VMware VCENTER SERVER 4.0 - GETTING STARTED UPDATE 1 Specifications

Reference Guide
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat 5.5 Update 2
This document supports the version of each product listed and
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document, see http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
EN-000206-01
Reference Guide
You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at:
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Contents
About This Book
7
Getting Started
1 Introduction 11
vCenter Server Heartbeat Concepts 11
Server Protection 12
Network Protection 12
Application Protection 12
Performance Protection 13
Data Protection 14
Communications 14
Switchover Process 15
Auto Switchovers 16
Failover Process 17
Recovery from a Failover 17
Installation
2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation 21
Overview 21
Environmental Prerequisites 21
Common Requirements 22
Server Architecture Options 22
Virtual to Virtual (V2V) 22
Physical to Virtual (P2V) 23
Physical to Physical (P2P) 23
Cloning Technology Options 24
Supported Pre-Clone Technologies 24
Supported Install Clone Technologies 24
Application Component Options 25
vCenter Server with SQL Server on the Same Host 25
vCenter Server with SQL Server on a Separate Host 25
vCenter Server Only 25
Network Options 25
LAN 26
WAN 26
Antivirus Recommendations 27
Deployment Options Summary 28
Installation Options Checklist 28
3 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2003 31
Overview 31
Installation Process 31
Primary Server 32
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Secondary Server 53
Post Installation Configuration 68
Add the VMware License 68
When Deployed in a WAN Environment
vCenter Server 2.5 68
vCenter Server 4.0 69
68
4 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2008 71
Overview 71
Installation Process 71
Primary Server 72
Secondary Server 92
Post Installation Configuration 109
Add the VMware License 109
When Deployed in a WAN Environment
vCenter Server 2.5 109
vCenter Server 4.0 110
109
5 Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat 113
Server Configuration Wizard 114
Configuring the Machine Identity 115
Configuring the Server Role 115
Configuring the Client Connection Port 115
Configuring Channel IP Routing 115
Configuring the Default Channel Port 116
Configuring Low Bandwidth Module 116
Configuring Public IP Addressing 116
Enabling Network Monitoring 117
Configuring Split-Brain Avoidance 118
Managing vCenter Server Heartbeat License Keys 119
Configuring Message Queue Logs 119
Configuring the Maximum Disk Usage 120
System Administration and Management
6 Server Protection 123
Server Protection Overview 123
Checking the Server Pair Status 124
Configuring Heartbeat Settings 125
Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat Shutdown Options 126
Starting, Stopping, and Shutting Down vCenter Server Heartbeat
Forcing a Switchover 127
Recovering From a Failover 128
Configuring Split-Brain Avoidance 129
126
7 Network Protection 131
Communication Status 131
Reviewing the VMware Channel Status 131
Configuring Public Network Connection Checks 132
Setting Max Server Time Difference 133
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Contents
8 Application Protection 135
Application Protection Overview 135
Applications Tab 135
Editing Individual Applications 136
Configuring Applications 137
Reviewing the Status of an Application 138
Reviewing the Application Log 138
Filtering Application Log Entries 139
Resetting the Application Health Status 140
Removing an Application 140
Services Tab 141
Adding a Service 142
Editing a Service 143
Checking the Status of Services 144
Unprotecting Services and Stopping Monitoring 144
Removing a Service 145
Tasks Tab 146
Adding a Task 146
Editing a Task 147
Removing a Task 148
Starting a Task Manually 148
Plugins Tab 149
Installing a Plug-In 150
Editing a Plug-in 151
Uninstalling a Plug-in 152
9 Status and Control 153
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 153
Logging into vCenter Server Heartbeat 153
Connecting to a Pair of Servers 155
Reviewing the Status of a Server Pair 155
Configuring the Look and Feel of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 156
Changing vCenter Server Heartbeat Console Pages 157
Logging Out of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 157
10 Performance Protection 159
Rules Tab 159
Editing a Rule 160
Rules Installed by vCenter Server Heartbeat Plug-Ins 160
Checking a Rule Condition 162
11 Data Protection 163
Data Protection Overview 164
Automatic Filter Discovery 164
Adding a User-Defined Inclusion Filter 165
Adding a User-Defined Exclusion Filter 166
Removing User-Defined Inclusion or Exclusion Filters 167
Configuring Max Disk Usage 167
Reviewing Status of Protected Files 168
Determining Effective Filters 168
Initiating File Synchronization Manually 169
Initiating Verify and Synchronize Manually 170
Initiating a Full System Check 170
Reviewing the Registry Synchronization Status 171
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Initiating a Full Registry Check 172
12 Other Administrative Tasks 173
Configuring Alerts 173
Configuring Alert Reporting 174
Test Alert Reporting 176
Configuring Event Log Files 177
Configuring Log File Email Recipients 177
Reviewing Event Logs 178
13 Troubleshooting 181
Troubleshooting Unexpected Behaviors 181
Two Active Servers 181
Symptoms 181
Causes 182
Resolution 182
Two Passive Servers 183
Symptom 183
Causes 183
Resolution 183
Synchronization Failures 184
Services Running on the Passive Server 184
VMware Channel Incorrectly Configured 184
Incorrect or Mismatched Disk Configuration 185
Passive Server Has Less Available Space than Active Server 185
Registry Status is Out of Sync 186
Resource Issues 186
Registry Security Issues 186
Channel Drops 186
Performance Issues 186
Passive Server Does Not Meet Minimum Hardware Requirements 187
Hardware or Driver Issues on VMware Channel NICs 187
Firewall Connection 188
Incorrect VMware Channel Configuration 188
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter Is Enabled on the Channel NIC(s) 189
Subnet or Routing Issues 190
LAN Deployment 190
WAN Deployment 190
MaxDiskUsage Errors 190
Active Server (Unsafe) Queue 191
Passive Server (Safe) Queue 191
MaxDiskUsage Error Messages 191
[L9]Exceeded the Maximum Disk Usage (VCChannelExceededMaxDiskUsageException)
[L9]Exceeded the Maximum Disk Usage on the ACTIVE Server 191
[L9]Exceeded the Maximum Disk Usage on the PASSIVE Server 192
[L20]Out of Disk Space (VCChannelOutOfDiskSpaceException) 193
Application Slowdown 193
Poor Application Performance 193
Both Servers Can Accommodate the Initial Load but the Load Has Increased 194
One Server Can Provide Adequate Resource Support, but the Other Cannot 194
Scheduled Resource Intensive Tasks 195
Appendix – Setup Error Messages
Glossary
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About This Book
The Reference Guide provides information about installing and configuring VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat,
including implementation in a Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN), configuring
network protection, application protection, data protection, Split-brain Avoidance, and more. To help you
protect your VMware vCenter Server, the book provides an overview of protection offered by vCenter Server
Heartbeat and the actions that vCenter Server Heartbeat can take in the event of a network, hardware, or
application failure.
Intended Audience
This guide assumes a working knowledge of networks including configuration of TCP/IP suite of protocols
and sound knowledge of domain administration on the Windows 2003 platform, notably in Active Directory
and DNS.
Document Feedback
VMware welcomes your suggestions for improving our documentation. If you have comments, send your
feedback to docfeedback@vmware.com.
Abbreviations Used in Figures
The figures in this book use the abbreviations listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Description
Channel
VMware Channel
NIC
Network interface card
P2P
Physical to physical
P2V
Physical to virtual
V2V
Virtual to virtual
SAN
Storage area network type datastore
Technical Support and Education Resources
The following sections describe the technical support resources available to you. To access the current version
of this book and other books, go to www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
Online and Telephone Support
To use online support to submit technical support requests, view your product and contract information, and
register your products, go to www.vmware.com/support.
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Customers with appropriate support contracts should use telephone support for the fastest response on
priority 1 issues. Go to www.vmware.com/support/phone_support.
Support Offerings
To find out how VMware support offerings can help meet your business needs, go to
www.vmware.com/support/services.
VMware Professional Services
VMware Education Services courses offer extensive hands on labs, case study examples, and course materials
designed for use as on the job reference tools. Courses are available onsite, in the classroom, and live online.
For onsite pilot programs and implementation best practices, VMware Consulting Services provides offerings
to help you assess, plan, build, and manage your virtual environment. To access information about education
classes, certification programs, and consulting services, go to www.vmware.com/services.
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Getting Started
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1
Introduction
1
This chapter includes the following topics:

“vCenter Server Heartbeat Concepts” on page 11

“Switchover Process” on page 15

“Failover Process” on page 17
vCenter Server Heartbeat Concepts
vCenter Server Heartbeat is a Windows based service specifically designed to provide high availability
protection for vCenter Server configurations without requiring any specialized hardware.
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides the following protection levels:

Server Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat provides continuous availability to end users through a
hardware failure scenario or operating system crash. Additionally, vCenter Server Heartbeat protects the
network identity of the production server, ensuring users are provided with a replica server including
server name and IP address shares on the failure of the production server.

Network Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors the network by polling up to three
nodes to ensure that the active server is visible on the network.

Application Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat maintains the application environment ensuring that
applications and services stay alive on the network.

Performance Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors system performance attributes
to ensure that the system administrator is notified of problems and can take pre-emptive action to prevent
an outage.

Data Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat intercepts all data written by users and applications, and
maintains a copy of this data on the passive server that can be used in the event of a failure.
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides all five protection levels continuously, ensuring all facets of the user
environment are maintained at all times, and that the network (Principal (Public) network) continues to
operate through as many failure scenarios as possible.
vCenter Server Heartbeat software is installed on a Primary server and a Secondary server. These names refer
to the physical hardware (identity) of the servers.
The Secondary server has the same domain name, same file and data structure, same network address, and
can run all the same applications and services as the Primary server.
vCenter Server Heartbeat uses two servers with identical names and IP addresses. One is an active server that
is visible on the Principal (Public) network and the other is a passive server that is hidden from the network
but remains as a ready standby server. Only one server name and IP address can be visible on the Principal
(Public) network at any given time.
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The vCenter Server Heartbeat software is symmetrical in almost all respects, and either the Primary Server or
the Secondary server can take the active role and provide the protected application to the user.
Server Protection
vCenter Server Heartbeat maintains availability through operating system and hardware failure events. Two
instances of vCenter Server Heartbeat monitor each other by sending “I’m alive” messages and reciprocating
with acknowledgments over a network connection termed the VMware Channel. If the passive server detects
that this process or heartbeat has failed, a failover is initiated as illustrated in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1. Failover
A failover is similar to a switchover but is used in more drastic situations. A failover happens when the passive
server detects that the active server is no longer responding. This can occur when the active server hardware
crashes or loses its network connections. Rather than the active server gracefully closing, the passive server
determines that the active server has failed and requires no further operations. During failover, the passive
server immediately takes on the active server role. The mechanics of failovers are discussed later in this guide.
Network Protection
vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors the capability of the active server to communicate with the rest
of the network by polling defined nodes around the network, including by default the default gateway, the
primary DNS server, and the Global Catalog server at regular intervals. If all three nodes fail to respond, for
example, due to a network card failure or a local switch failure, vCenter Server Heartbeat can initiate a
switchover, allowing the Secondary server to assume an identical network identity as the Primary server.
Application Protection
vCenter Server Heartbeat running locally on the active server monitors the protected applications and services
through the use of plug-ins. vCenter Server Heartbeat protects the following components:


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VirtualCenter Server Versions 2.5

VMware VirtualCenter Server

VMware Capacity Planner

VMware Converter Enterprise

VMware Update Manager

VMware License Server
vCenter Server Version 4.0

VMware vCenter Server

VMware Guided Consolidation Service
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VMware License Sever

VMware ADAM

VMware vCenter Management Web Server

VMware Update Manager

VMware Converter Enterprise

Guided Consolidation Service

VMware Orchestrator

VMware vSphere Host Update Utility
If a protected application fails, vCenter Server Heartbeat first tries to restart the application on the active server
(1) in Figure 1-2.
If the application does not successfully restart, vCenter Server Heartbeat initiates a switchover (2) in
Figure 1-2. Refer to “Switchover Process” on page 15 and “Failover Process” on page 17 for further
information about the switchover process.
Figure 1-2. Switchover
A switchover gracefully closes any protected applications that are running on the active server and restarts
them on the passive server, including the application or service that caused the failure. In the example where
the Primary server is active and the Secondary server is passive, the Primary server is demoted to a passive
role and is hidden from the network when the Secondary server is promoted to an active role and is made
visible to the network. The mechanics of switchovers are discussed in more detail later in this guide.
Performance Protection
Ensuring that your protected applications are operational and providing service at a level of performance
adequate for users to remain productive is important. The vCenter Server Heartbeat plug-in provides these
monitoring and pre-emptive repair capabilities.
vCenter Server Heartbeat monitors application services and specific application attributes to ensure that
protected applications are operational and not in an unresponsive or stopped state. This level of monitoring is
fundamental in ensuring that applications are available to end users.
In addition to monitoring application services, vCenter Server Heartbeat can also monitor specific application
attributes to ensure that they remain within normal operating ranges. Similar to application monitoring,
various rules can trigger specific corrective actions whenever these attributes fall outside of their respective
ranges.
Furthermore, vCenter Server Heartbeat provides the same level of flexibility to define and perform multiple
corrective actions in the event of problems on a service by service or even attribute by attribute basis.
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Data Protection
You can configure vCenter Server Heartbeat to protect the application environment. All data files that users or
the applications require in the application environment are made available should a failure occur. After
installation, vCenter Server Heartbeat configures itself to protect files, folders, and registry settings for
vCenter Server on the active server by mirroring them in real time to the passive server. This means that if a
failover occurs, all the files that were protected on the failed server are available to users after the failover,
hosted on the Secondary server.
vCenter Server Heartbeat intercepts all file system I/O operations on the active server. If the intercepted write
and update operations are within the protected set, these are placed in a queue on the active server referred to
as the active server (unsafe) queue, pending transmission to the passive server. Each request is numbered to
maintain its order in the queue.
With the request in the active server (unsafe) queue, vCenter Server Heartbeat allows the disk I/O to continue
with the requested disk operation.
If the channel is connected, the active server (unsafe) queue is transferred to the passive server, which places
all the requests in the passive server (safe) queue. The passive server confirms the changes were logged by
sending the active server an acknowledgement. The active server clears the data from its queue.
Figure 1-3. Apply Process
The apply process running on the passive server (safe) queue applies all updates in strict sequence, duplicating
an identical set of file operations on the passive server as illustrated in Figure 1-3.
Communications
The VMware Channel is a crucial component of the setup and can be configured in a number of ways.
Both the Primary and Secondary servers must have two or more network interface connections (NICs).
The Principal (Public) network requires one NIC. The VMware Channel uses a separate NIC for the private
connection between the servers used for control and data transfer between the pair of servers.
A second pair of NICs can be used to provide a degree of redundancy for the VMware Channel. In this
configuration, the VMware Channel has a dual channel if more than one dedicated NIC is provided for the
VMware Channel on each server. To provide added resilience, the communications for the second channel
must be completely independent from the first channel. They must not share any switches, virtual switches,
routers or the same WAN connection.
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Figure 1-4. Communication Between Primary and Secondary Servers
The IP address used by a client to connect to the active server (the Principal (Public) IP address) must be
configured to use a static IP address that is not DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) enabled. In the
example in Figure 1-4, the IP address is configured as 192.168.1.127.
NOTE Obtain the IP address: type ipconfig at the prompt in a DOS shell. For additional information about
the IP configuration, type /All.
The Principal (Public) NICs on the passive server are configured to use the same IP address as that of the active
server but are prevented from communicating with the live network through an IP packet filtering system
installed with vCenter Server Heartbeat. This packet filter prevents traffic using the Principal (Public) address
from being committed to the wire. It also prevents NetBIOS traffic utilizing other IP addresses on the NIC from
being sent to prevent NetBIOS name resolution conflicts.
The NICs on the active and passive servers used for the VMware Channel must be configured so that they have
IP addresses outside of the Principal (Public) networks subnet range. These addresses are termed the VMware
Channel addresses.
During installation, setup will switch off NetBIOS for the VMware Channel(s) on the active and passive
servers as this connection remains live and both the passive and active machines have the same NetBIOS name.
After restore and after the vCenter Server Heartbeat installation is complete (runtime), NetBIOS is disabled
across the channel(s).
The NICs that allow the connectivity across the VMware Channel can be standard 100BaseT Ethernet cards
providing a throughput of 100 Mbits per second across standard Cat-5 cabling. In its most basic form, a
dedicated channel requires no hubs or routers, but the direct connection requires crossover cabling.
When configured for a WAN deployment, configure the VMware Channel to use static routes over switches
and routers to maintain continuous communications independent from corporate or public traffic.
Switchover Process
You can trigger a switchover manually from vCenter Server Heartbeat Console Status & Control window by
clicking Switchover. vCenter Server Heartbeat can initiate a switchover when a protected application fails or
suffers performance degradation, or a network failure prevents the active server from being visible to the
network.
When a switchover is triggered, the running of protected applications is transferred from the active machine
to the passive machine in the server pair. The server roles are switched.
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Figure 1-5. Switchover
The automatic procedure executed during a switchover operation involves the following steps:
1
Stop the protected applications on the active server. After the protected applications stop, no more disk
updates are generated.
2
Send all updates that are still queued on the active server to the passive server. After this step, all updates
are available on the passive server.
3
Change the status of the active server to switching to passive. The server is now no longer visible from the
network.
4
Apply all queued updates on the passive server.
5
Change the status of the passive server to active. The new active server starts intercepting disk I/Os and
queues them for the new passive server. The new active server is now visible on the network with the
same identity as the old active server.
6
Change the status of the old active server from switching to passive to passive. The new passive server
now accepts updates from the active server.
7
Start the same protected applications on the new active server. The protected applications now start and
are accessible to users, generating disk updates.
The switchover is complete.
Auto Switchovers
An auto switchover is triggered when a protected application or other system monitored component such as
networking fails.
An auto switchover is different than a manual switchover. Although the server roles are changed, replication
stops so the administrator can investigate and rectify the cause of the auto switchover.
Auto switchover is similar to failover but caused by a failed monitored application or system component. After
you determine the cause for the auto switchover, restore the server with the failed application or other system
monitored component to the active role as follows:
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1
Correct the incident that caused the failover.
2
Verify the integrity of the disk data on the failed server.
3
Restart the failed server.
4
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the failed server.
5
Wait until vCenter Server Heartbeat is fully synchronized.
6
Perform a manual switchover.
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Chapter 1 Introduction
Failover Process
Figure 1-6. Failover
When the passive server detects the active server is no longer running properly, it assumes the active server
role by taking the following steps.
1
The server applies any intercepted updates that are currently saved in the passive server (safe) update
queue, that is, the log of update records saved on the passive server but not yet applied to the replicated
files.
The length of the passive server (safe) queue affects the time the failover process takes to complete. If the
passive server queue is long, the system must wait for application of all passive server updates before the
rest of the process can take place.
When no more update records can be applied, any update records that the server was unable to apply are
discarded. An update record can only be applied if all earlier update records were applied and the
completion status for the update is in the passive server (safe) update queue.
2
The server switches its role from passive to active.
The server enables the public identity of the server. The active and passive servers both have the same
system name and same Principal (Public) IP address. This Principal (Public) IP address can be enabled on
only one of the two systems at a time. When the public identity is enabled, any clients connected to the
server before the failover can now reconnect.
3
The server starts intercepting updates to the protected data. Updates to the protected data are saved in
the active server (unsafe) update queue.
4
The server starts all the protected applications. The applications use the replicated application data to
recover before allowing clients to reconnect. Any updates that the applications make to the protected data
are intercepted and logged.
At this stage, the originally active server is offline, and the originally passive server has taken over the active
server role and is running the protected applications. Because the originally active server stopped abruptly,
the protected applications possibly lost some data, but the no synchronization mode update that completed
before the failover is lost. The application clients can reconnect to the application and continue running as
before.
During a failover, the data in the active server (unsafe) queue is lost.
Recovery from a Failover
Assuming that the active server before the failover was the Primary server, and the Secondary server has
assumed the active role following a failover, you can reinstate the Primary server to an active role after
rectifying the problem that initiated the failover.
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When vCenter Server Heartbeat starts on the failed Primary server, it detects that it did not stop cleanly the
previous time. It disables the public identity by deploying the IP packet filter at startup, and halts vCenter
Server Heartbeat so that the issues that caused the failure can be resolved. The following steps restore the
previously failed server to the active role:
1
Correct the incident that caused the failover.
2
Verify the integrity of the disk data on the failed server.
3
Restart the failed server.
4
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the failed server.
5
Wait until vCenter Server Heartbeat is fully synchronized.
6
Perform a manual switchover.
After resolving these issues, you can start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the failed, now passive, server. At this
stage, the vCenter Server Heartbeat software running on the pair of servers connects and starts to synchronize
the data on the Primary server. When the resynchronization is complete, you can continue operating with this
configuration (for example, the Secondary server is the active server and the Primary server is the passive
server), or perform a switchover to reverse the roles of the two servers in the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair
(for example, assigning the Primary and Secondary the same roles that they had before the failover).
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Installation
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vCenter Server Heartbeat
Implementation
2
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Overview” on page 21

“Environmental Prerequisites” on page 21

“Common Requirements” on page 22

“Server Architecture Options” on page 22

“Cloning Technology Options” on page 24

“Application Component Options” on page 25

“Network Options” on page 25

“Antivirus Recommendations” on page 27

“Deployment Options Summary” on page 28
Overview
vCenter Server Heartbeat is a versatile solution that provides you with complete protection of vCenter Server
and SQL Server. It can be deployed in a LAN for high availability or across a WAN to provide disaster recovery.
vCenter Server Heartbeat can protect vCenter Server and SQL Server installed on the same server, or protect
vCenter Server and SQL Server on separate servers. This flexibility enables vCenter Server Heartbeat to protect
vCenter Server when using remote databases other than SQL Server.
This chapter discusses the deployment options and prerequisites necessary to successfully implement vCenter
Server Heartbeat and provides a step by step process to assist in selecting options required for installation. The
deployment scenario table provides a visual reference to configuration options supported by vCenter Server
Heartbeat.
During the installation process, vCenter Server Heartbeat performs a variety of checks to ensure the server
meets the minimum requirements for a successful installation. A critical stop or warning message appears if
the server fails a check. Refer to the Appendix – Setup Error Messages in this guide for a list of the checks and
an explanation of the message. You must resolve critical stops before you can proceed with setup.
Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, select the deployment options you intend to use. The installation
process prompts you to select options throughout the procedure to create the configuration you want.
Environmental Prerequisites
vCenter Server Heartbeat cannot protect a server configured with the following roles: domain controller,
global catalog, or DNS. Please note, because vCenter Server Heartbeat only protects the vCenter Server and
SQL Server applications, no other critical business applications should be installed on the server.
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Common Requirements
The following requirements are in addition to those required for vCenter Server and SQL Server.


