American Standard 200A Technical information

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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
AN APPLICATION GUIDE FOR ELECTRICAL CONTROL CIRCUITS
IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION
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DISCLAIMER
This document is intended to provide general technical information on
particular subject or subjects and is not an exhaustive treatment of such
subjects. Accordingly, the information in this document is not intended
to constitute application, design, software or other professional
engineering advice or services. Before making any decision or taking any
action, which might affect your equipment, you should consult
qualified professional advisor.
Rockwell Automation does not warrant the completeness, timeliness
or accuracy of any of the data contained in this document and may
make changes thereto at any time in its sole discretion without notice.
Excerpts from “UL Standard for Safety for Industrial Control Panels,
UL508A” are copyright Underwriter’s Laboratories Inc.
Excerpts from the “2005 National Electrical Code” are copyright National
Fire Protection Association.
Rockwell Automation wishes to thank the editors Matteo Marconi and Gino
Zampieri for their collaboration.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Contents
Introduction to North American Standards
1. Comparison between two cultures and markets: The United States and
the European Union. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1.1 Different juridical approaches: how are "safety" and "security"
implemented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Market control systems and Control bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 The role of the AHJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4 Obligations of machinery manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2. Historical evolution of the North American regulations . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1 Certification authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3. Main reference texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1 Component certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4. Machinery and plant certification in the USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Feeder and Branch Circuits
1. Switching and protection of the electrical equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.1 The different types of circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.2 Power circuits and control circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2. The switching device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.1 Sizing the switch in accordance to UL 508 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2 Sizing according to the CEC for the Canadian market . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3 Sizing in accordance with the NEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4 Conforming components that can be used for switching . . . . . . . . 24
2.5 Components that cannot be used for switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.6 Components accepted with restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3. Feeder overcurrent protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1 How to protect the electrical equipment from over currents . . . . . . 28
4. Internal wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1 Distribution mounts, Power Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2 Sizing of the Feeding Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.3 Reduction of the cross-sections downline from the feeder conductors . 32
5. Sockets and plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6. Fuses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.1 Class CC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.2 Class J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
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6.3 Class K, RK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Branch Circuit
1. Starting, load protection and motors (Branch Circuit) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.1 Different types of branch circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.2 Motor branch circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.2.1 Motor starter “Type A” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.2.2 Motor starter “Type B, C and D” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.2.3 Motor starter “Type E” and “Type F” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
1.3 Sizing of the protections and of the branch circuit components . . . . 44
1.3.1 Three-phase direct starter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.4 Wye-delta starting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.5 Group Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1.5.1 Dimensioning of branch circuit protections . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1.5.2 Sizing of conductors to a single motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
1.6 Three-phase, two speed or Dahlander motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1.7 Reversal of direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1.8 VDF inverter and softstarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1.9 Heater branch circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
1.10 Lighting branch circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
1.11 Appliance branch circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Control Circuits
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Control Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
1.1 Definition of Remote Control Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
1.1.1 Classification of the circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
1.2 Control circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
1.3 Control circuit: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
1.3.1 Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
1.3.2 External Wire: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
1.3.3 Terminal Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
1.3.4 Internal wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
1.3.5 Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
1.4 Special prescriptions for Control Circuit Class 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
1.5 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
1.6 Control Circuit Class 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
1.6.1 Power supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
1.6.2 Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
1.6.3 External Wiring and Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
1.6.4 Internal Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
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1.7 Low-Voltage Limited Energy Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
1.7.1 Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
1.7.2 Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
1.7.3 External Wiring and Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
1.7.4 Internal Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1.7.5 Circuits and components excluded from class 2 and
Low-voltage limited-energy circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1.8 Transformer and self transformer protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
1.8.1 Protections allowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
1.9 Control of the temperature in the panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Industrial Machinery
1. NEC 2005 and article 670 on Industrial Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
1.1 Machinery categories in "Industrial Machinery" . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2. Special requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.1 Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.2 Sizing of the feeder overcurrent protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.3 Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.4 Minimum power cable section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
2.5 Conductor colours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3. Short Circuit Current Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.1 Short Circuit Current Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.1.1 National Electric Code Changes Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.1.2 Determining Your Panel Short Circuit Current Rating . . . . . . 95
3.1.3 High Fault Short Circuit Current Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.1.4 High Fault Component Short Circuit Current Rating . . . . . . 100
3.1.5 Marking Your Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
1.
Comparison between two cultures and markets:
The United States and the European Union
1.1 Different juridical approaches: how are "Safety" and
"Security" implemented?
In the European Union
The national technical regulations are subject to provisions of articles 28 and 30
of the treaty establishing the European Community (the EU treaty) that
prohibit quantitative restrictions and all other measures having equivalent effect.
With the Council's decision on a new strategy aiming at technical harmonisation
and standardisation, a new technical regulation has been established to set the
following principles:
■ Legislative harmonisation is limited to the essential requirements that products
imported to the Community market should respect to circulate freely within
the Community
■ The product technical specifications that meet the essential requirements
set in the directives are defined as harmonised standards
■ The application of harmonised standards or other kinds are voluntary and the
manufacturer can always apply other technical specifications to meet the
foreseen requirements
■ The products manufactured following the harmonised standards are
considered as complying to the corresponding essential requirements
■ The provisions in the directives of the new approach prevail over any other
equivalent national provision
■ The member states have the obligation to incorporate the directives of the
new approach in their national law
■ Any national legislative, regulatory or administrative provisions adopted must
be reported to the European Commission
In The United States
Regulations for the United States are contained in the “Code of Federal
Regulations” (CFR) which is the Code of the standards issued by the Executive
and the Federal Agencies.The CFR is divided into titles (for example, title 29 Labor, is about all regulations related to employment). Every title is sub-divided
into chapters (chapter XVII of title 29 is about occupational health and safety
standards, divided by sectors).
It is important to highlight how the CFR details health and safety requirements,
unlike the European system in which this role is subjected to specific standards.
Regulations on electrical equipment is contained in title 29, chapter XVII, subpart
S (1910.3).
Besides CFR, the National Electrical Code (NEC) is the reference standard
for electrical systems in the United States.
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
1.2 Market control systems and Control bodies
The control structure in the European Union is carried through the Production
Ministry (or Industrial and Commerce Ministries) and from the local organisations
(in Italy, for example, the ASL or SPISAL Services of Prevention and Protection).
In EU countries, manufacturers have had to build machinery and/or components
observing the Directives in force in their specific sector, and referring to the
harmonised standards.
The Declaration of Conformity, issued by the manufacturer, and the CE conformity
mark, are proofs of compliance with the Directives and they are not subject to
verification by third bodies unless in particular cases (some categories of
dangerous machinery, lifting equipment, PED pressurised containers, etc.).
In Europe the intervention of authorities generally occurs after an accident, as a
preventive assessment or as a result of an external evidence signalling presumed
non conformity.
Procedures foreseen in the safeguard clauses of the relevant directives are
triggered after these controls.
Supervision in the United States market is in the hands, first,
of the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Administration) and the NIOSH (National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health).
The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established both NIOSH and
OSHA. OSHA belongs to the Department of Labor and is in charge of developing
and enforcing safety and health standards in working environments by issuing
accurate regulations and standards. OSHA plays another extremely important role
in safety as it is the only organisation authorised to accredit a National
Recognised Testing Laboratory (NRTL), that is laboratories authorised to
certify component and material conformity according to standards in force.
On the other hand, NIOSH belongs to the Department of
Health and Human Services and it is an agency set up to
ensure adequate labour conditions, through research,
information and training of workers.
The local (county) supervision and checks are managed by the inspector with
jurisdiction known as AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction).
Here is a brief outline of the Canadian supervisory structure
derived from the mix between the American counties
(especially in the Western states) and the European
governmental structure.There are “municipalities” that
managed their own local territory, and on the other hand, there are the “agencies”
working within only one state (for instance, the Electrical Safety Authority,
ESA, in the state of Ontario).Afterwards each single Labour ministry accredits the
inspection bodies.
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and
Safety (CCHOS): it is the Canadian equivalent of the
American OSHA. From 1978 the role of this Centre is
to provide occupational safety guidelines for factories and working places, which
are valid throughout the Canadian federation. Like for OSHA, the rules defined by
CCOHS can be modified by the Labour ministry of each state provided it
enhances safety.
1.3 The role of the AHJ
The North American approach is completely different from the European one.
Self-certification is not considered satisfactory and the safety of a plant or
machinery is based on the premise that everything has been previously controlled
and certified.
The guidelines compiled by OSHA are taken as reference by AHJs to settle their
own safety rules for workers;AHJs can modify the OSHA prescriptions only for
the sake of safety.
In particular,Annex G, article 80.13 of the National Electrical Code reads: “The
Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to render
interpretations of this Code in order to provide clarifications to its
requirements.”
This affirmation in the NEC is fundamental as it enacts the possibility for an AHJ
to interpret the NEC and accordingly approve or not, in the last resort, some
machinery or any electrical equipment.
The inspection by Supervisory authorities consists of:
■ checking that the design and manufacture are based on the rules and
legislation in force
■ checking that the components used are certified by an accredited NRTL
laboratory
The responsibility of these bodies is to check conformity with the safety standards
in force under operating conditions (industrial plants or machinery). For example,
for electrical systems this inspection in done by referring to the NEC installation
codes.
1.4 Obligations of machinery manufacturers
The obligations for machinery manufacturers who try to import their products
into the European Economic Space (EES) or the North American market can be
summarized as follows:
■ to enter the EES: obligation to follow the reference directives for the product,
to carry out an analysis of the machinery risks in order to draw up the
Technical Document, obligation to bear the CE marking, without having the
machinery certified by third body (except for foreseen cases)
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
■ to import into North America: compliance with federal laws, obligation to attest
component conformity and in some cases, to submit the product to authorised
inspectors.
2. Historical evolution of the
North American regulations
The historical reasons that justify the differences described are found not only in
the cultural diversity but also in the communication difficulty between two
worlds, at least up to the end of the XIX century.
The oceanic distances and the different background philosophy have emphasised
the differences up to the recent times; that is why two different approaches to
solve the same safety problem developed at each side of the ocean.
The brief historical account that follows wants to briefly explain how the
structure of the different standards and regulations for electrical system have
developed to be shaped as we know them today.
In the United States Thomas Alva Edison patents the first incandescent light bulb
(1879) and, in 1882 investing the earnings of his patent the best way in the
telegraph,The Edison Electric Light Company is established and a direct-current
power plant is built in New York. Electric current, whether direct or alternating,
propagates really fast and so does the increase of the fires due to electrical causes
and the relevant insurance refunds.
In 1893 during the Universal Exhibition in Chicago, the Palace of Electricity
represents the first time electric energy imposes over any other forms of energy,
and also the time when American insurance companies accept to compromise
only after carrying out thorough inspections of installations.
Under the pressure exerted by insurance companies, and also due to purely
economic reasons in first place, five different installation codes are developed.All
attention is mainly focused on fires that are an unavoidable consequence of
overloads and short-circuits in buildings mainly characterised by the use of wood.
A feature common to all electrical code is the requirement to use safe electrical
components, but the different provisions make it impossible for manufacturers to
produce a common product.
In 1897 the main organisations around the country defined a sole installation
code valid for the whole federation, the National Electrical Code (NEC) which
was immediately adopted by all the main organisations of fire prevention and
protection, and above all, by insurance companies.
At the same time as the NEC, the installation codes for automatic sprinkling
systems were drawn up and the organisation in charge of updating the technical
specifications of both codes (every three years) was set up: the National Fire
Protection Association (NFPA).
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
Canada had a different development from the USA, as it was British empire colony
and therefore theoretically subject to the same rules in force in the United
Kingdom. In fact, in 1917 Canada creates an independent normative body, the
Canadian Engineering Standards Association (CESA).
The CESA begins activities in 1920 and immediately expands its influence over
the electric sector publishing the first Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) in 1927,
inspired in the American NEC.
In 1940 the CESA enters the field of product certification and
changes its name to Canadian Standards Association
(CSA).
The history of the European standards has completely different origins, deprived
in fact of the pressure of the insurance companies.
In Europe the standards bodies develop as academic associations: in 1901 British
Standards (BS) was established, in 1906, the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) and in 1909 the Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano (CEI)
were set up.
Harmonised standards for the electrotechnical sector are issued by the European
Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation (CENELEC), adopted and
translated by the national standards bodies. EN standards are often standards
issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) with some
differences.
Harmonised standards for other sectors are issued by the European Committee
Standardisation (CEN) and adopted and translated by the national standards
bodies. EN standards are often standards issued by the International
Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) with some differences.
In USA the standard process is much more complex as it is “voluntary” type of
system; firms, technicians and insurance companies of each sector have
collaborated to produce their own reference standards giving birth to a high
number of standard organisations.
The main problem in a voluntary standard system is co-ordination among the
different standard bodies and this has brought about the settlement of AESC
(American Engineering Standards Committee) in 1918, known as American
National Standard Institute (ANSI) since 1969.This organisation, born from the
collaboration of the most important bodies as IEEE,ASME,ASTM and others,
imposed itself immediately to federal level and along the years it has incorporated
and gathered all similar bodies and became the reference for international
standard associations.
Since 1931 ANSI has participated in IEC works through the U.S. National
Committee (USNC) and in 1946 became one of ISO founder members.
ANSI accredits sector standards bodies and co-ordinates and regulates the creation
of standards through the regulations called “ANSI Essential Requirements”.At
present over 200 standards bodies are accredited, called Standards Developing
Organisations (SDO) and there are over 10,000 recognised standards (if public
and private bodies not accredited by ANSI should be included, other 700
organisations could be added to reach a total of around 93,000 standards).
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
Among the SDOs some bodies of particular importance can be individualised:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME):
founded in 1880, it is one of the main American engineering
organisations, acting in the mechanical and pressurised
components sector, whose standards often hold international value
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE): founded in 1884, it is the standard reference body
for electrical engineering (medium voltage), electronics and
telecommunications, fields where it is a world leader
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA):
founded in 1926, it is the organisation that gathers
manufacturers of electrical and electronic materials in the
USA and it is a powerful industrial lobbyist. Since it was born, the mission has
been both to protect the interests of the member firms and to set up common
building standards to allow for full product interchangeability
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): founded in 1896 with
the duty to keep NEC and sprinkler standards updated, it has grown
year after year to become the most important American organisation in
the field of fire prevention. Besides the original standards there are
many other standards that regulate every standard regarding building,
management and maintenance of civil constructions and industrial plants, to
provide safety against fire. NFPA is also active in the educational field and, with
the NFPA79 standard on “Industrial Control Machinery”, in the field of
machinery safety
In Canada the structure is similar to that in the United States, but with some
differences related to its prolonged permanence within the British domination
and later on, the European dominance. Every single Canadian state accredits the
standards bodies authorised within its territory through the labour ministry and it
recognises the standards.
devoted to:
The co-ordination among the several ministries is guaranteed by
the Standards Council of Canada (SCC), founded in 1964 to
solve commercial and safety problems arising from the lack of
standardisation. SCC is also the reference for the ISO and IEC
international bodies.Among its various activities, SCC also is
■ Accredit of standards bodies, SDOs and recognise their standards like ANSI
■ Accredit National Recognised Testing Laboratory (NRTL), that is,
laboratories authorised to certify the component and materials conformity to
the standards in force
■ Accredit inspection bodies
Also in Canada there is an active organisation that gathers electric and electrical
material manufacturers, Electrical Equipment Manufacturers Advisory
Council (EEMAC), whose mission is similar to NEMA's.
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
Finally it is important to mention the Council for
Harmonization of Electrotechnical Standardization of
North America (CANENA), a body that deals with
harmonising standards within the NAFTA countries
2.1 Certifying authorities
The principal laboratories that certify products are:
Underwriters Laboratory Inc. (UL); founded in 1894 as a branch
of the fire brigade laboratory, is the main USA laboratory and one of
the renowned certifying organisations in the globe; it is an
independent non profit organisation that carries out tests and issues
product safety certifications. In 2003 more than 19 million products with the UL
mark were manufactured.
As a standards body accredited by ANSI, it sets the requirements the products
must comply with and defines the tests to control their conformity. Underwriters
Laboratory is recognised as a leader in the field of safety tests and its standards are
also generally used even by other test laboratories.
