The Linux MP3−HOWTO
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
Table of Contents
The Linux MP3−HOWTO ................................................................................................................................1
By Phil Kerr, phil@plus24.com...............................................................................................................1
1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................................1
2. Copyright of this document.................................................................................................................1
3. Where to get this document.................................................................................................................1
4. Acknowledgments................................................................................................................................1
5. Disclaimer............................................................................................................................................1
6. Hardware Requirements & Performance Issues..................................................................................1
7. Software Requirements........................................................................................................................1
8. Setting up your system.........................................................................................................................1
9. Encoding from Audio..........................................................................................................................2
10. Encoding from CD−ROM.................................................................................................................2
11. Streaming MP3's................................................................................................................................2
12. Listening to MP3's.............................................................................................................................2
13. ID3 Editing........................................................................................................................................2
14. MP3 to Minidisc................................................................................................................................2
15. Feedback............................................................................................................................................2
1. Introduction..........................................................................................................................................2
2. Copyright of this document.................................................................................................................3
3. Where to get this document.................................................................................................................3
3.1 Translations........................................................................................................................................3
4. Acknowledgments................................................................................................................................4
5. Disclaimer............................................................................................................................................4
6. Hardware Requirements & Performance Issues..................................................................................5
7. Software Requirements........................................................................................................................6
7.1 Rippers & WAV Recorders...............................................................................................................6
7.2 Encoders.............................................................................................................................................7
7.3 Players................................................................................................................................................8
7.4 Streaming Servers..............................................................................................................................9
7.5 Mixing..............................................................................................................................................10
7.6 ID3 Editors.......................................................................................................................................11
7.7 Stream Grabbers...............................................................................................................................11
7.8 Misc.................................................................................................................................................11
8. Setting up your system.......................................................................................................................12
8.1 Setting up for Analogue Audio Capture..........................................................................................12
8.2 Setting up for CD−ROM Audio Capture.........................................................................................13
8.3 Additional Setting up.......................................................................................................................13
9. Encoding from Audio........................................................................................................................13
10. Encoding from CD−ROM...............................................................................................................14
10.1 Command Line encoding...............................................................................................................15
RipEnc......................................................................................................................................18
CD2MP3...................................................................................................................................19
10.2 GUI Based Encoders......................................................................................................................20
10.3 Encoder Performance.....................................................................................................................20
11. Streaming MP3's..............................................................................................................................21
11.1 Icecast............................................................................................................................................21
Shout.........................................................................................................................................23
LiveIce......................................................................................................................................24
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Table of Contents
11.2 Fluid...............................................................................................................................................27
Update for RC1.........................................................................................................................29
11.3 Litestream......................................................................................................................................29
11.4 Apache::MP3 Module....................................................................................................................30
11.5 Firewall Bypassing........................................................................................................................31
11.6 Bandwidth considerations..............................................................................................................32
11.7 Copyright Issues............................................................................................................................32
12. Listening to MP3's...........................................................................................................................32
12.1 Playing from File...........................................................................................................................33
12.2 Playing from MP3 Streams............................................................................................................33
12.3 Capturing MP3 Streams.................................................................................................................33
Streamripper..............................................................................................................................33
wget...........................................................................................................................................34
12.4 Mixing............................................................................................................................................34
eMixer.......................................................................................................................................35
GDAM......................................................................................................................................35
13. ID3 Editing......................................................................................................................................35
13.1 id3ed...............................................................................................................................................36
13.2 mp3info..........................................................................................................................................36
13.3 ID3 Genre codes............................................................................................................................37
14. MP3 to Minidisc..............................................................................................................................40
14.1 Analog Recording .........................................................................................................................40
14.2 Digital Recording ..........................................................................................................................40
14.3 Playlists .........................................................................................................................................40
15. Feedback..........................................................................................................................................41
ii
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
By Phil Kerr, phil@plus24.com
v1.61, 2001−12−16
This document describes the hardware, software and procedures needed to encode, play, mix and stream
MP3 sound files under Linux.
1. Introduction.
2. Copyright of this document.
3. Where to get this document.
• 3.1 Translations
4. Acknowledgments.
5. Disclaimer.
6. Hardware Requirements & Performance Issues.
7. Software Requirements.
• 7.1 Rippers & WAV Recorders
• 7.2 Encoders
• 7.3 Players
• 7.4 Streaming Servers
• 7.5 Mixing
• 7.6 ID3 Editors
• 7.7 Stream Grabbers
• 7.8 Misc
8. Setting up your system.
• 8.1 Setting up for Analogue Audio Capture
• 8.2 Setting up for CD−ROM Audio Capture
• 8.3 Additional Setting up
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
1
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
9. Encoding from Audio.
10. Encoding from CD−ROM.
• 10.1 Command Line encoding
• 10.2 GUI Based Encoders
• 10.3 Encoder Performance
11. Streaming MP3's.
• 11.1 Icecast
• 11.2 Fluid
• 11.3 Litestream
• 11.4 Apache::MP3 Module
• 11.5 Firewall Bypassing
• 11.6 Bandwidth considerations
• 11.7 Copyright Issues
12. Listening to MP3's.
• 12.1 Playing from File
• 12.2 Playing from MP3 Streams
• 12.3 Capturing MP3 Streams
• 12.4 Mixing
13. ID3 Editing.
• 13.1 id3ed
• 13.2 mp3info
• 13.3 ID3 Genre codes
14. MP3 to Minidisc.
• 14.1 Analog Recording
• 14.2 Digital Recording
• 14.3 Playlists
15. Feedback.
1. Introduction.
This document describes the hardware, software and procedures needed to encode, play, mix and stream MP3
sound files under Linux.
It covers:
9. Encoding from Audio.
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
• Encoding MP3's from a live or external source
• Encoding MP3's from audio CD's
• Streaming MP3's over a network
• Listening to MP3's
• Recording MP3 streams
• Mixing MP3's
• Editing ID3 information
2. Copyright of this document.
This HOWTO is copyrighted 1999, 2000 Phil Kerr.
This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. You should have
received a copy along with it. If not, it is available from http://www.fsf.org/licenses/fdl.html.
3. Where to get this document.
The official version of this document can be obtained from the Linux Documentation Project
http://www.linuxdoc.org/.
The homepage for the most recent version of this HOWTO is: http://www.mp3−howto.com
3.1 Translations
This HOWTO has been translated into the following languages:
Please note that translations may be slightly out of date from this document as, naturally enough, the
translations take time.
Korean
http://kldp.org/HOWTO/MP3−HOWTO By Lee,So−min <animator@nownuri.net>
French
http://www.freenix.org/unix/linux/HOWTO/MP3−HOWTO.html By Arnaud Gomes−do−Vale
<arnaud@carrosse.frmug.org>
Hungarian
http://free.netlap.hu/howto/MP3−HOGYAN.html By Andras Timar <atimar@itp.hu>
Italian
ftp://ftp.pluto.linux.it/pub/pluto/ildp/HOWTO/MP3−HOWTO By Mariani Dario <darkpand@uni.net>
Spanish
2. Copyright of this document.
3
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
http://www.insflug.org/documentos/MP3−Como By Arielo <larocka@yahoo.com>
Dutch
http://nl.linux.org/doc/HOWTO/MP3−HOWTO−NL.html By Reggy Ekkebus <reggy@zeelandnet.nl>
Japanese
http://www.linux.or.jp/JF/JFdocs/MP3−HOWTO.html By Saito Kan <can−s@geocities.co.jp>
Slovene
http://www.lugos.si/delo/slo/HOWTO−sl/MP3−HOWTO−sl.html By Jernej Kovacic <jkovacic@email.si>
Many thanks to the above translators. If you can translate this HOWTO, please drop the author an email. Also
please state the URL where the translation will be housed.
4. Acknowledgments.
In writing this HOWTO I have had to draw heavily on the Sound−HOWTO By Jeff Tranter, and the
Sound−Playing−HOWTO By Yoo C. Chung.
Thanks also to the other HOWTO authors whose works I have referenced:
Linux System Administrators Guide By Lars Wirzenius.
Linux Network Administrators Guide By Olaf Kirch.
Multi Disk System Tuning HOWTO By Stein Gjoen.
Also a big thank−you to all who have sent in feedback, comments and bug−reports.
5. Disclaimer.
Use the information in this document at your own risk.
I disavow any potential liability for the contents of this document.
Use of the concepts, examples, and/or other content of this document is entirely at your own risk.
All copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically noted otherwise.
Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service
mark.
Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.
4. Acknowledgments.
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major installation and backups at
regular intervals.
6. Hardware Requirements & Performance Issues.
Digital Audio processing is a resource intensive task that relies heavily on the processing and I/O capabilities
of a system. I would strongly recommend a Pentium class machine as a minimum.
If you are going to be encoding from an analogue audio source via the line or microphone input, a PCI
soundcard will give the best results. The I/O performance difference between an ISA and PCI based card is
significant, over 132 MBytes/sec for PCI (quote taken from the PCI−HOWTO). Naturally, the better the
quality of the soundcard in terms of its signal−to−noise ratio, the better the encoded MP3. I've been using the
Soundblaster PCI128 and just switched over to a Soundblaster Live Value; both cards give good audio
performance, but the Live has significantly better S/N ratios, good enough for semi−pro audio work.
