Avalon Acoustics AVALON ASCENDANT Specifications

SERIAL NUMBERS:
________________
HANDCRAFTED BY:
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
____________________________
DESIGNED BY NEIL PATEL FOR AVALON ACOUSTICS
This product is certified to meet the requirements of the European Union (EU)
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (89/336/EEC). Because the permanent
magnets attached to the loudspeaker drivers produce magnetic fields, it is
recommended that the product not be positioned in very close proximity to computer
monitors or television sets.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................4
2 Unpacking Instructions ..........................................................................................................5
Introduction ...........................................................................................................5
Contents ................................................................................................................5
2.1 Opening the Crate ....................................................................................................6
2.2 Installing the Grilles .....................................................................................................7
Orientation of the Felt Anti-Diffraction Mask ..................................................7
2.3 Replacing Grille Pins ...................................................................................................7
3 Wiring Instructions ..................................................................................................................10
Introduction ...........................................................................................................10
Connecting the Speaker to the Amplifier .......................................................10
4 Break-in Period .......................................................................................................................11
5 Maximizing Performance ......................................................................................................12
Break-in ..................................................................................................................12
Grille Assemblies ...................................................................................................12
Speaker Placement and Symmetry .................................................................12
Toe-In ......................................................................................................................13
Apex™ Couplers ..................................................................................................13
First Reflection Points ...........................................................................................14
Corner Treatment .................................................................................................14
6 Care of Your Loudspeakers ..................................................................................................15
Cabinet (Hardwood Finish) ................................................................................15
Grille Assembly ......................................................................................................15
Drivers .....................................................................................................................15
7 Warranty ..................................................................................................................................16
In the Event of a Problem ...................................................................................16
Warranty Statement ............................................................................................17
8 Room Acoustics and Speaker Position ...............................................................................19
Introduction ...........................................................................................................19
An Optical Analogy.............................................................................................20
Basic Room Acoustics .........................................................................................20
8.1 Standing Waves ..........................................................................................................21
8.2 Flutter Echo ..................................................................................................................22
8.3 Early Reflections ..........................................................................................................23
Avoiding Early Reflections ..................................................................................24
8.4 Bass reinforcement.....................................................................................................26
8.5 Summary of Recommendations .............................................................................30
Flutter Echo and Standing Waves ....................................................................30
Speaker Placement .............................................................................................31
Early Reflections ...................................................................................................31
8.6 A Listening Room Example .......................................................................................32
9 Accuracy of Bass Reproduction .......................................................................................... 33
Introduction .......................................................................................................... 33
9.1 Sensitivity to Time-Related Information .................................................................. 34
"Fast Bass" .............................................................................................................. 34
9.2 Rationale ..................................................................................................................... 35
Anechoic vs. In-Room Frequency Response ................................................. 35
9.3 Measurements of Audio Equipment ...................................................................... 36
A Correlation with Amplifier Measurements ................................................... 36
Loudspeaker Measurements ............................................................................. 37
Designing for Accurate Bass Reproduction ................................................... 38
Frequency Response Effects ............................................................................. 39
Listening for Size Distortions ................................................................................ 39
Transient Response Effects ................................................................................. 40
9.4 Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 41
10 Features ................................................................................................................................ 42
11 Specifications ...................................................................................................................... 43
12 Notes ..................................................................................................................................... 44
1 Introduction
Your new Avalon Acoustics
loudspeakers represent a
true breakthrough in the development of moving-coil loudspeakers intended
for accurate music reproduction. Upon initial listening, the immediacy and
presence of a live performance becomes instantly apparent. The intent is to
closely reproduce the original musical event, as opposed to creating a
"spectacular" sonic character which can impress upon first listening, but fail to
satisfy over a long period of time.
The ASCENDANT accomplishes this goal by providing the transparency and
clarity which is lacking in many dynamic designs. Overall smoothness is
achieved without depressing the high-frequency response, a technique used
in some products. Low frequencies are rendered realistically and controlled,
as opposed to a "larger than life" perspective, which can impress, but
compromises definition and harmonic integrity.
This high level of performance is retained in virtually any listening situation. The
ASCENDANT has been specifically designed to elicit the finest possible
performance from any amplifier, tube or solid-state, due to its easy-to-drive
nature. Similarly, interaction with the room has been minimized, allowing ease
of placement in a wide variety of listening environments.
Your ASCENDANT loudspeaker was designed and built to the highest
standards of workmanship and performance. These standards are preserved
through the test of time by careful attention to component quality and
meticulous testing of each unit before leaving the factory. As a new owner of
this Avalon Acoustics product, you can be assured that you possess one of
the few great loudspeakers the audio industry has to offer.
www.avalonacoustics.com
4
2 Unpacking Instructions
Introduction
Your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers were shipped in a heavy-duty crate to
ensure their safe arrival. It is recommended to save these crates for possible
future use. Due to the weight of the speakers, it will require two persons to
un-crate them and position them for listening. Please arrange for your dealer
or another able bodied person to assist in this project.
Contents
The two shipping crate contains the following items:

two loudspeaker cabinets

two grille assemblies

the owner’s manual

one set of six Apex™ Couplers

an accessory bag
The grille assemblies and owner’s manual are contained in an outer
compartment on the top of the shipping crates. The Apex™ Couplers and
accessory bag are packed together on the bottom of one of the
loudspeaker cabinets.
The accessory bag contains replacement grille pins, a small bottle of furniture
polish, and two lint-free polishing cloths.
IMPORTANT: It is imperative that the Apex™ Couplers are utilized, in order to
insure that the bottoms of the loudspeakers are not blocked. This is especially
important on thick carpeting.
5
2.1 Opening the Crate
The crate features a one-piece top assembly which is fastened to the crate
bottom with screws around the lower perimeter. To unpack, remove the
screws and lift the upper portion of the crate straight up (this will require two
people).
Next, slide each speaker part way off of the crate base so that the plastic
bag can be unfastened from the enclosure bottom. Stand the speaker up
and the bag can be slid off the top. Please refer to Figure 2.1.
1. Remove screws.