Canadian Standard Association (CSA): is the principal standards
organisation and certifying authority of Canadian products and plays
a similar role in Canada as that of the UL in the USA.
It is accredited by SCC as a laboratory and as standard organisation,
and besides publishing and updating the CEC, it issues manufacturing standards
tests for products.
There are 18 laboratories accredited by OSHA in the USA and 26 by SCC in
Canada. Some laboratories are recognised in both countries: Entela, Intertek
Testing (known also as ETL Semko), MET Laboratories, TUV (in several
versions).
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
Organisations currently recognised by OSHA as NRTL:
(the list may change; please refer to OSHA web site:
http://www.osha.gov/dfs/otpcal/nrtl/index.html
Applied Research Laboratories, Inc. (ARL)
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) (also known as CSA International)
Communication Certification Laboratory, Inc. CCCL)
Curtis-Straus LLC (CSL)
Electrical Reliability Services, Inc. (ERS) (also know as Conformity Services and
formally as Electro-Test, Inc. (ETI))
Entela, Inc. (ENT)
FM Global Technologies LLC (FM) (also know as FM Approvals and formally as
Factory Mutual Research Corporation)
Intertek Testing Services NA., Inc. (ITSNA) (formally ETL)
MET Laboratories. Inc. (MET)
NSF International (NSF)
National Technical Systems. Inc. (NTS) SGS
U.S.Testing Company, Inc. (SGSUS) (formally UST-CA)
Southwest Research Institute (SWRI)
TUV America, Inc. (TUVAM)
TUV Product Services GmbH (TUVPSG)
TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc. CTUV)
Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL)
Wyle Laboratories, Inc. (WL)
3. Main reference texts
The National Electrical Code, already mentioned, sets a series of manufacture and
safety requirements for the installation of components and electrical equipment.
It is defined as an "open and consensus-based code” and it ensures that every new
or revised requirement reflects the current progress of technology.
The NEC also covers installations in dangerous environments (explosive
atmosphere). Establishes a series of “rules”:
■ mandatory rules (actions specifically required or prohibited)
■ permissive rules (permitted but not required actions)
■ explanatory material (references to other standards, informative notes)
Normally the NEC rules are more restrictive than OSHA rules, but the opposite
may also be true.
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Particularly OSHA is more restrictive in the prescriptions for components
admitted for use in the electrical plants/equipment.
OSHA regulations only permit the use of components that have been tested and
certified by an NRTL test laboratory.
Meanwhile NEC foresees the use of components that are considered still suitable for use.
In fact this difference is annulled by the habit of AHJs to accept only certified
components, admitting non-listed components only in a few and justified cases.
In both texts there is a clear reference to the fact that components have to be
installed in full conformity with the use conditions foreseen in the certification.
In some specific sectors an important reference is the ”Electrical Standard for
Industrial Machinery” (NFPA 79). It is a standard that transfers the EN 602041 to the American industrial world without altering the sections related to
machine operation (e.g. human-machine interface, control circuits, etc.) but
replacing the paragraphs related to electrical system layout with the similar
sections taken from NEC.
Industrial Machinery means:
a) metal working machines tools, inlcuding also metal cutting and moulding
machinery
b) plastic processing machinery, including thermoplastic and thermosetting
moulding, extrusion, blowing, specialised jobs and size reduction
c) woodwork machines, including of woodwork machines, laminators and
panel saws
d) assembly machinery
e) material handling machinery, including industrial robots and transfers
f) trial and testing machines, including measuring machinery using coordinates and “in-process” measuring devices
Specific installation standards can be added to the federal rules such as those for
machine tool equipments, UL508A “Industrial Control Panel”.
UL508A is divided into a section containing rules applicable to all equipments to
which other sections are added, that include rules for some specific machinery
types (Industrial Machinery, which includes design parameters defined in NFPA79,
as well as lifts, conditioners, sea environment and others).
In Canada:
Every state issues its own safety at labour rules (for interstate workers and other
specific sectors, it is the “Canada's occupational safety and health” - CANOSH) and
the CCOHS plays the role of guiding and co-ordination body.
For the electric safety, the local installation code is always taken as reference,
which derives from the Canadian Electrical CODE (CEC) published by CSA.
Therefore, the CEC is the main reference to design the equipment.
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
The CEC, also known as CSA 22.1, a specific standard for “Industrial Control
Panel” (CSA 22.2 #14) is added to the CEC, also known as CSA 22.1.The standard
contains applicable additional prescriptions for the sector of the automation
panels.
3.1 Component certification
A component certification is evident by applying a mark by the certifying
laboratory. Underwriters Laboratory for instance affixes the UL “label”, while
the Canadian Standard Association affixes the CSA mark. It is worth noticing
that Underwriters Laboratory issues two different types of approvals,“Listed
(UL)” and “Recognised (UR)”, each of which is characterised by a specific mark,
UL and UR respectively.
The difference lies in the field of application of the marked product:
100-C
1492-J
UL listed: it deals with components defined as "complete
devices", or finished products, with an autonomous
function.They are marked with the name and the logo of
the manufacturer, with all the data concerning tests and
the UL mark.These components do not require specifically
trained personnel for installation (the typical example is a
contactor, circuit breaker, etc.) These components are
managed by the manufacturer, but are verified by the UL
Inspector according to product quantities.
UL Recognised:This mark is used for components that do
not have their own function but are assembled with other
parts and components, a UL Recognition mark is applied
on the finished product.The UL-recognized components
are marked only with the name and the logo of the
producer and the type.These components require
qualified personnel for their installation, in compliance
with the prescriptions and the use limits set by the
manufacturer (conditions of acceptability indicated in the
files or UL certification report).
The Recognised UR mark is exclusively issued for the immediate identification
of the product in the American market and has not meaning in other markets.
To increase product turnover and to simplify the appraisal procedures, the two
principal UL and CSA organisations and all NRTL laboratories have reached an
agreement of mutual acceptance of certification tests in 1998.
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INTRODUCTION TO NORTH AMERICAN STANDARDS
This recognition has resulted in the introduction of unified marks.
Where the suffix refers to Canada and the United States respectively.
Before this unification products will have to be tested and recognised individually
by Canada and the United States.
4. Machinery and plant certification in the USA
Besides restrictions foreseen by the local laws, the OSHA and CFR 29 for some
particular machinery types, there is no obligation to certify through a third party
the plant or machinery at the moment of installation. On the other hand to get
the certification of a laboratory is possible only through a verification procedure
and a specific standard.
In specific cases of electrical equipment of machinery for the USA, the reference
standards are represented by the NEC 2005 installation code, art 409 “industrial
machinery”, and the voluntary UL 508-A “Industrial Control Panel” standard.
For the Canadian market the references to obtain a certification are the CEC 22-2
installation code, part 1 and CSA 22-2 N°14s “Industrial Control Panel” standard.
For the industrial machinery such as woodworking machine tools, machinery for
plastics and metal, some additional requirements applied are defined in the NFPA
79 Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery.
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FEEDER AND BRANCH CIRCUITS
1.
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Switching and protection of the
electrical equipment
1.1 The different types of circuit
The North American standards divide the power circuits into two parts, better
defined as:
• Feeder Circuit
• Branch Circuits
This distinction, neglected in the European environment is, on the other hand
basic in North America for the choice, sizing and wiring of components inside
electrical equipment.
The definition of feeder and branch can be found in both the NEC (National
Electrical Code) and in the UL 508A.
National Electrical Code (art. 100 Part 1) and in the Canadian Electrical Code
(section 0):
Feeder: all circuit conductors between the service equipment, the source of a
separately derived system or other power supply source and the final branch
overcurrent device.
Branch Circuit: the circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device
protecting the circuit and the outlets.
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FEEDER AND BRANCH CIRCUITS
An example of feeders and branch circuits
Figure: Feeder circuit
Feeder: all the conductors and the circuits up line from the supply side of the
branch circuit overcurrent protective device.
BCPD: Overload protection device (e.g. circuit breaker, fuses).
Branch Circuit: the conductors and the components down line from the last
over current protective device and the load Branch Circuit #1 Branch Circuit #2
In branch # 1 the branch circuit begins at the fuse connection power blocks
(branch circuit protection). In the case of circuit # 2 the transformer and the
relative protection at the primary should be considered part of the feeder,
therefore in cases of transformers and/or autotransformers, the Branch Circuit
always begins at the secondary of the transformer/autotransformer.
1.2 Power circuits and control circuits
The circuits inside electrical equipment are sub-divided between:
• Power circuits
• Command and control circuits (remote control circuits)
Command and control circuits are considered the circuits that power and control
loads such as:
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a) A pilot light shall comply with the Standard for Industrial Control Equipment,
UL 508, and a miscellaneous lamp holder shall comply with the Standard for
Edison-Base Lampholders, UL 496;
b) An electrically-operated valve shall comply with the Standard for Electrically
Operated Valves, UL 429;
c) A solenoid shall be evaluated for the intended use;
d) A time-indicating or time-recording device, including an hourmeter, or a
synchronous motor shall comply with the Standard for Time-Indicating and Recording Appliances, UL 863;
e) An electrically operated counter shall comply with the Standard for TimeIndicating and -Recording Appliances, UL 863;
f) An audible signal appliance, including a horn, bell, or buzzer, shall comply with
the Standard for Audible Signal Appliances, UL 464; and
g) A coil or input circuit to another control circuit switching device or to a load
controller shall comply with other component requirements in this standard.
All others are considered loads and thus power circuits regardless of the voltage
and the load absorption.
In North America the distinction is generally made on the basis of the final load
function (motor, inverter, lights, resistors etc…) regardless of the power voltage
and the current e.g. a stepper motor powered at 24 Vdc with a load current of
200mA is considered power, a solenoid valve at 24 Vdc with a load current of 2
Ampere is command and control.
20
Note: lights and fans for electrical cabinets are considered command and
control circuits. If installed in the field (outside the electrical cabinet) they shall
however be considered power circuits.
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FEEDER AND BRANCH CIRCUITS
2. Disconnecting means
194R
1494V
The main disconnecting means is a necessary part of all electrical equipment but
can be provided by the final user (unlike the provisions of European standards).
In this case it is necessary to clearly specify the characteristics of the device in the
attached documentation.
In this section, the devices suitable for switching and their sizing independently of
their nature will be analyzed (switch or circuit breaker ).
It is possible to use the devices suitable for disconnecting to the function of
overload protection of electrical equipment.
2.1 Sizing the switch in accordance to UL 508
First of all it is necessary to distinguish between switch and circuit breaker.
Inverse-time or instantaneous-trip circuit breaker UL489 “Molded-Case Circuit
Breakers, Molded-Case Switches and Circuit Breaker Enclosures)
The total current (obtained by adding the FLA and the rated currents of all the
branch circuits) should not be more than 80% the size of the switch. It may be
more useful to express the same rule backwards: the size of the switch should not
be less than 125% of the total current.
EXAMPLE
Motor 7.5HP, 230V, 3ph
Table 50.1 > FLA = 22A
The circuit breaker shall have a size of
at least 1.25 x (22 + 8+ 4) > = 42.5A
For example a 140U-H2C3-C50 can be used
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Sect. 1.25 x (22 + 8 + 4) >= 42.5 A
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
AWG 10 (40 A)
Disconnect switch (or switch with fuses) (UL 489 or UL 98, “Enclosed and DeadFront Switches”
Sizing follows different rules according to the type of load.
a) one or more loads, no motor: the size in current of the switch should not be
less than 115% of the total current (sum of the rated currents of all the
branch circuits).
b) a single motor: the power size (hp) of the switch should be shown in current
(using table 50.1 of UL 508A): this value obtained shall not be less than 115%
of the FLA (also obtained from tab. 50.1)
c) one or more motors and other loads: the power size (hp) of the switch shall
be shown in current (using tab.50.1 of UL 508A): this value shall not be less
than 115% of the FLAs of all the motors plus the rated currents of all the
other loads.
EXAMPLE
230V Three-phase system
The current for the sizing of the switch is: (1.15x22) A + 4 A + 8 A = 37.3 A
Now it is necessary to choose a switch with a size in power such that the current
received as in table 50.1 is above 37.3A: at 230V a switch of 15 hp (corresponding
with 42A) is required.
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FEEDER AND BRANCH CIRCUITS
Sect. (1.15x22) + 8 + 4 >=37.3 A
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
AWG 8 (50 A)
The suitable IEC/UL/CSA component is a 194R-NN060P3 (CCN,WJAZ,
conforming to UL 489) while in a NEMA start a 1494F-N60 (CCN,WHTY,
conforming to UL 98) is used, both with power rating equal to 15 hp (230V).
2.2 Sizing according to the CEC for the Canadian market
The sizing regulations are simplified because no distinction is made between
circuit breaker and switches and only the following rules are applied:
• size in current of the device should not be less than 115% of the current of the
largest motor plus the sum of all the FLAs of the other motors and all the rated
currents of the various loads from the motors.
• The power size of the device, if indicated should not be less than the power of
the largest motor.
2.3 Sizing in accordance with the NEC
The sizing of the switching device in the NEC requires the verification of two
different conditions, depending on the use of a power characterized component
(switch: hp rating) or characterized in current (circuit breaker: rating in A):
however some exceptions are applied. No other distinction is made between
circuit breaker and switches.
• Sizing in current: the size in current of the device should not be lower than
115% of the total current, obtained as the sum of the FLA of all the other loads.
• Sizing in power: two values are calculated, one relative to the sum of the FLAs
(current at full load, tab 430.250 of NEC or tab. 50.1 of UL 508A) and one to the
sum of the LRA (current with the rotor blocked table 430.251(B) of NEC) of all
the motors.The nominal currents of all the other loads (not motor) should be
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added to both values.The two values obtained are considered FLA and LRA of a
single virtual motor representing the full machine, the power of which (in HP)
can be obtained from the tables for example tab 50.1 of UL 508A).
The switching device should have an hp size above that of the virtual motor
(remember that the LRA of the switch is set at 6 times the FLA exactly like the
conductors).
In the case of components characterized both in power and in current both
sizing are applied: if however the component is specially approved for motor
switching (e.g. manual motor controller) the sizing in current is not necessary.
2.4 Conforming components that can be used for disconnecting
means
The devices that can be used for switching and protection of the electrical
equipment of the machines are:
• Circuit breaker conforming with UL 489
• Switches with or without fuse UL 98.
140U
2.5 Components that cannot be used for disconnecting means
• Circuit breaker conforming with UL 508 certified as Manual Motor Controllers
• Switches with or without fuses conforming with UL 508A certified as Manual
Motor Controllers
The limitation of these components is connected with the location of the
command and control in the electrical equipment. In particular the use
and installation of these components is not permitted in feeder circuits
in North America.
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FEEDER AND BRANCH CIRCUITS
2.6 Components accepted with restrictions
The UL 508A standard allows “Industrial Control Equipment” called “Manual Motor
Controllers” certified and marked as “Suitable as Motor Disconnect” as UL 508
switch device.
These switches should generally be protected by fuses against over currents.This
protection however may be provided in the field.
In the machine documentation the installation of an overcurrent protection, fuses
or boxed circuit breaker should however be explicitly required by the final user.
The manufacturer of the machine should indicate both the type and size of the
protection (calculated as per the following paragraph) and the cross-section of the
power conductors of the panel to be installed in the field (see example of wiring
diagram).
prot. 23 +8 + 4 <= 35 A
RESPONSIBILITY OF THE FINAL
USER
AWG 8 (50 A)
Sect. (1.15x22) + 8 + 4 >=37.3 A
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
AWG 8 (50 A)
194E switch
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3 Feeder overcurrent protection
140U
1489
1494V
1491
140F
The devices protecting the panel from over currents are explicitly required only
in the case of Industrial Machinery1) by NFPA 79 (and relative section of the UL
508A), but its presence is also provided for in NEC and CEC in which sizing rules
are given.
Obviously the protection of the lines powering the equipment is not the
responsibility of the machine manufacturer.
It is noted that in the case of circuit breaker (devices suitable for switching and
protecting) calculations must be made for sizing both for overcurrent protection
and for disconnection means.
