Simrad MARINE COMPUTER - INSTALLATION REV A Instruction manual

MANUAL
SIMRAD AP16
Autopilot
20221560F
Sw.1.2.01
English
Instruction manual
Instruction Manual
This manual is intended as a reference guide for operating and
correctly installing the AP16 autopilot.
Great care has been paid to simplify operation and set-up of the
Simrad AP16, however, an autopilot is a complex electronic
system. It is affected by sea conditions, speed of the vessel, hull
shape and size.
Please take time to read this manual to get a thorough
understanding of the operation and system components and their
relationship to a complete AP16 autopilot system.
Other documentation material that is included in this manual is a
warranty card. This must be filled out by the authorized dealer that
performed the installation and mailed in to activate the warranty.
20221560F
1
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Document history
Rev. A
First edition.
Rev. B
Part no. for AC40 Power PCB ass’y, page 119 corrected. Added notes in
chapter 3.19. Minor corrections in text and display pictures.
Rev. C
Correction in text on page 30, 63, 66, 90, 94, 104 and 109. Figure 3-6, 3-9,
3-18 and 4.1 corrected. Part no. for adapter cable page 121 added.
Rev. D
Updated according to SW 1.2.00.
Rev. E
Virtual feedback implemented. Minor corrections to text. Applies for
SW 1.2.01 and onwards.
Rev. F
Correction on page 59, 79 and 135 regarding no external alarm on AC10.
Use of AT10 for connection of NMEA compass when AC10 is used as
autopilot computer, page 77.
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Instruction manual
Contents
1
System description ....................................................................................... 9
1.1 General .................................................................................................. 9
1.2 How to use this manual......................................................................... 9
1.3 System components............................................................................. 10
1.4 AP16 Control Unit .............................................................................. 11
1.5 Autopilot Computer ............................................................................ 11
1.6 RF300 Rudder Feedback unit ............................................................. 11
1.7 Heading Sensors.................................................................................. 12
RFC35 Electronic Fluxgate Compass................................................. 12
RC36 Rate compass (optional) ........................................................... 12
NMEA compass (optional) ................................................................. 12
Simrad gyrocompasses........................................................................ 12
1.8 Optional equipment............................................................................. 13
R3000X Remote Control .................................................................... 13
JS10 Joystick....................................................................................... 13
Multiple stations.................................................................................. 13
1.9 Software record ................................................................................... 13
2
Operation.................................................................................................... 15
2.1 Overview ............................................................................................. 15
2.2 ON/OFF - Standby mode .................................................................... 16
Flashing course knob icon .................................................................. 17
Alarms ................................................................................................. 17
2.3 AP16 with MSD50 Stern Drive unit................................................... 18
Zero point setting ................................................................................ 18
2.4 Non-Follow-Up steering (NFU) ......................................................... 19
2.5 R3000X Remote Control (NFU)......................................................... 20
2.6 JS10 Joystick (NFU) ........................................................................... 20
2.7 Automatic Steering ............................................................................. 21
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Heading capture .................................................................................. 21
2.8 Automatic control of steering parameters........................................... 22
Power boats ......................................................................................... 22
Sailboat................................................................................................ 23
2.9 Manual Selection of HI/LO Parameters.............................................. 23
2.10 U-turn .................................................................................................. 24
2.11 Dodge in AUTO.................................................................................. 24
2.12 Tacking in Auto mode ........................................................................ 25
2.13 NoDrift ................................................................................................ 26
Dodge in NoDrift mode ...................................................................... 27
2.14 Navigating with the AP16................................................................... 27
Setting the waypoint arrival circle ...................................................... 29
2.15 Dodge in NAV .................................................................................... 30
2.16 Selecting a different Navigation source.............................................. 31
2.17 Wind vane steering.............................................................................. 31
2.18 Tacking in Wind mode........................................................................ 33
Gybing................................................................................................. 34
Tack and gybe prevent ........................................................................ 34
2.19 Wind steering and navigation ............................................................. 35
Operating in WINDNAV mode ............................................................. 37
RACING ............................................................................................. 37
2.20 Multiple station system ....................................................................... 38
2.21 Lock function ...................................................................................... 38
2.22 User Set-up Menu ............................................................................... 39
Alternating Course Knob Icon ............................................................ 39
STANDBY Mode ............................................................................... 40
AUTO Mode ....................................................................................... 45
NAV Mode.......................................................................................... 46
WIND Mode ....................................................................................... 46
2.23 INFO menu ......................................................................................... 47
Course knob icon ................................................................................ 49
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Instruction manual
INFO menu flowchart ......................................................................... 50
INFO menu and Main screen active unit ............................................ 51
INFO menu and Main Screen, inactive unit ....................................... 51
3
Installation.................................................................................................. 53
3.1 General ................................................................................................ 53
3.2 Installation checklist ........................................................................... 53
3.3 Unpacking and handling ..................................................................... 54
3.4 Determine system configuration ......................................................... 54
3.5 AP16 System Layout .......................................................................... 55
3.6 RF300 Rudder feedback installation................................................... 55
3.7 Autopilot computer installation .......................................................... 57
3.8 Cable connections ............................................................................... 58
3.9 Grounding and RFI ............................................................................. 58
3.10 Drive unit installation.......................................................................... 60
Connecting a reversible pump ............................................................ 62
Connecting a hydraulic linear drive.................................................... 63
Connecting a solenoid valve ............................................................... 63
3.11 Control unit installation ...................................................................... 64
Panel mounting ................................................................................... 64
Optional bracket mounting ................................................................. 64
3.12 ROBNET2 network cables ................................................................. 65
AP27 connection ................................................................................. 67
3.13 RFC35 Fluxgate Compass installation ............................................... 67
3.14 RC36 Rate Compass installation ........................................................ 69
3.15 R3000X Remote Control installation ................................................. 69
3.16 JS10 Joystick....................................................................................... 70
3.17 S35 NFU Lever installation ................................................................ 70
3.18 Interfacing ........................................................................................... 70
3.19 SimNet................................................................................................. 71
SimNet network cables ....................................................................... 71
SimNet power and termination ........................................................... 71
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.20 Single NMEA input/output ................................................................. 76
3.21 Double NMEA input/output ............................................................... 76
3.22 NMEA output on Port 2...................................................................... 77
3.23 NMEA Compass input ........................................................................ 77
3.24 Radar Clock/Data................................................................................ 78
3.25 IS15 Instrument installation ................................................................ 78
3.26 External Alarm.................................................................................... 79
3.27 LF3000 Linear Feedback .................................................................... 80
4
Configuration and setup ........................................................................... 83
4.1 First time turn on................................................................................. 83
4.2 Description of Installation Settings..................................................... 84
4.3 Installation Menu ................................................................................ 85
Language selection.............................................................................. 87
4.4 Dockside settings ................................................................................ 87
Boat type ............................................................................................. 88
Drive unit voltage................................................................................ 88
Rudder Feedback Calibration ............................................................. 89
Rudder Test ......................................................................................... 90
Drive engage ....................................................................................... 91
Rudder Deadband................................................................................ 92
Wind setup .......................................................................................... 92
Minimum wind angle (NORMAL)..................................................... 93
Minimum wind angle (RACING)....................................................... 93
Tack angle (RACING) ........................................................................ 93
Tack time (RACING).......................................................................... 94
Wind shift alarm limit (RACING) ...................................................... 94
4.5 Interface Settings................................................................................. 98
4.6 Display units ....................................................................................... 98
4.7 Sea Trial .............................................................................................. 99
Set Rudder zero................................................................................. 100
Minimum rudder ............................................................................... 101
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Instruction manual
Compass calibration.......................................................................... 101
Compass Offset ................................................................................. 103
Wind Offset....................................................................................... 104
Wind damping................................................................................... 104
Depth Offset...................................................................................... 105
Automatic tuning............................................................................... 105
Transition Speed ............................................................................... 107
Init NAV ........................................................................................... 107
NAV change limit ............................................................................. 108
4.8 Parameters ......................................................................................... 108
Manual parameter adjust................................................................... 110
Recall Autotuned?............................................................................. 112
4.9 Service Menu .................................................................................... 112
System Data Menu ............................................................................ 113
SimNet and NMEA Data Screen ...................................................... 113
NMEA Port test (AC hardware) ....................................................... 115
SimNet setup ..................................................................................... 116
Master Reset...................................................................................... 117
Final sea trial ..................................................................................... 118
Providing user training...................................................................... 119
5
Maintenance ............................................................................................. 121
5.1 Control unit ....................................................................................... 121
5.2 Autopilot Computer .......................................................................... 121
5.3 Rudder Feedback............................................................................... 121
5.4 Compass ............................................................................................ 121
5.5 Drive unit .......................................................................................... 121
5.6 Exchange of software programme .................................................... 122
Autopilot Computer .......................................................................... 122
Autopilot Control Unit...................................................................... 123
6
Trouble shooting ...................................................................................... 124
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
6.1 Alarms ............................................................................................... 124
7
Spare Parts List........................................................................................ 129
8
Technical Specifications .......................................................................... 132
8.1 AP16 Autopilot System .................................................................... 132
8.2 AP16 Control Unit ............................................................................ 133
8.3 Autopilot Computers......................................................................... 135
8.4 RFC35 Fluxgate compass ................................................................. 137
8.5 RC36 Rate compass .......................................................................... 138
8.6 RF300 Rudder Feedback................................................................... 138
8.7 R3000X Remote Control .................................................................. 140
8.8 JS10 Joystick..................................................................................... 140
8.9 IS15 Rudder ...................................................................................... 141
8.10 SimNet............................................................................................... 142
8.11 IP protection...................................................................................... 143
8.12 NMEA and SimNet messages........................................................... 144
9
Glossary .................................................................................................... 148
10
Index.......................................................................................................... 151
SALES AND SERVICE WORLDWIDE
TERMS OF WARRANTY
WARRANTY CARD
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System Description
1
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
1.1
General
Congratulations on the purchase of your new Simrad AP16
autopilot system and thank you for selecting what we feel is the
most advanced autopilot system available on the market today.
Simrad manufactures a complete range of autopilots for all types
of vessels, from recreational boats to merchant marine vessels.
The company's involvement in autopilots began in 1953 with
equipment for the North Sea fishing fleet under the brand name
Robertson. Professional mariners around the world acknowledge
that the Robertson and Simrad brand names are synonymous
with the absolute best in autopilot technology.
The Simrad AP16 autopilot represents yet another step forward
in autopilot technology with the intent of providing leisure boats
between 30 and 80 foot with a host of new features. Among
these the new Virtual Feedback algorithms in the autopilot
software enable your autopilot to steer without having to mount
a conventional rudder feedback unit.
The autopilot system can be expanded and enhanced with a
selection of options and accessories.
The brain in the AP16 autopilot system is the single "intelligent"
autopilot computer that communicates on the proprietary
Robnet2 network to establish a reliable digital communication
and power distribution network between the units in the
autopilot system.
The AP16 autopilot is also equipped with the SimNet data and
control network. SimNet provides high speed data transfer and
control of Simrad products integrated in a total steering and
navigation system.
1.2
How to use this manual
This manual is intended as a reference guide for operating,
installing and maintaining the Simrad AP16 autopilot. Great care
has been paid to simplify operation and set-up of the AP16.
Please take time to read this manual to get a thorough
understanding of the operation and system components and their
relationship to a complete AP16 autopilot system.
20221560F
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Other documentation material that is provided with your system
includes a warranty card. This must be filled out by the
authorized dealer that performed the installation and mailed in to
activate the warranty.
1.3
System components
A basic AP16 system consists of the following units (refer to
Figure 1-1):
−
AP16 Control Unit with accessories
−
Autopilot Computer
−
Fluxgate compass
−
Rudder Feedback Unit with transmission link
−
Drive unit
The basic system can be expanded with fixed and hand held
multiple full function control units, hand held remote and
steering lever.
Figure 1-1 AP16 Basic system
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System Description
1.4
AP16 Control Unit
A compact autopilot control for panel, bulkhead or bracket
mounting. It has a multifunction LCD display for readout of
autopilot data, mode keys and course adjust keys. It has two
Robnet2 connectors for system interconnection and expansion
and two SimNet connectors for control and data sharing with
other Simrad products. A NMEA2000 Adapter Cable is available
for interface through a SimNet port (page 131).
1.5
Autopilot Computer
The autopilot computer is the heart in the AP16 autopilot system.
It contains the steering computer, interface other system
components, NMEA 0183 interface and drive electronics for the
drive unit motor and clutch. Three models, AC10, AC20 and
AC40 are available.
Autopilot computer comparison chart:
AC10
AC20 (AC40)
Supply voltage
10-28 V
10-40 V
Motor current (continuous/peak)
6/12 A
10/20A (20/40A)
Clutch/bypass current
1,5 A*
1,5 A*
Number of control units
2
7
NMEA 0183 ports (input/output)
1
2
Solenoid output
x
x
Input for NFU control
x
x
External alarm
x
Radar clock/data interface
x
Input for NMEA compass
x
* 3A on later models.
1.6
RF300 Rudder Feedback unit
Rudder feedback unit with transmission link and 10 m (30 feet)
of cable. Transforms the angular travel of the rudder to a digital
signal read by the autopilot steering computer.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
1.7
Heading Sensors
The AP16 autopilot can be used with the following combinations
of heading sensors:
RFC35 Electronic Fluxgate Compass
A compact heading sensor from Simrad with 15 m (45 feet) of
cable. The direction of the earth's magnetic field is sensed by a
floating ring core in a fluxgate coil and transformed to a digital
signal read by the autopilot steering computer.
RFC35 comes as standard with the autopilot.
RC36 Rate compass (optional)
Fluxgate compass with integrated rate sensor. Provides a dramatic
improvement to the dynamic performance of both the autopilot
and a stabilized radar display.
NMEA compass (optional)
A well performing compass that outputs NMEA 0183 HDT or
HDG messages at 10 Hz can be connected directly to the AC20
or AC40 autopilot computer.
The AC10 Autopilot Computer has no port for NMEA compass
input.
It is absolutely necessary for the autopilot that the heading rate is
minimum 10 Hz.
Simrad gyrocompasses
Depending on the model there is direct NMEA0183 interface or
you will need an optional GI51 interface unit to get NMEA0183
interface. Ask your Simrad dealer for information.
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System Description
1.8
Optional equipment
A series of options are available for the basic AP16 system.
R3000X Remote Control
A small handheld remote control with two push buttons for
power steering or course selection (port and starboard), and one
push button with built-in lighted indicator for limited mode
change.
JS10 Joystick
The JS10 Joystick is a Non-Follow-Up steering lever designed
for indoor and outdoor console mount. It has a spring-loaded
return-to-mid-position feature and is equipped with 10 m (33’) of
cable and installation hardware.
Multiple stations
Multiple control units can be added to the system. See
comparison chart on page 11.
1.9
Software record
When the system is switched on, a status display shows the
software versions for the control unit and the autopilot computer.
See page 16.
Software version Description
Note !
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SW 1.1.00
First issue
SW 1.2.00
NoDrift mode implemented. Easy access to
NAV source selection. Selectable NAV
change limit implemented. Steering
parameters can be changed in Auto mode.
User Setup menu re-edited. Outboard
selectable as boat type in dockside setup.
Improvement in Wind mode algorithms.
SW 1.2.01
Virtual feedback implemented.
SW 1.2.00 and onwards are not compatible with SW 1.1.00.
13
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
This page is intentionally left blank.
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Operation
2
OPERATION
WARNING !
An autopilot is a very useful navigational aid, but DOES
NOT under any circumstance replace a human navigator.
Do not use automatic steering when:
• In heavy traffic areas or in narrow waters
• In poor visibility or extreme sea conditions
• When in areas where use of autopilot is
prohibited by law
When using an autopilot:
• Do not leave the helm unattended
• Do not place any magnetic material or
equipment near heading sensor used in the
autopilot system
• Verify at regular intervals course and position of
vessel
• Always switch to Standby mode and reduce
speed in due time to avoid hazardous situations
2.1
Overview
Multifunction LCD
STANDBY mode / POWER on/off
INSTRUMENT screens/ setup menus
STBY
PWR
INFO
SETUP
10 10
AUTO
NAV
WIND
1
TURN
DODGE
1
AUTO mode
NAV or WIND mode
PORT keys 1/10°
TURN/ DODGE
STARBOARD keys 1/10°
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
The control unit shown above can operate as a stand alone unit
in an autopilot system or combined in a multistation system. In a
multistation system the command can easily be transferred from
one unit to another. AP16 units not in control will display the
icon.
The AP16 system is capable of the following primary steering
modes: STBY (power steering), AUTO, NAV and WIND, each
mode having a dedicated push button.
Each of the mode push buttons is clearly identified with the
primary function in large text, and a secondary function listed in
smaller text. Each button provides you with a multiple function
mode display.
A group of user adjustable settings are provided in the AP16
User Setup Menu (page 39).
Alarms are presented in plain text to alert you of system and
external data failure conditions. Alarms include both audible and
visual presentations. The alarm listing is on page 124.
2.2
Note !
ON/OFF - Standby mode
At first time turn on see paragraph 4.1.
A single press on the STBY button switches the system ON and
the following status displays are shown:
Autopilot model
Software version
Simrad
AP16
SW 1.2.01
HW rev. 00
Sn xxxxxx
Software release
Hardware revision
SimNet no.
Autopilot computer model
Software version
Power board revision
Main board revision
Simrad
AC20
SW 1.2.01
Software release
P00 M00 S000
Self check
SW and HW revisions shown are examples only.
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Operation
After approximately 5 seconds, the system is operative and the
unit that was turned on will show the Standby mode display.
Other units in a multistation system will display "Inactive"
and/or depending on model. Control is transferred to any
single unit by pressing its’ STBY button.
A long press (2-3 sec.) on the STBY button switches the system
OFF and during this time, the alarm will sound.
Note !
In an emergency, it is possible, on a multistation system, to turn
OFF the system at any control unit by pressing the STBY button
for 2-3 seconds.
STBY mode is the mode that is used when steering the boat at
the helm.
Display information:
− Standby mode
− Current heading 345°M
− Compass source: Rate
compass
− Rudder angle 00°.
Note !
When the autopilot operates on Virtual feedback, the numerical
indication of the rudder angle is omitted.
Virtual feedback
See pages 55 and 95 about Virtual feedback.
Flashing course knob icon
When the PORT and STBD buttons are is used for settings
etc., an icon will flash on the screen to tell that no course
changes can be made unless you press the AUTO button.
Alarms
In the event there is an audible alarm with explaining text on the
control unit, refer to section 6 Trouble shooting.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
2.3
AP16 with MSD50 Stern Drive unit
The information in section 2.3 only applies if your autopilot is
driving a Simrad MSD50 Stern Drive.
Note !
The MSD50 Stern drive unit has a relative feedback signal which
needs a zero point setting after the autopilot has been turned on.
Refer to the MSD50 manual for further information.
Zero point setting
If you do not need a rudder angle display when leaving the dock,
just steer the boat manually on a straight course and press the
AUTO button. The zero point is then set automatically.
Note !
If you prefer to use the rudder angle display when leaving the
dock, proceed as follows:
After turn on the rudder
angle display will alternate
between 10 degrees port and
starboard to indicate that the
"rudder" zero point need be
set.
Use the wheel to bring the "rudder" to midship position. Turn the
wheel from lock to lock (H.O. to H.O.) and count the exact
number of turns. Then start from one lock position and turn the
half number of turns.
AUTO
STBY
Press AUTO and then STBY. The zero point is now set and the
display will show:
Follow the operating
instructions on the following
pages. There is no further
need for zero point settings
until next time you turn the
autopilot on.
18
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Operation
2.4
Non-Follow-Up steering (NFU)
In Standby mode, the NFU display is presented when the PORT
or STBD button is pressed. The rudder will move as long as the
button is pressed and the rudder angle is shown on the display.
1
Activates
PORT rudder
command
Note !
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1
Activates
STBD
rudder
command
When a NFU steering lever or remote control is operated, other
control units become “Inactive”.
19
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
2.5
R3000X Remote Control (NFU)
SIMRAD
Push button for
Port and Stbd
commands
STBY-AUTO
STBY/automatic.
Automatic modes
are active when
the lamp is lit.
Simrad R3000X
In STANDBY mode, the rudder will
move as long as the Port or Stbd
button is pressed.