Remember the old data processing maxim:− garbage in − garbage out!
Creative have a Beta driver for the Soundblaster Live! which can be downloaded from:
http://developer.soundblaster.com/linux/
When recording analogue audio to a hard disk, more commonly referred to as direct to disk or d2d recording,
the performance of the disk, and its interface is critical. If you are using an IDE based based system, mode 4
or UDMA is preferable as the transfer rate is sufficiently high enough to provide reliable data transfer without
problems.
The ideal solution would be to use a SCSI based system as the drives and interface have far better throughput
capabilities, a sustained 5MB/sec for SCSI 1 through to 40−80MB/sec for ultra−ultra2/wide SCSI. IDE can
peak at anything from 8.3 MB/s to 66 MB/s for Ultra DMA mode 4 but these speeds are peak, average
transfer rates will be slower. If you can find, or afford, an AV SCSI drive, go for it. AV drives have had the
read/write head system optimised for continuous data transference; other SCSI and IDE drives normally
cannot sustain continuous data transfer as the write head heats up!
Naturally a drive that has cache will give more consistent results than one that doesn't, as the cache will act as
a buffer if the heads do lift or it cannot handle the throughput.
If your drive isn't up to spec, your recording will suffer from dropouts and glitches, where the drive failed to
record the signal. If you are recording one−off events, such as live performances invest in a good SCSI based
disk system.
Another cause of d2d dropouts is a heavily loaded system. Background tasks can cause the system to
momentarily glitch. Its recommended to run as few background services as you can, especially networked
based services. For more information about setting network services, and startup scripts please refer to the
SAG and NAG guides.
Virtual memory paging will also cause glitches, so run with as much physical RAM as you can, I'd
recommend at least 32 Mb, but you may well need more.
For those wanting to extract the most out of their system, optimising the kernel probably wouldn't do any
harm either.
6. Hardware Requirements & Performance Issues.
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
For streaming MP3's the better the network card the better the throughput, naturally a 100Mb interface will
give better throughput than a 10Mb interface :)
While the hardware specifications above will give you a decent system to encode audio data, don't discount
using older, lower spec kit if that's all you have access to.
It'll be a good challenge for a sys−admin to tweak a low−spec system to give good results, and the end result
will probably be a happier Linux box.
Another important issue is the audio cabling. Cheap, poor quality cables and connectors will result in poor
recording quality. If your soundcard has the option to use phono, sometimes referred to as RCA connectors,
use them. Gold plated contacts will also help maintain audio quality, as will keeping audio cables away from
data cables as there will be a chance of interference between them.
But don't forget, spending a fortune on the best audio cabling will be lost if the rest of the system hasn't been
optimised.
For encoding MP3's from CD−ROM, the speed or type of drive will determine the time taken to read the raw
information from it. A single speed drive will probably be too slow for all but the most patient.
Your CD−ROM must be connected to your soundcard if you want to hear what you are recording, either
using the internal connector or by connecting headphone's to the headphone output, although you will not be
able to listen to MP3's through the CD−ROM headphone socket!
For detailed instructions on setting up soundcards, now would be an excellent time to read the
Sound−HOWTO.
7. Software Requirements.
Converting audio to MP3's is normally a 2 stage process, first the audio is recorded into a WAV format, then
the WAV is then converted into an MP3. Some utilities will do both processes in one go for you.
The format you wish to encode audio from, CD or direct audio, will determine what software tools you need
to produce the WAV file.
If you are wanting to encode from audio input, you will need a program that will record from your
soundcard's input and save the results in a WAV format. Below are some useful utilities (most of the
comments are taken from the respective website of the app.)
7.1 Rippers & WAV Recorders
To grab from analog audio line−in. Wavrec
Wavrec is distributed as part of wavplay, which can be downloaded from:−
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/sound/players/
To convert CD audio data to WAV format, sometimes known as CD ripping:
7. Software Requirements.
6
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
CDDA2WAV
http://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/sound/cdrom/
Cdparanoia
Cdparanoia is a Compact Disc Digital Audio (CDDA) extraction tool, commonly known on the net as a
'ripper'. The application is built on top of the Paranoia library, which is doing the real work (the Paranoia
source is included in the cdparanoia source distribution). Like the original cdda2wav, cdparanoia package
reads audio from the CDROM directly as data, with no analog step between, and writes the data to a file or
pipe in WAV, AIFC or raw 16 bit linear PCM. Compared to cdda2wav, it's much slower but really gets the
best results you can get even from CDs that are difficult to rip for scratches or other read−errors.
http://www.xiph.org/paranoia/index.html
RipEnc
RipEnc is a bourne shell script frontend to Cdparanoia, cdda2wav, tosha and Bladeenc, 8hz−mp3, l3enc. It
utilizes CDDB lookups to automate the naming of songs as they are ripped. A manual naming option is also
available. The entire CD can be ripped or you can pick the songs to rip. ID3 tags are also supported.
http://www.asde.com/~mjparme/index.htm
Cd2mp3
cd2mp3 is a freeware software, designed to handle 2 other programs cdda2wav(that rips the tracks from cd)
and lame (that encodes the mp3s)
http://sertaozinho.org/cd2mp3/index.html
RipperX
RipperX is a GTK program to rip CD audio and encode mp3s. It has plugins for cdparanoia, BladeEnc, Lame
Mp3 encoder, XingMp3enc, 8hz−mp3 and the ISO v2 encoder. It also has support for CDDB and ID3 tags.
http://www.digitallabyrinth.com/linux/ripperX/
Grip
Grip is a GTK−based CD−player and CD−ripper/MP3−encoder. It has the ripping capabilities of cdparanoia
built in, but can also use external rippers (such as cdda2wav). It also provides an automated frontend for MP3
encoders, letting you take a disc and transform it easily straight into MP3s. The CDDB protocol is supported
for retrieving track information from disc database servers. Grip works with DigitalDJ to provide a unified
"computerized" version of your music collection.
http://www.nostatic.org/grip/
7.2 Encoders
To convert the WAV file to MP3 format you will need an encoder:
7.2 Encoders
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
Blade's MP3 Encoder
BladeEnc is a freeware MP3 encoder. It is based on the same ISO compression routines as mpegEnc, so you
can expect roughly the same, or better, quality . The main difference is the appearance and speed. BladeEnc
doesn't have a nice, user−friendly interface like mpegEnc, but it is more than three times faster, and it works
with several popular front−end graphical user interfaces.
http://bladeenc.cjb.net
Lame
In the great history of GNU naming, LAME stands for LAME Ain't an Mp3 Encoder. LAME is not an mp3
encoder. It is a GPL'd patch against the dist10 ISO demonstration source. LAME is totally incapable of
producing an mp3 stream. It is incapable of even being compiled by itself. You need the ISO source for this
software to work. The ISO demonstration source is also freely available, but any commercial use (including
distributing free encoders) may require a license agreement from FhG (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Germany).
http://www.sulaco.org/mp3/
Gogo
This is a very fast MP3 encoder for x86−CPU, which is based on LAME ver 3.29beta and optimized by
PEN@MarineCat, Keiichi SAKAI, URURI, kei and shigeo. (You will also need to download NASM to
compile the source, which can be found http://www.web−sites.co.uk/nasm/)
http://homepage1.nifty.com/herumi/gogo_e.html
7.3 Players
To play the MP3's you will naturally need a player:
Xmms (Formerly known as X11Amp)
This player has most of the features as Winamp from Windows 95/98/NT but it will of course feature some
specials only available for the Linux version.
http://www.xmms.org
Xaudio
Xaudio is a very fast and very robust multi platform solution for Digital Audio playback, especially targeted
at MPEG Audio (MP1, MP2 and MP3) decoding.
http://www.xaudio.com
AlsaPlayer
AlsaPlayer is a new type of PCM player. It is heavily multi−threaded and tries to exercise the ALSA library
and driver quite a bit. It has some very interesting features unique to Linux/Unix players. The goal is to create
a fully pluggable framework for playback of all sorts of media with the focus on PCM audio data. Full speed
7.3 Players
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
(pitch) control, positive *and* negative! First Linux− and only GPL player that does this!! MP3's and CD's
do varispeed :)
http://www.alsa−project.org/~andy/
mpg123
What is mpg123? It is a fast, free and portable MPEG audio player for Unix. It supports MPEG 1.0/2.0 layers
1, 2 and 3 (those famous "mp3" files), and it has been tested on a wide variety of platforms, including Linux,
FreeBSD, NetBSD, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, HP−UX and others. For full CD quality playback (44 kHz, 16 bit,
stereo) a Pentium (or fast 486), SPARCstation10, DEC Alpha or similar CPU is required. Mono and/or
reduced quality playback (22 kHz or 11 kHz) is even possible on slower 486 CPUs.
http://www.mpg123.org
Freeamp
FreeAmp is an extensible, cross−platform audio player. It features an optimized version of the GPLed Xing
MPEG decoder which makes it one of the fastest and best sounding players available. FreeAmp provides a
number of the most common features users have come to expect in a clean, easy to use interface.
http://www.freeamp.org/
7.4 Streaming Servers
Streaming servers allow you to 'broadcast' MP3's across a network, whether this is your intranet or the
internet itself.