The sizing of the overcurrent protection follows the same rules in all the standard
texts.The size/calibration should not be more than one of the following two values:
a) the protection size/calibration of biggest branch (BCP) plus the rated current
(FLA) of all the other motors plus the rated currents of all the other loads (for
machinery, this is 125% of the largest motor – from table 50.1, +125% of all
heater loads; + FLA – from table 50.1 of all other motors, + FLA of all other
loads;
or
b) the capacity of the feeder conductor (conductors or bars down line of the
overcurrent protection)2)
It often happens, especially when using automatic switches, that the calculation
provided for in case a) gives results that are incompatible with the sizing of the
switching device: in the case of circuit breaker this makes an oversizing of the
feeder conductor obligatory to enter into case b)
This solution should be applied, though not required by the CEC for equipment
destined for Canada as well: in fact value b) can be modified with a simple over
sizing while the modification of value a) often implies a complete revision of the
panel.
) The following are considered industrial machinery: metal working including machinery for deformation or cutting: wood; plastic,
assembly machines; robots, transfer and test machinery.
1
26
) The CEC for Canada does not provide for case b) but only the value calculated in a).
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EXAMPLE
As in the previous example a feeder protection and switch with circuit breaker
(series 140U) is taken up again.
The switching function requires a size of no less than 40 A but the calculation of
the value a) as overcurrent protection requires the size not to be more than:
22 + 8 + 4 = 34 A
The incompatibility of the design data is clear
Prot 22 + 8+ 4 <= 34 A
Sect. 1.25 x (22 + 8 + 4) >=42.5 A
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
AWG 8 (50 A)
Three solutions are proposed
1. Foregoing the protection function and sizing the 140U only as a switch. In
this case it will be necessary to install another device with a size no greater
than 35A to perform the function of the protection;
2. Modifying the equipment to raise value a) from 35 to a value greater than 40 A
Prot 35 + 8+ 4 <= 47 A
Sect. 1.25x (22 + 8 + 4) >=42.5 A
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
AWG 8 (50 A)
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For example the motor (FLA = 22 A) can be protected with time delay fuses
rather than an “Type E” combination motor controller. In this case the calculation
of the BCP would lead to a value of 35 A (for the calculation of the size please
refer to publication 3 “Branch Circuit” with J type 35 A fuses in the relative fuse
holder 1492 – FBJ60. The calculation of value a) now could be 35 + 8 + 4 = 47 A.
There is no longer incompatibility and the circuit breaker should have a size
between 40 and 47 A: the standard size suitable is 45 A and a 140U-H2C3-C45
can be installed.
3. Install a feeder conductor with a capacity of more than 40 A. In this particular
case a AWG 10 bearing 40 A has already been anticipated, therefore the same
140U-H2C3-C40 as previously defined can be used.
Prot <= 60 A
Sect. 1.25 x (22 + 8 + 4) >=42.5 A
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
AWG 8 (60 A)
If an AWG 8 with a 60A capacity had been used it would have been possible to
use any 140 U with a size of between 40 A and 60 A, for example a 140U-H2C3C50.
For the best use of the switches with fuses it is sufficient to choose the fuse size
compatible with the calculations made above.
3.1 How to protect the electrical equipment from overcurrents
(feeder protection)
If we install a switch in the electrical equipment, the feeder circuit is extended as
far as the first branch protection (BCP red line in the figure);
What are the components that could be employed in the circuit feeder?
• UL 489 circuit breaker
• UL 248 fuses
The combination motor controllers are UL 508 certified and cannot be used.
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The designer is limited in the choice and use of some components because the
standard provides that the starts of the motor be realized exclusively with UL 248
fuses or UL 489 circuit breaker contactor and thermal relay.
On the other hand, if disconnecting devices are planned with the feeder
protection function, there are no restrictions in the use of the components in the
electrical equipment.
Feeder: all the conductors and the circuits up line from the last overcurrent
protection device of a branch (branch circuit).
BCPD: Overload protective device (e.g. circuit breaker fuses).
BCPD: Overload protective device (e.g. circuit breaker fuses).
Branch Circuit: the conductors and the components down line from the last
over current protection device and the load Branch Circuit #1 Branch Circuit #2
4. Internal wire
The internal distribution of a industrial control panel is normally made with a line
of conductors that power the distribution terminal strip from which the
conductors with a smaller cross-section are derived and that power the protection
devices of the individual branch circuits.Alternatively, a bar system by which the
conductors are derived directly at the BCPs. in the case of high currents can be
used
It is necessary to distinguish between:
• “Feeder conductors”: the conductors/bars or larger cross sections:
• “Tap conductors”: any derivations of smaller cross sections that power the
branch circuits.
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4.1 Distribution mounts, Power Block
For panels of large capacities it is sometimes necessary to make distribution
systems to make it possible to power several users with different and/or smaller
cross-sections.
All the distribution “mounts” or “commercial” bars used should be NRTL
approved because they are particularly critical components in the case of short
circuit.
In fact power blocks are very common in North America; they are certified for the
electrical distribution inside electrical industrial control panels.
1492-PD
In case it is not possible to use a Power Block, a system of bus bars can be
constructed
Note: it is not easy to calculate the capacity of the system because short
circuit tests have not been conducted but the reference values of data
supplied by the insulation and bus bar section manufacturers can be
extrapolated. With reference for the distance in the air and surface
reference can be made to table 10.2 of UL 508A.
Voltage Involved
Minimum spacing, inch (mm)
Between live parts of opposite polarity
Through air
Over Surface
125 or less
126 - 250
251 - 600
/2 (12.7)
/4 (19.1)
1 (25.4)
1
3
Between life parts and
grounded metal parts,
through air and over
surface
/4 (19.1)
1 – 1/4 (31.8)
2 (50.8)
3
/2 (12.7)
/2 (12.7)
1 (25.4)
1
1
NOTE – An isolated dead metal part, such as a screw head or a washer, interposed between un insulated parts
of opposite polarity or between an un insulated live part and grounded dead metal is evaluated as reducing the
spacing by an amount equal to the dimension of the interposed part along the path of measurement.
Table 10.2 of UL508A provides the minimum spacing also for the certified bus bar systems.
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4.2 Sizing of the Feeding Conductor
In UL 508 A and CEC the current is determined according to the single loads,
such as:
125% rated current of the largest motor
added to
100% of rated currents of all the remaining loads
where the rated current of the motors is the FLA in the USA, the rating plate value
in Canada.
In the case of resistive loads, the CEC introduces a modification in the calculation
that is also present in NFPA 79 for Industrial Machinery. From the point of view
of a unified sizing it is recommended that this calculation method be
always adopted:
125% rated current of largest motor
added to
125% of rated current of resistive loads (heaters)
added to
100% of the rated currents of all the remaining loads
The capacity of the internal conductors should not be lower than the calculated
load.Table 28.1 of the UL 508 A standard is used. It contains the reference
capacities for isolated thermoplastic conductors with a functioning temperature
at 90° C and in this the installation and temperature rating is considered.This
table can be taken as the basis of a unified sizing even if for Canada an
oversizing of sizes lower than AWG 10 of 30% for conductors with
temperature of 90°C and 10% for conductors of 105° is recommended.
The adoption of AWG 14 is always recommended as minimum limit at the feed
conductor section.
EXAMPLE
A feeder conductor supposedly protected by a 140U circuit breaker that powers
the following loads:
• motor with FLA of 20 A protected by 140M type 23 A combination motor
controller;
• control transformer with rated current of 4 A, protected by DC fuse of 6A in a
1492-FBxC fuse holder;
• heater resistor with 8A rated current protected by a 140U circuit breaker.
All the rated currents are called “FLA” for simplicity’s sake.
On the basis of the previous equation we find that the capacity of the feeder
conductor should not be lower than (1.25 x 22) A + (1.25 x 8) A + 4 A = 41.5 A.
From the table 28.1 of UL 508 A the AWG 6 section is obtained with a 55 A
capacity.
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The same calculation must be applied if the data is required for power
conductors of the machine and relative connection power blocks.
Cond. 1.25 x 22 + 1.25 x 8 + 4 > = 41.5 A
4.3 Reduction of the sections down line from the feeder
conductors
Once the feeder conductor has been cleared, it is also possible to define the
branches with a smaller cross-section called like “tap conductors”.
The rules regarding these conducts are only contained in the NEC and the CEC
and are very similar.The tap conductors are divided on the basis of length:
a) taps (cables) less than 3 m (10 ft) long: all the conditions imposed should be
respected: the capacity of the conductor should always be adjusted to the
load powered (for example if the load is a motor, the derivation should have a
capacity of at least 125% of its FLA).
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• the tap should not extend further than the BCP of the powered loads
• to guarantee the mechanical protection, the derivation should always be
enclosed in conduits or raceways (not walk over covers) the connection
points obviously excluded.The CEC furthermore requires the conductors to
be metallic.
Furthermore the NEC provides:
• if the tap leaves the panel it shall have a capacity of not less than 1/10 of
the size of the feeder protection
Maximum 10 ft (3.05 meters)
b) taps (cables) of a length no more than 7.5 m (25 ft.): all the conditions set
should be respected:
• the size of the conductor should always be adjusted to the powered load
• the capacity of the conductor should not be less than 1/3 the size of the
feeder protection
• each tap should feed a single BCP (there is no limit to the number of loads
downstream from the BCP provided the relative conductors are protected
by the BCP on the basis of the rules already seen)
• mechanical protection should be guaranteed.The use of conduits or
raceways (not walk over covers) is recommended.
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Under no circumstances may a tap conductor be derived from another tap
conductor. Derivations with reduced cross-sections can only be made directly
from the feeder.
Maximum 10 ft
(3.05 mt)
Between 10 ft and
25 ft (7.63 mt.)
5. Sockets and plugs
In North America a receptacles is also permitted as a switching device provided
that it follows these following requirements:
• The receptacle is single voltage
• The motor or load is not more than 2 Hp
• The sizing is less than 125% of the rated current of the motor or the load
• It is installed with a cable of no more than 6 m (20 ft) long
• The socket and plug conform in terms of the voltage and amperes with the
Nema Types defined in the NEC.
6. Fuses
Fuses are considered by many to be the best protection against short circuits.
The spread of fuses has lead to the need to establish construction standards,
something that NEMA (association of construction of electrical equipment) has
seen to.At present 13 different types of power fuses are recognized (that are
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suitable as Branch Circuit Protection and as general panel protection) and several
other types of control fuses (adapted to the use of just control circuits:
Supplemental Fuses).
Note that the NEMA standards are construction standards: the fuses are, in terms
of sizes and dimensions, identical regardless of the manufacture (as it happens in
Europe). Fuse holders are made especially for some types of fuses as indicated in
the approval markings of the certifying NRTL laboratory.
North American fuses differ from the European types and cannot be
interchanged. Furthermore they do not correspond with any EN
harmonized standard rule.
A list of the main types of fuse identified by the Underwriters Laboratory is given:
In the USA the NFPA 79 standard for Industrial Machinery (and the relative
UL508A section) recommends the use of CC, J, RK-1, RK - 5 fuses (already
highlighted). It is recommended that the design be unified through the
adoption of these types in the electrical equipment.
Furthermore UL508A prohibits the use of H, H (renewable), K, G and T fuses in
the Industrial Machinery: it is an additional UL provision.
Fuse type
UL standard
Definition
Adjusted for
power
Control
circuits
C
248 – 2
Class C Fuses
x
x
CA, CB
248 – 3
Class CA and CB Fuses
x
x
CC
248 – 4
Class CC Fuses
x
x
G
248 – 5
Class G Fuses
x
x
H
248 – 6
Class H Fuses (Non Renewable)
x
x
H (Renewable)
248 – 7
Class H Fuses Renewable
x
x
J
248 – 8
Class J Fuses
x
x
K
248 – 9
Class K Fuses
x
x
L
248 – 10
Class L Fuses
x
x
Plug fuses
248 – 11
Plug Fuses
x
x
R (RK-1, RK-5)
248 – 12
Class R Fuses
x
x
Special Purpose
248 – 13
Special Purpose
x
x
Supplemental Fuses
248 – 14
Supplemental Fuses
x
x
T
248 – 15
Class T Fuses
x
x
[a] the semi-conductor type Special Purpose fuses can be used as protection in power circuits (BCP) only if
explicitly required in the label or in the instructions of the component to be protected.
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FEEDER AND BRANCH CIRCUITS
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6.1 - Class CC fuses
These are the most common and used in the protection of transformers, loads and
motors (they have both a “Fast” intervention curve and a “Time Delay” curve), they
are ideal for Feeder and Branch circuits and are similar to European 10x38 fuses.
Their limit is the size; ranging only from 0 to 30 A.
Attention: these fuses require their own dedicated fuse holder the 1492-FB for CC
class fuses, as specified in the NEC.
CC class fuse
Bull fuse holder 1492–FB and 140–F
6.2 Class J fuses
These are the most common fuses for the protection of electrical panels, in
switches with fuses. Outstanding for the protection of equipment, motors,
actuators etc.(they have both a “Fast” intervention curve and a “Time Delay” curve)
they have different construction shapes as the size varies (range from 0 to 600 A ).
They need their own dedicated fuse holder.They are not interchangeable with
fuses of other classes.
Class J fuse
Bull. 1491 fuse holder.
6.3 Class K and RK fuses
These are fuses that are suitable for the protection of electrical panels, in switches
with fuses, motors actuators etc.(they have both a “Fast” intervention curve and a
“Time Delay” curve) they have different construction shapes as the size varies
(range from 0 to 600 A ).They need their own dedicated fuse holder.They are not
interchangeable with fuses of other classes.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
1. Starting, load protection and motors
(Branch Circuit)
1.1 The different types of branch circuit
The main types of power circuits can be distinguished inside the electrical
equipment of a machine:
•
•
•
•
•
motor
lighting
heater
appliance
receptacle
motor start
lighting
heater
general device
(power) connector
The different types of branch circuit will be described in the following
paragraphs.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
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1.2 Motor branch circuit
The motor branch circuit is identified with what is generally called motor
starter.
In fact there are various types of motor starters (called direct, star-delta, with
inversion etc) and for each of them there are special regulations.
This document will initially refer to the simplest case of a direct start then it’ll go
onto considering other mostly common cases. North American and Canadian
Standards are very similar and any differences will be clearly shown.
The motor start can be made with different methods that are called “types”. A
summary table of the recognised types contained in the UL 508 “Industrial
Control Equipment” standard.
It is particularly interesting the recent introduction of “Type F” that joins a “Type E”
motor protector and a contactor in an approved assembly, with its own specific
characteristics which are different from those of the individual components.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
1.2.1 Motor Starter “Type A”
This is the classic North American motor starter that consists of:
•
•
•
•
Sectioning device (UL 98)
Fuses UL 248
Contactor
Overload relay
194R-J30-1753
Fusible
Disconnect
or Disconnector
3 Fuses (only when
using a Disconnector)
1.2.2 Motor Starter “Type B, C and D”
Motor starter Type B is rarely used.
Motor starter Type C consists of:
• Automatic Circuit Brealer UL 489 – inverse time / thermal magnetic
• Contactor
• Overload Relay
Motor starter Type D consists of:
• Automatic Circuit Brealer UL 489 – instantaneous trip / magnetic only
• Contactor
• Overload Relay
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
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1.2.3 Motor Starter “Type E” and “Type F”
The motor starter Type “E” consists of:
• Self protected combination motor starter 140M with 140-M-CTE
The motor starter Type “F” consists of:
• Motor protector 140M with 140-M-CTE
• Contactor
480V/277V, 60 Hz, 3-Phase Type E
480V/277V, 60 Hz, 3-Phase Type F
In the IEC area the motor protectors are considered, for all practical purposes, as
automatic switches which are able to protect against over-currents as well as
against short-circuits.
On the contrary in North America there is a clear difference between “Circuit
Breaker” UL 489 automatic switches and “Combination Motor Controller” UL508
motor protectors.
Within the standard UL 508 there are two different certification procedures of the
motor protectors such as:
• “manual motor controller”: It has the function to “disconnect” (load
sectioning), “motor control” (load switching), “motor overload” (protection
against over-loads) and it does not perform the magnetic protection.
• “manual self-protected combination motor controller (Type E)”: It performs
the same functions as the manual motor controller and it also guarantees
“branch circuit protection” (protection against short-circuit).
