Sharp RP-R600 Operating instructions

Operating Manual
OPTIMOD-AM
9400
Digital Audio Processor
Version 1.2 Software
IMPORTANT NOTE: Refer to the unit’s rear panel for your Model Number.
Model Number:
Description:
9400
OPTIMOD 9400, Digital I/O, Five-band stereo processing, digital radio / HD AM / netcast processing,
115V (for 90-130V operation) or 230V (for 200-250V
operation)
9400J
As above, but for 90-117V operation.
MANUAL:
Part Number:
Description:
96129.120.03
9400 Operating Manual
CAUTION: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK, DO NOT REMOVE COVER (OR BACK).
NO USER SERVICEABLE PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL.
WARNING: TO REDUCE THE RISK OF FIRE OR ELECTRICAL SHOCK,
DO NOT EXPOSE THIS APPLIANCE TO RAIN OR MOISTURE.
This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts you to
the presence of uninsulated dangerous voltage
inside the enclosure  voltage that may be
sufficient to constitute a risk of shock.
This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts you to important
operating and maintenance instructions in the accompanying literature. Read the manual.
In accordance to the WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) directive of the European Parliament, this product must not be discarded into the
municipal waste stream in any of the Member States. This product may be
sent back to your Orban dealer at end of life where it will be reused or recycled
at no cost to you.
If this product is discarded into an approved municipal WEEE collection site or
turned over to an approved WEEE recycler at end of life, your Orban dealer
must be notified and supplied with model, serial number and the name and
location of site/facility.
Please contact your Orban dealer for further assistance.
www.orban.com
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
All the safety and operating instructions should be read before the appliance is operated.
Retain Instructions: The safety and operation instructions should be retained for future reference.
Heed Warnings: All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to.
Follow Instructions: All operation and user instructions should be followed.
Water and Moisture:
The appliance should not be used near water (e.g., near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement, or near a swimming pool, etc.).
Ventilation: The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation. For example, the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa, rug, or similar surface that may block the ventilation openings; or, placed in a built-in installation, such as a
bookcase or cabinet that may impede the flow of air through the ventilation openings.
Heat:
The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other appliances (including amplifiers)
that produce heat.
Power Sources:
The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as marked on
the appliance.
Grounding or Polarization: Precautions should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated.
Power-Cord Protection:
Power-supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed upon or
against them, paying particular attention to cords at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the appliance.
Cleaning: The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer.
Non-Use Periods: The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time.
Object and Liquid Entry: Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings.
Damage Requiring Service:
The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when: The power supply cord or the plug has
been damaged; or Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the appliance; or The appliance has been exposed to rain; or The appliance does
not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or The appliance has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged.
Servicing:
The user should not attempt to service the appliance beyond that described in the operating instructions. All other servicing should be
referred to qualified service personnel.
The Appliance should be used only with a cart or stand that is recommended by the manufacturer.
Safety Instructions (European)
Notice For U.K. Customers If Your Unit Is Equipped With A Power Cord.
WARNING: THIS APPLIANCE MUST BE EARTHED.
The cores in the mains lead are coloured in accordance with the following code:
GREEN and YELLOW - Earth
BLUE - Neutral
BROWN - Live
As colours of the cores in the mains lead of this appliance may not correspond with the coloured markings identifying the terminals in your plug, proceed as follows:
The core which is coloured green and yellow must be connected to the terminal in the plug marked with the letter E, or with the earth symbol, or coloured green, or green and yellow.
The core which is coloured blue must be connected to the terminal marked N or coloured black.
The core which is coloured brown must be connected to the terminal marked L or coloured red.
The power cord is terminated in a CEE7 / 7 plug (Continental Europe). The green / yellow wire is connected directly to the unit's chassis. If you need to
change the plug and if you are qualified to do so, refer to the table below.
WARNING: If the ground is defeated, certain fault conditions in the unit or in the system to which it is connected can result in full line voltage between
chassis and earth ground. Severe injury or death can then result if the chassis and earth ground are touched simultaneously.
Conductor
L
LIVE
WIRE COLOR
Normal
Alt
BROWN
BLACK
N
NEUTRAL
BLUE
WHITE
E
EARTH GND
GREEN-YELLOW
GREEN
AC Power Cord Color Coding
Safety Instructions (German)
Gerät nur an der am Leistungsschild vermerkten Spannung und Stromart betreiben.
Sicherungen nur durch solche, gleicher Stromstärke und gleichen AbschalAMerhaltens ersetzen. Sicherungen nie überbrücken.
Jedwede Beschädigung des Netzkabels vermeiden. Netzkabel nicht knicken oder quetschen. Beim Abziehen des Netzkabels den
Stecker und nicht das Kabel enfassen. Beschädigte Netzkabel sofort auswechseln.
Gerät und Netzkabel keinen übertriebenen mechanischen Beaspruchungen aussetzen.
Um Berührung gefährlicher elektrischer Spannungen zu vermeiden, darf das Gerät nicht geöffnet werden. Im Fall von Betriebsstörungen darf das Gerät nur Von befugten Servicestellen instandgesetzt werden. Im Gerät befinden sich keine, durch den Benutzer
reparierbare Teile.
Zur Vermeidung von elektrischen Schlägen und Feuer ist das Gerät vor Nässe zu schützen. Eindringen von Feuchtigkeit und
Flüssigkeiten in das Gerät vermeiden.
Bei Betriebsstörungen bzw. nach Eindringen von Flüssigkeiten oder anderen Gegenständen, das Gerät sofort vom Netz trennen und
eine qualifizierte Servicestelle kontaktieren.
Safety Instructions (French)
On s'assurera toujours que la tension et la nature du courant utilisé correspondent bien à ceux indiqués sur la plaque de l'appareil.
N'utiliser que des fusibles de même intensité et du même principe de mise hors circuit que les fusibles d'origine. Ne jamais
shunter les fusibles.
Eviter tout ce qui risque d'endommager le câble seceur. On ne devra ni le plier, ni l'aplatir. Lorsqu'on débranche l'appareil,
tirer la fiche et non le câble. Si un câble est endommagé, le remplacer immédiatement.
Ne jamais exposer l'appareil ou le câble ä une contrainte mécanique excessive.
Pour éviter tout contact averc une tension électrique dangereuse, on n'oouvrira jamais l'appareil. En cas de dysfonctionnement,
l'appareil ne peut être réparé que dans un atelier autorisé. Aucun élément de cet appareil ne peut être réparé par l'utilisateur.
Pour éviter les risques de décharge électrique et d'incendie, protéger l'appareil de l'humidité. Eviter toute pénétration
d'humidité ou fr liquide dans l'appareil.
En cas de dysfonctionnement ou si un liquide ou tout autre objet a pénétré dans l'appareil couper aussitôt l'appareil
de son alimentation et s'adresser à un point de service aprésvente autorisé.
Safety Instructions (Spanish)
Hacer funcionar el aparato sólo con la tensión y clase de corriente señaladas en la placa indicadora de características.
Reemplazar los fusibles sólo por otros de la misma intensidad de corriente y sistema de desconexión. No poner nunca los fusibles en
puente.
Proteger el cable de alimentación contra toda clase de daños. No doblar o apretar el cable. Al desenchufar, asir el enchufe y no el
cable. Sustituir inmediatamente cables dañados.
No someter el aparato y el cable de alimentación a esfuerzo mecánico excesivo.
Para evitar el contacto con tensiones eléctricas peligrosas, el aparato no debe abrirse. En caso de producirse fallos de funcionamiento,
debe ser reparado sólo por talleres de servicio autorizados. En el aparato no se encuentra ninguna pieza que pudiera ser reparada por
el usuario.
Para evitar descargas eléctricas e incendios, el aparato debe protegerse contra la humedad, impidiendo que penetren ésta o líquidos
en el mismo.
En caso de producirse fallas de funcionamiento como consecuencia de la penetración de líquidos u otros objetos en el aparato,
hay que desconectarlo inmediatamente de la red y ponerse en contacto con un taller de servicio autorizado.
Safety Instructions (Italian)
Far funzionare l'apparecchio solo con la tensione e il tipo di corrente indicati sulla targa riportante i dati sulle prestazioni.
Sostituire i dispositivi di protezione (valvole, fusibili ecc.) solo con dispositivi aventi lo stesso amperaggio e lo stesso comportamento
di interruzione. Non cavallottare mai i dispositivi di protezione.
Evitare qualsiasi danno al cavo di collegamento alla rete. Non piegare o schiacciare il cavo. Per staccare il cavo, tirare la presa e mai
il cavo. Sostituire subito i cavi danneggiati.
Non esporre l'apparecchio e il cavo ad esagerate sollecitazioni meccaniche.
Per evitare il contatto con le tensioni elettriche pericolose, l'apparecchio non deve venir aperto. In caso di anomalie di funzionamento
l'apparecchio deve venir riparato solo da centri di servizio autorizzati. Nell'apparecchio non si trovano parti che possano essere riparate
dall'utente.
Per evitare scosse elettriche o incendi, l'apparecchio va protetto dall'umidità. Evitare che umidità o liquidi entrino nell'apparecchio.
In caso di anomalie di funzionamento rispettivamente dopo la penetrazione di liquidi o oggetti nell'apparecchio, staccare immediatamente
l'apparecchio dalla rete e contattare un centro di servizio qualificato.
PLEASE READ BEFORE PROCEEDING!
Manual
The Operating Manual contains instructions to verify the proper operation of this unit and initialization of certain options.
You will find these operations are most conveniently performed on the bench before you install the unit in the rack.
Please review the Manual, especially the installation section, before unpacking the unit.
Trial Period Precautions
If your unit has been provided on a trial basis:
You should observe the following precautions to avoid reconditioning charges in case you later wish to return the unit to
your dealer.
(1) Note the packing technique and save all packing materials. It is not wise to ship in other than the factory carton. (Replacements cost $35.00).
(2) Avoid scratching the paint or plating. Set the unit on soft, clean surfaces.
(3) Do not cut the grounding pin from the line cord.
(4) Use care and proper tools in removing and tightening screws to avoid burring the heads.
(5) Use the nylon-washered rack screws supplied, if possible, to avoid damaging the panel. Support the unit when tightening the screws so that the threads do not scrape the paint inside the slotted holes.
Packing
When you pack the unit for shipping:
(1) Tighten all screws on any barrier strip(s) so the screws do not fall out from vibration.
(2) Wrap the unit in its original plastic bag to avoid abrading the paint.
(3) Seal the inner and outer cartons with tape.
If you are returning the unit permanently (for credit), be sure to enclose:







The Manual(s)
The Registration / Warranty Card
The Line Cord
All Miscellaneous Hardware (including the Rack Screws and Keys)
The Extender Card (if applicable)
The Monitor Rolloff Filter(s) (OPTIMOD-AM only)
The COAX Connecting Cable (OPTIMOD-AM and OPTIMOD-AM only)
Your dealer may charge you for any missing items.
If you are returning a unit for repair, do not enclose any of the above items.
Further advice on proper packing and shipping is included in the Manual (see Table of Contents).
Trouble
If you have problems with installation or operation:
(1) Check everything you have done so far against the instructions in the Manual. The information contained therein is
based on our years of experience with OPTIMOD and broadcast stations.
(2) Check the other sections of the Manual (consult the Table of Contents and Index) to see if there might be some suggestions regarding your problem.
(3) After reading the section on Factory Assistance, you may call Orban Customer Service for advice during normal California business hours. The number is (1) 510 / 351-3500.
WARNING
This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio-frequency energy. If it is not installed
and used as directed by this manual, it may cause interference to radio communication. This
equipment complies with the limits for a Class A computing device, as specified by FCC
Rules, Part 15, subject J, which are designed to provide reasonable protection against such
interference when this type of equipment is operated in a commercial environment. Operation
of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference. If it does, the user will be
required to eliminate the interference at the user’s expense.
WARNING
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus set out in the radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of
Communications. (Le present appareil numerique n’emet pas de bruits radioelectriques depassant les limites applicables aux appareils numeriques [de las class A] prescrites dans le
Reglement sur le brouillage radioelectrique edicte par le ministere des Communications du
Canada.)
IMPORTANT
Perform the installation under static control conditions. Simply walking across a rug can generate a static charge of 20,000 volts. This is the spark or shock you may have felt when
touching a doorknob or some other conductive surface. A much smaller static discharge is
likely to destroy one or more of the CMOS semiconductors employed in OPTIMOD-AM. Static
damage will not be covered under warranty.
There are many common sources of static. Most involve some type of friction between two
dissimilar materials. Some examples are combing your hair, sliding across a seat cover or
rolling a cart across the floor. Since the threshold of human perception for a static discharge
is 3000 volts, you will not even notice many damaging discharges.
Basic damage prevention consists of minimizing generation, discharging any accumulated
static charge on your body or workstation, and preventing that discharge from being sent to or
through an electronic component. You should use a static grounding strap (grounded through
a protective resistor) and a static safe workbench with a conductive surface. This will prevent
any buildup of damaging static.
U.S. patents 4,208,548, 4,460,871, 5,737,434, 6,337,999, 6,434,241 6,618,486, and 6.937,912
protect OPTIMOD 9400. Other patents pending.
Orban and Optimod are registered trademarks.
All trademarks are property of their respective companies.
This manual is part number 96129.120.03
The manual published April 2009
© Copyright Orban
8350 East Evans Suite C4, Scottsdale, AZ 85260 USA
Phone: (1) (480) 403-8300; Fax: (1) (480) 403-8301; E-Mail: custserv@orban.com; Site: www.orban.com
Operating Manual
OPTIMOD-AM
9400
Digital Audio Processor
Version 1.2 Software
Table of Contents
Index.........................................................................................................................0-9
Section
1
Introduction
.........................................................................................................................................1-1
ABOUT THIS MANUAL.......................................................................................................1-1
THE OPTIMOD-AM 9400 DIGITAL AUDIO PROCESSOR ......................................................1-1
Making the Most of the AM Channel....................................................................1-2
Controllable and Adjustable...................................................................................1-3
Versatile Installation................................................................................................1-4
PRESETS IN OPTIMOD-AM..............................................................................................1-5
Factory Presets .........................................................................................................1-5
User Presets ..............................................................................................................1-6
INPUT/OUTPUT CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................1-7
Digital AES3 Left/Right Input/Outputs...................................................................1-7
Analog Left/Right Input/Outputs ...........................................................................1-7
Remote Control Interface .......................................................................................1-8
Computer Interface .................................................................................................1-8
RS-232 Serial Port ............................................................................................................. 1-8
RJ45 Ethernet Connector ................................................................................................. 1-8
LOCATION OF OPTIMOD-AM ..........................................................................................1-8
Optimal Control of Peak Modulation Levels .........................................................1-8
Best Location for OPTIMOD-AM ..........................................................................1-10
If the transmitter is not accessible:................................................................................ 1-10
If the transmitter is accessible: ...................................................................................... 1-10
STUDIO-TRANSMITTER LINK .............................................................................................1-11
Transmission from Studio to Transmitter.............................................................1-11
Digital Links .................................................................................................................... 1-11
Dual Microwave STLs...................................................................................................... 1-12
Analog Landline (PTT / Post Office Line)....................................................................... 1-13
AM Transmitters and Antennas............................................................................1-13
Bypassing the Transmitter's Internal Filters and Clippers...................................1-14
Power Supplies ......................................................................................................1-15
Pre-1965 Transmitters............................................................................................1-16
Asymmetry .............................................................................................................1-16
Transmission Presets and Transmitter Equalization ............................................1-17
Antenna System.....................................................................................................1-19
USING LOSSY DATA REDUCTION IN THE STUDIO..................................................................1-19
ABOUT TRANSMISSION LEVELS AND METERING ..................................................................1-20
Meters ....................................................................................................................1-20
Figure 1-1: Absolute Peak Level, VU and PPM Reading ............................................... 1-21
Studio Line-up Levels and Headroom ..................................................................1-21
Transmission Levels................................................................................................1-21
LINE-UP FACILITIES .........................................................................................................1-22
Metering of Levels.................................................................................................1-22
Built-in Calibrated Line-up Tones.................................................................................. 1-22
Built-in Calibrated Bypass Test Mode............................................................................ 1-22
MONITORING.................................................................................................................1-23
Modulation Monitors and Their RF Amplifiers ...................................................1-23
Monitoring on Loudspeakers and Headphones..................................................1-23
Monitor Rolloff Filter ..................................................................................................... 1-23
Headphones .................................................................................................................... 1-24
EAS TEST ......................................................................................................................1-24
Figure 1-2: NRSC Modified 75 µs De-emphasis.............................................................. 1-25
PC CONTROL AND SECURITY PASSCODE.............................................................................1-25
WHY THE NORTH AMERICAN NRSC STANDARD?...............................................................1-26
Figure 1-3: NRSC Lowpass Filter ..................................................................................... 1-26
AM Stereo Introduces a Pre-emphasis Dilemma ........................................................... 1-26
NRSC Standard Pre-emphasis and Low-pass Filtering ................................................... 1-27
WARRANTY, USER FEEDBACK...........................................................................................1-28
User Feedback........................................................................................................1-28
LIMITED WARRANTY .............................................................................................1-28
INTERNATIONAL WARRANTY ...............................................................................1-28
EXTENDED WARRANTY ........................................................................................1-29
Section
2
Installation
.........................................................................................................................................2-1
INSTALLING THE 9400.......................................................................................................2-1
Figure 2-1: AC Line Cord Wire Standard.......................................................................... 2-2
Figure 2-2: Wiring the 25-pin Remote Interface Connector ........................................... 2-4
Figure 2-3: 9400 Serial Port Pin Identification................................................................. 2-4
Figure 2-4: Jumper Positions, Monitor Roll-Off Filter ..................................................... 2-5
Figure 2-5: Frequency Response Curves as Function of ROLLOFF Control, Monitor Rolloff
Filter Strapped for 18 dB/Octave...................................................................................... 2-6
Figure 2-6: Monitor Rolloff Filter Schematic Diagram.................................................... 2-7
9400 REAR PANEL ...........................................................................................................2-7
INPUT AND OUTPUT CONNECTIONS .....................................................................................2-8
Cable.........................................................................................................................2-8
Connectors ...............................................................................................................2-8
Analog Audio Input.................................................................................................2-9
Analog Audio Outputs ............................................................................................2-9
AES3 Digital Input and Output.............................................................................2-10
Grounding..............................................................................................................2-11
Power Ground........................................................................................................2-11
Circuit Ground .......................................................................................................2-11
9400 FRONT PANEL .......................................................................................................2-12
STUDIO LEVEL CONTROLLER INSTALLATION (OPTIONAL) .......................................................2-13
If you are using Orban 8200ST external AGC ......................................................2-14
Figure 2-7: 8200ST Jumper Settings (*Factory Configuration) ..................................... 2-15
QUICK SETUP .................................................................................................................2-16
ANALOG AND DIGITAL I/O SETUP .....................................................................................2-23
Figure 2-8: Effect of the LPF Shape Control with F = 5.0 kHz....................................... 2-27
Overview of Transmitter Equalization........................................................................... 2-32
Description of the TX EQ Controls ................................................................................. 2-32
Procedure for LF Equalization........................................................................................ 2-32
Figure 2-9: Unequalized RF envelope (showing tilt)..................................................... 2-33
Figure 2-10: RF envelope requiring no tilt equalization............................................... 2-33
Figure 2-11: Unequalized RF envelope (showing ringing) ........................................... 2-35
Figure 2-12: RF envelope showing successful HF equalization..................................... 2-35
AUTOMATION USING THE 9400’S INTERNAL CLOCK ............................................................2-39
SECURITY AND PASSCODE PROGRAMMING .........................................................................2-42
To Create a Passcode: ............................................................................................2-43
To Edit a Passcode:.................................................................................................2-43
To Delete a Passcode: ............................................................................................2-44
To Lock the Front Panel Immediately: .................................................................2-44
To Program local lockout: .....................................................................................2-44
To Unlock the Front Panel: ...................................................................................2-45
Dial-up Networking and the Passcode.................................................................2-45
If You Have Forgotten Your Passcode..................................................................2-45
REMOTE CONTROL INTERFACE PROGRAMMING ..................................................................2-46
NETWORKING AND REMOTE CONTROL ..............................................................................2-47
RECALLING PRESETS VIA ETHERNET USING TERMINAL EMULATOR SOFTWARE .....................2-50
To set a different port number: .................................................................................... 2-50
To recall a preset: ........................................................................................................... 2-51
INSTALLING 9400 PC REMOTE CONTROL SOFTWARE ..........................................................2-51
Installing the Necessary Windows Services..........................................................2-52
Check Hardware Requirements............................................................................2-52
Running the Orban Installer Program .................................................................2-53
Setting Up Ethernet, LAN, and VPN Connections ...............................................2-54
Conclusion..............................................................................................................2-54
SYNCHRONIZING OPTIMOD TO A NETWORK TIME SERVER....................................................2-55
Table 2-1: NIST-referenced timeservers......................................................................... 2-55
APPENDIX: SETTING UP SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS .............................................................2-59
Preparing for Communication through Null Modem Cable ..............................2-59
Connecting Using Windows 2000 Direct Serial Connection:..............................2-59
Connecting Using Windows XP Direct Serial Connection ..................................2-64
Preparing for Communication through Modems ...............................................2-69
Connecting Using Windows 2000 Modem Connection ......................................2-69
Connecting using Windows XP Modem Connection ..........................................2-75
UPDATING YOUR 9400’S SOFTWARE.................................................................................2-81
Section
3
Operation
.........................................................................................................................................3-1
9400 FRONT PANEL .........................................................................................................3-1
SOME AUDIO PROCESSING CONCEPTS...................................................................................3-3
Loudness and density ....................................................................................................... 3-4
OPTIMOD-AM PROCESSING............................................................................................3-5
AM Processing: The Art of Compromise ................................................................3-6
Shortwave/HF Processing ................................................................................................. 3-7
Working Together............................................................................................................ 3-8
Processing for Low Bitrate Codecs and HD Radio.................................................3-8
Fundamental Requirements: High-Quality Source Material and Accurate
Monitoring.............................................................................................................3-10
Low-Delay Monitoring for Headphones ....................................................................... 3-10
Monitor Rolloff Filter for the Analog AM Channel...................................................... 3-11
Reference Radios for Adjusting the Analog AM Processing ........................................ 3-11
Modulation Monitors..................................................................................................... 3-12
More About Audio Processing .............................................................................3-12
Judging Loudness........................................................................................................... 3-13
Reverberation ................................................................................................................. 3-13
CUSTOMIZING THE 9400’S SOUND ...................................................................................3-14
Basic Modify...........................................................................................................3-14
Full Modify .............................................................................................................3-16
Advanced Modify ..................................................................................................3-16
Gain Reduction Metering .....................................................................................3-17
To Create or Save a User Preset ............................................................................3-17
FACTORY PROGRAMMING PRESETS ...................................................................................3-18
To import an HD preset from the 9400’s front panel: .................................................. 3-20
To import an HD preset from PC Remote:..................................................................... 3-20
Description of the Analog AM Factory Presets ............................................................. 3-21
Table 3-1: Analog AM Factory Programming Presets ................................................... 3-22
Description of the Digital Radio (HD) Factory Presets .................................................. 3-24
Table 3-2: Digital Radio Factory Programming Presets................................................. 3-24
EQUALIZER CONTROLS ....................................................................................................3-28
Table 3-3: Equalization Controls .................................................................................... 3-29
Figure 3-1: HF Receiver Equalizer Curves....................................................................... 3-33
STEREO ENHANCER CONTROLS .........................................................................................3-36
Table 3-4: Stereo Enhancer Controls.............................................................................. 3-36
Table 3-5: AGC Controls.................................................................................................. 3-37
AGC CONTROLS ............................................................................................................3-37
Advanced AGC Controls........................................................................................3-40
CLIPPER CONTROLS .........................................................................................................3-42
Table 3-6: Clipper Controls ............................................................................................. 3-42
Table 3-7: Multiband and Distortion Controls .............................................................. 3-45
MULTIBAND DYNAMICS PROCESSING ................................................................................3-45
Table 3-8: MB Attack / Release Controls ........................................................................ 3-46
Table 3-9: MB Band Mix Controls................................................................................... 3-48
Advanced Multiband Controls..............................................................................3-52
TEST MODES .................................................................................................................3-54
Table 3-10: Test Modes ................................................................................................... 3-54
ABOUT THE 9400’S DIGITAL RADIO PROCESSING................................................................3-55
Delay Difference between Digital-Channel and AM Outputs ...........................3-56
Table 3-11: Digital Radio I/O Setup Controls ................................................................. 3-56
Digital Radio I/O Setup Controls...........................................................................3-56
Monitoring ...................................................................................................................... 3-56
Analog Outputs .............................................................................................................. 3-57
Digital Outputs ............................................................................................................... 3-57
Stereo/Mono Mode......................................................................................................... 3-58
Table 3-12: Digital Radio Multiband Controls............................................................... 3-58
Digital Radio Operating Controls.........................................................................3-58
Table 3-13: Digital Radio Band Mix Controls................................................................. 3-60
USING THE 9400 PC REMOTE CONTROL SOFTWARE ...........................................................3-61
To set up a new connection: .................................................................................3-61
To initiate communication: ...................................................................................3-62
To modify a control setting:..................................................................................3-63
To recall a preset:...................................................................................................3-63
To import an HD preset:........................................................................................3-63
To save a user preset you have created: ..............................................................3-64
To back up User Presets, system files, and automation files onto your computer’s
hard drive:..............................................................................................................3-64
To restore archived presets, system files, and automation files:........................3-65
To modify INPUT/OUTPUT and SYSTEM SETUP: ...........................................................3-66
To modify AUTOMATION: .........................................................................................3-66
To group multiple 9400s: ......................................................................................3-66
Navigation Using the Keyboard ...........................................................................3-66
To Quit the Program..............................................................................................3-67
About Aliases created by Optimod 9400 PC Remote Software .........................3-67
Multiple Installations of Optimod 9400 PC Remote ...........................................3-67
To share an archived User Preset between 9400s:........................................................ 3-69
Section
4
Maintenance
.........................................................................................................................................4-1
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE ...................................................................................................4-1
SUBASSEMBLY REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT .......................................................................4-2
FIELD AUDIT OF PERFORMANCE..........................................................................................4-6
Table 4-1: Decoder Chart for Power Supervisor ............................................................. 4-8
Table 4-2: Layout Diagram of J7, with expected voltages on each pin......................... 4-9
Table 4-3: Typical Power Supply Voltages and AC Ripple .............................................. 4-9
Section
5
Troubleshooting
.........................................................................................................................................5-1
PROBLEMS AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS ...............................................................................5-1
RFI, Hum, Clicks, or Buzzes............................................................................................... 5-1
Poor Peak Modulation Control........................................................................................ 5-1
Audible Distortion On-Air................................................................................................ 5-2
Audible Noise on Air ........................................................................................................ 5-3
Shrill, Harsh Sound ........................................................................................................... 5-4
Dull Sound ........................................................................................................................ 5-4
Excessive Occupied Bandwidth........................................................................................ 5-4
System Will Not Pass Line-Up Tones at 100% Modulation ............................................ 5-5
System Will Not Pass Emergency Alert System (“EAS” USA Standard) Tones at the
Legally Required Modulation Level ................................................................................ 5-5
System Receiving 9400’s Digital Output Will Not Lock .................................................. 5-5
L–R (Stereo Difference Channel) Will Not Null with Monophonic Input ...................... 5-5
AM Analog and Digital Channels Have Unequal Loudness ........................................... 5-5
Loudness Decreases Momentarily When the Radio Crossfades between Analog and
Digital Channels ............................................................................................................... 5-6
Excessive Sibilance (“ess” sounds) in the Digital Radio Channel ................................... 5-6
“Swishing,” “Phasing,” or “Underwater” Artifacts in the Digital Radio Channel ....... 5-6
General Dissatisfaction with Subjective Sound Quality.................................................. 5-6
Security Passcode Lost (When Unit is Locked Out) ......................................................... 5-7
Connection Issues between the 9400 and a PC, Modem, or Network ................5-7
Troubleshooting Connections.................................................................................5-8
You Cannot Access the Internet After Making a Direct or Modem Connection to
the 9400: ..................................................................................................................5-8
OS-SPECIFIC TROUBLESHOOTING ADVICE ............................................................................5-9
Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Direct Connect:..................................................5-9
Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Modem Connect:.............................................5-10
Troubleshooting Windows XP Direct Connect: ...................................................5-11
Troubleshooting Windows XP Modem Connect: ................................................5-12
TROUBLESHOOTING IC OPAMPS .......................................................................................5-13
TECHNICAL SUPPORT.......................................................................................................5-14
FACTORY SERVICE...........................................................................................................5-14
SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS ..................................................................................................5-14
Section
6
Technical
Data
.........................................................................................................................................6-1
SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................6-1
Performance.............................................................................................................6-1
Installation ...............................................................................................................6-2
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................6-4
Overview ..................................................................................................................6-5
Control Circuits ........................................................................................................6-5
User Control Interface and LCD Display Circuits ...................................................6-6
Input Circuits............................................................................................................6-7
Output Circuits.........................................................................................................6-9
DSP Circuit..............................................................................................................6-10
Power Supply .........................................................................................................6-11
ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................................6-11
PARTS LIST.....................................................................................................................6-13
Obtaining Spare Parts ...........................................................................................6-13
Base Board .............................................................................................................6-14
CPU Module ...........................................................................................................6-15
RS-232 Board..........................................................................................................6-17
Power Supply .........................................................................................................6-17
Input/Output (I/O) Board: Main Board.................................................................6-18
Input/Output (I/O) Board: Daughter Board .........................................................6-23
DSP Board...............................................................................................................6-23
Display Board .........................................................................................................6-25
SCHEMATICS AND PARTS LOCATOR DRAWINGS ...................................................................6-26
Function
Chassis
Base Board
CPU Module
RS-232 Board
Description
Drawing
Page
Circuit Board Locator and Basic Interconnections
Glue logic; supports CPU module
and RS-232 daughterboard.
Contains:
System Connections
CPU module interface
Power Supply Monitor
CPLD, General Purpose Interface,
and Remotes
Control microprocessor. Services
front panel, serial port, Ethernet,
DSP board, and control board. Resides on base board.
Contains:
Ethernet
General Purpose Bus
Memory
Miscellaneous Functions
Power and Ground Distribution
Supports Serial Port
Top view
(not to scale)
Parts Locator
Drawing
6-29
6-30
Schematic 1 of 4
Schematic 2 of 4
Schematic 3 of 4
Schematic 4 of 4
6-31
6-32
6-33
6-34
Parts Locator
Drawing
6-35
Schematic 1 of 5
Schematic 2 of 5
Schematic 3 of 5
Schematic 4 of 5
Schematic 5 of 5
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
6-36
6-37
6-38
6-39
6-40
6-41
6-42
Power Supply
±15V analog supply; ±5V analog
supply; +5V digital supply
I/O Board
Analog Input/Output
AES3 Input/Output
Composite Output
SCA Input.
Contains:
L and R Analog Inputs
L and R Analog Outputs
Control and Digital I/O
Interface and Power Distribution
I/O Daughter
Board
DSP Board
Display Board
DSP Block
Diagram
Monitor
Rolloff Filter
Digital Outputs 1 and 2
DSP Chips; Local +3.3V regulator.
Contains:
DSP Extended Serial Audio Interface (ESAI)
DSP Host Interface
DSP Serial Peripheral Interface,
Power, and Ground
ISA Bus 8-bit I/O
Serial Audio Interface and Clock
Generation
Power Distribution
No-Connects
Front-Panel LCD, LEDs, Buttons,
and Rotary Encoder
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 5
Schematic 2 of 5
Schematic 4 of 5
Schematic 5 of 5
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 7
6-44
6-45
6-46
6-47
6-48
6-49
6-50
6-51
6-52
6-53
Schematic 2 of 7
Schematic 3 of 7
6-54
6-55
Schematic 4 of 7
Schematic 5 of 7
6-56
6-57
Schematic 6 of 7
Schematic 7 of 7
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
6-58
6-59
6-60
Schematic 1 of 1
2-7
Shows signal processing
Accessory packaged with 9400
6-43
6-61
6-62
Index
analog output
circuit description 6- · 9
8
compensating for 600 ohm load 2- · 28
8200ST 2- · 14
9
9400 HD 2- · 55
9400 OPTIMOD-AM 1- · 1
A
analog output 2- · 9
antenna system 1- · 19
anti-aliased 3- · 44
archiving presets 3- · 64
artifacts
minimizing codec 3- · 9
asymmetry 1- · 16, 18
attack 3- · 41
attack time controls 3- · 52
audio
connections 2- · 8
output 2- · 10
A/D converter
output, connecting 2- · 9
circuit description 5- · 8
specification 6- · 2
Abbreviations 6- · 11
AC Line Cord Standard 2- · 2
Advanced Modify 3- · 16
AES/EBU I/O 2- · 10
AGC
bass attack control 3- · 41
bass coupling control 3- · 39
Audio Precision 4- · 6
auditing performance 4- · 6
automation
add event 2- · 40
delete event 2- · 42
edit event 2- · 42
automation 2- · 39
automation 3- · 66
bass delta threshold control 3- · 42
bass release control 3- · 41
bass threshold control 3- · 41
B
control list 3- · 37
defeating 3- · 37
drive control 3- · 38
external AGC setup 2- · 13
gate threshold control 3- · 38
idle gain control 3- · 41
master attack control 3- · 41
master delta threshold control 3- · 41
master release control 3- · 38
matrix 3- · 40
Maximum Delta Gain Reduction control 3- ·
40
meter 2- · 12, 2
ratio control 3- · 40
window release control 3- · 40
window size control 3- · 40
analog I/O 1- · 7
analog input
circuit description 6- · 8
ref level, I/O setup 2- · 24
analog landline 1- · 13
backing up presets 3- · 64
balance adjust 2- · 25
balanced
inputs 2- · 9
output, simulates transformer 2- · 9, 3
band coupling 3- · 51
base board
removing 4- · 3
replacing 4- · 5
Basic Modify 3- · 14
Bass CLip Mode 3- · 43
bass clip threshold 3- · 42
bass punch
and the bass clipper 3- · 42
bass threshold 3- · 41
battery
replacing 6- · 6
Beatles 3- · 41
bit depth of internal processing 6- · 1
block diagram 6- · 62
bounce 1- · 15
buttons
escape 2- · 12, 1
Compressor look-ahead
and bass clipper mode 3- · 43
computer
modify 2- · 12, 1
connecting to 2- · 4
next 2- · 12, 1
interface, specifications 6- · 3
previous 2- · 12, 1
troubleshooting connections 5- · 8
RECALL 2- · 12, 1
Windows 2000 5- · 9
Windows XP 5- · 11
setup 2- · 12, 1
soft buttons 2- · 12, 1
computer interface
buzz 5- · 1
bypass
local 1- · 24
PC remote 1- · 25
RS-232 2- · 8
serial 2- · 8
computer interface 1- · 8
connecting
remote interface 1- · 25
test mode 1- · 22
through Win XP direct serial 2- · 64
connection to PC
via GPI 2- · 46
troubleshooting 5- · 7
connectors
audio 2- · 8
C
input and output 2- · 8
cable
shielding 2- · 11
type recommended for analog I/O 2- · 8
contrast 2- · 12, 1
control knob 2- · 12, 1
controls
contrast 2- · 12, 1
chassis
getting inside 4 · 2
ground 2- · 11
circuit board locator drawing 6- · 29
circuit description
control 6- · 5
LCD display 6- · 6
user control interface 6- · 6
circuit description 6- · 4
Classical music 3- · 25
cleaning front panel 4- · 1
clipper
description 3- · 1
corrosion 4- · 1
CPU board
replacing 4- · 5
CPU module
removing 4- · 3
crossfade
balancing loudness during 2- · 39
Crossover frequency 3- · 53
D
bass clip threshold control 3- · 42
clipper shape control 3- · 44
control list 3- · 42
final clip drive control 3- · 44
Clipping
Defined 3- · 3
clock
battery 6- · 6
setting 2- · 39
codec
processing for low bit rate 3- · 9
common-mode rejection 2- · 11
components
obtaining 6- · 13
Compression
Defined 3- · 3
compressor gate 3- · 39
D/A converter
circuit description 6- · 9
specification 6- · 3
De-ess 3- · 51
De-esser 3- · 53
delay
low-delay monitoring 3- · 24, 10
delay 1- · 24
delta release control 3- · 53
digital I/O 1- · 7
digital input
circuit description 6- · 9
digital links 1- · 11
digital output
circuit description 6- · 10
display assembly
Firmware
removing 4 · 2
display board
updating 9400 2- · 81
five-band
parts list 6- · 25
attack time controls 3- · 52
replacing 4 · 5
band coupling controls 3- · 51
distortion
band on/off switch 3- · 52
excessive 5- · 6
band threshold control 3- · 49
specification 6- · 1
delta release control 3- · 53
testing 4- · 10
downward expander thresold control 3- · 50
troubleshooting 5- · 2
HF clipper threshold 3- · 44
high frequency limiter control 3- · 52
dither 2- · 29
DJ Bass control 3- · 34
downward expander 3- · 50
DSP
limiter attack control 3- · 53
multiband drive control 3- · 46
multiband gate threshold control 3- · 49
multiband limit threshold control 3- · 50
block diagram 6- · 62
multiband limiter drive control 3- · 49
circuit description 6- · 10
mutiband release control 3- · 47
DSP board
removing 3- · 4
replacing 4- · 5
dual microwave STLs 1- · 12
dull sound
troubleshooting 5- · 4
output mix controls 3- · 51
five-band 3- · 45
five-band structure
setup controls 3- · 58
frequency response
specification 6- · 1
testing 4- · 9
E
EAS
modulation low 5- · 5
front panel 3- · 1
front panel description 2- · 12
Full Modify 3- · 16
fuse 2- · 7
test tones 1- · 24
easy setup 2- · 16
equalizer
bass shelf 3- · 28
control list 3- · 28
parametric 3- · 30
transmitter 1- · 17
escape button 2- · 12, 1
Ethernet 2- · 47, 54, 62
exit test
via GPI 2- · 46
F
factory presets
selecting 2- · 22
tv 3- · 22
Factory presets
Table of 3- · 24
factory presets 1- · 5
factory service 5- · 14
final clip drive 3- · 44
Firewall 2- · 54, 62
G
gain reduction
meters 2- · 13, 2
Gain Reduction
Maximum Delta 3- · 53
gate
threshold control 3- · 49
gate 3- · 39
gate LED 2- · 13, 2
Gateway 2- · 54, 62
gateway address 2- · 48
getting inside the unit 4 · 2
GPI
programming 2- · 46
specifications 6- · 4
GPI interface
testing 4- · 11
ground
chassis 2- · 11
ground lift switch 2- · 3, 7
grounding
circuit 2- · 11
loss of 4- · 1
power 2- · 11
grounding 2- · 11
grouping 9400s 3- · 66
installation procedure 2- · 1
Instrumental format 3- · 26
Internet
cannot access 5- · 8
IP address 2- · 48
IP port 2- · 48
H
HD preset
importing 3- · 20
HDC codec
J
J.17
and 9400 digital I/O 1- · 7
processing for 3- · 9
and NICAM 1- · 12
headphones
deemphasis applied to digital audio input 6-
low delay monitoring 1- · 10
·3
headphones 1- · 24
High Frequency Enhancer 3- · 35
high frequency limiter
threshold 3- · 44
high frequency limiter 3- · 52
highpass filter
setting 2- · 28
highpass filter 1- · 18
hum 5- · 1
defined 1- · 7
preemphasis applied to digital audio output
6- · 3
Jazz format 3- · 26
L
LEDs
gate 2- · 13, 2
level
I
metering 1- · 21
setup 2- · 20
I/O
AES/EBU 2- · 10
connections 2- · 3
I/O board
replacing 4- · 5
IC opamps
troubleshooting 5- · 13
idle gain 3- · 41
importing HD preset 3- · 20
input
analog, specifications 6- · 2
digital, specifications 6- · 3
meters 2- · 12, 2
input level
line-up 1- · 21
maximum 2- · 9
input meters 1- · 22
input select
via GPI 2- · 46
input selector
I/O setup 2- · 23
input/output board
removing 4- · 3
inspection of package contents 2- · 1
transmission 1- · 21
limiter
attack 3- · 53
Limiting
Defined 3- · 3
line voltage 2- · 2
line-up tones
system will not pass at 100% modulation 5- ·
5
line-up tones 1- · 22
LLHard mode 3- · 43
location 1- · 8
location of 9400
optimum · 10
lock
driven equipment cannot lock to 9400 output
5- · 5
lockout
immediate 2- · 44
programming local 2- · 44
unlocking front panel 2- · 45
Lookahead
Multiband Control 3- · 53
Look-ahead limiting
Defined 3- · 3
lossy data reduction
in studio 1- · 19
NICAM 1- · 12
used in STLs · 11
loudness
Monitor Rolloff Filter 1- · 23
monitor rolloff filter 2- · 5
multiband drive 3- · 46
multiband limit threshold 3- · 50
multiband llimiter drive 3- · 49
balancing AM and HD channel 2- · 39
insufficient 5- · 6
N
insufficient due to poor peak control 5- · 1
loudness/distortion tradeoff 3- · 44
lowpass filter
setting 2- · 26
lowpass filter 1- · 18
L–R will not null 5- · 5
M
MAC address 5- · 8
main board
reattaching 4 · 5
master delta threshold 3- · 41
matrix, AGC 3- · 40
measuring performance 4- · 6
meter
circuit description 6- · 7
gain reduction 3- · 17
meters
NAB Broadcast and Audio System Test CD
4- · 6
network
timeserver 2- · 55
networking 2- · 47
News format 3- · 27
NEXT button 2- · 12, 1
NICAM 1- · 12
noise
troubleshooting 5- · 3
NRSC standard 1- · 26
null modem cable
communicating through 2- · 59
null modem cable 2- · 52
O
output
AGC 2- · 12, 2
analog output level trim adjustment 4- · 9
circuit description 6- · 6
analog, connecting 2- · 9
gain reduction 2- · 13, 2
analog, specifications 6- · 2
input 2- · 12, 2
compensating for 600 ohm load 2- · 28
studio 1- · 20
digital, setting dither 2- · 29
Microsoft
digital, setting sample rate 2- · 29
WMA codec 3- · 10
digital, setting sync 2- · 29
modem
digital, setting word length · 29
preparing for connection 2- · 69
recommended baud rate 2- · 70
digital, specifications 6- · 3
output level
setting up 2- · 49
I/O setup 2- · 28, 30
specification for 2- · 52
Windows 2000 configuration 2- · 69
Windows XP configuration 2- · 75
modify button 2- · 12, 1
modulation control
quick setup 2- · 21
output mix controls 3- · 51
overshoot
in transmitter 1- · 14
overshoot
troubleshooting poor 5- · 1
modulation monitor
excessive 5- · 1
Overshoot Compensation Drive 3- · 45
accuracy of 3- · 12
monitor
low-delay 3- · 24, 10
P
monitor mute
via GPI 2- · 47
monitor rolloff filter · 11
parts
obtaining 6- · 13
parts list
pre-emphasis
base board 6- · 14
CPU module 6- · 15
quick setup 2- · 18, 26
preset
display board 6- · 25
DSP board 6- · 23
restoring archived 3- · 65
presets
I/O board 6- · 18, 23
backup 3- · 64
power supply 6- · 17
customizing 3- · 14
RS-232 board 6- · 17
factory 1- · 5
parts list 6- · 13
passcode
factory programming 3- · 18
saving user 3- · 6, 17
and dial-up networking 2- · 45
sharing between 9400s 3- · 66, 69
creating 2- · 43
deleting 2- · 44
user presets 1- · 6
Presets
editing 2- · 43
Gregg 3- · 25
programming 2- · 42
Impact 3- · 26
recovering from lost 2- · 45
Instrumental 3- · 26
PC
Jazz 3- · 26
Orban installer program 2- · 53
Loud 3- · 26
PC board locator diagram 6- · 29
PC control
News-Talk 3- · 27
Rock 3- · 27
Sports 3- · 27
security 1- · 25
Table of factory 3- · 24
PC hardware requirements 2- · 52
PC Remote
aliases 3- · 67
moving alias folders 3- · 68
Urban 3- · 28
PREVIOUS button 2- · 12, 1
processing
block diagram 6- · 62
multiple coexisting versions 3- · 67
upgrading versions 3- · 67
PC Remote Software 3- · 61
peak control criteria 1- · 8
performance
measuring 4- · 6
phase-linear
system group delay spec · 9
Port
Proof of Performance 1- · 3
Proof of Performance 3- · 22, 54
PuTTY 2- · 50
Q
quick setup 2- · 16
Terminal 2- · 50
port, IP 2- · 48
Ports 2- · 54, 62
positive peak threshold 1- · 18
positive peaks
cannot achieve desired 5- · 2
positive peaks 1- · 16
power
cord 2- · 2, 7
power 2- · 2
power supply
circuit description 6- · 11
parts list 6- · 17
testing 4- · 8
transmitter 1- · 15
power supply board
reattaching 4 · 4
removing 4 · 4
R
rack-mounting unit 2- · 3
radio
reference for processor adjustment 3- · 11
ratio
AGC 3- · 40
rear panel 2- · 7
RECALL button 2- · 12, 1
registration card 2- · 1
release
fast 3- · 48
medium-fast 3- · 48
medium-slow 3- · 48
slow 3- · 47
remote
PC Remote software 3- · 61
remote control
bypass 1- · 25
connecting 2- · 3
GPI, specifications 6- · 4
wiring 2- · 4
remote control 2- · 8
remote interface
functions controllable by 2- · 46
GPI 1- · 8
programming GPI 2- · 46
testing 4- · 11
wiring 2- · 4
remote interface connector 2- · 8
resolution
specification 6- · 1
RFI 5- · 1
right channel balance
I/O setup 2- · 25
RJ45 jack 2- · 48
Rock format 3- · 27
routine maintenance 4- · 1
RS232
testing 4- · 11
RS232 board
replacing 4- · 5
RS-232 connector 2- · 8
RS-232 interface
circuit description 6- · 6
removing board 4- · 2
serial connector 2- · 8
service 5- · 14
Set clock
via GPI 2- · 47
setup
I/O 2- · 23
quick 2- · 16
setup button 2- · 12, 1
shipping instructions 5- · 14
shrill sound
troubleshooting 5- · 4
signal flow diagram 6- · 62
soft buttons 2- · 12, 1
Software
updating 9400 2- · 81
software updates 1- · 4
Sound Technology 4- · 6
spare parts
obtaining 6- · 13
specifications 6- · 1
spectrum analyzer 4- · 6
Speech/music detector 3- · 43, 53
sports 3- · 48
Sports format 3- · 27
Stanford Research Systems 4- · 6
station ID
setting 2- · 23
Stereo Enhancer
Amount 3- · 36
Depth 3- · 37
Diffusion 3- · 37
S
In/Out 3- · 36
Ratio Limit 3- · 37
sample rate
at digital output 6- · 3
internal, specification 6- · 1
setting output 2- · 20
sample rate converter
testing 4- · 10
saving user presets 3- · 6, 17
screen display 2- · 12, 1
screens
System Setup 2- · 16
Security
lock immediately 2- · 44
security 1- · 25
security 2- · 42
Serial Communications
setting up 2- · 59
serial connection
setting up direct 2- · 49
Style 3- · 37
stereo enhancer 3- · 36
stereo.mono switch
via GPI 2- · 46
STL
compatibility with 32 kHz sample rate 2- · 10
overshoot in uncomressed digital 2- · 10
systems 1- · 11
studio chassis mode 2- · 19
studio-transmitter link 1- · 11
subassembly removal and replacement 4- ·
2
subnet mask 2- · 48
switches
ground lift 2- · 3, 7
voltage select 2- · 2, 7
system setup
quick setup 2- · 16
creating 3- · 6, 15, 17
System Setup screen 2- · 16
user presets 1- · 6
T
V
talk 3- · 48
Talk format 3- · 27
TCP/IP
voltage select switch 2- · 2, 7
volume
balancing AM and HD channel 2- · 39
setting parameters 2- · 47
technical support 5- · 28, 14
telephone support 5- · 28, 14
Terminal Port 2- · 50
test modes 3- · 22, 54
threshold control 3- · 49
tilt 1- · 15
time & date 2- · 17
timeserver 2- · 55
Timeservers
VPN, setting up 2- · 54, 62
W
warranty 1- · 28
Warranty 1- · 28
warranty 6- · 4
window
release control 3- · 40
Table of 2- · 55
tone
window size control 3- · 40
Windows
activate via GPI 2- · 46
top cover
installing services 2- · 52
Windows 2000
reattaching 4 · 5
adding direct serial connection 2- · 60, 64,
removing 4 · 2
70, 77
transmission preset
Direct Connect 5- · 9
recall via GPI 2- · 47
direct serial connection 2- · 59
transmitter
modem connect 5- · 10
pre-1965 1- · 16
transmitter equalizer 1- · 17
transmitter overshoot 1- · 14
troubleshooting
modem connection 2- · 69
Windows XP
direct connect 5- · 11
modem configuration 2- · 75
modem connect 5- · 12
installation 5- · 1
tv presets 3- · 22
WMA codec 3- · 10
word length
at output, specification 6- · 3
U
setting output 2- · 29
unlock front panel 2- · 45
unpacking 2- · 1
Updating software 2- · 81
Urban format 3- · 28
user presets
archiving 3- · 18
X
XLR connector
wiring standard 2- · 10
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
Section 1
Introduction
About this Manual
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This manual has a table of contents and index. To search for a specific word or
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The OPTIMOD-AM 9400 Digital Audio Processor
Orban's all-digital 9400 OPTIMOD-AM Audio Processor can help you achieve the
highest possible quality in AM shortwave, medium wave and long wave broadcast
sound. OPTIMOD-AM delivers louder, cleaner, brighter, FM-like audio with an open,
fatigue-free quality that attracts listeners and holds them. Because all processing is
performed by high-speed mathematical calculations within Motorola DSP56362 digital signal processing chips, the processing has cleanliness, quality, and stability over
time and temperature that is unmatched by analog processors.
The 9400 supports iBiquity’s HD AM® in-band on-channel digital radio system. The
digital radio processing can also be used for simulcast netcasts or DRM digital broadcasts. In this manual, the processing for these applications will be referred to as “HD
AM” processing, even though HD AM is only one application.
OPTIMOD-AM 9400 is descended from the industry-standard 9100 and 9200
OPTIMOD-AM audio processors. Thousands of these processors are on the air all
over the world. They have proven that the “OPTIMOD sound” attracts and keeps an
audience even in the most competitive commercial environment.
Because OPTIMOD-AM incorporates several audio processing innovations
exclusive to Orban products, you should not assume that it can be operated
in the same way as less sophisticated processors. If you do, you may get
disappointing results.
1-1
1-2
INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Take a little time now to familiarize yourself with OPTIMOD-AM. A small investment
of your time now will yield large dividends in audio quality.
OPTIMOD-AM was designed to deliver a high-quality FM-like sound to the listener's
ear by pre-processing for the limitations of the average car or table radio (while
avoiding audible side effects and compromises in loudness or coverage). Because
such processing can make audible many defects ordinarily lost in the usual sea of
AM mud, it is very important that the source audio be as clean as possible. Orban's
publication Maintaining Audio Quality in the Broadcast Facility (available in .pdf
form from ftp.orban.com) contains valuable information and specific suggestions for
improving the quality of your audio.
The rest of Section 1 explains how OPTIMOD-AM fits into the AM broadcast facility.
Section 2 explains how to install it and set it up. Section 3 tells how to operate
OPTIMOD-AM. Sections 4 through 6 provide reference information.
For best results, feed OPTIMOD-AM unprocessed audio. No other audio processing is
necessary or desirable.
If you wish to place level protection prior to your studio / transmitter link (STL), use
an Orban studio level control system expressly designed for this purpose. (At the
time of this writing, this is the Orban 8200ST OPTIMOD-Studio Compressor/limiter /
HF Limiter / Clipper.) The 8200ST can be adjusted so that it substitutes for the broadband AGC circuitry in OPTIMOD-AM, which is then defeated.
Making the Most of the AM Channel

The 9400 is suitable for long wave, medium wave, and shortwave (HF)
broadcasts.

OPTIMOD-AM rides gain over an adjustable range of up to 25dB, compressing
dynamic range and compensating for operator gain-riding errors and for gain inconsistencies in automated systems.

OPTIMOD-AM increases the density and loudness of the program material by multiband limiting and multiband distortion-canceling clipping, improving the consistency of the station's sound and increasing loudness and definition
without producing audible side effects.

OPTIMOD-AM precisely controls peak levels to prevent overmodulation.
Asymmetry in the analog processing channel is adjustable from 100% to 150%
positive peak modulation.

OPTIMOD-AM compensates for the high- and low-frequency rolloffs of
typical AM receivers with a fully adjustable program equalizer providing up to
20dB of high-frequency boost (at 5 kHz) without producing the side effects encountered in conventional processors. This equalizer can thus produce extreme
pre-emphasis that is appropriate for very narrow-band radios. OPTIMOD-AM's
fully parametric low- and mid-frequency equalizers allow you to tailor your air
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
sound to your precise requirements and desires. OPTIMOD-AM also fully supports
the NRSC standard pre-emphasis curve.

OPTIMOD-AM is a stereo processor that fully protects CQUAM® transmissions,
conservatively complying with Motorola’s processing requirements that negative
peak modulation on the left and right channels be limited to –75% modulation.

OPTIMOD-AM supports the iBiquity HD Radio® system. Except for common
stereo enhancement and AGC, the HD AM processor is an independent processing chain with its own set of user-adjustable parameters, maintaining 15 kHz audio bandwidth (per iBiquity’s specifications) regardless of the bandwidth setting
of the processing intended for the analog channel. To ensure source-to-source
consistency, the digital radio processing includes full five-band compression/limiting that is independent of the five-band compression/limiting in the
analog processing chain. This output can also be used for netcasts.

Orban’s PreCode™ technology manipulates several aspects of the audio to
minimize artifacts caused by low bitrate codecs, ensuring consistent loudness and
texture from one source to the next. There are several HD factory presets tuned
specifically for low bitrate codecs. These presets have “LBR” in their names.
Controllable and Adjustable

The 9400 comes with a wide variety of factory presets to accommodate almost any user requirement. The user can readily modify these presets. Modified
presets can be stored and recalled on command. Advanced Control (accessible
from the PC Remote application) facilitates detailed sound design using the
same controls that were available to the factory programmers.

An LCD and full-time LED meters make setup, adjustment and programming
of OPTIMOD-AM easy — you can always see the metering while you’re adjusting
the processor. Navigation is by dedicated buttons, soft buttons (whose functions
are context-sensitive), and a large rotary knob. The LEDs show all metering functions.

OPTIMOD-AM contains a versatile real-time clock, which allows automation of
various events (including recalling presets) at pre-programmed times.

A Bypass Test Mode can be invoked locally, by remote control (from either the
9400’s GPI port or the 9400 PC Remote application), or by automation to permit
broadcast system test and alignment or “proof of performance” tests.

OPTIMOD-AM contains a built-in line-up tone generator, facilitating quick
and accurate level setting in any system.

OPTIMOD-AM's software can be upgraded by running Orban-supplied
downloadable upgrade software on a PC. The upgrade can occur remotely
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
through the 9400’s Ethernet port or serial port (connected to an external modem), or locally (by connecting a Windows® computer to the 9400’s serial port
through the supplied null modem cable).

The 9400 can be remote-controlled by 5-12V pulses applied to eight programmable, optically isolated “general-purpose interface” (GPI) ports.

9400 PC Remote software runs under Windows 2000 and XP. It communicates
with a given 9400 via TCP/IP over modem, direct serial, and Ethernet connections. You can configure PC Remote to switch between many 9400s via a convenient organizer that supports giving any 9400 an alias and grouping multiple
9400s into folders. Clicking a 9400’s icon causes PC Remote to connect to that
9400 through an Ethernet network, or initiates a Windows Dial-Up or Direct Cable Connection if appropriate. The PC Remote software allows the user to access
all 9400 features (including advanced controls not available from the 9400’s
front panel), and allows the user to archive and restore presets, automation lists,
and system setups (containing I/O levels, digital word lengths, GPI functional assignments, etc.).
Versatile Installation

The 9400 controls the transmitted bandwidth of the analog channel to
meet government regulations, regardless of program material or equalization. The high-frequency bandwidth of the analog processing channel can be
switched instantly in 500Hz increments between 4.5 kHz and 9.5 kHz (NRSC). The
lower cutoff frequencies meet the output power spectral density requirements
of ITU-R 328-5 without further low-pass filtering at the transmitter, while the 9.5
kHz filter meets the requirements of the NRSC-1 standard (North America). The
5.0 kHz filter makes the analog AM bandwidth compatible with HD AM transmission. The lowpass filters have parametric cutoff shapes, allowing you to trade
off filter ringing against frequency response flatness.

OPTIMOD-AM compensates for inaccuracies in the pulse response (tilt,
overshoot, ringing) of transmitters and antenna systems with a powerful
four-parameter transmitter equalizer. A built-in square-wave generator makes
adjustment easy. Four sets of equalizer parameters can be stored and recalled, allowing you to program day and night variations for two transmitters. You can set
equalization independently in the stereo sum and difference channels, facilitating adjustment in CQUAM AM stereo facilities.

The 9400 includes analog and AES3 digital inputs.

The analog inputs are transformerless, balanced 10k instrumentationamplifier circuits. The analog outputs are transformerless balanced, and floating (with 50 impedance) to ensure highest transparency and accurate pulse response.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION

Two sets of analog stereo outputs and two AES3 outputs accommodate as
many as four transmitters. Outputs can be switched independently to emit the
analog-channel signal, the digital-channel signal, or a low-delay monitor
signal suitable for talent headphones.

Both the digital input and the two digital outputs are equipped with samplerate converters and can operate at 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48, 88.2, and 96 kHz sample rates. The output levels are separately adjustable for the analog and digital outputs.

OPTIMOD-AM is usually installed at the transmitter, replacing all processing
normally employed at the transmitter site, including compressor, protection peak
limiters, clippers, and high- and low-pass filters normally included within the
transmitter. It can also be installed at the studio if an uncompressed digital
STL is available.

OPTIMOD-AM comes with a passive Monitor Rolloff Filter to accurately simulate the frequency response of an average receiver, for use in studio monitoring.

All input, output, and power connections are rigorously RFI-suppressed to
Orban’s traditional exacting standards, ensuring trouble-free installation.

The 9400 is designed and certified to meet all applicable international
safety and emissions standards.
Presets in OPTIMOD-AM
There are two distinct kinds of presets in OPTIMOD-AM: factory presets and user
presets.
Factory Presets
The Factory Presets are our “factory recommended settings” for various program
formats or types. The description indicates the processing structure and the type of
processing. Internally, each Factory Preset that appears on the Preset list is a library
of more than 20 separate sub-presets, one of which is the default when you recall
the Factory Preset via the RECALL button or from PC Remote. To access the remaining sub-presets in a given Factory Preset, navigate to MODIFY PROCESSING > LESSMORE and use the AM or HD LESS-MORE control to adjust OPTIMOD-AM for less or
more AM or HD processing. The Factory Presets are listed and described starting on
page 3-18.
Factory Presets are stored in OPTIMOD-AM’s non-volatile memory and cannot be
erased. You can change the settings of a Factory Preset, but you must then store
those settings as a User Preset, which you are free to name as you wish. The Factory
Preset remains unchanged.
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
There are two sets of presets: one for the analog AM processing and one for the
digital radio processing (HD). The preset for the analog AM processing is the master
preset. In addition to parameters specific to the AM analog processing, it contains
the AGC and stereo enhancer parameters, which are common to both the AM analog and digital radio processing chains. Additionally, it points to an associated HD
preset, which contains only the parameters exclusive to the digital radio processing
chain.
User Presets
User Presets permit you to change a Factory Preset to suit your requirements and
then store those changes.
You can store more than 100 User Presets, limited only by available memory in your
9400 (which will vary depending on the version of your 9400’s software). You can
give your preset a name up to 18 characters long.
User Presets cannot be created from scratch. You must always start by recalling a
Factory Preset. Make the changes, and then store your modified preset as a User
Preset. You can also recall a previously created user preset, modify it, and save it
again, either overwriting the old version or saving under a new name. In all cases,
the original Factory Preset remains for you to return to if you wish.
Unlike Factory Presets, User Presets contain parameters for both the AM analog and
digital radio (“HD”) processing. A preset, whether Factory or User, can be edited in
two ways to create a new User Preset. First, you can adjust any individual parameter
in both the AM analog or HD sections of the preset. Second, you can bulk-import all
of the HD parameters contained in any User Preset or Factory HD Preset.
When you edit a preset by bulk-importing HD parameters like this, they will overwrite the existing HD parameters in your edited preset, including any that you have
might have adjusted before you imported. HD parameters only include controls in
the HD processing chain after it splits from the AM processing chain, so bulkimporting HD parameters will not change the AGC and Stereo Enhancer settings.
After importing the HD parameters, you are still free to adjust any individual AM or
HD parameter. When you are satisfied with your work, you can then save this combination of AM and HD parameters as a new User Preset. Of course, you can then
use your new User Preset as a source for HD parameters to be imported into any
other User Presets you may wish to create or edit. For example, you could have six
User Presets with identical HD processing parameters but with different AM analog
processing parameters. The HD bulk import feature makes it easy to implement this
scenario.
User Presets are stored in non-volatile memory that does not require battery
backup. To Create or Save a User Preset on page 3-17 has more about User Presets.
Instructions for importing an HD preset are on page 3-20.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
Input/Output Configuration
OPTIMOD-AM simultaneously accommodates:

Digital AES3 left/right inputs and outputs.

Analog left/right inputs and outputs.
Digital AES3 Left/Right Input/Outputs
The digital inputs and outputs conform to the professional AES3 standard. They
both have sample rate converters to allow operation at 32, 44.1, 48, 88.2, and 96
kHz sample frequency.
The left/right digital input is on one XLR-type female connector on the rear panel;
the left/right digital outputs are on two XLR-type male connectors on the rear panel.
OPTIMOD-AM provides digital and analog inputs and outputs. You select whether
OPTIMOD-AM uses the digital or analog input either locally or by remote interface.
If OPTIMOD-AM is set to accept a digital input and the feed fails, OPTIMOD-AM will
automatically switch back to the analog input.
If you are operating in mono, the 9400 can receive the signal from the left, right, or
sum of the left and right channels of either the analog or digital inputs. The 9400
can simultaneously process for HD AM in stereo while processing for the analog
channel in mono.
Level control of the AES3 input is accomplished via software control through System
Setup (see step 6 on page 2-26) or through PC Remote.
Both analog and digital outputs are active continuously.
The 9400’s output sample rate can be locked either to the 9400’s internal crystal
clock or to the sample rate present at its AES3 input.
The 9400 can apply J.17 de-emphasis to signals applied to its digital input and J.17
pre-emphasis to the processed signal emitted from its digital output. J.17 is a 6
dB/octave shelving pre-emphasis / de-emphasis standard with break points at 400 Hz
and 4 kHz. It is mainly used in older studio / transmitter links that use NICAM technology. The 9400’s provisions for J.17 make it fully compatible with systems using
this standard.
Analog Left/Right Input/Outputs
The left and right analog inputs are on XLR-type female connectors on the rear
panel. Input impedance is greater than 10k; balanced and floating. Inputs can accommodate up to +27dBu (0dBu = 0.775Vrms).
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
The two left and right analog output pairs are on XLR-type male connectors on the
rear panel. Output impedance is 50; balanced and floating. The outputs can drive
600 or higher impedances, balanced or unbalanced. The peak output level is adjustable from –6dBu to +20dBu.
Level control of the analog inputs and outputs is accomplished via software control
through System Setup (see step 4 on page 2-24 and step 10 on page 2-30) or
through PC Remote.
Remote Control Interface
The Remote Control Interface is a set of eight optically isolated GPI inputs on a DB25 connector, which can be activated by 5-12V DC. They can control various functions of the 9400. See page 2-46 for a list of functions and information on programming the remote control interface.
Computer Interface
On the rear panel of the 9400 are an RS-232 serial port and an Ethernet port for interfacing to IBM-compatible PCs. These computer interfaces support remote control
and metering, and allow downloading software upgrades.
Each 9400 package ships with 9400 PC Remote software, an application for any IBMcompatible PC running Microsoft Windows 2000 (Service Pack 3) or XP. 9400 PC Remote permits you to adjust any 9400 preset by remote control or to do virtually anything else that you can do from the 9400’s front panel controls. The program displays all of the 9400’s LCD meters on the computer screen to aid remote adjustment.
RS-232 Serial Port
9400 PC Remote can communicate at up to 115 kbps via modem or direct connection
between the computer and the 9400 through their RS-232 serial ports.
RJ45 Ethernet Connector
The 9400 can be connected to any Ethernet network that supports the TCP/IP protocol.
See Networking and Remote Control on page 2-47 for more information.
Location of OPTIMOD-AM
Optimal Control of Peak Modulation Levels
The analog AM audio processing circuitry in OPTIMOD-AM produces a waveform
that is precisely peak-controlled to prevent overmodulation, and is lowpass filtered
to protect adjacent channels and to conform to government regulations. Severe
changes in the shape of the waveform can be caused by passing it through a circuit
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
with non-constant group delay and/or non-flat frequency response in the 30-9500Hz
range. Deviation from flatness and phase-linearity will cause spurious modulation
peaks because the shape of the peak-limited waveform is changed. Such peaks add
nothing to average modulation. Thus, the average modulation must be lowered to
accommodate those peaks so that they do not overmodulate. Transformers can
cause such problems.
Landline equalizers, transformers, and low-pass filters in transmitters typically introduce frequency response errors and non-constant group delay. There are three criteria for preservation of peak levels through the audio system:
1) The system group delay must be essentially constant throughout the frequency
range containing significant energy (30-9,500Hz). If low-pass filters are present,
this may require the use of delay equalization. The deviation from linear-phase
must not exceed 1 from 30-9,500Hz.
2) The low-frequency 3 dB point of the system must be placed at 0.15Hz or lower
(this is not a misprint!). This is necessary to ensure less than 1% overshoot in a
50Hz square wave and essentially constant group delay to 30Hz.
3) Any pre-emphasis used in the audio transmission system prior to the transmitter
(such as in an STL) must be canceled by a precisely complementary de-emphasis:
Every pole and zero in the pre-emphasis filter must be complemented by a zero
and pole of identical complex frequency in the de-emphasis network. An all-pole
de-emphasis network (like the classic series resistor feeding a grounded capacitor) is not appropriate.
In this example, the network could be fixed by adding a second resistor between
ground and the capacitor, which would introduce a zero.
Low-pass filters (including anti-aliasing filters in digital links), high-pass filters, transformers, distribution amplifiers, and long transmission lines can all cause the above
criteria to be violated, and must be tested and qualified. It is clear that the above
criteria for optimal control of peak modulation levels are met most easily when the
audio processor directly feeds the transmitter. While OPTIMOD-AM’s transmitter
equalizer can mitigate the effects of group delay and frequency response errors in
the signal path, an accurate path will still achieve the best results.
The output of the digital radio-processing path is also precisely peak-controlled at
the 9400’s output. However, the HDC codec used in the HD AM system and the
aacPlus codec used in the DRM system, like all low bitrate lossy codecs, introduce
considerable overshoots as a side effect of throwing away data. When you adjust
the drive level into the codec, it is wise to monitor the output of a radio or modulation monitor and to reduce the drive level to the codec until you no longer see clipping.
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Best Location for OPTIMOD-AM
The best location for OPTIMOD-AM is as close as possible to the transmitter so that
its output can be connected to the transmitter through a circuit path that introduces
the least possible change in the shape of OPTIMOD-AM’s carefully peak-limited
waveform. This connection could be short lengths of shielded cable (for transmitters
with analog inputs) or a direct AES3 connection (if the transmitter has a digital input
available). If this is impossible, the next best arrangement is to feed the 9400’s AES3
digital output through an all-digital, uncompressed path to the transmitter's exciter.
If the programming agency’s jurisdiction ends at the link connecting the audio facility to the transmitter, a variety of problems can occur downstream. (The link might
be telephone / post lines, analog microwave radio, or various types of digital paths.)
The link, the transmitter peak limiters, or the transmitter itself can all introduce artifacts that a studio-located audio processor cannot control.
If the transmitter is not accessible:
All audio processing must be done at the studio and you must tolerate any damage
that occurs later. If an uncompressed AES3 digital link is available to the transmitter,
this is an excellent, accurate means of transmission. However, if the digital link employs lossy compression, it will disturb peak levels by up to 4 dB. Lossy compression is
also inappropriate for another reason: it cannot accommodate pre-emphasized audio (like OPTIMOD-AM‘s output) without introducing serious artifacts.
Unlike FM, where the transmitter usually can be set up to provide preemphasis, AM transmitters are universally “flat.” Therefore, unlike FM,
there is no option when using lossy compression to de-emphasize at the
output of OPTIMOD-AM and then to restore the pre-emphasis at the
transmitter. The best one can do is to use NRSC pre-emphasis, apply NRSC
de-emphasis before the lossy link’s input, and then re-apply NRSC preemphasis at the link’s output.
If only an audio link is available, use the 9400’s left and right audio outputs and feed
the audio directly into the link. If possible, request that any transmitter protection
limiters be adjusted for minimum possible action — OPTIMOD-AM does most of that
work. Transmitter protection limiters should respond only to signals caused by faults
or by spurious peaks introduced by imperfections in the link. To ensure maximum
quality, all equipment in the signal path after the studio should be carefully aligned
and qualified to meet the appropriate standards for bandwidth, distortion, group
delay and gain stability, and such equipment should be re-qualified at reasonable
intervals. (See Optimal Control of Peak Modulation Levels on page 1-8).
If the transmitter is accessible:
You can achieve the most accurate control of modulation peaks by locating
OPTIMOD-AM at the transmitter site or by connecting it to the transmitter through
an uncompressed digital STL.
Because OPTIMOD-AM controls peaks, it is irrelevant whether the audio link feeding
OPTIMOD-AM’s input terminals is phase-linear. However, the link should have low
noise, the flattest possible frequency response from 30-9,500, and low nonlinear distortion.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
Studio-Transmitter Link
Transmission from Studio to Transmitter
There are several types of studio-transmitter links (STLs) in common use in broadcast
service: uncompressed digital, digital with lossy compression (like MPEG, Dolby®, or
APT-x®), microwave, analog landline (telephone / post line), and audio subcarrier on
a video microwave STL.
STLs in AM service are used in two fundamentally different ways. They can either:

pass unprocessed audio for application to the 9400’s input, or

pass the 9400’s peak-controlled analog or digital left and right audio outputs for
application to the transmitter.
These applications have different performance requirements. In general, a link that
passes unprocessed audio should have very low noise and low nonlinear distortion,
but its transient response is not important. A link that passes processed audio does
not need as low a noise floor as a link passing unprocessed audio. However, its transient response is critical. At the current state of the art, an uncompressed digital link
using digital inputs and outputs to pass audio in left/right format achieves best results. We will elaborate below.
Digital Links
Digital links may pass audio as straightforward PCM encoding or they may apply
lossy data reduction processing to the signal to reduce the number of bits per second required for transmission through the digital link. Such processing will almost
invariably distort peak levels; such links must therefore be carefully qualified before
you use them to carry the peak-controlled output of the 9400 to the transmitter. For
any lossy compression system the higher the data rate, the less the peak levels will
be corrupted by added noise, so use the highest data rate practical in your system.
As stated above, links using lossy data reduction cannot pass an OPTIMOD-AM–
processed signal. However, it is practical (though not ideal) to use lossy data reduction to pass unprocessed audio to the 9400’s input. The data rate should be at least
of “contribution quality” — the higher, the better. If any part of the studio chain is
analog, we recommend using at least 20-bit A/D conversion before encoding. Because the 9400 uses multiband limiting, it can dynamically change the frequency response of the channel. This can violate the psychoacoustic masking assumptions
made in designing the lossy data reduction algorithm. Therefore, you need to leave
“headroom” in the algorithm so that the 9400’s multiband processing will not unmask quantization noise. This is also true of any lossy data reduction applied in the
studio (such as hard disk digital delivery systems).
For MPEG Layer 2 encoding, we recommend 384 kB/second or higher.
Some links may use straightforward PCM (pulse-code modulation) without lossy
data reduction. If you connect to these through an AES3 digital interface, these can
be very transparent if they do not truncate the digital words produced by the de-
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
vices driving their inputs. Because the 9400’s AM analog-processed output is tightly
band-limited to 9.5 kHz or below and its digital radio output is tightly band-limited
to 15 kHz, any link with 32 kHz or higher sample frequency can pass either output
without additional overshoot.
Currently available sample rate converters use phase-linear filters (which have constant group delay at all frequencies). Sample rate conversion, whether upward or
downward, will not add overshoot to the signal if it does not remove spectral energy from the original signal.
If the link does not have an AES3 input, you must drive its analog input from the
9400’s analog output. This is less desirable because the link’s analog input circuitry
may not meet all requirements for passing processed audio without overshoot.
NICAM is a sort of hybrid between PCM and lossy data reduction systems. It uses a
block-companded floating-point representation of the signal with J.17 preemphasis.
Older technology converters (including some older NICAM encoders) may exhibit
quantization distortion unless they have been correctly dithered. Additionally, they
can exhibit rapid changes in group delay around cutoff because their analog filters
are ordinarily not group-delay equalized. The installing engineer should be aware of
all of these potential problems when designing a transmission system.
Any problems can be minimized by always driving a digital STL with an AES3 digital
output, which will provide the most accurate interface to the STL. The 9400’s digital
input and output accommodate sample rates of 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz,
and 96 kHz.
Dual Microwave STLs
Dual microwaves STLs use two separate transmitters and receivers to pass the left
and right channels in discrete form. Dual microwave STLs offer greater noise immunity than composite microwave STLs. However, problems include gain- and phasematching of the left and right channels, overloads induced by pre-emphasis, and requirements that the audio applied to the microwave transmitters be processed to
prevent overmodulation of the microwave system.
Lack of transparency in the path will cause overshoot. Unless carefully designed,
dual microwave STLs can introduce non-constant group delay in the audio spectrum,
distorting peak levels when used to pass processed audio. Nevertheless, in a system
using a microwave STL, the 9400 is sometimes located at the studio and any overshoots induced by the link are tolerated or removed by the transmitter’s protection
limiter (if any).
The 9400 can only be located at the transmitter if the signal-to-noise ratio of the STL
is good enough to pass unprocessed audio. The signal-to-noise ratio of the STL can
be used optimally if an Orban Optimod-PC 1101, Optimod 6300, 8200ST Compressor
/ Limiter / HF Limiter / Clipper or an 4000 Transmission Limiter protects the link from
overload. Of these, the 1101 and 6300 are currently manufactured as of this writing
and are the preferred choices because their AGCs are identical to the AGC in the
9400.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
If the 9400 is located at the transmitter and fed unprocessed audio from a microwave STL, it may be useful to use a companding-type noise reduction system (like
dbx Type 2 or Dolby SR) around the link. This will minimize any audible noise
buildup caused by compression within the 9400.
Some microwave links can be modified such that the deviation from linear phase is
less than +10 from 20 Hz to 9.5 kHz and frequency response is less than 3 dB down
at 0.15Hz and less than 0.1 dB down at 20 kHz. This specification results in less than
1% overshoot with processed audio. Many such links have been designed to be easily configured at the factory for composite operation, where an entire FM stereo
baseband is passed. The requirements for maintaining stereo separation in composite operation are similar to the requirements for high waveform fidelity with low
overshoot. Therefore, most links have the potential for excellent waveform fidelity
if they are configured for composite operation.
Nevertheless, in a dual-microwave system, the 9400 is usually located at the main
AM transmitter and is driven by the microwave receivers. One of Orban’s studio level
control systems, such as the 8200ST, protects the microwave transmitters at the studio from overload. These units also perform the gain riding function ordinarily executed by the AGC section of the 9400’s processing and they optimize the signal-tonoise ratio obtainable from the dual-microwave link.
If the STL microwave uses pre-emphasis, its input pre-emphasis filter will probably
introduce overshoots that will increase peak modulation without any increases in
average modulation. If the studio level control system is capable of producing a preemphasized output, we strongly recommend that the microwave STL’s pre-emphasis
be defeated and pre-emphasis performed in the studio level control system. This
frees the system from potential overshoot. (The Orban 8200ST can be readily configured to produce a pre-emphasized output.)
Further, it is common for a microwave STL to bounce because of a large infrasonic
peak in its frequency response caused by an under-damped automatic frequency
control (AFC) phase-locked loop. This bounce can increase the STL’s peak carrier deviation by as much as 2dB, reducing average modulation. Many commercial STLs
have this problem.
Analog Landline (PTT / Post Office Line)
Analog landline quality is extremely variable, ranging from excellent to poor.
Whether landlines should be used or not depends upon the quality of the lines locally available and upon the availability of other alternatives. Due to line equalizer
characteristics and phase shifts, even the best landlines tend to veil audio quality
slightly. Moreover, slight frequency response irregularities and non-constant group
delay characteristics will alter the peak-to-average ratio, and will thus reduce the effectiveness of any peak limiting performed prior to their inputs.
AM Transmitters and Antennas
The behavior of an FM station is more or less determined by the behavior of the exciter. Alas, this is not true in AM broadcast! The performance of an AM broadcast
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
station is highly dependent upon the high-power sections of the transmitter, and
upon the behavior of the antenna system.
The extremely high average power and the pre-emphasized high-frequency component of audio processed by OPTIMOD-AM put great demands upon the performance
of the transmitter and antenna system. While improved results can be expected
from most plants, outstanding results can only be achieved by plants having transmitters that can accurately reproduce OPTIMOD-AM's output without changing the
shape of the waveform, and having wideband, symmetrical antenna arrays.
Any AGCs, compressors, limiters, and clippers that follow OPTIMOD-AM in the circuit
should be bypassed. OPTIMOD-AM provides all of these functions itself.
Bypassing the Transmitter's Internal Filters and Clippers
Some AM transmitters, especially those supplied to stations outside of North or
South America, contain built-in filters and clippers after their audio inputs. The filters may have various purposes: A low-pass filter is often included to ensure that the
transmitter's output spectrum adheres to the occupied bandwidth specifications of
the governing authority. A high-pass filter may be present to protect the transmitter
from damage. Safety clippers are often present to prevent the modulator from being over-driven.
As discussed in earlier sections, accurate reproduction of OPTIMOD-AM's output requires that the deviation from linear phase must be less than 10 degrees, 30-9500Hz.
Frequency response must be less than 3dB down at 0.15Hz, and less than 0.1dB
down at 9.5 kHz.
The highly processed output of OPTIMOD-AM is carefully band-limited and peakcontrolled. This output will often contain waveforms with flattops like square
waves. If the transmitter has constant group delay above 30Hz, these difficult waveforms will be transmitted intact and peak modulation will be accurately controlled.
However, if low-frequency response is more than 3dB down at 0.15Hz, as would be
true if a high-pass filter is present, the group delay above 30Hz will not be constant.
For example, a typical 50Hz high-pass filter introduces significant non-constant
group delay to 500Hz — ten times the cutoff frequency. This non-constant group delay will tilt the flattops produced by OPTIMOD-AM. The tilt increases the peak level
of the audio waveform, but not the average level. This will force you to decrease
the average modulation to prevent the spurious peaks from overmodulating.
Similarly, a typical EBU 4.5 kHz filter will introduce significant non-constant group
delay down to 1 kHz about one-fourth the cutoff frequency. This will cause overshoot in the highly processed waveforms produced by OPTIMOD-AM. The overshoot
increases the peak level of the audio waveform, but not the average level. This will
force you to decrease average modulation even more.
Alternatively, if you do not decrease the average modulation to accommodate the
spurious peaks introduced by the filters, the transmitter’s safety clipper will clip the
peaks. This will introduce out-of-band energy that will almost certainly violate the
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
limits on occupied bandwidth specified by the governing authority and will greatly
degrade the spectral control provided by OPTIMOD-AM.
To achieve the full performance capability built into OPTIMOD-AM, any filters in the
transmitter must be bypassed. This is essential! OPTIMOD-AM contains low-pass and
high-pass filters that are fully capable of protecting the transmitter and controlling
occupied bandwidth. Because of their location within OPTIMOD-AM, the internal
filters do not introduce spurious modulation peaks.
Any built-in peak clippers in the transmitter should be defeated. OPTIMOD-AM contains a clipping system that is fully capable of controlling transmitter modulation
without introducing out-of-band energy. If the drive level to the transmitter is even
slightly excessive, the transmitter clipper will be driven hard enough to create excessive spurious spectrum. Defeating any clippers in the transmitter prevents this possibility.
This problem will be even worse if OPTIMOD-AM's transmitter equalizer is in use.
OPTIMOD-AM's output level will frequently exceed 100% modulation because it is
pre-distorted to complement the transmitter's pulse response. The transmitter's
built-in safety clipper will surely clip this pre-distorted waveform.
Power Supplies
An AM transmitter is required to provide 150% of equivalent unmodulated carrier
power when it is modulating 100%. High-voltage power supplies are subject to two
major problems: sag and resonance.
Sag is a result of inadequate steady-state regulation. It causes the conventional carrier shift that is seen on a modulation monitor. Good transmitter engineering practice usually limits this shift to -5% (which corresponds to about 0.5dB not a highly
significant loudness loss).
A more serious problem is dynamic carrier shift, or bounce. This has been known to
cause up to 3dB loudness loss. Resonances in the power supply's LC filter network
usually cause it. Any LC network has a resonant frequency. In order to achieve reasonable efficiency, the power supply filter network must be under-damped. Therefore, high modulation excites this resonance, which can cause overmodulation on
the low-voltage peaks of the resonance.
Curing bounce is not at all straightforward because of the requirement that the
power supply filter smooth the DC sufficiently to achieve low hum. One approach
that has been employed is use of a 12-phase power supply. Upon rectification, the
ripple component of the DC is down about -40dB without filtering. A singlecapacitor filter can thus be used, eliminating the filter inductor as a potential source
of resonance with the capacitor.
Other sources of resonance include the modulation reactor and modulation transformer in conventional plate-modulated transmitters. Such transmitters will not
greatly benefit from a 12-phase power supply.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
The newer generations of transmitters employ switching modulation techniques to
control bounce far better than do older plate-modulated designs. The latest transmitters using digital modulation techniques have even better performance and most
are essentially transparent.
Pre-1965 Transmitters
Some older transmitters were under-designed by today's standards because modern
audio processing techniques to increase average modulation had not yet been developed and because the designers of those transmitters assumed that average
power demands on the modulator would be relatively small. If you have a transmitter designed before 1965, you should monitor it carefully to make sure that
OPTIMOD-AM processing is not overheating the modulation transformer, the modulation reactor, or the power supply. The high-frequency boost performed by
OPTIMOD-AM can cause unusually high voltages in the final amplifier, which could
cause arcing and/or component breakdown (although the latter is very rare).
There are no simple cures for such problems. Pre-1965 transmitters usually require
substantial modification, including the addition of heavier-duty components and
perhaps a completely new power supply for the modulator alone. Because of dramatic improvements in transmitter design since these transmitters were built, we
recommend that such transmitters be replaced. The latest solid-state transmitters
sound audibly better on-air and their higher efficiency reduces operating power
costs substantially.
Asymmetry
While the physics of carrier pinch-off limit any AM modulation system to an absolute
negative modulation limit of 100%, it is possible to modulate positive peaks as high
as desired. In the United States, the FCC permits positive peaks of up to 125% modulation. Other countries have similar restrictions.
However, many transmitters cannot achieve such modulation without substantial
distortion, if they can achieve it at all. The transmitter's power supply can sometimes
be strengthened to correct this. Sometimes, RF drive capability to the final power
amplifier must be increased.
Voice, by its nature, is substantially asymmetrical. Therefore, asymmetrical modulation was popular at one time in an attempt to increase the loudness of voice. Traditionally, this was achieved by preserving the natural asymmetry of the voice signal.
An asymmetry detector reversed the polarity of the signal to maintain greater positive modulation. The peaks were then clipped to a level of -100%, +125%.
OPTIMOD-AM takes a different approach: OPTIMOD-AM's input conditioning filter
contains a time dispersion circuit (phase scrambler) that makes asymmetrical input
material, like voice, substantially symmetrical.
OPTIMOD-AM permits symmetrical or asymmetrical operation of both the safety
clipper and multiband distortion-canceling clipper. Asymmetrical clipping slightly in-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
creases loudness and brightness, and will produce dense positive peaks up to 125%
if this is desired. However, such asymmetrical processing by its very nature produces
both odd and even-order harmonic and IM distortion. While even-order harmonic
distortion may sound pleasingly bright, IM distortion of any order sounds nasty.
There is really nothing lost by not modulating asymmetrically: Listening tests easily
demonstrate that modulating symmetrically, if time dispersion has been applied to
the audio, produces a considerably louder and cleaner sound than does asymmetrical modulation that retains the natural asymmetry of its program material.
Some of the newer transmitters of the pulse-width modulation type have circuitry
for holding the carrier shift constant with modulation. Since artificial asymmetry can
introduce short-term DC components (corresponding to dynamic upward carrier
shift), such carrier shift cancellation circuitry can become confused, resulting in further distortion.
Transmission Presets and Transmitter Equalization
OPTIMOD-AM's transmitter equalizer can cure linear problems caused by the transmitter or antenna system. However, the transmitter equalizer cannot cure nonlinear
problems, particularly those caused by inadequate power supplies, modulation
transformers, or reactors. If any of these components saturate or otherwise fail to
perform under heavy power demands, no amount of small-signal equalization will
solve their problems.
OPTIMOD-AM was designed with the assumption that one audio processor would
be devoted to no more than two transmitters, usually called main and standby (or
alternate). Each transmitter might be called upon to change power at night or to
drive a different antenna array. Only one transmitter is assumed to be on the air at a
given time.
To drive two transmitters, OPTIMOD-AM provides two analog outputs (called
ANALOG OUTPUT 1 and ANALOG OUTPUT 2) and two corresponding AES3 digital
outputs (DIGITAL OUTPUT 1 and DIGITAL OUTPUT 2).
OPTIMOD-AM provides four transmission presets for its transmitter equalizer controls and certain other controls. Only one preset can be active at a given time; all
four outputs receive the same transmitter equalization. This is consistent with the
principle that only one transmitter will be on the air at any time.
You can access these presets in SETUP > TX PRESET. These presets can be modified in
SETUP > MODIFY > TX PRESET. Unlike settings in the factory processing presets, transmission preset control settings automatically save and update when you change
them.
Transmitter equalizer controls in a given transmission preset include:

LF Gain for the LF tilt equalizer for L+R (mono) [L+R LF GN]

LF Breakpoint Frequency for the LF tilt equalizer for L+R [L+R LF FR]
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INTRODUCTION

HF Shelf Breakpoint Frequency for L+R [L+R HF FR]

HF Shelf Breakpoint Frequency for L–R [L–R HF FR]

HF Delay equalization for L+R [L+R HF ]

HF Delay equalization for L–R [L–R HF ]
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Transmission Presets also contain the following controls:

System Lowpass Filter Cutoff Frequency [LOW PASS]

System Lowpass Filter Cutoff Shape [LPF SHAPE]

System Highpass Filter Cutoff Frequency [HIGH PASS]

Positive Peak Threshold (Asymmetry) [POS PEAK]
The transmitter equalizer operates in sum-and-difference mode, recognizing the
fact that, in CQUAM stereo, the envelope modulation is equal to the sum signal.
Hence, the sum (L+R) equalizer has all four controls available, while the difference
(L–R) equalizer offers only the HF shelf and HF delay adjustments. We assumed that
the L–R path (through the AM stereo exciter) would have no appreciable tilt, while
the L+R path (through the transmitter’s modulator) could suffer from tilt.
During mono operation, the L–R signal is zero and the L–R transmitter equalizer
controls have no effect.
For convenience, and to describe their most common application, the four transmitter equalizer presets are labeled TX1/DAY, TX1/NIGHT, TX2/DAY, and TX2/NIGHT, although they can be applied in a completely general way to the requirements of
your transmission facility.
For example, in countries observing NRSC standards you might want to transmit the
full 9.5 kHz bandwidth during the day, and, in cooperation with other stations on
first-adjacent channels, reduce audio bandwidth to 5 kHz at night. This will eliminate any skywave-induced monkey-chatter interference between first-adjacent
channels. Alternatively, your nighttime directional antenna array might have poor
VSWR performance at high modulating frequencies, so you might find that your
transmitter works better and produces less distortion if you limit the audio bandwidth to those frequencies where the antenna is well behaved. Further, if you operate a talk format during certain parts of the day, you will probably find that you can
operate the processing for a louder on-air sound if you restrict the transmitted
bandwidth below the maximum permitted by government regulation. (Bear in mind
that most AM radios have an audio bandwidth of 2.5-3 kHz and changing transmission bandwidth from 5 kHz to 9.5 kHz will produce virtually no audible difference
on these radios.)
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INTRODUCTION
Antenna System
AM antenna systems, whether directional or non-directional, frequently exhibit inadequate bandwidth or asymmetrical impedance. Often, a system will exhibit both
problems simultaneously.
An antenna with inadequate bandwidth couples RF energy into space with progressively less efficiency at higher sideband frequencies (corresponding to higher modulation frequencies). It reflects these higher-frequency sideband components back
into the transmitter or dissipates them in the tuning networks. This not only causes
dull sound on the air (and defeats OPTIMOD-AM's principal advantage: its ability to
create a highly pre-emphasized signal without undesirable side effects), but it also
wastes energy, can cause distortion, and can shorten the life of transmitter components.
Asymmetrical impedance is the common point impedance's not being symmetrical
on either side of the carrier frequency when plotted on a Smith Chart. This problem
can cause transmitter misbehavior and sideband asymmetry, resulting in on-air distortion in receivers with envelope detectors.
Both of these limitations can cause severe problems in AM stereo and even worse
ones in HD AM installations.
Neither problem is easily solved. Unless the radio station engineer is a knowledgeable antenna specialist, a reputable outside antenna consultant should be employed
to design correction networks for the system.
Note that many antenna systems are perfectly adequate, particularly for ordinary
mono analog transmission. However, if the transmitter sounds significantly brighter
and/or cleaner into a dummy load than it does into your antenna, the antenna system should be evaluated and corrected if necessary.
As noted above, if your circumstances or budget preclude correcting your antenna's
bandwidth and/or symmetry, you will often get lower on-air distortion if you set
OPTIMOD-AM's low-pass filter to a lower frequency than the maximum permitted
by the government. Because OPTIMOD-AM's output bandwidth is easily adjustable
in real time, it is very easy to experiment to see which bandwidth gives the best audio quality on an average AM radio, given the quality of your transmitter and antenna.
Using Lossy Data Reduction in the Studio
Many stations are now using lossy data reduction algorithms like MPEG-1 Layer 2 to
increase the storage time of digital playback media. In addition, source material is
often supplied through a lossy data reduction algorithm, whether from satellite or
over landlines. Sometimes, several encode / decode cycles will be cascaded before
the material is finally presented to OPTIMOD-AM’s input.
All such algorithms operate by increasing the quantization noise in discrete frequency bands. If not psychoacoustically masked by the program material, this noise
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
may be perceived as distortion, “gurgling,” or other interference. Psychoacoustic
calculations are used to ensure that the added noise is masked by the desired program material and not heard. Cascading several stages of such processing can raise
the added quantization noise above the threshold of masking into audibility. In addition, at least one other mechanism can cause the noise to become audible at the
radio. OPTIMOD-AM’s multiband limiter performs an “automatic equalization”
function that can radically change the frequency balance of the program. This can
cause noise that would otherwise have been masked to become unmasked because
the psychoacoustic masking conditions under which the masking thresholds were
originally computed have changed.
Accordingly, if you use lossy data reduction in the studio, you should use the highest
data rate possible. This maximizes the headroom between the added noise and the
threshold where it will be heard. Also, you should minimize the number of encode
and decode cycles, because each cycle moves the added noise closer to the threshold
where the added noise is heard.
About Transmission Levels and Metering
Meters
Studio engineers and transmission engineers consider audio levels and their measurements differently, so they typically use different methods of metering to monitor
these levels. The VU meter is an average-responding meter (measuring the approximate RMS level) with a 300ms rise time and decay time; the VU indication usually
under-indicates the true peak level by 8 to 14dB. The Peak Program Meter (PPM) indicates a level between RMS and the actual peak. The PPM has an attack time of
10ms, slow enough to cause the meter to ignore narrow peaks and under-indicate
the true peak level by 5 dB or more. The absolute peak-sensing meter or LED indicator shows the true peak level. It has an instantaneous attack time, and a release
time slow enough to allow the engineer to read the peak level easily. Figure 1-1
shows the relative difference between the absolute peak level, and the indications
of a VU meter and a PPM for a few seconds of music program.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
Studio Line-up Levels and Headroom
The studio engineer is primarily concerned with calibrating the equipment to provide the required input level for proper operation of each device, and so that all devices operate with the same input and output levels. This facilitates patching devices
in and out without recalibration.
For line-up, the studio engineer uses a calibration tone at a studio standard level,
commonly called line-up level, reference level, or operating level. Metering at the
studio is by a VU meter or PPM (Peak Program Meter). As discussed above, the VU or
PPM indication under-indicates the true peak level. Most modern studio audio devices have a clipping level of no less than +21dBu, and often +24dBu or more. So the
studio standardizes on a maximum program indication on the meter that is lower
than the clipping level, so those peaks that the meter does not indicate will not be
clipped. Line-up level is usually at this same maximum meter indication. In facilities
that use VU meters, this level is usually at 0VU, which corresponds to the studio
standard level, typically +4 or +8dBu.
For facilities using +4dBu standard level, instantaneous peaks can reach +18dBu or
higher (particularly if the operator overdrives the console or desk). Older facilities
with +8dBu standard level and equipment that clips at +18 or +21dBu will experience noticeable clipping on some program material.
In facilities that use the BBC-standard PPM, maximum program level is usually PPM4
for music, PPM6 for speech. Line-up level is usually PPM4, which corresponds to
+4dBu. Instantaneous peaks will reach +17dBu or more on voice.
In facilities that use PPMs that indicate level directly in dBu, maximum program and
line-up level is often +6dBu. Instantaneous peaks will reach +11dBu or more.
Transmission Levels
The transmission engineer is primarily concerned with the peak level of a program
ABSOLUTE PEAK
PPM
VU
Figure 1-1: Absolute Peak Level, VU and PPM Reading
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
to prevent overloading or overmodulation of the transmission system. This peak
overload level is defined differently, system to system.
In FM modulation, it is the maximum-permitted RF carrier frequency deviation. In
AM modulation, it is negative carrier pinch-off. In analog telephone / post / PTT
transmission, it is the level above which serious crosstalk into other channels occurs,
or the level at which the amplifiers in the channel overload. In digital, it is the largest possible digital word.
For metering, the transmission engineer uses an oscilloscope, absolute peak-sensing
meter, calibrated peak-sensing LED indicator, or a modulation meter. A modulation
meter usually has two components — a semi-peak reading meter (like a PPM), and a
peak-indicating light, which is calibrated to turn on whenever the instantaneous
peak modulation exceeds the overmodulation threshold.
Line-Up Facilities
Metering of Levels
The meters on the 9400 show left/right input levels and output modulation.
The output meters can be switched to read the left/right digital processing chain output signal, the gain reductions of the left and right lookahead limiters in the digital processing chain, or the analog processing
chain output signal. In the latter case, the left-hand meter reads negative
peaks of the higher of the two stereo channels and the right-hand meter
reads the higher of the positive peaks.
Left and right input level is shown on a VU-type scale 0 to –40dB), while the metering indicates absolute instantaneous peak (much faster than a standard PPM or VU
meter). The input meter is scaled so that 0 dB corresponds to the absolute maximum
peak level that the 9400 can accept. If you are using the AES3 digital input, the
maximum digital word at the input corresponds to the 0 dB point on the 9400’s input meter.
Built-in Calibrated Line-up Tones
To facilitate matching the output level of the 9400 to the transmission system that it
is driving, the 9400 contains an adjustable test tone oscillator that produces sine,
square, or triangle waves at 9400’s (analog or digital) left and right outputs. The
frequency and modulation level of the line-up tones can be adjusted from the front
panel (as described in Test Modes on page 3-54).
You can adjust the frequency and modulation level of the built-in line-up tone. You
can use the front panel, the PC Control software, or the opto-isolated remote control interface ports to activate the Test Tone.
Built-in Calibrated Bypass Test Mode
A BYPASS Test Mode is available to transparently pass line-up tones generated earlier in the system. It will also pass program material, providing no gain reduction or
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
protection against overmodulation. It can transparently pass any line-up tone applied to its input up to about 130% output modulation, at which point clipping may
occur.
Monitoring
Modulation Monitors and Their RF Amplifiers
Many AM modulation monitors (particularly older ones) indicate dynamic modulation inaccurately even though they may accurately measure sine-wave modulation.
This occurs producing overshoot and ringing. An incorrectly designed modulation
monitor may indicate that modulation is as much as 3dB higher than it actually is.
When modulation monitors are used at locations distant from the transmitter, they
are driven from highly selective RF amplifiers. These sometimes suffer from similar
problems. They can overshoot and ring if the passband filters are too sharp, causing
the monitor to falsely indicate high modulation.
If your modulation monitor does not agree with an oscilloscope monitoring the RF
envelope at the common point, do not assume that the monitor is indicating fast
peaks that your eye cannot see. A probable cause of the disparity is overshoot in the
modulation monitor or its RF amplifier. If you observe this problem, we recommend
that you assume that what you see on the oscilloscope is correct; oscilloscopes are
designed to display pulse waveforms accurately. (Make sure the oscilloscope is
switched to DC coupling.)
Note also that modulation percentages will vary depending on where in the transmission system the RF sample is taken. Depending on the location observed, actual
modulation can be either lower or higher than modulation observed at the common
point. What is crucial is whether the carrier is actually pinched off at the final amplifier because this carrier pinch-off is what causes splatter. On the other hand, if the
carrier appears is suppressed because of a particular choice of monitoring point
within the system, negative peaks will fold around zero instead of cutting off. This
causes no problem with out-of-band radiation, and far-field radiation is likely to
show normal AM modulation envelopes. We therefore recommend that you use an
RF sample from the final amplifier.
Monitoring on Loudspeakers and Headphones
Monitor Rolloff Filter
The output of a loudspeaker fed from the modulation monitor typically sounds shrill
and strident because, unlike virtually all real AM radios, the modulation monitor
and loudspeaker have a flat response. Rolloff filtering can be used to supply monitors with audio that more closely resembles that heard over a typical receiver.
Orban offers the optional model MRF-023 Monitor Rolloff Filter for this purpose.
This filter is a small passive unit designed to be installed between the modulation
monitor and the monitor amplifier. If you are transmitting AM stereo, you will need
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
two filters. (See step 8 on page 2-5 for installation instructions). The filter provides
complementary de-emphasis and a 10 kHz notch for off-air monitoring of NRSC
standard audio. The output of the rolloff filter accurately simulates the sound of a
standard NRSC receiver. Alternately, for use in non-NRSC countries, an adjustable
18dB/octave rolloff that complements the 9400's HF GAIN control can be selected
with jumpers (see Figure 2-4 on page 2-5). Figure 2-5 on page 2-6 shows the frequency response of the Monitor Rolloff Filter for various settings of its ROLLOFF control.
If a different tonal balance is desired for off-the-air monitoring, install a simple program equalizer after the Monitor Rolloff Filter and boost the 5 kHz region to taste.
Do not use a monitor rolloff filter to monitor the digital channel of a decoded HD
AM signal.
Headphones
In live operations, the throughput delay introduced by advanced DSP-based processing like that used on the 9400 can cause a problem with the DJ or presenter's headphones. See Low-Delay Monitoring for Headphones on page 3-10 for a discussion of
the 9400 low-delay monitoring feature.
EAS Test
For stations participating in the Emergency Alert System (EAS) in the United States,
broadcast of EAS tones and data can be accomplished in three different ways:
1. Run EAS tones and data through the 9400 in its normal operating mode.
Note that 9400 processing may not allow the full modulation level as required by
EAS standards. It may therefore be necessary to temporarily defeat the 9400’s processing during the broadcast of EAS tones and data. Placing the 9400 in its BYPASS
Test Mode can defeat the processing. The BYPASS GAIN control allows a fixed gain
trim through the 9400. See “Test Modes,” on page 3-54 for more information. Steps
2 and 3 below describe how to use BYPASS.
2. Place the 9400 in Bypass mode locally.
A) Navigate to SETUP > TEST > MODE and set MODE to BYPASS.
You can set the bypass gain with the BYPASS GAIN control located to the
right of the MODE control.
B) Begin EAS broadcast.
After the EAS broadcast, resume normal processing:
C) Set the MODE to OPERATE.
This will restore the processing preset in use prior to the Test Mode.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
3. Program any two Remote Interface inputs for “Bypass” and “Exit Test,”
respectively. Then place the 9400 in Bypass mode by remote control.
A) Connect two outputs from your station remote control system to the
REMOTE INTERFACE connector on the rear panel of the 9400, according to
the wiring diagram in Figure 2-2 on page 2-4.
B) Program two GPI ports for BYPASS and EXIT TEST according to the instructions
in Remote Control Interface Programming starting on page 2-46.
C) Place the 9400 in bypass mode by remote control.
a) Switch the 9400 into BYPASS mode by a momentary command from your
station’s remote control to the GPI port programmed as BYPASS.
b) Begin EAS broadcast.
c) When the EAS broadcast is finished, switch the 9400 from BYPASS mode by
a momentary command from your station’s remote control to the GPI port
programmed as EXIT TEST.
You may also choose to insert EAS broadcast tones and data directly into the
transmitter, thus bypassing the 9400 for the duration of the EAS tones and data
broadcast.
PC Control and Security Passcode
PC software control provides access to OPTIMOD-AM via network, modem or direct
(null modem cable) connection, with IBM PC-compatible computers running Windows. PC access is permitted only with a valid user-defined passcode.
PC remote control can be ended from the front panel; this feature effectively pre-
Figure 1-2: NRSC Modified 75 µs De-emphasis
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INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
vents simultaneous remote and local control.
See Security and Passcode Programming (starting on page 2-43) for more detail.
Why the North American NRSC Standard?
Over the years, as the North American airwaves have become more crowded, interference from first and second adjacent stations has become more and more of a
problem. Receiver manufacturers responded by producing receivers with decreased
audio bandwidth so that an adjacent station's modulation extremes would not be
audible as interference. This cutting of the bandwidth had the effect of reducing
the receiver's high-frequency response, but it was felt that lower fidelity would be
less obnoxious than interference. As long ago as 1978, Orban proposed and implemented pre-emphasis and low-pass filtering for AM broadcast to provide brighter
sound at the receiver while minimizing interference. This approach has become
widely accepted. The NRSC-formalized standard is acceptable to all industry segments, and when implemented, can result in a vast improvement in AM radio.
AM Stereo Introduces a Pre-emphasis Dilemma
Certain AM receivers manufactured since 1984 for sale in North America, particularly
those designed for domestic AM stereo reception, have a frequency response that is
substantially wider than that of the typical mono AM receiver. The frequency response was widened largely to enhance the sales potential of AM stereo by presenting a dramatic, audible improvement in fidelity in the showroom. As these new receivers became more prevalent, broadcasters had to choose whether the station's
pre-emphasis would be optimized for the new AM stereo receivers or for the existing conventional receivers that form the vast majority of the market. If the choice
was for conventional receivers (which implies a relatively extreme pre-emphasis), the
newer receivers might sound strident or exceptionally bright. If the choice favored
the newer receivers (less pre-emphasis and probably less processing), the majority of
0
100%
-10
31.6%
-20
10%
Stopband Area
-30
3.2%
-40
1%
-50
Modulation
Relative Amplitude (dB)
1-26
0.32%
10
10.5
11
12
13
14
Audio Frequency (kHz)
Figure 1-3: NRSC Lowpass Filter
15
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
receivers would be deprived of much high-end energy and would sound both quieter and duller.
In response to this dilemma, the National Radio Systems Committee (NRSC) undertook the difficult task of defining a voluntary recommended pre-emphasis curve for
AM radio that would be acceptable to broadcasters (who want the highest quality
sound on the majority of their listeners' radios) and to receiver manufacturers (who
are primarily concerned with interference from first- and second-adjacent stations).
After a year of deliberation, a modified 75-microsecond pre-emphasis/de-emphasis
standard was approved (See Figure 1-2). This provides a moderate amount of improvement for existing narrowband radios, while optimizing the sound of wideband
radios. Most importantly, it generates substantially less first-adjacent interference
than do steeper pre-emphasis curves. The second part of the NRSC standard calls for
a sharp upper limit of 10 kHz (at –15dB) for the audio presented to the transmitter.
(See Figure 1-3.)
NRSC Standard Pre-emphasis and Low-pass Filtering
OPTIMOD-AM's NRSC low-pass setting is essentially flat to 9.5 kHz and substantially
exceeds the NRSC standards above that frequency. This essentially eliminates interference to second and higher adjacencies. While some have protested that this is inadequate and that 15 kHz audio should be permitted, the unfortunate fact is that
interference-free 15 kHz audio could only be achieved by a complete re-allocation
of the AM band.
On April 27, 1989, The FCC (U.S.A.) released a Report and Order that amended section 73.44 of the FCC Rules by requiring all U.S. AM stations to comply with the occupied bandwidth specifications of the NRSC-2 standard by June 30, 1990. The NRSC2 standard is an RF mask that was derived from the NRSC-1 audio standard. The
purpose of the NRSC-2 RF mask is to provide a transmitted RF occupied bandwidth
standard that any station with a properly operating transmitter will meet if NRSC-1
audio processing is used prior to the transmitter and if the station is not overmodulating.
OPTIMOD-AM complies fully with the NRSC-1 standard when the 9.5 kHz NRSC lowpass filter is in use, the HF SHAPE control is set to NRSC, and the HF GAIN control is
set to +10.
Unfortunately, at this writing, the trend towards wider band receivers has reversed
and most receivers are no wider than they were in the 1970s. For this reason, many
engineers feel that using a third-order equalizer with 10 dB of ultimate boost provides a more intelligible sound on the average radio than does the NRSC curve. The
9400’s HF shelving equalizer can provide such a boost.
When a station is transmitting with 5 kHz audio bandwidth, the 9400’s 5 kHz lowpass filter can produce audible ringing that some find objectionable. Using the
9400’s bell-shaped HF parametric EQ tuned to 3 kHz can reduce the effects of this
ringing by reducing the boost at 5 kHz by comparison to the 9400’s HF shelving EQ,
which maintains full boost all the way to 5 kHz. Additionally, you can use the LPF
Shape control to trade off brightness against ringing.
1-27
1-28
INTRODUCTION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Warranty, User Feedback
User Feedback
We are very interested in your comments about this product. We will carefully review your suggestions for improvements to either the product or the manual. Please
email us at custserv@orban.com.
LIMITED WARRANTY
[Valid only for products purchased and used in the United States]
Orban warrants Orban products against defects in material or workmanship for a
period of two years from the date of original purchase for use, and agrees to repair
or, at our option, replace any defective item without charge for either parts or labor.
IMPORTANT: This warranty does not cover damage resulting from accident, misuse
or abuse, lack of reasonable care, the affixing of any attachment not provided with
the product, loss of parts, or connecting the product to any but the specified receptacles. This warranty is void unless service or repairs are performed by an authorized
service center. No responsibility is assumed for any special, incidental, or consequential damages. However, the limitation of any right or remedy shall not be effective
where such is prohibited or restricted by law.
Simply take or ship your Orban products prepaid to our service department. Be sure
to include a copy of your sales slip as proof of purchase date. We will not repair
transit damage under the no-charge terms of this warranty. Orban will pay return
shipping. (See Technical Support on page 5-14.)
No other warranty, written or oral, is authorized for Orban Products.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you may have other rights that vary
from state to state. Some states do not allow the exclusion of limitations of incidental or consequential damages or limitations on how long an implied warranty lasts,
so the above exclusions and limitations may not apply to you.
INTERNATIONAL WARRANTY
Orban warrants Orban products against evident defects in material and workmanship for a period of two years from the date of original purchase for use. This warranty does not cover damage resulting from misuse or abuse, or lack of reasonable
care, or inadequate repairs performed by unauthorized service centers. Performance
of repairs or replacements under this warranty is subject to submission of this Warranty/Registration Card, completed and signed by the dealer on the day of purchase,
and the sales slip. Shipment of the defective item is for repair under this warranty
will be at the customer’s own risk and expense. This warranty is valid for the original
purchaser only.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INTRODUCTION
EXTENDED WARRANTY
Any time during the initial two-year Warranty period (but not thereafter), you may
purchase a three-year extension to the Warranty (yielding a total Warranty period
of five years) by remitting to Orban ten percent of the gross purchase price of your
Orban product. This offer applies only to new Orban products purchased from an
authorized Orban Dealer. To accept the extended five-year warranty, please sign and
date below and fax this copy to Gareth Paredes at (510) 351-0500.
I ACCEPT THE EXTENDED FIVE-YEAR WARRANTY
__________________________________________________________________________
DATE______________________________________________________________________
MODEL NUMBER: 9400
SERIAL NUMBER____________________________________________________________
1-29
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
Section 2
Installation
Installing the 9400
Allow about 2 hours for installation.
Installation consists of: (1) unpacking and inspecting the 9400, (2) checking the line
voltage setting, fuse, and power cord, (3) setting the Ground Lift switch, (4) mounting the 9400 in a rack, (5) connecting inputs, outputs and power, (6) optional connecting of remote control leads and (7) optional connecting of computer interface
control leads.
When you have finished installing the 9400, proceed to “Quick Setup,” on page 216.
DO NOT connect power to the unit yet!
1. Unpack and inspect.
If you note obvious physical damage, contact the carrier immediately to make a
damage claim. Packed with the 9400 are:
2ea.
2ea.
2ea.
4ea.
1ea.
1ea.
Line Cords (domestic, European)
Fuses (½-A-250V Slow-Blow for 115V; 500mA-250V for 230V)
Fuse holders (gray for 115V fuses and black for 230V fuses)
Rack-mounting screws, 10-32 x ½ — with washers, #10
Null modem cable (for software upgrades and PC Remote connection)
PC Remote Software and Operating Manual CD
Save all packing materials! If you should ever have to ship the 9400 (e.g., for servicing), it is best to ship it in the original carton with its packing materials because both the carton and packing material have been carefully designed to protect the unit.
Complete the Registration Card and return it to Orban. (please)
The Registration Card enables us to inform you of new applications, performance improvements, software updates, and service aids that may be
developed, and it helps us respond promptly to claims under warranty
without our having to request a copy of your bill of sale or other proof
of purchase. Please fill in the Registration Card and send it to us today.
(The Registration Card is located after the cover page).
Customer names and information are confidential and are not sold to
anyone.
2-1
2-2
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
2. Check the line voltage, fuse and power cord.
DO NOT connect power to the unit yet!
A) Check the VOLTAGE SELECT switch. This is on the rear panel.
The 9400 is shipped from the factory with the VOLTAGE SELECT switch set
to the 230V position. Check and set the VOLTAGE SELECT switch to your
local voltage requirements. To change the operating voltage, set the
VOLTAGE SELECT to 115V (for 90-130V) or 230V (for 200-250V) as appropriate.
B) Install the proper fuse and fuse holder, per your country’s standards.
The 9400 is shipped from the factory with the fuse, and fuse holder removed. Select the appropriate fuse holder and fuse from the supplied
parts in the accessory kit. Use the gray fuse holder for domestic / 115V
operation, or the black fuse holder for European / 230V operation. For
safety, use ½-A-250V Slow-Blow for 115V, or 500mA-250V for 230V.
TYPE 18/3 SVT COR, TYP
(3 x .82 mm 2 )
WIRE COLOR
CONDUCTOR
NORMAL
ALT
BLACK
L
LINE
BROWN
N
NEUTRAL
BLUE
WHITE
E EARTH GND GREEN-YELLOW
GREEN
PLUG FOR
115 VAC
(USA)
TYPE H05VV - F - 0.75
CONDUCTOR
WIRE COLOR
L
LINE
BROWN
N
NEUTRAL
BLUE
E EARTH GND GREEN-YELLOW
PLUG FOR
230 VAC
(EUROPEAN)
Figure 2-1: AC Line Cord Wire Standard
C) Check the power cord.
AC power passes through an IEC-standard mains connector and an RF filter designed to meet the standards of all international safety authorities.
The power cord is terminated in a “U-ground” plug (USA standard), or
CEE7 / 7 plug (Continental Europe), as appropriate to your 9400’s Model
Number. The green / yellow wire is connected directly to the 9400 chassis.
If you need to change the plug to meet your country’s standard and you
are qualified to do so, see Figure 2-1. Otherwise, purchase a new mains
cord with the correct line plug attached.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
3. Set Ground Lift switch.
The GROUND LIFT switch is located on the rear panel.
The GROUND LIFT switch is shipped from the factory in the GROUND position, (to
connect the 9400’s circuit ground to its chassis ground). This is almost always optimum.
4. Mount the 9400 in a rack.
The 9400 requires two standard rack units (3 ½ inches / 12.7 cm).
There should be a good ground connection between the rack and the 9400 chassis — check this with an ohmmeter to verify that the resistance is less than 0.5.
Mounting the unit over large heat-producing devices (such as a vacuum-tube
power amplifier) may shorten component life and is not recommended. Ambient
temperature should not exceed 45C (113F) when equipment is powered.
Equipment life will be extended if the unit is mounted away from sources of vibration, such as large blowers and is operated as cool as possible.
5. Connect inputs and outputs.
See the hookup and grounding information on the following pages.
TOPIC
PAGE
Audio Input and Audio Output Connections.............................................2-8
AES3 Digital Input and Output .................................................................2-10
Grounding ..................................................................................................2-11
6. Connect remote control interface. (optional)
For a full listing of 9400’s extensive remote control provisions, refer to Remote
Control Interface Programming on page 2-46.
Optically isolated remote control connections are terminated in a type DB-25
male connector located on the rear panel. It is wired according to Figure 2-2. To
select the desired function, apply a 5-12V AC or DC pulse between the appropriate REMOTE INTERFACE terminals. The () terminals can be connected together
and then connected to ground at pin 1 to create a Remote Common. A currentlimited +12VDC source is available on pin 25. If you use 48V, connect a 2k
10%, 2-watt carbon composition resistor in series with the Remote Common or
the (+) terminal to provide current limiting.
In a high-RF environment, these wires should be short and should be run
through foil-shielded cable, with the shield connected to CHASSIS GROUND at
both ends.
2-3
2-4
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
PIN ASSIGNMENT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22-24.
25.
DIGITAL GOUND
REMOTE
1+
REMOTE
2+
REMOTE
3+
REMOTE
4+
REMOTE
5+
REMOTE
6+
REMOTE
7+
REMOTE
8+
TALLY
1
TALLY
2
N/C
ANALOG GROUND
REMOTE
1REMOTE
2REMOTE
3REMOTE
4REMOTE
5REMOTE
6REMOTE
7REMOTE
8N/C
+12 VOLTS DC
REMOTE INTERFACE
Figure 2-2: Wiring the 25-pin Remote Interface Connector
7. Connect to a computer
You can connect to a computer via the 9400’s serial connector or via an Ethernet
network.
You must have the 9400 PC Remote application installed on your computer before you upgrade your 9400’s firmware because 9400 PC Remote
manages the upgrade.
See Networking and Remote Control on page 2-47, Appendix: Setting Up Serial
Communications on page 2-59, Installing 9400 PC Remote Control Software on
page 2-51, and Using the 9400 PC Remote Control Software on page 3-61 for
more detail.
Figure 2-3: 9400 Serial Port Pin Identification
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
8. Install Monitor Rolloff Filter. (optional)
Orban Monitor Rolloff Filters are accessories that can be ordered from your authorized Orban Broadcast Dealer. The Orban model number is MRF-023.
The Orban Monitor Rolloff Filter alters the flat response typical of a modulation
monitor's audio output to one that more closely resembles that of an actual AM
receiver. It is a passive filter, requiring no power supply. Its metal flange is drilled
such that it can be mounted to one rail of a standard rack. (See page 1-23 for
more about studio monitoring.)
A) Select rolloff response.
The Monitor Rolloff Filter is supplied jumpered for NRSC
NOTCH, unless otherwise noted.

WITH
10 KHZ
NRSC with 10 kHz NOTCH
Accurately simulates the sound of a standard NRSC receiver. Also useful
for remote off-air monitoring because it filters out the 10 kHz whistles
caused by interfering first-adjacent stations (in countries with 10 kHz
channel spacing). Intended to complement the HF CURVE NRSC setting
in OPTIMOD-AM.
Note that very few real radios have a frequency response resembling the
NRSC standard. Therefore, the NRSC rolloff will result in substantially
brighter sound than most radios provide, and the 18dB/OCTAVE setting
provides a more realistic simulation of a typical radio.

NRSC: NRSC rolloff without 10 kHz notch.

18dB/OCTAVE
Simulates the sound of an average narrowband AM/MW receiver except
that it shelves off above 6 kHz instead of continuing to rolloff as a real
radio would. This rolloff complements an HF CURVE setting of 0 in
Figure 2-4: Jumper Positions, Monitor Roll-Off Filter
2-5
2-6
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
OPTIMOD-AM. The amount of rolloff is adjustable with the filter's high
frequency ROLLOFF control to complement the setting of the HF GAIN
control on OPTIMOD-AM.
B) Change the jumpers to the desired rolloff. See Figure 2-4 on page 2-5.
C) Connect the output of your modulation monitor to the Input terminals of the
Monitor Rolloff Filter.

If the output impedance of the source is between 0 and 35 ohms (such as
the output of an opamp), connect the source between the 0 OHM
SOURCE and COM terminals on the rolloff filter chassis.

If the output impedance of the source is 600 ohms, connect the source
between the 600-OHM SOURCE and COM terminals.

If the output impedance is some value in between, connect a resistor between the source's output and the Monitor Rolloff Filter's 600-OHM
SOURCE terminal so that the total source impedance seen by the Monitor Rolloff Filter is 600Ω (external resistor + output impedance of source
= 600Ω).

If your console monitor or monitor amplifier input is bridging (like virtually all modern amplifiers), set the TERMINATION switches on the Rolloff
Filter to ON.

If the console monitor or monitor amplifier input impedance is a true
600Ω, set the TERMINATION switch on the Rolloff Filter to OFF.
D) Connect the input of your console monitor or monitor amplifier to the
OUTPUT terminals on the Monitor Rolloff Filter.
Figure 2-5: Frequency Response Curves as Function of ROLLOFF Control,
Monitor Rolloff Filter Strapped for 18 dB/Octave
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
E) Connect the earth ground terminals on the Rolloff Filter to earth ground for
shielding.
To avoid potential ground loops, the earth ground is not connected to
the COM terminals.
F) Set the ROLLOFF control of the Rolloff Filter to taste. See Figure 2-5 on page 26.
Figure 2-6: Monitor Rolloff Filter Schematic Diagram
9400 Rear Panel
The Ground Lift Switch can be set to connect the 9400’s circuit ground to its chassis ground (in the GROUND position). In the LIFT position, it breaks that connection.
(See Set Ground Lift switch on page 2-3.)
The Voltage Select switch can be set to 115V (for 90-130V operation) or 230V (for
180-260V operation).
Fuse values can be changed to support 115V or 230V operation. For safety, use ½-A250V Slow-Blow for 115V, or 500mA-250V for 230V.
The Power Cord is detachable and is terminated in a “U-ground” plug (USA standard), or CEE7/7 plug (Continental Europe), as appropriate to your 9400’s Model
Number.
2-7
2-8
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
An RS-232 (PC Remote) Computer Interface, labeled SERIAL PORT, is provided to
connect the 9400 to IBM PC-compatible computers, directly or via modem, for remote control, metering and software downloads.
A Remote Interface Connector allows you to connect the 9400 to your existing
transmitter remote control or other simple contact-closure control devices. The 9400
remote control supports user-programmable selection of up to eight optically isolated inputs for any one of the following parameters: recalling any factory- or user
presets, tone or bypass modes, selecting stereo modes for AM and HD processing
(stereo, mono-left, mono-right, mono-sum), selecting analog, digital or digital+J.17
input, and clock synchronization. (See Remote Control Interface Programming on
page 2-46.) The 9400 remote control accepts a DB-25 connector.
A valid signal is a momentary transition from no-current to current flowing through
the particular remote signal pins. Current must flow for at least 50ms for the signal
to be interpreted as valid. It is acceptable to apply current continuously to an input,
DC or AC. Do not exceed 12 volts unless you use an external current-limiting resistor
that limits current to 10mA. Voltage is available at this connector to facilitate use of
contact closures.
The Ethernet Port accepts a 10Mb/second or 100Mb/second Ethernet connection
terminated with an RJ45 connector.
Digital AES3 Input and Outputs are provided to support two-channel AES3standard digital audio signals through XLR-type connectors.
Analog Inputs and Outputs are provided to support left and right audio signals
through XLR-type connectors.
Input and Output Connections
Cable
We recommend using two-conductor foil-shielded cable (such as Belden 8451 or
equivalent) for the audio input and output connections because signal current flows
through the two conductors only. The shield does not carry signal and is used only
for shielding.
Connectors

Input and output connectors are XLR-type connectors.
In the XLR-type connectors, pin 1 is CHASSIS GROUND, while pin 2 and
pin 3 are a balanced, floating pair. This wiring scheme is compatible with
any studio-wiring standard: If pin 2 or 3 is considered LOW, the other pin
is automatically HIGH.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
Analog Audio Input
IMPORTANT: Because the 9400’s music/speech detector uses information
about the stereo sound field to make its detection more accurate, it is
important to feed the 9400 with stereo source material even if it is only
being used to drive a monophonic AM analog transmitter.

Nominal input level between –14dBu and +8dBu will result in normal operation
of the 9400.
(0dBu = 0.775Vrms. For this application, the dBm @600 scale on voltmeters can be read as if it were calibrated in dBu.)

The peak input level that causes overload is +27.0dBu.

The electronically balanced input uses an ultra low noise and distortion differential amplifier for best common mode rejection, and is compatible with most professional and semi-professional audio equipment, balanced or unbalanced, having a source impedance of 600 or less. The input is EMI suppressed.

Input connections are the same whether the driving source is balanced or unbalanced.

Connect the red (or white) wire to the pin on the XLR-type connector (#2 or #3)
that is considered HIGH by the standards of your organization. Connect the black
wire to the pin on the XLR-type connector (#3 or #2) that is considered LOW by
the standards of your organization.

In low RF fields (like a studio site), connect the cable shield at 9400 input only —
it should not be connected at the source end. In high RF fields (like a transmitter
site), also connect the shield to pin 1 of the male XLR-type connector at the 9400
input.

If the output of the driving unit is unbalanced and does not have separate
CHASSIS GROUND and (–) (or LOW) output terminals, connect both the shield and
the black wire to the common (–) or ground terminal of the driving unit.
Analog Audio Outputs

There are two left/right output pairs (for two transmitters).

To drive a mono transmitter, use either the L or R output and run the analogchain processing in the MONO mode of your choice (MONO FROM L, FROM R, or
MONO FROM L+R).

Electronically balanced and floating outputs simulate a true transformer output.
Because of the built-in high-order EMI suppression filter, the source impedance is
351. The output is capable of driving loads of 600 or higher; the 100% modulation level is adjustable with the AO 100% control over a –6 dBu to +20 dBu
2-9
2-10
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
range. Loading the output with 600 will decrease the output level by 4.0 dB
compared to a high impedance (bridging) load and will reduce the maximum
available output level by 4.0 dB. A software switch in Analog Output screen allows the output level calibration to be set for a bridging or 600 load.

If an unbalanced output is required (to drive unbalanced inputs of other equipment), it should be taken between pin 2 and pin 3 of the XLR-type connector.
Connect the LOW pin of the XLR-type connector (#3 or #2, depending on your
organization’s standards) to circuit ground; take the HIGH output from the remaining pin. No special precautions are required even though one side of the
output is grounded.

Use two-conductor foil-shielded cable (Belden 8451, or equivalent).

At the 9400’s output (and at the output of other equipment in the system), do
not connect the cable’s shield to the CHASSIS GROUND terminal (pin 1) on the
XLR-type connector. Instead, connect the shield to the input destination. Connect the red (or white) wire to the pin on the XLR-type connector (#2 or #3) that
is considered HIGH by the standards of your organization. Connect the black wire
to the pin on the XLR-type connector (#3 or #2) that is considered LOW by the
standards of your organization.
AES3 Digital Input and Output
There is one AES3 input and two AES3 outputs (for two transmitters; any output can
alternatively be configured for digital radio / netcasts). The program input and output are both equipped with sample rate converters and can operate at 32, 44.1, 48,
88.2, and 96 kHz.
Per the AES3 standard, each digital input or output line carries both the
left and right stereo channels. The connection is 110 balanced. The
AES3 standard specifies a maximum cable length of 100 meters. While
almost any balanced, shielded cable will work for relatively short runs (5
meters or less), longer runs require used of 110 balanced cable like
Belden 1800B, 1801B (plenum rated), multi-pair 180xF, 185xF, or 78xxA.
Single-pair category 5, 5e, and 6 Ethernet cable will also work well if you
do not require shielding. (In most cases, the tight balance of Category
5/5e/6 cable makes shielding unnecessary.)
The AES3id standard is best for very long cable runs (up to 1000 meters).
This specifies 75 unbalanced coaxial cable, terminated in BNC connectors. A 110/75 balun transformer is required to interface an AES3id
connection to your Optimod’s digital input or output.
The digital input clip level is fixed at 0 dB relative to the maximum digital
word. The maximum digital input will make the 9400 input meters display 0dB. The reference level is adjustable using the DI REF control.
The 9400 is a “multirate” system; its internal sample rate is 32 kHz and
multiples thereof (up to 512 kHz). The output is strictly band-limited to
16 kHz. Therefore, the output can pass through a 32 kHz uncompressed
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
link with bit-for-bit transparency. Because sample rate conversion is a
phase-linear process that does not add bandwidth, the 9400’s output signal will continue to be compatible with 32 kHz links even if it undergoes
intermediate sample rate conversions (for example, 32 kHz to 48 kHz to
32 kHz).
Grounding
Very often, grounding is approached in a “hit or miss” manner. But with care it is
possible to wire an audio studio so that it provides maximum protection from power
faults and is free from ground loops (which induce hum and can cause oscillation).
In an ideal system:

All units in the system should have balanced inputs. In a modern system with
low output impedances and high input impedances, a balanced input will provide common-mode rejection and prevent ground loops regardless of whether it
is driven from a balanced or unbalanced source.
The 9400 has balanced inputs.

All equipment circuit grounds must be connected to each other; all equipment
chassis grounds must be connected together.

In a low RF field, cable shields should be connected at one end only — preferably the source (output) end.

In a high RF field, audio cable shields should be connected to a solid earth
ground at both ends to achieve best shielding against RFI.
Power Ground

Ground the 9400 chassis through the third wire in the power cord. Proper
grounding techniques never leave equipment chassis unconnected to power /
earth ground. A proper power ground is essential for safe operation. Lifting a
chassis from power ground creates a potential safety hazard.
Circuit Ground
To maintain the same potential in all equipment, the circuit (audio) grounds must be
connected together:

Circuit and chassis ground should always be connected by setting the 9400’s
GROUND LIFT switch to its GROUND connect position.

In high RF fields, the system is usually grounded through the equipment rack in
which the 9400 is mounted. The rack should be connected to a solid earth
2-11
2-12
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
ground by a wide copper strap — wire is ineffective at RF frequencies because of
the wire’s self-inductance.
9400 Front Panel

Screen Display labels the four soft buttons and provides control-setting information.

Screen Contrast button adjusts the optimum viewing angle of the screen display.

Four Soft buttons provide access to all 9400 functions and controls. The functions of the soft buttons change with each screen, according to the labels at the
bottom of each screen.

Next and Prev ( and ) buttons scroll the screen horizontally to accommodate menus that cannot fit in the available space. They also allow you to move
from one character to the next when you enter data into your 9400.
These flash when such a menu is in use. Otherwise, they are inactive.

Control Knob is used to change the setting that is selected by the soft buttons.
To change a value, you ordinarily have to hold down a soft button while you are
turning the control knob.

Recall button allows you recall a Factory or User Preset.
Selecting the Recall button does not immediately recall a preset. See step
15 on page 2-22 for instructions on recalling a preset.

Modify button brings you to list of controls that you can use to edit a Factory or
User Preset. If you edit a Factory Preset, you must save it as a new User Preset to
retain your edit.

Setup button accesses the technical parameters necessary to match the 9400 to
your transmission system.

Escape button provides an escape from current screen and returns user to the
next higher-level screen. Repeatedly pressing Escape will always return you to
the Idle screen, which is at the top level of the screen hierarchy.

Input meters show the peak input level applied to the 9400’s analog or digital
inputs with reference to 0 = digital full-scale. If the input meter’s red segment
lights up, you are overdriving the 9400’s analog to digital converter, which is a
very common cause of audible distortion.

AGC meter shows the gain reduction of the slow two-band AGC processing that
precedes the separate analog and digital processing chains. Full-scale is 25 dB
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
gain reduction. You can switch the meter so that it either reads the gain reduction of the Master (above-200 Hz) band, or the difference between the gain reduction in the Master and Bass bands.
The latter reading is useful for assessing the dynamic bass equalization
that the AGC produces, and it helps you set the AGC BASS COUPLING
control.

Gate LED indicates gate activity, lighting when the input audio falls below the
threshold set by the AGC gate threshold control (via the Full Modify screen’s
AGC GATE control). When this happens, the AGC’s recovery time is slowed to
prevent noise rush-up during low-level passages.
There is also an independent gate for the five-band compressor. You can
only see its action from the Optimod PC Remote software.

Gain Reduction meters show the gain reduction in the multiband compressors.
Full-scale is 25 dB gain reduction.
The gain reduction meters can be switched to indicate either the analog
AM processing or the digital radio processing.

Multimeters (The rightmost pair of meters) show the instantaneous peak output of the processed audio in units of percentage modulation or the gain reduction of the look-ahead limiter in the digital channel, in units of dB.
These meters can be switched to read the left/right digital processing
chain output signal, the gain reductions of the left and right look-ahead
limiters in the digital processing chain, or the analog processing chain
output signal. In the latter case, the left-hand meter reads negative peaks
of the higher of the two stereo channels and the right-hand meter reads
the higher of the positive peaks.
Studio Level Controller Installation (optional)
[Skip this section if you are not using a studio level controller ahead of the 9400.
Continue with “Quick Setup” on page 2-16.]

As of this writing, the currently manufactured Orban products that can be used
as external AGCs are Optimod-PC 1101 and Optimod 6300. Their manuals contain instructions on how to use them in this application. They are the preferred
choices because their AGCs are identical to the AGC in the 8500.

Discontinued Orban products usable as external AGCs include the 8200ST, 464A
“Co-Operator,” 8100AST, and 1100 OPTIMOD-PC. In this manual, we do not provide step-by-step instructions for setting up all of these older products, although
it should be easy to extrapolate from the instructions we do provide.
2-13
2-14
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
If you are using Orban 8200ST external AGC
If the STL uses pre-emphasis, its input pre-emphasis network will probably introduce
overshoots that will increase peak modulation without any increase in average
modulation. We therefore strongly recommend that the STL transmitter’s preemphasis be defeated (freeing the STL from such potential overshoot), and that the
8200ST be used to provide the necessary pre-emphasis.
If the STL transmitter’s pre-emphasis cannot be defeated, then configure the 8200ST
for flat output. In this case, average modulation levels of the STL may have to be reduced to accommodate the overshoots.
1. Configure the 8200ST’s internal jumpers.
A) Remove all screws holding the 8200ST’s cover in place; then lift it off.
Refer to Figure 2-7 on page 2-15.
B) Place jumper JA in the CLIPPER ON position.
C) If you have defeated the STL transmitter’s pre-emphasis, place jumpers JE and
JF in the PRE-EMPHASIZED position.
D) If you cannot defeat the STL transmitter’s pre-emphasis, place jumpers JE and
JF in the FLAT position.
E) Replace the top cover, and then replace all screws snugly. (Be careful not to
strip the threads by fastening the screws too tightly.)
2. Install the 8200ST in the rack. Connect the 8200ST’s audio input and output.
Refer to the 8200ST Operating Manual if you require information about installation, audio input, and audio output connections to the 8200ST.
3. Set 8200ST Output Level with tone.
A) Press the TONE button on the 8200ST.
The TONE lamp should light and the modulation meters should indicate
“0.” If they do not, re-strap jumpers JB and JC to “peak.” (Refer to Figure
2-7 on page 2-15.)
The 8200ST is now producing a 400Hz sine wave at each output. The
peak level of this tone corresponds to 100% modulation.
B) Adjust the 8200ST’s L OUT and R OUT controls so that the STL transmitter is being driven to 100% modulation.
The L OUT and R OUT controls are now correctly calibrated to the transmitter. If no significant overshoot occurs in the transmitter, the MODULATION
meter will now give an accurate indication of peak modulation of the
STL.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
JE
JF
TOP OF MAIN BOARD
JB
JA
Clipper Jumpers
*CLIPPER ON
Output Pre-Emphasis Jumpers
*FLAT
PRE-EMPHASIZED
CLIPPER OFF
LEFT
OUTPUT
JA
JC
JA
RIGHT
OUTPUT
JE
JF
Line-up Level Jumpers
*PEAK
LEFT
OUTPUT
JB
AVG
RIGHT
OUTPUT
JC
LEFT
OUTPUT
JB
RIGHT
OUTPUT
JC
Figure 2-7: 8200ST Jumper Settings (*Factory Configuration)
LEFT
OUTPUT
JE
RIGHT
OUTPUT
JF
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
C) Turn off the tone by pressing the TONE button.
If the STL transmitter suffers from bounce or overshoot, you may have to
reduce the L OUT and R OUT control settings to avoid peak overmodulation
caused by overshoots on certain audio signals.
4. Set controls for normal operation with program material.
The following assumes that a VU meter is used to determine 8200ST line drive
levels with program material.
A) Set the controls as follows:
HF LIMITER... Set to match the pre-emphasis of the transmission system
L&R Out ................................................................................do not change
GATE .................................................................................................... 12:00
RELEASE ............................................................................................... 12:00
VOICE ......................................................................................................OFF
AGC ..........................................................................................................ON
COUPLE ....................................................................................................ON
B) Feed the 8200ST either with tone at your system reference level (0VU), or with
typical program material at normal levels.
C) Adjust the GAIN REDUCTION control for the desired amount of gain reduction.
We recommend 8-15 dB gain reduction for most formats.
If the STL uses pre-emphasis, its input pre-emphasis network will probably introduce overshoots that will increase peak modulation without any
increase in average modulation. We therefore strongly recommend that
the STL transmitter’s pre-emphasis be defeated (freeing the STL from
such potential overshoot), and that the 464A be used to provide the necessary pre-emphasis.
If the STL transmitter’s pre-emphasis cannot be defeated, configure the
8200ST for flat output. In this case, average modulation levels of the STL
may have to be reduced to accommodate the overshoots.
Quick Setup
Quick Setup guides you through 9400 setup for your primary analog AM transmitter.
It is appropriate for users with modern transmitter plants and without special requirements such as setting up HD Radio processing or CQUAM AM stereo processing. Following this section, you can find more detailed information regarding setup
beyond the Quick Setup screens. In most cases, you will not need this extra information.
Quick Setup assumes that your transmission plant does not need to use the 9400’s
Transmitter Equalizer. This should be true if you are using a modern solid-state
transmitter and have a reasonably wideband antenna system. If your plant needs to
use this to correct tilt, overshoot, or ringing in the RF envelope, then you will have
to adjust it after Quick Setup is completed.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
For the following adjustments, use the appropriately labeled soft button to choose
the parameter you wish to adjust. To change a parameter (like an output level), you
must usually hold down the soft button while turning the knob. However, if there is
only one parameter on a screen, you can change this with the knob alone. (You do
not have to hold down a button.) Let the text on the screen guide you through the
process.
1. Make sure that the transmitter is turned off.
This prevents transmitter damage caused by excessive modulation. You will set
the modulation level later in Quick Setup.
2. Press the front-panel Setup button.
3. Press the Quick Setup soft button when its label appears on the display.
Quick Setup presents a guided sequence of screens into which you must insert information about your particular requirements. In general, the screens are selfexplanatory.
Use the NEXT and PREV buttons to navigate between screens. These buttons will
flash to indicate that they are active.
4. Set the time, date, and Daylight Savings Time.
[Skip this step if you will be using an Internet timeserver to set time, date, and
Daylight Savings Time. See Synchronizing Optimod to a Network Time Server on
page 2-55. To skip this step, press the NEXT button four times.]
A) Press the NEXT button.
The set time screen appears.
B) Hold down the appropriate soft button while turning the knob to enter the
hour, minute, and seconds. Enter seconds slightly ahead of the correct time.
C) Wait until the entered time agrees with the correct time. Then press the
ENTER TIME button to set the clock.
D) Press the NEXT button.
E) Hold down the appropriate soft button while turning the knob to enter the
day, month, and year.
F) Press the NEXT or ENTER DATE button.
G) Turn the knob to specify the date at which Daylight Savings Time begins in
your area.
H) Press the NEXT button.
I) Turn the knob to specify the date at which Daylight Savings Time ends in your
area.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
5. Set output bandwidth.
This step sets the lowpass filter bandwidth in the default transmission preset
(TX1/DAY).
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) Select the lowpass filter cutoff frequency you need by turning the knob.
The setting of the lowpass filter controls your RF occupied bandwidth. It
is very important to set it to meet the government standards in your
country.
OPTIMOD-AM can be readily programmed from its front panel or by remote control for any lowpass filter cutoff frequency from 4.5 kHz to 9.5
kHz (NRSC) in 0.5 kHz steps. Default is NRSC.
Quick Setup programs the filter so that it is down 0.1 dB at the assigned
cutoff frequency. However, you can later edit any transmission preset to
shape the transition region of the input section of the filter to trade off
ringing against bright sound. This may be particularly useful when using
a low cutoff frequency like 5.0 kHz. (See step 7.C) on page 2-27.)
The LPF SHAPE control in the transmission preset does this by allowing
you to set the cutoff frequency so that it is –0.1 dB, –3 dB, or –6 dB. By
making the transition between the passband and stopband progressively
more rounded and gentle, each step trades off duller sound against less
ringing.
6. Set highpass filter cutoff frequency.
This step sets the highpass filter bandwidth in the default transmission preset
(TX1/DAY).
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) Select the highpass filter cutoff frequency you need by turning the knob.
OPTIMOD-AM can be programmed for any highpass filter cutoff frequency from 50 to 100Hz in 10Hz steps. Default is 50 Hz.
The appropriate setting of the highpass filter is not determined by government regulations, but instead depends on both your programming
format and transmitter. Modern transmitters can accommodate frequencies below 50Hz without loss of performance due to bounce or tilt. However, virtually no AM radio can satisfactorily reproduce frequencies below 50Hz. Many produce distortion when attempting to reproduce such
frequencies because their RF AGC circuits are poorly designed and they
mistake low-frequency modulation for changes in carrier level. Simultaneously, 50Hz is a low enough cutoff frequency to retain significant bass
punch and slam with music. We therefore recommend that you set the
highpass filter to 50Hz unless you have a good reason for setting it differently. One reason to set it higher would be if you have an oldertechnology transmitter that cannot reproduce low frequencies without
bounce or tilt. (You should experiment by setting the highpass filter to
various frequencies higher than 50Hz to determine if you can get more
average modulation from your transmitter by doing so.) Another reason
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
would be if your format is predominantly talk, because talk does not require frequencies below approximately 80Hz.
All highpass filters have greater than 30dB/octave rolloff and have a
notch at 25Hz to remove any signaling tones and to protect transmitters
that might be adversely affected by modulating frequencies in this area.
Technically, what you have just done is to set the highpass filter cutoff
frequency in the TX1/DAY transmission preset. This transmission preset is
the default.
7. Set external AGC mode.
Most of the processing structures in the 9400 control level with a preliminary
AGC (Automatic Gain Control). If you are using a suitable automatic gain control
at the studio (such as an Orban 8200ST OPTIMOD-Studio or 464A Co-Operator),
the AGC in the 9400 should be defeated. This is so that the two AGCs do not
“fight” each other and so they do not simultaneously increase gain, resulting in
increased noise.
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) Set external AGC mode by turning the knob.
 Set the field to YES if you have a external AGC (such as an Orban 1100,
1101, 6300, 8200ST OPTIMOD-Studio, Orban 464A Co-Operator, or similar
AGC) installed at your studio feeding the studio-to-transmitter link. This
setting appropriately defeats the 9400’s AGC for all presets.
 Set the field to NO If you do not have an external AGC installed; this setting
enables the 9400 AGC status to be determined by the selected preset.
If you are using an Orban 4000 Transmission Limiter, set field to NO (so
that the AGC function in the 9400 continues to work). The Orban 4000 is
a transmission system overload protection device and is normally operated below threshold. It is not designed to perform an AGC or gainriding function, and it cannot substitute for the AGC function in the
9400.
8. Select your primary input (analog or digital).
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) If your main input source is digital, turn the knob to select DIGITAL or
DIGITAL+J17. Otherwise, select ANALOG.
The only digital encoding that typically uses J.17 pre-emphasis (of which
we are aware) is NICAM. DIGITAL, not DIGITAL+J17, is appropriate for almost anyone using the digital input.
9. Select the stereo/mono mode.
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) Choose the operating mode of the analog AM processing chain.

If you intend to operate in CQUAM® AM stereo, choose STEREO.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Note that Quick Setup does not contain full instructions for setting up a
CQUAM system. Please refer to the detailed instructions following Quick
Setup.