2. Lift case.

3. Slide speaker,
then undo bag.
4. Stand speaker up,
then remove bag.
Figure 2.1 - To unpack the loudspeakers.
6
2.2 Installing the Grilles
The grille assemblies are behind a panel on the outside of the speaker crate.
Remove the screws securing the panel, and then carefully pull the grilles
straight out. The grilles are installed with friction fasteners and press into place
on the speaker cabinets. Please see Figure 2.2.
Orientation of the Felt Anti-Diffraction Mask
The grille assembly includes a felt anti-diffraction mask. Should the felt mask
be removed, be sure to note the correct inside-outside orientation when
re-installing it. The tweeter and midrange openings are beveled on the side
that faces the listener (away from the speaker).
Figure 2.2 - To install the grille assemblies.
7
2.3 Replacing Grille Pins
The grille pins installed on the grille assemblies are fragile and can be easily
damaged. Should any of the pins break, you may replace them using the
following procedure.
1. Place the grille assembly face-down on a padded surface (a towel or
carpeting).
2. Remove the damaged grille pin by pulling it straight out with a small pliers
or similar tool. Please refer to figure 2.4. Make sure that the complete pin is
removed and that there are no pin fragments left in the mounting hole.
Figure 2.4 - Removal of broken grille pin. Check for pin fragments in
the mounting hole.
3. Insert the new grille pin in the grille pin installation tool (see figure 2.5).
Figure 2.5 - Insertion of new grille pin into installation tool.
8
4. Carefully pull the grille cloth away from the frame mounting hole. The
mounting hole must be clear of all obstacles during pin installation.
5. Place the exposed end of the grille pin in the open mounting hole. Check
to insure that the grille cloth is not trapped between the pin and frame. Use a
small hammer and gently tap the new grille pin in place. Then, pull the
insertion tool off the new pin and verify that the pin flange is flush with the
surface of the grille. Please refer to Figure 2.6.
WARNING: Grille pin breakage may result if the grille cloth becomes trapped
between the pin and frame during installation.
Figure 2.6 - Installing grille pin into ASCENDANT grille frame. Note that
after installation, the grille pin flange is flush with the surface of the
grille.
6. Reposition the grille cloth that was pulled away from the frame mounting
hole in step 4. The cloth should lay flat and wrinkle-free.
9
3 Wiring Instructions
Introduction
The crossover is encapsulated in a sealed, non-accessible chamber in the
bottom of the speaker cabinet, to minimize the effect of vibration on the
components. The ASCENDANT is equipped with a high-quality binding post for
connecting the speaker cables. Spade lugs are recommended for cable
termination.
Connecting the Speaker to the Amplifier
1. Place the speaker in its approximate location, then lay the speaker on its
side, using a soft surface to avoid scratching the finish.
2. Connect the speaker wires to the terminal block on the speaker back (see
Figure 3.1). Check to insure the correct polarity (positive lead connected to
the (+) terminal and negative lead connected to the (-) terminal.
Do NOT over-tighten the screws.
Figure 3.1 - Back view of the speakers showing the connections
from the amplifier to the loudspeaker. Check to insure the
correct polarity (positive lead connected to the (+) terminal
and negative lead connected to the (-) terminal).
10
4 Break-in Period
Your new AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers have an initial break-in period. They
will not perform to their full sonic potential when first installed in your system.
This is partially due to a residual polarization of the dielectric materials used in
the crossover capacitors and internal wiring.1 As music is played through the
loudspeakers, the electrical signal will gradually anneal these materials.
Similarly, the suspensions of the drivers will reach their optimal mechanical
properties as the speakers are played. Only after the break-in period will the
full performance of your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers be realized.
The break-in process will occur naturally as music is played through the
system. To reduce the time required, it is recommended that the system be
played continuously, using either a digital source in the repeat mode or an
FM broadcast signal. The recommended break-in procedure is as follows:

Initial warm-up: three to six hours of quiet music.

Extended break-in: 200 to 300 hours of loud and dynamic source
material (e.g. Tangerine Dream, Optical Race, RCA 2042-2-P).
During the break-in period, the sonic properties of your loudspeakers may
undergo several gradual shifts as the various components break-in at different
rates. It is therefore suggested that the fine-tuning of the system be delayed
until after the break-in period is completed. However, during the final phases
of the break-in period, the sonic image will open up, the sound-stage will gain
specificity, the bass control and impact will increase, and the overall sound
will have a more relaxed, involving presentation.
1
A high-voltage test is applied to wiring and capacitors during their manufacture.
This results in a residual polarization of the dielectric materials.
11
5 Maximizing Performance
These details are imperative to obtaining optimum results from your AVALON
ACOUSTICS loudspeakers.
Break-in
The break-in period is critical to maximizing sonic performance and should
take place before other adjustments (see the discussion on page 11). The
break-in should begin with three to six hours of quiet music, followed by 200 to
300 hours of loud and dynamic source material.
Grille Assemblies
The grille assemblies, with their felt anti-diffraction masks, are integral elements
of the loudspeakers' design. Unlike many other products, AVALON ACOUSTICS
loudspeakers are designed to be used with the grilles in place while listening,
and removing them will degrade the system's performance. It is extremely
important that the felt anti-diffraction masks make physical contact with the
face of the loudspeakers, as air space between the felt and the speaker face
will adversely affect sound quality.
Speaker Placement and Symmetry
Selecting the proper room position for your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers
can dramatically improve their performance. The following points highlight
the fundamental concepts in loudspeaker positioning from the in-depth
discussion in Chapter 8, Room Acoustics and Speaker Position (beginning on
page 19):

Left to right room symmetry aids in producing a balanced sound
stage.

Image depth is enhanced when the distance to the rear wall is
increased.