Icecast
Welcome! Icecast is a Mpeg Layer III Audio broadcasting system brought to you by the linuxpower.org
team. Icecast comes bundled with iceplay, and icedir. Iceplay is a playlist streamer that will allow you to send
pre−encoded files to your Icecast server.
http://www.icecast.org/
Fluid
Fluid Streaming Server is a program for streaming media over networks and in its current form using the mp3
format.
http://www.subside.com/fluid/ (old site)
http://fluid.sourceforge.net/ (new site)
Litestream
Litestream is an Open Source, infinitely scalable high−capacity MP3 streaming system for Unix.
http://www.litestream.net/
7.4 Streaming Servers
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Apache::MP3
Module for streaming MP3's using the Apache WebServer.
This module takes a hierarchy of directories containing MP3 files and presents it as a browsable song library
for streaming over the web.
[Available from CPAN]
7.5 Mixing
LiveIce
LiveIce is the source client for Icecast which encodes an mpeg stream for broadcast as it is created. Unlike
clients such as Shout and IceDJ this permits the broadcast of live audio, rather than prerecorded mp3's.
LiveIce is bundled with Icecast, newer versions together with documentation may be found at the website
below:
http://star.arm.ac.uk/~spm/software/liveice.html
eMixer
eMixer is an easy−to−use front−end to mpg123 that allows you to play and mix two mp3 streams together.
The ability to mix two mp3s makes eMixer act like a cross−fader, effectively giving the user DJ−like
capabilities from the computer console. eMixer is also very able in a "real time" party environment. eMixer is
based on the original mp3 mixing code upon which liveice's mixing component is built.
http://emixer.linuxave.net/
GDAM
GDAM is real−time digital dj mixing software package. Any number of mp3 files can be played and mixed
simultaneously. Effects can be added, changed, and rearranged dynamically. GDAM features a client−server
architecture; all sound is produced by a server, which receives instructions from any number of clients. Other
features include plugins for audio effects and interface components, caching and looping, sequencing,
assisted beatmatching, a waveform viewer/beat calculator, contiguous queuing (no pauses between songs
when using a playlist), an online help system, an mpg123 clone which runs on a gdam server, flexible
command line interface for direct control of server, recording of entire mix or any point in stream to
buffer/disk/mp3 encoder, support for multiple sound devices, and support for midi hardware control.
http://gdam.org/
alternative:
http://gdam.sourceforge.net
7.5 Mixing
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
7.6 ID3 Editors
id3ed
id3ed is an ID3 tag editor for mp3 files. You can set tags interactively or from the command line, or a
combination of both. id3ed can set genre by name or number. You can also remove or view tags.
http://www.azstarnet.com/~donut/programs/id3ed.html
mp3info
MP3info is a small utility for reading and writing MPEG Layer 3 (MP3) ID3 tags. Console (command−line
and interactive ncurses) and GTK versions are included.
http://metalab.unc.edu/mp3info/
7.7 Stream Grabbers
Streamripper
Streamripper records shoutcast streams. If the stream contains track info (meta data), streamripper creates a
separate file for each track.
http://streamripper.sourceforge.net/
Wget
GNU Wget is a freely available network utility to retrieve files from the World Wide Web using HTTP and
FTP, the two most widely used Internet protocols. It works non−interactively, thus enabling work in the
background, after having logged off.
Wget is far more than a stream grabber!
ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/wget/
7.8 Misc
Volume Normalization
Wavnorm
If you have encoded live audio, or have encoded from older cd's you may find variations in the overall sound
level.
To change the encoded volume levels of the MP3's you will need to normalise them using wavnorm.
http://www.zog.net.au/computers/wavnorm/
SOX
7.6 ID3 Editors
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
Sox is a very handy sound conversion utility which I'd recommend having, and you will need it if you wish to
use wavnorm.
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/sound/convert/
You may also need a mixer program; Xmixer works well and is included with most distributions.
8. Setting up your system.
This section will describe the basics of setting up your Linux system to record audio from either an analogue
or CD−ROM source.
I'm basing this section around my Intel based Linux system which is running Redhat, but should be
reasonably distribution neutral. If you have any success in using this HOWTO on other hardware, please get
in touch.
Naturally a reasonable prerequisite is a working soundcard. At this point in the HOWTO, I invite you to read
the excellent Linux Sound HOWTO, by Jeff Tranter. After which a good read of the Linux Sound Playing
HOWTO, by Yoo C. Chung. Both of the above mentioned HOWTO's cover the details of getting a sound
system working under Linux far better than I could.
8.1 Setting up for Analogue Audio Capture
Firstly, set up your audio. There are a multitude of ways to route audio before it gets to your Linux box, some
common ones are:
Line out to Soundcard Line in. Most audio devices have a Line output sockets. Line level is a standard that
specifies what voltage the audio device will send out. If I remember correctly it is 500mV for domestic and
Semi Pro devices, and 750mV for Pro audio devices. I would guess that the standard set for most soundcards
will be 500mV, but some of the newer Pro audio may be to the higher standard It shouldn't make too much
difference unless you are recording at very high levels.
The Line level output is normally used to connect HI−FI equipment to an amplifier, so things such as Tape
Decks, Radio Tuners, CD players, DAT machines and Mini−Disc players should connect without problem.
Turntables can be more of a problem, see below for more information.
You could capture audio from VCR's as well. Most VCR's will either have Line out for sound, or you can Get
a Line out from a SCART socket if your VCR has one.
Amplifier Tape out to Soundcard Line in, Soundcard Line out to Amplifier Tape in. This configuration is
essentially replacing a traditional tape recorder connected to your HI−FI amplifier with your Linux system.
The Soundcard Line out to Tape in allows monitoring of the recording levels.
Mike to Soundcard Mike in. The voltages generated by microphones is very much smaller than those used in
Line level devices. If you were to plug a Microphone into the Soundcard Line in, chances are you would
never record anything.
WARNING, doing the reverse, plugging a Line level device into the Soundcards Microphone input, can
8. Setting up your system.
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
damage your soundcard!!
Turntable to Mike in.
Many thanks to Mark Tranchant for the following.
The raw output from a record deck cartridge is very low level. However, you cannot plug it directly into a
microphone input and expect good results. The output requires equalization, as records are mastered with
less bass and more treble to optimize the physics of the moving needle. This equalization is carefully defined
and referred to as RIAA equalization. You *need* to run the output through a phono preamp first, and then
into a line input.
Music keyboards & synths should be connected to the Soundcards Line in, with guitars connecting to Line in
via a DI (Direct Injection, used to convert the signal to Line level) box.
Before you plug in anything into your soundcard, make sure the volume levels are turned down to minimum,
or if using microphones they are either turned off or away from speakers.
8.2 Setting up for CD−ROM Audio Capture
Setting up your Linux system to extract audio data from CD−ROM is reasonably straight forward.
If you can hear a track playing from your CD−ROM through your speakers or amplifier, connected to your
soundcard, then there's a reasonable chance you should be able to record from it.
8.3 Additional Setting up
Log in as per normal to your system, then using a mixer program set the recording levels that are loud enough
to give you a decent recording level, but aren't too loud and distorting. I normally just judge this by ear, after
a while you'll get to know what levels are best for your kit.
I recommend either turning off all unnecessary services or switching to the single user runlevel, especially
when encoding from an audio source. This is to ensure that the bare minimum of services are running and
thus minimising system glitches when recording.
I've set up a separate SCSI drive, exclusively to record the audio to, which I'll refer to as /mp3. I've done this
mainly for the performance gains in using a SCSI drive. Also, recording onto a dedicated drive, where you
are almost certain the head isn't going to suddenly skip to another part of the drive as you are writing audio
data to it, is a good thing :)
For details on setting up a Linux system with multiple disk drives, a good read of the Multi−Disk−HOWTO,
by Stein Gjoen may be useful.
9. Encoding from Audio.
Firstly, make sure you have enough space on your drive. At CD quality, 44.1 Khz 16 Bit stereo, 1 minute
takes nearly 10 Mb (5 MB per channel).
8.2 Setting up for CD−ROM Audio Capture
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I normally record at DAT quality, which is 48 Khz 16 Bit stereo.
Using wavrec I use the following syntax:
[dj@megajukebox]$ /usr/local/bin/wavrec −t 60 −s 48000 −S /mp3/temp.wav
The first part is an explicit path to wavrec. The '−t 60' specifies the length of time to record for, in seconds.
The third option, −s 48000 refers to the sample rate in samples/sec. (48000 is the rate for DAT, 44100 is CD)
The last option is the path to the output file.
To see the full set of options, run waverec −help, or see it's man page.
This will produce your WAV file Next you will need to encode it into MP3 format.
Use bladdenc with the following command line.
[dj@megajukebox]$ /usr/local/bin/bladeenc <em/[source file] [destination file]/ −br 256000
The −br option sets the bit rate, in this case I've set the rate to the maximum rate of 256k bits/s. The path to
bladeenc may also be different on your system to the one I've used in my example.
To see the full set of options, run bladeenc −help, actually this is an invalid option, but will display the list of
options.