If you are operating your analog transmitter in mono, choose either
MONO L (mono sourced from the left input channel), MONO R (mono
sourced from the right input channel), or MONO L+R (mono sourced from
the sum of the left and right input channels.
If you are sourcing the 9400 with stereo audio and are operating your
transmitter in mono, choose MONO L+R.
The left and right outputs of the analog chain are always active. In any
mono mode, they both emit the same signal.
The stereo enhancer and AGC always operate in stereo and are shared by
the HD and analog processing chains. The stereo/mono mode switching
occurs after the output of the AGC, where the analog and digital radio
processing chains split. The stereo/mono mode settings for the analog
and digital radio processing chains are independent of each other. Like
the analog processing chain, the digital radio processing chain can be
operated in STEREO, MONO-L+R, MONO-L, or MONO-R modes.
10. Set input operating levels.
In this step, you set the operating levels of the 9400 to match the input levels it is
receiving so the 9400’s AGC can operate in the range for which it was designed.
There are separate settings for the analog and digital inputs. If you provide both
analog and digital inputs to the 9400, optimum adjustment is achieved when the
AGC gain reduction meters show the same amount of processing when you
switch between both analog and digital inputs.
This will allow you to switch between analog and digital inputs without
sudden level changes.
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) Feed normal program material to the 9400.
C) Play program material from your studio, peaking at normal program levels
(typically 0VU if your console uses VU meters).
D) [Skip this step if you are not using the analog input.]
Hold down the ANALOG soft button and adjust the knob so that the AGC
meter indicates an average of 10 dB gain reduction.
E) [Skip this step if you are not using the digital input.]
Hold down the DIGITAL soft button and adjust the knob so that the AGC
meter indicates an average of 10 dB gain reduction.
11. Set the digital output sample rate.
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) [Skip this step if you will not be using the digital output(s).]
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
Turn the knob to set the Digital OUTPUT SAMPLE RATE to 32, 44.1, 48, 88.2,
or 96 kHz.
This control sets the sample rate of Digital Output #1, which is the output
most likely to be used to drive your transmitter.
The internal sample rate converter sets the rate at the 9400’s digital outputs. This adjustment allows you to set the output sample rate to ensure
compatibility with equipment requiring a fixed sample rate. In all cases,
the 9400’s sample rate is 32 kHz and multiples thereof up to 256 kHz.
12. Prepare to set output levels.
A) Press the NEXT button.
The positive peak threshold for all outputs is now set to 100%.
You can set asymmetry as desired after you have completed Quick Setup.
The POSPEAKTHR control in the active transmission preset determines
asymmetry. (For Quick Setup, the active transmission preset is TX1/DAY.)
You can use either program material or tone to set the output level (and
thus, the on-air modulation).
 To use tone, press the YES button.
 To use program material, press the NO button.
We recommend using program material because it automatically takes
into account any bounce, overshoot, and ringing in the transmission
plant. A tone setup can cause overmodulation with program material
unless the modulation control in your facility is “textbook perfect.”
13. Set the digital output level.
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) [Skip this step if you are not using the digital output.]
This Quick Setup procedure causes you to adjust Digital Output #1 and
automatically sets its source to AM PROC. If you are also using Digital
Output #2 (to drive a second transmitter, for example), you can adjust it
after you complete Quick Setup.
Turn the knob to set the desired digital output level corresponding to
100% modulation, in units of dB below full-scale.
If you plan to modulate asymmetrically, you must leave headroom for
the positive peaks. For example, you must set the DO 100% control lower
than –2.0 dBfs to support 125% modulation.
The most accurate way to set this control is by observing a modulation
monitor or oscilloscope connected to your transmitter’s common point.
An oscilloscope is the most reliable method because it will unambiguously show negative carrier pinch-off, whereas some monitors have overshoot that can cause them to under-indicate peak modulation.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
14. Set the analog output level.
A) Press the NEXT button.
B) [Skip this step if you are not using the analog output.]
This Quick Setup procedure adjusts Analog Output #1. If you are also using Analog Output #2 (to drive a second transmitter, for example), you
can adjust it after you complete Quick Setup.
Turn the knob to set the desired analog output level corresponding to
100% modulation, in units of dBu (0 dBu = 0.776 Vrms).
The most accurate way to set this control is by observing a modulation
monitor or oscilloscope connected to your transmitter.
C) Press the NEXT button.
If you activated the modulation setup tone in step (12.A) on page 2-21,
the tone will turn off automatically.
D) Press the NEXT button.
15. Choose a processing preset.
A) Turn the knob until your desired preset is visible in the lower line of the display.
B) Press the RECALL NEXT button to put your desired preset on-air.
This step selects the processing to complement various program formats.
After this step, you can always select a different processing preset, program the 9400 to automatically change presets on a time / date schedule,
use a GPI input to trigger preset changes, modify presets to customize
your sound, and store these presets as User Presets.
Preset names are just suggestions. Feel free to audition different presets
and to choose those whose sound you prefer. Your preferred preset
might not be named for your format.
You can easily modify a preset later with the 9400’s one-knob LESS-MORE
feature. Refer to Section 3.
Note that factory processing presets (but not user presets) change their
sonic characteristics depending on the setting of the system lowpass filter. The switch occurs between 7.0 and 7.5 kHz. The presets for bandwidths of 7.5 kHz and above are oriented toward radios with higher audio bandwidth than are the presets for 7.0 kHz and below. In most cases,
the difference is the amount of HF equalization applied and the curve
shape of the equalizer.
Congratulations! You are now on the air with your initial sound. Feel free to
read the material in Section 3 of this manual, which describes the various presets
and how you can customize them to achieve your desired signature sound.
If your transmitter plant is not “textbook-perfect,” you can use the instructions
in the detailed setup procedure (following Quick Setup) to achieve highest aver-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
age modulation by equalizing your transmitter and/or antenna system with the
9400’s Transmitter Equalizer.
16. Complete Station ID (optional).
The Station ID is an optional setting that you can provide to associate the 9400
with the station providing the program material (e.g., “KABC”). The name can
be up to eight characters long. It is used to identify your 9400 to Orban’s 9400 PC
Remote application and appears on the Main Screen when the 9400 is being controlled by the PC Remote application.
A) Navigate to SETUP > NEXT > TIME DATE AND ID > STATION ID.
B) Use the knob to set the each character in the ID. Use the NEXT and PREV buttons to control the cursor position.
C) When finished entering your name, press the SAVE button. If you escape to
the main screen from Setup, you can now see the station name toggle on the
main screen.
The following material provides detailed instructions on how to set up the 9400. If
QUICK SETUP does not fully address your setup needs or if you wish to customize
your system beyond those provided with QUICK SETUP, then you may need the additional information in the sections below. However, for most users, this material is
only for reference because QUICK SETUP has enabled them to set up the 9400 correctly.
Analog and Digital I/O Setup
For the following adjustments, use the appropriately labeled soft button to choose
the parameter to be adjusted. To change a parameter (like an output level), it is
usually necessary to hold down the soft button while turning the knob.
1. Make sure that the transmitter is turned off.
This avoids potential damage caused by overdriving it. You will set the modulation level later in this setup procedure.
2. Temporarily set the external AGC mode to “No.”
A) Navigate to SETUP > NEXT > NEXT > EXT AGC and set EXT AGC to NO.
If you are using a external AGC like the Orban 8200ST, you should restore
this setting to YES after the setup procedure is complete.
3. Adjust Input selector.
A) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > ANLG IN/DIG IN.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
B) Set the INPUT to Analog.
The 9400 will automatically switch to its analog input if signal lock is unavailable at its AES3 input.
4. Adjust Analog Input Reference Level.
[9dBu to +13dBu (VU), or –2 to +20dBu (PPM)] in 0.5 dB steps
[Skip this step if you will not be using the analog input.]
The reference level VU and PPM (Peak) settings track each other with an offset
of 8dB. This compensates for the typical indications with program material of a
VU meter versus the higher indications on a PPM.
This step sets the center of the 9400’s gain reduction range to the level to which
your studio operators peak their program material on the studio meters. This assures that the 9400’s processing presets will operate in their preferred range.
You may adjust this level with a standard reference / line-up level tone from your
studio or with program material.
Note that in this step, you are calibrating to the normal indication of the studio
meters; this is quite different from the actual peak level.
If you know the reference VU or PPM level that will be presented to the 9400, set
the reference level to this level, but please verify it with the steps shown directly
below.
A) Press the RECALL button.
B) Turn the knob until GEN MED appears in the lower line of the display.
C) Press the RECALL NEXT button.
D) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > INPUT > ANLG IN CALIB > AI REF (VU or PPM, depending on which metering system you use).
E) Calibrate using Tone.
[Skip to step (F) if you are using Program material to calibrate the 9400 to
your standard studio level.]
a) Verify EXT AGC is set to NO.
Refer to step 1 on page 2-23.
b) Feed a tone at your reference level to the 9400
If you are not using a studio level controller, feed a tone through your
console at normal program levels (typically 0VU if your console uses VU
meters).
If you are using a studio level controller that performs an AGC function,
such as an Orban 8200ST OPTIMOD-Studio, adjust it for normal operation.
c) Adjust the AI REF (VU or PPM) control to make the 9400’s AGC meter
indicate 10 dB gain reduction.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
d) Skip to step (G).
F) Calibrate using Program.
[Skip this step if you are using Tone to calibrate the 9400 to your standard studio level — see step (E) above.]
a) Verify EXT AGC is set to NO.
Refer to step 1 on page 2-23.
b) Feed normal program material to the 9400
Play program material from your studio, peaking at the level to which
you normally peak program material (typically 0VU if your console uses
VU meters).
c) Adjust the AI REF (VU or PPM) control to make the 9400’s AGC meters
indicate an average of 10 dB gain reduction when the console’s VU meter
or PPM is peaking at its normal level.
If the AGC gain reduction meter averages less than 10 dB gain reduction
(higher on the meter), re-adjust the AI REF (VU or PPM) to a lower level.
If the AGC gain reduction meter averages more gain reduction (lower on
the meter), re-adjust the AI REF (VU or PPM) to a higher level.
G) When finished, reset EXT AGC to YES if required (e.g., if that was its setting
prior to setting AI REF (VU or PPM) level).
Refer to step 1 on page 2-23.
5. Adjust Right Channel Balance.
[Skip this step if the channels are already satisfactorily balanced.]
[3 dB to +3dB] on right channel only, 0.1 dB steps
Adjust the R CH BAL control to achieve correct left/right channel balance.
This is not a balance control like those found in consumer audio products. This control changes gain of the right channel only. Use this control
if the right analog input to the 9400 is not at exactly the same level as
the left input. Be certain that the imbalance is not caused by one program source, but is instead introduced through distribution between the
console output and 9400 input. This adjustment is best accomplished by
playing program material that is known to be monophonic or by setting
the mixing console into mono mode (if available).
It is always better to correct the problem in the transmission chain causing the imbalance instead of using the R CH BAL control, which is really a
“band aid” for misalignment elsewhere in the system.
This control affects the balance of both the analog and digital processing
chains. If a given chain is in a MONO mode, you will not be able to see the
effect of this control on that chain. However, if you are in MONO L+R
mode, the control will still adjust the right channel’s contribution to the
L+R sum.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
6. Adjust the Digital Input Reference Level and Right Balance controls.
[Skip this step if you will not be using the digital input.]
A) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > INPUT > DIG IN and set the input source to Digital.
B) Repeat steps 3 through 5 (starting on page 2-23), but use the DI REF (VU OR
PPM) and R CH BAL controls for the digital section.
7. Set output bandwidth and highpass filter cutoff frequency.
A) Navigate to SETUP > MODIFY TR PRESET > TX1/DAY .
To describe their most common application, the four transmission presets
are labeled TX1/DAY, TX1/NIGHT, TX2/DAY, and TX2/NIGHT, although
they can be applied in a completely general way to the requirements of
your transmission facility. Transmission Presets can be recalled by remote
control (GPI or PC Remote) and/or at preset times by the 9400’s clockbased automation. TX1/DAY is the default transmission preset and many
stations will always use it once they have set it up.
The controls within a given transmission preset include lowpass filter
cutoff frequency, lowpass filter shape, highpass filter cutoff frequency,
positive peak threshold (asymmetry), and six transmitter equalizer controls.
Only one transmission preset can be active at a given time; that preset
determines the parameters applied to all analog AM processed outputs.
Transmission Presets do not affect any output emitting the HD-processed
signal.
Once you have selected a transmission preset, that preset will be active
until you explicitly select another via the front panel, remote control, or
clock-based automation. This is true even if AC power is interrupted.
However, if clock-based automation was scheduled to recall a different
preset during the period when the 9400 was powered down, upon
power-up the 9400 will automatically recall the preset that would have
been on-air at that time if power had stayed on.
B) Hold down the soft key under LOWPASS and Select the desired lowpass filter
cutoff frequency by turning the knob.
Lowpass filter cutoff frequencies range from 4.5 kHz to 9.5 kHz (NRSC) in
0.5 kHz steps. The setting of the lowpass filter controls your RF occupied
bandwidth, so it is very important to set it to meet the government standards in your country.
Note that the user processing presets can only lower the low-pass cutoff
frequency below its setting in active transmission preset. If, in the EQ section of the processing preset, you exceed the lowpass cutoff frequency of
the TX preset, the TX preset setting will always determine the actual cutoff frequency of the processor. For example, if you have set the low-pass
cutoff frequency in the active transmission preset to 6.5 kHz, this can be
lowered to 6.0 kHz or below in a processing preset, but not raised above
6.5 kHz. This is to prevent accidentally creating presets that violate the
occupied bandwidth standards of your governing authority.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
In Region-2 countries, we recommend configuring the 9400 for 9.5 kHz
NRSC-1 lowpass filtering (via the active transmission preset) and the
18dB/octave HF equalizer active with a GAIN of 10dB and a CURVE of 10
(via the active processing preset). This is similar in spirit to the NRSC preemphasis, which also has a maximum gain of 10dB. However, it provides
more midrange boost than the NRSC pre-emphasis, which helps the vast
majority of radios in the field. These are narrowband radios with 2 to 3
kHz audio bandwidth (3dB down). They do not meet the EIA's AMAX
standard (or even come close to it). Of course, if you wish to broadcast
with strict NRSC pre-emphasis, you can easily adjust the 9400's HF Equalizer to do this by setting the HF curve to NRSC.
Some broadcasters have now chosen to reduce their output bandwidth
below the NRSC limit voluntarily. Setting the output bandwidth to 7.0
kHz or below in a transmission preset will automatically invoke the narrowband versions of the factory presets. However, it will not change a
user processing preset.
For countries where narrowband lowpass filtering is required, we recommend setting OPTIMOD-AM’s lowpass filter to 6.0 kHz. This will meet
the requirements of ITU-R 328-5 without further lowpass filtering in the
transmitter. Any such lowpass filters already in the transmitter should be
removed to prevent overmodulation caused by the filter's overshoot and
ringing.
Figure 2-8: Effect of the LPF Shape Control with F = 5.0 kHz
C) Hold down the soft key under LPF SHAPE and turn the knob to determine
whether the input lowpass filter is down 0.1 dB, 3 dB, or 6 dB at the lowpass
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
filter cutoff frequency. By making the transition between the passband and
stopband progressively more rounded and gentle, each step trades off duller
sound against less ringing. See Figure 2-8.
D) Hold down the soft key under HIGHPASS
frequency you need by turning the knob.
AND Select
the highpass filter cutoff
OPTIMOD-AM can be programmed for any highpass filter cutoff frequency from 50 to 100Hz in 10Hz steps. Default is 50 Hz. See the text in
step (6.B) on page 2-18 for guidance on where to set the frequency. Refer to the text in step (B) on page 2-26 regarding global system settings
vs. setting in presets.
E) Set the lowpass and highpass filter cutoff frequencies for any other Transmission Presets you will be using. Note that each preset has an independent setting for lowpass cutoff, lowpass shape, highpass cutoff, and asymmetry.
a) Press ESC.
b) Press the soft key labeled with the transmission preset you wish to adjust.
c) Adjust the filter frequencies as you did in the steps above.
8. Configure analog output(s).
[Skip this step if you will not be using the analog output(s).]
A) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > OUTPUT > ANALOG1.
If necessary, use the NEXT button to scroll horizontally.
B) Set the SOURCE to AM PROC, HD PROC, or MONITOR.
AM PROC feeds the selected output with the output of the processing
chain for analog AM transmitters. HD PROC feeds the selected output
with the output of the processing chain for HD Radio or other digital
transmission channels like netcasts.
C) Set the LOAD control to BRIDGING or 600 OHMS. The normal setting is BRIDGING.
Only set this control to 600 OHMS if your transmitter has been verified to have
a 600-ohm input impedance.
Functionally, the control increases the output level by 4.0 dB when the
control is changed from BRIDGING to 600 OHM. This compensates for the 4
dB loss in the 9400’s EMI filtering network when this network is loaded
by 600 ohms.
If you are using Analog Output #2, navigate to Navigate to SETUP > IO
CALIB > OUTPUT > ANALOG2 and repeat this step.
9. Configure digital output(s).
[Skip this step if you will not be using the digital output(s).]
A) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > OUTPUT > DIGITAL1.
If necessary, use the NEXT button to scroll horizontally.
B) Set the SOURCE to AM PROC, HD PROC, or MONITOR.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
AM PROC feeds the selected digital output with the output of the processing chain for analog AM transmitters. HD PROC feeds the selected digital output with the output of the processing chain for HD Radio or other
digital transmission channels like netcasts.
C) Then set the PRE-EMPH control to J.17 or FLAT.
Almost all systems will require FLAT output. J.17 is only used if you are
driving an STL employing J.17 pre-emphasis (like certain NICAM STLs) and
you have bypassed the J.17 emphasis filter in the STL.)
D) Press NEXT. Then set the DO1 RATE to 32, 44.1, 48, 88.2, or 96 kHz.
The 9400’s fundamental sample rate is always 32 kHz. However, the internal sample rate converter sets the rate at the 9400’s digital output.
This adjustment allows you to set the output sample rate to ensure compatibility with equipment requiring a fixed sample rate.
E) Set FORMAT to AES3 or SPDIF.
Professional equipment usually requires AES3.
F) Set the desired output WORD LGTH (word length).
[14], [16], [18], [20], or [24], in bits
The largest valid word length in the 9400 is 24 bits. The 9400 can also
truncate its output word length to 20, 18, 16 or 14 bits. The 9400 can add
dither for input material that is insufficiently dithered for these lower
word lengths (see the next step).
G) Adjust DITHER to IN or OUT, as desired.
[In] or [Out]
When set to In, the 9400 adds “high-pass” dither before any truncation
of the output word. The amount of dither automatically tracks the setting of the WORD LEN control. This is first-order noise shaped dither that
considerably reduces added noise in the midrange by comparison to
white PDF dither. However, unlike extreme noise shaping, it adds a
maximum of 3 dB of excess total noise power when compared to white
PDF dither. Thus, it is a good compromise between white PDF dither and
extreme noise shaping.
If the source material has already been correctly dithered (as is true for
virtually all commercially recorded material), you may set this control to
OUT. However, particularly if you use the Noise Reduction feature, the
processing can sometimes attenuate input dither so that it is insufficient
to dither the output correctly. In this case, you should add dither within
the 9400.
H) Press NEXT. Then set the DO SYNC.
You can choose INTERNAL (the output sample rate is synchronized to the
9400’s internal crystal-controlled clock) or EXTERNAL (the output sample
rate is synchronized to the sample rate appearing at the 9400’s AES3 input).
I) If you are using Digital Output #2, navigate to Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB >
OUTPUT > DIGITAL2 and repeat steps (B) through (H).
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
10. Set output and configuration level.
This is a preliminary level adjustment. Later in this installation procedure, you
will set 9400 for the highest modulation level that your facility can produce. If
your transmission facility proved to have overshoot, tilt, or ringing when you
tested it in step 11 on page 2-31, you will have to go through the Transmitter
Equalizer adjustment procedure, which starts with step 12 on page 2-31.
A) Make sure that the transmitter is turned off.
B) Turn on the 400Hz calibration tone. To do this:
a) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
b) Set the MODE to SINE.
c) Set SINE FREQ to 400 HZ.
d) Set TONE MOD to 50%.
e) Press the NEXT key.
f) Set TONE CHAN to L+R.
C) Set modulation.
a) Set to its minimum level the AOX 100% or DOX 100% control associated
with the output you are using to drive the transmitter under adjustment.
For example, the AO1 control is found in I/O CALIB > ANALOG1 > AO1 and
the DO1 control is found in I/O CALIB > DIGITAL1 > DO1 100%.
b) Turn the transmitter on.
c) Set the control you adjusted in step (a) to produce 40% modulation.
This leaves 2 dB of headroom to accommodate overshoot in the transmission plant. This should suffice for most plants.
The most accurate way to set this control is by observing a modulation
analyzer or oscilloscope connected to your transmitter.
D) In SETUP > TEST, set the MODE to OPERATE.
E) Drive the 9400 with program material and observe the negative modulation
level. Trim the AOX 100% or DO X100% control associated with the output you
are using to drive the transmitter under adjustment so that you observe 99%
modulation on negative peaks.
Spend time observing the modulation with different program material. If
you see the peak modulation level vary significantly depending on program material, the 9400’s transmitter equalizer can usually improve this
situation considerably.
Note that if you set the processing up for asymmetrical modulation
(which is done by editing the active Transmission Preset) and you observe
negative peaks that are higher than positive peaks, you can correct this
by changing the setting of the POLARITY control, located next to the AOX
100% or DOX 100% control.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
11. Test the equipment downstream from OPTIMOD-AM.
Test the RF envelope at the transmitter’s output to determine if it exhibits tilt,
overshoot, or ringing. If you observe these problems, you can often adequately
equalize it them with the 9400’s transmitter equalizer, whose settings are determined by the on-air Transmission Preset.
Dealing with tilt and overshoot may seem fussy, but every dB of tilt or overshoot
is a dB of loudness lost!
Use the 9400's built-in square wave generator to make this test:
A) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
B) Set the TONE MOD to 0%.
C) Set the MODE to SQUARE.
D) You may now turn the final amplifier on. Observe the RF envelope at the
common point with a DC-coupled oscilloscope and advance the TONE MOD
control until you can easily see the shape of the square wave.
Sweep the TONE FREQ control from 125 to 1000 Hz and observe the shape
of the square wave as you do so. If you are driving more than one transmitter and/or your antenna load changes between day and night, test all
combinations that you will be using.
If the square wave is free from tilt and ringing at all frequencies in the
sweep, you do not need to set up the transmitter equalizer in steps 12
through (13.H)a) below. Otherwise, you must do so to achieve the highest loudness and coverage that your facility can produce.
If you observe problems with some combinations of transmitter and load
but not others, record which combinations cause problems. You will only
need to set up set up the Transmitter Equalizer for these combinations.
You will dedicate one Transmission Preset for each problematic combination so that each combination can be equalized independently.
Figure 2-9 on page 2-33 shows tilt and Figure 2-11 on page 2-35 shows
ringing.
Caution: To avoid damaging the transmitter, do not exceed 50% modulation
with square waves.
Important: Do not place additional clipping devices after OPTIMOD-AM! The
additional distortion introduced by these devices will totally nullify the advantages of OPTIMOD-AM's distortion-canceling clipper and will cause the out-ofband energy induced by clipping to violate FCC or ITU-R standards.
12. Equalize the transmitter’s low frequency square wave response.
[Skip the Transmitter Equalizer adjustment steps [(steps 12 though (13.H)a)] if
the RF envelope square wave test you preformed in step 11 above showed no
sign of tilt, overshoot, or ringing.]
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Overview of Transmitter Equalization
The Transmitter Equalizer has a low frequency section to equalize tilt and a high
frequency section to equalize overshoot and ringing. If you are adjusting a
CQUAM AM stereo plant, you must also adjust a second set of high frequency
controls (for the L–R channel). These L–R controls do nothing in a mono facility.
The Transmitter Equalizer does not affect the 9400’s HD processed output.
The Transmitter Equalizer setup parameters are stored independently in the four
Transmission Presets (See page 1-17). If you are driving two transmitters, you will
usually dedicate either one or two Transmission Presets to each transmitter. Using two transmission presets per transmitter allows you to equalize that transmitter and its antenna load independently for day and night operation. This may
be desirable if the transmission parameters (power or antenna pattern) change
between day and night.
In addition to the Transmitter Equalizer controls, you must set the LOWPASS,
HIGHPASS, and POS PEAK controls in each preset you use.
If you are only driving one transmitter and the plant’s parameters do not change
between day and night, then you only need to use and adjust the default TX1 /
DAY Transmission Preset.
Description of the TX EQ Controls
LF FREQ: Determines the frequency at which the response of the Tilt
Equalizer section of the Transmitter Equalizer is up approximately +3dB.
This control is only available for the L+R (envelope modulation) channel.
LF GAIN: Determines the maximum amount of low frequency correction
provided by the Tilt Equalizer section of the Transmitter Equalizer. The
control is only available for the L+R channel.
HF DELAY: Determines the frequency at which the delay equalizer section of the Transmitter Equalizer begins to add phase shift to correct for
non-constant delay in the transmitter and antenna system. This control is
available for both the L–R and L+R channels.
The L–R channel is only of interest if you are equalizing a CQUAM AM
stereo installation. In mono installations, the L–R Transmitter Equalizer
controls have no effect.
HF GAIN: Determines the frequency at which the High Frequency Shelving Equalizer section of the Transmitter Equalizer begins to roll off the
high frequency response, compensating for overshoot in the transmitter
and antenna system. This control is available for both the L–R and L+R
channels.
Procedure for LF Equalization
You will set up one 9400 Transmission Preset at a time.
A) Connect the vertical input of the oscilloscope to the transmitter’s sampling
loop (or other convenient source of RF).
B) Connect the sync (or external trigger) input of the oscilloscope to an available
9400 analog output.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
There are four analog outputs and you will be using two at most while
adjusting any given Transmission Preset. You may have to move the sync
connection between outputs if you need to set up Transmission Presets
for two transmitters.
C) Turn on the 9400's built-in square wave generator:
a) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
b) Set the TONE MOD to 0%.
c) Set the MODE to SQUARE.
d) Set SQR FREQ to 125 HZ.
D) Turn on the carrier.
E) Observe the RF envelope at the common point with a DC-coupled oscilloscope
and advance the TONE LVL control to produce 30% modulation.
F) Navigate to SETUP > MODIFY TX PRESET > TX1/DAY.
G) If necessary, press NEXT until you see the screen containing the four L+R
transmitter equalizer controls.
H) Review the RF envelope display.
Many transmitters (particularly older designs) will produce an RF envelope resembling Figure 2-9. If the oscilloscope display looks like this, continue to step (I).
If the oscilloscope display looks like Figure 2-10, no low frequency equalization is necessary. Skip to step 13 on page 2-34.
I) Set the L+R LF GN to 10.0 dB.
Setting the L+R LF GN control to maximum low-frequency boost ensures
response that is closest to true DC-coupling, optimizing square wave response.
Depending on the transmitter, this large amount of boost at sub-audible
Figure 2-9: Unequalized RF envelope
(showing tilt)
Figure 2-10: RF envelope requiring
no tilt equalization
2-33
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
frequencies might cause bounce and/or distortion on heavy bass transients in music. In step 15 on page 2-37, you will be instructed to turn the
L+R LF GN control down until these problems are no longer observed.
This will make the measured square wave response poorer. However, engineering realities force a compromise between best small signal (i.e.,
square wave) response and best large signal (i.e., bounce and distortion)
performance. This compromise is best made by careful experimentation
with program material to find the setting of the L+R LF GN control that
gives the highest average modulation without audible distortion.
J) Adjust the L+R LF FR to make the square wave as flat as possible.
Work quickly to avoid overheating the transmitter. Figure 2-10 shows the
result of a successful adjustment. If a display like that in Figure 2-10 could
not be produced by adjusting the LF FR control, transmitter lowfrequency response is inadequate and there is too much low-frequency
rolloff.
A transmitter that cannot be fully equalized can cost up to 4dB average
modulation even though audible frequency response does not suffer because equalization occurs below the audible frequency range. This problem cannot be corrected without modifying the transmitter. In many
cases, such modification is easy: it merely requires bypassing the highpass
filter(s) in the input stage of the transmitter. It also may require replacing
coupling capacitors with capacitors of a larger value. In other cases, fundamental inadequacies in the input, inter-stage transformers (if used),
and/or modulation transformers (if used) are the cause. See the discussion
on page 1-15.
Unless the transmitter is of a relatively modern solid-state design, being
unable to equalize it fully is a good reason to replace it with an up-todate solid-state design using a switching or digital modulator. In most
cases, this purchase will pay for itself in reduced power bills and the new
transmitter will sound far better on the air.
K) Turn off the transmitter and allow it to cool down for several minutes.
13. Equalize transmitter high-frequency response.
A) Set the 9400's square wave controls to produce a 1 kHz square wave at 30%
modulation:
a) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
b) If necessary, set the MODE to SQUARE.
c) Set SQR FREQ to 1000 HZ.
Note: Because the 9400 is digital, its square wave generator cannot produce any harmonics higher than 16 kHz (one-half of its 32 kHz sampling
frequency). To prevent visible ringing of the square wave due to this
sharp cutoff of its higher harmonics, we have applied an internal digital
filter to the output of the 9400's square wave generator. This filter
rounds off the edges and prevents significant ringing. You may want to
look directly with the scope at the unequalized output of the 9400 to get
a feel for what this waveform looks like before it is applied to your
transmitter.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
B) Make sure that the oscilloscope is synchronized to the square wave.
C) Turn on the carrier. Observe the RF envelope at the common point with a DCcoupled oscilloscope and trim the TONE LVL control (if necessary) to produce
30% modulation.
D) Navigate to SETUP > MODIFY TX PRESET > TX1/DAY.
E) If necessary, press NEXT until you see the screen containing the four L+R
transmitter equalizer controls.
To avoid overheating the transmitter, perform steps (C) through (G) quickly.
Adjustment of the high frequency transmitter equalizer controls cannot be done
into a dummy load because the transmitter will overshoot and ring differently
when loaded by the reactance of your antenna system.
F) Set the L+R HF  and L+R HF FR controls to OFF.
If no overshoot is observed, skip to step (H).
G) Adjust the L+R HF  and L+R HF  controls to minimize ringing and overshoot.
The L+R HF DELAY and L+R HF FR controls interact. First, adjust the L+R
HF FR control until any ringing is reduced to the same level as the flat
part of the square wave (you will still have ringing, but no overshoot).
Then adjust the L+R HF DELAY control (which will further reduce the amplitude of the ringing on the leading edge of the square wave while introducing a new ring on the trailing edge) until the amplitude of the
ringing at the leading and trailing edges is equal. The peaks of the ringing at both edges should approach the flattop modulation level as closely
as possible without exceeding it. Note that the L+R HF FR control does
most of the work.
Note also that the L+R HF DELAY control will produce little or no visible
effect until you set it beyond 40.
Adjusting the L+R HF DELAY control like this usually reduces the level of
the ringing to below the flattop modulation level. Reducing the setting
Figure 2-11: Unequalized RF envelope
(showing ringing)
Figure 2-12: RF envelope showing
successful HF equalization
2-35
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
of the L+R HF FR control until the ringing is again at the flattop modulation level will unbalance the ringing at the leading and trailing edge of
the square wave, and necessitate further adjustment of the L+R HF 
control. Alternate between these two interactive controls until the peaks
of ringing at both the leading and trailing edges of the square wave are
at the flattop modulation level. Figure 2-11 illustrates a typical waveform
before adjustment and Figure 2-12 shows the result of a successful adjustment. (The waveform produced by your system may look quite different.)
H) Turn off the square wave generator and turn off the carrier to allow the
transmitter to cool down for several minutes:
a) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
b) Set the MODE to OPERATE.
14. Set the L–R Transmitter Equalizer controls.
[Skip this step unless you are setting a CQUAM AM stereo facility. The controls
under adjustment in this step do not affect a mono facility if the 9400’s analog
processing chain is set to a mono mode.]
After you have set up the CQUAM exciter for best separation without any audio
processing by following its manufacturer’s instructions, you should trim the
9400’s L–R HF FR and L–R HF  controls to maximize stereo separation through
the entire transmission chain, including the 9400. In most cases, you will maximize separation if you set these controls to the same settings as their L+R counterparts. However, it may be worthwhile to sweep the system and trim the L–R
controls to maximize separation. To do so:
A) Navigate to SETUP > I/O CALIB.
B) Set the AM PROC control to STEREO.
C) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
D) Set the MODE to BYPASS.
E) Connect the output of a sweep generator to one input channel of the 9400
(either left or right). Ground the other channel to minimize crosstalk.
Alternatively, you can use a sweep generator with a digital output and
use the 9400’s digital input.
F) Set the sweep generator’s output level to produce about 50% modulation.
G) Observe the output of your CQUAM stereo modulation monitor corresponding to the undriven channel.
H) Navigate to SETUP > MODIFY TX PRESET > TX1/DAY.
I) Press NEXT until you see the L–R HF FR and L–R HF DELAY controls.
J) Set these controls the same as their L+R counterparts.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
K) Interactively tweak these controls to maximize separation (by minimizing the
maximum amount of crosstalk into the undriven channel). It may turn out
that no improvement is possible.
L) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
M) Set the MODE to OPERATE.
15. Test the polarity and LF transmitter equalization settings under program conditions.
A) Apply program material to OPTIMOD-AM's input at normal operating levels.
B) Recall the GEN MED preset:
a) Press the Recall button.
b) Turn the control knob until you see next: GEN MED.
c) Press the RECALL NEXT soft key button to select the GEN MED preset.
C) Turn on the carrier.
D) Navigate to SETUP > MODIFY SYS PST > TX1/DAY.
E) Set the POS PEAK control to 125%:
F) Check modulation asymmetry with the oscilloscope or with your modulation
monitor.
If negative peaks are modulating higher than positive peaks:
a) Navigate to SETUP > I/O CALIB .
b) Press the button corresponding to the active output
c) Change the setting of the POLARITY control.
d) Navigate to SETUP > MODIFY TX PRESET > TX1/DAY.
G) Set the POS PEAK control to 100%.
The 100% setting yields the cleanest sound. (See page 1-16 for an explanation.)
However, if absolute maximum loudness is desired at the expense of
cleanest possible sound, the POS PEAK control may be set as high as
your government regulations and transmitter performance will allow. In
the U.S., FCC Rules limit this to 125%.
Note too that the distortion of older transmitters and most receivers
tends to increase radically when negative modulation of more than 85%
is attempted. In the case of receivers, the major cause of this distortion is
cheaply designed envelope detectors with incorrectly biased diodes. Consider reducing clipping in the processing so that the last 15% or so of
modulation consists of low duty-cycle spikes that can be soft-clipped by
the receiver’s detector. This trades off about 1.5dB loudness loss for substantially cleaner sound.
If you choose to modulate asymmetrically with a transmitter that compresses peaks in the positive direction, do not attempt to modulate be-
2-37
2-38
INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
yond the performance limitations of your transmitter. Doing so would
only cause distortion beyond the distortion intrinsic to asymmetrical operation.
H) Navigate to SETUP > I/O CALIB /
I) Press the button corresponding to the active output.
J) Observe the oscilloscope. Adjust the output level control (AO1 100%, AO2
100%, DO1 100%, or DO2 100%) to achieve as high negative peak modulation as possible without carrier pinch-off.
If all is well, the negative peaks of the envelope modulation will usually
hang close to 100% at all times except during pauses. If the correct adjustment of the output level control seems dependent on the nature of
the program material, the transmitter probably suffers from power supply bounce. See the next step.
To achieve highest possible modulation without carrier pinch-off (and
therefore most efficient utilization of available transmitter power), the
output level control must be adjusted with program material (not test
tones), because the transmitter will almost always behave somewhat differently with program material than with tone. For example, tone cannot
excite power supply bounce.
K) Adjust the L+R LF GN control. (optional)
Some transmitters cannot be corrected fully because the bass boost produced by the equalizer exaggerates power supply bounce problems
and/or causes actual saturation or clipping of modulator stages, transformers, reactors, etc. (see page 1-15). In some cases, a compromise between full tilt correction and these other problems may have to be
achieved by careful experimentation with program material. The 9400's
L+R LF GN control is designed to permit such a compromise.
The preceding transmitter equalization adjustment (using square waves)
was done using the maximum low-frequency boost to ensure response
that is closest to true DC coupling, which optimizes square wave response. If this large amount of boost at sub-audible frequencies causes
bounce and/or distortion on heavy bass transients in music, turn the L+R
LF GN control down until these problems are no longer observed. This
will make the measured square wave response poorer. However, engineering realities force a compromise between best small signal (i.e.,
square wave) response and best large signal (i.e., bounce and distortion)
performance. This compromise is best made by careful experimentation
with program material to find the setting of the L+R LF GN control that
gives the highest average modulation without audible distortion.
If the tilt correction trips overload relays when program material is
broadcast, it is often possible to readjust the trip point of these relays to
avoid this problem but do this with the greatest care, because the transmitter will be endangered by an improperly adjusted overload relay.
Orban accepts no responsibility for transmitter failures introduced by
such re-adjustments, or by the high average power, bass and treble preemphasis, or by any other characteristics of OPTIMOD-AM audio processing.
The care and feeding of your transmitter requires the application of
sound engineering judgment: inadequate transmitters (typically of old
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
vacuum-tube plate-modulated design) may fail, may have their tube life
shortened, etc. Such transmitters are simply incapable of supplying the
average power demands of OPTIMOD-AM processing regardless of
transmitter equalization. If the station is to achieve the full benefits of
OPTIMOD-AM processing, these transmitters must be either repaired,
modified, or replaced.
16. If you will be using other Transmission Presets, repeat steps 11 through
15 to set them.
Substitute the name of the Transmission Preset under adjustment for “TX1/DAY”
in these steps.
Do not forget the set the LOWPASS, HIGHPASS, and POS PEAK controls for each
Transmission Preset that you use.
17. Set Digital Radio output level.
A) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > OUTPUT > DIGITAL[X] (where “x” is the output
you are using to drive the digital radio transmitter.
B) Set the output level to match the clipping level of the digital radio input. Refer to the transmitter manufacturer’s instructions to obtain the correct level.
IMPORTANT: Do not use the output level control to turn down the loudness of the digital channel if it is louder than the analog channel on an
HD AM receiver. Instead, turn down the HD LIMITER DRIVE control in the
on-air preset and save the resulting edited preset as a User Preset. Using
the HD LIMITER DRIVE control minimizes the amount of peak limiting that
the 9400 does, thereby minimizing stress on the codec.
18. End I/O setup.
If you are using a external AGC and you temporarily set the EXT AGC to NO in
step 1 on page 2-23, set the EXT AGC to YES.
19. Select a processing preset.
See step 15 on page 2-22.
Automation Using the 9400’s Internal Clock
1. If you have not already done so, set the system clock.
[You can also set the clock automatically via PC Remote or the Internet. See
Synchronizing Optimod to a Network Time Server starting on page 2-55.]
A) Navigate to SETUP > NEXT > TIME DATE AND ID > SET TIME.
a) Set hours and minutes.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
b) Enter seconds slightly ahead of the correct time.
c) Wait until the entered time agrees with the correct time. Then press the
ENTER TIME button to set the clock.
B) Press the SET DATE button.
a) Set today’s date, using the days, month, and year buttons.
b) Press the ENTER DATE button.
C) Press the DAYLIGHT TIME button.
a) Using the Daylight Saving (DT MONTH and DT WEEK) buttons, set the month
and week when Daylight Saving Time (Summer Time) begins, or OFF.
b) Using the Standard Time (ST MONTH and ST WEEK) buttons, set the month
and week when Daylight Saving Time (Summer Time) ends.
Note that setting DT MONTH, DT WEEK, ST MONTH, or ST WEEK to OFF will
defeat Daylight Time functionality.
c) Press the Escape key to back out of the daylight saving screen.
D) (Optional) Press the STATION ID button to specify your station’s identifier (call
sign or call letters).
a) Use the knob to select characters. Use the PREV and NEXT buttons to move
the cursor.
b) When you are finished, press SAVE.
2. Navigate to Setup > Next > Automation.
If the AUTOMATION button reads DISABLED, hold it down and turn the knob to enable automation.
This button allows you to easily enable or disable all automation events without
having to edit individual automation events.
3. To add an automation event:
A) Push the ADD EVENT button.
B) Choose whether you wish to program an event that occurs only once or an
event that follows a daily or weekly schedule.
C) For events that occur only once:
a) Use the PREV and NEXT buttons to move the cursor over the word “DAILY:”
and turn the knob so that is reads “DATE:” instead.
b) Use the PREV and NEXT buttons to move the cursor to the day, month, and
year when the automation event will occur. Set the desired values with the
knob.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
c) Use the PREV and NEXT buttons to move the cursor set the hour, minute,
and second (in 24-hour format) when the automation event is to occur. Set
the desired values with the knob.
D) For events that occur on a daily or weekly schedule:
a) Use the PREV and NEXT buttons to move the cursor the each day of the
week in turn, and use the rotary encoder to turn the day on or off.
You can program the event to occur on as many days of the week as you
wish.
b) Use the PREV and NEXT buttons to move the cursor set the hour, minute,
and second (in 24-hour format — e.g., 18:00:00 for 6:00 PM) when the
automation event is to occur. Set the desired values with the knob.
Automation events have a “start” time but no “stop” time. The 9400 will
indefinitely remain in the state specified by an existing automation event
until its state is changed by another automation event or by another action (such as a user’s interacting with the front panel or PC Remote software).
E) For all events:
a) Press the SELECT EVENT button.
b) Turn the knob to set the desired event. The available events are:

Recall factory preset

Recall user preset

Recall transmission preset

Analog processing chain stereo mode

Analog processing chain mono-from left-channel (MONO-L) mode
This mode takes the left channel input, splits it to the left and right inputs of the processing, and applies identical processing to both channels.

Analog processing chain mono-from right-channel (MONO-R) mode

Analog processing chain mono-from-sum-of-channels (MONO-SUM)

Digital processing chain stereo mode

Digital processing chain mono-from left-channel (MONO-L) mode

Digital processing chain mono-from right-channel (MONO-R) mode

Digital processing chain mono-from-sum-of-channels (MONO-SUM)

Bypass Mode (Bypasses the analog and digital processing chains, applying the signal at the 9400’s active input to all outputs with a gain
set by the SETUP > TEST > BYPASS GAIN control.)
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400

Exit Test (restores the operating preset that was on-air before a test
mode was invoked)

No function
F) When you have programmed an event to your satisfaction, press the SAVE
EVENT button.
You will return to the automation menu.
4. To edit an existing event:
A) Press the VIEW > EDIT EVENT button.
You can search by date or event (e.g., recalling a given preset). Use the
NEXT button to navigate between DATE and EVENT.
B) Turn the knob until you see the event you wish to edit.
C) Press the EDIT EVENT button.
D) Edit the event as desired. Use the same technique as adding an event.
See step 3 on page 2-40.
E) Press the SAVE EVENT button to store your edits.
5. To delete an event:
A) Press the DELETE EVENT button.
B) Choose the event to delete with the knob.
C) When you have located the event you want to remove, press the DELETE
EVENT button.
This action will immediately delete the event. There is no “are you sure”
warning message. To abort the deletion, press the ESC button, not the
DELETE EVENT button.
Security and Passcode Programming
[Skip this step if you do not plan to use PC Remote software or do not plan to lock
out the front panel locally.]
The 9400 has five levels of security to prevent unauthorized people from changing
its programming or operating state. Security controls access to the front panel and
to anyone connecting to the 9400 through a direct serial connection, dial-up networking (through modems), or its Ethernet port.
The security levels are:
1. All Access (i.e., administrator level)
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
2. All Access except Security
3. All Screens except Modify and Security
4. Recall, Modify, and Automation
5. Recall Presets and Program Automation
6. Recall Presets
7. View Meters and Presets (read-only)
There is no default passcode. The Optimod’s front panel cannot be locked out unless
the Optimod has been assigned at least one All Access passcode.
Your Optimod secures User Presets by encrypting them (using the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm with the session passcode as its key) when PC Remote
fetches them. Hence, a packet sniffer cannot intercept User Presets in plaintext form.
PC Remote then writes the fetched User Presets in encrypted form on your hard
drive, where they remain for the duration of your PC Remote session.
If PC Remote exits normally, it will erase these temporary User Preset files
from your computer’s hard disk. If it does not exit normally, these files
will remain in encrypted form. However, the next time that PC Remote
starts up, it will automatically clean up any orphaned files.
To Create a Passcode:
A) Navigate to SETUP > SECURITY > ADD PASSCODES.
If the front panel is already password protected, you can only access this
screen by entering a passcode with All Access privileges.
B) Use the four soft buttons, labeled“1,” “2,” “3,” and “4,” to create a passcode.
Passcodes can be up to eight characters long but can only contain the
characters “1,” “2,” “3,” and “4.” This limitation makes it easy to enter a
passcode using the four available soft buttons.
C) When you have finished entering your new passcode, write it down so you do
not forget it. Then press the NEXT button.
If you wish to discard the passcode you just entered, press the ESC button
instead. Then return to step (B).
D) The PERMISSIONS screen appears. Turn the knob to choose the permission level
for the passcode you just created.
If you wish to discard the passcode you just entered, press the PREV button to return to the Enter Passcode screen or ESC to return to the Security screen.
E) Press the NEXT button to save your new passcode.
To Edit a Passcode:
A) Navigate to SETUP > SECURITY > VIEW-EDIT PASSCODES.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
If the front panel is already password protected, you can only access this
screen by entering a passcode with ALL ACCESS privileges.
B) Turn the knob until you see the passcode you want to edit.
C) Press the NEXT button. The Permissions screen appears.
D) Turn the knob to set the desired permission level for the passcode you are editing.
E) Press the NEXT button to confirm your choice.
Your new permission level is stored and the Security menu appears.
To Delete a Passcode:
A) Navigate to SETUP > SECURITY > DELETE PASSCODES.
If the front panel is already password protected, you can only access this
screen by entering a passcode with All Access privileges.
B) Turn the knob until you see the passcode you want to delete.
C) Press the NEXT button. The Confirm Delete screen appears.
D) Press the YES soft button to delete the passcode. Press the NO or ESCAPE
buttons to abort deleting the passcode.
To Lock the Front Panel Immediately:
After you have adjusted the processor, to maximize security you will often want
to lock it immediately without waiting for the timeout. To do so:
A) Press the SETUP button.
B) If the LOCK NOW soft button is not visible, press the NEXT button until you see
it.
C) Press the LOCK NOW soft button.
To Program local lockout:
A) Navigate to SETUP > SECURITY.
If the front panel is already password protected, you can only access this
screen by entering a passcode with ALL ACCESS privileges.
B) Hold down the AUTOLOCK soft button and turn the knob to set the desired
lockout time (if any).
You can program the lockout delay time (in hours:minutes) from 1 minute to 8 hours, or OFF. This is the time delay between the last access to a
local front panel control and when the front panel automatically locks itself out, requiring entering a passcode to obtain front panel control of
the 9400.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
Autolock can only be turned on if at least one passcode exists with ALL
ACCESS privileges because an ALL ACCESS passcode is required to fully
unlock the panel or to turn off the Autolock function.
C) Press the ESCAPE button to leave the Security menu.
To Unlock the Front Panel:
A) On the 9400 front panel, operate any button or the knob.
The PASSCODE screen will appear.
B) Enter a passcode using the four soft buttons.
The 9400 functionality that you can access depends on the security level
of the passcode that you entered.
After you have finished working, the panel will automatically re-lock after the time delay you set in SETUP > SECURITY > AUTOLOCK. (You can set a
new delay at any time if you have an ALL ACCESS passcode.)
Dial-up Networking and the Passcode
When you make a Windows Dial-up Networking connection, Windows will ask you
for your passcode. To allow the connection to occur, enter any passcode that you set
at the 9400’s front panel. Once your PC is connected to the 9400, you will be able to
access the 9400 functionality corresponding to the security level of your passcode.
If you have not set a passcode, leave the Windows dialog box blank.
If You Have Forgotten Your Passcode
You can reset factory defaults and wipe out security passcodes (in case you forgot
your ALL ACCESS passcode).
A) Remove power from the 9400.
B) While pressing both the ESCAPE and SETUP buttons, restore power.
The Restore Defaults screen appears.
C) To gain access to the 9400, press the ERASE ALL PASSCODES soft button.
D) Reprogram passcodes as necessary; see To Create a Passcode on page 2-43.
The RESTORE DEFAULTS button (in the Restore Defaults screen) restores
all System Setup and Input/Output parameters to their factory default
settings. It also erases all passcodes. You should never need to use this
button in an existing installation, although it is a convenient way to
make the 9400 “factory fresh” if it is being installed in a different facility.
The RESTORE DEFAULTS button takes you to a screen that allows you to
keep or erase any user presets that exist in your unit.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Remote Control Interface Programming
[Skip this step if you do not wish to program the GPI (contact closure) remote control interface.]
1. Navigate to SETUP > NEXT > NETWORK & REMOTE > REMOTE INTERFACE.
2. Program one or more remote control interfaces.
A) Navigate to the desired Remote Interface button (1 through 8) by repeatedly
pressing the NEXT button.
B) Hold down the button while turning the knob to select the desired function
for the interface.
Use either button below the appropriate graphics; both work the same.
A momentary pulse of voltage will switch most functions, except as
noted.

Preset Name: switches the named preset on the air. The control interface
can recall any factory or user preset.

Input: Analog: selects the analog inputs.

Input: Digital: selects the digital input and but does not apply deemphasis to it.

Input: Digital+J.17: selects the digital input and applies J.17 de-emphasis
to it.

Bypass: switches the Bypass Test Mode on the air.

Tone: switches the Tone Test Mode preset on the air.

Exit Test: If a test preset is presently on the air, EXIT TEST reverts to the
previous processing preset.

Analog Chain Stereo: connects the left and right outputs of the stereo
enhancer and AGC (which always operate in stereo) to the left and right
inputs of the analog chain processing. The analog chain processing starts
with its equalizer section.

Analog Chain Mono from Left, Mono from Right, or Mono from
Sum: Takes the Left, Right, or Sum (L+R) from the outputs of the stereo
enhancer and AGC and applies it to the left and right inputs of 9400’s
analog processing chain. In any of these modes, the left and right outputs
of the analog processing chain carry identical signals and either can be
used to drive a mono transmitter.

Digital Chain Stereo: connects the left and right outputs of the stereo
enhancer and AGC (which always operate in stereo) to the left and right
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
inputs of the digital (HD) chain processing. The digital chain processing
starts with its equalizer section.

Digital Chain Mono from Left, Mono from Right, or Mono from
Sum: Takes the Left, Right, or Sum (L+R) from the outputs of the stereo
enhancer and AGC and applies it to the left and right inputs of 9400’s
digital processing chain. In any of these modes, the left and right outputs
of the digital processing chain carry identical signals. While the digital
chain will ordinarily operate in stereo, these mono modes can be useful to
recover from a situation where one channel of a stereo STL fails.

Transmission Preset: Puts any of the four transmission presets
(TX1/DAY, TX1,NIGHT, TX2/DAY, or TX2/NIGHT) on air.

Monitor Mute: mutes any output that is set for “monitor” (not “transmitter”). By connecting this output to a loss-of-carrier alarm, you can
simulate an “off-the-air” condition that mutes the control room monitor,
thereby immediately alerting the talent or operator.

Reset Clock To Hour: resets the internal clock to the nearest hour. For
example, 3:03:10 would be reset to 3:00:00, while 3:53:40 would be reset
to 4:00:00. Use this function to periodically re-sync the 9400’s internal
clock to your station’s master clock.

Reset Clock to Midnight: Resets the clock to 0:00:00. You can use this
function to periodically re-sync the 9400’s internal clock to your station’s
master clock.

No Function: remote input is disabled.
3. End remote control interface programming.
When you are finished programming the remote control interface, press the Escape button to return to higher menu levels.
Networking and Remote Control
[Skip this step if you do not wish to connect to your 9400 remotely, either for
downloading software upgrades or for PC Remote Control.]
The 9400 has a built-in Ethernet connector that can be used with 10 Mbps or 100
Mbps networks using the TCP/IP protocol. You can also connect a PC to the 9400
through the 9400’s RS-232 serial port, either by modem or directly through a null
modem cable.
1. Prepare the 9400 for an Ethernet network connection:
[Skip this step if you will not be using an Ethernet connection.]
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400

See your network administrator to get the data required in the following
procedure.

Note that if you wish to do this from the 9400 PC Remote software, you
must first be able to connect to the 9400. Therefore, you will usually perform
this procedure from the 9400’s front panel to prepare it for connection.
A) Navigate to SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE > NEXT.
B) Press the SET IP ADDRESS soft button.
The IP Address Screen appears.
a) Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the cursor in turn to each digit in the
IP address. Use the knob to set the digit to the desired value. Repeat until
you have selected all the numbers in the IP address assigned by your
network administrator
b) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
C) Set the Subnet Mask assigned by your network administrator if necessary:
a) Press the SET SUBNET MASK soft button.
b) Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the cursor in turn to each digit in the
subnet mask. Use the knob to set the digit to the desired value. Repeat
until you have selected all the numbers in the subnet mask assigned by
your network administrator
c) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
D) Set the Gateway Address assigned by your network administrator if necessary:
a) Press the GATEWAY ADDRESS soft button.
b) Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the cursor in turn to each digit in the
gateway address. Use the knob to set the digit to the desired value. Repeat
until you have selected all the numbers in the gateway address assigned by
your network administrator
c) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
E) Set the IP Port assigned by your network administrator if necessary:
a) Press the IP PORT soft button.
b) Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the cursor in turn to each digit in the
IP port. Use the knob to set the digit to the desired value. Repeat until you
have selected all the numbers in the IP port assigned by your network
administrator
c) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
F) Connect your Ethernet network to the RJ45 jack on the rear panel of your
9400.

If you are connecting to a hub or router, use a standard Ethernet cable.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL

INSTALLATION
If you are connecting directly to the Ethernet jack on a computer, use a
“crossover” or “reverse” Ethernet cable.
G) Press the NEXT button.
2. Prepare the 9400 for modem connection through the serial port:
[Skip this step if you will not be using a modem connection.]
A) Navigate to SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE.
B) Hold down the PC CONNECT soft button and turn the knob until you see
MODEM on the display.
C) Press the MODEM INIT soft button.
D) If the string that appears in the display is S0=4, this is correct. Press the
ESCAPE button and skip steps (E) and (F) below.
S0=4 is the 9400 default setting. This activates auto-answer functionality
in the modem.
E) Set the InIT STRING to S0=4. Use the NEXT and PREV KEYs to move the cursor in
turn to each character in the modem initialization string. Use the knob to set
the character to the desired value. Repeat until you have set all the characters
in the initialization string.
F) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
3. Modem setup:
You will need two modems and two available phone lines, one for your PC and
one for your 9400. Orban Customer Service supports only the 3Com / U.S. Robotics® 56kbps fax modem EXT on the 9400 side of your connection, although other
56kbps modems will usually work OK.
You can use either an internal or an external modem with your PC.
A) Connect the telephone line from the wall phone jack to the wall connection
icon on the back of the modem (modem in).
B) Connect the modem to the 9400’s serial port with a standard (not null) modem cable.
The cable provided with your 9400 is a null modem cable and will not
work.
C) Set the modem to AUTO ANSWER and turn it on.
For 3Com / U.S. Robotics® 56kbps fax modem EXT, set dipswitches 3, 5,
and 8 in the down position to activate the AUTO ANSWER setting. All other
dipswitches should be set to the up position.
4. Prepare the 9400 for direct serial connection through the serial port:
[Skip this step if you will not be using a modem connection.]
A) Navigate to SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
B) Hold down the PC CONNECT soft button and turn the knob until you see
DIRECT on the display.
You are now ready to connect your computer to your 9400 through a null
modem cable connected to your computer’s serial port. Refer to Installing
9400 PC Remote Control Software on page 2-51.
Recalling Presets via Ethernet
using Terminal Emulator Software
You can connect a terminal emulation application to the 9400’s Ethernet port via
TCP/IP, port 23 (which is the standard Telnet port and the 9400 factory default).
When connected like this, you can recall presets.
The version of HyperTerminal that ships with Windows does not support TCP/IP connections, although the full (paid, upgraded) version does. However, you can use the
freeware terminal emulation application PuTTY instead. The following description is
based on PuTTY Release 0.55:
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/
A) Start PuTTY.
The SESSION window appears.
B) Click the TELNET button, which is hard-wired for Port 23.
C) In the TERMINAL category, check “Implicit CR in every LF.”
You should not have to change any other PuTTY Terminal, Window, or
Connection defaults
D) Type the 9400’s IP address into the “Host Name (or IP address)” field.
The IP address for this connection is the same as the IP address set in step
(1.B) on page 2-48 and is visible in the SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE > SET
IP ADDRESS screen.
E) Name and save the Session if you wish.
F) Click OPEN.
G) Activate the CAPS LOCK on your computer to ensure that you type in uppercase.
To set a different port number:
A) Navigate to SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE > TERMINAL PORT. If TERMINAL PORT is
not visible, press the NEXT button as necessary to scroll it into view.
B) Press the TERMINAL PORT soft button.
C) Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the cursor in turn to each digit in the IP
port. Use the knob to set the digit to the desired value. Repeat until you have
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
selected all the numbers in the IP port assigned by your network administrator
D) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
To recall a preset:
Command
RP XXXXXXX[PASSCODE]
In the above table:
Response
(valid passcode and preset name)
ON AIR: XXXXXXX
(invalid passcode)
ERROR: [PASSCODE] DOES NOT EXIST
(invalid preset name)
ERROR: XXXXXXX DOES NOT EXIST
XXXXXXX is the preset name;
PASSCODE is any valid passcode.

If a non-existent preset name and/or an invalid passcode is entered, the 9400 will
ignore the command.

You can apply this command anytime after the 9400 boots up. The 30-minute
timeout does not apply.

This command is useful in interfacing automation systems to the 9400.

Valid commands are in either upper or lower case, not a combination.

Only one valid command is permitted per line.

The 9400 will not respond to unrecognized commands.

The character code supported is ASCII.
Installing 9400 PC Remote Control Software
This section briefly summarizes the procedure for installing 9400 PC Remote software on existing 9400s. If required, you will find more detailed instructions in the
.pdf file automatically installed on your computer by Orban’s installer program,
Setup9400_x.x.x.x.exe, where “x.x.x.x” represents the software version you are
installing. (For example, for version 1.0 software, this would be 1.0.0.0.)
The PC Remote software is supplied on a CD shipped with your 9400. You can also
download it from ftp.orban.com/9400.
Instructions for using the PC Remote software are found in Section 3 of this manual.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Installing the Necessary Windows Services
The 9400 PC Remote application uses Windows’ built-in communications and networking services to deal with the low-level details necessary to communicate with
the 9400’s serial port. (These services are also used to upgrade your 9400’s firmware
when updates are available from Orban.) The exact process will vary, depending on
how you wish to set up the communications. That is:

If you want to communicate through a local PC, you will need to establish a connection between a serial (COM) port of the PC and the COM port of your 9400
through a null modem cable (supplied with your 9400). You will then use Windows Direct Serial Connect to make the basic connection.

If you want to communicate through a pair of modems, you will use the Windows Dial-Up networking service to make the connection.
You must install the appropriate communications services in Windows (if they
are not already installed) before you can run 9400 Remote software. You may
therefore need to have access to the Windows install disk(s) — or have their image copied onto your computer’s hard drive — before you attempt to use the
9400 PC Remote application.
In all cases, regardless of whether your PC communicates to the 9400
through its serial port or Ethernet connector, it uses the ppp and the
TCP/IP protocols to communicate with the 9400.
Check Hardware Requirements
To connect your PC to your 9400, regardless of the method you choose, you will
need the following:

Orban 9400 OPTIMOD-AM.

If connecting by serial cable: a null modem cable (also called a “reverse” cable),
supplied by Orban with your 9400 when it was shipped. This cable has DB9 female connectors at both ends for connecting the 9400 to the serial port on your
computer. If your computer has a DB25 connector, you will need to obtain an
adapter.

If connecting by modem: a 3Com / U.S. Robotics® 56kbps fax modem EXT and
normal (not null) modem cable for the 9400 side of the connection. Note that
Orban Customer Service does not support any other type of modem for connecting to the 9400.

If connecting by network: a standard Ethernet cable (with RJ45 connectors) to
connect to a network hub or router, or a crossover Ethernet cable to connect directly to your PC’s Ethernet jack.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL

INSTALLATION
PC running Windows 2000 (SP3 or higher) or XP.
9400 PC Remote will not run on older Windows versions.
Recommended Components
Computer.................................................................... Pentium II or higher
Available Disk Space .......................................................................... 25MB
RAM .................................................................................................. 256MB
Display.................................................................................SVGA or higher
Microsoft Windows ................. 2000 SP3 (or higher) or XP (Home or Pro)
COM Port ...................................................... 16550 (or compatible) UART
WARNING!
When connecting your 9400, use shielded cable to protect the pins in the RS-232
connector from electrostatic discharge.
The following subsections provide steps for connecting to your 9400 OPTIMOD-AM
software using the Windows 2000 / XP Direct Cable Connect or via modem connection.
Running the Orban Installer Program
Insert the installer CD into your computer’s CD drive.
The installer should start up and ask you if you wish to install the PC Remote application on your computer. If it fails to do so, navigate to Start \ Run on your computer, and type X:setup (where “X” is the drive letter of your CD drive).
Follow the prompts on your screen to install the PC Remote software automatically
on your computer.

You might have obtained the automatic installer application from some other
source than Orban’s CD, like Orban’s ftp site or another computer on your network. If so, just run the application and follow the on-screen instructions.

This program installs the necessary files and adds an Orban / Optimod 9400
folder to your computer’s Start Menu. This folder contains shortcuts to the PC
Remote application and to the documentation. If you accepted the option during installation, there is also a shortcut to the PC Remote application on your
desktop.
You have now installed all files necessary to use the PC Remote software. If you are
using a direct serial or a modem connection, the next step is to install and configure
the Windows communications services that allow your computer to communicate
with your 9400. Appendix: Setting Up Serial Communications on page 2-59 provides
details.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Setting Up Ethernet, LAN, and VPN Connections
If you are using an Ethernet connection and your computer can successfully connect
to the Internet through its Ethernet port, it already has the correct (TCP/IP) networking set up to communicate with the 9400. In most cases, all you need is your 9400’s
IP address, Port, and Gateway number, as set in step 1 on page 2-47. You will enter
these when you create a “connection” to your 9400 from the 9400 PC Remote application — see step (E) on page 3-62. If your computer does not have a working
Ethernet port, you will need to add one and then following the instructions provided by Microsoft to set it up to enable TCP/IP networking.
If you wish to connect to your 9400 through your LAN or VPN (through a WAN or
the Internet), consult your network administrator. Note that to cross subnets, you
must specify a gateway. If the PC and 9400 are on the same subnet, then it is unnecessary to specify a gateway.
If you are behind a firewall, you must open the port you specified in step (1.E) on
page 2-48. If the gateway, port, and firewall (if used) are configured correctly, it is
possible to connect 9400 PC Remote to a 9400 via a VPN.
Conclusion
By carefully following the instructions in the Appendix, you should have successfully
installed the necessary Windows services and connected to your 9400. However, if
you experience any problems with this process, or have any other 9400 questions,
please contact Orban Customer Service:
phone: +1 510 351-3500
email: custserv@orban.com
For details on your new 9400 software, from new features to operational suggestions, refer to our FTP site (ftp.orban.com/9400).
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
Synchronizing Optimod to a Network Time
Server
[Skip this section if you do not wish to automatically synchronize your Optimod’s internal clock to a network timeserver, which may be part of your local network or located on the Internet.]
1. Navigate to SETUP > NEXT > TIME DATE AND ID > NEXT > TIME SYNC.
A) Use the PROTOCOL control to choose either TIME PRO or SNTP.
 Select TIME PRO if the Optimod is behind a firewall that does not pass UPD
packets. TIME PRO selects the Time Protocol as described in the standard
RFC868. This method uses TCP on port 37.
 Select SNTP if your network timeserver supports the Simple Network Time
Protocol as described in standard RFC1769. This method uses UDP on port
123.
Ask your network administrator which protocols are available. SNTP is
slightly more accurate.
B) Using SYNC PERIOD, choose how often your Optimod will automatically update
its internal clock to the timeserver you selected.
The choices are OFF, 8 HOURS, and 24 HOURS.
If the connection to the timeserver fails (due to network overload or
other problems), your Optimod will try once per hour to synchronize until it is successful.
C) Set the OFFSET to the difference (in hours) between your time zone and Uni-
Name
time-a.nist.gov
time-b.nist.gov
time-a.timefreq.bldrdoc.gov
time-b.timefreq.bldrdoc.gov
time-c.timefreq.bldrdoc.gov
utcnist.colorado.edu
time.nist.gov
time-nw.nist.gov
nist1.symmetricom.com
nist1-dc.glassey.com
nist1-ny.glassey.com
nist1-sj.glassey.com
nist1.aol-ca.truetime.com
IP Address
129.6.15.28
129.6.15.29
132.163.4.101
132.163.4.102
132.163.4.103
128.138.140.44
192.43.244.18
131.107.1.10
69.25.96.13
216.200.93.8
208.184.49.9
207.126.98.204
207.200.81.113
nist1.aol-va.truetime.com
nist1.columbiacountyga.gov
205.188.185.33
68.216.79.113
Location
NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland
NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland
NIST, Boulder, Colorado
NIST, Boulder, Colorado
NIST, Boulder, Colorado
University of Colorado, Boulder
NCAR, Boulder, Colorado
Microsoft, Redmond, Washington
Symmetricom, San Jose, California
Abovenet, Virginia
Abovenet, New York City
Abovenet, San Jose, California
TrueTime, AOL facility, Sunnyvale, California
TrueTime, AOL facility, Virginia
Columbia County, Georgia
Table 2-1: NIST-referenced timeservers
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
versal Time (UTC).
UTC is also known as GMT, or Greenwich Mean Time.
 The value can range between –12 and +12 hours. If this value is set to 0,
your Optimod’s time will be the same as UTC.
 You can empirically adjust this value until the correct time for your location
is displayed after you synchronize your Optimod to a timeserver.
2. Choose a timeserver.
http://www.boulder.nist.gov/timefreq/service/time-servers.html provides a current list of timeservers available on the Internet. You network may also have a
local timeserver; ask your network administrator.
As of April 2006, NIST’s list was as shown in Table 2-1 on page 2-55.
3. Press the NEXT button to set up timeserver parameters.
The TIME SERVER button is located on the second page of the TIME SYNC functions. (You can access this function from anywhere in the Optimod menu tree by
navigating to SETUP > NEXT > TIME DATE AND ID > NEXT > TIME SYNC > NEXT.)
You can specify the timeserver either from your Optimod’s front panel or from
its PC Remote software. From the front panel, you can only enter the timeserver’s IP address (for example, 192.43.244.18). If you specify the timeserver
from PC Remote, you can specify either its named address (for example,
time.nist.gov) or its IP address.
4. Specify the time sync parameters from your Optimod’s front panel:
[Skip this step if you wish to specify the timeserver and time sync parameters
from your Windows XP computer.]
A) Press the TIME SERVER button.
The timeserver IP Address Screen appears.
a) Use the NEXT and PREV keys to move the cursor in turn to each digit in the
IP address. Use the knob to set the digit to the desired value. Repeat until
you have selected all the numbers in the desired IP address.
b) Press the SAVE soft button to confirm your setting.
B) Press the SYNC NOW soft button to test your settings. Your Optimod’s display
should indicate that it is connecting to the IP address that you specified. When
the connection is successful, the Optimod’s clock will automatically synchronize to the timeserver.
 If the connection is not successful within five seconds, the display will indicate that the connection failed. This means either that the timeserver is too
busy or that your setup cannot connect to the timeserver. Double-check the
IP address. If you are behind a firewall, make sure that port 123 is open.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
 If your connection failed, the gateway address might not be set correctly
on your Optimod. The gateway address for the timeserver connection is the
same gateway address that you set in step (1.D) on page 2-48. If you do not
know the correct gateway address, you can often discover it by connecting
a Windows computer to the same Ethernet cable that is ordinarily plugged
into your Optimod. Ascertain that the computer can connect to the Internet. At the command prompt, type ipconfig. The computer will return
the “Default Gateway.”
5. Specify the time sync from the Optimod PC Remote software:
[Skip this step if you wish to specify the timeserver and time sync parameters
from your Optimod’s front panel.]
Optimod PC Remote software can automatically set your Optimod’s local time,
OFFSET, and TIME SERVER to reflect the Windows settings in the machine running
PC Remote software.
If you are running Windows 2000, you cannot specify the timeserver from
your computer. However, you can still set your Optimod’s clock and offset.
A) In Windows, navigate to the CONTROL PANEL > DATE AND TIME > TIME ZONE tab.
B) Set time zone to correspond to your local time zone.
C) In Windows, navigate to the CONTROL PANEL > DATE
tab.
AND
TIME > INTERNET TIME
D) If you are running Windows XP:
a) Check “Automatically synchronize with an Internet time server” to set your
Optimod’s SYNC PERIOD to “24.”
Depending on how your network is configured, this option may not be
available in Windows XP, so “Automatically synchronize with an Internet
time server” will not appear. In this case, you must use your Optimod’s
front panel to set the timeserver (step 4 on page 2-56 ).
b) Set “Server” to the desired timeserver.
c) Click the “Update Now” button to synchronize your computer’s clock to
the selected timeserver. If this is successful, this means that you can connect
to the selected timeserver over your network.
 The INTERNET TIME tab is not available in Windows 2000. If you are running
Optimod PC Remote on Windows 2000, you must enter the timeserver from
your Optimod’s front panel as an IP address (step 4 on page 2-56).
 If the timeserver you selected in Windows is a named address not an IP address the 9400 will resolve it correctly, but the IP address that appears in
your Optimod’s display will be 0.0.0.0.
 To use PC Remote to turn off your Optimod’s automatic synchronization,
uncheck “Automatically synchronize with an Internet time server” on your
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
PC. Then click the “Update Now” button on PC Remote.
E) Navigate to Optimod PC Remote’s SETUP/ UTILITY tab and click the SET 9400
CLOCK button.
 If you are running Windows XP, PC Remote will download your computer’s
currently specified timeserver into your Optimod.
 PC Remote will adjust your Optimod’s OFFSET setting to correspond to your
computer’s time zone setting.
 PC Remote will synchronize your Optimod’s clock with your computer’s
clock.
F) It is wise to disconnect from PC Remote and then to press the SYNC NOW button on your Optimod [step (4.B) on page 2-56]. This is to test the ability of
your Optimod to synchronize to the selected timeserver and to ensure that
your Optimod’s clock is set accurately.
NOTE: Manually setting your Optimod’s clock via Set Time, Set Date, Daylight
Time, and the remote contact closure Reset to Hour and Reset to Midnight will
not work when the automatic synchronization function is active. To inactivate
this function (thereby permitting manual setting to work), set the SYNC PERIOD to
OFF.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
Appendix: Setting Up Serial Communications
This appendix provides instructions for setting up both direct serial and modem
connections from your 9400 to your PC. You must do this when you define a new
connection from the 9400 PC Remote application. The appendix provides procedures
for both the Windows 2000 and Windows XP operating systems. (Note that the
screen shots were prepared for Orban’s Optimod-FM 8300 and refer to that product.
They are directly applicable to the 9400 too.)
Preparing for Communication through Null Modem Cable
1. Configure your 9400.
A) On your 9400’s front panel, navigate to SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE.
B) Hold down the PC CONNECT soft button and turn the knob until you see
DIRECT on the display.
2. Connect the cable.
A) Connect one end of the null modem cable that we supplied with your 9400 to
the DB9 serial connector on the 9400’s rear panel.
Be sure to use a null modem cable. A normal serial cable will not work.
B) Connect the other end of the cable to your computer’s COM port.
Connecting Using Windows 2000 Direct Serial Connection:
Ordinarily, a direct serial connection through a null modem cable is used only when
you are controlling one 9400 per available COM port on your computer. If you wish
to control multiple local 9400s, it is better to use an Ethernet network connection.
However, in principle you could control multiple 9400s serially from one COM port,
using a hardware serial switch to select the 9400 you wish to control. In this case,
you should set up a separate 9400 “connection” for each 9400 to be controlled, following the instructions below. All connections should reference the same COM port.
This connection is used both for upgrading your 9400 and for connecting the 9400
PC Remote application to your 9400.
Important: The Direct Serial Connection must have exclusive access to the PC COM
port that connects to your 9400. Make sure that any software that monitors this
COM port (such as HotSync manager, etc) is disabled before running Direct Serial
Connection.
If you have already configured your direct serial cable connection, skip to step 2 on
page 2-64.
If you cannot access the Internet after making a Direct or Modem connection, you
will have to reconfigure certain networking parameters in Windows. Please see You
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
Cannot Access the Internet After Making a Direct or Modem Connection of the 9400
on page 5-8.
1. Add and configure a Direct Connection for Windows 2000:
A) Create a New Windows
2000 Direct Connection:
a) Launch
Remote.
9400
PC
b) Choose “Connect / New
9400”
c) Give your 9400 a name
(e.g., “KABC”) by entering this name in the
“9400 Alias” field.
d) If you wish to have
9400
PC
Remote
remember
the
password
for
this
Optimod, enter the
pass-word
in
the
“Password“ field.
e) Select “Serial Connection.”
f) Click “Add.”
g) Select “Connect Directly
to another computer.”
h) Click “Next.”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
i) In the drop-down box, select the serial
port you will be using to make the
connection.
j) Click “Next.”
k) Select either “For all users” or “Only
for myself.”
The correct setting depends on
how your network and security
are configured.
Your wizard may not display this
field if your computer is set up
for a single user only.
l) Click “Next.”
m)Enter a name for your Connection such
as: “Connection to 9400.”
n) Click “Finish.”
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INSTALLATION
o) Click “Yes.”
B) Edit your new Direct
Connection properties:
a) Click “Settings.”
b) Click the “General”
tab.
c) Select the device you
set up in step (i) on
page 2-61. This will
usually
be
“Communications
cable between two
computers (COM1).”
d) Click “Configure.”
ORBAN MODEL 9400
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
e) Set “Maximum
“115200.”
INSTALLATION
speed
(bps)”
to
f) Check “Enable hardware flow control.”
g) Make sure that all other boxes are
not checked.
h) Click “OK.”
i) Select the Networking tab.
j) Make sure that “PPP: Windows 95 /
98 / NT 4 / 2000, Internet” appears in
the “Type of dial-up server I am
calling” field.
k) Make sure that “Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) is checked.
You may leave “File and Printer
Sharing for Microsoft Networks”
and “Client for Microsoft Networks” checked if you like.
l) Click “OK.”
m) When the “Connection properties” window appears, click “OK.”
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2. Launch an existing Windows 2000 Direct connection.
Once you have set up a “connection” specifying Direct Connect in the 9400 PC
Remote application (see To set up a new connection on page 3-61), choosing this
connection from 9400 PC Remote automatically opens a Windows Direct Connection to your 9400.
You can connect by selecting
the desired connection from
the drop-down list in the
CONNECT menu.
You can also connect by double-clicking the connection in
the “Connection List” window.
A dialog bubble will appear
on the bottom right hand corner of the screen verifying
your connection if the connection is successful.
If you have trouble making a connection, refer to OS Specific Troubleshooting
Advice: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Direct Connect on page 5-9. If you have
trouble the first time after creating a connection according to the instructions
above, try restarting your computer to clear its serial port.
3. To change the properties of an existing connection:
Right-click the connection in the “connection List” window and choose “Properties.” The “Connection properties” window opens (see page 2-60).
Connecting Using Windows XP Direct Serial Connection
If you have already configured your direct serial cable connection, skip to step 2 on
page 2-68.
If you cannot access the Internet after making a Direct or Modem connection, you will have to reconfigure certain networking parameters in
Windows. Please see You Cannot Access the Internet After Making a Direct or Modem Connection of the 9400 on page 5-8.
1. Add and configure a Direct Connection for Windows XP:
A) Create a New Windows XP Direct Connection:
a) Launch 9400 PC Remote.
b) Choose “Connect / New 9400”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
c) Give your 9400 a name (e.g., “KABC”)
by entering this name in the “9400
Alias” field.
d) If you wish to have 9400 PC Remote
remember the password for this
Optimod, enter the password in the
“Password“ field.
e) Select “Serial Connection.”
f) Click the “Add” button.
g) Choose “Connect directly to another
computer.”
h) Click “Next.”
i) In the drop-down box, select the serial
port you will be using to make the
connection.
j) Click “Next.”
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INSTALLATION
k) Type in a name for your
Connection
such
as:
“Connection to 9400.”
l) Click “Finish.”
m)Click “Yes.”
B) Edit your new Direct
Connection properties:
a) Click “Settings.”
ORBAN MODEL 9400
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
b) Click the “General” tab.
c) Select the device you set up in step (i)
on page 2-65. This will usually be
“Communications cable between two
computers (COM1).”
d) Click “Configure.”
e) Set the “Maximum Speed (bps)” to
115200.
f) Check “Enable hardware flow control.”
g) Make sure all other hardware features
are unchecked.
h) Click “OK.”
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
i) Select the Networking tab.
j) Make sure that “PPP:
Windows 95 / 98 / NT 4 /
2000, Internet” appears in
the “Type of dial-up server I
am calling” field.
k) Make sure that “Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP) is checked.
You may leave “File and
Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks” and
“Client for Microsoft
Networks” checked if
you like
l) Click “OK.”
m)When
the
“Connection
properties”
window
appears, click “OK.”
2. Launch an existing Windows XP Direct connection.
Once you have set up a “connection” specifying Direct Connect in the 9400 PC
Remote application (see To set up a new connection on page 3-61), choosing this
connection from 9400 PC Remote automatically opens a Windows Direct Connection to your 9400.
You can connect by selecting the
desired connection from the dropdown list in the CONNECT menu.
You can also connect by doubleclicking the connection in the
“Connection List” window.
A dialog bubble will appear on the
bottom right hand corner of the
screen verifying your connection if
the connection is successful.
If you have trouble making a connection, refer to Troubleshooting Windows XP
Direct Connect on page 5-11. If you have trouble the first time after creating a
connection according to the instructions above, try restarting your computer to
clear its serial port.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
3. To change the properties of an existing connection:
Right-click the connection in the “connection List” window and choose “Properties.” The “Connection properties” window opens (see page 2-60).
Preparing for Communication through Modems
1. Prepare your 9400 for a modem connection through the serial port.
See step 2 on page 2-49.
2. If you have not already done so, create a 9400 passcode.
See To Create a Passcode on page 2-43.
3. Modem setup:
You will need two modems and two available phone lines, one of each for your PC
and your 9400.
Reminder: Orban supports only the 3Com / U.S. Robotics® 56kbps fax
modem EXT on the 9400 side (although other 56kbps modems will often
work.
Connect the modem to the 9400’s serial port with a standard (not null) modem cable. The cable provided with your 9400 is a null modem cable and will not work.
You can use either an internal or an external modem with your PC.
A) Connect the telephone line from the wall phone jack to the wall connection
icon on the back of the modem (modem in).
B) Connect the modem cable from the modem to the serial port of the 9400.
C) Set the modem to AUTO ANSWER and turn it on.
For 3Com / U.S. Robotics® 56kbps fax modem EXT, set dipswitches 3, 5,
and 8 in the down position to activate the AUTO ANSWER setting. All
other dipswitches should be set to the up position.
Connecting Using Windows 2000 Modem Connection
This connection is used both for upgrading your 9400 and for connecting the 9400
PC Remote application to your 9400.
1. Add and configure modem for Windows 2000:
If your modem is already installed, skip to Launch a Windows 2000 Modem connection on page 2-75.
A) Install Windows 2000 modem:
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Use either an internal modem or external modem with your computer.
a) If you are using an external modem, connect the modem to a serial port on
your PC and make sure the modem is connected to a working phone line.
b) On your PC, click “Start / Settings / Control Panel / Phone and Modem
Options.”
c) Click the “Modems” tab.
d) Verify that your modem appears in the list available under “The following
Modems are installed.”
e) Verify that your modem is “Attached to” the correct port.
If your modem is unavailable or not attached to the correct port, you will
need to Add it. See your Windows documentation.
f) If your modem is available in the list available under “The following
Modems are installed” and it is attached to the correct port, then click
“Properties” for that modem.
g) Make sure the port speed is set at 115200.
h) Click “OK.”
B) Create a New Windows 2000 Dial-Up Connection:
a) Click “Start / Settings / Network and Dial-up Connections / Make New
Connection.”
b) Once the New Connection Wizard has opened, Click “Next.”
C) Create a New Windows 2000 Direct
Connection:
a) Launch 9400 PC Remote.
b) Choose “Connect / New 9400”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
c) Give your 9400 a name (e.g., “KABC”)
by entering this name in the “9400
Alias” field.
d) If you wish to have 9400 PC Remote
remember the password for this
Optimod, enter the password in the
“Password“ field.
e) Select “Serial Connection.”
f) Click the “Add” button.
g) Select “Dial-up to private network.”
h) Click “Next.”
i) Enter the phone number of the modem connected to the 9400 that you
are setting up.
j) Click the “Next” button.
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
k) Select either “For all
users” or “Only for
myself.”
The correct setting
depends on how your
network and security
are configured.
This screen may not
appear in computers
set up for single users.
l) Click the “Next” button.
m)Type in a name for your
Connection such as: “Connection to 9400–Modem.”
n) Click the “Finish” button.
o) Click “Yes.”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
D) Edit your new Direct Connection properties:
a) Click “Settings.”
b) Click the “General” tab.
c) In the “Connect using” field, select
the modem you will be using to make
the connection on the PC side.
d) Click “Configure.”
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INSTALLATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
e) Set “Maximum speed
(bps)” to “115200.”
f) Check “Enable hardware flow control.”
g) Check “Enable modem error control.”
h) Check “Enable mcdem compression.”
i) Make sure that all
other boxes are not
checked.
j) Click “OK.”
k) Select the Networking
tab.
l) Make sure that “PPP:
Windows 95 / 98 / NT
4 / 2000, Internet”
appears in the “Type
of dial-up server I am
calling” field.
m)Make
sure
that
“Internet
Protocol
(TCP/IP) is checked.
You may leave
“Client for Microsoft Neworks”
checked if you
like.
n) Click “OK.”
o) When the “Connection properties” window appears, click
“OK.”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
2. Launch a Windows 2000 Modem connection.
Once you have set up a “connection” specifying a modem connection in the 9400
PC Remote application (see To set up a new connection on page 3-61), choosing
this connection from 9400 PC Remote automatically opens a Windows modem
connection to your 9400.
You can connect by selecting the desired connection from
the drop-down list in the CONNECT menu.
You can also connect by double-clicking the connection in
the “Connection List” window.
If the connection is successful, a dialog bubble will appear
on the bottom right hand corner of the screen verifying
your connection.
If you have trouble making a connection, refer to OS Specific Troubleshooting
Advice: Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Modem Connect on page 5-10. If you
have trouble the first time after creating a connection according to the instructions above, try restarting your computer to clear its serial port.
3. To change the properties of an existing connection:
Right-click the connection in the “connection List” window and choose “Properties.” The “Connection properties” window opens (see page 2-71).
Connecting using Windows XP Modem Connection
1. Add and configure modem for Windows XP:
Skip this step if your modem is already configured and working.
A) Configure the Windows XP PC ports:
Use either an internal modem or external modem with your computer.
a) If you are using an external modem, connect the modem to a serial port on
your PC.
b) Make sure the modem is connected to a working phone line.
c) Click “Start / Control Panel / Systems.”
d) Go to the “Hardware” tab and click “Device Manager.”
e) In the Device Manager dialog box click the “+” next to the “Ports (COM
and LPT)” icon.
A list will branch off, showing your available ports.
f) Double-click “Communications Port (COM1) or (COM2),” depending on
how you set up your system.
The “Communications Port (Comx) Properties” dialog box opens.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
Not all PCs have a COM2.
IMPORTANT: The COM port you choose at this point must match the
COM port to which you connected your modem.
g) From the tabs at the top, choose “Port Settings” and configure the settings
to match your PC modem.
If you are using a U.S. Robotics® external modem, the settings will be:
Bits per second= 115200, Data bits = 8, Parity = None, Stop bits = 1, Flow
Control = None.
h) When you are finished, click the OK button to close the “Communications
Port (Comx) Properties” dialog box.
i) Click the OK button in the “Systems Properties” dialog window.
j) Close the “Control Panel” window.
If your modem is already installed, skip to Launch an existing Windows XP modem
connection on page 2-80.
B) Install the Windows XP modem:
a) Use either an internal modem or external modem with your computer.
If you are using an external modem, connect the modem to a serial port
on your PC and make sure the modem is connected to a working phone
line.
b) On your PC, click “Start / Settings / Control Panel / Phone and Modem
Options.”
c) Click the “Modems” tab.
d) Verify that your modem appears in the list available under “The following
Modems are installed.”
e) Verify that your modem is “Attached to” the correct port.
If your modem is unavailable or not attached to the correct port, you will
need to Add it. See your Windows documentation.
f) If your modem is available in the list available under “The following
Modems are installed” and it is attached to the correct port, then click
“Properties” for that modem.
g) Make sure the port speed is set at 115200.
h) Click “OK.”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
C) Create a new Windows XP modem connection:
a) Launch 9400 PC Remote.
b) Choose “Connect / New 9400.”
The Connection Properties window opens.
c) Give your 9400 a name (e.g., “KABC”) by
entering this name in the “9400 Alias”
field.
d) If you wish to have 9400 PC Remote
remember the password for this
Optimod, enter the password in the
“Password“ field.
You must enter a valid password
to connect. This means that at
least one 9400 passcode must have
been assigned via the 9400’s front
panel. (See To Create a Passcode
on page 2-43.)
e) Click “Add.”
The Windows New Connection
Wizard starts up.
f) Select “Serial Connection.”
g) Click the “Add” button.
h) Select “Dial-up to private network.”
i) Click “Next.”
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
j) Enter
the
phone
number of the modem
connected to the 9400
you are setting up.
k) Click “Next.”
l) Type in a name for
your Connection such
as: “Connection to
9400 – Modem”
m)Click
the
button.
n) Click “Yes.”
“Finish”
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
D) Edit your new Direct Connection properties:
a) Click “Settings.”
b) Click the “General” tab.
c) Select the modem you will be using to
make the connection on the PC side.
d) Click “Configure.”
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
e) Set “Maximum speed
(bps)” to “115200.”
f) Check “Enable hardware
flow control.”
g) Check “Enable modem
error control.”
h) Check “Enable mcdem
compression.”
i) Make sure that no other
box is checked.
j) Click “OK.”
k) Select the Networking
tab.
l) Make sure that “PPP:
Windows 95 / 98 / NT4 /
2000,
Internet”
ap–
pears in the “Type of
dial-up server I am
calling” field.
m)Make sure that “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is
checked.
You may leave “Client for Microsoft
Networks” checked
if you like.
n) Click “OK.”
o) When the “Connection
properties” window appears, click “OK.”
2. Launch an existing Windows XP modem connection.
Once you have set up a “connection” specifying a modem connection in the 9400
PC Remote application (see To set up a new connection on page 3-61), choosing
this connection from 9400 PC Remote automatically opens a Windows modem
connection to your 9400.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
INSTALLATION
You can connect by selecting the desired connection from
the drop-down list in the CONNECT menu.
You can also connect by double-clicking the connection in
the “Connection List” window.
If the connection is successful, a dialog bubble will appear
on the bottom right hand corner of the screen verifying
your connection.
If you have trouble making a connection, refer to Troubleshooting Windows XP
Modem Connect on page 5-12. If you have trouble the first time after creating a
connection according to the instructions above, try restarting your computer to
clear its serial port.
3. To change the properties of an existing connection:
Right-click the connection in the “connection List” window and choose “Properties.” The “Connection properties” window opens (see page 2-71).
Updating your 9400’s Software
The software version number of PC Remote must be the same as the version number
of the software running within your 9400. If the software version of PC Remote is
higher than the version running in your 9400, PC Remote will automatically detect
this and will offer to update your 9400’s software automatically.
1. If you have not already done so, prepare your computer and the 9400
for a direct serial, modem, or Ethernet connection.
See Networking and Remote Control starting on page 2-47.
2. Install the latest version of 9400 PC Remote software on your computer.
This is available from
ftp://orban.com/9400
See Installing 9400 PC Remote Control Software on page 2-51.
See the readme9400_x.x.x.x.htm file (where x.x.x.x is the version number) for details about the upgrade not given in this manual. The PC Remote installer will install this file on your computer’s hard drive.
3. If you have not previously done so, start 9400 PC Remote and set up a
“connection” to the 9400 you will be updating.
See To set up a new connection on page 3-61.
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4. Update your 9400.
A) Attempt to initiate communication to your 9400 via your connection.
See To initiate communication on page 3-62.
9400 PC Remote will automatically detect that the 9400 software version
on your 9400 is not the same as the version of 9400 PC Remote. PC Remote will then offer to update your 9400 automatically.
This procedure will only work for a connection using an “all-screens”
(administrator) passcode.
B) Choose YES and wait for the update to complete. Note that this will cause an
interruption in the audio of approximately 3 seconds when your 9400 automatically reboots after the update is complete. If you cannot tolerate such an
interruption, choose NO or CANCEL to abort the update.
Please be patient; this will take several minutes. (The exact time will depend on whether the 9400 has to do any “housekeeping” to its flash
memory as part of the update.)
Completion will be indicated by the updater’s command-line window’s
closing automatically and your 9400’s rebooting.
Your 9400 will continue to pass audio normally while the update is occurring. However, the audio will be interrupted for approximately 3 seconds
when your 9400 reboots.
Do not interrupt power to your 9400 or your computer, close PC Remote
or the update application’s command-line window, or reboot your computer during this time. While doing any of these things is unlikely to
damage your 9400 (because of extensive backup and error-checking provisions in your 9400), they will certainly cause the update to fail.
C) When the 9400 screen display returns after its automatic reboot, the 9400 will
be running with the updated software.
If the update fails for some reason, try repeating the procedure in steps
(A) through (C) again.
D) If the 9400 screen remains blank for more than one minute after the update
has completed, manually reboot the 9400 by removing AC power from the
9400 for at least ten seconds and then powering the 9400 back up.
E) The 9400 software update is now complete. You should now be able to connect to your 9400 via PC Remote.
NOTE: If you cannot make a connection after a software upgrade, manually reboot the 9400 with a normal “power-off/power-on” sequence.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Section 3
Operation
9400 Front Panel