Supported vCenter Server Versions

VirtualCenter Server 2.5

VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 1

VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 2

VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 3

VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 4

VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 5

vCenter Server 4.0

vCenter Server 4.0 Update 1
Operating System

Windows Server 2003 x86 SP1 or SP2

Windows Server 2003 x64 SP2

Windows Server 2008 x86 SP1 or SP2

Windows Server 2008 x64 SP1 or SP2

Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, verify that vCenter Guided Consolidation, vCenter Update
Manager, and vCenter Converter are configured using Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) rather
than IP addresses.

During the setup process, vCenter Server Heartbeat verifies that a minimum of 1GB RAM is available. To
ensure proper operation, vCenter Server Heartbeat requires a minimum of 1GB RAM (2GB is
recommended) in addition to any other memory requirement for the Operating System or vCenter Server.

Verify that 2GB of disk space is available on the installation drive for vCenter Server Heartbeat.

Obtain and use local administrator rights to perform vCenter Server Heartbeat installation.

Apply the latest Microsoft security updates.

All applications that will be protected by vCenter Server Heartbeat must be installed and configured on
the Primary server prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat.

Verify that both Primary and Secondary servers have identical system date, time, and time Zone settings.
Once configured, do not change the time zone.

Verify that the Principal (Public) network adapter is listed as the first network adapter in the Network
Connections Bind Order. (Network Connections > Advanced > Advanced Settings).

Verify that the Managed IP setting in the Virtual Infrastructure Client is the same IP address used for the
vCenter Server Heartbeat Principal (Public) IP address.
Server Architecture Options
The selected server architecture affects the requirements for hardware and the technique used to clone the
Primary server.
Virtual to Virtual (V2V)
V2V is the supported architecture if vCenter Server is already installed on the production (Primary) server
running on a virtual machine. Benefits to this architecture include reduced hardware cost, shorter installation
time, and use of the Pre-Clone technique for installation.
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Chapter 2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation
The Secondary virtual machine must meet the minimum requirements.

The specifications of the Secondary virtual machine must match the specifications of the Primary virtual
machine as follows:

Similar CPU (including resource management settings)

Memory configuration (including resource management settings)

Appropriate resource pool priorities

Each virtual machine used in the V2V pair must be on a separate ESX host to guard against failure at the
host level.

Each virtual NIC must use a separate virtual switch.
Physical to Virtual (P2V)
P2V architecture is used when the environment requires a mix of physical and virtual machines, such as when
vCenter Server is installed on a physical server in an environment where available hardware is limited. This
architecture is appropriate if you must avoid adding more physical servers or if you plan to migrate to virtual
technologies over a period of time. With P2V architecture, you can test vCenter Server running in a virtual
environment or migrate from Physical to Virtual without any downtime. The Secondary virtual machine must
meet the minimum requirements.

The specifications of the Secondary virtual machine must match the Primary physical server as follows:

Similar CPU

Identical Memory

The Secondary virtual machine must have sufficient priority in resource management settings so that
other virtual machines do not impact its performance.

Each virtual NIC must use a separate virtual switch.
Physical to Physical (P2P)
P2P architecture is used in environments where both the Primary and Secondary servers are physical servers.
Use of P2P limits installation options as it requires use of the Install Clone technique. This architecture requires
attention to detail when preparing for installation as both hardware and software must meet specific
prerequisites.
Primary Server
The Primary server must meet the following requirements:

Hardware as specified in “Common Requirements” on page 22.

Software as specified in “Common Requirements” on page 22.
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Secondary Server
The Secondary server operates as a near clone of the Primary server and must meet the following
requirements.
Hardware
Hardware should be equivalent to the Primary server to ensure adequate performance when the server is in
the active role:

Similar CPU.

Similar memory.

Identical number of NICs to the Primary server.

Drive letters must match the Primary server.

Available disk space must be greater than or equal to the Primary server.

Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) compliance must match the Primary server. The
vCenter Server Heartbeat Standard implementation process assumes identical ACPI compliance on both
machines. If not, contact VMware Support at www.vmware.com/support for further information.
Software
Software on the Secondary server must meet the following requirements.

OS version and Service Pack version must match the Primary server.

OS must be installed to the same driver letter and directory as on the Primary server.

Machine name must be different from the Primary server prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat.

Set up in a workgroup prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat.

System date, time, and time zone settings must be consistent with the Primary server.
Cloning Technology Options
Cloning the Primary server to create a nearly identical Secondary server involves different techniques
depending on the selected server architecture.
Supported Pre-Clone Technologies
The following cloning technologies are supported for creating Pre-Cloned images for use as a Secondary
server:

VMware Converter for “Physical to Virtual (P2V)” on page 23.

VMware vCenter virtual machine cloning for “Virtual to Virtual (V2V)” on page 22.
Supported Install Clone Technologies
Installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat provides support for NTBackup on Windows 2003 and Wbadmin on
Windows Server 2008 for automated Install Cloning. This process is automated but requires meeting all
prerequisites for the Secondary server specified in “Physical to Physical (P2P)” on page 23.
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Application Component Options
vCenter Server Heartbeat can accommodate any of the supported vCenter Server configurations and protects
the following components:


VirtualCenter Server Version 2.5

VMware VirtualCenter Server

VMware Capacity Planner

VMware Converter Enterprise

VMware Update Manager

VMware License Server
vCenter Server Version 4.0

VMware vCenter Server

VMware Guided Consolidation Service

VMware License Sever

VMware ADAM

VMware vCenter Management Web Server

VMware Update Manager

VMware Converter Enterprise

Guided Consolidation Service

VMware Orchestrator

VMware vSphere Host Update Utility
NOTE Ensure that all VMware components are bound to the Principal (Public) IP address on the Principal
(Public) network adapter and that the Principal (Public) network adapter is listed first in the bind order of the
Network Connections > Advanced > Advanced Settings window.
vCenter Server with SQL Server on the Same Host
To ensure adequate performance in 20+ host or 200+ virtual machine environments, VMware recommends that
SQL Server and vCenter Server be installed on separate physical disk drives. VMDKs must be on separate
datastores to avoid potential disk bottlenecks.
vCenter Server with SQL Server on a Separate Host
When installing vCenter Server Heartbeat in an environment where SQL Server is on a separate host from
vCenter Server, repeat the installation process for the Primary and Secondary server specifically for the SQL
Server.
To ensure proper failover, increase the default Heartbeat interval for the vCenter Server from 20 to 30 seconds.
vCenter Server Only
The vCenter Server Only option requires a single iteration of the installation process because the database is
not protected.
Network Options
Networking requirements are contingent on how vCenter Server Heartbeat is deployed. To deploy as a High
Availability (HA) solution, a LAN configuration is required. To deploy vCenter Server Heartbeat for Disaster
Recovery (DR), a WAN configuration is required. Each network configuration has specific configuration
requirements to ensure proper operation.
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LAN
When deployed in a LAN environment, vCenter Server Heartbeat requires that both servers use the same
Principal (Public) IP address. Each server also requires a separate VMware Channel IP address on a separate
dedicated subnet.
NOTE When installing vCenter Server Heartbeat in a LAN environment, do not enable the Low Bandwidth
Module as this is designed for WAN deployments.
Primary Server
Three NICs (1 x Public and 2 x Channel) are recommended for redundancy in the event one channel fails. A
minimum of two NICs (one for the Channel, and one for the Public) are required in this configuration.
Split-brain Avoidance should be configured.


Principal (Public) network connection configured with the following:

Static IP address

Correct network mask

Correct Gateway address

Correct preferred and secondary (if applicable) DNS server address

NetBIOS enabled
Channel Network connection(s) configured with the following:

Static IP address in a different subnet than the Principal (Public) network with a different IP address
than the Secondary server channel NIC

Correct network mask

No Gateway IP address

No DNS server address

NetBIOS enabled (setup will disable this during the installation process)
Secondary Server
Networking components on the Secondary server must be configured as follows:

Same number of NICs as the Primary server

Principal (Public) network connection configured with temporary network settings

Channel network connection(s) configured with the following:

Static IP address in a different subnet than the Principal (Public) network with a different IP address
than the Primary server channel NIC

Correct network mask

No Gateway IP address

No DNS IP address

NetBIOS enabled (setup will disable this during the installation process

File and print sharing enabled
WAN
Deploying vCenter Server Heartbeat in a WAN environment requires additional considerations. Each server
within the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair requires its own separate Principal (Public) IP address and a VMware
Channel IP address in a separate dedicated subnet.
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WAN Requirements
WAN deployments require the following:

Persistent static routing configured for the channel connection(s) where routing is required

Two NICs (1 x Public and 1 x Channel) are recommended

At least one Domain Controller at the Disaster Recovery (DR) site

If the Primary and DR site use the same subnet:


During install, follow the steps for a LAN or VLAN on the same subnet

Both servers in the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair use the same Public IP address
If the Primary and DR site use different subnets:

During install, follow the steps for a WAN

Both servers in the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair require a separate Principal (Public) IP address and
a VMware Channel IP address in a separate dedicated subnet

Provide a user account with rights to update DNS using the DNSUpdate utility provided as a
component of vCenter Server Heartbeat through vCenter Server Heartbeat Console Application >
Task > User Accounts

VMware recommends integrating Microsoft DNS into AD so that DNSUpdate can identify all DNS
Servers that require updating

At least one Domain Controller at the DR site

Refer to the following articles in the VMware Knowledge Base:

KB 1008571 – Configuring DNS in a WAN Environment

KB 1008605 – Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat to Update BIND9 DNS Servers Deployed in a
WAN
Bandwidth
Determine the available bandwidth and estimate the required volume of data throughput to determine
acceptable latency for the throughput. Additionally, the bandwidth can affect the required queue size to
accommodate the estimated volume of data. VMware recommends making a minimum of 1Mbit of spare
bandwidth available to vCenter Server Heartbeat.
vCenter Server Heartbeat includes a Low Bandwidth Module for use in WAN environments. When enabled,
the VMware Channel compresses the data, optimizing the traffic for low bandwidth connections causing some
additional CPU load on the active server.
Latency
Latency has a direct effect on data throughput. Latency on the link should not fall below the standard defined
for a T1 connection.
Heartbeat Diagnostics can assist in determining the available bandwidth, required bandwidth, and server
workload. For more information about Heartbeat Diagnostics, contact VMware Professional Services.
Antivirus Recommendations
Consult with and implement the advice of your antivirus (AV) provider, as VMware guidelines often follow
these recommendations. Consult the VMware knowledge base for up to date information on specific AV
products.
Do not use file level AV to protect application server databases, such as MS SQL Server databases. The nature
of database contents can cause false positives in virus detection, leading to failed database applications, data
integrity errors, and performance degradation.
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VMware recommends that when implementing vCenter Server Heartbeat, you do not replicate file level AV
temp files using vCenter Server Heartbeat.
The file level AV software running on the Primary server must be the same as the software that runs on the
Secondary server. In addition, the same file level AV must run during both active and passive roles.
Configure file level AV to use the management IP address on the passive server for virus definition updates.
If this is not possible, manually update virus definitions on the passive server.
Exclude the following VMware directories from file level AV scans (C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware
vCenter Server Heartbeat\ is the default installation directory):

C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat\r2\logs

C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat\r2\log
Any configuration changes made to a file level AV product on one server (such as exclusions) must be made
on the other server as well. vCenter Server Heartbeat does not replicate this information.
Deployment Options Summary
Table 2-1 provides all possible deployment options described in this section.
Table 2-1. Installation Options
Network
Clone Technique
Component
LAN
WAN
Pre-Clone
InstallClone
vCenter Server w/SQL
Local
vCenter Server w/SQL
Remote
vCenter Server Only
V2V
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
P2V
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
P2P
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
Installation Options Checklist
Verify the prerequisites:
Server architecture:
___ P2P
___ P2V
___ V2V
Cloning technology option:
___ Pre-Clone Install
___ Install Clone
Application components to protect:
___ vCenter Server with SQL Server on same host
___ vCenter Server with SQL Server on separate host
___ vCenter Server only
Network environment type:
___ LAN
___ WAN
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Is the subnet the same at the Secondary site?

If Yes, an IP address is required for this subnet
Active Directory Integrated DNS?
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
If Yes, a Domain Account with rights to update DNS is required.

If No, refer to the knowledge base articles in “Network Options” on page 25.
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3
vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation
on Windows Server 2003
3
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Overview” on page 31

“Installation Process” on page 31

“Primary Server” on page 32

“Secondary Server” on page 53

“Post Installation Configuration” on page 68
Overview
This chapter discusses the installation process used to implement vCenter Server Heartbeat on Windows
Server 2003. During the installation process, vCenter Server Heartbeat performs a variety of checks to ensure
the server meets the minimum requirements for a successful installation. Should the server fail one of the
checks, a critical stop or warning message appears. Refer to the Appendix – Setup Error Messages in this guide
for a list of the checks and an explanation of the message. You must resolve critical stops before you can
proceed with setup.
Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, you must identify the deployment options you want. The
installation process requires you to select options throughout the procedure to achieve your configuration
goals.
Installation Process
After selecting implementation options, begin the installation process. The installation process for all scenarios
follows the same basic procedure. Links to specific installation scenarios describing differences are identified
by the blue hyperlinked text.
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Primary Server
Installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat begins on the Primary server.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat installs in the evaluation mode. Refer to “Post Installation Configuration” on
page 68 for instructions on how to enter a production serial number.
1
Having verified all of the environmental prerequisites are met, download vCenter Server Heartbeat the
WinZip self extracting file to an appropriate location on the Primary server (either Physical or Virtual).
You have the following options:
32

For P2P, go to Step 2 to continue the installation.

For V2V or P2V installations with the Pre-Clone technique selected, begin with Step a below to
configure the network settings on the Secondary server.
a
Clone the Primary server using either the VMware vCenter Converter for P2V, vCenter virtual
machine cloning for V2V, or another third-party utility to create a cloned image of the Primary server.
The clone must be completely identical with no changes to the Name, SID, or domain membership.
b
After creating the cloned image, but before powering on the cloned image, edit the image settings.
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c
Select the Public virtual network adapter and clear the Connected and Connect at power on check
boxes.
d
Repeat the process on the Channel virtual network adapter.
e
Power on the Secondary (previously cloned) server image.
f
After the Secondary starts, open Network Connections, right-click the VMware Channel network
connection and select Properties. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
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34
g
Configure the appropriate VMware Channel IP address and subnet mask. Click Advanced...
h
Click the DNS tab, clear the Register this connection’s addresses in DNS check box, and click OK.
i
Click the WINS tab, select Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP and click OK twice.
j
Select the Principal (Public) network connection, right-click and select Properties. Select Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties. Set the appropriate IP address (same as the Primary server
for LAN installations), Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway, and click OK.
k
In Network Connections, click Advanced and select Advanced Settings. Verify that the Principal
(Public) NIC IP address is listed first in the Bind Order, and click OK.
l
Right-click the Secondary (cloned) server image and select Edit Settings.
m
Select the VMware Channel virtual network adapter and select the Connected and Connect at power
on check boxes. IP communications with the Secondary server go through the VMware Channel.
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Chapter 3 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2003
NOTE Do not connect the Principal (Public) virtual network adapter at this time to prevent an IP
address conflict on the network.
2
Double click the WinZip Self Extracting file to initiate the installation process. The Setup Introduction
window appears. Review the information and click OK.
NOTE If you click Exit after Setup has started, you are prompted to save your settings. When you run
Setup.exe later, you will be asked if you want to use the previously saved configuration.
3
The WinZip Self-Extractor window appears. Click Setup to continue.
4
The Setup Type window appears. Because this is a new installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat, select
Install vCenter Server Heartbeat and click Next.
NOTE The left pane of each page in the setup wizard provides information about the setup process.
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5
Select the identity of the server on the Physical Hardware Identity page. Select Primary as the server
identity and click Next.
NOTE If .Net 2.0 is not currently installed on the server, vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup installs this
required component, taking some additional time during the installation process.
Select the cloning options. If using the Install Clone technique, go to Step 6. If using the Pre-Clone
technique, click the link below to jump to the Pre-Clone technique instructions.
You have the following options:
36

For installation using the Install Clone technique, continue with Step 6.

For installation using the Pre-Clone technique, continue with Step 7.
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Chapter 3 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2003
6
Select Secondary server is not a clone of the Primary server, click Next, and go to Step 8.
7
If a virtual Secondary server was created using VMware Converter, the cloning option in the Virtual
Infrastructure Client, or a third-party utility, select Secondary server was pre-cloned and click Next.
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8
Read the license agreement carefully and select I accept the terms of the License Agreement. Click Next.
9
Configure the installation paths. The default installation location is C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware
vCenter Server Heartbeat, but you can change it by manually typing a path to another install location.
NOTE The path of the VMware installation folder cannot contain Unicode characters. If vCenter Server
Heartbeat is installed in a folder that has a path containing Unicode characters, this causes the Neverfail
Server R2 service to fail to start. The path of the VMware installation folder can only contain lower and
upper case letters A to Z, digits from 0 to 9, and the following special characters: space \ _ - ( ) . :
Alternatively, click Browse to select one of these locations. Select Create icons on Desktop and click Next.
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Chapter 3 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2003
10
Identify the network adapter(s) for use in the VMware Channel on the Channel Adapter Identification
page. Select the network adapters (NICs) for the VMware Channel from the list. Click the adapter name
to display the selected NIC properties in the lower panel. You must select at least one NIC to proceed with
the installation.
11
If no NICs are available, click Open Network Connections to review the network configuration of your
machine and verify that you have the correct number of NICs installed.
NOTE Only one channel can be configured for each NIC. To configure more than one channel you must
identify more than one NIC. A disabled NIC does not appear in this list. Enable the NIC to display it. If a
NIC is disconnected, its IP addresses do not appear in the lower panel.
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12
The VMware Channel IP Configuration page prompts you to configure the VMware Channel(s) IP
network addresses. Click Add for each available channel connection. For the Primary server, select from
a drop-down menu that lists all local IP addresses. Type the reciprocal IP address on the Secondary server
into the IP Address On Secondary text box. You must specify all VMware Channel IP addresses in
subnets outside of the normal Principal (Public) IP addressing schema so that VMware Channel traffic
routing uses the VMware Channel network card rather than the Principal (Public) network card. Click
OK. Repeat this step for additional NICs.
13
Review and adjust, if necessary, the default channel port. Click Next.
NOTE When the implementation spans multiple sites with firewalls between the servers, configure the
firewalls to allow traffic to pass through the default channel port or the manually configured channel port.
Consult the VMware knowledge base for additional information.
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14
Select the Principal (Public) NIC(s). The IP address information is displayed for each NIC.
vCenter Server Heartbeat software can be deployed in a configuration where both servers have the same
Principal (Public) IP address, for instance, in a standard Local Area Network (LAN) deployment where
both machines are in the same subnet.
Alternatively vCenter Server Heartbeat can be deployed where the Principal (Public) IP addresses differ,
for instance, in a Wide Area Network (WAN) deployment where the Primary and Secondary servers are
located in different sites and subnets where client access is therefore bound by the standard network
routing to allow the correct connectivity to the server according to its locale.
15
Select LAN: Configure Primary and Secondary servers with the same Public IP addresses or
WAN: Configure Primary and Secondary servers with different Public IP addresses.
You have the following options:
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
For a WAN installation with different subnets, go to Step 17.

For LAN installation or same subnet WAN installs, continue with Step 16.
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16
For a LAN environment, click Add to specify the IP address.
If installing in a LAN or when the WAN uses the same subnet, go to Step 20.
42
17
For a WAN environment, specify IP addresses of the Secondary server and the Primary server.
18
Add each Principal (Public) network address until all addresses are present. Click Next.
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Chapter 3 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2003
19
When the Principal (Public) addresses on the Secondary server are different from those on the Primary
server, vCenter Server Heartbeat must perform additional tasks during failover or switchover. These
additional tasks require clients to change their resolution of the active server to a different IP address and
requires that vCenter Server Heartbeat update the DNS entries for the active server across the enterprise.
Such updates require credentials for domain administrators (or an account with equivalent rights). Type
the Domain Name, a domain administrator Username and Password in the respective text boxes and
click Next.
The vCenter Server Heartbeat server pair can be administered remotely on client machines using the
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
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20 The vCenter Server Heartbeat Console connects to an IP address of the active server using the default
client connection port of 52267. If this port is already in use, type an available client connection port in the
text box. Click Next.
21
Select the applications to protect. All licensed vCenter Server Heartbeat features are listed.
If installing vCenter Server only, or vCenter Server locally and the SQL Server on a separate server, select
Protect Virtual Center only.
If installing SQL Server remotely, upon completion of the vCenter Server installation locally, repeat the
installation procedure at the remote SQL Server location and select Protect SQL Server only.
If installing both vCenter Server and SQL Server locally, select Protect Virtual Center and SQL Server.
Select the applications to protect. If installing in a WAN, enable the Low Bandwidth Module by selecting
Enable LBM. Click Next.
CAUTION Do not enable the Low Bandwidth Module (LBM) for a LAN install.
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22
Configure Microsoft Windows Backup options. To facilitate the clone of the Primary server onto the
Secondary server, you must back up pertinent components of the Primary server for restoration on to the
Secondary server.
You have the following options:

For installation using the Pre-Clone technique, go to Step 23 on page page 47.

