
12-13
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
•
Simultaneous data exchange with multiple service sessions.
•
Management of terminal sessions using terminal commands.
•
Restrictions on some access server commands (see the table in the Local Mode
Command Restrictions During Session Management section in this chapter).
•
The dedicated service characteristic must be disabled. (See the User Account
Command Parameters section in this chapter.)
Local Mode Command Restrictions During Session Management
The following table list the restrictions on some of the access server commands:
12-14
Command
Description
CONNECT
Establishes a service session for any terminal session. You
cannot use it to establish an additional service session. To do
this, you must open another terminal session.
DISCONNECT
DISCONNECT ALL
Either command disconnects the current service session but
does not disconnect the terminal session. When a service
session is disconnected, the terminal session remains in local
mode.
LOGOUT
LOGOUT PORT
LOGOUT closes your current terminal session only and
disconnects the service session associated with it (if there is
one). You are not logged out of the access server. You can
open or switch to another terminal session. LOGOUT PORT
does a full log out, logging you out of the access server,
closing all terminal sessions and service sessions. It also ends
session management.
SET PRIVILEGED
Applies to the port and to all terminal sessions on the port.
SET/DEFINE/
CHANGE PORT
Changes the current characteristics for an access server port.
Changes apply to all terminal sessions for that port. The
preferred service characteristic behaves differently for
terminal sessions. The preferred service is supported while
you are in a terminal session when you use a CONNECT
command without specifying a service. The preferred service
also takes effect when you establish a terminal session if you
do not specify a service name when the terminal prompts
you for one. If you do not want to connect to the preferred
service from your terminal session, enter the name “local”
when your terminal prompts you for a service name.
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Logging In with Multisessions
The following is a typical procedure for logging in at a session management
terminal with MULTISESSIONS enabled at the access server port:
Step
Action
1
Press the Return key once or twice to obtain the introductory banner and
username prompt. After the user optionally enters a user name, the access
server invokes session management, and the terminal prompts the user for
a network resource name. The access server then uses that name to create a
session for the terminal session. If a preferred service is defined and
AUTOCONNECT is enabled, the access server starts a session with the
preferred service. If you do not enter a network resource name for a
terminal session, the access server places the port in local mode.
2
Request additional terminal sessions (and associated sessions) by entering
a terminal command. The terminal prompts the user again for a network
resource name for each terminal session. The access server creates a session
for each terminal session.
3
Switch among your terminal sessions by using a switch session key on the
terminal keyboard.
In local mode, you can enter access server commands at the access server prompt.
(The Local Mode Command Restrictions During Session Management table lists
command restrictions that apply to session management terminals.) If you enter
LOCAL as a service name for a terminal session, the access server places the port
in local mode.
12-15
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Configuring On-Demand Loading for Asian
Terminals
Introduction
Asian terminals implementing the On-Demand Loading (ODL) font protocol can
communicate with an OpenVMS load host through an access server. The access
server software has an on-demand loading characteristic that enables the ODL
protocol. When the on-demand loading characteristic is enabled on the access
server, the ODL protocol overrides FLOW CONTROL during font loading to
allow for Asian characters. This function is available only on a LAT network.
On-Demand Loading Configuration Example
The following shows how to enable on-demand loading on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 ON-DEMAND LOADING ENABLED
Disable Switch Character
You should disable the access server switch characters to prevent interference
with font requests from an Asian terminal.
Reference
See the following sections in this chapter: Specifying Keys to Switch Between
Sessions, Defining the Break Key, and Specifying a Key to Switch to Local Mode.
12-16
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Configuring for Block-Mode Terminals
Description
Block-mode terminals do not require any special setup to communicate with a
host through an access server. The access server software automatically allows
terminals that support block mode to transmit large blocks of data without using
FLOW CONTROL.
Buffer Size
The maximum receive buffer size is 2048 bytes.
12-17
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile
Introduction
You can set various features for a Telnet client session. You can either choose a
profile that has many of the characteristics predefined or set the characteristics
individually (refer to Configuring Individual Telnet Client Session Characteristics
in this chapter). Many of the characteristics have factory-set defaults.
Profiles Types
Each profile is a set of predefined Telnet client session characteristics. There are
two basic profiles:
•
CHARACTER — Typically used with interactive users at a terminal or similar
device. All characters entered by the user are sent to the Internet host for
handling. The host edits, ECHOes, and processes the user data. This is the
factory-set default.
•
BINARY — Used primarily with file transfers. All port and Telnet special
characters, such as forward and backward switches and XON/XOFF FLOW
CONTROL characters, are ignored by the access server and sent to the Internet
host.
Profile Characteristics
You can customize a profile by first selecting a profile, then changing specific
characteristics. However, the profile itself is invalidated. For example, you could
select the BINARY profile, then enable FLOW CONTROL in the receive direction.
To display the profile and client session characteristics, refer to Displaying Session
Characteristics in this chapter.
12-18
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Telnet Client Session Characteristics Predefined for Each Profile
The following table lists the Telnet client session characteristics that are
predefined for each profile. Enabling a profile automatically sets all the
characteristics to the value specified by the profile, except those listed as “use
current value.” Those characteristics keep their existing value.
Profiles
Session Characteristics
Character
Binary
ECHO
Remote
Use current access
server value 1
BINARY
Disabled
Duplex
CHARACTER SIZE (Transmit)
Use current value
8
CHARACTER SIZE (Receive)
Use current value
8
SIGNAL REQUEST
Enabled
Disabled
AO, IP, AYT, SYNCH, EOR, BRK
Use current value
Not used
TOGGLE ECHO
Not used
Not used
QUOTE
Use current value
Not used
AUTOFLUSH
Use current value
Not used
AUTOSYNC
Use current value
Not used
NEWLINE FROM TERMINAL
Use current value
Not used
NEWLINE TO TERMINAL
Use current value
Not used
NEWLINE FROM HOST
Use current value
Not used
NEWLINE TO HOST
Use current value
Not used
FLOW CONTROL
Enabled
Disabled
MESSAGE VERIFICATION
Enabled
Disabled
SWITCH CHARACTERS
Enabled
Disabled
TERMINAL TYPE
Use current access
server value
Use current access
server value
1
If ECHO is in local mode, the ECHO characteristics are suppressed, and
characters are not echoed.
12-19
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Configuring Individual Telnet Client Session
Characteristics
Modifying Telnet Session Characteristics
You can modify the Telnet client session characteristics in two ways: at the port
level or for the individual session using the SET SESSION command. Modifying
the characteristics at the port level enables those values for Telnet client sessions
at that port when sessions are created. Also, you can save the characteristics in the
permanent database. The values you set with the SET SESSION command are lost
once you log out of the session.
Specifying ECHO Characteristics
The user can specify whether characters entered at the port device are echoed at
the access server (LOCAL) or at the remote Internet host (REMOTE). The factoryset default is REMOTE. The Example: Specifying ECHO Characteristics shows
how to set ECHO CONTROL to LOCAL on port 5.
Example: Specifying ECHO Characteristics
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT ECHO LOCAL
You can suppress local echoing by either selecting ECHO LOCAL and then
selecting the BINARY profile or by selecting ECHO LOCAL and then using the
toggle ECHO character (See Specifying ECHO Characteristics in this chapter).
Specifying the BINARY Characteristic
The BINARY characteristic allows the user to enable BINARY communication in
either one or both directions (to or from the Internet host). The TRANSMIT
characteristic enables BINARY communication in the access server to the Internet
host direction. The RECEIVE characteristic enables BINARY communication in
the Internet host to the access server direction. The DUPLEX characteristic
enables BINARY communication in both directions.
The following example shows how to enable BINARY communication in the
transmit direction on port 5:
Example: Enabling BINARY Characteristics
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT BINARY TRANSMIT
12-20
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Enabling the BINARY characteristic does some, but not all, of what a user might
require to send and receive BINARY files over the Telnet connection. For BINARY
transfers, you should use the BINARY profile instead of the BINARY
characteristic.
The following example shows how to disable the BINARY characteristic:
Example: Disabling BINARY Characteristics
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT BINARY DISABLE
Specifying CHARACTER SIZE
The CHARACTER SIZE characteristic allows the user to select the character size,
7- or 8-bit, that is used during a session with an Internet host. In addition, the
character size can be specified in the transmit direction, receive direction, or both
directions.
Example: Setting CHARACTER SIZE
The following example shows how to set CHARACTER SIZE to 7-bit in both
directions for port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT CHARACTER SIZE 7
Example: Setting CHARACTER SIZE for a Specific Direction
The following example shows how to set CHARACTER SIZE to 7 in the transmit
direction. To set the character size in the receive direction, use RECEIVE instead
of TRANSMIT.
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT TRANSMIT CHARACTER SIZE 7
Mapping Keyboard Characters to Telnet Functions
You can assign keyboard characters to various Telnet functions. The SIGNAL
REQUEST characteristic can enable or disable all these functions. The factory-set
default is ENABLED.
Example: Disabling SIGNAL REQUEST
The following example shows how to disable SIGNAL REQUEST on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT SIGNAL REQUEST DISABLED
12-21
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Example: Mapping Keyboard Characters
The following example shows how to map the AO function to the Delete key:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT AO <DEL>
You can use the SET SESSION command to map a Telnet function to a key for a
particular session. This mapping only lasts for the duration of the specified
session. You cannot map a keyboard character to more than one function.
Telnet Keymapping Functions
The following table shows key function definitions mapped to specific keys. You
can disable any of the Telnet commands in this table by using the keyword
NONE. For example, to disable AO for port 5, you enter the following:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT AO NONE
12-22
Function
Description
Default
Abort Output (AO)
Aborts any output that is on its way to the
user’s terminal. If an Internet host hangs after
an AO is sent, use the SEND RESUME
OUTPUT command.
Ctrl/O
Interrupt Process (IP)
Aborts the process at the remote Internet
host.
Ctrl/Y
Synch
Drops input on its way to the remote Internet
host. This includes output queued by the
access server and the host.
Ctrl/X
Are You There (AYT)
Verifies if the connection to the Telnet server
is still active. You must resume the session to
see the Telnet server’s response.
Ctrl/T
Break (BRK)
Sends a Telnet Break command to the Internet
host. The way that this command is
interpreted depends on the host.
None
End of Record (EOR)
Sends a Telnet End of Record command to the
Internet host. This command is only sent if
the EOR option is enabled through
negotiation with the peer.
None
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Function
Description
Default
Quote
Causes the next character to be treated as
ordinary data. To send a key mapped to a
Telnet command as ordinary data, you
precede the key with the Quote command.
None
Toggle Echo
Defines a character to enable or disable the
echoed input when the ECHO option is local.
You can use this command to suppress a local
echo when you type a password.
Ctrl/E
Specifying AUTOFLUSH
The AUTOFLUSH characteristic automatically invokes the AO function
whenever you enter the IP, SYNCH, AYT, EOR, or BRK characters. AUTOFLUSH
aborts all output on its way to the user’s terminal
By default, AUTOFLUSH is enabled for IP, and is disabled for SYNCH and AYT.
Example: Disabling AUTOFLUSH
The following example shows how to disable AUTOFLUSH for the IP character
on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT AUTOFLUSH IP DISABLED
When you enter a SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS command, the -f and +f
symbols indicate if AUTOFLUSH is disabled or enabled for a given character.
Specifying AUTOSYNCH
The AUTOSYNCH characteristic automatically invokes SYNCH function
whenever you enter the IP, AO, or AYT characters. (Refer to Mapping Keyboard
Characters to Telnet Functions in this chapter.) AUTOSYNCH causes all output
on it way to the remote process to be dropped. This function allows IP, AO, or
AYT to have a more immediate effect.
By default, AUTOSYNCH is enabled for IP, and disabled for AO and AYT.
Example: Specifying AUTOSYNCH
The following example shows how to disable AUTOSYNCH for IP and enable
AUTOSYNCH for AO on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT AUTOSYNCH IP DISABLED
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT AUTOSYNCH AO ENABLED
12-23
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
When you enter a SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS command, the -s and +s
symbols indicate if AUTOSYNCH is disabled or enabled for a given character.
Specifying Telnet Client Newline
The NEWLINE characteristics allow the user to define a 1- or 2-character
sequence that will be interpreted as a new line. This characteristic is useful for
devices that generate or recognize sequences for a new line other than CRLF or
CR. There are four different directions as follows. In this case, terminal specifies
the user at the access server and host specifies the Telnet server at the remote end
of the connection.
•
NEWLINE FROM TERMINAL — When entered, the character sequence is
interpreted as a new line. The factory-set default is <CR>.
•
NEWLINE TO TERMINAL — When entered, the character sequence is sent to
the user’s terminal whenever a NEWLINE FROM HOST sequence is received.
The factory-set default is <CRLF>.
•
NEWLINE FROM HOST — When received from the Internet host, the
character sequence is interpreted as a new line. The factory-set default is
<CRLF>. Note that the Telnet protocol specifies that the CRLF sequence should
be sent.
•
NEWLINE TO HOST — When entered, the character sequence is sent to the
Internet host whenever a NEWLINE FROM TERMINAL sequence is received.
The factory-set default is <CRLF>. Note that the Telnet protocol specifies that
the CRLF sequence should be sent.
You can define NONE if you do not want a character to be defined.
Example: Specifying Telnet Client NEWLINE
The following example shows how to define no character for NEWLINE TO
TERMINAL and “AB” as a character string for Newline To Terminal on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT NEWLINE TO TERMINAL NONE
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT NEWLINE TO TERMINAL AB
Specifying FLOW CONTROL
The FLOW CONTROL characteristic enables or disables the XON/XOFF FLOW
CONTROL characters for any Telnet client session created at the port.
12-24
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
The access server supports the remote FLOW CONTROL feature, where the
remote Telnet server can toggle on and off the XON and XOFF output FLOW
CONTROL characters from the access server (client). This happens when an
application on the Telnet server uses the XON and XOFF characters for a function
other than FLOW CONTROL.
Example: Disabling FLOW CONTROL
The following example shows how to disable FLOW CONTROL on the Telnet
client on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT FLOW CONTROL DISABLED
You can enable or disable FLOW CONTROL from the device to the access server
(input) or from the access server to the device (output). By not specifying the
keywords INPUT or OUTPUT, FLOW CONTROL is enabled in both directions.
Examples: Enabling FLOW CONTROL
The following example shows how to enable FLOW CONTROL from the device
to port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT INPUT FLOW CONTROL
ENABLED
The following shows how to enable FLOW CONTROL from port 5 to the device:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT OUTPUT FLOW CONTROL ENABLED
Specifying MESSAGE VERIFICATION
The MESSAGE VERIFICATION characteristic controls the display of session
information when an existing Telnet client session is started, stopped, or resumed.
With VERIFICATION enabled (factory-set default), the access server displays the
session number and the Internet address. With VERIFICATION disabled, no
session information is displayed when a session is started, stopped, or resumed.
This command does not affect existing sessions. To affect existing sessions, use the
SET SESSION TELNET CLIENT MESSAGE VERIFICATION command.
Example: Configuring MESSAGE VERIFICATION
The following example shows how to disable VERIFICATION on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT MESSAGE VERIFICATION DISABLED
12-25
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Specifying the SWITCH CHARACTER
The SWITCH CHARACTER characteristic determines how the access server
handles SWITCH CHARACTERs. By default, if any SWITCH CHARACTER is
defined on the port, it is recognized and intercepted by the access server during
each session. However, any user can change or disable the access server from
recognizing these SWITCH CHARACTERs for a specific Telnet session. (The
sections Specifying Keys to Switch Between Sessions, Defining the Break Key, and
Specifying a Key to Switch to Local Mode provide the procedures to define the
SWITCH CHARACTERs.)
Example: Configuring SWITCH CHARACTER
The following example shows how to disable the SWITCH CHARACTERs on
port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET CLIENT SWITCH CHARACTER DISABLED
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 LIMITED VIEW ENABLED
The limited view characteristic does not apply when you set privileges on the
port.
Specifying a Preferred Terminal Type
The TERMINAL characteristic allows the user to specify a terminal type to be sent
to the Telnet host during session startup. The available types are ANSI,
UNKNOWN, and VT10 through VT999. This value is used as a starting point for
terminal type subnegotiation between the access server and the host. The actual
terminal type, as displayed by the SHOW PORT SESSION STATUS command,
may be different if the Telnet host can not support the specified type. The order of
negotiation is VTXXX, followed by ANSI, followed by UNKNOWN. For example,
if the TERMINAL characteristic is set to VT321, the access server will negotiate for
the following terminal types in the order listed:
DEC-VT32, VT321, DEC-VT300, VT300, DEC-VT200, VT200, DEC-VT100, VT100,
ANSI, UNKNOWN
Example: Specifying Terminal Type
The following example shows the command for defining a terminal type for a
VT321:
Local> CHANGE PORT TELENET CLIENT TERMINAL VT321
12-26
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Managing Access Server User Accounts
Minimal Setup for Local User Accounts
A limited amount of storage is available for defining user account records within
the access server volatile and nonvolatile memory.
Example: Setting the User Name
The following example establishes a user account named J_SMITH:
Local> SET USERACCOU J_SMITH
Example: Changing the User Password
The following example changes the password for the user account J_SMITH to
the character string “SECRETSTUFF”. Quotes denote the password string in the
command line.
Local> CHANGE USERACCOU J_SMITH PASSWORD "SECRETSTUFF"
Optional Setup for Local User Accounts
Example: Changing User Account Parameters
The following example shows how to change the user account parameters for the
user J_SMITH to FRAMED access, and set his permissions to PRIVILEGED:
Local> CHANGE USERACCOU J_SMITH ACCESS FRAMED
Local> CHANGE USERACCOU J_SMITH PERMISSIONS PRIV
When the SHOW USERACCOUNT command is used, the above settings result in
the following display:
Local> SHOW USER ACCOUNT J_SMITH
Username:
J_SMITH
Password:
(Entered) User Status: ENABLED
Access:
FRAMED
Forced Callback: DISABLED
Max Connect Time: 0 02:00:00 Dialout Service: (NONE)
Dialback Number: (NONE)
Dialout Number: (NONE)
Permissions:
DIALBACK, DIALOUT, LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP,
PRIV
12-27
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR USERACCOUNT Display
The following table defines the values in the SHOW USSERACCOUNT display:
Field
Description
Username
Establishes a database for a user account for
authentication/authorization.
Password
Specifies that a password has been set for the user account
Access
Specifies the default access mode this user is granted.
Max Connect Time
Indicates the maximum number of minutes the user can be
logged in before being forcibly logged out.
Dialback Number
Contains a phone number used on dial-back.
Dialout Number
Contains a phone number used on dial-out.
Permissions
Defines what the user is allowed to do.
User Status
ENABLE/DISABLE this account for
authentication/authorization.
Forced Callback
Specifies whether a user must be called back after login.
Dialout Service
Specifies the DIALER SERVICE to be used when attempting
a dial-out.
Authorization Profile Information
The access server supports a variety of information in a user or realm default
authorization profile. The following table gives the service types and access levels
of this information.
Service Types and Access Levels
The following table defines the service type and access level:
12-28
Service
Type Description
Login
User will be connected to a dedicated host.
Framed
SLIP or PPP will be started on the session.
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Service
Type Description
Local
User may utilize the access server commands.
None
The configuration value of the port access parameter or realm-wide access
parameter determines user access to the realm.
Service Permissions Access
The following table shows the type of service permissions a user can have. A user
can have more than one type of service permission. The user can also have more
than one type of permission assigned at a time. There is no limit to the total
number of permissions a user can have.
Service Type
User Access
Telnet
The user may make Telnet connections on the current session.
LAT
The user may make LAT connections on the current session.
Dial-Out
The user may invoke a dial-out connection on the current session.
Dial-Back
The user may invoke a dial-back on the current session.
SLIP
The user may invoke a SLIP connection on the current session.
PPP
The user may invoke a PPP connection on the current session.
Privileged-User
The user has a privilege level of PRIVILEGED.
User Account Command Parameters
The commands in the following table allow the security manager to manage a
small local database to be used for authentication and authorization. The table
shows the command keywords associated with user account variables.
Command Clause
Description
CLEAR/PURGE
Allows local data base
entries to be deleted.
SET/DEFINE/
CHANGE
Permits entry
addition and
modification.
Variables
Comments
ENABLED/
DISABLED
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Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Command Clause
Description
Variables
Comments
PASSWORD
Allows modification
of the password field
for the specified entry.
Clear the PASSWORD
by setting it to nullstring ("").
Max. length = 40
characters Casesensitive, depending
on authentication
service (protocol).
Case-insensitive only
for the local access
server user data base.
USERACCOUNT
User name of account.
DIALOUT NUMBER
Contains a phone
number used on dialout.
Standard modem-dial
strings
Max. length = 120
characters
DIALBACK
NUMBER
Contains a phone
number used on dialback.
Standard modem-dial
strings
Max. length = 120
characters
DIALOUT SERVICE
The DIALER
SERVICE to be used
when attempting a
dial-out.
Values appear in
uppercase.
Max. length = 16
characters
MAX CONNECT
CONNECT Indicates
the maximum
number of minutes
the user can be logged
in before being
forcibly logged out.
USER STATUS
Specifies user status.
ENABLED/
DISABLED
Setting DISABLED
prevents any login
using this user-name.
ACCESS
Specifies the default
access mode this user
is granted.
LOCAL FRAMED
NONE
See the following
table for a definition
of the ACCESS clause
variables.
12-30
Max. length = 40
characters
Default = 0
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Access Command Variables
The following table defines the ACCESS command parameter variables:
Variable
Definition
LOCAL
Local access (only) allowed.
FRAMED
Framed (PPP, SLIP) access (only) allowed.
NONE
No access specified; port characteristics or realm default access determine
service.
LOGIN
Dedicated to a host.
12-31
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Managing Users
This section describes various tasks for managing users.
Providing a Contact Name and Access Server Location
The SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SYSTEM command allows you to provide all access
server users with a person’s name to contact in case of problems. This command
also allows you to specify the location of the access server.
Example: Providing a Contact Name and Access Server Location
The following example shows how to identify Bob G as the access server contact,
and Building 2, Lab 3 as the location of the access server:
Local> CHANGE SYSTEM CONTACT "Bob G"
Local> CHANGE SYSTEM LOCATION "Building 2, Lab 3"
You can use the SHOW/LIST SYSTEM command to display this information.
Specifying Preferred Service for LAT or Telnet Resources
The following lists the results of enabling a preferred service on a port:
•
Without AUTOCONNECT enabled (refer to Specifying AUTOCONNECT in
this chapter), the port user connects to a particular resource by entering only
the CONNECT command. With AUTOCONNECT enabled, the access server
automatically connects the port to the preferred service at login.
•
The user can switch to local mode at any time and make connections to other
available services.
When you specify any LAT or Telnet resource to be a preferred service, the host or
service name, node name, and port name are limited to 16 characters each.
For the LAT protocol:
To set a LAT service as a preferred service, the port’s default protocol must be set
to LAT.
Example: Enabling a Preferred LAT Service
The following example shows how to enable the LAT service, FILES, as the
preferred service on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 PREFERRED FILES
You can specify that the connection be made to a particular node and/or port
name of the LAT service.
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Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Example: Enabling a Preferred LAT Service on a Specific Node and Port
The following example shows how to specify that port 5 connects to port JAMES
on node MARKETING for service FILES:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 PREFERRED FILES NODE MARKETING
DESTINATION JAMES
For the Telnet Protocol
To set an Internet host as a preferred service, the port’s default protocol must be
set to TELNET. You can use the host’s Internet address, domain name, or relative
domain name if the host is defined in a name server; however, you cannot use the
entire domain name if the name is more than 16 characters, including the dots.
Example: Enabling a Preferred Telnet Service
The following example shows how to enable a resource on the TCP/IP network,
SALE.MKT.FOO.COM, as a preferred service on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 PREFERRED SALE.MKT.FOO.COM
Specifying the Port USERNAME
By factory-set default, the Enter username> prompt appears when a user logs in
to the access server port. The access server uses the user name as the string the
user enters in response to the Enter username> prompt. However, the access
server uses the port’s name as the user name when the user enters Ctrl/Z instead
of a user name.
You can use the USERNAME characteristic to establish a permanent user name (1
to 16 ASCII characters) for a port. In this case, the Enter username> prompt is not
displayed when a user logs in to the access server. Always make an effort to
specify a unique user name, since the access server does not prevent duplicate
user names.
Examples: Configuring Port USERNAME
The following example sets the port 5 user name to “Barney”:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 USERNAME "Barney"
If you do not use the quotation marks in the command, the user name will appear
in uppercase (for example, BARNEY instead of Barney).
To clear USERNAME, enter empty quotation marks as follows:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 USERNAME ""
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Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
USERNAME is designed to accommodate interactive terminals that have one
permanent user. Terminals that are usually shared should not have a permanent
user name assigned, and the Enter Username> prompt should be entered upon
login.
If AUTHENTICATION is enabled on the port, the port user name may be set to
the Kerberos principal name of the port’s permanent user.
Specifying Keys to Switch Between Sessions
Access server users can define keys as switches. These keys can switch from one
session to another without having to return to local mode. When the user presses
the key, the access server interprets the character and does not pass it to the
service node.
Pressing the BACKWARD SWITCH character activates the user’s previous
session. The FORWARD SWITCH character activates the next session. These
switches can be pressed either at the local prompt or in a session.
If the user has only two sessions, both of these switch characters restart the
inactive session. You can configure any keyboard character as the FORWARD or
BACKWARD SWITCH. Previously undefined control characters are
recommended. Do not select characters that the port user is likely to enter
routinely while using a service; otherwise, the current session is interrupted when
that switch is pressed. Avoid the tilde (~) character if you use function keys on the
VT-series terminals or PCs.
Switch characters can be temporarily disabled for a particular session by using
the SET SESSION command for a LAT session or the Telnet client profile for a
Telnet session. (Refer to Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile in this
chapter.) However, they remain in effect outside such a session.
To define these keys as switches, select a different character for each switch.
Example: Defining Keys as Switches
The following example shows how to set Ctrl/F and Ctrl/B for the forward and
backward switches on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 FORWARD SWITCH ^F BACKWARD SWITCH ^B
To delete a switch character, use the NONE keyword instead of a character.
NOTE
12-34
If you are using a session management terminal and your port has
MULTISESSIONS ENABLED, switch sessions by using a terminal command
rather than access server switch characters.
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Defining the Break Key
The BREAK characteristic defines how the Break key is used. The Break key can
be defined in three ways:
•
LOCAL — Pressing the Break key switches the user from service mode to local
mode. This is the factory-set default. The following shows how to set the Break
key to LOCAL on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 BREAK LOCAL
•
REMOTE — The Break key is ignored by the access server and passed to the
LAT service for the port’s current session. BREAK is not sent to any host on a
TCP/IP network. To send BREAK to a host on the TCP/IP network, refer to
Mapping Keyboard Characters to Telnet Functions in this chapter. The
following shows how to set the Break key to REMOTE on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 BREAK REMOTE
•
DISABLED — The Break key is ignored by the access server and not passed to
the host on the network. The following shows how to set the Break key to
DISABLED on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 BREAK DISABLED
The Break key is ignored on a port with a dedicated service; however, you should
disable BREAK along with all other switch characters. If you need to pass the
break condition to the dedicated service for any application of the service, set
BREAK to REMOTE. In this case, the break signal is not ignored but is passed to
the LAT service node.
Specifying a Key to Switch to Local Mode
The LOCAL SWITCH characteristic identifies a character that, when entered by
the user, switches the port to local mode from session mode. This character, like
the FORWARD and BACKWARD SWITCH characters, is intercepted by the
access server and is never transmitted to the network resource unless you set SET
SESSION PASSALL or PASTHRU for a LAT session, or you set the Telnet client
profile for a Telnet session. The Break key is also available for this function unless
the BREAK REMOTE or the BREAK DISABLED option has been chosen. When
you define a local switch character, the character you choose can be used in place
of the Break key, or you can continue to use the Break key.
Example: Configuring a Key as a Switch
The following example shows how to identify “-” as the local switch for port 3:
Local> CHANGE PORT 3 LOCAL SWITCH -
12-35
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Example: Disabling a Local Switch
The following example shows how to disable the local switch, which is also the
factory-set default:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 LOCAL SWITCH NONE
Specifying BROADCAST
There are three types of BROADCAST characteristics:
•
BROADCAST — A port user uses this command to send messages.
•
Port broadcast — Defines whether a particular port can receive broadcast
messages.
•
Access server broadcast — Defines whether all port users can send broadcast
messages.
Disabling the port BROADCAST characteristic stops the port from receiving
broadcast messages from other access server ports along with access server
messages, such as shutdown. For this reason, you might want to recommend to
users that they leave BROADCAST enabled on their ports.
NOTE
The port user can still send messages with the access server BROADCAST
enabled and the port BROADCAST disabled.
Example: Disabling BROADCAST Messages
The following example shows how to disable port 5 from receiving broadcast
messages:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 BROADCAST DISABLED
If any user tries to broadcast to a broadcast-disabled port, the access server enters
the following message, which identifies the port or ports by port number:
Local -111- Port(s) with broadcast disabled not notified
Broadcast disabled at port n
When BROADCAST is enabled for both the access server and a port, port users
can send and receive broadcast messages, by using the BROADCAST PORT
command. When the access server BROADCAST is disabled, port users cannot
send broadcast messages. Note that an individual port must have the port
BROADCAST characteristic enabled to receive messages.
12-36
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
A user with privileges set can use the privileged BROADCAST ALL command to
send a message to all interactive users.
Example: BROADCAST ALL
The following example shows a sample of a message broadcasted to all users:
Local> BROADCAST ALL "Server shut down at 12:15; back up at 1:00."
At a port with a session management terminal, broadcast messages are delivered
to the current terminal session.
The factory-set default allows port users to send broadcast messages. Use the
following command if you do not wish users to send broadcast messages:
Local> CHANGE SERVER BROADCAST DISABLED
NOTE
Messages warning that the access server is going to initialize are unaffected by the
access server-wide BROADCAST characteristic.
Ask users to inform you if they receive excessive or annoying broadcasts from
other ports. If you receive complaints about such broadcasts, you can ask the
sender of those broadcasts to stop broadcasting unnecessary messages, or you can
enable security on the sender’s port. This disables the BROADCAST command
for the port.
Specifying LOSS NOTIFICATION
The LOSS NOTIFICATION characteristic signals a port user when characters
entered by the user are lost, because of parity errors, framing errors, data
overruns, or other reasons. The signal is a BEL character (an audible beeping
sound), which the access server transmits to the port for each character that is lost.
The factory-set default is enabled.
Example: Disabling LOSS NOTIFICATION
The following example shows how to disable LOSS NOTIFICATION on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 LOSS NOTIFICATION DISABLED
12-37
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Specifying Message Codes
Each access server message has a message code. In the following example, the
number 750 is the message code:
Local -750- Another port has this name
With message codes disabled, the same message would look like:
Local - Another port has this name
The factory-set default shows the message codes. The following example shows
how to disable reception of message codes on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 MESSAGE CODES DISABLED
Specifying VERIFICATION
The VERIFICATION characteristic controls the display of session information
when an existing session is started, stopped, or resumed. If you enable
VERIFICATION (factory-set default), the access server displays the session
number and the service name of the service. If you disable VERIFICATION, no
session information is displayed when a session is started, stopped, or resumed.
Example: Disabling VERIFICATION
The following example shows how to disable VERIFICATION on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 VERIFICATION DISABLED
Specifying Lock
The LOCK characteristic enables or disables the LOCK command for selected or
all ports. If the LOCK command is enabled on the access server at the port, a user
can enter the LOCK command at the terminal to prevent unauthorized access to
an unattended terminal. The command prevents any input until the unLOCK
password is entered.
The factory-set default is LOCK ENABLED. You can disable the LOCK command
for all users as follows:
Local> CHANGE SERVER LOCK DISABLED
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Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Example: Configuring LOCK
The following example shows how to enable LOCK on the access server, while
disabling LOCK on ports 5 through 7:
Local> CHANGE SERVER LOCK ENABLED
Local> CHANGE PORT 5-7 LOCK DISABLED
Since anyone can LOCK any terminal, the LOCK facility can cause inconvenience
in a situation where there are irresponsible users. If a user forgets the LOCK
password, you have to log out the port with the LOGOUT command before the
port can be used again. However, the LOGOUT command disconnects all
sessions on that port. In that case, it may be best to disable LOCK on that port and
rely on users to protect their sessions by disconnecting them when they must
leave the terminal unattended.
Displaying Information About the Users
You can use the SHOW/MONITOR USERS command to do the following:
•
Determine which ports are in use at any time.
•
Identify the port users.
•
Display information about active port users.
Example: SHOW USERS Display
The following example shows how to generate a users display. The display
contains one line of information for each port that is logged in to the access server:
Local> SHOW USERS
Port
Username
Status
Service
1
2
3
4
5
Connected
Locked
Local
Connected
Connected
DOCUMENT2
TIMESHARING
Mode
PRINTER
SLIP
Rich Smith
Jane Brown
giovanni
(Remote)
card
12-39
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR USERS Display Headings
The following table provides an explanation of the information in the display in
the previous example:
Heading
Description
Port Number
Number of the port.
Username
Any user name or the name of the port established by the PORT
NAME characteristic.
Note: Any port having the user name “(Remote)” designates a
remote-access session in progress.
Status
Service
Status of the port, which can be one of the following:
Connected
Port is connected to a service.
Connecting
Port is attempting to connect to a service.
Disconnected
Session was terminated while dormant.
Disconnecting
Session is disconnecting from a service.
Signal Wait
The port failed to assert the DSR signal
during a signal check controlled connection
attempt.
Idle
Port is not is use.
Local Mode
Port is logged into the access server and is
in local mode.
Locked
The user has entered the LOCK command
to LOCK the port.
Name of the user’s current session.
Specifying User Groups
Nonprivileged users can choose the groups they require for their ports by using
the SET PORT GROUPS command. Users must choose from the groups you
authorized for their ports. The SET PORT GROUPS command limits user access
to those services made available by the groups specified with the command. The
command serves to shorten the node and service displays.
12-40
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
The SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS command displays the user-specified
groups, listing them in the field labeled (Current) Groups. Current groups apply
only to those ports with ACCESS set to LOCAL; current groups are ignored for
those ports with ACCESS set to REMOTE.
Current groups (user-specified groups) are stored only in the operational
database. Therefore, users must use the SET PORT command to configure these
groups; users cannot use the DEFINE PORT or CHANGE PORT command.
Current groups are always equal to or a subset of the AUTHORIZED GROUPS. If
a user enters SET PORT GROUPS ALL, the current groups consist of all the
enabled authorized groups.
The access server uses the current groups for these functions:
•
Checking authorization when the user enters a CONNECT command on the
access server
•
Displaying information with the SHOW NODES and SHOW SERVICES
commands
Example: Assigning User Groups
The following example shows the command for nonprivileged users to assign
groups from among their authorized groups:
Local> SET PORT GROUPS 5
If the authorized groups for the port were groups 4 to 7, the user can only access
group 5 after executing the command. In addition, the SHOW SERVICES
command shows only the information for services and nodes in group 5, and the
SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS command shows the groups assigned to the
port in the (Current) Groups field.
12-41
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Managing Sessions
This section shows how to initiate and terminate sessions and how to display
session information.
Initiating a Session to a LAT Service
To initiate a session to a LAT service, use the CONNECT LAT command with the
service name. If the default protocol (refer to Specifying the Default Protocol in
this chapter) is set to LAT or ANY, you can ignore the LAT keyword.
Example: Initiating a Session to a LAT Service
The following example shows how to initiate a session with LAT service SALES:
Local> CONNECT LAT SALES
You can use the CONNECT command to connect to any available LAT node or
service at a specific service node and port. For example, if it is important for you
to connect to a particular system associated with a service named
ACCOUNTING, you can specify the service node where that system is attached.
Example: Connecting to a LAT Service on a Specific Node or Server
The following shows how to connect to LAT service SALES at node SERVER2:
Local> CONNECT LAT SALES NODE SERVER2
The following shows how to connect to LAT service SALES at node SERVER2,
port 1:
Local> CONNECT LAT SALES NODE SERVER2 DESTINATION 1
Initiating a Session to an Internet Host
To initiate a session to an Internet host, use the CONNECT TELNET command
with the Internet host name or address. If the default protocol (refer to Specifying
the Default Protocol in this chapter) is set to TELNET, you can ignore the TELNET
keyword. You can connect to the Internet host name or address. The host name
can be either a relative or an absolute domain name.
Example: Initiating a Session with an Internet Host
The following three commands show how to initiate a session with the same host.
The first command uses the relative domain name, SALES; the second command
uses the absolute domain name SALES.MARKETING.FOO.COM; and the third
command uses the Internet address, 129.122.30.11.
12-42
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Local> CONNECT TELNET SALES
Local> CONNECT TELNET SALES.MARKETING.FOO.COM
Local> CONNECT TELNET 129.122.30.11
You can also use the OPEN or TELNET command instead of the CONNECT
command to connect to an Internet host. The OPEN command does not accept the
TELNET keyword.
Local> OPEN SALES
Local> TELNET SALES
Sending Telnet Functions to a Remote Telnet Server
To send a Telnet function such as AO, AYT, BRK, EOR, or SYNCH, you use the
SEND TELNET command on a current session with a Telnet server. For example,
the following command sends the Telnet abort output (AO) command:
Local> SEND TELNET AO
You can map Telnet functions to keyboard characters as described in Mapping
Keyboard Characters to Telnet Functions. For a complete list of Telnet commands,
refer to Telnet Keymapping Functions in this chapter.
In addition to the functions listed in Mapping Event Indications to Keyboard
Characters in Chapter 13, you can also send the following:
•
Request Status — Requests that the peer Telnet implementation responds with
the current status of all Telnet options for this session. You must resume the
session to see the Telnet server’s response. The following shows how to send
the REQUEST STATUS function:
Local> SEND TELNET REQUEST STATUS
•
Resume Output — If the Internet host appears to be hung after the AO function
is sent, you send RESUME OUTPUT to cancel the AO. You only use this
command to cancel an AO. The following shows how to send the RESUME
OUTPUT function:
Local> SEND TELNET RESUME OUTPUT
Local> SEND TELNET SYNCH
12-43
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
•
TEST INTERNET or PING - Sends an ECHO request message to the specified
remote Internet host. You use this command to test for a valid connection. This
command starts a PING session, which continues until the PING succeeds (and
sends a VERIFICATION message) or until the timeout period of 30 seconds is
exceeded. The following shows how to test the communication to an Internet
host with an address of 22.46.72.167:
Local> TEST INTERNET 22.46.72.167
or
Local> PING 22.46.72.167
Controlling the Number of Sessions
You can control the number of sessions at the individual port and the total
number of sessions allowed for the access server. The combined number of
sessions for all ports must be equal to or less than the access server session limit.
A high limit allows users to have more sessions but results in increased memory
requirements. A low limit decreases the memory requirements but decreases the
number of sessions. If the access server session limit is reached by some of the
port users, the remaining port users cannot establish subsequent additional
sessions. In this case, you need to increase the access server session limit value or
decrease the port session limit value for some or all of the ports.
You can set the SESSION LIMIT for the access server to a value of 0 to 128 or to
NONE. If you enter NONE, the access server maintains up to 128 sessions,
potentially eight per port user. The factory-set default is 64 sessions.
Example: Changing the Server Session Limit
The following example shows how to change the access server session limit to 48:
Local> CHANGE SERVER SESSION LIMIT 48
The maximum number of sessions allowed on one port is eight. The factory-set
default is four sessions. You can set the port session limit to a number from 0 to 8
or to NONE, where NONE allows eight sessions at the port. If you set a session
limit to 0, the affected users cannot connect to any resources.
Example: Changing the Server Session Limit on a Specific Port
The following example shows the session limit being set to 6 on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 SESSION LIMIT 6
12-44
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
For ports with session management terminals, the kind of terminal at the port
further determines the port’s session limit, where the access server port can
support up to eight terminal sessions. However, terminal devices typically
support a maximum of less than eight terminal sessions. The documentation for
the terminal device should tell you how many terminal sessions the device can
have. Set the port session limit to a value in that range.
Displaying Session Information
You can display a line of information about the current status of a port or ports
and a list of the sessions on the port or ports. To display a summary of session
information, use the SHOW SESSIONS command. If you wish to display a
continuous update of the sessions, use the MONITOR SESSIONS command.
Use the ALL keyword instead of a port number to receive equivalent information
about the sessions for all access server ports. For ports set up as a LAT service or
Telnet listener, the user name is displayed as “(Remote)”.
Example: SHOW SESSIONS Display
The following example shows how to generate a sessions display for ports 1 and
2. The first line of the sessions display begins with the port number and port user
name. On the same line, the display shows the port mode (either Local Mode or
Session Mode) and the current session number.
The next few lines in the display consist of active-session information. One line of
information appears for each active session on the port. When a session is
terminated, the information for the session is removed and replaced by the
information below it in the display.
Local> SHOW SESSIONS PORT 1,2
Port 1: Rich Smith Local Mode Current Session: Session 2
-
Session
Session
Session
Session
Session
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
Queued at 3
Connected
Connecting
Disconnected
Disconnecting
LAT
TELNET
TELNET
LAT
LAT
TIMESHARE
DEVELOP
BERGIL
DOCUMENT (PEAR)
TEST
Port 2: card Session Mode
Current session: Session 1
- Session 1: Connected SLIP
12-45
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
SHOW/MONITOR SESSIONS Display Fields
The following table describes the information in the SHOW/MONITOR
SESSIONS display:
Field
Description
Session n
Number of the session.
First Column
Status of a session, which can be one of the following:
Connected
Port is connected to the service.
Connecting
Port is attempting to connect to a service
Disconnected
Session was terminated while dormant.
Disconnecting
Access serve is disconnecting the port from the
service.
Signal Wait
The port failed to assert the DSR signal during a
signal check controlled connection attempt.
Queued at n
Position in the connection queue of the
connection request for a service. The request at
position 1 is the next one to be dequeued and
connected.
Second column
Displays which protocol (LAT or Telnet) the session is using.
Third Column
Name of the LAT service or Internet host associated with the
session, or SLIP for SLIP sessions. If the name of the LAT service
differs from the name of the LAT service node supplying the service,
the display includes the name of the LAT service node within
parentheses. For a remote-access connection to the port, the LAT
service name is the LAT service sought by the requesting node and
the name within parentheses is the requesting LAT service node.
Displaying Session Characteristics
You can display the characteristics of any current LAT or Telnet session.
Example: SHOW PORT SESSIONS CHARACTERISTICS Display for a LAT
Session
The following example displays the characteristics of LAT session 1 on port 4:
Local> SHOW PORT 4 SESSIONS 1 CHARACTERISTICS
Port 4, Session 1, Protocol LAT
Transparency Mode: Interactive
12-46
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
There are only two lines in this display. The first line displays the port number,
session number, and protocol used by the session. The second line displays the
transparency mode, which can be Interactive, Pasthru, or Passall.