Screen Display labels the four soft buttons and provides control-setting information.

Screen Contrast button adjusts the optimum viewing angle of the screen display.

Four Soft buttons provide access to all 9400 functions and controls. The functions of the soft buttons change with each screen, according to the labels at the
bottom of each screen.

Next and Prev ( and ) buttons scroll the screen horizontally to accommodate menus that cannot fit in the available space. They also allow you to move
from one character to the next when you enter data into your 9400.
These flash when such a menu is in use. Otherwise, they are inactive.

Control Knob is used to change the setting that is selected by the soft buttons.
To change a value, you ordinarily have to hold down a soft button while you are
turning the control knob.

Recall button allows you recall a Factory or User Preset.
Selecting the Recall button does not immediately recall a preset. See step
15 on page 2-22 for instructions on recalling a preset.

Modify button brings you to list of controls that you can use to edit a Factory or
User Preset. If you edit a Factory Preset, you must save it as a new User Preset to
retain your edit.

Setup button accesses the technical parameters necessary to match the 9400 to
your transmission system.

Escape button provides an escape from current screen and returns user to the
next higher-level screen. Repeatedly pressing Escape will always return you to
the Idle screen, which is at the top level of the screen hierarchy.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400

Input meters show the peak input level applied to the 9400’s analog or digital
inputs with reference to 0 = digital full-scale. If the input meter’s red segment
lights up, you are overdriving the 9400’s analog to digital converter, which is a
very common cause of audible distortion.

AGC meter shows the gain reduction of the slow two-band AGC processing that
precedes the multiband compressor. Full-scale is 25 dB gain reduction. You can
switch the meter so that it either reads the gain reduction of the Master (above200 Hz) band, or the difference between the gain reduction in the Master and
Bass bands.
The latter reading is useful for assessing the dynamic bass equalization
that the AGC produces, and it helps you set the AGC BASS COUPLING
control.

Gate LED indicates gate activity, lighting when the input audio falls below the
threshold set by the AGC gate threshold control (via the Full Modify screen’s
AGC GATE control). When this happens, the AGC’s recovery time is slowed to
prevent noise rush-up during low-level passages.

Gain Reduction meters show the gain reduction in the multiband compressor.
Full-scale is 25 dB gain reduction.
The gain reduction meters can be switched to indicate either the analog
AM processing or the digital radio processing.

Multimeters (The rightmost pair of meters) show the instantaneous peak output of the processed audio in units of percentage modulation or the gain reduction of the look-ahead limiter in the digital channel, in units of dB.
These meters can be switched to read the left/right digital processing
chain output signal, the gain reductions of the left and right look-ahead
limiters in the digital processing chain, or the analog processing chain
output signal. In the latter case, the left-hand meter reads negative peaks
of the higher of the two stereo channels and the right-hand meter reads
the higher of the positive peaks.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Some audio processing concepts
Loudness and coverage are increased by reducing the peak-to-average ratio of the
audio. If peaks are reduced, the average level can be increased within the permitted
modulation limits. The effectiveness with which this can be accomplished without
introducing objectionable side effects (like clipping distortion) is the single best
measure of audio processing effectiveness.
Density is the extent to which the short-term RMS amplitude of audio envelope peaks
is made uniform (at the expense of dynamic range). Programs with large amounts of
short-term dynamic range have low density; highly compressed programs have high
density.
Reducing the peak-to-average ratio of the audio increases loudness. If peaks are reduced, the average level can be increased within the permitted modulation limits.
The effectiveness with which this can be accomplished without introducing objectionable side effects (such as pumping or intermodulation distortion) is the single
best measure of audio processing effectiveness.
Compression reduces the difference in level between the soft and loud sounds to
make more efficient use of permitted peak level limits, resulting in a subjective increase in the loudness of soft sounds. It cannot make loud sounds seem louder.
Compression reduces dynamic range relatively slowly in a manner similar to riding
the gain: Limiting and clipping, on the other hand, reduce the short-term peak-toaverage ratio of the audio.
Limiting increases audio density. Increasing density can make loud sounds seem
louder, but can also result in an unattractive busier, flatter, or denser sound. It is important to be aware of the many negative subjective side effects of excessive density
when setting controls that affect the density of the processed sound.
Clipping sharp peaks does not produce any audible side effects when done moderately. Excessive clipping will be perceived as audible distortion.
Look-ahead limiting is limiting that prevents overshoots by examining a few milliseconds of the unprocessed sound before it is limited. This way the limiter can anticipate peaks that are coming up.
The 9400 uses look-ahead techniques in several parts of the analog processing chain
to minimize overshoot for a given level of processing artifacts, among other things.
It is important to minimize audible peak-limiter-induced distortion when
one is driving a low bitrate codec because one does not want to waste
precious bits encoding the distortion. Look-ahead limiting can achieve
this goal; hard clipping cannot.
One can model any peak limiter as a multiplier that multiplies its input
signal by a gain control signal. This is a form of amplitude modulation.
Amplitude modulation produces sidebands around the “carrier” signal.
In a peak limiter, each Fourier component of the input signal is a sepa-
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OPERATION
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rate “carrier” and the peak limiting process produces modulation sidebands around each Fourier component.
Considered from this perspective, a hard clipper has a wideband gain
control signal and thus introduces sidebands that are far removed in frequency from their associated Fourier “carriers.” Hence, the “carriers”
have little ability to mask the resulting sidebands psychoacoustically.
Conversely, a look-ahead limiter’s gain control signal has a much lower
bandwidth and produces modulation sidebands that are less likely to be
audible.
Simple wideband look-ahead limiting can still produce audible intermodulation distortion between heavy bass and midrange material. The
look-ahead limiter in your Optimod uses sophisticated techniques to reduce such IM distortion without compromising loudness capability.
Loudness and density
The amount of gain reduction determines how much the loudness of soft passages
will be increased (and, therefore, how consistent overall loudness will be). The
automatic gain control (AGC) and the multiband limiter both provide gain reduction,
although their effects are quite different.
In a competently-designed processor, audibly objectionable distortion occurs only
when the processor is clipping peaks to prevent the audio from exceeding the peak
modulation limits of the transmission channel. The less clipping that occurs, the less
likely that the listener will hear distortion. However, to reduce clipping, you must
decrease the drive level to the clipper, which causes the average level (and thus, the
loudness) to decrease proportionally.
Receiver high frequency rolloff introduces further complications. A typical
receiver’s severe HF rolloff reduces the headroom available at high frequencies and
makes it difficult to achieve a bright sound. This is because bright sound requires
considerable high frequency power to appear at the output of the receiver, thus
requiring a very large amount of high frequency power to be transmitted so that a
sufficient amount will survive the receiver’s rolloff.
To increase brightness and intelligibility at the receiver, the 9400’s NRSC pre-emphasis
boosts the treble at 6dB/octave starting at 2.1 kHz. HF CURVE settings from 0 to 10
produce more severe pre-emphasis, boosting at 18dB/octave with 2 kHz up about 3
dB. Without very artful processing, this pre-emphasis will radically increase the level of
the peaks and force you to decrease the average level proportionally. Orban's high
frequency limiting and distortion-canceling clipping systems greatly ease this trade-off,
but cannot eliminate it. Therefore, you can only increase brightness by reducing
average modulation (loudness)  unless you accept the increased distortion caused by
driving the final clippers harder.
In processing, there is a direct trade-off between loudness, brightness, and distortion.
You can improve one only at the expense of one or both of the other two. Thanks to
Orban's psychoacoustically-optimized designs, this is less true of Orban processors than
of any others. Nevertheless, all intelligent processor designers must acknowledge and
work within the laws of physics and psychoacoustics as they apply to these trade-offs.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
OPTIMOD-AM Processing
OPTIMOD-AM processing occurs in seven main stages for the analog processing and
five main stages for the digital radio processing. (Refer to the block diagram on
page 6-62.)

The first is a stereo enhancer that widens the perceived stereo image in CQUAM
or HD AM stereo reception. It operates only on the stereo difference signal and
therefore does not compromise mono transmission.
Use stereo enhancement with care if you are driving a low bitrate codec.
At low bit rates, these codecs use various parametric techniques for encoding the spatial attributes of the sound field. Stereo enhancement can
unnecessarily stress this encoding process

The second is a gentle AGC that is ordinarily used to slowly ride gain, keeping
long-term average drive levels into the following multiband compressor stage
constant.
After the AGC, the signal splits into separate chains to process the analog AM
and HD AM independently.

The third stage is a program equalizer. The program equalizers for the analog
and digital processing chains are different. Each contains a three stage parametric equalizer that allows you to adjust bass, midrange, and high-frequency
equalization. There are three fully parametric sections, each with
non-interacting control over the amount of EQ (in dB), the bandwidth, and the
center frequency. They are used to color the audio to achieve a “signature
sound” for the station.
The analog chain’s equalizer also contains a high frequency shelving section.
While the parametric equalizers are designed to produce program coloration as
desired, the HF shelving section of the program equalizer is ordinarily used to
pre-emphasize the signal to help overcome the high-frequency rolloff of typical
AM radios. The shelving section can be operated as a fixed, first-order shelf to
provide NRSC standard pre-emphasis or as a third-order semi-parametric shelf
with adjustable gain and curve shape. In general, if you use a great deal of HF
boost, you will have to turn down the LESS-MORE control to avoid audible distortion.
The digital processing omits the HF shelving section but adds a shelving bass
equalizer that can produce very punchy, FM-like bass.

The fourth stage in the analog processing chain is a five-band compressor with
Orban's exclusive multiband distortion-canceling clipper. This system embeds the
clipper within the multiband crossover to permit the crossover to filter out clipping distortion products that would otherwise be audible. A feedforward
sidechain provides further, highly selective cancellation of difference-frequency
intermodulation distortion. The five-band compressor also incorporates a sin-
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
gle-ended dynamic noise reduction system, which can be activated or defeated
as desired.
The HD AM chain also uses a five-band compressor. However, it has different
crossover frequencies and no embedded clipper.

The fifth stage in the analog processing chain is a clipper with an “intelligent”
distortion controller that reduces the drive to the clipper if this is necessary to
prevent objectionable clipping distortion.

The sixth stage in the analog AM chain is a safety clipper and overshoot compensator. These elements precisely control peak modulation without adding
out-of-band frequencies, as a simple clipper would.

The seventh stage in the analog processing chain is an overshoot compensator
that drives separate transmitter equalizers (TX EQ) for each output. The TX EQ
allows you to pre-distort OPTIMOD-AM's output waveform to compensate for
low-frequency tilt, high-frequency ringing, and high-frequency group delay distortion in the transmitter and antenna system.

The digital processing chain is simpler. Its fifth (and final) stage is an advanced,
low-IM-distortion look-ahead limiter.
AM Processing: The Art of Compromise
Noise, interference, and narrow bandwidth inherently restrict AM audio quality. Because of this, purist goals (“the output should sound just like the input”) are not
relevant because receiver design makes them impossible to achieve. Instead, the
goal of processing should be to deliver the highest subjective quality through this
limited transmission channel to the listener's ear. This always requires substantial
compression and limiting to ensure that the received signal will override the noise
and interference over the maximum possible geographical area. It also requires high
frequency boost to compensate for the high-frequency rolloff in all AM radios.
The 9400’s GEN MED factory preset at a LESS-MORE setting of 7 meets these requirements and provides a sound that is subjectively undistorted even on
high-quality automobile radios. This is the default preset upon initial power-up of
the 9400. You may continue using this preset or choose another preset as you deem
appropriate.
You must also choose a setting of the system bandwidth control (in System Setup).
Depending on whether the bandwidth is 4.5 - 7 kHz or 7.5 - 9.5 kHz (NRSC), the
characteristics of any factory preset will change to complement the chosen bandwidth. The wideband and narrowband variations of the factory presets were generated using a stock formula; they were fine-tuned via exhaustive listening tests with
a wide variety of program material.
To see what the factory programmers have done, use 9400 PC Remote software to
compare the Advanced Control settings while changing the system bandwidth control. You can also use a text editor with a “file compare” function to compare iden-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
tically named .orb94fwb and .orb94wnb files that 9400 PC Remote installed on your
computer. These files contain the preset values in plaintext form. Their default
folder is c:\Program Files\9400\Presets.
If the amount of transmitter power available is limited and you wish to cover the
widest possible area, you may choose to process harder (by advancing the LESSMORE control at the cost of slight audible distortion and increased compression). You
may also wish to reduce the amount of high frequency receiver equalization and/or
decrease the audio bandwidth of the processing (by adjusting the system low-pass
filter) because you will discover that you can achieve a louder sound with the same
amount of distortion if you do this.
You will find out that in any setup there is a direct trade-off between loudness,
brightness, and distortion. You can improve any single parameter, but only at the
expense of one or both of the other two. This is true of any processor, not just
OPTIMOD-AM. Perhaps the most difficult part of adjusting a processor is determining the best trade-off for a given situation. If most of your listeners are located
where your signal is strong, it is wiser to give up ultimate loudness to achieve
brightness and low distortion. A listener can compensate for loudness by simply adjusting the volume control. But there is nothing the listener can do to make a dirty
signal sound clean again, or to undo the effects of excessive high-frequency limiting.
If processing for high quality is done carefully, the sound will also be excellent on
small radios. Although such a signal might fall slightly short of ultimate loudness, it
will tend to compensate with an openness, depth, and punch (even on small radios)
that cannot be obtained when the signal is excessively squashed. On the other hand,
if many listeners receive a weak signal or one that is frequently contaminated by interference, then processing harder to achieve maximum loudness, uniformity, and
average modulation will let the station be heard more easily. You may therefore
wish to process quite differently during the day than at night, when skywave interference is often a problem. OPTIMOD-AM's programmable presets make this easy.
If women form a significant portion of the station's audience, bear in mind that
women are more sensitive to distortion and listening fatigue than men are. In any
format requiring long-term listening to achieve market share, great care should be
taken not to alienate women by excessive stridency, harshness, or distortion.
AM radio has been losing its market share to FM in many countries because the public believes that AM has lower sound quality. While this is inevitably true (except in
the automobile, where multipath often degrades FM reception below “entertainment quality”), the damage can be minimized by processing the audio to make the
best of the limitations of the AM channel and to avoid processing artifacts.
OPTIMOD-AM is uniquely effective in optimizing these trade-offs, and the discussion
below tells you in more detail how to do this.
Shortwave/HF Processing
The goals for HF broadcasters are likely to be quite different than they would be in
MW, LW, or FM broadcast. Listeners to HF broadcasts are often highly motivated and
will continue to listen even when the signal is severely degraded by poor propagation conditions or by interference that would almost certainly cause the average LW,
MW, or FM listener to tune to another station.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
In LW and MW, the audio processor set-up controls are usually used to match the
processor’s ”sound” to a certain type of music or talk programming. HF is different.
In HF, the audio processor is usually adjusted to provide a sound at the receiver that
is as esthetically satisfying as possible, given the probable signal quality at the receiver. The broadcasting organization usually does not have the luxury of making
fine adjustments to match different types of program material because such fine adjustments will almost certainly be masked by the variability of the propagation and
interference experienced by the listener. This fact considerably simplifies the adjustment procedure.
We have tuned the 9400’s “HF” presets with these compromises in mind. There is a
general-purpose preset and a preset tuned to optimize voice intelligibility. We believe that further subtleties are inappropriate for the medium.
Working Together
Best results will be achieved if Engineering, Programming, and Management go out
of their way to communicate and cooperate with each other. It is important that
Engineering understands well the sound that Programming desires, and that Management fully understands the trade-offs involved in optimizing certain parameters
(such as loudness and coverage) at the cost of others (such as brightness or distortion).
Processing for Low Bitrate Codecs and HD Radio
The most common bit rate in the iBiquity HD Radio AM system is 36 kbps, while the
bit rate in the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) system varies according to transmission
mode but is also low. HD AM uses the HDC codec, while DRM uses the aacPlus
(MPEG HE-AAC) codec. Both codecs employ Coding Technology’s Spectral Band Replication technology. Codecs with SBR transmit only lower frequencies (for example,
below 8 kHz) via the codec. The decoder at the receiver creates higher frequencies
from the lower frequencies by a process similar to that used by “psychoacoustic exciters.”
36 kbps is a very low bit rate to achieve entertainment-quality stereo audio, even
with an advanced codec like HDC. To maximize audio quality, the 9400 uses lookahead limiting for the final peak limiting of the digital processing chain. Unlike clipping, look-ahead limiting does not add significant spectral contamination to the audio. It is therefore much more appropriate than clipping for protecting chains that
include lossy codecs because clipping would otherwise force the codec to waste bits
by trying to encode clipping products.
The appropriate equalization and multiband compression for analog AM are very
different from those appropriate for HD AM or similar channels using lossy codecs.
The equalizer in the analog AM processing chain is usually set to pre-process for the
limitations of conventional AM radios, while the five-band compressor is generally
operated with medium or faster release times to increase program density, maximizing loudness and coverage. By contrast, the HD AM channel uses no pre-emphasis,
has no limitations on low frequency response, and has high frequency response to
15 kHz. However, the codec does not respond well to very dense material.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
The equalizer in the digital radio processing chain can be used freely to color the
audio as necessary to create a signature sound for the station. Meanwhile, the fiveband compressor should be operated with a slow release time so that it smoothes
out spectral inconsistencies between sources while not significantly affecting program density — added density would unnecessarily stress the very low bit rate codec
used in the HD AM system.
Although the HD AM receivers crossfade between analog and digital when the digital drops out, it is impossible to make this crossfade subtle because the audio bandwidth typically changes from 15 kHz to 3 kHz and the soundfield collapses to mono.
The best that one can do is to approximately match the loudness of the HD and analog chains. Fortunately, the receiver applies 5 dB more gain to the digital signal than
to the analog signal, so even highly processed analog signals can achieve approximate loudness parity with lightly processed digital signals.
The 9400’s presets have been adjusted to achieve reasonable loudness parity when
the audio bandwidth of the analog decoding section of the radio is approximately
2.5 kHz. If the bandwidth is wider, then analog loudness will increase. There is no
perfect solution to this problem; the best compromise tunes the processing for an
average (2.5 kHz audio bandwidth) radio.
In the HD processing channel, Orban’s PreCode™ technology minimizes codec artifacts. To exploit this technology fully, do not set up the 9400’s HD processing channel for very bright sound (with large amounts of high frequency energy) because
this is likely to exacerbate artifacts. Some appropriate presets include JAZZ, SMOOTH
JAZZ, GOLD, ROCK SOFT, and the CLASSICAL presets. Avoid presets like CRISP and EDGE;
these are very bright-sounding presets and are more appropriate for uncompressed
channels or compressed channels with relatively high bitrates (64 kbps or higher for
the aacPlus V2 codec used in Orban’s OPTICODEC-PC, for example).
The 9400’s HD processing channel has several controls whose settings determine
brightness. To minimize brightness:
 Use little or no high frequency boost in the HD equalization section.
 Set the HD BAND 4>5 COUPLING to 100%.
 Set the HD B5 THRESH to match the codec. Adjust the threshold until you find
a good compromise between presence and high frequency codec artifacts. We
find the range from –6.0 to +6.0 dB to be useful. For the HDC codec at 36
kbps, try –6.0 to 0.0 dB, depending on format.
 Use a moderate Band 5 attack time. 25 ms works well.
 If necessary, lower the HD B4 THRESH.
In addition, it is unwise to use stereo enhancement with low bitrate codecs. At low
bitrates, codecs use various parametric techniques for encoding the spatial attributes of the sound field. Stereo enhancement can unnecessarily stress this encoding
process.
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Starting with one of our suggested presets will help keep you out of trouble when
you edit them to create user presets.
We have supplied several presets tuned for the Microsoft WMA (V9) at 32 kbps. This
codec has severe artifacts at this bitrate and no preprocessing can mask them completely. The 1100’s WMA presets strictly limit the amount of high frequency energy
applied to the codec. To prevent the processing from adding L–R energy, these presets operate with full stereo coupling and without stereo enhancement.
OPTIMOD-PC’s ability to maintain source-to-source spectral consistency is also an important advantage. Once you have set up the processing to minimize codec artifacts
caused by a given piece of program material, OPTIMOD-PC’s will automatically
minimize codec artifacts with any program material.
Fundamental Requirements:
High-Quality Source Material and Accurate Monitoring
Very clean audio can be processed harder without producing objectionable distortion. If the source material is even slightly distorted, OPTIMOD-AM can greatly exaggerate this distortion, particularly if a large amount of gain reduction is used. Potential causes for distortion are poor-quality source material, including the effects of
the station's playback machines, electronics, and studio-transmitter link, as well as
excessive clipping settings in the OPTIMOD-AM processing. See Maintaining Audio
Quality in the Broadcast Facility (an Orban publication downloadable from
ftp.orban.com) for a discussion of how to improve source quality.
A high-quality monitor system is essential. To modify your air sound effectively, you
must be able to hear the results of your adjustments. Maintaining Audio Quality in
the Broadcast Facility also contains a detailed discussion of how to efficiently create
an accurate monitoring environment.
Low-Delay Monitoring for Headphones
In live operations, highly processed audio often causes a problem with the DJ or presenter’s headphones. Some talent moving from an analog processing chain will require a learning period to become accustomed to the voice coloration caused by
“bone-conduction” comb filtering. This is caused by the delayed headphone sound’s
mixing with the live voice sound and introducing notches in the spectrum that the
talent hears as a “hollow” sound when he or she talks. All digital processors induce
this coloration to a greater or lesser extent. Fortunately, it does not cause confusion
or hesitation in the talent’s performance unless the delay is above the psychoacoustic “echo fusion” (Haas) threshold of approximately 20 ms and the talent starts to
hear slap echo in addition to frequency response colorations.
The normal delay through the 9400’s analog channel processing is about 22 ms and
the delay through the digital channel processing is about 15 ms. A 15 ms delay is
comfortable for most talent because they do not hear echoes of their own voices in
their headphones. However, a better solution to the monitoring conundrum is this:
Any of the 9400’s outputs can be switched to provide a low-delay monitoring feed,
which is the same as the HD-processed output except that no peak limiting is applied. The monitor feed’s 5 ms delay is likely to be more comfortable to talent than
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
the 15 ms delay of the digital radio processing chain because of less acoustic comb
filtering. (See step 8 on page 2-28 and step 9 on page 2-28.)
If the talent relies principally on headphones to determine whether the station is on
the air, simple loss-of-carrier and loss-of-audio alarms should be added to the system
when the 9400’s monitor output is used. The 9400 can be interfaced to such alarms
through any of its eight GPI remote control inputs, cutting off the low-delay audio
to the talent’s phones when an audio or carrier failure occurs. (See Monitor Mute on
page 2-47.)
Monitor Rolloff Filter for the Analog AM Channel
The response curve of the monitor system is as important as its quality. Because the
studio monitor typically has a flat response, and because OPTIMOD-AM's AMchannel output is ordinarily significantly pre-emphasized, the sound that emerges
from the monitor will be shrill and unpleasant if the supplied Monitor Rolloff Filter
is not installed before the monitor amplifier.
The response of this filter can be jumpered to emulate an “ideal” NRSC radio or to
complement the frequency response of the HF equalizer with its HF CURVE set to 0.
Because there are so few radios with anything approaching NRSC response (even in
NRSC countries), we believe that it is wiser to jumper the Monitor Rolloff Filter for
non-NRSC operation in almost all situations. If this 18dB/octave rolloff is used, the
response of this filter is approximately complementary to the frequency response of
the HF Equalizer with HF CURVE set to 0. (See Figure 3-1 on page 3-33 and Figure 2-5
on page 2-6.). Because the filter shelves off at high frequencies (to match the receiver equalization) instead of continuing to roll off like a real radio, the monitor
will sound somewhat brighter than a real radio and cannot be used to make final
subjective adjustments of OPTIMOD-AM setup controls. Nevertheless, it is suitable as
a reference for assessing quality, as it will clearly reveal distortion and other problems that may arise in the plant. Indeed, it will be somewhat more revealing than a
real radio.
Reference Radios for Adjusting the Analog AM Processing
However, do not rely on your monitor alone for subjectively evaluating your air
sound. It is a good idea to develop a set of “reference radios” with which you are
familiar and which are similar to those used by a majority of your audience. Too often, just one radio (typically the Program Director or General Manager's car radio) is
used to evaluate air sound. Unless all of your listeners happen to have the same radio, this approach will not give an accurate indication of what your audience is hearing.
Based on their high-frequency response, AM radios can be divided into three groups:

Group 1: Wideband AM stereo radios, typically with response that approximately follows the recommended NRSC “modified 75µs” de-emphasis to 5 kHz
or above. These are radios that conform to the NRSC/EIA's “AMAX” specifications and can bear the AMAX® logo.

Group 2: Radios with a response down 3dB at approximately 2 kHz, with a gentle rolloff above that frequency. Because the rolloff is gentle, pre-emphasis can
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
be used to brighten the sound.

Group 3: Radios with a response down 3dB at approximately 2 kHz, with a very
steep rolloff above that frequency. The steepness of the rolloff eliminates the
possibility of improving the audio through pre-emphasis. In our opinion, these
radios must be written off as producing hopelessly bad sound. Very few people
would enjoy listening to music on these radios  although they could be used for
listening to talk programs, or for repelling pigeons and muggers.
The vast majority of present-day radios are in the second and third categories. In all
three types of radio, bass performance is unpredictable from model to model. The
best-sounding “Group 1” AM receiver we know of is the Sony SRF-A100 AM stereo
radio (now discontinued), which can be switched between wideband and narrowband
operation. Use headphones, or drive an external amplifier and speaker with the Sony's
headphone output (its own tiny speakers cannot be used for reference purposes). A
representative good-sounding wideband mono radio is the General Electric Superadio.
As of the current writing, the number of AMAX radios available is very limited, with
the widest distribution being certain premium Delco radios that have been provided
with General Motors automobiles. In “Group 2,” we are fond of the Radio Shack MTAseries of small table radios.
Be aware that many radios produce excessive distortion all by themselves, especially if
they are located near the transmitter. If the station monitor (driven through
OPTIMOD-AM's monitor rolloff filter) sounds clean but your radio audio is distorted,
don't trust the radio! If the General Manager's auto radio sounds distorted, he or she
should not jump to the conclusion that there is something wrong with the station or
with the engineer's ears.
Modulation Monitors
Many modulation monitors and RF amplifiers indicate higher modulation than the
transmitter is actually producing. This forces the engineer to reduce transmitter
modulation unnecessarily, which can cost you up to 3dB of loudness! It is very
important to be sure that your modulation monitor is accurately calibrated and that it
does not exhibit overshoot on program material. Several newer monitors are designed
for accurate pulse response without overshoot. Any of these monitors will enable you
to obtain the highest loudness achievable from your transmitter and antenna system.
If the monitor is used remotely, be sure that the RF amp doesn't overshoot. Overshoots
in RF amps have been observed to be as high as 3dB.
Monitor readings should be compared with an oscilloscope observing the modulated
RF envelope. If the monitor indicates 100% negative peaks when the oscilloscope
reveals no carrier pinch-off, suspect inaccuracy in the monitor.
More About Audio Processing
Psychoacoustic factors were carefully considered during the design and construction of
OPTIMOD-AM. The result is an audio processor that is easy to use (the LESS-MORE
control greatly simplifies setup) and that produces a sound that is remarkably free
from unwanted processing artifacts.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Although the controls on OPTIMOD-AM provide the flexibility you need to customize
your station's sound, proper adjustment of these controls consists of balancing the
trade-offs between loudness, density, brightness, and audible distortion. In
programming the LESS-MORE curves, we have made it easy for you to make this
trade-off. As you advance the LESS-MORE control for a given factory preset, the sound
gets louder but distortion increases. However, for each setting of the LESS-MORE
control, other processing parameters are automatically adjusted to give you the lowest
possible distortion for the amount of loudness you are getting.
There are separate LESS-MORE controls for the analog AM and digital radio
processing, making it easy to optimize each channel separately.
If you want to go beyond LESS-MORE and into the FULL MODIFY and EXPERT MODIFY
adjustments, you should carefully read and understand the following section. It
provides the information you need to adjust OPTIMOD-AM controls to suit your
format, taste, and competitive situation.
Judging Loudness
Apparent loudness in the analog AM channel will vary with the frequency response of
the radio and with the accuracy with which the radio is tuned. Narrowband radios will
usually get very much louder if tuned off center while a highly equalized signal is
being received. This means that if your auto radio is not electronically-tuned, you must
manually fine-tune its push-button settings before you can make meaningful loudness
comparisons. Loudness is a very complex psychoacoustic phenomenon. One station
cannot be judged louder than another can unless it is consistently louder on many
different receivers with many different types of program material. Because a
wideband radio reproduces more of the frequency range in which the
highly-equalized signal concentrates its energy (and to which the ear is most sensitive),
a highly equalized signal may sound quieter than an unequalized signal on a
narrowband radio, while the reverse is true on a wideband radio.
For the digital radio channel, it is much easier to compare loudness between stations
because the audio has frequency response to 15 kHz and the radios are essentially flat.
It is not wise to start a digital channel “loudness war” because setting the processor up
to cause large loudness disparities between the analog and digital channels will simply
irritate listeners and is likely to cause tune-outs as listeners are forced to constantly
grab their volume controls. Moreover, processing the digital channel for loudness is
likely to increase codec artifacts significantly.
Reverberation
In the distant past, the addition of artificial reverberation was touted as an easy
method of achieving greater loudness in AM broadcasting. Given the limitations of the
audio processing equipment of that time, this was true: reverberation increased the
signal density and average modulation without the pumping or other side effects that
heavy limiting would cause if equivalent density were to be achieved by compression
or limiting alone. However, because reverberation “smeared” the sound, it exacted a
price of decreased definition and intelligibility in many instances.
Because OPTIMOD-AM is capable of so much density augmentation without producing
audible artifacts, reverberation is neither necessary nor desirable for achieving high
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loudness and density. Moreover, OPTIMOD-AM actually increases definition and
intelligibility.
If you still wish to use reverb to achieve a nostalgic sound in an oldies format, we
recommend using it in extreme moderation and applying it to the signal before it
reaches OPTIMOD-AM. OPTIMOD-AM will effectively increase the amount of reverb by
increasing the level of the reverb decay and keeping the reverb before OPTIMOD-AM
will allow OPTIMOD-AM to control peak modulation accurately.
Customizing the 9400’s Sound
The subjective setup controls on the 9400 give you the flexibility to customize your
station’s sound. Nevertheless, as with any audio processing system, proper adjustment of these controls consists of balancing the trade-offs between loudness, density, and audible distortion. The following pages provide the information you need
to adjust the 9400 controls to suit your format, taste, and competitive situation.
When you start with one of our Factory Presets, there are two levels of subjective
adjustment available to you to let you customize the Factory Preset to your requirements: Basic Modify and Full Modify. A third level, Advanced Modify, is accessible only from the 9400’s PC Remote software.
The 9400 is essentially two processors in one. The two processors share the stereo
enhancer and AGC but split independently after the AGC. Other than the stereo enhancer and AGC controls, all HD AM controls are independent of the analog AM
processing controls. The digital channel processing and analog AM processing have
separate and independent LESS-MORE controls. This control independence allows
you to adjust the analog channel to be highly processed (to overcome noise and interference), while delivering a more conservatively processed, high-fidelity texture
on the HD AM channel.
Spend some time listening critically to your on-air sound. Listen to a wide range of
program material typical of your format. Listen on several types of car, table, and
portable radios, not just your studio monitors.
Then, if you wish to customize your sound, read the rest of Section 3  it is important
to understand the functions and interactions of the audio processing controls before
experimenting with them.
See page 6-62 for a block diagram of the processing.
Basic Modify
There are four sections in Basic Modify:
 Stereo Enhancer
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
 AGC
 Analog AM EQ or Digital Radio EQ
 LESS-MORE (x2)
Basic Modify allows you to control four important elements of 9400 processing: the
stereo enhancer, the equalizer, the AGC, and the dynamics section (multiband compression, limiting, and clipping). The stereo enhancer and AGC are common to both
the analog AM and digital radio processing channels, while each of the channels has
an independent equalizer section and multiband dynamics processing.
At this level, there is only one control for each of the multiband dynamics processing
sections: LESS-MORE, which changes several different subjective setup control settings simultaneously according to a table that we have created in the 9400’s permanent ROM (Read-Only Memory). In this table are sets of subjective setup control settings that provide, in our opinion, the most favorable trade-off between loudness,
density, and audible distortion for a given amount of dynamics processing in the
analog AM and digital processing channels.
We believe that most 9400 users will never need to go beyond the Basic level of control. Orban’s audio processing experts have optimized the combinations of subjective setup control settings produced by this control by drawing on years of experience designing audio processing and hundred of hours of listening tests.
As you increase the setting of given LESS-MORE control, the air sound in that channel will become louder, but (as with any processor) processing artifacts will increase.
Please note that the highest LESS-MORE setting is purposely designed to cause unpleasant distortion and processing artifacts! This helps assure you that you have chosen the optimum setting of the LESS-MORE control, because turning the control up
to this point will cause the sound quality to become obviously unacceptable.
You need not (in fact, cannot) create a sound entirely from scratch. All User Presets
are created by modifying Factory Presets or by further modifying Factory Presets
that have been previously modified with a LESS-MORE adjustment. It is wise to set
the LESS-MORE control to achieve a sound as close as possible to your desired sound
before you make further modifications at the Advanced Modify level. This is because
the LESS-MORE control gets you close to an optimum trade-off between loudness
and artifacts, so any changes you make are likely to be smaller and to require resetting fewer controls.
In the 9400, LESS-MORE affects only the multiband processing (compression, limiting,
and clipping). You can change EQ, stereo enhancement, and AGC without losing the
ability to use LESS-MORE. When you create a user preset, the 9400 will automatically
save your EQ, stereo enhancement, and AGC settings along with your LESS-MORE
setting. When you recall the user preset, you will still be able to edit your LESS-MORE
setting if you wish.
There are two sets of LESS-MORE tables for each factory preset  one optimized for
Wideband (7.5 kHz and above) operation, the other for Narrowband (7.0 kHz and
below) operation. Orban’s factory programmers created these tables by ear while
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
listening through radios to a wide variety of speech and music programming at
NRSC and 5.0 kHz bandwidths. There are significant differences between the wideband and narrowband tables in both the equalization and dynamics processing.
The low-pass filter frequency in the active Transmission Preset determines which set
of parameters are active in any on-air Factory Preset. Recalling a Transmission preset
that switches the HF bandwidth between ranges will also update the parameters of
any active Factory Preset automatically. However, changing the HF bandwidth will
not change the parameters of an active User Preset or modified Factory Preset because these kinds of presets have only one set of parameters: the parameters visible
in Advanced Modify (see below).
Full Modify
Full Modify is the most detailed control level available from the 9400’s front panel. It
allows you to adjust the dynamics section at approximately the level of “full control” available in Orban’s 9200 processor. These controls are somewhat risky (although not as much as the controls in Advanced Modify). Most people will never
have any reason to go beyond Full Modify, even if they want to create a “signature
sound” for their station.
Note: Full Modify does not provide LESS-MORE control. Furthermore,
once you have edited a preset’s multiband dynamics parameters in Full
Modify or Advanced Modify, LESS-MORE control is no longer available in
Basic Modify and will be grayed-out if you access its screen. As noted
above, we recommend using the Basic Modify LESS-MORE control to
achieve a sound as close as possible to your desired sound before you
make further modifications at the Full or Advanced levels.
Editing the Full or Advanced Modify controls in one processing channel
(analog AM or digital) only defeats the LESS-MORE control for that channel because the LESS-MORE controls in the analog and digital processing
channels are independent. You can still use LESS-MORE in the remaining
channel if you have not edited that channel’s Full or Advanced controls.
Advanced Modify
If you want to create a signature sound for your station that is far out of the ordinary or if your taste differs from the people who programmed the LESS-MORE tables, Advanced Modify is available to you from the 9400 PC Remote software only
(not from the 9400’s front panel). At this level, you can customize or modify any subjective setup control setting to create a sound exactly to your taste. You can then
save the settings in a User Preset and recall it whenever you wish.
Maladjustment of these controls can cause the 9400 to produce unexpected distortion or artifacts only on certain program material, even though it might sound good
on most other material. Placement of a control in the Advanced Modify group emphasizes the risk of adjusting this control casually.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Compressor attack times and thresholds are available. These controls can be exceedingly dangerous in inexperienced hands, leading you to create presets that sound
great on some program material and fall apart embarrassingly on other material.
We therefore recommend that you create custom presets at the Advanced Modify
level only if you are experienced with on-air sound design, and if you are willing to
take the time to double-check your work on many different types of program material.
The PC Remote software organizes its controls in tabbed screens. The AGC, AM
EQUALIZATION, HD EQUALIZATION, STEREO ENHANCER, and LESS-MORE tabs access the Basic Modify controls. The remaining tabs combine the Full Modify and Advanced
Modify controls, logically organized by functionality.
See the note on page 3-16 regarding the unavailability of LESS-MORE after you have
edited a control in Full Modify or Advanced Modify.
Gain Reduction Metering
Unlike the metering on some processors, when any OPTIMOD-AM gain reduction
meter indicates full-scale (at its bottom), it means that its associated compressor has
run out of gain reduction range, that the circuitry is being overloaded, and that
various nastinesses are likely to commence.
Because the various compressors have 25 dB of gain reduction range, the meter
should never come close to 25 dB gain reduction if OPTIMOD-AM has been set up
for a sane amount of gain reduction under ordinary program conditions.
To accommodate the boosts introduced by the HF EQ control, Band 5 of
the Five-Band Structure is capable of 30 dB of gain reduction.
Further, be aware of the different peak factors on voice and music — if voice and
music are peaked identically on a VU meter, voice may cause up to 10 dB more peak
gain reduction than does music! (A PPM will indicate relative peak levels much more
accurately.)
To Create or Save a User Preset
Once you have edited a preset, you can save it as a user preset. The 9400 can
store an indefinite number of user presets, limited only by available memory.
The 9400 will offer to save any edited, unsaved preset when the main screen is
visible. To save a preset:
A) Press the ESC button repeatedly until you see the main screen, which shows
the current time and the preset presently on air.
If there is an unsaved preset on air, the rightmost button will be labeled
SAVE PRESET.
B) Press the SAVE PRESET button.
The Save Preset screen appears.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
C) Choose a name for your preset.
Some non-alphanumeric characters (such as < and >) are reserved and
cannot be used in preset names.
D) Use the knob to set the each character in the preset name. Use the NEXT and
PREV buttons to control the cursor position.
E) Press the SAVE CHANGES button.

If the name that you have selected duplicates the name of a factory preset, the 9400 will suggest that you use an alternate name.
You cannot give a user preset the same name as a factory preset.

If the name you have selected duplicates the name of an existing user preset, the 9400 warns you that you are about to overwrite that preset. Answer YES if you wish to overwrite the preset and NO otherwise. If you answer NO, the 9400 will give you an opportunity to choose a new name for
the preset you are saving.
You can save user presets from the 9400 PC Remote application. (See
Using the 9400 PC Remote Control Software on page 3-61.) Please note
that when you save presets from the PC Remote application, you save
them in the 9400’s memory (as if you had saved them from the 9400’s
front panel). The PC Remote application also allows you to archive presets to your computer’s hard drive (or other storage device) and to restore them. However, archiving a preset is not the same as saving it. Archived presets reside on a storage medium supported by your computer,
while saved presets reside in the 9400’s local non-volatile memory. You
cannot archive a preset until you have saved it. (See To back up user presets, system files, and automation files onto your computer’s hard drive
on page 3-64.)
Note that if, for some reason, you wish to save an unmodified preset (either Factory or user) under a new name, you must temporarily make an
arbitrary edit to that preset in order to make the SAVE PRESET button appear. After you have saved the preset, reverse the edit and save the preset again.
Factory Programming Presets
Factory Programming Presets are our “factory recommended settings” for various
program formats or types. The Factory Programming Presets are starting points to
help you get on the air quickly without having to understand anything about adjusting the 9400’s sound. You can edit any of these presets with the LESS-MORE control to optimize the trade-off between loudness and distortion according to the
needs of your format. Because it is so easy to fine-tune the sound at the LESS-MORE
level, we believe that many users will quickly want to customize their chosen preset
to complement their market and competitive position after they had time to familiarize themselves with the 9400’s programming facilities.
It is OK to use unmodified factory presets on the air. These represent the best efforts
of some very experienced on-air sound designers. We are sometimes asked about
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
unpublished “programming secrets” for Optimods. In fact, there are no “secrets”
that we withhold from users. Our “secrets” are revealed in this manual and the presets embody all of our craft as processing experts. The presets are editable because
other sound designers may have different preferences from ours, not because the
presets are somehow mediocre or improvable by those with special, arcane knowledge that we withhold from most of our customers.
Start with one of these presets. Spend some time listening critically to your on-air
sound. Listen to a wide range of program material typical of your format and listen
on several types of AM radios (not just on your studio monitors). Then, if you wish,
customize your sound using the information that follows.
Do not be afraid to choose a preset other than the one named for the type of programming on-air if you believe this other preset has a more appropriate sound. Also,
if you want to fine-tune the frequency balance of the programming, feel free to use
Basic Modify and make small changes to the Bass, Mid EQ, and HF EQ controls.
Unlike some earlier Orban’s processors, the 9400 lets you make changes in EQ, AGC,
and stereo enhancement without losing the ability to use LESS-MORE settings.
Of course, LESS-MORE is still available for the unedited preset if you
want to go back to it. There is no way you can erase or otherwise damage the Factory Presets. So, feel free to experiment.
The 9400’s main presets are the so-called “analog AM presets,” which can be either
Factory Presets or User Presets that you have created. In addition to the analog AM
factory presets, the 9400 contains a number of digital radio presets, based on presets from Orban’s Optimod-FM 8500.
Each analog AM Factory Preset is linked to a digital radio (HD) preset. The digital
radio preset contains the parameters for the digital radio equalization, five-band
compressor/limiter, and look-ahead limiter sections in the 9400’s digital radio processing chain. The analog AM preset determines the stereo enhancer and AGC parameters because the stereo enhancer and AGC are common to both the AM analog
and digital radio processing chains.
Unlike Factory Presets, User Presets contain parameters for both the AM analog and
HD processing. A preset, whether Factory or User, can be edited in three ways to
create a new User Preset:
 If you have not previously edited individual parameters in the preset’s dynamics processing, you can adjust LESS-MORE in both the AM analog and HD sections of the preset
 You can adjust any individual parameter in both the AM analog and HD sections of the preset.
 You can bulk-import all of the HD parameters contained in any User Preset or
Factory HD Preset.
When you edit a preset by bulk-importing HD parameters like this, they will overwrite the existing HD parameters in your edited preset, including any that you have
might have adjusted before you imported. HD parameters only include controls in
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the HD processing chain after it splits from the AM processing chain, so bulkimporting HD parameters will not change the AGC and Stereo Enhancer settings.
To import an HD preset from the 9400’s front panel:
A) Navigate to MODIFY > HD FULL CONTROLS > MULTIBAND > IMPORT PRESET.
You may have to scroll the display using PREV button until IMPORT PRESET
appears.
B) Turn the wheel until the desired preset name appears.
C) Press the IMPORT NEXT button.
To import an HD preset from PC Remote:
A) Choose IMPORT HD CONTROLS from the FILE menu to bring up the IMPORT HD
CONTROLS dialog box.
B) With the mouse, highlight the desired HD preset.
C) Click IMPORT.
After importing the HD parameters, you are still free to adjust any individual AM or
HD parameter. When you are satisfied with your work, you can then save this combination of AM and HD parameters as a new User Preset. Of course, you can then
use your new User Preset as a source for HD parameters to be imported into any
other User Presets you may wish to create or edit. For example, you could have six
User Presets with identical HD processing parameters but with different AM analog
processing parameters. The HD bulk import feature makes this easy.
If you have not edited any parameters in a given HD Factory Preset’s dynamics processing, LESS-MORE will continue to be available even if that HD preset has been imported into a User Preset and you are editing that User Preset. Moreover, you can
freely create multiple generations of User Presets that retain HD LESS-MORE functionality. The only thing that counts is that the HD parameters in a given User Preset
are unchanged compared the original source HD Factory Preset.
In most of the analog AM factory presets, the associated processing for the digital
radio chain is much more conservative than the processing for the analog chain, although the processing for the digital radio chain is still designed to be consistent
with the format named in the preset. This is to minimize codec artifacts in low bit
rate codecs like the HD AM HDC codec, which operates at 36 kbps. If you are using
the digital radio processing chain to drive a high bit rate codec (like 128 kbps MP3),
you usually can use a less conservative digital radio preset without introducing objectionable codec artifacts.
Each Orban factory preset has full LESS-MORE capability. There are separate LESSMORE controls for the analog AM and digital radio presets. Table 3-1 shows the AM
analog presets, including the source presets from which they were taken and the
nominal LESS-MORE setting of each preset.
Important! If you are dissatisfied with the sound available from the factory presets, please understand that each named preset is actually 19 presets that can be accessed via the LESS-MORE control. Try using this control
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
to trade off loudness against processing artifacts and side effects. Once
you have used LESS-MORE, save your edited preset as a User Preset.
It is important to understand that each AM analog Factory Preset is actually a pair of
presets (each with LESS-MORE capability), one optimized for narrowband operation
and one for wideband operation. The “wideband” parameters were tuned for NRSC
bandwidth and the “narrowband” presets were tuned for 5.0 kHz bandwidth. If you
have a Factory Preset on-air, the 9400 automatically switches to that preset’s “narrowband” parameters if active Transmission Preset’s LOWPASS parameter is 7.0 kHz
or below. 7.5 kHz and above invokes “wideband.”
This automatic switching does not work with User Presets and Factory Presets that
have been modified but not yet saved as User Presets. If you routinely use User Presets on-air and switch bandwidths, and if you want the User Preset to change when
you change bandwidth, you must create two User Presets and recall the appropriate
preset at the same time that you change bandwidth.
If you want to create a User Preset by editing the AM analog processing with LESSMORE, be sure that the active Transmission Preset has the desired bandwidth before
you start. This will ensure that LESS-MORE calls up the correct parameters for your
desired bandwidth.
The one exception to the “wideband/narrowband” switching is the HF (shortwave)
presets. All HF presets are “narrowband.” The lowpass filter cutoff frequency is set
to 4.5 kHz in the preset itself and this will override the LOWPASS setting in the active Transmission Preset.
HD Factory Presets are the same regardless of bandwidth because it is unnecessary
to change the tuning of a preset if the audio bandwidth is between 10 and 20 kHz,
which is the range typically found in digital radio channels.
Description of the Analog AM Factory Presets
Presets with “HF” in their names are narrowband presets intended for international
shortwave transmission where 4.5 kHz audio bandwidth and difficult propagation
conditions are the norm. All other presets are intended for MW or LW transmission.
All factory presets contain parameters for both the analog AM and digital radio
processing chains.
GEN MED is the default factory preset. It is based on the Medium-Fast multiband
release time and is adjusted to sound equally good on voice and music. It is most
appropriate for listeners in strong signal areas because it does not bring up low-level
material as much as presets based on the Fast multiband release time.
GEN HEAVY is based on the Fast multiband release time, and is designed to sound
good on voice and music. Because it processes harder than the GENERAL PURPOSE
MEDIUM preset, it can be louder, but it does not sound as punchy or dynamic. It is a
good choice when many listeners are subject to noise and interference and you want
the highest possible loudness.
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NEWS uses a fast multiband release time. Because of this, the unit adapts quickly to
different program material, providing excellent source-to-source consistency. This
“automatic equalization” action of the multiband compressor has been adjusted to
produce less bass than in the GEN(ERAL) presets, and the gating threshold is set
considerably higher. This maximizes voice intelligibility, including low-quality sources
like telephone. The high gating threshold resists noise pumping even with noisy
material.
NEWS + NR is identical to the News preset except that the Dynamic Noise Reduction
function is also activated, producing even more noise reduction on moderately noisy
program material. However, the Dynamic Noise Reduction function can produce
audible side effects that include noise pumping on very noisy material and a subtle loss
of crispness on high-quality voice. So you should listen carefully to decide if it is
preferable to News for your situation.
TALK is similar to the News preset but is tailored for live microphone and telephone
sources with less consideration given to the handling of actualities.
SPORTS is based on the Fast multiband release time. It is intended for play-by-play
sports programming, where crowd noise is part of the mix. Compared to NEWS, the
AGC is operated with a slower release time to avoid pumping up crowd noise as much
as the News preset would. Yet the Fast multiband release time still provides excellent
consistency, intelligibility, and loudness. This preset uses the Dynamic Noise Reduction
function to reduce noise pump-up.
FINE ARTS is based on the Slow multiband release time. It is designed for classical and
jazz programming where an open, unprocessed sound is more desirable than the last
bit of loudness. Unlike the other factory presets, the FINE ARTS LESS-MORE curves are
designed to produce more compression as they are advanced, but to create only a
modest increase in clipping distortion. So setting LESS-MORE higher will mostly
increase the level of quiet passages instead of increasing the loudness of loud passages
in the source material.
MUSIC MEDIUM is based on the Medium-Slow multiband release time. It is designed
FACTORY PROGRAMMING PRESETS
Preset Names
GEN MED
GEN HEAVY
NEWS
NEWS+NR
TALK
SPORTS
FINE ARTS
MUSIC MEDIUM
MUSIC HEAVY
GREGG
PRESENCE
HF GENERAL
Source Preset
GEN MED
GEN HEAVY
NEWS
NEWS+NR
TALK
SPORTS
FINE ARTS
MUSIC MEDIUM
MUSIC HEAVY
GREGG
PRESENCE
HF GENERAL
Normal LESS-MORE
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
9.0
7.0
Table 3-1: Analog AM Factory Programming Presets
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
for various adult-oriented music formats where an easy, relaxed sound is considered
more important than the highest possible loudness.
MUSIC HEAVY is based on the Fast multiband release time. However, its tuning is very
different from GEN HEAVY. It is tuned so that the AGC operates with a fast release
time, doing most of the work in compressing the program. This gives more of a
“wideband compression” sound than the other factory presets. Meanwhile, the
multiband compressor is operated lightly with relatively little gain reduction so it acts
more like a limiter than a compressor. Music Heavy is therefore an alternative to GEN
HEAVY, providing a different “flavor” of processing. Either preset could be used to
achieve a highly-processed sound with music programming.
The GREGG preset is designed for general-purpose voice/music programming,
particularly on music-oriented formats. Although not the loudest 9400 preset, it has a
smooth, well-balanced quality that keeps audiences listening. We tuned it to sound
very similar to the legendary Gregg Laboratories 2540 AM processor (designed by
Orban’s Vice President of New Product Development, Greg Ogonowski, in the 1980s),
using a direct A/B comparison with the Gregg processor to ensure accuracy. This preset
uses a 200 Hz B1/B2 CROSSOVER setting.
The PRESENCE preset, as its name suggests, emphasizes the spectrum around 3 kHz.
It is a very loud preset that emphasizes speech intelligibility. It uses HARD bass clipping to maintain bass punch at the expense of some bass distortion. MW stations
seeking to increase their coverage and to cut through co-channel interference are
appropriate candidates for this preset.
This preset is tuned for the typical narrowband MW radio and will sound shrill and
unpleasant on wideband radios (of which there are very few in the market). If you feel
that the preset has too much distortion, feel free to turn it down it with LESS-MORE to
taste. The factory LESS-MORE setting is 9.0, so there is plenty of room to turn the
preset down without seriously compromising loudness and coverage.
You can also reduce the midrange boost if you feel this is excessive. Part of the boost is
implemented in the Equalization section and part is implemented by the compression
threshold controls, which are found in Advanced Modify.
HF GENERAL is a 4.5 kHz-bandwidth preset for international shortwave transmission. In recognition of the severe noise and interference problems often
encountered in HF propagation, the HF GENERAL preset has been ``tuned" to
emphasize loudness and intelligibility. By comparison to the medium-wave-oriented
presets, HF GENERAL has a more ``forward" midrange balance and less bass. This is
because bass costs modulation without contributing proportional intelligibility (it
also can make intermodulation distortion worse during selective fading), and
because a boosted midrange can most effectively cut through noise to provide
intelligibility.
The 4.5 kHz bandwidth is coded into the preset, so the lowpass filter setting in the
active Transmission Preset will be ignored.
HF VOICE is a 4.5 kHz-bandwidth preset for international shortwave transmission.
Compared to HF GENERAL, it emphasizes voice-range frequencies and has less bass.
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It maximizes speech intelligibility in the presence of noise, interference, and
jamming. It can be turned up via LESS-MORE as needed for difficult propagation
conditions.
Description of the Digital Radio (HD) Factory Presets
DIGITAL RADIO FACTORY PROGRAMMING PRESETS
Preset Names
CLASSICAL-5B
CLASSICAL-5B+AGC
COUNTRY-MEDIUM
COUNTRY-LIGHT
CRISP
DANCE ENERGY
EDGE
FOLK-TRADITIONAL
GOLD
GREGG
GREGG OPEN
GREGG LBR
IMPACT
INSTRUMENTAL
JAZZ
LOUD-BIG
LOUD-FAT
LOUD-HOT
LOUD-HOT+BASS
LOUD-PUNCHY
LOUD+SLAM
NEWS-TALK
ROCK-DENSE
ROCK-LIGHT
ROCK-MEDIUM
ROCK-MEDIUM+MID-BASS
ROCK-MEDIUM+LOW BASS
ROCK-OPEN
ROCK-SOFT
SMOOTH JAZZ
SPORTS
WMA MUSIC
WMA NEWS-TALK
URBAN-LIGHT
URBAN-HEAVY
Source Preset
CLASSICAL-5 B
CLASSICAL-5 B+AGC
ROCK-SMOOTH
ROCK-LIGHT
CRISP
DANCE ENERGY
EDGE
ROCK-SOFT
GOLD
GREGG
GREGG OPEN
GREGG LBR
IMPACT
JAZZ
JAZZ
LOUD-BIG
LOUD-FAT
LOUD-HOT
LOUD-HOT+BASS
LOUD-PUNCHY
LOUD+SLAM
NEWS-TALK
ROCK-DENSE
ROCK-LIGHT
ROCK-MEDIUM
ROCK-MEDIUM+MID-BASS
ROCK-MEDIUM+LOW BASS
ROCK-OPEN
ROCK-SOFT
SMOOTH JAZZ
SPORTS
WMA MUSIC
WMA NEWS-TALK
URBAN-LIGHT
URBAN-HEAVY
Normal Less-More
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
9.5
9.0
10.0
7.0
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
9.5
7.0
7.0
9.0
7.0
8.5
9.5
9.0
9.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
8.5
9.0
7.0
9.5
7.0
7.0
7.0
Table 3-2: Digital Radio Factory Programming Presets
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Presets with “LBR” in their names are tuned to minimize artifacts with low bitrate
codecs by using the Band 5 compressor to control excessive high frequency energy.
CLASSICAL 5B: As its name implies, the CLASSICAL-5B preset is optimized for classical music, gracefully handling recordings with very wide dynamic range and sudden shifts in dynamics. It uses heavy inter-band coupling to prevent large amounts
of automatic re-equalization, which could otherwise cause unnatural stridency and
brightness in strings and horns and which could pump up very low frequency rumble
in live recording venues.
COUNTRY: The COUNTRY-MEDIUM preset uses the ROCK-SMOOTH source preset. It
has a gentle bass lift and a mellow, easy-to-listen-to high end, along with enough
presence energy to help vocals to stand out. The COUNTRY-LIGHT preset uses the
ROCK-LIGHT source preset. Modern country stations might also find ROCK-MEDIUM
or ROCK-OPEN useful if they want a brighter, more up-front sound.
CRISP: CRISP provides a bright upper midrange sound by emphasizing frequencies
around 6 kHz. It is a loud preset that is appropriate for mass-appeal music formats. It
has the same bass texture as the IMPACT presets.
DANCE ENERGY: This preset is designed to preserve the punch and slam in dance
music percussion (such as the beater click in kick drums). It is loud and has a bright
high frequency texture. As LESS-MORE is turned down, this preset get quieter, yet
punchier.
EDGE: This preset is designed for hit music stations that prefer extremely punchy
bass to fastidious distortion control. It is loud and has a bright high frequency texture.
FOLK / TRADITIONAL: FOLK / TRADITIONAL is an alias for the ROCK-SOFT preset.
It assumes that the recordings are of relatively recent vintage and require relatively
subtle processing.
If the recordings you play are inconsistent in texture and equalization, you may prefer the ROCK-SMOOTH or ROCK-LIGHT presets.
GOLD: GOLD is loud and “hi-fi”-sounding while still respecting the limitations and
basic flavor of the recordings from the era of the 1950s through 1970s.
For example, we do not attempt to exaggerate high frequency energy in
the GOLD preset. The highs in recordings of this era are often noisy, distorted, or have other technical problems that make them unpleasant
sounding when the processor over-equalizes them in an attempt to emulate the high frequency balance of recently recorded material.
GREGG: GREGG, GREGG OPEN, and GREGG LBR all use a 200 Hz band1/band2
crossover frequency to achieve a bass sound similar to the classic five-band Gregg
Labs FM processors designed by Orban’s Vice President of New Product Development, Greg Ogonowski. Dynamically, these presets produce a slight increase in bass
energy below 100 Hz and a decrease of bass energy centered at 160 Hz. This bass
sound works particularly well with radios having good bass response, such as many
auto radios today.
3-25
3-26
OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
In terms of loudness, midrange texture, and HF texture, these presets are similar to
the LOUD-HOT+BASS presets.
IMPACT: IMPACT is intended for CHR and similar formats where attracting a large
audience (maximizing cume) is more important than ensuring long time-spentlistening. This is a loud, bright, “major-market” preset that has a great deal of presence energy to cut through on lower-quality radios.
Its sound changes substantially as the Less-More control is turned down—loudness
decreases, while bass punch and transparency improve. Therefore, exploring various
Less-More settings is very worthwhile with IMPACT, because, for many markets, this
preset will be “over the top” if it is not turned down with LESS-MORE. It is not a
good choice for low bit rate codecs because of its brightness.
INSTRUMENTAL: An alias for the JAZZ preset.
JAZZ: JAZZ is tailored toward stations that play mostly instrumental music, particularly classic jazz (Armstrong, Coltrane, Mingus, Monk, etc.). It is a quiet preset with a
very clean, mellow high end to prevent stridency on saxes and other horns. It preserves much of the qualities of the original recordings, doing light re-equalization.
The preset produces very low listening fatigue, so it is a good choice for stations that
want listeners to stay all day. Note that stations programming “smooth jazz” should
investigate the SMOOTH JAZZ preset, which is louder and more “commercial”sounding.
Because of its mellow high end and lack of density build-up, the JAZZ preset works
well with low bit-rate codecs.
LOUD: There are several LOUD presets.
LOUD-HOT is very bright and present, with up-front vocals. Release time is medium.
LOUD-HOT+BASS is based on LOUD-HOT. It is tuned for the maximum amount of
bass we could add without creating obvious distortion on some program material.
This amount of bass may be excessive with certain consumer radios (particularly
“boom-boxes”) that already have substantial bass boost. Use it with care.
LOUD+SLAM is very similar to LOUD-HOT+BASS. Because of the 18 dB/octave BASS
SLOPE, its advantages will be appreciated most through radios with good low bass
response.
LOUD-PUNCHY is the quietest of the “loud” preset family. It is designed for a
bright, sizzling top end and very punchy lows. It is a good choice for stations that
feel that the LOUD-HOT presets are too aggressive, but that think that the ROCK
presets are insufficiently loud for their market position. It is not a good choice for
low bit rate codecs.
LOUD-BIG compromises between LOUD-HOT and LOUD-HOT+BASS. It uses a 12
dB/octave bass equalizer slope to achieve punchy bass that still has enough mid-bass
boost to help smaller radios.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
LOUD-FAT has dramatic punch on percussive material and a very fat-sounding low
end, plus outstandingly effective distortion control. It avoids overt bass distortion
despite the full bass sound. It is slightly quieter than the loudest of the “loud” preset family.
NEWS-TALK: This preset is quite different from the others above. It is based on the
fast multiband release time setting, so it can quickly perform automatic equalization
of substandard program material, including telephone. It is very useful for creating a
uniform, intelligible sound from widely varying source material, particularly source
material that is “hot from the field” with uncontrolled quality.
SPORTS: Similar to NEWS-TALK except the AGC Release (AGC Release Time) is
slower and the Gate Thresh (Gate Threshold) is higher. This recognizes that most
play-by-play sports programming has very low signal-to-noise ratio due to crowd
noise and other on-field sounds, so the preset does not pump this up as the NEWSTALK preset would tend to do.
ROCK: ROCK-DENSE, ROCK-MEDIUM, and ROCK-OPEN provide a bright high end
and punchy low end (although not as exaggerated as the URBAN presets). These
presets are appropriate for general rock and contemporary programming. A midrange boost provides enough presence energy to ensure that vocals stand out. A
modest amount of high frequency coupling (determined by the BAND COUPLING 3>4
setting) allows reasonable amounts of automatic HF equalization (to correct dull
program material), while still preventing exaggerated frequency balances and excessive HF density. Dense, medium, and open refer to the compression density, which is
determined by the release time settings in the AGC and multiband limiter sections.
ROCK-LIGHT has an open sound with little audible compression and less brightness
than the first three presets. It is a compromise between ROCK-OPEN and ROCKSOFT.
ROCK-SOFT has a mellow, easy-to-listen-to high frequency quality that is designed
for female-skewing formats. It is also a candidate for “Quiet Storm” and “Love
Songs” light rock or light urban formats.
ROCK-SMOOTH has the same mellow, easy-to-listen-to high frequency quality as
ROCK-SOFT, but with more density. Again, it is a good choice for female-skewing
formats, but where you need more compression and density than you get with
ROCK-SOFT.
For Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR) we recommend the ROCK-DENSE or ROCKMEDIUM versions. In competitive markets, you may need to use LOUD-HOT (you can
use LESS-MORE to get it even louder) or even LOUD-HOT+BASS or IMPACT. However, the “rock” presets are not as bright and are more likely to complement low bit
rate codecs.
For Album-Oriented Rock (AOR) we recommend the ROCK-MEDIUM or ROCK-OPEN
versions, although you might prefer the more conservative ROCK-LIGHT or ROCKSMOOTH versions.
3-27
3-28
OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
ROCK-MEDIUM+LOWBASS is an open-sounding preset with a lot of bass punch. Its
Multiband Release control is set to Slow2 so that the sound is relaxed and not at all
busy. At the same time, the preset is competitively loud. It is an excellent choice for
“adult contemporary” and “soft rock” formats where long time-spent-listening is
desired.
SMOOTH JAZZ: This preset is designed for commercial stations playing smooth jazz
(Kenny G., etc.). It is a loud preset that is designed to prevent stridency with saxes
and other horns.
WMA MUSIC: This preset is based on GREGG SLOW but has been edited to minimize artifacts in the Windows Media Audio V9 codec when operated at bitrates below 64 kbps. See Processing for Low Bitrate Codecs and HD Radio on page 3-8.
WMA NEWS-TALK: This preset is based on NEWS-TALK but has been edited to
minimize artifacts in the Windows Media Audio V9 codec when operated at bitrates
below 64 kbps.
URBAN: There are two URBAN (Rap) presets: HEAVY and LIGHT. These are similar
to ROCK-MEDIUM and ROCK-OPEN but with a different bass sound. They use the 3pole (18 dB/octave) shape on the bass equalizer. URBAN-HEAVY is appropriate for
Urban, Rap, Hip-Hop, Black, R&B, Dance and other similar formats. URBAN-LIGHT is
appropriate for light R&B formats. Highly competitive Urban stations might also use
LOUD-HOT+BASS or LOUD+SLAM, modified versions of LOUD-HOT that maximize
bass punch.
Equalizer Controls
The table summarizes the equalization controls available for the 9400. Note that
there are two separate equalization sections, one for AM analog-channel processing
and one for HD AM processing. Differences between these equalization sections are
noted in Table 3-3 on page 3-29.
“Advanced” controls are accessible only from 9400 PC Remote software.
Any equalization that you set will be automatically stored in any User Preset that
you create and save. For example, you can use a User Preset to combine an unmodified Factory Programming Preset with your custom equalization. Of course, you can
also modify the Factory Preset (with Basic Modify, Full Modify, or Advanced Modify)
before you create your User Preset.
In general, you should be conservative when equalizing modern, well-recorded program material. This is particularly true with general-purpose AM programming.
Bass Shelving Equalizer:, The 9400 processing’s low bass shelving equalizer is designed to add punch and slam to rock and urban music. This equalizer is only provided for the digital radio processing because many analog AM radios do not handle
extreme bass boost gracefully, particularly at very low frequencies. Instead, we provide the low frequency parametric equalizer (which provides a bell-shaped boost instead of a shelving boost) to boost bass in the analog AM channel.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
The shelving equalizer provides control over gain, hinge frequency, and slope (in
dB/octave).
BASS FREQ sets the frequency where shelving starts to take effect.
This would by the +3 dB frequency for infinite BASS GAIN. For lower bass
gains, the gain is progressively less than +3 dB at this frequency.
BASS GAIN sets the amount of bass boost (dB) at the top of the shelf.
BASS SLOPE sets the slope (dB/octave) of the transition between the top
and bottom of the shelf.
Depending on the preset and adjustment of the band 5 compressor/limiter in the
digital processing channel, the 9400’s processing may increase the brightness of program material in the digital processing channel. Hence, bass boost is sometimes desirable to keep the sound well balanced spectrally. Adjustment of bass equalization
must be determined by individual taste and by the requirements of your format. Be
sure to listen on a wide variety of receivers — it is possible to create severe distorEqualizer Controls
Group
Bass Shelf
(HD AM only)
Low
Mid
High
HF Enhancer
HF Gain
(analog only)
HF Curve (analog only)
Brilliance (HD
only)
DJ Bass
System Filters
Basic / Full
Modify Name
BASS FREQ
Advanced Name
Range
Bass Frequency
BASS GAIN
BASS SLOPE
LF FREQ
LF GAIN
LF WIDT
MID FREQ
MID GAIN
Bass Gain
Bass Slope
Low Frequency
Low Gain
Low Width
Mid Frequency
Mid Gain
80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, 115,
120, 125, 130, 135, 140, 145, 150,
160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220,
230, 240, 250, 270, 290, 310, 330,
350, 380, 410, 440, 470, 500Hz
0 … 12 dB
6,12,18 dB / Oct
20 ... 500 Hz
–10.0 … +10.0 dB
0.8 ... 4 octaves
250 ... 6000 Hz
–10.0 … +10.0 dB
MID WIDTH
HIGH FREQ
HIGH GAIN
Mid Width
High Frequency
High Gain
0.8 ... 4 octaves
1.0 … 15.0 kHz
–10.0 … +10.0 dB
HIGH WIDTH
HF ENH
0.8 ... 4 octaves
0 … 15
BRILLIANCE
High Width
High Frequency
Enhancer
High Frequency
Shelf Gain
High Frequency
Shelf Curve
Brilliance
DJ BASS
LOW PASS
DJ Bass Boost
Lowpass
HI PASS
LPF Shape
Highpass
Off, 0 … +10 dB
4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0,
8.5 ,9.0. 9.5(NRSC) kHz
–0.1, –3.0, –6.0 dB
50 ,60, 70, 80, 90, 100 Hz
HF Gain
HF Curve
0 … 22 dB
0 … 10, NRSC
0.0 … +6.0 dB
Table 3-3: Equalization Controls
3-29
3-30
OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
tion on poor quality speakers by over-equalizing the bass. Be careful!
The moderate-slope (12 dB/octave) shelving boost achieves a bass boost that is more
audible on smaller receivers, but which can sound boomier on high-quality receivers.
The steep-slope (18 dB/octave) shelving boost creates a solid, punchy bass from the
better consumer receivers and home theater systems with decent bass response. The
6 dB/octave shelving boost is like a conventional tone control and creates the most
mid-bass boost, yielding a “warmer” sound. Because it affects the mid-bass frequency range, where the ear is more sensitive than it is to very low bass, the 6
dB/octave slope can create more apparent bass level at the cost of bass “punch.”
There are no easy choices here; you must choose the characteristic you want by
identifying your target audience and the receivers they are most likely to be using.
In many cases, you will not want to use any boost at all for general-purpose AM
programming, because this can exaggerate rumble and other low frequency noise.
Additionally, large amounts of boost will increase the gain reduction in the lowest
band of the multiband compressor, which may have the effect of reducing some frequencies below 100 or 200 Hz (depending on the setting of the B1/B2 XOVER control). So be aware the large fixed bass boosts may have a different effect than you
expect because of the way that they interact with the multiband compressor.
Low Frequency Parametric Equalizer is a specially designed parametric equalizer
whose boost and cut curves closely emulate those of a classic Orban analog parametric equalizer with conventional bell-shaped curves (within 0.15 dB worst-case).
This provides warm, smooth, “analog-sounding” equalization.
LF FREQ determines the center frequency of the equalization, in Hertz.
Range is 20-500Hz.
LF GAIN determines the amount of peak boost or cut (in dB) over a 10
dB range.
LF WIDTH determines the bandwidth of the equalization, in octaves. The
range is 0.8-4.0 octaves. If you are unfamiliar with using a parametric
equalizer, 1.5 octaves is a good starting point. These curves are relatively
broad because they are designed to provide overall tonal coloration,
rather than to notch out small areas of the spectrum.
Although a certain amount of low-frequency boost must be used along with the
high frequency boost in order to obtain a balanced sound on analog AM radios for
MW, do so conservatively! Use the auto radios with most bass (all of which usually
have a peaky mid-bass when you listen through the standard dashboard speaker) as
a “worst case” reference. Do not boost the bass so much that your reference radio
becomes muddy or boomy. With correct bass boost, your table radio will have only
moderate bass, and your pocket radio will sound thin and tinny.
For example, a 6dB boost corresponds to a 400% increase in power! More than 6dB
of bass boost will strain many transmitters, unnecessarily increasing power supply
bounce and IM distortion problems. (The bass boost is further limited dynamically in
the multiband clipper  see immediately below.) Excessive bass boost will also cause
many dashboard speakers to sound unacceptably muddy.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Use of a narrow bandwidth, a low boost frequency (like 65 Hz), and a relatively
large boost can produce a very punchy sound in a car, or on a radio with significant
bass response. It can also cost you loudness (bass frequencies take lots of modulation
without giving you proportionate perceived loudness), and can result in a thin
sound on radios with only moderate bass response. A smaller amount of boost, a
produce a better compromise.
In HF broadcast, perhaps the most difficult of all processing tradeoffs is choosing
bass equalization. This is why the 9400’s a bass equalizer can cut as well as boost.
When propagation conditions are good and the signal strength is high, a certain
amount of bass boost (perhaps +3dB) provides the most pleasing sound. However,
robust bass can easily induce intermodulation distortion in the clippers, so the
amount of clipping must be reduced to provide acceptable distortion performance.
In turn, this may compromise loudness by up to 3dB — the equivalent of cutting
transmitter power in half!
Bass boost has a tendency to reduce the life of power tubes in most high-powered
transmitters. It will also tend to induce intermodulation distortion in envelope detectors under selective fading, when detection becomes markedly nonlinear because
of sideband asymmetry. In short, the arguments for bass cut are usually more persuasive than those for bass boost. Yet if an HF broadcasting organization seeks the
highest possible subjective quality regardless of transmitter operating cost and feels
that it usually delivers a strong RF signal, free from selective fading, to its listeners,
then such an organization may still wish to boost bass slightly.
It is important to understand that the effect of the bass equalizer is relatively subtle,
because bass balances are also affected by the action of the 150Hz and 420Hz bands
of the multiband limiter and multiband distortion-canceling clipper. These bands will
tend to make bass balances more uniform (partially ``fighting'' bass-balance changes
made with the bass equalizer) by increasing bass in program material that is thinsounding, and by limiting heavy bass to a user-settable threshold below 100%
modulation to prevent disturbing intermodulation between bass and higherfrequency program material. Compared to the 9400’s presets for MW broadcasting,
in the HF presets the threshold of limiting of the 150Hz band has been lowered so
that more gain reduction (and thus, less bass) is produced.
The multiband distortion-canceling clipper prevents hard-clipped bass square waves
from appearing at OPTIMOD-AM's output. Older transmitters will respond better to
this well-controlled, benign waveform than to the hard-clipped bass square waves
produced by less sophisticated processing.
The equalizer, like the classic Orban analog parametrics such as the 622B,
has constant “Q” curves. This means that the cut curves are narrower
than the boost curves. The width (in octaves) is calibrated with reference
to 10 dB boost. As you decrease the amount of EQ gain (or start to cut),
the width in octaves will decrease. However, the “Q” will stay constant.
“Q” is a mathematical parameter that relates to how fast ringing damps
out. (Technically, we are referring to the “Q” of the poles of the equalizer transfer function, which does not change as you adjust the amount
of boost or cut.)
3-31
3-32
OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
The curves in the 9400’s equalizer were created by a so-called “minimax”
(“minimize the maximum error,” or “equal-ripple”) IIR digital approximation to the curves provided by the Orban 622B analog parametric
equalizer. Therefore, unlike less sophisticated digital equalizers that use
the “bilinear transformation” to generate EQ curves, the shapes of the
9400’s curves are not distorted at high frequencies.
Midrange Parametric Equalizer is a parametric equalizer whose boost and cut
curves closely emulate those of an analog parametric equalizer with conventional
bell-shaped curves.
MID FREQ determines the center frequency of the equalization, in Hertz.
Range is 250-6000Hz.
MID GAIN determines the amount of peak boost or cut (in dB) over a
10 dB range.
MID WIDTH determines the bandwidth of the equalization, in octaves.
The range is 0.8-4.0 octaves. If you are unfamiliar with using a parametric
equalizer, 1 octave is a good starting point.
The audible effect of the midrange equalizer is closely associated with the amount
of gain reduction in the midrange bands. With small amounts of gain reduction, it
boosts power in the presence region. This can increase the loudness of such material
substantially. As you increase the gain reduction in the midrange bands (by turning
the MULTIBAND DRIVE (Multiband Drive) control up), the MID GAIN control will have
progressively less audible effect. The compressor for the midrange bands will tend to
reduce the effect of the MID frequency boost (in an attempt to keep the gain constant) to prevent excessive stridency in program material that already has a great
deal of presence power. Therefore, with large amounts of gain reduction, the density of presence region energy will be increased more than will the level of energy in
that region.
Use the mid frequency equalizer with caution. Excessive presence boost tends to be
audibly strident and fatiguing. Moreover, the sound quality, although loud, can be
very irritating. We suggest a maximum of 3 dB boost, although 10 dB is achievable.
In some of our factory music presets, we use 3 dB boost at 2.6 kHz to bring vocals
more up-front.
High Frequency Parametric Equalizer is a parametric equalizer whose boost and
cut curves closely emulate those of an analog parametric equalizer with conventional bell-shaped curves.
HIGH FREQ determines the center frequency of the equalization, in
Hertz. The range is 1-15 kHz.
HIGH GAIN determines the amount of peak boost or cut over a 10 dB
range.
HIGH WIDTH determines the bandwidth of the equalization, in octaves.
The range is 0.8-4.0 octaves. If you are unfamiliar with using a parametric
equalizer, one octave is a good starting point.
Excessive high frequency boost can exaggerate hiss and distortion in program material that is less than perfectly clean. We suggest no more than 4 dB boost as a practi-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
cal maximum, unless source material is primarily from compact discs of recently recorded material. In several of our presets, we use this equalizer to boost the presence band (3 kHz) slightly, leaving broadband HF boost to the receiver equalizer.
Receiver Equalizer
HF Gain (“High Frequency Shelf Gain”) determines the amount of high
frequency boost provided by the 9400’s receiver equalizer.
HF Curve (“High Frequency Shelf Curve”) determines the shape of the
curve produced by the 9400’s receiver equalizer.
The high-frequency receiver equalizer is designed to compensate for the high frequency rolloff in average AM radios. The typical AM radio is down 3dB at 2kHz and
rolls off at least 18dB/octave after that. The HF equalizer provides an 18dB/octave
shelving pre-emphasis that can substantially improve the brightness and intelligibility of sound through such narrowband radios. The HF equalizer has two controls: a
gain control that determines the height of the shelving curve (dB), and a curve control, calibrated with an arbitrary number that determines how abruptly the shelving
equalizer increases its gain as frequency increases. 0 provides the most abrupt curve;
10 provides the gentlest. The HF CURVE control is used to trade-off harshness on
wider-band radios against brightness in narrow-band radios.
An HF CURVE of 0 provides the same equalization that was originally supplied as
Figure 3-1: HF Receiver Equalizer Curves
3-33
3-34
OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
standard on early OPTIMOD-AM 9100 units and was later provided by the 9100’s
green module. Compared to higher settings of the HF Curve control, it provides
much more boost in the 5 kHz region, and tends to sound strident on wideband radios. However, it can be very effective where narrowband radios remain the norm.
With an HF CURVE setting of 0, an HF GAIN control setting of 22 dB will create a perceived bandwidth of 6 kHz on “Group 2” AM radios (see page 3-11); a 15 dB setting
yields a 5 kHz perceived bandwidth, 10 dB yields 4 kHz, and 5 dB yields 3 kHz. Advancing the HF GAIN control will result in a brighter, higher fidelity sound, but it will
also require that the listener tune the radio more carefully.
If most of your listeners have wider-band radios (as may be the case in North America), use the NRSC curve, which can be chosen with the HF CURVE control. For a
somewhat brighter sound that can benefit narrowband radios more, yet is still compatible with wideband NRSC radios, use HF CURVE = 10 and HF GAIN = 10dB. HF
CURVE = 10 corresponds to the RED pre-emphasis module in Orban's analog
9100-series OPTIMOD-AM processors.
Note that the added brightness caused by using an HF CURVE of 10 (as opposed to
using NRSC) may tend to increase the first-adjacent interference being generated by
your station, contrary to the purpose and intentions of the NRSC.
HF CURVE settings between 0 and 10 smoothly interpolate between the two extremes, and provide more flexibility for user adjustment. An HF CURVE setting of 5
provides the curve family associated with the YELLOW pre-emphasis module in
Orban's analog 9100-series OPTIMOD-AM processors.
With the HF CURVE control at any setting other than NRSC, extreme amounts of
high-frequency boost may result in a slight `lisping' quality on certain voices. This is
because the high-frequency boost will increase the high-frequency content of sibilant voices, which can only be boosted to 100% modulation. Since the spectral balance of the voice is altered, this may be perceived as a lisping sound.
The receiver equalizer is of limited benefit to narrowband radios with abrupt rolloffs. We believe that these radios benefit more from a boost at 3 kHz, combined
with very little HF shelving EQ. These radios have almost no response at 5 kHz and
above, so boosting frequencies above 5 kHz wastes modulation. Using a bell-shaped
boost at 3 kHz causes the boost to decline naturally at frequencies that the radio
cannot reproduce. You can use either the midrange or HF parametric equalizer to
create such a boost.
Figure 3-1 on page 3-33 shows the curve families for the HF equalizer.
DJ BASS (“DJ Bass Boost“) control determines the amount of bass boost produced
on some male voices. In its default OFF position, it causes the gain reduction of the
lowest frequency band to move quickly to the same gain reduction as its nearest
neighbor when gated. This fights any tendency of the lowest frequency band to develop significantly more gain than its neighbor when processing voice because voice
will activate the gate frequently. Each time it does so, it resets the gain of the lowest
frequency band so that the gains of the two bottom bands are equal and the re-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
sponse in this frequency range is flat. The result is natural-sounding bass on male
voice.
If you like a larger-than-life, “chesty” sound on male voice, set this control away
from OFF. Then, gating causes the gain reduction of the lowest frequency band to
move to the same gain reduction (minus a gain offset equal to the numerical setting
of the control) as its nearest neighbor when gated. You can therefore set the maximum gain difference between the two low frequency bands, producing considerable dynamic bass boost on voice.
The difference will never exceed the difference that would have otherwise occurred
if the lowest frequency band were independently gated. If you are familiar with
older Orban processors, this is the maximum amount of boost that would have occurred if you had set their DJ BASS BOOST controls to ON.
The amount of bass boost will be highly dependent on the fundamental frequency
of a given voice. If the fundamental frequency is far above 100Hz, there will be little
voice energy in the bottom band and little or no audio bass boost can occur even if
the gain of the bottom band is higher than the gain of its neighbor. As the fundamental frequency moves lower, more of this energy leaks into the bottom band,
producing more bass boost. If the fundamental frequency is very low (a rarity), there
will be enough energy in the bottom band to force significant gain reduction, and
you will hear less bass boost than if the fundamental frequency were a bit higher.
If the MB GATE THRESH (Gate Threshold) control is turned OFF, the DJ BASS boost setting is disabled.
BRILLIANCE sets the drive level into the Band 5 compressor in the digital radio
channel only. Because band 4 gain reduction determines band 5 gain reduction, this
control has the same effect as the BAND 5 OUTPUT MIX control. It is included only for
compatibility with Orban’s 8400 and 8500 HD processors so that you can duplicate
the sound of these processors’ presets by copying their control settings to the 9400.
HF ENH (“High Frequency Enhancer”) is a program-adaptive 6 dB/octave shelving
equalizer with a 4 kHz turnover frequency. It constantly monitors the ratio between
high frequency and broadband energy and adjusts the amount of equalization in an
attempt to make this ratio constant as the program material changes. It can therefore create a bright, present sound without over-equalizing material that is already
bright.
LOWPASS ("Lowpass Filter Cutoff Frequency") allows you to decrease (but not increase) the low-pass cutoff frequency compared to its setting in active transmission
preset. See (7.B) on page 2-26.
LPF SHAPE ("Lowpass Filter Shape") allows you to decrease (but not increase) the
low-pass filter's shape compared to its setting in active transmission preset. See step
(7.C) on page 2-27.
HIGHPASS ("Highpass Filter Cutoff Frequency") allows you to increase (but not decrease) the highpass cutoff frequency compared to its setting in active transmission
preset. See step( 7.D) on page 2-28.
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Stereo Enhancer Controls
The 9400 provides two different stereo enhancement algorithms. The first is based
on Orban’s patented analog 222 Stereo Enhancer, which increases the energy in the
stereo difference signal (L–R) whenever a transient is detected in the stereo sum signal (L+R). By operating only on transients, the 222 increases width, brightness, and
punch without unnaturally increasing reverb (which is usually predominantly in the
L–R channel).
The second stereo enhancement algorithm is based on the well-known “Max” technique. This passes the L–R signal through a delay line and adds this decorrelated signal to the unenhanced L–R signal. Gating circuitry similar to that used in the “222style” algorithm prevents over-enhancement and undesired enhancement on
slightly unbalanced mono material.
It is unwise to use stereo enhancement with low bitrate codecs. At low bit rates,
these codecs use various parametric techniques for encoding the spatial attributes of
the sound field. Stereo enhancement can unnecessarily stress this encoding process.
Both modes have gating that operates under two conditions.