For installation using the Install Clone technique, continue with Step a.
Continue with Step a.
a
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Configure Microsoft Windows Backup options. Depending on the network topology between the
servers, backup files can include or exclude application data. Including application data in the
backup file decreases the time to initially verify and synchronize the applications data on first start
up of vCenter Server Heartbeat. This is useful where VMware Channel connections are slower than
LAN speed, such as in a WAN implementation.
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With Windows Server 2003, vCenter Server Heartbeat does not stop services and prevents downtime
by using the Windows Volume Shadow Service to take the backup. Including the applications’
protected data greatly increases the backup file size and therefore increases the time of the backup
operation. Due to the potential large size of the backup file, careful consideration is required when
including application data and specifying the backup folder location.
b
46
Where VMware Channel communications are fast and reliable, for instance in a LAN topology, you
can directly create the backup files over the VMware Channel connections to a partition on the
Secondary server. To perform this direct backup, click Map Network Drive and specify a network
mapping to the Secondary server. Type in the path or browse to the location to receive the backup file.
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c
Select an appropriate drive letter for the mapping and specify the required share on the Secondary
server using the channel address of the Secondary server as the server name, for example:
\\192.168.1.6\VM_BU. Verify that the mapped partition has enough free space, a minimum of 2GB,
to accommodate the backup file.
d
Where the VMware Channel connection is slower than 10 Mbit/s or risks an interruption in
connection, for example in a WAN topology, save the backup file locally and manually port the file
to the Secondary server.
e
In either scenario, specify the path to an appropriate location for storing the backup file by either
manually typing the path into Backup File Folder or click Browse to locate the folder or network
mapping.
When Pre-Clone technique is selected, Setup backs up two small files, nfsetup.dat and primary.csv, from
the Primary server and restores them to the Secondary server for proper configuration.
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Continue with Step a.
a
Where VMware Channel communications are fast and reliable, for instance in a LAN topology, you
can directly create the backup files over the VMware Channel connections to a partition on the
Secondary server. To perform this direct backup, click Map Network Drive and specify a network
mapping to the Secondary server. Type the path or browse to the location to receive the backup file.
b
Select an appropriate drive letter for the mapping and specify the required share on the Secondary
server using the channel address of the Secondary server as the server name, for example:
\\192.168.1.6\VM_BU.
c
Where the VMware Channel connection is slower than 10 Mbit/s or risks an interruption in
connection, for example in a WAN topology, save the backup file locally and manually port the file
to the Secondary server.
d
In either scenario, specify the path to an appropriate location for storing the backup file by either
manually typing the path into Backup File Folder or click Browse to locate the folder or network
mapping.
With Windows 2003, vCenter Server Heartbeat takes the backup using the Windows Volume Shadow
Service and does not stop services, thereby preventing downtime. Click Next.
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24
Review the summary of options and configuration information for the installation. Click Next.
25
Pre-install checks run to ensure that the installation can continue. Setup checks the available disk space,
system memory, operating system compatibility, and dependencies between modules. The Report panel
displays the results of the pre-install checks.
26
If some pre-install checks are unsuccessful, go back through the wizard, make the necessary changes, and
run the pre-install checks again. If the pre-install checks are successful, click Next.
NOTE The Progress panel on the Pre-Install Checks page displays the progress of these checks. When
finished, the Report panel displays the results.
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27
The next page displays the progress of the installation. During this process, Setup installs the necessary
files and folders onto your system and applies the configuration you specified. Setup also installs
Heartbeat Diagnostics and configures it with the default settings.
NOTE If a previous version of Heartbeat Diagnostics is detected, vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup updates
it to the current version. To learn more about Heartbeat Diagnostics, see Getting Started with Heartbeat
Diagnostics on the VMware Web site.
28
Click Next after vCenter Server Heartbeat components are complete.
You have the following options:
50

If using the Pre-Clone installation technique, go to Step 31.

If using the Install Clone installation technique, continue to Step 29.
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The next page displays the Microsoft Windows Backup panel. Click Proceed. The automated backup is
saved in the previously defined location.
30
A summary window displays the results of the backup operation. Review the backup report and click
Next.
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31
The vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter driver installs on each network card of the production server.
If you see warnings that the driver is unsigned or did not complete the Windows Logo tests, click
Continue Anyway. If Windows is configured to display Signed Driver warnings, you can see multiple
warnings. The Report panel displays the results. Click Next.
By default, the vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter driver is applied to all Principal (Public) network
cards present on the machine. The vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter is not applied to the network
cards forming VMware Channel connections as these cards maintain unique IP addresses irrespective of
the role of the server. vCenter Server Heartbeat also disables NetBIOS on the Channel NIC(s) to prevent
domain name conflicts on the subnet.
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32
When the setup wizard confirms the successful completion of the installation, click Finish.
Secondary Server
The process of installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary server is similar to installing
vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Primary server.
To install the Secondary server
1
To install the vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary server, download vCenter Server Heartbeat to
the Secondary server (either Physical or Virtual) to a suitable location. Execute the WinZip self extracting
file to start the installation process. The Setup Introduction window appears. Review the information and
click OK.
NOTE If you click Exit after Setup has started, you are prompted to save your settings. When you run the
self extracting WinZip file again later, you will be asked if you want to use the previously saved
configuration.
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2
The WinZip Self-Extractor window appears. Click Setup to continue.
3
The Setup Type window appears. As with the installation on the Primary server, select Install VMware
vCenter Server Heartbeat and click Next.
NOTE The left pane of each page in the setup wizard provides information about the setup process.
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4
Select the identity of the server on the Physical Hardware Identity page. Select Secondary as the server
identity and click Next.
NOTE If .Net 2.0 is not currently installed on the server, vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup installs this
required component, taking some additional time during the installation process.
5
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Specify the location of the folder containing the backup file from the Primary server. Manually type the
location path in the text box or click Browse and locate the folder. Click Next.
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6
The pre-install checks run. Click Next.
If some pre-install checks are unsuccessful, go back through the wizard, make the necessary changes, and
run the pre-install checks again.
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7
The next page displays the progress of the installation. During this process, Setup installs the necessary
files and folders onto your system and applies the configuration you specified. Setup also installs
Heartbeat Diagnostics and configures it with the default settings. To learn more about Heartbeat
Diagnostics see Getting Started with Heartbeat Diagnostics.
8
The Report panel displays the results of the installation. Click Next.
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9
The progress of the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter installation is displayed. Click Next.
You have the following options:
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
If the Secondary server is physical, such as in P2P, go to Step 10.

If the Secondary server is virtual, such as in P2V or V2V, continue with Step a.
a
The Packet Filter is installed on the Principal (Public) NIC and the Principal (Public) network adapter
can be reconnected. Right-click the Secondary server image name and select Edit Settings.
b
Select the Principal (Public) virtual network adapter, select the Connected and Connect at power on
check boxes, and click OK.
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10
In the Channel Adapter Identification page, select the appropriate adapter and review the IP address
configuration in the lower panel. Click Next.
You have the following options:
58

If using the Install Clone installation technique, continue to Step 11.

If using the Pre-Clone installation technique, go to Step 14.
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11
Configure the Principal (Public) adapter on the Secondary server through the Public Adapter
Identification page. When you select the Principal (Public) adapter, a caution message notifies you that
the IP address on the Principal (Public) adapter does not match the IP address on the Primary server (LAN
configuration only). Click OK.
12
Click Open Network Connections to change the static IP address of the Principal (Public) adapter to
match that of the Primary server (LAN configuration only).
13
If in a WAN environment, verify the Secondary Principal (Public) adapter IP address configuration.
Click Next.
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You have the following options:
14
60

If using the Install Clone installation technique, go to Step 15.

If using the Pre-Clone installation technique, go to Step 28.
When using the Pre-Clone installation technique, although you previously configured the IP address of
the Principal (Public) network connections, you can make any last minute changes on the Secondary
server through vCenter Server Heartbeat. Click Next.
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15
The Microsoft Windows Backup Restore page shows the process of unbinding the vCenter Server
Heartbeat Packet Filter and disabling NetBIOS from the VMware Channel NIC(s). A caution message
appears, advising you that the restore process is initiating and upon completion, the server must be
restarted. After restarting, Plug and Play (PnP) can require you to restart the machine again. Click Next.
16
The NTBackup wizard launches. If NTBackup has never run before, the software searches for backup
devices. Close any open wizards and click Restore Wizard on the welcome page.
17
Click Next in the Restore Wizard. Click Browse to locate the previously generated backup file.
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62
18
Navigate to the partition and select the folder in which the backup file was created, select the backup file,
click Open and then click OK.
19
Expand the file tree structure to see the System State file in the left panel. Click OK to build indexes where
required. Select all items listed under the media created tree and click Next.
20
With Where to restore at the default Original location, click Next. Click Finish.
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21
A warning message alerts you that the restore process is going to overwrite the existing System State files.
Click OK to allow the restore process to continue.
22
When the restoration process completes, click Close.
23
To apply the newly restored system state, you must restart the machine. Click Yes to restart the server.
24
Following the restart of the server, log in to the Secondary server using a domain administrator account.
25
PnP can require multiple restarts of the server as it reidentifies the actual hardware makeup of the
Secondary server as opposed to that restored from the backup file of the Primary server.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat starts each time the Secondary server restarts. Manually shut down
vCenter Server Heartbeat before initiating a restart.
26
Click Yes at each restart prompt to allow each PnP cycle to complete.
27
When all PnP cycles complete, the vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup is complete, and vCenter Server
Heartbeat starts on the Secondary server.
28
Select Start VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat after clicking Finish and click Finish.
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29
Before starting vCenter Server Heartbeat, verify the time synchronization between the Primary and
Secondary servers. When a difference exists, synchronize the Secondary (passive) server to the Primary
(active) server across the VMware Channel. Type the following command at the command prompt:
net time \\<Primary_Channel_IP_address> /set
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Primary server. Right-click the vCenter Server Heartbeat System
Tray icon and select Start VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat. The icons change from a double dash to a
P indicating the server is the Primary server, and an A indicating the server is acting in an active role.
30
The Primary and Secondary servers establish a handshake and commence replication.
NOTE The installation is complete if vCenter Server was installed with a local SQL Server or only vCenter
Server was installed with no separate SQL Server.
If vCenter Server only was installed and you want to install a separate SQL Server, repeat the installation
process for the Primary and Secondary server at the remote site and selecting SQL Server only.
To install the SQL Server on a separate host from the vCenter Server, go to “Primary Server” on page 32.
31
Configure the appropriate username and password in the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console:
a
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat Console from the desktop shortcut or Start > All Programs > VMware
> VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat > Manage Server. The login window appears.
b
Before you log in, you must identify the pair of servers to administer. Click Servers.
NOTE Add the Principal (Public) IP address or FQDN of the Primary server to ensure that you can
administer the server pairs from the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console regardless of the role (active
or passive) of the current server.
c
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Click Add Pair.
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d
Type the IP address of any NIC on the active server or the NetBIOS name of the server pair and click
OK.
e
The server pair appears in the list. If more than one server pair exists within the organization, add
them sequentially to the list by repeating the procedure.
To edit or delete server pairs from the list, click the entry in the list and click the relevant button.
f
Click Close to return to the login window.
To administer a pair of servers you must connect to them through the vCenter Server Heartbeat
Console. vCenter Server Heartbeat Console does not connect until vCenter Server Heartbeat
initializes. Wait 10 seconds after starting vCenter Server Heartbeat before attempting to connect.
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g
Select a server pair displayed in the Server box.
h
Type a username and password with valid Windows credentials into the respective text boxes. In a
domain environment, use the format domainname\username.
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i
The Server Pairs Overview window lists the selected pair of servers with other server pairs that
historically were administered. The Primary server name is displayed with the roles that Primary and
Secondary servers are currently performing.
Additionally, the Last Event, Importance, and Time are displayed. These events are discussed later
in this guide.
j
To add additional pairs of servers, click Add and follow the previously described procedure.
To select a pair listed in the main data grid, select the check box next to the server name.
When a pair is selected, the Open, Clear Event, and Remove buttons become active.
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Open displays the pair of servers for administration and configuration and displays the System >
Status and Control page.
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k
Click Advanced > Application > Plugins.
l
Select the vCenter Server plug-in.
m
Click Edit.
n
Type the Username and Password for an account with rights to the virtual infrastructure.
o
Click OK.
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Post Installation Configuration
Upon completion of installation, a series of tasks must be performed to ensure that vCenter Server Heartbeat
is properly configured.
Add the VMware License
After completion of installation, vCenter Server Heartbeat will run in the evaluation mode for up to 60 days.
After acquiring a license, you must add the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat serial number using the
Configure Server wizard to change from evaluation mode to production mode. To add the license:
1
Right-click the System Tray icon and select Stop VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat opting to leave
protected applications running.
2
Double-click the Configure Server icon on the desktop.
3
Select the License tab of the Configure Server wizard.
4
Select the existing serial number and click the Trash Can icon.
5
Click the Add Row icon and enter the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat serial number.
6
Click Finish.
7
Right-click the System Tray icon and select Start VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat.
When Deployed in a WAN Environment
When deployed in a WAN environment with VMware Orchestrator and the Primary and Secondary servers
in different subnets, you must configure an Exclusion File Filter following the steps below:
1
Launch vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
2
Click Advanced to enable Advanced mode view.
3
Click Data and click the Configuration tab.
4
Click Add Exclusion Filter... and type the following path:
$INSTALL_PATH_TO_ORCHESTRATOR/app-server/bin/boot.properties
5
Click OK.
6
Perform a switchover so that the Secondary server becomes active.
7
Launch the vCenter Orchestrator Web Configuration wizard and select Network. In the IP address field
select the Principal (Public) IP address of the Secondary server. Click Apply changes.
8
Launch the vCenter Orchestrator Web Configuration wizard and type the Principal (Public) IP address
of the Secondary server (Network > IP address).
9
Launch the vCenter Orchestrator Web Configuration wizard, select Startup Options, and click Restart
service.
10
From vCenter Server Heartbeat Console, select Application and then Services. Verify that VMware
vCenter Orchestrator Server service is included in the protected services. If not, manually run the
Protected Service Discovery task from VMware vCenter Heartbeat Console > Application > Tasks >
VMware VirtualCenter - Protected Service Discovery)
vCenter Server 2.5
The post installation configuration tasks are determined by the type of network environment.
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LAN
For LAN deployments, perform the following:
1
If a Management IP address is configured, no additional tasks are required.
2
If a Management IP address is not configured, configure a VMware Managed IP address using the Virtual
Infrastructure Client.
a
Launch the Virtual Infrastructure Client.
b
In the Virtual Infrastructure Client, navigate to Administration > VirtualCenter Management Server
Configuration > Runtime Settings.
c
In the Managed IP field, type the Principal (Public) IP address.
d
Click OK and close the window.
WAN
For WAN deployments, regardless of whether a Management IP address exists, vCenter Server Heartbeat
provides a task that can be configured to update the ESX hosts with the new Managed IP address during a
switchover or failover. The task requires setting the Managed IP in either the vpxd.cfg file or in the registry.
To configure the Managed IP in the Vpxd file
1
The vpxd.cfg files is located at C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application
Data\VMware\VMware Virtual Center server.
2
On the active server, locate the <vpxd> element in the vpxd.cfg file and add a new element <managedIP>
that contains the Principal (Public) IP address of the vCenter server.
To configure the Managed IP in the registry
At HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\VMware, Inc.\VMware VirtualCenter, create a new string value
called <managedIP> and set it with the Public (Principal) IP address of the currently active server.
IMPORTANT Do not configure the VMware Managed IP address using the Virtual Infrastructure Client. The
Managed IP field from Administration > VirtualCenter Management Server Configuration > Runtime
Settings must be clear.
vCenter Server 4.0
The post installation configuration tasks are determined by the type of network environment.
LAN
With or without a Management IP address configured, no additional tasks are required.
WAN
With or without a Management IP address configured, disable the VMware VirtualCenter PostStart task
through the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console using the following procedure.
1
Launch the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
2
Click Application.
3
Click the Tasks tab.
4
Select VMware VirtualCenter PostStart task.
5
Click Edit.
6
Clear the Enabled check box.
7
Click OK.
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IMPORTANT Do not configure the Managed IP address using the vSphere Client. The vCenter Server Managed
IP field from Administration > vCenter Server Settings > Runtime Settings must be clear.
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4
vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation
on Windows Server 2008
4
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Overview” on page 71

“Installation Process” on page 71

“Primary Server” on page 72

“Secondary Server” on page 92

“Post Installation Configuration” on page 109
Overview
This chapter discusses the installation process used to implement vCenter Server Heartbeat on Windows
Server 2008. During the installation process, vCenter Server Heartbeat performs a variety of checks to ensure
the server meets the minimum requirements for a successful installation. Should the server fail one of the
checks, a critical stop or warning message is displayed. Refer to the Appendix – Setup Error Messages of this
guide for a list of the checks and explanations of the messages. You must resolve critical stops before you can
proceed with setup.
Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, you must identify the deployment options you want. The
installation process requires you to select options throughout the procedure to achieve your configuration
goals.
Installation Process
After selecting implementation options, begin the installation process. The installation process for all scenarios
follows the same basic procedure. Links to specific installation scenarios describing differences are identified
by the blue hyperlinked text.
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Primary Server
Installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat begins on the Primary Server.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat installs in the evaluation mode. Refer to “Post Installation Configuration” on
page 109 for instructions on how to enter a production serial number.
1
Having verified all of the environmental prerequisites are met, download vCenter Server Heartbeat the
WinZip self extracting file to an appropriate location on the Primary server (either Physical or Virtual).
You have the following options:
72

For P2P, go to Step 2 to continue the installation.

For V2V or P2V Installations with the Pre-Clone technique selected, begin with Step a below to
configure the network settings on the Secondary server.
a
Clone the Primary server using either the VMware vCenter Converter for P2V, vCenter virtual
machine cloning for V2V, or another third-party utility to create a cloned image of the Primary server.
The clone must be completely identical with no changes to the Name, SID, or domain membership.
b
After the cloned image is created, but before powering on the cloned image, edit the image settings.
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c
Select the Public virtual network adapter and clear the Connected and Connect at power on check
boxes.
d
Repeat the process on the Channel virtual network Adapter.
e
Power on the Secondary (previously cloned) server image.
f
After the Secondary server starts, open Network Connections, right-click the VMware Channel
network connection and select Properties. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
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74
g
Configure the appropriate VMware Channel IP address and Subnet mask. Click Advanced.
h
Click the DNS tab, clear the Register this connection’s addresses in DNS check box, and click OK.
i
Click the WINS tab, select Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP and click OK twice.
j
Select the Principal (Public) network connection, right-click and select Properties. Select Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties. Set the appropriate IP address (same as the Primary server
for LAN installations), Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway, and click OK.
k
In Network Connections, click Advanced and select Advanced Settings. Verify that the Principal
(Public) NIC IP address is listed first in the Bind Order, and click OK.
l
Right-click the Secondary (cloned) server image and select Edit Settings.
m
Select the VMware Channel virtual network adapter and select the Connected and Connect at power
on check boxes. IP communications with the Secondary server go through the VMware Channel.
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Chapter 4 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2008
NOTE Do not connect the Principal (Public) virtual network adapter at this time to avoid an IP
address conflict on the network.
2
Double-click the WinZip Self Extracting file to initiate the installation process. The Setup Introduction
window is displayed. Review the information and click OK.
NOTE If you click Exit after Setup has started, you are prompted to save your settings. When you run the
self extracting WinZip file again later, you will be asked if you want to use the previously saved
configuration.
3
The WinZip Self-Extractor window is displayed. Click Setup to continue.
4
The Setup Type page is displayed. Because this is a new installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat, select
Install vCenter Server Heartbeat and click Next.
NOTE The left pane of each page in the setup wizard provides information about the setup process.
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5
Select the identity of the server through the Physical Hardware Identity page. Select Primary as the server
identity and click Next.
NOTE If .Net 2.0 is not currently installed on the server, vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup installs this
required component, taking some additional time during the installation process.
Select the cloning options. If using the Install Clone technique, go to Step 6. If using the Pre-Clone
technique, click the link below to jump to the Pre-Clone technique instructions.
You have the following options:
76

For installation using the Install Clone technique, continue with Step 6.