For an explanation of the characteristics for Telnet and 3270 sessions, refer to
Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile in this chapter and Chapter 18,
respectively.
Displaying Session Status
You can display the status of any current Telnet session. If you have a LAT
session, the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PORT SESSION command displays the
port number, session number, Protocol LAT, and the following message: (no
status information available for LAT sessions)
Example: SHOW PORT SESSIONS STATUS Display for a Telnet Session
The following example shows how to display the status of a Telnet session on port
14:
Local> SHOW PORT 14 SESSION 1 STATUS
Port 14, Session 1, Protocol TELNET
Do-BINARY
Disabled
Will-BINARY
Disabled
Do-ECHO
Enabled
Will-ECHO
Disabled
Do-SGA
Enabled
Will-SGA
Enabled
Do-Status
Disabled
Will-Status
Disabled
Do-End of Record
Disabled
Will-End of Record
Disabled
Do-Remote FLOW CONTROL
Disabled
Will-Remote FLOW CONTROL Disabled
Will-Terminal Type
Enabled
DEC-VT300
12-47
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
SHOW/MONITOR PORT SESSIONS STATUS Display Fields
The following table provides a description of the SHOW/MONITOR PORT
SESSIONS STATUS display information:
Field
Description
Do-Binary
Enabled — Interpreting all data received as in a BINARY
access server format.
Disabled — Not interpreting all data received as in a
BINARY format.
Will-Binary
Enabled — Sending data in a BINARY format.
Disabled — Not sending data in a BINARY format.
Do-ECHO
Enabled — The remote peer will echo the output from the
access server.
Disabled — The remote peer will not echo the output from
the access server.
Will-Echo
Enabled — The access server will echo the input from the
remote peer.
Disabled — The access server will not echo the input from
the remote peer.
Do-SGA
Enabled — Receiving data in suppressed go-ahead (SGA)
mode. This allows duplex communication.
Disabled — Not receiving data in SGA mode. (The remote
peer is sending go-aheads.)
Will-SGA
Enabled — Sending data in SGA mode. This allows duplex
communication.
Disabled — Not sending data in SGA mode.
Do-Status
Enabled — The access server has permission to send
requests for the peer’s status.
Disabled — The access server does not have permission to
send requests for the peer’s status.
Will-Status
Enabled — The access server will respond to remote
requests for status.
Disabled — The access server will not respond to remote
requests for status.
12-48
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Field
Description
Do-End
of Record
Enabled — The access server is enabled to receive EOR
commands.
Disabled — The access server is not enabled to receive EOR
commands.
Will-End
of Record
Enabled — The access server has permission to transmit
EOR commands to the remote peer.
Disabled — The access server does not have permission to
transmit EOR commands to the remote peer.
Do-Remote
FLOW CONTROL
Enabled — The access server will send remote FLOW
CONTROL commands to enable and disable the peer’s
output FLOW CONTROL.
Disabled — The access server will not send remote FLOW
CONTROL commands to enable and disable the peer’s
output FLOW CONTROL.
Will-Remote
FLOW CONTROL
Enabled — The network access server will accept remote
FLOW CONTROL commands.
Disabled — The access server will not accept remote FLOW
CONTROL commands.
Will-Terminal Type
Enabled — The network access server will respond to SEND
TERMINAL TYPE commands.
Disabled — The network access server will not respond to
SEND TERMINAL TYPE commands. The third column
displays the terminal type negotiated between the access
server and the host.
12-49
Configuring and Managing Interactive Devices
Terminating Sessions
There are two commands you can use to terminate a session on another port:
•
The privileged LOGOUT PORT command allows you to manually log out any
port, and all sessions terminate at the specified port. If the port device supports
session management, the LOGOUT PORT command disconnects all the
terminal sessions (and the associated sessions) then logs out the port.
For example, to disconnect port 4 from all its sessions, enter the following
command:
Local> LOGOUT PORT 4
The port that you specify can have local, remote, or dynamic access. Use
caution when you log out a user’s port. When you log out a port, you
abruptly stop all sessions, and data may be lost. The port characteristics are
also reset to the permanent values.
•
The privileged DISCONNECT PORT command allows you to stop another
port’s session with a dedicated service. (You cannot use this command for
ports with session management terminals, because these ports cannot have a
dedicated service.)
You can use the DISCONNECT PORT command to disconnect a nonkeyboard
printer being used by a dedicated service that offers printers to the network.
For example, to stop the session with a dedicated service at port 4, enter the
following command:
Local> DISCONNECT PORT 4
12-50
Chapter 13
Configuring and Managing LAT
Services
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure devices attached to the access server ports
as LAT services. A LAT node can offer devices as LAT services to users on the port
itself and other LAT nodes.
Prerequisites
Before you use the procedures in this chapter, you must:
•
Connect and test the devices.
•
Enable privileged status.
•
Configure the port and device characteristics to match.
Reference
For information about connecting device cables, refer to the appropriate access
server hardware documentation.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Configuring a Port to Offer a LAT Service
•
Configuring Access to a LAT Service
•
Configuration of Specific Types of Devices As LAT Services
13-1
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
13-2
•
Configuring a Printer with Unannounced Availability
•
Verifying the LAT Service
•
Managing Your Access Server As a LAT Node Offering a Service
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Configuring a Port to Offer a LAT Service
Configuration Parameters
After you attach a device to a port and ensure that the port and device
characteristics match, you need to specify certain configuration parameters to
enable all devices as LAT services.
The following table lists the configuration parameters. In addition to the
parameters listed in the table, you need to configure certain parameters for
specific types of devices as described in the Configuration of Specific Types of
Devices As LAT Services section in this chapter.
For This
Parameter:
Use This Command:
And Refer to This
Section and Chapter:
Service
Groups
CHANGE SERVER SERVICE GROUPS
ENABLED
Changing Access Server Service Groups
in Chapter 6
Authorized
groups
CHANGE PORT AUTHORIZED
GROUPS ENABLED
Configuring LAT Group Codes for
Interactive Devices in Chapter 11
Service name
CHANGE SERVICE NAME
CHARACTERISTIC[S]
Assigning a Service Name (in this
chapter)
Port name
CHANGE PORT n NAME
Assigning a Port Name (in this chapter)
ID string CHANGE SERVICE NAME
Assigning an Identification String (in
this chapter)
Modem
control
CHANGE PORT n SIGNAL CONTROL
ENABLED
Specifying MODEM CONTROL and
SIGNAL CONTROL in Chapter 10
Signal
control
CHANGE PORT n MODEM
CONTROL ENABLED
Specifying MODEM CONTROL and
SIGNAL CONTROL in Chapter 10
Service
Password
CHANGE SERVICE NAME
PASSWORD WORD
Specifying the Service Password (in this
chapter)
13-3
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Configuring Access to a LAT Service
Assigning a Service Name
A service name is a name you assign to the LAT service using the CHANGE
SERVICE NAME command. When you assign a service name, the access server
periodically multicasts the service’s availability over the network. When you
select a service name for a device, follow these guidelines:
•
Service names must be 1 to 16 characters long and cannot be abbreviated.
•
Allowable characters are A to Z, 0 to 9, $, - (hyphen), _ (underscore), and .
(period).
•
Ensure that the name is unique on the LAN.
•
If two or more service nodes offer the same service name, access servers
assume that all the services with that name are identical and are
interchangeable.
Enabling Announcements
By default, announcements for a LAT service are enabled. To change the
announcements characteristic, use the CHANGE ANNOUNCEMENTS
ENABLED/DISABLED command as described in Chapter 4. You should also be
aware of the multicast timer characteristic when announcements are enabled.
Assigning an Identification String
A service identification string helps users recognize and use the service. It can be
up to 40 characters in length. The factory-set default is no identification string.
Example: Assigning the Service Name, to a Specific Port and Identification
String
The following example shows how to assign a service name LN03_PRINT to the
printers connected to ports 5, 6, 7, and 12. This example shows IDENTIFICATION
abbreviated to ID and uses the identification string Production Printer.
Local> CHANGE SERVICE LN03_PRINT PORT 5-7,12 ID "Production Printer"
13-4
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Example: Clearing the Identification String
To clear a previously set service identification string, enter the ID qualifier with
empty quotations marks, as shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE SERVICE LN03_PRINT PORT 5-7,12 ID ""
Assigning a Port Name
Assigning a port name to a service limits the service’s availability. When you
assign a port name to a service:
•
The service is not listed in the access server multicast message.
•
The service is available only to those users that know the port name.
Also, the access server transmits the port name to Telnet servers during Telnet
sessions at the port.
Port Naming Guidelines
When you select a port name for a device, follow these guidelines:
•
The factory-set default port name is PORT_n, where n is the port number.
•
Port names must be a string of 1 to 16 characters long and cannot be
abbreviated.
•
Allowable characters are A to Z, 0 to 9, $, - (hyphen), _ (underscore), and .
(period).
•
Each port name must be unique to the access server.
Example: Changing the Port Name
The following example shows how to change the port name to
PERSONNEL_PRINT for a printer on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 NAME PERSONNEL_PRINT
Specifying the Service Password
An optional service password restricts access to a service. When a service contains
a password, the access server prompts you for the password before allowing you
to use the service.
There are two characteristics that you need to specify: SERVICE PASSWORD and
PASSWORD LIMIT.
The service password can be up to 16 ASCII characters.
13-5
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Example: Assigning a Service Password
The following example shows two ways to assign a password to the service
LN03_PRINT:
Local> DEFINE SERVICE LN03_PRINT PASSWORD
Password> BLIGH (not echoed)
Verification> BLIGH (not echoed)
Local>
or
Local> DEFINE SERVICE LN03_PRINT PASSWORD "BLIGH"
!
Do not specify passwords for services such as printers that you set up for hostinitiated requests.
CAUTION
Example: Clearing the Service Password
To clear a previously set service password, use empty quotation marks as shown
in the following example:
Local> CHANGE SERVICE LN03_PRINT PORT PASSWORD ""
The password limit characteristic determines the number of times that the access
server prompts you for the correct password before it ends the connection
requests. The password limit applies to all password-protected access server
operations.
The range for the password limit characteristic is 0 to 10, and the factory-set
default is 3. The following shows how to change the limit to 5:
Local> CHANGE SERVER PASSWORD LIMIT 5
13-6
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Configuration of Specific Types of Devices As LAT
Services
Introduction
This section provides examples of configuring the following types of devices as
LAT services:
•
A personal computer (as both a LAT service and a terminal)
•
A computer
•
A modem
•
A printer
When you configure each type of device, you need to determine if the devices use
SIGNAL CONTROL or MODEM CONTROL. For additional information, refer to
Specifying MODEM CONTROL and SIGNAL CONTROL in Chapter 10.
Configuring a Personal Computer As a Terminal and LAT Service
The following example shows a sample configuration of a personal computer
(PC) used as a terminal and a LAT service. With the port set to ACCESS
DYNAMIC, the PC can switch between terminal emulation mode and file transfer
mode.
When a PC is configured as a terminal, you can use the connect command to use a
printer service. To do this, the PC must have an application program that
provides file transfer capabilities.
Example: Configuring a PC As a Terminal and LAT Service
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 2 ACCESS DYNAMIC AUTOBAUD DISABLED AUTOCONNECT DISABLED
PORT 2 AUTOPROMPT ENABLED AUTHORIZED GROUPS 10,24,46
PORT 2 BREAK DISABLED DEDICATED NONE DEFAULT PROTOCOL LAT
PORT 2 DSRLOGOUT ENABLED FAILOVER ENABLED
PORT 2 INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED INTERRUPTS DISABLED
PORT 2 LOCAL SWITCH ^L PASSWORD DISABLED PREFERRED NONE
PORT 2 SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
PORT 2
SERVER SERVICE GROUPS 10,24,46 ENABLED
SERVICE MICRO PORT 2 IDENTIFICATION "Personal computer 2"
13-7
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Configuring a Computer As a LAT Service
By using multiple terminal interfaces and access server ports, you can use more
than one access server port with a single computer system. Ensure that each
access server port is assigned to a service.
Example: Configuring a Computer As a LAT Service on Port 2
The following example shows a sample configuration of a computer used as a
LAT service:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 2 ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED AUTOPROMPT DISABLED
PORT 2 DEDICATED NONE DIALUP ENABLED DSRLOGOUT DISABLED
PORT 2 DTRWAIT ENABLED INACTIVITY LOGOUT DISABLED
PORT 2 INTERRUPTS DISABLED LONGBREAK LOGOUT DISABLED
PORT 2 MODEM CONTROL ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
PORT 2
SERVER SERVICE GROUPS 10,24,46 ENABLED
SERVICE NONDEC PORT 2 IDENTIFICATION "XYZ minicomputer"
Configuring a Modem As a LAT Service
The following example shows a sample configuration of a dial-out modem used
as a LAT service:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 3 ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED
PORT 3 AUTOPROMPT DISABLED BREAK DISABLED
PORT 3 DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT ENABLED
PORT 3 MODEM CONTROL ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
PORT 3 SPEED 1200
PORT 3
SERVER SERVICE GROUPS 10,24,46 ENABLED
SERVICE MODEM1 PORT 3 IDENTIFICATION "Modem 123-4567"
Example: Configuring a Dial-In and Dial-Out Modem
The following example shows a sample configuration of a dial-in/dial-out
modem used as a LAT service:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
13-8
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 4 ACCESS DYNAMIC AUTOBAUD DISABLED
PORT 4 DSRLOGOUT DISABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
PORT 4 INACTIVITY ENABLED MODEM CONTROL ENABLED
PORT 4 PASSWORD ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
PORT 4 SPEED 2400
PORT 4
SERVER SERVICE GROUPS 10,24,46 ENABLED
SERVICE MODEM2 PORT 4 IDENTIFICATION "MODEM 890-1234"
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Configuring a Printer As a LAT Service
After you configure a printer as a LAT service, you need to set up the appropriate
LAT remote print queue as described in the following sections of this chapter:
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an OpenVMS Host and Setting Up a
LAT Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System.
Example: Configuring a Printer As a LAT Service on Port 4
The following example shows a sample configuration of a printer as a LAT
service:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 4 ACCESS REMOTE AUTHORIZED GROUPS 10,24,46
PORT 4 AUTOBAUD DISABLED AUTOCONNECT DISABLED DEDICATED NONE
PORT 4 DSRLOGOUT DISABLED INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED
PORT 4 LONGBREAK LOGOUT DISABLED SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED
PORT 4 SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
PORT 4
SERVER SERVICE GROUPS 10,24,46 ENABLED
SERVICE LASER PORT 4 IDENTIFICATION "LN03 laser printer"
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an OpenVMS Host
To set up a LAT remote print queue on an OpenVMS host, the host must be
running LAT software Version 5.1 or a later version. You use the LAT control
program (LATCP) to perform the setup procedure.
Privileges for Running LATCP
The privileges that you need to run LATCP depends on the version of the
operating system as shown in the following table:
Operating System
Privileges
Needed
OpenVMS Version 5.1 through OpenVMS Version 5.4
CMKRNL
OpenVMS Version 5.4-1 and subsequent maintenance releases
OPER
13-9
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Creating a Logical Device to Access a Printer Service
The following example shows how to run LATCP to create a logical device. This
example configures the logical port LTA1925 to access the LAT service PRINT.
$RUN SYS$SYSTEM:LATCP
LCP> CREATE PORT LTA1925: /NOLOG
LCP> SET PORT LTA1925: /APPLICATION /NODE=LAT_08002B054DE0 /SERVICE=PRINT
LCP> EXIT
$COPY/LOG FILE.TXT LTA1925:
Configuring a Logical Device to Connect a Specific Port
You can configure a SET PORT /PORT = PORTNAME qualifier to connect to
specific port as shown in the following example:
LCP> SET PORT LTA1925: /APPLICATION /NODE=LAT_08002B054DE0 /PORT=PORT 5
Using a Remote Printer Command File
The following example shows a remote printer command file,
REMOTE_PRINT.COM. This command file sets up a remote printer and remote
print queue. You can use this file as a template to set up subsequent remote
printers.
You should enter the remote printer command file name in the LTLOAD.COM
file.
This ensures that remote printers and remote print queues are set up
automatically at system startup.
NOTE
13-10
For OpenVMS Version 5.4-1 and later, use LAT$SYSTARTUP.COM instead of
LTLOAD.COM.
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
$! This command procedure sets up the local characteristics of the
$! applications devices for remote printers and sets up the print
$! queues for these remote printers. These devices should have been
$! set up previously by the LTLOAD.COM command file. NOTE: The queue
$! manager must be running before executing this file.
$!
$! Set up local characteristics for the applications devices.
$!
$SET TERM LTA1925: /PERM /DEVICE=LNO3 /WIDTH=60 /NOBROAD- / SPEED=4800
$!
$! Set the protection on the devices so that only the symbiont can
$! access them. $! $SET PROT=(S:RWLP,O,G,W) /DEVICE LTA1925:
$!
$! Set the devices spooled
$!
$SET DEVICE LTA1925: /SPOOLED=(LN03_QUE,SYS$SYSDEVICE:)
$!
$DEFINE/FORM LN_FORM 10 /WIDTH=60 /STOCK=DEFAULT /TRUNCATE
$!
$! Initialize and start the print queue
$!
$INIT/QUE /START /PROCESSOR=LATSYM /RETAIN=ERROR- /DEFAULT=(NOBURST,FLAG=ONE) /RECORD_BLOCKING LN03_QUE/ON=LTA1925:
$EXIT
On a VAXcluster system, you can configure the applications ports on the local
node only. However, you should do so on at least two nodes so that a redundant
path to the printer is available in the event of a cluster node failure.
To set up a remote-printer applications port on a cluster node, include the LAT
control program CREATE PORT and SET PORT commands for that port in the
node’s LTLOAD.COM file in the SYS$MANAGER directory. For complete
information about setting up remote printing on VAXcluster systems, refer to the
VMS VAXcluster manual in the OpenVMS documentation set.
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System
To set up a LAT remote print queue on an ULTRIX host, specify the access server
name and the port name by using one of the following:
•
An lcp command
•
An entry in the /etc/printcap file
After you specify the access server name and the port name, set up a spool
directory and test the printer.
13-11
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Example: Configuring a LAT Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System
The following example provides a sample procedure for setting up a remote print
queue for a laser printer. This example identifies the access server and port names
to the with the /etc/printcap file.
lps|ln03|laser printer on LAT:
:lp=/sdwv/tty42
:sd=/usr/spool/lpd:\
:ts=/LAT_08002B0540B7:\
:op=PORT_7:\
:br-19200:\
:fc-0177777:fs-023\
:xc-0177777:xs-040\
:of=/usr/lib/lpdfilters/ln03of:\
:if=/usr/lib/lpdfilters/ln03of:\
:lf=/usr/lib/adm/lpd-errs:
# cd /usr/spool
# mkdir lpd
# chown daemon lps
# lpr -Plps test
13-12
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Configuring a Printer with Unannounced Availability
Introduction
This section describes how to configure a printer with unannounced availability.
The only users that know about the device’s availability are those users that you
tell about the device. By defining a port name and not a service name, you can
configure a device on the access server for access by users on a LAT network.
Configuring a Printer with Unannounced Availability
The example in this topic shows a sample configuration of a printer with
unannounced availability on a LAT network. You must configure the device and
port characteristics, as described in Chapter 9, before performing this procedure.
The following are variables in the example that you should substitute with the
appropriate values:
•
Access server port number
•
Authorized and service groups
•
Port name
You should change the port name to a descriptive term. This term should
describe the resource provided (for example, printer or file transfer). The port
name must be unique on the access server and follow the naming conventions
described in the Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide.
Substitute MODEM CONTROL for SIGNAL CONTROL if your access server
supports MODEM CONTROL.
Reference
For a description of each command, refer to theCabletron Network Access Software
Command Reference guide.
Not all commands can be combined on one line.
NOTE
13-13
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Example: Configuring a Printer with Unannounced Availability on a LAT
Network on Port 4
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
ACCESS REMOTE AUTHORIZED GROUPS 10,24,46
AUTOBAUD DISABLED AUTOCONNECT DISABLED
DEDICATED NONE DSRLOGOUT DISABLED
INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED LONGBREAK LOGOUT DISABLED
NAME PORT_4 SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED
SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
For systems that need to access the printer, you must supply the system managers
with the access server name, port name, and at least one group code that is
enabled as an authorized group code on the port.
More Examples
The following sections in this chapter provide examples of setting up a remote
print queue on OpenVMS and ULTRIX systems:
13-14
•
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an OpenVMS Host
•
Setting Up a LAT Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Verifying the LAT Service
Do This
To verify whether the service is functioning, try connecting to the new service.
Once connected, you can assess whether the device responds appropriately. The
appropriate response depends on what device is attached to the access server
port.
When you have adequate information, return to local mode (press the Break key
or a local-switch character) and disconnect the service by typing DISCONNECT
at the Local> prompt.
For a computer, you may want to repeat this procedure to verify that your first
session was disconnected by the host. You should receive the standard login
procedure each time you connect to any computer offering a service.
Example: Verifying the LAT Service
The following example shows the command for verifying a previously defined
LAT service A_DEVICE, and its port (port 5, named PORT_5):
Local> CONNECT LAT A_DEVICE DESTINATION PORT_5
Problem Solving
If you have any problem connecting to the service or using the device, use the
following series of commands to review the service and port characteristics:
•
Verify whether the service is set up correctly by using the SHOW SERVICE
service-name CHARACTERISTICS command. For example, with the service
A_DEVICE, the command appears as follows:
Local> SHOW SERVICE A_DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS
The service characteristics display shows all the ports assigned to a local
service and indicates its other characteristics. For a sample of the service
characteristics display, refer to Displaying Information About a Service in this
chapter.
13-15
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
•
Verify whether the port is properly configured by entering a SHOW PORT
command and looking at the port characteristics display. For example, for port
5, the command is as follows:
Local> SHOW PORT 5
•
Verify the access server characteristics, for instance, that announcements are
enabled and service groups are valid, by using the SHOW SERVER
CHARACTERISTICS command as follows:
Local> SHOW SERVER CHARACTERISTICS
13-16
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Managing Your Access Server As a LAT Node
Offering a Service
Introduction
By default, once there is a service, the access server functions as a service node by
issuing multicast service announcements, which describe its available services to
access servers on the network. These announcements contain information about
the service node (such as its name and identification string) and about the
available services. A single multicast service announcement is entered at the
interval indicated by the multicast timer
Displaying Information About a Service
You can display information about services on the LAT network, including
services on your access server, using the SHOW/MONITOR/LIST SERVICES
command.
To display information on the services offered by your access server, use the
SHOW/ LIST SERVICES LOCAL command. To display information about a
particular service, use the SHOW/LIST SERVICE command followed by the
service name. To display information about all services, use the SHOW/LIST
SERVICE ALL command.
There are three types of information you can display about the service:
•
Characteristics
The characteristics display is useful when you are changing operational and
permanent values with the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVICE command.
•
Status
You can obtain data on the operation of services by using the status display.
•
Summary
The summary display gives you capsule data on the services offered on the
network or the local access server.
13-17
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Displaying Services Characteristics
The LIST/SHOW/MONITOR SERVICES CHARACTERISTICS command
generates a display of information on values that you can modify with the SET/
DEFINE/CHANGE SERVICE command. With the LIST command, the
characteristics display is the default display for the SERVICES and the SERVICES
LOCAL entity specifications.
Example: SHOW SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS Display
The following example below shows how to generate a service characteristics
display for the service named PRINTER:
Local> SHOW SERVICE PRINTER CHARACTERISTICS
Service: PRINTER
Identification: Printer Ports to PEACH
Ports: 1-3, 5, 7
Rating: 255
Enabled Characteristics:
Connections, Password, Queuing
Local>
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS Display Fields
The following table describes the fields displayed in the service characteristics
display:
Field
Description
Service
Name that identifies the network service.
Identification
Service identification string. This string is usually a short
description of the service or of how to use it.
The following fields are displayed only for services offered by the access server (local
services):
13-18
Ports
Numbers of the ports at which the local service is offered.
Rating
Rating at which the access server offers this service. If any ports
that offer the service are available, the rating is proportional to the
number of available ports. If no ports are available that offer the
service and if queuing is enabled for the service, the rating is
proportional to the number of unused positions in the connection
queue.
Enabled
characteristics
Characteristics that can be enabled with the CHANGE SERVICE
command. The access server displays only those characteristics that
are enabled for local services.
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Field
Description
Connections
Access server allows connections to this
service.
Password
Access server requires the requester of the
service to supply a password before access
to the service is allowed.
Queuing
Access server places queued connection
requests for this service in a queue if the
request cannot be immediately satisfied.
Displaying Services Status
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVICE STATUS command displays information
about the operational condition of the network and its services, including services
offered by your access server. The display includes a list of the nodes that offer the
selected service or services. Use the keyword LOCAL to restrict the information
displayed to locally defined services. Without the keyword LOCAL or a particular
service name, you get information on all network services, including local
services.
The status display is the default display for the SHOW SERVICE service-name
command.
For each selected service, an introductory line identifies the service for which
status information is being displayed. The next line shows the headings for the
status information. Under the headings, a line is displayed for each node offering
the selected service.
The access server displays information about a service or services from data
stored in its memory. If none of the ports can access a particular service, the access
server does not retain any data about that service. Hence, no information about
that service can be displayed.
13-19
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Example: SHOW SERVICE STATUS Display
The following example shows how to generate a service status display for a
service named DEVELOP:
Local> SHOW SERVICE DEVELOP STATUS
Service DEVELOP - Available
Node Name Status Rating Identification
ORANGE Reachable 27 Terminals
Development System
PEACH Unreachable 255 Engineering
Development System
TEST Unknown 150 High-powered
Performance Testing
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVICE STATUS Display Headings
The following table describes the fields and the headings in the display:
13-20
Heading
Description
Service
Name that identifies the network service.
Node Name
Name of the service node, as stored in access server memory for
each node that offers the service.
Status
The accessibility of the service node as one of the following:
n Connected
Service node is reachable and the access
server has n active sessions on the node.
Reachable
Node is accessible.
Unknown
No sessions are active, and the service node
offering this service has not been heard
from recently.
Unreachable
Active service session has timed out, or
attempt to connect has timed out. The node
can also signal that it is unreachable.
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Heading
Description
Rating
Relative capability for a service node to
process new sessions. The service rating is
assigned by a service node for each service
that it offers. With the higher rating, the
capability of the service node to accept a
new connection is greater. The access server
uses service ratings to decide where to
establish a service session when two or
more service nodes offer the same service.
The access server attempts to connect to the
service on the node that advertises the
highest rating for the service.
Identification
Service identification string for this service
node. This string may be different from the
service node identification string.
Displaying Services Summary
The SHOW/MONITOR SERVICES SUMMARY command displays one line of
information on each selected service or services. Use the keyword LOCAL to
obtain information on locally defined services. Without the keyword LOCAL or a
particular service name, you get information on all network services. For the
SHOW/MONITOR commands, the summary display is the default display for
the SERVICES, SERVICES ALL, and SERVICES LOCAL entity specifications.
The display contains one line of headings and, for each service known to the
access server, one line of information describing each service.
The access server displays information about a service or services from data
stored in its memory. If none of the ports can access a particular service, the access
server does not retain any data about that service. Hence, no information about
that service can be displayed.
NOTE
Ports with the LIMITED VIEW command enabled cannot perform the SHOW
SERVICES command.
13-21
Configuring and Managing LAT Services
Example: SHOW SERVICE SUMMARY Display
The following example shows how to generate a service summary display for all
network services:
Local> SHOW SERVICES ALL SUMMARY
Service Name Status
Identification
DEVELOP
DOCUMENT
TEST
TIMESHARING
Hardware Development System
Documentation Timesharing
High-powered Performance Testing
Accts. Payable Timesharing
Connected
Available
Unavailable
Unknown
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVICE SUMMARY Display Headings
The following table describes the headings in the display:
Heading
Description
Service Name
Name that identifies the network service.
Status
Current availability of the service as one of the following:
Identification
13-22
Available
One or more service nodes that offer the
service are accessible.
n Connected
Service is available and n sessions are
currently active with this service.
Unavailable
All service nodes that offer the service
are not accessible.
Unknown
None of the service nodes that offer the
service are accessible, and one or more is
unknown.
Service identification string, which may describe the service or
how to use the service.
Chapter 14
Configuring and Managing Telnet
Servers
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure various types of devices as a Telnet or raw
TCP server. A Telnet or raw TCP server is a resource on a TCP/IP network.
To use the procedures in this chapter, you must:
•
Connect and test the devices
•
Enable privileged status
•
Configure the port and device characteristics to match
Refer to your access server hardware documentation for information about
connecting device cables.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Sample Device Configurations
•
Configuring a Personal Computer As a Terminal and for Access through a
Telnet Listener
•
Configuring a Remote Print Queue
•
Configuring a Telnet Listener
•
Configuring Telnet Server Session Characteristics
14-1
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
14-2
•
Managing Your Access Server As a Telnet Listener Node
•
Supplying User Location Data to Telnet Servers
•
Configuring a Raw TCP Listener
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Sample Device Configurations
Introduction
This section provides examples of configuring the following types of devices for
access through a Telnet listener:
•
A printer
•
A computer
•
A modem
You must configure the device and port characteristics as described in Chapter 9
before performing the procedures described in this chapter.
The examples in this section do not include the various Telnet server
characteristics.
Refer to Configuring Telnet Server Session Characteristics in this chapter to set up
the Telnet server characteristics.
The following lists the variables in this chapter that you should substitute with
the appropriate values:
•
Access server port number
•
Flow control type (printer only)
•
Telnet listener-identifier (Must be 23 or between 2001 to 2032, inclusive.)
•
Identification string (up to 40 characters)
Configuring a Printer for Access Through a Telnet Listener
For systems that need to access the printer, you must supply the system managers
with the TCP port number. The section Configuring a Remote Print Queue in this
chapter provides an example of setting up a remote print queue on an ULTRIX or
UNIX system.
14-3
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
The following example shows a sample configuration of a printer used for access
through a Telnet listener on port 4.
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
TELNET
TELNET
TELNET
ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED BREAK DISABLED
DEDICATED NONE DSRLOGOUT DISABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED LONGBREAK LOGOUT DISABLED
SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
LISTENER 2010 PORTS 4 ENABLED
LISTENER 2010 IDENTIFICATION "PRINTER"
LISTENER 2010 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
Configuring a Computer for Access Through a Telnet Listener
The following example shows a sample configuration of a computer used for
access through a Telnet listener on port 2:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
TELNET
TELNET
TELNET
ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED AUTOCONNECT DISABLED
BREAK DISABLED DEDICATED NONE DSRLOGOUT DISABLED
DTRWAIT ENABLED INACTIVITY LOGOUT DISABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED LONGBREAK LOGOUT DISABLED
MODEM CONTROL ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
LISTENER 2010 PORTS 2 ENABLED
LISTENER 2010 IDENTIFICATION "XYZ minicomputer"
LISTENER 2010 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
Configuring a Modem for Access Through a Telnet Listener
This section contains examples that show how to configure a dial-out modem and
a dial-in/dial-out modem.
Example: Configuring a Dial-Out Modem
The following example shows a sample configuration of a dial-out modem used
for access through a Telnet listener on port 3:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
14-4
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 3
PORT 3
PORT 3
PORT 3
PORT 3
PORT 3
TELNET
TELNET
TELNET
ACCESS REMOTE AUTOBAUD DISABLED
AUTOPROMPT DISABLED BREAK DISABLED
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT ENABLED
LONGBREAK LOGOUT DISABLED MODEM CONTROL ENABLED
SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED SPEED 1200 ALTERNATE SPEED 300
LISTENER 2004 PORTS 3 ENABLED
LISTENER 2004 IDENTIFICATION "Modem 123-4567"
LISTENER 2004 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Example: Configuring a Dial-In and Dial-Out Modem
The following example shows a sample configuration of a dial-out modem used
for access through a Telnet listener on port 4:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
PORT 4
TELNET
TELNET
TELNET
ACCESS DYNAMIC AUTOBAUD DISABLED
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED FLOW CONTROL XON
INACTIVITY ENABLED MODEM CONTROL ENABLED
PASSWORD ENABLED SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED
SPEED 2400 ALTERNATE SPEED 1200
LISTENER 2008 PORTS 3 ENABLED
LISTENER 2008 IDENTIFICATION "Modem 890-1234"
LISTENER 2008 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
14-5
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Configuring a Personal Computer As a Terminal and
for Access through a Telnet Listener
Sample Configuration
To configure a PC for access through a Telnet listener only, use the following
example and:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
•
Substitute MODEM CONTROL for SIGNAL CONTROL if your access server
supports modem control.
•
Use LONGBREAK LOGOUT instead of DSRLOGOUT if your access server,
device, or device cable does not support the DSR signal.
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
PORT 2
TELNET
TELNET
TELNET
ACCESS DYNAMIC AUTOBAUD DISABLED BREAK DISABLED
DEDICATED NONE SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
DEFAULT PROTOCOL TELNET
DSRLOGOUT ENABLED INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED LOCAL SWITCH ^L PASSWORD DISABLED
PREFERRED NONE SIGNAL CHECK ENABLED
LISTENER 2010 PORTS 2 ENABLED
LISTENER 2010 IDENTIFICATION "Personal Computer"
LISTENER 2010 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
Switching Modes
With the port set to ACCESS DYNAMIC, the PC can switch back and forth from
terminal-emulation mode, which allows the PC to access Access Server services
on the LAT network, and file transfer mode, which allows the PC to transfer files
with another computer as a transfer partner. Refer to Setting User Priority for
Devices Using Dynamic Access in this chapter for further information on
switching between terminal-emulation mode and file transfer mode.
Configuring Personal Computer Access to a Printer
Personal computers configured as a terminal can connect to a printer offered as a
resource when a user enters a CONNECT command. However, for the user to
access the printer, the PC must have an applications program capable of sending
files to the printer. The person in charge of the PC must supply the appropriate
applications program. The access server does not queue connection requests to a
printer.
14-6
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Setting User Priority for Devices Using Dynamic Access
You can enable interrupts if you want the owner or main user of the device to
have full control over it. For example, the main user of a personal computer may
require priority over other users that want to copy files from the computer disk.
You can provide this control by setting the port to INTERRUPTS ENABLED and
the Break key to LOCAL.
Setting the BREAK to LOCAL allows the user to use the Break key to return from
session mode to local mode. Use caution when enabling interrupts, because they
inconvenience people using the device as a service. For printers with keyboards,
which can also be used as interactive terminals, you should have the interrupts
characteristic disabled on the port.
The INTERRUPTS characteristic is governed by the following rules:
•
With INTERRUPTS DISABLED, a potential user cannot interrupt an ongoing
file transfer session between the PC and another system. The user can start a
session only when all file transfer sessions have completed or are disconnected
from the privileged port. The factory-set default is INTERRUPTS DISABLED.
•
With INTERRUPTS ENABLED, a potential user can press the Break key to
interrupt an ongoing file transfer session and start a local session. The access
server logs out the file transfer session and allows the interactive user to log in.
In this situation, any queued connection requests for the port remain queued
and are processed when the user logs out of the port.
•
A request from another system can never interrupt an ongoing local session.
•
If there is no ongoing session, a session using either type of access (user at the
PC or system accessing the PC) can be started, and the above rules apply.
Example: Enabling Interrupts for Devices Using Dynamic Access
The following example shows how to enable interrupts and set BREAK to
LOCAL on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 INTERRUPTS ENABLED BREAK LOCAL
Configuring a File Transfer Partner
The access server supports the file transfer capability of a personal computer on
an access server port. This allows a user of a personal computer to send and
receive files over the LAN. For a particular session, the access server permits a
user to control whether flow control and other special characters are intercepted
by the access server. Note that session nodes frequently control these
characteristics for you.
14-7
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
To be available for file transfers, the PC must be logged out from the access server
port. When a connection is made to the port, the port shifts to remote-access
mode.
To transfer files, you must set up the access server port and the personal computer
(local partner) to function as the initiator of a session with the remote partner in
the transfer. The remote partner computer can be a session node or a personal
computer that is available on the network. Once the initiator establishes a session
to a partner, you can transfer files in either direction between the initiator and the
partner. The computer serving as the file transfer partner might require some
modifications before a file transfer. To learn what modifications are required, refer
to the documentation for the computer and for the file transfer program.
Partner Guidelines
The following provides guidelines for setting up the partners:
14-8
•
Remote partner — You need to disable such characteristics as message
verification, forward switch, backward switch, and local switch when using
binary or ASCII file transfers. If needed, also disable flow control for binary file
transfers. Additionally for binary or ASCII file transfers, all Telnet indications
should be set to none. Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE TELNET SERVER
command.
•
Local partner — Flow control should always be enabled on the access server
port and disabled on a session-by-session basis. The Telnet client binary profile
disables flow control (refer to Specifying the Telnet Client Session Profile in
Chapter 11). If flow control is needed, you will need to use the SET SESSION
TELNET CLIENT FLOW CONTROL command. Note that this command
affects only the client partner.
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Configuring a Remote Print Queue
Introduction
The following sections explain how to configure a print queue on an ULTRIX or
UNIX system.
Configuring a TCP/IP Remote Print Queue on an ULTRIX System
An ULTRIX print spooler can be configured to access one or more access server
ports through the access server Telnet listener. Thus, a file can be queued for
printing using the host’s lpr command. If a host print spooler attempts a
connection to a Telnet listener port that is busy, the queue entry request is
dropped at the host and will have to be resubmitted.
Printer Port Telnet Server Characteristics
The following table lists the recommended Telnet server characteristics for the
printer port to facilitate printing of files. (Refer to Configuring Telnet Server
Session Characteristics in this chapter.)
Characteristic
Setting
Xmit Char Size
8
Rcv Char Size
8
IP, AYT, AO, EOR, NOP, BRK, EC, EL
None
Newline From Terminal
<LF>
Newline To Terminal
None
Newline From Host
None
Newline To Host
<CRLF>
Procedure
The following procedure describes how to configure an ULTRIX (Version 4.0 or
subsequent maintenance release) host’s print system. The host will use the access
server internet address and Telnet listener TCP port number to connect to the
access server printer port.
14-9
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
It is assumed that you are familiar with configuring an ULTRIX print system. For
more detailed description of the ULTRIX print system, refer to the ULTRIX Guide
to System Environment Setup.
Step
Action
1
Use the lprsetup program to initially configure a remote access printer entry in the
printcap file.
Example: The following example creates printer ds0 with spooling directory
/usr/spool/
lpd1. Some of the questions are ignored by pressing the Return key.
# lprsetup
ULTRIX Printer Setup Program
Command <add modify delete exit view quit help>: add
Enter printer name to add []: ds0
Enter the FULL name of one of the following printer types:
or press RETURN for [unknown]: remote
Enter printer synonym:
Set spooler directory 'sd' [] ? /usr/spool/lpd1
Set remote system name 'rm' [] ?
Set remote system printer name 'rp' []?
Enter the name of the printcap symbol you wish to modify.
Enter symbol name: q
Are these the final values for printer 1 ? [y] y
The lprsetup program creates the following printcap entry for ds0:
ds0|lp1:\
:lp=:\
:rm=:\
:rp=:\
:sd=/usr/spool/lpd1:
2
Modify the printcap entry:
ds0|lp1:\
:lp=@tsb0c3/prds3:\
:sd=/usr/spool/lpd1:
The tsb0c3 entry identifies the access server internet address and is an entry in
/etc/hosts for the access server. The prds3 entry identifies the access server TCP port
number and is an entry in /etc/services. For example:
16.20.48.43 tsb0c3.lkg.foo.com tsb0c3
prds3 2010/tcp
3
Print a file using the host’s lpr command. The lpr command queues and submits a job
for printing. For example:
# lpr -P ds0 file
14-10
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Configuring a Telnet Listener
Introduction
Perform the following steps to assign a Telnet listener to one or more devices
attached to access server ports:
Step
Action
1
Assign a TCP port to the access server port. The access server uses 23, and
2001 to 2032 as TCP port numbers. The TCP port number is the number
that users on the TCP/IP network use to connect to the device on the
access server port.
2
Determine which access server port or ports are to be assigned to the Telnet
listener.
3
Provide an identification string that helps users recognize and use the
resource. It can be up to 40 characters in length. The factory-set default is
no identification string.
4
Enable the listener to receive connections. The factory-set default for
CONNECTIONS is DISABLED.
5
Specify the individual access server session characteristics, as described in
the Configuring Telnet Server Session Characteristics section in this
chapter.
14-11
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Configuring Telnet Server Session Characteristics
Introduction
The following sections describe how to configure the various Telnet server session
characteristics.
Mapping Event Indications to Keyboard Characters
You can map the event indications to keyboard characters. The factory-set default
for each indication is that no character is sent to the device or application on the
access server port set up as a Telnet server port.
In most cases, you would map an event indication to a character in order for the
access server to forward that event indication to the application or device on the
access server port. The mapped character is defined by the device or application.
For example, if an application defines IP as Ctrl/G, then you need to map IP to
Ctrl/G:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET SERVER IP ^G
Event Indications
You can map the following event indications to keyboard characteristics:
14-12
Event Indication
Description
Abort Output (AO)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection
requests that any output currently en route to the user’s
terminal be aborted.
Interrupt Process (IP)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection
requests that the process at this access server be
aborted.
Are You There (AYT)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection
requests a response from the Telnet server to verify that
the connection is active.
Break (BRK)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection sends a
remote break.
End of Record (EOR)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection issues
an EOR request.
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Event Indication
Description
Erase Previous
Character (EC)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection issues
an EC request.
No operation (NOP)
Occurs when the remote user of this connection issues a
NOP command.
Specifying Newline Characteristics
The NEWLINE characteristics allow the person managing the access server to
define a new line as a 1- or 2-character sequence. In this case, TERMINAL
specifies the user at the remote end of the connection (Telnet client) and HOST
specifies the device connected to the access server (Telnet server).
•
NEWLINE FROM TERMINAL — When entered by the remote user, the
character sequence is interpreted as a new line. The factory-set default is CR.
The following shows how to change the character sequence to @#:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET SERVER NEWLINE FROM TERMINAL @#
•
NEWLINE TO TERMINAL — The character sequence is sent to the user’s
terminal whenever a NEWLINE FROM HOST sequence is received from the
internet host. The factory-set default is CRLF.
•
NEWLINE FROM HOST — When received from the internet host, the
character sequence is interpreted as a new line. The factory-set default is CRLF.
Note that the Telnet protocol specifies that the CRLF sequence should be sent.
•
NEWLINE TO HOST — When entered by the remote user, the character
sequence is sent to the internet host. The factory-set default is CRLF.
•
Note that the Telnet protocol specifies that the CRLF sequence should be sent.