The two stereo channels are close to identical in magnitude and phase.
In this case, the enhancer assumes that the program material is actually
mono and thus suppresses enhancement to prevent the enhancement
from exaggerating the undesired channel imbalance.

The ratio of L–R / L+R of the enhanced signal tries to exceed the threshold set by
the L-R / L+R RATIO LIMIT control.
In this case, the enhancer prevents further enhancement in order to prevent excess L–R energy, which might increase distortion in AM stereo
transmission.
The stereo enhancer has the following controls:
Amount sets the maximum spatial enhancement.
Enhancer In / Out bypasses the stereo enhancer. OUT is equivalent to setting the
Stereo Enhancer Controls
Basic / Intermediate Name
Amount
Enhancer
Ratio Limit
Diffusion
Style
Depth
Advanced Name
Amount
In / Out
Ratio Lim
Diffusion
Style
Depth
Range
0.0 ... 10.0
Out / In
70 … 100%
Off, 0.3 ... 10.0
222 / Delay
0 … 10
Table 3-4: Stereo Enhancer Controls
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
AMOUNT to 0.
L-R / L+R Ratio Limit sets the maximum amount of enhancement to prevent multipath distortion. However, if the original program material exceeds this limit with no
enhancement, the enhancer will not reduce it.
Diffusion applies only to the DELAY enhancer. This control determines the amount
of delayed L–R added to the original signal.
Style sets one of two stereo enhancer types: 222 or DELAY.
Depth sets the delay in the delay line. It applies only to the DELAY enhancer.
AGC Controls
The AGC is common to the analog AM and digital radio processing chains.
Five of the AGC controls are common to the Full Modify and Advanced Modify
screens, with additional AGC controls available in the Advance Modify screen, as
noted in the following table. (Note that “advanced” controls are accessible only
from 9400 PC Remote software.) These controls are explained in detail below.
AGC (“AGC Off / On”) control activates or defeats the AGC.
It is usually used to defeat the AGC when you want to create a preset with minimal
processing. The AGC is also ordinarily defeated if you are using a studio level controller (like Orban’s 8200ST). However, in this case it is better to defeat the AGC
globally in System Setup.
AGC Controls
Full Modify Name
AGC
AGC DRIVE
AGC REL
AGC GATE
AGC B CPL
-------------------------
Advanced Name
AGC Off / On
AGC Drive
AGC Master Release
AGC Gate Threshold
AGC Bass Coupling
AGC Maximum Delta Gain
Reduction
AGC Window Size
AGC Window Release
AGC Matrix
AGC Ratio
AGC Bass Threshold
AGC Idle Gain
AGC Bass Attack
AGC Master Attack
AGC Bass Release
AGC Master Delta Threshold
AGC Bass Delta Threshold
Table 3-5: AGC Controls
Range
Off / On
–10 ... 25 dB
0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2 … 20 dB / S
Off, –44 ... –15 dB
Off, –12.0 … 0 dB
0 … 24 dB, Off
–25 … 0 dB
0.5 … 20 dB
L/R, sum/difference
1, 4:1, 3:1, 2:1
–12.0 … 2.5 dB
–10 … +10 dB
1 … 10
0.2 … 6
1 … 10 dB/sec
–6 … +6 dB
–6 … +6 dB
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
AGC DRIVE control adjusts signal level going into the slow dual-band AGC, determining the amount of gain reduction in the AGC. This also adjusts the “idle gain” —
the amount of gain reduction in the AGC section when the structure is gated. (It
gates whenever the input level to the structure is below the threshold of gating.)
The total amount of gain reduction in a given 9400 processing chain is the sum of
the gain reduction in the AGC and the gain reduction in the multiband compressor
in that chain (AM analog or HD). The total system gain reduction determines how
much the loudness of quiet passages will be increased (and, therefore, how consistent overall loudness will be). It is determined by the setting of the AGC DRIVE control, by the level at which the console VU meter or PPM is peaked, and by the setting
of the MULTIBAND DRIVE (compressor) control for each chain.
AGC REL (“AGC Master Release”) control provides an adjustable range from 0.5
dB/second (slow) to 20 dB/second (fast). The increase in density caused by setting the
AGC RELEASE control to fast settings sounds different from the increase in density
caused by setting the a given chain’s MULTIBAND RELEASE control to FAST, and you can
trade the two off to produce different effects.
Unless it is purposely speeded-up (with the AGC RELEASE control), the automatic
gain control (AGC) that occurs in the AGC prior to the multiband compressor makes
audio levels more consistent without significantly altering texture. Then the multiband compression audibly changes the density of the sound and dynamically reequalizes it as necessary (booming bass is tightened; weak, thin bass is brought up;
highs are always present and consistent in level).
The various combinations of AGC and compression offer great flexibility:

Light AGC + light compression yields a wide sense of dynamics, with a small
amount of automatic re-equalization.

Moderate AGC + light compression produces an open, natural quality with
automatic re-equalization and increased consistency of frequency balance.

Moderate AGC + moderate compression gives a more dense sound, particularly
as the release time of the multiband compressor is sped up.

Moderate AGC + heavy compression (particularly with a FAST multiband release
time) results in a “wall of sound” effect, which may cause listener fatigue.

Adjust the AGC (with the AGC DRIVE control) to produce the desired amount of
AGC action, and then fine-tune the compression and clipping with the 9400
processing’s controls.
AGC GATE (“AGC Gate Threshold”) control determines the lowest input level that
will be recognized as program by the AGC; lower levels are considered to be noise or
background sounds and cause the AGC to gate, effectively freezing gain to prevent
noise breathing.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
There are three independent gating circuits in the 9400. The first affects the AGC,
while the others affect the multiband compressors in the analog AM and HD chains.
Each has its own threshold control.
The multiband compressor gate causes the gain reduction in bands 2 and 3 of a
given multiband compressor to move quickly to the average gain reduction occurring in those bands when the gate first turns on. This prevents obvious midrange
coloration under gated conditions, because bands 2 and 3 have the same gain.
The gate also independently freezes the gain of the two highest frequency bands
(forcing the gain of the highest frequency band to be identical to its lower
neighbor), and independently sets the gain of the lowest frequency band according
to the setting of the DJ BASS boost control (in the Equalization screen). Thus, without introducing obvious coloration, the gating smoothly preserves the average
overall frequency response “tilt” of the multiband compressor, broadly maintaining
the “automatic equalization” curve it generates for a given piece of program material.
If the MB GATE THR (Gate Threshold) control is turned OFF, the DJ BASS
control is disabled.
AGC B CPL (“AGC Bass Coupling”) control clamps the amount of dynamic bass
boost (in units of dB) that the AGC can provide. (In V1.0, the unit of measure was
percent.)
The AGC processes audio in a master band for all audio above approximately 200 Hz
and a bass band for audio below approximately 200 Hz. Starting with V1.1 software,
the AGC Master and Bass compressor sidechains operate without internal coupling.
The gain reduction in the Bass audio path is either the output of the Bass compressor sidechain or the output of the Master band sidechain. The AGC BASS COUPLING
control sets the switching threshold. For example, if the AGC BASS COUPLING control
is set to 4 dB and the master gain reduction is 10 dB, the bass gain reduction cannot
decrease below 6 dB even if the gain reduction signal from the Bass compressor
sidechain is lower. However, the audio path bass gain reduction can be larger than
the master gain reduction without limit. In the previous example, the bass gain reduction could be 25 dB
The normal setting of the AGC BASS COUPLING control is 0 dB, which allows the AGC
bass band to correct excessive bass as necessary but does not permit it to provide a
dynamic bass boost.
Note that the operation of this control was changed in 9400 V1.2 software to work
as explained above. You may have to tweak this control to achieve the same bass
balance that you had previously with V1.0 software.
AGC METR (“AGC Meter Display”) determines what signal the front-panel AGC
meter displays. MASTER displays the gain reduction of the Master (above-200 Hz)
band. DELTA displays the difference between the gain reduction in the Master and
Bass bands. Full-scale is 25 dB gain reduction.
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Although it is located in the Multiband Full Modify screen (to make it easy for a preset developer to switch meter modes), this control is not part of the active preset
and its setting is not saved in User Presets, unlike the other controls in the Full Modify screens. The meter mode always reverts to MASTER when the user leaves Full
Modify.
Because it only affects the front panel display, this control is not available
in PC Remote.
Advanced AGC Controls
The following AGC controls are available only in the 9400 PC Remote software.
AGC Maximum Delta Gain Reduction determines the maximum gain difference
permitted between the two channels of the AGC. Set it to “0” for perfect stereo
coupling.
This control works the same regardless of whether the AGC operates in left/right or
sum/difference MATRIX modes. In both cases, it controls the maximum gain difference
between the “channels.” Depending on the MATRIX mode setting, the “channels”
will handle left and right signals or will handle sum and difference signals. When
the AGC operates in sum/difference MATRIX mode, this control determines the maximum amount of width change in the stereo soundfield.
AGC Window Size determines the size of the “target zone” window in the AGC. If
the input level falls within this target zone, the AGC release time is set to the number specified by the AGC WINDOW RELEASE control. This is usually much slower than
the normal AGC release, and essentially freezes the AGC gain. This prevents the AGC
from building up density in material whose level is already well controlled. If the
level goes outside the window, then the AGC switches to the release rate specified
by AGC MASTER RELEASE, so the AGC can still correct large gain variations quickly.
The normal setting for the AGC WINDOW SIZE is 3dB.
AGC Window Release (see AGC WINDOW SIZE above.)
AGC Matrix allows you to operate the AGC in left/right mode or in sum/difference
mode. Because the envelope modulation in CQUAM AM stereo is the sum signal,
operating the AGC in sum/difference mode can help maximize loudness on mono
radios.
Additionally, sum/difference mode can give a type of stereo enhancement that is
different from the enhancement modes offered in the 9400’s built-in stereo enhancer. This will only work if you allow the two channels of the AGC to have different
gains. To do this, set the AGC MAXIMUM DELTA GAIN REDUCTION control greater than
zero.
AGC Ratio determines the compression ratio of the AGC. The compression ratio is
the ratio between the change in input level and the resulting change in output
level, both measured in units of dB.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Previous Orban AM processor AGCs had compression ratios very close to :1, which
produces the most consistent and uniform sound. However, the 9400 compressor can
reduce this ratio to as low as 2:1. This can add a sense of dynamic range and is
mostly useful for subtle fine arts formats like classical and jazz.
This control reduces the available range of AGC gain reduction because it acts by attenuating the gain control signal produced by the AGC sidechain. The range is 25 dB
at :1 and 12 dB at 2:1. However, the range of input levels that the AGC can handle
is unaffected, remaining at 25dB.
AGC Bass Threshold determines the compression threshold of the bass band in the
AGC. It can be used to set the target spectral balance of the AGC.
As the AGC B CPL control is moved towards “100%,” the AGC BASS THRESHOLD control affects the sound less and less.
The interaction between the AGC BASS THRESHOLD control and the AGC B CPL control is a bit complex, so we recommend leaving the AGC BASS THRESHOLD control at
its factory setting unless you have a good reason for readjusting it.
AGC Idle Gain. The “idle gain” is the target gain of the AGC when the silence gate
is active. Whenever the silence gate turns on, the gain of the AGC slowly moves towards the idle gain.
The idle gain is primarily determined by the AGC DRIVE setting — a setting of 10 dB
will ordinarily produce an idle gain of –10 dB (i.e., 10 dB of gain reduction). However, sometimes you may not want the idle gain to be the same as the AGC DRIVE
setting. The AGC IDLE GAIN control allows you to add or subtract gain from the idle
gain setting determined by the AGC DRIVE setting.
You might want to do this if you make a custom preset that otherwise causes the
gain to increase or decrease unnaturally when the AGC is gated.
For example, to make the idle gain track the setting of the AGC DRIVE control, set
the AGC IDLE GAIN control to zero. To make the idle gain 2 dB lower than the setting
of the AGC DRIVE control, set the AGC IDLE GAIN control to –2.
AGC Bass Attack sets the attack time of the AGC bass compressor (below 200Hz).
AGC Master Attack sets the attack time of the AGC master compressor (above
200Hz).
AGC Bass Release sets the release time of the AGC bass compressor.
AGC Master Delta Threshold allows you to set the difference between the compression thresholds of the sum and difference channels. (This control is only useful
when you set the AGC MATRIX to SUM/DIFFERENCE.) If you set the threshold of the difference channel lower than the sum channel, the AGC will automatically produce
more gain reduction in the difference channel. This will reduce the separation of
material with an excessively wide stereo image (like old Beatles records). To make
this work, you must set the AGC MAXIMUM DELTA GAIN REDUCTION control away from
3-41
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
zero. For example, to limit an excessively wide image while preventing more than 3
dB difference in gain between the sum and difference channels, set the AGC
MAXIMUM DELTA GAIN REDUCTION control to 3.0 and the AGC MASTER DELTA THRESHOLD
control to some positive number, depending on how much automatic width control
you want the 9400 to perform.
AGC Bass Delta Threshold works the same as AGC MASTER DELTA THRESHOLD, but
applies to the bass band. You will usually set it the same as AGC MASTER DELTA
THRESHOLD.
Clipper Controls
The clipper controls apply only to the analog AM processing chain.
The HD AM chain uses a look-ahead limiter employing a different technology than the distortion-cancelled clipper used in the AM analog
chain.
Bass Clip (“Bass Clip Threshold”) sets the threshold of Orban’s patented embedded
bass clipper with reference to the final clipper. The bass clipper is embedded in the
multiband crossover (after bands 1 and 2 are summed) so that any distortion created
by clipping is rolled off by part of the crossover filters. The threshold of this clipper is
usually set between 2 dB and 5 dB below the threshold of the final limiter in the
processing chain, depending on the setting of the LESS-MORE control in the parent
preset on which you are basing your Modify adjustments. This provides headroom
for contributions from the other three bands so that bass transients don’t smash
against the back-end clipping system, causing overt intermodulation distortion between the bass and higher frequency program material.
Some 9400 users feel that the bass clipper unnecessarily reduces bass punch at its
factory settings. Therefore, we made the threshold of the bass clipper useradjustable. The range (with reference to the final clipper threshold) is 0 to –6dB. As
you raise the threshold of the clipper, you will get more bass but also more distortion and pumping. Be careful when setting this control; do not adjust it casually. Listen to program material with heavy bass combined with spectrally sparse midrange
material (like a singer accompanied by a bass guitar) and listen for IM distortion induced by the bass’ pushing the midrange into the clipping system. In general, unless
Clipper Controls
Full Modify Name
--BASS CLI
B-CL SHAP
BASS MODE
--FINAL CLIP
HF-CL
-----
Advanced Name
Overshoot Compensator Drive
Bass Clip Threshold
Bass Clip Shape
Bass Clip Mode
Speech Bass Clip
Final Clip Drive
HF Clip Threshold
Speech Bass Clip Threshold
Overshoot Comp Drive
Table 3-6: Clipper Controls
Range
–2.0 … +2.0
–6.0 … 0.00 dB
0 … 10
Soft, Med, Hard, LLHard
–6.0 … 0.00 dB
–3.0 … +5.0 dB
–16…0.00, Off
–2.0 … +2.0
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
you have a very good reason to set the control elsewhere, we recommend leaving it
at the factory settings, which were determined following extensive listening tests
with many types of critical program material.
Bass Clip Mode sets the operation of the bass clipper to HARD, LL HARD, MEDIUM, or
SOFT.

HARD operates the clipper like the clipper in Orban’s Optimod-AM 9200. It produces the most harmonic distortion.
This can be useful if you want maximum bass punch because this setting
allows bass transients (like kick drums) to make square waves. The peak
level of the fundamental component of a square wave is 2.1 dB higher
than the peak level of the flat top in the square wave. Therefore, this allows you to get low bass that is actually higher than 100% modulation—
the harmonics produced by the clipping work to hold down the peak
level.
The square waves produced by this clipper are filtered through a
6 dB/octave lowpass filter that is down 3 dB at 400 Hz. This greatly reduces the audibility of the higher clipper-generated harmonics. Nevertheless, the downside is that material with sustained bass (including
speech) will sound substantially less clean than it will with the MEDIUM or
SOFT settings. The upside is that these harmonics can extend the perceived bass response of small radios.
Note that the HARD CLIP SHAPE control determines how squared-off the
clipped bass waveforms become. (See Clip Shape on page 3-44.)

LLHARD differs in two ways from the normal HARD mode of the bass clipper:

LLHARD automatically defeats the compressor lookahead. This action
is functionally equivalent to setting the LOOKAHEAD control to OUT,
except that it reduces input/output delay by 5 ms).

LLHARD prevents the bass clipper from switching to MEDIUM mode
whenever speech is detected. By constraining the system in these
ways, it ensures that the delay is always 17 ms.
To minimize speech distortion, the speech/music detector automatically
switches the bass clipper to MEDIUM when speech is detected if the FiveBand structure is active and the BASS CLIP MODE is set to HARD. (See “Lookahead” on page 3-53 for more about the speech/music detector.) If the
bass clipper is set to LLHARD, the speech/music detector will reset the
clipper threshold to the setting specified by the SPEECHBCTHR control.
The default setting is “0 dB,” which results in very little bass clipper action during speech. This prevents audible speech distortion that this clipper might otherwise introduce.
Switching the BASSCLIPMODE to LLHARD (from any other mode) removes
five milliseconds of delay from the signal path. Switching can cause audible clicks, pops, or thumps (due to waveform discontinuity) if it occurs
during program material. If you have some presets with LLHARD bass
clipper mode and some without, switching between these presets is likely
to cause clicks unless you do it during silence. However, these clicks will
never cause modulation to exceed 100%.
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
One of the essential differences between the HARD and LLHARD bass clipper modes is that switching between HARD and MED does not change delay and is therefore less likely to cause audible clicks.
The HARD CLIP SHAPE control (in Advanced Control) offers further control
over the sound of the HARD and LLHARD modes. See page 3-44.

MEDIUM uses more sophisticated signal processing than HARD to reduce distortion
substantially.

SOFT uses the most sophisticated look-ahead signal processing to reduce distortion further. Using SOFT adds an additional 18 ms of delay to the processing.
MEDIUM and SOFT are not available in Low Latency mode. The bass clipping is always HARD, but the HARD CLIP SHAPE control is still available to
“soften” the clipping.
Speech Bass Clip set the threshold of the bass clipper when the 9400 detects the
presence of speech. It is usually set to “0” to prevent the bass clipper from adding
distortion on speech.
Clip Shape (“Bass Clip Shape”) allows you to change shape of the knee of the Input/Output gain curve of the bass clipper. The “knee” is the transition between no
clipping and flat topping. A setting of “0” provides the hardest knee. “10” is the
softest knee, where the transition starts 6 dB below BASS CLIP THRESHOLD setting and
occurs gradually. The factory default setting is “7.6.”
HF CLIP (“High Frequency Clipper Threshold”; AM chain only) sets the threshold of
the multiband clipper in band 5 with reference to the final clipper threshold, in dB.
This clipper helps prevent distortion in the final clipper when the input program material contains excessive energy above 3 kHz.
The Band 5 multiband clipper operates at 256 kHz and is fully anti-aliased.
Final Clip (“Final Clip Drive”) adjusts the level of the audio driving the back-end
clipping system that OPTIMOD-AM uses to control fast peaks. This control primarily
determines the loudness / distortion trade-off.
Turning up the FINAL CLIP control drives the final clipper and overshoot compensator
harder, reducing the peak-to-average ratio, and increasing the loudness on the air.
When the amount of clipping is increased, the audible distortion caused by clipping
also increases. Although lower settings of the FINAL CLIP control reduce loudness,
they make the sound cleaner.
If the RELEASE control is set to its faster settings, the distortion produced by the
back-end clipping system will increase as the MULTIBAND DRIVE control is advanced.
The FINAL CLIP DRIVE and/or the MULTIBAND LIMIT THRESHOLD controls may have to be
turned down to compensate. To best understand how to make loudness / distortion
trade-offs, perhaps the wisest thing to do is to recall a factory preset and then to adjust the LESS-MORE control to several settings throughout its range. At each setting
of the LESS-MORE control, examine the settings of the MULTIBAND DRIVE and
MULTIBAND LIMIT THRESHOLD controls. This way, you can see how the factory pro-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
grammers made the trade-offs between the settings of the various distortiondetermining controls at various levels of processing.
The 9400’s multiband clipping and distortion control system works to
help prevent audible distortion in the final clipper. As factory programmers, we prefer to adjust the FINAL CLIP control through a narrow range
(typically –0.5 dB to –2.0dB) and to determine almost all of the loudness /
distortion trade-off by the setting of the MULTIBAND LIMIT DRIVE and
MULTIBAND LIMIT THRESHOLD controls.
The final clipper operates at 256 kHz sample rate and is fully anti-aliased.
Overshoot Comp Drive sets the drive into the overshoot compensator with reference to the final clip threshold, in units of dB. The normal setting is “0 dB.”
The overshoot compensator can produce audible distortion on material
with strong high frequency content (like bell trees) and this control lets
you trade off this distortion against loudness. (Such material can cause
strong overshoots, forcing the overshoot compensator to work hard to
eliminate them.) We do not recommend operating this control above “0”
because this would reduce the effectiveness of the distortion cancellation
used in earlier processing. However, you can reduce it below “0” if you
value the last bit of high frequency cleanliness over loudness.
The overshoot compensator works at 256 kHz sample rate and is fully
anti-aliased.
Multiband Dynamics Processing
The AGC, and Stereo Enhancer controls are common to both the analog AM and
digital radio processing chains. Beyond the AGC, the processing chain splits into two
separate chains, each of which has its own equalizer section, five-band compressor,
Multiband Controls
and Distortion Controls
Full Name
MB DRIVE
MB REL
Advanced Name
Multiband Drive
Multiband Release
MB GATE
MB LIM DR
DWNEXP THR
--MB LIM THR
----LESS-MORE
PARENT PRESET
--AGC METR
Multiband Gate Threshold
Multiband Limiter Drive
Downward Expander
B1/B2 XOVER
Multiband Limit Threshold
Maximum Distortion Control
High Frequency Limiter
LESS-MORE Index
Parent Preset
B1/B2 XOVER
---
Range
0 ... 25
Slow, Slow2, Med, Med2,
MFast, MFast2, Fast
Off, –44 ... –15 dB
–4.0 ... +5.0 dB
Off, –6.0 … 12.0 dB
100 Hz, 200 Hz
–3.0 +6.0, Off
0 … 18 dB
Off, –23.8 ... 0.0 dB
[read-only]; 1.0 … 10.0
[read-only]
100 Hz, 200 Hz
Master, Delta
Table 3-7: Multiband and Distortion Controls
3-45
3-46
OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
and peak limiter.
Each chain can be adjusted separately. The equalization and five-band compressor
settings are likely to be quite different in the two chains. Except as noted, each control described in this section is duplicated so there is one control for the analog section and one control for the HD AM section.
The crossover frequencies for the bands in the AM analog and HD AM chains are different. In the AM analog chain, the bottom four bands cover 50 – 3000 Hz, while
Band 5 covers 3 kHz to the top of the range set by the 9400’s lowpass filter. In the
HD AM chain, the bottom four bands cover 20 – 6,000 Hz and Band 5 covers 6 – 15
kHz. The analog AM chain therefore concentrates its “automatic re-equalization”
power in the 50 – 3,000 Hz audio bandpass of the typical analog AM radio, while
the HD AM chain covers the much wider bandwidth provided by HD AM.
The HD AM and Advanced Modify controls are accessible only from 9400
PC Remote software.
The tables below summarize the Multiband and Band Mix controls in the dynamics
sections for both analog AM and HD AM.
MB DRIVE (“Multiband Drive”) control adjusts the signal level going into the multiMB Attack / Release / Threshold
Full Name
B1 THR
B2 THR
B3 THR
B4 THR
B5 THR
------------------------------—
—
—
—
—
Advanced Name
B1 Compression Threshold
B2 Compression Threshold
B3 Compression Threshold
B4 Compression Threshold
B5 Compression Threshold
B1 Attack
B2 Attack
B3 Attack
B4 Attack
B5 Attack
B1 Limiter Attack
B2 Limiter Attack
B3 Limiter Attack
B4 Limiter Attack
B5 Limiter Attack
B1 Delta Release
B2 Delta Release
B3 Delta Release
B4 Delta Release
B5 Delta Release
B1MaxDeltGR
B2MaxDeltGR
B3MaxDeltGR
B4MaxDeltGR
B5MaxDeltGR
Lookahead
Range
–16.0 … 0.0, Off
–16.0 … 0.0, Off
–16.0 … 0.0, Off
–16.0 … 0.0, Off
–16.0 … +10.0, Off
4.0 … 50.0 ms, Off
4.0 … 50.0 ms, Off
4.0 … 50.0 ms, Off
4.0 … 50.0 ms, Off
4.0 … 50.0 ms, Off
0 … 100%
0 … 100%
0 … 100%
0 … 100%
0 … 100%
–6 … 6 [steps with respect to current
–6 … 6 MB Release setting]
–6 … 6
–6 … 6
–6 … 6
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
Off, On, Auto
Table 3-8: MB Attack / Release Controls
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
band compressor, and therefore determines the average amount of gain reduction
in the multiband compressor. Range is 25dB.
Adjust the MULTIBAND DRIVE control to your taste and format requirements. Used
lightly with slower multiband release times, the multiband compressor produces an
open, re-equalized sound. The multiband compressor can increase audio density
when operated at faster release times because it acts increasingly like a fast limiter
(not a compressor) as the release time is shortened. With faster release times, density also increases when you increase the drive level into the multiband compressor
because these faster release times produce more limiting. Increasing density can
make sounds seem louder, but can also result in an unattractive busier, flatter, or
denser sound. It is very important to be aware of the many negative subjective side
effects of excessive density when setting controls that affect the density of the processed sound.
The MULTIBAND DRIVE interacts with the MULTIBAND RELEASE setting. With slower release time settings, increasing the MULTIBAND DRIVE control scarcely affects density.
Instead, the primary danger is that excessive drive will cause noise to increase excessively when the program material becomes quiet.
You can minimize this effect by carefully setting the MULTIBAND GATE THRESHOLD control to “freeze” the gain when the input gets quiet and/or by activating the singleended noise reduction.
When the release time of the multiband compressor is set to its faster settings, the
setting of the MULTIBAND DRIVE control becomes much more critical to sound quality
because density increases as the control is turned up. Listen carefully as you adjust it.
With these fast release times, there is a point beyond which increasing multiband
compressor drive will no longer yield more loudness, and will simply degrade the
punch and definition of the sound.
We recommend no more than 10 dB gain reduction as shown on the meters for band 3. More than 10dB, particularly with the FAST release time,
will often create a “wall of sound” effect that many find fatiguing.
MB REL (“Multiband Release”) control can be switched to any one of seven settings.
Note that the subjective effect of these settings are different in analog AM and HD
listening. To minimize codec artifacts (by avoiding density build-up), it is wise to use
slower MB REL settings in the HD chain. Meanwhile, faster settings in the AM analog
chain will increase program density, helping overcome interference.
The Slow (SLOW and SLOW2) settings produce a very punchy, clean,
open sound that is ideal for Adult Contemporary, Soft Rock, Soft Urban,
New Age, and other adult-oriented formats whose success depends on
attracting and holding audiences for very long periods of time. The
SLOW and SLOW2 settings produce an unprocessed sound with a nice
sense of dynamic range. With these settings, the 9400 processing provides gentle automatic equalization to keep the frequency balance consistent from record to record (especially those recorded in different eras).
And for background music formats, these settings ensure that your sound
doesn’t lose its highs and lows.
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The Medium Slow settings (MED and MED2) are appropriate for more
adult-oriented formats that need a glossy show-business sound, yet
whose ratings depend on maintaining a longer time spent listening than
do conventional Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR) formats. With the singleended noise reduction activated, it is also appropriate for Talk and News
formats. This is the sound texture for the station that values a clean, easyto-listen-to sound with a tasteful amount of punch, presence, and
brightness added when appropriate. This is an unprocessed sound that
sounds just right on music and voice when listened to on small table radios, car radios, portables, or home hi-fi systems.
The Medium Fast settings (MFAST and MFAST2) are ideal for a highly
competitive Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR) format whose ratings depend
on attracting a large number of listeners (high “cume”) but which does
not assume that a listener will listen to the station for hours at a time.
This is the major market competitive sound, emphasizing loudness as well
as clean audio. The sound from cut to cut and announcer to announcer is
remarkably consistent as the texture of music is noticeably altered to a
standard. Bass has an ever-present punch, there is always a sense of presence, and highs are in perfect balance to the mids, no matter what was
on the original recording.
The Fast setting is used for the TALK and SPORTS factory programming
formats. Processing for this sound keeps the levels of announcers and
guests consistent, pulls low-grade telephone calls out of the mud, and
keeps a proper balance between voice and commercials. Voice is the most
difficult audio to process, but these settings result in a favorable tradeoff between consistency, presence, and distortion.
It is possible to experiment with this sound for music-oriented programming as well. However, even with these settings, your sound is getting
farther away from the balance and texture of the input. We think that
this is as far as processing can go without causing unacceptable listener
Band Mix
Full Name
B2>B1 CPL
B2>B3 CPL
B3>B2 CPL
B3>B4 CPL
B4>B5 CPL
B1 OUT
B2 OUT
B3 OUT
B4 OUT
B5 OUT
-----------
Advanced Name
B2>B1 Coupling
B2>B3 Coupling
B3>B2 Coupling
B3>B4 Coupling
B4>B5 Coupling
B1 Output Mix
B2 Output Mix
B3 Output Mix
B4 Output Mix
B5 Output Mix
B1 On / Off
B2 On / Off
B3 On / Off
B4 On / Off
B5 On / Off
Range
0 ... 100 %
0 ... 100 %
0 … 100 %
0 ... 100 %
0 ... 100 %
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
Band On, Band Off
Band On, Band Off
Band On, Band Off
Band On, Band Off
Band On, Band Off
Table 3-9: MB Band Mix Controls
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
fatigue. However, this sound may be quite useful for stations that are ordinarily heard very softly in the background because it improves intelligibility under these quiet listening conditions. Stations that are ordinarily
played louder will probably prefer one of the slower release times, where
the multiband compressor takes more gain reduction and where the AGC
is operated slowly for gentle gain riding only. These slower sounds are
less consistent than those produced by the FAST setting. Using SLOW
preserves more of the source’s frequency balance, making the sound less
dense and fatiguing when the radio is played loudly.
Bx THR (“Band x Compression Threshold”) controls set the compression threshold in
each band, in units of dB below the final clipper threshold. For the analog AM chain,
we recommend making only small changes around the factory settings to avoid
changing the range over which the MB CLIPPING control operates. These controls
will affect the spectral balance of the processing above threshold, but are also risky
because they can strongly affect the amount of distortion produced by the back-end
clipping system.
MB GATE (“Multiband Gate Threshold”) control determines the lowest input level
that OPTIMOD-AM will recognize as program material. It interprets lower levels as
noise or background sounds and causes the multiband compressor to gate, effectively freezing gain to prevent noise breathing.
There are three independent gating circuits in the 9400. The first affects the AGC
and the second affects the analog AM multiband compressor, and the third affects
the HD AM multiband compressor. Each has its own threshold control.
The multiband compressor gate causes the gain reduction in bands 2 and 3 of the
applicable multiband compressor to move quickly to the average gain reduction occurring in those bands when the gate first turns on. This prevents obvious midrange
coloration under gated conditions, because bands 2 and 3 have the same gain.
The gate also independently freezes the gain of the two highest frequency bands
(forcing the gain of the highest frequency band to be identical to its lower
neighbor), and independently sets the gain of the lowest frequency band according
to the setting of the DJ BASS boost control (in the Equalization screen). Thus, without introducing obvious coloration, the gating smoothly preserves the average
overall frequency response “tilt” of the multiband compressor, broadly maintaining
the “automatic equalization” curve it generates for a given piece of program material.
Note: If the MB GATE THRESH (Gate Threshold) control is turned OFF, the
DJ BASS control (in the Equalization screen) is disabled.
MB LIM DR (“Multiband Limiter Drive”; analog AM chain only) sets the drive level
to the multiband distortion controlling processing that precedes the final clipping
section. The distortion-controlling section uses a combination of distortion-cancelled
clipping and look-ahead processing to anticipate and prevent excessive clipping distortion in the final clipper.
Like any other dynamics processing, the distortion-controlling section can produce
artifacts of its own when overdriven. These artifacts can include loss of definition,
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smeared high frequencies, a sound similar to excessive compression, and, when operated at extreme settings, audible intermodulation distortion. You can adjust the
MB LIM DR control to prevent such artifacts or to use them for coloration in “highly
processed” formats.
MB LIM THR (“Multiband Limit Threshold”; analog AM chain only) sets the threshold of the clipping distortion controller (in dB) with reference to the threshold of
the final clipper.
A good compromise setting for this control is “0dB.” However, the loudest and most intense-sounding presets rely on considerable clipping to
achieve their loudness. For these presets, we found it necessary to set the
MB LIM THR control higher than “0” to permit more clipping depth. In
some cases, this results in substantially objectionable distortion artifacts
with isolated program material. However, this is the price to be paid for
this extreme level of on-air loudness.
Settings below “0 dB” will decrease audible clipping distortion. Such settings may be appropriate when the multiband compressor is producing
high density via a fast release time and considerable gain reduction.
DwnExp Thr (“Downward Expander Threshold”) determines the level below which
the single-ended noise reduction system’s downward expander begins to decrease
system gain, and below which the high frequencies begin to become low-pass filtered to reduce perceived noise. Activate the single-ended dynamic noise reduction
by setting the DWNEXP THR control to a setting other than OFF.
The single-ended noise reduction system combines a broadband downward expander with a program-dependent low-pass filter. These functions are achieved by introducing extra gain reduction in the multiband
compressor. You can see the effect of this extra gain reduction on the
gain reduction meters.
Ordinarily, the gating on the AGC and multiband limiter will prevent objectionable build-up of noise and you will want to use the single-ended
noise reduction only on unusually noisy program material. Modern commercial recordings will almost never need it. Its main use is in talkoriented programming, including sports.
Please note that it is impossible to design such a system to handle all
program material without audible side effects. You will get best results if
you set the DWNEXP THR control of the noise reduction system to complement the program material you are processing. The DWNEXP THR
should be set higher when the input is noisy and lower when the input is
relatively quiet. The best way to adjust the DWNEXP THR control is to start
with the control set very high. Reduce the control setting while watching
the gain reduction meters. Eventually, you will see the gain increase in
sync with the program. Go further until you begin to hear noise modulation — a puffing or breathing sound (the input noise) in sync with the
input program material. Set the DWNEXP THR control higher until you can
no longer hear the noise modulation. This is the best setting.
Obviously, the correct setting will be different for a sporting event than
for classical music. It may be wise to define several presets with different
settings of the DWNEXP THR control, and to recall the preset that complements the program material of the moment.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Note also that it is virtually impossible to achieve undetectable dynamic
noise reduction of program material that is extremely noisy to begin
with, because the program never masks the noise. It is probably wiser to
defeat the dynamic noise reduction with this sort of material (traffic reports from helicopters and the like) to avoid objectionable side effects.
You must let your ears guide you.
B3>B4 CPL (“Band 3>4 Coupling”) control determines the extent to which the gains
of bands 4 (centered at 3.7 kHz) and 5 (above 3.0 kHz) are determined by and follows the gain of band 3 (centered at 1 kHz). Set towards 100% (fully coupled) this
control reduces the amount of dynamic upper midrange boost, preventing unnatural upper midrange boost in light pop and instrumental formats. The gain of band 5
is further affected by the B4>B5 CPL control.
B4>B5 CPL (“Band 4>5 Coupling”) controls the extent to which the gain of band 5 is
determined by and follows the gain of band 4.
The B4>B5 CPL CONTROL determines the gain reduction in band 5. The
B4>B5 CPL control receives the independent left and right band 4 gain
control signals; this feed is unaffected by the band 4 MAX DELTA G / R control. Range is 0 to 100% coupling.
In the AM analog chain, the B5 compressor is useful mainly as a de-esser.
Used with substantial amounts of B4>B5 coupling and a fast release time,
it can quickly add additional gain reduction as necessary to prevent clipping distortion on “esses.” In the HD chain, the B5 compressor is useful
both as a de-esser and as a means to prevent excessive high frequency
energy from being applied to a low bit rate codec, minimizing HF codec
artifacts.
B3>B2 CPL and B2>B3 CPL controls determine the extent to which the gains of
bands 2 and 3 track each other.
When combined with the other coupling controls, these controls can adjust the multiband processing to be anything from fully independent operation to quasiwideband processing.
B2>B1 CPL control determines the extent to which the gain of band 1 (below 100Hz
or 200Hz, depending on crossover setting) is determined by and follows the gain of
band 2 (centered at 400Hz). Set towards 100% (fully coupled) it reduces the amount
of dynamic bass boost, preventing unnatural bass boost in light pop and talk formats. Set towards 0% (independent), it permits frequencies below 100Hz (the
“slam” region) to have maximum impact in modern rock, urban, dance, rap, and
other music where bass punch is crucial.
Bx Out (“Band x Output Mix”) controls determine the relative balance of the bands
in the multiband compressor. Because these controls mix after the band compressors, they do not affect the compressors’ gain reductions and can be used as a
graphic equalizer to fine-tune the spectral balance of the program material.
Their range has been purposely limited because the only gain control element after
these controls is the back-end clipping system (including the multiband clipper / distortion controller), which can produce considerable audible distortion if overdriven.
The thresholds of the individual compressors have been carefully tuned to prevent
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audible distortion with almost any program material. Large changes in the frequency balance of the compressor outputs will change this tuning, leaving the 9400
more vulnerable to unexpected audible distortion with certain program material.
Therefore, you should make large changes in EQ with the bass and parametric
equalizers and the HF enhancer, because these are located before the compressors.
The compressors will therefore protect the system from unusual overloads caused by
the chosen equalization. Use the multiband mix controls only for fine-tuning.
You can also get a similar effect by adjusting the compression threshold of the individual bands. This is comparably risky with reference to clipper overload, but unlike
the MB BAND MIX controls, does not affect the frequency response when a given band
is below threshold and is thus producing no gain reduction.
Advanced Multiband Controls
The following Advanced Multiband controls are available only from 9400 PC Remote
software.
Bx On / Off switches allow you to listen to any band (or any combination of bands)
independently. This is a feature designed for intermediate or advanced users and
developers when they are creating new 9400 presets.
Please note that a single band will interact with the back-end clipping system quite
differently than will that band when combined with all of the other bands. Therefore, do not assume that you can tune each band independently and have it sound
the same when the clipping system is processing all bands simultaneously.
B1-B5 Attack (Time) controls set the speed with which the gain reduction in each
band responds to level changes at the input to a given band’s compressor. These
controls, which have never previously been available in an Orban processor, are risky
and difficult to adjust appropriately. They affect the sound of the processor in many
subtle ways. The main trade-off is “punch” (achieved with slower attack times) versus distortion and/or pumping produced in the clipping system (because slower attack times increase overshoots that must be eliminated in the clipping system). The
results are strongly program-dependent, and must be verified with listening tests to
a wide variety of program material.
The ATTACK time controls are calibrated in arbitrary units. Higher numbers correspond to slower attacks.
In the analog AM channel, the look-ahead delay times in bands 3, 4, and 5 automatically track the setting of the ATTACK time controls to minimize overshoot for any
attack time setting.
High Frequency Limiter (AM chain only) sets the amount of additional gain reduction occurring in band 5 when high frequency energy would otherwise cause excessive distortion in the final clipper. It uses an analysis of the activity in the final clipper
to make this determination, and works in close cooperation with the band-5 multiband clipper. Functionally, this control is a mix control that adds a HF limiter gain reduction signal to the band 4 gain reduction signal to determine the total gain re-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
duction in band 5. Higher settings produce more HF limiting. A setting of “–18” provides a good trade-off between brightness and distortion at high frequencies.
Limiter Attack controls allow you to set the limiter attack anywhere from 0 to
100% of normal in the Five-Band compressor / limiters. Because the limiter and compressor characteristics interact, you will usually get best audible results when you set
these controls in the range of 70% to 100%. Below 70%, you will usually hear
pumping because the compressor function is trying to generate some of the gain
reduction that the faster limiting function would have otherwise produced. If you
hear pumping in a band and you still wish to adjust the limiter attack to a low setting, you can sometimes ameliorate or eliminate the pumping by slowing down the
compressor attack time in that band.
Delta Release controls are differential controls. They allow you to vary the release
time in any band of the Five-Band compressor/limiter by setting an offset between
the MULTIBAND RELEASE setting and the actual release time you achieve in a given
band. For example, if you set the MULTIBAND RELEASE control to medium-fast and the
BAND 3 DELTA GR control to –2, then the band 3 release time will be the same as if
you had set the MULTIBAND RELEASE control to medium and set the BAND 3 DELTA GR
control to 0. Thus, your settings automatically track any changes you make in the
MULTIBAND RELEASE control. In our example, the release time in band 3 will always be
two “click stops” slower than the setting of the MULTIBAND RELEASE control.
If your setting of a given DELTA RELEASE control would otherwise create a release
slower than “slow” or faster than “fast” (the two end-stops of the MULTIBAND
RELEASE control), the band in question will instead set its release time at the appropriate end-stop.
This control is particularly useful in B5, allowing B5 to function as a fast de-esser
while the other bands use slower release times.
Band 1-5 MaxDeltGR See page 3-59.
B1/B2 Xover (Band 1 to Band 2 Crossover Frequency) sets the crossover frequency
between bands 1 and 2 to either 100 Hz or 200 Hz. It affects the bass texture significantly, and the best way to understand the differences between the two crossover
frequencies is to listen.
Lookahead activates or defeats the look-ahead functionality in the AM multiband
compressor/limiter. Defeating look-ahead improves transient impact at the expense
of distortion, particularly on speech. To mitigate this tradeoff, a selectable “auto”
mode turns look-ahead on for speech material and off for music, using an automatic
speech/music detector. Switching is seamless and click-free because we change the
delay in the compressor control sidechains; this is not a way to reduce the 9400’s
throughput delay.
Choices are LOOKAHEAD IN, OUT, and AUTO.
Speech is detected if (1) the input is mono, and (2) there are syllabic
pauses at least once every 1.5 seconds. Speech with a stereo music background will usually be detected as “music,” or the detector may switch
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back and forth randomly if the stereo content is right at the stereo /
mono detector’s threshold. Mono music with a “speech-like” envelope
may be incorrectly detected as “speech.” Music incorrectly detected as
“speech” will exhibit a slight loss of loudness and punch, but misdetection will never cause objectionable distortion on music.
Speech that is not located in the center of the stereo sound field will always be detected as “music” because the detector always identifies stereo material as “music.” This can increase clipping distortion on such
speech.
Because the speech detector uses information about the stereo sound
field to help make its detection more accurate, it is important to feed the
9400 with stereo source material even if it is only being used to drive a
monophonic AM analog transmitter.
If the BASS CLIP MODE is set to HARD, the speech/music detector will automatically set it to MEDIUM when speech is detected and HARD otherwise
(unless LATENCY is LOW, in which case MEDIUM bass clipping is unavailable
and bass clipping will stay HARD).
Speech always sounds cleaner with MEDIUM bass clipping and the increased bass “punch” supplied by HARD is irrelevant to speech.
This control does not affect the digital radio processing chain.
Test Modes
Setup: Test
Parameter
Labels
MODE
Units
Default
Range (CCW to CW)
Step
---
Operate
---
BYPASS GAIN
SINE FREQ
dB
Hz
0.0
400
SQUARE FREQ
Hz
400
TRI FREQ
SINE/TRINGL MOD
SQUARE MOD
TONE CHAN
Hz
%
%
---
100
100
30
L+R
Operate, Bypass, Sine, Square,
Triangle
18 … +25
16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50,
63, 80, 100, 125, 160,
200, 250, 315, 400, 500,
630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000,
2500, 3150, 4000, 5000,
6300, 8000, 9500, 10000, 12500,
13586.76, 15000
16, 20, 25, 31.5, 40, 50,
63, 80, 100, 125, 160,
200, 250, 315, 400, 500,
630, 800, 1000
Fixed at 100 Hz
0 … 121
0 … 50
L+R, LR, LEFT; RIGHT
1
LOG
LOG
1
1
---
Table 3-10: Test Modes
The Test Modes screen allows you to switch between OPERATE, BYPASS, and SINE,
SQUARE, or TRIANGLE. When you switch to BYPASS or any tone mode (sine wave,
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
square wave, or triangle wave), the preset you have on air is saved and will be restored when you switch back to OPERATE.
The upper frequency of the sine and square waves is limited to 1 kHz to ensure that
their waveforms look correct while respecting the system’s intrinsic band limiting
caused by its digital, sample-data nature. The square wave’s maximum modulation
level is limited to 50% to protect transmitters.
Table 3-10: Test Modes shows the facilities available, which should be selfexplanatory.
About the 9400’s Digital Radio Processing
The 9400 digital radio (HD AM) processing is designed to feed streaming, netcasting,
and digital radio channels. It is suitable for both the iBiquity® AM HD Radio system
(formerly known as “IBOC” — “In-Band On-Channel”) approved for use in the
United States and the Digital Radio Mondiale system, used in much of the rest of the
world.
The digital radio firmware implements a high-quality signal processing chain that
includes stereo equalization, five-band compression, and look-ahead limiting. Audio
bandwidth is 15 kHz, as per the iBiquity® HD AM system specification.
The digital radio processing shares the stereo enhancer and AGC with the
processing for the analog AM transmission.
The five-band limiter in the digital radio processing chain has its own set of useradjustable parameters that are independent of the parameters of the five-band limiter in the AM analog transmission chain. This allows you to optimize the digital radio processing for the higher fidelity sound provided by the digital channel while
giving you the flexibility to process the analog channel as aggressively as you want.
The five-band limiter in the digital radio processing chain has its own set of output
mix controls, which provides further setup versatility — there is no need to compromise the processing on the digital radio processing chain to accommodate the needs
of the analog channel.
An advanced-design look-ahead limiter controls the peak level of the digital radio
output. This look-ahead limiter is optimized to make the most of the limited bit-rate
codec (HDC at 36 kbps) used in the AM High Definition Radio system’s digital channel. By eschewing any clipping, the digital-channel output prevents the codec from
wasting precious bits encoding clipping distortion products, instead allowing the
codec to use its entire bit budget to encode the desired program material.
The digital radio output is designed to feed digital channels having no preemphasis, which include almost all such channels. The only high-quality digital
channels using pre-emphasis of which we are aware are NICAM channels (which use
J.17 pre-emphasis) and some older CDs (which use EIAJ — 50µs/15µs shelving pre-
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emphasis). If you use the digital radio output to feed a digital channel with preemphasis, you must allow extra headroom to compensate for the unpredictable
peak level changes that the pre-emphasis induces.
If the digital radio output is driving a channel without pre-emphasis, it will control
peak levels with an uncertainty of less than 1 dB. However, you may want to allow
headroom to compensate for data reduction-induced peak overshoots at the receiver, which might otherwise cause clipping. In our experience, 2 dB of headroom is
typically adequate.
All of the 9400’s digital and analog outputs can be switched independently to emit
either the digital radio processed signal or the analog-processed signal.
Delay Difference between Digital-Channel and AM Outputs
In order to make the receiver analog/digital cross-fade without comb filtering, the
time delays in the HD Radio’s analog and digital channels must have a fixed and
predictable offset, correctly implementing the HD Radio receiver’s “time diversity”
processing. The 9400’s digital radio output’s delay is automatically adjusted so that it
always exactly 5.778 ms longer than the AM output’s delay, regardless of the AM
output’s delay (which can vary depending on processing settings). Therefore, the HD
Radio exciter should be set to compensate for this 5.778 ms offset between the AM
output and digital radio output. Once you have done this, the time diversity delay
will always be correct even if you choose a different 9400 preset.
Digital Radio I/O Setup Controls
Monitoring
Meter Sel determines whether the multimeters (the rightmost pair of meters) show
the instantaneous peak output of the processed audio in units of percentage modulation or the gain reduction of the look-ahead limiter in the digital channel, in units
of dB.
These meters can be switched to read the left/right digital processing chain output
signal, the gain reductions of the left and right look-ahead limiters in the digital
Section Label
Control Name
Values
Monitoring
Analog Outputs
Meter Sel
Out Source
Out Level
Out Level
Samp Rate
Word Leng
Dither
Sync
Format
St./Mono
AMOutLevel/HDOutLevel/HD GR
AM /HD/Monitor
–6… +20 dBu
0… –20 dBFS; 0.1 dB steps
32kHz/44.1kHz/48/88.2/96 kHz
14/16/18/20/24 bits
In/Out
Internal/Sync In
AES/SPDIF
Stereo/MonoL/MonoR/MonoL+R
Digital Outputs
Stereo/Mono Mode
Table 3-11: Digital Radio I/O Setup Controls
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
processing chain, or the analog processing chain output signal. In the latter case, the
right-hand meter reads negative peaks of the higher of the two stereo channels and
the left-hand meter reads the higher of the positive peaks.
This switch applies only to the 9400’s front panel meters. 9400 PC Remote
displays all meters simultaneously.
The digital radio look-ahead limiter is not stereo-coupled. This prevents
limiting on one channel from causing audible modulation effects on the
other channel.
Analog Outputs
Out Source determines if its associated analog stereo output pair (Analog Output 1
or 2) receives the analog-AM-processed signal, the signal before the digital-channel
look-ahead limiter, or the final post-limiter digital-channel signal. The pre-limiter
signal has low delay and is suitable for driving talent headphones.
Out Level determines the peak output level (in dBu) of its associated analog output.
Digital Outputs
Out Source determines if its associated AES3 digital output (Digital Output 1 or 2)
receives the analog-AM-processed signal, the signal before the digital-channel lookahead limiter, or the final post-limiter digital-channel signal. The pre-limiter signal
has low delay and is suitable for driving talent headphones.
Out Level sets the level of its associated digital-channel output with respect to digital full scale.
Samp Rate sets the output sample rate of a given AES3 output.
The 9400’s fundamental sample rate is always 32 kHz, but the internal sample rate
converter sets the rate at the 9400’s AES3 outputs. This adjustment allows you to ensure compatibility with downstream equipment requiring a fixed sample rate.
Word Leng sets the word length (in bits) emitted from a given AES3 output.
The largest valid word length in the 9400 is 24 bits. The 9400 can also truncate its
output word length to 20, 18, 16, or 14 bits. Moreover, the 9400 can add dither. You
should set it to do so if the input material is insufficiently dithered for these lower
word lengths.
Dither turns on or off addition of “high-pass” dither before any truncation of the
output word before a given AES3 output. It is usually appropriate to add dither because doing so will minimize distortion at low signal levels.
The amount of dither automatically tracks the setting of the WORD LENG
control. This first-order noise shaped dither considerably reduces added
noise in the midrange by comparison to white PDF dither. However,
unlike extreme noise shaping, it adds a maximum of 3 dB of excess total
noise power when compared to white PDF dither. Thus, it is a good compromise between white PDF dither and extreme noise shaping.
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Sync determines if the sample rate appearing at a given AES3 output is synced to
the 9400’s internal clock or to a signal appearing at its digital input.
If there is no sync signal detected at the digital input, the AES3 output will always
sync to the 9400’s internal clock.
Format determines if a given AES3 output format follows the professional AES3 or
consumer SPDIF standard.
We expect that AES will be appropriate for almost all users, but some consumer
sound cards may require SPDIF.
Stereo/Mono Mode
St./Mono (“HD Output Stereo/Mono Mode”) determines if the digital-channel
processing will be fed by the normal stereo output of the Stereo Enhancer / AGC
front end or by a mono feed taken from the front end’s left channel, right channel,
or sum of left and right channels. In all mono modes, an identical signal appears on
both the left and right channels of any output configured to emit the digital radio
processed signal.
The 9400 does not set the AES3 stereo/mono status bits to reflect the setting of this
control. The AES3 status bits appearing at the digital radio output are always set
“stereo” even when the two audio channels carry identical mono signals.
Digital Radio Operating Controls
The tables below summarize the controls exclusive to the digital radio processing
chain. Note that many of these controls share the same names as controls in the
analog AM processing chain. The digital radio controls are located on the HD AM
Multiband Controls
Intermed. Name
-----
Advanced Name
HD Multiband Drive
(see MB Attack/Rel screen)
---------------------------
HD Gate Thres
HD Down Expand
(see Band Mix screen)
(see Band Mix screen)
(see Band Mix screen)
(see Band Mix screen)
(see Band Mix screen)
HD B1 Compression Threshold
HD B2 Compression Threshold
HD B3 Compression Threshold
HD B4 Compression Threshold
HD B5 Compression Threshold
HD B1/B2 Xover
Range
0 ... 25
Slow, Slow2, Med, Med2, MFast,
MFast2, Fast
Off, –44 ... –15 dB
Off, –6.0 … 12.0 dB
0 ... 100 %
0 ... 100 %
0 … 100 %
0 ... 100 %
0 ... 100 %
–16.00 … 0.00, Off
–16.00 … 0.00, Off
–16.00 … 0.00, Off
–16.00 … 0.00, Off
–16.00 … +10.00, Off
100. 200 Hz
Table 3-12: Digital Radio Multiband Controls
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
tabs in the 9400 PC Remote application.
The AGC and Stereo Enhancer controls are common to both the analog AM and
digital radio processing chains and are discussed in their own sections above.
Multiband Drive (See page 3-46.)
Multiband Release (See page 3-47.)
Multiband Gate Thresh (Threshold) (See page 3-49.)
Multiband Downward Expander Threshold (See page 3-50.)
Band Coupling Controls (See page 3-51.)
Multiband Band Mix (See page 3-51.) Note that the digital radio band mix controls
are independent of the analog AM band mix controls and can be used to create an
entirely different sound coloration.
Bx On / Off (see page 3-52).
Bx THR (“Band x Compression Threshold”) controls set the compression threshold in
each band, in units of dB below the final clipper threshold. We recommend making
small changes around the factory settings to avoid changing the range over which
the HD LOOK-AHEAD LIMITER DRIVE control operates. These controls will affect the
spectral balance of the processing above threshold, but are also risky because they
can affect the amount of distortion produced by the look-ahead limiter.
B1-B5 Attack (Time) (See page 3-52).
B1/B2 Xover (Band 1 to Band 2 Crossover Frequency; see page 3-53).
Band 1-5 MaxDeltGR controls set the maximum permitted gain difference between the left and right channels for each band in the multiband limiter. The 9400
digital radio processing chain uses a full dual-mono architecture, so the channels can
be operated anywhere from fully coupled to independent. We recommend operating band 1-4 fully coupled (BAND 1-4 MAXDELTGR = 0) for best stereo image stability.
However, audio-processing experts may want to experiment with lesser amounts of
coupling to achieve a wider, “fatter” stereo image at the cost of some image instability.
The Band 5 compressor/limiter is mainly useful as a de-esser and to prevent high frequency artifacts when driving low bit rate codecs like the 36 kbps HDC codec used in
the HD AM system. To use the Band 5 compressor/limiter as a de-esser, set the B5
MAXDELTGR to OFF (to allow the channels to be de-essed independently), set the B5
DELTA RELEASE control to +6 (to achieve the fastest possible release), and set the
B4>B5 COUPLING control to 100% (to prevent high frequency energy from building
up excessively).
B5 MAXDELTGR is set OFF most factory presets. This permits band 5 to be used as a
fast-operating de-esser or high frequency limiter that works independently on the
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
left and right channels. This prevents gain reduction in one channel from causing
audible spectral modulation on the other channel. However, the additional stereo
difference channel energy created by independent operation can adversely affect
certain low bitrate codecs (like WMA). It is wise to do careful listening tests through
the codec to determine if it sounds better with B5 MAXDELTGR = 0 dB or B5
MAXDELTGR = OFF.
Limiter Attack (See page 3-53).
Delta Release (See page 3-53.
HD Limiter Dr sets the drive level to the digital radio look-ahead limiter, determining the amount of gain reduction that the limiter produces.
The factory default is +4.
There is no need to over-process the digital channel. HD “loudness wars” will not
only reduce quality but will also cause unbalanced, obtrusive crossfades between
the analog and digital channels in the radio. To brand your station’s sound, you can
choose the precise coloration you want on the digital channel. You can still take advantage of all of the artistic choices implicit in equalization and multiband compression/limiting settings. Yet you do not need to use excessive peak limiting, which can
only reduce quality, particularly with the very low bit rate codecs used in the HD AM
and DRM channels.
Band Mix
Intermediate Name
---------------------------------------
Advanced Name
HD B1 Out Mix
HD B2 Out Mix
HD B3 Out Mix
HD B4 Out Mix
HD B5 Out Mix
HD Band 1 On/Off
HD Band 2 On/Off
HD Band 3 On/Off
HD Band 4 On/Off
HD Band 5 On/Off
HD B1MaxDeltGR
HD B2MaxDeltGR
HD B3MaxDeltGR
HD B4MaxDeltGR
HD B5MaxDeltGR
HD B2>B1 Couple
HD B2>B3 Couple
HD B3>B2 Couple
HD B3>B4 Couple
Range
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
–6.0 … +6.0
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
On, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 … 24 dB, Off
0 ... 100 %
0 ... 100 %
0 …100 %
0 ... 100 %
Table 3-13: Digital Radio Band Mix Controls
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Using the 9400 PC Remote Control Software
9400 PC Remote control software allows you to access any front-panel 9400 control.
In addition, you can access all of the Advanced Modify controls that are unavailable
from the 9400’s front panel. The software also gives you the ability to back up user
presets, system files, and automation files on your computer’s storage devices (hard
drives, floppy drives, etc.) and to restore them later to your 9400.
The 9400 PC Remote software can connect to your 9400 via modem, direct serial cable connection, or Ethernet network. It communicates with your 9400 via the TCP/IP
protocol, regardless of how it is connected to your 9400.
PC Remote works best on displays of 1024x768 pixels or higher. Scroll
bars will appear when using lower resolutions.
Before running 9400 PC Remote, you must have installed the appropriate Windows
communications services on your computer. By default, the installer installs a shortcut to 9400PC.exe on your desktop and in your Start Menu under Orban\Optimod
9400.
9400 PC Remote can control only one 9400 at a time but it can readily switch between several 9400s. 9400 PC Remote has a built-in “address book” that allows it to
select and connect to:

any 9400 on the same network as the PC,

a 9400 that can be accessed through a modem connected to the PC via dial-up
networking, and,

a 9400 that is connected directly to the PC’s serial port.
Before your PC can communicate with a given 9400, you must first set up a “connection,” which is information that allows PC Remote to locate and communicate with
the 9400.
To set up a new connection:
A) Launch 9400PC.exe.
B) Create a new 9400 connection by choosing NEW 9400 from the CONNECT file
menu or by right-clicking on the ALL CONNECTIONS icon in the Connections List
and selecting NEW 9400.
The Connection Properties dialog box opens.
C) Enter an Alias name for your 9400 (like “KABC”).
D) Leave the password field blank to prompt the user to enter a password when
initiating a connection.
Refer to Security And Passcode Programming on page 2-43.
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Otherwise, enter a password to allow PC Remote to connect to your 9400
without requiring a password when the connection is initiated.
To initiate a successful connection, a password must have already been
entered into your 9400 unit.
E) If you are communicating with your 9400 through a network, select the
Ethernet radio button and enter the appropriate IP address, subnet mask,
port, and gateway data. Note that these values must agree with the values
that you set in your 9400 (see step 1 on page 2-47). See also Setting Up
Ethernet, LAN, and VPN Connections on page 2-54.
If you are communicating via a direct serial cable connection or a modem
connection, follow the appropriate procedure described in Appendix:
Setting up Serial Communications, starting on page 2-59.
F) Click OK after entering all required information.
To initiate communication:
Initiate communication by doubleclicking on the desired 9400 alias in the
Connections List, or by selecting the desired 9400 alias from the CONNECT drop
down menu.
If the connection is successful, a dialog
bubble will appear on the bottom right
hand corner of the screen verifying your
connection.