For installation using the Pre-Clone technique, continue with Step 7.
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6
Select Secondary server is not a clone of the Primary server and click Next and go to Step 8.
7
If a virtual Secondary server was created using the VMware Converter, the cloning option in the Virtual
Infrastructure Client, or a third-party utility, select Secondary server was pre-cloned and click Next.
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8
Read the license agreement carefully, select I accept the terms of the License Agreement, and click Next.
9
Configure the installation paths. The default installation location is C:\Program Files\VMware\VMware
vCenter Server Heartbeat, but you can change it by manually typing a path to another install location.
NOTE The path of the VMware installation folder cannot contain Unicode characters. If vCenter Server
Heartbeat is installed in a folder that has a path containing Unicode characters, this causes the Neverfail
Server R2 service to fail to start. The path of the VMware installation folder can only contain lower and
upper case letters A to Z, digits from 0 to 9, and the following special characters: space \ _ - ( ) . :
Alternatively, click Browse to select one of these locations. Select Create icons on Desktop and click Next.
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10
The Channel Adapter Identification page lets you identify the network adapter(s) for use in the VMware
Channel. Select the network adapters (NICs) for the VMware Channel from the list. Click the adapter
name to display the selected NIC properties in the lower panel. You must select at least one NIC to
proceed with the installation. Click Next.
11
If no NICs are available, click Open Network Connections to review the network configuration of your
machine and verify that you have the correct number of NICs installed.
NOTE Only one channel can be configured for each NIC. To configure more than one channel you must
identify more than one NIC. A disabled NIC does not appear in this list. Enable the NIC to display it. If a
NIC is disconnected, its IP addresses do not display in the lower panel.
12
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The VMware Channel IP Configuration page prompts you to configure the VMware Channel(s) IP
network addresses. Click Add for each available channel connection. Type the VMware Channel IP
addresses for both the Primary and Secondary servers. For the Primary server, select from a drop-down
menu that lists all local IP addresses. Type the corresponding IP address on the Secondary server into the
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IP Address On Secondary text box. You must specify all VMware Channel IP addresses in subnets
outside of the normal Principal (Public) IP addressing schema so that VMware Channel traffic routing
uses the VMware Channel network card rather than the Principal (Public) network card. Click OK. Repeat
this step for additional NICs.
13
Review and adjust, if necessary, the default channel port. Click Next.
NOTE When the implementation spans multiple sites with firewalls between the servers, configure the
firewalls to allow traffic to pass through the default channel port or the manually configured channel port.
Consult the VMware knowledge base for additional information.
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14
Select the Principal (Public) NIC(s). The IP address information is displayed for each NIC.
vCenter Server Heartbeat software can be deployed in a configuration where both servers have the same
Principal (Public) IP address, for instance, in a standard Local Area Network (LAN) deployment where
both machines are in the same subnet.
Alternatively vCenter Server Heartbeat can be deployed where the Principal (Public) IP addresses differ,
for instance, in a Wide Area Network (WAN) deployment where the Primary and Secondary servers are
located in different sites and subnets where client access is therefore bound by the standard network
routing to allow the correct connectivity to the server according to its locale.
15
Select LAN: Configure Primary and Secondary servers with the same Public IP addresses or WAN:
Configure Primary and Secondary servers with different Public IP addresses.
You have the following options:
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
For a WAN installation with different subnets, go to Step 17.

For LAN installation or same subnet WAN installs, continue with Step 16.
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16
For a LAN environment, click Add to specify the IP address.
If installing in a LAN or when the WAN uses the same subnet, go to Step 20.
82
17
For a WAN environment, specify IP addresses for both Primary and Secondary servers.
18
Add each Principal (Public) network address until all addresses are present. Click Next.
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19
When the Principal (Public) addresses on the Secondary server are different from those on the Primary
server, vCenter Server Heartbeat must perform additional tasks during failover or switchover. These
additional tasks require clients to change their resolution of the active server to a different IP address and
requires that vCenter Server Heartbeat update the DNS entries for the active server across the enterprise.
Such updates require credentials for domain administrators (or an account with equivalent rights). Type
the Domain Name, a domain administrator Username and Password into the respective text boxes and
click Next.
The vCenter Server Heartbeat server pair can be administered remotely on client machines using the
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
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20 The vCenter Server Heartbeat Console connects to an IP address of the active server using the default
client connection port of 52267. If this port is already in use, type an available client connection port.
Click Next.
21
Select the applications to protect. All licensed vCenter Server Heartbeat features are listed.
If installing vCenter Server only, or vCenter Server locally and the SQL Server on a separate server, select
Protect Virtual Center only.
If installing SQL Server remotely, upon completion of the vCenter Server installation locally, repeat the
installation procedure at the remote SQL Server location and select Protect SQL Server only.
If installing both vCenter Server and SQL Server locally, select Protect Virtual Center and SQL Server.
Select the applications to protect. If installing in a WAN, enable the Low Bandwidth Module by selecting
Enable LBM. Click Next.
CAUTION Do not enable the Low Bandwidth Module (LBM) for a LAN install.
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22
To facilitate the clone of the Primary server onto the Secondary server, you must back up pertinent
components of the Primary server for restoration on to the Secondary server. Where VMware Channel
communications are fast and reliable, for instance in a LAN topology, you can directly create the backup
files over the VMware Channel connections to a partition on the Secondary server.
Where the VMware Channel connection is slower than 10 Mbit/s or risks an interruption in connection,
for example in a WAN topology, save the backup file locally and manually port the file to the Secondary
server.
You have the following options:

For installation using the Pre-Clone technique, go to Step a of Step 23 on page 87.

For installation using the Install Clone technique, continue with Step a of Step 22.
Continue with Step a.
a
Configure Microsoft Windows Backup options. Depending on the network topology between the
servers, backup files can include or exclude application data. Including application data in the
backup file decreases the time to initially verify and synchronize the applications data on first start
up of vCenter Server Heartbeat. This is useful where VMware Channel connections are slower than
LAN speed, such as in a WAN implementation.
With Windows Server 2008, vCenter Server Heartbeat does not stop services and prevents downtime
by using the Windows Volume Shadow Service to take the backup. Including the applications’
protected data vastly increases the backup file size and therefore increases the time of the backup
operation. Due to the potential large size of the backup file, careful consideration is required when
including application data and specifying the backup folder location.
To estimate the maximum size of the backup file, add together the size of each volume that contains
system data and application data. Although the actual size of the backup file can be smaller, using
this rule of thumb helps ensure a successful installation.
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Select a location to place the backup files through the Microsoft Windows Backup Configuration
page. When installing into a Windows Server 2008 environment, you must specify a UNC path to the
backup file location. Type a UNC path to a location using the machine name or IP address and shared
folder into the Folder text box. Type a User and Password that grants access to the shared folder.
Click Next.
23
86
When selecting the Pre-Clone technique, Setup backs up two small files, nfsetup.dat and primary.csv,
from the Primary server and restores them to the Secondary server for proper configuration.
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24
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a
Where VMware Channel communications are fast and reliable, for instance in a LAN topology, you
can directly create the backup files over the VMware Channel connections to a partition on the
Secondary server. Type the machine name or IP address and the path to the shared folder to receive
the backup files, for example: \\192.168.1.6\Backup.
b
Where the VMware Channel connection is slower than 10 Mbit/s or risks an interruption in
connection, for example in a WAN topology, save the backup file locally and manually port the file
to the Secondary server.
Review the summary of options and configuration information for the installation. Click Next.
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25
Pre-install checks run to ensure that the installation can continue. Setup checks the available disk space,
system memory, operating system compatibility, and dependencies between modules. The Report panel
displays the results of the pre-install checks.
26
If some pre-install checks are unsuccessful, go back through the wizard and make the necessary changes,
and run the pre-install checks again. If the pre-install checks are successful, click Next.
NOTE The Progress panel on the Pre-Install Checks page displays the progress of these checks. When
finished, the Report panel displays the results.
27
The next page displays the progress of the installation. During this process, Setup installs the necessary
files and folders onto your system and applies the configuration you specified. Setup also installs
Heartbeat Diagnostics and configures it with the default settings.
NOTE If a previous version of Heartbeat Diagnostics is detected, vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup updates
it to the current version. To learn more about Heartbeat Diagnostics, see Getting Started with Heartbeat
Diagnostics on the VMware Web site.
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28
Click Next after vCenter Server Heartbeat components are complete.
You have the following options:
29

If using the Pre-Clone installation technique, go to Step 31.

If using the Install Clone installation technique, continue to Step 29.
The next page displays the status of the Microsoft Windows Backup process. The automated backup is
saved in the previously defined location.
NOTE When installing into a Windows Server 2008 environment, vCenter Server Heartbeat verifies that
the Windows Server Backup Feature and Command Line Tools are installed. If they are not installed, you
must install them now. You are not required to exit the installation to install the Windows Server Backup
Feature. Navigate to the Server Manager and under Features, add the Windows Backup Feature and
Command Line Tools. When installing Windows Server Backup Feature, Windows PowerShell is also
necessary.
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90
If required, install Windows Backup Feature – Command Line Tools. Click Proceed. The automated
backup is saved in the previously defined location and the progress of the backup operation is displayed
in the Progress panel. When finished, a report on the backup is displayed in the Report panel. Review the
backup report to verify successful completion. Click OK on the window and click Next on the page.
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31
The vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter driver installs on each network card of the production server.
If you see warnings that the driver is unsigned or did not complete the Windows Logo tests, click Install.
If Windows is configured to display Signed Driver warnings, multiple warnings can appear. The lower
panel displays the results of the process. Click Next.
By default, the vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter driver is applied to all Principal (Public) network
cards present on the machine. The vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter is not applied to the network
cards forming VMware Channel connections as these cards maintain unique IP addresses irrespective of
the role of the server. vCenter Server Heartbeat also disables NetBIOS on the Channel NIC(s) to prevent
domain name conflicts on the subnet.
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32
When the setup wizard confirms the successful completion of the installation, click Finish.
Secondary Server
The process of installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary server is similar to installing
vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Primary server.
To install the Secondary server
1
To install the vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary server, download the vCenter Server Heartbeat
installer to a suitable location on the Secondary server. Execute the WinZip Self Extracting file to start the
installation process. The Setup Introduction window is displayed. Review the information and click OK.
NOTE If you click Exit after Setup has started, you are prompted to save your settings. When you run the
self extracting WinZip file again later, you will be asked if you want to use the previously saved
configuration.
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2
The WinZip Self-Extractor window is displayed. Click Setup to continue.
3
The Setup Type page is displayed. As with the installation on the Primary server, select Install VMware
vCenter Server Heartbeat and click Next.
NOTE The left pane of each page in the setup wizard provides information about the setup process.
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4
Select the identity of the server through the Physical Hardware Identity page. Select Secondary as the
server identity and click Next.
NOTE If .Net 2.0 is not currently installed on the server, vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup installs this
required component, taking some additional time during the installation process.
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5
Identify the location of the folder containing the backup file from the Primary server. Manually type the
location path in the text box as a UNC path. Click Next.
6
The Pre-Install checks run. Click Next.
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If some pre-install checks are unsuccessful, go back through the wizard, make the necessary changes, and
run the pre-install checks again.
You have the following options:
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
For installation using the Pre-Clone technique, go to Step 17 on page 100.

For installation using the Install Clone technique, continue with Step 7.
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7
The Microsoft Windows Backup Restore page is displayed. The Microsoft Windows Backup Restore
page shows the progress of unbinding the packet filter and disabling NetBIOS from the channel NIC(s).
After this process completes, a caution message advises you that the restore process is initiating and upon
completion of the restore process, the server requires a restart. After restarting, Plug-and-Play (PnP) can
require you to restart the machine more than once. Click OK.
8
The progress of the backup restore is displayed in the Progress panel. When finished, a report on the
restore is displayed in the Report panel. Review the backup restore report to verify successful completion.
Click Next.
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9
The Disconnect Network Cables window is displayed. To disable the NICs is NOT sufficient. You must
physically disconnect the network cables from the NICs. After disconnecting the network cables from the
NICs, click Finish. A confirmation window is displayed. You must restart the machine to apply the newly
restored System State. Click Yes to restart the server.
NOTE If this server is running in a virtual environment, disconnect the NICs from the virtual
environment.
10
Following the restart of the server, a DOS window is presented stating that the restore of the System State
was successful. Press Enter. Log in to the Secondary server using the domain administrator account. Click
Yes at each restart prompt to allow each PnP cycle to complete.
NOTE PnP can require multiple restarts of the server as it identifies the actual hardware makeup of the
Secondary server as opposed to that restored from the backup file of the Primary server.
vCenter Server Heartbeat starts each time the Secondary server restarts. Manually shut down vCenter
Server Heartbeat before initiating a restart.
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11
After all PnP cycles complete, log in to the server and double-click the newly created vCenter Server
Heartbeat Setup Completion icon created on the Desktop to continue the setup process.
12
The Post-Reboot Configuration page is displayed. vCenter Server Heartbeat Setup installs the packet
filter. When complete, click Next.
NOTE If you receive warnings that the driver is unsigned or did not complete the Windows Logo tests,
click Install. If Windows is configured to display Signed Driver warnings, you can receive multiple
warnings.
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13
The Reconnect Network Cables window is displayed. Follow the instructions on this window to
reconnect all of the previously disconnected network cables. After all network cables are connected, click
Next.
14
The Channel Adapter Identification page is displayed. Use this opportunity to reconfigure the VMware
Channel NICs. During the cloning process, the IP address for the channel adapter on the Secondary server
is reset to the IP address for the Primary server. To prevent network conflicts and to properly configure
the VMware Channel, click Open Network Connections to display the network connections. Configure
the Secondary Channel connection to the appropriate IP address (different from the IP address for the
Primary Channel connection). After completing this configuration, select the check boxes for all Channel
Connections and click Next.
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100
15
The Public Adapter Identification page is displayed. Select the Principal (Public) connection. Verify that
the IP address configuration is correct.
16
The Secondary Installation Complete page is displayed. Do not select the Start vCenter Server
Heartbeat check box. Click Finish.
17
The next page displays the progress of the installation. During this process, Setup installs the necessary
files and folders onto your system and applies the configuration you specified. Setup also installs
Heartbeat Diagnostics and configures it with the default settings. To learn more about Heartbeat
Diagnostics see Getting Started with Heartbeat Diagnostics.
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18
The Report panel displays the results of the installation. Click Next.
19
The progress of the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter installation is displayed. Click Next.
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You have the following options:
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
If the Secondary server is Physical such as in P2P, go to Step 23.

If the Secondary server is Virtual such as in P2V or V2V, continue with Step a.
a
The Packet Filter is installed on the Principal (Public) NIC and the Principal (Public) network adapter
can be reconnected. Right-click the Secondary server image name and select Edit Settings.
b
Select the Principal (Public) virtual network adapter, select the Connected and Connect at power on
check boxes, and click OK.
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20
In the Channel Adapter Identification page, select the appropriate adapter and review the IP address
configuration in the lower panel. Click Next.
21
Configure the Principal (Public) adapter on the Secondary server through the Public Adapter
Identification page. When you select the Principal (Public) adapter, a caution message notifies you that
the IP address on the Principal (Public) adapter does not match the IP address on the Primary server (LAN
configuration only).
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22
The Secondary Installation Complete page is displayed. Do not select the Start vCenter Server
Heartbeat check box. Click Finish.
23
Before starting vCenter Server Heartbeat, verify the time synchronization between the Primary and
Secondary servers. When a difference exists, synchronize the Secondary (passive) server to the Primary
(active) server across the VMware Channel. Type the following command at the command prompt:
net time \\<Primary_Channel_IP_address> /set
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Primary server. Right-click the vCenter Server Heartbeat System
Tray icon and select Start VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat. The icons change from a double dash to a
P, indicating the server is the Primary server, and an A indicating the server is acting in an active role.
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary server. Right-click the vCenter Server Heartbeat System
Tray icon and select Start VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat. The icon changes from a double dash to an
S, indicating that the server is the Secondary server, and a dash (–), indicating that the server is in a
passive role.
24
The Primary and Secondary servers establish a handshake and commence replication.
NOTE The installation is complete if vCenter Server was installed with a local SQL Server or only vCenter
Server was installed with no separate SQL Server.
If vCenter Server only was installed and you want to install a separate SQL Server, repeat the installation
process for the Primary and Secondary servers at the remote site and select SQL Server only.
To install SQL Server on a separate host from the vCenter Server, go to “Primary Server” on page 72.
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25
Configure the appropriate username and password in the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console:
a
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat Console from the desktop shortcut or Start > All Programs > VMware
> VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat > Manage Server. The login page is displayed.
b
Before you log in, you must identify the pair of servers to administer. Click Servers.
NOTE It is recommended that you add the Principal (Public) IP address or the Fully Qualified
Domain Name of the Primary server to ensure that you can administer the pair from the vCenter
Server Heartbeat Console regardless of whether the current server role is active or passive.
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c
Click Add Pair.
d
Type the IP address of any NIC on the active server or the NetBIOS name of the server pair and click
OK.
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e
The server pair appears in the list. If more than one server pair exists within the organization, add
them sequentially to the list by repeating the procedure.
To edit or delete server pairs from the list, click the entry in the list and click the relevant button.
f
Click Close to return to the login window.
To administer a pair of servers you must connect to them through the vCenter Server Heartbeat
Console. vCenter Server Heartbeat Console does not connect until vCenter Server Heartbeat
initializes. Wait 10 seconds after starting vCenter Server Heartbeat before attempting to connect.
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g
Select a server pair in the Server list.
h
Type a username and password with valid Windows credentials. In a domain environment, use the
format domainname\username.
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i
The Server Pairs Overview window lists the selected pair of servers with other server pairs that
historically were administered. The Primary server name is displayed with the roles that Primary and
Secondary servers are currently performing.
Additionally, the Last Event, Importance, and Event Time data are displayed. These events are
discussed later in this guide.
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j
To add additional pairs of servers, click Add and follow the previously described procedure.
k
To select a pair listed in the main data grid, select the check box next to the server name.
l
When a pair is selected, the Open, Clear Event, and Remove buttons become active.
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m
Open displays the pair of servers for administration and configuration and displays the System >
Status and Control page.
n
Click Advanced > Application > Plugins.
o
Select the vCenter Server plug-in.
p
Click Edit.
q
Type the username and password for an account with rights to the virtual infrastructure.
r
Click OK.
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Chapter 4 vCenter Server Heartbeat Installation on Windows Server 2008
Post Installation Configuration
Upon completion of installation, a series of tasks must be performed to ensure that vCenter Server Heartbeat
is properly configured.
Add the VMware License
After completion of installation, vCenter Server Heartbeat will run in the evaluation mode for up to 60 days.
After acquiring a license, you must add the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat license using the Configure
Server wizard to change from evaluation mode to production mode. To add the license:
1
Right-click the System Tray icon and select Stop VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat opting to leave
protected applications running.
2
Double-click the Configure Server icon on the desktop.
3
Select the License tab of the Configure Server wizard.
4
Select the existing license and click the Trash Can icon.
5
Click the Add Row icon and enter the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat license key.
6
Click Finish.
7
Right-click the System Tray icon and select Start VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat.
When Deployed in a WAN Environment
When deployed in a WAN environment with VMware Orchestrator and the Primary and Secondary servers
in different subnets, you must configure an Exclusion File Filter following the steps below:
1
Launch vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
2
Click Advanced to enable Advanced mode view.
3
Click Data and select the Configuration tab.
4
Click Add Exclusion Filter... and type the following path:
$INSTALL_PATH_TO_ORCHESTRATOR/app-server/bin/boot.properties
5
Click OK.
6
Perform a switchover so that the Secondary server becomes active.
7
Launch the vCenter Orchestrator Web Configuration wizard and select Network. In the IP address field
select the Principal (Public) IP address of the Secondary server. Click Apply changes.
8
Start the vCenter Orchestrator Web Configuration Wizard from the Start menu: Start > Programs >
VMware > Startup Options, click Install vCO server as service, and click Start service.
9
Launch the vCenter Orchestrator Web Configuration wizard, select Startup Options, and click Restart
service.
10
From vCenter Server Heartbeat Console, select Application and then Services. Verify that VMware
vCenter Orchestrator Server service is included in the protected services. If not, manually run the
Protected Service Discovery task from VMware vCenter Heartbeat Console > Application > Tasks >
VMware VirtualCenter - Protected Service Discovery)
vCenter Server 2.5
The post installation configuration tasks are determined by the type of network environment.
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LAN
For LAN deployments, perform the following:
1
If a Management IP address is configured, no additional tasks are required.
2
If a Management IP address is not configured, configure a VMware Managed IP address using the Virtual
Infrastructure Client.
a
Launch the Virtual Infrastructure Client.
b
In the Virtual Infrastructure Client, navigate to Administration > VirtualCenter Management Server
Configuration > Runtime Settings.
c
In the Managed IP field, type the Principal (Public) IP address.
d
Click OK and close the window.
WAN
For WAN deployments, regardless of whether a Management IP address exists, vCenter Server Heartbeat
provides a task that can be configured to update the ESX hosts with the new Managed IP address during a
switchover or failover. The task requires setting the Managed IP in either in the vpxd.cfg file or in the registry.
To configure the Managed IP in the Vpxd file
1
The vpxd.cfg file is located at C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application
Data\VMware\VMware Virtual Center server.
2
On the active server, locate the <vpxd> element in the vpxd.cfg file and add a new element <managedIP>
that contains the Principal (Public) IP address of the vCenter server.
To configure the Managed IP in the registry
At HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\VMware, Inc.\VMware VirtualCenter, create a new string value
called <managedIP> and set it with the Public (Principal) IP address of the currently active server.
IMPORTANT Do not configure the VMware Managed IP address using the Virtual Infrastructure Client. The
Managed IP field from Administration > VirtualCenter Management Server Configuration > Runtime
Settings must be clear.
vCenter Server 4.0
The post installation configuration tasks are determined by the type of network environment.
LAN
With or without a Management IP address configured, no additional tasks are required.
WAN
With or without a Management IP address configured, disable the VMware VirtualCenter PostStart task
through the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console using the following procedure.
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1
Launch the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
2
Click Application.
3
Select the Tasks tab.
4
Select VMware VirtualCenter PostStart task.
5
Click Edit.
6
Clear the Enabled check box.
7
Click OK.
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IMPORTANT Do not configure the Managed IP address using the vSphere Client. The vCenter Server Managed
IP field from Administration > vCenter Server Settings > Runtime Settings must be clear.
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5
Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat
5
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Server Configuration Wizard” on page 114