Specifying Character Size
The CHARACTER SIZE characteristic allows you to select the character size, 7- or
8-bit, that is used during a session. In addition, the character size can be specified
in the transmit direction (server to Telnet client), receive direction (Telnet client to
server), or both directions.
Example: Setting CHARACTER SIZE
The following example shows how to set CHARACTER SIZE to 7 in both
directions for port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET SERVER CHARACTER 7
14-13
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Erase Previous Line (EL) Occurs when the remote user of this connection issues
an EL request.
Example: Setting Character Size in a Specific Direction
The following example shows how to set CHARACTER SIZE to 7 in the
TRANSMIT direction:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 TELNET SERVER TRANSMIT CHARACTER SIZE 7
To set the character size in the receive direction, use RECEIVE instead of
TRANSMIT.
14-14
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Managing Your Access Server As a Telnet Listener
Node
Introduction
This section contains the procedures to display and remove Telnet listeners.
Displaying Telnet Listeners
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR TELNET LISTENER command displays the Telnet
listener characteristics. The ALL characteristic displays all the Telnet listeners.
You can specify a specific Telnet listener by its TCP port number.
Example: SHOW TELNET LISTENER Display
The following example shows how to display the Telnet listener characteristics on
TCP port 2010:
Local> SHOW TELNET LISTENER 2010
Listener TCP-port:
2010
Identification:
Printer
Ports:
6,8
Connections:
Enabled
The first line displays the TCP port number; the second line displays the
identification string; the third line displays the listener’s access server port
numbers; the last line displays whether connections to the listener are enabled or
disabled.
Displaying Telnet Server Characteristics
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PORT TELNET SERVER CHARACTERISTICS
command displays the Telnet server characteristics.
14-15
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Example: SHOW PORT TELNET SERVER CHARACTERISTICS Display
The following example shows how to display the Telnet server characteristics on
port 12:
Local> SHOW PORT 12 SESSIONS 1 CHARACTERISTICS
Xmit Char Size:
8
Newline From Term:
Rcv Char Size:
8
Newline From Host:
IP:
None
Newline To Term:
AYT:
None
Newline To Host:
AO:
None
EC:
EOR:
None
EL:
NOP:
None
BRK:
Local>
<CRLF>
<CRLF>
<CRLF>
<CR>
NONE
NONE
None
Removing a Telnet Listener
You can remove a Telnet listener that was defined in either the permanent or
operational databases. Use the privileged CLEAR TELNET LISTEN command
(which acts on the operational database) or PURGE TELNET LISTEN command
(which acts on the permanent database) to remove a defined Telnet listener and its
associated characteristics.
Example: Removing a Telnet Listener
The following example shows how to remove Telnet listener 2010 from the access
server permanent database:
Local> PURGE TELNET LISTENER 2010
Removing One of Many Devices Assigned to a Telnet Listener
To remove a device that is one of many devices assigned to a Telnet listener,
perform the following steps:
Step
Action
1
Use the SET TELNET LISTEN CONNECTIONS DISABLED command to
stop any future connections. The SET TELNET LISTEN CONNECTIONS
DISABLED command is refused if a session exists.
Example: The following example shows how to disable future connections
to internet port 2005:
Local> SET TELNET LISTEN 2005 CONNECTIONS DISABLED
2
14-16
If a session exists, use the LOGOUT command to log out the port.
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Step
Action
3
Disable the port as follows (substitute your listener TCP port for 2005 and
the listener physical port for 5):
Local> CHANGE TELNET LISTENER 2005 PORT 5 DISABLED
4
Enable the Telnet listener. The following shows how to enable connections
to internet port 2005:
Local> SET TELNET LISTEN 2005 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
Reassigning a Port
This process allows you to manage a failed access server port that is configured as
a Telnet listener. Use the following steps to reassign a port:
Step
Action
1
Use the LIST PORT n CHARACTERISTICS command to learn the values
used in the existing configuration.
2
Disconnect the device from the port.
3
Select a new port and reattach the device at the new port.
4
Set the new port’s values to those of the existing port. If the values are
unavailable, you need to configure the device as described in Chapter 4.
5
Enable the Telnet listener on this port and disable the Telnet listener on the
original port.
14-17
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Supplying User Location Data to Telnet Servers
Introduction
When the access server creates a Telnet client connection, it automatically
negotiates with the Telnet server to send port user data. If the server responds
with a “send” message, the access server transmits the session port name and port
number.
Appropriate software on the server can then use the location data for each session
to generate statistics about Telnet use. In these negotiations, the access server
functions only as a Telnet client, not as the Telnet server.
Each time the Telnet server transmits IAC DO, the client sends the location data.
In this way, the server can poll anytime for the user’s location. If the Telnet server
does not respond with IAC DO, the session proceeds normally, but the client does
not send the location data.
Example: TCP Messages to Poll Client User Location Data
The following example shows a series of TCP messages generated during
negotiation between the Telnet client (the access server) and the Telnet server. The
client starts the negotiation with IAC WILL SEND-LOCATION.
IAC
IAC
IAC
IAC
IAC
.
.
.
WILL SEND-LOCATION
DO SEND-LOCATION
SB SEND-LOCATION ascii-location IAC SE
DO SEND-LOCATION
SB SEND-LOCATION ascii-location IAC SE
The ascii-location field comprises the Telnet user’s port name and port number.
The port number is stored in the access server NVRAM. The port name is also
stored in NVRAM. It is the string specified by the DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
NAME command, and it appears in the display for the LIST PORT command.
14-18
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Configuring a Raw TCP Listener
Introduction
When you configure a Telnet listener to use raw TCP, the associated port sends
data to a device or a remote host without any data manipulation or interpretation
of control characters. Because raw TCP sends the data it receives to a port without
any interpretation, sending data this way is faster than using the Telnet protocol.
The raw TCP listener also allows an application program on a remote host to use
single socket I/O (input/output) calls and bypass the Telnet protocol layer.
When To Use Raw TCP
Using raw TCP is beneficial when you need to maintain the control character
definitions in the data you send to and from a port on the access server or when
you need to send data without any Telnet processing. For example, when sending
data to a printer, you may need to preserve the control characters sent to the
printer or you may need to run socket I/O calls. In these cases, you want to
configure the raw TCP protocol on the Telnet listener.
Configuring Raw TCP
To configure raw TCP on an access server, configure a Telnet listener that has a
type of RAW. Use the CHANGE TELNET LISTENER TYPE RAW command to
configure the Telnet listener. Then use the CHANGE TCP LISTENER or
CHANGE TELNET LISTENER commands to define additional characteristics.
Example: Configuring Raw TCP
The following example shows how to a configure raw TCP listener on port 3:
Local> CHANGE TELNET LISTENER 2003 PORT 3
Local> CHANGE TELNET LISTENER 2003 TYPE RAW
Local> CHANGE TELNET LISTENER 2003 CONNECTIONS ENABLED
These commands:
•
Create a Telnet listener on access server port 3 and assign TCP port 2003 to the
port.
•
Set the type for the Telnet listener to RAW.
•
Enable the raw TCP listener.
14-19
Configuring and Managing Telnet Servers
Displaying Raw TCP Characteristics
Use the SHOW/LIST TELNET LISTENER command to view the raw TCP
settings.
Example: Raw TCP Display
The following example shows a typical display for a Telnet listener configured for
raw TCP:
Local> SHOW TELNET LISTENER 2003
Listener TCP-port: 2003 Listener Type: RAW TCP
Identification:
Ports: 3
Connections: ENABLED
IP address: 12.22.22.22
14-20
Chapter 15
Configuring LPD Printers
Overview
Introduction
The Line Printer Daemon (LPD) handles remote networking printing. It listens for
print requests from remote hosts on the Local Area Network (LAN) and responds
to these requests. The LPD software that the access server implements is similar in
function to the LPR/LPD (Line Printer Remote/Daemon) on UNIX systems.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
LPD Operation
•
Configuring LPD
15-1
Configuring LPD Printers
LPD Operation
Supported File Types
The access server’s LPD implementation supports printing of ASCII text and
PostScript header and trailer pages. The access server does not convert files from
one format to the other. The host system must be configured with appropriate
printer drivers to match the file formats supported by the printer.
Users must be aware of the type of file they want to print and select the
appropriate printer and printer driver when submitting a print job.
Control and Data Files
During the printing operation, the access server receives control and data files
from the remote host. The following table describes these files:
This File:
Contains:
Control
File format information and user information (for example, host and user
name).
Data file
Total number of bytes in the file, the name of the data file, and the data.
Remote hosts can send control and data files in any order. The access server does
the following:
•
15-2
If the control file arrives first, the access server stores the file, waits for the data
file to arrive, and then prints the data. The access server sends the user data in
the control file as the last page of the print job.
If the Control File
Arrives First and the:
Does the Header/
Trailer Print?
Does the User
Information Print?
Header is enabled.
Yes
Yes
Header is disabled.
No
No
Header is optional.
Yes
Yes
Trailer is enabled.
Yes
Yes
Trailer is disabled.
No
No
Trailer is optional.
No
No
Configuring LPD Printers
•
If the data file arrives first, the access server sends the file to the printer
according to the printer setup on the port. When the control file arrives, the
access server sends the user data to the printer as the last page of the print job.
In this situation, the access server cannot display or use user information from
the control file while the file is printing.
If the Data File Arrives
First and the:
Does the Header/
Trailer Print?
Does the User
Information Print?
Header is enabled.
Yes
No
Header is disabled.
No
No
Header is optional.
No
No
Trailer is enabled.
Yes
Yes
Trailer is disabled.
No
No
Trailer is optional.
Yes
Yes
Operation
The access server receives print requests from remote hosts on TCP port 515. It
uses LPD to send the file to a local printer through the access server’s LAN
interface and a serial port. Figure 15-1 shows what occurs when a host on the
LAN uses LPD to send a print job to the access server:
15-3
Configuring LPD Printers
Remote Host
(LPD Client)
Access Server
(LPD Server)
3.Access Server
confirms that
specified printer
is ready to print.
5. Receives data
and control
files.
6. LPD sends the
data to the
local printer.
Printer
Serial Port
TCP
4. LPR sends data
and control
files to remote
LPD server.
Port 515
2. LPR connects
to remote LPD
server.
LAN Interface
1. User issues an
LPR print
command.
LKG-10496-98fh8
Figure 15-1. What Occurs When a Host on the LAN Uses LPD to Send a Print Job to the Access Server
15-4
Configuring LPD Printers
Configuring LPD
Configuring Remote Hosts
Remote network printing using LPR/LPD requires that you set up the host
system correctly. The following table describes the setup requirements for specific
types of hosts:
If Printing From
This Host:
Then:
UNIX
Create an entry in the /etc/printcap file that includes the
name of the remote printer and the IP address of the access
server (the LPD server). Refer to your system’s LPR/LPD
documentation for details. Users must convert files to either
ASCII text or PostScript format before printing files.
Windows NT
1. Install a TCP/IP printing service.
2. Install a printer (use the Control Panel).
3. Choose an appropriate print driver for the printer.
4. Assign the LPR port that the TCP/IP printing
service creates to the printer. This causes the system
to prompt the user to enter the LPD server’s IP
address and remote printer name.
VMS UCX
1. Install the UCX software.
2. Run UCX$LPRSETUP.EXE to set up the LPR printer.
3. Follow the prompts to set up the printer.
Associating a Printer With a Port
To allow remote network printing with LPD, associate a printer with one or more
ports.
This is similar to defining a Telnet or TCP listener; however, instead of specifying
a port number, you specify a printer name. The printer name must be unique on
the network. You can associate the printer with a single port or you configure it to
be shared across multiple ports. This allows you to assign a single name to a
collection of similar printers.
Use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE PRINTER command to associate a printer with
a port and configure print characteristics.
15-5
Configuring LPD Printers
The following table lists the print characteristics that you can configure:
Characteristic
Description
AUTOCR
Automatically inserts a carriage return. When you enable this
option, the access server inserts a carriage return after each line
feed character if there is no existing carriage return. The
AUTOCR option applies only to ASCII text files.
CONNECTIONS
Specifies whether a user can queue a print job to a printer. You
use this option to disable access to a printer temporarily for
reasons such as routine maintenance or adding paper.
FLAGPAGE
Specifies a message that prints on the flag page that prints
before the file data.
HEADER
Specifies whether a header page prints before the file data. You
can set this option so that no header page prints if the access
server does not know the user name at the start of the print job
(for example, if the access server receives the data file before it
receives the control file).
IDENTIFICATION
Specifies a text string (40 characters or less) that is associated
with a printer.
TRAILER
Enables or disables printing of a trailer page after file data
prints. You can set this option so that no trailer page prints if
the access server does not know the user name at the start of
the print job (for example, if the access server receives the data
file before it receives the control file).
TYPE
Specifies ASCII or PostScript. Use this option to determine the
kind of flag page or pages to send to the printer.
Setting Port Characteristics
For LPD to communicate with your printers, you must set the following port
characteristics:
•
ACCESS REMOTE
•
AUTOBAUD DISABLED
•
FLOW CONTROL, PARITY, SPEED and STOP BITS to match the printer’s
settings
Use the DEFINE/SET/CHANGE PORT command to configure port
characteristics.
15-6
Configuring LPD Printers
Printer Configuration Example
The following example shows how to configure the access server to use LPD for
remote network printing:
Local> DEFINE PRINTER LPS32_PS CONNECTIONS ENABLED HEADER
ENABLED PORTS 4,5 TRAILER DISABLED AUTOCR DISABLED
In this example:
•
The name of the printer is LPS32_PS.
•
The printer is set to allow users to submit print jobs to it.
•
A header page prints at the start of each job.
•
The ports associated with the printer are 4 and 5.
•
No trailer page prints at the end of the job.
15-7
Configuring LPD Printers
Displaying Printer Characteristics
Use the LIST/SHOW PRINTER command to display the printer characteristics.
You can specify a printer name or display all of the configured printers.
Printer Display Example
The following shows a typical display when you enter the SHOW PRINTER ALL
command:
Local> SHOW PRINTER ALL
Printer:
LPS32_PS
Header Page:
Enabled
Connections:
Enabled
Trailer Page: Optional
Flag Page Type: Postscript
Auto C/R:
Disabled
Identification: The PostScript Printer
Flag Page Note:
Ports: 4,5
Printer:
Connections:
Flag Page Type:
Identification
Flag Page Note:
Ports:
LPS32_ASCII
Header Page:
Enabled
Enabled
Trailer Page: Optional
ASCII
Auto C/R:
Disabled
The ASCII Text Printer
6
Local>SHOW PORT
Port 3:
Server: LAT_08002BB767E3
Character Size:
Flow Control:
Parity:
Stop Bits:
8
XON
None
Dynamic
Input Speed:
Output Speed:
Signal Control:
Access:
Backwards Switch:
Break:
Forwards Switch:
Default Protocol:
Dialer Script:
Remote
None
Local
None
LAT
None
Local Switch:
Name:
Session Limit:
Type:
Default Menu:
9600
9600
Disabled
Preferred Service: None
Authorized Groups: 0
(Current) Groups: 0
Enabled Characteristics:
Broadcast, Failover, Input Flow Control, Lock, Loss
15-8
None
PORT_3
4
Ansi
None
Configuring LPD Printers
Notification, Message Codes, Output Flow Control,
Verification
Local> SHOW PRINTER SPEEDY STATUS
Printer:
Identification:
Print Jobs:
SPEEDY
Fast Laser Printer
34
Total Bytes Sent: 459285
Printer Service Status:
Port
4
5
User
Status
Bytes
Waiting for data file
3045
Waiting for LPD command 0
15-9
Configuring LPD Printers
15-10
Chapter 16
Configuring and Managing SLIP
Ports
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure and manage access server ports for use
with PCs and computers acting as serial line Internet protocol (SLIP) hosts. A
SLIP host is an Internet host that uses SLIP as its data link over low-speed serial
lines.
To use the procedures in this chapter, you must:
•
Ensure that the devices support SLIP.
•
Connect and test the devices.
•
Enable privileged status.
•
Configure the port and device characteristics to match.
This chapter provides information about configuring only the access server for
SLIP communications. For information about configuring SLIP hosts, refer to the
documentation provided with the host system.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Packet Forwarding to and from SLIP Hosts
•
Displaying SLIP Characteristics
•
Managing Internet Addresses for SLIP Hosts
16-1
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
16-2
•
Managing the Maximum Transmission Unit
•
Configuring a Port So That a PC Can Function as a Terminal or SLIP Host
•
Configuring a Dedicated SLIP Port
•
Configuring a Dial-In Modem for Use with a SLIP Host
•
Establishing Terminal Sessions with a PC
•
Establishing a SLIP Session
•
Establishing a SLIP Session
•
Compressed SLIP
•
Displaying SLIP Counters
•
Disabling SLIP
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Packet Forwarding to and from SLIP Hosts
Description
During SLIP sessions, the access server forwards packets from an attached SLIP
host through the Ethernet interface to the Internet. When the access server
receives a packet addressed to an attached SLIP host, it forwards the packet to
that host. The access server also directly forwards packets from one attached SLIP
host to another attached SLIP host.
The access server acts like an ordinary IP router to an attached SLIP host. The
access server appears like a multihomed IP host to the IP routers on the Internet.
A multihomed host is an IP host with more than one IP address.
Network Configuration Containing SLIP Hosts
Figure 16-1 shows a sample network configuration that contains SLIP hosts:
ULTRIX host
(named.dec.com)
UNIX host
Gateway 197.1.14.51
LAN
195.1.1.60
195.1.1.61
195.1.1.62
195.1.1.63
Access Server
195.1.1.64
Personal
Computer
195.1.1.65
UNIX
host
LJ-05095.FH8
Figure 16-1. Sample Network Configuration That Contains SLIP Hosts
16-3
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Displaying SLIP Characteristics
Introduction
The LIST/SHOW/MONITOR SLIP CHARACTERISTICS command enables you
to display the SLIP configuration for a given port. The characteristics that you
manage are the host address, the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) and the
compression.
If you change SLIP characteristics while a SLIP session is already established, the
changes have no effect until you start a new SLIP session.
Command
Use the SHOW PORT n SLIP CHARACTERISTICS command to display SLIP
characteristics.
Displaying SLIP Characteristics Example
The following example shows a typical SLIP characteristics display:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 SLIP CHARACTERISTICS
Port 5: Rick Server: Servername
Host Address: 17.20.19.7 MTU: 1006
Header Compression: Disabled Compression States: 16
16-4
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Managing Internet Addresses for SLIP Hosts
Introduction
The Internet address for the SLIP host must be unique on the subnet and must
have the same subnet identifier as the access server. A subnet identifier is the
result of a logical AND operation on the Internet address and the subnet mask.
For example, assume that you set:
1. The access server Internet address as follows:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET ADDRESS 83.62.18.101
2. The subnet mask as follows:
Local> CHANGE INTERNET SUBNET MASK 255.255.255.0
In this situation, the subnet identifier is 83.62.18.0.
In this example, the Internet address of the SLIP host must be 83.62.18.xx. The
value xx is any number between 1 and 254, except 101. The value 101 is the access
server Internet address.
How an Access Server Port Obtains the SLIP Host Internet Address
This section describes how an access server port obtains the SLIP host Internet
address. The SLIP host port address must be contained in the access server subnet
identifier. You can assign an address or you can allow the access server to
automatically obtain the SLIP host address.
Assigning a Host Internet Address
To assign the Internet address to a port, use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
SLIP HOST ADDRESS command as shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE PORT SLIP HOST ADDRESS 195.1.1.101
After you assign the address, you can enter the SHOW PORT SLIP
CHARACTERISTICS command on the SLIP host to verify the change. You then
need to assign the address to the attached host.
RADIUS Specified SLIP Host Address
If a user performs a RADIUS authentication, the SLIP host IP address may be
specified in the user’s authorization data. A RADIUS specified address of
255.255.255.254 means the IP address of the port is used. An address of
255.255.255.255 means the PC client’s IP address is used (see below).
16-5
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
How a Port Automatically Obtains the SLIP Host Address
If you configure a port for SLIP communication and do not assign a host address,
the access server does the following:
1. Reads the source address from the attached host’s first output IP packet.
2. Automatically assigns this address to the port if it is valid.
The access server clears this address when the SLIP host logs out from the port.
16-6
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Managing the Maximum Transmission Unit
Introduction
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) value specifies the maximum size of the
datagram that a given access server port accepts. The range is 64 to 1500 bytes.
The default is 1500 bytes.
Changing the MTU
You can change the MTU value using the SET/DEFINE/CHAGE PORT n MTU
command. If you use the SET or CHANGE command, the new value does not
affect an existing SLIP connection.
MTU Change Example:
The following example makes the access server compatible with attached hosts
that have fixed MTU values other than 1006 bytes:
Local> DEFINE PORT 4 SLIP MTU 500
Relationship of the TCP Maximum Segment Size and the MTU
An attached host announces the TCP maximum segment size (MSS) at connection
time. The MSS specifies the largest fragment of a datagram that the attached host
is willing to receive. The MSS is normally based on the MTU of the network
connection as recommended by RFC 879.
The MSS should always be smaller than the MTU value. The TCP and IP headers
account for the difference between the two values.
Fragmentation
When the TCP MSS announced by the SLIP host exceeds the MTU on the SLIP
line, IP fragmentation occurs. Therefore, an MSS value that greatly exceeds the
MTU causes excessive fragmentation and downgrades performance.
Setting the MTU adjusts the point at which IP fragmentation occurs when
sending datagrams. Setting the MTU also adjusts the maximum receive unit
(MRU) packet size. Since the access server considers packets larger than the MTU
as framing errors, it discards these packets.
16-7
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Configuring a Port So That a PC Can Function as a
Terminal or SLIP Host
Introduction
This section describes how to configure an access server port so that you can use
an attached PC as a both a terminal and a SLIP host. With this configuration, port
users can switch between terminal emulation and SLIP mode.
To configure the port so that the PC acts only like a SLIP host, refer to the
Configuring a Dedicated SLIP Port section in this chapter.
Before you configure a port for SLIP communications as shown in the following
example, you must configure the device and port characteristics as described in
Chapter 9.
Example: Configuring a PC As a Terminal and SLIP Host
The following example shows a sample port configuration that enables a PC to act
as both a terminal and a SLIP host:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
16-8
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
ACCESS LOCAL AUTOBAUD ENABLED
BREAK LOCAL DEDICATED NONE
DEFAULT PROTOCOL SLIP DSRLOGOUT ENABLED
FLOW CONTROL CTS INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED PASSWORD DISABLED
SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
SLIP ENABLED
SLIP HOST 195.1.1.1
SLIP MTU 800 Local> LOGOUT PORT 2
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Configuring a Dedicated SLIP Port
Introduction
The dedicated SLIP port allows a single SLIP session.
Before you perform this procedure, you must configure the device and port
characteristics as described in Chapter 9.
Configuring a Device As a Dedicated SLIP Host
The following example shows a sample configuration of a dedicated SLIP port:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
ACCESS LOCAL AUTOBAUD DISABLED AUTOCONNECT ENABLED
BREAK DISABLED DEDICATED SLIP
DEFAULT PROTOCOL SLIP
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT DISABLED
FLOW CONTROL CTS INACTIVITY LOGOUT DISABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED PASSWORD DISABLED PREFERRED NONE
SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED
SLIP ENABLED
SLIP HOST 195.1.2.1
SLIP MTU 800
16-9
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Configuring a Dial-In Modem for Use with a SLIP
Host
Introduction
Before you perform this procedure, you must configure the device and port
characteristics as described in Chapter 9.
Configuring a Dial-In Modem on Port 6 for Use with a SLIP Host
The following example shows a sample configuration of a port using a dial-in
modem for use with a SLIP host on a full modem control access server:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
16-10
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
DEFINE
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
ACCESS LOCAL ALTERNATE SPEED NONE AUTOBAUD ENABLED
DEFAULT PROTOCOL SLIP
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT DISABLED
FLOW CONTROL CTS INACTIVITY LOGOUT DISABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED PASSWORD ENABLED
SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED
SLIP ENABLED SPEED 57600 SLIP HOST 195.1.3.1
SLIP HOST 195.1.3.1
SLIP MTU 800
SPEED 51600
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Establishing Terminal Sessions with a PC
Prerequisites
Before you can use a PC to establish a terminal session with the access server, you
must:
1. Configure the device and port characteristics as described in Chapter 9.
2. Enter the commands to set up SLIP operating characteristics as shown in the
Example: Configuring a PC As a Terminal and SLIP Host, in this chapter.
3. If you want to authenticate a user, make sure that a terminal emulation
program is installed and running on the PC. The terminal emulation program
needs to be invoked after a connection is established so that the user can
respond to prompts for authentication.
Refer to Managing Dial-Up Access Security with AUTOLINK and AUTOLINK
Authentication in Chapter 22 for more information if you have enabled
AUTOLINK authentication.
Once the terminal emulation program is running and the user is authenticated,
the PC can access hosts on the TCP/IP and LAT networks through the access
server by using the CONNECT command.
16-11
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Establishing a SLIP Session
Enabling a SLIP Session from the PC
The following example shows how a nonprivileged user could configure and start
a SLIP session. The example assumes that the port characteristics are configured
as shown this example. The CHANGE PORT SLIP MTU command is optional.
Local> CHANGE PORT SLIP HOST 195.1.1.1 SLIP MTU 800
Local> CHANGE PORT SLIP MTU 800
Local> CONNECT SLIP
Local-561-Starting SLIP or PPP datalink session
If you previously configured the port with an Internet address and an MTU, then
you only need to use the CONNECT SLIP command.
After Making a Connection
Once you enter the CONNECT SLIP command, the access server expects IP
packets from the PC formatted as SLIP frames. Use the appropriate command to
exit from terminal emulation mode on your PC and start the desired IP
application program.
To transfer files, use any file transfer program that supports SLIP. You do not need
to configure data transparency on the access server.
16-12
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Compressed SLIP
Introduction
The access server has the ability to enable compressed SLIP (CSLIP). Enabling
CSLIP compresses the lengthy headers of IP datagrams on low-speed
asynchronous serial lines. Therefore, enabling CSLIP can improve performance.
Enabling CSLIP
Use the SET/CHANGE PORT n SLIP COMPRESSION command to enable or
disable CSLIP. By default, compression is disabled. When you enable CSLIP, make
sure that it is enabled at both ends of the communications link. If only one end of
the link is running CSLIP, performance degrades.
Example: Enabling CSLIP
The following example shows how to enable CSLIP on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 SLIP COMPRESSION ENABLED
Disabling CSLIP
The following example shows how to disable CSLIP on a port:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 SLIP COMPRESSION DISABLED
Automatic CSLIP
You can enable a port to start CSLIP automatically if the port receives compressed
data over an already existing SLIP session. The following example shows how to
enable automatic CSLIP on a given port:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 SLIP COMPRESSION AUTOCOMPRESS
Compression States
You can specify the number of connections that can be compressed over the data
link at one time. The following example shows how to change the number of
compression states on a port:
Local> CHANGE PORT COMPRESSION STATES 10
The default number of compression states is 16.
16-13
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Displaying SLIP Counters
Commands
The SHOW/MONITOR PORT SLIP COUNTERS command displays the various
SLIP counters. To reset the counters, use the ZERO COUNTERS PORT SLIP
command.
SHOW PORT SLIP COUNTERS Display
The following example shows a typical SLIP counters display:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 SLIP COUNTERS
Port 1: Rick Server: Servername
Connect Time:
0 00:00:00
Bytes Received:
0 Bytes Sent:
Packets Received:
0 Packets Sent:
Receive Packets Lost: 0 Send Packets Lost:
Send Packets Queued: 0
0
0
0
SLIP COUNTERS Display Fields
The following table describes the information in the SLIP Counters display:
16-14
Field
Description
Connect Time
Length of duration of the SLIP session. This is 0 if there is
no SLIP session.
Bytes Received
Number of bytes received by the access server from the
SLIP host on the port.
Bytes Sent
Number of bytes sent by the access server to the SLIP host
on the port.
Packets Received
Number of IP packets received by the access server from
the SLIP host on the port.
Packets Sent
Number of IP packets sent by the access server to the SLIP
host on the port.
Receive Packets Lost
Number of receive IP packets lost due to framing errors.
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Field
Description
Send Packets Lost
Number of send IP packets lost due to lack of buffers.
Send Packets Queued
Number of IP packets in a queue to be sent to the SLIP host
on the port.
16-15
Configuring and Managing SLIP Ports
Disabling SLIP
Command
Use the CHANGE PORT n SLIP DISABLED command to disable SLIP on a port.
Disable SLIP Example
The following example shows how to disable SLIP on port 2:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 SLIP DISABLED
16-16
Chapter 17
Configuring for SNMP Access
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes how to configure the access server simple network
management protocol (SNMP) agent so that it can be controlled by a remote
Network Management Station (NMS).
Reference
For complete information about managing SNMP on the access server, refer to the
file snmp_survival.txt contained in the software installation kit. This file fully
describes every SNMP-accessible variable and table in the access server. For
example, the file describes:
•
What values variables can take
•
When and how variables and tables change
•
How the user interface can access variables and tables
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Supported SNMP Features
•
Configuring the Access Server for SNMP Access
•
Configuring the NMS
17-1
Configuring for SNMP Access
Supported SNMP Features
Supported Specifications
The access server supports the SNMP specifications listed in the following table:
Specification
Title
RFC 1155
Structure for Management Information for TCP/IP-Based Protocols
RFC 1157
A Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
SNMP Community Names
An SNMP community name is a character string that the NMS uses as a password
to gain access to the access server. A community name contains a maximum of 32
characters.
Due to memory constraints, the access server can have only a limited number of
community names.
Community Name Reference
For more information about using community names, refer to the Configuring the
Access Server for SNMP Access section in this chapter.
Supported SNMP Operations
The access server supports the SNMP operations listed in the following table:
17-2
Operation
Description
Default for All
Community Names
GET
Fetches the value of a variable.
Enabled
GETNEXT
Fetches a value without knowing the
variable’s exact name.
Enabled
SET
Enables you to modify access server
parameters and create and delete table
entries.
Disabled
TRAP
Indicates the occurrence of an event.
Disabled
Configuring for SNMP Access
Supported MIBs
The access server supports the Management Information Bases (MIBs) listed in
the following table. The release kit contains all supported MIBs. The network
manager can enroll these MIBs in the appropriate NMS.
MIB
Description
RFC 1213
Management Information Base (MIB II) for Internet protocol suite
management. This makes RFC 1158 obsolete.
RFC 1243
Definitions of Managed Objects for the AppleTalk MIB.
RFC 1284
Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like interface types.
RFC 1158
Obsolete MIB II. Supported for backwards compatibility.
RFC 1316
Definitions of Managed Objects for Character Stream Devices, the
Character MIB. The obsolete draft version dated March 19, 1991, is also
supported for backwards compatibility.
RFC 1317
Definitions of Managed Objects for RS232-like Hardware Devices, the
RS232-like MIB. The draft version dated March 19, 1991, is also
supported for backwards compatibility.
RFC 1471
Definitions of Managed Objects for the Link Control Protocol of the
Point-to-Point Protocol.
RFC 1473
Definitions of Managed Objects for the IP Network Protocol of the
Point-to-Point Protocol.
Accounting
Private MIB used to access the accounting data stored in volatile
memory of the access server.
IPX
Private MIB used to manage the IPX protocol stack in the access server.
IPXCP
Private MIB used to manage the IPX Network Control Protocol of the
Point-to-Point Protocol.
Supported MIB Variables
The standard Internet MIB contains approximately 200 variables. The meanings
of many of these objects are device-specific.
For more information about MIB variables, refer to the file snmp_survival.txt
contained in the software installation kit. This file provides explanations of the
various SNMP (MIB) objects implemented on the access server.
17-3
Configuring for SNMP Access
Supported Management Information Base Variables
Figure 17-1 illustrates the access server implementation of MIB-II, the Character
MIB, RS-232-like MIB, AppleTalk MIB, and Ethernet-like MIB variables. The
objects described in this section are implemented as defined in RFCs 1213, 1243,
1284, 1316, and 1317.
MIB-II Variables
System
Atomics
Interfaces
Atomics
Interface table
IP
Atomics
Address table
Routing table
Translation table
ICMP
Address translation
Atomics
Address translation table
Character Stream
Device MIB Variables
Atomics
Port table
Session table
TCP
Atomics
Connections table
UDP
Atomics
Listener table
SNMP
Atomics
RS-232 Interface Type
MIB Variables
Atomics
Port table
Async Port table
Input Signal table
Output Signal table
LKG-6681-96f
Figure 17-1. Access Server Implementations
17-4
Configuring for SNMP Access
Configuring the Access Server for SNMP Access
Enabling and Disabling SNMP
The access server must have an Internet address to enable SNMP. To enable
SNMP, enter:
Local> CHANGE SNMP ENABLED
To disable SNMP, enter:
Local> CHANGE SNMP DISABLED
Displaying Information About SNMP
Use the SHOW SNMP command to display the access server’s SNMP
characteristics.
Example: Displaying SNMP Information
The following example shows how to display SNMP information on the access
server:
Local> SHOW SNMP
SNMP State:
Community Name
PUBLIC
SNUGS
BUGS
SERVER
ENABLED
AUTHENTICATION FAILURES: ENABLED
Address
ANY
ANY
195.1.1.1
195.1.1.2
GET
ENA
ENA
ENA
ENA
GETNEXT
ENA
ENA
ENA
ENA
SET
DIS
ENA
ENA
ENA
TRAP
DIS
DIS
DIS
ENA
Default Community Name PUBLIC
The CHANGE SNMP ENABLED command automatically configures the access
server with the default community name PUBLIC. This community name follows
the default behavior for the SNMP operations listed in the Supported SNMP
Operations section in this chapter.
Configuring a Community Name for Access by Any NMS
Use the CHANGE SNMP COMMUNITY community-name SET ENABLED
command to create a community name.
17-5
Configuring for SNMP Access
When you create a community name without specifying an address the access
server assigns the default address ANY. The address ANY enables any NMS that
knows this community name to GET or SET information about the access server.
Example: Configuring Community Names for Access by Any NMS
The following example shows how to create the community name SNUGS
without specifying an address:
Local> CHANGE SNMP COMMUNITY "SNUGS" SET ENABLED
Local> CHANGE SNMP ENABLED
Configuring a Community Name with an Address
You can configure a community name so that only an NMS with a given address
can access the access server with SNMP commands. Use the CHANGE SNMP
COMMUNITY community-name ADDRESS command to configure the
community name in this way.
Example: Configuring Community Names for Access from a Specific NMS
The following example shows how to create community name BUGS. Only the
NMS with the address 195.1.1.1 can GET or SET information about the server:
Local> CHANGE SNMP COMMUNITY "BUGS" ADDRESS 195.1.1.1
Local> CHANGE SNMP COMMUNITY "BUGS" SET ENABLED
Local> CHANGE SNMP ENABLED
One IP Address for a Community Name
Each community name can have only one IP address assigned. The access server
rejects the addresses 0.0.0.0 and 255.255.255.255. By default, GET and GETNEXT
are enabled when you create a community name.
Configuring Community Names to Send TRAP Messages
You can optionally configure the access server to send TRAP messages to a
specific NMS for each community name. The access server generates TRAP
messages in response to the events listed in the following table:
17-6
This Event:
Occurs When:
Cold start
The access server was reinitialized.
Line up
A network data link session was established on port n.
Configuring for SNMP Access
This Event:
Occurs When:
Line down
A network data link session was disconnected on port n.
Authentication
Unauthorized SNMP access was attempted
Example: Configuring SNMP TRAP Messages
The following example shows how to create the community name server. In this
example, only NMS 195.1.1.2 can access community name SERVER. The access
server sends TRAP messages to this NMS.
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
NOTE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
SNMP
SNMP
SNMP
SNMP
SNMP
COMMUNITY "SERVER" ADDRESS 195.1.1.2
COMMUNITY "SERVER" SET ENABLED
COMMUNITY "SERVER" TRAP ENABLED
AUTHENTICATION ENABLED
ENABLED
TRAPS cannot be enabled for communities with the IP address ANY.
Sample SNMP Configuration
Figure 17-2 is a diagram of a network configuration that results from the
commands in the Configuring a Community Name for Access by Any NMS,
Configuring a Community Name with an Address, and Configuring Community
Names to Send TRAP Messages sections:
17-7
Configuring for SNMP Access
UNIX NMS
VMS NMS
DOS NMS
Accesses:
SNUGS
SERVER
Accesses:
SNUGS
BUGS
Accesses:
SNUGS
195.1.1.2
195.1.1.1
195.1.1.3
GET
GETNEXT
SET
LAN
Access Server
195.1.1.8
Communities:
SNUGS - GET, GETNEXT, and SET Enabled
BUGS - 195.1.1.1 only, GET, GETNEXT, and SET Enabled
SERVER - 195.1.1.2 only, GET, GETNEXT, SET, and TRAPS Enabled
LJ-05096.fh8
Figure 17-2. Diagram of a Network Configuration
Disabling TRAP Messages for a Community Name
To disable TRAP messages, use the CLEAR SNMP COMMUNITY communityname TRAP DISABLED command. The following is an example of disabling
TRAP messages for the SERVER community:
Local> CLEAR SNMP COMMUNITY "SERVER" TRAP DISABLED
Removing Community Names
The access server allocates 80 bytes of NVRAM to store information about
community names. If you attempt to define or modify a community name and
there is insufficient memory, you see a message in this format:
Local -654- Insufficient space: total unused community characters left is n
In this situation, use the CLEAR or PURGE SNMP COMMUNITY command to
remove one or more unused community names. You can also remove the default
community name PUBLIC.
After you remove a community name, any NMS that used the community name
is no longer able to communicate with the access server.
17-8
Configuring for SNMP Access
The following example shows how to remove community name BUGS:
Local> CLEAR SNMP COMMUNITY "BUGS"
Removing an Address from a Community Name
You can remove an NMS address from a community name by using the ANY
keyword in the CHANGE SNMP COMMUNITY community-name ADDRESS
command. This keyword allows any NMS that knows the community name to
access the access server.
The access server, however, rejects an ADDRESS ANY command if TRAP access is
enabled.
Example: Removing the Community Name Internet Address
The following example shows how to remove the Internet address from
community name SERVER:
Local> CHANGE SNMP COMMUNITY "SERVER" ADDRESS ANY
17-9
Configuring for SNMP Access
Configuring the NMS
Procedure
To configure an NMS to manage an access server using SNMP, do the following:
17-10
Step
Action
1
Enter the access server management information bases (MIBs) in the NMS
database (see Supported MIB Variables in this chapter). The software
installation kit includes ASCII text files of these MIBs.
2
Enter the access server IP address, each appropriate community name, and
desired access rights in the NMS database. If the community name is
associated with an IP address, the address must be the Internet address of
this NMS. The network manager must also associate the IP address of the
access server with each such name. The exact procedure depends on the
host-type of the NMS.
3
Configure the gateways to restrict unauthorized SNMP access by users from
outside your network.
Chapter 18
Managing the Access Server
Overview
Introduction
The following lists the actions you perform to manage the access server. These
actions should be done on an as-needed basis.
•
Manage the access server as part of the LAT network.
•
Manage the access server as part of the TCP/IP network.
•
Manage access server characteristics.
•
Check port status and counters.
•
Reassign a port device (in case of port failure).
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Managing Your Access Server As Part of the LAT Network
•
Displaying Information About the Access Server
•
Checking Port Status and Counters
18-1
Managing the Access Server
Managing Your Access Server As Part of the LAT
Network
Introduction
The network manager should coordinate the activities of service nodes and access
servers. This section describes a set of configuration guidelines that helps
maximize performance from your LAT network. All the guidelines presented are
optional; however, failure to follow these guidelines might result in unnecessary
performance degradation.
Distributing Devices on Access Servers
With the LAT protocol, the network bandwidth use is optimized when a high
number of terminals (or other devices) are placed on every access server. If only
one or two terminals are in use on each access server, the LAT protocol accounts
for a higher proportion of the total Ethernet usage.
Controlling the Number of Known Service Nodes
Minimize the number of service nodes that are accessed from any one access
server by keeping a single access server from accessing many different service
nodes for its users. Having every access server user connecting to a different
service node uses more of the data link bandwidth than many access server users
connecting to few service nodes. To reduce the number of service nodes accessed
from a particular access server, assign users to the access server based on their
need for common services and then assign the appropriate authorized groups for
the access server ports.
Checking LAT Service Accessibility
The node limit characteristic specifies the number of service nodes that can be
simultaneously stored in the database for the access server. When the node limit is
reached, messages from additional nodes are discarded. The node limit must be in
the range of 1 to 2000. If you specify a node limit of NONE, there is no limit to the
number of nodes stored. In this case, the node limit is subject to memory
constraints. The default is 200 nodes.
If a user on the access server is experiencing response time problems with
accessing LAT services, you can adjust the node limit characteristic. There is a
faster connection when a user connects to a host that is defined in the access
server database, as opposed to a host not in the database.
18-2
Managing the Access Server
A higher node limit uses more of the access server memory. A lower node limit
uses less memory. However, a lower node limit can potentially increase the time
to make a connection to nodes that are not in the service database. You need to
decide the optimal number for your needs.
The following example shows how to decrease the node limit to 100:
Local> CHANGE SERVER NODE LIMIT 100
Reducing Memory Usage
Set the node limit characteristic to a lower value. The access server automatically
reduces the number of nodes in the database. This reduces the amount of memory
used by the node database.
Viewing LAT Node Status Information
The SHOW/MONITOR NODE STATUS command displays information about
the status of the selected nodes. This includes a list of the services offered by the
nodes and information on each service. This display can help you track the
availability and use of services.
Example: SHOW NODE STATUS Display
The following example shows how to generate a status display for the service
node called PEACH:
Local> SHOW NODE PEACH STATUS
Node:
PEACH
Address
08-00-2B-00-2B-02
LAT Protocol:
V5.2
Data Link Frame Size:
1500
Identification: Software Engineering Development
Node Groups:
20-50, 100-200
Service Name
Status
Rating
DEVELOP
TEST
TIMESHARING
2Connected
Available
Available
255
Hardware Development System
150 High-powered Performance Testing
27 Accts.Payable Development System
Identification
Local>
18-3
Managing the Access Server
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR NODE STATUS Display Fields
The following table describes the information in the fields and headings of the
node status display:
18-4
Field
Description
Node
Name of the service node.
LAT Protocol Vx.x
LAT protocol version number and update level of the
service node software. LAT Version 5.2 protocol permits
queued connection requests for printers connected to
network access servers. LAT Version 5.2 protocol does not
permit queued connection requests.
Address
Ethernet address of the service node.
Data Link Frame Size
Maximum Ethernet data link frame size used by the
service node to receive messages.
Identification
Node identification string.
Node Groups
Group codes enabled for this service node. For a port to
access the service node, at least one of these groups must.
Service Name column
Name of each service offered on this node. The same
service might be offered on other service nodes. Use the
SHOW SERVICE STATUS command to find the names of
all the nodes offering a particular service.