The same encoding using Lame (as well as Gogo as it is based on Lame) would need the command line
[dj@megajukebox]$ /usr/local/bin/lame <em/[source file] [destination file]/ −b 256
10. Encoding from CD−ROM.
In a similar way to encoding from audio, encoding from CD is a 2 stage process. Firstly the audio data is
extracted from the cd and converted into a wav file. Then the wav file is converted into MP3.
There are basically 2 types of encoders, console based and X based. Both do the same job, but the X based
are easier to use (and look nicer).
Again, before you start to encode, check you will have enough drive space on your system.
10. Encoding from CD−ROM.
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10.1 Command Line encoding
I've written a very simple Perl script that will rip and encode tracks from a CD.
#!/usr/bin/perl
if ($ARGV[0] ne "") {
$count = 1;
do {
$cdcap = system("cdparanoia", $count, "/mp3/cdda.wav");
$track = "$ARGV[1]/track".$count.".mp3";
$enc = system("bladeenc /mp3/cdda.wav $track −br 256000");
$count++;
}
until $count > $ARGV[0];
exit;
}
else {
print "Usage cdriper [no of tracks] [destination directory]\n\n";
}
Please note: The above script is very basic and has nothing fancy, like error checking or CDDB. Improve at
your leisure :)
The main lines of interest are:
$cdcap = system("cdparanoia", $count, "/mp3/cdda.wav");
This line calls the CD ripper, cdparanoia. Cdparanoia converts raw CD audio data to WAV format.
I'm using Cdparanoia, but if you wish to use CDDA2WAV, the command line would be:
$cdcap = system("cdda2wav", $count, "/mp3/cdda.wav");
The salient options are $count, which is the number of tracks to rip, and then the path for the outputted WAV
file. In my example this will go to a tmp directory on my MP3 SCSI drive.
The WAV file is then converted into a MP3 file using Bladeenc.
I've written this Perl script in order to rip a CD without having to rip and encode each track, and without
having to use the batch mode of Cdparanoia. This cuts down on free disk space needed as Cdparanoia's batch
mode will rip the whole disk, and take up anything upto 600 Meg.
10.1 Command Line encoding
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If you wanted to use Lame or Gogo, replace the encoder line with:
$enc = system("lame
/mp3/cdda.wav $track −b 256");
or
$enc = system("gogo
/mp3/cdda.wav $track −b 256");
Here is a dump of the available option for each of the encoders.
Bladeenc
BladeEnc 0.91
(c) Tord Jansson
Homepage: http://bladeenc.mp3.no
===============================================================================
BladeEnc is free software, distributed under the Lesser General Public License.
See the file COPYING, BladeEnc's homepage or www.fsf.org for more details.
Usage: bladeenc [global switches] input1 [output1 [switches]] input2 ...
General switches:
−[kbit], −br [kbit] Set MP3 bitrate. Default is 128 (64 for mono output).
−crc
Include checksum data in MP3 file.
−delete, −del
Delete sample after successful encoding.
−private, −p
Set the private−flag in the output file.
−copyright, −c
Set the copyright−flag in the output file.
−copy
Clears the original−flag in the output file.
−mono, −dm
Produce mono MP3 files by combining stereo channels.
−leftmono, −lm
Produce mono MP3 files from left stereo channel only.
−rightmono, −rm
Produce mono MP3 files from right stereo channel only.
−swap
Swap left and right stereo channels.
−rawfreq=[freq]
Specify frequency for RAW samples. Default is 44100.
−rawbits=[bits]
Specify bits per channel for RAW samples. Default is 16.
−rawmono
Specifies that RAW samples are in mono, not stereo.
−rawstereo
Specifies that RAW samples are in stereo (default).
−rawsigned
Specifies that RAW samples are signed (default).
−rawunsigned
Specifies that RAW samples are unsigned.
−rawbyteorder=[order]Specifies byteorder for RAW samples, LITTLE or BIG.
−rawchannels=[1/2]
Specifies number of channels for RAW samples. Does
the same as −rawmono and −rawstereo respectively.
Global only switches:
−quit, −q
−outdir=[dir]
−quiet
−nocfg
−prio=[prio]
−refresh=[rate]
−progress=[0−8]
Quit without waiting for keypress when finished.
Save MP3 files in specified directory.
Disable screen output.
Don't take settings from the config−file.
Sets the task priority for BladeEnc. Valid settings are
HIGHEST, HIGHER, NORMAL, LOWER, LOWEST(default) and IDLE
Refresh rate for progress indicator. 1=fastest, 2=def.
Which progress indicator to use. 0=Off, 1=Default.
Input/output files can be replaced with STDIN and STDOUT respectively.
10.1 Command Line encoding
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Lame
LAME version 3.50 (www.sulaco.org/mp3)
GPSYCHO: GPL psycho−acoustic model version 0.74.
USAGE
:
lame [options] <infile> [outfile]
<infile> and/or <outfile> can be "−", which means stdin/stdout.
OPTIONS :
−m mode
−b <bitrate>
−s sfreq
−−resample sfreq
−−mp3input
−−voice
−v
−V n
−t
−−nohist
−h
−f
−k
−d
−−athonly
−r
−x
−a
−e emp
−p
−c
−o
−S
(s)tereo, (j)oint, (f)orce or (m)ono (default j)
force = force ms_stereo on all frames. Faster and
uses special Mid & Side masking thresholds
set the bitrate, default 128kbps
(for VBR, this sets the allowed minimum bitrate)
sampling frequency of input file(kHz) − default 44.1
sampling frequency of output file(kHz)− default=input sfreq
input file is a MP3 file
experimental voice mode
use variable bitrate (VBR)
quality setting for VBR. default n=4
0=high quality,bigger files. 9=smaller files
disable Xing VBR informational tag
disable VBR histogram display
use (maybe) quality improvements
fast mode (low quality)
disable sfb=21 cutoff
allow channels to have different blocktypes
only use the ATH for masking
input is raw pcm
force byte−swapping of input
downmix from stereo to mono file for mono encoding
de−emphasis n/5/c (obsolete)
error protection. adds 16bit checksum to every frame
(the checksum is computed correctly)
mark as copyright
mark as non−original
don't print progress report, VBR histograms
Specifying any of the following options will add an ID3 tag
−−tt <title>
title of song (max 30 chars)
−−ta <artist>
artist who did the song (max 30 chars)
−−tl <album>
album where it came from (max 30 chars)
−−ty <year>
year in which the song/album was made (max 4 chars)
−−tc <comment>
additional info (max 30 chars)
MPEG1 samplerates(kHz): 32 44.1 48
bitrates(kbs): 32 48 56 64 80 96 112 128 160 192 224 256 320
MPEG2 samplerates(kHz): 16 22.05 24
bitrates(kbs): 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 80 96 112 128 144 160
Gogo
10.1 Command Line encoding
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GOGO−no−coda ver. 2.24 (Feb 12 2000)
Copyright (C) 1999 PEN@MarineCat and shigeo
Special thanks to Keiichi SAKAI, URURI, Noisyu and Kei
This is based on LAME3.29beta and distributed under the LGPL
usage
gogo inputPCM [outputPCM] [options]
inputPCM is input wav file
if input.wav is `stdin' then stdin−mode
outputPCM is output mp3 file (omissible)
options
−b kbps
−br bps
−silent
−off
−v {0,..,9}
bitrate [kpbs]
bitrate [ bps]
dont' print progress report
{3dn,mmx,kni(sse),e3dn}
VBR [0:high quality 9:high compression]
You should combine this with −b option
for only RAW−PCM input
−offset bytes skip header size
−8bit
8bit−PCM [dflt 16bit−PCM]
−mono
mono−PCM [dflt stereo−PCM]
−bswap
low, high byte swapping for 16bitPCM
−s kHz
freq of PCM [dflt 44.1kHz]
−nopsy
disable psycho−acoustics
−m {s,m,j} output format s:stereo, m:mono, j:j−stereo
−d kHz
change sampling−rate of output MP3
−emh {n,c,5} de−emphasis
−lpf {on,off} 16kHz filter [dflt use if <= 128kbps; not use if >= 160kbps]
−test
benchmark mode
−delete
delete input file, after encoding
RipEnc
RipEnc performs the same task as the code above, but is written in shell and is easier to use :)
Here's what it looks like.
RipEnc version 0.7, Copyright (C) 1999 Michael J. Parmeley
<mjparme@asde.com>, RipEnc comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY
There is currently NO encoding process running in the background
Your encode.log file is 982607 bytes long.
<Enter 'd' for details, 'v' to view the encode log, or 'del' to delete the encode log>
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
Change working directory....................[/megajukebox/tmp]
Choose encoder..............................[lame]
Choose ripper...............................[cdparanoia]
Choose id3 tool.............................[none]
Toggle between Manual and CDDB naming.......[manual]
Setup XMCD_LIBDIR variable for CDA..........[/var/X11R6/lib/xmcd]
Set preferred naming convention.............[artist−name_of_song.mp3]
Rip whole CD?...............................[no]
Set small hard drive option?................[no]
RipEnc
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10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
?
Please select your Cd−Rom device...........[/dev/cdrom]
Set the Bitrate for the encoded MP3's......[256]
List the files in your working directory
Start
About
Exit
CD2MP3
Cd2mp3 is a single pass cdda to MP3 encoder. It will convert a audio track to MP3 without producing an
intermediate wav file.