In AUTO mode and Wind modes the
set course or set wind angle will
change 1° each time the button is
pressed.
Note!
If you keep the button pressed, it will
automatically change the setting in
increments of 3° per second.
Mode changes are as per table below.
Initial mode
1st press
2nd press
STBY
AUTO
STBY
Notes !
1. When NAV mode is selected in
User Setup
2. When WIND mode is selected in
User Setup
AUTO
STBY
AUTO
NAV
STBY
AUTO 1)3)
STBY
WIND
STBY 2)
AUTO
STBY
WIND 2)
3. NAV and WINDN modes can only
be entered from the Control unit
because you have to accept the
prompt displays.
WIND
STBY
WIND 2)
WINDN
STBY
WIND 3)
2.6
JS10 Joystick (NFU)
The principle is similar to that of R3000X Remote Control (see
above). The rudder will move as long as the lever is offset to
Port or Starboard. JS10 has no mode change feature.
Note !
20
When a NFU steering lever or a remote control is operated, the
control units become "Inactive".
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Operation
2.7
Automatic Steering
When AUTO mode is selected, the AP16 automatically picks the
current boat heading as the set course and maintains the
simultaneous rudder angle. This gives a bumpless transfer at the
mode change.
Automatic steering mode
Set course: 340 degrees
Compass reading: 340°M
Steering parameter: LO-A
Rudder angle: 00°
The AP16 will keep the boat on the set course until a new mode
is selected or a new course is set with the PORT or STBD
buttons.
1
Port course
adjust, 1°/push
10
Port course
change,
10°/push
10
Stbd. course
change
10°/push
1
Course
adjust
1°/push
Once the course is changed to a new set course, the boat will
automatically turn to the new heading and continue to steer
straight.
Heading capture
When in AUTO or NoDrift mode (page 26) this feature allows
you to automatically cancel the turn you are in by an instant
press on the AUTO or NAV (NoDrift) button. The autopilot will
counteract the turn and the boat will continue straight ahead on
the heading read from the compass the very moment you pressed
the AUTO or NAV (NoDrift) button.
Automatic steering mode
New “captured” heading: 305°
Compass reading: 301° M
(magnetic) or T (true)
Steering parameter: LO-A
Rudder angle: 01° to stbd.
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21
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
STBY
Regain manual steering by pressing the STBY button
2.8
Automatic control of steering parameters
The AP16 provides two different sets of steering parameters for
controlling the response of the boat at different speeds or wind
directions while in AUTO, NAV or WIND modes.
Power boats
The autopilot selects the LO (response) steering parameters
when engaging an automatic mode from STBY provided there is
no speed input. This is a safety feature. When entering an
automatic mode at low speed, the steering parameters may be
changed to HI automatically by input data from a speed log or a
GPS navigator, or manually.
The speed at which the autopilot automatically changes from LO
to HI parameters (or opposite) is determined by the "Transition
Speed" set in the Installation Setup Menu (Sea trial). See
diagram below.
Legend
HI-A
LO-A
HI-M
LO-M
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
High response parameters set automatically
Low response parameters set automatically
High response parameters set manually
Low response parameter set manually
Speed
ters
me
ara
p
se
pon
res
LO
s
pon
res
I
H
ters
me
ara
p
e
Transition to LO parameters
with increasing speed: 10 Knots
Transition Speed set to 9 Knots
Transition to HI parameters
with decreasing speed: 8 Knots
22
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Operation
Sailboat
When sailing in WIND mode, the parameters are automatically
changed by the direction of the wind as per below or by the boat
speed.
The transition between HI and LO parameters and vice versa
will have a different characteristics with regards to the wind
angle compared with the transition controlled by the speed of the
boat.
If you loose too much speed e.g. when tacking, the parameters
will change to HI to gain sufficient rudder response. This should
be observed when setting the transition speed on sailboats.
2.9
Manual Selection of HI/LO Parameters
Manual selection of HI/LO parameters is necessary if there is no
speed input to the autopilot or if you want to override the
automatic control.
To toggle between LO and HI parameters, press the "AUTO"
button two times quickly.
A AUTO
Quick
double
press
Notes !
1. If you are in NAV or WIND modes you need not enter AUTO
mode to manually change the parameter set. Just make a
quick double press on the AUTO button.
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23
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
2. The manually selected setting (HI or LO) will override the
automatic selection and remain in effect until you re-enter
any automatic mode from STBY.
2.10
U-turn
This feature is very useful in a man overboard situation and
whenever you want to steer back on a reciprocal heading. It only
applies to power boats.
U-Turn changes the current set course to be 180 degrees in the
opposite direction. The user must decide whether the U-Turn
should be made to Port or Starboard when bringing the boat on
the new course. U-Turn is activated by a quick press on the
TURN/DODGE button. The AP16 will continue on the set
course until you press either the PORT or STBD button to select
the direction to make the U-Turn. If you do not press PORT or
STBD within 1 minute, the AP16 will return to the AUTO mode
and stay on course.
TURN
DODGE
Press
TURN/DODGE
to enter TURN
mode
2.11
1
Select
STBD
U-turn
Boat
makes
STBD
U-turn
Dodge in AUTO
Dodging is useful in situations where you need to quickly take
control of the helm to steer around an obstruction, and then
resume the previous set heading. Dodging is activated by a quick
double press on the TURN/DODGE button.
When in DODGE mode the displayed set course is the last one
set prior to activating the dodge function. When DODGE is
displayed, the AP16 is no longer in control of the steering, and
you must either manually steer the boat in STBY mode or take
control using Non Follow Up steering. On manual steering
(STBY mode) the clutch or bypass valve in the drive unit will be
disengaged. The AP16 will remain in the DODGE mode until
24
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Operation
you exit DODGE by a second press on the TURN/DODGE
button or select a mode.
TUR
DO TURN
DODGE
Quick double press on
TURN/DODGE
to activate Dodge mode
Perform dodging in one of the following ways:
1. Manually steer the boat
by the wheel:
2. Non Follow Up steering
by pressing:
1
1
or
or using NFU
steering lever
To return from Dodge mode, press one of the following:
TURN
DODGE
Note !
2.12
Selects AUTO
mode and
returns to the
last set course
AUTO
or
Selects AUTO
mode with the
current heading as
the set course
Using NFU mode while dodging will make “NFU” flash instead
of “DODGE”.
Tacking in Auto mode
The tack function is only available in sailboats when the system
is set up for SAIL boat type in the installation setup.
Tacking in AUTO mode is different from tacking in WIND
mode. In AUTO mode the tack angle is fixed and can be set in
the Installation/Dockside menu. Default tack angle is 100°.
Tacking should only be performed into the wind and must be
tried out in calm sea conditions with light wind to find out how it
works on your boat. Due to a wide range of boat characteristics
(from cruising to racing boats) the performance of the tack
function may vary from boat to boat. Except for the fixed course
change and the difference in displays, the procedure is similar to
that of the U-Turn described on page 24.
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25
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
TURN
DODGE
Press
TURN/DODGE to
enter TACK mode
2.13
Note !
1
Select
STBD
tack
Boat
makes
STBD
tack
NoDrift
The source when operating in NoDrift mode is the Position (Pos)
source.
The NoDrift mode is an alternative to route steering in NAV
mode, and is automatically entered when you press the
NAV WIND button provided NoDrift has been selected in the
(user) SETUP menu.
The autopilot will steer to an imaginary waypoint and the
bearing is the boat’s heading at the very moment the NoDrift
mode is engaged.
Unlike when in Auto mode the vessel will steer a course equal to
the bearing line unaffected by wind and current (no drift).
The course to steer to (bearing line) can be changed the same
way as when changing course in Auto mode.
Select NoDrift in the Setup menu
when in STANDBY or AUTO
mode. Press the NAV WIND button
to enter NoDrift mode. The NAV
WIND key is now programmed to
always activate the NoDrift mode. If
you want the key to activate NAV
mode, enter the User Setup menu
and select NAV.
26
20221560F
Operation
NAV
NoDrift mode
Set course
NoDrift indicator
HI/LO parameter
Heading
Rudder Angle
Note !
To operate in NoDrift mode your GPS/chart plotter must be
turned on.
Dodge in NoDrift mode
This is similar to dodging in Auto mode.
2.14
Note !
Navigating with the AP16
The source when operating in NAV mode is the Navigation (Nav)
source.
The AP16 has the capability to use steering information from an
external navigator (GPS, Chart Plotter) to direct the boat to a
specific waypoint location, or through a route of waypoints. In
the NAV mode, the AP16 uses the compass as heading source
for course keeping. The information received from the navigator
alters the set course to keep the boat on the track line and direct
the AP16 to the destination waypoint.
Note !
Navigational steering should only be used in open waters. By
selecting the NAV mode, the AP16 is set for automatic steering
on the current set course and then waits for the user to accept
the course change to the track line or destination waypoint.
To obtain satisfactory navigation steering, the following points
must be fulfilled prior to entering the NAV mode:
− The AP16 autosteering must be tested and determined
satisfactory.
− The navigation receiver (GPS, Chart Plotter) must be in full
operating mode with adequate signal characteristics for valid
position and navigation data.
− At least one waypoint must be entered and selected as the
current “Go to” waypoint.
− The navigation receiver (source) for the autopilot will be the
one that is automatically selected in the interface set-up or
20221560F
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
manually selected in the User setup menu item called “Source
select” (page 42).
The AP16 is designed to steer in “mixed mode” operation. This
combines the straight steering capability of cross track error
(XTE) steering in conjunction with the turning capability of
bearing mode steering (Course To Steer, CTS) and automatic
waypoint shift.
If the AP16 is connected to a navigation receiver that does not
transmit a message with bearing to next waypoint, it will pick a
XTE message and steer on Cross Track Error only. In that case
you have to revert to AUTO mode at each waypoint and
manually change set course to equal bearing to next waypoint
and then select NAV mode again.
Note !
Press the NAV button to activate the NAV prompt display.
NAV
If only one waypoint has been entered the bearing will be from
the present position to the destination waypoint.
Note !
NAV
Note !
28
The prompt display shows the name of
the next waypoint (WP), the bearing of
the track line (BWW) from the
previous waypoint to the destination
waypoint, the required course change
(CHG) and the direction in which the
boat will turn.
Press the NAV button again to accept the waypoint as the
location to steer towards. The autopilot turns the boat onto the
track line.
− NAV mode
− Course to steer (CTS): 353 is set
internally by the autopilot to steer
the boat onto the track line.
− Cross track error (XTE): 0.012 nm
to stbd.
− Compass heading: 352° M.
− Rudder angle: 00°
For Cross Track Error, the number of decimals shown depends
on the output from the GPS/chart plotter. Three decimals give a
more accurate track keeping.
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Operation
When operating the AP16 in NAV mode to steer through a route
of waypoints, the AP16 will steer to the first waypoint in the
route after you accept the first waypoint as the location to steer
towards. When you arrive at the waypoint, the AP16 will output
an audible warning, display an alert screen with the new course
information, and automatically change course onto the new leg.
If the required course change is more than the NAV change limit
(default 10°), you have to verify that the upcoming course
change is acceptable. This is a safety feature. See page 108 on
how to change the ‘NAV change limit’.
Note !
NAV
Alert screen. Press NAV button to
verify course change larger than
10°.
If no verification is received, the
AP16 will continue on the current
set course in AUTO mode.
STBY
Regain manual steering by pressing the STBY button
Setting the waypoint arrival circle
For route navigation it is recommended to use automatic
waypoint shift/change at a set waypoint arrival circle.
The arrival circle should be adjusted according to boat speed.
The higher speed, the wider circle. The intention is to make the
autopilot start the heading change in due time to make a smooth
turn onto the next leg.
The figure below may be used to select the appropriate waypoint
circle on the GPS/chartplotter.
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29
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Example: With the speed of 20 knots you should use a waypoint
circle with radius 0.09 nm.
Note !
2.15
The distance between any waypoints in a route must not be
smaller than the radius of the waypoint arrival circle when using
automatic waypoint shift.
Dodge in NAV
The previous set course is stored by the AP16. When DODGE is
flashing on the display, the AP16 is no longer in control of the
steering and you must either steer the boat manually or take
control using the Non-Follow-up steering. On manual steering,
the clutch (or bypass valve) in the drive unit will be disengaged
when dodging. The AP16 will remain in the DODGE mode until
you exit DODGE by a second press on the TURN/DODGE
button or until you select another mode.
TUR
DO TURN
DODGE
Quick double press on
TURN/DODGE
to activate Dodge mode
Perform dodging the same way as in AUTO mode above.
To return from Dodge mode, press one of the following:
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20221560F
Operation
2.16
1.
TURN
DODGE
Returns to NAV mode at present position with a
new NAV prompt. Keeps all offset estimates
(Wind/current etc.) in the algorithms
(recommended).
2.
NAV
Selects NAV mode at present position with a
new NAV prompt. May result in a less accurate
return to the track.
3.
AUTO
Selects AUTO mode with the current heading as
the set course.
Selecting a different Navigation source
If you have more than one navigation source connected to the
AP16, you will be able to choose any for navigation. Refer to the
‘Source Select’ item in the User Set-up menu for details on
selecting a different navigator (page 42).
2.17
Wind vane steering
Prior to entering WIND mode the AP16 system should be
operating in AUTO, with valid input from the selected wind
transducer. The WIND mode is only available if the system has
been set up for SAIL-boat in the Installation Menu, and the
NAV/WIND source is set to WIND under the USER SETUP
menu. (Refer to page 40).
Enter the WIND mode by pressing the NAV WIND button.
The set course to steer (CTS) and set wind angle are entered
from the compass heading and the wind transducer at the
moment the WIND-mode is selected. From that point the
autopilot will change the course to maintain the wind angle as
the wind direction may change.
Note !
If the cumulative shift of the wind direction exceeds a set limit
from the time a new wind angle is set, a WIND SHIFT alarm will
sound.
The display will show the set wind angle. Adjustments to this set
angle can be made by using the PORT or STBD buttons.
The display also presents heading and rudder angle.
20221560F
31
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Wind (vane) mode
Set wind angle:
044 degrees from stbd.
Measured wind angle: 041°A
A = Apparent
T = True
Parameter: HI-M (High value,
manually set)
Compass reading: 311° M
(magnetic) or T (true)
Rudder angle: 01° to port.
1
Steer port,
1°/push
10
Steer port,
10°/push
10
Steer stbd.
10°/push
1
Steer stbd.
1°/push
STBY
Regain manual steering by pressing the STBY button
32
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Operation
2.18
Tacking and gybing in Wind mode
In WIND mode there is a tacking and gybing aid function.
Tacking in WIND mode as compared to AUTO mode can be
performed when sailing with apparent or true wind as the
reference, and with a true wind angle of less than 90 degrees.
The tacking operation will immediately mirror the set wind angle
to the opposite side. A tacking-message will flash on the display
for 5 seconds. Any new command given when the message is
flashing, will interrupt the tack operation. The rate of turn during
the tack will be given by the ‘Tack time’ parameter set in the
Installation/Dockside menu (page 94).
A quick press on the TURN/DODGE button will activate the
tack function and the boat will start turning to the same apparent
wind angle on the other side.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Gybing
Gybing is possible when the true wind angle is larger than 120°
When a gybe is initiated, the
wind angle will first be set to
170°T on the same side as the
current wind angle. The main
sail should now be hauled.
With the main sail safely
hauled, the wind side may be
changed. This is done by
pressing either PORT or
STBD buttons depending on
the way the boat should
continue to turn. The new set
wind angle will then become
the same as the wind angle set
before the gybe operation
started.
The rate of turn when changing wind side in a gybe will be the
highest possible, determined by the performance of the drive
unit.
Tack and gybe prevent
When beating and running, the sailing is the most critical.
If the sails are unbalanced when beating, yaw forces from the
sails can drive the boat into the wind. If the boat is driven
beyond the minimum wind angle, the thrust from the sails will
suddenly disappear and the boat speed reduced. Then the boat
will be even more difficult to steer because the rudder will
become less effective.
The tack prevent function in WIND-mode has been implemented
to avoid such situations. It will react immediately when the
apparent wind angle becomes 5° less than the set minimum wind
angle. Additional amount of rudder will be commanded to
immediately increase the wind angle.
When running, it is difficult to steer the boat with waves coming
sideways or from behind. The waves may yaw the boat so that
34
20221560F
Operation
the wind side is shifted and an unwanted gybe may happen. This
can be hazardous for both the crew and the mast.
The gybe prevent function will be activated when the measured
apparent wind angle becomes greater than 175° or when the
wind angle gets opposite to the set wind angle. Additional rudder
will be commanded to keep the wind on the same side as the set
wind angle.
Caution !
2.19
The tack and gybe prevent functions are not a guarantee
against getting into a hazardous situation. If the effect of the
rudder and/or drive unit is not adequate, it may happen. Pay
particular attention in such situations.
Wind steering and navigation
The autopilot can also steer the boat given both wind data and
track data from a GPS/Chartplotter. In this mode called
WINDNAV mode the automatic steering is based on a set of
criteria (see bullets below). Wind steering and navigation is
activated by pressing the NAV/WIND button when in Wind
mode. There are two sub-modes under this key: NORMAL
(default) and RACING (see below). The initial course change
(CHG) needed to navigate towards the active waypoint, is
calculated by the autopilot. The autopilot will maintain wind side
in these calculations and the change of course is accepted by
pressing the PORT or STBD buttons [1].
20221560F
35
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
[1]
[2] [4]
[3] [7]
[5]
[6]
[8]
Figure 2-2
36
20221560F
Operation
Operating in WINDNAV mode
Refer to Figure 2-2 with references [ ] the associated displays
and the criteria (bullets) below.
•
The set wind angle should be larger than the ‘Minimum
wind angle’ set in the Installation/Dockside menu and
smaller than 170° Apparent.
•
Information about when it is time to head directly towards
the waypoint, Distance To Turn (DTT) and Estimated Time
to Turn (ETT) are displayed. These calculations are based on
the assumption that the set wind angle will be the same or
larger after a tack or gybe towards the waypoint [3][7].
•
A turn prompt will appear when it is time to head towards
the waypoint and the autopilot will calculate and display the
change of heading by comparing the current heading and the
heading towards the waypoint (CHG) [5].
•
When heading towards the waypoint, the autopilot utilizes
either the XTE from the GPS/Chartplotter to maintain track
or a layline calculated by the autopilot. The calculated
layline applies when the Cross Track Error (XTE) from the
external navigator is larger than 0.15 nm [8].
RACING
If ‘Wind setup’ is set to ‘RACING’ in the Installation/Dockside
menu, a more advanced steering is possible:
• Optimizing VMG to wind may be enabled when beating and
it is not possible to head directly towards the waypoint [2][4].
• Layline steering may be disabled when heading directly
towards the waypoint. Instead you can optimize the
Waypoint Closure Velocity (WCV) by trimming the sails and
the set wind angle. A turn prompt will then be displayed if
the difference between Course Over Ground (COG) and
Bearing Position Waypoint (BPW) exceeds 30° when
heading towards a waypoint [5].
See chapter 2.22 User Set-up Menu on how to access these
parameters.
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37
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
2.20
Multiple station system
In normal operation control is accessible from every control unit
connected to the AP16 system. One control unit is "active" and
provides the user with access to all functions. All remaining
control units are "inactive" and have no effect on mode changes
or course selection. A single press on any of the mode buttons on
an "inactive" control unit will allow transfer of command and
make it "active".
2.21
Lock function
The "LOCK" function is a safety feature included in the AP16
system. It will disable all control units except for a single, user
selected control unit location.
When the "lock" function is in use, no transfer of command can
take place; only the active control unit stays in command.
To enable the "lock" function, make a quick double press on the
STBY button.
S STBY
The display on the active control unit will first show a
and then the icon will alternate with the mode index.
icon
The "locked" control units in the system will show:
38
20221560F
Operation
The “Lock function is disengaged by one of the following
actions:
− The active control unit unlocks the other ones and makes
them “inactive” by another double press on the STBY
button. It also displays the
icon before it returns to the
normal active state.
− The system is switched OFF by any control unit (press
STBY for 2-3 seconds).
2.22
User Set-up Menu
In the AP16, all modes except NFU have a complemental
User Set-up menu. You can easily access the set-up menu
by a quick double press on the INFO/SETUP button.