Status column
•
Available — Service is available to access server
users.
•
n Connected — Service is available and n
currently active sessions were requested with
this service name. If the local access server is the
service node specified in the display, sessions
between two access server ports count as two
sessions (one on the local port and one on the
remote port).
•
Unavailable — All service nodes offering the
service are unreachable.
•
Unknown.
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Identification column
Service identification string.
Rating column
Value assigned to the service by the service node,
indicating relative capacity to accept new connections or
new queue connections. This value is the current loadbalancing rating associated with the service. The rating
varies from 0 to 255. With the higher value, the capacity of
the service node to accept a new connection is greater.
Viewing LAT Node Counters Information
The SHOW/MONITOR NODE COUNTERS command displays the counters for
messages transmitted between the access server and the selected LAT service
nodes.
The counters apply only to the specified LAT service nodes. Some of these
counters are also maintained for all the service nodes that the access server
recognizes. When you enter a specific node name for the SHOW/MONITOR
NODE node-name COUNTERS command, the counter values for only that
service node appear in the display. To see the combined counters for all service
nodes, use the SHOW SERVER COUNTER command.
Counters can help you estimate access server traffic on the network for specific
time periods. For example, for information about daily access server usage, set the
counters to zero at the start of each day.
You can also use counters data to calculate the average use of the Ethernet and the
service nodes. By combining this data from the access server with the counters
data from other access servers, you can calculate the network’s capacity to handle
more traffic.
Example: SHOW/LIST/MONITOR NODE COUNTERS Display
The following example shows how to generate a display of the counters for LAT
messages between the access server and a service node named PEACH. Each
counter displayed has a maximum value of 4,294,967,295. If a counter reaches that
value, it remains at that value until either the counters are set to zero or the access
server is initialized. Typically, the maximum values are not reached for several
months.
18-5
Managing the Access Server
Local> SHOW NODE PEACH COUNTERS
Node: PEACH
Seconds Since Zeroed: 961608 Multiple Node Addresses:
Messages Received:
687568 Duplicates Received:
Messages Transmitted: 558793 Messages Re-transmitted:
Slots Received:
509763 Illegal Messages Received:
Slots Transmitted:
532932 Illegal Slots Received:
Bytes Received:
13876620 Solicitations Accepted:
Bytes Transmitted:
475427 Solicitations Rejected:
0
21
35
0
0
0
0
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR NODE COUNTERS Display Fields
The following table describes the information displayed in the previous example:
18-6
Field
Description
Node
Name of the node.
Seconds Since
Zeroed
Number of seconds since the counters were last set to zero
(maximum time exceeds 134 years).
Messages
Received
Number of LAT virtual circuit messages that the access server
received from this node.
Messages
Transmitted
Number of LAT virtual circuit messages that the access server
transmitted to this node.
Slots Received
Number of slots that the access server received from this node
(slot represents a message segment for a particular session).
Slots
Transmitted
Number of slots that the access server transmitted to this node.
Bytes Received
Number of data bytes that the access server received from this
node.
Bytes
Transmitted
Number of data bytes that the access server transmitted to this
node.
Multiple Node
Addresses
Number of times that a node advertised itself with a physical
address different from that in a previous advertisement.
Duplicates
Received
Number of messages the access server received from this node
that were not in the correct sequence. This value should be less
then 1/1000 of the value for Messages Received. This count
usually indicates that the service node is retransmitting a
message. If this value is higher than the guideline, the access
server might not be handling the message traffic from the
service node, causing the service node to retransmit messages.
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Messages
Retransmitted
Number of messages the access server retransmitted to this
node. This value should be less than 1/1000 of the value for
Messages Transmitted. If this value is higher than the guideline,
the service node might not be handling the access server
message load.
Illegal
Messages
Received
Number of illegally formatted messages the access server
received from this node. This value should be zero. A count of
nonzero indicates a possible software problem in either the
access server or the service node.
Illegal Slots
Received
Number of illegally formatted slots the access server received
from this node. This value should be zero. A count of nonzero
indicates a possible software problem in either the access server
or the service node.
Solicitations
Accepted
Number of queued connection requests that the access server
has accepted, including queued requests and request that were
immediately satisfied. The sum of the number of solicitations
accepted and the number of solicitations rejected equals the
number of queued connection requests that were received by
the access server.
Solicitations
Rejected
Number of queued connection requests that the access server
has rejected. The sum of the number of solicitations accepted
and the number of solicitations rejected equals the number of
queued connection requests that were received by the access
server. A rejected request might indicate a configuration
problem at the access server or service node; for example, the
port names do not match or a port has the incorrect access type.
Viewing LAT Node Summary Information
The SHOW NODE SUMMARY command produces a line of information for each
selected service node. This display is useful to determine if a service node is
reachable. The node summary is the default display class for the NODE and
NODE ALL entity specifications.
Every service node name and access server name should be unique so as to allow
other service nodes and users to distinguish among access servers. A unique
access server name is necessary for an access server that is used for queued
connection requests or for an access server to act as a service node.
The access server knows a service node by the node’s Ethernet address and node
name.
18-7
Managing the Access Server
If you use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NAME command and you
specify an access server name that is already being used by another node, other
LAT nodes may replace your access server name with a default LAT name to
make your access server name unique. The default is in the following format:
LAT_nnnnnnnnnnnn
The value nnnnnnnnnnnn is the unhyphenated, 12-digit Ethernet address of the
second service node, which is used on the node summary displays.
Ports with LIMITED VIEW
Ports with LIMITED VIEW enabled cannot perform SHOW NODES.
Example: NODE SUMMARY Display
The following example shows how to generate a node summary display:
Local> SHOW NODE ALL SUMMARY
Node Name
Status
Identification
BANANA 2
ORANGE
PEACH
PEAR
TEST
Connected
Reachable
Unreachable
Requesting
Unknown
Documentation System
Terminals Development System
Software Engineering Development
Printer Service
High-powered Performance Testing
Local>
18-8
Managing the Access Server
NODE SUMMARY Display Fields
The following table describes the information in the NODE SUMMARY display:
Heading
Description
Node Name
The name of the service node as defined in the access server
node database.
Status
Reachability status of the service node shown as one of the
following:
• n Connected — Node is reachable and n sessions are
active with services offered by the service node.
• Reachable — No sessions are active, but the service
node is accessible.
• Requesting — Node that does not presently offer
services has made remote connection requests to the
access server (for printer access or for local services
offered).
• Unreachable — Active service session has timed out.
The node can also signal that it is unreachable.
• Unknown — No sessions are active, and the node has
not been heard from recently.
Identification
Brief description about the service node as entered by the
system manager.
18-9
Managing the Access Server
Displaying Information About the Access Server
Introduction
The LIST/MONITOR/SHOW SERVER command displays information about the
access server or about data maintained by the access server. You can obtain
characteristics, counter, status, and summary displays for the access server.
Specifying the Prompt
The factory-set default access server prompt is Local>. You can change this
prompt to any ASCII character, with a restriction of 1 to 16 characters. The
following shows how to change this prompt to Engineering>. You should include
a space at the end of the prompt, to leave space between the prompt and user
commands.
Local> CHANGE SERVER PROMPT "Engineering> "
To go back to the default Local> prompt, enter the following command:
Local> CHANGE SERVER PROMPT ""
This command specifies the access server prompt displayed to all port users when
in local mode, with the exception of the RCF management port.
Displaying Access Server Counters
The LIST/MONITOR/SHOW SERVER COUNTERS command displays the
values for the global counters maintained by the access server. The counters
display is useful for detecting network problems.
The first line displays the access server software version number and base level,
LAT software version number, ROM version number, and the time that the access
server has been running since the last downline load, expressed as days
hours:minutes:seconds.
The COUNTERS data appear in two blocks:
18-10
•
Ethernet data link counters — The upper block is for datagrams sent between
the access server and all nodes on the Ethernet network. Some of the fields
displayed are bit masks, the values of which tell the reasons for certain events.
•
LAT protocol counters — The lower block is for messages transmitted between
the access server and all LAT service nodes. The access server maintains some
of these counters for each service node with which it communicates. Refer to
Managing the Access Server
the node counters display descriptions in Viewing LAT Node Counters
Information in this chapter.
Displaying Information About the Access Server
Each counter has a maximum value of 4,294,967,295. If a counter reaches that
value, it latches (remains) at that value until either the counters are set to zero or
the access server is initialized.
Example: SHOW SERVER COUNTERS Display
The following example shows how to generate an access server counters display:
Local> SHOW SERVER COUNTERS
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROMx.x-x Uptime: 0 17:02:20
Seconds Since Zeroed:
1183161
Bytes Received:
811416880
Bytes Sent:
141519043
Frames Received:
8087172
Frames Sent:
1572199
Multicast Bytes Rcv'd: 1111005
Multicast Bytes Sent:
215694
Multicast Frames Rcv'd: 66700
Multicast Frames Sent: 2179
Frames Sent, Deferred: 96516
Messages Received:
1886375
Messages Transmitted:
1569667
Solicitations Accepted: 0
Solicitations Rejected: 0
Multiple Node Addresses:23591
Frames Sent: 1 Collision:
Frames Sent,2+Collisions:
Send Failures:
Send Failure Reasons:
Receive Failures:
Receive Failure Reasons:
Unrecognized Destination:
Data Overrun:
User Buffer Unavailable:
System Buffer Unavailable:
Duplicates Received:
Messages Re-transmitted:
Illegal Messages Rcv'd:
Illegal Slots Rcv'd:
Illegal Multicasts Rcv'd:
8377
16344
1
00000010
47
000011
193760
0
0
0
106
485
6
0
1
Local>
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVER COUNTERS Display Fields
The following table defines the fields in the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVER
COUNTERS display:
Field
Description
Ethernet Data Link Counters:
Seconds Since Zeroed
Number of seconds since the counters were last set to zero.
Bytes Received
Number of bytes contained in datagrams successfully
received by the access server, excluding Ethernet header
and CRC data.
18-11
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Bytes Sent
Number of bytes contained in datagrams successfully
transmitted by the access server, excluding Ethernet header
and CRC data.
Frames Received
Number of datagram frames successfully received by the
access server, including multicast frames.
Frames Sent
Number of datagram frames successfully transmitted by
the access server, including multicast frames.
Multicast Bytes Rcv’d
Number of bytes received by the access server in multicast
frames, excluding Ethernet header and CRC data.
Multicast Bytes Sent
Number of bytes transmitted by the access server in
multicast frames, excluding Ethernet header and CRC data.
Multicast Frames Rcv’d
Number of multicast frames received by the access server.
Multicast Frames Sent
Number of multicast frames sent by the access server.
Frames Sent, Deferred
Number of times the access server deferred a frame
transmission because the data link was in use. This value
should be less than 20% of the value for Frames Sent.
Frames Sent, 1 Collision
Number of times the access server successfully transmitted
a frame on the second attempt after a collision during the
first attempt. This value should be less than 5% of the value
for Frames Sent.
Frames Sent,2+ Collisions
Number of times the access server successfully sent a frame
after collisions during the first two or more attempts. This
value should be less than 5% of the value for Frames Sent.
Send Failures
Number of times the Ethernet interface aborted a
transmission request. If this count is nonzero, refer to the
Send Failure Reasons field for more information. This
counter should be 0 or a low value such as 1 or 2 daily.
18-12
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Send Failure Reasons
Mask providing information about the type or types of
send failure encountered if the Send Failures counter is not
zero. This is a cumulative mask.The following are the bits
defined in the mask:
Bit
0
1
4
5
8
9
If a reason for send failures is heartbeat errors and the
access server characteristic HEARTBEAT is enabled for a
transceiver that supports heartbeat, you can usually expect
up to about 200 such errors daily. This number does not
indicate a network problem.
If a reason for send failures is heartbeat errors and the
transceiver being used does not support heartbeat, check to
see whether you have heartbeat enabled. The send failures
count will reflect the heartbeat errors generated from the
transceiver not responding to checks of its heartbeat
circuitry. Disable the access server characteristic
HEARTBEAT to eliminate the spurious generation of
heartbeat errors.
Receive Failures
Number of packets that were received with an error
condition. For more information, refer to the Receive
Failure Reasons field. This counter should be 0 or a low
value such as 1 or 2 daily.
Receive Failure Reasons
Mask providing information about the type or types of
receive failure encountered if the Receive Failures counter
is not zero. This is a cumulative mask. The following are the
bits defined in the mask:
Bit
0
1
2
18-13
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Unrecognized Destination
Number of times a frame was passed through the
hardware, but the access server did not recognize the
multicast address and discarded the message. This value
reflects multicast traffic or other traffic addressed to the
access server from protocols not supported by the access
server. The count will be high if the access server does not
have an IP address and is connected to a network with ARP
traffic. If this count is extremely high (greater than 10 for
each second of uptime), the access server performance
could be adversely effected.
Data Overrun
Number of times the access server hardware lost an
incoming frame, because it was unable to keep up with the
data rate. This value should be 0.
User Buffer Unavailable
Number of times the access server did not have a user
buffer available to store an incoming frame that passed
through the system buffer.
This counter should accumulate at a rate of less than two
counts per day. Note that the value of this counter could be
high if there are a large number of LAT service multicast
announcements on the network. Also, it is normal to
experience some errors when nodes are added to the
Ethernet.
System Buffer Unavailable
Number of times a system buffer was not available in the
access server for an incoming frame. This counter should
accumulate at a rate of less than two counts per day. It is
normal to experience some errors when nodes are added to
the Ethernet.
LAT Protocol Counters:
Messages Received
Number of LAT circuit messages successfully received by
the access server.
Messages Transmitted
Number of LAT circuit messages successfully transmitted
by the access server.
Solicitations Accepted
Number of queued connection requests that the terminal
server has accepted. This number includes requests that are
queued and requests that were immediately satisfied
without queuing. The sum of the number of solicitations
accepted and the number of solicitations rejected equals the
number of queued connection requests that the access
server received.
18-14
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Solicitations Rejected
Number of queued connection requests that the access
server could not process and therefore rejected. The sum of
the number of solicitations accepted and the number of
solicitations rejected equals the number of queued
connection requests that the access server received.
Multiple Node Addresses
Number of times a service node became available with
different Ethernet addresses.
Duplicates Received
Number of LAT messages that the access server received
more than once. This value should be less than 1/1000 of
the value for
Messages Received.
Messages Retransmitted
Number of LAT messages that the access server
retransmitted, because they were not acknowledged by the
service nodes. This value should be less than 1/1000 of the
value for Messages Transmitted.
Illegal Messages Rcv’d
Number of LAT messages with an illegal format received
by the access server. This value should be 0. A service node
transmitting such messages might have a software
problem.
Illegal Slots Rcv’d
Number of LAT messages with an illegal slot format
received by the access server. This value should be 0. A
service node transmitting such messages might have a
software problem.
Illegal Multicasts Rcv’d
Number of illegally formatted multicast messages received
from service nodes. This value should be 0. A service node
transmitting such messages might have a software
problem.
Displaying Access Server Status
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVER STATUS command displays the status of
the access server. The information tells you how well the access server is working
under the current load and also warns you of network trouble or of problems
with ports on the access server. The display also lists current, highest, and
maximum values for software and hardware resources.
If the status is not normal, then the following appears:
Selftest Status: Server:00-00-00 Service:00000
Port:0000000000000000
Software Status: PC=01234567 SP=01234567 SR=2300 M=01234567
18-15
Managing the Access Server
The first line displays the access server software version number and base level,
LAT software version number, ROM version number, and the time that the access
server has been running since the last downline load, expressed as days
hours:minutes:seconds.
Example: SHOW SERVER STATUS Display
The following example shows how to generate an access server status display:
Local> SHOW SERVER STATUS
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM x.x-x Uptime: 0 17:05:57
Address: 08-00-2B-02-F2-BB Name: T_LAT06 Number: 65535
Cur
High
Max
Active Ports
Active Users:
Queue Entries:
Available Services:
Local Services:
Reachable Nodes:
Boot Device: Ethernet:
8
8
0
89
2
75
0
8
8
0
92
2
78
16
16
100
N/A
20
200
Minutes to Shutdown:
Discarded Nodes:
Resource Errors:
Port Framing Errors:
Port Parity Errors:
Port Overrun Errors:
Active Circuits:
Connected Nodes:
Connected Sessions:
% CPU Used:
% Memory Used:
4
3
12
15
36
7
5
20
36
53
32
32
64
100
100
Primary Host:
PEACH
Load Address:AA-00-04-00-46-DC
Dump Address:
None Available
Console User:
None Available
Boot Protocol:
MOP
N/A
0
0
0
0
0
Selftest Status: Normal
Software Status: Normal
Local>
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVER COUNTERS Display Fields
The following table describes the fields and column headings in the access server
status display:
Field
Description
Address
Address Ethernet address of the access server.
Name
Name of the access server. This string can be specified by using the
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NAME command.
Number
Number of the access server. This number can be specified by
using the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NUMBER command.
18-16
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Cur column
Current running value of the resource. If the Max value is lowered
during the Uptime, this value can exceed the Max value for
counters.
High column
Highest value the resource attained, since the access server was
last initialized. The length of time is shown in the Uptime field. If
the Max value is lowered during the Uptime, this value can exceed
the Max value for certain counters.
Max column
Maximum value that the resource can reach, given the physical
restraints or the value specified for a access server characteristic.
Active Ports
Ports that have either interactive sessions or remote access
connections.
Active Users
Ports that have interactive sessions.
Queue Entries
Queued connection requests that are in the access server queue.
Available Services (LAT
protocol only)
Network services that the access server recognizes as being
available to users on the access server. (The information about
these services is stored in access server memory.)
Local Services (LAT
protocol only)
Number of LAT services offered by the access server.
Reachable Nodes (LAT
protocol only)
Computers or other access servers that offer services on the
network and that are reachable for service connections.
Active Circuits
LAT virtual circuits on which the access server has active
connections with service nodes.
Connected Nodes
Service nodes with which the access server has established LAT
virtual circuits.
Connected Sessions
Total number of LAT, Telnet, and SLIP sessions on the access
server.
Total number of LAT, Telnet, and SLIP sessions on the access
server.
% CPU Used
Percentage of processing time the access server used. This value is
calculated every second.
% Memory Used
Percentage of the general memory pool being used.
Minutes to Shutdown
Number of minutes remaining on the initialize timer. If no
INITIALIZE command is in effect, N/A is displayed to indicate
not applicable.
18-17
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Discarded Nodes
Number of nodes that could not be entered into the access server
database, because of the value set for the node limit characteristic
or because of a lack of memory. If this count is nonzero, the access
server might be experiencing resource problems.
The memory used for storing service and node information is
shared with that used for handling multiple sessions and queued
connection requests. If the access server receives information on a
greater number of nodes than specified in the node limit access
server characteristic, it discards that information and increments
the Discarded Nodes counter. However, if the node limit is not
reached but the access server could not find memory to store the
information, it discards the information and increments both the
Resource Errors and the Discarded Nodes counter.
You can either reduce the value of the SESSION LIMIT access
server characteristic, adjust the value of the node limit access
server characteristic, or use Authorized Groups to logically
subdivide the network for use by a discrete set of users.
Resource Errors
Number of times an internal data structure could not be created
due to the lack of system memory.
Port Framing Errors
Sum of bytes received at the access server ports with illegally
formatted data characters. Values other than 0 might indicate a
problem with one of the ports. Use the port counters display to
isolate the port or ports generating the errors accumulated in this
counter.
Port Parity Errors
Sum of bytes received at the access server ports with parity errors.
Values other than 0 might indicate a problem with one of the
ports. Use the port counters display to isolate the port or ports
generating the errors accumulated in this counter. Values other
than 0 might indicate a problem with one of the ports. Use the port
counters display to isolate the port or ports generating the errors
accumulated in this counter.
Port Overrun Errors
Sum of characters lost at the access server ports, because the
access server input buffers were full.
Primary Host
Name or IP address of the host from which the access server was
last loaded.
Load Address
Ethernet address of the node or the gateway from which the access
server was last loaded. Some access servers display all zeroes if a
downline load occurs using BOOTP and TFTP.
Dump Address
Ethernet address of the node or gateway that received the last upline dump. Some access servers display all zeroes if a dump is to
an Internet host.
18-18
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Console User
Address of the node at which the Remote Console Facility (RCF) is
being used to access the access server. The access server indicates
“none available” if the RCF is not in use.
Boot Protocol
This is the protocol used to downline load the software.
Selftest Status
Shows internal information if the result of self-test at the most
recent access server initialization is other than:
Normal: Server: 00-00-00 Service: 00000 Port: 0000000000000000
If a nonfatal error occurs during self-test, the access server
displays information about the error. The following describes the
information that appears in the display: Selftest Status: 00-00-00:
The leftmost two numbers are always 00. The third number is a
hexadecimal representation of a bit map in which a bit set
indicates status as follows:
Bit
1
2
4
8
20
40
80
Each number represents a bit map in which a bit set indicates a
problem with the port.
Bit
1
2
4
Service:00000: This value is a hexadecimal representation of a bit
map in which a bit set indicates which service or services
contained a checksum error.
Bit
1
2
4
8
10
20
40
80
100
200
400
800
1000
18-19
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Selftest Status
(continued)
2000
4000
8000
10000
20000
Selftest Status
(continued)
40000
80000
Port: 0000000000000000: This value is a hexadecimal number that
corresponds to ports 1 to 16 from left to right.
Note: If more than one bit is set in a bit map, the value shown is
the sum of the values for each bit. For example, if the Service
Status value is 18C (hexadecimal), this is the sum of 100, 80, 8, and
4.
Software Status
Display shows internal information if the status displayed is other
than Normal, that is, if a fatal software error occurs. For example:
PC=01234567
SP=01234567
SR=2300
M=01234567
C=217
A status other than Normal indicates that a fatal bugcheck error
has occurred. More information is found in the Cabletron Network
Access Software Problem Solving guide.
Displaying Access Server Summary Information
The LIST/SHOW/MONITOR SERVER SUMMARY command displays the access
server groups you defined.
The first line displays the access server software version number and base level,
LAT software version number, ROM version number, and the time that the access
server has been running since the last downline load, expressed as days
hours:minutes:seconds.
Use this display to determine which group codes the access server recognizes
when it processes service announcement messages from other nodes on the
network. These group codes are the sum of the authorized group codes of the
ports on the access server.
18-20
Managing the Access Server
Example: SHOW SERVER SUMMARY Display
The following example shows how to generate an access server summary display:
Local> SHOW SERVER SUMMARY
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx
Address: 08-00-2B-02-F2-BB
Name: T_LAT06
Identification: Number 6 LAT Server
Server Groups: 0,4,10-20
Local>
Number: 6
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SERVER SUMMARY Display Fields
The following describes the access server summary display fields:
Field
Description
Address
Ethernet address of the access server.
Name
Name of the access server as defined with the
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NAME command.
Number
Number of the access server as defined with the
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NUMBER command.
Identification
An ASCII string describing the access server supplied in
multicast service node announcement messages and issued to
interactive access server users at access server login.
Server Groups
List of assigned groups across all the access server ports. The
group list includes the current groups for every port on the
access server. A group is current for any port if it appears in
this group list. The access server uses this information to filter
incoming multicast messages from other nodes.
18-21
Managing the Access Server
Checking Port Status and Counters
Introduction
The LIST/MONITOR/SHOW PORT command displays information about one or
more ports on the access server. You can obtain characteristics, counter, status,
and summary displays for ports.
Displaying Port Characteristics
The LIST/MONITOR/SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS command displays the
values of the characteristics of the selected ports. The bottom of the display lists
all the enabled port characteristics. Use the characteristics display when you are
changing settings.
The port number n in the display indicates that the port device is connected to
connector JN on the hardware unit. The server name is configured with the SET/
DEFINE/CHANGE SERVER NAME command. The other values can be changed
with the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT command.
Reference
Refer to Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide for
information on each command.
NOTE
18-22
Some access servers have Modem Control instead of Signal Control. Also, Signal
Select is not available on all access servers.
Managing the Access Server
Example: SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS Display
The following example shows how to generate a port characteristics display:
Local> SHOW PORT 1 CHARACTERISTICS
Port 1: Joe Smith
Character Size:
Flow Control:
Parity:
Stop Bits:
Access:
Backwards Switch:
Break:
Forwards Switch:
Default Protocol:
Server:
Servername
8
XON
None
Dynamic
Local
None
Local
None
LAT
Input Speed:
9600
Output Speed:
9600
Signal Control:
Disabled
Signal Select:
CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
Local Switch:
None
Name:
PORT_1
Session Limit:
4
Type:
Ansi
Default Menu:
None
Dialer Script:
None
Preferred Service: TEST Node: PEACH Destination: LTA15
Authorized Groups: 0-10, 20-50, 200-255
(Current) Groups: 0-10, 20-50, 200-255
Enabled Characteristics:
Autobaud, Autoconnect, Autoprompt, Broadcast, DSRlogout, Inactivity
Logout, Input Flow Control, Interrupts, Limited View, Loss
Notification, Message Codes, Multisessions, Output Flow Control, OnDemand Loading, Password, Queuing, Security, Signal Check,
Verification
Local>
Displaying Port Counters
The SHOW/MONITOR PORT COUNTERS command displays the counters
associated with each of the selected ports. Use this command to discover the
source of any problems between the port device and the port. Typically, network
problems can be detected with errors recorded in the access server status display.
The maximum value possible for the port counters is 4, 294, 967, 295. If a counter
reaches that value, it remains at that value until either the counters are set to zero
or the access server is initialized.
Three counters in the port counters display can indicate possible problems. The
access server status display gives values for port framing, parity, and overrun
errors for the access server. Usually Framing Errors, Parity Errors, and Overrun
Errors are zero. If the access server status display indicates nonzero values for any
of these errors, you can use the port counters display to find the port or ports that
are causing the errors.
18-23
Managing the Access Server
Example: SHOW PORT COUNTERS Display
The following example shows how to generate a port counters display:
Local> SHOW PORT 1 COUNTERS
Port 1:
Joe Smith
Server:
Servername
Seconds Since Zeroed: 1182768 Local Accesses:
Framing Errors:
0 Remote Accesses:
Parity Errors:
0 Overrun Errors:
17
0
0
SHOW/MONITOR PORT COUNTERS Display Fields
The following table describes the information in the port counters display:
18-24
Field
Description
Port n
Number n of the port. The text that follows the number of the
port is any associated user name or the name of the port as
established for the port characteristic NAME, if no user name
was supplied.
Server
Specifies a 1- to 16-character name for the access server.
Seconds Since
Zeroed
Number of seconds since the counters were last set to zero.
Framing Errors
Number of bytes received at the port with illegally formatted
frames. If this value accumulates to greater than about 20
errors per day on any one port, you might have port line
problems. Refer to the troubleshooting procedures in the
Network Access Software Problem Solving manual.
Parity Errors
Number of bytes received with parity errors at the port. If this
value accumulates to greater than about 20 errors per day on
any one port, you might have port line problems. Refer to the
troubleshooting procedures in the Network Access Server
Problem Solving manual.
Overrun Errors
Number of characters lost because the access server input
buffers were full. If this value accumulates more than 10
errors daily on any one port, you might have flow control
problems. If the port device supports flow control, ensure that
the access server flow control and the flow control in the
hardware for that device are set the same way. To check the
FLOW CONTROL setting, use the SHOW PORT
CHARACTERISTICS command.
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Local Accesses
Number of times an access server login occurred on the port.
Remote Accesses
Number of times a remote access connection was established
on the port.
Displaying Port Status
The SHOW/MONITOR PORT STATUS command displays information about the
operational condition of the selected port.
Example: SHOW PORT STATUS Display
The following example shows how to generate a port status display:
Local> SHOW PORT 1 STATUS
Port 1:
Access:
Status:
Sessions:
Input XOFFed:
Input Signals:
Joe Smith
Remote
Connected
1 Current
No
DSR RXD
Server:
Current Service:
Current Node:
Port:
Output Signals:
Output XOFFed:
SERVERNAME
TEST
PEACH
LTA15
DTR RTS
Yes
SHOW/MONITOR PORT STATUS Display Fields
The following table discusses information displayed by the PORT STATUS
command:
Field
Description
Port n
Number n of the port. The text that follows the number
of the port is any associated user name or the name of
the port established for the port characteristic NAME, if
no user name was supplied.
Server
Specifies a 1- to 16-character name for the access server.
18-25
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Access
Current setting of the ACCESS port characteristic.
Access determines how a port can access a service node
or how a port can be accessed by other interactive users
and service nodes. Access is shown as one of the
following:
•
Dynamic — Access server allows access on the
port to alternate between local and remote.
•
Local — Access server allows only interactive
use of the port.
•
None — Access server prevents any use of the
port.
•
Remote — Access server allows only remote
connections on the port.
Port access is specified by using the
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT command.
18-26
Managing the Access Server
Field
Description
Status
Current status of the port, which can be one of the
following:
•
Connected — Port is connected to a service.
•
Connecting — Port is attempting a connection
to a service.
•
Disconnected — Session was terminated while
dormant.
•
Disconnecting — Session is disconnecting from
a service.
•
Idle — Port is not in use.
•
Local Mode — Port is logged in to the access
server and is not connected to or connecting to
a service.
•
Locked — LOCK command was executed on
the port.
•
Signal Wait — The port failed to assert the DSR
signal during a signal check controlled
connection attempt.
•
Sessions — Number of active sessions at the
port.
•
Current Service — Active service session or the
service session interrupted when the user last
entered local mode.
Current Node
Node to which the current session is connected. If the
access is remote, this is the name of the node from which
the connection originated.
Current Port
Identification of the port at the service node or at the
requesting node.
Input or Output XOFFed
Status of the data flow for the specified direction for the
port.
Input or Output Signals
Modem signals either currently asserted by the access
server or currently monitored by the access server.
18-27
Managing the Access Server
Displaying Port Summary
The LIST/MONITOR/SHOW PORT SUMMARY command displays one line of
general information for each selected port. The port summary display is useful for
obtaining information about how the ports are being used. This is the default
display for the PORTS ALL entity specification.
Example: SHOW PORT SUMMARY Display
The following example shows how to generate a port summary display:
Local> SHOW PORTS ALL SUMMARY
18-28
Port
Access
Status
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Local
Remote
Dynamic
Local
Remote
Local
Remote
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Local
Connected
Connected
Idle
Local Mode
Connected
Connecting
Disconnected
Idle
Idle
Idle
Idle
Idle
Idle
Idle
Idle
Idle
Services Offered
LA50, PRINTER
HARDCOPY
LA50, PRINTER
TIMESHARING
Managing the Access Server
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PORT SUMMARY Display
Fields
The following table describes the information under the headings in the
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PORT SUMMARY display:
Heading
Description
Port
Number n of the port.
Access
Current setting of the ACCESS port characteristic. Access
determines how a port can access a service node or how a port
can be accessed by other interactive users and by service
nodes. Access is shown by one of the following:
• Dynamic — Access server allows access to the port to
alternate between local and remote.
• Local — Access server allows only interactive use of
the port.
• None — Access server prevents any use of the port.
• Remote — Access server allows only remote
connections on the port. Port access is specified by
using the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT command.
Status
Current status of the port, which can be one of the following:
• Connected — Port is connected to a service.
• Connecting — Port is attempting a connection to a
service.
• Disconnected — Session was terminated while
dormant.
• Disconnecting — Session is disconnecting from a
service.
• Idle — Port is not in use.
• Local Mode — Port is logged in to the access server
and is not connected to or connecting to a service.
• Locked — LOCK command was executed on the port.
• Permanent — Status that appears for the LIST
command.
• Signal Wait — The port failed to assert the DSR signal
during a signal check controlled connection attempt.
Services Offered
The local services that the access server offers on the port.
Host-initiated requests can be made for these services.
18-29
Managing the Access Server
18-30
Chapter 19
Configuring and Managing 3270
Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure and manage the 3270 Terminal Emulator
(TN3270) software for the access server. This software enables ASCII terminals
and PCs to access IBM applications.
The TN3270 software enables an ASCII terminal to emulate an IBM 3278 Display
Station Model 2. The display screen of this model has 80 columns and 24 rows.
The TN3270 software performs the following tasks:
•
Translates the ASCII terminal data stream into the 3270 data stream and
transmits it to the IBM host.
•
Receives the 3270 data stream from the IBM host and translates it into the
ASCII terminal data stream.
The access server uses Telnet over TCP/IP to access applications on IBM hosts.
This chapter assumes a basic understanding of applications for IBM 3270
Information Display Systems and terminal emulation. This chapter also assumes
that the system manager at the host site configures the appropriate TCP/IP
software.
19-1
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Supported ASCII Terminals
Definition
TN3270 supports the following models of DIGITAL ASCII terminals:
•
VT100 with Advanced Video Option
•
VT102
•
VT220, VT240, and VT241
•
VT320, VT330, VT340, and VT341
•
VT420
In the remainder of this chapter, the term ASCII terminal refers to all the models
listed above and any compatible terminal emulation package.
19-2
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Definition and Description of a Keyboard Map
3278 Keyboards
Because the IBM 3278 keyboard differs greatly from those on ASCII terminals,
TN3270 provides keyboard maps. A keyboard map assigns the functions on the
IBM 3270 keyboards to keys or key sequences on the ASCII terminals. For
example, Ctrl/Z on an ASCII keyboard by default maps to the IBM 3270 EXIT
function when you use the VT100 keyboard map.
Server-Specific Keyboard Maps
You can have server-wide keyboard maps that all server ports can access, or you
can set them up on a port-by-port basis. For information on displaying and
customizing keyboard maps, refer to Displaying and Customizing Keyboard
Maps in this chapter.
19-3
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Configuring Basic 3270 Terminal Emulation
Once the IBM system administrator has configured the IBM host with TCP/IP,
you need to do the following:
1. Set up the ASCII terminal.
2. Indicate the model number of the IBM 3270 Information Display Station that a
terminal emulates.
3. Specify the type of ASCII terminal attached to the port.
Once you complete these tasks, you can connect to an IBM application as
described in the Connecting to an IBM Host section in this chapter. These are the
minimal tasks required to configure a port for 3270 emulation. This section
describes these tasks.
Setting Up an ASCII Terminal
To enable an ASCII terminal for 3270 emulation, you need to change the setup
parameters as described below. To change these parameters, use the setup
procedure described in the documentation provided with the terminal.
When you connect to an IBM host or resume a 3270 session, TN3270
automatically:
•
Configures the terminal to:
— Designate the ASCII character set as GO graphics set/invoke GO in GL.
— Position the cursor in column 1 of row 24.
— Set autowrap enabled except for ANSI.
— Set application keypad except for ANSI and VT100.
— Set local echo off except for ANSI, VT100, VT220.
19-4
•
Detects if the cursor keys operate in normal or application mode.
•
Detects 7- or 8-bit controls.
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Terminal Setup Parameters
The following table provides information on terminal setup for the various
DIGITAL terminal models:
Terminal Model
Terminal ModelSetup Parameters
VT100
ANSI mode
AUTO XON/XOFF = ON
VT2xx, VT3xx, V4xx
General:
• VT100 through VT400 mode
• 7-bit or 8-bit controls
Communications:
• XOFF at 64 or 128
• No local echo
Indicating the 3270 Model Number
To enable 3270 emulation on a port, you must specify the 3270 model number as
follows:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 TN3270 MODEL 2
This command enables port 2 to emulate an IBM 3278 Model 2 display station.
When the access server establishes a session to an IBM host, the host negotiates
for an IBM 3278 display station. If the IBM host does not negotiate for an IBM
3278, then the access server defaults to a standard Telnet connection.
To disable 3270 emulation on port 2, enter the following:
Local> CHANGE PORT TN3270 NONE
By default, 3270 emulation is disabled on all ports.
Specifying the Type of ASCII Terminal Used for Emulation
After you indicate the 3270 model number, you need to specify the type of ASCII
terminal. For example, to indicate that a VT220 is attached to port 2, you enter:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 TN3270 TERMINAL VT220
To display the list of terminal types and their associated keyboard maps, enter the
SHOW TN3270 TERMINAL command. The default terminal device is VT100.
19-5
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
IBM Host Communications
Introduction
This section describes IBM host communications with a terminal attached to the
access server.
Connecting to an IBM Host
After you complete the basic configuration of a port for 3270 emulation, you can
use the CONNECT, OPEN, or TELNET commands to access an IBM host. The
following example shows a connection to an IBM host that uses the host’s Internet
address:
Local> CONNECT 195.20.0.15
When the access server connects, follow the prompts that appear on the screen to
log onto the host system.
To display the keyboard map defined for a session, enter the 3270 HELP function.
Entering and Editing Data
TN3270 supports the following data entry and editing features:
•
Unformatted and formatted screens
•
Normal and insert modes
For information about IBM 3270 data entry and editing, refer to the
documentation provided with your IBM application.
Status Line Indicator
The status line indicator is a reverse video strip that displays messages on the
bottom line of the terminal screen during a 3270 session. This indicator emulates
the status line that appears on the bottom line of an IBM 3270 Display Station.
To turn the status line indicator on and off, enter the 3270 STATUS function.
The status line is overwritten when:
19-6
•
The IBM application moves the cursor to the last line on the screen.
•
You enter data on the last line of the screen.
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
The status line is restored when:
•
You use the STATUS function.
•
You send data to the host.
•
The IBM application clears the screen.
Status Line Messages
The following table describes the messages that appear on the status line
indicator:
Message
Description
EXTEND
You have pressed the EXT function.
HIDDEN
The status line is covering some screen data that you have
not yet seen. This indicator turns off when you enable the
status display after viewing the hidden data.
INSERT
The terminal is in insert mode.
INHIB
The application has suspended input from the keyboard.
This condition can occur when:
•
You try to enter data in a protected field.
•
You try to enter the wrong type of data.
O
You are using the numeric lock override function. This
indicator turns off when you enter the NUM OVR function
again.
ONLINE
You are successfully communicating with the IBM host.
X
The IBM system is unavailable for input. For example, the
message X displays after your use the ENTER function to
send data to the IBM host.
7171
You are using 7171 mode to transmit embedded nulls as
spaces.
19-7
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Status Line Indicator Display
Figure 19-1 shows the position of the status line indicator on the screen:
INHIB
LKG-7423-fh8
Figure 19-1. Position of the Status Line Indicator
19-8
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Displaying and Customizing Keyboard Maps
Introduction
Although the default TN3270 keyboard maps are sufficient for most users, some
may want to customize keyboard maps for specific applications. This section
describes the default keyboard maps and the options for displaying and
customizing them.
There are two ways to manage customization of keyboard maps: on a server-wide
basis and a port-by-port basis. Server-wide customization may be preferred
because it addresses multiple users’ needs and makes more efficient use of the
access server NVRAM. The server-wide customization must be set up by the
privileged user, while port-by-port customization can be done by the port user.
Server-Wide Keyboard Maps Customization
Server-wide customization of keyboard maps depends upon the fact that each
keyboard map is associated with a terminal type. The privileged user can create a
new terminal type and associate a new keyboard map with it. Then he or she can
customize the new map, which changes the key assignments that go with IBM
3270 functions.
A port user can then associate a port with the new terminal type. This
automatically sets up the port to use the new keyboard map (see the following
figure).
Figure: Port Access to Server-Wide Keyboard Maps
Default Server-Wide Terminal Types and Keyboard Maps
This section discusses the default server-wide keyboard maps and then explains
how to define and customize new keyboard maps. The Selecting and
Customizing Keyboard Maps for a Port section discusses keyboard maps for
ports.
By default, the access server offers five different terminal types. Each terminal
type is associated with one of two default keyboard maps, VT100 and VT220.
You can display the default terminal types and keyboard maps with the following
command:
Local> SHOW TN3270 TERMINAL
19-9
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Default Server-Wide Terminal Type and Keyboard Maps
The following table shows the default keyboard map and the associated terminal
type:
Predefined Terminal Type
Default Keyboard Map
ANSI
VT100
VT100
VT100
VT220
VT220
VT320
VT220
VT420
VT220
These particular associations between terminal types and keyboard maps are
fixed. You cannot reassign any of the five default terminal types to different
keyboard maps. You cannot customize any of the individual key assignments for
either of the two default keyboard maps on an access server-wide basis. These
default terminal types and keyboard maps are intended for users who do not
need any customization.
You can display the key assignments for the default keyboard map (VT220, in this
example) with this command:
Local> SHOW TN3270 KEYMAP VT220
Defining New Server-Wide Terminal Types and Keyboard Maps
The privileged user can set up new terminal types and keyboard maps; up to six
of each. New terminal types can be associated with one of the default keyboard
maps or with a new keyboard map that has customized individual key
assignments.
The first of the following two commands below creates a new terminal type called
PC_100_DCA and associates it with the default VT100 keyboard map. You might
want to do this, for example, if you have PCs that emulate VT100 terminals. The
key assignments for the PC_100_DCA terminal type would look exactly like those
for the VT100 keyboard map.
The second command reassigns PC_100_DCA to an entirely new keyboard map,
called NEW_KEYS. NEW_KEYS starts out looking like the default VT100
keyboard map until you customize the key assignments (if you choose to do so).
Customizing Server-Wide Keyboard Maps, in this chapter, discusses
customization.
19-10
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
NOTE
You cannot customize the predefined VT100 keyboard map that you set up with
the first command.
Local> CHANGE TN3270 TERMINAL PC_100_DCA KEYMAP VT100
Local> CHANGE TN3270 TERMINAL PC_100_DCA KEYMAP NEW_KEYS
You can carry out a similar process for terminal devices that use the VT220
keyboard map—the other default map.
Local> CHANGE TN3270 TERMINAL PC_220_DCA KEYMAP VT220
Local> CHANGE TN3270 TERMINAL PC_220_DCA KEYMAP NEW_KEYS2
Customizing Server-Wide Keyboard Maps
After executing the CHANGE commands as shown in the Defining New ServerWide Terminal Types and Keyboard Maps section in this chapter, you can
customize the individual keymapping assignments in the new keyboard map
NEW_KEYS. The goal is to have key assignments that fit the needs of the port
users who can select the terminal type that goes with a new keyboard map.
The following command changes the keymapping assignment for the TN3270
function CLEAR. Instead of the default VT100 keymapping EXT ENTER, the
manager assigns the CLEAR function to Ctrl/W.
Local> CHANGE TN3270 KEYMAP NEW_KEYS CLEAR <CTRL/W>
In a display, the customized keymapping assignment is marked with an asterisk
(*).
The privileged user can show the new keymapping with this command:
Local> SHOW TN3270 KEYMAP NEW_KEYS
Rules for Customizing Keyboard Maps
The following rules apply to customizing keyboard maps:
•
You can assign each 3270 function to only one ASCII key sequence.
•
If you attempt to assign a 3720 function to an ASCII key sequence that is
already in use, the access server:
— Issues a warning message.
— Assigns the requested key definition.
— Assigns the 3270 function previously assigned to this sequence to NONE.