The most even bass response will be attained when the distances to
the side and rear walls are not overly similar.
12
Toe-In
Adjusting the toe-in angle of the speakers is useful in tailoring the sound to
best match the characteristics of your system and listening room.
When the speakers are facing straight forward, they tend to create a large,
expansive sound-stage, painted with broad brush strokes. As they are rotated
toward the listening position, the image becomes more compact, with
increased focus, creating a greater sense of intimacy. Pointing the speakers
inward is also helpful in situations where strong reflections from the side walls
are a problem.
Start with the loudspeakers facing straight forward, and play either a mono
source, or a stereo source with a distinct center image, through both
channels. Carefully rotate the loudspeakers inward in small increments to
bring the image in precise center focus (small adjustments can be made with
the speaker on Apex™ couplers). Toe-in adjustment is rather delicate, and
experimentation is necessary to achieve the proper angle for your listening
situation. The optimum angle is usually between three and ten degrees
inward.
Apex™ Couplers
Supplied with your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers are six Apex™ couplers,
used to couple the speakers to the floor, thereby minimizing time-smearing
resonance effects. The result is an increase in focus and solidity of the sonic
images.
On hardwood floors, you may protect the floor from the pointed spike using a
large coin, such as a quarter. However, the coupling effect of the Apex™
couplers will be reduced.
Once you have located the proper position and toe-in angle for your AVALON
ACOUSTICS loudspeakers, place the couplers under the speaker bases. It is
easiest to install the couplers with the assistance of a friend. Lean the speaker
forward first, and position two couplers pointing downward, one under each
rear corner. Then lean the speaker backward and place one Apex™ coupler
under the front center of the base.
IMPORTANT: It is imperative that the Apex™ Couplers are utilized, in order to
insure that the bottoms of the loudspeakers are not blocked. This is especially
important on thick carpeting.
13
First Reflection Points
Since the ear/brain system tends to integrate the sounds arriving within a 10
millisecond time window, it is important to control the early reflections arriving
from the sidewalls to the listening position. A hard-surfaced wall can produce
a strong frequency-dependent reflection that can interfere with the
reproduced sound-stage, as well as change the perceived tonal balance of
the system. Therefore, damping these first reflection points is strongly
recommended. Please refer to Section 8.3, Early Reflections, beginning on
page 23, for further information.
Corner Treatment
It is important to control the first reflections of low frequency sound, which
normally occur at the corners behind the loudspeakers. These reflections can
cause significant distortions in phase and amplitude, resulting in muddy bass
definition and smeared bass transients. Placing DAADS (more information
available at www.acusticaaplicata.com ) at the room corners can
significantly control these bass colorations and restore the quickness of bass
transients.
14
6 Care of Your Loudspeakers
Cabinet (Hardwood Finish)
AVALON ACOUSTICS’ hardwood finished loudspeakers are supplied with a
special polish and two lint-free polishing cloths, in order to properly care for
the high quality furniture lacquer. The following polishing instructions should be
observed:
IMPORTANT: Use the supplied furniture polish ONLY. Do NOT use cleaners that
contain ammonia, strong solvents, or abrasive materials. Use of these
materials can degrade, scratch, or even DESTROY the finish.
1. Apply the supplied polish to one of the clean, lint-free polishing cloths (or
use cotton cloth that is clean and lint-free), and carefully wipe it on the
cabinet. Be careful NOT to apply the polish to the loudspeaker drivers.
WARNING: Do NOT apply polish to the loudspeaker drivers.
2. Wipe off the excess polish until the desired luster is achieved.
Grille Assembly
The grille assembly may be removed from the cabinet and gently vacuumed
to remove dust. If the felt insert is removed, please note the inside-outside
orientation when re-installing it. The hole for the tweeter is beveled on the side
toward the listener, to provide optimal dispersion characteristics.
Drivers
The drivers require no regular maintenance. Do not attempt to clean the
tweeter dome, as they are easily damaged. If desired, you may remove dust
from the woofer cone by using a small, soft dusting brush.
WARNING: The drivers in this transducer are coupled in an intricate manner;
SEVERE DAMAGE may result from the removal of these drivers. All service must
be performed by an authorized representative of AVALON ACOUSTICS.
15
7 Warranty
Your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers are warranted to the original, registered
purchaser against defects in workmanship and materials for a period of three
years from the date of first purchase, provided that the enclosed registration
card is returned to the factory within seven days of the purchase date. If the
registration card is not returned within the seven day period, this warranty is
null and void, and you will not be notified of future updates. In the unlikely
event that you did not receive the registration card with your loudspeakers,
please contact the factory immediately so that we may send you a
replacement card. The warranty period is in effect from the date that the
product leaves the factory. This warranty is non-transferable to subsequent
purchasers within the original three year period. A complete statement of
warranty is given below. Please take the time to fill out and return the
enclosed warranty registration card.
In the Event of a Problem
In the unlikely event of a problem with your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers,
the component most susceptible to failure is one of the driver units. If driver
replacement is required, have your dealer contact AVALON ACOUSTICS. The
performance curves of the drivers in each pair of loudspeakers are kept on
file at the factory. This enables AVALON ACOUSTICS to supply an exact
replacement unit, ensuring continued operation at the highest level of
performance. The defective driver must then be returned to the factory for
inspection to determine the status of the warranty claim. This on-site
replacement of the driver units eliminates the time and expense of shipping
the entire speaker to the factory for repair. All warranty claims must be made
through an authorized AVALON MULTICHANNEL SYSTEMS/ AVALON ACOUSTICS dealer
or distributor.
16
Warranty Statement
1. AVALON ACOUSTICS warrants the materials, workmanship, and proper
functioning of this product for a period of three years to the original registered
purchaser, provided that the completed registration card is returned to
AVALON ACOUSTICS within seven days of the date of purchase. If the registration