INFO
SE INFO
1
1
10
10
SETUP
Quick double press
to access
Scroll through the menu
Change a value or
setting
Alternating Course Knob Icon
When the PORT 10 and STBD 10 buttons are used in the
User Set-up menu, an icon will alternate with the mode
index to tell that no course changes can be made unless you
press the mode button.
The user set-up menu times out 30 seconds after the last
operation in the menu.
20221560F
39
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
STANDBY Mode
Backlight
The backlight of the display and buttons may be
adjusted to 10 levels (10 = brightest). The setting is
stored when the system is turned off. Adjustment is
local to the control unit you adjust or synchronized with
other units in the Simrad Group (page 116).
NAV source
Select the source for NAV mode steering e.g. CP34.
NAV WIND
This setup will configure the active mode under the
NAV WIND button. The following alternatives are
available:
• NAV (Ref page 27)
• NoDrift (Ref. page 26)
• WIND Auto
Wind steering will be disabled when ‘NAV’ or ‘NoDrift’ is
selected.
Note !
Wind steering is only available if ‘Boat type’ is set to ‘Sail’ in
the Installation/Dockside menu (see Dockside settings, page 87).
If ‘NAV WIND’ is set to ‘WIND Auto’, wind
steering will be enabled. Pressing the NAV WIND
button will then initiate the WIND-mode. The
autopilot will automatically select between
apparent and true wind steering.
True wind steering is used when running. When the boat is
running, it will also be surfing on the waves. This may lead to
significant changes in boat speed, hence changes in apparent
wind angle. Steering to apparent wind is therefore used only
when beating or reaching.
40
20221560F
Operation
Wind, RACING parameters
If ‘Wind setup’ is set to ‘RACING’ in the Installation/Dockside
menu (see page 92), more settings are available as ‘Wind’
parameters:
• WIND Apparent
• WIND True
• WIND Auto
Default: WIND Auto
‘WIND Apparent’ is selected when you only want to steer to
apparent wind. Apparent wind steering is preferred when you
want to achieve maximum boat speed. The autopilot will try to
maintain a constant apparent wind angle to get maximum thrust
from a given trim of the sails.
‘WIND True’ is selected when you only want to steer to true
wind. When sailing in closed waters, the apparent wind angle
may change temporarily due to wind gusts. It may then be
preferred to sail to the true wind.
VMG Optimizing
The VMG (to wind) parameter can only be enabled
or disabled when ‘Wind setup’ is set to ‘RACING’.
It is disabled in the ‘NORMAL’ sub-mode.
When enabled, the VMG optimizing will be active
for 5 – 10 minutes after a new wind angle has been
set. It will only be activated when beating.
‘VMG’ will be displayed in the upper left corner under the mode
index when the VMG optimizing feature is active (page 36).
Range: Enabled/Disabled
Default: Disabled
Layline Steering
‘Layline steering’ can only be enabled or disabled
when ‘Wind setup’ is set to ‘RACING’. It is
enabled in the ‘NORMAL’ sub-mode. .
Layline steering is useful when navigating. It will use the Cross
Track Error (XTE) from the navigator to keep the boat on the
track line. If the XTE from the navigator exceeds 0.15 nm, the
20221560F
41
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
autopilot will calculate its own layline towards the waypoint and
follow that. Layline steering is not active when turning, tacking
or gybing.
‘XTE’ will be displayed in the upper left corner under the mode
index when layline steering is active (page 36).
Range: Enabled/Disabled
Default: Enabled
Source Select
Provides you with automatic or manual selection of
interfaced data sources for heading (Compass),
Navigation, Position, Wind Angle, Wind Calculated,
Water speed, Water temperature, Distance log and
Depth.
Wind-C(alculated) is a common term for true wind and
wind direction.
Note !
SimNet will automatically select Position source and Navigation
source from the same GPS/Chart plotter. If you want them to be
different you have to change them manually.
Auto source update
Is used for automatic selection of the interfaced sources
or for automatically update of sources if the interfaced
units have been removed/added or switched on/off.
Select Auto source update by pressing the STBD 10
button. Make sure all interfaced units are powered on.
The autopilot will search for new connected sources, and
replace sources no longer available.
“SEARCHING” is flashing as long as the autopilot is
searching. When the automatic interface setup is finished
the display will read “DONE”.
Press the mode button to leave the User setup.
42
20221560F
Operation
Manual source select
Step through the list of sources using the PORT 1 or STBD 1
button. Select the wanted source by using the PORT 10 or
STBD 10 button.
– – indicates that no source is supplying the data available.
Notes !
1. Simrad products will be identified by the product name
provided the data is available on SimNet. If data is
provided via an NMEA0183 port on the autopilot
computer, the display will read NMEA-1 or NMEA-2.
NMEA2000 products will have a special ID.
2. See note on page 75 and note 3 below.
3. In the event the SimNet is not powered on, sources
supplying data to SimNet are not on or malfunctioning, or
there is no SimNet installed, it is possible to use any
control unit in the system to select NMEA sources. .The
source select displays are then available on all control
units.
Compass
Select the compass to be used if more than one compass is
connected.
Note! Compass can only be selected in STBY mode
NAV source
Select a source for NAV mode steering.
Position
Select the source for position data and NoDrift mode.
Wind Apparent
Select the source for Apparent Wind
Wind Calculated
Select the source for Calculated Wind data. The autopilot
uses internal source irrespective of the selected source.
20221560F
43
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Water Speed
Select the source for water speed (normally the same as the
source providing Log data).
Water temperature
Select the source for water temperature (normally the same
as the source providing depth data).
DisLog
Select the Log source.
Depth
Select the source for depth data.
Instrument Select
Select the instrument page(s) to be available under the
INFO/SETUP button. Step through the list of instrument
pages by using the PORT 1 or STBD 1 button. Select the
wanted pages by filling the squares with the PORT 10 or
STBD 10 button.
Available instrument pages are: Depth/Speed, Wind App.,
Wind True, Wind Dir., Track data, Nav data, Position and
Temperature.
Contrast
The contrast of the display may be adjusted to 10 levels (10
= highest contrast). The setting is stored when the system is
turned off.
Adjustment is local to the control unit you adjust. At high
temperatures, not all levels are available due to automatic
temperature compensation.
Press the STBY button to leave the User setup.
44
20221560F
Operation
AUTO Mode
Settings that are added for the AUTO and WIND modes are
shown below. Other relevant settings are described under
STANDBY mode in this chapter.
Response
The Autotune function in the AP16 is so refined that 80-85 % of
the boats will need no further adjustments of the steering
parameters. On some boats, however, or at particular sea
conditions a fine tuning of the steering parameters may improve
the performance of the autopilot.
The Response control allows you to make this fine
tuning. It can be set to seven levels. Level 3 (default)
has the values of Rudder and Counter Rudder
parameters set by the Autotune function. If no
Autotune is made (not recommended) the level 3
values are the factory default values.
A low response level reduces the rudder activity and provides a
more “loose” steering.
A high response level increases the rudder activity and provides
a more “tight” steering.
A too high response level will make the boat start S-ing.
Range: 1 – 7
Default: 3
Seastate filter
OFF:
Seastate filter is disabled.
AUTO:
Automatically reduces rudder activity and
autopilot sensitivity in rough weather by
an adaptive process (default).
MANUAL: Manual yaw band adjust (1-10, 10 ≈ ±6°).
The manual setting determines the number of degrees the vessel
may deviate from the set course before any command is given to
the rudder. The AUTO setting is recommended. The MANUAL
settings may be used to find the optimum combination of course
keeping and low rudder activity in rough but steady sea
conditions.
20221560F
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Nav/Wind setting, see page 40
RACING parameters, see page 41
Source select, see page 42
NAV Mode
The User setup for NAV mode is similar to the User setup for
AUTO mode. It does however not include the Nav/Wind and the
Source select items.
WIND Mode
The User setup menu for WIND mode is the
same as for NAV mode. In addition you have:
Wind response
If the deviation between the commanded wind angle and
measured wind angle is too big, the ‘Wind response’ can be
increased to reduce the deviation.
Note !
First make sure that the deviation between the Course To Steer
(CTS) and the measured heading is minimal.
If the measured wind angle is S-ing around the commanded wind
angle or the rudder activity is too high, the ‘Wind response’
should be reduced.
Range: 1 – 7
Default: 3
WIND Auto
The lower part of the display page will only appear if the
autopilot has been set up for racing in the installation menu
(page 92). See page 41 for information about the RACING
parameters.
46
20221560F
Operation
2.23
INFO menu
A number of instrument pages are available under each mode
screen if the required NMEA 0183 sentences are provided (see
paragraph 8.1) or the information is available on SimNet (see
page 116). The INFO menu is accessed by a single press on the
INFO/SETUP button (not necessary if the unit is inactive).
The top of the screen will show the following information
depending on the active mode:
STANDBY mode
Heading
AUTO mode
Set course
HI/LO parameter
Heading
NAV mode
HI/LO parameter
Cross Track Error
NoDrift mode
HI/LO parameter
NoDrift indicator
WIND mode
HI/LO parameter
Set apparent wind angle
WINDNAV mode
HI/LO parameter
Set apparent wind angle
Step through the available instrument screens by pressing the
PORT or STBD button.
20221560F
47
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Depth/Speed
Depth
Speed through water
Speed Over Ground
Apparent wind
Wind angle
Wind Speed
Rudder angle
True wind
Wind angle
Wind Speed
VMG to wind
Wind direction
True wind speed
Wind shift angle
Track data
Waypoint name
Bearing Position – Waypoint
Cross Track Error
Nav data
Waypoint name
Bearing Position – Waypoint
Course Over Ground
Distance to waypoint
Position
Latitude
Longitude
48
20221560F
Operation
Sea Temperature
If you prefer not to have all instrument pages available in the
INFO menu, you may remove pages under the User setup menu.
See page 39.
Return to last instrument screen by a simple press on the
INFO/SETUP button.
Course knob icon
Initially when the INFO menu is accessed an icon will replace
the mode index to tell that no course changes or other course
related settings can be made unless you press a mode key. The
icon will time out after 3-5 seconds and be replaced by the
mode index.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
INFO menu flowchart
1
1
11
12
1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
6
5
3-5 sec.
time-out
Toggle
1
3-5 sec.
time-out
11
12
1
1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
50
6
5
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Operation
INFO menu and Main screen active unit
INFO-menu
Main screen
10
10
1
1
11
12
1
2
10
9
7
Note !
3-5 sec. time out
3
4
8
6
5
Whenever the INFO menu is active and the mode index is
present on an active unit, operating the PORT and STBD buttons
will immediately make the main screen reappear.
INFO menu and Main Screen, inactive unit
Previous INFO page
1
1
Next INFO page
Last shown INFO page
You can view the INFO pages without activating the unit.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
This page is intentionally left blank.
52
20221560F
Installation
3
INSTALLATION
3.1
General
This section provides detailed information required to
successfully installing AP16 Autopilot system.
The AP16 system includes several modules that need to be
mounted in different locations on the boat, and also need to
interface with at least three different systems on the boat:
−
−
−
The boat's steering system
The boats electrical system (input power)
Other equipment on board (NMEA interfacing)
In addition, the advanced capabilities of the AP16 require the
installer to perform a series of settings and tests to verify proper
operation of the system, refer to the check list below.
3.2
Installation checklist
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Determine system configuration you are installing (Page 54)
Perform the hardware installation (Page 55)
Connect SimNet devices to SimNet (page 70)
Connect NMEA2000 devices (page 73)
Connect NMEA 0183 devices (inputs and outputs, page 76)
Perform Set-up (page 83)
Perform dockside autopilot tests (refer to Operating
Instructions, page 15)
a) Test all stations (if applicable) - lock/unlock - active/
inactive
b) Test Non-Follow Up mode
c) Test Follow-Up mode
d) Test AUTO mode
e) Test NAV mode and input interfaces
f) Test WIND and WINDN modes (if sailboat) and input
interfaces
g) Test interface outputs to external equipment (if
connected)
8. Perform sea trial settings (Page 98)
a) Rudder zero
b) Compass calibration
c) Compass Offset adjustment
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
d) Automatic tuning
e) Viewing parameters
9. Test Autopilot Operation at Sea (refer to Sea Trial
instructions, pages 99, 118)
10. Provide the user with training (Page 119)
3.3
Unpacking and handling
Care should be taken when unpacking and handling the
equipment. A visual inspection should be made to see that the
equipment has not been damaged during shipment and that all
components and parts are present according to the packing list.
A standard AP16 autopilot system will include:
− Control unit with standard installation accessories and one
15 m (49') Robnet2 cable
− Autopilot computer (AC10, AC20 or AC40)
− RFC35 Fluxgate Compass with 15 m (49') cable attached.
− RF300 Feedback unit with 10 m (33') cable attached and
transmission rod.
− Appropriate drive unit for the installation (unless the AP16 is
going to operate an existing drive unit or solenoids).
− Optional equipment that may have been ordered for the
installation.
3.4
Determine system configuration
It is important to become familiar with the configuration of the
system prior to beginning the installation. The AP16 system
layout with options is shown in Figure 3-1
Pay particular attention to the autopilot computer/drive unit
combinations on page 60 and the chart on page 11.
As many of the units are communicating on a common network
(Robnet2), with identical connectors, the installation is
simplified. Try to mount the units within the standard cable
length supplied with each unit, if possible. Robnet2 Extension
Cable (10m) is available from your distributor.
54
20221560F
Installation
Notes!
1. On boats powered by outboards or stern drives it may be
difficult to install a rudder feedback unit (chapter 3.6 and
3.27). Use of the Virtual feedback algorithms in the software
may then be preferred as this requires no installation of a
rudder feedback unit (page 95). The Virtual Feedback can
be used on boats up to 40 ft.
2. In order to benefit from the virtual feedback technology your
autopilot system must be using a Simrad rate compass for
heading information.
3.5
AP16 System Layout
STBY AUTO
STBY
PWR
INFO
SETUP
NAV
WIND
STBY
10 10
AUTO
1
TURN
DODGE
PWR
1
INFO
SETUP
10 10
AUTO
NAV
WIND
1
TURN
DODGE
1
SIMRAD R3000X
STBY
AUTO
PWR
SPEED
NAV
SETUP
TURN
Figure 3-1 AP16 system layout with options
3.6
RF300 Rudder feedback installation
The RF300 Rudder feedback unit mounts close to the rudder,
and is mechanically linked to the rudder tiller arm or rudder
quadrant.
Refer to Figure 3-2 for the recommended mounting arrangement.
Note that the RF300 transmitter arm has two slots for the
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
transmission link. The slots enable maximum flexibility to
provide the 1:1 mechanical linkage relationship.
Note !
Do not try to remove the transmitter arm from the feedback unit.
The unit is factory adjusted and need no further adjustment at
installation than described below.
As a starting point, it is desirable to set the transmitter rod to the
inner limit of the outer slot if possible. (Refer to Figure 3-2).
Drill and tap the rudder tiller arm so that the Y1 dimension is
equal to the Y2 dimension (Use 4.2 mm drill and 5 mm tap).
Attach the ball joint to the tiller arm, and connect the transmitter
rod to the ball joint at the rudder tiller arm.
Turn the helm wheel to set the rudder tiller arm to approximate
centre position.
Rotate the RF300 transmitter lever until it is set to centre
position. (Use the alignment mark to line up the transmitter lever
to be opposite the cable entry into the feedback.).
Note !
Carefully observe the alignment marks. A rudder feedback alarm
may be the result if the alignment instructions as per Figure 3-2
are neglected.
Attach the transmitter rod to the RF300. Set the RF300 mounting
location to be in accordance with Figure 3-2. The centre of the
RF300 should be in line with the centre of the rudder post.
Mount the RF300 to a suitable platform using the screws
provided. If necessary, add blocking material under the RF300 to
adjust the height of the transmission arm to be level with the
rudder tiller arm.
Figure 3-2 RF300 mounting (019356)
56
20221560F
Installation
Note !
Due to space limitations, it may be necessary to cut the length of
the transmitter rod to move the RF300 closer to the rudder post.
Tighten the mounting screws for both the RF300 feedback unit
and the transmitter rod ball joint.
Observe the RF300 while someone turns the helm wheel through
the complete travel from full port to full stbd. rudder to verify
that the mechanical linkage to the RF300 is not obstructed.
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
RF
RF +
Rudder
Feedb.
*
* NON POLARIZED
(COLOR INDEPENDENT)
Figure 3-3 RF300 connection
3.7
Autopilot computer installation
The junction unit is
designed to operate in a
location that provides
ambient temperatures
below +55°C (+130°F).
Note !
The autopilot computer
units (AC10, AC20 and
AC40) are not
weatherproof and should
be mounted vertically as
shown in a dry place
between the control unit
and the drive unit.
Figure 3-4 Autopilot computer mounting
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.8
Cable connections
Use only shielded cables. This includes Mains input, drive units
and if necessary for the extension of the RF300 Rudder
Feedback cable. The clutch/bypass cable and the solenoid cable
should be 1,5 mm2 (AWG14). Signal cables should be 0.5 mm2
(AWG20) twisted pairs.
The mains supply cable and the drive unit motor cable should
have sufficient wire gauge. This will minimize voltage drop and
allow the drive unit to operate at full power.
Refer to the table below for recommended cable sizes.
Cable length
1. Breaker panel to autopilot computer.
2. Autopilot computer to Drive Unit motor
(Length refers to each of the two cables)
3.9
Drive Unit Voltage
12 V
24 V
AWG
mm2
AWG
mm2
Up to 3 m (10 ft.)
12
2,5
12
2,5
Up to 6 m (20 ft.)
10
4
10
2,5
Up to 10 m (32 ft.)
8
6
10
4
Up to 16 m (52 ft.)
6
10
8
6
Grounding and RFI
The autopilot system has excellent RFI protection and all units
use the autopilot computer as a common ground/shield
connection. The autopilot computer should therefore have a
proper ground connection to the hull/bonding system.
Robnet2 cables and other signal cables (compass, feedback,
NMEA) should not be run in parallel with other cables carrying
RF or high current, such as VHF and SSB transmitters, battery
chargers/ generators, winches and thrusters.
Remove the bottom cover to get access to the plug-in terminals.
Strip about 1 cm (0.4") of the cable's insulation and pull the
screen backwards to cover the insulation. Position the straps as
shown and tighten well to make sure the screen has good
contact.
Provide sufficient wire length so that the plug-in terminals can
be easily connected/disconnected.
Pull out each terminal before connecting the wires. Remove all
strands before putting on the terminal cover.
58
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Installation
Note!
The Mains input
is not polarity
protected on
AC40.
Power Board terminals
Ground terminal
TB8, TB9 and TB10 are not
on the AC10 Power Board
Main Board terminals
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.10
Drive unit installation
The relations between drive units, drive unit voltage, autopilot
computer, drive performance and interface to the steering gear
are shown in the tables below.
Refer to the connecting diagram for the different drive units on
page 62 onwards.
Installation instruction for the drive units are found in the
manual for the individual units.
The maximum drive current capability of the AC10, AC20 and
AC40 autopilot computers are different. Use the table below as
reference and observe the notes on next page.
HYDRAULIC PUMPS
RAM CAPACITY
MODEL
MOTOR
VOLTS
AUTOPILOT
COMPUTER
MIN
cm3
(cu. in.)
MAX
cm3
(cu. in.)
FLOW RATE
AT 10 bar
cm3/min
(cu. in/min)
MAX
PRESSURE
bar
PWR.
CONSUMPTION
RPU80
12V
AC10
80 (4,9)
250 (15,2)
800 (49)
50
2,5-6 A
RPU160
12V
AC20
160 (9,8)
550 (33,5)
1600 (98)
60
3-10 A
RPU300
12V
AC40
290
(17,7)
960 (58,5)
3000 (183)
60
5-25 A
RPU300
24V
AC20
290
(17,7)
960 (58,5)
3000 (183)
60
2,5-12 A
Steering gear interface: Hydraulic plumbing
Notes !
1. The AP16 system detects whether a reversible motor or a
solenoid is connected and outputs the correct drive signal
automatically.
2. The drive output of AC10 is sufficient for any type of 12 and
24V solenoids normally found on a recreational boat.
60
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Installation
LINEAR DRIVE UNITS
MOTOR
VOLTS
AUTOPILOT
COMPUTER
MAX
STROKE
mm (in.)
PEAK
THRUST
kg (lb.)
MAX
RUDDER
TORQUE
Nm
(lb.in.)