Here's how it looks in operation:
[dj@megajukebox]$ cd2mp3 options ALL
Using language: 1 − English.
Translator: Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri(k−s) <gsbarbieri@hotmail.com>
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Cd2Mp3 1.0 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Author: Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri (k−s) <gsbarbieri@hotmail.com.br>
*** device: −D/dev/cdrom
type: −Icooked_ioctl
*** audio device: /dev/dsp
*** preset: tape
*** copyright: Yes
*** author:
*** album:
recording: '1' as 'track−1.mp3' (wait)
Ok! (recorded)
recording: '2' as 'track−2.mp3' (wait)
Naturally you can feed it options from the command−line, here is a list:
dj@megajukebox]$ cd2mp3 −−help
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% Cd2Mp3 1.0 %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Author: Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri (k−s) <gsbarbieri@hotmail.com.br>
Usage:
cd2mp3 options <track_number>="<track name>" ... <track_number>="<track name>"or: cd2mp3 optio
or: cd2mp3 options LIST=<reclist_path> (to read pairs: <track_number>="<track name>" from a file
ou: cd2mp3 options PLAY=<track_number> VOL=[0..100] (only plays the track)
Options:
DEV=<cdrom_device> (default: /dev/cdrom)
DEV_TYPE=[generic_scsi|cooked_ioctl] (default: cooked_ioctl)
AUDIO_DEV=<audio_device> (default:/dev/dsp)
LANGUAGE=<language_number> (LANGUAGE=help to see supported languages)
COPYRIGHT=[YES|NO]
PRESET=[phone|voice|fm|tape|hifi|cd|studio] (PRESET=help will give more info)
ALBUM="<album's title>"
AUTHOR="<author's name>"
CD2MP3
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10.2 GUI Based Encoders
GUI based encoders offer all the functionality of console based encoding, but wrap it all up in a nice easy to
use interface. Grip and RipperX are similar in operation, both offer you the ability to select one, several or all
tracks on a CD and convert them. They also offer CDDB support which allows you to retrieve the album and
track information from a server and saves you having to enter the information by hand.
10.3 Encoder Performance
In the encoding sections I've mentioned 3 different encoders, bladeenc, lame and gogo. The main difference
is their performance in encoding (although there are differences in the available options which were listed
earlier).
A little example. I ripped a track from a CD and then encoded it with the different encoders. All encoders
were run with the same system conditions and all produced stereo out mp3's.
[dj@megajukebox]$ ls −l cdda.wav
−rw−rw−r−−
1 dj
dj
59823164 Feb 10 00:56 cdda.wav
[dj@megajukebox]$ bladeenc cdda.wav −br 256
BladeEnc 0.91
(c) Tord Jansson
Homepage: http://bladeenc.mp3.no
===============================================================================
BladeEnc is free software, distributed under the Lesser General Public License.
See the file COPYING, BladeEnc's homepage or www.fsf.org for more details.
Files to encode: 1
Encoding:
Input:
Output:
../test.wav
44.1 kHz, 16 bit, stereo.
128 kBit, stereo.
Completed. Encoding time: 00:05:58 (0.78X)
All operations completed. Total encoding time: 00:05:58
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
[dj@megajukebox]$ lame cdda.wav −b 256
LAME version 3.50 (www.sulaco.org/mp3)
GPSYCHO: GPL psycho−acoustic model version 0.74.
Encoding ../test.wav to ../test.wav.mp3
Encoding as 44.1 kHz 128 kbps j−stereo MPEG1 LayerIII file
Frame
| CPU/estimated | time/estimated | play/CPU |
ETA
10756/ 10756(100%)| 0:02:28/ 0:02:28| 0:02:29/ 0:02:29|
1.9074| 0:00:00
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
[dj@megajukebox]$ gogo cdda.wav −m s −b 256
GOGO−no−coda ver. 2.24 (Feb 12 2000)
Copyright (C) 1999 PEN@MarineCat and shigeo
Special thanks to Keiichi SAKAI, URURI, Noisyu and Kei
MPEG 1, layer 3 stereo
inp sampling−freq=44.1kHz out sampling−freq=44.1kHz bitrate=256kbps
inp sampling−freq=44.1kHz out sampling−freq=44.1kHz bitrate=128kbps
input file `../test.wav'
10.2 GUI Based Encoders
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output file `../test.mp3'
{ 10751/ 10755} 100.0% (
End of encoding
time= 95.430sec
2.94x)
re:[00:00:00.03] to:[00:01:35.42]
It would appear that Gogo has a much optimised algorithm for encoding than Bladeenc and Lame.
11. Streaming MP3's.
A streaming server allows you to transmit MP3 files over a TCP based network. This can be the Internet itself
or your local network / intranet.
The connection principal is very similar to that of a web server, files are streamed when a client (the MP3
player) connects to the server.
11.1 Icecast
After downloading and untaring, a good look around the doc/ directory would be a good thing, the HTML
manual is very helpful and comprehensive.
If you have downloaded the source code, follow the instructions regarding compiling pertinent to your
system.
Icecast will not work correctly unless you correctly set the servername in the config file, icecast.conf, which
is located in the etc directory. It must match the name that resolves to your IP address exactly.
If you see the following line when Icecast starts−up you have problems:
−> [05/Jan/2000:17:21:04] WARNING: Resolving the server name [your.server.name] does not work!
Edit icecast.conf which is located in the etc directory and locate the line containing the entry for
"server_name" and enter your servers name. If you are unsure you can find out by using the
hostname command, or by cat'ing /etc/hosts.
Once you've made the neccesary changes you'll need to either copy the conf file to the bin directory, or start
icecast with the −c option and specify the location, like so:
[dj@megajukebox bin]$ ./icecast −c ../etc/icecast.conf
If everything has been configured correctly, you should see something similar to the following:
[dj@megajukebox bin]$ ./icecast −c ../etc/icecast.conf −d /home/dj/mp3/icecast/
Icecast Version 1.3.0 Starting...
11. Streaming MP3's.
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Icecast comes with NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
You may redistribute copies of Icecast under the terms of the
GNU General Public License.
For more information about these matters, see the file named COPYING.
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Icecast Version 1.3.0 Starting..
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Using stdin as icecast operator console
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Tailing file to icecast operator console
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Server started...
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Listening on port 8000...
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Using [megajukebox] as servername...
[05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] Max values: 1000 clients, 1000 clients per source, 10 sources, 5 admins
−> [05/Jan/2000:18:36:30] [Bandwidth: 0.000000MB/s] [Sources: 0] [Clients: 0] [Admins: 1] [Uptime
The −d option sets the directory for log files and templates.
Below is the list of command−line options:
−c [filename]
Parse as a configuration file. Please note that any command line
parameters you supply after this override whatever is in file. Also note that
icecast.conf in the current directory is already parsed when you specify
this file, so anything in icecast.conf not overridden by the new configuration
file will be used by the server.
−P [port]
This is the port used for all client, source, and admin connections. It's set
to 8000 by default.
−m [max clients]
Allow this number of client connections. When this number is reached, all
client connections will be refused with 'HTTP/1.0 504 Server Full'
−p [encoder password]
This sets the password that the encoder must use to be allowed to stream
to the server. Note that if you have compiled the server with crypt()
support, this argument must be an encrypted string.
−b
This will send the icecast server into the background (i.e daemon process).
To use the admin commands now, you have to connect to the server as an
admin, using some sort of telnet client.
−d [directory]
Make all log files created by icecast, and all templates that icecast looks
for be relative to this directory.
So, thats the server started, but you now need to connect an MP3 source to the server.
You can choose from two applications which deliver MP3 data to the server, Shout and LiveIce.
11. Streaming MP3's.
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Shout
Shout provides Icecast with a static playlist of MP3's to stream and is included with Icecast.
You create the playlist if the MP3 files you want to stream with the following:
find [MP3 directory] −name '*.mp3' −print > playlist
At it's most basic level, to start the shout service, issue the following:
[dj@megajukebox bin]# ./shout megajukebox −P hackme −p playlist
The −P option specifies the password needed to add a mount−point to Icecast, this is the aptly set as
hackme..... I strongly suggest you change it otherwise someone may :) The −p option specifies the location of
the playlist file. Below is a list of all of the command line options:
[dj@megajukebox bin]# ./shout
Usage: shout <host> [options] [[−b <bitrate] file.mp3]...
Options:
−B <directory>
− Use directory for all shout's files.
−C <file>
− Use file as configuration file
−D <dj_file> − Run this before every song (system())
−P <password>
− Use specified password
−S
− Display all settings and exit
−V
− Use verbose output
−X <desc>
− Use specified description.
−a
− Turn on automatic bitrate (transfer) correction
−b <bitrate> − Start using specified bitrate
−d
− Activate the dj.
−e <port>
− Connect to port on server.
−f
− Skip files that don't match the specified bitrate
−g <genre>
− Use specified genre
−h
− Show this text
−i
− Use old icy headers
−k
− Don't truncate the internal playlist (continue)
−l
− Go on forever (loop)
−m <mount>
− Use specified mount point
−n <name>
− Use specified name
−o
− Turn of the bitrate autodetection.