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
1.2.3.1 Differences between a motor protector “Manual Motor
Controller” and a “Manual self-protected combination
motor controller Type “E” in the United States1)
The size of the product, for instance, is one of the most important elements of differentiation between UL 489 and UL 508. Generally speaking, the devices according to UL 489 have a physical size definitely bigger than the components of the
UL 508, in order to satisfy the isolation distance imposed by the norms and by the
NEC regarding the feed circuits or feeder.
Therefore, if the motor protector is used in North America as a protection device
“Type E”, it means that it must have the same distances at the connection side to
the line required according to UL 489, which have been changed and is included
also in the UL 508 edition of July the 16th, 2001 for this kind of products:
• 1 inch (25,4 mm) for an aerial distance
• 2 inches (50,8 mm) for a above-ground distance;
Before
July the 16th,
2001
After
/8”
1”
/2"
2”
Above-ground
Aerial distance
3
aerial
Distance between
two surfaces
1
In general, these distances are higher than those built in the components with an
IEC standard. In fact, all the motor protectors which are manufactured according
to the European standard, turned out to be too “small” (apart from some
exceptions) to be compatible with the dimensions imposed by the UL 508
standards.Therefore, they lose their protection function against over-currents
(short-circuit).
A motor starter manufactured in Europe using an IEC rated manual motor starter
together with a contactor, in case of application in North America shall be
integrated with fuses or UL 489 automatic circuit breaker in order to provide
protection against short circuits.
) For Canada and particularly for the CSA, the certification of motor protectors has not been updated on the restrictions included in the UL 508
(e.g. new aerial distances and between the surfaces).
1
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
For instance the motor protectors of the 140 M series with one “specific stretcher
accessory” feeder adapter 140M-C-TE to be installed on the connection side to
the line, comply with the new distances included in the UL 508.
With this special accessory, the motor protector can be certified as a Manual selfprotected combination motor controller Type “E”.Therefore, it is a unique device
which combines sectioning, protection against over-currents and thermal
protection without the necessity of using fuses or other external devices.
EXAMPLE
If we take the motor protectors of the 140 and 140M family:
• 140M-C, -D are manual motor controllers, but they can also be used as type E
if the accessories 140M-C-TE are being used for the single motor protector.
• 140M-F are manual motor controllers, but they can also be used as type E if
the accessories 140M-F-TE are being used for the single motor protector.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The certification as TYPE “E” remains the same even if the distribution combs of
the 140M- .. – W series are used only when combined with the new connection
systems such as the 140M-C-WTE or the 140M-F-WTE.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
1.3
Sizing of the protections and of the branch
circuit components.
1.3.1 Three-phase direct starter
The reference schematic is:
Branch Circuit Protection:
the last protection against over
currents and in particular, short
circuits.
Controller: contactor
Overload protection:
protection against overloads
Internal conductors & wires
inside the panel
Terminal: interface terminal
between the panel and on the
machine
External: conductors&wires
outside the panel
Disconnect Switch: disconnect
switch on the machine for
maintenance of the motor
Motor: three/single phase
electrical motor
This means that all the components described must be approved by an NRTL for
their intended function.Any exceptions shall be clearly indicated.
Design example:
5hp three-phase motor (3,7 kW)
480V
Once the sizing has been completed, the components shall be chosen in the case
where the motor start has to be affected following the construction criteria IEC
and UL/CSA “normal” components with double approval
44
•
NEMA special components for North America
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
For the drawing and the dimension of the motor start, we will proceed from the
motor up to the branch protection by sizing the field insulator, the thermal
protection, the meter for the protection against short-circuits (fuses, automatic
switch or motor protector).
1.3.1.1 Motor
First of all it is necessary to clearly identify the rated current of the motor that
must be used for the scaling. In North America two values must be distinguished:
a) nameplate current: the current rating plate
b) Full Load Ampacity (FLA): the full load current indicated in special tables
– DC motor (direct current): tab. 430.147 of the NEC (0.25<hp<200), tab. D2
of the CEC (0.25<hp<200), tab. 50.2 of the UL508A (0.1<hp<200);the
UL508A table is the same as that of the NEC, while the CEC tables brings
values that are generally inferior.
– single-phase (alternate current): tab. 430.148 of the NEC (0.167<hp<10),
tab. 45 of the CEC (0.167<hp<10), tab. 50.1 of the UL508A (0.1<hp<50);
the tables present the same values.
– two-phase (alternate current): tab. 430.149 of the NEC (0.167<hp<10), tab.
50.1 of UL508A (0.1<hp<200), no table in the CEC; the tables present the
same values, but UL508A table is more complete.
– three-phase (alternate current): tab. 430.150 of the NEC (0.5<hp<500), tab.
44 of the CEC (0.5<hp<500), tab. 50.1 of the UL508A (0.1<hp<500); above
3 hp all the tables have the same values, under 3 hp the CEC table has
slightly higher values.
The FLA value in the table is obtained from tests done on reference motors (in
accordance with the NEMA standard) under normal conditions of use: it is known
that the reference motors have low level electrical characteristics so the FLA is
always higher than the current on the rating plate of a normal motor of open
power.
The current nameplate must always be used for the sizing of the overload
protection.
For all the other NEC and UL dimensions the use of the highest value between
the FLA table and the current on the rating plate (generally the FLA) is required;
the CEC always recommends the use of the rating plate value, while admitting the
FLA if it is unknown.
EXAMPLE
In the example being examined it is supposed that the rating value is unknown: in
this case reference is made to the FLA table.With reference to UL508A, table 50.1
shows
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The same value is also reported on the same NEC and CEC tables.
1.3.1.2 Disconnecting Means
194-E UL
1494 NEMA
The term “disconnecting means” indicates a selector switch for the break off of
one or more motor starters for the purpose of carrying out safe servicing.
In NEC and CEC it is specified that a sectioning is necessary:
• for each motor starter;
• for each motor.
Is it enough to have a single device in order to perform all these functions, (e.g.
a main disconnecting switch)?
No, this device must only be devoted to the motor start only (in addition to the
main disconnect switch).
As a general rule, this function is performed by the motor protector or by the
“suitable as motor disconnect”.
A particular case which one cannot ignore is when there is no visibility between
the motor and the panel feeding it.The safety regulations for the installation of a
disconnecting means in sight of the motor don’t permit unauthorised closures
during maintenance.
The local disconnection can be avoided where it is not practical or where there
are maintenance and surveillance procedures that prevent the access by nonspecialist personnel, providing that the disconnecting device on the panel (for
example the motor protector) is fitted with means for locking in open position (a
padlock or the like).
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The sizing of the disconnecting means for a motor starter depends on how many
motors are sectioned and the type of sectioning used:
a) single motor, disconnecting device defined in current: the rated current of the
disconnecting means must not be less than 115% the current of the motor;
b) single motor, disconnecting device defined in hp (power): for NEC and CEC it
is enough that the size of the disconnecting means in hp is greater than the
power of the motor, while UL508A requires to establish the current on the
basis of tables 50.1 and 50.2 and then apply the 115% rule described in the
previous point;
It is recommended that you follow this criterion for simplicity' sake.
c) more than one motor: refer to the case of a single motor with current equal to
the sum of all the motor currents (as usual the FLA for the USA and value of the
motor plate for Canada).The sizing is done in current by applying the lower
limit of 115%: in the case of the disconnecting means defined in hp (power)
the value obtained from tables 50.1 and 50.2 must be taken as rated current.
Note that a self protected combination motor starter type E cannot section
multiple motors.
EXAMPLE
The disconnecting means chosen must have power sizes not lower than 5 hp.
The suitable IEC/UL/CSA component is a 194E-25 disconnect switch with a
rating of 5 hp.
In a NEMA starter a 1494F-N30
able to section 7.5 hp will be
used: if the installation is directly
on the machine a 1494F-NP30
“enclosed” disconnect can be
used.
1.3.1.3 Overload protection
193-E UL
592 NEMA
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The thermal protection is required for all the motors regardless of the size, unless
the motor is marked and authorised as self protected (impedance of the windings
is sufficient to prevent overloads).
Thermal relays, fuses, all the overload relays are admitted as protection from the
overload.
The power converters e.g. the reverse devices can perform this function only if
explicitly indicated in the instructions and only if the related instructions comply
with to the letter: some converters check the overload internally make checking
the through energy (I2t), other converters require the use of thermostats or
thermocouples. Failure to comply with the instructions will mean the protection
function is nullified.
The motors can have integrated protection providing that the assembly is certified
in all its parts: the use of self-protected must be shown in the schematics.
The maximum protection calibration must not exceed 115% of the rated current on
the plate. In the case of slow intervention, on start up or during normal
functioning, the protection can be increased up to 130%: in the case of components
that can be regulated the correct calibration must be indicated on the schematics.
In the case of thermal relays with resistors that can be replaced (NEMA
construction relays) the proper calibration must be shown on the schematics and
the catalogue code of the element be replaced must be attached.
EXAMPLE
In the example the plate current
is suggested and if it is unknown
FLA figures are used.
The calibration must not be
greater than 7.6 A x 1.15 = 8.7 A
If an overload relays with an
adjustable threshold is used the
device 140M-C2E-C10 with
adjustability range between
6.3 A and 10 A will be selected.
If a IEC/UL/CSA thermal relays
is used the choice will fall on
the 193-ED1DB (electronic)
with regulation range between
3.2 and 16 A.
At the moment of installation
the overload relays and
electronic O/L relays must be
adjusted at 100% of motor FLA.
48
(*) Effective March 1, 2007 internal wiring < 14 AWG is only permitted in
industrial machinery panels, and must be protected by a device marked
suitable for connection and protection of that gauge of wire.
(*)
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
1.3.1.4 Controller
100-C UL
500 NEMA
The definition of controller is somewhat generic because this term refers to any
components that enable a load to be commanded: for example even a motor
protector when manually operated is considered to be a controller.
In this analysis the magnetic controllers, or contactors are taken as a reference.
In the case of a direct start the contactor is easily chosen in the catalogue while
respecting a small number of obviously rules:
– having a rated voltage that is not smaller than the one of the circuit;
– that the size (in amperes) is not smaller than the sum of the scaling of the
controlled loads, in the simplest case of direct starting of a single motor it can
be scaled on the power of the motor, in hp;
– be approved for the type of load controlled.
Every motor must be controlled by a dedicated contactor. An exception is
admitted in the USA for Industrial Machinery in the case of a single contactor
that has to co-ordinate the functioning of more than one load (mixed, not
necessarily motors): the current is scaled and calculated as the sum of the rated
currents of all the loads.
EXAMPLE
The contactor must be adapted for a
voltage of 480V and must be suitably
scaled to the motor.
In the case of direct starts the
contactor can be scaled on the basis of
the power: the contactor must
therefore have a size of at least 5 hp.
The suitable IEC/UL/CSA component is
a 100-C16x10 contactor with rating
equal to 5 hp and a auxiliary NO
contact.
In a NEMA starter a 5 hp 500-BOx930
and with a NO auxiliary contact is
used.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
1.3.1.5 Branch Circuit Protection (BCPD)
140-U
140F fuse holder
140M
The protection of the motor starter from the short circuit can be done in different
ways
The most used components are: fuses, manual self-protected motor controller
“type E”, automatic circuit breakers.
THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT ALLOWED: modular miniature circuit breakers
(with the exception of those with UL 489 approval), motor controllers that are
NOT “type E”, fuses approved for control circuits.
The size/calibration of the protection must not be more than the lowest value
between the two following values:
1) the product of the motor's full load current by a tabled coefficient; or
2) the required current from the restrictions shown on the approval “marking” of
power components down line from the protection in question: in particular
of contactors and overload protections.
Two fundamental data are required by the NRTL at the time of the
certification: the type of short-circuit protection to be used and its maximum
current size.
If the size/calibration of BCPD is not above 115% of motor nameplate FLA, then it
can also serve as overload protection.
The coefficients indicated in point 1) of the preceding list have been tabulated for
every type of protection and motor.The table is identical in any standards.
An extract from NEC follows :
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
It is known that the value calculated in the "current x coefficient" is the
maximum magnetic protection calibration value.
For example, an “inverse time” automatic circuit breaker installed upline from a
motor with a current equal to 10 A, should have a magnetic threshold of 10 A x
250% = 25 A.Automatic circuit breakers according to European standards
normally have a magnetic threshold ten times that of the thermal threshold: thus a
breaker calibrated magnetically at 25 A is able to bring to 2.5 A capacity before
the thermal protection trips in and this is not suitable for the motor under
consideration.The nub of the problem is the fact that for the NEC and the CEC
the circuit breakers must have a fixed thermal and magnetic adjustable in a wide
range; the construction criterion is therefore opposite that of the European.
Nevertheless NEC/CEC never make precise reference to the magnetic threshold,
but only to a general calibration: this leaves the margin on the use of automatic
circuit breakers approved as BCP but of a European type in which the calibration
defined on the basis of the product “current x coefficient”, is applied to the
adjustable thermal threshold.
On the contrary, the “type E” motor starters also called “self-protected
combination motor controller”, are not taken into consideration because the
magnetic tripping value is fixed constructively at 1200 to 1300% of the current of
the motor and this value is implicitly accepted in which their use is permitted. In
the “type E” motor starter, only the thermal protection is calibrated.
The NEC and the CEC provide for the following standard sizes/regulations for
fuses and circuit breakers: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125,
150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 601, 700, 800, 1000, 1200,
1600, 2000, 2500, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000.Additional sizes for fuses are 1, 3, 6
and 10.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The protection device must have size/regulation that does not exceed the
product “current x coefficient”, but if the value calculated does not coincide with
a standard size/regulation, the use of the one immediately above is acceptable.
Take for example a 10 A motor: using rapid fuses (nontime-delay) the coefficient
is 300% and the product is equal to 10 A x 300% = 30 A, standard size. On the
contrary when (time-delay o dual element) delayed fuses are used, the
coefficient is 175% and the product equals 17.5 A that is not the standard size: in
this case fuses up to 20 A can be used.
If the values indicated in the table are not sufficient to guarantee the start up of
the motor without the slow intervention of the protection, the tabulated values
can be used up to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
fuses without delay or CC class up to 600 A:
fuses without delay over 601 A:
(dual element delayed fuse:
automatic thermomagnetic cutout not above 100 A:
automatic thermomagnetic cutout not above 100 A:
magnetic cutout for Design B, C or D motors:
magnetic cutout for Design E motors:
400%
300%
225%
400%
300%
1300%
1700%
Use of instantaneous trip (magnetic only) breakers must be part of a listed
combination of MCP + Contactor + O/L Relay.Alternatively, UL panel shops can have
combinations procedure described.
EXAMPLE
Furthermore it is assumed that the
restrictions of the contactor and the
thermal relay are negligible for the
purposes of choice and scaling of
the BCP.
a) Not-delayed fuses: the maximum
size is 7.6 A x 300% = 22,8 A that
is not the maximum standard for
which the use of fuses up to 25
A is legitimate. CC fuses (dim.
10x38) are chosen. The suitable
fuse holder is the 1492-FB3C30
or 140F-03C-C30.
52
b) automatic circuit breaker: the
maximum size is 7.6 A x 250% =
19 A that is not the standard size
so the use of a 20A circuit
breaker is legitimate.
The thermo magnetic for this
use is the 140U-H2C3-C20, with
an interrupting capacity of 35 kA
at 240 V.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
c) Motor protector type E: the 140M-C2E-C10 previously chosen on the basis of
the thermal protection is kept.The additional use of fuses or magnetic only
circuit breakers is not required, provided the spacing adapter 140M-C-TE is
used (as is clearly indicated on the label).
1.4 Wye-delta starting
170
540
The wye-delta starters are dealt with special rules and tables and the UL508A in
particular dedicates an entire paragraph to it.
The reference schematic is:
1M
2M
S
line contactor
delta
wye
On the basis of the functioning sequence the functioning conditions of the
individual contactors are specified:
• 1M “closed” when the motor is wye closed,“open” when the motor is running
to full capacity;
• 2M “closed” when the motor is being started,“open” when the motor is running
to full capacity;
• S “closed” when the motor is closed,“open” when the motor is being started.