“Configuring the Machine Identity” on page 115

“Configuring the Server Role” on page 115

“Configuring the Client Connection Port” on page 115

“Configuring Channel IP Routing” on page 115

“Configuring the Default Channel Port” on page 116

“Configuring Low Bandwidth Module” on page 116

“Configuring Public IP Addressing” on page 116

“Enabling Network Monitoring” on page 117

“Configuring Split-Brain Avoidance” on page 118

“Managing vCenter Server Heartbeat License Keys” on page 119

“Configuring the Maximum Disk Usage” on page 120
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Server Configuration Wizard
The VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat – Server Configuration Wizard (Configure Server wizard) sets up
and maintains communications between the vCenter Server Heartbeat servers. Configuration information
includes the IP address for the VMware Channel(s) and Principal (Public) addresses on both servers.
After the system is set up and is functioning correctly, you do not need to reconfigure the system. The
Configure Server wizard becomes redundant during daily operations of the software.
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1
Before launching the Configure Server wizard to change the vCenter Server Heartbeat configuration, you
must stop vCenter Server Heartbeat.
2
Click the Configure Server icon on the desktop or Start > All Programs > VMware > VMware vCenter
Server Heartbeat > Configure Server to launch the Configure Server wizard.
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Configuring the Machine Identity
CAUTION The machine Identity should only be changed when directed to do so by VMware Support or
when instructed to by a knowledge base article. vCenter Server Heartbeat is designed not to allow two
passive or two active servers to connect.
To change the machine identity
1
Click the Machine tab and select a Physical Hardware Identity for the local machine.
2
Click Next or Finish.
Configuring the Server Role
To change the server role, click the Machine tab, select the Current Role of the local machine, and click Next
or Finish.
NOTE Before changing the role of the local server, verify that the other (remote) server in the pair is not already
performing the same role.
Configuring the Client Connection Port
Clients such as the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console use the Client Connection Port to connect to vCenter
Server Heartbeat. Do not change this port unless another application is using it. To change the Client
Connection Port, click the Machine tab, edit the default entry (52267) and click Next or Finish.
Configuring Channel IP Routing
Channel IP routing defines the IP addresses used to communicate between the Primary and Secondary
servers. Each link has a pair of addresses, one for the Primary, and one for the Secondary.
To add an additional VMware Channel after installing the NICs and configuring them
1
Click the Channel tab. Click Add Row to add the new IP addresses for both the Primary and Secondary
server to the VMware Channel IP Routing table.
2
Use the drop-down menu to view a list of available IP addresses on the local server.
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3
Type the remote server IP address.
4
To change the VMware Channel IP addresses, select and edit the entry in the table.
5
Click Next or Finish.
Configuring the Default Channel Port
VMware Channel uses the Default Channel Port to communicate between the Primary and Secondary server.
Do not change this port unless another application is using it. To change the Default Channel Port, click the
Channel tab, edit the default entry (57348), and click Next or Finish.
Configuring Low Bandwidth Module
This feature is enabled during installation. To disable this feature, click the Channel tab and clear the Low
Bandwidth Optimization check box. When enabled, the VMware Channel optimizes communications for low
bandwidth connections. Low Bandwidth Optimization (LBO) stores data on disk rather than in memory and
is essential for WAN installations or when bandwidth is limited.
To enable LBO, click the Channel tab, select the check box to enable the feature and click Next or Finish.
NOTE This feature is designed for implementations where the available throughput on the VMware Channel
is slower than 10 Mbit/s. Do not enable the Low Bandwidth Module in a LAN, this feature is not designed to
work in a LAN where the throughput is much faster.
Configuring Public IP Addressing
vCenter Server Heartbeat servers are configured with one or more Principal (Public) IP addresses. These are
the addresses used by clients of the protected application to connect to the application. Typically, there is one
Principal (Public) IP address.
You must configure all of the Principal (Public) IP addresses on both Primary and Secondary servers. On the
passive server, all traffic to and from these Principal (Public) IP addresses is blocked. On the active server, all
traffic passes through. When the server roles switch, the IP filtering mode also switches, so client systems
always connect to the Principal (Public) IP addresses on the server that is currently active. When the vCenter
Server Heartbeat service shuts down, the filtering remains in place so no IP address conflicts occur between
the two servers.
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To configure Principal (Public) IP address
1
Click the Public tab and list all the addresses used as Principal (Public) IP addresses.
An address must not appear more than once. The Principal (Public) IP addresses listed cannot be the same
as any of the IP addresses listed in the Channel tab.
2
To add an address, double-click a row and type in the address or select it from a list of currently defined
addresses.
3
Click Next or Finish.
Enabling Network Monitoring
vCenter Server Heartbeat can monitor the connection between the active server and the Principal (Public)
network. VMware recommends that you enable this feature.
The network is monitored by pinging a set of machines on the Principal (Public) network. If enabled, the
system routinely pings a set of default set of addresses. Use the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console to change
the configuration after installation.
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To enable Network Monitoring
1
Click the Network Monitoring tab.
2
Select Enable public network monitoring using automatic configuration.
3
Click Next or Finish.
Configuring Split-Brain Avoidance
Split-brain Avoidance is used in WAN installations to ensure that only one server becomes active if the
VMware Channel connection is lost, but both servers are still connected to the Principal (Public) network.
Split-brain Avoidance works by pinging from the passive server to the active server across the Principal
(Public) network. If the active server responds, the passive does not initiate failover, even if the VMware
Channel connection is lost. This feature requires that the active and passive servers have different IP addresses
on the Principal (Public) network, which is typical for WAN installations.
To enable this feature, click the Network Monitoring tab and select Enable split brain avoidance
(Recommended for WAN). Type the Principal (Public) IP address used by each server.
You must configure auxiliary IP addresses on both Principal (Public) network cards to allow the passive server
to send a ping and send email alerts. Auxiliary IP addresses are additional IP addresses assigned to the
network card, which is connected to the Principal (Public) network. They allow the passive server to
communicate because unlike the Principal (Public) network address they are not filtered.
To configure an auxiliary IP address
1
Open the network properties for the Principal (Public) network connection.
2
Double-click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) to display the properties.
3
Click Advanced.
4
Type an additional (currently unused) IP address in the table.
5
Reposition the IP addresses in the list so that the additional (auxiliary) IP address appears first and the
Principal (Public) network address that clients use to connect to the server appears second.
NOTE You can reposition the IP addresses by deleting it at the top of the list and adding it at the bottom.
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6
Click OK three times.
7
Click Next or Finish.
Managing vCenter Server Heartbeat License Keys
To manage vCenter Server Heartbeat license keys, select the License tab of the Configure Server
wizard.
To add an entry to the License Keys table
1
Click the Add Row icon and enter your VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat serial number.
2
Manually type or paste (using Ctrl-V) your license key into the table.
3
Click Next or Finish.
Configuring Message Queue Logs
The server temporarily stores replication data received in the passive server (safe) queue and the replication
data waiting in the active server (unsafe) queue in message queue logs.
This configuration only affects the local server. Logs can be in different locations on the Primary and
Secondary servers.
To configure the location of the message queue logs
1
Click the Logs tab.
2
Click Browse to navigate to the folder to store the message queue logs.
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3
Select the folder and click Next or Finish.
Configuring the Maximum Disk Usage
You can configure the maximum disk space allocated for logging. Log files increase in size on the active server
under the following conditions:

If the active server cannot communicate with the passive server

Certain operations on the passive server

If the server is under heavy load
When the disk reaches quota, replication stops and the system is no longer protected.
If using a dedicated disk for log files, consider disabling the quota. To do this, set the quota to zero. If vCenter
Server Heartbeat runs out of physical disk space, it must be shut down before it can resume replication. Set the
quota with sufficient overflow space so vCenter Server Heartbeat can stop replicating gracefully.
To configure Maximum Disk Usage, click the Logs tab, type the maximum dedicated disk space allocated for
message queue log files, and click Finish.
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System Administration and Management
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6
Server Protection
6
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Server Protection Overview” on page 123

“Checking the Server Pair Status” on page 124

“Configuring Heartbeat Settings” on page 125

“Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat Shutdown Options” on page 126

“Configuring Split-Brain Avoidance” on page 129
Server Protection Overview
Protection against failure of the operating system or hardware on the Primary server is facilitated by the two
instances of the vCenter Server Heartbeat software monitoring each other by sending “I’m alive” messages and
reciprocating with acknowledgments over a network connection termed the VMware Channel. If the passive
server detects that this process or heartbeat fails, it initiates a failover.
vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors the capability of the active server to communicate with the rest
of the network by polling defined nodes around the network, including by default, the default gateway, the
primary DNS server, and the Global Catalog server at regular intervals. If all three nodes fail to respond, for
example, due to network card failure or a local switch failure, vCenter Server Heartbeat can initiate a
switchover, allowing the passive server to assume an identical network identity as the active server.
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Checking the Server Pair Status
The System page is the first page that opens when administering a pair of servers. The System page displays
the roles of the servers, active or passive, the actions that the servers are currently performing, and how well
the system is coping with file and registry replication.
The system status in the central grid for each server indicates procedures being executed. Table 6-1 lists each
status with a description.
Table 6-1. System Status
Status
Description
Not Replicating
The file and registry replication has stopped and all protected applications also could be
stopped.
Stopping Replication
The file and registry replication is in the process of stopping and all protected applications also
could be closing down.
Replicating
File and registry changes on the active server are being intercepted and replicated to the passive
server and protected applications are being monitored (This is the normal status).
Starting Replication
The replication process is in the process of starting and protected applications are being started.
Shutting Down
The vCenter Server Heartbeat file and registry interceptor has stopped. All protected
applications also could have stopped. The Neverfail Server R2 service is stopping.
Preparing to Switch
The system is performing ancillary operations prior to a switchover such as flushing the queues.
Switching
The system is in the process of performing a switchover.
The central grid also displays queue delays for each server. Queues show the time a specific piece of
information resides in the passive server (safe) and active server (unsafe) queues respectively before moving
to the passive server (safe) queue or committed to disk. Above the data grid, the connection status and speed
are graphically represented. The Server Pair panel graphically displays the file and registry synchronization
status with icons described in Table 6-2.
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Table 6-2. File and Registry Status
Icon
Description
The files or registry are fully synchronized.
Files are present that are currently not checked. A full system check has not completed.
The registry is currently in the process of being synchronized.
The differences in the registry are currently being checked to see if they are synchronized.
The files or registry are not synchronized.
When the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair establishes a connection, it triggers a file synchronization and
verification process to ensure all the files stipulated through file filters are mirror images of one another on
their respective servers. The process checks each 64K block of all protected files and performs a checksum to
find differences between blocks. When the checksum is the same, the block is marked as synchronized. When
the blocks are different, the block is replicated to the passive server and then marked as synchronized. The file
verification and synchronization process completes when all blocks of all files are marked as synchronized.
Configuring Heartbeat Settings
The Heartbeat interval dictates the time step at which the passive server sends Heartbeat packets to the active
server across the VMware Channel connections. Max Heartbeats Missed Before Failover determines the
number of missed packets before initiating a failover.
1
Click Advanced > Communication on the left navigation pane and click the Configuration tab.
2
Set Max Heartbeats Missed Before Failover and the Heartbeat Interval and click Apply.
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Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat Shutdown Options
You can use vCenter Server Heartbeat to select whether to leave protected applications running upon
shutdown or to stop protected applications as part of the shutdown process.
1
To set this option, click Advanced > System on the left navigation pane and click the Configuration tab.
2
Select the option vCenter Server Heartbeat performs when it shuts down. Click Apply.
Starting, Stopping, and Shutting Down vCenter Server Heartbeat
You can use Start Replicating, Stop Replicating, and Shutdown in the System page to configure the vCenter
Server Heartbeat Server Service on both the servers synchronously.
Start Replicating
Start Replicating starts any application and data protection configured for the system. By default, all
protection modes start when vCenter Server Heartbeat starts. Use Start Replicating only when the system has
stopped activity with Stop Replicating or automatic stop.
Stop Replicating
Stop Replicating prompts you to stop parts of the system.
The default option, Stop Heartbeat but leave protected applications running stops the protection
(synchronization) of data files but does not stop protected applications.
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Stop Heartbeat and all protected applications stops the protection (synchronization) of data files and stops
all protected applications.
The vCenter Server Heartbeat service continues to run on both the Primary and Secondary servers, providing
heartbeats and continuing to protect the system and network facets of the active server.
For example, use Stop Replicating when a virus has infected the Primary server or when upgrading the
protected application.
Click OK to view the stop status of the various facets of the server.
Shutdown
Shutdown is similar to Stop Replicating and stops all protection of data and when selected, protected
applications. Shutdown also stops the vCenter Server Heartbeat Server service on both the active and passive
machines. Use Shutdown when you must reconfigure the server or upgrade vCenter Server Heartbeat.
Forcing a Switchover
After configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat to protect all the required applications and data, the Secondary
server can take over from the Primary server in a managed and seamless way called a switchover.
This is particularly useful during any maintenance work on the Primary server that involves restarting the
server.
To initiate a switchover
Click Switchover in the System page to reverse the roles of the servers: the active server becomes passive and
the passive becomes active. Users can continue to work without interruption while the Primary server is
offline.
After the Primary server is again up and running, you can initiate the switchover again so that the Primary
server becomes active and the Secondary server becomes passive.
NOTE You can perform a switchover whenever the systems are fully synchronized with respect to data files
and registry replication. A switchover cannot occur if either server is in an unsynchronized or unknown state.
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Before triggering a switchover, you should review the queue information. If the queues are large, file
operations on the active server are very active. You must clear the queues before triggering a switchover.
Review the queue lengths in the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console in the list of administered server pairs.
Recovering From a Failover
A failover differs from a switchover. A switchover is a controlled switch between the Primary and Secondary
servers initiated manually from the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console, or initiated by vCenter Server
Heartbeat when preconfigured conditions for switchover occur. A failover happens when one or all of the
following have experienced a failure on the active server: power, hardware, or communications. The passive
server counts a preconfigured number of missed Heartbeats before beginning a failover, and if this number is
exceeded, assumes the active role and starts to execute the protected applications.
The following recovery scenario is based on vCenter Server Heartbeat configuration with the Primary server
as active and the Secondary server as passive.
A failover has occurred and the Secondary server is now running as the active server.
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1
Check event logs on both servers to determine the cause of the failover. For assistance, use the Log
Collector tool to collect information and send the output to VMware Support.
2
Do not perform a switchback to the Primary server if the following issues occur on the Primary server.
Resolve these issues before restarting vCenter Server Heartbeat:

Hard Disk Failure – Replace the defective hard disk.

Power Failure – Restore power to the Primary server.

Virus – Clean the server of all viruses.

Communications – Replace physical network hardware.

Blue Screen – Determine cause and resolve. As required, submit the dump file to VMware Support
(www.vmware.com/support) for analysis.
3
Run the Configure Server wizard and verify the server is set to Primary and passive.
4
Disconnect the VMware Channel network cables or disable the network card.
5
Resolve the list of possible failures.
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6
Restart this server and reconnect or enable the network card again.
7
After restart, check that the Taskbar icon now reflects the changes by showing P / – (Primary and passive).
8
On the Secondary active server or from a remote client, launch vCenter Server Heartbeat Console and
confirm that the Secondary server as active.
If the Secondary server is not displaying as active, perform the following steps:
1
If the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console is unable to connect remotely, try running it locally. If you are still
unable to connect locally, use the Service Control Manager to verify that the service is running. If the
service is not running, check the event logs for a cause.
2
Run the Configure Server wizard and check that the server is set to Secondary and active.
3
Verify that the protected application is accessible from clients. If so, start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the
Secondary server. If the application is not accessible, check the application logs to determine why the
application is not running.
4
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary active server.
NOTE The data on this server should be the most up to date and this server is the live server on the
network. When vCenter Server Heartbeat starts, it overwrites all the protected data (configured in the File
Filter list) on the Primary passive server. If you are not sure that the data on the active server is up to date,
contact VMware Support (www.vmware.com/support). Go on to the next step only if you are sure that
you want to overwrite the protected data on the passive server.
5
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Secondary active server and check that the Taskbar icon now
reflects the correct status by showing S / A (Secondary and active).
Configuring Split-Brain Avoidance
You can enable or disable the Split-brain Avoidance feature by selecting or clearing Prevent fail-over if
heartbeat is lost but Active Server is visible via public network.
The passive server polls the active servers Principal (Public) connection at the time interval specified in the
ping interval text box. You can increase or decrease the interval from the default 10 seconds as required.
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The active server must respond within the time period value specified in the Time Out for Ping Echoes text
box to prevent a failover. If the active server responds in a timely manner, the failover mechanism ceases. If the
active server does not respond, the failover occurs.
Configure IP addresses for Split-brain Avoidance as required from those set at install time for both the Primary
and Secondary servers.
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Network Protection
7
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Communication Status” on page 131

“Reviewing the VMware Channel Status” on page 131

“Configuring Public Network Connection Checks” on page 132

“Setting Max Server Time Difference” on page 133
Communication Status
Use the Communication page to check the status of the VMware Channel, the active server (unsafe) and
passive server (safe) queues, and the Principal (Public) network.
Reviewing the VMware Channel Status
The status displays connected or not connected, statistics of the connection about the data sent by either server,
and the size and age of the oldest entry in the active server (unsafe) and passive server (safe) queues. The link
status displays the IP address used by the VMware Channel for the Primary and Secondary servers with the
port used for communications.
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Public Network Connectivity displays the status of Principal (Public) network monitoring and or Split-brain
Avoidance if configured on the server pair.
To configure VMware Channel communications, click Advanced and click the Configuration tab.
Configuring Public Network Connection Checks
Use the Configuration page to make adjustments to the Principal (Public) network monitoring features, the
VMware Channel heartbeat features, the disk usage and server time difference.
Enable or disable Principal (Public) network monitoring by either selecting or clearing the Failover if Active
Server’s Public Network Connection is Lost check box. This feature integrates the polling of particular
waypoints around the network through the Principal (Public) connection of the Active server to ensure
connectivity with the Principal (Public) network. By default, it selects the IP addresses of the default gateway,
the primary DNS server, and the Global Catalog server.
If one or more of the waypoints are co-located on a physical machine resulting in duplicate IP addresses, you
can manually specify different waypoints. To specify a manual target for the Principal (Public) network
checking, clear an Auto Select check box and manually overtype the IP address with the required target
address.
In a WAN environment, the target addresses for Principal (Public) network monitoring on the Secondary
server can be different from those selected on the Primary server. To override the discovered selections, clear
the Auto Select check box and manually specify the target address.
Principal (Public) Network Monitoring operates when the active server effectively pings the target addresses
at regular time intervals. The time interval is set by default to every 20 seconds but you can increase or decrease
the frequency as required.
Each target has by default 5 seconds to respond. On slower networks where latency and network collisions are
frequent, you can increase the response time. Adjust the Timeout for Ping Echoes value.
If any target fails to respond within the stipulated timeout, increase the polling interval to the timeout value
until you receive a response. Then decrease the polling interval to the default time interval specified.
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If all three targets fail to respond by missing the maximum pinged echoes and exceed the failover threshold
value, vCenter Server Heartbeat initiates a switchover.
To save changes to the configuration of the communications, click Apply. To reset all configuration settings to
the last save or default settings, click Reset.
Setting Max Server Time Difference
vCenter Server Heartbeat generates a warning if the Primary and Secondary server system clocks are not
synchronized. To override the warning, allow the servers a maximum time difference specified in the Max
Server Time Difference.
To save configuration of the communications, click Apply. To reset all configuration settings to the last save
or default settings, click Reset.
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Application Protection
8
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Application Protection Overview” on page 135

“Applications Tab” on page 135

“Services Tab” on page 141

“Tasks Tab” on page 146

“Plugins Tab” on page 149
Application Protection Overview
vCenter Server Heartbeat incorporates an Application Management Framework (AMFx) to manage vCenter
Server Heartbeat plug-ins.
The AMFx provides additional functions while maintaining the traditional stability of VMware software. Use
the AMFx to install and remove plug-ins on the fly while vCenter Server Heartbeat continues to provide
protection to currently installed applications.
The AMFx also employs sponsorship for protected application files and services. With sponsorship, multiple
plug-ins can share files or services. When removing a plug-in, sponsorship prevents removal of a shared file
or service that is still required by a remaining plug-in.
vCenter Server Heartbeat uses the System plug-in to monitor the server performance. With the System
plug-in, you can configure a variety of counters and assign actions when associated rules are exceeded.
Applications Tab
The Applications page displays the status of protected applications and application health. From this page,
you can start, stop, and configure all protected applications. You can view application events as they occur in
the lower panel of the Application Log.
1
Log in to the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
2
Click Application on the left navigation pane and click the Applications tab.
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Editing Individual Applications
Use vCenter Server Heartbeat to configure the amount of time to wait for an application to start or stop before
taking action or reporting the failure.
To configure the timeout settings
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1
Select the application and click Edit.
2
Type the settings, in seconds, for Start Timeout and Stop Timeout into the respective text boxes, and click
OK.
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Configuring Applications
Use the Applications page to configure protected applications, enables and disables protection and
monitoring. You can maintain applications without stopping vCenter Server Heartbeat or taking the full server
offline. During installation, vCenter Server Heartbeat sets default settings for application configurations but
accepts modifications to the configurations settings.
1
Click Configure in the Applications page.
You can protect services and start monitoring applications or unprotect services and stop monitoring an
application. You can also enable Verbose Plugin logging, Discover protected data at startup, Discover
protected services at startup, and set the rule trigger count.
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Click OK.
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Reviewing the Status of an Application
After an application successfully starts and is running, you can view the application status in the Applications
tab of the Application page.
If an application fails, right-click the Log and investigate the failure.
Reviewing the Application Log
The Application Log helps troubleshoot the protected application environment.
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The Application Log provides information about the behavior of all protected applications and includes
events such as task status changes, rule triggering, task outputs, and application warnings. Use this log to
troubleshoot application errors.
Filtering Application Log Entries
vCenter Server Heartbeat can filter Application Log files to limit the events to display. By default, all events
display in the Application Log file.
To filter the events to display
1
Click Filter in the Application Log panel on the Applications page.
2
In the upper section, clear the event types you do not want to view.
3
Configure a date and time range to limit the events to fit that date and time range. To limit the date and
time range, select Events From and edit the date or time range.
4
Click OK.
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Resetting the Application Health Status
To reset the Application Health status
1
Click the Applications tab of the Applications page.
2
Click Clear in the Application Health panel.
Removing an Application
To remove an application, select it and click Remove.
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If the sponsor of the selected application is associated with a plug-in, removing the application has the same
effect as removing the plug-in. If the sponsor is not associated with a plug-in, all sponsorship is removed from
services, filters, and tasks.
Services Tab
The Services page displays both services that you or plug-ins specify and the services related to them by
dependency (either as dependents or depends-on). The target states of protected services for the active and
passive server can be specified and are typically Running on the active and Stopped on the passive. Services
are protected if they are Running or Automatic, and are otherwise logged as unprotected. vCenter Server
Heartbeat manages services that depend on protected services (started and stopped) but not monitored (not
restarted if stopped by some external agency). vCenter Server Heartbeat monitors protected services (restarted
if stopped) but not managed (not stopped if protected applications are stopped).
Log in to the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console, click Application on the left navigation pane and click the
Services tab.
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Adding a Service
To protect a service
1
Add the service from the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console in a Running state.
2
Click Add to see a list of running services under Name.
3
Select the service and set the values for Target State on Active and Target State on Passive. Normally the
Target State on Active is set to Running and the Target State on Passive is set to Stopped.
NOTE Setting the target state for both the active and passive server to Running can cause the service to
place a lock on some files preventing synchronization from completing.
4
If vCenter Server Heartbeat is to manage the start and stop of the service, select Manage Starting and
Stopping. If vCenter Server Heartbeat is to monitor the state of the service, select Monitor State.
vCenter Server Heartbeat also assigns three sequential tasks to perform in the event of failure. Task
options include Recover Service, Application Restart, Log Warning, and any additional user-defined
tasks previously created.
NOTE For dependent services, failure actions must match the protected service.
5
Assign a task to each of the three failure options and click OK.
NOTE If an application with the failure option set to Application Restart fails, only the services that have
failed are restarted. Dependent services do not stop and restart as a result of the failure.
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Editing a Service
To change the options of a protected service
1
Select the service and click Edit...
The Edit Service window opens to provide a subset of same options available when adding a new service.
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Make the modifications and click OK.
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Checking the Status of Services
The Services page displays the status of all protected services. The status shows both the target and actual state
for both the Primary and Secondary servers and the Failure Counts for both servers.
Unprotecting Services and Stopping Monitoring
To unprotect and stop monitoring the service
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1
Click the Services tab. Select the service and click Edit.
2
Clear Manage Starting and Stopping and Monitor State. Click OK.
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The order of services can be modified using Up and Down arrows. The exact order in which services start and
stop is influenced by a number of key factors:

The order of applications specified by plug-ins determines which services are started first.