HARDOVER
TIME
sec.
(30% load)
PWR.
CONSUMP.
TILLER
ARM
mm
(in.)
MLD200
12V
AC10
300 (11,8)
200
(440)
490
(4350)
15
1,5-6 A
263
(10,4)
HLD350
12V
AC10
200 (7,9)
350
(770)
610
(5400)
12
2,5-8 A
175
(6,9)
HLD2000L
12V
AC20
340 (13,4)
500
(1100)
1460 (12850)
19
3-10 A
298
(11,7)
HLD2000D
24V
AC20
200 (7,9)
1050
(2310)
1800
(15900)
11
3-10 A
175
(6,9)
HLD2000LD
24V
AC20
340 (13,4)
1050
(2310)
3180
(28000)
19
3-10 A
298
(11,7)
MSD50*
12V
AC10
190 (7,5)
60
(132)
–
15
0,8-2 A
–
MODEL
Steering gear interface: Connects to quadrant or tiller.
* For stern drive power assisted steering only.
1. The motor voltage is stepped down by the autopilot computer
when operating from 24V or 32V mains.
2. The specified junction unit is necessary to achieve max drive
unit capacity.
3. Recommended operational thrust or torque is 70% of listed
peak value.
4. Typical average power consumption is 40% of listed
maximum value.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
PREVIOUS MODELS OF DRIVE UNITS
Model
Autopilot Drive unit
computer
voltage
Input
voltage
(Mains)
Drive output
Interface to
steering
gear
12,24,32V
Proportional
rate
Hydraulic
plumbing
Solenoid
valves, on/off
Hydraulic
plumbing
RPU100 (1,0l)
RPU150 (1,5l)
RPU200 (2,0l)
(Reversible
hydraulic
pump)
RPU1 (1,4/2,0l)
RPU3 (3,8/5,0l)
AC20
AC20
AC20
12V
12V
24V
AC10
AC10
12V, 24V
24V, 24V
MRD100
(Reversible
mechanical
drive)
AC40
AC20
12V
24V
12,24,32V
24,32V
12V to clutch
24V to clutch
Proportional
rate to motor
Chain/
sprockets
MRD150
AC20
12V
32V
12, 24V
32V
12V to clutch
32V to clutch
Proportional
rate to motor
Chain/
sprocket
(USA only)
Note !
When selecting DRIVE UNIT voltage in the Installation setup,
the clutch/bypass voltage is always set equal to the motor
voltage. If a retrofit installation where e.g. a HLD2000 has a
12V motor and a 24V bypass valve, the bypass valve solenoid
has to be changed back to standard 12V version.
Connecting a reversible pump
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
POWER PCB
TB1 TB2
TB3 TB4 TB5
TB6
Sol. -Motor
Sol. -Motor
Simrad
reversible
pump
Figure 3-5 Connecting a reversible pump
62
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Installation
Connecting a hydraulic linear drive
HYDRAULIC
LINEAR DRIVE
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
POWER PCB
TB1 TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5
TB6
TB7
Sol. -Motor
Sol. -Motor
Drive
Engage
Single pole
clutch/bypass
switch
Figure 3-6 Connecting a hydraulic linear drive
Connecting a solenoid valve
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
SOLENOID
VALVE
POWER PCB
TB1 TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5
TB6
Sol. -Motor
Sol. gnd
Sol. gnd
Sol. -Motor
Sol.
TB7
Sol.
Figure 3-7 Connecting a solenoid valve
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.11
Control unit installation
Avoid mounting the control unit(s) where it is easily exposed to
sunlight, as this will shorten the lifetime of the display. If this is
not possible, make sure the units are always covered with the
white protection cover when not used.
Caution !
Do not install the control unit where moisture at the rear can
be present. It could cause damage by entering the breathing
hole or by coming into contact with the electrical connectors.
Panel mounting
The mounting surface must be flat and
even to within 0.5 mm.
−
−
−
−
−
Drill the 4 mounting holes and make
a panel cut-out according to supplied
template.
Use the supplied gasket (P.N.
22087589) between the panel and the
unit. The gasket should normally be
positioned for rear airing. See text on
gasket. If there is a high humidity in
the room behind the instrument, the
gasket should be positioned for front
airing.
Use the supplied 19 mm screws to
fasten the control unit to the panel.
Apply the front panel corners.
Connect the Robnet2 cable(s) to the control unit connector(s)
Do not over-tighten the mounting screws!
Optional bracket mounting
− Locate the cradle on the mounting site and mark the 4 holes
for the fixing screws on the mounting surface. The bracket
can be mounted as shown on Figure 3-8 or 90° off.
− Drill the 4 mounting holes and screw the cradle to the
mounting surface.
− Use the supplied screws to fasten the control unit to the left
and right brackets.
64
20221560F
Installation
− Apply the front panel corners.
− Use the two locking knobs to assemble the cradle with the
left and right brackets and adjust the control head to best
viewing angle.
− Connect the Robnet2 cable(s) to the control unit
connector(s).
Figure 3-8 AP16 Bracket mounting
3.12
ROBNET2 network cables
As Robnet units have two Robnet2 connectors (blue) they can be
used as "jack points" for further expansion of the system. There
are no dedicated "in" or "out" connectors. You may connect the
cables to any available Robnet2 connector (blue) on the specific
unit. The Robnet2 connectors have a locking mechanism for
extra safety.
Caution !
Do not mix the blue Robnet2 cables with the yellow SimNet
cables.
The 15 m cable to the autopilot computer has a connector only at
the control unit end. Robnet2 cables with 5 pin male connector at
both ends are available in 1, 5 and 10 m length. For cable
extension a Robnet2 T-Joiner is required.
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65
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
When installing a system, try to minimize total Robnet2 cable
length by connecting all Robnet2 units to the nearest available
Robnet2 connector.
Total length of Robnet2 cable installed in a system should not
exceed 50 m (165').
Examples of interconnecting Robnet2 units:
AUTOPILOT
COMPUTER
CONTROL
UNIT
CONTROL
UNIT
AP27
CONTROL
UNIT
COMPASS
JP27
Figure 3-9 Interconnecting Robnet2 units
A Robnet2 T-Joiner P/N 24005662 is available to make the
Robnet2 interconnection more simple by reducing the number of
cables or extend cables when necessary.
See table for pin configuration and colour code of the network
cable.
Cable pairs
1. pair
2. pair
Color
code
Signal
Pink
V SYSTEM+
Grey
V SYSTEM–
Brown
Bus–
White
Bus+
Yellow
On - Off
Figure 3-10 Robnet2 Connector
Note !
66
The connectors are weather proof according to IP65, when
properly installed. All connectors not in use must be fitted with
the plastic cap to protect them against dirt and moisture.
20221560F
Installation
AP16
CONTROL UNIT
REAR VIEW
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
TB15
On-Off
Vsys
Vsys+
Bus+
Bus
Bn Wh Pnk Gry Yel
ROBNET
Connect to
any of the two
Robnet2
connectors
Figure 3-11 Control unit connection
J1 and J2 (left) are Robnet2 connectors. J3 and J4 are SimNet
connectors.
AP27 connection
If a Simrad AP27 is part of the system, use the JP27 Jack Point
and connect as shown on Figure 3-9. Alternatively cut the
connector from the cable and connect the wires in parallel with
the cable shown on Figure 3-11 using the same color code.
Note !
3.13
The AP27 cable contains an air-breathing tube. Check that the
tube is open after you have cut the cable.
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass installation
Figure 3-12
RFC35 mounting
The heading sensor is the most important part of the AP16
system and great care should be taken when deciding the
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
mounting location. As the heading is displayed on the AP16
Control Unit, the heading sensor can be mounted at a remote
location.
The RFC35 compass can be mounted on deck or bulkhead,
athwartship or alongship. The heading offset feature in the AP16
will compensate for the mechanical offsets that may be a result
of the selected location and orientation of the RFC35.
If the RFC35 is deck or bulkhead mounted athwartship with the
cable gland pointing aft, little if any offset correction is required.
With the cable gland pointing forward a 180° correction is
required.
When mounting RFC35 on a bulkhead alongship, a +90° or –90°
correction is needed dependent on whether it is port or starboard
bulkhead.
Note !
Offset correction is performed after the calibration (see
paragraph 4.7).
Find a location that provides a solid mounting place free from
vibration, and as close to the vessel's centre of roll and pitch as
possible, i.e. close to the water line. It should be as far as
possible from disturbing magnetic influences such as the engines
(min. 2 meters), engine ignition cables, other large metal objects
and particularly the drive unit. On steel hull boats it should be
mounted 0,75-1 m above the wheel house on a non magnetic
stand.
Use the supplied mounting kit and drill the holes through the
centre of the slots in the sensor or the mounting brackets.
Note !
The compass face plate on the RFC35 is the TOP. Never mount
it upside down! Level the sensor as close to horizontal as
possible.
Connect the RFC35 to the autopilot computer as per Figure 3-13.
68
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Installation
RFC35
FLUXGATE
COMPASS
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
HSHS+
Heading
Sensor
*
* NON POLARIZED
(COLOR INDEPENDENT)
Figure 3-13 RFC35 connection
3.14
RC36 Rate Compass installation
(Optional)
The RC36 Rate Compass also contains a magnetic heading
sensor, which means you have to take the same precautions at
installation as for the standard RFC35 (see previous page).
Plug the RC36 into a Robnet2 connector (see Figure 3-9) or cut
the connector from the cable and connect the wires in parallel
with the cable shown in Figure 3-11
3.15
R3000X Remote Control installation
R3000X should be mounted in the supplied bracket that can be
fixed by four mounting screws. The unit is weather proof and
can be mounted outdoor.
R3000X
REMOTE CONTROL
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
POWER PCB
T B 1 T B 2 TB3 TB4 TB5
TB6
TB8
TB7
Gnd
Stbd
Port
Lamp
Yel G n R ed Blu
REM OTE
Figure 3-14 R3000X connection
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.16
JS10 Joystick
Refer to separate installation instructions supplied with the JS10
Joystick.
3.17
S35 NFU Lever installation
The unit is mounted to a bulkhead or panel by two screws from
the front. The cable is connected to the junction unit according to
Figure 3-15. Interchange the Port and Stbd wires to the screw
terminals if necessary to make the direction of the lever
movement coincide with the direction of the rudder movement.
S35
STEERING LEVER
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
PO W ER PC B
TB7
REMOTE
TB1 TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5
Gnd
Port
Stbd
Grn
Pn k/Gr y
Ye l
Br n / W h
N O T E!
D i s r e g a r d t h e co l o r c o d e
on the ter mi nal lab el.
Lamp
TB6
Figure 3-15 S35 connection
The unit is opened by removing the three screws on the back
cover. Inside are two sets of micro-switches, a printed circuit
board with a plug-in terminal and a jumper strap.
3.18
Interfacing
With the AP16 autopilot system there are several possibilities to
connect to other equipment for data collection and exchange:
1. Use SimNet
2. Use SimNet via AT10 Universal SimNet/NMEA Converter
3. Connect to a NMEA2000 network via adapter (drop) cable,
part no. 24005729.
4. The AC10 has a single NMEA0183 input/output port.
5. The AC20 and AC40 have two NMEA0183 input/output ports
and Clock Data interface to Simrad and Furuno radars.
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Installation
The NMEA0183 output may also drive Simrad IS15 instruments
directly.
The different connecting diagrams on the following pages
illustrate the interface possibilities of the autopilots.
3.19
SimNet
The SimNet cable system with very small plugs in both ends
makes it easy to run the cables, only 10 mm (3/8”) holes are
required through panels and bulkheads. The SimNet accessory
program contains the necessary items to make a successful
installation.
SimNet network cables
A SimNet unit has one or two yellow SimNet connectors. There
are no dedicated “in” or “out” connectors. Find the shortest and
easiest way to route the SimNet cables from product to product
and select the standard length cables from the SimNet accessory
program. SimNet cables are available in 0.3 m (1 ft.), 2 m (6.6
ft.), 5 m (16.6 ft.) and 10 m (33 ft.) length all with plugs at both
ends. Connect products with two SimNet connectors in a daisy
chain and use a drop cable and T-joiner for products with only
one SimNet connector.
If you plan to extend your SimNet system in the future it may be
an idea to prepare for it by adding a few T-joiners in central
locations. The T-joiners provide easy access to the network and
can be replaced with a new product, or the new product can be
connected via a drop cable.
SimNet power and termination
The following rules should be observed when installing SimNet.
1. It must have a separate 12VDC power from the battery bus or
the circuit breaker board to avoid interference
2. It must not be connected to the supply voltage terminals of
the Autopilot Computer.
3. It will power an IS12 instrument system. Hence SimNet on
other equipment can be connected and powered via IS12.
4. It must be properly terminated.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
The SimNet network has to be terminated according to the
number and type of products connected.
In a small system consisting of maximum 5 SimNet products and
a total length of 5 m SimNet cable you only need the SimNet
power cable with built in termination (red disc on cable plug).
On larger systems you will also need a termination at the other
end of the chain.
For additional information about SimNet ask for the separate
SimNet Manual.
COM BI
DATA
COM BI
SIM RAD IS12
SIM RAD IS12
SIMRAD IS12
STBY
ALARM
TIMER
UPPER
INFO
L OWER
INFO
LIGHT
ALARM
TIM ER
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
PAGE
UPPER
INFO
INFO
LOWER
INFO
10 10
AUTO
PWR
LIGHT
SETUP
NAV
WIND
1
TURN
DODGE
1
Figure 3-16 SimNet network, small system
COM BI
DATA
COM BI
SIMRAD IS12
SIMRAD IS12
SIM RAD IS1 2
STBY
PWR
LIGHT
ALARM
TIM ER
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
ALARM
TIM ER
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
PAGE
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
INFO
SETUP
10 10
AUTO
NAV
WIND
1
TURN
DODGE
1
Figure 3-17 SimNet network, small system with Wind
transducer
The wind transducer (*) has a built in terminator.
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Installation
COM BI
COM BI
SIM RA D IS1 2
LIGHT
ALARM
TIMER
UPPER
INFO
LIGHT
ALARM
TIM ER
UPPER
INFO
SIM RAD IS12
SIM RA D IS1 2
SIM RAD IS12
LOWER
INFO
DATA
COM BI
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
ALARM
TIMER
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
PAGE
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
STBY
PWR
AUTO
NAV
WIND
DODGE
INFO
Figure 3-18 SimNet network, medium system
Notes !
1. Maximum total length of SimNet cable is 40 m (130 ft.)
excluding the 30 m (99 ft.) of masthead cable.
2. The wind transducer (*) has a built in terminator
3. If there is no wind transducer connected, a SimNet
terminator must be connected instead.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
COM BI
STBY
PWR
INFO
SETUP
NAV
WIND
SIM RAD IS12
10 10
AUTO
1
TURN
DODGE
1
LIGHT
ALARM
TIM ER
UPPER
INFO
DATA
COM BI
SIM RAD IS12
SIM RAD IS12
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
ALARM
TIM ER
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
LIGHT
PAGE
UPPER
INFO
LOWER
INFO
Figure 3-19 Robnet2 and SimNet network
* The wind transducer has a built in terminator
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Installation
Figure 3-20 Robnet2, SimNet and Roblink network
Notes !
1. Maximum total length of SimNet cable is 60 m (196 ft.)
excluding the 30 m (99 ft.) of masthead cable.
2. It is not necessary to connect all autopilot control units to
SimNet for data sharing. However, if you want to have full
redundancy and SimNet control, e.g. select sources, you
have to connect the actual unit to SimNet.
3. AT15 is a NMEA0183/SimNet converter for the IS15
Instrument system. IS15 makes no load on SimNet.
4. AT44 is a SimNet interface that is supplied with CX44 and
CX54 products.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.20
Single NMEA input/output
NAV RECEIVER
OR PLOTTER
(NMEA talker)
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
TB13
TB14
Gnd
RX1+
RX1
Sys. sel.
Vbat+
TX1
TX1+
NMEA listener
NMEA
Input 1
NMEA
Output1
Note
IS15 RUDDER
IS15 COMPASS
RADAR
Figure 3-21 Single NMEA connection
Caution !
3.21
If an IS15 Instrument is powered from TB14 Vbat+ and Gnd,
please observe that Vbat output voltage will follow mains
supply voltage. IS15 Compass can only operate on 12V.
Double NMEA input/output
GPS or
CHARTPLOTTER
AC20/AC40 AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
POWER PCB
TB8
Gnd
Sys. sel.
RX1
Vbat+
NMEA
Output1
TB14
RX1+
TX1
NMEA
Output2
TX1+
TX2+
NMEA
Input2
TX2
RX2
RX2+
GPS or
CHARTPLOTTER
TB13
TB10
TB9
NMEA
Input 1
Figure 3-22 Double NMEA connection
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Installation
3.22
NMEA output on Port 2
Output signal
Output terminal
Output sentence
Continuous output of compass
heading at 10 Hz (10x/sec.)
Rudder angle output at 5 Hz
NMEA format
Autopilot Computer Power
PCB.
NMEA2, TX2+, TX2–
HDT (True) or HDG (Magn.)
depending on heading source.
RSA Rudder angle
3.23
NMEA Compass input
AC20/AC40 AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
POWER PCB
TB8
NMEA
COMPASS
TB9
TB10
RX2+
RX2
NMEA
Input2
Figure 3-23 NMEA compass connection
Notes !
1. The compass connected to the NMEA port (RX2) will not
be calibrated from the autopilot.
2. The AC10 Autopilot Computer has no port for NMEA
compass input. Use the AT10 Universal Converter (P/N
24005936) according to the drawing below.
AUTOPILOT
CONTROL UNIT
AT10
CONVERTER
NMEA
COMPASS
SimNet
12V SimNet
supply
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White (Rx+)
Tx+
Brown (Rx-)
Tx-
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
3.24
Radar Clock/Data
SIMRAD/
ANRITSU
OR
FURUNO
RADAR
AC20/AC40 AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
POWER PCB
TB8
TB9
TB10
Clk_c
Clk_h
Data_h
Data_c
R adar
Figure 3-24 Radar Clock/Data connection
3.25
IS15 Instrument installation
For installation and operation of the IS15 instruments refer to
separate manuals. There are two options for interfacing the IS15
SimNet (see page 70) and NMEA0183. The SimNet interface is
recommended and you need an AT15 Active Tee as an interface
item (pages 75, 131).
NMEA In
This connection will provide speed, depth and temperature input
to the autopilot. If an IS15 Wind Transducer is connected to the
system, wind information will also be transferred to the
autopilot.
The connection is made by a Roblink cable from the instrument
NMEA socket (4) to the Autopilot Computer Main Board,
Terminal RX1+ and RX1-. See Figure 3-25.
NMEA Out
This will provide the instrument system with heading data.
The connection is made by a Roblink cable from Autopilot
computer Main Board, terminal TX1+ and TX1– to the
instrument NMEA socket (4). See Figure 3-25.
You will need a minimum of two instrument heads to make the
system both ‘listen’ and ‘talk’ (I/O).
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Installation
If IS15 Expander is used in the instrument system, the NMEA
connections are made to this unit. See Figure 3-26.
Figure 3-25 IS15 Instruments / Autopilot computer connection
Figure 3-26 IS15 Expander / Autopilot computer connection
3.26
External Alarm
The external alarm circuit has an open collector output for an
external alarm relay or buzzer (not on AC10). The operating
voltage for the circuit is the main supply voltage. Max. load on
external alarm output is 0.9 Amp.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
POWER PCB
TB6
TB7
TB8
TB9
Ext.
alarm
Figure 3-27 External alarm connection
3.27
Caution !
LF3000 Linear Feedback
The rod of the LF3000 is not locked in place in the cylinder.
Pay attention as it may slip out of its housing and end up on
the seabed.
The LF3000 is a waterproof feedback unit. It has a 300 mm
(11,8") stroke and comes with a special mounting bracket which
secures the LF3000 to the cylinder of the existing outboard drive
unit.
The 8,5 m (28') cable is terminated in the LFI3000 Mk2 Linear
Feedback Interface according to Figure 3-29.
The mounting hardware provided is made to interface with
Teleflex HC5340 cylinders and Hynautic K7 and K10 Cylinders.
The hardware may not be appropriate for other systems.
Center the drives. Loosely secure the LF3000 to the supplied
mounting bracket, across the center of the drive unit cylinder.