−p <playlist>
− Use specified file as a playlist
−r
− Shuffle playlist (random play)
−s
− (Secret) Don't send meta data to the directory server
−u <url>
− Use specified url
−v
− Show version
−x
− Don't update the cue file (saves cpu)
−z
− Go into the background (Daemon mode)
−t
− Enable title streaming
Shout
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LiveIce
LiveIce can work in 2 modes, it can pass a playlist to Icecast or can pass live audio from the soundcard.
After untaring and reading the README concerning building the package, make sure you have mpg123
installed and available as LiveIce requires it.
There are two ways of configuring LiveIce editing the config file with vi/emacs/or whatever or by using the
TK based configuration tool, which is a pretty way of editing it :)
The best place for describing the internals of liveice.cfg can be found at LiveIce's homepage where Scott
covers all of the options.
This is a copy of my config file with LiveIce set to mixer mode (stream from a list of MP3's)
NOTE: I've added comments to the file, so if you cut and paste make sure the comments haven't wrapped
around to a new line otherwise LiveIce will not work :)
# liveice configuration file
# Automatically generated
SERVER megajukebox
PORT 8000
# Your server name * MUST BE THE NAME THE SERVER RESOLVES TO *
# The port Icecast is running on
NAME Megajukebox
# Information regarding the name of your server which is sent to
# to directory servers.
# Examples 'Sarah FM' or 'ThisTown: Loud and Heavy Jazz − Interne
GENRE Live
# Information regarding the genre.
DESCRIPTION
# Information regarding the station.
URL http://megajukebox:8000
# The URL and port of the server.
PUBLIC 0
# Set this to 1 if you want Icecast to announce your station and
# on a directory server, otherwise leave 0
XAUDIOCAST_LOGIN
# can be either ICY_LOGIN or X_AUDIOCAST_LOGIN.
MOUNTPOINT /techno
# Sets the mountpoint name of the stream for Icecast.
# otherwise defaults to icy_0
PASSWORD hackme
# Icecast's admin password
SAMPLE_RATE 44100
STEREO
# The sample rate of the stream
# Can be MONO or STEREO
NO_SOUNDCARD
# See below
HALF_DUPLEX
USE_GOGO
BITRATE 128000
VBR_QUALITY 1
#
#
#
#
MIXER
# See below
LiveIce
Sets
Sets
Sets
Sets
the
the
the
the
Examples 'Talk' or 'Dance'
Example 'The best for regga
X_AUDIOCAST is b
Only used
soundcard duplex mode. Can be HALF_DUPLEX or FULL_DUP
encoder to use. Check the README for the list
bit rate of the stream (see below)
variable bit rate quality.
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PLAYLIST /megajukebox/playlist
# Location of the playlist (see details on the find command later
TRACK_LOGFILE track.log
# Filename and location to dump list of MP3's streamed
Once you have your config file you start LiveIce like so:
[dj@megajukebox liveice]$ ./liveice
/megajukebox/playlist
1
opening connection to megajukebox 8000
Attempting to Contact Server
connection successful: forking process
opening pipe!...
writing password
Setting up Interface
Soundcard Reopened For Encoding
Input Format: 16Bit 44100Hz Stereo
Output Format: 256000 Bps Mpeg Audio
IceCast Server: megajukebox:8000
Mountpoint: /techno
Name: megajukebox − this and that radio − broadcasting 24/7
Genre: Techno
Url: http://megajukebox.com
Description: a load of digital noise −> but i know you like it :)
Press '+' to Finish
adding /megajukebox/demotunes/track_1.mp3
adding /megajukebox/demotunes/track_2.mp3
adding /megajukebox/demotunes/track_3.mp3
adding /megajukebox/demotunes/track_4.mp3
/megajukebox/demotunes/track_4.mp3
Adding New Channel 1
Adding New Channel 2
Channel 1 selecting
/megajukebox/demotunes/track_1.mp3
Channel 2 selecting
/megajukebox/demotunes/track_1.mp3
Playing track_1.mp3
searching for Id3v2
searching for Id3v1
copying the data
fixing the nulls
adding the url
closing input file
Using log track.log
The last line is a peak meter.
These are the keyboard controls for mixer mode:
Action
~~~~~~
Select next track on channel
Select prev track on channel
Start/Stop channel
LiveIce
Channel 1 Key
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1
q
2
Channel 2 Key
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a
z
s
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Reset channel
Increase volume on channel
Decrease volume on channel
Increase speed on channel
Decrease speed on channel
Sticky mode On/Random/Off
Preview channel
Random Track
w
3
e
4
r
5
t
u
x
d
c
f
v
g
b
m
The above liveice.cfg is for mixermode. To use LiveIce in audio mode change the line relating to MIXER to
NOMIXER and set NO_SOUNDCARD to SOUNDCARD and restart LiveIce.
Forgetting to set the correct options will lead to some interesting warning ;)
946:Error: Line In mode *and* no soundcard??????? Eeejit!
Once you have it all correctly set up and have plugged in an external source, you should be able to stream =:)
[dj@megajukebox liveice]$ ./liveice
/megajukebox/playlist
0
Initialising Soundcard
16Bit 22050Hz Stereo Full Duplex
opening connection to megajukebox 8000
Attempting to Contact Server
connection successful: forking process
opening pipe!...
writing password
Setting up Interface
Soundcard Reopened For Encoding
Input Format: 16Bit 22050Hz Stereo
Output Format: 32000 Bps Mpeg Audio
IceCast Server: megajukebox:8000
Mountpoint: /daves_band_live_at_the_club
Name: megajukebox − Dave and the Dynamite − Live at the Roxy
Genre: Live/Rock
Url: http://megajukebox
Description: megajukebox::Louder than a frog in a trashcan..... and almost as musical
Press '+' to Finish
Lvl: L:
8704 R: 11776
The last line is a signal level meter, if the input signal is too high you will get a *clip* warning. If you do,
turn down the gain of the input source.
The keen eyed amongst you may of noticed that in liveice.cfg the first comment lines point out that the file is
automatically generated. If you are using the TK based GUI liveiceconfigure.tk and you've made manual
changes, you will lose them when you save. Either use the GUI or learn vi/emacs :)
LiveIce
26
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
11.2 Fluid
After untaring the bundle cd to the directory, then read the README :)
Fluid has three basic modes of operation, transmit, relay and forward. I'll only focus on transmit.
The config files associated for transmit are located in config/MP3TX.cfg. To test the server run with the
following, at this point the default config settings should be ok:
java Fluid TX
Naturally enough you'll need Java of some form installed first. You can use either the Blackdown port of
JDK available from http://www.blackdown.org or if you are using Redhat, Kaffe.
Fluid comes with a few sample MP3 files, so if everything is working you should see something similar to
this (I've started the server using Kaffe in this example, you may have to start it using java):
[dj@megajukebox Fluid−Beta2J]$ kaffe Fluid tx
−−−−−−− Fluid Streaming Server Beta 2 −−−−−−−
This program is ShareWare(tm) and it will not
be crippled in any way because of it. However
if you do like the program and will use it
commercial purposes, we ask of you to contact
us at the address below for pricing info:
Eldean AB
Sjoangsvagen 7
S−192 72 Sollentuna
SWEDEN
E−mail:
fluid@subside.com
Fluid is Copyright Subside (C) 1998
written by Lars Samuelsson
http://www.subside.com
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
* Transmission mode *
Reading config from: config/MP3TX.cfg
Reading playlist: playlist.m3u
Server started on port: 2711
Accepting administrator login on port: 2710
P| Dr. Nick − Hello Everybody
If you get this far, it looks like things are working, but I'm sure you'll want to stream more than the demo
files!
You'll need to compile a playlist of the MP3's you want to stream. This will be a static list users will not be
able to alter this list or make requests. This playlist is named playlist.m3u and is located by default in the root
directory.
To compile a playlist of all MP3's in a particular directory (or disk) use the following command:
11.2 Fluid
27
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
find [MP3 directory] −name "*.mp3" −print > playlist.m3u
By default the server uses port 2711, which is where your listeners will connect to, if you need to change this
this can be done in the config file.
The server can be remotely administered by telneting to it's admin port, by default port 2710 like so:
[dj@megajukebox Fluid−Beta2J]$ telnet localhost 2710
Trying 127.0.0.1..megajukebox
Connected to localhost.localdomain.
Escape character is '^]'.
jaguar
You are connected to the −Fluid− Streaming Server
Type "help" for a command reference
help
The following commands are available:
help conn curr exit
curr
Information about the currently broadcasted song:
Title:
Beer Talk
Artist: Homer Simpson
Album:
The Simpsons
Year:
1996
Comment: Borrowed this as an example
Genre:
Comedy
The reference to "jaguar" is the admin password, this is the default. There is no prompt for the password so
please don't sit there waiting for one! I suggest that you change the password from the default otherwise you
will invite a hack! This can be changed in the config file, which looks like this:
[dj@megajukebox config]$ cat MP3TX.cfg
2711
2710
5
4096
32
1000
jaguar
playlist.m3u
current.txt
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
−−− The lines are −−−
1. PORT number (the server will use)
2. PORT number (for maintaining the server remotely)
3. Maximum number of connections (the server will accept)
4 Packetsize when reading/sending (in bytes)
5. Bitrate of the mp3s in kbit/s (all mp3s must have same bitrate)
6. Delay between songs (in milliseconds)
7. Password for remote administration
8. Playlist name (list in .m3u format)
9. Name of the file to write song info to (from ID3−tag)
11.2 Fluid
28
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
The reference to the playlist being in m3u format means that it is in the same format as produced by the find
command mentioned earlier.