Services can have dependencies, and these must be respected. For example, if service B is listed after
service A under the User-Defined group, and service A depends on Service B, Service B starts first.

Multiple applications can use the same service (the same service can appear under more than one
sponsor). The service starts when the first application to reference it starts.

The order of stopping services is the reverse for starting services.
Removing a Service
To remove a service
1
Select the service.
2
Click Remove.
The service is removed from the protected list.
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Tasks Tab
Tasks are a generalization and extension of the start, stop, and monitor scripts. Task types are determined by
when the tasks run, and include the following:

Network Configuration – This is the first type of task that runs when applications start and is intended
to launch dnscmd or DNSUpdate. The task can launch a batch script containing multiple dnscmd
commands. Network Configuration tasks are the only types of task that can vary between Primary and
Secondary servers.

Pre/Post Start – These tasks run before and after services start on the active server.

Pre/Post Stop – These tasks run before and after services stop on the active server.

Pre/Post Shadow – These tasks run before and after Data Rollback Module creates a shadow copy on the
active server.

Rule Action – Configure these tasks to run in response to a triggered rule or when a service fails its check.
You can define and implement tasks at the command line, such as launching a batch-script. Examples of
built-in tasks include monitoring a protected service state on the active and passive servers.
vCenter Server Heartbeat can use plug-ins to define and implement tasks. An example of a plug-in-defined
task is the discovery of protected data and services for a particular application.
Click Application on the left navigation pane, and click the Tasks tab.
Adding a Task
To add a task
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1
Click Add. Assign a name to the task and select the task type from the list.
2
Add the appropriate information for the task type.
3
Click OK.
4
If the Command requires specific user credentials, click User Accounts... in the upper right of the page.
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5
Add user accounts to make them available as a selection in Run As when you add a task.
Editing a Task
To edit a task
1
Select the task and click Edit. You can edit the task interval or disable the task.
2
Click OK.
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Removing a Task
To remove a task
1
Select the task.
2
Click Remove.
Starting a Task Manually
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides options to launch a task immediately, or to launch a task after a designated
time period elapses, or following the occurrence of a specified event.
To launch the task immediately
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1
Select the task.
2
Click Run Now.
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vCenter Server Heartbeat immediately launches the task.
Plugins Tab
Plug-ins support specific applications and contain all of the components to protect the designated application.
Plug-ins start and stop the application, monitor the application, and provide all rules necessary to ensure that
application is available in the event of a failure by initiating a configured auto-switchover.
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Installing a Plug-In
To install a new plug-in
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1
Click Application and click the Plugins tab.
2
Click Install... and browse to the plug-in. The path statement is case-sensitive.
3
Click OK.
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Editing a Plug-in
To edit the plug-in configuration
1
Select the plug-in and click Edit to modify the default configuration.
2
Review the configuration options before making modifications as they are specific to each plug-in.
3
Click OK.
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Uninstalling a Plug-in
You can uninstall a plug-in when you upgrade or remove the application the plug-in protects, or when
directed by VMware Support.
To uninstall a plug-in
1
Select the plug-in.
1
Click Uninstall.
The plug-in is uninstalled and removed.
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9
Status and Control
9
This chapter includes the following topics:

“vCenter Server Heartbeat Console” on page 153

“Logging into vCenter Server Heartbeat” on page 153

“Configuring the Look and Feel of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console” on page 156

“Logging Out of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console” on page 157
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console
vCenter Server Heartbeat operates over a pair of vCenter Server Heartbeat servers and is administered in these
pairs.
The vCenter Server Heartbeat Console is used to carry out the day-to-day administration of one or more pairs
of servers.
The vCenter Server Heartbeat Console runs from either of the two servers in the pair or remotely from another
machine in the same subnet that has vCenter Server Heartbeat or the vCenter Server Heartbeat Client Tools
installed.
NOTE You can install vCenter Server Heartbeat on a Windows XP and Windows Vista SP1 or later workstation
to act as a client to the server pair or Windows Server 2003. Run setup.exe from the setup CD folder on the
workstation and select Install Client Tools under the installation set.
Logging into vCenter Server Heartbeat
To access vCenter Server Heartbeat, launch the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console from the desktop shortcut
or Start > All Programs > VMware > VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat > Manage Server.
Before you log in, you must identify the pair of servers to administer. Click Servers.
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NOTE It is recommended that you add the Principal (Public) IP address or the Fully Qualified Domain Name
of the Primary server to ensure that you can administer the pair from the Heartbeat Console regardless of
whether the current server is active or passive.
To add or remove a pair of vCenter Server Heartbeat servers
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1
A Server Pairs window displays no servers in the Available Pairs list. To add a server pair, click Add Pair.
The Add Server Pair window opens.
2
Type the IP address of the Primary server of any NIC on the active server or the NetBIOS name of the
server pair and click OK.
3
The server pair appears in the list of Available Pairs. As required, sequentially add more server pairs to
the list by repeating the procedure.
4
To edit a server pair, select it in the list and click Edit Pair. To remove a server pair, select it in the list and
click Remove.
5
When finished, click Close to return to the login window.
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Connecting to a Pair of Servers
To administer a pair of servers you must connect to them through the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console does not connect until vCenter Server Heartbeat initializes. Wait 10 seconds
after starting vCenter Server Heartbeat before attempting to connect.
1
Select a server pair from the Server drop-down menu.
2
Type a Username and Password with valid Windows credentials into the respective text boxes. In a
domain environment, use the format domainname\username.
Reviewing the Status of a Server Pair
The Server Pairs Overview window lists the selected pair of servers with other server pairs that historically
were administered. The Primary server name is displayed with the roles that Primary and Secondary servers
are currently performing.
Additional information about the communications between the servers is displayed: the length of the passive
server (safe) and active server (unsafe) queues and the peak rate of data transfer over the VMware Channel.
Last Event, Importance, and Event Time also display. These events are discussed later in this guide.
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To add additional pairs of servers
1
Click Add and follow the previously described procedure. Exit closes the interface but does not affect the
vCenter Server Heartbeat Server service.
2
To select a pair listed in the main data grid, select the check box next to the server name.
When a pair is selected, the Open, Clear Event, and Remove buttons become active.

Clear Event removes all events logged for that pair of servers and resets the log files for the pair of
servers.

Remove deletes the pair of servers from the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.

Open permits administration and configuration of the pair of servers.
Configuring the Look and Feel of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console
Use the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console graphical user interface to change the style and color of the interface
to suit your preferences.
To change the style of the interface
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1
Launch the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console from the desktop shortcut or Start > All Programs >
VMware > VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat > Manage Server.
2
In the Server Pairs Overview window, click Preferences and navigate to Look and Feel. Select a style to
change the color and style of the interface.
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Changing vCenter Server Heartbeat Console Pages
The buttons on the left of the window provide navigation between the pages of the vCenter Server Heartbeat
Console.
You can determine the currently active page from the color of the text on the navigation buttons. The text on
the active selection appears a magenta color, and inactive selections appear black.
Click Log to view the event log page.
Logging Out of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console
To log out of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console
1
Click Close to log out of administering the current server pair.
A confirmation window asks for confirmation of the logout request.
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Click Yes to close the client and return to the Server Pairs Overview window.
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10
Performance Protection
10
This chapter covers the topic “Rules Tab” on page 159.
Rules Tab
Rules are implemented by plug-ins. There are no user-defined rules. Configure rule actions to trigger the rule
that performs specific tasks. Rules have two trigger properties:

Timed – They must evaluate as true continuously for the specified duration to trigger.

Latched – They trigger as soon as they evaluate to true.
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Editing a Rule
Each plug-in contains a default set of rules with options you can modify.
To edit a rule
1
Click Application in the navigation panel and click the Rules tab.
2
Select the rule and click Edit.
You can enable or disable a rule, set specific options, and assign tasks to be performed in the event of a
first, second or third failure.
3
Click OK.
Rules Installed by vCenter Server Heartbeat Plug-Ins
The following plug-ins implement the rules listed.
vCenter Server Plug-In

Check health of Tomcat server

Check vCenter License

Check Connection to vCenter
vCenter SQL Server Plug-In
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
Default Instance Buffer Cache Hit Ratio

Default Free Pages

Default Instance Free Pages

Named Instance Working Set

Named Instance Buffer Cache Hit Ratio

Named Instance Free Pages

Named Instance Total Server Memory
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vCenter Server Heartbeat System Plug-In

DiskAvgSecsPerRead

DiskAvgSecsPerWrite

DiskIO

DiskQueueLength

DiskReadsPerSec

DiskWritesPerSec

DiskWriteable

FreeDiskSpace

FreeDiskSpaceOnDrive

MemoryCommittedBytes

MemoryCommittedBytesPercent

MemoryFreePTEs

MemoryPageReadsPerSec

MemoryPageWritesPerSec

MemoryPagesPerSec

MemoryPagingFileUseage

PageFaultsPerSec

ProcessorIntsPerSec

ProcessorLoad

ProcessorQueueLength

RedirectorBytesTotalPerSec

RedirectorNetworkErrorsPerSec

ServerBytesTotalPerSec

ServerWorkItemShortages >= 3 (if the rule for server work item shortages is triggered, consult Microsoft
documentation on setting the registry values for InitWorkItems or MaxWorkItems accordingly).

ServerWorkQueueLength

SystemContextSwitches
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Checking a Rule Condition
To check a rule condition
1
Select the rule.
2
Click Check Now.
vCenter Server Heartbeat immediately checks the rule conditions of the current configuration against the
attributes of the system or application.
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Data Protection
11
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Data Protection Overview” on page 164

“Automatic Filter Discovery” on page 164

“Configuring Max Disk Usage” on page 167

“Reviewing Status of Protected Files” on page 168

“Determining Effective Filters” on page 168

“Initiating File Synchronization Manually” on page 169

“Initiating a Full System Check” on page 170

“Reviewing the Registry Synchronization Status” on page 171

“Initiating a Full Registry Check” on page 172
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Data Protection Overview
The filter driver identifies files to protect and disk I/O operations to intercept and replicate on the passive
server.
Use this driver to filter files for inclusion in or exclusion from the replication process.
vCenter Server Heartbeat protects a folder called Protected on the system partition.
You can configure the system to protect any permutation or combination of file structures on the active server
by adding inclusion filters.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat forbids replicating certain files and folders by using a veto. If an inclusion
filter includes any of those files or folders, the entire filter is vetoed, even if an exclusion filter is used to prevent
replication of those files and folders. Examples of folders are the vCenter Server Heartbeat installation
directory or the system32 folder.
The VMware application folder contains the active server (unsafe) and passive server (safe) queues on the
active and passive servers. This folder must be explicitly excluded from file protection.
Automatic Filter Discovery
When Administrators make changes to the configuration, vCenter Server Heartbeat adjusts file filter
protection for protected locations. Additionally, the SQL Server plug-in provides database protection
including changes or additions to the database and log files.
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Adding a User-Defined Inclusion Filter
To add a user-defined Inclusion Filter
1
Click Advanced > Data.
2
Click the Configuration tab.
You can specify the Inclusion Filter on the Data page.
File Filters displays three columns: Filter, State, and Detail.

Filter lists the pattern for protecting files and folders on the active server.

State describes the filter state


Effective – The filter is properly configured and protects (replicates) the stipulated files to the
passive server.

Subset – contained within another filter

Not Effective – not contained within another filter
Detail describes file filter details based upon the state.
To define filters that protect user defined files and folders
1
Click Add Inclusion Filter and type the complete path and pattern, specify a pattern containing
wildcards, or use Browse to locate the file or folder.
2
Click OK.
The two forms of wildcards available are *, which matches all files in the folder, and **, which matches all
files, subfolders and the files in the subfolders of the folder.
After defining the filter, you can add additional Inclusion Filters.
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To edit file filter definitions, select the filter and click Edit.
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Adding a User-Defined Exclusion Filter
Exclusion Filters create a subset of an Inclusion Filter to specify items to exclude from protection.
To define filters that exclude files and folders from protection and replication
1
Click Add Exclusion Filter and type the complete path and pattern, specify a pattern containing
wildcards, or use Browse to locate the file or folder.
2
Click OK.
The two forms of wildcards available are *, which matches all files in the folder, and **, which matches all
files, subfolders and the files in the subfolders of the folder.
3
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To edit file filter definitions, select the filter and click Edit.
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Removing User-Defined Inclusion or Exclusion Filters
To remove an Inclusion or Exclusion Filter
1
Select the filter.
2
Click Remove.
Configuring Max Disk Usage
The active server (unsafe) and passive server (safe) queues are preconfigured to utilize a maximum space on
disk of 1GB. If required, you can adjust the disk space.
1
Navigate Advanced > Communications > Configuration and select Max Disk Usage.
2
Consider increasing disk space when queued data requires more space during slow connectivity on
VMware Channel.
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Reviewing Status of Protected Files
Click the File Sync and Verify tab to review the status of protected files.
The Synchronization Status graphically displays the global status of the file synchronization and verification,
with the same seven different states in the System page.
A tree structure graphically represents the protected files and folders as defined by the file filters. Expand or
collapse each level by double-clicking the appropriate folder. The + icon next to a folder indicates the presence
of subfolders.
The right side displays the subfolders, the protected files within folders and their synchronization status.
The synchronization status for each file can read three different values depending on the verification and
synchronization states as described in Table 11-1.
Table 11-1. Synchronization Status
Icon
Description
The file is verified and successfully synchronized.
The file is not synchronized on the active and passive servers. This state often follows a failover and
requires manual synchronization and verification.
The file or folder has not been checked because a full system check has not been performed or the system
check has not yet reached the file or folder.
Determining Effective Filters
An Effective Filter is the result of the remainder of the files and folders stipulated in the Inclusion Filter after
removing the files and folders in the Exclusion Filter.
Filters are compared with each other, and if one filter is a superset of another, the superset filter is used. You
can configure a single, general filter to replace file servers with 1000s of individual shares requested by a
plug-in. The Configuration pane displays rejections after filters are validated before passing to the replication
components.
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Initiating File Synchronization Manually
The Data page displays files that were detected as out of synchronization.
1
To manually synchronize the specified files, click Synchronize.
2
You can resynchronize files at any time. Select multiple files with the Shift or Ctrl keys and click
Synchronize.
3
Select Including Subdirectories to synchronize files within folders.
A progress graphic displays the status of the verification or synchronization operation. When complete,
the status displays a green Synchronized icon.
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Initiating Verify and Synchronize Manually
To verify and synchronize folders
1
Use Verify & Synchronize and select Include Subdirectories to ensure all underlying files and subfolders
are included in the verification and synchronization operation.
2
Right-click a folder to access a popup menu to perform quick synchronization and verification of folders
and subfolders.
A manual or scheduled synchronization and verification request is defined as a task that is queued for
processing after the running task completes. Tasks display in the Pending Tasks pane. You can cancel
individual tasks. If you cancel a scheduled task, you risk an unchecked system. Possible consequences of
canceling tasks display in a warning message.
Initiating a Full System Check
You can verify and synchronize the entire protected file set with Full System Check. A Full System Check
performs the same block level check of all the files set by the file filters in the initial startup synchronization
and verification.
When you click Full System Check, a window asks you to confirm the request and warns you that depending
on the amount of data under protection, this task can take a long time to complete (for example, a number of
hours). Click Yes to perform the check.
Switchover cannot occur until the full system check completes and the File System Status is Synchronized.
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The File System Status is Unchecked when you cancel the task. Depending on the amount of data,
resynchronization can take substantial time to complete.
Reviewing the Registry Synchronization Status
Use Registry Sync and Verify to review the status of registry replication.
The status of registry synchronization is displayed in Synchronization Status.
Full Registry Check rescans and synchronizes all the registry keys matching the built-in registry filters
between the servers.
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Initiating a Full Registry Check
To initiate a full registry check
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1
Click Data in the navigation panel and click the Registry Sync and Verify tab.
2
Click Full Registry Check.
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Other Administrative Tasks
12
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Configuring Alerts” on page 173

“Configuring Alert Reporting” on page 174

“Test Alert Reporting” on page 176

“Configuring Event Log Files” on page 177

“Reviewing Event Logs” on page 178
Configuring Alerts
vCenter Server Heartbeat can send predefined alerts to remote administrators by email using Advanced >
Alerts.
You can configure alerts in the Configuration tab on the Alerts page.
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You can configure two alert states: Red alerts are critical and yellow alerts are not as serious. These alerts are
preconfigured with the recommended alerting levels.
To reconfigure each event to trigger red, yellow, or no alert, check the appropriate boxes and click Apply.
To reset the alerts to the last applied changes, click Reset.
Configuring Alert Reporting
vCenter Server Heartbeat can alert the administrator and route logs by email when an Alert condition exists.
To configure email alerts
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1
Click Advanced > System and click the Configuration tab.
2
Type the outgoing SMTP server of both the Primary server (when active) and the Secondary server (when
active) in the appropriate fields.
3
Type the FQDN of the mail server. Type an email address that is authorized to send mail through the
SMTP server.
4
If the SMTP servers require authentication to accept and forward SMTP messages, select Mail Server
requires authentication and specify the credentials for an appropriate authenticated user account.
5
Click Apply. To restore the configuration to the last saved state, click Reset.
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You can configure email recipients in the Reporting tab of the Alerts page after configuring the trigger levels
and the email server.
Red or yellow alert triggers emails to the same or different recipients. The process to add recipients is the same
for both trigger levels.
1
Select Send mail on red alert or Send mail on yellow alert.
2
Click Add Row and type a fully qualified email address for each recipient in each row for the respective
trigger level alert.
3
To delete a row, click Delete row. To clear a trigger level, click the Trash can icon.
Use the preconfigured subject and content of the alert emails for both Red or Yellow alerts. You can add content
as required. VMware recommends leaving the preconfigured subject and content and if necessary, add
additional information.
Another method to send an alert notification is:
1
Select Run Command under the pertinent alert state.
2
Browse for a script to run or use a command line argument to run on the alert trigger.
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The preconfigured WScript command creates an event in the Application Event Log and can be
customized to include vCenter Server Heartbeat specific informational variables as detailed in Table 12-1.
Table 12-1. Script Variables
Variable
Value
$EventId
Id of event as listed above
$EventName
Human-readable name of event
$EventDetail
Detail message for event
$EventTime
Time at which event occurred
The following command line argument creates an event in the Application Event Log listing the machine
that caused the alert, the time the alert occurred, the name, and details of the alert:
WScript //T:10 $(installdir)\bin\alert.vbs "VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat alert on
$EventHost at $EventTime because $EventName ($EventDetail). Event Id is $EventId"
3
Click Apply to save the changes and enforce the defined notification rules.
4
To restore the configuration to the last saved state, click Reset.
Test Alert Reporting
Click Test Alert Reporting to run a test alert email. This way you can avoid triggering an actual alert during
the operation of the active server.
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Configuring Event Log Files
To configure default settings for log files
1
Select Advanced > Log. Click the Configuration tab to define the filename and path of the exported
comma-separated variable (CSV) file.
2
You can manually type a path and filename or use Browse and navigate the file. Click Apply.
Configuring Log File Email Recipients
Use vCenter Server Heartbeat to email the log to specified personnel at predetermined intervals.
To configure email log notifications
1
To configure vCenter Server Heartbeat to email a copy of the log file, select Mail Every, and configure the
day and time to send the log file.
2
Specify the recipients. Click the Add Row icon on the top left of the email recipient data grid and type the
email address in the row.
3
To remove a recipient, select the row and click the Delete selected row icon on the top left of the data grid.
4
To clear the entire data grid, click the Trash can icon.
5
You can configure additional features for event logs in the main Configuration page.
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6
To override multiple logs generating for a single event, select Ignore Repeated Events Within and set the
time increment to ignore the duplication.
7
To adjust the length of the event log list, use Record At Most. The default length is 100 events, but you can
customize this value.
8
Click Apply to commit the changes.
9
Click Reset to restore the previously applied log configuration. Reset does not affect the logs already
recorded in the list.
Reviewing Event Logs
The Log Details data grid lists events logged chronologically by default.
The logs show the time the event happened, its importance, the type of event that triggered the log, and its
detail.
The data grid displays truncated information.
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To review the details
1
Double-click the entry in the data grid.
Event Properties displays the full detail and trace of the log that caused the event and the source of the
error to aid in troubleshooting.
2
Use the Up and Down arrows in this window to review other logs. This feature is useful where many logs
have occurred simultaneously and helps to identify the source of the problem.
3
Click Close to close the Event Properties.
Table 12-2. Log Events
Icon
Description
Errors within the underlying operation of vCenter Server Heartbeat and can be considered critical to the
operation of the system.
Warnings generated for discrepancies within the vCenter Server Heartbeat operational environment that are
not deemed critical to the operation of the system.
System logs are generated following normal vCenter Server Heartbeat operations. You can use these logs to
verify the success of processes such as file synchronization.
Information on operations within the graphical user interface rather than operations on vCenter Server
Heartbeat service, such as login.
To display logs according to severity
1
Select Events of at Least.
2
Select the importance level and click Apply to display logged events equal to or greater than the selected
severity.
You can filter logs to display a subset of logs between a specific date and time range.
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3
Select Events From, adjust the start date, end date, and time, and click Apply.
4
Click Reset to remove and reset the filter criteria
.
Table 12-3. Log Configuration Icons
Icon
Purpose
To refresh the list of events, click Refresh Event Log at the bottom left of the Log Details data grid.
To clear the list, click Remove all Entries at the top left of the Log Details data grid.
To export the list to a comma-separated variable file, click Export event log at the top left of the Log Details
data grid. You can configure the filename and path to export the data in the Configuration tab.
To immediately email the list, click E-mail.
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Troubleshooting
13
This chapter includes the following topics:

“Troubleshooting Unexpected Behaviors” on page 181

“Two Active Servers” on page 181

“Two Passive Servers” on page 183

“Synchronization Failures” on page 184

“Registry Status is Out of Sync” on page 186

“Channel Drops” on page 186

“Subnet or Routing Issues ” on page 190

“MaxDiskUsage Errors” on page 190

“MaxDiskUsage Error Messages” on page 191
Troubleshooting Unexpected Behaviors
The following unexpected behaviors illustrate symptoms, causes and resolution for a given scenario.
Two Active Servers
When two identical active servers are live on the same network, vCenter Server Heartbeat refers to the
condition as split-brain syndrome. Two active servers do not occur by design and when detected, must be
resolved immediately.
Symptoms
Split-brain syndrome is identified by the following symptoms:

Both servers in the pair are running and in an active state. The task bar icons display P / A (Primary and
active) and S / A (Secondary and active).