19-11
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
•
You cannot assign an ASCII key sequence that is a subset of a key sequence
already assigned to a 3270 function. For example, the assignment of “KPDOT”
to a 3270 function is disallowed if “KPDOT F20” is already assigned to a 3270
function.
Selecting a Server-Wide Terminal Type and Keyboard Map for a Port
A port user who wants to establish a TN3270 session using a server-wide
keyboard map can do the following:
NOTE
19-12
Step
Action
1
Check to see what terminal types (and associated keyboard maps) are
available with the following command:
Local> SHOW TN3270 TERMINAL
Server: LAT_08002B26D0DE
Terminal Keymap
VT100 VT100
VT220 VT220
VT320 VT220
VT420 VT220
ANSI VT1000
PC_100_DCA NEW_KEYS
PC_220_DCA NEW_KEYS2
2
Choose a keyboard map for one of the terminal types (for example,
NEW_KEYS) and check its associated keymapping:
Local> SHOW TN3270 KEYMAP NEW_KEYS
3
If the keymapping is what the users require for TN3270 applications, they set
up the port to use the access server-wide terminal type:
Local> SET PORT TN3270 TERMINAL PC_100_DCA
4
The user can now confirm what terminal type and key assignments TN3270
sessions will use at the port:
Local> SHOW PORT TN3270 CHARACTERISTICS
Local> SHOW PORT TN3270 KEYMAP
The port user has set up the port to use an access server-wide customized set
of keymapping assignments without any added memory or complexity.
Port users cannot customize access server-wide keyboard maps. The port users
can customize only the default keyboard maps. See the Customizing a Default
Keyboard Map for a Port section in this chapter.
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Selecting and Customizing Keyboard Maps for a Port
Server-wide keymapping is the recommended method for customizing users’
TN3270 keymapping assignments. It uses access server memory efficiently and
provides a common customized environment across all TN3270 ports. Port-byport keymapping is also possible, but uses additional access server resources.
A user can set up unique keymapping assignments for use only on his or her port.
Individual port users have the following choices for selecting the keyboard maps
that are most appropriate for their TN3270 applications:
•
Select and use one of the predefined default terminal types and its associated
keyboard map. The predefined terminal types are VT100, VT220, VT320,
VT420, and ANSI.
•
Select one of the predefined default terminal types, and then customize its
keyboard map. Customizing a Default Keyboard Map for a Port discusses this
customization.
•
Select and use one of the server-wide customized terminal types and its
keyboard map. These terminal types have been defined and customized for all
ports by the server manager. The users cannot customize the keymaps
associated with these terminal types on a port-by-port basis.
The following sections discuss these options.
Selecting a Default Terminal Type and Keyboard Map for a Port
A port user can forego access to any server-wide keymappings that may be
available. Instead the user can choose the default terminal types and keyboard
maps.
Reference
For a printed copy of these keyboard maps, refer to the Cabletron Network Access
Software Command Reference guide.
Keyboard Map and Terminal Type
The following table lists the two default keyboard maps and their associated
terminal devices:
Predefined Terminal Device
Associated Keyboard Map
VT100, ANSI
VT100
All ASCII terminals other than the VT100
VT220
19-13
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
You can list the defaults with this command:
Local> SHOW TN3270 KEYMAP "KEYMAPNAME"
The defaults are shown in the Default Server-Wide Terminal Type and Keyboard
Maps and the Keyboard Map and Terminal Type.
You can display the keyboard mappings associated with a default keyboard map
(VT220 in this example, for a VT420 port device) with this command:
Local> SHOW TN3270 KEYMAP VT220
If this keymapping is the best choice for the port user, you can set up the port to
use the VT420 terminal type, which is associated with the VT220 keyboard map.
Execute the following command to choose the VT220 keyboard map for port 2:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 TN3270 TERMINAL VT420
The user can now confirm the terminal type and keyboard mapping assignments:
Local> SHOW PORT 2 TN3270 CHARACTERISTICS
Local> SHOW PORT 2 TN3270 KEYMAP
Customizing a Default Keyboard Map for a Port
As a port user, you can customize any of the key definitions on the default
keyboard map to suit your keyboard. For example, the following command
defines the ASCII code for the IBM 3270 NEWLINE function:
Local> CHANGE PORT TN3270 KEYMAP NEWLINE <Ctrl/J>
In this example, the ASCII sequence Ctrl/J maps to the NEWLINE function.
See the Rules for Customizing Keyboard Maps section in this chapter for rules
about customizing keyboard maps.
To display a customized keyboard map for a port, use the SHOW PORT TN3270
KEYMAP command.
For each IBM 3270 function, a given keyboard map definition indicates:
19-14
•
The defined mnemonics for the ASCII codes that the access server associates
with each IBM 3270 function
•
An optional text description of the keystrokes used to produce the ASCII codes
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Example: SHOW PORT TN3270 KEYMAP Command
The following example shows a partial display of a keymap:
Local> SHOW PORT 2 TN3270 KEYMAP
Port 1: john
3270 function
ASCII
Keystroke
CLEAR
mnemonic
F12
description
“Alt F2”
.
.
.
19-15
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
ASCII-to-EBCDIC and EBCDIC-to-ASCII Translation
Tables
Commands
The following table lists and describes the commands that enable you to display
and modify the ASCII-to-EBCDIC and EBCDIC-to-ASCII translation tables. These
tables use ASCII codes 0 to 255.
When you display or change a given translation, you must enter the codes in
hexadecimal format. Any changes to the translation tables take effect in new
sessions on the access server, but do not affect current sessions.
19-16
Command
Enables You to Display and Modify
SHOW/SET TN3270 ATOE
The ASCII-to-EBCDIC translation table.
SHOW/SET TN3270 ETOA
The EBCDIC-to-ASCII translation table.
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Guidelines for Managing the Use of NVRAM for
TN3270
Introduction
There is a pool of approximately 2.5 KB of shared NVRAM for the customization
of the following TN3270 characteristics:
•
Keyboard maps for the ports
•
ASCII-to-EBCDIC and EBCDIC-to-ASCII translation tables
This section provides guidelines on managing the available memory pool.
Storage Requirements for TN3270 Definitions in NVRAM
The following table lists the TN3270 storage requirements for TN3270 definitions
in NVRAM:
Definition Description
Storage Requirements
Keyboard map definition for a port
8 bytes
Optional description text for a port
8 bytes for increments of 7 bytes of text
Each ASCII-to-EBCDIC and
EBCDIC-to-ASCII customized translation
8 bytes
TN3270 Commands That Free NVRAM Space
The following table lists the commands used to free NVRAM space:
Command
Frees NVRAM Space Used By
DEFINE [PORT] TN3270 KEYMAP
3270-Function DEFAULT
The ASCII mnemonic and key sequence
definition for the specified 3270
function.
DEFINE [PORT] TN3270 KEYMAP ALL
DEFAULT
All customized keyboard maps.
19-17
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Command
Frees NVRAM Space Used By
DEFINE TN3270 ETOA E-CODE
A-CODE DEFAULT
The specified EBCDIC-to-ASCII
translation.
DEFINE TN3270 ATOE A-CODE
E-CODE DEFAULT
The specified ASCII-to-EBCDIC
translation.
Limiting NVRAM Usage
To limit the number of NVRAM keyboard maps that the port user can customize,
use the command shown in the following example:
Local> DEFINE PORT TN3270 NVRAM LIMIT 5
The default limit is 0.
19-18
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
Commands to Manage TN3270 Terminal Emulation
Introduction
This section summarizes the commands to manage 3270 emulation.
Reference
For a complete description of these commands and the correct syntax, refer to the
Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide.
TN3270 Access Server Characteristics
The following table summarizes the TN3270 commands that configure access
server characteristics:
Command
Description
Default
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
TN3270 ATOE
Changes the ASCII-toEBCDIC translation for
the code specified.
For the default ASCII-toEBCDIC translation table,
refer to the Cabletron
Network Access Software
Command Reference. guide
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
TN3270 ETOA
Changes the EBCDIC-toASCII translation for the
code specified.
For the default EBCDICto-ASCII translation table,
refer to theCabletron
Network Access Software
Command Reference guide
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
TN3270 TERMINAL
Creates an access serverwide customized TN3270
terminal or renames an
existing keymap for a
terminal.
For the default KEYMAP,
refer to the Cabletron
Network Access Software
Command Reference.
CLEAR/PURGE TN3270
TERMINAL
Clears dynamic or
permanent memory of a
customized 3270 terminal.
None
SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
TN3270 KEYMAP
Customizes keymappings
for an existing access
server-wide keymap.
None
19-19
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
TN3270 Port Characteristics
The following table provides information on port characteristics and their
defaults:
SET/DEFINE/
CHANGE
PORT TN3270
19-20
Description
Default
MODEL
Specifies the model of IBM 3270
Information Display Station the
ASCII terminal emulates.
NONE
Nonprivileged
TERMINAL
Indicates the type of ASCII
terminal and associated keymap
attached to the port.
VT100 Nonprivileged
KEYMAP
Enables you to change a definition
in the keyboard map.
-
KEYMAP
NVRAM LIMIT
Specifies the number of keyboard
maps in NVRAM that the
nonprivileged user is allowed to
define.
0
Privileged
NULLS
Determines how TN3270 treats the
transmission of null characters to
the host.
3179
Nonprivileged
FLOW CONTROL
Allows you to enable and disable
input and output flow control for
the port.
Enabled
Secure
SWITCH
CHARACTER
Controls whether the port detects
port local, forward, or backward
switch characters for a session.
Enabled
Secure
Verification
Specifies whether the access server
displays messages when you
connect, disconnect, or switch
sessions.
Enabled
Secure
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
SHOW Commands
The following table provides information on the SHOW Commands for port
characteristics:
SHOW
Description
PORT TN3270 KEYMAP
The TN3270 keyboard map for a specified port.
PORT TN3270
CHARACTERISTICS
The TN3270 port characteristics for a specified port.
TN3270 ATOE
The ASCII-to-EBCDIC translation table.
TN3270 ETOA
The EBCDIC-to-ASCII translation table.
TN3270 TERMINAL
The terminal types available on the access server and
their associated keyboard maps.
TN3270 KEYMAP
The keymap assignments associated with a specified
keymap.
PORT SESSION TN3270
KEYMAP
All keyboard maps for all sessions on the specified
port.
PORT SESSION
CHARACTERISTICS
The TN3270 characteristics for all sessions on the
specified port.
PORT SESSION STATUS
The status for all sessions on the specified port.
19-21
Configuring and Managing 3270 Terminal Emulation (TN3270)
19-22
Chapter 20
Configuring and Managing Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP) Ports
Overview
Introduction
This chapter explains how to configure and manage access server ports for use
with PCs and computers acting as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) hosts. A PPP host
uses PPP as its data link over low-speed asynchronous serial lines.
Prerequisites
Before you use the procedures in this chapter, you must:
•
Ensure that the devices support PPP.
•
Connect and test the devices.
•
Configure the port and device characteristics to match.
For information about device cables, refer to the access server hardware
documentation.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Enabling PPP on an Access Server Port
•
Establishing and Ending a PPP Session
•
Displaying PPP Characteristics
20-1
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
20-2
•
Displaying PPP Status
•
Displaying PPP Counters
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Enabling PPP on an Access Server Port
Introduction
To check if PPP is enabled on a given port, use the SHOW PORT command. When
enabled, the keyword PPP displays in the list of enabled characteristics at the
bottom of the screen.
The section provides examples of enabling PPP on an access server port.
Enabling PPP for Mixed Traffic
For basic operation of PPP, the only required commands are:
•
DEFINE PORT MULTISESSIONS DISABLED
•
DEFINE PORT PPP ENABLED
Example: Enabling PPP for Mixed Traffic
The following example shows a series of commands used to configure a port to
support mixed character-cell and PPP traffic.
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
ACCESS LOCAL AUTOBAUD ENABLED AUTOCONNECT DISABLED
BREAK LOCAL DEFAULT PROTOCOL PPP DSRLOGOUT ENABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED MULTISESSIONS DISABLED
PREFERRED NONE SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
PPP ENABLED
PPP IPCP HOST ADDRESS 1.2.3.4
20-3
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Enabling Dedicated PPP Traffic
The following example shows a series of commands used to dedicate a port to
PPP.
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
ACCESS LOCAL AUTOBAUD DISABLED
AUTOCONNECT ENABLED BREAK DISABLED DEDICATED PPP
DEFAULT PROTOCOL PPP DSRLOGOUT ENABLED
DTRWAIT ENABLED INACTIVITY LOGOUT DISABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED MULTISESSIONS DISABLED
PREFERRED NONE SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
SIGNAL CONTROL DISABLED
PPP ENABLED
PPP IPCP HOST ADDRESS 1.2.3.4
Enabling Ports with Modems for PPP
The following example shows a series of commands used to dedicate a port with
an attached modem to PPP.
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
20-4
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
ACCESS LOCAL ALTERNATE SPEED NONE
AUTOBAUD ENABLED AUTOCONNECT DISABLED
BREAK DISABLED DEDICATED PPP DEFAULT PROTOCOL PPP
DSRLOGOUT DISABLED DTRWAIT DISABLED
FLOW CONTROL CTS INACTIVITY LOGOUT DISABLED
INTERRUPTS DISABLED MULTISESSIONS DISABLED
PREFERRED NONE SIGNAL CHECK DISABLED
SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED SPEED 2400
PPP IPCP HOST ADDRESS 1.2.3.4
PPP ENABLED
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Establishing and Ending a PPP Session
Using the CONNECT PPP Command
If PPP is configured, you can start a PPP session on a port by entering the
following secure command:
Local> CONNECT PPP
You can stop a PPP session by:
•
Logging out of the port
•
Generating a BREAK to the access server if the login is interactive, followed by
the DISCONNECT command causing the peer to negotiate an end to the link
The exact mechanism for causing a peer to negotiate the end of a link depends on
the PPP package used on the access server peer.
20-5
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Displaying PPP Characteristics
Introduction
This section describes the commands used to display characteristics for LCP,
IPCP, and ATCP.
Displaying LCP Characteristics
Use the SHOW PORT n PPP LCP CHARACTERISTICS command to display LCP
characteristics for a port. This command is nonprivileged. The fields shown in the
LCP display show the latest values configured by the SET PORT n PPP LCP
characteristic commands. Use the SHOW/MONITOR PORT n PPP LCP STATUS
command to see the values actually used on the link.
Example: Displaying LCP Characteristics
The following example shows the command to display the LCP configuration for
port 5.
Local> SHOW PORT 5 PPP LCP CHARACTERISTICS
Port 5:
Server: LAT_08002B26D0E7
LCP Characteristics:
LCP:
Restart Timer:
Max Configure:
Max Terminate:
Max Failure:
LCP Options:
MRU:
Character Map:
Link Quality:
Magic Number:
PF Compress:
ACF Compress:
FCS Size:
Callback
20-6
Enabled Passive Open:
Disabled
3 seconds
10 transmissions
2 transmissions
10 transmissions
Local:
1500
FFFFFFFF
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
16 Bit
Disabled
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Fields in the LCP Characteristics Display
The following table explains the fields in the LCP characteristics display.
Field
Description
Values
Default
LCP
Indicates if LCP is enabled.
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Passive Open
When enabled, LCP negotiation does not begin
until initiated by the attached device.
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Restart Timer
Indicates the amount of time between LCP
configure- or terminate-request retransmissions
when there is no response.
1 to 5
attempts
3
Max Configure
The number of times that LCP sends a
configure-request packet to the peer without
receiving an acknowledgment.
1 to 15
attempts
10
Max Terminate
The number of times that LCP sends a
terminate-request packet to the peer without
receiving an acknowledgment.
1 to 15
attempts
2
Max Failure
The number of times that LCP sends a negative
acknowledgment for the peer’s proposed
options before deciding to reject the options.
1 to 15
seconds
10
MRU
The current MRU value.
64 to 1500
1500
Character Map
The current character map.
0 to
FFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFF
Authentication
The current authentication configuration.
Disabled,
PAP, CHAP
Disabled
Link Quality*
The current link quality.
Disabled
Disabled
Magic Number*
The current magic number.
Disabled
Disabled
PF Compress
Indicates if the access server negotiates to allow
its peer to omit the extra protocol field byte from
packets sent over the link.
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
ACF Compress
Indicates if the access server negotiates to allow
its peer to omit the HDLC address and control
fields from packets sent over the link.
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
FCS Size*
The size of the FCS that the access sever is
configured to negotiate.
16-bit
16-bit
Callback**
Indicates that the access server negotiates to
request a call-back.
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
20-7
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
*FCS Size has a fixed value in this software release.
NOTES
** If you enable PPP call-back negotiation on a port, it is strongly recommended
you also enable some sort of authentication (PAP, CHAP, etc.) on the port.
Without authentication, any user who happens to discover the phone number for
that port’s modem could potentially request a call-back and run up unlimited
phone charges. To enable authentication on a port, refer to Chapter 22.
Displaying IPCP Characteristics
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PPP IPCP CHARACTERISTICS command
displays the IPCP configuration for a given port. The fields in the display show
the latest values configured by the SET PORT n PPP IPCP characteristic
commands. Use the SHOW/MONITOR PORT n PPP IPCP STATUS command to
see the values actually used on the link.
Example: IPCP Characteristics Display
The following example shows a sample IPCP characteristics display.
Local> SHOW PORT 5 PPP IPCP CHARACTERISTICS
IPCP Characteristics:
IPCP:
Disabled
Passive Open:
Disabled
Restart Timer:
3 seconds
Max Configure:
10 transmissions
Max Terminate:
2 transmissions
Max Failure:
10 transmissions
IPCP Options: Local:
Negotiate Address: Disabled
Remote IP Address: 0.0.0.0
Compress Header: Disabled
Compress States: 16
IPCP Characteristics Display Fields
The following table explains the fields in the IPCP characteristics display.
Field
Description
Values
Default
IPCP
Indicates if IPCP is enabled.
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Passive Open1
When enabled, IPCP negotiation does not begin
until initiated by the attached device.
Disabled
Disabled
20-8
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Field
Description
Values
Default
Restart Timer
Indicates the amount of time between IPCP
configure- or terminate-request retransmissions
when there is no response.
1 to 5
seconds
3
Max Configure
The number of times that IPCP sends a
configure- request packet to the peer without
receiving an acknowledgment.
1 to 15
attempts
10
Max Terminate
The number of times that LCP sends a
terminate-request packet to the peer without
receiving an acknowledgment.
1 to 15
attempts
2
Max Failure
The number of times that IPCP sends a negative
acknowledgment for the peer’s proposed
options before deciding to reject the options.
1 to 15
attempts
10
Negotiate
Address
Indicates if IP address negotiation is enabled for
this link.
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Remote IP
Address
Indicates the address that the access server
should negotiate to use for the peer and the
source of the port’s remote IP address.
Compress
Header
Indicates that TCP/IP header compression is to
be used.
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Compress States
Indicates the maximum number of TCP/IP
sessions that can be compressed at any given
time.
4 to 16
16
1
0.0.0.0
This field has a fixed value in this software release.
ATCP Characteristics
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR PPP ATCP CHARACTERISTICS command
displays the ATCP configuration for a given port. The fields in the display show
the latest values configured by the SET PORT n PPP ATCP characteristic
commands. Use the SHOW/MONITOR PORT n PPP ATCP STATUS command to
see the values actually used on the link.
20-9
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Example: ATCP Characteristics Display
The following example shows a sample ATCP characteristics display:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 PPP ATCP CHARACTERISTICS
Port 5:
Server: LAT_08002B26AA94
ATCP Characteristics:
ATCP:
Restart Timer:
Max Configure:
Max Terminate:
Max Failure:
Enabled
Passive Open:
3 seconds
10 transmissions
2 transmissions
10 transmissions
Enabled
ATCP Characteristics Display Field Values
The following table explains the fields in the ATCP characteristics display:
Field
Description
Values
Default
ATCP
Indicates if ATCP is enabled.
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Passive Open 1
When enabled, ATCP negotiation does not
begin until initiated by the attached device.
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Restart Timer
Indicates the amount of time between ATCP
configure- or terminate-request retransmissions
when there is no response.
1 to 5
seconds
3
Max Configure
The number of times that ATCP sends a
configure-request packet to the peer without
receiving an acknowledgment.
1 to 15
attempts
10
Max Terminate
The number of times that ATCP sends a
terminate-request packet to the peer without
receiving an acknowledgment.
1 to 15
attempts
2
Max Failure
The number of times that ATCP sends a
negative acknowledgment for the peer’s
proposed options before deciding to reject the
options.
1 to 15
attempts
10
1
20-10
This field has a fixed value in this software release.
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Displaying PPP Status
Introduction
This section describes how to display the PPP LCP and IPCP status.
Displaying LCP Status
Use the SHOW PORT n LCP STATUS command to display LCP characteristics.
This command is nonprivileged. This command shows the actual state of the LCP
implementation on the access server. Because of the nature of PPP negotiations,
the display can differ from the configured characteristics shown on the SHOW
PORT n PPP LCP CHARACTERISTICS display.
The display fields fall into two categories:
•
General link status (LCP Status section)
•
Status of the LCP options (LCP Options section)
Example: LCP Status Display
The following example shows the LCP status display for port 5:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 PPP LCP STATUS
Port 5:
LCP Status:
State:
Negotiation Time:
Since Open:
Failure Reason:
Authentication:
Server: LAT_08002B26D0E7
Initial
0 00:00:00
0 00:00:00
None
Initial
LCP Options:
Local:
MRU:
Character Map
Authentication:
Link Quality:
Magic Number:
PF Compress:
ACF Compress:
FCS Size:
Callback:
1500
FFFFFFFF
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
16 Bit
Disabled
Remote:
1500
FFFFFFFF
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
16 Bit
Enabled
20-11
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Fields in the LCP Status Display
The following table describes the fields in the LCP status display:
Field
Description
State
The LCP state as defined in RFC 1331.
Negotiation Time
The number of seconds required by the PPP negotiation
procedure the last time LCP renegotiated.
Since Open
The number of seconds since LCP last attempted to negotiate
the link.
Failure Reason
Provides a brief reason if LCP cannot complete negotiations.
MRU
Maximum Receive Unit. Indicates the largest number of
characters each peer would like to receive in a packet.
Character Map
Specifies which characters require special encapsulation or
“byte stuffing.”
Authentication
Indicates whether authentication is required. PAP is supported
for this release.
Link Quality
The link quality is disabled in this release.
Magic Number
Local — Indicates if the access server has negotiated to respond
to magic numbers from the peer. These numbers can be used to
detect loopback. The local magic number is disabled in this
release.
Remote — Indicates if the peer has negotiated to respond to
magic numbers from the access server. The remote magic
number is disabled in this release.
PF Compress
Indicates whether Protocol Field compression has been
negotiated.
ACF Compress
Indicates whether Address and Control Field compression has
been negotiated.
FCS Size
Always 16-bit CRC.
Callback
Indicates that call-back has been negotiated.
Displaying IPCP Status
Use the SHOW PORT n PPP IPCP STATUS command to display IPCP status. This
command shows the actual state of the IPCP implementation in the access server.
20-12
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Because of the nature of PPP negotiations, this display can differ from the
configured characteristics shown on the SHOW PORT n PPP IPCP
CHARACTERISTICS display.
The display fields in fall into two categories:
•
General IP status over the link (IPCP Status section)
•
Status of each IPCP option (IPCP Options section)
Example: IPCP Status Display
The following example shows the IPCP status display for port 5:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 PPP IPCP STATUS
Port 5:
IPCP Status:
State:
Negotiation Time:
Since Open:
Failure Reason:
Server: LAT_08002B26D0E7
Initial
0 00:00:00
0 00:00:00
None
IPCP Options:
Negotiate Address:
IP Address:
Compress Header:
Compress States:
Local:
Remote:
Disabled
0.0.0.0
Disabled
0
Disabled
0.0.0.0
Disabled
0
Fields in the IPCP Status Display
The following table explains the fields in the IPCP status display:
Field
Description
State
The IPCP state as defined in RFC 1331. The possible states are
Initial, Starting, Closed, Stopped, Closing, Stopping, Req Sent,
Ack-Rcvd, Ack-Sent, Opened, and DHCP Req. DHCP Req
(which is not part of RFC 1331) indicates the negotiations are
waiting for DHCP to assign an IP address.
Negotiation Time
The number of seconds required by the PPP negotiation
procedure the last time IPCP negotiated.
Since Open
The number of seconds since IPCP last attempted to negotiate IP
over the link.
Failure Reason
Provides a brief reason if IPCP cannot negotiate IP over the link.
20-13
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Field
Description
Negotiate Address
Indicates if address negotiation should take place. This
characteristic is disabled in this release.
IP Address
Local — The IP address that the access server is using for itself
on the link. This value is the address used with the access
server’s own Ethernet.
Remote — The value that the access server is using to identify
the peer on the link.
Compress Header
Indicates whether compression is turned on.
Compress States
Indicates the maximum number of TCP/IP connections that can
be compressed at any time.
Displaying ATCP Status
Use the SHOW PORT n PPP ATCP STATUS command to display ATCP status.
The
This command shows the actual state of the ATCP implementation in the access
server. Because of the nature of PPP negotiations, this display can differ from the
configured characteristics shown on the SHOW PORT n PPP ATCP
CHARACTERISTICS display.
The display fields in fall into two categories:
20-14
•
General ATCP status over the link (ATCP Status section)
•
Status of each ATCP option (ATCP Options section)
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Example: ATCP Status Display
The following example shows the ATCP status display on port 5:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 PPP ATCP STATUS
Port 5:
Server: LAT_08002B26AA94
ATCP Status:
State:
Negotiation Time:
Since Open:
Failure Reason:
ATCP Options:
Appletalk Address:
Routing Protocol:
Suppress B_Cast:
Compression:
Connect Time:
Server Info:
Default Router:
Zone Info:
Opened
0 00:00:10
0 00:08:10
None
Local:
401.20
RTMP
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
401.249
Remote:
401.12
RTMP
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
0.0
LKG Littleton MA
Fields in the ATCP Status Display
The following table explains the fields in the ATCP status display:
Field
Description
State
The ATCP state as defined in RFC 1331. The possible states are
Initial, Starting, Closed, Stopped, Closing, Stopping, Req Sent,
Ack-Rcvd, Ack-Sent, and Opened.
Negotiation Time
The number of seconds required by the PPP negotiation
procedure the last time ATCP negotiated.
Since Open
The number of seconds since ATCP last attempted to negotiate
IP over the link.
Failure Reason
Provides a brief reason if ATCP cannot negotiate IP over the
link.
ATCP Options:
Local — Refers to the access server.
Remote — Refers to the attached PPP hosts.
AppleTalk Address
The access server Appletalk address and the AppleTalk address
that the access server has acquired and assigned to the attached
host.
20-15
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
20-16
Field
Description
Routing Protocol
The type of routing protocol information that may be sent across
the link.
Suppress B_Cast
Indicates whether broadcasts are suppressed.
Compression
Indicates whether compression is being used on AppleTalk
packets.
Connect Time
Indicates whether connect time information is passed.
Server Info
Indicates whether server information is passed.
Default Router
The current AppleTalk router that the access server and client
are using.
Zone Info
The zone in which the access server and client reside.
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Displaying PPP Counters
Introduction
The section describes PPP counters.
Displaying LCP Counters
Use the SHOW PORT n LCP COUNTERS command to display LCP counters for a
port. The display shows all the counters relevant to LCP protocol operation. Most
of this information is useful as a diagnostic aid. The CONNECT or
DISCONNECT command zeroes each of the counters.
Example: Commands to Display LCP Counters
The following example shows the command to display LCP counters for port 5:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 LCP COUNTERS
Port 5:
Server:
LAT_08002B26D0E7
LCP Counters:
Negotiation Successes:
Negotiation Failures:
Configures in:
Acks in:
Naks in:
Rejects in:
Terminates in:
Term Acks in:
Code Rejects in:
Echo Reqs in:
Echo Resps in:
Prot Rejects in:
Discards in:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Configures out:
Acks out:
Naks out:
Rejects out:
Terminates out:
Term Acks out:
Code Rejects out:
Echo Reqs out:
Echo Resps out:
Prot Rejects out:
Discards out:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20-17
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Fields in the LCP Counters Display
The following table describes the fields in the LCP counters display:
20-18
Field
Description
Negotiation
Successes
The number of times that LCP successfully entered a round of
negotiations since the link was brought up. Ordinarily, this
counter is 1. However, you can reconfigure LCP and then cause
LCP to renegotiate This changes the performance characteristics
for the link.
Negotiation
Failures
The number of times that LCP tried to negotiate the link, but
failed.
Configures in
The number of LCP configure-requests received from the peer.
Configures out
The number of LCP configure-requests sent to the peer from the
access server.
Acks in
The number of LCP configure-acks received from the peer.
Acks out
The number of LCP configure-acks sent to the peer from the
access server.
Naks in
The number of LCP configure-naks received from the peer.
Naks out
The number of LCP configure-naks sent to the peer from the
access server. This counter should always be zero in this release.
Rejects in
The number of LCP configure-rejects received from the peer.
Rejects out
The number of LCP configure-rejects sent to the peer from the
access server.
Terminates in
The number of LCP terminate-requests received from the peer.
Terminates out
The number of LCP terminate-requests sent to the peer from the
access server.
Term Acks in
The number of LCP terminate-acks received from the peer.
Term Acks out
The number of LCP terminate-acks sent to the peer from the
access server.
Code Rejects in
The number of LCP code-rejects received from the peer.
Code Rejects out
The number of LCP code-rejects sent to the peer from the access
server.
Echo Reqs in
The number of LCP echo-requests received from the peer.
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Field
Description
Echo Reqs out
The number of LCP echo-requests sent to the peer from the
access server. This number should always be zero in this
version.
Echo Resps in
The number of LCP echo-replies received from the peer.
Echo Resps out
The number of LCP echo-replies sent to the peer from the access
server.
Prot Rejects in
The number of LCP protocol-rejects received from the peer.
Prot Rejects out
The number of LCP protocol-rejects sent to the peer from the
access server.
Discards in
The number of LCP discard packets received from the peer. A
discard packet is the PPP equivalent of a “no op” instruction.
Discards out
The number of LCP discard packets sent to the peer from the
access server. This number should always be zero in this
version.
Displaying IPCP Counters
Use the SHOW PORT n IPCP command to display the IPCP counters for a port.
This command requires no privileges. The display shows all the counters relevant
to IPCP protocol operation. Most of this information is useful as a diagnostic aid.
The CONNECT or DISCONNECT command zeroes each of these counters.
Example: Command to Display the IPCP Counters
The following example shows how to display the IPCP counters for port 5:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 IPCP COUNTERS
Port 5:
Server:
LAT_08002B26D0E7
IPCP Counters:
Negotiation Successes:
Negotiation Failures:
Configures in:
Acks in:
Naks in:
Rejects in:
Terminates in:
Term Acks in:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Configures out:
Acks out:
Naks out:
Rejects out:
Terminates out:
Term Acks out:
0
0
0
0
0
0
20-19
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Fields in the IPCP Counters Display
The following table describes the fields in the IPCP counters display:
20-20
Field
Description
Negotiation
Successes
The number of times that IPCP has successfully entered a round
of negotiations to bring up IP since the link was brought up.
Ordinarily the value of this counter is 1. However, you can
reconfigure IPCP and then cause IPCP to renegotiate. This
changes the performance characteristics for the link.
Negotiation
Failures
The number of times that IPCP tried to negotiate the link, but
failed.
Configures in
This is the number of IPCP configure-requests received from the
peer.
Configures out
The number of IPCP configure-requests sent to the peer from the
access server.
Acks in
The number of IPCP configure-acks received from the peer.
Acks out
The number of IPCP configure-acks sent to the peer from the
access server.
Naks in
The number of IPCP configure-naks received from the peer.
Naks out
The number of IPCP configure-naks sent to the peer from the
access server. This counter should always be zero in this release.
Rejects in
The number of IPCP configure-rejects received from the peer.
Reject outs
The number of IPCP configure-rejects sent to the peer from the
access server.
Terminates in
The number of IPCP terminate-requests received from the peer.
Terminates out
The number of IPCP terminate-requests sent to the peer from the
access server.
Term Acks in
The number of IPCP terminate-acks received from the peer.
Term Acks out
The number of IPCP terminate-acks sent to the peer from the
access server.
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
Displaying ATCP Counters
Use the SHOW PORT n ATCP Counters command to display ATCP counters for a
port. This command requires no privileges. The counters display shows all the
counters relevant to ATCP protocol operation. Most of this information is useful
as a diagnostic aid. The CONNECT or DISCONNECT command zeroes each of
these counters.
Example: Command to Display the ATCP Counters
The following example shows how to display the ATCP counters:
Local> SHOW PORT 5 ATCP COUNTERS
Port 5:
Server:
LAT_08002B26AA94
ATCP Counters:
Negotiation Successes:
Negotiation Failures:
Configures in:
8
Acks in:
6
Naks in:
0
Rejects in:
6
Terminates in:
0
Term Acks in:
0
0
0
Configures out:
Acks out:
Naks out:
Rejects out:
Terminates out:
Term Acks out:
12
6
1
1
0
0
Fields in the ATCP Counters Display
The following table describes the fields in the ATCP counters display:
Field
Description
Negotiation
Successes
The number of times that ATCP has successfully entered a round
of negotiations to bring up AppleTalk since the link was brought
up. Ordinarily the value of this counter is 1. However, you can
reconfigure ATCP and then cause ATCP to renegotiate. This
changes the performance characteristics for the link.
Negotiation
Failures
The number of times that ATCP tried to negotiate the link, but
failed.
Configures in
This is the number of ATCP configure-requests received from the
peer.
Configures out
The number of ATCP configure-requests sent to the peer from the
access server.
Acks in
The number of ATCP configure-acks received from the peer.
20-21
Configuring and Managing Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Ports
20-22
Field
Description
Acks out
The number of ATCP configure-acks sent to the peer from the
access server.
Naks in
The number of ATCP configure-naks received from the peer.
Naks out
The number of ATCP configure-naks sent to the peer from the
access server. This counter should always be zero in this release.
Rejects in
The number of ATCP configure-rejects received from the peer.
Rejects out
The number of ATCP configure-rejects sent to the peer from the
access server.
Terminates in
The number of ATCP terminate-requests received from the peer.
Terminates out
The number of ATCP terminate-requests sent to the peer from the
access server.
Term Acks in
The number of ATCP terminate-acks received from the peer.
Term Acks out
The number of ATCP terminate-acks sent to the peer from the
access server.
Chapter 21
Managing IPX
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes how to configure and manage IPX on an access server.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
IPX Description
•
Getting Started
•
Hardware and Software Requirements
•
Setting Up Your PC
•
Setting Up the Network Access Server
•
Summary of DECserver IPX Management Commands
•
Modem Considerations
•
Novell Client/Server Operation
•
Operational Checkout and Diagnosis
•
Disabling IPX
•
Frame Types
•
Displaying IPX Characteristics
•
Displaying IPX Status
21-1
Managing IPX
21-2
•
Displaying IPX Counters
•
Displaying IPX Routes
•
Resetting Counters
Managing IPX
IPX Description
Introduction
The purpose of IPX is to allow Novell NetWare clients to dial in to (or directly
attach to) the network access server via asynchronous lines. Each remotely
connected Novell client looks and acts as if it was directly connected to the LAN.
The network access software provides PPP/IPXCP as the underlying data link on
the asynchronous lines. This allows multiprotocol support (IP/IPX/AppleTalk)
over the same asynchronous lines simultaneously.
Access Server Configuration
The access server can be set up to provide access for remote PC users to dial in
over standard telephone lines to establish an IPX connection to a Novell network.
The remote PC can access network resources such as file servers, printers, and
electronic mail. Once connected, the PC becomes a remote node on the network.
The access server facilitates IPX client-server communications between PC and
NetWare file servers over the standard telephone line.
The remote node service provides the same functions and features to remote PCs
as locally connected LAN users. The main difference between the remote node
connection and a local connection using Ethernet is the data transfer speed.
However, dial-in connections that use high-speed modems provide excellent
performance.
The PC gains access to the IPX network through the access server by using any
third-party remote node access software that supports the point-to-point protocol
(PPP) for IPX. The remote access software must also facilitate the use of Novell
NetWare workstation software, which is used to communicate with the Novell
network over the dial-up connection.
By default, the access server will simultaneously communicate with all four frame
types on the LAN: Ethernet II, 802.2 SAP, 802.2 SNAP, and Novell 802.3. When
IPX is enabled on the access server, the network addresses for all four types will
automatically be learned.
21-3
Managing IPX
Login Procedures
One or more serial ports of the access server can be configured for Novell dial-up
access. Depending on your requirements, different login procedures for IPX can
be configured including:
21-4
•
The remote PC user can choose to activate a connection to the Novell network
after login to the access server local user interface. This allows the user to take
advantage of other non-IPX services from the access server before connecting
to the Novell network.
•
The remote PC user can automatically connect to the Novell network after
login.
•
Login and/or PPP password authentication is configurable. For PPP
password, the PC client software must support PPP/PAP authentication.
Managing IPX
Getting Started
Checklist
The following is a checklist for using this chapter to perform the basic steps to
perform remote node access to a Novell network through a network access server:
Step
Action
1
Determine your hardware/software requirements (Hardware and Software
Requirements).
2
Configure your PC (Setting Up the Network Access Server).
3
Configure your network access server (Setting Up the Network Access
Server).
4
Check your configuration (Operational Checkout and Diagnosis).
21-5
Managing IPX
Hardware and Software Requirements
Introduction
This section describes the hardware and software necessary to run IPX.
There must be at least one NetWare fileserver version 3.xx or greater on the
network. If a fileserver is not directly attached to the same LAN as the network
access server, there must be a NetWare router on the LAN.
Software Requirements
The following software is required to run IPX:
•
Network Access Software version 1.4 or greater.
•
Remote node access software for the PC, which must support NetWare IPX
using Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). (Can be acquired from a third-party
network software communications vendor.)
•
Novell NetWare workstation software for the PC. (Can be acquired from your
Novell NetWare or third-party remote node access software kit.)
•
Novell NetWare utilities on the PC. (Can be acquired from your Novell
NetWare or third-party remote node access software kit.)
Hardware Requirements
The following hardware is required to run IPX:
•
PC with a high-performance Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
(UART) on the COM port. Either standard 16450 or 16550 UART or equivalent
may be used.
•
Dial-out modem for PC; dial-in modem for network access server. Minimum
9600 baud recommended. Highest speed modem available preferred.
References
For a comprehensive list of the server hardware platforms necessary to run IPX,
refer to the Cabletron Network Access Software Release Notes.
Refer to Appendix A for the cable and adapter requirements.
21-6
Managing IPX
Setting Up Your PC
PC Remote Access Software
Ensure you know whether the network access server port you are dialing in to
requires you to enter a login password or logs directly in to the local user
interface. If this is the case, you will need to use terminal emulation to
communicate with the access server following modem connection.
Ensure you know whether the network access server port requires a PPP/PAP
password. If so, you will have to configure the password on your remote node
access software.
Reference
Refer to the documentation included with your PC remote node access software
for installation and setup procedures.
Novell Workstation Software
Novell NetWare workstation software (or equivalent) must be installed on your
PC. This makes it possible to establish and maintain IPX network connections.
Reference
Refer to your Novell Installation Guide for Workstations and the documentation
included with your PC remote node access software for more information.
Novell Utilities for Local Execution
After a remote node access connection is made to a Novell fileserver, ensure that
the Novell utilities you need are stored locally on your PC. This is because
activating large executables from a network disk can result in long load times due
to the relatively slower speed of the serial line. See the Novell Operation section
in this chapter for more information.
21-7
Managing IPX
Setting Up the Network Access Server
Enabling IPX
By default, IPX is not enabled on the access server. A privileged user must enable
IPX with the following commands:
Local> CHANGE IPX INTERNAL ipx-net
Local> CHANGE IPX ENABLED
NOTE
The ipx-net value must be a unique Novell network number on the network.
Configuring the Port for an Attached Device
To configure a port for PCs dialing in through a modem or directly connected to
the network access server, use the following commands:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
DEFINE
DEFINE
LOGOUT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
ACCESS DYNAMIC
ALTERNATE SPEED NONE
INACTIVITY LOGOUT ENABLED
FLOW CONTROL CTS
SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED DSRLOGOUT ENABLED
SIGNAL SELECT CTS
Considerations
When configuring IPX, consider the following:
21-8
•
ALTERNATE SPEED is not applicable to the DECserver 90M and DECserver
90TL hardware (Ignore warning messages).
•
FLOW CONTROL should match the flow control configured for the attached
device. For access server platforms with either full or partial modem control
signals, flow control can be configured either CTS/RTS or XON/XOFF. CTS is
recommended. For access server platforms with limited modem control signals
(i.e., DTR/DSR), only XON/XOFF is supported. If the attached device does not
support XON flow control, configure flow control DISABLE. This means flow
control is not used. Although operation is possible without flow control, poor
performance or unexpected behavior with your Novell connection can result.
Managing IPX
•
SIGNAL SELECT should match signals used by the attached device (for
example, a modem) when the SIGNAL SELECT feature is supported on the
access server. SIGNAL SELECT is not applicable for some access server
platforms. SIGNAL SELECT can be configured either CTS (CTS-DSR-RTSDTR) or RI (RI-DCD-DSRS-DTR). Based on configuration, correct adapter
must be chosen (see Appendix A). Current high-speed modems (>9600 baud)
typically use CTS.
Configuring the Port for the Login Method
You can configure a port to log in to a local user interface prompt or to be
exclusively dedicated to PPP. To configure a port for login to a local user interface
prompt, refer to the Configuring the Port for Login to the Local Prompt section in
this chapter. To configure a port to be exclusively dedicated to PPP, refer to the
Configuring the Port Dedicated to PPP section in this chapter.
Configuring the Port for Login to the Local Prompt
Following modem connection, the PC user will log in to the local interface with or
without password authentication. Then, the user will have the option to activate
PPP using user interface commands.
Activating PPP
To configure the port with login password authentication required, use the
following commands:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
SERVER
PORT n
PORT n
PORT n
LOGIN PASSWORD xxxxxx
PASSWORD ENABLE
AUTOBAUD ENABLE SPEED 9600
DEDICATED NONE
Configuring the Port With No Login Password Authentication Required
To configure the port with no login password authentication required, use the
following commands:
Local> CHANGE PORT n PASSWORD DISABLE
Local> CHANGE PORT n AUTOBAUD ENABLE SPEED 9600
Local> CHANGE PORT n DEDICATED NONE
NOTE
Both login password authentication and PPP/PAP password authentication use
the same password. One or both can be enabled at the same time.
21-9
Managing IPX
Configuring the Port Dedicated to PPP
Following modem connection, the PC user will log in with or without password
authentication. Then, PPP will automatically be activated to pass IPX network
packets.