If a warning message appears stating: “No password is set at the 9400…”
go to your 9400 unit and enter a passcode.

If an Enter Passcode dialog box appears, enter a valid passcode and the
9400 PC Remote software will initiate a connection to the 9400 unit.
A window will appear saying, “Connecting to the 9400, please wait.” A few moments later, a new message will appear: “Updating local files.”
When run, the Orban PC Remote software installer makes copies of all 9400 factory preset files on your local hard drive. The PC Remote software reads these
files to speed up its initialization. If any of these files have been deleted or damaged, the PC Remote software will refresh them by downloading them from the
9400. If the PC Remote software needs to do this, it can substantially increase the
time required for the software to initialize, particularly through a slow modem
connection.
When this download is finished, the main meters will appear.
A wheel mouse is the quickest and easiest interface to use — you will rarely (if
ever) have to use the keyboard.
The help box at the bottom of the screen always presents a short help message
for the function you have selected.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
To modify a control setting:
A) Choose PROCESSING PARAMETERS from the EDIT menu.
B) Select menu tabs for LESS-MORE, Stereo Enhancer, and EQ to access Basic
Modify controls. All other menu tabs contain Full or Advanced Modify controls.
You can reset any Basic Modify Control without losing LESS-MORE functionality; Full and Advanced modify control adjustments will cause LESSMORE to be grayed-out.
To set a control, click it (it will become highlighted) and then adjust it by
dragging it with the mouse or moving the wheel on the mouse.
You can also use the + and – keys on the numeric keypad to adjust any
control.
To recall a preset:
A) Choose RECALL PRESET from the FILE menu to bring up the OPEN PRESET FILE
dialog box.
B) Click the desired preset within the dialog box to select it.
C) Double-click the desired preset or select it and click the RECALL PRESET button
to put it on-air.
Continually clicking the RECALL PRESET button will toggle between the
current and previous on-air presets.
D) Click DONE to dismiss the OPEN PRESET FILE dialog box.
The folder on your hard drive containing the preset files (both Factory
and User) is automatically synchronized to the contents of its associated
9400’s memory each time 9400 PC Remote connects to that 9400. The
9400’s memory is the “master.” This means that if you delete a user preset from the 9400’s memory (whether locally via its front panel or via
9400 PC Remote), 9400 PC Remote will automatically erase this preset
from this folder on your computer. To archive a preset permanently, you
must use the Backup function (see page 3- 64).
To import an HD preset:
A) Choose IMPORT HD CONTROLS from the FILE menu to bring up the IMPORT HD
CONTROLS dialog box.
B) With the mouse, highlight the desired HD preset.
C) Click IMPORT.
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
To save a user preset you have created:
A) Select SAVE PRESET AS from the FILE menu to bring up the SAVE AS Dialog Box.
The current preset name will appear in the File Name field.
B) Click in the field, and edit it.
C) Click SAVE to save the preset to the 9400 as a User Preset.
If you have made edits to a previously existing user preset, you can select
SAVE PRESET from the FILE menu to overwrite the pre-existing user preset
automatically.
To back up User Presets, system files, and automation files onto
your computer’s hard drive:
A) Select BACKUP TO PC from the FILE Menu.
B) Click OK.
PC Remote will offer three options:
 Save User Presets, system files, and automation in plain text.
This allows the presets and files to be read with any text editor program
and to be readily exchanged between Optimod users.
 Save User Presets, system files, and automation files using the session passcode to encrypt them.
 Save User Presets, system files, and automation files using the password of
your choice to encrypt them.
The encryption options prevent archived presets, system files, and automation files from being restored if the user does not have the password
used for the encryption. There is no “back door” — Orban cannot help
you to decrypt a preset whose password is unknown.
All User Preset, system, and automation files are copied from your Optimod’s internal memory to a folder called “backup” on your PC. This
folder is a subfolder of the folder named the same as the alias of the Optimod that you are backing up.
This folder name (“backup”) and location are hard-coded into the software. If you wish to move the backup files somewhere else later, use a
file manager (like Explorer) on your computer.
To make more than one backup archive, rename the current backup
folder (for example, to “Backup1”). 9400 PC Remote will create a new
backup folder the next time you do a backup, leaving your renamed
backup folder untouched. Later, you will be able to restore from any
folder — the Restore dialog box allows you to choose the folder containing the files to be restored
If you attempt to back up a preset with the same name as a preset existing in the Backup folder, but with a different date, 9400 PC Remote will
warn you and will allow you to overwrite the preset in the Backup folder
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
or to cancel the operation. If you wish to keep the existing archived preset, you can first use a file manager to move the existing user preset in
the Backup folder to another folder and then repeat the backup operation.
To restore archived presets, system files, and automation files:
In addition to restoring an archived preset to its original Optimod, you can also
copy archived presets from one Optimod to another. The Optimod whose connection is active will receive the preset.
If the preset, system file, or automation file was encrypted when it was originally
saved, PC Remote will request the password under which it was encrypted.
All User Presets are compatible with all 9400 software versions. If Orban
adds new controls to a software version, the new software will assign a
reasonable default value to any control missing in an old User Preset. If
you archive such a User Preset after restoring it, the newly written archive file will now include the new controls (with the default values,
unless you edit any of these values before you re-archive the preset).
A) Select RESTORE FROM PC from the FILE menu.
A standard Windows dialog box will open.
B) Select the type of files you want to restore using the FILES OF TYPE field at
the bottom of the dialog box.
You can select to restore all 9400 user presets (*.orb94user), system files
(*.orb94setup), and automation files (*.orb94autom).
If you want to restore files from a different directory (i.e., that might
have been created on a different 9400), navigate to that directory from
within the dialog box.
C) To restore a single user preset:
a) Set the FILES OF TYPE field to a user preset file type (*.orb94user, *.orbu).
b) Select the desired preset in the dialog box.
c) Click the RESTORE button.
D) To restore all the user presets from a specific location:
a) Set the FILES OF TYPE field to a user preset file type (*.orb94user, *.orbu)
b) Highlight all the user presets in the dialog window
c) Click the RESTORE button.
E) To restore a system file:
a) Set the FILES OF TYPE field to the System Setup file type (*.orb94setup).
b) Select the desired system file in the dialog box.
c) Click the RESTORE button.
F) To restore an automation file:
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400
a) Set the FILES OF TYPE field to the Automation file type (*.orb94autom)
b) Select the desired automation file in the dialog box
c) Click the RESTORE button.
G) Click DONE to dismiss the RESTORE dialog box.
To share an archived User Preset between 9400s:
A) Navigate to the directory containing the desired User Preset from within the
RESTORE FROM PC dialog box
B) Click the RESTORE button.
This User Preset will be downloaded to the 9400 to which 9400 PC Remote is currently connected.
If the User Preset is encrypted, PC Remote will request its password.
To modify INPUT/OUTPUT and SYSTEM SETUP:
Choose SETUP from the TOOLS menu.
To set a control, click it (it will become highlighted) and then use the wheel on
the mouse to adjust it. You can also use the + and – keys on the numeric keypad
to adjust any control.
To modify AUTOMATION:
C) Choose AUTOMATION from the TOOLS menu.
An Automation Dialog box will open.
D) Click the NEW EVENT to create a new event.
Controls to set the event type and time are available on the right hand
side of the dialog box.
E) Check the ENABLE AUTOMATION check box at the top of the dialog box to enable automation.
To group multiple 9400s:
Right-click ALL CONNECTIONS in the Connections List and select NEW GROUP.
You can add multiple 9400s to a single group to help organize a network
of 9400s. However, only one 9400 from within a group can be connected
to 9400 PC Remote at any one time.
Navigation Using the Keyboard
In general, PC Remote uses standard Windows conventions for navigation.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Navigate around the screens using the TAB key. Use CTRL-TAB to move to the next
tabbed screen in PC Remote.
Use the ,,, and  keys on the numeric keypad to adjust control settings.
To Quit the Program
Use standard Windows conventions: Press ALT-F4 on the keyboard, or click the X on
the upper right corner with the mouse.
About Aliases created by Optimod 9400 PC Remote Software
When you ADD A NEW 9400 using Optimod 9400 PC Remote, your 9400 is automatically given a 9400 Alias name to differentiate it from other 9400s. You can change
the name anytime in the 9400 Properties window inside 9400 PC Remote.
When you add a new 9400 or change the name of an existing 9400 Alias, an Alias
folder is created in the same location as the executable for Optimod 9400 PC Remote (usually \Program Files\Orban\Optimod 9400). The folder has the same name as
the Alias name. Once you establish the initial connection to the 9400, all presets for
that 9400 are automatically copied to the Alias folder; thus, the folder contains all
the preset files for that 9400, both Factory and User. If you have backed up the 9400
using 9400 PC Remote, there will also be a “backup” subfolder located within the
Alias folder.
Archived user preset files are text files and can be opened in a text editor
(like Notepad) if you want to examine their contents.
Alias folders and their associated backup subfolders are registered in your PC’s Registry. This prevents folders from being accidentally deleted or moved. If you move or
delete Alias folders from the PC, the Alias folders recreate themselves in the previous location and restore their contents by copying it from their associated 9400s
when 9400 PC Remote connects to such a 9400.
Multiple Installations of Optimod 9400 PC Remote
Rarely, you may want to have more than one installation of 9400 PC Remote on your
computer. There are a few extra things to know if you have multiple installations.
If you install a new version of the Optimod 9400 PC Remote software on your PC,
any Alias folders and backup subfolders created in an earlier software version still
remain in their original location on your PC (and in its registry).
The version of 9400 PC Remote must match the version of the software in the 9400
controlled by it. Therefore, you will only need multiple installations of PC Remote
(having separate version numbers) if:

you are controlling multiple 9400s, and
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OPERATION
ORBAN MODEL 9400

not all of your 9400s are running the same version of 9400 software, and

you do not want to upgrade at least one controlled 9400 to the latest version of
9400 PC Remote software.
Each version of 9400 PC Remote has its own top-level folder, normally under
\Program Files\Orban. (The default folder is \Program Files\Orban\Optimod 9400.)
When you install a new version of 9400 PC Remote, the default behavior is to overwrite the old version, which is usually the desired behavior. To prevent the installer
from overwriting the old version, you must specify a different installation folder
when you install the new version (for example, \Program Files\Orban\Optimod
9400v2).
Each version of 9400 PC Remote will display all 9400 Aliases, even those pointing to
9400s with incompatible version numbers. If you attempt to connect to an older version of 9400 from a newer version of 9400 PC Remote, 9400 PC Remote will offer to
upgrade the software in the target 9400 so that it corresponds to the version of
9400 PC Remote that is active. If you attempt to connect to newer version of 9400
from an older version of 9400 PC Remote, it will refuse to connect and will emit an
error message regarding incompatible versions.
If you decide to install the new software to a different location on your PC, new Aliases created using the new software will not be located in the same place as the old
Aliases.
To Move Alias Folders:
Even though each version of 9400 PC Remote can see all aliases, you may wish to
move the corresponding folders so they are under the folder corresponding to the
highest version of 9400 PC Remote that is currently installed on your computer (although this is not required). If your Alias folders reside in different locations, you
can move all the Alias folders to the same location by using the PC Remote software.
Do not use an external file manager to do this. The old Alias folders need to be recreated under the Optimod 9400 PC Remote software you wish to use (so that the
registry entries can be correctly updated). You can do this two different ways.

Rename the Alias (preferred): Start the Optimod 9400 PC Remote executable
you wish to use and rename your old Aliases with a slightly different name. A
new Alias folder with the new name will be created in the same location as the
Optimod 9400 PC Remote executable.

Delete and Recreate the Alias: Start the Optimod 9400 PC Remote executable
you wish to use. Delete the old 9400 Aliases and create new ones to replace
them. New Alias folders will be created in the same location as the Optimod
9400 PC Remote executable.
Important: The deletion process will automatically erase its associated
folder, including the Backup directory. If you have anything in the
Backup directory that you wish to keep, you should therefore move that
directory elsewhere (or transfer the desired files to another, active
backup directory).
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
OPERATION
Ordinarily, the erasure process will move the Backup directory to your
computer’s Recycle Bin, so you can recover a Backup directory that you
have accidentally deleted in this way.
To share an archived User Preset between 9400s:
A) Navigate to the directory containing the desired User Preset from within the
RESTORE FROM PC dialog box
B) Click the RESTORE button.
This User Preset will be downloaded to the 9400 to which 9400 PC Remote is currently connected.
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OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
MAINTENANCE
Section 4
Maintenance
Routine Maintenance
The 9400 OPTIMOD-AM Audio Processor uses highly stable analog and digital circuitry throughout. Recommended routine maintenance is minimal.
1. Periodically check audio level and gain reduction meter readings.
Become familiar with normal audio level meter readings, and with the normal
performance of the G / R metering. If any meter reading is abnormal, see Section
5 for troubleshooting information.
2. Listen to the 9400's output.
A good ear will pick up many faults. Familiarize yourself with the “sound” of the
9400 as you have set it up, and be sensitive to changes or deterioration. However, if problems arise, please do not jump to the conclusion that the 9400 is at
fault. The troubleshooting information in Section 5 will help you determine if
the problem is with OPTIMOD-AM or is somewhere else in the station's equipment.
3. Periodically check for corrosion.
Particularly in humid or salt-spray environments, check for corrosion at the input
and output connectors and at those places where the 9400 chassis contacts the
rack.
4. Periodically check for loss of grounding.
Check for loss of grounding due to corrosion or loosening of rack mounting
screws.
5. Clean the front panel when it is soiled.
Wash the front panel with a mild household detergent and a damp cloth. Do not
use stronger solvents; they may damage plastic parts, paint, or the silk-screened
lettering. Do not use paper-based cleaning towels, or use cleaning agents containing ammonia, or alcohol. An acceptable cleaning product is “Glass Plus.” For
best results when cleaning the lens, use a clean, lint-free cloth.
4-1
4-2
MAINTENANCE
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Subassembly Removal and Replacement
See page 6-29 for the Circuit Board Locator and Basic Interconnections diagram.
1. Removing the Top Cover:
To access any internal board (including the display assembly), you must remove
the top cover.
A) Disconnect the 9400 and remove it from the rack.
Be sure power is disconnected before removing the cover.
Warning: Hazardous voltage is exposed with the unit open and the
power ON.
B) Set the unit upright on a padded surface with the front panel facing you.
C) Remove all eighteen screws holding the top cover in place, and lift the top
cover off.
Use a #1 Phillips screwdriver.
2. Removing the Front Panel Assembly:
A) Detach the five cables that connect the display board assembly to the base
board. Gently lift each cable up from where it connects to its jumper so that
the jumper pins unseat without bending or breaking.
B) Detach the front panel from the unit.
a) Disconnect the three-wire cable at the back of the encoder.
b) Detach the ground lug that connects the panel's ground wire to the chassis.
Use a ¼-inch nut driver or needle-nose pliers.
c) Remove the front panel.
The front panel is held in place by four ball studs at each corner. The
panel should snap away from the chassis if you apply a little force.
C) Using a screwdriver, remove the ten gold-colored screws and washers that
connect the display board to the front of the chassis.
D) Remove the display board assembly by removing the tape from the top front
edge of the chassis so that the white ribbon cables are no longer attached to
the chassis and the display panel is free.
Do not remove the tape from the white ribbon cables.
3. Removing the RS-232 Connector Board:
A) If you have not done so yet, remove the top cover (step 1, above).
B) Using a 3/16-inch hex nut driver, remove the two hex nuts holding the RS-232
connector to the chassis.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
MAINTENANCE
C) Unplug the RS-232 interface assembly from the base board.
4. Removing the CPU Module:
A) Remove the four screws holding the CPU module to the standoffs that support it on the base board.
B) Applying gentle upward pressure, unplug the CPU module from the base
board.
5. Removing the Base Board:
A) If you have not done so yet, remove the top cover (step 1, above).
B) If you have not done so yet, remove the CPU module (step 4, above).
C) Using a 3/16-inch hex nut driver, remove the two hex nuts holding the DB-25
connector to the rear panel of the chassis.
D) If you have not done so yet, remove the RS-232 connector board (step 3,
above).
E) If you have not done so yet, remove the five cables that connect the display
assembly to the base board (step 2.A) on page 4-2).
F) If you have not yet done so, remove the RS-232 interface assembly from the
base board.
G) Disconnect the ribbon cable connecting the base board to the I/O board.
H) Disconnect the ribbon cable connecting the base board to the DSP board.
I) Disconnect the ribbon cable connecting the power supply to the base board.
J) Using a #1 Philips screwdriver, remove the four corner screws holding the base
board to the chassis standoffs.
K) Using a 3/16-inch hex nut driver, remove the four hex standoffs on which the
CPU module was mounted
L) The base board is now free and can be removed from the chassis.
6. Removing the I/O (Input/Output) Board:
A) If you have not done so yet, remove the top cover (step 1, above).
B) Unlock all XLR connectors, using a jeweler's screwdriver: engage the locking
mechanism (in the center of the triangle formed by the three contact pins)
and turn counterclockwise until the XLR connector is no longer attached.
C) Remove the ribbon cable that connects the I/O board to the base board.
D) Remove the ribbon cable that connects the I/O board to the DSP board.
E) Disconnect the ribbon cable connecting the power supply to the base board.
F) Remove the three #1 Phillips screws (and their washers) that connect the I/O
board to the chassis.
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MAINTENANCE
ORBAN MODEL 9400
G) Carefully pull the I/O board forward to clear the XLRs from their housings.
Then lift the board out of the chassis.
7. Removing the DSP Board:
A) If you have not done so yet, remove the top cover (step 1, above).
B) Remove the ribbon cable that connects the I/O board to the DSP board.
C) Remove the ribbon cable that connects the base board to the DSP board.
D) Remove the plug connecting the power supply wiring harness to the DSP
board.
E) Remove the five #1 Phillips screws (and their washers) that connect the DSP
board to the chassis.
F) Lift the DSP board out of the chassis.
8. Removing the Power Supply Board:
A) If you have not done so yet, remove the top cover (step 1, above).
B) Remove the two plugs that connect the power supply board to the power
transformer.
If present, remove the white fasteners that tie the two cables to the
power supply board.
C) Remove the ribbon cables connecting the power supply to the base board,
DSP board, and I/O board.
D) Remove the nine #1 Phillips screws (and their washers) fastening the heat sink
to the side of the chassis.
E) Remove the nut and star washer from the ground wire with a ¼-inch nut
driver.
F) Remove the two Phillips screws (and matching washers) that hold the IEC (line
cord) connector to the chassis.
G) Remove the three Phillips screws holding the power supply board to the main
chassis.
Note that one screw is located under the safety cover close to the line
voltage selector switch. Lift the cover up to expose the screw.
H) Carefully lift the power supply board up.
9. Reattaching the Power Supply Board:
A) Set power supply board into main chassis so that it aligns with its mounting
holes.
B) Replace the two Phillips screws that hold the IEC connector.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
MAINTENANCE
C) Replace the nine #1 Phillips screws that hold the heat sink to the side of the
chassis. If necessary, add additional heat sink compound to ensure a reliable
thermal connection between the heat sink and the chassis.
D) Replace the ground wire nut.
E) Replace the three Phillips screws that hold the power supply board to the
main chassis.
F) Reattach the two plugs that connect the power supply board to the transformer.
G) Reattach the two plugs for the power distribution wiring harnesses.
10. Replacing the Base Board, I/O Board, and DSP board:
Referring to steps 5 – 7, follow the instructions in reverse.
Note that you cannot replace the RS-232 board and the CPU board until you
have replaced the base board.
11. Replacing the CPU Module:
Referring to step 4, follow the instructions in reverse.
12. Replacing the RS-232 Board:
Referring to step 3, follow the instructions in reverse.
13. Replacing the Front Panel Assembly:
A) Set the display assembly in place so that it aligns with its mounting holes.
B) Replace the ten gold-colored screws that connect the display board to the
front of the chassis.
C) Reattach the five cables that connect the display board to the base board.
Each cable has a different type or size of connector, so it is obvious which cable mates with which jack on the base board.
D) Attach the front panel assembly to the unit.
a) Line up the plastic front panel and snap it back on, making sure each key
pad button feeds through its respective hole properly.
b) Reattach the ground lug that connects the panel's ground wire to the
chassis.
Use a ¼-inch nut driver or needle-nose pliers.
c) Reconnect the three-wire cable at the back of the encoder.
14. Replacing the Top Cover:
A) Place top on unit and reattach the eighteen Phillips screws. (Be careful not to
pinch any cables.)
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MAINTENANCE
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Field Audit of Performance
Required Equipment:

Ultra-low distortion sine-wave oscillator / THD analyzer / audio voltmeter
(With verified residual distortion below 0.01%. Audio Precision System
One, or similar high-performance system.)
(The NAB Broadcast and Audio System Test CD is an excellent source of
test signals when used with a high-quality CD player.)

Spectrum analyzer with tracking generator
(Stanford Research Systems SR760 or equivalent. Alternatively, a sweep
generator with 50-9,500 Hz logarithmic sweep can be used with an oscilloscope in X / Y mode, or you can use a computer-controlled test set like
the Audio Precision System One. )

Digital voltmeter
Accurate to ±0.1%.

Oscilloscope
DC-coupled, triggered sweep, with 5M Hz or greater vertical bandwidth.

Two 620 ±5% resistors.

Optional: Audio Precision System 1 (without digital option) or System 2 (for digital tests).
It is assumed that the technician is thoroughly familiar with the operation of this
equipment.
This procedure is useful for detecting and diagnosing problems with the 9400's performance. It includes checks of frequency response, noise and distortion performance, and output level capability.
This performance audit assesses the performance of the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters and verifies that the digital signal processing section (DSP)
is passing signal correctly. Ordinarily, there is a high probability that the DSP is performing the dynamic signal processing correctly. There is therefore no need to
measure such things as attack and release times — these are defined by software
and will automatically be correct if the DSP is otherwise operating normally.
It is often more convenient to make measurements on the bench away from high RF
fields which could affect results. For example, in a high RF field it is very difficult to
accurately measure the very low THD produced by a properly operating 9400 at
most frequencies. However, in an emergency it is usually possible to detect many of
the more severe faults that could develop in the 9400 circuitry even in high-RF environments.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
MAINTENANCE
See the assembly drawings in Section 6 for component locations. Be sure to turn the
power off before removing or installing circuit boards.
Follow these instructions in order without skipping steps.
Note: To obtain an unbalanced output, jumper pin 1 (ground) to pin 3, and measure
between pin 1 (ground) and pin 2 (hot).
Note: All analog output measurements are taken with a 620 ±5% resistor tied between pin 2 and 3 of the XLR connector.
1. Prepare the unit.
A) Set the GND LIFT switch to the earth ground symbol setting (left position) to
connect chassis ground to circuit ground.
B) Use the front panel controls to set the 9400's software controls to their default settings, as follows:
a) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > ANLG IN CALIB. After writing down the old
settings (so you can restore them later), set controls as follows:
Input ............................................................................................. analog
AI Ref VU ................................................................................... +4.0 dBu
R CH BAL.........................................................................................0.0 dB
b) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > DIG IN CALIB. Set controls as in the table
below:
DI Ref VU ................................................................................ –15.0 dBFS
R CH BAL.........................................................................................0.0 dB
c) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > ANLG OUT CALIB. Set controls as follows:
AO #1 100% ............................................................................ +10.0 dBu
AO #1 OUTPUT......................................................................Analog AM
AO #2 100% ............................................................................ +10.0 dBu
AO #2 OUTPUT......................................................................Analog AM
d) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > DIG OUT CALIB. Set controls as follows, using
the NEXT button to access controls as necessary.:
DO #1 100% ............................................................................. –2.8 dBFS
DO #1 RATE ...................................................................................32 kHz
DO #1 SYNC.................................................................................internal
DO #1 Word Len .................................................................................. 20
DO #1 Dither ......................................................................................Out
DO #1 FORMAT................................................................................AES3
DO #2 100% ............................................................................. –2.8 dBFS
DO #2 RATE ...................................................................................32 kHz
DO #2 SYNC.................................................................................internal
DO #2 Word Len .................................................................................. 20
DO #2 Dither ......................................................................................Out
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MAINTENANCE
ORBAN MODEL 9400
DO #2 FORMAT................................................................................AES3
e) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > AM PROC. Set the AM PROC mode to STEREO.
f) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > HD PROC. Set the HD PROC mode to STEREO.
g) Navigate to SETUP > TEST. Set controls as follows:
MODE ........................................................................................... Bypass
NOTE: Bypass defeats all compression, limiting, and program equalization, providing a “flat” bypass channel.
BYPASS GAIN ....................................................................................0 dB
TONE FREQ....................................................................................400 Hz
TONE LVL........................................................................................ 100%
h) Press the NEXT button.
i) Set controls as follows:
TONE CHAN........................................................................................ L+R
2. Test the power supply
A) If the power supply is entirely dead and the fuse is not blown, verify that the
primary winding of the power transformer is intact by measuring the resistance of the power supply at the IEC AC line connector.
For 115-volt operation, the resistance should be approximately 7.6.
For 230-volt operation, the resistance should be approximately 27.
Number of Red Flashes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Problem With
+ unregulated supply
+15V or –15V
+5V or –5V
+5V Digital
Analog  Digital ground connection broken
DSP A +3.3V supply
DSP B +3.3V supply
CPU +3.3V supply
CPU +2.5V supply
Table 4-1: Decoder Chart for Power Supervisor
B) The green LED power indicator on the lower left of the front panel monitors
the DC power supply outputs. If one or more power supply voltages are out of
tolerance, red flashes will report them according to Table 4-1. If there are
multiple values out of tolerance, they are reported one after another in a
continuous loop, with one green flash indicating the beginning of each count.
You can monitor power supply voltages at connector J7 on the power
supply board (see Section 6 for schematic and parts locator drawing).
When one faces the connector, the voltages can be found on the pins in
the following pattern:
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
(1) + unreg.
(2) - unreg
MAINTENANCE
(3) digital gnd
(4) chassis gnd
(5) +15V
(6) -15V
(7) +5 V digital
(8) +5V analog
(9) –5V analog
(10) NC
Table 4-2: Layout Diagram of J7, with expected voltages on each pin
The +3.3V and +2.5V supplies are locally regulated on the DSP and base
boards (see Section 6).
C) Measure the regulated voltages at J7 with the DVM and observe the ripple
with an oscilloscope, AC-coupled. The following results are typical:
Power Supply Rail
+15VDC
–15VDC
+5VDC
–5VDC
Digital +5VDC
DC Voltage (volts)
+15  0.5
–15  0.5
+5  0.25
–5  0.25
+5  0.25
AC Ripple (mV p-p)
<20
<20
<20
<20
[Obscured by noise]
Table 4-3: Typical Power Supply Voltages and AC Ripple
3. Adjust Analog Output Level Trim.
A) Verify 9400 software controls are set to their default settings. [Refer to step
(1.B) on page 4-7.]
B) Feed the 9400 output with the built-in 400 Hz test tone:
a) Navigate to SETUP > TEST.
b) Set the MODE to TONE.
C) Connect the audio voltmeter to the Left Analog Output.
D) Adjust output trim VR200 to make the meter read +10.6 dBu. (0 dBu = 0.775V
rms.) Verify a frequency reading of 400 Hz.
E) Verify THD+N reading of <0.05% (0.02% typical) using a 22 kHz low pass filter
in the distortion analyzer.
F) Set the MODE to BYPASS.
BYPASS defeats all compression, limiting, and program equalization but
retains pre-emphasis.
G) Verify a reading (noise) of <–80 dBu at the output of the unit.
H) Using VR201, repeat steps (C) through (G) for the Right Analog Output.
4. Check frequency response of Analog I/O.
A) Verify 9400 software controls are set to their default settings. [Refer to step
(1.B) on page 4-7.]
B) Be sure you are still in BYPASS mode [see step (3.F)].
C) Connect the oscillator to the Left Analog Input XLR connector.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
D) Inject the Analog Input XLR connector with a level of +10 dBu with the oscillator set to 100 Hz.
E) Connect the audio analyzer to the 9400's Left Analog Output XLR connector.
F) Verify a level of +10 dBu ±1 dB. Use this level as the reference level.
G) Verify that frequency response at 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 400 Hz, 5 kHz, and 15 kHz is
within ±0.1 dB of the reference level.
This procedure tests the analog input circuitry, the A/D converter, the
DSP, the DAC, and the analog output circuitry.
H) Repeat steps (C) through (G) for the right channel.
5. Check distortion performance of Analog I/O.
A) Verify 9400 software controls are set to their default settings. (Refer to page
4-7.)
B) Be sure you are still in BYPASS mode [see step (3.F)].
C) Connect a THD analyzer to the Left Analog Output #1 XLR connector. Set the
THD analyzer's bandwidth to 22 kHz.
D) Connect the oscillator to the Left Analog Input XLR connector.
E) For each frequency used to measure THD, adjust the output level of the oscillator to make the COMP meter on the 9400 read 100.
F) Measure the THD+N at the frequency levels listed below.
Frequency
50 Hz
100 Hz
400 Hz
1 kHz
2.5 kHz
5 kHz
7.5 kHz
15 kHz
THD+N Typical
0.015%
0.015%
0.015%
0.015%
0.015%
0.015%
0.015%
0.015%
THD+N Maximum
0.03%
0.03%
0.03%
0.03%
0.03%
0.03%
0.03%
0.03%
G) Repeat the above measurements for the right channel. Connect the oscillator
to the right analog input and the distortion analyzer to the right analog output.
H) Repeat these measurements for the left and right channels of Analog Output
#2.
I) Disconnect the oscillator and THD analyzer from the 9400.
6. Test Digital Sample Rate Converter (Receiver).
A) Verify 9400 software controls are set to their default settings. (Refer to page
4-7.)
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
MAINTENANCE
B) Be sure you are still in BYPASS mode [see step (3.F)].
C) Navigate to SETUP > DIG IN CALIB and Set the INPUT to DIGITAL.
D) Connect the digital source generator to the AES3 Digital Input XLR connector
of the 9400.
E) Set the frequency of the digital source generator to 400 Hz and its output
level to 6 dB below full scale.
F) Inject the Digital Input with a sample rate of 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2
kHz, and 96 kHz. Use 24-bit words.
G) Listen to the analog outputs of the 9400 and verify that the output sounds
clean and glitch-free regardless of the input sample rate.
H) Leave the digital source generator connected to the 9400.
7. Test Digital Sample Rate Converter (Transmitter).
A) Connect an AES3 analyzer (like the Audio Precision System 2) to the 9400’s
AES3 Digital Output #1.
B) Set the sample rate of the digital source generator to 48 kHz.
C) Navigate to SETUP > DIG OUT CALIB.
D) Change the DO RATE to 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz, and
verify that the frequencies measured at the 9400’s AES3 output follow the
values in the chart below within given tolerances:
Sample Rate
32.0 kHz
44.1 kHz
48.0 kHz
88.2 kHz
96.0 kHz
Tolerance (PPM)
100 PPM
100 PPM
100 PPM
100 PPM
100 PPM
Tolerance ( Hz)
±1.60 Hz
±4.41 Hz
±2.40 Hz
±8.82 Hz
±4.80 Hz
E) Repeat steps (A) through (D) for Digital Output #2.
F) Disconnect the digital source generator from the 9400.
8. Optional tests.
A) You can test each GPI (Remote Interface) input for functionality in the obvious way, by programming a function for it and then verifying that the function executes when you activate the input. To program a GPI input, see
Remote Control Interface Programming on page 2-46.
B) You can test the RS-232 Port 1 for functionality by verifying that you can connect to a PC through a null modem cable. See Networking and Remote Control starting on page 2-47 (in particular, step 4 on page 2-49).
C) You have made all of the previous tests with the 9400 is BYPASS mode. In most
cases, these tests are sufficient to determine that the 9400 is working correctly. However, the BYPASS mode does not use all of the DSP chips, so the
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
previous tests may fail to detect faults in certain DSP chips. To verify that all of
the DSP chips are working correctly:
a) Connect the oscillator to both 9400’s analog inputs.
b) Navigate to SETUP > TEST and set the 9400’s operating mode to OPERATE.
c) Recall the GEN MED preset.
d) Set the oscillator’s frequency to 400 Hz and its output level to create 10 dB
of gain reduction as indicated on the AGC MASTER gain reduction meter.
e) Connect the N&D test set to the 9400’s left Analog Output #1.
f) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > OUTPUT > ANALOG1 > SOURCE and set the
9400’s left Analog Output #1 to emit the analog AM signal.
g) Verify that combined noise and distortion are below 0.1%.
h) Repeat steps (f) and (g) for the right Analog Output #1.
i) Navigate to SETUP > IO CALIB > OUTPUT > ANALOG1 > SOURCE and set the
9400’s left Analog Output #1 to emit the digital radio AM signal.
j) Verify that combined noise and distortion are below 0.1%.
k) Repeat steps (i) and (j) for the right Analog Output #2.
9. Return OPTIMOD-AM to service.
A) Remove the 600 resistors connected across the outputs.
B) Restore your normal operating parameters, using the notes you made in step
(1.B) on page 4-7.
C) Navigate to SETUP > TEST > MODE and choose OPERATE.
D) Recall your normal operating preset.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TROUBLESHOOTING
Section 5
Troubleshooting
Problems and Potential Solutions
Always verify that the problem is not the source material being fed to the 9400, or
in other parts of the system.
RFI, Hum, Clicks, or Buzzes
A grounding problem is likely. Review the information on grounding on page 2-11.
The 9400 has been designed with very substantial RFI suppression on its analog and
digital input and output ports, and on the AC line input. It will usually operate adjacent to high-powered transmitters without difficulty. In the most unusual circumstances, it may be necessary to reposition the unit to reduce RF interference, and/or
to reposition its input and output cables to reduce RF pickup on their shields.
The AES3 inputs and output are transformer-coupled and have very good resistance
to RFI. If you have RFI problems and are using analog connections on either the input or output, using digital connections will almost certainly eliminate the RFI.
Poor Peak Modulation Control
The 9400 ordinarily controls peak modulation to an accuracy of ±2%. This accuracy
will be destroyed if the signal path (including the STL and transmitter) following the
9400 has poor transient response. Almost any link can cause problems. The transmitter itself is particularly likely to cause problems, especially if it is plate-modulated.
Section 1 of this manual contains a complete discussion of the various things that
can go wrong.
Digital STLs using lossy compression algorithms (including MPEG1 Layer 2, MPEG1
Layer 3, Dolby AC2, and APT-X) will overshoot severely (up to 3 dB) on some program material. The amount of overshoot will depend on data rate — the higher the
rate, the lower the overshoot.
Even if the transmission system is operating properly, the AM modulation monitor or
reference receiver can falsely indicate peak program modulation higher than that
actually being transmitted if the monitor overshoots at high and low frequencies.
Many commercial monitors have this problem, but most of these problem units can
be modified to indicate peak levels accurately.
Orban uses the Belar “Wizard” series of DSP-based monitors internally for testing,
because these units do not have this difficulty.
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TROUBLESHOOTING
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Be sure that the polarity of the 9400’s output correctly matches the transmitter so
that adjusting the 9400’s POS PEAK THRESH control (in the active Transmission Preset)
causes the AM positive peak modulation to change. If it causes the negative peak
modulation to change, reverse the polarity of the 9400 output driving the analog
AM channel of the transmitter. Each 9400 output has a POLARITY control to make this
easy.
The output of the 9400’s digital radio-processing path is accurately peak-controlled.
However, the HDC codec (used in the HD AM system) and the aacPlus codec (used in
the DRM system), like all low bitrate lossy codecs, introduce considerable overshoots
as a side effect of throwing away data. When you adjust the drive level into the codec, it is wise to monitor the output of a radio or modulation monitor. If you see
clipping, reduce the drive level to the codec as necessary.
Excessively Low Positive Peak Modulation
The polarity of the 9400’s active output might be reversed. You can test this by editing the Polarity field in the active System Preset.
You may have not allowed enough peak headroom in the 9400’s output level setting. Achieving 125% modulation requires 2 dB of headroom. To achieve 125% positive modulation, you must therefore set the AOx Out control to +18 dBu or lower, or
the DOx Out control to –2.0 dBfs or lower.
If you have a tube-type transmitter with high-level plate modulation, the modulator
tubes may be flat.
Audible Distortion On-Air
Make sure that the problem can be observed on more than one receiver and at several locations. Multipath distortion at the monitoring site can be mistaken for real
distortion (and will also cause falsely high modulation readings).
Verify that the source material at the 9400's audio inputs is clean. Heavy processing
can exaggerate even slightly distorted material, pushing it over the edge into unacceptability.
The subjective adjustments available to the user have enough range to cause audible distortion at their extreme settings. Many controls can cause distortion, including MULTIBAND CLIPPING and FINAL CLIP DRIVE. Setting the LESS-MORE control beyond
“9” will cause audible distortion of some program material with all but the FINE
ARTS presets. Other presets can sometimes cause audible distortion with certain
program material; this is the price to be paid for maximizing coverage in AM broadcast.
If you are using analog inputs, the peak input level must not exceed +27 dBu or the
9400's A/D converter will clip and distort.
Unlike earlier digital Optimods, there is no input peak level adjustment
for the A/D converter. Instead, we have provided adequate headroom for
virtually any facility. This is possible because the A/D converter in the
9400 has higher dynamic range than older designs. Therefore, without
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TROUBLESHOOTING
compromising the 9400’s noise level, we could eliminate a control that
was frequently misadjusted.
If you are using an external processor ahead of the 9400, be sure it is not clipping or
otherwise causing problems.
The 9400's highly processed output puts great demands on transmitter performance
Some transmitters cannot handle the very high average power in the 9400's output
Section 1 discusses this in detail
The distortion of tube-type transmitters will increase substantially as the tubes go
flat with use The first thing to go is asymmetrical positive peak capability, so, if it is
impractical to replace the modulator tubes at this time, reduce the setting of the
9400 POSITIVE PEAK control until the transmitter no longer compresses the peaks. Indeed, some transmitters cannot handle asymmetrical positive peaks without compression even with good tubes, Never try to run these transmitters with asymmetry.
The codecs used in the HD AM and DRM systems operate a very low bit rates. They
tend to produce more artifacts as program material becomes denser. To prevent the
9400’s processing from increasing density excessively, we recommend setting the MB
RELEASE control in the digital radio processing close to SLOW and to use minimal
amounts of look-ahead limiting.
Unfortunately, some CDs are now mastered with so much compression, limiting, and
clipping that they cause codecs to misbehave without further processing in the
broadcast chain. Until the broadcast industry successfully pressures the record industry to supply broadcasters with lightly processed broadcast-mastered music, this
problem will continue.
Audible Noise on Air
(See also “RFI, Hums, Clicks, or Buzzes” on page 5-1.)
Excessive compression will always exaggerate noise in the source material. The 9400
has two systems that fight this problem.
1. The compressor gate freezes the gain of the AGC and compressor systems whenever the input noise drops below a level set by the threshold control for the processing section in question, preventing noise below this level from being further increased. There are three independent compressor gate circuits in the 9400. The first
affects the AGC, while the second and third affect the Multiband Compressors in the
AM analog and digital radio chains respectively. Each has its own independent
threshold control. (See MB GATE on page 3-49.)
2. The dynamic single-ended noise reduction (see DWNEXP THR on page 3-50) can be
used to reduce the level of the noise below the level at which it appears at the input.
If you are using the 9400's analog input, the overall noise performance of the system is usually limited by the overload-to-noise ratio of the analog-to-digital converter used by the 9400 to digitize the input. (This ratio is better than 108 dB.) It is
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TROUBLESHOOTING
ORBAN MODEL 9400
important to drive the 9400 with professional levels (more than 0 dBu reference
level) to achieve adequately low noise. (Clipping occurs at +27 dBu.)
The 9400's AES3 input is capable of receiving words of up to 24 bits. A 24-bit word
has a dynamic range of approximately 144 dB. The 9400's digital input will thus
never limit the unit's noise performance even with very high amounts of compression.
If an analog studio-to-transmitter link (STL) is used to pass unprocessed audio to the
9400, the STL's noise level can severely limit the overall noise performance of the
system because compression in the 9400 can exaggerate the STL noise. For example,
the overload-to-noise ratio of a typical analog microwave STL may only be 70-75 dB.
In this case, it is wise to use the Orban 8200ST Studio AGC to perform the AGC function prior to the STL transmitter and to control the STL's peak modulation. This will
optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of the entire transmission system. An uncompressed digital STL will perform much better than any analog STL. (See StudioTransmitter Link, starting on page 1-11.)
Shrill, Harsh Sound
This problem can be caused by excessively high settings of the HF EQ control It can
also be caused (or at least exaggerated) by a transmitter with substantial distortion,
particularly at higher modulating frequencies
Dull Sound
A narrowband antenna that truncates higher modulating frequencies is the most
likely cause. Inappropriately low settings of the HF EQ control can also cause it.
In addition, bear in mind that most analog AM receivers have less than 3 kHz audio
bandwidth so they will inevitably sound dull compared to full-bandwidth media.
Excessive Occupied Bandwidth
The active transmission preset determines the maximum audio bandwidth at the
9400’s output. (This can be reduced within a User Preset, but not increased higher
than the setting in the active transmission preset.)
The 9400 has very tight spectral control that significantly exceeds the requirements
of all international regulatory authorities, including the FCC and ITU-R. Because its
processing is entirely determined by DSP software, there is very little that can go
wrong with the 9400 that will increase its output bandwidth without causing an allout failure of the unit.
If a spectrum analyzer determines that the 9400 is creating excessive bandwidth by
itself, the likely culprits are the output D/A converter and the output line amplifier.
However, a far more likely cause is a misbehaving transmitter Any problem in the
transmitter that causes audio distortion will also increase occupied bandwidth Flat
tubes are particularly suspect.
Some older designs (like out-phasing modulation schemes) are notorious for causing
out-of-band radiation when processing audio with substantial pre-emphasis, like
that supplied by the 9400. After the out-phasing transmitter's exciter has been care-
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TROUBLESHOOTING
fully realigned, the only cure for any remaining excessive out-of-band radiation is to
reduce the setting of the 9400's lowpass filter until the transmission is within specification. These transmitters are prime candidates for replacement with a modern
solid-state transmitter, which will reduce AC power costs and also sound much better on-air.
Negative overmodulation that causes carrier pinch-off will also cause the bandwidth
to increase rapidly. Older transmitters may respond better to negative modulation
slightly below 100%, as their distortion can rise rapidly as they approach 100%
modulation.
System Will Not Pass Line-Up Tones at 100% Modulation
This is normal. Sine waves have a very low peak-to-average ratio by comparison to
program material. The processing thus automatically reduces their peak level to
bring their average level closer to program material, promoting a more consistent
and well-balanced sound quality.
The 9400 can generate test tones itself. The 9400 can also be put into Bypass mode
(locally or by remote control) to enable it to pass externally generated tones at any
desired level. (See Test Modes on page 3-54.)
System Will Not Pass Emergency Alert System (“EAS” USA Standard) Tones
at the Legally Required Modulation Level
See System Will Not Pass Line-Up Tones at 100% Modulation (directly above) for an
explanation. These tones should be injected into the transmitter after the 9400, or
the 9400 should be temporarily switched to BYPASS to pass the tones.
System Receiving 9400’s Digital Output Will Not Lock
Be sure that the 9400’s output sample rate is set match the sample rate that the
driven system expects. Be sure that the 9400’s output mode (AES3 or SPDIF) is set to
match the standard expected by the driven system.
L–R (Stereo Difference Channel) Will Not Null with Monophonic Input
This problem is often caused by relative phase shifts between the left and right
channels prior to the 9400’s input. This stresses codecs, which can misinterpret these
phase shifts as intentional stereo imaging effects and try to encode them, wasting
bits. It is wise to minimize any left/right phase shifts in your audio facility prior to
the 9400.
To minimize L–R energy in the signal, it may be wise to turn off the 9400’s stereo
enhancer and to operate the digital radio chain’s five-band compressor with 100%
coupling, which prevents the processing from adding L–R energy to the signal. The
only possible exception to this rule is when Band 5 is used as a de-esser. See Excessive
Sibilance (“ess” sounds) in the Digital Radio Channel immediately below.
AM Analog and Digital Channels Have Unequal Loudness
Adjust the HD LIMITER DRIVE control in the on-air HD preset to match the loudness of
the two channels. Do not reduce the loudness of the digital channel by turning
down its associated output level control. Using the HD LIMITER DRIVE control to re-
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
duce loudness reduces peak limiting simultaneously, minimizing potential codec artifacts. Only turn down the output level control to correct codec clipping.
Loudness Decreases Momentarily When the Radio Crossfades between Analog and Digital Channels
The analog and digital channels may be in reverse polarity (“out of phase”) from
each other. Try both settings of the POLARITY control associated with the output driving the digital channel to determine which polarity causes a smoother crossfade. Do
not adjust the POLARITY control of the analog channel output because this will swap
positive and negative peak modulation.
Excessive Sibilance (“ess” sounds) in the Digital Radio Channel
The Band 5 compressor/limiter is mainly useful as a de-esser and to prevent high frequency artifacts when driving low bit rate codecs like the 36 kbps HDC codec used in
the HD AM system. To use the Band 5 compressor/limiter as a de-esser, set the B5
MAXDELTGR to OFF (to allow the channels to be de-essed independently), set the B5
DELTA RELEASE control to +6 (to achieve the fastest possible release), and set the
B4>B5 COUPLING control to 100% (to prevent high frequency energy from building
up excessively).
“Swishing,” “Phasing,” or “Underwater” Artifacts in the Digital Radio
Channel
Excessive high frequency energy can cause this and can also cause gritty high frequency distortion in digital channels that use a codec employing “spectral band replication” technology, such as the HDC (used in HD AM) and aacPlus (used in DRM)
codecs. To use the B5 compressor in the 9400’s digital radio processing channel to
control these artifacts, set the B5 MAXDELTGR to 0 (to minimize the amount of L–R
energy that the processing adds at high frequencies), set the B5 DELTA RELEASE control to 0 (to achieve a smooth integration with the Band 4 compressor), and set the
B4>B5 COUPLING control to 100% (to minimize high frequency energy build-up).
Then adjust the B5 THRESHOLD control to set the maximum amount of high frequency energy that the processing can produce with bright program material. It is
wise to experiment with this control while listening to the output of the codec you
are using so you can hear the effect that the Band 5 compression has on codec artifacts.
General Dissatisfaction with Subjective Sound Quality
The 9400 is a complex processor that can be adjusted for many different tastes. For
most users, the factory presets, as augmented by the gamut offered by the LESSMORE control for each preset, are sufficient to find a satisfactory “sound.” However,
some users will not be satisfied until they have accessed other Modify Processing
controls and have adjusted the subjective setup controls in detail to their satisfaction. Such users must fully understand the material in Section 3 of this manual to
achieve the best results from this exercise.
Compared to competitive processors, the 9400 offers a uniquely favorable set of
trade-offs between loudness, brightness, distortion, and buildup of program density.
If your radio station does not seem to be competitive with others in your market,
the cause is usually problems with the source material, overshoot in the transmission
link (particularly the transmitter/antenna system) following the 9400, or an inaccu-
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rate modulation monitor that is causing you to undermodulate the carrier. A station
may suffer from any combination of these problems, and they can have a remarkable effect upon the overall competitiveness of a station's sound.
Section 1 of this manual provides a thorough discussion of system engineering considerations, particularly with regard to minimizing overshoot and noise. Orban's
publication Maintaining Audio Quality in the Broadcast Facility (available for
download from www.orban.com) provides many suggestions for maximizing source
quality
Bear in mind that the average AM receiver has an audio bandwidth of 2-3 kHz and
relatively high amounts of nonlinear distortion. 9400 processing is specifically designed to make the best of this class of receiver Nevertheless, even at their best, such
radios can never yield truly high quality sound.
Further, almost all AM transmitters have a sound of their own. The very latest
transmitters (using digital modulation schemes) will create an on-air sound that is
audibly superior to transmitters of older design because the new transmitters have
dramatically lower nonlinear distortion. This improvement is not subtle and is readily audible even on average consumer radios.
Security Passcode Lost (When Unit is Locked Out)
Please see If You Have Forgotten Your Passcode on page 2-45.
Connection Issues between the 9400 and a PC, Modem, or Network

Presets: The more user presets you make, the more slowly the 9400 will respond
to front-panel commands. Delete any user presets you do not need.

Quick Setup: On the Station ID screen (Quick Setup 9): Use Escape in place of
Cancel. The Cancel button will not work.

Software Updates: Close any running Windows programs before attempting
to update.

Interrupted Software Updates: If you canceled an update before it completed, wait at least one minute before attempting your next update.

Software Updates via Modem: If you are updating via the modem, do not
change the “connection type” parameter on the 9400 while the modem is connected or attempting to connect.

Security Passcode: An ALL SCREENS (administrator) security passcode is required for upgrading, regardless of whether you are using a Direct, Modem, or
Ethernet connection.
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
Passcode Format: The passcode is case-sensitive. When entering it into Windows’ Dial-up Connection dialog box, it must be typed exactly as it was originally entered into the Security screen.

MAC Address: To see the MAC address of your Optimod’s Ethernet hardware,
hold down the SETUP button until the address appears.
Troubleshooting Connections

If you get an error message such as “the specified port is not connected” or
“There is no answer”…
You may have the wrong interface type set on your 9400. Navigate to SETUP >
NETWORK & REMOTE > PC CONNEC and check the interface setting.
If you are connecting via Direct Serial Connection or modem, review the Properties you have set on that connection. Double-check to ensure that you have set
Windows parameters as described in Appendix: Setting Up Serial Communications on page 2- 59.

If your Direct Connect does not work:
A) Check to make sure that the cables are connected properly.
B) Check that you are using a null modem cable.
C) Ensure that the null modem cable is connected to the 9400’s serial connector.