Either cylinder may be used if there is a dual set up. You may
mount the feedback in either direction, i.e. the shaft of LF3000
may point to port or starboard.
Loosen the end bolt (a) used to secure the cylinder to the drive
unit mount. Insert the rod retaining assembly (b) and retighten
the bolt. Secure the feedback rod to the retainer plate using the
two washers and the cap nut provided. Adjust the location of the
LF3000 Linear Feedback to allow full travel of the hydraulic
cylinder without causing the retainer plate to hit the end of the
cylinder. Check that the outboard motor can be tilted freely.
Tighten all nuts and the mounting bracket.
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Installation
Turn the helm slowly by hand to the stop on either side, check that
the rod does not bind up in any direction. Make a “drip nose” (c)
on the cable to the unit and clamp the cable to allow full engine
movement to port and starboard.
MOUNTING BRACKET
CLAMPS (2 HALVES)
ALLEN HEX SCREWS (2)
FLAT WASHERS (2)
RETAINER PLATE
(END VIEW)
CYLINDER
LOCK NUT
LF3000
FLAT WASHERS (2)
LF3000
LINEAR FEEDBACK
BRACKET
a
b
c
Figure 3-28 LF3000 mounting
Electrical connection
LFI3000 Mk2
LINEAR FEEDBACK
INTERFACE
TB1
AUTOPILOT COMPUTER
MAIN PCB
TB2
RF
RF+
Green
Yellow
Brown
White
White
Brown
Rudder
Feedb.
Figure 3-29 LF3000/LFI3000 Mk2 connections
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
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Configuration and setup
4
CONFIGURATION AND SETUP
4.1
First time turn on
Before attempting to turn on the AP16 and perform an
Installation Setup, the hardware installation and electrical
connections must be completed in accordance with the
installation instructions.
The design of the AP16 includes advanced features that have
simplified the installation and setup of an autopilot.
Note !
If the autopilot is going to use Virtual feedback (page 55) you
must first go to page 95.
This is the start-up screen that is presented the first
time you turn on your autopilot by pressing the
STBY/PWR button.
Notes !
1. You can postpone the automatic interface by going directly to
the Installation/Dockside setup. Any time the STBY button is
pressed the interface prompt will reappear until the
automatic interface has been performed.
2. Be aware that you will have no compass reading before the
automatic interface is completed.
Continue by pressing the STBD 1 button to start the automatic
interface set up.
The autopilot will search for connected sources,
and as the sources are detected a black square
appears on the screen.
“SEARCHING” is flashing as long as the autopilot
is searching for data. When the automatic interface
setup is finished, “Done Press →” is displayed.
Press the STBD 1 button and the display will read:
“SETUP REQUIRED”.
Continue with the installation setup according to
the next chapters. If you already have completed
the installation settings, the autopilot will enter
STBY mode.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
4.2
Note !
Description of Installation Settings
The installation settings must be performed as part of the
installation of the AP16 system. Failure to do so correctly may
prohibit the AP16 from functioning properly!
The Installation menu can only be accessed in STBY mode.
The Installation Settings are grouped into the following
functional categories:
• Language:
Selection of language used for display
information
• Dockside:
Items to be set prior to sea trials
These will vary depending on the type of
feedback the autopilot will use (page 55, 87,
95)
• Interface:
Setting the format of the clock/data output for
radars connected to the Autopilot Computer.
• Display units: Setting the units to be displayed for wind
speed, water temperature and depth.
• Seatrial:
Presents settings and automatic calibrations to
be performed during sea trial.
• Parameters:
Permits viewing and changing of basic
steering parameters (See also response control
page 45).
• Service:
System data, NMEA data, NMEA test,
SimNet setup, Master reset of memories.
Each group is designed to focus on specific functions and enable
quick access when changes need to be made.
Some important points regarding the installation settings:
− When the AP16 is delivered new from the factory AND
ANY TIME AFTER A MASTER RESET OF
MEMORIES HAS BEEN PERFORMED, the installation
settings are all reset to factory preset (default) values. The
automatic interface prompt will appear (see page 83) and
a complete setup has to be made.
− The values that are selected from within the Installation
Settings Menu, are stored in the memory of the AP16
system. No specific action is required to "SAVE" the
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20221560F
Configuration and setup
selected values. Once the value is changed, it is stored
until the next time the menu item is selected and changed.
− The Installation Settings are global except for display
units and language, enabling settings to be distributed to
all control units in the system.
− The Seatrial settings are dependent on successful
completion of the Dockside settings.
4.3
Installation Menu
The Installation Menu is
presented on the autopilot
display by pressing and
holding the INFO/SETUP
button for 5 seconds.
Note !
The INSTALLATION MENU is different from the USER SETUP
MENU. Refer to the flow diagram on the next page for a
pictorial view of the Installation Menu.
Navigate through the Installation Menu as follows:
− Step through the functional categories by pressing the
STBD 1 or PORT 1 button.
− Access a category by pressing the STBD 10 button.
− Step through the category items by pressing the STBD 1
or PORT 1 button.
− Change the selected item by pressing the STBD 10 or
PORT 10 button.
− Exit the Installation Menu by pressing STBY, AUTO, or
NAV WIND buttons.
When using the Installation Menu, refer to the diagram
"Installation settings Menu Flow Chart" on next page.
Note !
20221560F
You may proceed through all items in the installation menu by
continuing pressing the STBD 1 button.
85
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
INSTALLATION
MENU
ENTER INSTALLATION MENU
BY PRESSING AND HOLDING THE
SETUP BUTTON FOR 5 SECONDS
SYMBOLS
10
10
LANGUAGE MENU
10
LANGUAGE
ENGLISH
DEUTSCH
FRANCAIS
10
ESPANOL
ITALIANO
NEDERLANDS
SVENSKA
NORSK
1
1
Mode in
STBY ?
PROCEED TO NEXT MENU ITEM
BY PRESSING STBD 1 BUTTON
1
REVERT TO PREVIOUS
MENU ITEM
1
10
1
DOCKSIDE MENU
10
Yes
SELECT OR CONFIRM
BOAT TYPE
DRIVE UNIT VOLTAGE
RUDDER CAL STBD
RUDDER CAL PORT
RUDDER TEST?
DRIVE ENGAGE
RUDDER DEADBAND
WIND SETUP
MIN. WIND ANGLE
TACK ANGLE
TACK TIME
WIND SHIFT LIMIT
DOCKSIDE
1
No
1
1
1
1
INTERFACE MENU
10
INTERFACE
O u t pu t
RADAR
1
1
DISPLAY UNITS
1
WIND SPEED
WATER TEMP
DEPTH
10
1
1
DISPLAY UNITS
1
1
SEA-TRIAL MENU
RUDDER ZERO ADJUST
MINIMUM RUDDER
COMPASS CALIBRATION
COMPASS OFFSET
WIND OFFSET
WIND DAMPING
DEPTH OFFSET
AUTOMATIC TUNING
TRANSITION SPEED
INIT NAV
NAV CHANGE LIMIT
1
10
SEATRIAL
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
PARAMETERS
10
RUDDER
LO
CONT.RUDDER LO
AUTOTRIM
LO
RUDDER LIM. LO
RUDDER
HI
CONT. RUDDER HI
AUTOTRIM
HI
RUDDER LIM.
HI
RECALL AUTOTUNED
PARAMETERS
1
1
10
SERVICE
1
SYSTEM DATA
SIMNET/NMEA DATA
NMEA PORT TEST
SIMNET SETUP
10
SYSTEM DATA
1
1
Master reset?
10
1
1
SIMNET/NMEA DATA
10
1
1
1
TURN CCW
10
STEERING COMPASS
RUDDER
INPUT VOLTAGE
DRIVE OUT
CLUTCH/BYPASS
1
XTE
BWW
BPW
POS/LAT
POS/LON
COG
SOG
WIND
SPEED
DEPTH
NMEA TEST
10
1
LOOPBACK NMEA1
LOOPBACK NMEA2
CONFIRMED
SIMNET SETUP
10
1
1
1
SIMNET SOURCE SELECT
BACKLIGHT
INSTANCE NUMBER
SIMNET GTWAY
GLOBAL SIMNET RESET
Figure 4-1 Installation Menu Flow Chart
86
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Configuration and setup
Language selection
To access the language selection in the Installation Menu,
confirm “Yes” by pressing the STBD 10 button.
The AP16 can present the display text in eight different
languages:
English, Deutsch, Francais, Espanol, Italiano, Nederlands,
Svenska and Norsk.
Press the STBD 10 or PORT 10
buttons to select language.
Continue to next item in the menu
by pressing the STBD 1 button, or
leave the menu by pressing the
STBY button.
4.4
Note !
Dockside settings
If the autopilot has no rudder feedback unit installed (configured
for Virtual feedback), refer to the Dockside settings on page 9597.
The following menu items are accessible and can be set up in the
Dockside Menu:
− Boat type
− Drive Unit voltage
− Rudder Feedback calibration
− Rudder test
− Drive engage
− Rudder deadband
When Sail is selected as Boat type the following menu items are
also accessible in the Dockside Menu:
− Wind setup
− Min. wind angle
If Wind setup is set to RACING the following items are added to
the menu.
− Separate (port, stbd) wind angle limits
− Tack angle
− Tack time
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
− Wind shift limit
Select STANDBY mode and enter the Installation Menu as
previously described. Select Dockside by pressing STBD 1
button and confirm by pressing the STBD 10 button.
Boat type
Actual boat type is selected by
pressing the STBD 10 or PORT 10
buttons. The options are: Planing,
Displacement, Sail and Outboard.
Type of boat selected will affect the
steering parameters, and the
functions available in the autopilot
system. Select appropriate Boat type
and press STBD 1 button.
Drive unit voltage
Set the drive unit voltage to the correct level. The selections are
12V, 24V, or 32V and should be set to the voltage specified for
your drive unit.
Refer to the drive unit table on page 60 for information.
The drive engage/bypass clutch output follows the same voltage
as set for the drive unit. It is not possible to select a higher
voltage than the input voltage.
Caution !
Selection of improper voltage level for your drive unit may
damage both the drive unit and the autopilot computer even if
the protection circuits in the autopilot computer are activated.
During the Rudder Test, the AP16 system will automatically
detect whether the drive unit is a reversible motor or whether a
solenoid is operated.
To change the voltage press the
STBD 10 or PORT 10 buttons.
Note !
88
The drive unit voltage setting does not apply when operating
solenoids on a continuous running pump/steering gear. Hence,
20221560F
Configuration and setup
the output voltage to the solenoids will be the same as the input
voltage.
Proceed to next menu item by pressing STBD 1 button.
Rudder Feedback Calibration
Make sure the RF300 is installed and aligned as pr. instruction in
section 3.6 (or eventually section 3.27 for LF3000). This
function enables you to compensate for any non-linearity in the
transmission between the rudder and the rudder feedback.
Confirm Rudder feedback calibration
to STBD by pressing the STBD 10
button. You will read dotted lines only
the first time you enter this screen.
Manually turn the helm/wheel to
starboard until the rudder stops at
starboard lock (H.O.).
The value on the display is the angle
read by the rudder feedback unit before
any adjustment is made. If the actual
rudder angle is different from that of
the display, correct the reading by
pressing the STBD 10 button to
increase the value or the PORT 10
button to decrease the value (see note).
Advance to the next step by pressing the STBD 1 button.
Manually turn the helm to port until the rudder stops at
maximum port rudder.
Adjust the displayed angle the same way as for starboard rudder.
Note !
20221560F
Many boats have ±45° (90° H.O. - H.O.) rudder angle as
standard. So if you are not making any adjustment to the display
readout, the AP16 will set a (default) value of 45° to each side.
However, you should always simulate an adjustment by a single
press on each of the STBD 10 and PORT 10 buttons. This is
necessary to prevent the rudder from hitting the end stops.
89
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Rudder zero may still be inaccurate and should be adjusted later
during sea trial.
Proceed to next menu item by pressing STBD 1 button.
Rudder Test
Note !
If the boat uses power assisted steering, it is important that the
engine or electric motor used to enable the power assist steering
be turned on prior to this test.
Bring the rudder manually to midship position before starting the
test.
Caution !
Stand CLEAR of the wheel and do not attempt to take manual
control of the wheel during this test!
Activate the automatic rudder test by
pressing the STBD 10 button.
The AP16 will after a few seconds
issue a series of PORT and STBD
rudder commands and automatically
verify correct rudder direction. It
detects minimum power to drive the
rudder and reduces the rudder speed
if it exceeds the maximum
acceptable speed (8°/sec.) for
autopilot operation.
The Rudder test is verified by the display showing ‘Motor OK’,
‘Solenoids OK’, or ‘Failed’. If ‘Failed’ is given, check for
correct electrical connection.
When test is finished the display will read:
The Motor Drive out (displayed in percentage) is the amount of
maximum available power needed to achieve correct rudder
90
20221560F
Configuration and setup
speed on automatic steering (Maximum speed is used in NFU
mode).
The screen also tells whether a clutch is installed or not.
If the Automatic rudder test fails, refer to ”Alarms” beginning on
page 124
Test of LF3000/LFI3000 Mk2 feedback
1. Align engines to centre position; “zero rudder”.
2. Rev engines to 3-4000 rev/min and observe the rudder angle
indicator on the autopilot, a 2° change in the reading should
be accepted.
3. If the rudder angle exceeds 2°, connect the screen on the TB1
cable to the centre block terminal and repeat item 2 (See
Figure 3-29). If this gives a better result keep the screen
connected.
Proceed to next menu item by pressing STBD button.
Drive engage
This determines the use of the
autopilot computer drive engage
port (Bypass/clutch terminals). The
port voltage is the same as the
selected drive unit voltage. Drive
engage has the following settings:
Bypass/clutch:
The port will activate (go high), in all autopilot steering modes,
and typically engages a bypass valve on a hydraulic linear drive
or a clutch on a mechanical drive when entering any of the active
autopilot modes. This is the default setting and it allows you to
steer the boat with the helm or wheel when in STBY or DODGE
modes.
Auto:
This setting is implemented for future use. Always use the
“Bypass/clutch” (default) setting.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Rudder Deadband
The rudder deadband function is
adaptive and is continuously
operative. It prevents the rudder
from hunting and the adaptive
function optimizes the deadband to
the speed of the boat and the
pressure on the rudder.
If the auto-setting does not perform properly due to high inertia
from the wheel or a loose steering gear, it can be adjusted
manually.
Adjust the Rudder deadband using the STBD 10 and PORT 10
buttons. Find the lowest possible value that will prevent the
rudder from hunting. A wide deadband will cause inaccurate
steering. It is recommended to check rudder stability in AUTO
mode when the boat is moving to get pressure on the rudder.
Range:
AUTO, 0.1° to 4.0° in 0.1° increments.
Default: AUTO.
Proceed to the next menu item by pressing the STBD 1 button.
Note !
The rudder deadband setting is not available when the autopilot
is configured for Virtual feedback.
Wind setup
Wind setup is only available if ‘Boat type’ is set to ‘Sail’ in the
Installation/Dockside menu.
Wind setup has two levels:
NORMAL and RACING. The
RACING level will give access to
more wind setup items to achieve
optimal performance when sailing.
Additional setup items also become
available in the User setup menu.
92
Range:
NORMAL and RACING
Default:
NORMAL
20221560F
Configuration and setup
Minimum wind angle (NORMAL)
The ‘Minimum wind angle’ is the
minimum apparent wind angle that
will keep the sails well shaped and
give an acceptable thrust. This
parameter will vary from boat to
boat.
The ‘Minimum wind angle’ applies in the tack-prevent function.
It also applies when the autopilot is navigating in Wind mode.
Use the STBD 10 and PORT 10 buttons to adjust.
Range: 15 – 90°
Default: 30°
Minimum wind angle (RACING)
If ‘Wind setup’ is set to RACING,
you can set different minimum
wind angles for port and starboard.
The difference between port and
starboard wind angles will be taken
into account when calculating the
Estimated Time to Turn (ETT) and
Distance To Turn (DTT).
Use the STBD 10 and PORT 10
buttons to adjust.
Range: 15 – 90°
Default: 30°
Tack angle (RACING)
The autopilot can also tack in
AUTO-mode. The set tack angle
replaces a similar change of the set
course using the STBD 10 and
PORT 10 buttons.
Range: 50 – 150°
Default: 100°
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Tack time (RACING)
When performing a tack in
WIND-mode, the rate of turn can
be limited. This will give single
handed sailors time to handle the
boat and the sails during a tack.
The tack time is the time needed
for the sailor to initiate the tack,
start using the winches and haul
the foresail from one side to the
other.
A turn performed without shifting wind side, will also be made
at a reduced turn rate.
Shifting wind side when gybing, however, is an instant action
from the autopilot and there is no limitation of the turn rate when
making a gybe.
Range: 2 – 50 seconds
Default: 12s
Wind shift alarm limit (RACING)
The monitored wind shift in
WIND mode is the wind shift
angle measured from the last time
the wind angle was set on the
autopilot. If this wind shift
exceeds the ‘Wind shift limit’, a
wind shift alarm will be
activated..
The wind shift monitoring can be turned off by setting the ‘Wind
shift limit’ to ‘OFF’. Use the PORT 10 and STBD 10 button to
adjust.
Note !
A wind shift reading is also presented in the ‘Wind shift’-display.
This is the change of wind direction measured from the last time
the autopilot mode was changed, e.g. STANDBY to AUTO,
AUTO to WIND. This wind shift reading is for information only,
and not to activate the wind shift alarm.
Range: OFF, 2 – 90°
Default: 30°
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Configuration and setup
Dockside settings when configured for
Virtual Feedback
The Virtual Feedback algorithms in the autopilot software enable
your autopilot to steer without having to mount a conventional
rudder feedback unit. These algorithms are designed for vessels
up to 40 ft. powered by outboard or stern drives only.
Installing a feedback unit, however, will always enhance the
performance of an autopilot and provide an accurate rudder
angle indicator on the autopilot display. Unless impractical or
impossible, a rudder feedback unit should be installed.
Note !
The autopilot is automatically configured for Virtual Feedback
when there is no feedback unit connected at first time turn on, or
at turn on after a Master Reset has been performed (Page 117).
At first time turn on the autopilot will
after approx. 5 seconds sound and display
a feedback failure alarm. Press the STBY
button to silence the alarm and follow the
instructions in the display to initiate the
Setup as described on page 83
Press and hold the INFO/SETUP button
to enter the Installation setup menu. Select
“Dockside” and press the STBD 10 button
to open the “Dockside” menu. This will
automatically configure the autopilot for
Virtual Feedback, and the alternating
feedback alarm will disappear from the
display.
When the autopilot is configured for
Virtual Feedback the Boat type is
automatically set to Outboard.
The (autopilot) Drive unit voltage should
be set to the voltage specified for your
drive unit. See page 88
Virtual Feedback calibration
To perform the Virtual Feedback
calibration and rudder test you must be
able to view the movement of the
engines/drives (“rudder”).
The Virtual feedback calibration is entered
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
as a numerical value equal to the physical
rudder angle observed at the hard over
position.
Use the STBD 10 or PORT 10 buttons to
enter the starboard and port rudder angle.
Rudder test
Activate the automatic rudder test by
pressing the STBD 10 button.
While observing the rudder position, use
the wheel to center the rudder.
Confirm by pressing the STBD 10
button.
The next step is to enter the correct
direction of the rudder movement.
Press and hold the TURN/DODGE
button. Observe the rudder movement.
Release the button after 3 seconds.
If the rudder is not moving so as to give
a starboard turn, press and hold the
TURN/DODGE button for another 3
seconds.
When the rudder is moving to starboard,
press the STBD 10 button to confirm.
While observing the rudder, use the
wheel to turn the rudder hard over to
starboard position. Turn the wheel
carefully a little to port just to release the
hydraulic pressure. When ready confirm
by pressing the STBD 10 button.
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Press and hold the TURN/DODGE
button.
Release the button when the rudder
reaches the port hard over position.
The rudder will now be automatically
centered.
Note!
The reading in the rudder angle display
is not showing a rudder angle, only the
direction of the rudder movement.
The Rudder test is verified by the
display showing ‘Motor OK’ or ‘Failed’.
If ‘Failed’ is given, check for correct
electrical connection.
When test is finished the display will
read:
Drive Engage
See page 91
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4.5
Interface Settings
Sets the format of the clock/data output for radars connected to
the Autopilot Computer.