Configuring the Port With Login Password Authentication Required
To configure a port with login password authentication required, use the
following commands:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
SERVER
PORT n
PORT n
PORT n
PORT n
LOGIN PASSWORD xxxxxx
PASSWORD ENABLE
AUTOBAUD ENABLE SPEED 9600
DEDICATED PPP
DEFAULT PROTOCOL PPP
Configuring the Port With No Login Password Authentication Required
To configure a port with no login password authentication required, use the
following commands:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
NOTE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
n
n
n
n
PASSWORD DISABLE
AUTOBAUD DISABLE SPEED speed
DEDICATED PPP
DEFAULT PROTOCOL PPP
With AUTOBAUD DISABLEd, serial port speed must be explicitly configured
for both the modem and the access server port.
Configuring the Port for PPP/IPXCP Data Link
To configure a port for PPP/IXPCP data link, use the following commands:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
21-10
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
n
n
n
n
n
LCP MAP A0000
LCP PASSIVE DISABLE
LCP ENABLE
IPXCP ENABLE
PPP ENABLE
Managing IPX
Enabling PPP/PAP Password Authentication
To enable the optional PPP/PAP password authentication, use the following
commands:
Local> CHANGE SERVER LOGIN PASSWORD xxxxxx
Local> CHANGE PORT n LCP AUTHENTICATION PAP
Disabling PPP/PAP Password Authentication
To disable the optional PPP/PAP password authentication, use the following
command:
Local> CHANGE PORT n LCP AUTHENTICATION DISABLE
Passwords
Both login password authentication and PPP/PAP password authentication use
the same password. One or both can be enabled at the same time. For PAP,
verification of the password is case sensitive. If PAP is enabled, the password
must also be supported and configured using your remote node access software
on the PC.
21-11
Managing IPX
Summary of DECserver IPX Management
Commands
The following are the network access server commands you can use to manage
IPX.
Port PPP IPX Commands for LCP
The following table explains the PORT PPP IPX commands for LCP.
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR
PORT n LCP
Description
CHARACTERISTICS
Display the current values for the LCP characteristics.
SHOW/MONITOR
PORT n LCP
Description
COUNTERS
Display the current values of the IPXCP counters.
STATUS
Display the current values of the IPXCP counters and
characteristics.
CHANGE/SET/DEFINE
PORT n LCP
21-12
Description
ACFC
Address and Control Field Compression for PPP
datagram.
AUTHENTICATION
Password authentication is enabled.
ENABLE
Enable LCP.
DISABLE
Disable LCP.
MAP
Specifies characters that may not be sent in the clear.
MAXFAILURE
Number of times LCP sends NAK before rejecting
option.
MAXTERMINATE
Number of times LCP sends terminate request
without ACK.
MRU
Maximum receive units.
PASSIVE
When enabled, LCP must be initiated by attached
device.
PFC
Protocol Field Compression for PPP datagram.
RESTART
Restart a suspended session.
Managing IPX
Port PPP IPX Commands for IPXCP
The following table explains the PORT PPP IPX commands for IPXCP:
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR
Port n IPXCP
CHARACTERISTICS
SHOW/MONITOR
PORT n IPXCP
Description
Display the current values for the IPXCP
characteristics.
Description
STATUS
Display the values of the IPXCP counters and
characteristics.
COUNTERS
Display the values of the IPXCP counters.
CHANGE/SET/DEFINE
PORT n IPXCP
Description
ENABLE
Enable IPXCP.
DISABLE
Disable IPXCP.
MAXCONFIGURE
Number of times IPXCP sends configure request
without ACK.
MAXFAILURE
Number of times IPXCP sends NAK before rejecting
option.
MAXTERMINATE
Number of times IPXCP sends terminate request
without ACK.
RESTART
Restart a suspended session.
Port PPP Commands for PPP Negotiation Status
The following table defines the PORT PPP commands for PPP negotiation status:
SHOW/MONITOR
PORT n PPP
Description
COUNTERS
Display the values of the IPXCP counters.
STATUS
Display the values of the PPP counters and
characteristics.
21-13
Managing IPX
Server IPX Commands
The following table defines the server IPX commands:
21-14
SHOW/LIST/MONITOR
IPX
Description
CHARACTERISTICS
Display the current values for the characteristics.
SHOW/MONITOR IPX
Description
COUNTERS
Display the values of the IPXCP counters.
RIP
Display the RIP entries known to the server.
ROUTES
Display the routes known by the server.
STATUS
Display the counters, RIP entries, and routes.
CLEAR IPX
Description
RIP
Clear all unique networks from the RIP database.
SAP
Clear all the SAP service entries known to the server.
ZERO
Description
IPX COUNTERS
Zero all IPX counters.
PORT n PPP COUNTERS
Zero all PPP counters associated with port n.
CHANGE/SET/DEFINE
IPX
Description
ENABLE
Enable IPX.
DISABLE
Disable IPX.
CHANGE/SET/DEFINE
IPX FRAME
Description
ETHERNET
Standard Ethernet V2.
RAW802
Novell standard 802.3 RAW.
SHOW/MONITOR
PORT n PPP
Description
SAP802
IEEE 802.2 standard.
SNAP802
IEEE 802.2 with SNAP SAP format.
Managing IPX
CHANGE/SET/DEFINE
IPX FRAME frametype
NETWORK
Description
ipx-net
Specify explicit internal network number.
LEARN
Learn internal network number from LAN.
DISABLED
Internal network disabled.
CHANGE/SET/DEFINE
IPX INTERNAL
NETWORK
Description
ipx-net
Specify ipx-net as the internal network number.
NONE
There is no IPX address for the internal network.
21-15
Managing IPX
Modem Considerations
Dial-In Modems
Keep the following in mind when using dial-in modems attached to the network
access server:
•
Flow control for the dial-in modem and the access server port must match. CTS
is recommended for access server platforms that support CTS/RTS.
XON/XOFF is recommended for access server platforms that do not support
CTS/RTS.
•
Serial speed for the modem can be configured as high as 115,200 bits/s on some
access server platforms and as high as 57,600 bits/s on others. The access
server port will autobaud up to this speed when the port is configured for
autobaud.
•
When autobaud is enabled, in most cases, typing a carriage return once per
second is sufficient to autobaud into the access server when the modem dial-in
connection is complete. In some cases (AppleTalk, for example), it may be
necessary to type a series of three carriage returns at a faster rate for a
successful autobaud.
•
Modem DSR must be configured to cycle on modem hang-up. The access
server port is configured to log out the port when DSR cycles, making sure that
the Novell network connection goes away when the PC user is finished.
•
Use the fastest modem available. Error-correcting modems that are currently
available provide up to 28,800 bits/s carrier speeds and serial port speeds to
115,200 bits/s. The access server serial ports will autobaud up to 115,200 bits/s.
Dial-Out PC Modems
Keep the following in mind when using dial-out modems attached to the PC:
21-16
•
The PC should have a high-performance UART chip capable of high speeds
(16450 or 16550). The serial port baud rate of the modem is dependent on the
UART and the type of modem used.
•
Normally, set the serial port baud rate of the modem to two to four times the
speed of your modem. The 8250 and 16450 UART chips can be more
susceptible to lower performance due to errors when run at higher speeds.
Managing IPX
Recommended Serial Port Baud Rate
The following table lists guidelines for setting the serial port baud rate:
UART Type
Maximum Modem Speed
Maximum Recommended
Serial Port Baud Rate
8250
9600
Up to 9600
16450
9600 to 14400
9600 to 19200
16450-A
9600 to 14400
9600 to 19200
16550
Up to 28800
Up to 115200
21-17
Managing IPX
Novell Client/Server Operation
Establishing Remote Node Access Connection to Novell Network
Vendors of PC remote node access software for Novell may have different
procedures for dialing in and establishing a remote access connection to a Novell
LAN through the access server. However, the following are generally the
expected steps:
Step
Action
1
Dial in to the network access server. Activate your remote node access
software on your PC so that a phone call is made to the access server.
2
Log in to the access server. If the dial-in access server port requires login
password authentication, type carriage returns until you see the # prompt,
then type your password followed by another carriage return.
3
Activate the PPP connection. If the access server port is configured for
dedicated PPP connection, your PC remote node access software will offer an
indication that PPP has been negotiated with the access server dial-in port. If
the access server port is configured for login to the access server local user
interface, type several carriage returns and enter a user name to get the local
prompt and type CONNECT PPP at the prompt. The PC remote node access
software indicates that PPP has been negotiated.
4
Activate Novell workstation software. Refer to the documentation included
with your PC remote node access software for instructions on loading and
activating the Novell workstation software to establish a connection to a
Novell fileserver.
Novell Operation
Refer to the documentation included with your PC remote node access software
for a discussion of considerations associated with Novell operation from a remote
dial-in node including:
21-18
•
Make sure to store and run Novell utilities locally. Large executables activated
from a network disk can experience long load times due to the relatively slower
speed of the serial line. If the desired executables are not local, copy them from
the network disk after a Novell fileserver connection is established. They may
also be available from your remote node access software kit.
•
Use DOS batch files with all the commands necessary to load and activate the
remote node access software and Novell software for establishing an IPX
Managing IPX
connection. Refer to the remote node access software installation guide for
additional information.
•
Use local Novell login scripts to facilitate logging in to a Novell fileserver.
•
If Novell packet burst is used, specify a maximum of 3 for PB BUFFERS in
NET.CFG. Using PB BUFFERS > 3 may cause access server buffers to be
depleted for PPP at the port causing poor performance. In some cases, it may
be better to disable packet burst by defining PB BUFFERS=0 in NET.CFG. You
can determine if packets are being dropped by the access server by using the
SHOW PORT n PPP COUNTERS command from a access server management
port, where n is the port with the Novell connection.
21-19
Managing IPX
Operational Checkout and Diagnosis
Verifying Configuration
To verify proper configuration, at a access server management port, type SHOW
IPX at the local user interface prompt:
•
At least one LAN frame should have a corresponding network number.
•
IPX should be enabled and the internal network should be defined with a
unique network number.
Reference
If you have problems with your dial-in connection, refer to the Cabletron Network
Access Software Problem Solving guide.
If your PC has a problem establishing a modem connection or negotiating PPP
protocol to the access server, you can diagnose the problem from the access server
side.
21-20
Managing IPX
Disabling IPX
Using the DEFINE Command
If you decide you no longer need IPX support, you can disable IPX by using the
following privileged command:
Local> DEFINE IPX DISABLED
Reinitialize the access server to have this command take effect.
21-21
Managing IPX
Frame Types
Introduction
To support a broad base of network stations, the access server supports four
different frame formats for encapsulating IPX packets on the LAN. The four
frame types supported by the access server can be enabled simultaneously:
•
Ethernet
•
RAW802
•
SAP802
•
SNAP802
A LAN frame is enabled when a unique NetWare network number is associated
with the frame. The network number can be automatically “learned” or explicitly
configured. By default, all four frame types attempt to learn their network
number by monitoring frames on the network.
Standard Ethernet
This packet format is the standard Ethernet V2 packet format (protocol type 8137).
RAW802
This mode uses IEEE 802.3 format frames without an IEEE 802.2 LLC header. This
mode is often called “raw” 802.3.
SAP802
This mode encapsulates IPX frames using IEEE 802.2 LLC standard header
formats. The SSAP and DSAP for IPX is E0.
SNAP802
This mode uses the IEEE 802.2 LLC format with the SNAP SAP format. The SNAP
protocol ID for IPX is 00-00-00-81-37.
21-22
Managing IPX
Displaying IPX Characteristics
Using the SHOW command
Use the SHOW IPX CHARACTERISTICS command to display IPX characteristics,
including IPX network and node numbers. The command is nonprivileged.
IPX Characteristics Display
The following example shows the command to display IPX characteristics on an
access server:
Local> SHOW IPX CHARACTERISTICS
IPX Characteristics:
IPX: Enabled
LAN Node Address: 08002B24F2DD
LAN Frame:
ETHERNET
LAN Frame:
RAW802
LAN Frame:
SAP802
LAN Frame:
SNAP802
Internal Network
LAN Network:
LAN Network:
LAN Network:
LAN Network:
2B24F2DD
Learn
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
IPX Characteristics Display Fields
The following table describes the fields in the IPX characteristics display:
Field
Description
IPX
Enabled or Disabled. The default is Disabled.
LAN Node Address
Maximum of 12 hexadecimal numbers (no leading zeroes)
representing the Ethernet interface’s hardware address.
Internal Network
None or up to 8 hexadecimal numbers (no leading zeroes,
1 to FFFFFFFE). This entry configures the IPX internal
network number for the access server. It is used by the
serial ports for configuring a common network number for
all PC client dial-ins when PPP/IPXCP is negotiated. This
occurs when the PC client requests the access server to
configure the network through PPP. A higher network
number offered by the PC client takes precedence over the
internal network number. This number must also be
unique. It is recommended that the internal network
number be used to limit the number of unique networks in
the IPX Routing Information Protocol (RIP) database of
fileserver and routers.
21-23
Managing IPX
21-24
Field
Description
LAN Frame
LAN frame types: ETHERNET, RAW802, SAP802, or
SNAP802.
LAN Network
Learn, Disable, or up to 8 hexadecimal numbers (no
leading zeroes, 1 to FFFFFFFE). “Learn” means that the
access server will monitor the LAN to determine the
network number of the corresponding frame.
Managing IPX
Displaying IPX Status
Using the SHOW IPX Command
Use the SHOW IPX command to display IPX status. The command is
nonprivileged.
IPX Status Display
The following example shows the command to display IPX status on an access
server:
Local> SHOW IPX STATUS
IPX Status:
Route entries:
6
RIP entries:
6
SAP entries:
5
LAN Frame:
ETHERNET
LAN Frame:
RAW802
LAN Frame:
SAP802
LAN Frame:
SNAP802
LAN
LAN
LAN
LAN
Network:
Network:
Network:
Network:
AAA1
Learning
BBB1
Disabled
Fields in the IPX Status Display
The following table describes the fields in the IPX Status display:
Field
Description
IPX Status
Enabled or Disabled.
RIP entries
Number of current RIP networks known by the server.
SAP entries
Number of current SAP services known by the server.
Route entries
Number of current routing table entries.
21-25
Managing IPX
Field
Description
LAN Frame
The frame type: Ethernet, RAW802, SAP802, or SNAP802.
LAN Network
Learning — The network number for the corresponding LAN
frame has been configured to “learn.” The access server is
currently attempting to learn the network number.
XXXXXXXX — Either the network number for the corresponding
LAN frame has been configured to “learn” and the network
number has been automatically learned, or an explicit network
number has been configured. The number is up to 8 hexadecimal
digits (no leading zeroes).
Disabled — The network number for the corresponding LAN
frame has been configured as “disabled.”
21-26
Managing IPX
Displaying IPX Counters
Use the SHOW IPX COUNTERS command
Use the SHOW IPX COUNTERS command to display the IPX counters. The
command is nonprivileged.
IPX Counters Display
The following example shows the command to display IPX counters on an access
server:
Local> SHOW IPX COUNTERS
IPX Counters
IPX
Total Packets Transmitted
Total Packets Received:
Local Transmits:
Local Receives:
FORWARD CACHE
Packets Received:
Receive Discards:
Overruns:
RIP
Requests Transmitted:
Requests Received:
Requests Discarded:
Request Resource Errors:
SAP
Requests Transmitted:
Requests Received:
Requests Discarded:
Request Resource Errors:
Seconds Since Zeroed: 18207
0
0
0
0
Unknown Sockets:
Receive Discards:
Transmit Discards:
Hop Count Errors:
0
0
0
0
0 Packets Transmitted:
0 Transmit Discards:
0 Timeouts:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Responses Transmitted:
Responses Received:
Responses Discarded:
Response Resource Errors:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Responses Transmitted:
Responses Received:
Responses Discarded:
Response Resource Errors:
0
0
0
0
IPX Counters Display Fields
The following table describes the fields in the IPX Counters display:
Field
Description
Seconds Since Zeroed
Time, in seconds, since the counters
were last zeroed.
IPX Total Packets Transmitted
Total number of data packets
transmitted.
21-27
Managing IPX
21-28
Field
Description
IPX Total Packets Received
Total number of data packets received.
IPX Local Transmits
Number of data packets transmitted,
originating from the access server.
IPX Local Receives
Number of data packets received that
were destined for the access server.
IPX Unknown Sockets
Number of data packets with unknown
socket addresses.
IPX Receive Discards
Number of data packets that were
received and discarded.
IPX Transmit Discards
Number of data packets discarded that
were ready for transmission.
IPX Hop Count Errors
The number of input datagrams
dropped because the access server was
not their final destination and their hop
count would exceed 15 if forwarded.
FORWARD CACHE Packets Received
If there is no existing route to a
destination network, the packet is
cached and a routing information
request is sent out for the network. This
field shows how many such data
packets have been received.
FORWARD CACHE Receive Discards
The field shows how many discarded
data packets were received for the
cache.
FORWARD CACHE Overruns
This field shows how many cached data
packets were discarded.
FORWARD CACHE Packets
Transmitted
This field shows how many packets
were transmitted from forward cache
after the route was learned.
FORWARD CACHE Transmit Discards
This field shows how many packets
were discarded that were ready for
transmission from the cache.
FORWARD CACHE Timeouts
This field shows how many packets
were discarded because the route was
not learned.
RIP/SAP Requests Transmitted
Number of RIP/SAP request packets
transmitted.
Managing IPX
Field
Description
RIP/SAP Requests Received
Number of RIP/SAP request packets
received.
RIP/SAP Requests Discarded
Number of RIP/SAP request packets
discarded.
RIP/SAP Request Resource Errors
Number of RIP/SAP request packet
resource errors.
RIP/SAP Responses Transmitted
Number of RIP/SAP response packets
transmitted.
RIP/SAP Responses Received
Number of RIP/SAP response packets
received.
RIP/SAP Responses Discarded
Number of RIP/SAP response packets
discarded.
RIP/SAP Response Resource Errors
Number of RIP/SAP response packet
resource errors.
21-29
Managing IPX
Displaying IPX Routes
Using the SHOW IPX ROUTES Command
Use the SHOW IPX ROUTES command to display IPX Routes. This command is
nonprivileged.
IPX Routes Display
The following example shows the command to display IPX routes:
Local> SHOW IPX ROUTES
IPX Routes
Destination
Next Hop
2B24F2DD.020000000001 2B24F2DD.08002B24F2DD
911.000000000000 21000001.00608C114E4A
21000001.FFFFFFFFFFFF 21000001.08002B24F2DD
EEE8022.FFFFFFFFFFFF EEE8022.08002B24F2DD
EEE8023.FFFFFFFFFFFF EEE8023.08002B24F2DD
1BEAD017.000000000000 1BEAD017.08002B24F2DD
Local>
Interface Ticks Hops
ASYNC4
134
0
ETHER0
2
1
ETHER0
1
0
SAP0
1
0
RAW0
1
0
ASYNC3
134
0
IPX Routes Display Fields
The following table describes the fields in the IPX routes display:
21-30
Field
Description
Destination
NetWare address of final destination.
Next Hop
NetWare address of next hop in the transmission.
Interface
Interface type for next hop.
Ticks
This field indicates how much time, in ticks, that the packet takes to
reach the network number associated with this field entry. A tick is
approximately 1/18 of a second.
Hops
This field indicates the number of routers that must be passed through
to reach the network number associated with this field entry.
Managing IPX
Resetting Counters
Using the ZERO Command
Use the ZERO command to reset IPX counters.
ZERO Command Options
The following table contains the options that you can use on the command line to
reset specific counters or sets of counters:
Option
Description
ALL
Zeroes server IPX counters
IPX
Zeroes server IPX counters
PORT port-list PPP
Zeroes PPP port counters for the specified port including LCP
and IPXCP counters
21-31
Managing IPX
21-32
Chapter 22
Managing Dial Services
Overview
Introduction
Configuring dial services is similar in concept to configuring a LAT service or
Telnet listener. You define a service with a specified configuration that dictates
how the user can operate the dialer.
Before you begin any dialer management, be sure to:
•
Install the latest software image on the access server and all load hosts.
•
Read the release notes.
•
Know what devices and cables are connected at the various ports.
•
Enter the SET PRIVILEGED command for your port.
•
Check if the current values or default values are appropriate.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Dial Services Command Groups
•
Checking the Current Server Settings
•
Defining a Dialer Script
•
Assigning the Dialer Script to a Port
•
Defining the Dialer Service
•
Configuring Interactive Dial Requests
•
Framed Dial Requests
22-1
Managing Dial Services
Dial Services Command Groups
Command Groups
To configure and manage the dial services, use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
DIALER and SHOW/LIST/MONITOR DIALER command groups.
Reference
For more detailed information about commands used in this chapter, refer to the
Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide.
Entering the SET PRIVILEGED command
Before changing any other parameter, make sure you have the authority to make
such changes. The SET PRIVILEGED command allows you to make changes that
require special access. At the password prompt, type the privileged password.
(DNAS does not echo the password as you type it.)
Local> SET PRIVILEGED
Password> (hidden)
22-2
Managing Dial Services
Checking the Current Server Settings
Introduction
Before you configure dialer services, determine the current server configuration.
Use the SHOW SERVER command to display the server configuration.
Server Configuration Display
The following example shows a typical access server configuration display:
Local> SHOW SERVER
Network Access SW Vx.x for DSxxx-xx BLxx-xx ROM Vx.x-x Uptime: 000:44:34
Address:
08-00-2B-26-AA-99
Name: WWDOCMC Number: 0
Identification:
Circuit Timer:
Console Port:
Inactivity Timer:
Keepalive Timer:
Multicast Timer:
Node Limit:
Service Groups:
80 Password Limit:
1 Prompt:
30 Queue Limit:
20 Retransmit Limit:
30 Session Limit:
200 Software
42, 46, 66
3
Local>
100
8
64
WWENG2
Enabled Characteristics:
Announcements, Broadcast, Dump, Lock, Server Responder
Local>
22-3
Managing Dial Services
Defining a Dialer Script
Introduction
The first step in configuring a dial service is creating a dialer script. A dialer script
tells the access server what text strings to use to control a modem on a specific
port. These text strings are also known as “modem strings.”
Defining Dialer Script Strings
Use the SET, DEFINE, and CHANGE DIALER SCRIPT commands to define the
modem strings that make up various modem commands in a dialer script. Each
associated string can be up to 40 characters in length.
Characteristics that you set using the DEFINE command take effect after you
initialize the access server. Characteristics that you set take effect immediately, but
are replaced when the access server initializes. Characteristics that you set using
the CHANGE command take effect immediately and when the access server
initializes.
The size of the dialer script modem strings is restricted by the amount of
remaining unallocated NVRAM for the modem pool (total of 256 bytes for 8 and
16 port servers, and 512 bytes for 32 port servers) and by the command line
restrictions. The script name can be a maximum of 16 characters.
Dialer String Descriptions
The following table lists the dialer script strings you can define, their default
values and usage:
22-4
String Type
Default Value
Usage
COMMAND
"AT"
Appended to all other command strings.
INIT
None
Before initiating an outbound connection.
PREFIX
"DT"
Before digits of phone number.
CONNECTED
"CONNECT"
Verifies successful connection.
RESET
"H0Z"
After session is disconnected.
Managing Dial Services
Example: Set Dialer Script Name
The following example illustrates how to modify dialer script strings in a dialer
script called “dickens” in order to set unique dialer characteristics:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
DEFINE DIALER SCRIPT dickens COMMAND "AT"
SET DIALER SCRIPT dickens INIT NONE
SET DIALER SCRIPT dickens RESET NONE
CHANGE DIALER SCRIPT dickens PREFIX "DT"
DEF DIALER SCRIPT dickens RESET NONE
SET DIALER SCRIPT dickens TIMEOUT NONE
22-5
Managing Dial Services
Assigning the Dialer Script to a Port
Steps
After configuring the dialer strings in a dialer script, assign the script to a specific
port. Do the following:
Step
Action
1
Are you defining the dialer script to the port for the first time?
2
•
If yes, go to step 2.
•
If no, use the SHOW PORT n command to determine the current
dialer script by showing the port (optional). If you assign a dialer
script to a port that already has an assigned dialer script, the access
server overwrites the first dialer script. When you change or set a
dialer script, it is a good idea to check to see if one is in use.
Assign the new dialer script to the desired port using the DEFINE PORT n
DIALER SCRIPT command.
Determining the Current Dialer Script
Use the SHOW PORT n command to display information about specific ports and
their current configuration. The SHOW PORT command helps you to determine
how a port is configured before you begin making changes to that port.
22-6
Managing Dial Services
Example: The Show Port Command Display
The following example shows the resulting display for the SHOW PORT
command. In this example, the preferred dialer service is CALL_HOME and the
dialer script name is Generic_14400.
Local> SHOW PORT 2
Port 2:
Character Size:
Flow Control:
Parity:
Stop Bits:
Server: user10_DS700-16
8
XON
None
Dynamic
Input Speed
Output Speed:
Signal Control:
Signal Select:
Access:
Dynamic
Backwards Switch:
None
Break:
Local
Forwards Switch:
None
Default Protocol:
DIAL
Local Switch:
Name:
Session Limit:
Type:
Default Menu:
Dialer Script:
Preferred Service: CALL_HOME
Authorized Groups:
(Current) Groups:
57600
57600
Enabled
CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
None
PORT_2
4
Ansi
None
Generic_14400
0
0
Enabled Characteristics:
Autoconnect, Autoprompt, Broadcast, DSRlogout, Failover,
Inactivity Logout, Input Flow Control, Lock, Loss Notification,
Message Codes, Output Flow Control, PPP, SLIP, Verification
Local>
Assigning a Dialer Script to a Port
Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT n DIALER SCRIPT command to assign a
dialer script to a port.
Example: Defining the Dialer Script
The following example shows how to assign the dialer script dickens to port 2.
After you enter this command and initialize the access server, the SHOW PORT
display for port 2 will reflect this change.
Local> DEFINE PORT 2 DIALER SCRIPT dickens
22-7
Managing Dial Services
Verifying Dialer Script Configuration
Use the SHOW PORT n command to verify any changes you make to dialer script
assignments for a port. The change appears in the Dialer Script field of the
display.
Example: Show New Port Configuration
The following example shows the display after using the CHANGE PORT n
DIALER SCRIPT command to change the dialer script from Generic_14400 to
dickens:
Local> CHANGE PORT 2 DIALER SCRIPT dickens
Local> SHOW PORT 2
Port 2:
Character Size:
Flow Control:
Parity:
Stop Bits:
Server:
8
XON
None
Dynamic
Access: Dynamic
Backwards Switch:
Break:
Forwards Switch:
Default Protocol:
Local
None
Local
None
DIAL
Authorized Groups:
(Current) Groups:
0
0
Input Speed:
Output Speed:
Signal Control:
Signal Select:
Switch:
Name:
Session Limit:
Type:
Default Menu:
Dialer Script:
Preferred Service: CALL_HOME
user10_DS700-16
57600
57600
Enabled
CTS-DSR-RTS-DTR
None
PORT_2
4
Ansi
None
dickens
Enabled Characteristics:
Autoconnect, Autoprompt, Broadcast, DSRlogout, Failover,
Inactivity Logout, Input Flow Control, Lock, Loss Notification,
Message Codes, Output Flow Control, PPP, SLIP, Verification
Local>
22-8
Managing Dial Services
Defining the Dialer Service
Steps
After you define the dialer script and assign the dialer script to a port, define the
dialer service. A dial service is used to establish a dial-back session. Do the
following:
Step
Action
1
Display information (characteristics, status, and counters) about currently
configured dialer services and system status.
2
Define or modify the dialer service using the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE DIAL
SCRIPT SERVICE command.
Showing the Current Dialer Service Characteristics
Use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR DIALER SERVICE service-name
CHARACTERISTICS command to display dialer service characteristics. These
commands are similar to the SHOW SERVICES LOCAL family of commands in
usage and syntax.
The examples in this section show instances of using the SHOW command only.
The use of the LIST and MONITOR commands is implied, since these commands
produce similar results in the screen display. They differ in the effect that they
have on storage of data in VRAM and NVRAM.
Reference
For more information on command line syntax, see the Commands to Display
and Change Configuration Settings section in Chapter 1.
22-9
Managing Dial Services
Example: Show Dialer, Port Security Enabled
In this example, a user on a port with SECURITY enabled would not have access
to the STATUS display since it might provide access to unlisted or sensitive phone
numbers and other information received from the modem.
Local> SHOW DIALER AT_TRADESHOW CHARACTERISTICS
Dial Service:
Identification:
AT_TRADESHOW
Dial-back from tradeshow
Connections:
Ports:
Phone number:
Delay (seconds):
Mode:
Username:
Password:
Enabled
1,2,9-14
555-6766
15
PPP
None
None
Local>
Showing Dialer Service Status
Use the SHOW/LIST/MONITOR DIALER SERVICE service-name STATUS
command to display dialer service status. These commands are similar to the
SHOW SERVICES LOCAL family of commands in usage and syntax.
Example: Show Dialer Status
In following example, port 10 is currently available; the last phone number it
dialed was found to be busy. Ports 9 and 11 are presently in use. Port 13 is actually
dialing a phone number, while port 14 is waiting for a response from the modem.
When the dialer port is initialized prior to making a phone call, the Last
Connection Status field is cleared.
Local> SHOW DIALER AT_TRADESHOW STATUS
Dial Service: AT_TRADESHOW - Available Identification: Dial-back
from tradeshow
Port:
User
Status
9
10
11
12
13
14
(remote)
Available
Raymond
Connected
BUSY
Connect
Available
Local>
22-10
Jim Dialing
Bob
Waiting
Last Connection Status
CONNECTED 14400/LAPM
CONNECTED 9600
NO ANSWER
No answer
Managing Dial Services
SHOW DIALER STATUS Display Fields
The following table lists values for the status field in the SHOW DIALER display:
Status
Meaning
Initializing
Sending dialer command and authorization strings.
Dialing
Sending the phone number string.
Waiting
Waiting for the expected response from mode.
Connected
Dialer call completed, port is in use.
Available
Dialer is not in use.
Displaying Dialer Counters
Use the SHOW DIALER service-name COUNTERS command to display the
counters for a dialer service.
Example: Show Dialer Counters
The following example shows the dialer service counters display for the dialer
service AT_TRADESHOW:
Local> SHOW DIALER AT_TRADESHOW COUNTERS
Dial Service:
AT_TRADESHOW
Seconds Since Zeroed:
Connections Attempted:
Connections Completed:
No Dial Tone:
No Carrier:
Unknown:
1989692
113
96
0
0
0
Failures:
Busy:
No Answer:
No Response:
Authentication:
17
10
0
0
7
Local>
Modifying the Dialer Service
Use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE DIALER SERVICE dialer-service-name
command to define the dialer service. The dialer-service-name characteristic is a
string of 1 to 16 characters.
The dialer service name must be unique to the server. Before you create a new
dialer service, use the SHOW DIALER SERVICE command to verify that the new
name does not conflict with that of an existing dialer service.
22-11
Managing Dial Services
For a detailed explanation of command keywords used to mange dialer services,
see the Command Definitions section in Chapter 2.
Example: Change Dialer Name
The following example uses many of the keyword options in the command line:
Local> CHANGE DIALER on_the_road PORT 4-9 IDENT "Dial-back"
Local> CHANGE DIALER on_the_road NUMBER "*" MODE *
Dialer Service Characteristics
The following table describes the dialer service characteristics:
Characteristic
Description
Comments
IDENTIFICATION
Allows an identifying string to be
associated with a given service.
Maximum length = 40
characters
CONNECTIONS
Specifies whether a user may connect
to the current dial service.
Variables:
ENABLED/DISABLED
PORTS
One or more physical ports that are
to offer this dial service.
-
NUMBER
Indicates the allowable phone
number(s) for use with this service.
Maximum length = 48
characters
Variables: "*"/ONLY
Default = "*"
22-12
•
“*” — Means users may
use any number within
their security
constraints, and are
prompted to enter a
phone number when
initiating a dialer
session.
•
ONLY — Designates the
sole phone number that
may be dialed using this
service.
Managing Dial Services
User Account Characteristics
The following table explains the user account characteristics:
Characteristic
Description
Comments
DELAY
Indicates the delay in seconds before the
dialer engine should attempt to initiate
the dial-back.
Default = 30 seconds
Minimum = 15 seconds
Maximum = 3600 seconds
(1 hour)
USERNAME
Defines the user name to be supplied to a
peer that requires the access server to be
authenticated.
Maximum length = 1 to 16
characters
PASSWORD
Indicates the password to be supplied to a
peer that requires authentication from the
access server.
Maximum length = 1 to 16
characters
•
•
•
MODE
Indicates the type of session the dial
service will create after successfully
completing the modem connection.
May be entered either on
the command line
within quotes or at a
prompt.
If PASSWORD is the last
word on the command
line, the user is
prompted for a
password.
DNAS masks the
password string upon
entry.
Variables:
LOCAL/LOGIN/PPP/SLIP/*
22-13
Managing Dial Services
MODE Command Variables
The following table explains the MODE command variables:
22-14
Variable
Definition
LOCAL
Interactive nondedicated session.
LOGIN
Interactive dedicated session to a host.
PPP
Dedicated PPP session.
SLIP
Dedicated SLIP session
*
Any mode allowed
Managing Dial Services
Configuring Interactive Dial Requests
Configuring for Interactive Dial-Back
The following example sets the access server to a predefined phone number:
Local> CHANGE DIALER AT_HOME PORT 1-16 IDENT "DIALS YOU AT HOME"
The dialer service AT_HOME is set up to allow any phone number to be dialed,
but the user’s security profile allows for a connection to be made using only one
number.
The ports are all set up to be ACCESS DYNAMIC, so they can be used for dial-in
and also dial-back.
The user dials in, enters his user name and password, and is successfully
authenticated.
As a result, the security component creates and maintains an authorization profile
for this user. This authorization profile, which is also known as the active user
database, contains among other things the phone number(s) that the user is
authorized to use on a dial-back request.
Security Profile Information
For more information about user security profiles, see the user accounts
information in the Determining Security Configuration section in Chapter 22.
Interactive Dial-Back (Dial Service) Example
The following example shows how the user specifies a dialer service and how the
service operates:
Local> DIAL AT_HOME
Local -019- Dial request queued, will be attempted in 30 seconds
Local> LOGOUT
Local -020- Logged out port 10 on server NAS700
In this example, the access server uses a security realm (RADIUS, or local profile)
for authorization when the user logs in. The user’s RADIUS/local profile is
maintained while the user is logged in. The profile is checked to see if the user is
authorized for dial-back. In this particular example, the authorization database
has but a single phone number that the access server would use when calling back
this particular user.
22-15
Managing Dial Services
Framed Dial Requests
Introduction
Dial-back requests can also be queued from a client that connects to the server
using PPP. Unlike PPP, the SLIP protocol does not include a method of
negotiating connection options including whether a call-back should be
attempted and the phone number to which the call-back should be placed.
Therefore, only PPP clients can request a call-back.
Changing PPP Characteristics Examples
In the following paragraphs, the default protocol for the access server’s port is
assumed to be set to PPP.
Configuring Dynamic Access
If the modem on that port will be used for both the incoming and the outgoing
calls, the port must allow dynamic access, as shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE PORT n DEFAULT PROTOCOL PPP
Local> CHANGE PORT n ACCESS DYNAMIC
Configuring Call-Back
To request a call-back using a PPP client, the access server’s port must first allow
the call-back negotiation to be started. This is done using the command:
Local> CHANGE PORT n LCP CALLBACK ENABLED
If the PPP client and the access server successfully negotiate the use of call-back,
the access server will attempt to queue a dial request. The port must be set
dedicated to the dialer service to be used in placing the return phone call.
Local> CHANGE PORT n DEDICATED SERVICE dialer-service-name
Guidelines
1. If you do not specify a service name, the port’s preferred service is used. If the
preferred service contains "*" as the number specified in the dialer service, the
access server prompts the user to enter a telephone number.
2. For a PPP connection, the port is usually set to have a dedicated service name
of PPP. However, as long as the port’s default protocol is set to PPP, you can
specify any dedicated service name.
22-16
Managing Dial Services
3. If you enable PPP call-back negotiation on a port, DIGITAL strongly
recommends that you also enable some sort of authentication (for example
PAP or CHAP) on the port. Without authentication, any user who happens to
discover the phone number for that port’s modem could potentially request a
call-back and run up unlimited phone charges.
4. To enable authentication on a port, use the SET/DEFINE/CHANGE PORT
LCP AUTHENTICATION PAP/CHAP command.
5. If the PPP client specified a phone number to which the return call is to be
placed, this phone number is also included in the dial request along with the
name of the dialer service. If the PPP client did not specify a phone number,
the phone number to be used is determined by the dialer service or the user’s
authorization information.
6. If a service name is specified that does not match an existing dialer service, the
call-back will fail and an accounting event will be generated.
7. Whether the phone number to be dialed comes from the PPP client or the
dialer service definition, the user making the request must be authorized to
dial that number. Likewise, the user must be allowed to create sessions of the
mode defined by the dialer service, either interactive or framed. If the user is
not authorized to either dial the selected phone number or create sessions of
the mode specified by the dialer service, the call-back fails and an accounting
event is generated.
8. Unlike interactive dial requests, which require the user to log off the server
and hang up the client’s modem in anticipation of a return call from the
server, successful PPP call-back negotiation results in the initial PPP session
being automatically disconnected. This also breaks the modem’s connection
and results in the PPP client hanging up the phone, making it available for the
return call from the server.
22-17
Managing Dial Services
22-18
Chapter 23
Managing Access Server Security
Overview
Introduction
The Cabletron Network Access Software (CNAS) supports the following
authentication services:
•
RADIUS
•
SecurID
•
Local User Accounts
•
Kerberos V4
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Security Type Descriptions
•
Common Terminology Across Security Realms
•
Managing Kerberos
•
Managing RADIUS
•
Managing SecurID
•
Managing Local Access Server Security
•
Determining Security Configuration
•
Managing Dial-Up Access Security with AUTOLINK and
AUTOLINKAuthentication
•
Specifying Other Security Features
23-1
Managing Access Server Security
Security Type Descriptions
Introduction
This section describes the types of security that the access server supports.
Kerberos
Kerberos is a user authentication system designed for open network computing
environments. It provides for the authentication of a user name and password
pair, by means of a host system accessible over the network. Once the user name
and password pair is verified, the access server assigns any default authorization
that identify the access server services allowed for that user’s session.
Realm Definition
Associated with a Kerberos login, a user specifies a realm. A realm is known by its
realm name, a printable string of characters. The realm name identifies an
administrative domain, and a set of realm parameters that are needed to
administrate the logins for that realm. The administrator can also associate many
other access server related parameters with a realm name.
The SHOW KERBEROS REALM realm-name command displays all the
assignable parameters for all Kerberos realms. Realm definition and usage is the
same for all other security methods supported by the access server, as are the
characteristics that realms allow the administrator to define.
RADIUS
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) is a security method that
provides authorization information during the authentication procedure.
Authorization information is a means for tailoring most of the configurable
features of the access server to a particular user name. The authorization
characteristics are not stored on the access server, but are embedded in the
database that exists on the security host serving as the RADIUS authenticator.
This chapter describes the RADIUS authorization attributes that the access server
supports. See the Managing RADIUS section in this chapter.
For more information about the DECserver’s implementation of RADIUS
Accounting RFC 2139, see the DECserver RADIUS Survival Guide that is
included as an ASCII text file in your media distribution kit.
23-2
Managing Access Server Security
SecurID
SecurID is a system of authentication from Security Dynamics Technologies, Inc.
There is no authorization information at the SecurID authentication host. Like
Kerberos, the SecurID realm provides values for realm-defined parameters.
Once the password has been accepted, its processing is analogous to the Kerberos
method. However, the resulting “authorization” parameters with SecurID, are the
combination of the realm parameters and the port configuration parameters.
User Accounts
User accounts provide a method of defining user name and password pairs, and
associated authorization parameters. User account information resides on the
access server. This is convenient method for supporting multiple administrative
roles that are fully self-contained on the access server.
Local user accounts support the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) and the
Challenge Handshake Authorization Protocol (CHAP) Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP). The local user accounts also support interactive username and password
authentication. Limited authorization information may also be configured for
each account. This feature is designed for small sites or for back-up access by the
network administrator.
23-3
Managing Access Server Security
Common Terminology Across Security Realms
Introduction
This section briefly defines the terms that are common to all of the security
methods that the access server supports.
Accounting Host
A security server that accepts and records accounting information from the access
server.
Authentication Host
A security server that provides authentication or authorization information to the
access server.
Default Realm
One realm in the access server can be specified to be the default realm. The only
advantage of the default realm is that, when logging in, the user can omit the
@realm-name portion of the login identification. There is no other special
meaning to be the default realm. To change the default realm name, you must first
set any current (default) realm name to be NODEFAULT. Then assign another as
DEFAULT.
Login Retries and Timeouts
The access server allows you to configure the number of times to retry contacting
a server before timing out a login attempt.You can specify the maximum number
of retries to potentially alternate authentication hosts. Hosts are tried round-robin
fashion until the login attempt times out. Each realm can point to its own list of
security hosts.
Secrets
A text string or value that ensures that the data exchanged between the access
server and the security host is valid. You must configure a secret on the access
server for RADIUS. You can also configure one for Kerberos. The secret for
SecurID will automatically be assigned by the SecurID authentication host.
23-4
Managing Access Server Security
Once configured, the secret is never displayed on the access server. There are
privileged access server commands to erase and to reenter secrets. The secret is
assigned as a realm parameter, and applies to all security hosts in the realm.
Security Server
The remote host with which the access server communicates in order to request
authentication clearance during the login process. Each security method (other
than user accounts) defines one or more host processors that can support the
authentication procedure.
RADIUS Accounting
The RADIUS security method supports logging of accounting information. The
accounting information is sent to what is called the accounting host by means of
the accounting service port.
UDP Ports
Each security method has a well-known port (or two) that must be specified to the
access server in order for the UDP connection to be established. When you create
a new realm, it is not usable until you define a secret (and at least one
authentication host) for it. However, the realm will be created with default values
(the well-known ports) for the UDP ports.
23-5
Managing Access Server Security
Managing Kerberos
Introduction
This section describes Kerberos security features and explains how to configure
and manage these features on the access server. To use the procedures in this
section, you must:
NOTE
•
Ensure that the access server can communicate with a host running Kerberos
V4 software.
•
Connect and test the devices.
•
Enable privileged status.
•
Configure the port and device characteristics to match.
Refer to the access server hardware documentation for information about
connecting device cables. This section assumes that you have a basic
understanding of Kerberos.
Configuration Prerequisites
This section describes the prerequisites for configuring the Kerberos security
features on an access server.
Kerberos Host Requirements
•
To use Kerberos authentication, the access server must be able to communicate
over the network with a host that functions as a Kerberos V4 key distribution
center (KDC). The key distribution center is an UNIX host that runs Kerberos
software and contains a database of valid user names and passwords. The
access server does not authenticate using the Kerberos V5 protocol.