card is not returned to the factory within the seven day period, this warranty is
null and void. If any defects are found in the materials or workmanship of this
Avalon Acoustics product, or if the product ceases to properly function within
the appropriate warranty period from the date of first purchase, the unit will
be repaired or replaced by AVALON ACOUSTICS or its authorized agent after
receiving authorization from the factory or dealer. This warranty is not
transferable.
Unauthorized dismantling of this product will render this warranty void.
2. Purchaser must obtain an RMA number by contacting dealer/distributor
and return the product, packaged in the original shipping carton, freight
prepaid. Shipping address will be provided at the time the RMA number is
issued. No returns will be accepted without prior authorization.
3. AVALON ACOUSTICS reserves the right to inspect any products which are the
subject of warranty claim prior to repair or replacement. Final determination
of warranty coverage lies solely with AVALON ACOUSTICS and only products
which are determined to be covered under this warranty shall be repaired or
replaced by AVALON ACOUSTICS. The customer will be informed of any delays
and AVALON ACOUSTICS will provide replacement as quickly as possible.
Out-of-warranty claims will be billed for labor, materials, return freight, and
insurance as required. Any product for which a warranty claim is accepted
will be returned to the purchaser and cost of return shipping and insurance
will be factory prepaid within the boundaries of the USA. Units to be shipped
outside of the USA will be shipped freight collect only. This warranty gives
specific legal rights. The purchaser also has implied warranty rights, and may
also have other rights which vary from state to state.
4. This warranty is extended to the original registered purchaser for value.
5. AVALON ACOUSTICS strives to manufacture the very finest possible equipment,
and therefore reserves the right to make changes in design and
improvements upon its products, without necessarily assuming an obligation
to retrofit such changes upon its previously manufactured models.
17
6. The above warranty is the sole warranty given by AVALON ACOUSTICS, and is
in lieu of all other warranties. All implied warranties, including warranties of
merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose shall be strictly limited in
duration to three years from the date of shipment from the factory, and upon
the expiration of the warranty period (three years), AVALON ACOUSTICS shall
have no further obligation of any kind whether express or implied, including
but not limited to merchantability. Further, AVALON ACOUSTICS shall in no event
be obligated for any incidental or consequential damages as a result of any
defect or any warranty claim, whether express or implied. Some states do not
allow exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages or
limitations on how long implied warranties last, so the above limitations and
exclusions may not apply to you.
7. AVALON ACOUSTICS does not authorize any third party, including any dealer
or sales representative to assume any liability for AVALON ACOUSTICS, or make
any warranty for AVALON ACOUSTICS. The unit must not have been altered or
improperly serviced or repaired. The serial number on the unit must not have
been altered or removed.
8. Warranty registration cards must be completed and mailed to AVALON
ACOUSTICS within seven days of date of purchase; otherwise, this warranty is
null and void. AVALON ACOUSTICS may, at its option, require from the purchaser
valid proof of purchase (dated copy or photocopy of dealer's original
invoice).
9. If this product is used in a commercial or industrial application, then special
warranty exclusions may apply. Contact your dealer or AVALON ACOUSTICS for
commercial warranty policies.
18
8 Room Acoustics and Speaker Position
Introduction
The listening room forms the final link of the playback system, as important as
any other component in the chain. Just as an otherwise superb system is
handicapped by an inferior pre-amplifier (for example), so can a
well-matched system be hindered by poor room acoustics. It is not necessary
to listen to your system in a specially-designed sound chamber in order to
enjoy it. In fact, a dedicated listening room usually requires additional sound
treatment, due to a lack of other items in the room that can help provide
good acoustics. However, a degree of attention to set-up can greatly
increase your listening satisfaction, no matter what your listening situation.
Listening in a properly set-up room can be a startling experience. Due to the
limitations of the two-channel format and the listening environment, the
illusion of actually being transported to the recording site cannot usually be
achieved. However, an uncanny sense of realism can be created. Perhaps it
is best described as if the front half of your listening room has been removed,
so that it now opens out into the recording site.
To optimize your equipment set-up and the listening-room acoustics requires a
basic understanding of the principles which affect the propagation of sound
in the room. Also, we will discuss the way in which our brain interprets spatial
cues, and how the room acoustics can affect our sonic perceptions.
19
An Optical Analogy
Let us use a visual analogy to aid our understanding of acoustics. Imagine
that you are in a room that is lit only by a candle in its center. There is
(approximately) a uniform amount of light cast in all directions. If a large
mirror is held closely to candle, one half of the room becomes darkened,
while the other half receives twice as much light. This is because there are
effectively two candles now illuminating that half of the room, the real
candle, and the virtual (or reflected) candle. The energy that had been sent
to both sides of the room has now been concentrated in one side only.
If we repeat the same experiment using a large piece of black cloth instead
of a mirror, the results will be somewhat different. The side of the room behind
the cloth is darkened, just as before, but the level of light on the side of the
candle remains unchanged. This is because the light is absorbed by the cloth,
rather than being reflected back into the room.
Thus we can see that the energy can either be absorbed or reflected. A
similar situation occurs with sound waves, although we must account for the
much greater wavelengths of audible frequencies. Of course no material is a
perfect absorber or an absolute reflector. Furthermore, the sonic absorption
coefficient of a given material usually varies with frequency.
Basic Room Acoustics
The great majority of all listening rooms are rectangular, with parallel surfaces.
The walls and ceiling are typically hard surfaces, which are acoustically
reflective. These large areas are the predominating factors in the overall room
acoustics, although the other items in the room (furnishings, carpeting, wall
hangings, doorways, etc.) will also play a role. Without going into excessive
detail, there are four primary areas of potential concern:

Standing waves.

Flutter echo.

Early reflections.

Bass reinforcement.
The first three items are problems which should be reduced or eliminated. The
last item, bass reinforcement, needs to be matched to the entire system for
proper tonal balance.
20
8.1 Standing Waves
The parallel surfaces of most listening rooms can lead to a potential problem
in the low frequencies. A sound wave can be repeatedly reflected from
opposing surfaces, back and forth. If the distance between the surfaces is an
integral multiple of one-half the sound wavelength, a standing wave will be
set up. This means that the incident and reflected waves combine with each
other so that a stationary pattern of high and low sound pressures is
established in the room. This irregular distribution of sound level is caused by
cancellation and reinforcement between the reflected and direct sound
waves.
At high frequencies, this pattern of high and low sound pressure levels within
the room becomes too finely spaced to be discerned. However, when the
dimensions of the room are comparable to the wavelengths of the musical
notes, there will be obvious changes in the intensity of certain bass notes in
different locations within the room. Additionally, the existence of the standing
wave implies a resonant condition where acoustic energy is stored in the
room. This energy storage can result in "heavy", "muddy", or "slow" bass.
Since the presence of standing waves is caused by parallel reflective
surfaces, practically every listening room suffers from this problem to some
degree. However, several factors are working in our favor here. First, as the
room size increases, the affected frequencies become lower and thereby less
audibly apparent. Second, the presence of shelving or furniture against the
walls will break up the large surfaces, reducing the magnitude of the
problem. Third, upholstered furniture can absorb a significant amount of bass,
diminishing the build-up of resonant energy. Fourth, typical wall construction is
not completely reflective at low frequencies.
However, in some cases audibly objectionable standing waves will still be
present in the listening room. This can be noted by large variations of the
intensity of certain bass notes in different areas of the room. Another indicator
is an unevenness of loudness of different bass notes. (This is sometimes what is
actually on the recording, so be sure that this is consistently a problem on a
variety of recordings.)
If you wish to reduce or eliminate standing waves that may exist in your room,
it will be necessary to reduce the low-frequency reflectiveness of at least one
of the parallel surfaces of opposing surfaces. The most effective method is to
use DAAD’s (more information is available at www.acusticaapplicata.com ).
Experimentation will be needed to determine the optimal locations.
21
8.2 Flutter Echo
These parallel, reflective surfaces can also produce a different audible
problem. If there is little absorption at higher frequencies, a musical transient
containing high frequencies, such as a hand clap or the strike of a percussion
instrument, can be heard bouncing repeatedly between the surfaces. Called
flutter echo (or slap echo), these multiple reflections can obscure musical
detail. The situation is analogous to standing between two parallel mirrors,
when the outline of your reflection becomes more difficult to discern, due to
the additional reflected images present.
Again, it is only necessary to reduce the reflectiveness of one of the surfaces
in each pair of surfaces to eliminate flutter echo. Since we are concerned
with the high frequencies, any soft material is appropriate. Drapery or fabric
wall hangings are quite effective on the walls. Bookshelves also work well by
breaking up the flat surfaces. Carpeting should eliminate potential problems
between the floor and ceiling.
22
8.3 Early Reflections
Another situation that can reduce the subjective quality of reproduced sound
is the presence of early reflections. By early reflections, we are referring to
reflected sound waves that reach the listener within 10 to 20 milliseconds of
the direct signal from the loudspeaker.
When a reflected sound reaches the listener more than 40 milliseconds later
than the direct sound, the reflection is heard as a discrete echo. However, if
the reflected sound arrives within around 20 milliseconds of the direct sound,
the ear/brain system integrates the two sounds so that only one sound is
heard. This integration is done in such a way that spatial information is
preserved, providing an acoustical "picture" of the physical space that
created the reflections.
However, the source recording also contains ambient information that
portrays the original recording site. Early reflections in the listening room will
tend to obscure the ambient information in the recording, leading to a loss of
dimensionality or spaciousness. Secondary arrivals within the first 10
milliseconds are especially problematic, becoming less troublesome as the
arrival time lengthens to 20 milliseconds or so.
23
Avoiding Early Reflections
The speed of sound is approximately one foot (30 cm) per millisecond.
Therefore, to preserve the natural soundstage on your recordings, there
should be no reflected sounds arriving at the listening position with a path
length less than ten feet (3 meters) longer than the direct path from speaker
to listener (see Figure 8.1). This means that if the speaker or listener is placed
closer than about 5 feet to a wall or other surface, that surface should be
covered with sonically absorbent material.
Direct Sound
Reflected Sound
Figure 8.1 - The reflected sound must travel further than the direct
sound, and therefore reaches the listener at a later time.
24
Since the floor is within 5 feet of the speaker, it is best to have a carpeted floor
to absorb floor reflections. A thick, dense carpet and pad will absorb lower
frequencies more effectively than a thin one. Due to their complex structure,
carpets and pads of natural materials, such as wool and jute, will exhibit a
more uniform absorption over the frequency spectrum than synthetic
materials will.
It is not necessary to acoustically treat the entire room to achieve good
results. Strategic treatment of specific locations can realize considerable
benefits. Remember that when sound waves reflect from a flat surface, the
angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence, just as a mirror reflects
light waves. Therefore, the most important location for sound absorbing
material is the point where the sound waves reflect to the listener (see Figure
8.2).
Angle X
Angle Y
Reflected Sound
Direct Sound
Figure 8.2 The sound is reflected at the same angle that it struck the
surface; i.e., Angle X = Angle Y. Since light waves obey this same rule,
a mirror can be used to find the point which can be acoustically
damped to avoid early reflections.
25
8.4 Bass reinforcement
By bass reinforcement, we mean the effect of the room boundaries on the
propagation of sound. It is widely known that speaker placement relative to
the floor and walls can affect the relative amount of bass that the system
produces.
To make this interaction more clear, let us refer to the optical analogy of the
candle. Similar to the way that the mirror reflected the light of the candle, so
can the surfaces near the loudspeaker reflect the sound waves back into the
listening room. However, when the path length difference of the reflected
wave is short relative to the wavelength of the sound, the reflected wave is
substantially in-phase with the original wave. When this condition is met, the
coupling coefficient between the speaker diaphragm and the air increases,
and the speaker efficiency increases. This changes the actual frequency
response of the speaker, and is not attributable to standing waves or other
room resonances.
By selecting the distance from the speaker to the reflective surface, we can
determine the frequency at which the bass reinforcement takes effect.
Please see Figures 8.3 and 8.4. Furthermore, there are typically three reflective
surfaces near each speaker, the floor, the rear wall and the side wall. Each of
these surfaces produces its own reflection, and hence additional bass
reinforcement.
Figure 8.3 - Change in frequency response resulting from
placement of speaker 3.3 feet from a reflective surface (relative to
an anechoic environment).
26
Figure 8.4 - Same conditions as above, except speaker is 6.6 feet
from the reflecting surface. Note how the reinforcement now
occurs at a lower frequency.
By properly selecting the distances to each surface, we can extend the inroom bass response of the speaker much deeper than its anechoic response.
Please see Figure 8.5. This is because the bass reinforcement provides a boost
which is complementary to the bass roll-off that would be present in an
anechoic chamber.
Figure 8.5 - Anechoic response, and in-room response with the
speaker placed 4.6 feet from the rear wall, and 3.0 feet from the side
wall.
Note how the bass response is extended by the room
reinforcement.
27
Conversely, improper placement of the loudspeakers can result in uneven
frequency response. This results in diminished bass quality. Please refer to
Figure 8.6.
Figure 8.6 - Uneven frequency response caused by improper
placement of the speakers. In this case, the speaker is 2.0 feet from
both the side and rear walls.
As frequency increases and wavelength becomes more similar to the
distance to the boundary, the phase difference between original and
reflected waves increases, and the air coupling effect is diminished. In
particular, when the wavelength equals about four times the distance to the
boundary, the reflected wave is antiphase to the original wave, resulting in a
cancellation (dip) in the output. At frequencies above this level, the effect
becomes less significant and creates similar but smaller variations in output.
Figures 8.7 and 8.8 illustrate these concepts.
Figure 8.7 - In-room response when the speaker is placed 2.3 feet from
the side wall, and 3.9 feet from the rear wall.
28
Figure 8.8 - In-room response when the speaker is placed 3.6 feet from
the side wall, and 6.6 feet from the rear wall.
There are typically three reflective surfaces near each speaker: the floor, the
rear wall, and the side wall. Each of these surfaces produces its own
reflection, and hence its own cancellation and reinforcement. By properly
selecting the distances to each surface, we can provide a uniform and
extended bass response.
Conversely, improper placement of the
loudspeakers can result in uneven frequency response, resulting in diminished
bass quality.
In order to take full advantage of bass reinforcement and to provide the most
uniform and extended bass response, it is recommended that the
loudspeaker be placed between two and five feet from one of the walls (side
or rear), and between three and ten feet from the other wall. The
measurements are made from the wall to the center of the woofer cone.
The exact distances are not overly critical, although the two distances should
not be within about 33% of each other.
A good rule of thumb in establishing the lateral position of ASCENDANT is to
apply the ratio 4 : 10 : 4. In other words, the distance to the side wall is 4/18
(or about 22.2%) of the room width, and the distance from speaker to speaker
is 10/18 (or about 55.5%) of room width.
29
8.5 Summary of Recommendations
Now that we have looked at some of the common problems of listening
rooms, as well as their cures, let us summarize our findings and
recommendations.
Flutter Echo and Standing Waves
These situations are the result of the room having parallel, reflective surfaces.
The potential problems are independent of the audio system, and need to be
addressed at the source. This means that at least one surface in an opposing
pair of surfaces needs to be made less reflective and/or non-parallel.