Step to the Interface part of the
Installation Menu.
Press the STBD 10 button to access the
Interface Setup items.
Use the PORT 10 or STBD 10 buttons
to select the connected type of radar.
Note!
This setting is not available in the
AC10 Autopilot Computer.
4.6
Display units
Select Display units by pressing
STBD 1 button and confirm by
pressing the STBY 10 button. The
setup is local to each control unit.
This screen gives access to the display
unit set-up of the Wind Speed, Sea
temperature and Depth.
Use the STBD 1 button to select an item
and the STBD 10 button to select the
unit.
Available units are:
Wind Speed:
Knots (kt) (default) or meter/second
(m/s)
Sea temperature:
Fahrenheit (°F) (default) or Celsius (°C)
Depth: Meter (m) (default) or feet (ft)
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Exit the Display units menu by pressing STBD 1 button to
proceed to the Sea trial menu, or press STBY to return to normal
AP16 operation.
4.7
Caution !
Sea Trial
The Sea-trial must always be performed in open waters at a
safe distance from other traffic.
The Sea-trial menu can only be accessed if the Dockside
Settings are completed and confirmed.
The seatrial settings are:
− Rudder Zero adjust (To tell the AP16 the precise midships
position of the rudder)
− Minimum rudder
− Compass calibration (To automatically compensate for
onboard magnetic interference)
− Compass Offset (To compensate for a fixed offset (A-error)
in the final compass heading readout)
− Wind Offset (To compensate for a fixed mechanical offset
of the Wind vane)
− Wind Damping (To avoid flickering on the wind display)
− Depth offset (To compensate for the distance between the
depth transducer and the surface if required)
− Automatic tuning (A method of determining the steering
parameters)
− Transition speed (the speed at which you want a power
boat to change steering parameters)
− Init NAV (to set the response you prefer when steering
onto a track in NAV mode)
− Drive output adjust (See Final sea trial, page 118)
Select Seatrial by pressing the
STBD 1 button and confirm by
pressing the STBY 10 button.
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Set Rudder zero
(Not applicable when configured for Virtual feedback)
This adjustment should be made in calm sea and side forces from
wind or current should be avoided.
−
−
−
−
−
Bring the boat up to cruising speed, and head directly into
the wind.
If the boat has twin engines, synchronize the engine RPM's.
Set the trim tabs and stabilizers to have no effect on the
boats heading.
Steer the boat manually on a steady course.
Confirm the rudder ZERO position by pressing the STBD 10
button.
Press STBD 1 to proceed to next menu item.
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Minimum rudder
Some vessels may have a tendency of not responding to small
rudder commands around the “course keeping” position because
of a small rudder, a rudder deadband or whirls/disturbance of the
water-stream passing the rudder.
By turning the Minimum Rudder function ‘On’, it may improve
the course keeping performance on some boats, but will increase
the rudder activity.
Turn the minimum rudder on by
pressing the STBD 10 button.
Range: OFF-ON.
Default: OFF
Note !
During the sea trial, only set Minimum Rudder to ON if it proves
to give a better course keeping performance in calm sea. It
should be set after the autotune has been performed and a
possible fine tune of the Rudder parameter (page 111).
Compass calibration
This function will activate the compass calibration procedure for
Simrad compasses connected to Robnet2 and the Autopilot
Computer terminals (HS).
Notes !
1. The optional RC36 Rate Compass will store the calibration
and off-set data in its own memory.
2. Compass calibration for the compass connected to the HS
terminal will be stored in the Autopilot Computer memory.
3. Calibration is made on the compass that is active for the
autopilot. The active compass is the one that is displayed on
the compass calibration screen.
RATE-0 = Rate compass, FLUX-0 = Fluxgate compass on
HS terminals.
4. If an optional NMEA compass from Simrad or another
manufacturer is installed, also refer to the optional
compass’ manual regarding calibration. This compass will
not be calibrated by the autopilot.
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Before you start the compass calibration, make sure you have
enough open water around you to make a full turn with the boat.
The calibration should be done in calm sea conditions and with
minimal wind to obtain good results. Use about 60-90 seconds to
make a full circle.
Increase speed:
>>>>>>
Decrease speed:
<<<<<<
Appropriate speed:
>
<
1. Select the ‘Calibration’ item on the display
2. Begin turning the boat (port or starboard).
3. Confirm start of calibration by pressing the STBD 10 or
PORT 10 button. The display will flash “Calibrating”.
Establish your turning rate using the arrows in the display.
4. When the calibration is completed, (after having made
approximately 1 1/4 turns), it will be confirmed by the display
reading “Confirmed”.
Compass deviation
The heading from a magnetic heading sensor will normally have
a deviation when compared with the actual direction of the
earth’s magnetic field. This is caused by interference from the
boat’s local magnetic field. The deviation will be at a minimum
if the compass is placed as far as possible from any magnetic
object on board. On the other hand, you may have to
compromise with other requirements for the installation of the
compass (page 67).
During the calibration, the compass will measure the magnitude
and direction of the local magnetic field from where the compass
is mounted. The magnitude is given in % of the magnitude of the
earth’s magnetic field. If the local magnetic field is stronger than
the earth’s magnetic field (the local field is reading more than
100%), the compass calibration will fail. If the local field is
reading more than 30%, you should look for any interfering
magnetic objects and remove them, or you should move the
compass to a different location. The local field angle will aid you
to the local interfering magnetic object. See drawing.
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Lubber line
Lubber line
Magnitude of local
field in % of
earth’s magnetic
field.
Direction of local
field with respect
to lubber line. It
can also be on the
reciprocal.
Note !
In certain areas and at high latitudes the local magnetic
interference becomes more significant and heading errors
exceeding ±3° may have to be accepted.
Compass Offset
After calibration, also check the compass readout against a
known reference, a compensated compass or a bearing. If the
reading has a fixed offset, proceed to next menu item by pressing
STBD 1 button or return to STANDBY mode by pressing the
STBY button.
Note !
Offset correction is always performed after the calibration. If
you use COG as a reference for the offset remember it has to be
a magnetic reading.
The compass OFFSET feature allows you to correct for a fixed
heading offset. This offset may be present as a result of the
compass being installed with a lubber line offset or if a fixed
offset remains after the calibration procedure has been
completed. The value of compass offset is specific to the heading
sensor that is selected at the time the offset is entered. This
means that you can have individual offsets for each compass
installed.
Select the amount of correction by
pressing the STBD 10 or
PORT 10 buttons to offset the
heading to agree with the known,
accurate heading. The Offset value
can be either positive or negative.
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Note !
If an OFFSET still exists after having compensated for it, one of
the following problems may still exist:
• The heading reference to which you are comparing the
compass is not correct.
• The automatic calibration is not correct. Refer to above
“Compass deviation”.
Proceed to the next menu item by pressing the STBD 1 button,
or return to Standby mode by pressing the STBY button.
Wind Offset
Note !
This offset only applies if you have a wind transducer directly
connected to SimNet (IS12TW) or a wind transducer that outputs
data on NMEA2000 format.
The Wind Offset feature allows you to correct for a fixed wind
angle offset. Steer the boat directly into the wind with a damping
of 15s. Keep the bow at a steady heading for 15-20 sec. and read
the wind angle. If necessary press the PORT 10 or STBD 10
buttons to input an off set that makes the display read Wind
000°.
The Offset value can be either
positive or negative.
Wind damping
Damping of the apparent wind angle
is made by the Advanced Wind Filter
(AWF) in the Autopilot Computer.
The inputs to the AWF are heading,
boat speed, apparent wind angle and
wind speed. Verify that these inputs
are available in User Setup/Source
Select (page 42).
Heading sensors, speed sensors and wind sensors have variable
performance. The measured wind angle can be very erratic when
the boat is rolling heavily. In such conditions the AWF gives a
better result when the calculations are based more on heading
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and boat speed inputs to achieve the correct apparent wind angle.
Increasing the ‘Wind damping’, will make the AWF depend
more on heading and boat speed to calculate the correct apparent
wind angle. Decreasing the ‘Wind damping’, will make the
AWF depend more on the “raw” apparent wind angle data.
The boat speed input to the AWF is primarily Speed Over
Ground (SOG). If this is not available, the AWF will use speed
through water. If none of these are available, the AWF will use a
boat speed that is 1.5 times the Transition Speed set in the
Installation/Seatrial menu.
Range: 1 – 100 seconds
Default: 15 seconds
Use the PORT 10 or STBD 10
button to adjust
Depth Offset
Note !
This adjustment only applies to “smart” depth transducers that
outputs depth on NMEA2000 format. NMEA0183 sentence
‘DPT’ contains offset and the depth reading is from the surface.
NMEA0183 sentence ‘DBT’ contains no depth offset and the
reading will be from the position of the transducer.
When the depth offset is set to
zero, the indicated depth is from
the transducer to the bottom.
To read the depth from the water surface to the bottom you have
to set the depth offset according to the vertical distance between
the surface and the transducer, positive (+) value. If you want to
indicate the depth from the keel to the bottom you have to set the
depth offset according to the vertical distance between the
transducer and the keel, negative (–) value.
Automatic tuning
Automatic tuning is a feature that automatically sets the two
main steering parameters (Rudder and Counter Rudder) by
taking the boat through a number of S-turns. The scaling factors
of the parameters are also set automatically as a function of the
boat type selection performed in the Dockside menu.
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Automatic tuning is an optional procedure that is not required for
the AP16 to function. The AP16 is preset with steering
parameters that should steer most boats in the 30 - 80 foot range.
It is, however, recommended to perform an automatic turning as
part of the sea trial.
Recommended speed during Automatic tuning varies with the
type of boat, but should not exceed 10 knots. It should be
performed in calm or moderate sea conditions
Note !
Automatic tuning should not be performed at planing speed or in
following seas!
For displacement boats use a speed that is approximately half the
normal cruising speed (i.e. if cruising speed is 10 knots, perform
the Automatic tuning at about 5 knots).
The parameter values calculated during Automatic tuning
becomes the HI parameters. The LO parameters are
automatically set to 66% of the HI.
It also is recommended to perform the Automatic tuning steering
East or West, as this will yield the best balanced parameters.
Note !
After the Automatic tuning has been completed the rudder must
be controlled manually, as the autopilot has returned to STBY
mode.
Caution !
The Automatic tuning function will take control of the boat
and perform a number of S-turns. It must always be performed
in open waters at a safe distance from other traffic. The
Automatic tuning function may take from 1 to 2 minutes to
complete. To stop the Automatic tuning, press the STBY
button.
Activate the Automatic tuning,
by pressing the STBD 10 button.
The display will flash
“Automatic tuning”.
After an Automatic tuning, there should be no need for further
adjustments. “Fine tuning of these parameters are made by the
response control (see page 45). However, viewing or changing
the parameters can be made from within the Parameters menu
item. See also “Recall Autotune” on page 112.
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Proceed to the next menu item by pressing the STBD 1 button,
or return to Standby mode by pressing the STBY button.
Transition Speed
The transition speed is the speed where the AP16 will
automatically change the steering parameter set from HI to LO
parameters, or vice versa (page 22).
The default setting of transition speed is 5 kts.
It is recommended that you set the transition speed to a speed
that represents the speed where the hull begins to plane, or the
speed where you change from slow to cruising speed.
The speed used for the automatic transition is obtained with the
following priority:
1. Speed through water from the speed log source.
2. Speed Over Ground (SOG) from the GPS/Chartplotter.
If no speed data is available, manual speed selection is required.
See also chapters 2.8 and 2.9.
Use the STBD 10 button to set the
transition speed to the wanted
value in knots.
Range: OFF – 30 knots
Default: 5 kts
Proceed to next menu item by pressing STBD 1 button.
Init NAV
Sets a firm or soft approach to the track line when entering the
NAV mode at the first leg. The approach angle is dependant
(adaptive) on the distance (XTE) from the track line and the boat
speed.
Select firm or soft approach to the
track line using the STBD 10 or
PORT 10 button.
Range: Soft - Firm
Default: Soft
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NAV change limit
In NAV mode, when the required
course change at the approaching
waypoint is more than the set limit,
you are prompted to verify that the
upcoming course change is
acceptable. The limit can be set to
10°, 20° or 30°.
Default: 10°
Rudder play compensation
(Only applicable when configured for Virtual feedback)
Notes!
1. To obtain the best possible steering performance the said
procedures must be performed in the following order:
- Perform an autotune at 6-8 knots in calm sea.
- If necessary fine tune the Counter Rudder parameter (see
page 110) at cruising speed (LO value) and at slow speed
(HI value).
- Use the response control to obtain the best possible course
keeping (page 45).
2. If the autopilot performance is found satisfactory when the
above has been completed, skip the following rudder play
compensation procedure. The rudder play compensation
procedure is only necessary if the steering gear is sloppy.
Using this procedure when not required may interfere with
the steering algorithms and result in poorer steering instead
of providing improvements.
A play in the steering gear will always reduce the steering
performance of the autopilot. The best result is obtained when
sloppy linkages are repaired and this is the recommended course
of action.
Note !
With a rudder feedback unit installed the effect of the rudder
play is significantly lessened.
When rudder play still exists and there is no feedback unit
installed, the autopilot will need some assistance from the
installer to compensate for this. The effect of the rudder play is
different at slow speed as compared to cruising speed and both
situations have to be compensated for individually.
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This adjustment must be made
when steering in dead calm sea.
Confirm by pressing the
STBD 10 button.
Note!
This menu item can also be
accessed directly in Auto mode.
Press and hold the
INFO/SETUP button until this
display appears.
The vertical bar is the lubber line (bow). Observe the number of
arrows to each side of the bar while the autopilot is working; one
> = 1° off course. Increase the rudder play value in steps by
pressing the STBD 10 or PORT 10 button and take time to
observe the result of each step before you make further changes.
The best setting is when the number of arrows is at a minimum
on each side of the bar. This adjustment has to be made at
cruising speed (LO setting) and once again at slow speed (HI
setting).
Note !
Increasing the rudder play compensation will increase the
number of rudder commands. Particularly at low speed this may
enhance the course keeping performance.
Proceed to the “Parameters” item by pressing the STBD 1
button or return to STANDBY mode by pressing the STBY
button.
4.8
Parameters
To access the Parameters, press the STBY 10 button.
A boats steering parameters found by the Automatic tuning can
be looked at and if needed changed under this menu item. The
steering parameters can also be set manually instead of
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
performing an Automatic tuning. The parameters are divided
into two sets (page 23):
• HI value parameters for automatic steering at low speed and
when running with a sailboat.
• LO value parameters for automatic steering at high speed and
when sailing into the wind or reaching with a sailboat.
Step through the menu items by pressing the STBD 1 or
PORT 1 buttons. Adjust the value by using the STBD 10 or
PORT 10 buttons.
Manual parameter adjust
Use STBD 10
and PORT 10
buttons to
adjust value
Displayed
parameter
LOw
1
1
Boat type
Displacem.
& Sail
Own boat
Planing &
Outboard
Decrease: Press:
10
Rudder LO
0.35
0.20
Cont.Rudder LO
1.00
1.00
40 sec.
40 sec.
20°
20°
Rudder HI
0.50
0.30
Cont.Rudder HI
1.40
1.40
40 sec.
40 sec.
20°
20°
Autotrim LO
Rudder Lim LO
Automatic
tuning
Manual
Increase: Press
10
HIgh
Use PORT 1
and STBD 1
buttons to step
through
parameters
Autotrim HI
Rudder Lim HI
Note !
The values in the table are factory set (default) and listed for
information only. After having performed the Automatic tuning,
the values may differ from those listed in the table. See also
“Automatic Tuning” previously in this chapter.
Note !
With Virtual Rudder Feedback use 20 seconds time constant for
Autotrim.
The two most important parameters that determine the
performance of the automatic steering are Rudder and Counter
Rudder.
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Rudder sets the rudder gain which is the ratio between the
commanded angle and the heading error.
Course to steer
Too little Rudder
Course to steer
Too much Rudder
−
−
−
Note !
Too little Rudder and the autopilot fail to keep a steady
course.
Too much Rudder gives unstable steering and reduces speed.
Low speed requires more rudder than high speed.
See also “Minimum Rudder” on page 101.
Counter Rudder is the parameter that counteracts the effect of
the boats turn rate and inertia. For a short time period it is
superimposed on the proportional rudder response as provided
by the heading error. It may sometimes appear as if it tends to
make the rudder move to the wrong side (counter rudder).
The best way of checking the value of the Counter Rudder
setting is when making turns. The figures illustrate the effects off
various Counter Rudder settings.
New course
Counter rudder setting too
low, overshoot response
New course
Counter rudder setting too high,
sluggish and creeping response
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New course
Correct setting of counter
rudder, ideal response
Autotrim standard value is 40 sec. which should work well on
most boats.
Rudder Limit should be kept at 20 degrees unless there is a
need for more rudder when performing dockside maneuvers.
Recall Autotuned?
To recall the parameter values that
were achieved during the Automatic
tuning procedure, press the STBD 10
button. When parameter values are
recalled, Confirmed is displayed.
Exit the Parameter menu by pressing STBD 1 button to proceed
to the Service menu, or press STBY to return to normal AP16
operation.
4.9
Service Menu
The Service menu includes System data and NMEA data which
are test functions to analyze data processed by the AP16. The
menu can be useful when testing or trouble shooting the system.
Select STANDBY mode.
Press and hold the INFO/SETUP
button for 5 seconds to enter the
Installation Menu.
Press the STBD 1 button to select
"Service".
Confirm by pressing the STBD 10
button.
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Select System data by pressing the
STBY 10 button.
System Data Menu
Steer compass
Steering Compass readout,
M=Magnetic, T=True
Rudder
Rudder angle. Normally between zero
and 45 degrees.
Input voltage
Mains voltage on input terminals.
Drive out
Power needed to drive the unit in
percent of full (100%) to get
satisfactory rudder speed.
Clutch/bypass
Verifies if a clutch or bypass valve
has been activated when performing
the rudder test.
To exit the menu, press any mode key (STBY, AUTO or NAV).
SimNet and NMEA Data Screen
Select STANDBY mode.
Press en hold the NAV/WIND button
for 5 seconds to enter the Installation
Menu.
Press the STBD 1 button to select
"SERVICE".
Confirm by pressing the STBD 10
button.
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Select the screen by pressing the
STBD 1 button and confirm by
pressing the STBD 10 button.
The menu provides you with status
information about the different
SimNet and/or NMEA messages used
by the system.
Decoding
The incoming signals are decoded
according to a built in priority table in
the AP16. Cross Track Error and
bearing information are taken from
the NMEA messages with highest
priority.
For all data items, one of the
following codes will be displayed:
–––
No data or no NMEA
sentence containing the data
needed is available at the
input port.
OK
Valid data found
INV
Message with invalid
information.
FRM
Message has format failure
such as
a) Incorrect check sum
b) Wrong contents in
datafield(s)
If data are missing or invalid,
perform the following:
• Check the NMEA signal monitor
(see below)
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• Open the source select page in
the User Setup menu and check
that data are available.
• Check the navigator setup and
make sure it is transmitting
appropriate data.
• Perform a NMEA Port Test
(hardware) as per below.
Note !
The “WIND” reading is the apparent wind from the port (L) or
starboard (R). The “SPEED” reading is the speed through
water.
NMEA signal monitor
Near the NMEA terminals in the Autopilot Computer you will
find a green monitor LED marked “RX”. A flickering LED
indicates that a NMEA signal is received. It does not, however,
qualify the contents of the message.
Note !
Do not mix up the “RX” LED with the LED marked “TX”. The
“TX” LED will always be lit or flickering when the autopilot is
on.
NMEA Port test (AC hardware)
Disconnect the cables on the Main PCB in the Autopilot
Computer and connect TX1+ to RX1+ and TX1- to RX1-.
Similarly, on the Power PCB connect the NMEA ports the same
way; TX2+ to RX2+ and TX2– to RX2–.
Under Service in the Installation Menu,
select NMEA port test by pressing the
STBD 1 button and confirm this by
pressing the STBD 10 button.
Verify that the hardware is OK. If not,
replace the corresponding PCB(‘s).
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Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Proceed to the SimNet Setup menu by pressing the STBD 1
button, or press STBY to return to normal AP16 operation.
SimNet setup
Select the SimNet setup menu by
pressing the STBD 1 button and confirm
this by pressing the STBD 10 button.