Update for RC1
Fluid has been updated, and released under a GPL License (Way to go Lars!)
Here are the main differences:
• A new format fluid.config
• A new default port 4711
• A new method of starting and stopping. Fluid now used the scripts fluid.start and fluid.stop
• Source code is now part of the dist. Yippee!
11.3 Litestream
Litestream is similar in it's operation to Icecast. The system is composed of the streamer and the source.
To start the streamer you issue a command in the following format:
[dj@megajukebox]$ litestream <source port> <stream host> <stream port> <max listeners> <log ident
The options are as follows:
source port Is the port you connect the 'audio' source to.
stream host This is the IP or FQDN of your server (find this out with the hostname command for domain
name or cat /etc/hosts for your IP address).
stream port This is the port number clients connect to.
max listeners This is the number of clients who can connect to your server.
log ident Log messages are written to /var/log/messages. <log ident> is a ident string used to identify the
Litestream server, eg.
If you use the ident string 'Litestream' the server starting message in /var/log/messages would look similar to:
Sep 18 19:32:20 linux Litestream[1901]: stream.c:555: main: 'server started'
<yp host & yp port> These 2 options specify the host and port of an yp server, used to announce your server
to mp3 directory servers.
Here is an example:
Update for RC1
29
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
[dj@megajukebox]$ litestream 5000 megajukebox 5555 1000 LitestreamServer
Ok, so that's the server system. Once started it sit's there waiting for an input to be connected, which is done
with the source command.
The format is like so:
source <ip or hostname> <port> <name> <genre> <url> <irc> <icq> <aim> <public? (0, 1)> <reported
Below is the list of options for source.
ip or hostname is the hostname or IP address of the computer running Litestream Server.
port is the port on which Litestream Server is waiting for a streaming source.
name is the name of your stream.
genre is the genre of your stream.
url is the URL for your streams web page.
irc is the IRC channel for your stream.
icq is your ICQ ID.
aim is your AIM ID.
public is either 0 or 1. 0 for private, 1 for public.
reported bitrate is the stream bitrate which will be reported to the YP server. This does not necessarily reflect
the actual bitrate of your stream.
playlist.txt is the name of the file containing your playlist.
log ident is the syslog identifier which will be prepended to each log message generated by Litestream
Streaming Source.
Here is an example which would match the Litestream command earlier:
[dj@megajukebox]$ source megakukebox 5000 'Megajukebox
The best jukebox ever' Various
http://ww
11.4 Apache::MP3 Module
The Apache:MP3 module allows the Apache WebServer to stream MP3's. It does not offer the same level of
features as Fluid, Litestream & Icecast.
11.4 Apache::MP3 Module
30
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
The module is dependant on MP3::Info and mod_perl, both of which are available on CPAN.
After downloading the files needed a read of the README will help things!
Firstly make the module, then make the config changes to Apache's config files (your changes may be made
in either httpd.conf or srm.conf).
You will also have to create directories for icons and a directory hierarchy for MP3's.
Section 6 of the README details the editing (or creation) of a Perl config file.
This is to preload the MP3::Info module which without this may cause Apache to crash.
In httpd.conf create an entry like so:
Perlrequire /etc/httpd/conf/startup.perl
Alter the /etc/httpd/conf reference to point to where your Apache config files are located on your system.
Now create the file startup.perl at the location specified above. At the very minimum you should have the
following (again adjust the path of perl to fit your system).
[dj@megajukebox conf]$ cat /etc/httpd/conf/startup.perl
#!/usr/bin/perl
use MP3::Info();
Then restart Apache and point a web browser at one of your new MP3 directories :)
There is more documentation available on Apache::MP3, from the command−line run the following:
[dj@megajukebox conf]$ perldoc Apache::MP3
11.5 Firewall Bypassing
A large portion of companies and institutions now use firewalls to block users from connecting to certain
ports on remote servers.
A way to bypass this is to run your MP3 server using port 80. You will not be able to run a webserver on the
same URL or IP address.
When running Icecast in 'firewall bypass' mode you will need to start shout with the option to set the port to
port 80, like so:
11.5 Firewall Bypassing
31
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
[dj@megajukebox bin]$ ./shout megajukebox −e 80 −P hackme −p ../playlist
11.6 Bandwidth considerations
Streaming audio can consume vast quantities of bandwidth if the MP3 servers' bit−rate is set too high.
Consider this scenario. A T1 link has a capacity of approx. 1.55 Mb/Sec. If you stream your MP3's at
128K/Bps stereo, each connecting player will use 256K/Bps, so only 6 users could connect to your MP3
server at any time without problems. And at 256K/Bps, you will not get too many modem users connecting!
So you must make a decision at what to set your stream rates not only on what your server's internet
connection is rated at, but what your users will be connecting at. 24K/Bps Stereo will give a reasonable
quality signal that 56K modem users will be able to connect to, and for the same T1 line would allow approx.
32 simultaneous connections.
If your server is running on an Intranet, bandwidth issues will still have to be considered especially if your
network is running 10M/Sec.
But please let either your ISP or sys admin know you are going to stream otherwise you may be in for a
shock. Some ISP's will charge you for bandwidth over a certain limit and sys admins like to know why their
network is now running slow :)
11.7 Copyright Issues
I think it's reasonable to assume that record companies will not like you streaming material without their
permission or payment of some kind! So what can you stream?
This is an area where you will need to be aware of the legal ramifications, because it will be you who will be
liable.
Below are two links, one for the Electronic Frontier Foundation who are advocates of freeing restrictions
surrounding the technology. The other link is to the Recording Industry Association of America, which seeks
to protect the rights of artists from piracy.
I strongly suggest visiting both of the sites, and any others relevant to where you are physically based.
http://www.eff.org/cafe/
http://www.riaa.com/weblic/weblic.htm
12. Listening to MP3's.
So, hopefully, you should now have some MP3 files ready to listen to, and have the choice of playing from
file or stream.
11.6 Bandwidth considerations
32
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12.1 Playing from File
Playing from file is reasonably straight−forward with all players. The only big difference is some are
command−line based and some are X based.
Playing an MP3 file from file requires you to pass the mp3 file as a parameter, like so:
[dj@megajukebox]$ mpg123 /mp3_files/SampleFile.mp3
or
[dj@megajukebox]$ xaudio /mp3_files/SampleFile.mp3
If you want to play a series of files, pass them in as a list:
[dj@megajukebox]$ alsaplayer /mp3_files/SampleFile1.mp3 /mp3_files/SampleFile2.mp3
To play all the tracks in a directory, just wildcard the file selected, like so:
[dj@megajukebox]$ xmms /mp3_files/*.mp3
12.2 Playing from MP3 Streams
Playing from a MP3 stream is quite easy, just replace the file with the streams url and port number:
[dj@megajukebox]$ mpg123 http://localhost:8000
or
[dj@megajukebox]$ freeamp http://megajukebox:2711
12.3 Capturing MP3 Streams
A stream from a MP3 server can be captured and save locally using the following:
Streamripper
To capture an MP3 stream using streamripper, type the following:
[dj@megajukebox]$ streamripper −h megajukebox −p 8000
Press CTRL−C to stop
12.1 Playing from File
33
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
name: Megajukebox
reponse: 200
genre: Megajukebox
url: http://www.megajukebox.com/
bitrate: 128
This stream contains no meta data, ripping as one large ass track
1st track ripped
socket error: : Success
Here's a list of options.
[dj@megajukebox]$ streamripper
Usage: streamripper −h <host> −p <port> [−d dir]
Options:
−h <host>
− Required: The host name
−p <port>
− Required: The host port, typically 8000
−d <dir>
− Optional: The destination directory
−l <logfile>
− Optional: Output everything to a log file <logfile>
−v
− Optional: Be extra verbose
−c
− Optional: Don't display status counter
−q
− Optional: Quiet mode, don't make mp3 files
−s
− Optional: Output stream to stdout for mpg123
−n
− Optional: Wait until next track before writing
−o
− Optional: Create a directory with the stream name for output
wget
To save a stream using wget:
[dj@megajukebox]$ wget http://megajukebox:8000 −O download01.mp3
−−13:41:41−− http://megajukebox:8000/
=> `download01.mp3'
Connecting to megajukebox:8000... connected!
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: unspecified [audio/mpeg]
0K
50K
100K
150K
200K
250K
300K
350K
400K
450K
500K
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
−>
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
..........
12.4 Mixing
wget
34
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
eMixer
eMixer gives you the ability to mix MP3's in a similar manner to a DJ's mixing desk.
Newer versions support 2 sound cards so you can output your mix on one card and monitor or cue the next
track on another.
As usual once untaring, read the readme on how to build the package.
You will need to create a playlist of MP3 files, do this with the find command mentioned in the Streaming
section.