If your Modem Connect does not work:
A) Ensure that the modem cables and phone lines are connected properly.
B) Check that you have entered the correct phone number for connection.
C) Check that you have entered the passcode correctly on the 9400, and the
passcode has also been entered correctly on your PC.
D) Ensure that you enabled the correct PC modem port settings.
E) Ensure that the external modem attached to your 9400 is set to AUTO ANSWER.
F) Make sure that the only “Allowed Network Protocol” is TCP/IP. “NetBUI” and
“IPX / SPX Compatible” must not be checked.
You Cannot Access the Internet After
Making a Direct or Modem Connection to the 9400:
If you are connected to the 9400 via modem or direct connect, you cannot access
any other TCP/IP connection. The PPP connection becomes the default protocol
and the default gateway defaults to the 9400 unit’s IP address. This means that
all existing network connections point to the 9400 unit. To correct this:
A) In Start / Settings / Network and Dialup Connections, open the direct or modem connection you are using to connect to 9400.
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B) Select “Properties.”
C) Click the tab that reads “Networking.”
D) Highlight “Internet protocol (TCP/IP).”
E) Select “Properties.”
F) Select “Advanced.”
G) Uncheck the “Use default gateway on remote network” box.
H) Select “OK.”
If this “Use default gateway on remote network” box is not selected, the
gateway will not point to the 9400 unit when you establish a direct or
modem connection.
OS-Specific Troubleshooting Advice
Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Direct Connect:
If you are having trouble establishing a connection, check your New Connection’s
properties to make sure they are set up correctly:
A) Click “Start / Programs / Accessories / Communications / Network and Dialup
Connections” to bring up the Network Connections screen.
B) In the “Network Connections” window, right-click “Optimod 9400 - Direct”
and choose “Properties.”
C) The “Properties” window opens for “Optimod 9400 - Direct
D) Click the “Networking” tab.
E) Set “Type of dial-up server I am calling” to “PPP: Windows 95 / 98 / NT4 / 2000,
Internet.”
F) Select the “Settings” button and make sure all PPP settings are unchecked.
Then click “OK.”
G) In “Components checked are used by this connection,” uncheck all except for
“Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).”
H) Select “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” and then click the “Properties” button. The
“Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties” window opens.
I) Choose “Obtain an IP address automatically” and “Obtain DNS server address
automatically”
J) Click the “Advanced…” button on the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” Window.
K) In the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” select the “General” Tab; make sure that
no check boxes are checked.
L) In the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” select the “DNS” Tab.
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M) In the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” select the “WINS” Tab.
N) Click “OK” to dismiss the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” window.
O) Click “OK” to dismiss the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties” window.
P) Click “OK” to dismiss the window whose name is your new connection.
Q) Click “Cancel” to dismiss the “Connect [nnnn]” dialog box
R) Restart your computer. (This resets the serial port and reduces the likelihood
that you will encounter problems connecting to the 9400.)
S) If you see: “Error 777: The connection failed because the modem (or other
connecting device) on the remote computer is out of order”:
The “remote computer” is actually the 9400 and it is not out of order;
you just need to set the Maximum Speed (Bits per second) to 115200. If
you already set this speed when you configured your PC ports, you
shouldn’t have this problem.
The 9400 communicates at 115200 bps. COM ports on some older PCs are
incapable of communications at this rate and may not work reliably.
Most newer PCs use 16550-compatible UARTS, which support the 115200
bps rate.
If you do see this warning message, you can reset the Maximum BPS
Speed by accessing PROPERTIES for the connection:
a) Click START / PROGRAMS / ACCESSORIES / COMMUNICATIONS / NETWORK AND DIALUP CONNECTIONS.
b) Right click the name of your connection and access “PROPERTIES.”
c) Go to the “GENERALS” TAB and select the “CONFIGURE” button.
d) Set the MAXIMUM SPEED (BPS) to 115200.
e) Select OK and try your connection again.
T) If you see: “Error 619: The specified port is not connected.”
Make sure the INTERFACE TYPE on the 9400 is correct:
a) On the 9400, go to SETUP > NETWORK & REMOTE > PC CONNEC.
b) Set PC CONNECT to DIRECT.
c) Try your connection again.
Troubleshooting Windows 2000 Modem Connect:
If you are having trouble establishing a connection, check your New Connection’s
properties to make sure they are set up correctly:
A) Click “Start / Programs / Accessories / Communications / Network and Dialup
Connections” to bring up the Network Connections screen.
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B) In the “Network Connections” window, right-click “Optimod 9400 - Modem”
and choose “Properties.”
C) The “Properties” window opens for “Optimod 9400 – Modem”.
D) Click the “Properties” button.
E) Select the “General” tab and make sure that “Connect Using” displays the
correct modem and port.
F) Click the “Configure…” button.
G) Set the “Maximum Speed (bps) to 115200.
H) Check the “Enable hardware flow control,” make sure all other hardware features are unchecked. Then click “OK.”
I) Click the “Networking” tab on the “Properties” window.
J) Set “Type of dial-up server I am calling” to “PPP: Windows 95 / 98 / NT4 / 2000,
Internet.”
K) Select the “Settings” button and make sure all PPP settings are unchecked.
Then click “OK.”
L) In “Components checked are used by this connection,” uncheck all except for
“Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).”
M) Select “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” and then click the “Properties” button. The
“Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties” window opens.
N) Choose “Obtain an IP address automatically” and “Obtain DNS server address
automatically”
O) Click the “Advanced…” button on the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” Window.
P) In the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” select the “General” Tab; make sure that
no check boxes are checked.
Q) Click “OK” to dismiss the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” window.
R) Click “OK” to dismiss the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties” window.
S) Click “OK” to dismiss the window whose name is your new connection.
T) Click “Cancel” to dismiss the “Connect [nnnn]” dialog box
U) Restart your computer.
Although not strictly necessary, this resets the serial port and reduces the
likelihood that you will encounter problems connecting to the 9400.
Troubleshooting Windows XP Direct Connect:
If you are having trouble establishing a connection, check your New Connection’s
properties to make sure they are set up correctly:
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
A) Click “Start / Programs / Accessories / Communications / Network Connections”
to bring up the Network Connections screen.
B) In the “Network Connections” window, right-click “Optimod 9400 - Direct”
and choose “Properties.”
C) The “Properties” window opens for “Optimod 9400 - Direct.”
D) Click the “Networking” tab.
E) Set “Type of dial-up server I am calling” to “PPP: Windows 95 / 98 / NT4 / 2000,
Internet”
F) Select the “Settings” button and make sure all PPP settings are unchecked,
then click “OK.”
G) In “This connection uses the following items,” uncheck all except for “Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP).” You can also leave “QoS Packet Scheduler” checked if you
like.
H) In “This connection uses the following items,” select “Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP)” and then click the “Properties” button. The “Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) Properties” window opens.
I) Choose “Obtain an IP address automatically” and “Obtain DNS server address
automatically”
J) Click the “Advanced…” button on the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” Window.
K) In the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” select the “General” Tab; make sure that
no check boxes are checked.
L) Click “OK” to dismiss the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” window.
M) On the “Properties” window for “Optimod 9400 – Modem” click the “Advanced” tab.
N) Click “OK” to dismiss the window whose name is your new connection.
O) Click “Cancel” to dismiss the “Connect [nnnn]” dialog box
P) Restart your computer.
This resets the serial port and reduces the likelihood that you will encounter problems connecting to the 9400.
Troubleshooting Windows XP Modem Connect:
If you are having trouble establishing a connection, check your New Connection’s properties to make sure they are set up correctly.
A) Click “Start / Programs / Accessories / Communications / Network Connections”
to bring up the Network Connections screen.
B) In the “Network Connections” window, right-click “Optimod 9400 - Modem”
and choose “Properties.”
The “Properties” window opens for “Optimod 9400 - Modem.”
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C) Click the “Networking” tab.
D) Set “Type of dial-up server I am calling” to “PPP: Windows 95 / 98 / NT4 / 2000,
Internet”
E) Select the “Settings” button. Make sure all PPP settings are unchecked, and
then click “OK.”
F) In “This connection uses the following items,” uncheck all except for “Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP).” You can also leave “QoS Packet Scheduler” checked if you
like.
G) In “This connection uses the following items,” select “Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP)” and then click the “Properties” button.
The “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties” window opens.
H) Choose “Obtain an IP address automatically” and “Obtain DNS server address
automatically.”
I) Click the “Advanced…” button on the “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” Window.
J) In the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings,” select the “General” Tab; make sure that
no check boxes are checked.
K) Click “OK” to dismiss the “Advanced TCP/IP Settings” window.
L) Click “OK” to dismiss the window whose name is your new connection.
M) Restart your computer. (This resets the serial port and reduces the likelihood
that you will encounter problems connecting to the 9400.)
Troubleshooting IC Opamps
IC opamps are operated such that the characteristics of their associated circuits are
essentially independent of IC characteristics and dependent only on external feedback components. The feedback forces the voltage at the (–) input terminal to be
extremely close to the voltage at the (+) input terminal. Therefore, if you measure
more than a few millivolts difference between these two terminals, the IC is probably bad.
Exceptions are opamps used without feedback (as comparators) and opamps with
outputs that have been saturated due to excessive input voltage because of a defect
in an earlier stage. However, if an opamp's (+) input is more positive than its (–) input, yet the output of the IC is sitting at –14 volts, the IC is almost certainly bad.
The same holds true if the above polarities are reversed. Because the characteristics
of the 9400's circuitry are essentially independent of IC opamp characteristics, an
opamp can usually be replaced without recalibration.
A defective opamp may appear to work, yet have extreme temperature sensitivity. If
parameters appear to drift excessively, freeze-spray may aid in diagnosing the problem. Freeze-spray is also invaluable in tracking down intermittent problems. But use
it sparingly, because it can cause resistive short circuits due to moisture condensation
on cold surfaces.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
Technical Support
If you require technical support, contact Orban customer service. Be prepared to describe the problem accurately. Know the serial number of your 9400  this is printed
on the rear panel of the unit.
Telephone:
(1) 510 / 351-3500
Write:
Customer Service
Orban
1525 Alvarado Street
San Leandro, CA 94577 USA
Fax:
(1) 510 / 351-0500
E-Mail
custserv@orban.com
Please check Orban’s website, www.orban.com, for Frequently Asked Questions and
other technical tips about 9400 that we may post from time to time. Manuals (in
.pdf form) and 9400 software upgrades will be posted there too — click
“Downloads” from the home page.
Factory Service
Before you return a product to the factory for service, we recommend that you refer
to this manual. Make sure you have correctly followed installation steps and operation procedures. If you are still unable to solve a problem, contact our Customer Service for consultation. Often, a problem is relatively simple and can be quickly fixed
after telephone consultation.
If you must return a product for factory service, please notify Customer Service by
telephone, before you ship the product; this helps us to be prepared to service your
unit upon arrival. When you return a product to the factory for service, we recommend that you include a letter describing the problem.
Please refer to the terms of your Limited Standard Warranty (see page 1-28), which
extends to the first end user. After expiration of the warranty, a reasonable charge
will be made for parts, labor, and packing if you choose to use the factory service facility. Returned units will be returned C.O.D. if the unit is not under warranty. Orban
will pay return shipping if the unit is still under warranty. In all cases, the customer
pays transportation charges to the factory (which are usually quite nominal).
Shipping Instructions
Use the original packing material if it is available. If it is not, use a sturdy, doublewalled carton no smaller than 7 (H) x 15.5 (D) x 22 (W)  18 cm (H) x 40 cm (D) x
56 cm (W), with a minimum bursting test rating of 200 pounds (91 kg). Place the
chassis in a plastic bag (or wrap it in plastic) to protect the finish, then pack it in the
carton with at least 1.5 inches (4 cm) of cushioning on all sides of the unit. “Bubble”
packing sheets, thick fiber blankets, and the like are acceptable cushioning materi-
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TROUBLESHOOTING
als; foam “popcorn” and crumpled newspaper are not. Wrap cushioning materials
tightly around the unit and tape them in place to prevent the unit from shifting out
of its packing.
Close the carton without sealing it and shake it vigorously. If you can hear or feel
the unit move, use more packing. Seal the carton with 3-inch (8 cm) reinforced fiberglass or polyester sealing tape, top and bottom in an “H” pattern. Narrower or
parcel-post type tapes will not withstand the stresses applied to commercial shipments.
Mark the package with the name of the shipper, and with these words in red:
DELICATE INSTRUMENT, FRAGILE!
Insure the package properly. Ship prepaid, not collect. Do not ship parcel post. Your
Return Authorization Number must be shown on the label or the package will
not be accepted.
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TECHNICAL DATA
Section 6
Technical Data
Specifications
It is impossible to characterize the listening quality of even the simplest limiter or
compressor based on specifications, because such specifications cannot adequately
describe the crucial dynamic processes that occur under program conditions. Therefore, the only way to evaluate the sound of an audio processor meaningfully is by
subjective listening tests.
Certain specifications are presented here to assure the engineer that they are reasonable, to help plan the installation, and make certain comparisons with other
processing equipment.
Performance
Except as noted, specifications apply for measurements from the analog left/right input to
the analog left/right output.
Frequency Response (Bypass Mode; Analog Processing Chain): ±0.2 dB, 50 Hz–9.5
kHz, or as determined by user-settable high-pass and low-pass filters.
Frequency Response (Bypass Mode; Digital Processing Chain): ±0.2 dB, 5 Hz – 15
kHz, or as determined by user-settable low-pass filter.
Noise: Output noise floor will depend upon how much gain the processor is set for (Limit
Drive, AGC Drive, Two-Band Drive, and/or Multiband Drive), gating level, equalization,
noise reduction, etc. The dynamic range of the A/D Converter, which has a specified
overload-to–noise ratio of 110 dB, primarily governs it. The dynamic range of the digital
signal processing is 144 dB.
Total System Distortion (de-emphasized, 100% modulation): <0.01% THD, 20 Hz–1 kHz,
rising to <0.05% at 9.5 kHz. <0.02% SMPTE IM Distortion.
Total System L/R Channel Separation: >50 dB, 20 Hz – 9.5 kHz; 60 dB typical.
Polarity: Both processing chains employ phase rotation so the input/output polarity is frequency-dependent. All outputs have a user-settable software polarity switch, allowing
the AM channel’s asymmetrical processing to produce the correct modulation polarity at
the transmitter.
Processing Sample Rate: The 9400 is a “multirate” system, using internal rates from 32
kHz to 256 kHz as appropriate for the processing being performed. Audio clippers operate at 256 kHz.
Processing Resolution: Internal processing has 24 bit (fixed point) or higher resolution;
uses Motorola DSP56362 DSP chips.
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ORBAN MODEL 9400
Low-Pass Filter (processing for analog modulation): 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0,
8.5, 9.0, or 9.5 (NRSC) kHz as set by user. Unit can be set up to comply easily with ITUR and NRSC spectrum masks. Filter can be set to be –0.1 dB, –3.0, or –6.0 dB down at
the edge of the passband, trading off ringing against brightness.
Low-Pass Filter (processing for digital modulation): 15 kHz.
High-Pass Filter (processing for analog modulation): Constrained by user settable fifthorder “quasi-elliptical” highpass filter to 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100 Hz. All filters have
equal-ripple (Chebychev-like) passbands, and 25 and 35 Hz notches for transmitter protection.
High-Pass Filter (processing for digital modulation): 1 Hz, not user-adjustable.
Processing Topology: The stereo enhancer and two-band AGC are common to the analog
and digital processing chains. The processing path splits after the AGC. The analog path
receives equalization, five-band compression, distortion-controlled and -canceled clipping, overshoot compensation, and transmitter equalization. The digital path receives
equalization, five-band compression, and look-ahead limiting. The parameters of the
equalizers, five-band compressors, and peak limiters in the two paths are separately and
independently adjustable.
Processing Delay (processing for analog modulation): approximately 17 ms.
Processing Delay (processing for digital modulation): approximately 24 ms. Any output
can be switched to emit a monitor signal with 5 ms. delay. This signal contains the output of the five-band digital-channel compressor/limiter.
Delay Difference between Analog AM and Digital Processing Chains: Fixed at 5.778
ms, regardless of processor control settings.
Installation
Analog Audio Input
Configuration: Stereo.
Impedance: >10k load impedance, electronically balanced 1.
Nominal Input Level: Software adjustable from –9.0 to +13.0 dBu (VU).
Maximum Input Level: +27 dBu.
Connectors: Two XLR-type, female, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, Pins 2 (+) and
3 electronically balanced, floating and symmetrical.
A/D Conversion: 24 bit 128x oversampled delta sigma converter with linear-phase antialiasing filter. Converter outputs 64 kHz sample rate, which the 9400 then decimates to
32 kHz in DSP using an ultra-high-quality image-free synchronous sample rate converter.
Filtering: RFI filtered, with high-pass filter at 0.15 Hz (–3 dB).
Analog Audio Output
Configuration: Two stereo pairs, capable to driving two transmitters.
1
No jumper selection available for 600. Through-hole pads are available on I/O module for userinstalled 600 termination.
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TECHNICAL DATA
Source Impedance: Electronically balanced and floating outputs simulate a true transformer output. Because of the built-in third-order EMI suppression filter, the source impedance is 351. Loading the output with 600 will decrease the output level by 4.0 dB
compared to a high impedance (bridging) load and will reduce the maximum available
output level by 4.0 dB. A software switch in Analog Output screen allows the output level
calibration to be set for a bridging or 600 load.
Load Impedance: 600 or greater, balanced or unbalanced. Termination not required or
recommended.
Output Level (100% peak modulation): Adjustable from –6 dBu to +20 dBu peak, into 600
or greater load, software-adjustable.
Signal-to-Noise: >= 90 dB unweighted (Bypass mode, de-emphasized, 20 Hz–9.5 kHz
bandwidth, referenced to 100% modulation).
L/R Crosstalk: <= –70 dB, 20 Hz–9.5 kHz.
Distortion: <= 0.01% THD (Bypass mode, de-emphasized) 20 Hz–9.5 kHz bandwidth.
Connectors: Four XLR-type, male, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, Pins 2 (+) and 3
electronically balanced, floating and symmetrical.
D/A Conversion: 24 bit 128x oversampled.
Filtering: RFI filtered.
Digital Audio Input
Configuration: Stereo per AES3 standard, 24 bit resolution, software selection of stereo,
mono from left, mono from right or mono from sum.
Sampling Rate: 32, 44.1, 48, 88.2, or 96 kHz, automatically selected.
Connector: XLR-type, female, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, pins 2 and 3 transformer balanced and floating, 110 impedance.
Input Reference Level: Variable within the range of –30 dBFS to –10 dBFS.
J.17 De-emphasis: Software-selectable.
Filtering: RFI filtered.
Digital Audio Outputs
Configuration: Stereo per AES3 standard.
Sample Rate: Internal free running at 32, 44.1, 48, 88.2 or 96 kHz, selected in software.
Can also be synced to the AES3 digital input at 32, 44.1, 48, 88.2 or 96 kHz, as configured in software.
Word Length: Software selected for 24, 20, 18, 16 or 14-bit resolution. First-order highpass
noise-shaped dither can be optionally added. Dither level automatically adjusted appropriately for the word length.
Configuration: Both outputs can be switched independently to emit either the signal processed for analog modulation, the signal processed for digital modulation, or the lowdelay monitor signal.
Connector: Two XLR-type, male, EMI-suppressed. Pin 1 chassis ground, pins 2 and 3
transformer balanced and floating, 110 impedance.
Output Level (100% peak modulation): –20.0 to 0.0 dBFS software controlled.
Filtering: RFI filtered.
Remote Computer Interface
Configuration: TCP/IP protocol via direct cable connect, modem, or Ethernet interface.
Suitable null modem cable for direct connect is supplied. Modem is not supplied.
6-3
6-4
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Serial Port: 115 kbps RS–232 port dB–9 male, EMI-suppressed.
Ethernet Port: 10 or 100 Mbit/sec on RJ45 female connector.
Remote Control (GPI) Interface
Configuration: Eight (8) inputs, opto-isolated and floating.
Voltage: 6–15V AC or DC, momentary or continuous. 9VDC provided to facilitate use with
contact closure.
Connector: DB–25 male, EMI-suppressed.
Control: User-programmable for any eight of user presets, factory presets, bypass, test
tone, stereo or mono modes, analog input, digital input.
Filtering: RFI filtered.
Power
Voltage: 100–132 VAC or 200–264 VAC, switch-selected on the rear panel, 50–60 Hz, 40
VA.
Connector: IEC, EMI-suppressed. Detachable 3-wire power cord supplied.
Grounding: Circuit ground is independent of chassis ground, and can be isolated or connected with a rear panel switch.
Safety Standards: ETL listed to UL standards, CE marked.
Environmental
Operating Temperature: 32 to 122 F / 0 to 50 C for all operating voltage ranges.
Humidity: 0–95% RH, non-condensing.
Dimensions (W x H x D): 19” x 3.5” x 14.25” / 48.3 cm x 8.9 cm x 36.2 cm. Two rack units
high.
Humidity: 0–95% RH, non-condensing.
RFI / EMI: Tested according to Cenelec procedures. FCC Part 15 Class A device.
Shipping Weight: 19 lbs / 8.7 kg
Warranty
Two Years, Parts and Service: Subject to the limitations set forth in Orban's Standard
Warranty Agreement.
Because engineering improvements are ongoing, specifications are subject to change without notice.
Circuit Description
This section provides a detailed description of user-serviceable circuits used in the
9400. We do not provide detailed descriptions of the digital circuitry because most
of this is built with surface-mount components that cannot be removed or replaced
with tools typically available in the field. Field repair ordinarily consists of swapping
entire PC boards.
The section starts with an overview of the 9400 system, identifying circuit sections
and describing their purpose. Then each user-repairable section is treated in detail
by first giving an overview of the circuits followed by a component-by-component
description.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
The drawing on page 6-29 shows circuit board locations.
Overview
The Control Circuits control the DSP, display, and Input/Output sections of the 9400
system.
The Input Circuits include the connectors and RF filtering for the analog and digital
audio inputs, the digital sync input, and the circuitry to interface these inputs to the
digital processing.
The Output Circuits include the connectors and RF filtering for the analog and digital audio outputs, and the circuitry to interface the digital processing to these outputs.
The DSP Circuits implement the bypass, test tone, and audio processing using digital
signal processing.
The Power Supply provides power for all 9400 circuit sections.
A block diagram of the DSP signal processing appears on page 6-62.
Control Circuits
The control circuit is based on an AMD Elan SC520 microprocessor, which is a 586class processor running an Orban executable program over a third-party real-time
operating system. A flash memory emulates a hard drive. The memory is non-volatile
and does not rely on a battery to retain information when mains power is off.
The flash memory holds the operating system, the Orban executable program, and
all preset files, both factory and user. It also contains a write-protected “boot segment” that functions as a boot ROM.
The control circuits process and execute user-initiated requests to the system. The
source of these requests is the front panel buttons and rotary encoder, the rear
panel RS-232 port, Ethernet port, and the remote contact closures. These changes
affect hardware function and/or DSP processing. The control circuits also send information to the LCD display.
The control circuit communicates with the DSP and display circuitry through the
SC520’s ISA bus.
The SC520 periodically refreshes a watchdog timer. If the timer times out without
being refreshed, it assumes that the control program has crashed and automatically
reboots the SC520. The DSP chips will continue to process audio until the time comes
to reload DSP program code into them. At this point, the audio will mute for about
30 seconds until the DSP code download has finished. If you hear a 30-second audio
mute on air, you can assume that the 9400 has rebooted for some reason. Be pre-
6-5
6-6
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
pared to convey this fact to Orban customer service if you call for technical assistance.
The control board is divided into two assemblies: a “base board,” which has interface circuitry, and a “CPU controller module,” which plugs into the base board and
which contains the CPU, the Ethernet interface chip, the flash memory, the DRAM,
and the real-time clock, which keeps time for the 9400’s automation functions. The
real-time clock is backed up by a DL2032 battery so that it keeps accurate time even
when the 9400 is powered down. The battery is socketed and can be readily accessed by removing the 9400’s top cover; the battery is located on the foil (top) side
of the CPU controller module.
User Control Interface and LCD Display Circuits
The user control interface enables the user to control the 9400’s functionality. A rear
panel GPI connector allows optically isolated remote control of certain functions,
such as recalling presets, via contact closure. An RS-232 serial port and an Ethernet
port allow you to connect a modem or computer to the 9400. Front panel pushbutton switches select between various operational modes and functions. A rotary encoder allows the user to adjust parameters and enter data.
1. Remote Interface and RS-232 Interfaces
Located on base board
A remote interface connector and circuitry implements remote control of certain
operating modes; OPTIMOD-AM 9400 has eight remote contact closure inputs.
A valid remote signal is a momentary pulse of current flowing through remote
signal pins. Current must flow consistently for 50 msec for the signal to be interpreted as valid. Generally, the 9400 will respond to the most recent control operation, regardless of whether it came from the front panel, remote interface, or
RS-232.
Component-Level Description:
After being current limited by resistors, the GPI control signals are applied to
two quad optoisolators, U10, 12, and then to the control circuitry.
Octal driver U1 buffers the RS-232 port, which is located on a small daughter
board.
U10, 12 and U1 are socketed for easy field replacement in the event of overload, lightning damage, etc. All other circuitry is surface-mount and is not
field-repairable.
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
2. Switch Matrix and LED Indicators
Located on display board
Eleven front panel pushbutton switches are arranged in a matrix, configured as
three columns and four rows. These switches are the primary element of the
physical user interface to the 9400 control software. The host microprocessor
controls the system setup and function of the DSP according to the switch / rotary encoder entered commands, the AES status bits from the digital input signal,
the RS-232, and the remote control interface status. The microprocessor updates
the LED control status indicators accordingly.
Component-Level Description:
S1-S11 are the front panel pushbutton switches. CR11-CR15 are the front panel
LED control status indicators. The control microprocessor communicates with
these components through the ISA bus, which is buffered via IC3.
3. LED Meter Circuits
Located on display board
The meter LEDs are arranged in an 8x16 matrix, in rows and columns.
Each row of LEDs in the matrix has a 1/8 duty cycle ON time. The rows are multiplexed at a fast rate so that the meters appear continuously illuminated. Via the
ISA bus, the DSP sends meter data values to the control microprocessor, which
sends the appropriate LED control words (eight bits at a time) to the data latches
that drive the LEDs directly.
Component-Level Description:
The meter LED matrix consists of ten 10-segment LED bar graph assemblies
(CR1-CR9, CR16) and one discrete LED (CR10). Row selector latches IC4, IC5,
IC6, and IC9 are controlled by the host microprocessor and alternately sink current through the LEDs selected by column selector latches IC1 and IC2, which
are also controlled by the SC520. IC1 and IC2 drive the selected row of LEDs
through current limiting resistor packs RP1 and RP2.
Input Circuits
This circuitry interfaces the analog and digital inputs to the DSP. The analog input
stages scale and buffer the input audio level to match it to the analog-to-digital
(A/D) converter. The A/D converts the analog input audio to digital audio. The digital input receiver accepts AES3-format digital audio signals from the digital input
connector and sample rate-converts them as necessary. The digital audio from the
A/D and SRC is transmitted to the DSP.
6-7
6-8
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
1. Analog Input Stages
Located on Input/Output board
The RF-filtered left and right analog input signals are each applied to a floating,
balanced amplifier that has an adjustable (digitally controlled) gain. Analog
switches set the gain. The outputs of a latch set the state of the switches. By writing data to the latch, the control circuits set the gain to correspond to what the
user specifies via the front panel controls. The gain amplifier’s output feeds a circuit that scales, balances, and DC-biases the signal. This circuit feeds an RC lowpass filter that applies the balanced signal to the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter.
Note that the small RFI “tee” filter assemblies connected to the input and output
connectors are socketed and user-replaceable.
Component-Level Description:
The left channel balanced audio input signal is applied to the filter / load network made up of L100-103 and associated resistors and capacitors. (There are
solder pads available in the PC board to accept an optional 600 termination
load [R106] on the input signal if the user wishes to install one.) A conventional three-opamp instrumentation amplifier (IC100 and associated circuitry)
receives the input signal. R110-114 and quad analog switch IC101 make up the
circuit that sets the gain of IC100. The switches in IC101 set the gain of the instrumentation amplifier by switching resistors in parallel with R104. (Smaller
total resistances produce larger gains.)
IC100 feeds IC104 and associated components. This stage balances, DC-biases,
and scales the signal to the proper level for the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter IC107. IC105A and associated components comprise a servo amp to correctly DC-bias the signal feeding the A/D converter. R137-139, C109, C110
make an attenuator / RC filter necessary to filter high frequency energy that
would otherwise cause aliasing distortion in the A/D converter.
The corresponding right channel circuitry is functionally identical to that just
described.
IC100, 101, 102, 103 are socketed for easy field replacement. All other circuitry
is surface-mounted and is not field-replaceable.
2. Stereo Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter
Located on Input/Output board
The A/D converter, IC107, is a stereo 24-bit sigma-delta converter. (This is a surface-mount part and is not field-replaceable,)
The A/D oversamples the audio, applies noise shaping, and filters and decimates
to 64 kHz sample rate. (An Orban-designed synchronous sample rate converter in
the 9400’s DSP performs the final decimation to 32 kHz. This ensures the flattest
frequency response to 15 kHz without aliasing.)
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
3. Digital Input Receiver and Sample Rate Converter (SRC)
Located on Input/Output board
The integrated receiver and input sample rate converter, IC500, accepts digital
audio signals using the AES3 interface format (AES3-1992). The built-in sample
rate converter (SRC) accepts and sample-rate converts any of the “standard” 32
kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz rates in addition to any digital audio
sample rate within the range of 32 kHz and 96 kHz. The SRC converts the input
sample rate to 64 kHz. The final, high-quality decimation to the 9400 system
sample rate is done in the system DSP, as was done for the analog input.
This chip is surface-mounted and not field-replaceable.
Output Circuits
The 9400 has two stereo pairs of analog outputs and two AES3 digital outputs. We
will describe Output #1; Output #2 is identical except for its component reference
designators.
This circuitry interfaces the DSP to the analog and digital audio outputs. The digital
audio from the DSP is transmitted to the digital-to-analog converter (D/A) or output
sample rate converter (SRC) associated with a given output. The digital-to-analog
(D/A) converter converts the digital audio words generated by the DSP to analog
audio. The analog output stages scale and buffer the D/A output signal to drive the
analog output XLR connectors with a low impedance balanced output. The digital
output transmitter accepts the digital audio words from the output sample rate
converter (SRC) and transmits them to the digital output connector via an AES3 output formatter and driver chip.
1. Stereo Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converter
Located on input/output board
The D/A, IC211, is a stereo, 24-bit delta-sigma converter. It receives the serial left
and right audio data samples from the DSP at 64 kHz sample rate, and converts
them into audio signals requiring further, relatively undemanding analog filtering. IC211 is surface-mounted and is not field-replaceable.
2. Analog Output Stages
Located on Input/Output board
The left and right analog signals emerging from IC211 are each filtered, amplified, and applied to a floating-balanced integrated line driver, which has a 50
output impedance. The line driver outputs are applied to the RF-filtered left and
right analog output connectors. These analog signals can represent either the
transmitter or monitor output of audio processing.
Component-Level Description:
IC201 and associated components filter the left channel signal emerging from
6-9
6-10
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
IC211. The purpose of these stages is to reduce the out-of-band noise energy
resulting from the delta-sigma D/A’s noise shaping filter and to translate the
differential output of the D/A converter into single-ended form. These comrd
ponents apply a 3 order low-pass filter to the differential signal from the D/A.
This filter does not induce significant overshoot of the processed audio, which
would otherwise waste modulation.
IC212B and associated components form a low-frequency servo amplifier to
remove residual DC from the signal. The 0.15Hz 3 dB frequency prevents tiltinduced overshoot in the processed audio.
The buffered output of IC2201 is applied to IC213, a balanced output line
driver. This driver emulates a floating transformer; its differential output level
is independent of whether one side of its output is floating or grounded.
IC213 and its right channel counterpart IC214 are socketed for easy field replacement. All other circuitry is surface-mounted.
The corresponding right channel circuitry and the circuitry in Analog Output
#2 is functionally identical to that just described.
3. Digital Sample Rate Converters (SRC) and Output Transmitters
Located on Input/Output Daughterboard
For each of the two digital outputs, an integrated output sample rate converter
(SRC) converts the 64 kHz 9400 system output sample rate to any of the standard
32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, and 96 kHz rates. The SRC chip drives a digital
audio interface transmitter to encode digital audio signals using the AES3 interface format (AES3-1992). These chips are surface-mounted and are not field replaceable.
DSP Circuit
The DSP circuit consists of eight Motorola DSP56362 24-bit fixed-point DSP chips that
execute DSP software code to implement digital signal processing algorithms.
The algorithms filter, compress, and limit the audio signal. The eight DSP chips, each
operating at approximately 100 million instructions per second (MIPS), for a total of
800MIPS, provide the necessary signal processing. A sampling rate of 32 kHz and
power-of-two multiples thereof, up to 512 kHz, is used.
System initialization normally occurs when power is first applied to the 9400 and can
occur abnormally if the 9400’s watchdog timer forces the SC520 to reboot. Upon initialization, the SC520 CPU downloads the DSP executable code stored in the flash
memory. This typically takes about 7 seconds. Once a DSP chip begins executing its
program, execution is continuous. The SC520 provides the DSP program with parameter data (representing information like the settings of various processing controls), and extracts the front panel metering data from the DSP chips.
During system initialization, the SC520 queries the DSP hardware about its operational status and will display an error message on-screen if the DSP fails to initialize
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
normally. Please note any such messages and be ready to report them to Orban Customer Service.
The DSP chips are located on the DSP board — see the drawings starting on page 652. U701 and U702 are local voltage regulators on the DSP board that derive the
+3.3V supply for the DSP chips from the system digital 5V bus.
Power Supply
Warning! Hazardous voltages are present in the power supply when it is connected
to the AC line.
The power supply converts an AC line voltage input to various power sources used
by the 9400. To ensure lowest possible noise, four linear regulators provide 15VDC
and 5VDC for the analog circuits. A switching regulator provides high current
+5VDC for the digital circuits. An unregulated voltage powers the fan and feeds local regulators.
The power supply circuits are straightforward and no explanation is required beyond the schematic itself. Be aware that C1, C4, C5, and C12 in the
switching regulator are premium-quality low-ESR capacitors and must be
replaced with equivalent types to ensure proper operation of the switching supply.
The output of the power supply is monitored by the power-indicator LED circuit,
which causes the power LED to flash according to a preset code to diagnose problems with the various power supplies in the 9400. See step (2.B) on page 4-8.
Abbreviations
Some of the abbreviations used in this manual may not be familiar to all readers:
A/D (or A to D)
AES
AGC
A-I
A-O
BAL
BBC
BNC
CALIB
CIT
CMOS
COFDM
COM
D/A (or D to A)
dBm
analog-to-digital converter
Audio Engineering Society
automatic gain control
analog input
analog output
balanced (refers to an audio connection with two active conductors and one shield surrounding them).
British Broadcasting Corporation
a type of RF connector
calibrate
composite isolation transformer
complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex — a robust type of digital modulation using
many narrow-bandwidth, low data rate, mutually non-interfering carriers to achieve an aggregate high data rate with excellent multipath rejection.
serial data communications port
digital-to-analog converter
decibel power measurement. 0 dBm = 1mW applied to a specified load. In audio, the load
6-11
6-12
TECHNICAL DATA
dBu
DI
DJ
DO
DOS
DSP
EBU
EBS
EMI
ESC
FCC
FDNR
FET
FFT
FIFO
G/R
HD Radio
HF
HP
IBOC
IC
IM
I/O
ITU
JFET
LC
LCD
LED
LF
LP
LVL
MHF
MLF
MOD
N&D
N/C
OSHOOT
PC
PCM
PPM
RAM
RC
RDS / RBDS
REF
RF
RFI
ORBAN MODEL 9400
is usually 600. In this case only, 0 dBm = 0.775V rms.
decibel voltage measurement. 0 dBu = 0.775V RMS. For this application, the dBm-into600 scale on voltmeters can be read as if it were calibrated in dBu.
digital input
disk jockey, an announcer who plays records in a club or on the air
digital output
Microsoft disk operating system for IBM-compatible PC
digital signal processor (or processing). May also refer to a special type of microprocessor
optimized for efficiently executing arithmetic.
European Broadcasting Union
Emergency Broadcasting System (U.S.A.)
electromagnetic interference
escape
Federal Communications Commission (USA regulatory agency)
frequency-dependent negative resistoran element used in RC-active filters
field effect transistor
fast Fourier transform
first-in, first-out
gain reduction
See IBOC
high-frequency
high-pass
“In-Band On-Channel” — a form of digital radio commercialized by iBiquity Corporation
where the digital carriers use a form of COFDM modulation and share the frequency allocation of the analog carriers. Also known by its trademarked name of “HD Radio.”
integrated circuit
intermodulation (or “intermodulation distortion”)
Input/Output
International Telecommunications Union (formerly CCIR). ITU-R is the arm of the ITU dedicated to radio.
junction field effect transistor
inductor / capacitor
liquid crystal display
light-emitting diode
low-frequency
low-pass
level
midrange / high-frequency
midrange / low-frequency
modulation
noise and distortion
no connection
overshoot
IBM-compatible personal computer
pulse code modulation
peak program meter
random-access memory
resistor / capacitor
Radio (Broadcasting) Data Service — a narrowband digital subcarrier centered at 57 kHz in
the AM baseband that usually provides program or network-related data to the consumer in
the form of text that is displayed on the radio. Occupied bandwidth is ±2500 Hz.
reference
radio frequency
radio-frequency interference
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
RMS
ROM
SC
SCA
TECHNICAL DATA
root-mean-square
read-only memory
subcarrier
subsidiary communications authorization  a non program-related subcarrier in the AM
baseband above 23 kHz (monophonic) or 57 kHz (stereophonic)
Sony / Philips digital interface
tip-ring-sleeve (2-circuit phone jack)
total harmonic distortion
transmitter
S / PDIF
TRS
THD
TX
s
Microseconds. For AM pre-emphasis, the +3 dB frequency is 1 / (2  ), where  is the preemphasis time constant, measured in seconds.
voltage-controlled amplifier
volume unit (meter)
a common style of 3-conductor audio connector
crystal
VCA
VU
XLR
XTAL
Parts List
Many parts used in the 9400 are surface-mount devices (“SMT”) and are not intended for field replacement because specialized equipment and skills are necessary
to remove and replace them. The list below includes substantially all of the parts
used in the 9400 (including surface-mount devices), and inclusion of a part in this list
does not imply that the part is field-replaceable.
See the following assembly drawings for locations of components.
Obtaining Spare Parts
Special or subtle characteristics of certain components are exploited to produce an
elegant design at a reasonable cost. It is therefore unwise to make substitutions for
listed parts. Consult the factory if the listing of a part includes the note “selected” or
“realignment required.”
Orban normally maintains an inventory of tested, exact replacement parts that can
be supplied quickly at nominal cost. Standardized spare parts kits are also available.
When ordering parts from the factory, please have available the following information about the parts you want:
Orban part number
Reference designator (e.g., C3, R78, IC14)
Brief description of part
Model, serial, and “M” (if any) number of unit  see rear-panel label
To facilitate future maintenance, parts for this unit have been chosen from the catalogs of well-known manufacturers whenever possible. Most of these manufacturers
have extensive worldwide distribution and may be contacted through their web
sites.
6-13
6-14
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Base Board
PART #
42008.020
16013.000.01
20040.604.01
DESCRIPTION
SUBASSEMBLY: FLAT CABLE-40P2"
HEATSINK, CLIP-ON, TO 220
RESISTOR, METAL-FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
604 OHM
20121.750.01
20128.002.01
20129.301.01
20130.100.01
20130.162.01
20130.200.01
20130.332.01
20130.562.01
RESISTOR, METAL-FILM, ½W, 1%,
301 OHM
RESISTOR, RF, 1/8W, 1%, 10 OHM,
1206
RESISTOR, TF, 1/8W, 1%, 75 OHM
RESISTOR, 2.0 OHM 1% 0805
RESISTOR, 301 OHM, 0805
RESISTOR, 1.00K 1% 0805
RESISTOR, 1/8W, 1%, 1.62K, 0805
RESISTOR, 2.00K, 0805
RESISTOR, 1% 3.32K 0805
RESISTOR, 1/8W, 1%, 5.62K, 0805
20131.100.01
RESISTOR, 10K, 0805
20131.140.01
20131.301.01
RESISTOR, 14.0K, 0805
RESISTOR, 30.1K, 0805
20132.100.01
RESISTOR, 100K, 0805
20132.332.01
RESISTOR, 332K, 0805
21139.000.01
CAPACITOR, X7R, 0.1uF, 10%, 0805
21147.022.01
CAPACITOR, 22pF, 0805, 1%
CAPACITOR, 10uF, TANTALUM,
SURFACE-MOUNT
CAPACITOR, 4.7uF, TANTALUM,
6032B
DIODE, MMSZ5231B, SOD-123
DIODE, VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR, 15
VOLT
DIODE, 1N4148WT / R
DIODE, SHOTTKY 1A, 60V, SMD
TRANSISTOR, NPN MMBT3904
TRANSISTOR, POWER, NPN
IC, 74HC374 DLATCH SOL20
IC, HEX INVERTER, SURFACEMOUNT
IC, 74ACT245DW
IC, 74ACT244SC
IC, BAT54C-7
20080.301.01
20121.100.01
21319.610.01
21322.547.01
22016.000.01
22083.015.01
22101.001.01
22209.000.01
23214.000.01
23606.201.01
24857.000.01
24900.000.01
24967.000.01
24978.000.01
24979.000.01
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
J7
H1
R28, R30, R33, R35, R37, R39, R44,
R46, R48, R49, R50, R51, R52, R53,
R54, R55
R47
R43, 45
R82, 83, 84
R22, R23, R24, R25
R59, R77
R79
R41, 42
R4, R56, R62
R76
R57
R26, R60, R61, R63, R65, R67, R68,
R69, R70, R71, R73, R74, R75, R80,
R81, R102, R103, R104
R58, 64
R72
R1, R2, R3, R7, R8, R9, R10, R11,
R12, R13, R14, R20, R27, R29, R31,
R32, R34, R36, R38, R40, R66, R85,
R86, R87, R88, R89, R90, R91, R92,
R93
R78
C3, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12,
C13, C18, C21, C24, C30, C32, C33,
C34, C35, C38, C39, C43
C40, C41
C1, C4, C14, C15, C17, C19, C22,
C36, C37, C42
C2, C5, C20, C23
D12
D11
D1, D3, D4, D5, D6, D9, D10
[REF NOT, STUFFED], D7, D8
Q1, Q3, Q4
Q2
U4
U11, U13
U3, 5
U14, 15
D13, D14, D15, D16, D17
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
PART #
24982.000.01
24983.000.01
24984.000.01
25008.000.01
27017.025.01
27147.016.01
27147.018.01
27371.040.01
27371.064.01
27406.004.01
27406.014.01
27421.004.01
27421.006.01
27421.010.01
27421.016.01
27426.003.01
27451.005.01
27451.024.01
28086.000.01
29521.000.01
44093.100.01
TECHNICAL DATA
DESCRIPTION
IC, 74HC4051M
IC, MAX7064STC100-10
IC, LP2987IM-5.0
IC, PS2506-4
CONNECTOR, RIGHT ANGLE, PC
MOUNT, 25-PIN
IC, SOCKET, DIP, 16-PIN, DUAL
IC, SOCKET, DIP, 18-PIN, DUAL
CONNECTOR, HEADER, PC104
STACK 40-PIN
CONNECTOR, HEADER, PC104
STACK 64-PIN
CONNECTOR, SOCKET, STRIP, 4PIN
CONNECTOR, SOCKET, STRIP, 14PIN
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW , 4-PIN, 2 X 2
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW , 6-PIN, 2 X 3
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW , 23", 2 X 5
CONNECTOR, HEADER, STR, 0.23",
2X8
CONNECTOR, HEADER, 3-PIN,
SINGLE ROW
CONNECTOR, STR, DOUBLE ROW,
26-PIN
HEADER, STR, DOUBLE ROW,
PCMOUNT
CRYSTAL, 4.0 MHz, HC49US
INDUCTOR, 3.9uH, JM391K
FIRMWARE, PIC 8382 U18
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
U19
U1
U20
U10, 12
J10
SU10, SU12
SU18
HDR2
HDR1, HDR3
J5
J2, J8
J6
J3
J12
J13
J11
J4
J1
X1
L1, L2, L3
U18
CPU Module
PART #
20128.010.01
20128.022.01
20128.332.01
20129.160.01
20129.330.01
20129.470.01
20130.100.01
DESCRIPTION
RESISTOR, 10 OHM,0805
RESISTOR, 22 OHM 1% 0805
RESISTOR, 33.2 OHM,0805
RESISTOR, 49.9 OHM 1%
0805
RESISTOR, 160 OHM 1% 0805
RESISTOR, 330 OHM 1% 0805
RESISTOR, 470 OHM 1% 0805
RESISTOR, 1.00K 1% 0805
20130.475.01
RESISTOR, 4.75K,0805
20130.931.01
20131.100.01
20131.147.01
RESISTOR, 9.31K, 1%, 0805
RESISTOR, 10K,0805
RESISTOR,
20128.499.01
COMPONENT, IDENTIFIER
R31, R34
R5, R6
R10, R11, R14
R19, R20, R21, R22, R23
R24, R25
R12, R16
R13, R15
R17, R35
R3, R4, R7, R8, R26, R27, R28, R29, R30,
R32
R33
R1, R2, R9
R18
6-15
6-16
TECHNICAL DATA
PART #
20233.102.01
20233.472.01
20237.472.01
21139.000.01
21141.000.01
21142.000.01
21146.310.01
21167.047.01
21170.018.01
21171.105.01
21322.547.01
21325.610.01
22101.001.01
24331.025.01
24331.033.01
24541.000.01
24542.000.01
24543.000.01
24544.000.01
24653.000.01
24670.000.01
24965.000.01
24972.520.01
27306.000.01
27370.040.01
27370.064.01
28031.000.01
28041.000.01
28089.000.01
28090.000.01
28091.000.01
32200.000.02
32201.000.02
44094.100.01
62200.000.02
ORBAN MODEL 9400
DESCRIPTION
1/8W,1%,14.7K,0805
RESISTOR NETWORK 1K
CTS745C 8R BUSSED
RESISTOR NETWORK 4.7K
CTS745C 8R BUSS
RESISTOR NETWORK 8R,
ISO, 5%
CAPACITOR,
X7R,0.1uF,10%,0805
CAPACITOR,
NPO,1000pF,1%,0805
CAPACITOR,
NPO,100pF,1%,0805
CAPACITOR, .01uF,0805,10%
CAPACITOR, 4.7pF 50V X7R
0805
CAPACITOR, 18pF 1% 50V
COG 0805
CAPACITOR, 1uF X7R 0805
CAPACITOR,
4.7uF,TANT,6032B
CAPACITOR, 10uF 10% TANT
6032-B
DIODE,1N4148WT / R
IC VOLTAGE REGULATOR
LT1963-2.5 SOT223
IC VOLTAGE REGULATOR
LT1963-3.3 SOT223
IC SDRAM MT48LC16
TSOP54P
IC FLASH MEMORY E28F128
TSOP56
IC CY2305 0DLYBuF 8P
IC NM93C46 SEEPROM
TSSOP
IC PWRST MIC8114 SOT143
IC 10 / 100BT NIC NATIONAL
IC,74ALVC164245DGG
IC MICROPROCESSOR
ELANSC520 BGA388
CONN RJ45 PCMT W / MAGS
CONN SCKT PC104 40PIN
CONN SCKT PC104 64PIN
HOLDER,BATTERY,LITH CELL
CELL,COIN,BATTERY,LITH,3V
OSC 33MHZ SG636 4P SMD
IC TCXO DS32 KHZ 36P BGA
CRYSTAL 25MHZ RXD MP35L
SMD
CONTROL MODULE
ASSEMBLY DRAWING
PCB CONTROL MODULE 8382
FIRMWARE 8382 U6 20LV8D
SCHEMATIC, CONTROL
COMPONENT, IDENTIFIER
RN1
RN2, RN3, RN4
RN5
C8, C9, C20, C21, C177, C179, C182
C10
C2
C11, 126, 127, 133, 134, 150, 152, 154,
156, 158,160, 162, 180
C1
C3, C4, C5, C6, C7
C14, 17, 125, 132, 151, 153, 155, 157, 159,
161, 175, 176, 178, 181, 183
C12
C13, C15, C16, C18
D1, D2, D3
U14
U15
U2, U3
U4
U11
U12
U5
U10
U7, U8, U9
U1
J1
P2
P1, P3
BT1HLDR
BT1
X1
U13
Y1
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
PART #
TECHNICAL DATA
DESCRIPTION
MODULE 8382
COMPONENT, IDENTIFIER
DESCRIPTION
CAPACITOR, X7R, 0.1uF, 10%,
0805
DIODE, SHOTTKY 1A, 60V,
SMD
IC, MAX208ECNG
CONNECTOR, RIGHT ANGLE,
PC MOUNT, 9-PIN
IC, SOCKET, DIP, 24-PIN,
DUAL
CONNECTOR, SOCKET 2X8
STACKER
INDUCTOR, 3.9UH, JM391K
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
RS-232 Board
PART #
21139.000.01
22209.000.01
24968.000.01
27017.009.01
27147.124.01
27489.016.01
29521.000.01
C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6
D1, D2, (NO STUFF)
U1
J2
SU1
J1
L1
Power Supply
PART #
10012.404.01
15025.000.01
15061.005.01
20020.025.01
21129.410.01
21227.710.01
21227.747.01
21230.710.01
21255.000.01
21256.000.01
21263.710.01
21307.522.01
22004.056.01
22015.000.01
22083.022.01
22083.033.01
22083.068.01
DESCRIPTION
SCREW MS SEM P / P 4-40 X ¼
TRANSISTOR, MOUNTING KIT, TO
220
LED MOUNT, 1 POSITION, 0.240"
HIGH
RESISTOR, ¼W, 0 OHM, (JUMPER)
CAPACITOR, AXIAL LEADS, 0.1uF,
50V, 20%
CAPACITOR, RADIAL LEADS 100uF
16V HFS
CAPACITOR, RADIAL LEADS 470uF
16V HFS
CAPACITOR, RADIAL LEADS 100uF
50V HFS
CAPACITOR, SNAP-IN, 6800uF, 16V,
20%
CAPACITOR, RADIAL LEADS,
1000uF, 35V, 20%
CAPACITOR, RADIAL LEADS, 100uF,
25V, 10%
CAPACITOR, RADIAL LEADS, 2.2uF,
35V, 10%
ZENER-DIODE-1W-5%-5.6V-1N
DIODE-SHOTTKY RECTIFIER-SBL
DIODE, VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR, 22
VOLT
DIODE, VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR, 33
VOLT
DIODE, VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR,
6.8 VOLT
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
HW1, HW2, HW3, HW4, HW5
H1, H2, H3, H4
R1
C6, C10, C11, C12, C15, C19, C20,
C21
C1
C4, C5
C22
C13, C14
C17, C18
C2, C3, C8, C9
C7, C16
CR19, CR20
CR21, CR22, CR23
CR2, CR13, CR14
CR9, CR10
CR4, CR17, CR18
6-17
6-18
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
PART #
DESCRIPTION
22201.400.01
DIODE, RECTIFIER IN4004 PRV400V
22208.040.01
22500.271.01
DIODE, SHOTTKY-31DQ04-3.3
ZENER, TRANSORB, VARISTOR
IC, LINEAR, DC REGULATOR, 15V
NEG
IC, REGULATOR
IC, LINEAR, DC REGULATOR, 5V
POS
IC, LINEAR, DC REGULATOR, 5V
NEG
IC, SIMPLE SWITCH, 0 TO 220
SWITCH, SLIDE, VOLT, 115 / 230
SWITCH, SLIDE, SPDT, VERTICAL
MOUNT
CONNECTOR, VERTICAL HEADER
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW , 23", 2 X 5
CONNECTOR, HEADER, 3-PIN,
SINGLE ROW
HEADER, STR, DOUBLE ROW,
PCMOUNT
HEADER, STR, DOUBLE ROW,
PCMOUNT
HEADER, STR, DOUBLE ROW,
PCMOUNT
CONNECTOR, VERTICAL, HEADER,
6 POS.
TERM, CRIMP, RING, INSULATED,
6R
FUSE, 3AG, SLOBLO, ½ AMP
KNOB-FUSE-DOM-GRY-FOR 281
BODY-FUSEHOLDER-PC MNT
LINE FILTER, PC MOUNT, 1A
INDUCTOR-TORODIAL- 7.7UH
INDUCTOR, PE92108K
HEATBAR POWER SPLY 8382
24303.901.01
24304.901.01
24307.901.01
24308.901.01
24323.000.01
26143.000.01
26146.000.01
27060.000.01
27421.010.01
27426.003.01
27451.003.01
27451.004.01
27451.024.01
27493.000.01
27711.206.01
28004.150.01
28112.003.01
28112.005.01
29262.000.01
29519.000.01
29526.000.01
50286.000.02
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
CR5, CR6, CR7, CR8, CR11, CR12,
CR15, CR16
CR3
V1, V2
U2
U1
U3
U4
U5
SW1
SW2
J1
J7
J6 (OPTIONAL FAN CONNECTOR)
J3
J4
J5
J2
LUG
F1
H7
H6
A1
L2
L1
HS1
Input/Output (I/O) Board: Main Board
PART #
21139.000.01
DESCRIPTION
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 50V, 0.1UF,
SMT
C111, C118, C119, C120, C121,
C123, C124, C125, C126, C127,
C128, C202, C203, C233, C245,
C247, C249, C500, C501, C502,
C519, C600, C601, C602, C604,
C605, C606, C607, C609, C617,
C618, C620, C621, C622, C623,
C625, C632, C633, C634, C635,
C638, C639, C641, C642, C643,
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
PART #
DESCRIPTION
TECHNICAL DATA
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
C644, C648, C651, C657, C658,
C661, C663, C666, C667, C671,
C673
21154.433.01
21137.447.01
20123.100.01
20126.100.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 10%, X7R,
0.33UF, SMT
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 25V, 10%,
0.47UF, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
1.00K
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
1.00M, SMT
C503
C113, C117, C234, C235, C256,
C257
R521, R600, R601, R602, R603
R142, R152, R247, R248, R292,
R295
21318.510.01
CAPACITOR, P, 35V, 10%, 1UF
C200, C201, C232, C244, C246,
C248, C515, C516, C521
22101.001.01
DIODE, 1N4148W, SMT
CR101, CR102, CR106, CR107
29522.000.01
INDUCTOR, 1.2mH, 5%, IM-10-22
L204, L205, L206, L207, L208, L210,
L212, L214
20123.150.01
20041.154.01
20130.162.01
20130.210.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
1.50K, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
1.54K
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
1.62K, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
2.10K, SMT
R131, R134, R140, R141, R144,
R146
R159, R160, R161, R162
R132, R153, R156, R157, R502
R112, R127
20130.348.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
3.48K, SMT
R204, R210, R217, R220, R245,
R246, R279, R280, R281, R282,
R288, R290
20151.365.01
RESISTOR, 3.65K, 0.1%, SMT
R130, R133, R135, R136, R143,
R145, R147, R148
20123.499.01
20130.562.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
4.99K, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
5.62K, SMT
R101, R103, R105, R108, R116,
R118, R121, R124
R113, R128
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
8.45K, SMT
R201, R202, R205, R207, R208,
R211, R212, R214, R215, R218,
R267, R268, R270, R271, R273,
R274, R276, R277, R283, R285
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
10K, SMT
R237
20124.100.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
10.0K, SMT, RESISTOR, METAL
FILM, 1/8W, 1%, 10K, SMT
R102, R109, R110, R117, R122,
R125, R251, R252, R265, R293,
R296, R519, R527, R531
20124.100.01
(1206)
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
10.0K, SMT
R532, R533
20511.310.01
POT, TRIM, 10K
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
10OHM, SMT
VR200, VR201, VR202, VR203
CAPACITOR, P, 20V, 10%, 10UF
C520
20130.845.01
20121.100.01
21319.610.01
(6032)
R154, R200, R266
6-19
6-20
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
PART #
DESCRIPTION
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
21319.610.01
CAPACITOR, P, 20V, 10%, 10UF
C112, C122, C129, C130, C131,
C645, C646, C647
20131.113.01
20131.147.01
21144.000.01
20131.499.01
20039.499.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
11.3K, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
14.7K, SMT
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 100V, 47PF,
5%, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
49.9K, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
49.9OHM
R206, R219, R233, R234, R284,
R286, R287, R289
R114, R129
C101, C103, C105, C107, C108,
C114, C136, C231
R501, R520, R524
R253, R254, R255, R256, R297,
R298, R303, R304
24938.000.01
IC, SINGLE 2-INPUT, 74AHC1G32,
SMT
IC508
24992.000.01
IC, OCTAL BUFFER/LINE DRIVER,
74AHCT244
IC601, IC605
24900.000.01
IC, HEX INVERTER, 74HC14A, SMT
IC603
24858.000.01
24951.000.01
IC, DUAL, FLIP-FLOP, 74HC74, SMT
IC, 74HC151, SMT
IC, OCTAL, D-TYPE, F-F, 74HC374,
SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
75.0OHM
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
82.5K, SMT
IC604
IC507, IC511
24857.000.01
20121.750.01
20131.825.01
20040.100.01
20122.110.01
20129.150.01
20129.249.01
21140.000.01
20040.475.01
20040.604.01
20040.715.01
20129.768.01
21141.000.01
RESISTOR, 1/8W, 1%, 100 OHM,
IC108, IC510
R158, R530, R604, R605, R606
R104, R123, R203, R209, R213,
R216, R269, R272, R275, R278
R257, R258, R259, R260, R299,
R302, R305, R308
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
110OHM, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
150OHM, SMT
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
249OHM, SMT
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, NPO, 0805,
1%, 50V, 470PF, SMT
R238, R249, R250, R291, R294,
R500
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
475OHM
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
604OHM,
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
715OHM
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
768OHM, SMT
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, NPO, 0805,
1%, 50V, 1000PF, SMT
R261, R262, R263, R264, R300,
R301, R306, R307
R138, R151
R137, R139, R149, R150, R155
C217, C218, C219, C220, C250,
C251, C253, C255
R100, R107, R115, R120
R106, R119
R111, R126
C517, C652, C653, C654, C655
21127.210.01
CAPACITOR, AXL, 5%, 100V, 1000PF
C236, C237, C238, C239, C258,
C259, C262, C263
21143.000.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, NPO, 0805,
1%, 50V, 1500PF, SMT
C221, C222, C252, C254
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
PART #
DESCRIPTION
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