An IP address conflict occurs on a server pair running vCenter Server Heartbeat on the Principal (Public)
IP address.

A name conflict occurs on a server pair running vCenter Server Heartbeat. In a WAN environment the
Primary and Secondary servers connect to the network using different IP addresses. However, if the
servers are running with the same name and are visible to each other across the WAN, a name conflict
occurs.

Clients (for example, Outlook) cannot connect to the server running vCenter Server Heartbeat.
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Causes
The most common causes of two active servers (Split-brain syndrome) are as follows:

Loss of the VMware Channel connection (most common in a WAN environment)

The active server is too busy to respond to heartbeats

Incorrect configuration of the vCenter Server Heartbeat software
You must determine the cause of the Split-brain syndrome and resolve the issue to prevent this condition from
recurring.
Resolution
To resolve a Split-brain syndrome, identify the server with the most up-to-date data. If you identify the wrong
server you risk losing data. You must reinstate the correct server.
To identify the server with the most up-to-date data
1
Check the date and time of files on both servers. Make the most up-to-date server the active server.
2
From a client PC on a LAN, run nbtstat -A 192.168.1.1 where the IP address is the Principal (Public)
IP address of the server. This can help identify the MAC address of the server currently visible to client
machines.
NOTE If both active servers were servicing clients, perhaps at different WAN locations, you can make
only one server active. Both servers contain recent data that cannot be merged using vCenter Server
Heartbeat. To restart replication, make one server active and one server passive. When replication restarts,
the active server overwrites all data on the passive server. You can manually extract the up-to-date data
from the passive server prior to restarting replication. Consult the Microsoft knowledge base for
information on various tools for this purpose. For further information, contact your VMware support
representative.
To resolve two active servers (Split-brain syndrome)
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1
Identify the server with the most up-to-date data or the server to make active.
2
Shut down vCenter Server Heartbeat on both servers (if running).
3
On the server to make passive, right-click the Task bar icon, and select the Server Configuration wizard.
4
Click the Machine tab and set the server role to passive. Do not change the identity of the server (Primary
or Secondary).
5
Click Finish to accept the changes.
6
Restart this server.
7
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat, if required, and check that the Task bar icon now reflects the changes by
showing P / - (Primary and Passive) or S / - (Secondary and Passive).
8
On the active server, right-click the Task bar icon and select the Server Configuration wizard.
9
Click the Machine tab and verify that the server role is set to active. Do not change the identity of the
server (Primary or Secondary).
10
Click Finish to accept the changes.
11
Restart this server. As the server restarts, it connects to the passive server and starts replication. The active
server overwrites data on the passive server.
12
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat, if required, and check that the Task bar icon now reflects the changes by
showing P / A (Primary and active) or S / A (Secondary and active).
13
Log in to the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console.
14
Check that the servers have connected and replication has started.
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Two Passive Servers
Primary and Secondary servers are both passive at the same time. This situation is serious and must be
resolved immediately.
Symptom
You are unable to connect to protected applications, and if you configured alerts, you receive notification that
replication is not functioning properly.
Causes
The condition of two passive servers results from a sudden failure on the active server. Examples:

An unexpected termination of the Neverfail Server R2 service

A transient power failure

A server reset triggered from the Power or Reset button

An unclean shutdown. Following an unclean shutdown, an active server assumes the passive role to
isolate itself from the network until the failure is investigated.

The active server fails before the handshake that establishes the VMware Channel connection. The passive
server cannot detect that the active server is not responding when the failure occurs and cannot determine
the condition of the active server. The active server suffers a transient failure and the passive server cannot
respond by failing over into the active role, leaving both servers in the passive role.

Both Primary and Secondary servers experience a power outage simultaneously, for example, they use the
same power source and neither is attached to a UPS. A failover cannot occur and when the servers are
restarted, each displays the following error message:
Cannot start replication because previous run did not shutdown properly. Check configuration.
NOTE If you attempt to start vCenter Server Heartbeat without reconfiguring one server in the pair as active,
vCenter Server Heartbeat responds with the following warning:
[U16] Serious configuration mismatch between the two servers. Please reconfigure so there is one
and only one Primary, and one and only one Active.
Resolution
Two passive servers prevent users from accessing the protected application and should be resolved
immediately.
To resolve two passive servers
1
Determine the active server.
2
Shut down vCenter Server Heartbeat on both servers. Leave any protected applications running on the
server to make active.
3
On the server to make active, start the Server Configuration wizard, and select the active role. Do not
change the identity (Primary or Secondary).
4
On the server to make passive, start the Server Configuration wizard, and confirm the passive server. Do
not change the identity (Primary or Secondary).
5
Restart the passive server. All protected application services stop.
6
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on both servers.
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Synchronization Failures
When you start vCenter Server Heartbeat, a full system check occurs to verify the following:

All protected registry keys and values from the active server are present on the passive server.

All protected file and folder structures from the active server are present on the passive server.
After the full system check completes, the File System Status and the Registry Status display as Synchronized.
However, the File System Status or the Registry Status can also display as Out of sync or Synchronized and
busy processing. Some typical scenarios are described with possible causes and workarounds.
Services Running on the Passive Server
Services running on a passive server is not normal behavior and can prevent synchronization.
Symptom
File System Status is Out of sync or Synchronized and busy processing.
Cause
A service running on the Passive server opens a protected file for exclusive access. If vCenter Server Heartbeat
attempts to update this opened file, the Apply component logs the following error message:
[N29]The passive VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat server attempted to access the file: {filename}. This failed
because the file was in use by another application. Please ensure that there are no applications which access
protected files running on the passive.
NOTE This occurs if the vSphere Client is left running on the passive server.
Services that keep files locked on the passive server are:

Protected application services

File level antivirus tool services
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat periodically checks for and stops any services running on the passive server.
Resolution
Until the file is closed on the passive server, vCenter Server Heartbeat reports the file status and the File System
Status as Out of sync.
To resolve the Out of sync status
1
Set Protected Application services to Manual on both servers and verify that they are not running on the
passive server.
2
Set Recovery Actions to Take No Action. You can set this from the Service Control Manager (SCM) for the
Protected Application services. Otherwise, the SCM restarts the Protected Application services.
3
Verify that file level antivirus is not part of the protected set as the file level antivirus and the
corresponding services are running on both machines.
VMware Channel Incorrectly Configured
If the VMware Channel is not properly configured, it cannot initiate the handshake to establish
communications through the VMware Channel connection.
Symptom
Failure to establish the VMware Channel connection prevents a full system check, thereby leaving the File
System Status and Registry Status as Out of sync.
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Causes
The most common VMware Channel configuration errors are as follows:

VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter is enabled on one or more VMware Channel NICs

VMware Channel IP addresses are configured in different subnets

In a WAN implementation, no static routes exist between the VMware Channel NICs
Resolution
The VMware Channel configuration should be reviewed to verify proper configuration.
To resolve a VMware Channel configuration error
1
Disable the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter on VMware Channel NICs.
2
Configure the VMware Channel IP addresses properly.
3
In a WAN implementation, configure static routes between VMware Channel NICs properly.
4
Disable NetBIOS on the VMware Channel NICs.
Incorrect or Mismatched Disk Configuration
When vCenter Server Heartbeat starts, it checks the complete set of file filters for consistency.
Symptom
If any of the entries points to a non-existent drive letter or to a non-NTFS partition, the list of file filters resets
to the default value of C:\Protected\**. This is a safety measure as vCenter Server Heartbeat requires the
same drive letter configuration on the Primary and the Secondary servers, and only supports protection of
NTFS partitions.
Cause
Different partition structures on Primary and Secondary servers, such that one or more file filters point to
drives that cannot be protected on both servers. For example:

The Primary server has drive G, a valid NTFS partition, but no corresponding drive exists on the
Secondary server.

The Primary server has drive G, a valid NTFS partition. The equivalent drive on the Secondary server is
a CD or DVD drive, or a FAT or FAT32 partition that cannot be protected.
In either scenario, if you configure a file filter to protect a directory on drive G, the entire filter set is rejected
and the filters are reset to the default value of <Windows drive>\Protected\**.
Resolution
Follow the steps documented in knowledge base article 1008458 (vCSHB-Ref-500) Troubleshooting a set of File
Filters that is reset to C:\Protected\**.
Passive Server Has Less Available Space than Active Server
Inadequate available disk space on the passive server can cause replication to cease.
Symptom
Replication stops with the following error:
[N27]Failed to write information for the file: {filename} to the disk. Either the disk is full or the quota (for the
SYSTEM account) was exceeded.
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Cause
The passive server has less available disk space than the active server, preventing updates from being
replicated to the passive server. The quantity of updates from the active server exceeds the passive server's
available disk space.
Resolution
Free up some additional disk space on the passive server. Do not delete data from the protected set to prevent
data loss in the event of a switchover. You could update the disk subsystem on the passive server. After
allocating space, start replication.
Registry Status is Out of Sync
The Registry can be reported as Out of sync when one or more Registry keys fail to synchronize.
Resource Issues
Inadequate resources can cause poor performance and prevent the registry from synchronizing.
Symptom
vCenter Server Heartbeat logs the following error message:
Call to RegOpenKeyEx failed: on <Reg_Key>: Insufficient system resources exist to complete the
requested service.
Cause
One or both of the servers are running low on virtual memory.
Resolution
Restart the server to free up virtual memory.
Registry Security Issues
Inability to access the registry prevents replication of the registry.
Symptom
vCenter Server Heartbeat is unable to read, sync, or replicate the registry.
Cause
If a protected registry key has permissions that deny Write access to the System account, this can prevent
vCenter Server Heartbeat from synchronizing or replicating it.
Resolution
Change the permissions on the affected registry key to grant the System account Full Control.
Channel Drops
When the VMware Channel loses connection between the servers, the following scenarios can occur.
Performance Issues
Poor performance can be experienced as a result of a channel loss.
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Symptom
The message java.io.IOException: An existing connection was forcibly closed by the remote
host appears in the active server's NFLog.txt file, and the VMware Channel connection between the servers
is lost.
Causes
This unusual condition points to an application or Windows experiencing a fault on the passive server. A
sudden restart of the passive server can occur due to the following causes:

The server is configured for automatic software update management and some updates force the server
to restart

A software or Operating System issue that occasionally fails and requires a system restart

The Neverfail Server R2 service experiences problems, does not respond, or terminates unexpectedly
Resolution
To resolve the issue, make the following checks.

Determine the likely source by examining the Windows event logs.

If the server does not display evidence of a system restart or unresponsive application, one or both of the
VMware Channel NICs could be forcing a channel disconnection. See “Hardware or Driver Issues on
VMware Channel NICs” on page 187 for more information on this topic.
Passive Server Does Not Meet Minimum Hardware Requirements
Inadequate hardware can cause channel drops and result in poor performance.
Symptom
The data rate between the servers is very fast during a Full System Check and the VMware Channel drops.
Cause
The passive server does not meet the recommended hardware requirements for vCenter Server Heartbeat or
it meets the requirements, but is much less powerful than the active server. The underpowered server cannot
apply the received replication data from the active server at the rate that the data is sent to the passive server.
Resolution
To avoid reinstalling vCenter Server Heartbeat, upgrade the hardware, such as memory or CPU, on the passive
server. Establish the identity (Primary or Secondary) of the affected server before you perform the upgrade.
Hardware or Driver Issues on VMware Channel NICs
NIC malfunctions and old or incorrect drivers can cause channel drops resulting in poor performance.
Symptom
The VMware Channel intermittently drops or disconnects and reconnects.
Causes
The following are common causes of NIC problems.

Old or incorrect VMware Channel NIC drivers

Hardware failure of the hub or Ethernet switch used for the VMware Channel connection

Defective Ethernet patch or crossover cables
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
Improper configuration of the NICs used for the VMware Channel connection

ISP problems in a WAN environment
Resolution
When a NIC problem is encountered, the following should be checked.

Verify that VMware Channel NIC drivers are the correct and latest versions. Known issues are identified
with HP/Compaq ProLiant NC67xx/NC77xx Gigabit Ethernet NICs. Check other NIC types. See
knowledge base article 1008383 (vCSHB-Ref-116) – VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat and Gigabit Ethernet
NIC drivers. (NC77XX).

Verify hubs and Ethernet switches are operating properly. Identify and replace any defective
components.

Test for defective Ethernet patch or crossover cables and replace if defective.

Correctly configure the NICs used for the VMware Channel connection.

Check the physical link for ISP problems.
Firewall Connection
In a LAN or WAN deployment, the VMware Channel can be connected through one or more Internet firewalls.
Because firewalls block unauthorized network traffic, configure firewalls on the route of the VMware Channel
to allow channel traffic.
Symptoms
The VMware Channel cannot connect, or continuously connects and disconnects.
Causes
In a WAN deployment, port 57348 or any other port configured for the VMware Channel is closed on one or
more firewalls on the route between the VMware Channel NIC on the Primary server and its counterpart on
the Secondary server.
Resolution
Open port 57348 and any other port configured for the VMware Channel on all firewalls on the route between
the VMware Channel NIC on the Primary server and its counterpart on the Secondary server.
Incorrect VMware Channel Configuration
An incorrectly configured channel connection can prevent proper communication and replication.
Symptoms
The following problems are experienced:

IP conflicts occur on one of the VMware Channel IP addresses

The VMware Channel does not connect, or connects and disconnects
Causes
The list below provides the most common misconfigurations.
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
Identical IP addresses at each end of the VMware Channel

IP addresses in different subnets without static routing at each end of the VMware Channel

VMware Channel NIC configured for DHCP when a DHCP server is not available
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Chapter 13 Troubleshooting
During installation, vCenter Server Heartbeat configures the VMware Channel NICs with user-provided
information. Incorrect information or incorrectly modifying the VMware Channel NIC configuration after
installation causes the VMware Channel to fail communicating.
On rare occasions, if the Primary and Secondary servers have NICs of the same type in a different order, both
the name and IP address of a VMware Channel NIC on the Primary server can transfer to the Principal (Public)
NIC on the Secondary or the name and IP address of the Principal (Public) NIC can transfer to a VMware
Channel NIC. Similarly, the names of the VMware Channel NICs can reverse on the Secondary server. You
must reconcile the names of the NICs with their physical identities and assign the correct IP address to each
NIC on the Secondary server.
Resolutions
The installation process manually assigns the correct IP addresses to each NIC on the Secondary server. If no
VMware Channel connection occurs between the servers, verify the configuration of the IP addresses on the
Secondary server's channel NICs. Check the settings for the Principal (Public) NIC. The configuration error can
remain unrecognized until you perform a switchover or a failover occurs.
To capture the identities of all of the NICs on the Secondary server prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat,
open a Windows Command Prompt on that server and execute the following command:
ipconfig /all > ipconfig.txt
The output of this command saves the name, TCP/IP configuration, and MAC address of each NIC on the
Secondary server to a file called ipconfig.txt, which is present on that server after the PnP phase of the vCenter
Server Heartbeat install completes. Compare the pre-install and post-install state of each NIC by running
ipconfig /all from a Windows command prompt and compare the output of this command with the
content of ipconfig.txt.
The MAC address of each NIC is connected to the physical identity of each card and never changes. You can
identify each NIC by its MAC address and determine its original name and network configuration, even if this
was updated by the PnP process.
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter Is Enabled on the Channel
NIC(s)
Proper configuration requires that the packet filter be disabled on the VMware Channel NIC. When the packet
filter is enabled on the channel NICs, the following symptoms are encountered.
Symptom
Interference with network traffic across the VMware Channel results in an intermittent channel connection or
no channel connection at all.
Cause
During installation, the VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter is installed and enabled on all NICs
on both the Primary and Secondary servers. The Packet Filter on the VMware Channel NICs on each server is
disabled later in the installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat. If the vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter is
left enabled on one or more channel NICs after installation completes, it can interfere with network traffic
across the VMware Channel.
Resolution
Click the Properties tab for each Channel NIC on both servers and verify that the check box for vCenter Server
Heartbeat Packet Filter is cleared, so that the Packet Filter is disabled on that NIC.
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Subnet or Routing Issues
In a LAN or WAN deployment, the following connection problems can occur.
LAN Deployment
Incorrectly configured subnets or routing can cause channel problems resulting in poor performance or failure
to connect.
Symptom
The Channel disconnects or fails to connect in a LAN deployment.
Causes
The Channel disconnects or fails to connect due to the Principal (Public) NIC and/or one or more channels
sharing the same subnet.
Resolution
If vCenter Server Heartbeat is deployed in a LAN environment, the Principal (Public) IP address and the
Channel IP address on a server must be in separate subnets. When multiple redundant channels are present,
each must have its own subnet. Check the network configuration for each NIC on both servers in the pair and
correct any issues.
WAN Deployment
Incorrect routing can prevent the active and passive servers from connecting in a WAN environment.
Symptom
The VMware Channel disconnects or fails to connect in a WAN deployment.
Cause
When the VMware Channel disconnects or fails to connect in a WAN deployment, the static route might not
be configured or might be configured incorrectly.
When vCenter Server Heartbeat is deployed in a WAN, the Principal (Public) IP address and the VMware
Channel IP addresses cannot be in different subnets, because there usually is a single network path between
the two servers. Configure a static route between the endpoints to route traffic in the VMware Channel.
Resolution
Refer to knowledge base article 1008451 (vCSHB-Ref-466) - Creating a static route for the VMware Channel
Connection Where the Channel and Principal (Public) IP Addresses are on the Same Subnet in a WAN Environment for
a detailed discussion about WAN channel routing issues, and for instructions on configuring a static route for
the VMware Channel.
MaxDiskUsage Errors
vCenter Server Heartbeat uses queues to buffer the flow of replication data from the active server to the
passive server. This configuration provides resilience in the event of user activity spikes, VMware Channel
bandwidth restrictions, or VMware Channel drops across a WAN deployment. Some types of file write activity
also require buffering as they can cause a sharp increase in the amount of channel traffic. The queues are called
the active server (unsafe) queue or the passive server (safe) queue.
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Chapter 13 Troubleshooting
Active Server (Unsafe) Queue
vCenter Server Heartbeat considers the active server queue as unsafe because the data in this queue has not
yet been replicated across the VMware Channel to the passive server and therefore could be lost in the event
of a failover. As a result of failover, some data loss is inevitable, with the exact amount depending on the
relationship between available VMware Channel bandwidth and the required data transmission rate. If the
required data transmission rate exceeds available VMware Channel bandwidth, the active server queue fills.
If the available VMware Channel bandwidth exceeds the required data transmission rate, the active server
queue empties. This situation is most commonly seen in a WAN environment, where VMware Channel
bandwidth is restricted. In a LAN that normally has high bandwidth on a dedicated channel, the size of the
active server queue is zero or near zero most of the time. On a server not protected with vCenter Server
Heartbeat, all data is technically unsafe and subject to loss if the server fails.
Passive Server (Safe) Queue
The passive server queue is considered safe because the data in this queue already was transmitted across the
VMware Channel from the active server, and is not lost in the event of a failover, which applies all updates to
the passive server as part of the process.
Both active and passive server queues are stored on disk by default in the <VMware vCenter Server
Heartbeat Install Directory>\R2\log directory, with a quota configured for the maximum permitted
queue size (by default, 1GB on each server). You can configure both the queue location and the quota.
Two methods to set the queue size:

Start vCenter Server Heartbeat, open the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console, and select Advanced >
Communication > Configuration. Set the Max Disk Usage value and click Apply. Shut down and restart
vCenter Server Heartbeat for the change to take effect. You are not required to stop protected applications.