For each contactor it is possible to define a current value to be opened, called
“break current”, and a current value to be closed, called “make current”.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The following terms can be used as an analogy with the motors:
➞ “Locked Rotor Ampacity” (LRA) is the current established at the moment the
contactors close, i.e. the make current;
➞ “Full Load Ampacity” (FLA) is the current that the contactor must open to
interrupt operation, i.e. the break current.
This is the value normally indicated in the catalogues
For the motors it is specified that LRA = 6 x FLA unless they are specifically
marked with a different ratio.
For contactors this is a dummy ratio and by definition LRA = 6 x FLA is imposed.
Contactor functioning currents
The delay set through the special timer for the passage from the wye to the delta
must be sufficient to start up the motor: in this case the contactors switch a
current with a similar to that of full capacity (the FLA of the tables). If instead the
delay set is too short, the contactors switch, with the motor almost at standstill, a
current with a value equal to that with the rotor blocked.
EXAMPLE 1
The extreme case of a start where the switching from wye to delta occurs with a
stopped motor is hypothesised:
Contactor code
LRA
FLA
1M
0.33 x LRA motor
0.577 x LRA motor
2M
0.577 x LRA motor
0.577 x LRA motor
S
0
0.33 x LRA motor
A 20 hp (15 kW) three-phase motor is assumed at 480 V of which the rated plate
current is unknown and the value of the current with the rotor blocked is
unknown
From the table it is read that the FLA of the motor is 27 A and that LRA is 162 A
(that is 6 x 27 A). In this case the operating currents of the contactors are:
54
Contactor code
LRA
FLA
1M
0,33 x 162 A z 53 A
0.577 x 27 A z 16 A
2M
0.577 x 162 A z 93 A
0.577 x 27 A z 16 A
S
0
0.33 x 162 A z 53 A
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The choice of the contactors occurs as in a normal direct starting supposing that
each of them commands a dummy motor with current, at fully capacity and with
blocked rotor, equal to those calculated.
In the catalogue, the contactors are specified by power so it is necessary to
convert the calculated current values into power output (hp).The procedure is
opposed to that for obtaining the FLA: starting from the calculated current the
three-phase motor is sought that, at 480 V, has an FLA that is not lower.The
following is obtained
Contactor code
FLA calculated
[A]
Motor power
FLA print out
Contactor
Power
1M
16
15 hp
21 A
100-C23
15 hp
2M
16
15 hp
21 A
100-C23
15 hp
S
53
50 hp
65 A
100-C72
50 hp
The fault for which the "wye" is larger than the line contactors and delta is
immediately clear: this is a direct consequence of the case for which the
switching occurs when the rotor is blocked.
EXAMPLE 2
The normal case is assumed with a start where the switching from wye to delta
occurs when the motor has already started at sufficient speed:
Contactor code
LRA
FLA
1M
0.33 x LRA motor
0.577 x LRA motor
2M
0.577 x LRA motor
0.577 x LRA motor
S
0
0.33 x FLA motor
The same motor as in the previous example is assumed: 20 hp (15 kW) a 480 V
of which the rated current and the value of the current when the rotor is blocked
are unknown
From the table it is read that the FLA of the motor is 27 A and that LRA is 162 A
(that is 6 x 14 A). In this case the operating currents of the contactors are:
Contactor code
LRA
FLA
1M
0.33 x 162 A z 53 A
0.577 x 27 A z 16 A
2M
0.577 x 162 A z 93 A
0.577 x 27 A z 16 A
S
0
0.33 x 27 A z 9 A
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The choice of the contactors occurs as in a normal direct starting supposing that
each of them commands a dummy motor with current, at full capacity and with
blocked rotor, equal to those calculated.
In the catalogue, the contactors are specified by power so it is necessary to
convert the calculated current values into power values (hp).The procedure is
opposed to that for obtaining the FLA: starting from the calculated current the
three-phase motor is sought that, at 480 V, has an FLA that is not lower.The
following is obtained
Contactor code
FLA calculated
[A]
Motor power
FLA print out
Contactor
Power
1M
16
15 hp
21 A
100-C23
15 hp
2M
16
15 hp
21 A
100-C23
15 hp
S
9
7.5 hp
11 A
100-C12
7.5 hp
Of course the wye and delta contactors remain the same while the wye is now of
a smaller size.
Scaling in accordance to North American criteria as just shown, while following
precise tables defined in UL508A, brings us to make product choices identical to
the ones of the drawings done in accordance with European criteria.
EXAMPLE 3
The normal case is assumed with a start where the switching from wye to delta
occurs when the motor has already started at sufficient speed: It is furthermore
supposed that the motor is standard: LRA (blocked rotor current\) = 6 x FLA (full
load current).
On the basis of the hypothesis made it is not necessary to size the contactors on
the basis of the currents but reference may be made to table 33.3 of UL508A.This
table on the basis of the power and voltage of the motor defines the NEMA size of
the contactors to use: the NEMA size is a construction size that is shown in the
catalogue or on the component.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The same motor as in the previous example is assumed: 20 hp (15 kW) a 480 V.
The line to be used is the second, already highlighted, for the motor values
between 15 hp and 40 hp: il “NEMA size” required is 2 for all three contactors.
To make the example clearer the contactors manufactured according to NEMA
standards, the 500 series is looked for in the catalogue.
It is immediately noted that the choice of the components is made on the basis of
criteria that differs from the European criteria: there are not categories of use; the
contactors are divided first of all on the basis of the use provided for and then on
the basis of the NEMA size.
From the catalogue, we find that the contactors for motors, size 2, suitable for the
start in the example is the 500-COx930. No other type of sizing is required.
EXAMPLE 4
The case is assumed of a start where the switching from wye to delta happens
when the motor has already started at sufficient speed, but the motor is marked
with a different ration between the locked rotor current and the full load current.
The following is assumed: LRA = 9 x FLA.
The ration different from 6, between LRA and FLA obliges us to calculate the
sizes of the contactors because table 33.3, cited in example 3, is no longer
applicable.
Contactor code
LRA
FLA
1M
0.33 x LRA motor
0.577 x LRA motor
2M
0.577 x LRA motor
0.577 x LRA motor
S
0
0.33 x LRA motor
A three-phase 20 hp (15 kW) at 480 V motor is assumed. From the table it can
be seen that the motor's FLA is 27 A: it follows that the LRA is 243 A (i.e. 9 x 27 A).
The functioning currents of the contactors are:
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
Contactor code
LRA
FLA
1M
0.33 x 243 A z 80 A
0.577 x 27 A z 16 A
2M
0.577 x 243 A z 140 A
0.577 x 27 A z 16 A
S
0
0.33 x 27 A z 9 A
The choice of the contactors occurs as in a normal direct starting supposing that
each of them commands a dummy motor with current, at fully capacity and with
locked rotor, equal to those calculated.
In the catalogue, the catalog numbers are specified by power so it is necessary to
switch the calculated current values into power output values (hp).
As far as the FLA is concerned these are identical to what is obtained in example
2, but in this case the line and delta contactors must be sized also on the basis of
the LRA of the dummy motor. It should be kept in mind that the contactors still
equal LRA = 6 x FLA. It’s obtained
Contactor code
Contactor
ex. 2
Dummy motor
FLA [A]
LRA [A]
Code
Power [hp]
FLA [A]
LRA [A]
1M
16
80
100-C23
15 hp
21
126
2M
16
140
100-C23
15 hp
21
126
The line contactor satisfies the sizing conditions also in this case but the delta
contactor is smaller than the LRA.
A correct choice requires a contactor with
LRA contactor >= LRA motor = 140 A
Therefore
6 x FLA contactor >= 140 A
x FLA contactor >= 140/6 23.3 A
From the FLA table it can be deduced that the contactor that fully meets this
condition must have a power of 20 hp at 480 V (FLA equal to 27 A): from the
catalogue the 100-C30 is chosen.
Contactor code
2M
58
Dummy motor
Contactor
ex. 2
FLA [A]
LRA [A]
Code
Power [hp]
FLA [A]
LRA [A]
16
140
100-C30
20 hp
27
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
Sizing of protections
Protection from the short circuit (BCPD) remains the same and is calculated over
the entire FLA of the motor.
The thermal protection must be installed downline from the line contactor(M1)
and with calibration of no more than 1.15 times the 57.7% of the motor's FLA.
Attention must be paid to this requirement because very often a single overload
relay is used as protection both thermally and magnetic but it is not accepted in
this circuit schematic since it does not guarantee protection while the motor is
starting up.
Sizing of conductors
The conductors, internal and external that bring the current to a wye-delta
starting must be scaled on the basis of a factor of 1.25 (as already described); the
reference current however changes, it is reduced to 57,7% of the motor current.
1.5 Group Installation
One of the main characteristics of the North American standard is the fact that
they provide for “group installation”, i.e. group installations that are regulated by
specific instructions.
In general, these are installations in groups when there is a circuit where a single
protection against short circuits (BCP) protects all the loads at once: the motor
group installation (several motors down line from the same BCP) will be
analysed later on. Note that each motor must have its own protection from
overloads.
1.5.1 Dimensioning of branch circuit protections
The UL508A standard and the NEC provide for two or more motors (but also one
or more motors and other loads) being able to be protected by a single branch
circuit protection if they respect at least one of the listed cases:
1) When the BCP does not exceed 20 A at 125 V or 15 A at 600 V or less and
• the full load current of each motor, FLA, does not exceed 6 A; and
• the calibration and the type of protection of the branch circuit are coordinated with the restrictions of the components down line (i.e. indicated
on the marking of the component);
2) When the calibration is the BCP type they respect the scaling parameters
(previously defined) for each motor in the assembly.The start up of the largest
motor must not cause untimely cut ins i;
3) When all the power components down line from the BCP protection are
approved for the group installation, as indicated by the marking (of the
NRTL certifier) on the component or on the instructions supplied with the
components.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The size/calibration of the protection of the branch circuit must not be more
than the lowest value between the two following:
• the size of the BCP is established by calculating the size required for the
largest motor in the assembly (by doing this the product of the sizing
current of the largest motor by a coefficient in the table, has already been
seen for the individual motor start) plus the sum of the full load currents of
the remaining motors and the nominal currents of all the other loads in the
group; or
• the size of the BCP is chosen in such a way that all the power components
do not exceed the value of the current specified in the marking as regards
the group installation and the type of protection is the type specified in
the same marking (for this purposes, the term fuse refers to a branch
circuit protection connected with fuses and the term circuit breaker refers
o an automatic cutout at reverse type).
Finally it should be noted that the group installation can only be carried out
with automatic fuses and circuit breakers of the “inverse time” type: the
overload relay of Type E cannot be used as BCP for a group installation.
EXAMPLE
A calculation is required of the size/calibration of a branch circuit protection for
the following motor group installation: a 10 hp (7.5 kW) motor and two 5 hp
(3.5 kW) 480 V motors.The rating plate current is unknown
The FLA tables are: 14 A for the large motor, 7.6 for the other motors.
The branch circuit protection consists of a delayed fuse: its coefficient for the
calculation of the BCP is 175%.
The protection size must be lower than:
14 x 1.75 A
7.6 A
7.6 A
value calculated as for individual motor start
FLA
FLA
for a total of 29.7 A.The size of the fuse immediately below is 25 A.
In the previous calculation the restrictions imposed by the downstream
components have been ignored because generally larger sizes/calibrations are
acceptable.
If, on the other hand, the maximum protection allowed delayed fuses of 20 A, this
value would prevail over that calculated (25 A) and the fuses would have to be of
sizes no greater than the 20 A allowed.
The CEC allows a group installation in accordance with points a) and b), while it
limits the application of point c) to just machine tools and for wood working.The
CSA does not lay down specific restrictions for the group installation so the BCP
size limit is always obtained through calculation (the largest motor plus the other
loads); maximum values are imposed for the size of the branch circuit branch
circuit protection: 200 A up to 250 V, 100 A from 251 V up to 750 V.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The NFPA 79 standard for Industrial Machinery (and the relative UL508A
section) allows a group installation in accordance with points a) and b), but
point c) changes in the definition of the lowest value for the choice of the BCP:
the one linked to the markings remains the same while the other is no longer
obtained by a calculation but by a table (tab. 66.2 of UL508A) that binds the size
of the BCP to the conductor with the smallest cross section downstream of the
protection itself.
1.5.2 Sizing of conductors to the single motor.
In the case of group installation the circuit generally consists of conductors
(called branch circuits) leaving the BCP protection to arrive at a distribution
system (e.g. taps) from which the switching conductors powering the motors
leave again, normally with a lower cross-section.
The conductors of each tap that power a single motor do not need to have an
individual branch circuit protection from the short circuit provide the following
conditions are respected.
1) no conductor to the motor must have a lower capacity than the feeder
conductors capacity; or
2) no conductor to the motor must have a capacity lower than one third of that
of the i branch circuit conductors (with a minimum value not less than the
usual 125% of the motor current);the overload protection conductors must
be the same as or shorter than 7.62 m and protected manually.
3) the conductors that go from the branch circuit protection to a “manual
motor controller,” also approved as “Suitable for Tap Conductor Protection in
Group Installations”, can have a capacity of no less than 1/10 of the BCP
calibration (rule included in the NEC until 2002) and in the new NEC ed.
2005 can have a capacity not lower than the size – calibration of the BCP
(fuse or motor protector).
4) The conductors from the controller to
the motor must have a capacity of no
less than the usual 125% of the motor
current.
The conductors from the BCP to the
controller must be adequately protected
mechanically, segregated and they must
be in lengths of not more than 3 m, or
they must have a capacity of not less than
140M
that of the “branch circuit” conductors.
A particular case of group installation is represented by the “common bus” in
direct current: these systems consist of power rectifier that powers a short circuit
that in its turn powers one or more inverters (and relative motors downline).
The UL508A standard gives specific instructions for these components:
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• all the components in the system must be approved
• it is sufficient for there to be a single branch circuit protector up line from the
rectifier the size/calibration of which must be no larger than the smallest value
of the following two:
a) the size required for the larger of the motors in the group plus the sum of
the full load currents of the remaining motors (in the same way as required
in point c) for the group installation); or
b) the maximum size allowed by the rectifier, in the instructions or in the
markings.
1.6 Three-phase, two-speed or Dahlander motor
The motors with multiple winding and those with Dahlander starting have
multiple power supply terminal strips, each characterised by its own current
characteristics. Every power entrance must be protected as if it were a single
motor on the basis of the rules defined above.
The only exception allowed is the use of a single protection from the BCP shortcircuit that however must be scaled in such a way as to meet the regulations for
all the windings connected downline.
1.7 Reversal of direction
The reversal of direction requires an interlock between the two contactors that
command the direction of turning.
The interlock can be mechanical or electrical, but there is an exception in the
case of Industrial Machinery: in the USA the NFPA 79 standard (and UL508A in
the relative section) require the use of both types of interlock.
1.8 – VFD Inverter and Softstarter
Inverter and softstarter demand that the branch circuit protection, against shortcircuits, is made according to the indications of the instruction manual (as
established in the UL 508A § 31.3.2 ).
Without this datum, it is allowed to size the protection as if it were a motor by
multiplying the feed current of the drive, indicated in the manual, by the
coefficient indicated in the relevant tables.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
As a rule, it is not allowed to use the motor protectors even if they are certified as
TYPE “E”, as protector of inverters, if they are not specified in the manual
supplied by the drive manufacturer.
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1.9 Heater branch circuit
156
The heater branch circuits are the circuits that feed the heater resistors.
The present analysis contains a description of the required standards for the
process heating, i.e. linked to the functioning of the machine, and not that linked
to the heating of the environments (“fixed electric space-heating”).
The UL508A standard brings together the main NEC and CEC regulations and
imposes:
• Branch Circuit Protection: this must be calibrated at 125% of the rated current
of the element and must not be higher than 60 A: this entails the maximum
current of an element must be 48 A.
If there are heater circuits with currents higher than 48 A it is necessary to
separate them into several subcircuits that respect the norms.In the panel a
size/calibration protection above 60 A may be placed in the panel providing
the separation into subcircuits occurs in “in the field” using BCPs of a suitable
size.
• The capacity of the conductors must be higher than the rated current of the
resistive load.The capacity of the conductors must be above the nominal
current of the resistive load.
Exceptions to the 48 A limit are allowed for special applications: for example the
heaters outside to meld show and ice or the immersed type for heating water or
generating steam.