You will need mpg123 installed before you can run eMixer.
Here are the control keys (taken from the readme)
KEYBOARD CONTROLS
"up, down"
"page up, page down"
"enter"
"tab"
"}","]"
"space"
"left, right"
"insert"
"home"
"delete"
"end"
"< , / , >"
" + , = "
(NEW)
" q "
" w "
" p "
" a "
" f "
" u "
" h "
" ~, ` "
" s "
scroll thru playlist
scroll thru playlist screen full at a time
start/stop track
change channel
toggle between volume and speed controls/windows
restart active track
fader controls
decrease volume/speed in channel one
increase volume/speed in channel one
decrease volume/speed in channel two
increase volume/speed in channel two
left, center & right positions of fader
switch between faders
start/stop channel channel one
start/stop channel channel two
toggle between playmodes − single, loop, continuous, random
stop all channels
file menu
util menu
help menu
cancel menu drop down
turn SIM Play on
(SIM Play starts the same track in both channels
simultaneously )
GDAM
GDAM is a GUI based MP3 mixer with a large bank of built in, real−time effects.
13. ID3 Editing.
ID3 tags are information fields contained within the MP3 data that contain information about the MP3 such
as who the artist is, what album the track came from, and so on.
eMixer
35
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
Editors allow you to view and edit this information.
13.1 id3ed
[dj@megajukebox]$ id3ed
id3ed v1.10 − mpeg layer 3 file information editor
Usage: id3ed [−s songname] [−n artist] [−a album] [−y year] [−c comment]
[−k tracknum] [−g genre] [−q] [−SNAYCKG] [−l/−L] [−r]
[−i] <mp3files> [−v]
−q
−SNAYCKG
−l/−L
−r
−i
−v
no line interface; only set tags specified on command
line. Use twice to suppress all output except errors.
prompt to edit the specified tags only
Other tags can still be set with the −[snaycg] options.
display list of genres
remove id3 tag from files
show current id3 tag only, don't edit
output program version/license
[dj@megajukebox MyBand]$ id3ed track01.mp3
File track01.mp3: (tag v1.1)
songname[max:30]: Our Kick Ass Demo
artist[max:30]: Us
album[max:30]: White Album
year[max:4]: 1999
comment[max:28]: Will be a classic some day!
tracknum[max:3]: 1
genre[0−255/name]: 5
If we now want to see the Id info we run id3ed with the −i flag, like so:
[dj@megajukebox MyBand]$ id3ed −i track01.mp3
track01.mp3: (tag v1.1)
songname: Our Kick Ass Demo
artist: Us
album: White Album
year: 1999
comment: Will be a classic some day!
tracknum: 1
genre: Funk(5)
13.2 mp3info
MP3info works in a similar manner to id3ed, here is a snippet from it's man pages:
SYNOPSIS
mp3info [ −option < value > ] filename[s]...
13.1 id3ed
36
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
DESCRIPTION
This is a small tool to get and set MP3 information.
OPTIONS
−T
Do NOT get TAG Info. Use on slowseeking media,
since TAG is at the very end of the file.
−s <0/1>
Print info. Pretty much obsolete,
should be on. Defaults 1.
as
it
always
−f <format>
Format of printed string. See README for details.
−F <Formatnumber>
Predefined format of printed string. Try it out.
−w
−W
Write TAG Info. Will write a TAG at the end of the
file.
Wipe TAG Info. Will wipe clean TAG Info. Overrides
all other TAG Options, and turns −s off. To both
wipe tag and display info, use −W −s 1
−n <name>
Set song title. Implies −w. Will go away soon,
−t instead.
use
−t <name>
Set song title. Alias for −n. Implies −w.
−a <artist>
Set name of artist. Implies −w.
−l <album>
Set album name. Implies −w.
−y <year>
Sets published year. Implies −w.
−c <comment>
Sets comment. Implies −w.
−g <genre>
Set genre number. Implies −w.
−G <genrename>
Set genre by name. Implies −w.
13.3 ID3 Genre codes
ID3 uses a code to refer to the genre, here is the code listing [info taken from
http://www.id3.org/id3v2−00.txt].
The following genres are defined in ID3v1
0.Blues
13.3 ID3 Genre codes
37
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
1.Classic Rock
2.Country
3.Dance
4.Disco
5.Funk
6.Grunge
7.Hip−Hop
8.Jazz
9.Metal
10.New Age
11.Oldies
12.Other
13.Pop
14.R&B
15.Rap
16.Reggae
17.Rock
18.Techno
19.Industrial
20.Alternative
21.Ska
22.Death Metal
23.Pranks
24.Soundtrack
25.Euro−Techno
26.Ambient
27.Trip−Hop
28.Vocal
29.Jazz+Funk
30.Fusion
31.Trance
32.Classical
33.Instrumental
34.Acid
35.House
36.Game
37.Sound Clip
38.Gospel
39.Noise
40.AlternRock
41.Bass
42.Soul
43.Punk
44.Space
45.Meditative
46.Instrumental Pop
47.Instrumental Rock
48.Ethnic
49.Gothic
50.Darkwave
51.Techno−Industrial
52.Electronic
53.Pop−Folk
54.Eurodance
55.Dream
56.Southern Rock
57.Comedy
58.Cult
59.Gangsta
60.Top 40
61.Christian Rap
62.Pop/Funk
13.3 ID3 Genre codes
38
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
63.Jungle
64.Native American
65.Cabaret
66.New Wave
67.Psychadelic
68.Rave
69.Showtunes
70.Trailer
71.Lo−Fi
72.Tribal
73.Acid Punk
74.Acid Jazz
75.Polka
76.Retro
77.Musical
78.Rock & Roll
79.Hard Rock
The following genres are Winamp extensions
80.Folk
81.Folk−Rock
82.National Folk
83.Swing
84.Fast Fusion
85.Bebob
86.Latin
87.Revival
88.Celtic
89.Bluegrass
90.Avantgarde
91.Gothic Rock
92.Progressive Rock
93.Psychedelic Rock
94.Symphonic Rock
95.Slow Rock
96.Big Band
97.Chorus
98.Easy Listening
99.Acoustic
100.Humour
101.Speech
102.Chanson
103.Opera
104.Chamber Music
105.Sonata
106.Symphony
107.Booty Bass
108.Primus
109.Porn Groove
110.Satire
111.Slow Jam
112.Club
113.Tango
114.Samba
115.Folklore
116.Ballad
117.Power Ballad
118.Rhythmic Soul
119.Freestyle
120.Duet
121.Punk Rock
13.3 ID3 Genre codes
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The Linux MP3−HOWTO
122.Drum Solo
123.A capella
124.Euro−House
125.Dance Hall
14. MP3 to Minidisc.
By Afra <afra@prongs.org>
To record MP3s from Linux to your minidisc, there are two methods: analog and digital. Each method is
dependant on the type of soundcard your Linux box has. The main difference between analog and digital
recordings is the sound quality you achieve during recording. With an analog recording you may hear some
static noise/fuzz, although some analog soundcards try to minimize this. Don't think that just because you
have an analog sound card that you are doomed, because you are not. This just means you will have to spend
a little time trying to minimize the noise by fiddling with mixer settings.
No special software is required, just a regular MP3 player for your Linux box. Basically both methods will
require a connection from your soundcard's output to your Minidic's input.
14.1 Analog Recording
If your soundcard does not have a "Digital Out" connection, you may will have to go via the analogue
recording route.
To record an MP3 from your Linux box onto your Minidisc, connect an analog chord from your sound card's
Line Out to your Minidisc's Line In input. Set your Minidisc in the recording mode as you usually would and
play the MP3. You should see the recording levels on your Minidisc rise. Upon playback, you may notice a
small or large amount of static noise, which is due to your soundcard.
To minimize the static noise during recording, keep your Minidisc's recording/volume levels within the −3dB
and 0dB range. To help clear up the noise you may hear connect up your Minidisc as described above and
turn on the Recording Mode but do not play an MP3. You should still hear the noise and this may help in
fiddling with your mixer effects.
14.2 Digital Recording
You will experience better sound quality with digital recording. Connect your optical cable (if you have to
buy one, the sizes of the MD and card port matter, usually 3.5mm but check your soundcard and Minidisc
user manual) to your sound card's Digital Out.
The cable should now be glowing on the other end − good. Now, connect the glowing end to your minidisc
Digital Input. Set your minidisc in record mode and play the mp3 from the computer.
14.3 Playlists
There is one problem when playing MP3 tracklistings: how will your Minidisc know when to set an automark
when a track jumps onto another (ie. change track numbers automatically)? The solution is this MP3 file
14. MP3 to Minidisc.
40
The Linux MP3−HOWTO
which you can download at http://www.prongs.org/minidisc/2sec.zip.
You may use this file, which is an MP3 file containing 2 seconds of silence, to insert before each MP3 on
your playlist, so the MD will know when to automark.
15. Feedback.
New hardware and software is being released all the time. If you are using newer versions of the hardware
and / or software listed within this document, or can add to anything within this area, please send your
information for inclusion to phil@plus24.com and I'll include it in the next release.
While I'd like to reply to every question, please note that on occasions I will not be able to reply quickly due
to work.
Happy MP3'ing!!
15. Feedback.
41