•
To operate with the highest level of security, the access server must be
registered with all KDCs within the Kerberos realms in which user
authentication will take place. A realm refers to a group of hosts that share a
common administrative domain for purposes of user authentication.
•
Each realm has one master KDC that contains a write-enabled database. The
master KDC propagates its database to any slave KDCs in the same realm.
A basic mode of operation is also available in which the access server does not
need to be registered in any of the realms. This mode of operation is less
secure, but easier to configure.
23-6
Managing Access Server Security
Network Access Server Requirements
Before configuring security-specific parameters, make sure that:
•
You have entered the correct Internet address and subnet mask. (See the
Configuring the Internet Address and Subnet Mask section in Chapter 7.)
•
There is an Internet gateway to the KDC if the KDC is not on the access server
subnet. (See the Defining Networks Available Through a Specific Gateway
section in Chapter 7.)
•
The DNS parameters are set correctly if Internet hosts are not explicitly
configured on the access server. (See the Displaying the DNS Counters section
in Chapter 7.)
Configuration of User Authentication
The configuration of user authentication on the access server involves entering
several commands shown in the examples in this section. For details about
command syntax, refer to the Cabletron Network Access Software Command
Reference guide.
Case Sensitivity
Kerberos user names, instances, realms, and passwords are case sensitive.
Configuring Kerberos Settings
When you set up the access server for user authentication, you need to complete
the following steps:
Step
Action
1
Specify a realm and a KDC.
2
If the default is incompatible with the KDCs in your realm, specify the TCP
port numbers on the KDC to which the access server sends messages for
password changes and ticket requests.
3
Change the default timeout if you want to do so.
23-7
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Definition of Kerberos Settings
The following example shows a sample of the commands used to change these
settings:
Local> CHANGE KERBEROS DEFAULT REALM finance.acme.com SECRET
Secret> (not echoed)
Verification> (not echoed)
Local> CHANGE KERBEROS REALM finance.acme.com MASTER HOST security.acme.com
Local> CHANGE KERBEROS REALM finance.acme.com HOST atlas.acme.com
Local> CHANGE KERBEROS PASSWORD SERVICE PORT 89
Local> CHANGE KERBEROS TICKET PORT SERVICE PORT 88
Local> CHANGE KERBEROS TIMEOUT 20
This example shows the more secure Kerberos configuration. The access server
itself is registered in the realm:
finance.acme.com
The access server user name is always “rcmd” while its instance is the same as its
server name. In previous example, if the server name is LAT_08002B010203, then
the Kerberos principal name is:
rcmd.LAT_08002B010203@finance.acme.com
The access server Kerberos password is the value of SECRET:
thisiswhereallthemoneyis
To perform authentication, the Kerberos system administrator must register the
access server Kerberos user name, instance, and password in the master KDC for
each of the realms. If the administrator does not specify a SECRET value in the
access server database, then the access server can perform user authentication
without being registered in the realm.
Displaying Kerberos Settings
The following example shows a sample display of Kerberos settings:
Local> show kerb characteristics
Retransmit Interval:
Ticket service port: 750
Retransmit Timeout: 0 00:00:08
Password service port:
751
Realm:
mfg.acme.com
Secret:
(None)
Authorization Defaults:
Access:
(None)
Forced Callback:
DISABLED
Max Connect:
(None)
Dialout Service:
(None)
Dialback Number:
6111
Dialout Number:
(None)
Permissions: DIALBACK, DIALOUT, LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP, NOPRIV
23-8
Managing Access Server Security
Port Configuration
You need to configure user authentication on the access server on a port-by-port
basis. To enable the authentication on a given port, you enter a command such as:
Local> DEFINE PORT 2 AUTHENTICATION ENABLED
Example: Sample SHOW PORT Command
After enabling authentication on a port, you can then display the port settings to
verify that user authentication is enabled as shown in the following example:
Local> SHOW PORT 1
Port 1:
smith
Server:
TSM700
.
.
.
Enabled Characteristics:
Authentication, Autoconnect, Autoprompt, Broadcast,
Failover, Input Flow Control, Lock, Loss Notification,
Message Codes, Output Flow Control, Lock Notification,
Verification
User Authentication Procedure
When the system administrator configures Kerberos security features for a given
access server port, you need to enter a valid user name and password when you
log on to the access server. A complete Kerberos principal name has the following
format:
user-name[.instance]@realm-name
To abort the authentication process, press the Break key or the Local Switch key.
By default, Kerberos allows you three attempts to enter a valid user name and
password. After three unsuccessful attempts to enter a user name and password,
the access server disables the authentication procedure on the port for a period of
1 minute.
To change the default number of invalid authentication attempts, use the SET
PASSWORD LIMIT command.
Example: Authentication with a Complete User Name
The following example shows a typical user authentication that uses the complete
form of the Kerberos principal name. This session assumes that the Kerberos
administrator has entered your user name and password in the Kerberos
database.
23-9
Managing Access Server Security
Username> smith.su@finance.acme.com
Password> (not echoed)
Local - 450 - Attempting to authenticate user:smith.su@finance.acme.com
Local - 451 - Authentication successful
Local>
Example: Authentication Using the First Portion of the User Name
If a default realm is configured, you have to enter only the first portion of the user
name as shown in the following example:
Username> smith
Password> (not echoed)
Local - 450 - Attempting to authenticate user: smith@finance.acme.com
Local - 451 - Authentication successful
Local>
Changing a User Name and Password
Once the network manager has set up the access server, users can change their
own passwords on the master KDC for their realm.
Example: Sample Kerberos User Authentication Session
The following example shows a sample session for changing a password. The
way that message 468 wraps may appear differently on your terminal screen.
Local> kpasswd
Username> smith
Old password> oldpassword (not echoed)
New password> newpassword (not echoed)
Verification> newpassword (not echoed)
Local -468- Attempting to change Kerberos password for user smith@finance.acme.com
Local -469- Kerberos password has been changed
Local>
Alternative Password Command
Instead of the KPASSWD command, you can also use the DEFINE KERBEROS
PASSWORD COMMAND as described in the Cabletron Network Access Software
Command Reference guide.
User Authentication Counters
This section describes the user authentication counters. These counters display
information that is useful for detecting problems.
23-10
Managing Access Server Security
Network Access Server User Authentication Counters
The following example shows how to display the user authentication counters for
the access server:
Local> SHOW SERVER AUTHENTICATION COUNTERS
Total
Total
attempts failures
User authentication (all realms):
Realm: mfg.acme.com
Realm: sales.acme.com
Realm: finance.acme.com
Time since counters last zeroed:
16
Total
Packets
Sent
8
7
1
0
Valid
Error
Packets Packets
Received Received
8
0
6
1
1
0
1 01:55:14
Port User Authentication Counters
The following example shows how to display the authentication counters for a
given port:
Local> SHOW PORT 1 AUTHENTICATION COUNTERS
Port 1:
User
Time
Time
Time
j_smith
Server:
Cur. login
Cur. login
attempts:
failures:
authentication:
1
0
since last user authentication success:
since last user authentication failure:
since counters last zeroed:
Finance_server
Total
Total
attempts: failures:
4
0
0 00:52:32
never
1 01:50:28
Setting the User Authentication Counters to Zero
The user authentication counters add up until you explicitly reset them. To reset
user authentication counters for the server to 0, use the following command:
Local> ZERO SERVER AUTHENTICATION COUNTERS
You can reset the user authentication counters for an individual port, a group of
ports, or all ports. For example, the following command resets the user
authentications counters to 0 for ports 2, 3, and 5:
Local> ZERO PORT 2,3,5 AUTHENTICATION COUNTERS
23-11
Managing Access Server Security
Managing RADIUS
Introduction
A RADIUS server must be operational on the network. The RADIUS server can
include accounting capability, but the RADIUS accounting can be in a separate
server, on a different node. In addition, there can be multiple RADIUS servers on
the network, and RADIUS provides a method for using a second server should
the attempt with the first server result in no response.
A node that has the RADIUS server is considered an authentication host. A node
that has a RADIUS accounting server is considered an accounting host.
RADIUS security involves the definition on the access server of one or more
RADIUS realms. A realm is an administrative domain for the purpose of
authentication which can supply default values for many attributes associated
with RADIUS access and usage. Each RADIUS realm points to its own associated
RADIUS authenticating host and accounting host.
Minimal Setup for RADIUS
The minimal configuration requires the following commands to set up the remote
ports used for communication with the RADIUS server(s). These features must be
assigned in order for any communication with a RADIUS server or a RADIUS
accounting server to take place.
•
The following example shows the commands used to set up RADIUS security:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM
•
This command defines/initializes a new RADIUS realm:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM AUTHEN HOST ip-addr
•
This command defines RADIUS server authentication node:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM SECRET " secret_string"
Variables
Words in examples in italics indicate user-supplied variables. In this case, the
variable JONAS.COM is the name of the specific realm on which you want to
perform this action.
23-12
Managing Access Server Security
Optional Setup for RADIUS
You can use the commands in the following examples to configure additional
security parameters for RADIUS servers. The commands in these examples define
a RADIUS server accounting node, the maximum timeout period for RADIUS
server reply, and the interval between retries of an authentication request.
•
The following command defines a RADIUS server accounting node:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM ACCOUNTING HOST ip-addr
•
This command defines the maximum timeout for RADIUS server reply:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS TIMEOUT seconds
•
This command defines how much time elapses before using an alternate
server:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS INTERVAL seconds
Setting the INTERVAL variable defines the time period (in seconds) that the
system is to wait before repeating an authentication request to an alternate
authentication server.
•
This command causes the realm name to be included as part of a user name
sent to the RADIUS server:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM INCLUDE
Realm name inclusion is used for RADIUS proxy authentication service.
Reference
See the Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide for more
information on these commands.
Example: Including the Realm Name
If your realm name has to be included when the access server sends messages to
the RADIUS server, issue the command shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM INCLUDE
For most usage, you will not want to include the realm name. If you do, each
entry in the RADIUS server’s users file will have to appear as “user-name@realmname” instead of simply “user-name”.
If a user has to be called back, this value is derived from User-Service-Type when
specified. If it is not specified, then realm defaults/port defaults can apply:
23-13
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Defining Realm Default Authorization Attributes
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM PERMISSIONS (DIALBACK)
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM CALLBACK ENABLED DIALBACK NUMBER "1-800-555-1111"
Example: Defining Password Authentication Type
Local> CHANGE RADIUS REALM JONAS.COM ACCESS FRAMED
NOTE
The value NONE should be read as unspecified. This allows the port
configuration to determine the access whenever the RADIUS server’s user entry
does not specify one or more authorization attribute.
RADIUS Authorization
When a user attempts to log in using a realm, the user enters a string in the
following format:
user-name@realm-name
The following occurs:
Stage
Description
1
The access server used the realm name to determine the security method
to use when authenticating the login.
2
If the realm name is for a RADIUS server, the access server sends the login
information to a RADIUS authentication host.
3
Upon completing authentication successfully, the RADIUS authentication
host sends a list of authorization parameters to the access server after
authentication completes successfully. These parameters are the intended
settings for the user’s session.
Since the set of attributes that the RADIUS authentication host sends to the access
server can be incomplete, you can set default realm authorization parameters that
provide missing values to complete the authorization set. If a parameter is
missing from both the RADIUS authorization parameters and from the realm’s
default parameters, and the parameter is defined within the port configuration
information, the port supplies the value for the parameter. This resulting set of
parameters is the “authorization” information used for this session.
23-14
Managing Access Server Security
RADIUS User Authorizations
The ultimate value for an authorization attribute may come from one of three
sources: the RADIUS server, the realm defaults, or port characteristics, in that
order of precedence. The choices for such features are:
1. For each RADIUS realm name you define, you can set various authorization
attributes for that realm. These values serve as defaults at the realm level. This
means, that when a RADIUS user tries to login to the access server, these
values will be assigned to authorization attributes if the user entry in the
RADIUS server’s users file does not assign a value for the corresponding
attribute. If the user does not provide the attribute default in the realm, and
the corresponding attribute is not provided in the RADIUS server’s users file,
then the access server’s port characteristics are used if they have been
previously defined.
2. One of the legal settings of the attributes in the realm is NONE. This special
value connotes unspecified. In this case, when a user attempts to log in, if the
value is not specified in the RADIUS server’s entry for the user name, and has
the value NONE in the REALM, then the PORT configuration parameter
assigns the corresponding value.
The resulting value may still be unspecified, if the corresponding port
characteristic is unspecified or does not exist. Only a portion of the RADIUS
authorization attributes have a corresponding realm default or corresponding
port attribute.
User Access to the Access Server
The primary way to define a user’s type of access is to use the RADIUS server
attribute called “User-Service-Type”. The following table shows User-ServiceType values that the access server supports:
Value
Description
Login
LAT/TELNET, depending on the Login-Service attribute or
DEFAULT PROTOCOL value in PORT.
Framed
PPP/SLIP, depending on the Framed-Protocol attribute or
DEFAULT PROTOCOL value in PORT.
Callback-Login
User is first called back, then gets login.
Callback-Framed
PPP/SLIP user is first called back.
Administrative-User
NAS prompt with automatic privilege.
23-15
Managing Access Server Security
Value
Description
NAS-Prompt
Access server’s command or menu prompt.
Callback-NAS-Prompt
Callback first, then NAS prompt.
Setting User Permissions
Permissions are explicitly given by the authorizations that were in the user-name
entry in the RADIUS server’s authentication entry. When any attributes that may
be appropriate are missing, an attempt is made to find a specified value in the
realm defaults. When these are still missing, the port configuration can supply its
specified values (for attributes having a corresponding representation in the port).
Permissions are from a DIGITAL vendor-specific RADIUS attribute. The
following is a list of RADUIS permissions:
DIALOUT
NODIALOUT
LAT
NOLAT
TELNET
NOTELNET
SLIP
NOSLIP
PPP
NOPPP
PRIVILEGED NOPRIVILEGED (level of access server command privilege)
For each of the these attributes, the default is NOxxx or DISABLED.
Additional RADIUS Attributes
The tables in this section contain lists of additional RADIUS attributes that the
access server supports.
23-16
Managing Access Server Security
General Session Attributes
The following table defines the general session RADIUS attributes:
General Session Attributes
Definition
Service-Type
Type of link requested, or change in type of link. Used
in both Access-Request and Access-Accept packets.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Login — Delivers a dedicated connection to
the specified host, using the specified
protocol (Telnet, rlogin, LAT).
Framed — Delivers a network (framed)
protocol connection (PPP, SLIP).
Callback-Login.
Callback-Framed.
Administrative User — Delivers a NAS
prompt with automatic privilege status.
NAS-Prompt — Delivers the NAS user
interface.
Callback-NAS-Prompt.
Session-Timeout
Indicates the maximum number of seconds of service
to be provided to the user, before (mandatory)
termination of the session. Used in Access-Accept
packets.
Idle-Timeout
Indicates the maximum number of consecutive
seconds of idle connection allowed to the user before
(mandatory) termination of the session. Used in
Access-Accept packets.
23-17
Managing Access Server Security
Framed Session Attributes
The following table defines the framed session attributes:
Framed Session Attributes
Definition
Framed-Protocol
Type of framed protocol used for session. Used in
Access-Accept packets.
Values:
•
•
Framed-IP-Address
PPP
SLIP
IP address to be configured for the user (in lieu of
DHCP, or similar). Used in Access-Accept packets.
Note: Two values of this address require special action:
•
•
The value 255.255.255.255 means that the PPP
client should be allowed to negotiate the use
of its local IP address via IPCP, subject to the
access server's subnet containment rules.
The value 255.255.255.254 means that PPP or
SLIP client should be assigned the port's PPP
address, if one exists.
Nonspecial cases would equate to:
SET PORT SLIP HOST ADDRESS ip-addr
SET PORT IPCP HOST ADDRESS ip-addr
Callback-Number
Indicates the phone number to be called, after the user
has been disconnected. This attribute is formatted as a
printable ASCII string, typically containing the
characters that would follow the “ATDT” modem
command.
Interactive Session Attributes
The following table defines the interactive session attributes:
Interactive session
attributes
Definition
Login-IP-Host
The IP address of the host system with which the user is to be
automatically connected. Used in Access-Accept packets.
Login-Service
The type of service to which the user is to be automatically
connected. Used in Access-Accept packets.
Values:
•
•
23-18
Telnet
LAT
Managing Access Server Security
Interactive session
attributes
Definition
Login-Port
Indicates the TCP (or LAT) port number to which the user is to
be automatically connected. Used in Access-Accept packets.
Login-LAT-Service
Indicates the LAT service name to which the user is to be
automatically connected, via LAT. Used in Access-Accept
packets, when the Login-Service type is LAT.
Login-LAT-Node
Indicates the node, within the specified service, to which the
user is to be automatically connected, via LAT. Used in AccessAccept packets, when the Login-Service type is LAT, and a
Login-LAT-Service is specified.
Login-LAT-Groups
Indicates the LAT group codes which the user is authorized to
use. Used in Access-Accept packets, when the Login-Service
type is LAT.
RADIUS General Non-Session Attributes
The following table defines the RADIUS general non-session attributes:
RADIUS
Overhead
Attributes
Definition
NAS-IP-Address
IP address of the NAS. Used in Access-Request packets.
NAS-Port
NAS Port Number. Used in Access-Request packets.
Reply-Message
ASCII text, that the NAS may optionally display. Used in AccessAccept, Access-Reject, or Access-Challenge packets.
State
Opaque data sent from the server to the client in an AccessChallenge packet, to be sent back to the server by the client in a
new Access-Request packet. Needed to support
challenge/response forms of authentication.
Class
Opaque data sent from the server to the client in a Access-Accept
packet, to be sent to the accounting server by the client in a
Accounting-Request packet. Needed to support RADIUS
accounting.
Vendor-Specific
Vendor-specific data, prefixed by the assigned vendor OID. Used
in all but Access-Reject packets. Please refer to the following table
for a list of the vendor-specific attributes.
23-19
Managing Access Server Security
DIGITAL Vendor-Specific Attributes
The following table defines the vendor-specific attributes implemented in CNAS:
DIGITAL Vendor-Specific Attributes
Service Permissions(1)
V-Type — 1 for service permissions.
V-Length >= 3
Integer — The value field is 4 octets. The value is
formatted as a bit map.
Dialout Number (2)
V-Type — 2 for dialout number.
V-Length >= 3
String — Any printable ASCII characters.
Dialback Number (3)
V-Type — 3 for dialback number.
V-Length >= 3
String — Any printable ASCII characters.
Dialout Service (4)
V-Type — 4 for dialout service name.
V-Length >= 3
String — Uppercase ASCII printable characters, starting
with a letter.
RADIUS Accounting Attributes
The following table defines the RADIUS accounting attributes:
RADIUS Accounting
Attributes
Definition
Acct-Status-Type
One of the following types of accounting information:
•
•
•
•
•
23-20
Start
Stop
Accounting-On
Accounting-Off
Checkpoint
Acct-Delay-Time
The amount of relative time from the origination of the
accounting information until the transmission (or
retransmission) of the accounting packet.
Acct-Input-Octets
The number of bytes received on the port during the
delivery of service.
Acct-Output-Octets
The number of bytes transmitted on the port during the
delivery of service.
Managing Access Server Security
RADIUS Accounting
Attributes
Definition
Acct-Session-Id
A unique accounting session ID, preferably related to the
access server accounting log.
Acct-Authentic
An indication of the means of authentication for this user:
• RADIUS
• Local (the User Data Base)
• Remote (the Kerberos or SecurID client)
Acct-Session-Time
The number of seconds for which the service was
delivered to the user.
The Cabletron Network Access Software now reports a number of termination
reason codes to the RADIUS Server when user sessions are completed.
Termination reason codes can be helpful for network troubleshooting and include
informational messages, such as:
•
Lost carrier
•
Idle time
•
User request
•
NAS error
23-21
Managing Access Server Security
Optional RADIUS User Attributes
The RADIUS attributes that the access server supports are as follows:
NOTE
23-22
Session-Timeout
Login-Port
Idle-Timeout
Login-LAT-Service
Framed-Protocol
Login-LAT-Node
Framed-IP-Address
Login-LAT-Groups
Callback-Number
NAS-IP-Address
Login-IP-Host
NAS-Port
Login-Service (Telnet, LAT)
Vendor-Specific
Other RADIUS attributes (particularly accounting attributes) are utilized
internally between the RADIUS server or accounting server and the access
server, which are independent of authorization attributes.
Managing Access Server Security
Managing SecurID
Introduction
The Security Dynamics ACE/Server software performs dynamic two-factor
SecurID authentication. Dynamic two-factor authentication combines something
the user knows—a memorized personal identification number (PIN)—with
something the user possesses—a randomly generated access code that changes
every 60 seconds. The second factor is the tokencode generated by the SecurID
token. This combination of PIN and tokencode represents a one-time passcode
and is transmitted to the ACE/Server software for verification.
The ACE/Server security environment is composed of four components. These
are:
1. ACE/Server software running on a UNIX platform
2. (Optional) slave ACE/Server software running on a UNIX platform
3. Access server running CNAS V2.0 or greater
4. SecurID tokens utilized by users when they attempt to access the ACE/Server
protected ACE/Clients
SecurID utilizes two types of hosts: master and slave. When setting up a SecurID
realm, specify the master host by using the command SET PRIMARY host-name.
You can specify the slave host using the command SET HOST host-name.
Although the access server does allow you to configure multiple slave hosts, you
should not do this.
Using the SECRET Keyword
The SECRET in the SecurID REALM is not specified by the user, but rather is
filled in the first time the realm is used to authenticate a user. After that, you can
clear it by using the NOSECRET qualifier in the CHANGE SECURID REALM
command. If you clear it or if you delete the realm and then re-create it, you must
reset the client on the authentication server side using the SecurID server
administrator program.
SecurID Prompts
The default prompt for SecurID is ENTER PASSCODE>. This default is set when
you create a new realm. This is the standard SecurID prompt.
23-23
Managing Access Server Security
SecurID Ports
Normally, you do not need to change the SecurID master and slave SERVICE
PORT. If the default values do not match with those assigned on your hosts, then
change the values in the access server to match those on the hosts.
SecurID Realms
SecurID servers do not provide any authorization data; therefore, any
authorization information comes from the SecurID realm or the port
characteristics.
If a SecurID card is in a new PIN mode and the new PIN is coming from the access
server, the new pin is displayed for 10 seconds and then erased.
Minimal Setup for SecurID
The minimal configuration requires the following commands to set up the remote
ports used for communication with SecurID. These features must be assigned in
order for any communication with SecurID or SecurID accounting to take place.
•
The following example shows the command used to set up SecurID security:
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM realm-name
•
This command defines and initializes a new SecurID realm:
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM JONAS.COM AUTHEN HOST ip-addr
Optional Setup for SecurID
The commands in the following example can be used to configure additional
security parameters for SecurID. The commands in these examples will define a
SecurID accounting node, define the maximum timeout period for SecurID reply,
and define the interval between retries of an authentication request.
Local> CHANGE SECURID TIMEOUT seconds
This command defines the maximum timeout for SecurID reply.
Local> CHANGE SECURID INTERVAL seconds
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM realm-name INCLUDE
This command causes the realm name to be included as part of a user name sent
to SecurID. Realm name inclusion is used for SecurID proxy authentication
service. See the Cabletron Network Access Software Command Reference guide for
more information on this command.
23-24
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Including the Realm Name
If your realm name has to be included when the access server sends messages to
SecurID, issue the command shown in the following example:
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM realm-name INCLUDE
For most usage, you will not want to include the realm name. If you do, each
entry in the SecurID users file will have to appear as “user-name@realm-name”
instead of simply “user-name”.
If a user has to be called back, this value is derived from User-Service-Type when
specified. If it is not specified, then realm defaults/port defaults can apply:
Example: Defining Realm Default Authorization Attributes
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM JONAS.COM PERMISSIONS (DIALBACK)
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM JONAS.COM CALLBACK ENABLED DIALBACK NUMBER "1-800-555-1111"
Example: Defining Password Authentication Type
Local> CHANGE SECURID REALM JONAS.COM ACCESS FRAMED
NOTE
The value NONE should be read as unspecified. This allows the port
configuration to determine the access whenever the SecurID realm default does
not specify one or more authorization attribute.
SecurID User Authorizations
Optional authorizations can come from the SecurID user description which is
defined specifically for a particular SecurID implementation. It is possible to
define realm defaults, within the access server. The ultimate value for an
authorization attribute may come from one of three sources: the SecurID, the
realm defaults, or port characteristics, in that order of precedence. The choices for
such features are:
•
For each SecurID realm name you define, you can set various authorization
attributes for that realm. These values serve as defaults at the realm level. This
means, that when a SecurID user tries to login to the access server, these values
will be assigned to authorization attributes. If the user does not provide the
attribute default in the realm, then the access server’s port characteristics are
used if they have been previously defined.
23-25
Managing Access Server Security
•
One of the legal settings of the attributes in the realm is NONE. This special
value connotes unspecified. In this case, when a user attempts to log in, if the
value is not specified in the SecurID entry for the user name, and has the value
NONE in the REALM, then the PORT configuration parameter assigns the
corresponding value.
Setting User Permissions
Permissions are explicitly given by the value in the realm defaults. When these
are still missing, the port configuration can supply its specified values (for
attributes having a corresponding representation in the port).
Permissions are CNAS vendor-specific. The following is a list of SecurID
permissions:
DIALOUT
NODIALOUT
LAT
NOLAT
TELNET
NOTELNET
SLIP
NOSLIP
PPP
NOPPP
PRIVILEGED
NOPRIVILEGED (level of access server command privilege)
For each of the above attributes, the default is NOxxx or DISABLED.
23-26
Managing Access Server Security
Managing Local Access Server Security
Introduction
The tasks described in this section cover the configuration of the local access
server realm and setup of local user accounts.
Configuration of server security involves:
•
Access server realm configuration
•
Local user account configuration parameter
Defining the Realm
Realm names must be unique within a given type of authentication.
In the case of the server realm, the realm name indicates local (or NAS)
authentication.
The SET/DEFINE/CHANGE CLEAR/PURGE REALM realm-name command
family sets up and tears down the various realms used to identify particular
administrative domains.
Example: Setting the Server Realm
In the following example, the command defines a new server realm. The keyword
realm-name is the proper name of the newly defined realm. Before using this new
realm, you must assign additional realm parameters to it.
Local> SET SERVER REALM JONAS.COM
23-27
Managing Access Server Security
Determining Security Configuration
Displaying RADIUS, SECURID, and KERBEROS Characteristics
The SHOW {RADIUS | SECURID | KERBEROS} CHARACTERISTICS command
displays all configured realm names, along with any pertinent configuration
parameters. This command is privileged. It shows the various RADIUS and
SecurID servers that are configured for the access server as well as the Kerberos
KDCs. It also shows the existing local server security database.
Example: Showing RADIUS Characteristics
The following example shows the resulting display for the SHOW RADIUS
CHARACTERISTICS command:
Local> SHOW RADIUS
Retransmit Interval:
00:00:01
Authentication Service Port: 1645
Realm:
Realm Inclusion:
Prompt:
Secret:
Accounting Host:
Authentication Host:
Authorization Defaults:
Access:
Max Connect:
DialBack Number:
DialOut Number:
Permissions:
23-28
Retransmit TimeOut:
Account Service Port:
00:00:20
1646
XXX.YYY.XXX.COM
EXCLUDE
Password>
(Entered)
16.20.55.66
16.20.55.77
None
Forced Callback:
ENABLED
00 08:00:00 DialOut Service:
DIAL14400
555-1234
(Any)
DIALBACK, DIALOUT, LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP,
NOPRIVILEGE
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Showing SecurID
The following example shows the resulting display for the SHOW SECURID
CHARACTERISTICS command:
Local> SHOW SECURID
Retransmit Interval: 00:00:02
Retransmit TimeOut: 00.00.20
Service Port:
755
Realm:
AAA.BBB.CCC.COM
Realm Inclusion:
EXCLUDE Encoding Format: DES
Prompt:
Enter Passcode>
Secret:
(Entered)
Primary Host:
16.20.55.66
Authorization Defaults:
Access:
INTERACTIVE Forced Callback: DISABLED
Max Connect:
00 08:00:00 DialOut Service: DIAL28800
DialBack Number:
555-1234
DialOut Number:
(Any)
Permissions:
DIALBACK, DIALOUT, LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP,
NONPRIVILEGED, NOPRIVILEGED
Example: Showing the Server Realm
Local> SHOW SERVER REALM
Realm:
local.NAS
Max Fails:
3
Authorization Defaults:
Access:
INTERACTIVE
Forced Callback:
DISABLE
Max Connect:
00 08:00:00
DialOut Service:
DIAL9600
DialBack Number:
555-1234
DialOut Number:
(Any)
Permissions:
DIALBACK, DIALOUT, LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP,
NONPRIVILEGED, NOPRIVILEGED
23-29
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Displaying Kerberos Characteristics
The following example shows the resulting display for the SHOW KERBEROS
CHARACTERISTICS command:
Local> SHOW KERBEROS
Retransmit Interval: 00:00:01 Retransmit TimeOut: 00:00:20
Ticket service port: 750 Password service port: 751
Default Realm:
33H.LKG.FOO.COM
Secret:
(None)
Primary Host:
prowlr.lkg.foo.com
Master Host:
ds900.lkg.foo.com
Host:
foo.bar.foo.com
Authorization Defaults:
Access:
INTERACTIVE Forced Callback:
DISABLED
Max Connect:
00 08:00:00 DialOut Service:
DIAL14400
DialBack Number: 555-1234
DialOut Number:
(Any)
Permissions:
LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP, DIALBACK, DIALOUT
Displaying Security Summary
To show the security summary, use the SHOW SECURITY SUMMARY command.
This command displays all of the currently configured security realms. It
provides a subset of the data produced by the SHOW SECURITY command.
Example: Showing the Security Summary
Local> SHOW SECURITY SUMMARY
Logout Warning --------------------------------------------Interval
0
Times
0
Kerberos --------------------------------------------------Default Realm:
33H.LKG.FOO.COM
Realm:
kerberos.realm.somewhere
RADIUS ----------------------------------------------------Realm:
realmname1
SecurID ---------------------------------------------------Realm:
realmnam2
Server ----------------------------------------------------Realm:
realmname3
23-30
Managing Access Server Security
Showing the Authentication Counters
This access server can display the counters for all realms (local, RADIUS,
KERBEROS). Any session authenticated by RADIUS attempts to send accounting
data to the RADIUS Server. Sessions authenticated by other methods may be
configured to send accounting packets to a RADIUS accounting server as well (if
one exists).
Reference
See SHOW AUTHENTICATION COUNTERS in the Cabletron Network Access
Server Command Reference guide for a sample of this display.
Showing the User Port Authorization Profile
The SHOW AUTHORIZATION command shows the user profile being used for
the specified port(s).
Example: Showing the User Port Authorization Profile
The following example shows the resulting display for this command for a port
that was authenticated:
Local> SHOW PORT 7 AUTHORIZATION
Port 7: user1
Server: ACCESS1
Username: user1@finance_realm
Access:
LOCAL Forced CallBack:
DISABLED
Max Connect:
00 08:00:00 DialOut Service:
DIAL14400
Remaining Time:
00 00:33:24 Framed IP Address:
16.22.33.44
Login IP Host:
16.20.22.33 Login LAT Service:
LATSERVICE
Login Service Type:
LAT Login Port:
15
Authenticated By: 16.129.42.15 Authentication Type:
RADIUS
Login LAT Node:
MONEY
DialOut Number:
(Any)
DialBack Number: 1-802-767-8345
Login LAT Groups: 1,2,5,66-68,133,135,139,172,206,230-250
Permissions:
LAT, TELNET, SLIP, PPP, DIALACK, DIALOUT,
NONPRIVILEGED
Showing Security Counters
The SHOW/LIST/MONITOR SECURITY COUNTERS command displays all
port-related security counters. This display is very similar to results from the
SHOW PORT AUTHENTICATION COUNT command shown in the previous
example.
23-31
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Showing Security Counters
Local> SHOW PORT 8 SECURITY COUNTERS
23-32
Managing Access Server Security
Managing Dial-Up Access Security with AUTOLINK
and AUTOLINK Authentication
Introduction
AUTOLINK lets PC clients log in using SLIP, PPP, and character cell terminal
mode.
AUTOLINK AUTHENTICATION provides a flexible and secure method for
clients to authenticate when using AUTOLINK. A single port can support
authenticated logins from different types of PPP clients, which may have different
LCP authentication capabilities. For SLIP or PPP clients that do not support PAP
or CHAP authentication, an interactive or script-based login will be used. When
you enable AUTOLINK AUTHENTICATION, only one form of authentication is
required during any port login.
When you use AUTOLINK authentication, a successful user login requires a user
name/password authentication. The user name/password authentication
requirement is independent of how you configure port characteristics (PORT
AUTHENTICATION and LCP AUTHENTICATION).
To use AUTOLINK authentication, you need to set the DEFAULT PROTOCOL
and DEDICATED SERVICE for the port to use the AUTOLINK protocol, and then
enable the AUTOLINK AUTHENTICATION port characteristic.
Activating AUTOLINK
The port begins the AUTOLINK search protocol when the port has begun its login
process. AUTOLINK examines the characters arriving on the port and determines
if a PC is using PPP, SLIP, or a character-cell terminal emulation (which may be a
login script).
If AUTOLINK does not detect a PPP or SLIP start frame character within a userset timeout, it chooses character-cell mode. Note that a user or the login script can
expedite the choice of character-cell mode by entering a carriage return character.
Example: Configuring the Port
The following example shows how to set the port’s default protocol and
dedicated service to AUTOLINK:
Local> DEFINE PORT DEFAULT PROTOCOL AUTOLINK
Local> DEFINE PORT DEDICATED SERVICE AUTOLINK
23-33
Managing Access Server Security
Enabling AUTOLINK Authentication
If you want authenticated logins, you must separately configure the port to
require AUTOLINK AUTHENTICATION. The authentication can be by PPP PAP,
PPP CHAP, or interactively by terminal emulation (which could be a script). The
PC client is required to provide one authentication. SLIP users are treated as if
they are character-cell users.
Once authentication is successful, the protocol identified by AUTOLINK (PPP,
SLIP, or local login) starts.
Example: Enabling AUTOLINK Authentication
The following example shows how to enable AUTOLINK authentication:
Local> DEFINE PORT AUTOLINK AUTHENTICATION ENABLE
The SHOW PORT CHARACTERISTICS command shows AUTOLINK
authentication enabled in the ENABLED CHARACTERISTICS section.
Specifying an Authentication Method
The following table describes the authentication method used when you enable
AUTOLINK AUTHENTICATION and specify an LCP authentication method,
and an interactive authentication was not already performed prior to LCP
negotiation.
LCP Authentication
Results
PAP USERNAME
PC clients that connect immediately using PPP will be
authenticated using PPP PAP authentication. This setting is
required when you use Kerberos or SecurID authentication.
For Kerberos authentication, you must set the Kerberos
realm default ACCESS to NONE.
For other forms of authentication, such as RADIUS, CHAP
USERNAME may be used.
If you user the PAP NOUSERNAME options with the PORT
LCP AUTHENTICATION command, the login fails.
23-34
Managing Access Server Security
LCP Authentication
Results
Disabled
PC clients that connect immediately using PPP will be
authenticated using either CHAP or PAP authentication. If
the LCP negotiation for CHAP is not acknowledged, the
access server requires PPP PAP authentication.
CHAP USERNAME
PC clients that connect immediately to PPP will be
authenticated using PPP CHAP authentication.
If you user the CHAP NOUSERNAME options with the
PORT LCP AUTHENTICATION command, the login fails.
If you use either the PAP NOUSERNAME or CHAP NOUSERNAME options
with the PORT LCP AUTHENTICATION command when you enable
AUTOLINK authentication, the login fails.
Note if you configure the default protocol and dedicated service for the port as
AUTOLINK and you disable AUTOLINK authentication, SLIP and character-cell
users may be connected without authentication. This will occur even if PPP users
are authenticated because of the port’s LCP AUTHENTICATION characteristics.
Setting AUTOLINK Timers
You can set an AUTOLINK timer to specify how long the port waits to detect the
protocol of the user session. If the port does not detect a valid PPP frame, a valid
SLIP frame, or a single carriage return character, the session defaults to character
cell terminal.
AUTOLINK makes two passes to determine the authentication style and the
protocol of the user session:
1. If authentication is required, the first pass determines the authentication style.
Either PPP authentication or character-cell authentication can be used. You
can set the timer for the first pass to be between 10 and 60 seconds. If no
authentication is required, AUTOLINK determines the session style.
2. If there has been an authentication pass, the second pass determines the
protocol of the user session. The protocol can be SLIP, PPP, or character-cell
terminal. You can set the timer for the second pass to be between 0 and 60
seconds. If the timer expires, AUTOLINK assumes a character-cell terminal.
23-35
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Setting AUTOLINK Timers
The following example shows how to set AUTOLINK timers:
Local> DEFINE PORT AUTOLINK TIMER PASS ONE 30
Local> DEFINE PORT AUTOLINK TIMER PASS TWO 50
Timeouts
The following are the properties of AUTOLINK timeouts:
•
A user has one minute to complete an interactive login successfully. The clock
starts from the time the USERNAME> prompt is displayed. This includes the
time for the user name/password request to be processed by the
authentication server. After one minute elapses, the port is logged out and the
modem is disconnected.
•
When a terminal emulation window first appears, it is blank. Entering a
carriage return produces a USERNAME > prompt. If you do not enter a
carriage return, the prompt is displayed after a user-set timeout (AUTOLINK
PASS ONE). At this point the one minute time limit is initiated.
•
If a user authenticates successfully in a terminal window (or a script), a single
carriage return or a lapse of a user-set timeout (AUTOLINK PASS TWO)
produces a local prompt. The user or the script can enter C PPP or C SLIP to
begin framed operation.
Using a Login Script
If you use a login script on the remote client, your script must include the
following:
23-36
Stage
Description
1
The script must send a carriage return character. Alternatively, the script can
send no characters for [AUTOLINK TIMER PASS ONE] seconds (note that
this is not the preferred method).
2
The script searches for Username> and responds with the user’s user name
and a carriage return.
3
The script searches for Password> and responds with the user’s password
and a carriage return.
Managing Access Server Security
Stage
Description
4
The script searches for:
Local -451- Authentication successful
5
The script exits and allows the framed protocol to run. Note that the key
phrase to search for is “Authentication successful”.
23-37
Managing Access Server Security
Specifying Other Security Features
Introduction
This section describes various security features on interactive ports.
Specifying Dedicated Service for LAT or Telnet Resources
The results of specifying a dedicated service on a port are as follows:
•
The device on the port appears hard-wired to a specific resource.
•
The access server establishes only one session for the port.
•
Local mode cannot be entered on that port, although login and service
passwords can still be defined for the user on that port.
•
The access server automatically enables AUTOCONNECT for that port.
AUTOCONNECT is not cleared when the dedicated service is cleared.
Kerberos Requirement
For Kerberos, the server name must be unique.
When you specify any LAT or Telnet resource to be a dedicated service, the host
or service name, node name, and port name are limited to 16 characters each.
LAT Protocol Requirement
To set a LAT service as a dedicated service, the default protocol must be set to
LAT. The following shows how to enable the LAT service, FILES, as the dedicated
service on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 DEDICATED FILES
You can specify that the connection be made to a particular node and/or port
name of the LAT service. The following shows how to specify that port 5 connects
to port JAMES on node MARKETING for service FILES:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 DEDICATED FILES NODE MARKETING
DESTINATION JAMES
Telnet Requirement
To set an Internet host as a dedicated service, the default protocol must be set to
TELNET. You can use the host’s Internet address, domain name, or relative
domain name if the host is defined in a name server; however, you cannot use the
entire domain name if the name is more than 16 characters, including the dots.
23-38
Managing Access Server Security
The following shows how to enable a host on the TCP/IP network,
SALE.MKT.FOO.COM, as a dedicated service on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 DEDICATED SALE.MKT.FOO.COM
Normally, the user must press the Return key to connect to the LAT or Internet
host. However, if SIGNAL CONTROL or MODEM CONTROL is enabled, the
port automatically connects to the host. The following shows how to enable
SIGNAL CONTROL on port 5:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5 SIGNAL CONTROL ENABLED
Specifying Passwords
There are two password characteristics that you need to set: SERVER LOGIN
PASSWORD and PORT PASSWORD. SERVER LOGIN PASSWORD defines the
password for the access server. PORT PASSWORD enables the login password on
a particular port.
A single login password is used for the whole access server although the
password is enabled on a port-by-port basis. This password is most likely to be
useful when you wish to reserve access to a terminal located in a public place. For
example, in a widely used computer center, you want to keep a terminal open for
your computer-services staff. Enabling the login password would prevent your
general user population from using that terminal.
You can enable the login password for a port with a session management
terminal.The terminal user must enter the password when initially logging in to
the access server.
If you plan to enable the login password at one or more ports, you should take
care in selecting with whom you share the password. In addition, you should
change the password on a regular basis and inform those selected users of the
new password.
The login password can be 1 to 16 ASCII characters. The factory-set default login
password is ACCESS.
23-39
Managing Access Server Security
Login Password Definition Example
The following example shows how to define TOTAL as the login password:
Local> CHANGE SERVER LOGIN PASSWORD "TOTAL"
or
Local> CHANGE SERVER LOGIN PASSWORD
Password> TOTAL (not echoed)
VERIFICATION> TOTAL (not echoed)
Local>
You must enable the PASSWORD characteristic at the port level. The following
shows how to enable PASSWORD at ports 5, 6, and 7:
Local> CHANGE PORT 5,6,7 PASSWORD ENABLED
Once the PASSWORD characteristic is enabled at a port, the login prompt (#)
appears at the port device accompanied by a beep signal when the user logs in to
the port. The user must enter the login password to gain access to the port.
You can change the login password, but you cannot clear the password. If you
specify NONE or type a null string ("") on the command line, you receive an error
message.
To reset the default ACCESS, specify "ACCESS" on the command line or ACCESS
at the Password> prompt.
Specifying PASSWORD LIMIT
The PASSWORD LIMIT characteristic specifies the following:
23-40
•
The number of times that a port user with the PASSWORD and/or
AUTHENTICATION port characteristic enabled can incorrectly enter the login
password before the port is automatically logged out. If the port user fails to
type the correct password within the number of allowed attempts, that user is
not allowed to complete the login sequence for 1 minute. After 1 minute, the
user can attempt to log in again.
•
The number of times that a port user can incorrectly enter the privileged
password before the port is automatically logged out by the access sever.
•
For services that are password protected, the number of times that a user is
prompted for the correct password before a connection request is denied. The
value must be in the range of 0 to 10 attempts. If you specify 0, no attempts are
allowed. The factory-set default is 3.