Low Frequency Absorption
If a problem exists with standing waves, it is the low frequencies that will need
to be addressed. Remember that the absorption spectrum of different
materials and objects is not uniform. That is, some items will absorb only high
frequencies, and some objects may only absorb the middle frequencies. At
low frequencies, about the only common item that can absorb a meaningful
amount of energy is heavily upholstered furniture. Another effective means of
absorption is the use of DAAD’s, (more information is available at
www.acusticaapplicata.com )

High Frequency Absorption and Room Symmetry
Since flutter echo is a high-frequency effect, it becomes much easier to
manage potential problems in this area. Almost any item attached to the
walls will be less reflective at high frequencies than the bare walls themselves.
Draperies, wall hangings, paintings, bookshelves and other items will normally
be present in the room, and will usually eliminate any possible problems. If
flutter echo is still audible, a fabric wall hanging provides an effective and
attractive cure.
Additionally, it is desirable to maintain a degree of left/right symmetry in the
room to preserve a balanced acoustic "space". For example, if your listening
room has full length draperies along the right wall, and the left wall is bare,
slap echo will not be a problem. Nonetheless, the sound-stage may be
somewhat distorted, and it could be beneficial to place a fabric hanging or
tapestry on the wall opposite the draperies.

Parallel Surfaces
Although it is not generally possible to make the walls non-parallel, the same
effect is achieved by breaking up the large, flat surfaces with furniture and
shelving.
30
Speaker Placement
Although your AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers may be placed in a wide
variety of positions relative to the walls of the room, it is still wise to experiment
a bit to achieve optimal results. The suggested minimum distances for the
ASCENDANT are 3 feet from one wall (side or rear), and 5 feet from the other
(all distances are measured to the center of the woofer cone). This will
provide the proper degree of bass reinforcement, as well as minimize early
reflections.
There is no suggested upper limit for the distances to the walls. Even a
distance of 10 feet to one wall and 15 feet to the other wall will provide
suitable bass reinforcement, and problems due to early reflections will be
non-existent. However, regardless of the absolute numbers used, the most
even bass response will be attained if the distances from the side wall and the
rear wall are not overly similar.
Early Reflections
When arranging the furnishings in your listening room, remember that
reflective objects should not be within a five foot radius of either the speaker
or listener to avoid early reflections. This suggests the possibility of a
dual-purpose room, with one end devoted to music reproduction, and the
other end for another use, such as a study or office. In this way, the area
behind the listener will contain items that will reduce problems with standing
waves and/or flutter echo, while the zone around the speakers remains
relatively free from reflective objects.
If you wish to achieve an even more spacious sound-stage, it may be useful
to place a sonically absorbent material on the side and rear walls near the
speakers. This can be particularly effective at the points where the sound
wave is directly reflected to the listening position (a mirror can be used to
determine these points, as illustrated in Fig. 8.2). As the distance to the wall
becomes smaller, the suppression of these reflections becomes more
important.
Early reflections will tend to diminish the soundstage in the direction of the
reflections, i.e. early reflections from the side walls tend to reduce
sound-stage width, while early reflections from the back wall will reduce
image depth. We have found that a strong sense of depth enhances the
feeling of involvement when listening, due to the three-dimensional solidity of
images. Therefore, it is more important to have a greater distance from the
speakers to the rear wall than to the sides walls. Typically, this is easier to
achieve if the speakers are placed along the short wall of the listening room.
31
8.6 A Listening Room Example
In order to make these points more clear, an example of a room layout is
given in Figure 8.9, illustrating the principles we have given.
DRAPERIES
SHELVES
SPEAKER
EQUIPMENT
SHELVES
CHAIR
DESK
AM P
TABLE
AM P
SOFA
TABLE
SPEAKER
SOFA
TAPESTRY
Figure 8.9 - Example listening room. The area around the speakers is
free of objects that would produce early reflections. A tapestry is
hung opposite the draperies to absorb the reflection from the side-wall
and to help maintain left-right symmetry. The area behind the listening
position contains items which help break-up standing waves and
flutter echoes. Heavily upholstered sofas will help avoid low-frequency
standing waves, while a carpet absorbs early reflections from the floor.
32
9 Accuracy of Bass Reproduction
Introduction
We have all had the experience of listening to speakers with poor bass
quality. Perhaps the bass was muddy, or ill-defined. Possibly the bass was
exaggerated or bloated. In any case, these type of distortions are distracting
and can keep us from enjoying the full measure of the performer's intent.
Concerning the reproduction of low frequencies, AVALON ACOUSTICS pursues a
different design goal than most other speaker manufacturers. Specifically, we
believe that the complete absence of stored resonant energy is of
paramount sonic importance. First, we will discuss some of the technical
aspects of bass reproduction and perception, and then explain how this
relates to the listening experience.
33
9.1 Sensitivity to Time-Related Information
It is widely known that the human ear/brain system is extremely sensitive to
time-related distortions. This can be understood when one realizes that
directional and spatial information is provided by inter-aural time (and phase)
differences. During the period of man's evolution, the ability to accurately
determine the direction and distance of sound sources conferred a decided
survival advantage, hence our present day aural sensitivity to time-related
information.
This sensitivity to time-related information can be observed when listening to
audiophiles discussing the quality of a system's bass reproduction. Many of the
terms refer to temporal properties. A system with poor transient bass response
is described as "boomy", "heavy", "sluggish", or "slow". When the transient
response is accurate, the bass is characterized as "tight", "clean", "quick", or
"fast".
"Fast Bass"
The term "fast bass" would seem to be an oxymoron on the surface. After all, it
is the "slowness" of a note that makes it a low frequency. Nonetheless, the
term provides an accurate description of our subjective impression. Many
people have erroneously ascribed "fast bass" to the use of a light diaphragm
or the use of a powerful energizing system.1 In fact, it is not how fast the
diaphragm can be set into motion that imparts a speaker with "fast" bass.
Rather, it is how fast that motion can be stopped, how quickly the stored
energy can be dissipated, that results in the sensation of "fast" bass.
1
The acceleration of an object is equal to the force exerted upon it, divided by
the mass of the object. Since a loudspeaker is used above its fundamental
resonance, it operates in what is known as the mass-controlled region. In this
region, high acceleration (large driving force and/or small driven mass) does not
imply extended high frequency response or fast transient response. Instead, high
acceleration confers high efficiency.
34
9.2 Rationale
There is an old saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch." There are many
trade-offs in speaker design, as in almost any area one can think of. In this
case, the trade off is between transient response and anechoic frequency
response (the speaker's frequency response in an anechoic chamber).
Almost all manufacturers have chosen to sacrifice transient response for
improved anechoic frequency response.
At AVALON ACOUSTICS, we have chosen to pursue a goal of complete freedom
from resonances and stored energy to ensure transient accuracy. We feel
that the resulting gain in areas not traditionally measured results in audibly
superior overall performance.
Anechoic vs. In-Room Frequency Response
It must be remembered that very little listening actually takes place in
anechoic chambers. Placement of the speakers in a real-world listening room
will boost the bass response of the speaker, as explained in Section 8, Room
Acoustics and Speaker Position, beginning on page 19. Since a loudspeaker
with perfectly flat anechoic frequency response will exhibit a low-frequency
boost in a normal listening environment, a loudspeaker with a gradual bass
roll-off (in an anechoic chamber) can exhibit more accurate in-room
frequency response. Avalon loudspeakers are carefully designed taking
these factors into account. When placed in a variety of representative
positions in the room, Avalon loudspeakers will produce deep, accurate, and
unexaggerated bass response, with complete freedom from stored resonant
energy.
35
9.3 Measurements of Audio Equipment
It should be recognized that measurements are not the final arbiter of sound
quality of audio components. Often times a measurement standard has
evolved because it is easily performed, or because it is easily repeatable, or it
has shown some link to certain audible characteristics. Unquestionably, it is
the latter criterion which is the most important one. After all, the listener is not
concerned with how a piece of audio equipment measures, he is only
concerned with the faithful recreation of the original musical event.
On the other hand, measurement techniques that correspond to audible
effects are an invaluable tool to the designer. However, it is the degree of
correlation with the subjective experience which is important, and anechoic
bass response does not have a high correlation with musical accuracy in the
listening room. In-room frequency response and transient accuracy are both
significant factors in determining subjective quality. Nevertheless, anechoic