Sn 00000 is the unique SimNet ID
number for the specific autopilot control
unit.
Group selection
SIMRAD: Autopilot is part of the
Simrad Group. Source selection will be
common for the products in the group
(synchronized).
STAND ALONE: Source selection for
the autopilot will not be transferred to
other products in the Simrad Group (no
synchronization).
Backlight Illumination
Set backlight to synchronize with one of
the illumination banks (1-3) available on
the SimNet, or to STAND ALONE for
individual control of the autopilot
illumination.
Instance number
An item to identify units by a number
when the autopilot is connected to a
NMEA2000 Network. On SimNet units
the Instance number is added to the
product name e.g. AP16-1, AP16-2 for
easy identification on various display
screens.
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SimNet gateway
Indicates which control unit that
transmits and receives information on
SimNet. The display verifies by reading
‘Yes’, all other units read ‘No’.
Global SimNet reset
Resets the entire SimNet setup in the
Simrad Group and initiates a new
automatic interface setup. See chapter
4.1.
Master Reset
Note !
A Master Reset is part of the final test at the factory, which will
reset the memories to factory settings. Unless you need to clear
all stored values during the installation setup procedure, you
should not perform a Master Reset.
The Master Reset needs a double
confirmation to prevent an accidental
reset. To perform a Master Reset,
press the STBD 10 button and
observe the display; then press the
PORT 10 button. The display will
then read: “Master Reset confirmed”.
Unless you have made a Master Reset,
exit the Installation Menu by pressing
STBY to return to normal AP16
operation.
In the event a Master Reset has been made, refer to chapter 4.2.
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Final sea trial
After having completed all settings in the Installation Menu, take
the boat out and perform a final sea trial in open waters at a safe
distance from other traffic. .
− Steer the boat on all cardinal headings in AUTO mode.
− Start with low and medium speeds to get familiar with the
response from the AP16.
− Try the effect of LO and HI parameter settings.
− If the hardware for automatic HI/LO parameter selection is
connected and configured, verify that the HI/LO transition is
occurring, and the HI/LO parameters are changing after the
transition speed is crossed (by more than 1 Knot higher or
lower speed).
− Try the Dodge and U-turn function.
− If a Non-Follow Up lever (or handheld remote) is connected,
test change of modes and verify port and starboard steering
commands of the lever.
− Set waypoints into each navigator connected to the system,
and verify that the AP16 steers in NAV mode for each NAV
source.
− Try the NoDrift mode.
− If the boat is a sailboat use the WIND mode and try the AP16
at different settings of the apparent wind angle. Also try the
WINDN(av) mode, optimized VMG and WCV when sailing
(tacking) to a waypoint.
− If the rudder response feels aggressive during the sea trial,
you may want to reduce the rudder speed to get a smoother
steering.
Alternatively on a sailboat you may want to have a higher
rudder speed when running. The motor Drive out (page 90)
can be set with this in mind. Never adjust in more than 10%
steps with respect to the reading set during the automatic
rudder test (page 90). Always perform a new Autotune after
the adjustment.
− Provide the owner with user training.
118
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Configuration and setup
Providing user training
The user should be instructed in the "basic" operational
functions, such as:
− Turning the system on and off
− Changing modes. Explain briefly what takes place in the
different modes.
− Regaining manual control from any mode. Point out in what
modes the helm is engaged by the autopilot (bypass/clutch).
− Taking command at an "inactive" station, if applicable.
− Using the lock mode, how to lock/unlock and how to shut the
system down from a locked control unit, if applicable.
− Use of the Non-Follow-up steering mode.
− Use of a Non-Follow-up controller, if connected.
− Changing course by STBD 1, STBD 10, PORT 1 and
PORT 10 buttons.
− Stepping through the User Set-up Menu learning how to (and
why to) change the settings.
− How to select alternative sources for heading (compass),
navigation (GPS), chartplotter, speed, depth etc. if available.
− Understand the difference between NAV mode and NoDrift
mode and their data sources (Nav, Pos)..
− Locating compasses and knowing to keep magnetic items
away.
− Locating the Mains circuit breaker and the separate SimNet
circuit breaker if provided.
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119
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
This page is intentionally left blank.
120
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Maintenance
5
MAINTENANCE
5.1
Control unit
The AP16 Control Unit will under normal use require little
maintenance.
If the unit requires any form of cleaning, use fresh water and a
mild soap solution (not a detergent). It is important to avoid
using chemical cleaners and hydrocarbons such as diesel, petrol
etc.
Make sure that all open Robnet2 connectors are fitted with a
protection cap.
It is advisable at the start of each season to check all connections
to the control unit head and cover with Vaseline or WD40. If the
Control unit is not removed from the boat, it should be covered
with the white protection cover.
5.2
Autopilot Computer
No special maintenance is required. It is advisable, however, at
the start of each season to make a visual inspection of the
internal and check all connections.
5.3
Rudder Feedback
Make a visual inspection at 2-3 month intervals and at the start
of each season. Apply some grease at the ball joints when
required (RF300)
5.4
Compass
If the compass is exposed to the weather, make a visual
inspection at 2-3 months intervals, and at the start of each
season.
5.5
Drive unit
Refer to the drive unit manual for maintenance instructions.
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121
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
5.6
Exchange of software programme
Autopilot Computer
Autopilot
Computer
EPROM
Figure 5-1 AC10/AC20/AC40 Main PC-Board
• Remove the EPROM from the socket by means of the special
extraction tool (p/n 44139806).
• Insert the tool by pressing the two grip pins down into the two
slots in the corners of the socket.
• Squeeze the tool and pull out the EPROM.
• The identification tag indicates:
- Name of unit
- Part number
- Software version
Caution!
When inserting a new EPROM, make sure
the cut-off corner matches with the one in
the socket. Press it gently into the socket.
Cut-off
corner
Identification
tag
Slots
EPROM for AC10, AC20 and AC40
Autopilot Computers: P/N 22088462
After change of EPROM, perform a master
reset as described on page 117.
122
20221560F
Maintenance
Autopilot Control Unit
You will need a special kit for a PC to perform the programming
of the Control Unit. Order the following from Simrad:
Programming kit P/N 22088595.
Instructions are included.
Software
download
connector
Figure 5-2 Part of AP16 PCB
Remove the cables and unscrew the screws that secure the back
cover. Apply a firm pull with your fingers to pull the back cover
loose from the connector pins. Then you have access to the
software download connector.
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123
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
6
TROUBLE SHOOTING
An autopilot is a complex system. Its performance dependents
on a proper installation and a successful sea trial.
In the event of an autopilot failure, the AP16’s numerous test
features will assist you in isolating a probable fault.
Audible and visual alarm is provided for every fault being
detected.
The audible alarm is reset by pressing any button (e.g. by
changing mode from AUTO to STANDBY). All visual alarms
will remain and alternate with the operating display until the
fault has been rectified. Refer to the table below for hints and try
to solve the problem yourself. You may also consult your nearest
Simrad dealer for assistance, if required.
Perform any repair action in the listed sequence.
Notes!
1. ‘Compass difference’, ‘Vessel off course’, and ‘Rudder limit’
warnings are automatically reset when the error is rectified.
2. – – – in a display indicates that data is missing.
6.1
Alarms
Display readout
Probable fault
Recommended action
System failure Alarms:
The boat is off
course
Boats heading is
outside fixed off
course limit of 20
deg. (Automatic reset
when inside limit.)
Extreme weather
conditions, too slow
speed.
NAV. data failure Missing or invalid
NAV data.
1. Check steering parameters
(Rudder, Autotrim, Seastatefilter).
2. Increase Rudder value
3. Increase boat speed, if possible,
or steer by hand.
1. Check the Nav. Receiver/GPS
setup.
2. See Service menu Chapter 4.9
124
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Trouble shooting
Display readout
Shallow water
(Only if AP25 is
part of the
system)
Compass data
missing
Rudder feedback
failure (not
applicable for
Virtual feedback
installations)
Rudder response
failure
Rudder too slow
20221560F
Probable fault
Recommended action
The depth is inside
1. Carefully observe the actual
the set limit or outside
depth.
the range.
2. Adjust the alarm limit if not
Depth data is missing.
hazardous.
3. Steer to safe depth, the alarm
will reset automatically.
4. Turn off the shallow alarm if
data is missing.
No data from selected 1. If more that one compass is
compass.
connected to the system, refer to
the User Setup2/Source select
menu to select a different
compass.
2. Make a source update if no
compass is available.
3. Check connections.
4. Replace compass PCB (Note: Do
not cut cables. There are screw
terminals inside).
Rudder feedback
1. Check all connections.
signal missing or
2. Check the alignment as per the
erratic
installation instructions
3. Replace rudder feedback unit.
No response to rudder 1. Check all connections
command
2. Check Rudder FB transmission
link (not applicable for Virtual
feedback installations).
3. Check drive unit motor/brushes.
4. Replace the Autopilot Computer
Power PCB.
Excessive load on
1. Look for mechanical
steering gear. Air in
obstructions at the rudder/tiller/
hydraulic system.
quadrant. Check the back drive
Insufficient drive unit
force.
capacity.
2. Bleed the hydraulic system.
3. Replace with bigger pump unit.
125
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Display readout Probable fault
Rudder test failed Following conditions
may exist:
a) Rudder feedback
failure
b) Autopilot
Computer current
overload
c) Bypass/clutch
overload
Rudder moves in only
one direction
a) Poor connection to
one of the
solenoids
(continuously
running pump)
b) Faulty Power PCB
in autopilot
computer
Rudder test not
completed within 2
min.
a) Poor connections
to the drive unit
b) Faulty Main PCB
in the Autopilot
Computer
c) Faulty Power PCB
in the Autopilot
Computer
Rudder moves at full
speed to one side.
a) Faulty Power PCB
in Autopilot
Computer
126
Recommended action
Refer to recommended actions for
the specific probable faults.
a) Check the connections
b) Replace the Autopilot Computer
Power PCB
a) Check connections
b) Replace the Main PCB
c) Check the Power PCB for traces
of burned transistors. – Change
Power PCB.
Replace Autopilot Computer Power
PCB
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Trouble shooting
Display readout
Failure active
Control Unit
ACXX current
overload
Low 15 volt
Probable fault
Recommended action
Active control unit 1. Press the STBY button on an
goes silent.
"Inactive" unit to reset.
2. Check/repair RobNet2 cable.
3. Replace the control unit PCB.
The drive unit shut 1. Check the drive unit and drive unit
down due to an
installation/Manual steering/
excessive load or a
Rudder.
short circuit.
2. Disconnect the drive unit. If the
fault is still present, replace the
Autopilot Computer Power PCB.
Internal 15 Volt
1. Replace Autopilot Computer Main
supply in Autopilot
PCB
Computer below
2. Replace Autopilot Computer
limit.
Power PCB if Mains voltage is
12V.
Bypass/clutch
overload
Clutch/bypass
1. Check actual current
current exceeds 2,5 2. Check voltage marking on coil
Amps (overload or
3. Check coil resistance (through
short circuit).
connecting wires)
Bypass/clutch
disengaged
Poor connection or 1. Check connections
open circuit in
2. Replace bypass/clutch if open.
bypass/clutch coil
3. Perform new "Rudder test".
ACXX high
temp.
Excessive
1. Switch off autopilot
temperature in
2. Check for backload in Drive
Autopilot
unit/steering system.
Computer (>75°C),
possible long term 3. Check that the autopilot computer
specifications matches Drive unit.
overload.
Memory failure
ACXX
Wrong checksum
on memory
parameters or
variables.
Autopilot
Computer will use
default values.
20221560F
Perform a "Master reset" and make a
new "Dockside set-up". Switch off
and on again. If the alarm is repeated,
replace Autopilot Computer Main
PCB.
127
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Display readout
Probable fault
Recommended action
Com. failure with Faulty Autopilot
ACXX
Computer or poor
Robnet2 cable
connections from
the same.
1. Check Robnet2 connectors and
cable.
Low supply
voltage
1. Verify in the System Data Menu
Mains voltage less
than 9 Volts
2. Replace Autopilot Computer Main
PCB.
2. Switch autopilot off, charge
batteries
3. Check/repair battery charger
High supply
voltage
128
AC20/AC40 Mains 1. Verify in the System Data Menu
exceeds 44 V
2. Switch the autopilot off
AC10 Mains
3. Check / repair battery charger
exceeds 29 V
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Spare parts list
7
SPARE PARTS LIST
AP16 Control Unit
22087399 AP16 Control Unit
22088207 AP16 mounting kit consisting of:
22087589 Gasket
22084529 Cabinet corner
44165181 Screw 3,5x19
44165645 Screw 3,5x32
22088249 Optional mounting kit consisting of:
44141778 Screw M4x12
22087621 Cradle
22087605 Right bracket
22087613 Left bracket
22084859 Locking knob
44163145 Locking washer for left and right
bracket
44163160 Cradle, locking washer
22087514 AP16 Sub Ass’y (incl. board and front ass’y)
22087498 AP16 Back plate Ass’y
22087373 AP16 Board Ass'y
22091854 AP16 Protection Cover
22087662 AP16 Software
Autopilot Computers
22088108 AC10 Autopilot Computer
22088116 AC20 Autopilot Computer
22088124 AC40 Autopilot Computer
22081707 AC20 Installation accessories
22081855 AC10 Installation accessories
22081962 AC40 Installation accessories
22081251 AC20 Power PCB Ass'y
22081715 AC10 Power PCB Ass'y
22088694 AC40 Power PCB Ass'y
22088447 AC Main PCB Ass'y (All models)
22088462 PROM for all autopilot computers
22081434 AC10/AC20 Base plate
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129
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
22082036
22081350
22081368
AC40 Base plate
Main cover
Terminal cover
RFC35 Electronic Fluxgate Compass
22086995
22081442
22081178
RFC35 Fluxgate Compass
Installation accessories consisting of:
20104972 Mounting plate (2)
44140762 Screw 3.5x25 (2)
44140770 Screw 30x9 (4)
22081376 Plug (2)
RFC35 PCB Ass'y
RC36 Rate compass
22086920
22081442
22086938
24005647
RC36 Rate Compass
Installation Accessories Consisting of:
20104972 Mounting plate (2)
44140762 Screw 3.5x25 (2)
44140770 Screw 30x9 (4)
22081376 Plug (2)
RC36 PCB Ass'y
RobNet2 Cable, 15 m with Plug
RF300 Rudder Feedback Unit
20193744
20193470
20193454
130
RF300 Rudder Feedback
RF300 transmission lever
RF300 transmission link
44133122 Transmission rod M5x325mm
20193624 RF300 Ball joint Ass'y (2)
20221560F
Spare parts list
Robnet2 cables
24005613
Robnet2 cable, 1 m (3’) with two plugs
24005621
Robnet2 cable, 5 m (16’) with two plugs
24005639
Robnet2 cable, 10 m (33’) with two plugs
24005647
24005662
Robnet2 cable 15 m (49’) with one plug
Robnet2, T-joint
SimNet cables and accessories
24005829
SimNet cable 0.3 m (1’)
24005837
SimNet cable 2 m (6.6’)
24005845
SimNet cable 5 m (16.6’)
24005852
SimNet cable 10 m (33’)
24005860
SimNet T-joiner
24005878
SimNet cable gland
24005886
SimNet protection plug
24005894
SimNet termination plug
24005902
SimNet power w/termination 2 m (6.6’)
24005910
SimNet power w/o termination 2 m (6.6’)
24005936
AT10 Universal NMEA0183 converter
24005944
AT15 Active Tee w/connector, IS15
24005928
SimNet cable protection cap
24005729
SimNet cable to Micro-C. Adapter (drop) cable for
SimNet products in a NMEA2000 network.
Tools
44139806
20221560F
Extraction tool for EPROM
131
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
8
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
8.1
AP16 Autopilot System
Boat size and type:..................... Up to 80 feet, Power, Displacement, Sail
Steering system types: ............... Hydraulic, Mechanical
Inter-unit connection: ................ ROBNET network or two-wire supply/data
System ON/OFF: ....................... From control units
Supply voltage:.......................... See autopilot computers
Power consumption: .................. Dependent on system configuration
Environmental Protection:
Control Unit: ..................... IP56 from front, IP43 from back.
RFC35, RC36, CDI35: ..... IP56
RF300: .............................. IP56
AC10, AC20, AC40:......... IP44
EMC protection: ........................ EN60945 : 1993, A1 : 1993
Automatic Steering control:
Rudder Drive: ................... Proportional rate or solenoid on/off
Parameter selection:.......... Automatic with manual override
Sea state control:............... Adaptive sea state filter or manual
Language selection: ................... English, Norwegian, French, Spanish, German,
Italian, Dutch, Swedish.
Electronic Interface:
Navigation interface:......... Standard (NMEA 0183)
NMEA inp./outp. ports: .... Max. 6 (see junction units and NI300X
specifications)
NMEA input sentences:.... APA, APB, BOD, BWC, BWR, BWW, DBT,
DPT, GGA, GLL, MTW, MWV, RMA, RMB,
RMC, VHW, VLW, VTG, XTE.
NMEA output sentences:.. BWC, BWW, GLL, HDG, HDM, HDT, HSC,
RMB, RMC, RSA, VTG, XTE.
See chapter 8.12 for NMEA0183 details.
Optional output: ............... Simrad and Furuno radar display (clock/data)
NMEA2000 interface........ Via SimNet port and SimNet/NMEA2000
adapter cable
132
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Technical specifications
Heading sensors:
Standard: ........................... RFC35 Electronic Fluxgate compass
Options:............................. RC36 Rate Compass
NMEA Compass (Not AC10)
Simrad RGC50/RGC10 gyrocompasses *
* By GI51
Course Selection:....................... Rotary course dial and push button
Alarms: ...................................... Audible and visual, optional external
Alarm modes: ............................ Off course, system failures, overload
Steering modes: ......................... Standby, Non-follow up, Follow-up, Auto, Nav,
Wind
Special Turn modes: .................. Dodging, Tacking, Gybing, U-Turn
Instrument screen interface:
Instrument screen
NMEA0183 messages and SimNet
MAIN (HDG+RUDDER)
ROBNET2 PROPRIETARY, NMEA HDT
and HTG, SimNet
SPEED/DEPTH
VHW + DBT/DPT, SimNet
APPARENT WIND
MWV, SimNet
TRUE WIND/WIND DIRECT. MWV + VTG/RMC; SimNet
POSITION
GGA/RMC, SimNet
NAV/TRACK DATA
APB + VTG/RMC + GGA/RMC +
RMB/BWC, SimNet
LOG/SEA TEMPERATURE
VLW + MTW, SimNet
Note !
8.2
Alternative messages are separated by slashes.
AP16 Control Unit
Dimensions: ............................... See Figure 8-1
Weight: ...................................... 0,5 kg (1.1 lbs)
Power consumption ................... 3 W
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133
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Display:
Type: ................................. Backlit LCD matrix display
Resolution: ........................ 160 x 128 pixels
Colour: ....................................... Black
Illumination: .............................. Adjustable in 10 steps
Environmental Protection:......... IP56 from front, IP43 from back.
Safe distance to compass: .......... 0.5 m (1.6 ft.)
Temperature:
Operating: ......................... 0 to +55 °C (+32 to +130 °F)
Storage: ............................. –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Figure 8-1 AP16 Control Unit – dimensions
(Mounting bracket is optional equipment)
134
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Technical specifications
8.3
Autopilot Computers
Dimensions: ............................... See Figure 8-2 and Figure 8-3
Weight:
AC10/AC20 ...................... 1,3 kg (2,9 lbs.)
AC40................................. 2,8 kg (6,2 lbs)
Supply voltage:
AC10................................. 10-28V DC
AC20/AC40 ...................... 10-40V DC
Reverse voltage protection ........ Yes (not AC40)
Power consumption: .................. 5 Watt (electronics)
Motor / solenoid drive:
AC10:................................ 6 A continuous, 12 A for 5 sec.
AC20:................................ 10 A continuous, 20 A for 5 sec.
AC40:................................ 20 A continuous, 40 A for 5 sec.
Heading Sensor input: ............... Composite pulse width modulated
Rudder feedback input:.............. Frequency signal, 3400 Hz., 20 Hz/deg.