Managing Access Server Security
Example: Changing the Server Password Attempt Limit
The following example shows how to change the password limit to 6:
Local> CHANGE SERVER PASSWORD LIMIT 6
23-41
Managing Access Server Security
23-42
Chapter 24
Managing Remote Login
Overview
The remote login client (Rlogin) is supported by Cabletron Network Access
Software. The Rlogin protocol, described in informational RFC 1282, allows users
to log onto a remote computer (similar to Telnet). Rlogin supports preauthenticated sessions on hosts that have been configured with trust
relationships. This allows users to connect to those hosts without needing to enter
a username and password.
In This Chapter
This chapter includes the following topics:
•
Rlogin features
•
Rlogin characteristics
•
Configuring a Rlogin client
24-1
Managing Remote Login
Rlogin Features
The following is a list of Rlogin features implemented in this release of the
Cabletron Network Access Software:
•
Rlogin runs over TCP/IP. Once a TCP/IP connection to the target system is
established, the Rlogin client sends two frames to the Rlogin server. The first
consists of a null. The second contains the username at the client side, the
username at the server side, and the terminal type and speed. The server
responds with a request for the terminal window display size at the client side,
and then begins sending data (usually the banner a user sees once logged in).
The client side replies to the window size request, then starts transmitting data,
character by character.
•
Rlogin conforms to all urgent data commands specified in RFC 1282, namely:
— Flush (02)
— RAW mode (10)
— COOKED mode (20)
— Request for window size (80)
24-2
•
A Rlogin session operates in one of two modes. The Rlogin server controls
when the session is in RAW or COOKED mode. In RAW mode, all user input
is passed directly to the Rlogin server. In COOKED mode, the Access Server
processes XON/ XOFF flow control chargers (STOP is Ctrl/S and START is
Ctrl/Q) and does not pass them on to the Rlogin server. For this to work
properly, turn off the XON/ XOFF flow control on your terminal.
•
Security Realm permissions added for Rlogin include RLOGIN and
NORLOGIN.
•
Support for RADIUS-specified Rlogin sessions — If the login type is 1 (Rlogin)
or the vendor specific attribute (VSA) is detected, the user will see a Rlogin
session upon authentication.
•
Existing port counters are used to indicate if data is lost while suspending
input to the Rlogin server.
•
The meaning of the Access Server’s port setting of default protocol ANY is
extended to include Rlogin. The CONNECT command attempts to connect to
the server in this order: LAT, Telnet, and Rlogin.
Managing Remote Login
Rlogin Characteristics
The following is a list of Rlogin characteristics:
•
Client username — The client username sent to the Rlogin server is the
username at the Rlogin client that is stored in the port’s authorization
information. This means the Access Server user has been authenticated and the
username given during that process is the first choice for the rlogin protocol. If
there is no authorization information available, the Access Server’s port
username is used.
•
Server username — The server username sent to the Rlogin server is the
username at the Rlogin server and is provided when entering the Rlogin
command. If one is not provided, the server username is the name that is stored
in the port’s authorization information. If there is no authorization information
available, the Access Server’s port username is used.
•
Terminal type — The terminal type sent to the Rlogin server is the one specified
by the port Rlogin terminal type. You can set, define, or change the terminal
type. The default is unknown, if no terminal type is specified.
•
Terminal speed — The terminal speed sent to the Rlogin server is the Access
Server port output speed.
•
Display size — The display size sent to the Rlogin server is 24 lines by 80
columns. You cannot change the display size.
•
Escape character — The default Rlogin escape character is ~ (a tilde) and is only
recognized at the beginning of a line. The escape character can be modified.
•
There are two character sequences that will cause the Access Server to quit the
Rlogin session immediately:
— These are the escape character followed by Ctrl/D, for example ~ Ctrl/D.
— The escape character followed by a period, for example ~.
To close the Rlogin session gracefully, use the Rlogin server’s EXIT command.
•
Suspend input — To suspend input to the server, use the escape character
followed by Ctrl/Y. The server’s output is not affected. This character will
toggle the feature on and off. The default is Ctrl/Y, but can be modified.
•
Suspend output — To suspend both input to the server and output from the
server, use the escape character followed by Ctrl/Z. The default is Ctrl/Z, but
can be modified.
24-3
Managing Remote Login
Configuring a Rlogin Client
The Rlogin component implemented in the Cabletron Access Server Network
Access Software is a Rlogin client. A user can initiate a Rlogin session from an
Access Server, but a user cannot Rlogin onto an Access Server by means of a
connection over a LAN.
Follow these steps to configure a Rlogin client:
Step
Action
1
Turn off the terminal’s XON/XOFF flow control. (This is not the Access Server’s
flow control.)
2
Set the port Rlogin terminal to the appropriate VTxxx value. For example:
Local> SET PORT RLOGIN TERMINAL type
If you want this change to be permanent, you can use the DEFINE/CHANGE
PORT command if you are a privileged user.
If VTxxx does not describe your terminal, then skip this step, but verify that
you have the correct terminal type specified once you have made a Rlogin
connection. If it is not set correctly, modify your environment on the remote
system.
3
Configure the remote system to accept your Rlogin request.
•
•
If you are configuring Rlogin for DIGITAL UNIX, see Step 4 in this
table.
If you are configuring Rlogin for OpenVMS, See Step 5 in this table.
Refer to your local system documentation for more information about
configuring remote systems.
24-4
Managing Remote Login
Step
Action
4
There are two ways you can configure Rlogin for DIGITAL UNIX:
1. In the user’s home directory, add an entry to the .rhosts file, specifying the
Access Server’s name or IP address, and the client username. For example:
myserver.foo.com smith
or
2. Add an entry specifying the Access Server’s name or address to the
/etc/hosts.equiv file in the root directory. See Rlogin manpages for
restrictions and syntax.
5
To configure Rlogin for OpenVMS, enter the following command:
UCX> SET PROXY user /HOST=hostname /REMOTE_USERNAME=username
UCX> ENABLE SERVICE RLOGIN
Where hostname gives the Access Server’s address or name.
See UCX Help for more information.
24-5
Managing Remote Login
24-6
Chapter 25
Accounting
Overview
Introduction
This chapter describes the network access server accounting component. The
basis of an accounting facility is the logging of events related to user access. These
events can be useful to support audit trails, billing, capacity planning, and
connection trouble-shooting.
In This Chapter
This chapter contains the following topics:
•
Accounting Description
•
What Events Are Logged?
•
When Events Are Logged
•
Managing Accounting
•
Using the Accounting Console Logging Feature
25-1
Accounting
Accounting Description
Introduction
The configuration of the accounting feature is supported using SNMP and the
user interface. The accounting log itself is also accessible by both mechanisms.
There is also a facility for sending accounting events to the access server console
port as they occur.
Accounting Log File
The accounting component stores information about significant user events (for
example, logins) in an accounting log file. The size of the log file is defined by the
administrator (see the Defining the Accounting Log Size section in this chapter)
and if set to zero, no logging will occur. The log file can be viewed as a circular
buffer with entries added in chronological order. When the end of the buffer is
reached, a newly created entry will overwrite the oldest existing entry.
Since the access server offers limited mass storage, preserving the accounting
information requires the use of the console logging feature (see the Using the
Accounting Console Logging Feature section in this chapter) or a “harvester”
application running on a management station. To facilitate this harvest
application, the accounting component can be configured to send notifications
when checkpoints (thresholds) have been crossed in the log file. These
notifications are in the form of SNMP traps.
25-2
Accounting
What Events Are Logged?
Contents of Log Entry Types
The following table shows the fields that are logged in each accounting log entry
type:
Log
Entry
Type
Event
Time
Port
Port Login
X
X
X
Port Logout
X
X
X
Session Connect
Attempt
X
X
X
X
X
Session Disconnect
X
X
X
X
X
Kerberos Password
Fail
X
X
X
X
Privilege Password
Fail
X
X
X
X
Maintenance
Password Fail
X
X
X
Login Password
Fail
X
X
X
Remote Password
Fail
X
X
X
SNMP Community
Fail
X
X
Privilege Password
Modified
X
X
X
X
Maintenance
Password
Modified
X
X
X
X
Login Password
Modified
X
X
X
X
User Privilege
Level Modified
X
X
X
X
SNMP Community
Modified
X
X
X
X
Remote Password
Modified
X
X
X
X
ID
Port
Access
Peer
Reason
Tx
Rx
X
X
X
X
User
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
25-3
Accounting
Event Field Descriptions
The following table describes the fields in the accounting log entries:
Field
Description
Event
Provides the ability to distinguish the event type. The valid event
types are listed in the previous table.
Time
Current server system uptime when entry was created.
Port
•
For session connect/ disconnect events:
-
Local Access: The port the session connect or
disconnect occurred on. If the connection is initiated
from a physical port, this field will have the physical
port number. If the connection is initiated from an
existing remote console connection, the port number
will be one higher than the maximum physical port
number.
-
Remote Access: For a remote console connection
(MOP or Telnet), the port will be one higher than the
maximum physical port number. For a connection to
a LAT service or Telnet listener (other than listener
23), the port will be the destination physical port the
connection is made to. If no port is available, the port
field will be zero.
Note: If a connection is created from a physical or remote console
port to a Telnet listener or LAT service on the same server, two
session connect events will be logged: one for the local access from
the source port and one for the remote access to the destination
port. Two disconnect events will also be logged when the session is
torn down. In each log entry, the port number will follow the rules
stated above.
• For nonsession events, the port that the event occurred on.
ID
25-4
The internal ID associated with an active session (not those that are
displayed in the SHOW SESSION displays). The session IDs are
always unique across the server at any given time (though they
may be reused after a session is disconnected).
Accounting
Field
Description
Port
• Session connect/disconnect: The protocol associated with
the session attempt or disconnect. These values can be:
-
LAT
-
TELNET
-
MOP
-
TN3270
-
SLIP
-
PPP
-
AUTOLINK
-
PING
Note: For a TN3270 session, the protocol type may appear as
TELNET for the connect event and TN3270 for the disconnect
event. For an AUTOLINK session, the protocol may appear as
AUTOLINK for the connect event and either AUTOLINK, SLIP, or
PPP in the disconnect event, depending on what protocol was
used last.
• SNMP Community Fail: SNMP_IP (representing SNMP
over IP).
Access
The access type, either Local or Remote.
25-5
Accounting
Field
Description
Peer
The value of this field varies depending on the protocol field, as
follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reason
25-6
LAT
-
Local Access: For nondedicated/preferred case,
whatever you type following the CONNECT [LAT]
command. For example, C CLUSTER1 (peer is
CLUSTER1); C CLUSTER1 NODE NODE1 (peer is
CLUSTER1 NODE1). If dedicated/preferred service
is defined, the peer field will contain the service
name.
-
Remote Access: The local service name followed by
the remote node name.
Telnet
-
Local Access: For nondedicated/preferred case,
whatever you type following the CONNECT/Telnet
command. For example, TELNET NODE1 (peer is
NODE1); TELNET NODE1.finance.acme.com (peer
is NODE1.finance.acme.com). If
dedicated/preferred service is defined, the peer field
will be the service name.
-
Remote Access: The remote node's IP address
followed by the remote TCP port number.
PING: Whatever you type following the PING
command. For example, PING NODE1 (peer is
NODE1); PING
NODE1.finance.acme.com (peer is
NODE1.finance.acme.com).
MOP (maintenance password fail event): The Ethernet
address of the remotely connected device.
SLIP: The peer field is SLIP.
PPP: The peer field is PPP.
AUTOLINK: The peer field is AUTOLINK.
SNMP_IP (SNMP community fail event): The IP address
of the SNMP management station.
The reason for the disconnect, either Normal or Error. Normal
represents the session being brought down by user action (you log
out of the session or do a DISCONNECT SESSION at the local
prompt). Error refers to cases where the session is refused by the
protocol for some reason (insufficient resources, not authorized for
group code in case of LAT, or couldn’t resolve name in case of
Telnet).
Accounting
Field
Description
Tx
• Session Disconnect Event: The number of bytes of
successfully transmitted user data on this session at the
time of session termination. This field will always be zero
for MOP remote console connections.
• Logout Event: The number of bytes output to the port
during the life of the associated login.
Rx
• Session Disconnect Event: The number of bytes of
successfully received user data on this session at the time
of session termination. This field will always be zero for
MOP remote console connections.
• Logout Event: The number of bytes input to the port
during the life of the associated login.
Subtracting the sum of all the session disconnect Tx/Rx fields
during the life of a login from the Tx/Rx values in the logout event
will yield the Tx/Rx count of bytes sent and received while the
user was in local mode.
User
This field is a variable length string as follows:
•
Login Events: When authentication is enabled on the
port, this field will contain the entire Kerberos user
name string (for example, jones@finance.acme.com).
•
All Other Events: This field will contain the user name
string associated with the port (the string in the first field
of the SHOW PORT display).
The SET PORT USERNAME command may change a port’s user
name from the string stored at login. This can cause entries
associated with a particular login to have different user name
fields. The login entry, when Kerberos is enabled, is the only
trusted source for the user name.
25-7
Accounting
When Events Are Logged
Introduction
This section describes when each specific event type is logged.
Login Events
Login events are logged at the time of the successful login (just before the user
gets the Local> prompt). Unsuccessful login attempts are handled by Kerberos
Password Fail, Login Password Fail, or Remote Password Fail events.
Logout Events
Logout events are stored when the port is logged out. There is always an
associated login event.
Session Connect Attempt Events
Session connect attempt events are stored when a session connect is being
attempted (either user-initiated or dedicated). All attempts are logged whether
they are successful or not.
Session Disconnect Events
Session disconnect events are logged when a session connect attempt fails or
when an existing session is terminated. There is always an associated session
connect attempt event. Use the disconnect reason or bytes Tx/Rx to determine
whether the connection attempt was successful.
Password Fail Events
Password fail (Kerberos, Privilege, Maintenance, Login, Remote) events are
logged for every attempt to enter the associated password.
SNMP Community Fail Events
SNMP community fail events are logged whenever an SNMP access attempt is
made with a community name and/or source IP address that is not enabled on
the access server.
25-8
Accounting
Password Modified Events
Password modified events (Privilege, Maintenance, Login, Remote) are logged
whenever the associated password is modified with a SET/DEFINE/CHANGE
command. A single event is logged for each UI command (only one event is
logged for a CHANGE command). SET commands cannot be distinguished from
DEFINE commands. If a user sets the password to the existing value, an event is
still logged.
User Privilege Level Modified Events
User privilege level modified events are logged whenever a user does a SET PRIV
command and successfully provides the privilege password at the Password>
prompt. If the user is already privileged, the event is still logged.
SNMP Community Modified Events
SNMP community modified events are logged whenever a user adds or deletes
an SNMP community string on the access server. They are also logged if an
existing community’s access capabilities are modified (SET SNMP COMMUNITY
PUBLIC SET ENABLE). If the user sets the community to existing values, an
event is still logged. A single event is logged for each UI command (only one
event will be logged for a CHANGE command). SET commands cannot be
distinguished from DEFINE commands. If a user does a CLEAR/PURGE SNMP
COMMUNITY ALL, a single event will be logged.
25-9
Accounting
Managing Accounting
Introduction
You can manage the accounting feature fully by using SNMP or the user interface.
You can access the accounting log itself using both mechanisms. This section
describes the user interface commands you can use to manage the accounting
feature.
Reference
Refer to SNMP Survival Guide (located on the CNAS distribution media) for
instructions on managing the accounting component with SNMP.
Defining the Accounting Log Size
Use the DEFINE ACCOUNTING LOGSIZE command to control the amount of
memory allocated at initialization to create the log file. Valid values for the
LOGSIZE variable are 0, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and 512 (units are kilobytes). If
the accounting component cannot allocate the specified amount of memory at the
time of initialization, the value displayed for LOGSIZE in the SHOW
ACCOUNTING CHARACTERISTICS display will be set to zero.
If this occurs, define a smaller value for LOGSIZE. This characteristic can only be
modified with a DEFINE command. Note that a newly defined value will not take
effect until the next time the server is reinitialized.
NOTE
An access server configured with 2 megabytes of memory may not have sufficient
resources to allow for the creation of an accounting log.
Example: Defining the Accounting Log Size
The following shows how to set the size of allocated memory to 512 KB:
Local> DEFINE ACCOUNTING LOGSIZE 512
25-10
Accounting
Changing the Accounting Threshold
Use the ACCOUNTING THRESHOLD command to specify the point in the
building of a log when the accounting component sends out a threshold
notification.Valid values for the ACCOUNTING THRESHOLD variable are:
•
NONE: No notification.
•
HALF: Notify when each half of the log file is reached.
•
QUARTER: Notify when each quarter of the log file is reached.
•
EIGHTH: Notify when each eighth of the log file is reached.
•
END: Notify when the end of the log file is reached.
Entries are inserted in the log file progressively (with wrapping) and when the
specified points in the buffer are reached, notifications are sent. These
notifications are in the form of SNMP traps.
Example: Changing the Accounting Threshold
The following example shows the use of the DEFINE ACCOUNTING
THRESHOLD command:
Local> DEFINE ACCOUNTING THRESHOLD EIGHTH
Changing the Accounting Console
Use the DEFINE ACCOUNTING CONSOLE command to display accounting
events on the server console. If ENABLED, the accounting component displays
accounting events on the server console port as they occur. Be sure to set the
server console port to the desired value (CHANGE SERVER CONSOLE n).
Example: Changing the Accounting Console
The following example shows the use of the DEFINE ACCOUNTING CONSOLE
command:
Local> DEFINE ACCOUNTING CONSOLE ENABLED
Displaying Accounting Characteristics
Use the SHOW ACCOUNTING CHARACTERISTICS command to display the
current values of the accounting variables.
25-11
Accounting
Example: Displaying Accounting Characteristics
The following example shows the display that appears when you use the SHOW
ACCOUNTING CHARACTERISTICS command:
Local> SHOW ACCOUNTING CHARACTERISTICS
Accounting Characteristics:
Threshold:
None
Log Size:
Console Logging:
Disabled
128K
Displaying the Accounting Log
Use the SHOW ACCOUNTING LOG command to view the log.
Example: Displaying the Accounting Log
Local> SHOW ACCOUNTING LOG
Accounting Log:
Event: Login
Port: 3
Username: smith
25-12
Time: 026:10:33
Access: Local
Event: Privilege Password Fail
Port: 3
Username: smith
Time: 0 26:12:13
Event: User Privilege Level Modified
Port: 3
Username: smith
Time: 0 26:12:44
Event: Session Connect Attempt
Port: 3 Sessid: 1 Protocol: LAT Access: Local
Username: smith
Peer: CLUSTER1
Time: 0 26:15:04
Event: Session Disconnect
Port: 3 Sessid: 1 Protocol: LAT
Reason: NORMAL TX: 345 bytes RX: 216 bytes
Username: smith
Time: 0 26:15:50
Event: Login Password Modified
Port: 3 Username: smith
Time: 0 27:13:51
Event: SNMP Community Modified
Port: 3 Username: smith
Time: 0 27:14:14
Event: Logout
Port: 3 Tx: 1285 bytes Rx: 526 bytes
Username: smith
Time: 0 27:15:06
Accounting
Using the Accounting Console Logging Feature
Description
When console logging is enabled, the accounting component displays the
accounting events on the server console as they occur. This can be useful for
viewing events on a console terminal or printer. It is also possible to view (and log
to a file) the console events remotely. If you place a loopback connector on the
access server console port and associate a LAT service or Telnet listener with this
port, you can connect to the port and view the console messages remotely.
LAT Remote View of the Accounting Log
The following example shows the commands necessary to remotely view the
accounting log messages with a LAT service and loopback connector on port 16 of
the access server:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 16 ACCESS REMOTE
PORT 16 AUTOBAUD DISABLED SPEED 57600
SERVICE ACCTREMOTE PORT 16 CONNECTION ENABLED
SERVER CONSOLE 16
SERVER SERVICE GROUP 255
From a remote OpenVMS system, type:
$ MCT LATCP SET NODE/GROUP=(ENABLE=255)
$ SET HOST/LAT/AUTOCONNECT/LOG=ACCT.LOG ACCTREMOTE
This causes the accounting events to be displayed on the remote screen and
logged to the file ACCT.LOG.
Example: Telnet Remote View of the Accounting Log
The following example shows the commands necessary to remotely view the
accounting log via Telnet with a loopback connector on port 16:
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
Local>
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
CHANGE
PORT 16 ACCESS REMOTE
TELNET LISTENER 2001 PORT 16
TELNET LISTENER 2001 CONNECTION ENABLE
SERVER CONSOLE 16
PORT 16 AUTOBAUD DISABLED SPEED 57600
From a remote UNIX system, the command is (replace x.x.x.x with your server’s
IP address):
# TELNET x.x.x.x 2001
25-13
Accounting
This will cause the accounting events to be displayed on the remote screen. To log
the events to a file, type the following command (replace x.x.x.x with your
server’s IP address):
# TELNET x.x.x.x 2001 > ACCT.LOG
25-14
Appendix A
Cable and Adapter
Recommendations
Cable and Adapter Hardware
Cable and Adapter Table
The following table lists the cable and adapter hardware you need to connect
devices to specific access server models:
To Connect This Device:
To This Access Server Model:
90M or 90TL (8 Port)
900TM (32 Port)
700 (16 Port)
316 (16 Port)
700 (8 Port)
Use This Cable and Adapter Hardware:
Terminal/printer with
MMJ port
BN24H-xx cable
H8575-A adapter
and BC16E-xx cable
Terminal/printer with
DB25 male port
H8575-A adapte
and BN24H-xx cable
BC17D-xx (10-wire) cable or
BC22D-xx (6-wire) cable
Terminal/printer with
DB9 male port
H8575-B adapter
and BN24H-xx cable
H8575-A adapter
and H8571-J adapter
and BC16E-xx cable
PC communication interface
with DB9 male port
H8585-AA adapter
and BN25G-xx cable
H8575-A adapter
and H8571-J adapter
and BC16E-xx cable
A-1
Cable and Adapter Recommendations
To Connect This Device:
To This Access Server Model:
Modems using RI-DCDDSRS-DTR signals (typically
<9600 baud) with DB25 female
port
H8585-AB adapter
and BN25G-xx cable
BC22E-xx (10-wire) cable or
BC22F-xx (25-wire) cable
Modem using CTS-DSR-RTSDTR signals (typically =>9600
baud) with DB25 female port
H8585-AC adapter
andBN25G-xx cable
BC22E-xx (10-wire) cable or
BC22F-xx (25-wire) cable
Host computer systems with
DB25 male ports (reverse-LAT
configuration)
-
BC22R-xx cable
NOTE
The -xx denotes the length of the cable in meters.
Reference
Refer to the Site Preparation Guide or User’s Guide shipped with your access
server hardware for further information.
A-2
Glossary
access server
A generic name for a family of access servers supported by Cabletron Network
Access Software.
access server configuration database
A load host database that contains the DECnet characteristics and the access
server type, the load file name, and the dump file name for each access server.
access server image
A file in the access server directory on the load host that contains executable code.
Address Resolution Protocol
See ARP.
American National Standards Institute
See ANSI.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute. This organization compiles and publishes
computer industry standards.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol. The Internet protocol that enables a host or a
gateway to dynamically map, or translate, an Internet address into the correct
physical hardware address so as to send a packet to a target computer on the
same physical network.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
See ASCII.
AppleTalk
An Apple Computer, Inc., trademark for their network protocol suite.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A set of 8-bit binary
numbers representing the alphabet, punctuation, numerals, and other special
symbols used in text representation and communications protocols.
Glossary-i
Glossary
asynchronous
Pertaining to a communication method in which each event occurs with no
relation to a timing signal.
atomics
Refers to nontabular objects in a group of objects in a MIB.
authentication
Utilizes Kerberos to verify a user’s identity by validating a Kerberos user name
and password on a remote Kerberos host (KDC).
authentication trap
An SNMP trap message that is sent to each community with TRAPS enabled
whenever an unauthorized Internet host tries to access the access server, or when
an Internet host uses an unauthorized SNMP GET or GETNEXT message.
autobaud
The process by which the access server automatically determines the line speed
and other characteristics of a terminal attached to one of its ports.
autoconnect
A feature whereby the access server automatically attempts to reconnect a port to
a network resource in the following situations: the port becomes disconnected
from a resource, the user enters a CONNECT command and the specified
resource is unavailable, or the user logs in to a port that has a preferred service
defined.
automatic failover
See failover.
bootptab file
This is the file that BOOTP uses to store information necessary to downline load
software. The bootptab file is normally shown as /etc/bootptab.
BOOTP
Internet Bootstrap Protocol. This Internet protocol is used to configure the
communications software on a load host.
BOOTP/TFTP Server
This is a load host that uses the BOOTP and TFTP Internet protocols to configure
the load host and downline load the software.
broadcast
A access server port characteristic that allows one port to send a single message to
one or more ports simultaneously.
Glossary-ii
Glossary
CCR
Console Carrier Request. An ULTRIX host function that allows connections to the
access server remote console port.
Clear To Send
See CTS.
circuit timer
LAT. The LAT protocol timer that determines the minimum interval at which a
access server transmits virtual circuit messages.
client-server
Internet. The model of interaction in a distributed system in which a program at
one site sends a request to a program at another site and awaits a response. The
requesting program is called a client; the program satisfying the request is called
the server.
command line recall and edit
A feature that allows the user to recall and edit previously entered commands.
community name
A character string that is used as a password that the Internet host must know in
order to access the access server through SNMP.
connection queue
LAT. The queue on a access server that stores connection requests for a printer or
a service.
Console Carrier Request
See CCR.
console port
Any access server port assigned to receive the access server 900 series of messages
and to which an interactive device can be connected.
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check. An error detection scheme in which a receiver checks
each block of data for errors.
CTS
Clear To Send. A signal sent from the port device to the access server to indicate
that the port device is ready to receive data.
Cyclic Redundancy Check
See CRC.
Glossary-iii
Glossary
datagram
See IP datagram.
Data Set Ready
See DSR.
Data Terminal Ready
See Data Terminal Ready.
data transparency
During a session, the access server normally intercepts and interprets switch
characters and flow control characters. Users can enable data transparency,
causing these characters to become transparent to the access server. The access
server will not intercept them while they are being exchanged in the user’s
current session, such as during a file transfer or during a block-mode transfer
(where the terminal sends a screen of data to the host application).
DECnet
The DIGITAL networking software that uses the DIGITAL Network Architecture
(DNA) on both local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs).
DECnet node address
A unique numeric identification required for each DECnet node, assigned by the
network manager. The address is in the form aa.nnnn, where aa is an optional
area number (from 2 to 63), and nnnn is the node address (from 1 to 1023).
DECnet node name
A unique 1- to 6-character alphanumeric identification (including at least one
alphabetic character) required for each DECnet node assigned by the network
manager.
dedicated service
A network resource to which a port is permanently assigned and to which the
port is always connected at login, thus emulating a hardwired connection.
dequeue
To remove the first entry in a queue and to attempt the function for which the
entry was queued.
DNS
Domain Name System. An Internet naming system that maps, or translates,
domain names to addresses. See domain names.
domain names
Internet. The domain name consists of a sequence of subnames separated by a
period.
Glossary-iv
Glossary
The individual sections of the name might represent sites, groups, or computers,
but the domain system simply calls each section a label.
For example, the domain name super.dec.com, contains three labels: super, dec,
and com. Any suffix of labels in a domain name is called a domain. Thus, the
lowest level domain is super.dec.com, an abbreviation for the computer named
super. The second level domain is dec.com (for Digital Equipment Corporation);
and the top level domain is com (for commercial institution). As the example
shows, domain names are written with the most local label first and the topmost
domain last.
Domain Name System
See DNS.
downline loading
The process of sending the access server image from a load host to a access server.
DSR
Data Set Ready. A control signal that is used to inform whether or not a
communications device is ready to transmit and receive data.
DSVCONFIG
The configuration procedure used on a load host to configure the load host’s node
database.
DTR
Data Terminal Ready. A control signal that is used to inform whether or not a data
terminal is ready to transmit and receive data.
dump file
A file containing a copy of the access server memory. The load host creates this file
when it receives an upline dump from the access server. The file is stored on the
load host in the access server directory.
Ethernet
A type of local area network based on carrier-sense multiple-access/collision
detection (CSMA/CD).
event logging
This is a process of recording significant occurrences on the network.
failover
LAT. A failure-recovery function provided by LAT software. Failover occurs when
a user’s current LAT session is disrupted by the failure of the service node.
Failover attempts to connect the user to the same service on an alternative service
Glossary-v
Glossary
node. Failover is attempted only if the service is offered by two or more service
nodes (as with a VAXcluster service).
flow control
The set of rules used by a communications protocol to ensure that access server
ports and port devices do not lose data during data transfers. Flow control
prevents the sending network node (or transmitting process) from sending more
data than the receiving node (or receiving process) can handle.
gateway
See Internet gateway.
group codes
LAT. Group codes are integers ranging from 0 to 255. They are assigned to LAT
services, access servers, and access server ports.
heartbeat
A signal generated by certain Ethernet transceivers. The signal verifies that the
collision detection circuitry is operational.
host
A multiuser computer.
host-initiated request
LAT. A connection request from a computer asking a access server to initiate a
session.
The session connects an applications device such as a printer on a access server
port to an application such as a print queue on the computer.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol. A protocol that is the part of the Internet
Protocol that gateways and hosts use to communicate control and error
information. If for any reason a gateway cannot forward or deliver a datagram, or
if the gateway detects unusual conditions that may affect the host, the gateway
uses this protocol to communicate with the host so that the host can take
corrective action.
ID
This is an abbreviation for identification.
image
See access server image.
Glossary-vi
Glossary
initialization
The process of running the access server diagnostic self-test program and,
optionally, downline loading the access server with the access server image.
Installation Verification Procedure
See IVP.
Internet
Internet (written in all lowercase letters) is a collection of packet switching
networks that use TCP/IP protocols and are interconnected by gateways.
Software enables the networks to function logically as a single, large, virtual
network.
3. Internet (written with the first letter capitalized) refers specifically to a
collection of networks and gateways, including the ARPANET, MILNET, and
NSFnet, that use the TCP/IP protocol suite and function as a single,
cooperative virtual network.
Internet address
The 32-bit address assigned to computers that participate on an Internet using the
TCP/IP protocols.
Internet Bootstrap Protocol
See BOOTP.
Internet Control Message Protocol
See ICMP.
Internet gateway
A computer that connects two or more networks and passes packets between
them. In Internet, computers called gateways provide all interconnections among
physical networks. Gateways route packets based on the destination network, not
on the destination host.
Internet host
A resource on the TCP/IP network.
Internet name server
An Internet server program that performs name-to-address translation, or
mapping, from domain names to Internet addresses. It enables users to assign
common names that are easy to remember to computers and then address the
computers by name, rather than Internet addresses. When the server program
operates on a dedicated computer, the computer itself is usually called a name
server. See also local name server and root name server.
Glossary-vii
Glossary
Internet Protocol
See TCP/IP.
IP
Internet Protocol. See TCP/IP.
IP datagram
Internet. A basic unit of information transferred over the Internet.
IVP
Installation Verification Procedure. This procedure verifies that the access server
software was successfully installed on a OpenVMS load host.
KDC
Key Distribution Center. A Kerberos host that serves to validate a user’s identity
with a Kerberos user name and password.
keepalive timer
LAT. Because access servers are responsible for monitoring its balanced virtual
circuits, each access server maintains a keepalive timer. This timer determines the
length of time that a balanced circuit remains inactive.
Kerberos
An authentication service that enhances security in an open network. It was
developed as part of Project Athena at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Project Athena is a software development project that facilitates communication
among file servers and workstations in a distributed network environment.
Key Distribution Center
See KDC.
keyword
A word in a command string that further defines the command.
LAN
local area network. A network in which communications are limited to a
moderately sized geographic area such as an office building or a campus.
LAT
local area transport. DIGITAL name for the Ethernet protocol used by the
DECserver for terminal connections.
LAT architecture
A layered networking model that identifies LAT communications functions,
assigns specific functions to distinct layers, and specifies general rules for
communication between LAT nodes.
Glossary-viii
Glossary
LAT Control Program
A control program that provides a command interface that allows system and
network managers to set up and manage an operating system as a LAT service.
LAT network
All the computer systems, or nodes, on a LAN that support the LAT protocol
constitute a LAT network.
LAT node
A computer on a LAN that contains LAT software. There are two types of LAT
nodes; nodes that access services and nodes that offer services; some nodes
perform both functions.
LAT protocol
An integral part of the LAT architectural model that consists of rules that specify
the actual format and sequence of the messages used for communication between
LAT nodes.
LAT service
A resource on the LAT network.
learned data
Data entered into a access server database by DNS. Contrast with local data.
load host
A computer on the same LAN as the access server that is used to downline load
the access server image to the access server. A load host can also receive upline
dumps of access server memory.
load host database
A database that contains information about access servers and that allows the
load host to perform downline load and upline dump operations. This database
contains three databases on the load host: the DECnet operational database, the
DECnet permanent database, and the access server configuration database (that
is, DSVCONFIG.DAT).
local area network
See LAN.
local data
Data entered into a access server database by a user. Contrast with learned data.
local name server
A name server that is authorized for the domain where the access server is
located.
Glossary-ix
Glossary
local service
Network resource offered by your access server.
loopback test
A access server asynchronous port test during which data is looped to the
module. There are two types of loopback tests: internal and external. The external
loopback test requires a loopback connector.
Maintenance Operation Protocol
See MOP.
Management Information Base
See MIB.
Maximum Transmission Unit
See MTU.
MIB
Management Information Base. A listing of variables that can be accessed by
SNMP.
MOP
Maintenance Operation Protocol. A maintenance protocol specified in the
DIGITAL Network Architecture (DNA) that is used to implement the Remote
Console Facility and to perform downline loads, upline dumps, and loopback
tests.
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit. This specifies the IP datagram size in bytes.
multicast
A process whereby a message sent to one address can be transmitted to a number
of nodes affiliated with that address. See also broadcast.
multicast timer
A LAT service characteristic that determines the time interval between each
multicast message.
multihomed host
An IP host that has more than one IP address.
name resolution
Internet. Refers to the process of translating a name into a corresponding Internet
address. The Internet domain name system provides a mechanism for naming
computers in which programs use remote name servers to resolve computer
names into Internet addresses for those computers.
Glossary-x
Glossary
name server
See Internet name server.
NCP
Network Control Program. The DECnet command interface used to configure,
control, monitor, and test DECnet networks.
network access server
See access server.
Network Control Program
See NCP.
Network Management Station
See NMS.
network resource
A device (such as a computer or printer) or software application on a network
that performs certain functions and can be accessed by devices, such as access
servers and computers.
NMS
Network Management Station. Host computer system with software which
allows manager to monitor and control networked devices (including access
servers) from one location. Typically refers to system which uses SNMP to
communicate but may use other protocols.
node
A network system consisting of a computer system and associated network
software.
nonprivileged status
The default status for all interactive access server ports. Users at nonprivileged
ports can use a subset of the privileged command set to: change some local port
characteristics; display information about the access server, its ports, and service
nodes; and execute commands required to connect to services. However,
nonprivileged users cannot access commands that change the state of the access
server or other ports.
Nonvolatile Random Access Memory
See NVRAM.
NVRAM
Nonvolatile Random Access Memory. This is a RAM that retains its memory upon
power loss.
Glossary-xi
Glossary
ODL Font Protocol
On-Demand Loading Font Protocol. A protocol that enables Asian terminals
connected to the access server to use the LAT protocol to access Japanese and
Chinese OpenVMS systems on the LAN.
On-Demand Loading Font Protocol
See ODL Font Protocol.
OpenVMS
An operating system for DIGITAL VAX computers.
operational database
The access server database that contains the values that determine the current
operating characteristics of the access server. The values are not preserved
through initializations, power losses, and port logouts. Contrast with permanent
database.
packet
The basic Ethernet network message unit transmitted by the data link layer,
which is made up of a preamble and a data stream.
permanent database
The access server database that contains the values that define the permanent
operating characteristics of the access server. These values are preserved through
initializations, power losses, and port logouts. Contrast with operational
database.
port
A physical access point on the access server to which a device can connect.
preferred service
A predefined network resource to which the access server attempts to connect a
specific port whenever a user at that port enters a CONNECT command without
a service name.
print spooler
A program that enables many users to share the printing devices of a system, such
as a access server.
privileged status
A port status that can only be set by a user that knows the access server privileged
password. Users at privileged ports can execute all communications server
commands.
qualifier
A parameter in a command string that modifies the command.
Glossary-xii
Glossary
queuing
LAT. The process of putting LAT connection requests for a busy printer or service
on a waiting list (queue). Requests are dequeued and processed in the order in
which they were entered into the queue-first-in/first-out (FIFO).
RAM
Random Access Memory. This is a read and write memory integrated circuit (IC).
Random Access Memory
See RAM.
RCF
Remote Console Facility. A OpenVMS host function that allows connections to the
access server remote console port.
realm
An administrative domain within Kerberos in which users are registered and
within which they can be authenticated by passwords.
release notes
A text file that can include any of the following: special instructions for
installation, information specific to the current release of the product, and any
information omitted from the printed documentation. Release notes can be read
on line or printed.
Remote Console Facility
See RCF.
remote console port
A logical port with fixed port characteristics values used by the access server
software when communicating using the MOP or Telnet protocol. Users can enter
most of the access server commands at the remote console port.
remote print queue
A queue on a service node. The queue holds connection requests made from the
service node requesting use of a printer (remote printer) on a access server. See
host-initiated request.
Request To Send
See RTS.
retransmit limit
The number of times a LAT virtual circuit message is retransmitted to a service
node without an acknowledgment message.
Glossary-xiii
Glossary
root name server
A name server that is at the top level in a domain.
RTS
Request To Send. A signal sent by the access server to the port device to indicate
that the access server is ready to exchange control signals or data.
secure port
A port set up so that the port user only has access to a limited subset of the
nonprivileged user command set.
secure status
A restrictive status that can be imposed on a port to limit the execution of
commands on that port to a subset of the nonprivileged command set.
server
A hardware and/or software device which provides many users with access to a
system.
service
A network resource offered by a LAT or Internet host.
service circuit-ID
A load host characteristic that identifies which load host Ethernet controller is
used to access a specific access server for maintenance functions.
service node
A LAT node that provides a service on the LAN. The access server can be a service
node.
service rating
A value assigned to a network resource by the service node to indicate its relative
capability to accept new sessions. The rating is scaled from 0 to 255, where 255 is
the greatest capacity. Access servers use this rating to choose a service node when
a user attempts to connect to a service that is offered by multiple service nodes.
service session
A session between a network resource and a terminal session on a session
management terminal.
session
A two-way network communications path between a network resource and either
a access server user, a multiuser computer user, or an application program.
Glossary-xiv
Glossary
session management
A facility provided by some access servers that uses TD/SMP to communicate
with a access server device so that the device can process simultaneous,
independent, multiple terminal sessions. On the device, the data exchange of
multiple sessions can be processed simultaneously regardless of which session is
current.
Simple Network Management Protocol
See SNMP.
SLIP
Serial Line Internet Protocol. This protocol uses a simple framing technique to
transmit IP datagrams over serial lines.
SLIP host
An Internet host that uses SLIP as its data link.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. An Internet protocol that is used to
manage systems from one or more Internet hosts.
subnet addressing
An addressing technique that allows a site to share a single Internet network
address among multiple logical networks, as long as all the hosts and gateways
on those networks cooperate. It is a form of hierarchical routing in which the top
level of the routing hierarchy, the core gateway system, uses the network portion
of the Internet address (when routing packets) to identify the local gateway. The
next level, the local gateway, uses part of the host portion of the Internet address
to identify the subnet and route packets to it. And finally, the lowest level, the
specific host computer, uses the remainder of the host portion of the address to
identify and accept packets addressed to it.
subnet identifier
This is the part of the network address that is unique to the subnet. It can be
determined by logically ANDing the Internet address with the subnet mask.
subnet mask
A 32-bit quantity that enables gateways and host computers to know which bits
in the Internet address correspond to their subnet address and which correspond
to their host addresses.
switch characters
Characters interpreted by the access server that cause the access server to switch
between sessions or between local and service modes.
Glossary-xv
Glossary
synchronous
Pertaining to a communication method in which each event occurs in relation to a
timing signal.
TCP/IP
Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A suite of Internetworking
communication protocols of which TCP and IP are the two most fundamental.
TCP port
This is a protocol port number used by TCP/IP. For access servers, this number is
mapped to a physical access server port number.
TD/SMP
Terminal Device/Session Management Protocol. An asynchronous, coded syntax
used by the access server and a terminal to manage independent multiple
terminal sessions simultaneously over a single physical circuit. See session
management.
Telnet
Internet. The Internet standard protocol for remote terminal connection service.
Telnet client
See client-server.
Telnet listener
A service that allows resources to be accessible to a TCP /IP network. The service
is provided over Telnet, hence the service is commonly referred to as a Telnet
listener.
Typically, printers connect to access server ports associated with a listener.
However, personal computers and host computers can also connect to such ports
and through them access the TCP/IP network.
Telnet server
See client-server.
Terminal Device/Session Management Protocol
See TD/SMP.
Terminal Server Manager
See TSM.
terminal session
A single session on a access server port that is operating under session
management control.
Glossary-xvi
Glossary
Time To Live
See TTL.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol. For access servers, this Internet protocol is used to
downline load software from a load host to the access server.
transceiver
Hardware equipment that provides an electrical connection to a network cable for
a network node.
Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
See TCP/IP.
TRAP message
An SNMP message sent by the agent (in this case, the access server) to one or
more designated Internet hosts.
TSM
Terminal Server Manager. Software that runs on a OpenVMS host system. TSM
allows a manager to monitor and control multiple access servers from one
location.
The access servers must be connected to the same Ethernet LAN as the OpenVMS
host system.
TTL
Time To Live. This is a value that shows the time that an Internet host entry in the
access server database has left to be refreshed or removed. This value appears in
the SHOW INTERNET HOST STATUS display.
upline dumping
The process of sending a copy of the access server memory to a responding load
host, usually following a fatal error. The data is dumped into the unique access
server dump file in the access server directory.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. A protocol that is the part of the Internet Protocol that
provides datagram service. It distinguishes between multiple destinations on a
host, allowing multiple application programs executing on a host to
independently exchange (send and receive) datagrams with multiple application
programs on another host.
User Datagram Protocol
See UDP.
Glossary-xvii
Glossary
virtual circuit
A logical communications path between a access server and a service node. A
virtual circuit provides a bidirectional, sequential, timer-based, error-free stream
of data.
WAN
Wide Area Network. A network composed of computers connected by
communications links that cover distances up to many thousands of miles.
Contrast with LAN.
Wide Area Network
See WAN.
XON/XOFF characters
These characters are used with a form of in-band flow control and are transmitted
as TxD and RxD data.
Glossary-xviii