frequency response is by far the most prevalent measurement used to
characterize speakers.
A Correlation with Amplifier Measurements
A striking parallel exists in the measurement of audio amplifiers. The power
output and distortion of an amplifier is invariably measured into an eight-ohm
resistor. It is widely acknowledged that this standard is far removed from the
actual conditions in which the amplifier will be used. One doesn't listen to
resistors, one listens to loudspeakers, and the load that the speaker presents to
the amplifier is nearly always highly reactive (varies with frequency). The
eight-ohm resistive load has developed as a standard because it somewhat
approximates a speaker load, is easily reproducible by different testing
facilities, and it represents something of a lowest common denominator. That
is, while everybody recognizes that a different load should be used for
amplifier testing, nobody can agree as to what that alternative should be. 2
In the last decade, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of
an amplifier's capability to drive a real-world loudspeaker. This is the reason
we have seen the emergence of amplifiers with high current output
capabilities, and a lack of current-limiting or similar protection circuitry. The
ability to drive reactive loads has been accepted as having a higher
correlation with audible qualities than the traditional measurement into a
load resistor.
2
The cynic will also note that a resistive test load produces the most impressive
measurements for use in advertisements.
36
Loudspeaker Measurements
Returning to loudspeakers, a similar situation has developed. Although
nobody listens to music in an anechoic chamber, loudspeaker measurements
are commonly performed in them.3 Although various proposals have been
made for performing low frequency measurements in a more realistic setting,
there has been no agreement as to what that setting should be.
Loudspeakers continue to be measured in a test chamber that is equivalent
to the absence of any room at all.
There is a developing appreciation that this traditionally performed
measurement is not an accurate predictor of the performance actually
attained in the listener's room. Certainly, in-room frequency response is more
important than anechoic response in determining a speaker's tonal
accuracy. Placement of the speaker within a room will cause changes in the
frequency response compared to the anechoic condition.4 At lower
frequencies, the speaker's output is modified by the acoustic loading
presented by the walls and floor. However, when making measurements, it is
difficult to separate the effects of a room's bass reinforcement from standing
waves and other resonances associated with that room.
3
Since an anechoic chamber which performs accurately to low frequencies is
extremely large and expensive, other measurement methods are also commonly
used. These include near-field measurements, when the microphone is extremely
close to the driver, and half-space measurements, when the speaker under test is
buried with its front baffle flush with the ground, facing upwards. Both of these
methods are equivalent to anechoic measurements below the frequency at
which the speaker baffle appreciably changes the acoustic load to the woofer,
typically between 100 and 200 Hz. Note that these conditions are also
non-representative of an actual listening situation.
4
Since this discussion is concerned with the reproduction of low frequencies, we
will not delve deeply into the high-frequency variations between the anechoic
response and the in-room response of a loudspeaker. Briefly, the interaction of
the dispersion pattern of the speaker with the reflective surfaces in the room (and
the variation of both with frequency) creates an in-room frequency response that
may vary markedly from the anechoic response.
37
Designing for Accurate Bass Reproduction
How, then, does one arrive at the goal of a loudspeaker that provides tonal
accuracy in the listening room? The answer, in large part, comes in the form
of the digital computer. It is possible to create a mathematical model of a
listening room, and predict the response of a given speaker in that room. With
the computer model, it is quite easy to change the position of the speaker in
the room, or other parameters of the model. In this way, a composite picture
can be created of a wide variety of rooms and speaker locations. This
enables one to design the speaker so that it interfaces properly with the
listening environment and provides correct bass response in real-world
environments.
The accuracy of the computer model must also be tested in the physical
world, using pink noise, warble tones, and time-delay spectrometry for
verification. The final, and most important check, is the listening test. Theory
and measurements become useless if they do not agree with what our ears
tell us. Even the best measurement methods provide little more than a
simplified, one-dimensional translation of what is, in reality, an extremely
complex, multi-dimensional experience. Again, the goal is the recreation of a
musical event, and the faithfulness of that recreation can only be determined
through listening.
38
9.4 Listening Qualities
We have seen how many speaker systems store resonant bass energy,
resulting in ringing and poor transient accuracy. Now we will turn our
attention to the listening experience, and describe how these measurable
properties correlate with our subjective impressions.
There are two main factors which affect subjective low-frequency accuracy,
frequency response and transient response. At low frequencies, these two
descriptions are different aspects of the same event.5 Nevertheless, for the
purposes of this discussion, we will treat these two topics separately as much
as is possible.
Frequency Response Effects
As you listen to music, images of the instruments that created the sounds are
elicited. For instance, one can tell the approximate size of a drum from the
sound it produces. On a high-resolution playback system, finer details can be
heard; i.e., is the head made of plastic or calfskin? Is the player using light
sticks or heavy ones?
A relatively broad-band emphasis (or de-emphasis) of a given frequency
range can tend to exaggerate (or diminish) the relative size of the instruments
playing in that range. A useful tool for evaluating these distortions of size is a
recording of a small group of unamplified acoustic instruments made with a
simple microphone set-up.
Listening for Size Distortions
Play a recording of this type, with the volume adjusted to achieve a natural
playback level. As you listen, create a mental image of the players based on
sounds being recreated. Then ask yourself, "Does this sonic image correspond
to the musical instruments that generated these sounds?"
Is the portrait a natural one, or are certain elements distorted? Does a
stand-up bass sound like the correct size, or is it exaggerated, sounding like it
is ten feet tall, or as if the strings are the size of ropes? A speaker with
excessive in-room bass response can create these effects. On the other hand,
a speaker system with rolled-off bass can shrink the size of instruments, turning
the same stand-up bass into a cello-sized instrument.
5
Below about 200 Hz, virtually every woofer operates as a minimum-phase device.
This means that the responses in the time-domain and the frequency-domain are
inextricably linked, and that the one generates the other. Thus, two woofers with
the same frequency response will necessarily exhibit the same time (phase)
response. However, many crossover networks display non-minimum phase
response, and will thereby alter the phase response of the woofer in the speaker
system.
39
Transient Response Effects
A speaker with poor transient response will store energy, releasing it after the
initial musical transient has passed. This causes a loss of detail and obscures
important musical information. Also associated with poor transient response is
a narrow-band resonance, which can emphasize specific notes.
When listening for the low-frequency transient accuracy of a speaker, it will
be useful to utilize a broad variety of recordings. Try playing a rock or jazz
group, and listen to the interplay between the drummer and the bassist. Is it
easy to distinguish the kick drum from the bass, or is there a blurring of
low-frequency detail caused by the speaker's time-smear?
To listen for narrow-band low frequency resonances, use a recording with the
bass line played by a synthesizer. As you listen to the bass line, are the
individual notes of equal level, or are some of them more prominent than
others? Electronic instruments can be more useful for this test since acoustic
instruments have resonances of their own which can hide flaws in the
speaker, unless you are intimately familiar with the instrument and the
recording. Similarly, an electric bass that has been recorded by miking its
speaker/amplifier will exhibit the resonances of its speakers, which are
inevitably considerable, masking defects in the loudspeaker under
evaluation.6
6
There is a technique known as "direct injection" where the signal from an electric
instrument is connected directly from the amplifier to the recording console,
bypassing the speakers. In this instance, an electric bass will prove to be a
consistent low-frequency source. The difference between direct injection and
miking of the speaker/amplifier is easily audible with high-quality speakers.
40
9.4 Conclusion
Most loudspeakers have been designed to perform well in the frequency
domain when measured in an anechoic test chamber. We have seen how
this design paradigm produces audible bass distortion and exaggeration.
While these exaggerations may sometimes seem impressive in the short term,
they quickly prove to be distracting from the musical intentions of the
composer. At AVALON ACOUSTICS, we design all of our speakers to minimize
resonance and stored energy, thereby ensuring transient accuracy. As you
listen to music on AVALON ACOUSTICS loudspeakers, your enjoyment of the
music will grow as you hear the full measure of low-frequency detail, without
exaggeration, and come close to the heart of the artist's intent.
41
10 Features