Rudder feedback units: .............. RF300, LF3000
NMEA input/output ports:......... AC10: 1 (one)
AC20, AC40: 2 (two)
External Alarm: ......................... Open collector (not AC10)
Temperature range:
Operation: ......................... 0 to +55 °C (+32 to +130 °F)
Storage: ............................. –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Mounting: .................................. Bulkhead mount
Material:..................................... Anodized aluminum and black ABS cover
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135
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Figure 8-2 AC10/AC20 Autopilot Computer - Dimensions
Figure 8-3 AC40 Autopilot Computer - Dimensions
136
20221560F
Technical specifications
8.4
RFC35 Fluxgate compass
Dimensions: ............................... See Figure 8-4
Weight: ...................................... 0,9 kg (2,0 lbs)
Supply and output:..................... Polarity independent 2-wire supply with
superimposed pulse width modulation
Automatic Performance:
Calibration: ....................... Automatically activated by control head
Gain compensation: .......... Automatically adjusted continuously
Repeatability:............................. ± 0.5 degrees
Roll/Pitch:.................................. ± 35 degrees
Accuracy:................................... ± 3 degrees after calibration
Cable supplied: .......................... 15 m TP shielded cable
Temperature range:
Operation: ......................... 0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ............................. –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Environmental Protection:......... IP56
Mounting: .................................. Deck or bulkhead
Material:..................................... Black ABS
Figure 8-4 RFC35 Fluxgate Compass - Dimensions
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137
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
8.5
RC36 Rate compass
Dimensions: ............................... Same as RFC35. See Figure 8-4
Weight: ...................................... 0,9 kg (2,0 lbs)
Supply and interface:................. Robnet
Power consumption: .................. 0,9 watts
Automatic Performance:
Calibration: ....................... Automatically activated by control head ....
Gain compensation: .......... Automatically adjusted continuously
Rate sensor stabilized heading output
Accuracy:................................... <1.25° (rms)
Repeatability:............................. <0.2° (rms)
Roll/Pitch:.................................. ± 35 degrees
Cable supplied: .......................... 15 m TP shielded Robnet2 cable
Temperature range:
Operation: ......................... 0 to +55 °C (+32 to + 130 °F)
Storage: ............................. –30 to +70 °C (–22 to +158 °F)
Environmental Protection:......... IP56
Mounting: .................................. Deck or bulkhead
Material:..................................... White ABS
8.6
RF300 Rudder Feedback
Dimensions: ............................... See Figure 8-5 and Figure 8-6.
Weight: ...................................... 0,5 kg (1,1 lbs)
Material: .................................... Arnite T06 200 PBT
Environmental Protection:......... IP56
Temperature range:
Operation: ......................... –25 to +55 °C (–13 to +130 °F)
Storage: ............................. –30 to +70 °C (–22 to + 158 °F)
Mounting: ................................. Horizontal, vertical, or upside down
Cable supplied: .......................... 10 m (33 ft.) twisted pair shielded cable
Rudder angle:............................. ± 90 degrees
Output signal: ............................ Polarity independent two wire frequency signal
138
20221560F
Technical specifications
Frequency resolution: ....... Centre: 3400 Hz, 20 Hz/degree of change
Linearity:........................... ± 3 degrees up to 45 degrees of rudder
Transmission link: ..................... Stainless 350mm (13.8") with 2 ball joints.
Ball joint stud for rudder arm requires 4.2mm
diameter hole and 5mm tap.
Figure 8-5 RF300 Rudder Feedback - Dimensions
Figure 8-6 Transmission link - Dimensions
20221560F
139
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
8.7
R3000X Remote Control
Dimensions: .... See Figure 8-7
Weight:............ 0,4 kg (0,9 lbs)
Material:.......... Epoxy coated aluminum
Protection ........ IP56
Safe distance to compass: 0.15 m (0.5 ft.)
Temperature range:
Operation: ...–25 to +55 °C (–13 to +130 °F)
Storage: .......–30 to +70 °C (–22 to + 158 °F)
Cable length: ... 7 m, shielded
Mounting bracket:....... Supplied
Figure 8-7 R3000X - Dimensions
8.8
JS10 Joystick
Dimensions: ...............................................See Figure 8-8
Weight: .......................................................0.5 kg (1.1 lbs.)
Environmental Protection:
Joystick.............................................................. IP66
Terminals........................................................... IP20
Safe distance to compass:.......................... 0.15 m (0.5 ft.)
Shock resistance (according to MIL 202 B method 202
A):
1/2 sinusoid 11 ms:
No damage or disassembling at 100 g
Figure 8-8
JS10 Joystick
Dimensions
140
Vibration resistance (according to IEC 68-2-6):
16 g with frequency range from 40 to 500 Hz and
maximum shifting 0,75 mm (peak -to- peak)
Temperature range:
Operation: .....................–25 to +70°C (–13 to +158°F)
Storage: ........................ –40 to +70°C (–40 to +158°F)
Mounting: ..................................................... Panel-mount
Cable: ..................................................... 10 meters (33 ft.)
20221560F
Technical specifications
8.9
IS15 Rudder
Dimensions: ............................... See Figure 8-9
Weight: ...................................... 225 grams
Material:.....................................
Environmental Protection:......... IP56 from front, IP44 from rear
Power requirement: .................. 12/24 VDC, 70 mA (100 mA max with max
lighting)
Safe distance to compass: .......... 0.15 m (0.5 ft.)
Temperature: Operating: ........ –0 to +55°C (+32 to +130°F)
Storage: ............................. –30 to +70°C (–22 to +158°F)
Scale: ......................................... Full deflection adjustable for any h.o. angle
between ±20° and ±45°. Divisions: Marking per
each 1/8 of full deflection. Accuracy: ±2° of full
scale deflection.
Heading Display (Digital): ........ 0 to 359°
Heading Resolution: .................. 1°
Heading reference:..................... True or Magnetic North
Heading Lock: ........................... Course and direction to steer on digital display
Course to Steer: ......................... Settable on digital display
Display Backlighting:................ Green color with seven levels plus Off
Display Backlighting Control:... Two independent lighting banks or individual
settings (bank 0)
Inputs: Rudder Angle: ............ 2-wire p.w.m.
NMEA 0183, RSA
Roblink (IS15 system)
Compass heading: ...... NMEA 0183, HDG, HDM, HDT
Outputs: Rudder Angle:............ NMEA 0183, RSA, 5 Hz*
Compass heading: ...... NMEA 0183, HDG
Other:.......................... NMEA 0183 sentences according to IS15
NMEA in/out table.
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141
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Figure 8-9 IS15 Rudder - Dimensions
8.10
SimNet
Maximum number of products connected in a network:...................................... 50
Maximum cable length: ............. .........................................................120 m (400’)
Bit rate of the bus: ..................... ....................................................250 Kbit/second
Maximum DC current through a single SimNet plug ......................................... 5A
SimNet power supply: ............... ................................................................. 12VDC
Maximum drop cable length:..... ...............................................................6 m (20’)
Maximum total length of all drop cables (accumulated):......................60 m (200’)
Environmental protection: Cable and plug/connector system.......................... IP66
Temperature:.............................. ........................................................ 70°C (158°F)
142
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Technical specifications
8.11
IP protection
Each part of a Simrad autopilot system has a two digits IP
protection code.
The IP rating is a method to classify the degree of protection
against solid objects, water ingress and impact afforded by
electrical equipment and enclosures. The system is recognized in
most European countries and is set out in a number of British
and European standards.
The first code number describes the protection against solid
objects, and the second number describes the protection against
liquids.
FIRST NUMBER
Protection against solid
objects
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SECOND NUMBER
Protection against liquids
IP TESTS
IP
TESTS
0
No protection
0
No protection
1
Protection against solid
objects up to 50 mm, eg.
accidental touch by hands.
1
Protected against vertically falling
drops of water (eg. condensation).
2
Protection against solid
objects up to 12 mm, eg.
fingers.
2
Protected against direct sprays of water
up to 15° from the vertical.
3
Protection against solid
objects over 2.5 mm (tools +
wires)
3
Protected against sprays to 60° from the
vertical.
4
Protection against solid
objects over 1 mm (tools +
wires + small wires)
4
Protected against water sprayed from
any direction.
5
Protection against dust limited ingress (no harmful
deposit)
5
Protected against low pressure jets of
water from all directions - limited
ingress permitted.
6
Totally protected against
dust
6
Protected against strong jets of water,
eg. for use on shipdecks - limited
ingress permitted.
7
Protected against the effects of
immersion between 15 cm and 1 m.
8
Protected against long periods of
immersion under pressure.
143
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
8.12
NMEA and SimNet messages
Accept. cond. (N=nav. flag, P= pos. flag):
Status flag
Compass_Data
Compass heading, M 1)
Compass heading, T
Rudder angle
Wind_Data
Apparent wind angle
Apparent wind speed 1)
True wind angle
True wind speed
Velocity made good to windward 1)3)
2
GLL
RMA
p
p
1
3
1
1)
Depth_Data
Depth ref transducer
Transducer-Keel Offset
Speed_Temp_Data
Speed through water 1)
Log distance and trip
Water temperature
Present position Lat, Lon 1)
COG, T
COG, M 1)
Magnetic variation
SOG 1)
Nav_Data
To-wp position 1)
To-wp ident.
Bearing wp-wp, T
Bearing wp-wp, M 1)
Bearing pos-wp, T
Bearing pos-wp, M 1)
Distance pos-wp 1)
XTE 1)
Waypoint closure velocity 1)
Steering_contr1
AC NMEA-1 Rx:
Heading steering cmd, T / M
AC NMEA-2 Rx:
AC NMEA-1 TX:
AC NMEA-2 TX:
p
P P P
P* P P
Rudder_Data
Gps_Data
GGA
VBW
VHW 2)
VLW
DPT
MTW
c
VPW
DBT
h
2)
h
2)
RSA
h
MWV
HDT
Data source: (n/p/h=nav/pos/heading source, c=calculated):
HDM
Message ident.
HDG
NMEA0183 messages and data overview for AC10, AC20, AC40
Transmission interval in sec.->
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
x x
1 1
.1* 1
2
1
5
1
x
1
.1*
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
.2
x
x
2
x
x
1. Information required to operate in WINDN mode
2. Recommended sentences for operating in WINDN mode
3. If the VPW sentence is not available, the autopilot will calculate the
VMG internally.
144
20221560F
Technical Specifications
Remarks:
3
2
6
2
3
1
4
3
3
6
3
3
4
4
5
2
2
x
x
2
x
x
20221560F
x
x
c
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
2
2
2
1 3
1 3*
1 3
1 2
1
x
x
x
x
10 10
x
x
3
4
x
x
2
x
x
5 10
10
OutACXX
n
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
x
d
d
d
d
x
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
2
3
x
x
2
n
AP27
n
AP26
n
N* N* N N
N N
AP25
n
N
n
AP16
n
P P* N N
P
N
HSC
BWR
RMB 2)
XTE
BWC
p
BWW
VTG 2)
p
APB 2)
BOD
RMC 2)
Indata use
* Pos flag or NMEA version 3.01
N/P=nav/pos data warning, *DGPS if flag=2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x * Only if Magnetic variation is present
x
x
x
x
* HDG out if magn. sensor, HDT out if true sensor
145
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
Rudder angle
Wind Data
Apparent wind angle 1)
Apparent wind speed 1)
True wind angle
True wind speed
Depth Data
Depth ref transducer
Transducer-Keel Offset
Speed Data
Distance Log Data
Temperature Data
Speed through water 1)
Log distance and trip
Water temperature
Position Data
Present position Lat, Lon 1)
COG 1)
Magnetic variation
SOG 1)
Navigation Data
To-wp position 1)
To-wp ident.
Bearing wp-wp 1)
Bearing pos-wp 1)
Distance pos-wp 1)
XTE 1)
Waypoint closure velocity 1)
Steering Data
APXX Gateway
Heading steering cmd, T / M
127250
128259
130577
129026
129029
128259
WaS
128275
130310
WaT
129025
Rudder Data
65408*
Compass heading 1)
Dl
Compass Data
Dl
Dl=Distance log, C=Calculated):
128267
C
D
130306
H
Wa / Wt
N=nav, P=pos, H=heading, D=depth, Wa=Wind apparent,
Wt=Wind True, WaS=Water Speed/ WaT=Water temp,
127245
Message ident.
Data source:
127250
SimNet/NMEA2000 messages and data overview
P P P P P P
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
1
x*
x
x*
x*
x*
x* x*
x*
1
x*
Additional PGNs supported
Simrad Propriatory
61184 Parameter Command
65480 Parameter Reply
130840 DataUserGroup Configuration
65323 DataUserGroup Request
NMEA2000
59392 ISO acknowledge
60928 ISO Adress claim
1) Information required to operate in WINDN mode.
146
20221560F
Technical Specifications
Remarks:
1
x* x* x*
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x
Out Gateway
1
AP26
1
1
1
1
1
AP25
C
AP16
N N
127237
65357*
129284
129283
Indata use
d
d
d
x
d
d
d
x
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
x
x
x
x
d
d
d
x In INFO views Depth+Offset is displayed if
x offset is present
d
d
d
d
d
d
x
x
x
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
* SimNet proprietary
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
*Only transmitted if NMEA183/RC36/RFC35 is source
147
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
9
GLOSSARY
Apparent wind – The speed and direction from which the wind
appears to blow with reference to the bow when the boat is
moving (also called relative wind).
Arrival alarm – An alarm signal issued by a GPS/chartplotter
that indicates arrival at or at a predetermined distance from a
waypoint. (see arrival circle).
Arrival circle – An artificial boundary placed around the
destination waypoint of the present navigation leg, the entering
of which will signal an arrival alarm.
Bearing – The horizontal direction of one terrestrial point from
another, expressed as the angular distance from a reference
direction, usually measured from 000° at the reference direction
clockwise through 359°.
BPW – Bearing to a specified waypoint from present position.
BWW – Bearing waypoint to waypoint - Bearing angle of the
line between the “TO” and the “FROM” waypoint, calculated at
the “FROM” waypoint for any two arbitrary waypoints.
COG - Course Over Ground - The actual direction of progress
of a vessel, between two points, with respect to the surface of the
earth, The vessel’s heading may differ from the course over
ground due to the effects of wind, tide, currents.
GPS - Global Positioning System - This system is based on
satellites in fixed orbits, circling the earth at an altitude of
approximately 20,200 km. The system will provide the user with
24 hour a day all weather position coverage, with an accuracy of
5 to 30 meters.
Magnetic bearing – Bearing relative to magnetic north;
compass bearing corrected for deviation.
Magnetic deviation – A local magnetic field onboard a vessel.
Can interfere with the earth’s magnetic field and create compass
readings that may deviate from the actual magnetic heading. The
deviation will vary with the actual heading.
Magnetic heading – heading relative to magnetic north.
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20221560F
Glossary
Magnetic variation - A magnetic compass points to the
magnetic north pole. The difference between this direction and
true north is the magnetic variation. The amount and direction of
this variation is dependent upon where on the earth you are
located.
NMEA0183 - A format (language) designed to permit
communication between various types of marine electronic
equipment. In essence this is a two-wire shielded, serial data
link, permitting one device to talk while other devices listen.
Numerous different sentences are available, permitting
communication between various different devices.
NMEA2000 – A modern serial-data communications network to
interconnect marine electronic equipment onboard vessels.
Equipment designed to this standard will have the ability to
share data, including commands and status, with other
compatible equipment over a single signalling channel.
Product ID – A number, suffix, acronym or term that can
identify a product.
Product name – The name of a Simrad product known from
sales and other literature.
Route - A stored sequence of waypoints. These waypoints will
be listed in the order in which you desire to follow them.
SimNet Source – Any product or device directly connected to
SimNet or NMEA2000, or interfaced to SimNet via NMEA0183
or Robnet2.
Simrad Group – A number of Simrad products that are
selecting and sharing the same data sources via the SimNet
network.
Simrad Class 1 products – Simrad products that are SimNet
controllers, i.e. they have an appropriate display and routines
that can set up and control the SimNet.
Simrad Class 2 products – Simrad products that do not contain
a SimNet controller. When connected to SimNet they will
automatically pick the first available source on SimNet and lock
on to that. When a Class 1 product is added to the Simrad Group,
Class 2 products will automatically subordinate themselves to
the Class 1 source selection.
SOG - Speed over ground is the actual speed of the vessel
relative to the ocean floor.
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149
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
True bearing – Bearing relative to true north; compass bearing
corrected for compass error.
True heading – Heading relative to true north (the meridian).
Waypoint - A discrete point, stored in a navigator, located on
the surface of the earth. Normally this point will be identified by
Lat/Lon coordinates although in some systems it may be shown
by T.D.'s.
XTE - Cross Track Error - Used to identify a vessels position
relative to a straight line drawn between two waypoints. The
amount the vessel is off to the left or to the right of this line is
known as the track. It is normally displayed in thousands of a
nautical mile, equal to 6 ft or 1.85 m.
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Index
10
INDEX
offset, 105
A
alarm
external, 79
listing, 124
apparent wind, 32, 41, 148
arrival circle, 29
auto setup, 83
automatic tuning, 105
autopilot computer
depth offset, 105
depth source, 43
display units, 98
dockside settings, 87
dodging, 24
dodging in Nav mode, 30
drive engage, 91
drive out, 90
drive unit
hydraulic pumps, 60
linear drive, 60
maintenance, 121
reversible pump, 62
solenoid valve, 63
stern drive, 18
voltage, 88
installation, 57
maintenance, 121
specifications, 135
autotrim, 112
B
backlight, 40
boat type, 88
F
C
fluxgate compass
installation, 68
specifications, 137
cable
Robnet, 65
specifications, 58
compass
calibration, 101
deviation, 102
maintenance, 121
offset, 103
selection, 43
contrast, 44
control unit
front panel, 16
installation, 64
maintenance, 121
specifications, 133
counter rudder, 45, 105
setting, 111
Course knob icon, 39
D
depth
20221560F
G
grounding, 58
gybing, 34
H
heading capture, 21
I
illumination. See backlight
Init NAV, 107
instrument
installation, 78
screen, 47
selection, 49
instrument select, 44
interface setting, 98
interfacing, 70
151
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
IP protection code, 143
R
L
racing, 37, 41
radar connection, 78
radar interface, 98
rate compass
language, 87
layline, 37, 41
linear feedback
installation, 80
lock function, 38
log source, 43
loopback, 115
installation, 69
specifications, 140
response, 45
rudder, 45, 105
M
master reset, 84, 117
Minimum rudder, 101
minimum wind angle, 93
modes of operation
auto, 21
navigating, 27
NoDrift, 26
standby, 16
wind, 31
multiple station, 38
N
NAV change limit, 29, 108
NAV source, 40, 43
navigating, 27
NFU Steering lever, 13, 20
NMEA data, 114
NMEA input/output, 76
NMEA messages, 144
NMEA test, 115
NoDrift, 26
non-follow-up steering, 19
P
parameter
adjust, 110
parameter selection
automatic, 22
manual, 23
Position source, 43
152
installation, 69
recall autotuned, 112
remote control
setting, 111
rudder angle, 113
Rudder deadband, 92
rudder feedback
calibration, 89
installation, 55
maintenance, 121
specifications, 138
rudder limit, 112
Rudder play compensation,
108
rudder test, 90
rudder zero adjust, 100
S
sea trial, 99
seastate filter, 45
seatrial
final, 118
service menu, 112
setup, 83
SimNet, 9, 43, 67, 71
backlight, 116
gateway, 116
number, 116
reset, 116
setup, 116
specifications, 142
SimNet messages, 146
Simrad
group, 116
20221560F
Index
software program exchange,
123
software setup, 83
source manually update, 43
source update, 42
specifications, 132
steering lever
installation, 70
system
basic, 10
components, 10
specifications, 132
with options, 55
system data, 113
user set-up, 39
user training, 119
U-turn, 24
V
Virtual feedback, 87, 95, 108
VMG, 37, 41
W
water speed source, 43
water temperature source, 43
wind
damping, 104
offset, 104
T
tack angle, 93
tack time, 33, 94
tacking
in auto mode, 25
in wind mode, 33
transition speed, 22, 107
True bearing, 150
True heading, 150
true wind, 32, 41
turn on, 83
20221560F
U
wind angle adjust, 93
wind angle source, 43
wind auto, 40
wind calculated source, 43
wind response, 46
wind setup, 41, 92
wind shift alarm, 94
wind vane steering, 31
153
Simrad AP16 Autopilot
154
20221560F