The NFPA 79 standard for Industrial Machinery (and relevant section of UL508A)
requires the oversizing of the wires to 125% of the rated resistant current. It is
advisable to unify the design by adopting the oversizing of the wires to
125% because it is required by some AHJs for all the applications
EXAMPLE
A three-phase heating resistance that absorbs 20 A is assumed.
The branch circuit protection must have sizes above 1.25 x 20 A = 24 A,
consequently protection such as 25A fuses will be chosen.
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
The same calculation for the minimum capacity is also applied for the conductor
inside the panel: the uprated cross-section is AWG 12 (25 A).
The resistive load command requires the use of a contactor sized in current. Solid
state contactors are particularly suitable for this application: for example, use can
be made of the 156-C20xA3, three-phase with rated current of 20A and
maximum voltage of 600V.
1.10 Lighting branch circuit
100L
500L
These are power circuits for lamps used in the working process, both for lighting
(“standard-duty” lamps) and for other purposes (for example infrared lights for
drying; “heavy-duty” lamps). These are not the panel's maintenance lights.
Also for this type of circuit UL508A gives an overview of the main regulations and
distinguishes between:
• Standard-duty lamps (incandescent or fluorescent): the BCP must be calibrated
at not more than 20 A; conductors must have a capacity above the
size/calibration of the protection;
• Heavy-duty lamps (incandescent or infrared): il BCP must be calibrated at not
more than 50 A; the conductors must have a capacity above the size/ calibration
of the protection;
There are no limits on the power supply voltage.
Some differences are to be considered between the various norms as far as simply
the lighting circuits are concerned:
a) the NFPA 79 standard for Industrial Machinery imposes a BCP with a size no
greater than 15 A and a maximum supply voltage of 150 V; one side of the
circuit must be grounded.
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Supply can be provided through:
• transformers with separate winding down line from the main disconnect of
the machine; the secondary must be protected;
• transformers with separate winding up line from the main disconnect of
the machine; the secondary must be sectioned;
• one 120 V control circuit with its own protection against over currents.
b) the CEC makes a difference between the maximum size/calibration of the
BCP on the basis of the power supply voltage: 20 A for voltages up to 347
phases higher than 347 V, 15 A for higher voltages.
The command of a lighting circuit requires contactors that are specifically
approved for this purpose: the “lighting contactor”: The sizing must be done on
the basis of the current. One example of these contactors:
• 100L series for the IEC/UL/CSA contactors: there is one size and it is 20 A;
• 500L series for NEMA contactors: every size has a different current value, from
10 A to over 2000 A.
The maintenance lighting inside the panel is only dealt with in UL508A (as it is a
regulation specifically for panels) and, or Industrial Machinery, in NFPA 79
(because of the “origins” in IEC 60204-1).
a) UL508A:
• the lighting equipment must be approved in accordance to UL496 in the
CCN OMTT or ONHR, or in accordance to UL1570 in the CCN IEUZ.
• the voltage between conductors must be lower than 150 V.
• the circuit must be considered as a power circuit and protected as already
defined. One exception is permitted: if the power supply occurs at 120 V and
it is derived downline from a control conformer with separate windings,
then the circuit can be considered as a control circuit and managed as such.
b) NFPA 79 (and relative section of UL508A):
• the lighting equipment must be approved (the previous UL approval classes
of course apply);
• less than 150 V; less than 15 A (as for all lighting circuits)
• in addition to the cases already described, the maintenance supply circuit
inside the panel can be derived from the secondary of a transformer with
separate windings upline of the machine's main disconnect (and must not
be sectioned or protected) or from the lighting circuit of the plant.
1.11 Appliance branch circuit
Any electrical user equipment mass produced to carry out a particular function is
called an appliance. In general they are non industrial devices (for example
household appliances).
Very often appliances are connected to a socket by means of a lead meaning that
for sizing the rules already seen for the receptacles are applied.
In cases where the ’appliance is directly connected it is necessary to provide for a
branch circuit, chosen with the following criteria (taken from UL508A):
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BRANCH CIRCUIT
• the type and size of BCP indicated on the markings of the device; in the
absence of indications on the device, the following applies:
• if the appliance consists of at least one motor it must be protected as a motor
(or group of motors) with the same power output;
• if the ’appliance does not contain a motor it is necessary to verify the rated
current: if the current is less than 13.3 A the BCP must have a size that does not
exceed 20 A; if this is not the case the size/calibration of the BCP must be
smaller than 150% of the rated current.
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
1
Control Circuits
1.1
Definition of Remote control Circuit
In the National Electrical Code (art. 100 Part I) and in the Canadian Electrical
Code (section 0) the following definition is given:
• Remote control circuit: any electric circuit that controls any other circuit
through a relay or an equivalent device.
In the UL508A standard, Part 2 Glossary, the definition is: simplified and applied
to the electrical panel:
• Remote control circuit: an electrical circuit that commands a control element
(e.g. a contactor) and that does not supply power loads.
Single norms do admit different types of control circuits characterised by voltage,
current and functions.
1.1.1 Classification of the circuits
The National Electric Code (NEC) distinguishes between three different types of
control circuit:
• Class 1: general control circuit (up to 600 V, no limit in power VA); in some
applications there is a requirement that the voltage and power be limited (30 V,
1000 VA).
• Class 2: control circuit powered by sources of limited power upon special
approval: it is considered safe from the points of view of both direct contact
and the risk of fire.
• Class 3: control circuit powered by limited power sources upon special
approval, but with more power than it allowed for Class 2: it is considered safe
from the risk of fire but not for the risk of direct contact.
Voltage and power limits for class 2 and 3 circuits are not given in the NEC
because these are inherent to the limitations imposed on power sources in the
relative construction standards.
The Canadien Electric Code (CEC) distinguishes between two different types of
control circuit:
• Class 1: general control circuit: this can be limit in voltage and in power (30 V,
1000 VAC) or not (600 V, no limit for VA).
• Class 2: control circuit powered by limited power sources with special
approval; distinctions are made on the base of the power voltage: up to 20 V,
above 20 V up to 30 V, above 30 V up to 60 V and above 60 V up to 150 V.
It should be noted that the instructions for Class 1 circuits are similar in both NEC
and CEC.Also these are very similar for Class 2 circuits: the CEC limits itself to
giving a few additional instructions regarding the protections to adopt, while the
NEC limits itself to referring to the approved components.
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
The UL508A links up with both NEC and CEC codes, but it gives additional
instructions on how to ease the application.
• Control circuit: this is not clearly identified but it can be traced back to a
Class 1 non limited circuit: there are no power or voltage limits (within the 600
V that specify the low voltage).
• Class 2: control circuit powered by limited power sources (generally 100 VA)
with special UL approval (see for example the XLP 1606 Class 2)
1606
• Low-Voltage Limited Energy Circuit: is a type of control circuit limited in
voltage and energy and is envisaged only by UL that reunites regulations of
both Class 1 limited power and Class 2 circuits.
In the last edition of the NFPA 79 (2002) standard for Industrial Machinery,
further restrictions were introduced for the circuits of control and command, in
particular:
• 120 V as a maximum voltage limit in alternating current and 250 V in direct
current;
• transformer with separate windings for the 120V control circuit power
derived from greater voltage power circuits.
1.2
Control circuits
The control circuits (remote control) are considered to be the circuits that power
and control loads like:
1. A pilot light shall comply with the Standard for Industrial Control Equipment,
UL 508, and a miscellaneous lamp holder shall comply with the Standard for
Edison-Base Lampholders, UL 496;
2. An electrically-operated valve shall comply with the Standard for Electrically
Operated Valves, UL 429;
3. A solenoid shall be evaluated for the intended use;
4. A time-indicating or time-recording device, including an hourmeter, or a
synchronous motor shall comply with the Standard for Time-Indicating and Recording Appliances, UL 863;
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
5. An electrically operated counter shall comply with the Standard for TimeIndicating and -Recording Appliances, UL 863;
6. An audible signal appliance, including a horn, bell, or buzzer, shall comply
with the Standard for Audible Signal Appliances, UL 464; and
7. A coil or input circuit to another control circuit switching device or to a load
controller shall comply with other component requirements in this standard.
Caution: the lighting lamps and the fans for electrical panels are considered to
be control circuits. If these components are installed in the field (outside the
electrical panel) they should be considered power circuits instead.
1.3
Control circuit:
As already said, a general control circuit does not have voltage or power limits. It
can be derived directly from the power circuits without the need of a
transformer.
The powering of the control circuit can be obtained in two ways:
1. Directly from the general distribution inside the panel by installing a special
branch circuit protection;
2. Down line from a pre-existing BCP.
The main standards (NEC, CEC) in no way require the connection of the control
circuit on one side to the equipotent circuit, but it does not forbid it either.
NFPA 79 for Industrial Machinery on the other hand picks up again on the
obligation to use a transformer with separate windings and with maximum
voltage not above 120 V: one side of the circuit can be connected to the
equipotent circuit.
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
In the definition of the individual components in a
control circuit, reference is made to a general direct
current circuit with one side connected to the
equipotent protection circuit.A distinction is made
between:
Supply: power source, in this case a power supply
unit (but also a transformer).
Overcurrent Protection: overcurrent protection, in
this example an supplementary protection 1492 –SP
(but also a fuse).
Internal conductors/cables inside the panel
Terminal: interface terminal between the panel and
on the machine
Load: load, in this example a solenoid valve (but also
a coil or something else)
External: conductors/cables outside the panel
1.3.1 Load
The UL508A definition of the control circuit is an “electrical circuit that
commands a control element (e.g. a contactor) and that does not feed power
loads”.
In paragraph 46 the standard lists the main loads that can be inserted in a control
circuit: coils (of the contactors), solenoid valves, general meters, sounders and
light signals.The solenoids, i.e. the coil of non contactors, should be assessed case
by case.
Motors, lighting and resistors are never control loads. In reality, under certain
conditions, panel maintenece lights and panel cooling fans can be considered as
control circuit.
If one side of the control circuit is connected to the equipotent protection
conductor, it is compulsory to connect one of the load connection terminals
directly to this side.
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1.3.2 External Wire
The conductors outside the panel follow the same rules given for power
conductors, except that for the calculation of the section.
For the control circuits it is sufficient for the cable capacity not to be less than the
rating of the Overcurrent Protection either up line or in the case of control
transformers with protection on just the primary, less than the rated current of
the transformer's secondary.
For the capacities of the external conductors it is advisable to take table 28.1 of
UL508A as a reference. For the control conductors the use of correction factors is
not required.
The minimum cross-section is not clearly defined in UL508A, even though AWG
14 "is suggested". Nonetheless both the NEC and the CEC have AWG 18 as
minimum values for "laid" conductors (as usually happens on the machine) and
AWG 16 for conductors in raceways.
The power conductors inside the same raceway or tube (conduit) should be
insulated for the maximum voltage present; if one of the conductors is not
insulated or is insulated for a lower voltage, it is necessary to distance it (at least
6.4 mm) or isolate it.
1.3.3 Terminal Block
1492
1492C NEMA
The terminal block for field wiring should be approved for use in an industrial
environment and should be compatible with both external and internal
conductors.
UL508A requires the terminal blocks installed to accept wire size of at least AWG
14, but in reality terminal blocks are also accepted for smaller wire size as long as
one of the following conditions are accepted.
• the terminal block accepts AWG 14 conductors and smaller cross/sections: no
particular prescriptions;
72
• the terminal block accepts only wire size smaller than AWG 14: it is necessary
to indicate on the electrical diagrams or with a tag at the side of the terminal
block, the maximum cross-section that it can accept.This is to avoid that, at a
later date, the conductors of the control circuit being replaced with others, not
compatible with the terminal block.
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
The Class 1 circuit terminal block should be clearly indicated with a marking.
EXAMPLE
A control circuit made of AWG 18 cross section conductors is assumed.
If the interface terminal block accepts a AWG 18 – AWG 14 cross-section interval,
one can go ahead regularly; if on the other hand the terminal block only accepts
sections AWG 18 – AWG 16 then the maximum cross-section to be used should be
indicated, for example on the schematics.
1.3.4 Internal Wire
The conductors inside the panel follow the same rules given for power
conductors, except for the calculation of the section.
For the control circuits it is enough for the cable capacity not to be smaller than
the rating of the protection upline or in its absence to the nominal current to the
secondary of the control transformer.
For the capacities of the external conductors it is advisable to take table 28.1 of
UL508A as a reference.
The operating temperature of the conductors is 90°C for wire size above AWG 16
and 60°C for conductors with cross sections the same as or lower than AWG 16
(it should be remembered however that a AWG 16 to 60°C conductor cannot be
used for power circuits).
The minimum cross-section to be used for the internal control circuits is in both
texts AWG 18, but only wire size lower than AWG 30 are allowed for wiring for
PLC or static components (semi conductors and/or electronic). In UL508A table
38.1 shows the capacities allowed for conductors lower than AWG 18.
All the control circuit conductors inside the same raceway should be insulated for
the maximum voltage present if one of the conductors is not insulated for a lower
voltage, it is necessary to distance or isolate it.
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1.3.5 Overcurrent Protection
1492-SP
140F
The choice of overcurrent protection depends first and foremost on how the
control circuit is powered:
1) Downline from a pre-existing BCP (Branch Circuit Protection).
2) Directly from the general distribution inside the panel by installing a special
branch circuit protection;
The above mentioned circuits will be called Control downline of a BCP
(shown in blue) and Control Circuit derived directly from the feeder
(shown in red), respectively
YES
1492-SP UL1077
1492-CB UL1077 – UL508
NO
UL 1077 and UL 508
prohibits use directly
connected in feeder circuits
1) Control Circuit down line of a BCP
The control circuit is derived down line from a branch circuit protection that
already exists (UL 489 fuses or circuit breaker, in this example the BCPs are
motor start fuses).
The BCP guarantees protection from short circuit of the feeder circuit;
the control circuit begins at the point where the relative conductors are
derived. All the overcurrent protections down line are part of the control
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circuit and can be either devices suitable for the branch circuit (UL508), or
protections called “supplementary”: in particular “supplementary fuses” and
“supplementary protector” (miniature circuit breaker, for example in
accordance with UL1077, such as the 1492-SP).
2) Control Circuit derived directly from the feeder
The control circuit is derived directly from the general powering (feeder) of
the panel. In accordance with the North American standard definitions, the
derivation is a power circuit (branch circuit) that, in its turn has the control
circuit as a “load”
The rules require to install a protection, of branch circuit, against the short
circuit: the real control circuit begins down line from the BCP in which both
devices suitable for the branch circuits or supplementary protections can be
installed.
1489
The BCP connected to the feeder should have a rating that is not more than 20 A.
Inside the control circuit the standards require the use of an overcurrent
protection (either branch or supplementary) in given points:
• in the case of a Control Circuit derived from the BCP, down line of the
pre-existing branch circuit;
• always, in the derivation points of conductors with a smaller cross-section.
The rating of the protections is chosen on the basis of:
– specific circuit requirements (as in the low-voltage limited energy circuits);
– control circuit conductor capacity;
– restrictions on the markings of the devices down line.
It is not necessary for a single protection to meet all the conditions listed, but it is
possible to co-ordinate several protections to achieve this purpose, vertically and
horizontally.
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
The North American standards require the protection of all the conductors that
are not connected to the equipotent circuit.
EXAMPLE
A general control circuit is
assumed to be derived of a
special branch circuit Q2
protection down line, for example
a circuit breaker (UL489) 140UH2C3-C15 of 15 A or 1489-A2C150, that protects a solenoid valve
assembly (Y1,Y2,Y3) and an
electronic component (U1).
From table 29.1 the protected
BCP cross-section, or AWG 14 (20
A) is obtained.
If the wiring is all made with
AWG 14 and no component
imposes particular restrictions,
the circuit represented is correct
and does not require anything
else.
It is now assumed that the U1 component imposes the use of a 4A protection, in
the marking, or in the instructions.
There are two solutions:
• to limit the entire circuit by
replacing the BCP Q2 15 A with
another of 4 A
• to insert a further Q3 4 A
supplementary protection that
protects just the conductor
supplying U1. For example a
1492-SP1C040, supplementary
protection (UL1077 approved)
can be used. Furthermore, down
line from the Q3 protection it is
possible to wire with a AWG 18
and 7A capacity conductor.