Open the Server Configuration wizard and click the Logs tab. Set the Maximum Disk Usage value and
click Finish.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat is a symmetrical system and can operate with either server in the active role.
For this reason, the queue size is always set to the same value for both servers.
MaxDiskUsage Error Messages
The following error messages display when available disk space on the servers is exceeded.
[L9]Exceeded the Maximum Disk Usage
(VCChannelExceededMaxDiskUsageException)
This message indicates that you have exceeded the amount of allocated disk space reserved for the queue.
Symptom
vCenter Server Heartbeat exceeds its preconfigured queue size.
Causes
On the active server, the size of the active server queue has exceeded the disk quota allocated for it. On the
passive server, the size of the passive server queue has exceeded the disk quota allocated for it.
Resolution
While neither condition is critical, determine the sequence of events that led to the condition.
[L9]Exceeded the Maximum Disk Usage on the ACTIVE Server
This message indicates that you have exceeded the amount of allocated disk space reserved for the active
server (unsafe) queue.
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Symptom
Replication stops and the vCenter Server Heartbeat Event Log displays the error message originating from the
active server.
Causes
A temporary interruption in the VMware Channel, or insufficient VMware Channel bandwidth to support the
volume of replication traffic starts filling the active server queue. The size of the queue eventually exceeds the
configured disk quota.
Resolution
Assuming no other channel connection issues exist (see knowledge base article 1008551 (vCSHB-Ref-992) Troubleshooting VMware vCenter Server Channel Drops), you can increase the amount of disk space allotted to the
queues. The default setting is 1GB, which can be insufficient on servers with a large volume of replication
traffic and limited VMware Channel bandwidth. If you have sufficient disk space, set the queue size to zero
(unlimited) so vCenter Server Heartbeat can use any free disk space to store the queues.
[L9]Exceeded the Maximum Disk Usage on the PASSIVE Server
This message indicates that you have exceeded the amount of allocated disk space reserved for the passive
server (safe) queue.
Symptom
Replication stops and the vCenter Server Heartbeat Event Log displays the error message originating from the
passive server.
Causes
Two of the most common causes are shown below:

The bottleneck lies between the VMware Channel NIC and the disk subsystem on the passive server.
Replication traffic passes across the VMware Channel faster than it can be written to disk on the passive
server. The excess is buffered temporarily in the passive server (safe) queue. The size of the queue can
eventually exceed the allotted disk quota.

If the passive server is much less powerful than the active server in terms of processor speed, RAM, or
disk performance, it can lag behind the active server during periods of high replication activity. Monitor
one or more Windows performance counters to determine the component experiencing sustained high
activity. Intensive page file use or persistently large disk queue length can indicate a problem. Upgrade
one or more physical components of the server.
Either server can be active or passive. If the Secondary server is more powerful than the Primary server,
hardware-related issues can only occur while the Secondary server is in the active role.
Resolution
To resolve this issue:

If you have multiple physical disks on each server, locate the vCenter Server Heartbeat active and passive
server queues on a separate physical disk, away from the Windows directory, the Windows page file, and
any protected files help to alleviate disk performance issues:
a
Shut down vCenter Server Heartbeat.
b
Open the Server Configuration wizard and click the Logs tab.
c
Set the path for Message Queue Logs Location and click Finish.
d
Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on both servers.
The selected path is applied to all vCenter Server Heartbeat queues on both servers.
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Chapter 13 Troubleshooting

Increase the amount of disk space allotted to the queues. However, if a hardware issue is the root of the
problem, correct that problem at the source.

The size of the passive server queue can increase sharply in response to certain types of file write activity
on the active server, such as when vCenter Server Heartbeat is replicating a large number of very small
updates of a few bytes each. The volume of update traffic can be far greater than the physical size of the
files on the disk, and the passive server queue can become disproportionately large. You can see this
pattern of disk activity during the population of Full-Text Catalogs in Microsoft SQL Server. Increase the
amount of disk space available for the queues. Move the queues to their own physical disk, upgrade the
memory or the disk subsystem.

vCenter Server Heartbeat requires a certain amount of system resource for its own basic operations and
requires some additional resources for processing replication traffic. This is in addition to the resources
used by Windows and other applications running on the server, including critical applications protected
by Heartbeat. Allocate sufficient resources for all the applications and services running on such a server
to provide maximum performance, stability, and resilience for changing client, server, and network
activity.
[L20]Out of Disk Space (VCChannelOutOfDiskSpaceException)
This message indicates that one of the servers in the pair has run out of disk space without reaching its preset
quota.
Symptom
Replication stops and the vCenter Server Heartbeat Event Log displays the error message originating from
either server in the pair.
Cause
One of the queues has exceeded the amount of physical disk space available for it without reaching its quota
limit. For example, if the maximum queue size is set to 5GB, but only 3GB of physical disk space remains, this
error message is reported if one of the queues exceeds 3GB in size.
Resolution
Free up more disk space or move the queues to a disk with sufficient free space to accommodate queue sizes
up to the limit configured for Maximum Disk Usage.
Application Slowdown
Operations performed by the application can take longer to complete, and in turn, can affect the time required
to log in to a remote client, or to open or save a file. This is true for both servers running vCenter Server
Heartbeat and for servers running any other application. vCenter Server Heartbeat can monitor system
performance counters and display warnings when predefined thresholds are exceeded, but it does not actively
manage system resources for other applications. Like any other application, it also requires a finite amount of
resources for its own operations in addition to the resources used by the operating system and the protected
application.
The machines hosting vCenter Server Heartbeat must meet recommended hardware requirements and must
be powerful enough to support the load, the protected applications, and any other critical applications
running on the same server pair.
Poor Application Performance
When applications are competing for resources, one or more applications can perform poorly.
Symptom
Neither server in the pair can accommodate the load placed upon it during normal operation.
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Cause
The Primary server's resource usage in one or more areas reached close to the maximum before vCenter Server
Heartbeat was installed.
Resolution
Heartbeat Diagnostics can report these conditions and issues warnings if CPU usage or memory usage exceed
a certain percentage of the available resource. Information provided by Heartbeat Diagnostics can minimize
the risk of application slowdown by identifying needed hardware upgrades on the Primary server.
Both Servers Can Accommodate the Initial Load but the Load Has Increased
Any software installed on a server or workstation consumes a finite amount of system resources when it runs
and it must share the resources it uses with any other applications running at the same time. Increased demand
caused by additional user activity can have an impact on the server performance.
Symptom
Increased user activity slows application response time.
Causes
The server pair operates normally when vCenter Server Heartbeat is first installed, but performance decreases
due to increased user activity. For example, users on the SQL Server system increase or the typical usage
pattern becomes more intense. This can be a gradual and sustained increase over time, or transient if a specific
event triggers a temporary surge in user activity.
Resolution
If the situation is sporadic, it can correct itself when the load decreases. If the increase is sustained and
permanent, upgrade the server hardware.
One Server Can Provide Adequate Resource Support, but the Other Cannot
If the total resource requirements of the applications exceed the available physical resources, the operating
system attempts to provide resources, but leaves some applications under resourced. When this situation
occurs, an application cannot obtain enough memory to operate normally, or a process must wait before
accessing the hard disk
Symptom
Applications operate normally when the Primary server is active but operate slowly when the Secondary
server is active (or the reverse).
Cause
A large discrepancy occurs in the processing power between the Primary and Secondary servers. One server
can handle the operational load while the other cannot. The load on a server is greater while in the active role
when the protected application starts. Applications on the server pair run successfully when the Primary
server is active, but experience performance issues when the Secondary is active (or the reverse). Problems can
arise even when the more powerful server is active.
Resolution
Both servers must have approximately equivalent processing power, RAM and disk performance. Upgrade
the hardware on one server in the pair so that the two servers have roughly the same performance.
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Chapter 13 Troubleshooting
Scheduled Resource Intensive Tasks
Scheduling multiple resource intensive tasks at the same time can adversely impact server performance and
affect application performance.
Symptom
Resource-intense scheduled tasks impact performance at certain times.
Cause
Two or more resource-intense processes run simultaneously or one process performs actions that increase the
load on vCenter Server Heartbeat by triggering additional and sometimes unnecessary replication traffic.
Examples: processes such as backups, database maintenance tasks, disk defragmentation, or scheduled virus
scans.
Resolution
Schedule operations so that they do not overlap and schedule them outside regular working hours, when
fewer users are accessing the protected application and consequently less load on the server.
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Appendix – Setup Error Messages
Table A-1. Setup Error Messages
Message
Pri
Sec
Level
Test
10 – ‘The pre install check data file does not have the
correct format. Setup cannot continue’.
No
Yes
Critical Stop
Check that the file adheres to the
correct formatting and structure
for use in analysis on the
Secondary.
Setup has detected incompatible versions of the
collector version $x and the analyzer version $y dll.
This would suggest different versions of Setup have
been run on the Primary and Secondary servers.
No
Yes
Critical Stop
Check that the analyzer and
collector dlls are compatible.
File $x cannot be analyzed it may be corrupt Setup is
unable to continue. If the file has been opened check
that it has not been saved with Word Wrap.
-
Yes
Critical Stop
Check file format is correct.
190 – This server is a #1# domain controller. vCenter
Server Heartbeat must not be installed on a domain
controller.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
Test whether the server is a
domain controller.
173 – vCenter Server Heartbeat does not support the
'/3GB' switch on Windows 2000 Standard Edition.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
Test for /3GB on Windows 2000
175 – vCenter Server Heartbeat requires Windows
2003 Standard Edition SP1 or later if '/3GB' switch is
on.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
103 - vCenter Server Heartbeat does not support #1#.
The following are supported Windows 2000 Server
SP4 or greater; Windows Server 2003 SP1 or greater.
Yes
Yes
Warning
200 - Your #1# server uses the Intel ICH7 chipset and
Windows 2000 has been detected. This combination is
incompatible with vCenter Server Heartbeat.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
217 - vCenter Server Heartbeat is not supported on
Windows Storage Server Edition.
Yes
Yes
Warning
106 - Primary and Secondary OS versions are not
identical, #1# vs. #2#: and require the same Service
Pack level.
-
Yes
Critical Stop
Compatibility check on secondary.
208 - You are running a 64-bit version of Windows on
one of your servers and a 32-bit version of Windows
on the other. This is not supported.
-
Yes
Critical Stop
Compatibility check on secondary.
111 - The system folders on primary and secondary
system must be the same. Setup has detected that the
secondary system folder is #2# and the primary was
#1#.
-
Yes
Critical Stop
Compatibility check on secondary.
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Table A-1. Setup Error Messages (Continued)
198
Message
Pri
Sec
Level
113 - You do not have enough total memory to install
vCenter Server Heartbeat on your #1# server. You
must have at least 1GB.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
VMware recommend a minimum of 2GB. Note actual
memory requirements depend on the application
load; and may require more memory.
Yes
Yes
Warning
117 - You do not have enough free disk space to install
vCenter Server Heartbeat. You must have at least 2GB
available.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
118 - For every volume on the primary system that
contains protected data a corresponding volume must
exist on the secondary server. In most cases this means
that for every volume on the primary server a volume
with the same drive letter (such as D:\) must exist on
the secondary server. If this is not the case, the
secondary server must be modified to meet this
requirement.
-
Yes
Warning
204 - Your operating system on your #1# server is #2#
and you are running with a Windows 2000 driver for
your NC77xx NIC(s). In order to prevent system
crashes you must upgrade to a Windows 2003 driver;
the name for those drivers ends with '57XP32.sys' and
not with '57W2K.sys'
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
212 - The number of Free System Page Table Entries on
this server has dropped to #1#. This is too low. You
should have at least #2# Free System Page Table
Entries available.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
201 - #1#: This service is incompatible with running
vCenter Server Heartbeat and must be stopped before
vCenter Server Heartbeat can be installed.
Yes
Yes
Warning
209 - Double-Take drivers have been detected on this
server. To avoid compatibility problems please
uninstall Double-Take before re-running setup.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
Oracle has been detected on this Server. vCenter
Server Heartbeat does not support Oracle on the same
server as VirtualCenter.
Yes
Yes
Critical Stop
Test
Compatibility check on secondary.
It is recommended that you move
Oracle to another server before
attempting to re-run Setup, OR
that you move VirtualCenter to
another server and deploy vCenter
Server Heartbeat there.
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Glossary
A
Active
The functional state or role of a server visible through the network by clients running protected
applications and servicing client requests.
Alert
A notification sent to a user or entered into the system log indicating an exceeded threshold.
Active Directory (AD)
Presents applications with a single, simplified set of interfaces so users can locate and use directory
resources from a variety of networks while bypassing differences among proprietary services. vCenter
Server Heartbeat switchovers and failovers require no changes to AD, resulting in switchover and failover
times measured in seconds.
Active – Passive
The coupling of two servers: one server visible to clients on a network and providing application service,
the other server not visible and not providing application service.
Active Server Queue
The staging area of the active server used to store intercepted data changes before being transported
across the VMware Channel to the passive server.
Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
A specification that dictates how the operating system can interact with hardware using power saving
schemes. Primary and Secondary servers must have the same ACPI compliance.
Asynchronous
A process whereby replicated data is applied (written) to the passive server independently of the active
server.
B
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
The program a personal computer's microprocessor uses to start the computer system after you turn it on.
It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices such as the hard
disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse, and printer.
C
Cached Credentials
Locally stored security access credentials used to log in to a computer system when a Domain Controller
is not available.
Channel Drop
An event in which the dedicated communications link between the Primary and Secondary server fails,
often resulting in the passive server becoming active and consequently creating a split-brain syndrome.
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Channel NIC (Network Interface Card)
A dedicated subnet used by the VMware Channel.
Cloned Servers
Two servers in a pair with the same configuration settings, names, applications, Security Identifiers (SIDs)
and IP addresses, following the installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat.
Cloning Process
The vCenter Server Heartbeat process whereby all installed applications, configuration settings, the
machine name, security identifier (SID), and IP address are copied to a second server.
Crossover Cable
A network cable that crosses transmit and receive lines.
D
Data Replication
The transmission of protected data changes (files and registry) from the active to the passive server
through the VMware Channel.
Device Drivers
A program that controls a hardware device, linking it to the operating system.
Disaster Recovery (DR)
A term indicating how you maintain and recover data in light of a disaster such as a hurricane or fire.
vCenter Server Heartbeat achieves DR protection by placing the Secondary server at on offsite facility and
replicating the data through a WAN link.
DNS (Domain Name System) Server
Responsible for providing a centralized resource for clients to resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
Domain
A logical group of client server based machines where the administration rights across the network are
maintained in a centralized resource called a domain controller.
Domain Controller (DC)
The server responsible for maintaining privileges to domain resources, sometimes called AD controller in
Windows 2000 and above domains.
F
Failover
The process by which the passive server assumes the active role when it no longer detects that the active
server is alive as a result of a critical unexpected outage or server crash.
Full System Check (FSC)
The internal process programmatically started at the initial connection of a server pair or manually
triggered through the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console. The FSC verifies the files and registry keys, and
synchronizes the differences.
Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
Also known as an absolute domain name, a FQDN specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the
Domain Name System (DNS). It specifies all domain levels, including the top-level domain, relative to the
root domain. Example: somehost.example.com., where the trailing dot indicates the root domain.
G
200
Graceful (Clean) Shutdown
vCenter Server Heartbeat shuts down with no data loss after completing replication using the vCenter
Server Heartbeat Console.
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Glossary
H
Hardware Agnostic
A key vCenter Server Heartbeat feature enabling the use of servers from different manufacturers, models,
and processing power in a single vCenter Server Heartbeat server pair.
Heartbeat
The packet of information issued by the passive server across the VMware Channel, which the active
server responds to, indicating its presence.
Heartbeat Diagnostics
The umbrella name for the VMware process and tools used to check the production server health and
applicability to the implementation of the vCenter Server Heartbeat solution.
High Availability (HA)
Keeping users seamlessly connected to their applications, regardless of the nature of a failure. LAN
environments are ideally suited for HA.
Hotfix
A single, cumulative package that includes one or more files used to address a problem in a product.
I
Identity
The reference of a server’s position in the server pair based upon hardware, either the Primary server or
the Secondary server.
L
Low Bandwidth Module (LBM)
A vCenter Server Heartbeat Module that compresses and optimizes data replicated between a Primary
and Secondary server, thereby delivering maximum data throughput and improving application
response time on congested WAN links.
M
Machine Name
The Windows or NETBIOS name of a computer.
Management IP Address
An additionally assigned unfiltered IP address used for server management purposes only.
Many-to-One
One physical Secondary server (hosting more than one virtual server) can provide protection to multiple
physical Primary servers.
N
Network Monitoring
Monitoring the active server’s capability to communicate with the rest of the network by polling defined
nodes around the network at regular intervals.
P
Passive
The functional state or role of a server that is not delivering service to clients and is hidden from the rest
of the network.
Passive Server Queue
The staging area on the passive server used to store changes received from the active server before they
are applied to the passive server’s disk or registry.
Pathping
A route-tracing tool that sends packets to each router on the way to a final destination and displays the
results of each hop.
Plug and Play (PnP)
A standard for peripheral expansion on a PC. When starting the computer, Plug and Play (PnP) configures
the necessary IRQ, DMA and I/O address settings for the attached peripheral devices.
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Plug-in
An optional module that can be installed into a vCenter Server Heartbeat server to provide additional
protection for a specific application.
Pre-Installation Checks
A list of system and environmental checks performed before the installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat.
Principal IP address
An IP address used by clients to contact the server through drive mappings, UNC paths, DNS resolved
paths, to access the server's services and resources.
Principal NIC
The network card that hosts the Principal IP address.
Protected Application
An application protected by vCenter Server Heartbeat.
Q
Quality of Service (QoS)
An effort to provide different prioritization levels for different types of traffic over a network. For
example, vCenter Server Heartbeat data replication can have a greater priority than ICMP traffic, as the
consequences of interrupting data replication are more obvious than slowing down ICMP traffic.
R
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
This multi-channel protocol connects to a computer running Microsoft Terminal Services.
Replication
The generic term given to the process of intercepting changes to data files and registry keys, transporting
the changed data across the VMware Channel, and applying them to the passive server so both servers
are maintained in a synchronized state.
Role
The functional state of the server in the pair that can be either active or passive.
Rule
A set of actions vCenter Server Heartbeat to perform when defined conditions are met.
S
Security Identifier (SID)
A unique alphanumeric character string that identifies each operating system and each user in a network
of Windows NT, Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, and Windows Server 2008 systems.
Server Monitoring
Monitoring the active server by the passive server, using a heartbeat message, to ensure that the active
server is functional.
Server Pair
The generic term used to describe the coupling of the Primary and Secondary server in vCenter Server
Heartbeat.
Shared Nothing
A key vCenter Server Heartbeat feature whereby hardware is not shared between the Primary and
Secondary servers, thus preventing a single point of failure.
SMTP
A TCP/IP protocol used in sending and receiving e-mail between or among servers.
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Glossary
Split-brain Avoidance
A unique feature of vCenter Server Heartbeat that uses various checks to overcome a scenario where both
Primary and Secondary servers attempt to become active at the same time, leading to an active-active
rather than an active-passive model.
Split-brain Syndrome
A situation where both the Primary and Secondary servers in a vCenter Server Heartbeat server pair are
operating in the active mode and attempting to service clients, causing different data updates to be
applied independently to each server.
Subnet
A division of a network into an interconnected but independent segment or domain, to improve
performance and security.
Storage Area Network (SAN)
A high-speed special-purpose network or (sub-network) that interconnects different kinds of data storage
devices with associated data servers on behalf of a larger network of users.
Switchover
The graceful transfer of control and application service to the passive server.
Synchronize
The internal process of transporting 64KB blocks of changed files or registry key data, through the
VMware Channel from the active server to the passive server. The data on the passive server is a mirror
image of the protected data on the active server, a required condition for data replication on a vCenter
Server Heartbeat server pair.
System State
Data that comprises the registry, COM+ Class Registration database, files under Windows File Protection,
and system boot file. Other data can be included in the system state data.
T
Task
An action performed by vCenter Server Heartbeat when defined conditions are met.
Time-To-Live (TTL)
The length of time that a locally cached DNS resolution is valid. The DNS server must be re-queried after
the TTL expires.
Traceroute
A utility that records the route through the Internet between the computer and a specified destination
computer.
U
Ungraceful (Unclean) Shutdown
A shutdown of vCenter Server Heartbeat resulting from a critical failure or by shutting down Windows
without first performing a proper shutdown of vCenter Server Heartbeat, resulting in possible data loss.
Unprotected Application
An application that is not monitored or its data replicated by vCenter Server Heartbeat.
V
VMware Channel
The IP communications link used by vCenter Server Heartbeat for heartbeat and replication traffic.
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat
The core replication and system monitoring component.
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Packet Filter
The network component installed on both servers that controls network visibility.
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Reference Guide
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat Switchover and Failover Process
A vCenter Server Heartbeat unique process whereby the passive server gracefully (Switchover) or
unexpectedly (Failover) assumes the role of the active server providing application services to connected
clients.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A private data network that uses the public telecommunication infrastructure, maintaining privacy
through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures.
VMware Web Site
The VMware web site dedicated to support partners and customers providing technical information,
software updates, and license key generation.
W
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Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
A management technology using scripts to monitor and control managed resources throughout the
network. Resources include hard drives, file systems, operating system settings, processes, services,
shares, registry settings, networking components, event logs, users, and groups.
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