Advanced light weight driver diaphragm materials minimize energy storage
and time-domain distortion.

Each driver individually tested and matched for optimum performance.

Smooth, wide polar response for superlative imaging capabilities.

Moderate impedance characteristic allows for ideal interface with any
amplifier.

Crossover circuitry is hard-wired with surface-only conductors, eliminating
deleterious sonic effects of printed-circuit boards.

Easy to use binding post on back of speaker

Careful crossover control of all magnetic field interaction.

Proprietary magnetics technology increases energy transfer and reduces
noise floor.

Constrained-mode damping system absorbs cabinet vibrations.

Three and one-quarter inch thick front panel supplies acoustically inert wavelaunch platform.

Acoustically-engineered grille assembly decreases edge diffraction effects.

Distinctive faceted cabinet design provides optimal polar characteristics.
42
11 Specifications
Driver Complement
(1) 1”Proprietary Composite Neodymium Tweeter
(2) 7 inch Nomex-Kevlar Composite Cone Woofers
Sensitivity
89 dB
Impedance
4 Ohms Nominal
Frequency Response
28Hz to 25kHz
Recommended Power
50 to 300 Watts
Wiring Methods
Two Position Binding Post
Dimensions
37" (94 cm) High
10" (25 cm) Wide
13" (33 cm) Deep
Weight
75 pounds (34 kg) each
43
12 Notes
44