The first solution makes it possible to save a component, but limits the
possibilities of the control circuit.The second solution cuts in locally respecting
the requirements of component U1.
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1.4
CONTROL CIRCUITS
Special prescriptions for Control Circuit class 1
If the control circuit is derived downline from a branch circuit protection that
already exists, an overcurrent protection should be installed at the point of
derivation of the control circuit conductors.
For the equipping of general machines UL508A it is required to install a
protection, sized in accordance to the general rules previously listed.
If, however, the circuit has been derived in a motor branch circuit two exceptions
are admitted:
1. if the control circuit is still confined inside the control panel (for example the
command push buttons are mounted on the metal work), it is protected from
over currents by the BCP motor (without additional protections) if the values
shown in table 41.1 of UL508A are respected.
2. if the control circuit leaves the panel (for example in the case of remote
pushbutton control station) it is protected against the over currents by the
motor BCP (without additional protection) if the values defined in table 41.2
of UL508A are respected.
Standard CSA 22.2 #14 also makes a similar exception: if the control circuit
leaves the panel it is not necessary to have an additional overcurrent
protection if the motor BCP has a rating that is no more than 300% the
capacity of the conductors that, in their turn, should not be lower than 15A.
In the case of Industrial Machinery the NFPA 79 standard (and the relative
section of UL508A) require the over current protection always to be installed and
the sizing not to be above the value in table 66.4 of UL508A on the basis of the
control circuit conductor cross-section, the BCP and the positioning of the
components connected to the circuit.
In this regard it should be remembered that the control circuits can be derived
directly (down line of an already existing BCP) only from the power circuits with
voltage no more than 120 V.
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EXAMPLE
A derivation of a control circuit down line from a BCP is assumed for a
woodworking machine, Industrial Machinery.The circuit is confined within the
panel and the BCP has a size of 25 A.
The circuit is made with a AWG 16 cable that, in accordance with tab. 28.1 of
UL508A, carries 10 A.
The control circuit protection should not be greater than 10 A, but in the
hypotheses advance it is possible for it not to be more than 20 A (and not 10 A).
If in the same conditions the control circuit were extended beyond the control
panel the conditions in table 66.4 would no longer be respected.Two solutions
are given:
• using a BCP of 20 A and refer to the conditions in which the table is being
applied;
• using a 10 A protection and respecting the general rule (without applying table.
66.4).
1.5
Power Supply
The power supply of a control circuit can be a transformer for the circuits in
alternating current or a rectifier for direct current circuits.
The components should be approved by an NRTL for the envisage use.
a) Switching Mode power supply
units: should be approved for use in
the industrial field.
UL508A also allows the use of power
units for Information Technology that
have passed a special overtemperature test.There will be a
double marking: UR as Information
Technology Equipment (I.T.E.) and
UL as Industrial Control Equipment
(Ind. Cont. Eq.).
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
In the absence of the over-temperature test the component can be used, but
the output current must be downgraded to 50% (that is to say a 10 A power
unit should be limited with a special 5 A protection).
The protection of the power units should be done in accordance to the
indications given in the instructions, making sure however that the
components envisaged are suitable at the point of installation in accordance
with CEC or NEC (see the overcurrent protection).
Note:
All the Rockwell Automation power supplies in the 1606-XL
Family are certified for industrial environments and are not
subject to downgrading or to limitations!
b) Transformers / autotransformers: the general Class 1 control circuit does
not require the separation between the windings (as already mentioned, only
NFPA79 for Industrial Machinery imposes the use of the transformer).
The protection of the transformers and autotransformers should follow the
rules given in the specific section.
1.6
Control Circuit Class 2
The main advantage of Class 2 circuit is the possibility given by UL508A to use
non-approved components: this is however only applicable to internal conductors
and control circuit components.
This is very often the only way out allowed to those using components, for
example electronic cards, customised or own products, that could be challenged
by the AHJs.Alternatively these components would need to be approved; such
thing requires time and a non-justifiable expenditure.
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1.6.1 Power supplies
The control circuits Class 2 are fed by sources intrinsically limited. In particular
UL508A imposes
1. transformers: CCN
XOKV, XOKV2 (UL 1585 ”Class 2 transformer”);
2. transformers: CCN
NWGQ, QQGQ2 (UL 1950 “Information Technology
Equipment”) only if use in Class 2 circuits is expressly indicated in the
marking.
All the derived circuits down line of a Class 2 supply are to be considered Class 2
circuits if properly wired.
1.6.2 Overcurrent Protection
Protections are not needed down line from the power source because the circuit
is self/protected (there might be some few rare exceptions in the case of the use
of conductors or components with particular characteristic).
Up line from the supply, the protection should be suitable for the point of
installation (only BCPs are derived directly from the general feeder, overcurrent
protection if we derive from a pre-existing BCP, down lines) and it should respect
all restrictions imposed on the marking or instructions.
1.6.3 External Wiring and Terminal
The conductors on the machine of Class 2 circuits should be approved; in
addition they should be separated (with the use of special accessories) or isolated
(minimum distance 50.8 mm) from the conductors of all the other non Class 2
circuits.
The panel-on machine interface should follow the same provisions valid for the
terminal blocks of a general control circuit (for example the limits on the crosssection that can be connected): in opposite cases the terminal blocks should be
separated from of all the other circuits (not Class 2).
The Class 2 circuit terminal block should be clearly indicated with a marking.
If this instruction is not respected the circuit goes automatically to Class 1, losing
all the relative advantages.
1.6.4 Internal Wiring
The Class 2 approved conductors should be separated or isolated from the
conductors of the other circuits (not Class 2) unless they are insulated for the
maximum voltage present.
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
It should be noted that if internal non approved conductors are used (for example
N07V-K or H05V-K), what has been said above is no longer applicable and it is
necessary to separate or segregate these conductors.
1.7
Low-Voltage Limited Energy Circuit
The Low-Voltage Limited Energy circuit has similar characteristics to those of a
Class 2 circuit and has been introduced into the UL508A by the Underwriters
Laboratories unifying instructions for the circuits in Class 1 and limited in energy
to 100VA as in Class 2.
As also for the Class 2, in these circuits it is possible to use non-approved
components, loads and wiring down line from the limiting protection devices i.
The Low-Voltage Limited Energy circuit is easier to implement inside equipment
than a Class 2, and is therefore the most "convenient" method for using
customised or self made non approved components like electronic cards, proves.
The maximum voltages allowed are 30 V effective in alternate current and
42,4 V in direct current.
1606XL
1492-SP
1.7.1 Supply
The Low-Voltage Limited Energy circuits do not require specially approved
power sources, but only that the galvanic separation of the power circuits is
assured. In particular UL508A imposes:
1. Separate windings and transformers: CCN XPTQ, XPTQ2, XQNX and XQNX2
(UL506 ”Specialty Transformers” e UL1561 “Dry-Type General Purpose and
Power Transformers”);
2. transformers: CCN QQAQ2: a CCN collection including in particular QQGQ2
(UL60950 “Safety of Information Technology Equipment”);
3. Other sources with separate secondary: several types but in particular CCN
NMMS and NMMS2 (UL508C “Power Conversion Equipment”);
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4. batteries;
5. Current transformers: CCN XODW2 (UL506 ”Specialty Transformers”);
6. Current transformers with 5 A secondary: approved or otherwise.
1.7.2 Overcurrent Protection
To assure that the circuit power is limited it is necessary to install an overcurrent
protection down line from the supply dimensioned as in 43.1 of UL508A
It is known that in the calculation of the maximum protection size the peak value
of the voltage should be applied (VP) and not the effective value (VRMS).Thus for a
24 V circuit we should consider two cases:
– direct current:VP = VRMS = 24 V
100
≅ 4,17A
24
– alternating current:
V P = 2 ⋅ V RMS = 1, 41 ⋅ V RMS
V P = 1,41 ⋅ 24 ≅ 34V
and therefore
100
≅ 3A
34
Circuits down line from the current transformers with (TA) with 5 A secondary
are considered self protected.
It is not required for each Low-Voltage Limited Energy circuit to have its own
power source but it is sufficient that the power of each is limited.
EXAMPLE
Let’s say there is a 24 V control circuit in direct current with absorption of around
10 A.The components of the circuit are partially non approved
A choice should be made: replace all the non approved components with
equivalent approved components or place them in Low-Voltage Limited Energy
circuits.The first solution is usually not possible while it is generally possible to
split loads over several different circuits (for example coils on one circuit and
solenoid valves on another).
In this example it is assumed that the components are split up into three circuits.
To enjoy the advantages of the Low-Voltage Limited Energy it is not necessary to
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CONTROL CIRCUITS
have three different power supplies but a single 10 A feed can be used (for
example 1606-XL240E-3, three-phase power unit) with three overcurrent
protections down line (e.g. supplementary protector UL1077) graded to values of
not more than 4 A: two at 4 A (for example 1492-SP1C040) and the last one at 2
A *e.g. 1492-SP1C020).
The three circuits derived down line from the protections respect all the
conditions to be defined Low-Voltage Limited Energy.
It would have also been possible to realise Class 2 circuits, but in the is case the
intrinsic limitation of the power source would have forced three approved power
units of Class 2 to be used.To that respect however it should be remembered that
Class 2 circuits are provided for both by NEC and by CEC, while the Low-Voltage
Limited Energy circuit is only provided for by UL, even though it is commonly
accepted by North American AHJs.
1.7.3 External Wiring and Terminal
The same prescriptions adopted for the Class 1 circuits apply both for the
external wiring and for the terminal blocks.
The approved conductors of the Low-Voltage Limited Energy circuit and those of
the other circuits, inside the same raceway, should be insulated for the maximum
voltage present; if one of the conductors is not insulated or it is insulated for a
lower voltage, it should be distanced (at least 6,4 mm) or isolated.The
isolation/separation is necessary in the case of non-approved conductors
The terminal block should be clearly indicated as Class 1 with a special marking.
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1.7.4 Internal Wiring
Approved conductors of Low-Voltage Limited Energy circuits should be separated
or isolated from conductors of the other circuits unless they are insulated for the
maximum voltage present.
It should be noted that (as for Class 2 circuits) if internal non approved
conductors are used for example N07V-K or H05V-K, what has been said above is
no longer applicable and it is necessary to separate or isolate these conductors.
1.7.5 Circuits and components excluded from class 2 and
Low-voltage limited-energy circuits
Attention to the product:
– Safety devices like immaterial safety barriers, safety limit switches, sensitive
edges etc.
– motors & power loads, inverters, 24v step motors, etc.
Even if inserted and connected to power sources in class 2 and/or Lowvoltage limited Energy sources they should always be approved by an
NRTL laboratory.
1.8
Transformer and self transformer protection
NEC, CEC and UL508A do not really make distinctions between transformers and
self transformer, limiting themselves to preventing the use of the self transformer
in some civil systems.There is no limitation placed on its use for adapting the
input voltage to the electrical equipment panel.
Transformer protection follows in precise rules in the NEC and the CEC
regardless of whether the use is power or control, while the UL508A makes a few
distinctions.
The NEC and CEC are however different: the difference cannot be neglected
because it is often the cause of non conformities in Canada, where stricter rules
are applied.
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1) NEC (and UL508A): it is possible to protect “only on the primary” or “on the
primary and secondary”.
The protection on the secondary can be omitted only in the case of
transformers with primary and secondary with two conductors (i.e. single
and dual phase) or in the case of three-phase transformers with delta-delta
connection. In both cases secondary should be single (i.e. multiple windings
on the secondary each require its own protections).
• only primary: the protection should be sized to values of no more than
Primary current
I1 [A]
Rating protection
[percentage of I1]
≥9
[a]
125 %
[a]
<9
167 %
<2
300 %
if the rating does not correspond to a standard value (see the publication
prior to section “BCP”) the one immediately above the one calculated is
permitted.
Standard UL508A limits itself to increasing the percentage for currents to
the primary below 2 A by imposing:
• Current transformers:
500%
• Power transformers:
300%
The conductor feeding the primary should have a capacity of no less than the
rating of the protection, while the conductor to the secondary should have a
capacity of no less than the rating of the protection to the primary multiplied
by the ratio of primary-secondary transformation.
EXAMPLE
Let’s take a single phase 450 VA transformer.
primary
V1N = 240 V
I1N = 1,88 A
secondary
V2N = 24 V
I2N = 18,8 A
The primary-secondary transformation ratio is 10.
The protection to the primary should not be more than 1.88 x 3 = 5.64. 5 A
fuses are used.
The conductor to the primary should have a capacity of not less than 5 A:
from table 66.1A using UL508A through over sizing a AWG 16 (8 A) is
chosen.
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The conductor to the secondary should carry at least 5 x 10 = 50 A.Table
29.1 of UL508A is used to select a AWG 8 (60 A), considerably greater than the
AWG 14 (20 A) that would have been sufficient considering the single current
to the secondary.
• primary and secondary: the protection should be graded to values of no
more than
Primary
[a]
Secondary
Current
I1 [A]
Rating protection
[percentage of I1]
Current
I2 [A]
≥9
250 %
≥9
<9
250 %
<9
<2
250 %
Rating protection
[percentage of I1]
125 %
[a]
167 %
if the rating does not correspond with a standard value (see the publication
prior to section “BCP”) the one immediately above the one calculated is
permitted.
Standard UL508A limits itself to increasing the percentage for currents to
the primary below 2 A by imposing:
• Current transformers:
500%
• Power transformers:
300%
The protection of the secondary can be obtained with a special component
or with the sum of the ratings of the protections down line.
In the case of single phase control transformers with one side of the
secondary connected to the equipotent circuit, it is sufficient a single
protection positioned on the side not connected (exactly as in Europe).
The conductors to the primary and the secondary should have a capacity of
no less than the rating of the relative protection.
EXAMPLE
The same single phase transformer of 450 VA as the previous example is
considered.
primary
V1N = 240 V
I1N = 1,88 A
secondary
V2N = 24 V
I2N = 18,8 A
Let’s say it is protected on the primary and on the secondary.
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The protection to the primary should not be more than 1.88 x 2.5 = 4.7;
4 A fuses are used.
The protection on the secondary theoretically should not be more than 18.8
x 1.25 = 23,5 A. However, note [a] allows the use of the standard size
immediately above and 25 A and fuses can be used.
If, say, the secondary powers three different circuits, each with their own
protection (e.g. 4 A, 10 A and 11 A), the fuse can be omitted providing that the
sum of the protection is not more than 25 A. If it is (e.g. 4 A, 10 A and 15 A) a
dedicated component graded at 25 A should be used again.
Control Circuit
Control Circuit
The conductor to the primary should have a capacity of no less than 4 A:
using UL508A table 28.1 over a AWG 16 (10 A) is chosen through over sizing.
The conductor to the secondary should have a capacity of at least 25 A. From
table 28.1 of UL508A a AWG 10 (30 A) is chosen: this creates an absolute
advantage compared with AWG 8 that would have been necessary for
protecting just the primary.
2) CEC: it is possible to protect “only on the primary” or “on the primary and
secondary”.The protection “just at the primary” is only admitted for dry
transformers up to 750 V with a single secondary, regardless of the type of
connection.
• Only primary: the protection should be graded to a value of not more than
125% of the rated current to the primary. If the rating does not correspond
with a standard value (see the publication prior to section “BCP”) the one
immediately above the one calculated is permitted.
The conductor that powers the primary should have a capacity of no less
than the rating of the protection while the conductor to the secondary
should have a capacity of no less than 125% of the nominal current to the
secondary.
• Primary and secondary: the protection to the primary should be graded at
a value of no more than 300% the rated current to the primary provided
the secondary has protection graded at a value of no more than 125% of
the rated current to the secondary.
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The conductors to the primary and the secondary should have a capacity of
no less than the rating of the relative protection.
1.8.1 Protections Allowed
The protection should be made with suitable components at the point of
installation of the transformer/auto transformer.The most common can be
specified
• self transformer on input to the panel to adapt the voltage: as already
mentioned in the chapter on power circuits, the transformer is inserted inside
the feeder and should therefore be protected with:
– primary: fuses for the power circuits (for example CC or J fuses and relative
fuse holders 140F, 1492-FB) or molded case circuit breakers (e.g. 140-U);
– secondary: as for the primary unless the protection is the sum of the branch
circuit protections (BCP).
• control transformer powered by the feeder:
– primary: the protection of the transformer is for all intents and purposes a
BCP, but special components cannot be used for motor starting such as
combination motor controller or manual motor controller;
– secondary: we are inside the control circuit, thus all components can be used
including the supplementary protection (e.g. the miniature circuit breakers
1492-SP).
88
• the control transformer powered down line with an existing branch circuit
transformer: primary and secondary are already part of the control circuit thus
all the components can be used including the supplementary protection (e.g.
the miniature circuit breakers 1492-SP). The protection to the primary can be
omitted if the rating if the pre-existing BCP satisfies the sizing indicated above.
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1.9
CONTROL CIRCUITS
Control of the temperature in the panel
American and Canadian standards do not make any reference to specific over
temperature tests of the panel but they require the control of the temperature in
the panel to guarantee its full functionality.
The over-temperature can be avoided with fans, anti condense resistors and
conditioners.The components in the conditioner system are considered power
components and therefore part of one of the branch circuit already described:
• fans
motor branch circuit;
• anti condense resistors
heater branch circuit;
• conditioners
motor appliance branch circuit.
In UL508A fans may be installed inside the control circuits provided that both the
following conditions are respected:
– using approved fans: CCN GPWV2 (UL 507 “Electric Fans”). The use of these
components implies automatically low-voltage use: in fact UL507 imposes, as
maximum fan feed voltages, 30 V effective in alternating current and 42.4 V in
direct current;
– deriving the control circuit downstream from a transformer/power supply unit
that ensures electrical separation.
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Industrial Machinery
1. NEC 2005 and article 670 on Industrial Machinery
In September 1941 the metal working machinery industry elaborated its first
electrical standard to make machinery safer for operators, more productive and
cheaper to maintain, as well as to improve quality and performance of electrical
components.
In the same year and in order to analyse electrical problems related to machinery,
the NFPA created a special electrical commission specialised in overcurrent
protection and the control of industrial engines fitted to industrial machinery.
This commission, in collaboration with the manufacturers of machinery electrical
equipment and Underwriters Laboratories, carried out a series of test and controls
whose results differed with the requirements of the National Electrical Codes at
that time.
The results were published in 1942 as an “amendment” to article 670 on Machine
Tools of the National Electrical Code of 1940 and such article remained basically
unchanged until the 1959 edition appeared.
Mistakenly, in 1940 other machinery manufacturers started to take article 670 as a
reference when it had been initially drawn up exclusively for metal working
machinery.
Then, in 1952, an electrical commission was established to try to gather all the
special requirements for the production, handling and process machinery all in
one NEC article.
This attempt failed and in 1956 a NFPA commission was established to limit the
application of art. 670 NEC only to metal working machinery.This article
remained however too limited; and it was so because a new standard that
specified safety requirements not dealt with before was included.
In 1961 the NFPA 79 “Electrical Standards for machine tools” was officially
introduced and subsequently revised in 1965, confirmed in 1969 and revised
again in 1970, 1971, 1973, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1994 and the last
edition in 2002 which is currently in force.
In fact in its first clauses, the National Electrical refers to NFPA 79 as the reference
standard applicable to industrial machinery.
NFPA 79 Industrial Machinery refers to the UL508A standard on Industrial Control
Panels as the primary reference standard, and so circle is completed as per North
American legislation on electrical systems for industrial machinery:
NEC Art. 670
Industrial Machinery
(Codice d’installazione)
NFPA 79
Electrical Standard for
Industrial Machinery
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UL508A
Industrial Control
Panels
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1.1 Machinery categories in “Industrial Machinery” 1)
Industrial machinery refers to:
a) Metalworking machine tools, including machines that cut or form metal;
b) Plastics machinery, including injection molding, extrusion, blow molding,
specialized processing, thermoset molding, and size reduction machines;
c) Wood machinery, including woodworking, laminating, and sawmill machines;
d) Assembly machines;
e) Material handling machines, including industrial robots and transfer machines;
and
f)
Inspection and testing machines, including coordinate measuring and inprocess gauging machines.
) This list is taken from UL 508A, clause 65.1
1
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2. Special requirements
Besides all information presented and pointed out in the previous chapters for
industrial machinery, both NFPA 79 and UL508A (clause 65) set out more
restrictive specifications that must to be respected.
Particularly the main limitations can be summed up as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Use of some specific types of fuses
Different feeder protection calculation
Cable and wire: sizing and colours
Different machine nameplate
Obligation to calculate short circuit current
2.1 Fuses
A branch and feeder circuit fuse in industrial machinery is limited to Class RK1,
RK5, J,T or CC; class H, K, and G, fuses shall not be used.
2.2 Sizing of the feeder overcurrent protection
A feeder overcurrent protection device in the panel is expressly required only for
Industrial Machinery according to NFPA 79 (and section 66.7 of UL 508A), but its
presence is also required in NEC and CEC, where sizing rules are provided.
The rating/setting must be selected and sized basing on the addition of:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Rating/setting of the protection for the largest BCPC
125% of all resistive loads
125% of the large motor load
All other loads that can operate simultaneously
2.3 Cables
There are 2 main differences as regards cables; the first type is connected with
power conductors’ minimum sizing that can be used in panels while the second
deals with colours.
2.4 Minimum power cable section
Effective March, 2007, 16 and 18 AWG power conductors will ONLY be allowed
under the Industrial Machinery section 66.5.4 with specific protection and will
NOT be allowed under the general panel provisions.
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2.5 Conductor colours
NEC and CEC (and UL508A in the general section) only define the colours for
neutral and equipotential conductors:
7 white or grey: neutral
7 green (green-yellow also allowed): ground connection
All other conductors can be identified with any colour provided that the above
colours are not used.
The NFPA 79 standard for Industrial Machinery (and section 66.9 of UL508A)
specifies cable colour:
7 black: all the rated voltage conductors (both power and control)
7 white or grey: for conductors in alternating current connected to the
grounded circuit (mainly the neutral and the earth side of the AC control
circuits)
7 green: (green-yellow also allowed); ground connection
7 red:AC control circuit with voltage different from the rated one (ungrounded)
7 blue: DC control circuit (ungrounded)
7 blue-white: DC control circuit (grounded)
7 yellow: (orange also allowed ); interlocking circuits powered upstream the
main circuit breaker (grounded)
7 yellow-white: interlocking circuits powered upstream the main circuit breaker
(ungrounded)
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3. Short Circuit Current Rating
3.1 Short Circuit Current Rating
3.1.1 National Electric Code Changes Overview
National Electrical Code Introduces Article 409 for Industrial Control Panels
In 2005, the National Electrical Code (NEC) introduced Article 409 for Industrial
Control Panels requiring that panel builders and original equipment
manufacturers (OEM) analyze and mark their panels with short circuit current
ratings (SCCR).
Why Article 409 was developed?
Historically, industrial control panels have been
evaluated under several different NEC articles, which
have led to inconsistencies.Article 409 provides
common construction and installation requirements. It
also establishes a marking requirement for short
circuit current ratings of industrial control panels.
The fine print note of NEC Article 409.110 references
UL508A, Supplement SB as an approved method to
evaluate the short circuit current ratings of their
panel. As individual states adopt the 2005 Edition of
the NEC, a thorough understanding UL508A,
Supplement SB is essential.
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NEC Article 409.110
An industrial control panel shall be marked with the following information that is
plainly visible after installation:
1. Manufacturer’s name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the
organization responsible for the product can be identified.
2. Supply voltage, phase, frequency, and full-load current.
3. Short-circuit current rating of the industrial control panel based on one of the
following:
a. Short-circuit current rating of a listed and labeled assembly
b. Short-circuit current rating established utilizing an approved method
FPN: UL508A-2001, Supplement SB, is an example of an approved method.
4. If the industrial control panel is intended as service equipment, it shall be
marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment.
5. Electrical wiring diagram or the number of the index to the electrical drawings
showing the electrical wiring diagram.
6. An enclosure type number shall be marked on the industrial control panel
enclosure.
3.1.2 Determining Your Panel Short Circuit Current Rating
Per Section 409.110 of the NEC, there are two permitted ways to determine your
panel short circuit current rating: purchase a previously listed and labeled
assembly or establish the short circuit current rating of the panel using an
approved method. For the latter, the only stated approved method is UL 508A,
Supplement SB.
According to UL508A, Supplement SB4.1, there are three steps to analyze and
mark your panel with a short circuit current rating:
STEP 1 Establish the short circuit current ratings of individual power circuit
components.
STEP 2 Modify the available short circuit current within a portion of a circuit in a
panel due to the presence of current limiting components.
STEP 3 Determine the overall short circuit current rating of the panel.
STEP 1
Establish the short circuit current ratings of individual power circuit components
using one of the following methods:
a) The short circuit current rating marked on the component or on instructions
provided with the component;
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Installation Sheets
Nameplate
User Manual
Examples of short circuit current rating product markings on nameplates and in
reference documents
b) The short circuit current
rating determined by the
voltage rating of the
component and the assumed
short circuit current rating
from Table SB 4.1;
If the power circuit component
does not have a short circuit
current rating or has not been
required to have a rating in the
past,Table SB4.1 in UL508A,
Supplement SB lists the assumed
maximum short circuit current
rating for unmarked products.
Table SB4.1 Assumed maximum short circuit
current rating for unmarked components
c) The short circuit current rating for a load controller, motor overload relay, or
combination motor controller that has been investigated in accordance with
the performance requirements, including short circuit test requirements for
standard fault currents or high fault currents specified in the Standard for
Industrial Control Equipment, UL 508, and described in the manufacturer’s
procedure.
Part c) states that specific tested combination ratings can be used by a panel
manufacturer if the combination ratings are included their UL procedure file.
Rockwell Automation tests and certifies a wide-range of NEMA and IEC
components to meet the requirements of NEC Article 409 and UL 508A,
Supplement SB (See page 100).
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STEP 2
Modify the available short circuit current within a portion of a circuit in a panel
due to the presence of current limiting components as specified in SB4.3, when
applicable;
This second step takes into account the effect of any current limiting devices in
the feeder circuit. Current limiting refers to the ability of a protective device to
clear a short circuit fault in less than one half cycle and typically within one
quarter cycle. Current limiting devices will reduce the levels of Ipeak magnetic
and I2t heat energies.
SB4.3 establishes the guidelines for three methods of using feeder components
that limit the available short circuit current.These options include power
transformers, Listed circuit breakers and fuses as described in these sections:
• SB 4.3.1: Branch circuits supplied by a power transformer with an isolated
secondary.
• SB 4.3.2: Listed circuit breaker marked “current limiting” in the feeder circuit.
• SB 4.3.3: Branch circuits supplied by a Class CC, G, J, L, RK1, RK5 or T fuse in the
feeder circuit.
These sections identify the feeder components that limit the short circuit current
available and guidelines in applying them. For many years, fuses were the only
protective devices that were considered to provide current limiting performance.
Today, circuit breakers exist that can open high fault currents in just a few
milliseconds, very comparable to fuses.These sections also identify the Ipeak, I2t
and let-through values that must be used when applying a current limiting
component.
Figure SB4.1 Let-through values for
current limiting circuit breakers from
UL 508A Supplement SB
Table SB4.2 Let-through table for
UL Listed fuses from UL 508A
Supplement SB
Using high fault rated components can eliminate the need to apply feeder circuit
current limiting provisions.This makes its simple to achieve a higher panel rating.
See page 99 for more information on component high fault short circuit current
ratings.
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STEP 3
Determine the overall short circuit current rating of the panel as specified in
SB4.4.
The short circuit current ratings of the individual components are compared to
their branch circuit protective device.The smaller of the two ratings are applied
to the line side of the branch circuit protective device. If a control circuit is
located in a branch, then the overcurrent protective device for the control circuit
must also be considered.
The guidelines for determining the short circuit current ratings of the complete
panel can be found in SB4.4.4. For control panels with single branch circuits, the
short circuit current rating of the panel is the rating of the branch.
Control panels with multiple branch circuits and feeder components are covered
in clause c) The lowest short circuit current rating of all branch circuits, feeder
components and control circuit overcurrent protective devices, connected to the
feeder will determine the panel short circuit current rating.
Available Fault:
40kA at 480V
100kA*
Available Fault:
40kA at 480V
100kA*
100kA*
100kA*
65kA
65kA
70kA*
65kA
65kA
100kA*
65kA
70kA
100kA
Panel Short Circuit Current Rating is
65kA rms symmetrical @ 480V
The short circuit current ratings of the
individual components are compared to
their branch circuit protective device
The smaller of the two ratings, (highlighted
in yellow) are applied to the line side of
the branch circuit protective device
In this example, the lowest short circuit current rating of all branch circuits,
feeder components and control circuit overcurrent protective devices connected
to the feeder is 65kA.Therefore, the overall panel short circuit current rating is
65kA rms symmetrical at 480V.
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3.1.3 High Fault Short Circuit Current Ratings
Although table SB 4.1 is used to determine the assumed short circuit current
rating of unmarked components, it also provides a reference for the standard fault
ratings of various products. Components with only these ratings may significantly
limit the maximum attainable panel short circuit current rating.
High fault rated components have short circuit current ratings that exceed these
values. High fault short circuit current ratings also eliminate the need to apply
current limiting provisions in the feeder circuit. Using high fault rated
components makes it simple to achieve a higher panel rating.
Rockwell Automation Component Solutions Provide The High
Fault Short Circuit Current Ratings Needed By Today’s Panel
Manufacturers
Rockwell Automation provides high fault tested UL/CSA listed combinations for
branch and feeder circuits.These high fault ratings meet and exceed the short
circuit current ratings required to cover the available fault current at panel
installations. Here are a few examples of the high fault ratings you can achieve
with Rockwell Automation power circuit components:
NEMA Bulletin 500 Line Contactors,
Overload Relays & Starters
• Circuit Breaker combinations to 100kA
480V, 50kA 600V
• Fused combinations to 100kA 600V
(Type 2)
IEC Bulletin 100 Line Contactors,
Overload Relays & Starters
• Circuit Breaker combinations to 65kA 480V,
30kA 600V (Type 2)
• Fuse combinations to 100kA 600V (Type 2)
NEMA Starters and Contactors
SMC™ Soft-Starters
• Fuse Combinations to 70kA
600V
PowerFlex® Drives
• Circuit Breaker combinations
to 100kA 480V
• Fused combinations to
200kA 600V
NEMA & IEC Fused
Disconnect Switches to
200kA 600V
Power Distribution
Blocks
• Fused combinations to 100kA
600V
IEC Starters and Contactors
SMC™ Flex Soft
Starter
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PowerFlex Drives
NEMA and IEC Fused Disconnect Switches
Power
Distribution
Blocks
3.1.4 High Fault Component Short Circuit Current Rating
Information Is Available Online
High fault short circuit current rating information can be easily accessed online at:
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/products/certification/ul508a/
Rockwell Automation.com Website
Enter the catalog number and select “Submit” to attain short circuit current rating
data for the identified component or browse the product directory if your catalog
number is not known.
Catalog Number or Product Directory
Selector Tool
140M-C2E-A16
View and download short circuit current rating information
High fault short circuit current ratings
for an Allen-Bradley Bulletin 140M
Motor Protection Circuit Breaker
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NEMA Power Components
• Contactors
• Overload Relays
• Starters
• Disconnect Switches
IEC Power Components
• Motor Protection Circuit Breakers
• Motor Circuit Protectors
• Contactors
• Overload Relays
• Starters
• Disconnect Switches
Circuit Protection
• Molded Case Circuit Breakers
• Miniature Circuit Breakers
• Fuse Blocks
Connection Systems
• Bus Bar Mounting Systems
• Commoning Links
• Distribution Blocks
Soft-Starters
Drives
Servo Drives
3.1.5 Marking Your Panel
Once the short circuit current rating of the overall panel has been established, it
must be marked on the panel. NEC marking requirements include the
manufacturer’s name or trademark and the basic information of supply voltage,
phase, frequency, full-load current and the short circuit current rating.The label
should be plainly visible after panel installation.
Label should be plainly visible after installation*
*Additional markings may be required depending on the particular panel design
and intended use.
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Publication UL-WP001A-EN-P – March 2007
Copyright ©2007 Rockwell Automation, Inc.All Rights Reserved.