21112.215.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, DISC, 10%,
1KV, 1500PF
C240, C241, C242, C243, C260,
C261, C264, C265
21112.230.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, DISC, 10%,
1KV, 3000PF
C100, C102, C104, C106
21138.247.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 50V,
4700PF, NPO, SMT
C109, C110, C115, C116, C518,
C522
22102.001.01
DIODE, HOT CARRIER, 5082-2800
CR500
21112.282.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC DISC, 10%,
1KV, 8200PF
C132, C133, C134, C135
29534.000.01
24753.000.01
24728.302.01
24997.000.01
24963.000.01
24673.000.011
24958.000.01
(PA)
27054.003.01
29506.001.01
29508.210.01
27406.014.01
27451.004.01
27451.005.01
24335.000.01
27053.003.01
IND, 8200uH, 10%, 8250-822K
IC, SAMPLE RATE CONVERTER, 192
KHZ, AD1895AYRS, RS-28, SMT
IC, QUAD SPST SWITCH, ADG222,
DIP16
L101, L103, L105, L107
IC512
IC101, IC103
IC, DAC, AK4393VF, SMT
IC, AK5383, A-D CONVERTER, SMT
IC, DIGITAL AUDIO INTERFACE
RECEIVER, SMT
IC211, IC215
IC107
IC, DRV134PA, 8-PIN DIP
IC213, IC214, IC219, IC220
CONNECTOR, RT, PC, FEMALE, XLR
FERRITE BEAD ON WIRE
J100, J103, J500
L500, L501
FILTER, EMI, 50V, 1000PF
L100, L102, L104, L106, L200, L201,
L202, L203, L209, L211, L213, L215
IC500
HEADER, 10X2, SHOUDED
IDC HEADER, 2X13, SHROUDED
IC, VREG, LT1761ES5-3.3, SMT
CONNECTOR, RT, PC, MALE, XLR
JP600
J601
J505, J600
IC514
J201, J202, J203, J204
24024.000.01
(PA)
IC, OPAMP, DUAL, AUDIO, OPA2134
IC100, IC102
24960.000.01
(UA)
IC, OPAMP, DUAL, AUDIO, OPA2134
IC212, IC218
24960.000.01
(UA)
IC, OPAMP, DUAL, AUDIO, OPA2134
IC104, IC105, IC106, IC201, IC202,
IC216, IC217
24970.000.01
IC, PIC16C67-20/L, SMT, JLCCC44
IC503
29015.000.01
27630.001.01
XFMR, SC937-02, SMT
JUMPER, TEST POINT
T500
TP600, TP607
22106.000.01
TRANSZORB, SMCJ26C, DO-214AB,
SMT
CR100, CR103, CR104, CR105,
CR202, CR203, CR204, CR205,
CR206, CR207, CR208, CR209
27174.044.01
SOCKET-44P
IC503
27408.003.01
CONNECTOR, 3P, SOCKET, STRIP
L100, L102, L104, L106, L200, L201,
L202, L203, L209, L211, L213, L215
6-21
6-22
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
PART #
DESCRIPTION
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
27147.008.01
DIP-8P, SOCKET
IC100, IC102, IC213, IC214, IC219,
IC220
27147.016.01
32261.000.01
DIP-16P, SOCKET
CIRCUIT BOARD
IC101, IC103
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
Input/Output (I/O) Board: Daughter Board
PART #
DESCRIPTION
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
21139.000.01
(0805)
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 50V, 0.1UF,
SMT
C2, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11,
C12
21318.510.01
(1206)
CAPACITOR, P, 35V, 10%, 1UF
C4
21319.610.01
CAPACITOR, P, TANTALUM, 25V,
10UF, SMT
C3
20131.499.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
49.9K, SMT
R3, R4, R5, R6
24634.000.01
IC, OCTAL, 74HC241A, SMT
IC4
20129.110.01
RESISTOR, METAL FILM, 1/8W, 1%,
110OHM, SMT
R1, R2
21138.247.01
CAPACITOR, CERAMIC, 50V,
4700PF, NPO, SMT
C1
24753.000.01
IC, SAMPLE RATE CONVERTER, 192
KHZ, AD1895AYRS, RS-28, SMT
IC5, IC6
42007.040
CABLE, FLAT, SUBASSEMBLY, 26P,
4"
JP1
24672.000.011
IC, DIGITAL AUDIO INTERFACE
TRANSMITTER, SMT
IC2, IC3
29506.001.01
FERRITE BEAD ON WIRE
L1, L2, L3, L4
24335.000.01
IC, LOW NOISE REGULATOR,
100mA, 3.3V, SMT
IC1
29015.000.01
XFMR, SC937-02, SMT
T1, T2
27053.003.01
CONNECTOR, RT, PC, MALE, XLR
J1, J2
DSP Board
PART #
16021.000.01
DESCRIPTION
HEATSINK-VERTICAL MOUNT,
BLACK ANODIZED
20128.075.01
RESISTOR, 75OHM, 1%, 0805
20131.100.01
RESISTOR, 10K, 0805
20132.100.01
RESISTOR, 100K, 0805
20221.101.01
21137.282.01
RESISTOR, NET, SIP, 2%, 100K,
10PIN
CAPACITOR, 8200PF, +-15%, 1206,
50V
21137.447.01
CAPACITOR .47UF 25V 10% 1206
21139.000.01
CAPACITOR, X7R, 0.1UF, 10%, 0805
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
HS703, USE, COMPND
R505, R506, R508, R604, R605,
R606, R607, R608, R609, R610,
R611, R612, R613, R806, R807,
R808, R809, R810, R811
R301, R302, R303, R304, R305,
R306, R307, R308, R507, R510,
R801, R802, R803, R804, R805
R101, R102, R103, R104, R502,
R503, R504, R509, R601, R602,
R603
RN501
C101, C103, C105, C107, C109,
C111, C113, C115
C102, C104, C106, C108, C110,
C112, C114, C116
C600, C701, C702, C703, C704,
6-23
6-24
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
PART #
DESCRIPTION
21141.000.01
CAPACITOR, NPO, 1000PF, 1%, 0805
CAPACITOR RADIAL LEADS 470UF
16V HFS
CAPACITOR RADIAL LEADS 100UF
50V HFS
CAPACITOR TANTALUM SMT 0.22uf
20%
CAPACITOR, 10uf, TANTALUM, SMT
DIODE, VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR, 33
VLT
DIODE, VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR,
6.8 VLT
DIODE-SCHOTTKY-31DQ04-3.3
IC CY2305 0DLYBUF 8P
IC 74HC374 DLATCH SOL20
IC, EPM 7064AETC44-10, SMT
IC 74AHC541 OCTLBUF SOL20
IC-8 BIT-DUAL TRANSVR W/3
IC 74LVC2244 OCTLBUFSOL20
IC, SMT, PLL1700, SSOP/20
IC, LM2576T-3.3 FLOW LB03
IC, EPM7256AE24995TC100-10
IC, 74ACT04, SOIC 14P
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW, 2P, 2 X 1
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW, 23", 2 X 5
HEADER, STR, DOUBLE ROW, PC
MOUNT
CONNECTOR, DOUBLE ROW, PC
MOUNT, 40 PIN
JUMPER, PC MNT, TEST POINT
OSCILLATOR-XTAL CLOCK-27MHZ 3
VOLT
INDUCTOR-2A-PE53113
CHOKE-SHIELDED-1670-1; 25
CONNECTOR, JUMPER, RECPT,
BLACK
CONNECTOR, HEADER, DOUBLE
ROW, 4P, 2 X 2
21227.747.01
21230.710.01
21309.622.01
21319.610.01
22083.033.01
22083.068.01
22208.040.01
24543.000.01
24857.000.01
24944.000.01
24945.000.01
24946.000.01
24948.000.01
24955.000.01
24964.000.01
24993.000.01
24994.000.01
27421.002.01
27421.010.01
27451.003.01
27451.007.01
27630.001.01
28083.000.01
29504.150.01
29512.000.01
27401.000.01
27421.004.01
24991.120.01.1
IC, DSPB56362AG120
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
C705, C706, C707, C708, C709,
C710, C711, C712, C713, C714,
C715, C716, C718, C719, C720,
C723, C724, C725, C726, C727,
C728, C729, C732, C733, C734,
C739, C740, C741, C742, C743,
C744, C749, C751, C752753, C754,
C755, C756, C757, C758, C759,
C760, C761, C762, C775, C802,
C803, C805, C806, C808, C809
C601, C771, C772, C773, C774
C777, C778
C776
C736
C801, 804, 807
CR702
CR700
CR703
IC604
IC504
IC503
IC501
IC502
IC601, 602
IC801, 802
IC703
IC603
IC807
J500, J616, (ALL, OTHERS)
J603
J701
J504
TP702, TP703
IC804
L700
L701
J615, 1-2
J615
IC101, IC102, IC103, IC104, IC105,
IC106, IC107, IC108
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
Display Board
PART #
42007.080
15062.390.01
20122.110.01
20124.100.01
20125.100.01
20226.000.01
21131.410.01
21313.568.01
24851.000.01
24857.000.01
24900.000.01
24905.000.01
24908.000.01
25106.001.01
25119.003.01
25167.000.01
25168.000.01
27216.012.01
27421.004.01
DESCRIPTION
SUBASSEMBLY, FLAT CABLE26P- 8"
LED SPACER, 390 HIGH
RESISTOR, TF, 1/8W, 1%, 110
OHM
RESISTOR, TF, 1/8W, 1%,
SURFACE-MOUNT 10K
RESISTOR, TF, 1/8W, 1%, 100K
RESISTOR, NETWORK, DIL,
2%, 100 OHM
CAPACITOR, SURFACE
MOUNT, 1206, 0.1uF, 50V, 20%
CAPACITOR, TANTALUM,
6.8uF, 25V, 10%
IC, SOL20, SURFACE-MOUNT
IC 74HC374 DLATCH, SOL20
IC, HEX INVERTER, SURFACEMOUNT
IC, CMOS OCTAL D REG. 3 ST
IC, OCTAL, D TYP, FLIP / FLOP
LED, YELLOW, T-1, HIGHEFFICIENCY LAMP
LED, T-3 FLAT TP FLNGL, RED
LED, ARRAY, 10 -POSITION, 1
RED, 1 YEL, 8 GRN
LED, ARRAY, 10 -POSITION, 9
YEL, 1 RED
CBL FLEXSTRIP 4P 12"
CONNECTOR, HEADER,
DOUBLE ROW , 4P, 2 X 2
COMPONENT IDENTIFIER
R17-R24
R29, R30
R25, R26, R27, R28
C2-C10
C1
IC8
IC3
IC7
IC4, IC5, IC6, IC9
IC1, IC2
CR11, CR12, CR13, CR14, CR15
CR7, CR16
CR1, CR2, CR3, CR4, CR5, CR6, CR8, CR9
J1
6-25
6-26
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Schematics and Parts Locator Drawings
These drawings reflect the actual construction of your unit as accurately as possible.
Any differences between the drawings and your unit are probably due to product
improvements or production changes since the publication of this manual.
If you intend to replace parts, please read page 6-13. Please note that because surface-mount parts are used extensively in the 8382, few parts are field-replaceable.
Servicing ordinarily occurs by swapping circuit board assemblies. However, many
vulnerable parts connected to the outside world are socketed and can be readily replaced in the field.
Function
Chassis
Base Board
CPU Module
RS-232 Board
Power Supply
I/O Board
Description
Drawing
Page
Circuit Board Locator and Basic Interconnections
Glue logic; supports CPU module
and RS-232 daughterboard.
Contains:
System Connections
CPU module interface
Power Supply Monitor
CPLD, General Purpose Interface,
and Remotes
Control microprocessor. Services
front panel, serial port, Ethernet,
DSP board, and control board. Resides on base board.
Contains:
Ethernet
General Purpose Bus
Memory
Miscellaneous Functions
Power and Ground Distribution
Supports Serial Port
Top view
(not to scale)
Parts Locator
Drawing
6-29
±15V analog supply; ±5V analog
supply; +5V digital supply
Analog Input/Output
AES3 Input/Output
Composite Output
SCA Input.
Contains:
L and R Analog Inputs
L and R Analog Outputs
6-30
Schematic 1 of 4
Schematic 2 of 4
Schematic 3 of 4
Schematic 4 of 4
6-31
6-32
6-33
6-34
Parts Locator
Drawing
6-35
Schematic 1 of 5
Schematic 2 of 5
Schematic 3 of 5
Schematic 4 of 5
Schematic 5 of 5
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
Parts Locator
Drawing
6-36
6-37
6-38
6-39
6-40
6-41
Schematic 1 of 5
Schematic 2 of 5
6-46
6-47
6-42
6-43
6-44
6-45
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
Function
TECHNICAL DATA
Description
Control and Digital I/O
Interface and Power Distribution
I/O Daughter
Board
DSP Board
Display Board
DSP Block
Diagram
Monitor
Rolloff Filter
Digital Outputs 1 and 2
DSP Chips; Local +3.3V regulator.
Contains:
DSP Extended Serial Audio Interface (ESAI)
DSP Host Interface
DSP Serial Peripheral Interface,
Power, and Ground
ISA Bus 8-bit I/O
Serial Audio Interface and Clock
Generation
Power Distribution
No-Connects
Front-Panel LCD, LEDs, Buttons,
and Rotary Encoder
Drawing
Page
Schematic 4 of 5
Schematic 5 of 5
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 7
6-48
6-49
6-50
6-53
Schematic 2 of 7
Schematic 3 of 7
6-54
6-55
Schematic 4 of 7
Schematic 5 of 7
6-56
6-57
Schematic 6 of 7
Schematic 7 of 7
Parts Locator
Drawing
Schematic 1 of 1
6-58
6-59
6-60
Schematic 1 of 1
2-7
Shows signal processing
Accessory packaged with 9400
6-51
6-52
6-61
6-62
6-27
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
6-29
6-30
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Base Board Parts Locator Drawing
(for schematic 62165.000.06)
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
+5VD
SD(0..15)
FROM POWER SUPPLY
U5
3 A2
2 A1
B2 17
B1 18
Gnd
10
1-4B
1
24.576MHz
TO I/O BOARD
10
11
+5VD
RSTDRV
74HC14D
RSTDRV
/SPI_CS
SSI_DI
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
/DACK1
DRQ1
JP7
2-1B, 1-5D
2-1B
1-2C
1-4C
1-2C
1-5D
1-5D
SD7
SD6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
2
1-4B, 2-1B
U13e
/_IO_RESET
1
SD4
SD5
SD3
SD0
R14
100K
R86
100K
SD1
R13
100K
R87
100K
SD2
R12
100K
R88
100K
SD3
R11
100K
R89
100K
SD4
R10
100K
R90
100K
SD5
R9
100K
R91
100K
SD6
R8
100K
R92
100K
SD7
R7
100K
R93
100K
DIRTY_GND
+5vA
DGND
TV6
—5vA
-15V
TV7
TV5
AGND
FP_D3
(Monitor)
2
16013.000.01
Q2
FP_D5
1
TIP120
FP_D6
3
Heatsink
FP_D7
3
R26
1
10.0 K
FP_D(0..7)
+RAW
Q1
K
A
2
MMBT3904
C42
1
2
DIRTY_GND
1
Note: C42 is not populated
in standard build.
1-5D
/GPIOWR
/GPIORD
LED_PULSE
DSP3.3VB
SA8
SA6
4-8B
FPLED2
4-8B
DISPLAY
Reserved
R20 100K
FP_D1
FP_D0
FP_ROW-COL
+5vD
R5
Q5
MMBT3904
2-5A
BKLITE_ON
2-5A
MISC_OUT4
2-5A
MISC_OUT5
R16
R15
10.0K
10.0K
2
3
Key
1
DIRTY_GND
2
3
4
10.0K
TV26
J3B
J14
R6
1
1
+RAW
10.0K
TV25
4
Key
4
1
3
2
1
2
0.1uF
1
C24
2
4.7uF
1
+5VD
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011121314151617181920212223242526
ENCODER
(optional)
+RAW
Key
Key
2
4
6
1
3
5
3
1
R17
10.0K
2
Key Key
2 4
C23
+RAW
10uF
DGND
2
C22
1
10uF
4.7uF
2
C19
C20
C21
0.1uF
2
1
2
J6
+5vD
1
2-8D
Note: J6 is not populated
in standard build.
+5VD
TO DSP BOARD
2-8D
ENC2
/FPROW_A
/FPROW_B
/FPROW_C
/FPROW_D
DIRTY_GND
2-1A, 1-5A
2-1D
ENC1
/FPCOL_A
/FPCOL_B
SA0
SA(0..25)
2-1D
N/C
SA1
SA2
SA0
+5VD
2-1D
/ENCODER
FP_D4
FP_D3
FP_D2
FP_D5
FP_D6
FP_D7
/GPIOWR
2-1D
/LED
FP_D6
FP_D5
FP_D2
FP_D3
FP_D4
CONTRAST
SA7
SA4
SA5
SA3
FP_D7
FP_D0
FP_D1
FPLED1
SA9
2
DIRTY_GND
2-1A, 1-5D
DSP3.3VA
4-8C
4-8C
4-8D
4-8D
(Monitor)
BACKLIGHT
FP_D4
10uF
1-5D
(Monitor)
FP_D2
BACKLIGHT
/SMEMRD
(Monitor)
Minus5VA
Minus15V
Plus15V
FP_D1
SD2
SD1
SD0
/SMEMWR
Plus5VA
FP_D0
SD(0..15)
GPAEN
+15V
TV4
0.1uF
36.864MHz
2
B4 15
B3 16
R4
TV15
3
5 A4
4 A3
+RAW
2.00K
4
1-4B, 2-1B
FP_D0
FP_D1
FP_D2
FP_D3
FP_D4
FP_D5
FP_D6
FP_D7
C9
18.432MHz
5
B6 13
B5 14
D1
6
B8 11
B7 12
7 A6
6 A5
1N4148
7
9 A8
8 A7
+5vD
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
2Ω
2-1A
20
R25
2-1B, 1-4B
DISPLAY
CONTRAST
Vcc
/OE
2Ω
AUX_COMM
SD0
SD1
SD2
SD3
SD4
SD5
SD6
SD7
FPLED2
4-2B
2-1D
9
8
FPLED1
4-2B
/CTS2
10
19
TV14
R24
/RTS2
11
1 DIR
/FP_BUSEN
TV13
2Ω
12
TV12
R23
SOUT2
TV11
2Ω
SIN2
13
TV8
J1
C43
14
TV9
+5VD
74ACT245DW
/GPIOWR
/GPIORD
2-1A, 1-5D
2-1A, 1-5D
2-1B
+RAW
R22
JP8
0.1uF
2-1A, 1-5A
6-31
5
TO 8500 SERIES
LCD BACKLIGHT
DRIVER
TO 8300 SERIES
LCD BACKLIGHT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14
3
J3A
TO SUPPLY
MONITOR LED
J4
J2
LCD DATA
TO FRONT PANEL ASSEMBLY
DISPLAY LOGIC
J5
POWER
Base Board Schematic:
System Connections
(version 62165.000.06)
Sheet 1 of 4
6-32
/MEMCS16
/MEMWR
2-1B
/SMEMWR
/SMEMRD
3-7C
3-7C
/SBHE
/GPIOCS
/GPIOCS16
TV66
2-1B
2-1B
/GPIOWR
/GPIORD
RSTDRV
GPRDY
GPAEN
GPTC
GPALE
A1a
SA18
SA17
/DACK0
DRQ0
/DACK5
SD8
SD9
SD10
SD11
SD12
SD13
SD14
SD15
DRQ5
/DACK6
DRQ6
/DACK7
DRQ7
2
1
2
F3
JTAG_TDO
JTAG_TDO
JTAG_TMS
E4
F4
JTAG_/TRST
JTAG_TMS
JTAG_TDI
E5
F5
JTAG_TCK
E6
F6
E7
F7
/RING2
E8
F8
/RTS2
/DCD2
E9
F9
SIN2
TV88
/DTR2
TV74
JTAG_BR/TC
/DSR2
E10
F10
SOUT2
E11
F11
/DTR1
SA18
/RI1
E12
F12
/RTS1
SA17
/DCD1
E13
F13
SIN1
/DSR1
E14
F14
SOUT1
/CTS1
E15
F15
CPU_+3.3V
E16
F16
SSI_DI
SSI_CLK
E17
F17
SSI_DO
CPU_+2.5V
E18
F18
E19
F19
Rsvd_1
TV71
E20
F20
Rsvd_0
TV70
E21
F21
18.432MHz
E22
F22
36.864MHz
E23
F23
/GPCS1
TV2
SA15
SA14
4-8B
SA13
3-7C
SA12
4-8B
SA11
TV3
SA10
TV72
Rsvd_2
SA9
3-7D, 2-1B
SA8
SA7
3-7D
SA6
3-7D, 2-1B
24.576MHz
TV73
SA5
TV82
SA4
2
JTAG_TCK
/CTS2
SA16
1
JTAG_TDI
SA19
TV77
A11
B11
A12
B12
A13
B13
A14
B14
A15
B15 N/C
A16
B16 N/C
A17
B17
A18
B18
A19
B19
A20
B20 N/C
A21
B21
A22
B22
A23
B23
A24
B24
A25
B25
A26
B26 N/C
A27
B27
A28
B28
A29
B29
A30
B30
A31
B31
A32
B32
SA3
TV80
SA2
TV81
SA1
TV83
SA0
TV84
GPIRQ9
1
F2
E3
GPIRQ7
AUX_COMM
2-1B, 3-7D
GPIRQ6
GPIRQ5
AUX_PATCH
2-1B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
(Reserved) N/C 13
14
15
16
CPU Module JTAG Port
3-7C
3-7C
============= "Accomodation Provisions" ===========
Default
Default
+5VD
TV30
GPIRQ15
TV41
TV60
TV31
GPIRQ14
TV42
TV61
TV32
GPIRQ12
TV43
TV33
GPIRQ11
TV44
Patch 4
TV52
/DACK0
TV34
GPIRQ10
TV45
Patch 3
TV53
DRQ0
TV35
GPIRQ9
TV46
TV54
/DACK5
TV36
GPIRQ7
TV47
TV55
DRQ5
/DACK6
E24
F24
/GPCS2
Rsvd_3
E25
F25
/GPCS3
CLK_TIME/TEST
E26
F26
/GPCS4
Rsvd_6
E27
F27
/GPCS5
Rsvd_7
E28
F28
/GPCS6
IDE_DREQ
E29
F29
/GPCS7
IDE_/DACK
E30
F30
PATCH1
TV37
GPIRQ4
GPIRQ6
TV48
TV56
E31
F31
PATCH2
TV38
GPIRQ3
GPIRQ5
TV49
TV57
E32
F32
PATCH3
TV39
GPIRQ10
GPIRQ4
TV50
Patch 1
TV58
/DACK7
PATCH4
TV40
GPIRQ11
GPIRQ3
TV51
Patch 2
TV59
DRQ7
TV62
DRQ6
TV63
TV64
TV65
GPIRQ4
GPIRQ3
+5VD
GPIRQ(3..15)
1
SA(0..25)
SD(0..15)
2-1A, 3-7B
2
1
2
1
10uF
SA19
TV76
J13
JTAG_/TRST
E2
SD1
TV75
TV87
JTAG_BR/TC
SD2
SD0
TV86
JTAG_CMD/ACK
F
JTAG_TRIG
SD3
N/C
TV85
F1
SD4
N/C
JTAG_TRIG
JTAG_STOP/TX
E1
SD5
C4
SA20
E
3-7C
3-7C
4.7uF
SA21
A1b
C5
SA22
Ground
Ground
/MCS16
/SBHE
/IO16
LA23
IRQ10
LA22
IRQ11
LA21
IRQ12
LA20
IRQ15
LA19
IRQ14
LA18
/DACK0
LA17
DRQ0
/MEMRD
/DACK5
/MEMWR
DRQ5
SD8
/DACK6
SD9
DRQ6
SD10
/DACK7
SD11
DRQ7
SD12
+5V.
SD13
/MASTER16
SD14
Ground
SD15
Ground
(Key)
2-1A, 3-7C
TV68
TV69
C6
SA23
D0
C0
D1
C1
D2
C2
D3
C3
D4
C4
D5
C5
D6
C6
D7
C7
D8
C8
D9
C9
D10
C10
D11
C11
D12
C12
D13
C13
D14
C14
D15
C15
D16
C16
D17
C17
D18
C18
D19
3-7C, 2-1B
TV67
0.1uF
GPIRQ14
3-6D, 2-1A
SD6
10uF
D C
3-6D, 2-1A
SD7
C1
GPIRQ15
A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
B3
A4
B4
A5
B5
A6
B6
A7
B7
A8
B8
A9
B9
A10
4.7uF
GPIRQ12
/CHCHK
Ground
SD7
RESDRV
SD6
+5v.
SD5
IRQ9
SD4
-5v.
SD3
DRQ2
SD2
-12v.
SD1
/ENDXFR
SD0
+12v.
CHRDY
(Key)
AEN
/SMWTC
SA19
/SMRDC
SA18
/IOWC
SA17
/IORC
SA16
/DACK3
SA15
DRQ3
SA14
/DACK1
SA13
DRQ1
SA12
/REFRESH
SA11
CLK
SA10
IRQ7
SA9
IRQ6
SA8
IRQ5
SA7
IRQ4
SA6
IRQ3
SA5
/DACK2
SA4
TC
SA3
BALE
SA2
+5v.
SA1
OSC
SA0
Ground
Ground
Ground
C2
GPIRQ11
/DACK1
DRQ1
B
C3
GPIRQ10
A
0.1uF
PC-104 Pinouts
ORBAN MODEL 9400
2-1B
2-1B
/MEMRD
+5VD
TECHNICAL DATA
2
3-6D, 2-1A
Base Board Schematic:
CPU Module Interface
(version 62165.000.06)
Sheet 2 of 4
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
6-33
+15V
+RAW
R62
1
10.0K
75.0 Ω
2
K
1
2
A
3
A
Plus15V
1N4148
10uF
1
D11
2
K
R84
3
C39
1
2
DELAY
GND
10uF
2
C36
1
0.1uF
10%
D15
/ERROR
75.0 Ω
D9
K
1
2
1
D10
K
75.0 Ω
A
+RAW
1N4148
2
C15
14.0K
R61
C38
10.0K
R67
R64
Minus15V
/SHUTDOWN
332K
D12
A
8
10uF
7
Vcc_PSM
10.0K
SENSE
R83
R82
4
INPUT
C14
R60
Plus15V
6
OUTPUT
10uF
R78
LP2987IM-5.0
1
N.C.
C37
5
0.1uF
U20
2.00K
2
D13
DGND
BAT54C
U19
TV29
1
1
3
TV28
2
BAT54C
4
R68
10.0K
10.0K
10.0K
TV27
5
TV1
2
R71
30.1K
12
R102
10.0K
R69
R72
D14
10.0K
VDD
A
X1
B
X2
C
11
10
9
PMA0
PMA1
PMA2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X
3
8
7
6
C41
2
1
16
1
RB0/INT
2
RB1
15
17
100K
TV24
R85
R75
100K
+RAW
2
R66
10.0K
2.49K
1
R65
MCLR
4
R79
DGND
3
10.0K
RB6
RA3/AN3
RB7
MCLR
RA4/T0CK1
VSS
Vcc_PSM
5
C35
1
2
0.1uF
10%
PWRFAIL
9
10
2-8D
ERROR
11
2-8D
12
13
3
J11
SOCKET
Vcc_PSM
18-PIN
DIP
DEBUG
1
2
3LCD DEBUG/TEST
SU18
Vcc_PSM
D17
1
2
R81
RB5
RA2/AN2/VREF
8
PMA0
PMA1
PMA2
R77
3
CPU_+2.5V
RA1
7
301 Ω
R80
10.0K
RB4
6
BAT54C
R74
10.0K
CPU_+3.3V
DGND
1.00K
D16
1
2
DSP3.3VB
RA0/AN0
14
R73
10.0K
RB2
VDD
10.0K
DSP3.3VA
OSC2/OUT
RB3
18
+5vD
PIC16C711/P
OSC1
22pF
DGND
R76
+RAW
1
22pF
(A SMALL PATCH OF GROUND)
+5VD
U18
C40
2
X7
INH
14
15
10.0K
Minus5VA
BAT54C
R70
VEE
R63
Plus5VA
16 74HC4051M
X0
VSS
13
X1
3
2
4.000 MHz
1
FPLED1
3-6D
FPLED2
3-6D
BAT54C
Base Board Schematic:
Power Supply Monitor
(version 62165.000.06)
Sheet 3 of 4
6-34
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
FP_ROW-COL
3-1B
DISPLAY
+5VD
R104
10.0K
/GPIORD
1
/AUX_BUSEN
6
74HC14D
TV78
74HC14D
U13d
2
7
7
ENC2
TV79
U13f
9
13
8
74HC14D
74HC14D
16-PIN
DIP
U11a
U10 a
1
16
2
D8
D7
R48
1
PS2506-4
604 Ω
2
2
4
+5VD
74HC14D
R27
15
1 A.
R28
604 Ω
4
R49
11
3
13
74HC14D
15
17
4
TV18
1
R29
R30
Chas
604 Ω
TV10
12
6
3.9uH
R50
1
5
R44
15
604 Ω
U10 d
7
R51
2
9
4
8
8
74HC14D
R32
PS2506-4
604 Ω
11
13
100K
15
R33 604 Ω
U11e
U12 a
1
6
16
11
17
1
2
20
R52
2Y2
2A3
2Y3
2A4
2Y4
1G
VCC
74HC14D
15
5
SD5
SD6
3
SD7
7
8
1A1
10
1
2
1Y2
1A3
1Y3
1A4
1Y4
2A1
2Y1
2A2
2Y2
2A3
2Y3
2A4
2Y4
1G
VCC
2
SD0
SD1
16
SD2
SD3
SD4
14
12
9
SD5
SD6
SD7
7
5
3
20
1
10
GND
2G
74ACT244DW
100K
2
U11f
U12 b
3
14
13
12
/REMOTE_IN
10
4
23
11
R53
74HC14D
R36
13
PS2506-4
604 Ω
100K
24
12
604 Ω
13
R54
R55
R45
11
1
PS2506-4
604 Ω
10
8
9
3
A
10.0 Ω
3
D4
A
K
3
1N4148
2
5
6
9
12
15
16
19
K
1N4148
R43
20
100K
D3
10.0 Ω
K
A
Q4
MMBT3904
K
Q3
1
R41
2
B4
15
A3
B3
16
3
A2
B2
17
2
A1
B1
18
C7
0.1uF
1
2
10
Vcc
QO
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Gnd
R3
100K
1
2
OE
CP
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
16
SA1
SA2
94
SA3
12
SA4
SA5
SA6
10
SA7
SA8
SA9
6
96
9
8
13
14
SA10
SA11
SA12
17
SA13
SA14
SA15
21
SA16
SA17
SA18
29
SA19
SA20
32
SA21
SA22
SA23
35
SA24
SA25
93
19
20
23
25
30
31
33
36
37
92
7
14.0K
TV21
1
1
2
3
4
TMS
5
6
7
8
9
10
NC
TDI
100K
NC
NC
JTAG Port
RSTDRV
18.432MHz
1
2
1
2
1
2
G G G G G G G G G G G V V
n n n n n n n n n n n c c
d d d d d d d d d d d c c
I I
N N
N/C
T T
N/C
(RESERVED)
SA1
SA2
SA3
SA4
SA5
SA6
SA7
SA8
SA9
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
N/C
N/C
V
c
c
I
/
O
V
c
c
I
/
O
V
c
c
I
/
O
V
c
c
I
/
O
V
c
c
I
/
O
P/N: 24983.000.01
Altera EPM 7064 STC 100-10
G
P
N N N N A
/ / / / E
C C C C N
#
G
P
I
O
R
D
#
G
P
I
O
W
R
AUX_D7
AUX_D6
AUX_D5
AUX_D4
AUX_D3
AUX_D2
AUX_D1
AUX_D0
B
K
#
L
M
I
I
M T
S
H E
C
z
N N
1 O / / I
8 N C C N
#
R
E
M
O
T
E
I
N
V
c
c
I
/
O
62 73 15 4
#
T
C
K
#
T
D
O
#
T
M
S
U1
#
T
D
I
DISPLAY
#LED
#ENCODER
LED_PULSE
#FPCOL_A
#FPCOL_B
#FPROW_A
#FPROW_B
#FPROW_C
#FPROW_D
#FP_BUSEN
#AUX_BUSEN
(RESERVED)
#AUX0
#AUX1
#AUX2
#AUX3
#SPI_CS
#USB_CS
57
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
(RESERVED)
63
#
M
I
S
C
O N N N N N N
U / / / / / /
T C C C C C C
87 97 49 50 61 44 60 53 55 70 72 77 78
58
48
84
DISPLAY
/LED
/FPCOL_A
/FPCOL_B
54
47
52
/AUX_0
/AUX_1
/AUX_2
/AUX_3
/ENCODER
LED_PULSE
46
45
PATCH1
PATCH2
PATCH3
PATCH4
/FPROW_A
/FPROW_B
/FPROW_C
79
/FPROW_D
/FP_BUSEN
76
/AUX_BUSEN
56
SA2
SA1
SA0
/USB_CS
/GPIOWR
/GPIORD
80
C18
/AUX_0
/AUX_1
65
71
2
42
41
/SPI_CS
40
/USB_CS
C17
2
67
RSTDRV
/GPIOCS
69
/MEMCS
/GPIOCS16
75
/MEMCS16
81
83
/MEMRD
/MEMWR
85
24.576MHz
68
AUX_COMM
AUX_PATCH
1-4B, 3-7D
1-4B
RSTDRV
/FP_BUSEN
3-7C, 1-5D
3-6D
/SPI_CS
3-7C
/GPIOCS
/MEMCS
/GPIOCS16
/MEMCS16
/MEMRD
/GPIORD
GPAEN
CONTRAST
SA(0..25)
SD(0..15)
74HCT374
1
10uF
24.576MHz
18.432MHz
/GPIOWR
SD0
SD1
SD2
SD3
SD4
SD5
SD6
SD7
1
0.1uF
/AUX_2
/AUX_3
64
/MEMWR
/MISC_OUT
11
3
4
7
8
13
14
17
18
TCK
TDO
R2
/CTS2
/RTS2
SIN2
SOUT2
/RI1
/DCD1
/DSR1
/CTS1
/DTR1
/RTS1
SIN1
SOUT1
J12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
1-5D
1-5D
1-5D
1-5D
1-5D
3-7D, 1-4B
3-7D, 1-4B
3-6D, 1-5D
3-6D, 1-5D
3-7C, 1-5D
3-6D
1-5A, 3-7B
3-6D, 1-5A
MMBT3904
1
DGND
2
MISC_OUT5
R42
1.62K
DGND
TALLY1
1.62K
A
SA0
5
CONTRAST
U4
4
74HC14D
R40
PS2506-4
604 Ω
14
A4
4
22 24 27 28 99 98 100
+5VD
U13b
U12 d
7
5.62K
R58
CONT3
100K
604 Ω
2.00K
R57
CONT2
2
74HC14D
R38
D5
+RAW
R47
R39
6
D6
L2
3.9uH
12
1N4148
L3
3.9uH
301 Ω
Chas
U13a
U12 c
5
1N4148
R37
25
R56
CONT1
R59
604 Ω
TV20
301 Ω
R35
22
2
1
21
9
13
B5
11 26 38 43 59 74 86 88 89 90 95 39 91 82 66 51 34 18 3
+5VD
18
1Y1
1A2
1
20
GND
19
R34
PS2506-4
604 Ω
9
10
19
7
2Y1
2A2
12
TV19
5
18
2A1
14
/MISC_IN
6
17
1Y4
16
U14
10
9
B6
A5
100K
6
U11d
8
4
1Y3
1A4
2G
3
16
1Y2
1A3
100K
14
2
1A2
PS2506-4
604 Ω
B7
A6
+5VD
SD0
SD1
SD2
SD3
SD4
74HC14D
R31
11
5
A7
To Peripheral Board
J9
R1
18
1Y1
74ACT244DW
U11c
U10 c
5
L1
1A1
19
100K
DGND
J10
13
TV17
14
PS2506-4
604 Ω
8
U11b
U10 b
3
6
TV16
100K
1 A.
6
12
AUX_D0
AUX_D1
AUX_D2
AUX_D3
AUX_D4
AUX_D5
AUX_D6
AUX_D7
+5VD
C32
604 Ω
7
B8
A8
10
C30
R46
+5VD
Gnd
U15
D7 and D8 are not populated in
standard build.
8
C12
NOTE:
Vcc
11
ERROR
SOCKET
16-PIN
DIP
DIR
/OE
9
0.1uF
SOCKET
(Spare)
PWRFAIL
SU12
0.1uF
SU10
12
SD0
SD1
SD2
SD3
SD4
SD5
SD6
SD7
C11
0.1uF
2
5
1
C34
74HC14D
0.1uF
ENC1
0.1uF
1
C33
19
U13c
14U13g
0.1uF
U11g
C10
14
3-1B
20
C8
R103
10.0K
/ENCODER
LED_PULSE
+5VD
C13
+5VD
U3
74ACT245DW
0.1uF
PWRFAIL
ERROR
0.1uF
ENC2
0.1uF
ENC1
3-1B
3-1B
4-2C
4-2C
3-6D
3-1B
3-1B
/LED
TALLY2
MISC_OUT4
BKLITE_ON
3-8A
3-8A
3-8A
Base Board Schematic:
CPLD, GPI & Remote
(version 62165.000.06)
Sheet 4 of 4
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
CPU Module
6-35
6-36
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
+3.3 VDC
R25
150 ohm, 5%, 0805
5
10
R24
150 ohm, 5%, 0805
C
RN4
4.7 k, 5%, CTS 745?083472J
1
9
8
7
6
4
3
2
PCI_AD[0..31]
Req4-n
Req3-n
Req2-n
Req1-n
U4
T3
P3
N4
Gnt4-n
Gnt3-n
Gnt2-n
Gnt1-n
H4
H3
J3
IntD-n
IntC-n
IntB-n
PCI_IntA-n
PCI_AD31
PCI_AD30
PCI_AD29
PCI_AD28
PCI_AD27
PCI_AD26
PCI_AD25
PCI_AD24
PCI_AD23
PCI_AD22
PCI_AD21
PCI_AD20
PCI_AD19
PCI_AD18
PCI_AD17
PCI_AD16
PCI_AD15
PCI_AD14
PCI_AD13
PCI_AD12
PCI_AD11
PCI_AD10
PCI_AD9
PCI_AD8
PCI_AD7
PCI_AD6
PCI_AD5
PCI_AD4
PCI_AD3
PCI_AD2
PCI_AD1
PCI_AD0
D
A2
A1
B1
B2
D2
D1
E1
E2
F1
G1
G2
H2
H1
J1
J2
K2
R2
T2
T1
U1
U2
V2
V1
W1
Y2
Y1
AA1
AA2
AB2
AB1
AC1
AC2
PCI_AD31
PCI_AD30
PCI_AD29
PCI_AD28
PCI_AD27
PCI_AD26
PCI_AD25
PCI_AD24
PCI_AD23
PCI_AD22
PCI_AD21
PCI_AD20
PCI_AD19
PCI_AD18
PCI_AD17
PCI_AD16
PCI_AD15
PCI_AD14
PCI_AD13
PCI_AD12
PCI_AD11
PCI_AD10
PCI_AD9
PCI_AD8
PCI_AD7
PCI_AD6
PCI_AD5
PCI_AD4
PCI_AD3
PCI_AD2
PCI_AD1
PCI_AD0
F2
K1
R1
W2
PCI_CBE3-n
PCI_CBE2-n
PCI_CBE1-n
PCI_CBE0-n
Reset-n
DevSel-n
Stop-n
IRdy-n
TRdy-n
Frame-n
PErr-n
SErr-n
Parity
A5
M1
N1
L2
M2
L1
N2
P2
P1
PCI_Reset-n
PCI_DevSel-n
PCI_Stop-n
PCI_IRdy-n
PCI_TRdy-n
PCI_Frame-n
PCI_PErr-n
PCI_SErr-n
PCI_Parity
62
95
96
92
93
91
97
98
99
Req0-n
Gnt0-n
IntA-n
L3
M3
K3
PCI_Req0-n
PCI_Gnt0-n
PCI_IntA-n
64
63
61
Req-n
Gnt-n
IntA-n
X1
76
IDSel
X2
AD31
AD30
AD29
AD28
AD27
AD26
AD25
AD24
AD23
AD22
AD21
AD20
AD19
AD18
AD17
AD16
AD15
AD14
AD13
AD12
AD11
AD10
AD9
AD8
AD7
AD6
AD5
AD4
AD3
AD2
AD1
AD0
CBE3-n
CBE2-n
CBE1-n
CBE0-n
+3.3 VDC
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
IntD-n
IntC-n
IntB-n
U3
R3
P4
N3
RN5
R-PACK
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Req4-n
Req3-n
Req2-n
Req1-n
PCI_AD24
ClkPCIOut
A6
PCI_ClkOut
PCI_ClkReference
C2
100 pf
ClkPCIIn
R11
33.2 ohm, 5%, 0805
TPTDP
TxData+
54
R19
49.9 ohm, 1%, 0805
C5
10 pf, 1206
C6
0.1 uf
R20
49.9 ohm, 1%, 0805
TPTDM
53
TxData-
TPRDP
46
RxData+
TxCT
R22
49.9 ohm, 1%, 0805
Reset-n
DevSel-n
Stop-n
IRdy-n
TRdy-n
Frame-n
PErr-n
SErr-n
Par
1
Tx+
2
CT1
3
Tx-
4
Rx+
5
CT2
6
Rx-
7
NC
C8
0.1 uf
RxCT
C7
0.1 uf
R23
49.9 ohm, 1%, 0805
TPRDM
45
RxData-
YelLEDA
17
X1
GrnLEDA
Y1
Ecliptek ECSMA-25.000M
18
X2
3VAux
PwrGood
PME-n/ClkRun-n
C3
18 pf
C4
18 pf
9
10
YelLEDA
YelLEDC
11
12
GrnLEDA
GrnLEDC
8
13
14
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
RJ-45 MAGJack LED
J1
R16
330 ohm, 5%, 0805
1
4
PCI_ClkIn
CBEN3-n
CBEN2-n
CBEN1-n
CBEN0-n
R21
0 ohm, 1%, 0805
+3.3 VDC
Vcc
6
Clk1
Clk2
Clk3
Clk4
3
2
5
7
ClkOut
8
ClkRef
R13
470 ohm, 5%, 0805
G3
75
89
100
111
+3.3 VDC
+3.3 VDC
R12
330 ohm, 5%, 0805
R10
33.2 ohm, 5%, 0805
AD31
AD30
AD29
AD28
AD27
AD26
AD25
AD24
AD23
AD22
AD21
AD20
AD19
AD18
AD17
AD16
AD15
AD14
AD13
AD12
AD11
AD10
AD09
AD08
AD7
AD6
AD5
AD4
AD3
AD2
AD1
AD0
122
123
59
+3.3 VDC
+3.3 VDC
66
67
68
70
71
72
73
74
78
79
81
82
83
86
87
88
101
102
104
105
106
108
109
110
112
113
115
116
118
119
120
121
Vss
PCI_Clk1Out
PCI_Clk1
60
PCIClk
28
29
6
15
14
12
11
10
7
31
ColDetect
CarSense
RxClk
RxDataVal/MA11
RxErr/MA10
RxData3/MA9
RxData2/MA8
RxData1/MA7
RxData0/MA6
TxClk
141
140
139
138
135
134
133
132
MD7
MD6
MD5
MD4/EEDO
MD3
MD2
MD1/CNFGDISN
MD0
R14
33.2 ohm, 5%, 0805
R15
470 ohm, 5%, 0805
CY2305SI-1H
U11
PCI_ClkReturn
MgmtDataClk
MgmtDataIO
RxOE
TxEn
TxData3/MA15
TxData2/MA14
TxData1/MA13
TxData0/MA12
5
4
13
30
25
24
23
22
MDIO
R18
14.7 k, 5%, 0805
AMD ElanSC520-100AC
U1C
CnfgDisn
R17
1 k, 5%, 0805
MWRN
MRDN
MCSN
EESel
MA5
MA4/EECLK
MA3/EEDI
MA2/LED100Link
MA1/LED10Link
MA0/LEDAcitvity
National DP83815/83816
U10A
131
130
129
128
3
2
1
144
143
142
LED100Link
LEDActivity
CPU MODULE: ETHERNET
+3.3 VDC
3
MstrReset Vcc
4
1
Gnd
2
Reset-n
PwrGood
IClk
OutEn
GP_SMemWr-n
GP_SMemRd-n
18
19
20
21
23
24
25
26
GP_SMemRd-n
= GPA20 + GPA21 + GPA22 + GPA23 + GPA24 + GP_MemRd-n
GP_SMemWr-n
= GPA20 + GPA21 + GPA22 + GPA23 + GPA24 + GP_MemWr-n
+5 VDC
+5 VDC
+5 VDC
2
2
16
Out0
Out1
Out2
Out3
Out4
Out5
Out6
Out7
ResetDrv-n = GP_Reset
ResetDrv-n
BuffRd-n
JP1
PrgReset
= !MasterReset-n
BuffRd-n
= GP_MemRd-n & GP_IORd-n
JP2
JP3
1
GPA24
GPA21
GPA20
GPA22
10 k, 5%, 0805
I0
I1
I2
I3
I4
I5
I6
I7
I8
I9
I10
I11
1
+3.3 VDC
MasterReset-n
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11
12
13
17
27
1
GPA23
R1
2
TECHNICAL DATA
2
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
BHE
+5 VDC
P1B
ISA_Reset
GAL 20LV8D-7LJ
U6A
C20
PIO14/GPIRQ9
PwrGood
MIC8114TU
U5
GPReset
PrgReset
IRQ9
-5 VDC
DReq2
-12 VDC
AE8
AC22
D20
GP_Reset
PrgReset
+12 VDC
ISA_SMemWr-n
ISA_SMemRd-n
ISA_IOWr-n
ISA_IORd-n
DAck3-n
DReq3
DAck1-n
DReq1
R2
10 k, 5%, 0805
PIO11/GPDAck1-n
PIO7/GPDReq1
PIO16/GPIRQ7
PIO17/GPIRQ6
PIO18/GPIRQ5
PIO19/GPIRQ4
PIO20/GPIRQ3
GPCS1-n
GPCS2-n
GPCS3-n
GPCS4-n
GPCS5-n
B24
C23
AC21
AA24
AC20
ROMCS1-n/GPCS1-n
ROMCS2-n/GPCS2-n
PITGate2/GPCS3-n
TimerIn1/GPCS4-n
TimerIn0/GPCS5-n
FlashStatus
PIO10
AE10
AD9
PIO6/GPDReq2
PIO10/GPDAck2-n
GPCS6-n
GPCS7-n
IDE_DReq
IDE_DAck-n
AC23
AD23
AD10
AE9
TimerOut1/GPCS6-n
TimerOut0/GPCS7-n
PIO5/GPDReq3
PIO9/GPDAck3-n
AC9
AF10
IRQ7
IRQ6
IRQ5
IRQ4
IRQ3
DAck2-n
TC
ALE
AF7
AE7
AD7
AD6
AE6
PIO4/GPTC
PIO0/GPALE
AD11
AE12
PIO2/GPRdy
PIO3/GPAEN
PIO27/GPCS0-n
AF11
AE11
AE4
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31
B32
Gnd
Reset
Vcc
IRQ9
-5 VDC
DReq2
-12 VDC
OWS-n
+ 12 VDC
Gnd
SMemWr-n
SMemRd-n
IOWr-n
IORd-n
DAck3-n
DReq3
DAck1-n
DReq1
Refresh-n
SysClk
IRQ7
IRQ6
IRQ5
IRQ4
IRQ3
DAck2-n
TC
ALE
Vcc
OSC
Gnd
Gnd
PC104-P1
NMI
ISA_D7
ISA_D6
ISA_D5
ISA_D4
ISA_D3
ISA_D2
ISA_D1
ISA_D0
IOChRdy
ISA_AEN
ISA_A19
ISA_A18
ISA_A17
ISA_A16
ISA_A15
ISA_A14
ISA_A13
ISA_A12
ISA_A11
ISA_A10
ISA_A9
ISA_A8
ISA_A7
ISA_A6
ISA_A5
ISA_A4
ISA_A3
ISA_A2
ISA_A1
ISA_A0
ISA_D[0..15]
GPD15
GPD14
GPD13
GPD12
GPD11
GPD10
GPD9
GPD8
GPD7
GPD6
GPD5
GPD4
GPD3
GPD2
GPD1
GPD0
D17
C17
C15
D14
D13
C13
C12
C11
C10
D10
D9
C9
C8
C7
B5
C4
GPD15
GPD14
GPD13
GPD12
GPD11
GPD10
GPD9
GPD8
GPD7
GPD6
GPD5
GPD4
GPD3
GPD2
GPD1
GPD0
GPA25
GPA24
GPA23
GPA22
GPA21
GPA20
GPA19
GPA18
GPA17
GPA16
C3
D4
D3
F3
C19
C14
C21
B22
E24
D24
GPA25
GPA24
GPA23
GPA22
GPA21
GPA20
GPA19
GPA18
GPA17
GPA16
PIO1/GPBHE-n
GPD7
GPD6
GPD5
GPD4
GPD3
GPD2
GPD1
GPD0
GPD15
GPD14
GPD13
GPD12
GPD11
GPD10
GPD9
GPD8
47
46
44
43
41
40
38
37
36
35
33
32
30
29
27
26
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1A5
1A6
1A7
1A8
2A1
2A2
2A3
2A4
2A5
2A6
2A7
2A8
1B1
1B2
1B3
1B4
1B5
1B6
1B7
1B8
2B1
2B2
2B3
2B4
2B5
2B6
2B7
2B8
2
3
5
6
8
9
11
12
13
14
16
17
19
20
22
23
1
24
1DIR
2DIR
1OE
2OE
48
25
ISA_D7
ISA_D6
ISA_D5
ISA_D4
ISA_D3
ISA_D2
ISA_D1
ISA_D0
ISA_D15
ISA_D14
ISA_D13
ISA_D12
ISA_D11
ISA_D10
ISA_D9
ISA_D8
GPA15
GPA14
GPA13
GPA12
GPA11
GPA10
GPA9
GPA8
GPA7
GPA6
GPA5
GPA4
GPA3
GPA2
GPA1
GPA0
74ACLV162450/SO
U7A
GPA24
GPA23
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
R3
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
R4
+3.3 VDC
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
R36
+3.3 VDC
47
46
44
43
41
40
38
37
36
35
33
32
30
29
27
26
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1A5
1A6
1A7
1A8
2A1
2A2
2A3
2A4
2A5
2A6
2A7
2A8
1B1
1B2
1B3
1B4
1B5
1B6
1B7
1B8
2B1
2B2
2B3
2B4
2B5
2B6
2B7
2B8
2
3
5
6
8
9
11
12
13
14
16
17
19
20
22
23
1
24
1DIR
2DIR
1OE
2OE
48
25
ISA_A15
ISA_A14
ISA_A13
ISA_A12
ISA_A11
ISA_A10
ISA_A9
ISA_A8
ISA_A7
ISA_A6
ISA_A5
ISA_A4
ISA_A3
ISA_A2
ISA_A1
ISA_A0
GPA[0..24]
PC104-P1
P2A
BHE-n
GPA15
GPA14
GPA13
GPA12
GPA11
GPA10
GPA9
GPA8
GPA7
GPA6
GPA5
GPA4
GPA3
GPA2
GPA1
GPA0
C24
R24
P24
N24
N23
M23
C2
M24
F23
C1
H24
L24
J23
K24
G4
J24
GPMemRd-n
GPMemWr-n
F24
C18
GP_MemRd-n
GP_MemWr-n
GPIOWr-n
GPIORd-n
C16
G24
GP_IOWr-n
GP_IORd-n
PIO24/GPDBUFOE-n
AD5
GPDBufOE-n
GPA23
GPA22
GPA21
GPA20
GP_SMemWr-n
GP_SMemRd-n
GPA19
GPA18
GP_Reset
GP_AEN
GPA17
GPA16
GP_MemRd-n
GP_MemWr-n
+3.3 VDC
47
46
44
43
41
40
38
37
36
35
33
32
30
29
27
26
1A1
1A2
1A3
1A4
1A5
1A6
1A7
1A8
2A1
2A2
2A3
2A4
2A5
2A6
2A7
2A8
1B1
1B2
1B3
1B4
1B5
1B6
1B7
1B8
2B1
2B2
2B3
2B4
2B5
2B6
2B7
2B8
2
3
5
6
8
9
11
12
13
14
16
17
19
20
22
23
ISA_A23
ISA_A22
ISA_A21
ISA_A20
ISA_SMemWr-n
ISA_SMemRd-n
ISA_IOWr-n
ISA_IORd-n
ISA_A19
ISA_A18
ISA_Reset
ISA_AEN
ISA_A17
ISA_A16
ISA_MemRd-n
ISA_MemWr-n
1
24
1DIR
2DIR
1OE
2OE
48
25
ISA_OE-n
ISA_A23
ISA_A22
ISA_A21
ISA_A20
ISA_A19
ISA_A18
ISA_A17
ISA_MemRd-n
ISA_MemWr-n
ISA_D8
ISA_D9
ISA_D10
ISA_D11
ISA_D12
ISA_D13
ISA_D14
ISA_D15
AMD ElanSC520-100AC
U1B
MemCS16-n
IOCS16-n
IRQ10
IRQ11
IRQ12
IRQ15
IRQ14
DAck0-n
DReq0
DAck5-n
DReq5
DAck6-n
DReq6
DAck7-n
DReq7
+5 VDC
Gnd
SBHe
LA23
LA22
LA21
LA20
LA19
LA18
LA17
MemRd-n
MemWr-n
SD8
SD9
SD10
SD11
SD12
SD13
SD14
SD15
Key
PC104-P2
GPD[0..15]
GPA[0..24]
P2B
AD4
AC4
AD8
AE5
AF5
AF6
AF8
AC8
AF9
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
C20
74ACLV162450/SO
U8A
GPD[0..15]
PIO26/GPMemCS16-n
PIO25/GPIOCS16-n
PIO13/GPIRQ10
PIO23/GPIRQ0
PIO22/GPIRQ1
PIO21/GPIRQ2
PIO15/GPIRQ8
PIO12/GPDAck0-n
PIO8/GPDReq0
IOChk-n
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
IOChRdy
AEN
A19
A18
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
Gnd
ISA_A[0..23]
74ACLV162450/SO
U9A
AF12
GPA15
GPA14
GPA13
GPA12
GPA11
GPA10
GPA9
GPA8
GPA7
GPA6
GPA5
GPA4
GPA3
GPA2
GPA1
GPA0
P1A
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31
A32
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
D16
D17
D18
D19
D20
Gnd
MemCS16-n
IOCS16-n
IRQ10
IRQ11
IRQ12
IRQ15
IRQ14
DAck0-n
DReq0
DAck5-n
DReq5
DAck6-n
DReq6
DAck7-n
DReq7
+5 VDC
Master-n
Gnd
Gnd
PC104-P2
+3.3 VDC
DReq2
DReq3
DReq1
DReq0
DReq5
DReq6
DReq7
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
1
5
10
C
4.7 k, 5%, CTS 745?083472J
RN2
DAck3-n
DAck5-n
DAck1-n
DAck0-n
DAck6-n
DAck7-n
DAck2-n
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
1
5
10
C
4.7 k, 5%, CTS 745?083472J
RN3
CPU Module:
General Purpose
Bus
6-37
6-38
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
DRAM Circuitry
MD[0..31]
MA[0..12]
+3.3 VDC
5
10
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
1
MD31
MD30
MD29
MD28
MD27
MD26
MD25
MD24
MD23
MD22
MD21
MD20
MD19
MD18
MD17
MD16
MD15
MD14
MD13
MD12
MD11
MD10
MD9
MD8
MD7
MD6
MD5
MD4
MD3
MD2
MD1
MD0
A24
A23
B21
A20
A19
B18
A17
B16
A15
B14
A13
B12
A11
B10
A9
B8
B23
A22
A21
B20
A18
B17
A16
B15
A14
B13
A12
B11
A10
B9
A8
B7
MECC6
MECC5
MECC4
MECC3
MECC2
MECC1
MECC0
Y26
D25
C26
Y25
W26
D26
C25
MD31
MD30
MD29
MD28
MD27
MD26
MD25
MD24
MD23
MD22
MD21
MD20
MD19
MD18
MD17
MD16
MD15
MD14
MD13
MD12
MD11
MD10
MD9
MD8
MD7
MD6
MD5
MD4
MD3
MD2
MD1
MD0
MECC6
MECC5
MECC4
MECC3
MECC2
MECC1
MECC0
MA12
MA11
MA10
MA9
MA8
MA7
MA6
MA5
MA4
MA3
MA2
MA1
MA0
V26
U26
T26
R26
R25
P25
P26
N26
N25
M25
M26
L26
L25
MA12
MA11
MA10
MA9
MA8
MA7
MA6
MA5
MA4
MA3
MA2
MA1
MA0
BA1
BA0
U25
T25
BA1
BA0
+3.3 VDC
R7
4.75k, 5%, 0805
CKELow
36
35
22
34
33
32
31
30
29
26
25
24
23
A12
A11
A10/AP
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
21
20
BA1
BA0
37
SWEA-n
SCASA-n
SRASA-n
SCS0-n
E26
F25
K25
V25
RAMWE-n
RAMCAS-n
RAMRAS-n
RAMCS-n
16
17
18
19
SDQM3
SDQM2
SDQM1
SDQM0
H25
G26
H26
G25
SDQM3
SDQM2
SDQM1
SDQM0
38
SRASB-n
SCASB-n
SWEB-n
K26
F26
E25
SCS1-n
SCS2-n
SCS3-n
ClkMemOut
W25
J25
J26
MD15
MD14
MD13
MD12
MD11
MD10
MD9
MD8
MD7
MD6
MD5
MD4
MD3
MD2
MD1
MD0
39
15
SDQM1
SDQM0
MA12
MA11
MA10
MA9
MA8
MA7
MA6
MA5
MA4
MA3
MA2
MA1
MA0
A12
A11
A10/AP
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
21
20
BA1
BA0
37
CKE
WE-n
CAS-n
RAS-n
CS-n
16
17
18
19
WE-n
CAS-n
RAS-n
CS-n
CLK
38
CKE
UDQM
LDQM
+3.3 VDC
R8
4.75k, 5%, 0805
CKEHigh
32 Mbit x 16 SDRAM
U2A
SDQM[0..3]
R5
22 ohm, 5%, 0805
53
51
50
48
47
45
44
42
13
11
10
8
7
5
4
2
36
35
22
34
33
32
31
30
29
26
25
24
23
DQ15
DQ14
DQ13
DQ12
DQ11
DQ10
DQ9
DQ8
DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3
DQ2
DQ1
DQ0
DQ15
DQ14
DQ13
DQ12
DQ11
DQ10
DQ9
DQ8
DQ7
DQ6
DQ5
DQ4
DQ3
DQ2
DQ1
DQ0
53
51
50
48
47
45
44
42
13
11
10
8
7
5
4
2
MD31
MD30
MD29
MD28
MD27
MD26
MD25
MD24
MD23
MD22
MD21
MD20
MD19
MD18
MD17
MD16
UDQM
LDQM
39
15
SDQM3
SDQM2
CLK
32 Mbit x 16 SDRAM
U3A
DRAMClk
B19 ClkMemOut
22 ohm, 5%, 0805
R6
MECC4
ClkMemIn
MECC6
MECC3
MECC2
MECC5
MECC1
MECC0
MA12
MA11
MA10
MA9
MA8
MA7
MA6
MA5
MA4
MA3
MA2
MA1
MA0
AMD ElanSC520-100AC
U1A
A4
ClkMemIn
Route the ClkMemIn trace back and forth so that it is the
same length as the SDRAMClk trace to either chip.
C1
4.7 pf
Route the SDRAMCLK "T" style so that the trace length
to each SDRAM chip is the same length.
C
CTS 745?083102J
RN1
Place the two (2), 22 ohm series terminating resistors as
close as possible to the ElanSC520.
Place the 4.7 fp capacitor as close as possible to the
Elan SC520. Adjust the value to equalize loading on
SDRAMCLK and ClkMemIn nets.
Flash Circuitry
GPA[0..24]
+3.3 VDC
GPA24
GPA23
GPA22
GPA21
GPA20
GPA19
GPA18
GPA17
GPA16
GPA15
GPA14
GPA13
GPA12
GPA11
GPA10
GPA9
GPA8
GPA7
GPA6
GPA5
GPA4
GPA3
GPA2
GPA1
GPA0
56
30
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
12
13
17
18
19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
32
A24
A23
A22
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
31
Byte-n
ROMRd-n
FlashWR-n
54
55
OE-n
WE-n
BootCS-n
14
2
29
CE0-n
CE1-n
CE2-n
ResetDrv-n
16
RP-n
GPD[0..15]
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
52
50
47
45
41
39
36
34
51
49
46
44
40
38
35
33
Vpen
15
STS
53
E28F128J3A-150
U4A
GPD15
GPD14
GPD13
GPD12
GPD11
GPD10
GPD9
GPD8
GPD7
GPD6
GPD5
GPD4
GPD3
GPD2
GPD1
GPD0
+3.3 VDC
GPD[0..15]
+3.3 VDC
R9
10k, 5%, 0805
FlashStatus
CPU Module: Memory
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
6-39
+3.3 VDC
R26
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
P3A
AF25
AF23
AF1
AE25
AE24
AE1
AD26
AD25
AD2
AD1
AC25
AC3
AA26
AB4
AB3
E23
D23
C22
E3
C6
C5
B6
B4
B3
A3
NC0
NC1
NC2
NC3
NC4
NC5
NC6
NC7
NC8
NC9
NC10
NC11
NC12
NC13
NC14
NC15
NC16
NC17
NC18
NC19
NC20
NC21
NC22
NC23
NC24
AE17
AD17
AC17
AC16
AD16
AE16
AF16
AF15
AE15
AD15
AD14
AE14
AF14
AF13
AE13
AD13
PData15
PData14
PData13
PData12
PData11
PData10
PData09
PData08
PData07
PData06
PData05
PData04
PData03
PData02
PData01
PData0
AD18
AE18
AF18
PAddr2
PAddr1
PAddr0
AC12
T24
T23
AF20
AE20
AD12
ICE_Dis
PBReq
TV
PBGnt
PRW
TClk
Trig/Trace
BR/TC
JTAG_TMS
JTAG_TDI
JTAG_TCK
PIO31/Ring2-n
PIO30/DCD2-n
PIO29/DSR2-n
PIO28/CTS2-n
Ring1-n
DCD1-n
DSR1-n
CTS1-n
SSI_Clk
CF_DRAM-n/CFG2
AC13
AD24
AE21
AF21
AD21
Trig/Trace
BR/TC
JTAG_TMS
JTAG_TDI
JTAG_TCK
AD3
AE3
AF3
AF4
AA3
V4
Y3
V3
Ring2-n
DCD2-n
DSR2-n
CTS2-n
Ring1-n
DCD1-n
DSR1-n
CTS1-n
AD19
SSI_Clk
W24
CFG2
+3.3 VDC
PITOut2/CGF3
ClkTimer/CltTest
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31
A32
+2.5 VDC
PITOut2/CFG3
ClkTimer/ClkTest
Y24
A7
R28
IDE_DReq
IDE_DAck-n
+3.3 VDC
R27
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31
A32
+2.5 VDC
C10
0.001 uf
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
R32
+3.3 VDC
32X2Conn
R29
C12
0.01 uf
R31
10 ohm, 5%, 0805
+3.3 VDC
+3.3 VDC
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
Vcc_Osc
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
P3B
Stop/TX
CmdAck
JTAG_TDO
JTAG_TRst-n
AF17
U24
AF22
AE22
Stop/TX
CmdAck
JTAG_TDO
JTAG_TRst-n
DTR2-n
RTS2-n
SIn2
SOut2
DTR1-n
RTS1-n
SIn1
SOut1
AE23
AD22
V24
U23
W3
W4
AE2
AF2
DTR2-n
RST2-n
SIn2
SOut2
DTR1-n
RTS1-n
SIn1
SOut1
SSI_DI
SSI_DO
AE19
AF19
SSI_DI
SSI_DO
AC24
AD20
DataStrb/CFG1
CS_ROM_GPCS-n/CFG0
DataStrb/CFG1
CS_ROM_GPCS-n/CFG0
C11
0.01 uf
+3.3 VDC
4.75 k, 5%, 0805
R30
GPCS1-n
GPCS2-n
GPCS3-n
GPCS4-n
GPCS5-n
GPCS6-n
GPCS7-n
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31
B32
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31
B32
C9
0.1 uf
4
VccOsc VccCPU
1
2
Gnd
3
ClkOut
LF_PLL
Epson SG-636PCE-33MC2
X1
VBat
A4
A5
Vbat 32.768 khz
Vbat 32.768 khz
C4
C5
B4
B5
Vbat 32.768 khz
Vbat 32.768 khz
D4
D5
A7
A8
T
T
T
T
C7
C8
B7
B8
T
T
T
T
D7
D8
RTC_Clock
AF24
LF_PLL
AC26
33MXtal2
AB26
33MXtal1
AE26
32kXtal2
AF26
32kXtal1
AMD ElanSC520-100AC
U1E
DS32khz
U13A
32X2Conn
ROMRd-n
FlashWr-n
BootCS-n
ROMBufOE-n
AB23
AB24
AB25
AA25
ROMRd-n
FlashWr-n
BootCS-n
AMD ElanSC520-100AC
U1D
CPU Module: Miscellaneous Connections
6-40
5
4
TECHNICAL DATA
3
ORBAN MODEL 9400
2
1
+3.3 VDC
+2.5 VDC
+3.3 VDC
+5 VDC
C201
See Table
1
Vin Vout
3
C14
1 uf
C13
10 uf, low ESR
2
+
Gnd Gnd
34
42
43
48
4
C16
10 uf, low ESR
2
+
Vin Vout
3
Gnd Gnd
4
127
50
41
35
FSGnd
20
32
PHYGnd1
PHYGnd2
FSVdd
36
PHYVdd1
PHYVdd2
33
21
6
12
46
52
+3.3 VDC
8
16
26
84
136
C17
1 uf
65
77
90
103
114
PCIGnd1
PCIGnd2
PCIGnd3
PCIGnd4
PCIGnd5
PCIVdd1
PCIVdd2
PCIVdd3
PCIVdd4
PCIVdd5
117
107
94
80
69
57
124
MACGnd1
MACGnd2
MACVdd1
MACVdd2
125
58
51
TxDigGnd
TxDigVdd
56
52
55
TxIOGnd1
TxIOGnd2
38
44
RxAnalGnd1
RxAnalGnd2
RxAnalVdd1
RxAnalVdd2
47
39
C18
10 uf, low ESR
LT1963EST_3.3
U15
37
49
126
IOGnd1
IOGnd2
IOGnd3
IOGnd4
IOGnd5
IOVdd1
IOVdd2
IOVdd3
IOVdd4
IOVdd5
137
85
27
19
9
SubGnd1
SubGnd2
SubGnd3
Vref
40
R200
See Table, 5%, 0805
C200
See Table
+3.3 VDC
C179
0.1 uf
C180
0.01 uf
C181
1 uf
C125
1 uf
C175
1 uf
C176
1 uf
3
9
43
49
6
12
46
52
C132
1 uf
83815 Value
NC
NC
NC
NC
Vcc
28
Gnd
4
10
15
21
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
28
34
39
45
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
GAL 20LV8D-7LJ
U6B
42
31
+5 VDC
18
7
R33
9.31 k ohm, 5%, 0805
10.0 k ohm, 5%, 0805
R200
0 ohm, 5%, 0805
No Stuff
C200
0.01 uf,
0805
0.1 uf,
BBatSense
1
A26
VccRTC
No Stuff
1.0 uf,
0805
C202
No Stuff
1.0 uf,
0805
B25
BBatSense
T16
T15
T14
T13
T12
T11
R16
R15
R14
R13
R12
R11
P16
P15
P14
P13
P12
P11
N16
N15
N14
N13
N12
N11
M16
M15
M14
M13
M12
M11
L16
L15
L14
L13
L12
L11
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
C21
0.1 uf
2
BT1
BATTERY
A
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
VccCore
AC15
AC14
AC7
AC6
AC5
R23
P23
T4
R4
H23
G23
F4
E4
D19
D18
D12
D11
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
VccIO
AC19
AC18
AC11
AC10
AA4
Y4
AA23
Y23
W23
V23
L23
K23
M4
L4
K4
J4
D22
D21
D16
D15
D8
D7
D6
D5
Vcc
Vcc
37
9
Vccq
43
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
E28F128J3A-150
U4B
C133
0.1 uf
D
C134
0.01 uf
+3.3 VDC
4
10
15
21
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
28
34
39
45
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
74ACLV162450/SO
U7B
42
31
+3.3 VDC
+5 VDC
18
7
4
10
15
21
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
42
31
28
34
39
45
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
18
7
74ACLV162450/SO
U8B
+5 VDC
74ACLV162450/SO
U9B
+5 VDC
C
+5 VDC
+3.3 VDC
C150
0.01 uf
C151
1 uf
C155
1 uf
C156
0.01 uf
C157
1 uf
C158
0.01 uf
C159
1 uf
C160
0.01 uf
C161
1 uf
C162
0.01 uf
0805
C201
C20
0.1 uf
1 k, 5%, 0805
R35
21
42
48
83815 Value
+3.3 VDC
+3.3 VDC
+3.3 VDC
A1
A2
A3
A6
A9
B1
B2
B3
B6
B9
C1
C6
C9
D1
D6
D9
+2.5 VDC
D2
1N4148
3
9
43
49
+3.3 VDC
VBat
D3
1N4148
Vddq
Vddq
Vddq
Vddq
+5 VDC
C177
0.1 uf
10 ohm, 5%, 0805
R34
Vssq
Vssq
Vssq
Vssq
1
14
27
+3.3 VDC
C127
0.01 uf
D1
1N4148
B
Vdd
Vdd
Vdd
32 Mbit x 16 SDRAM
U3B
C153
1 uf
+3.3 VDC
Vss
Vss
Vss
+3.3 VDC
1
8
15
22
Component
C126
0.1 uf
R33
See Table, 5%, 0805
14
+3.3 VDC
Vddq
Vddq
Vddq
Vddq
28
41
54
+3.3 VDC
C183
1 uf
+3.3 VDC
Vssq
Vssq
Vssq
Vssq
1
14
27
+3.3 VDC
C202
See Table
Component Value Table for 83815/83816 shared components
C
Vdd
Vdd
Vdd
32 Mbit x 16 SDRAM
U2B
+3.3 VDC
C182
0.1 uf
Vss
Vss
Vss
+3.3 VDC
Vref
National DP83815/8316
U10B
C178
1 uf
28
41
54
+3.3 VDC
+5 VDC
1
Res3
Res2
Res1
C15
10 uf, low ESR
LT1963EST_2.5
U14
D
NC1
NC2
NC3
NC4
+3.3 VDC
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Gnd
Vcc
Vcc
C2
C3
Vcc
Vcc
D2
D3
DS32khz
U13B
+3.3 VDC
A
+2.5 VDC
A25
VccAnalog
GndAnalog
B26
AMD ElanSC520-100AC
U1F
5
4
B
CPU Module: Power and Ground Distribution
3
2
1
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
RS232 BOARD PARTS LOCATOR
6-41
6-42
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
+5VD
SU1
SOCKET
C5
0.1uF
9
24 PIN DIP
0.1uF
13
14
5
18
19
21
6
4
22
17
+5VD
C1+
C1C2+
C2-
V-
11
C6
15
0.1uF
T1 IN
T2 IN
T3 IN
T4 IN
R1 OUT
R2 OUT
R3 OUT
R4 OUT
V+
T1 OUT
T2 OUT
T3 OUT
T4 OUT
R1 IN
R2 IN
R3 IN
R4 IN
2
1
24
20
7
3
23
16
8
C1
0.1uF
RESERVED
RESERVED
/DCD1
/CTS1
/RTS1
SOUT1
10
12
GND
C2
0.1uF
VCC
C3
C4
0.1uF
U1
MAX208ECNG
J1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
J2
L1
RESERVED
RESERVED
RESERVED
/DSR1
/DTR1
SIN1
HEADER 8X2
5
3.9uH
4
D1
D2
3
2
DIODE SCHOTTKY
1
DIODE SCHOTTKY
9
8
7
6
DB9M
RS232 DAUGHTER BOARD
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
8300 POWER SUPPLY PARTS LOCATOR
6-43
6-44
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Plus15V
Lug
1
CR19
2
1N4734A
5.6v Zener
1
C3
2
100 F, 25v
10%
1
6.8V Transorb
CR17
1
C10
1
CR20
2
1N4734A
5.6v Zener
1
C2
2
100 F, 25v
10%
1
6.8V Transorb
CR14
2
CR18
C6
1
1
2
+5VD
J4
Minus15V
Mounting
Kit
2
2
6
5
4
1
V1
15025.000.01
V2
To: Base Board
15025.000.01
1
4
2
5
3
6
4
2
3
1
Minus15V
Mounting
Kit
1
115v/230v
+RAW
Minus5VA
J5
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
AGND
3
2
1
2
0.1 F, 50v
20%
C11
2
1
1
2
22V Transorb
100 F, 25v10%
1
J2
DGND
DirtyGnd
3
0.1 F, 50v
20%
1
J1
AGND
-5v Reg
MC79M05CT
2.2 F, 35v
20%
6
2
3
U4
C7
5
1
1N4004
1
2
CR16
2
0.1 F, 50v 20%
4
1
1
C15
1
(Monitor) Minus5VA
(Monitor) Plus5VA
2
1
RED
(Monitor) Minus15V
AGND
3
2.2 F, 35v
20%
3
2
2
2
2
U2 -15v Reg
MC79M15CT
C16
4
C8
1N4004
MinusRAW
BLACK
1
2
1
2
CR10 33V Transorb
1
2
C17
CR12
2
(Monitor) Plus15V
AGND
AGND
SW1
Plus5VA
3
2
1
1
C20
1
2
20%
1
0.1 F, 50v
C19
2
2
1
2
1
CR9 33V Transorb
1
2
1N4004
1N4004
1
RED/WHITE
BROWN
F1
1/2 A, Slow Blow Blow
Fuse
1000 F, 35v 20%
C_Gnd
Cap
2
2
ORANGE
CR7
1
3
BLUE
CR6
ORANGE/WHITE
1
1N4004
WHITE
2
AGND
Plus15V
15025.000.01
(off board)
4
H7
1
YELLOW/WHITE
YELLOW
H6
3
Toroid Assy
Line Filter Assembly
Fuse Holder
CR5
1
1N4004
Power Transformer
A1
2
CR8
Chassis Ground Pigtail, 3" long
(Lug w/Green AWG 18)
1
2
PlusRAW
0.1 F, 50v
20%
AGND
Mounting
Kit
U3 +5v Reg
MC78M05CT
+15v Reg
MC78M15CT
U1
2
1N4004
CR13 22V Transorb
15025.000.01
2
1000 F, 35v 20%
1
1N4004
C9 100 F, 25v 10%
C21
2
C18
R1
2
1
1
2
N/C
CR15
2
0.1 F, 50v
20%
Mounting
Kit
3
2
1
1
0.1 F, 50v
20%
SW2
CR11
2
Gnd Lift
AGND
+5VD
AGND
DGND
AGND
Plus15V
J7
1
2
MinusRAW
DGND
Plus15V
3
4
5
6
C_Gnd
Minus15V
+5VD
7
8
Plus5VA
9
10
Minus5VA
CR22
Minus15V
PlusRAW
1
Minus5VA
Plus5VA
To: I/O Board
+RAW
Testing Access
2
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
3
J3
Dual Schotkey
CR23
1
+RAW
2
5
DGND
15025.000.01
1
CR4
2
7.7uH, 4A
6.8V Transorb
2
1
1
470 F, 16v, HFS
1
2
C4
1
2
C5
40v, 3A
Schottky
1
CR3
470 F, 16v, HFS
2
100uH, 3A
GND
+5VD
L2
L1
1
100 F, 16v, HFS
OUT
2
C1
4
2
FDBK
LM2576T
2
VIN
3
0.1 F, 50v 20%
2
1
C12
100 F, 50v, Low ESR
1
DGND
2
C22
1
2
CR2
1
1
22V Transorb
Dual Schotkey
6800 F, 16v 20%
C14
3
2
1
2
2
1
Heatsink Bar, 8300
50286.000.01
U5
/ON
Dual Schotkey
CR21
C13
32181.000.02
6800 F, 16v 20%
FAB
DGND
3
Ref: PCB
+RAW
Mounting
Kit
+5VD
DGND
+RAW
1
2
DGND
3
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
To: DSP Board
J6
(optional fan)
DGND
*
DirtyGnd
DirtyGnd
(Isolated return path for LCD backlight current.)
POWER SUPPLY
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
6-45
Input / Output Board Parts Locator Drawing
(for schematic 62260.000.01)
6-46
+15V
3
C108
E201
1
2
C103
O PA2134PA
+15V
1.00M
1%
0.47U F
25V
C111
0.1U F
50V
3
E203
5V
CR107
1N4148W
R125
R118
4.99K
1%
R146
Vdd
Vss
6
9
IN4
5.62K
1%
R129
14.7K
1%
8
IN3
IN2
768OHM
1%
R127
1.50K 1%
R145
3.65K
0.1%
AGN D 2
DD7
DD6
R147
3.65K
0.1%
R148
3.65K 0.1%
IC106A
1
2
IC1
05B
3
7
VD
VCO M L
DFS
SMODE 1
AINL+
AINL
HPFE
AINR +
R151
150OHM
1%
OPA2134U A
+15V
C123
0.1U F
50V
C124
0.1U F
50V
FSYNC
26
C115
4700PF
5%,50V
C116
4700PF
5% ,50V
AGND 2
C125
0.1U F
50V
C126
0.1U F
50V
VCO M R
LRCK
28
+ C122
10UF
20V
AINR
VREFR
SDATA
27
GNDR
TEST
6
10
9
/RSTAD
18
12
11
19
17
8.192MHZA
14
IN_BCLK
13
IN_FCLK
R158
15
AGND 2
R155
249
OHM
1%
AGN D 2
A/D GN D
AGN D 2
E204
+5VD
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
(SHT 4)
D[0..7]
3
4
7
8
13
14
17
18
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
IC108
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
2
5
6
9
12
15
16
19
DD0
DD1
DD2
DD3
DD4
DD5
DD6
DD7
CLK
AGN D 2
DD[0..7]
74HC374
/ING AINC S
(SHT 4)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
AIN_DATA
75O H M
1%
20
R152
1.00M
1%
(SHT 5)
C136
47PF
5% ,100V
16
R149
249OHM
1%
(SHT 4)
NC
OPA 2134U A
0.47U F
25V
DD [4..7]
GNDL
CAL
5
AGN D 2
249OHM
1%
15V
6
RST
SCLK
R150
AGN D 2
5
ZCAL
AGN D 3
O PA2134UA
1.62K
1%
VREFL
SMODE 2
R141
1.50K
1%
+ C130
10U F
20V
IC107
AK5383 VS
MCLK
47PF
5% ,100V
IC106B
7
R126
C128
0.1U F
50V
47PF
5% ,100V
11
R162
1.5
4K
1%
OPA 2134PA
C107
R122
10.0K
1%
DD4
9K
4.9
1%
5
C117
VC C
C135
8200PF
1KV
8200uH
10%
C106
3000PF
1KV
1.62K
1%
5
OE
CR105
TRAN SZORB
604OH M
1%
7
R121
6
2.10K
1%
R128
11
S4
20
2
1000PF
L107
1
6
R120
14
S3
IN1
AGN D 2
3
S2
GND
IC102B
IC103
ADG 222
S1
D1
D2
D3
D4
5
4.99K
1%
3
2
25
4
2
15
10
7
13
12
WR
AGN D 2
R124
L106
FILTER
R153
R157
10.0K
1%
DO NOT ST
U FF
CR106
1N 4148W
4
AGN D 2
R123
82.5K
1%
1
C121
0.1U F
50V
24
AGN D 2
R119
715OH M
1%
R144
1.50K 1%
+ C112
10U F
20V
C114
16
R117
10.0K
1%
C120
0.1U F
50V
1
2
15V+15V
R161
1.54K
1%
R143
3.65K
0.1%
8
C105
47PF
5% ,100V
DD5
CR 104
TRAN SZO R B
R116
4.9
9K
1%
GN D
C134
8200PF
1KV
L105
8200uH
10%
C104
3000PF
1KV
1
2
3
1000PF
R115
604OH M
1%
IC102A
OPA 2134PA
1
10
3
AGN D 2
C119
0.1U F
50V
3
E202
8
1
R140
1.50K
1%
R142
C118
0.1U F
50V
4
4
2
SHELL
+ C131
10UF
20V
+5VA
47PF
5% ,100V
+15V
L104
FILTER
23
249OHM
1%
AGN D 1
J103
FEMALE
R154
10OH M
1%
C127
0.1U F
50V
7
R139
O PA2134UA
OP A2134U A
C113
DD [0..3]
R109
10.0K
1%
C110
4700PF
5% ,50V
+ C129
10UF
20V
IC 104A
1
3
2
5V
C109
4700PF
5%,50V
15V
AGN D 1
RIGHT AN ALO G NPUT
I
1
4
2
IC105A
3
1
14.7K
1%
R138
150OHM
1%
VA
5.62K
1%
R114
AGN D 1
5
4.9
9K
1%
R160
1.54K
1%
AGN D 1
+5VA
R136
3.6
5K
0.1%
DG N D
C133
8200PF
1KV
8200uH
10%
C102
3000PF
1KV
7
R108
R133
3.65K
0.1%
+15V
R135
3.65K
0.1%
BGN D
CR103
TRANSZORB
604OH M
1%
L103
1.50K 1%
21
1000PF
R107
DD0
3
2
1
1
6
L102
FILTER
R134
8
AG N D 1
IC100B
4
IN1
4.99K
1%
6
S4
R156
1.62K
1%
R111
768 OHM
1%
R112
R137
249OHM
1%
O PA2134UA
2.10K
1%
R113
11
S3
GND
5
AGN D
5
14
S2
IN4
R105
D1
D2
D3
D4
8
DO NOT ST
U FF
3
S1
1.62K
1%
47PF
5% ,100V
IC104B
7
4
2
15
10
7
Vdd
AGN D 1
IC101
ADG 222
6
DD3
R106
715O H M
1%
WR
AGN D 1
R104
82.5K
1%
12
10.0K
1%
CR101
1N 4148W
13
CR102
1N4148W
R110
R103
4.99K
1%
IN3
R102
10.0K AGN D 1
1%
9
R159
1.5
4K
1%
R132
22
15V+15V
8
5V
8
C101
47PF
5% ,100V
DD2
CR 100
TRAN SZO RB
R101
4.9
9K
1%
Vss
C132
8200PF
1KV
L101
8200uH
10%
C100
3000PF
1KV
IN2
2
3
1000PF
R100
604OH M
1%
16
3
1.50K 1%
3.65K
0.1%
DD1
1
4
2
SHELL
R131
R130
IC100A
O PA2134PA
8
L100
FILTER
1
4
ORBAN MODEL 9400
INP
UT
J100
FEMALE
4
LEFT A
N ALOG
TECHNICAL DATA
Input / Output Board Schematic
Left & Right Analog Inputs
Sheet 1 of 4
62260.000.01
(SHT 5)
E205
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
+5VA
LEFT ANALOG
OUT PUT 1
MC LK
R257
100O HM
1%
8.4
5K 1%
8.45K1%
82.5K 1%
AGN D 4
0.47UF 25V
5V
IC212A
1
AGN D 4
AGND 4
R256
C239
1000PF
5%
49.9O
HM
1%
15V
L207
C243
1500PF
10%
R260
+
R297
L208
R299
49.9O
HM
1%
1.2m H
100O HM
1%
8.4
5K 1%
R272
8.45K1%
82.5K 1%
R275
R274
8.45K1%
5
4
C251
470PF
1%,50V
16
IC217A
1
2
3
+15V
AK4393VF
R276
R277
8.4
5K 1%
8.45K1%
R278
R282
3.48K
1%
82.5K 1%
R281
R285
3.48K
1%
8.45K
1%
R286
11.3K
1%
C255
470PF
1% ,50V
AGN D 6
AGND 6
R289
11.3K
1%
3.48K
1%
AGN D 6
C259
1000PF
5%
C261
1500PF
10%
R301
475OH M
1%
R302
3
1000PF
7
8
5
L210
L211
FILTER
1
100OHM
1%
1.2m H
15V
R303
O PA2134UA
AG N D 5
AGN D 5
C257
R295
1.00M
1%
0.47UF 25V
5V
110O H M
1%
IC218A
1
4
VR 203
R296
10.0K
1%
3
AGN D 6
AGN D 6
3
1
4
SHELL
3
1000PF
RIGHT AN ALO G
OUT PUT 2
L212
R305
1.2m H
100O HM
1%
15V
R304
49.9OHM TH
1%
C262
1000PF
5%
C263
1000PF
5%
L214
1.2m H
C264
1500PF
10%
R306
475O H M TH
1%
C265
1500PF
10%
R307
475O H M
1%
R308
100O HM TH
1%
J204
MAL E
L213
FILTER
1
3
1000PF
L215
FILTER
1
3
2
1
4
SH ELL
1000PF
AGN D 6
AGN D 6
+15V
IC220
DRV1 34PA
3
10K
2
O PA2134UA
49.9OHM TH
1%
+15V
RIGH T
OU TPUT 2
TRIM
R294
2
6
R300
475OH M
1%
AG N D 5
6
R290
1%
6
7
IC217B
O PA2134UA
7
C260
1500PF
10%
R293
10.0K
1%
IC218B
AGN D 5
C258
1000PF
5%
J203
MAL E
L209
FILTER
1
10K
5
1500PF
1% ,50V
AGN D 5
0.47UF
25V
C254
82.5K 1%
5V
E308
VR EFL
AGN D 5
AGND 5
3.48K
1%
49.9O
HM
6
8
8.4
5K 1%
R273
R271
C253
470PF
1% ,50V
R284
11.3K
1%
R287
11.3K
1%
VR202
7
8
20
E307
21
R270
R280
3.48K
1%
8.45K
1%
C256
R298
2
1
22
E306
23
+15V
3.48K
1%
110OH M
R292
1%
1.00M
1%
R288
R283
5
NC
E305
3
R279
IC219
DRV134PA
3
4
25
IC216A
1
2
OPA2134UA
C250
470PF
1%,50V
OPA2134UA
AOU TR+
17
4
R291
6
CW
5
CW
1500PF
1% ,50V
LEFT
OU TPUT 2
TRIM
IC216B
O PA2134UA
7
2
1
C252
R269
82.5K 1%
5V
4
AO U TR
CK S0
CK S1
CK S2
Servo
f3dB = 0.10Hz
8
24
VCO M
18
AV D D
AOU TL+
DIF0
DIF1
DIF2
R268
8.45K
1%
8
C245
0.1U F
50V
DE M 0
DE M 1
R267
8.45K
1%
TRAN SZO RB
LEFT ANALOG
OUT PUT 2
+15V
BVSS
+ C244
1.0U F
35V
26
27
28
AOU TL
15
12
13
14
P/S
AVSS
10
11
VR EFH
19
10.0K 1%
MC LK
PD
BIC K
SD ATA
LRCK
SM U TE
DFS
DV D D
2
R265
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DVSS
/RSTDA
AOU T_BC LK
AO U T2_DAT A
AOU T_FC LK
1
(SHT 4)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
IC215
3
1000PF
AGN D 4
+
C247
0.1U F 50V
R266
10OHM
1%
1
AGND 4
AGN D 4
C248
1.0U F
35V
3 pole
Butterw orth
f3dB =40KH z
CR203
TRAN SZO RB
2
L203
FILTER
R264
475OH M
1%
100OHM
1%
1.2m H
1000PF
AGN D 4
+15V
C249
0.1U F 50V
CR20 2
6
R252
10.0K
1%
3
IC214
DRV134PA
3
10K
8
+5VA
C246
1.0U F
35V
7
8
2
1
5
VR 201
2
O PA2134UA
4
R263
475OH M
1%
1
4
SHELL
TRAN SZO RB
3.48K
1%
110OH M
1%
C242
1500PF
10%
2
3
R216
C220
470PF
1% ,50V
R234
11.3K
1%
R219
11.3K
1%
R248
1.00M
1%
C238
1000PF
5%
3
3
R215
8.45K
1%
C235
R259
100OHM
1%
TRAN SZO RB
R214
R246
3.48K
1%
3.48K
1%
6
R220
L206
1.2m H
J202
MAL E
L202
FILTER
1
CR207
TRAN SZO RB
+15V
AK4393VF
R218
+15V
RIGH T
OU TPUT 1
TRIM
R250
SH ELL
TR AN SZO R B
3
R217
AGN D 3
AGN D 3
1
4
TR AN SZO R B
IC202A
1
2
O PA2134UA
2
RIGHT ANALO G
OUT PUT 1
CR20 4
4
C218
470PF
1%,50V
3
1000PF
CR 205
5
R255
49.9O
HM
1%
AGN D 3
5
1500PF
1% ,50V
1
CR206
VREFL
16
6
C222
82.5K 1%
5V
E304
15V
R251
10.0K
1%
IC212B
7
IC20
2B
O PA2134UA
7
R258
100OHM
1%
10K
0.47UF
25V
AGN D 3
L205
1.2m H
CR20 8
8.45K1%
AGN D 3
AGND 3
1%
CR209
82.5K 1%
R213
R212
AGN D 3
49.9O
HM
L201
FILTER
2
8.45K 1%
8.45K1%
VR200
R262
475OH M
1%
2
R211
3.4
8K
1%
C241
1500PF
10%
2
8.45K 1%
R209
R208
C219
470PF
1% ,50V
R233
11.3K
1%
R206
11.3K
1%
C237
1000PF
5%
1000PF
R261
475O H M
1%
2
8
R207
8.45K
1%
C234
R254
6
20
E303
21
+15V
3.48K
R245 1%
3.48K
1%
110OH M
R247
1%
1.00M
1%
R210
R205
3
7
8
22
E302
23
3
R204
C240
1500PF
10%
IC213
DRV134PA
2
1
NC
E301
IC201A
1
2
OPA2134UA
25
R249
6
O PA2134UA
AOU TR+
C217
470PF
1%,50V
17
4
5
5
LEFT
OU TPUT 1
TRIM
IC20
1B
O PA2134UA
7
CW
1500PF
1% ,50V
4
AOU TR
CK S0
CK S1
CK S2
C221
R203
82.5K 1%
5V
CW
8.45K
1%
4
24
R202
8.4
5K
1%
VCO M
18
AV D D
AOU TL+
DIF0
DIF1
DIF2
R201
C236
1000PF
5%
3
3
L204
1.2m H
TRAN SZO RB
R253
49.9O
HM
1%
+15V
BVSS
C202
0.1U F
50V
DE M 0
DE M 1
1
+ C200
1.0U F
35V
26
27
28
AOU TL
15
12
13
14
P/S
AVSS
10
11
VR EFH
19
10.0K 1%
MC LK
PD
BICK
SDATA
LRCK
SM U TE
DFS
DV D D
2
R237
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DVSS
/RSTDA
AOU T_BC LK
AO U T1_DAT A
AOU T_FC LK
IC211
Servo
f3dB = 0.10Hz
2
C233
0.1U F 50V
R200
10OH M
1%
8
C231
47PF
5% ,100V
(SHT 4)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
3 pole
Butterw orth
f3dB =40KH z
C203
0.1U F 50V
J201
MAL E
L200
FILTER
1
2
C201
1.0U F
35V
+
C232
1.0U F
35V
2
R238
110OH M
1%
+
(SH T5)
6-47
Input / Output Board Schematic
Analog Outputs
Sheet 2 of 4
62260.000.01
6-48
E550
PICS DI
DIGITAL OUT PUT
DAU G H TER
BO AR D
CON NECTOR
R501
49.9K
1%
+5VD
AESINS C LK
J505
AESINLR C K
PIC SC K
3
2
L501
8
3
4
2
C503
9
1.62K
1%
12
/SRCRST
+ C516
1.0U F
35v
VL+
13
14
26
2
MC LK
(SH T5)
+5VD
23
20
U
SD O U T
3
4
C502
0.1U F
19
MC LK
(SHT5)
R524
E501
INTA
OL RCK
RX P2
OS C LK
RX P3
RXP 4
MMOD E_2
MC LK_IN
MMOD E_1
MC LK_O U T
MMOD E_0
28
6
SD ATA_I
SC LK_O
SC LK_I
LRCL K_O
LRCL K_I
SD ATA_O
25
IN_BC LK
24
IN_FCLK
23
R530
18
8
VD D _IO
VD D _CORE
DGN D
DGN D
9
SRC BYP
10
BY PASS
TD M_ IN
SM O D E_IN _0
SMODE _OU T_0
11
E522
12
13
/SRCRST
14
+5VD
(SH T5)
E512
12.288M
HZA
14
15
R519
10.0K
1%
WL NG TH_O U T_1
MU TE_IN
/AES IN C S
/AES OU TC S1
/AES OU TC S2
PICS CK
PICS DI
PICS DO
SIN
(SH T5)
SOU T
(SH T5)
/CTS
(SH T5)
/RTS
(SH T5)
E515
21
+5VD
IC514
20
19
18
1
C521
IN
OUT
5
+ C520
+
1.0UF
35v
3
SH D N
17
LT1761ES5-3.3
BYP
4
OSC 1/CLK IN
OSC 2 /C LK OUT
MC LR /Vpp
36
37
38
39
41
42
43
44
R B1_SEL
R B2_SEL
R B3_SEL
INTA
INTB
C519
4700PF
5% ,NPO
0.1UF
+5VD
IC507
15
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
E513
R531
10.0K
1%
(SHT 5)
RB 1_SEL
RB 2_SEL
RB 3_SEL
11
10
9
/M CKOUT EN2
7
12.288M H ZA
16.9344M H Z
AE SIN R M C K
18.432M H ZA
4
3
2
1
15
14
13
12
33.8688M H Z
36.864M H ZA
A
B
C
S
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Y
W
5
MC KOU T2
6
74HC151
R520
49.9K
1%
+5VD IC508
+5VD
74AH C1G 32
1
4
IC511
2
E554
E552
E553
RA 1_SEL
RA 2_SEL
RA 3_SEL
11
10
9
/M CKOUT EN1
7
R533
2
10.0K
1%
1
17
28
40
34
10UF
C522
16
R527
10.0K
1%
5
16
18
19
20
25
26
27
29
9
10
11
4
3
2
1
15
14
13
12
A
B
C
S
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Y
W
8
R521
1.0
0K
1%
CR500
/I
O_ RESET
+ C515
1.0U F
35V
+3.3V
AD1895AYRS
+5VD
5082 2800
MU TE_O U T
3
10.0K 1%
(SHT 5)
E551
RB 0/I
NT
RB 1
RB 2
RB 3
RB 4
RB 5
RB 6
RB 7
VS S
RA 1_SEL
RA 2_SEL
RA 3_SEL
R532
RESET
AES11 EN2
22
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
RC0/T1O SO /T1CK I
RC1 /T1OS I/CCP2
R C 2/CCP1
RC3/SC K/SC L
RC4/SD I/SD A
RC5/SD O
RC6/TX/CK
RC7/RX /DT
RE 0/RD
RE 1/WR
RE 2/CS
RA 0
RA 1
RA 2
RA 3
RA 4/T0CKI
RA 5/SS
VS S
/INGAIN C S
3
4
5
6
7
8
13
(SHT2)
RD 0/PSP0
RD 1/PSP1
RD 2/PSP2
RD 3/PSP3
RD 4/PSP4
RD 5/PSP5
RD 6/PSP6
RD 7/PSP7
D[0..7]
(SH T2)
WL NG TH_O U T_0
NC
NC
NC
NC
74HC374
+5VD
21
22
23
24
30
31
32
33
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
SM O D E_IN _2
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
16
VD D
/M CKOUT EN1
/M CKOUT EN2
/AES11EN 1
AES11EN2
SRC BYP
/RSTAD
(SHT2)
/RSTD A
(SHT3)
/SRCRS T
CLK
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
2
5
6
9
12
15
16
19
DIN_DAT A
35
IC510
SMODE _OU T_1
VD D
12
IC503
PIC 16C6720/L
11
OE
GND
10
1
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
VC C
20
+5VD
SM O D E_IN _1
DOUT2_FCLK
DOUT2_B CLK
DOUT2_DA TA
MC LK
MC KO U T1
IDC H EAD ER 2X13
(SH T 5)
16
15
MCKOU T2
/AES11 EN 1
/SRCRST
(SH T 5)
75OH M 1%
7
/AES OU TCS2
DO U T1_FC LK
DO U T1_BC LK
D O UT 1_DA TA
26
CS8415A-CZZ
3
4
7
8
13
14
17
18
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
(SHT 5)
27
+5VD
49.9K 1%
17
RX P1
NC
25
5
INT
RE R R
27
21
OMCK
RM C K
1
22
DG N D
RS T
IC512
PIC SD O
24
H/S
FILT
10
11
RXP 5
AGN D
8
R502
RXP 6
VA +
7
AE SIN R MC K
+5VD
6
C518
4700PF
5%,NPO
0.33UF
10%
AD1 /C D IN
RX N 0
FERRIT
E
C501
0.1U F
AD 0/C S
RX P0
5
C517
1000PF
1% ,50v
SC L/C C LK
EM PH
4
+5VD
28
SD A/C D O U T
16
1
VC C
IC500
R500
1%
110OHM
GND
0.1U F
AESINS C LK
PICS DI
PICS CK
/AESOUT C S1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
8
T500
SC 93702
5
1
FER RITE
GND
2
SHELL
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
AESIN LR C K
PICS DO
VC C
C500
5
MC KOU T1
6
GND
L500
2
J500
FEMALE
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
ORBAN MODEL 9400
/AESIN C S
AES/EBU
DI
G ITAL
N
IP UT
1
4
TECHNICAL DATA
74HC151
(SHT 5)
Input / Output Board Schematic
Control & Digital Input/Output
Sheet 3 of 4
62260.000.01
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
DSP B
OAR D
CONN ECTOR
E612
18.432M H ZA
75O H M
1%
IC 603C
6
(SH T4)
5
(SH T2)
(SH T4)
74HC14A
R605
R602
1.00K
1%
36.864M H ZA
H EADER 14
R606
1
19
ID C H EADER 2X13
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
G
G
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
E606
E605
18
16
14
12
9
7
5
3
AO U T1_DATA
7
IC 603E
10
8.192MH ZA
(SHT 2)
(SHT 3)
+5VD
COM P_B CLK
AOU T_F CLK
MC LK
IN_BCLK
IN_FCLK
AOU T _BC LK
(SHT 3)
(SHT 3,4)
(SHT 2,4)
(SHT 2,4)
(SHT 3)
2
3
D
CLK
E609
74HC14A
IC604A
Q
Q
5
6
74AH CT244
+5VD
C653
1000PF
1%,50V
74HC14A
74HC74
+5VD
R603
1.00K
1%
(SH T4)
(SH T4)
11
13
75O H M
1%
/I
O_ RESET
2
4
6
8
11
13
15
17
IC603F
12
24.576M H ZA
12.288M HZA
74HC14A
IC60
1
10
+5VD
75O H M
1%
AIN_DAT A
DIN _D ATA
8
4
R601
1.00K
1%
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
R604
IC603D
9
PR
SIN
SOU T
/RTS
/CTS
14
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
CLR
74HC14A
JP600
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
18.432M H Z
36.864M H Z
24.576M H Z
33.8688M H Z
1
3
C652
1000PF
1% ,50V
20
4
18.432M H ZA
(SHT 4)
+5VD
J600
VCC
BASE BOARD
CONNE CTOR
IC603B
GND
E607
6-49
+5VD
IC604B
+5VD
POWER SUPPLY
CONNECTOR
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
2
16.93
44M H Z
(SH T4)
20
VCC
1
74HC14A
8
IC605
2
4
6
8
11
13
15
17
74HC74
(SHT 4)
+5VA
-5VA
J601
-15V
+15V
Q
9
C654
1000PF
1% ,50V
-15V
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
1
19
+15V
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
G
G
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
10
+5VA
-5VA
Q
E611
VCC
CLR
CLK
GND
11
33.8688M
HZ
E610
13
R600
1.0
0K 1%
D
7
12
PR
IC603A
E613
+5VD
E614
18
16
14
12
9
7
5
3
DOUT 2_FCLK
DOUT 2_BC LK
DOUT 2_DA TA
AO U T2_DAT A
DOUT 1_DA TA
DOUT 1_BC LK
DOUT 1_FCLK
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
(SHT 3)
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
(SHT 4)
GND
14
10
+5VD
74AH CT244
C655
1000PF
1% ,50V
+5VD
IDC HEADE R 2X10
+15V
M1
M3
M2
TP600
TEST_PO IN T
+ C646
10UF
20V
C666
0.1U F
C667
0.1U F
+ C647
10UF
20V
C671
0.1U F
C673
0.1U F
AGN D 6
C657
0.1U F
C658
0.1U F
C661
0.1U F
C663
0.1U F
AGND 5
C618
0.1U F
C621
0.1U F
C632
0.1U F
C634
0.1U F
AGND 4
C617
0.1U F
C620
0.1U F
C633
0.1U F
C635
0.1U F
C623
0.1U F
AGN D 3
C639
0.1U F
AGN D 2
C622
0.1U F
C625
0.1U F
C638
0.1U F
C641
0.1U F
M5
M4
M21 M33 M3 4 M3 5
AGN D 1
-15V
+5VD
+ C645
10UF
20V
C600
0.1U F
C601
0.1U F
C602
0.1U F
TP607
TEST_PO IN T
C604
0.1U F
C605
0.1U F
C606
0.1UF
C607
0.1U F
C609
0.1U F
C642
0.1U F
C643
0.1U F
C644
0.1U F
C648
0.1U F
C651
0.1U F
Input / Output Board Schematic
Interface & Power Distribution
Sheet 4 of 4
62260.000.01
6-50
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
Input / Output Daughterboard
Parts Locator Drawing
for schematic 62280.000.01
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
IC5
1
2
MC LK
3
IC2
NC
MMODE_ 2
MC LK _IN
MMODE_ 1
MC LK _O U T
MMODE_ 0
28
PICSDI
1
27
/AES OU T CS1
2
26
3
SD A/CDOUT
SCL/C CLK
AD0 /CS
AD 1/C D IN
AD2
TXP
28
PICSCK
27
PICSDO
26
R1
AES/EBU
DIGITA
L
OUTPUT 1
L1
1
T1
2
SC LK_O
25
4
RX P
TXN
4
25
DOU T1_BC LK
5
SCLK_I
LRC LK_O
24
5
DGND
H/S
8
24
+5VD
DOU T1_FC LK
6
LRCL K_I
SDATA _O
23
+5VD
SC 937 2
L2
8
VD D _IO
DGND
VD D _CORE
DGND
6
VD
VL
23
FERRITE
22
7
21
8
TEST
DGND
TEST
OMCK
22
21
MC KOU T1
E1
9
BYPASS
TDM _IN
20
/SRCRST
9
RST
U
R3
20
E2
10
11
12
13
SMOD E_ N
I _0
SMOD E_OU T_0
SMOD E_ N
I _1
SMOD E_OU T_1
SMOD E_ N
I _2
WLN GTH _O U T_0
RESET
WLN GTH _O U T_1
XLR _M ALE
+5VD
+3.3V
7
/SRCRST
SHELL
3
SDATA_ I
1
4
FERRITE
2
4
J1
5
110OHM 1%
DOU T1_DA TA
6-51
19
10
18
11
17
12
16
13
TEST
INT
TEST
TEST
ILRCK
TEST
ISCLK
TEST
SDIN
TCBL
49.9K 1%
19
18
17
16
E3
+5VD
AD1 895AYRS
DO U T2_FCLK
DO U T2_BC LK
D O UT 2_DA TA
MC LK
MC K O U T1
VC C
B1
B2
B3
B4
AES11 EN 2
IC6
1
CABLE_26P
NC
MMODE_ 2
28
/AES11EN 1
YA1
YA2
YA3
YA4
R4
15
+5VD
+3.3V
49.9K 1%
IC4
74HC241A
YB1
YB2
YB3
YB4
BE N
MC KOUT2
/AES11EN1
/SRCRST
11
13
15
17
A1
A2
A3
A4
AE N
/AES OU TC S2
DOUT1_FCLK
DOUT1_B CLK
DOUT1_DATA
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
2
4
6
8
1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
AESIN LR C K
PICSDO
AESIN LRCK
AESIN SCLK
AESIN SCLK
PICS DI
PICS CK
/AES O U T CS1
19
JP1
14
IC1
1
C S8406CZZ
18
16
14
12
3
+ C4
1.0U F
35V
9
7
5
3
OUT
SHD N
BYP
5
C1
4700PF
5% ,NPO
4
LT1761ES5
C2
0.1UF
+ C3
10U F
3
IC3
PICS DI
1
/AESOU T CS2
2
SD A/CDOUT
SCL/C CLK
AD0 /CS
AD 1/CD IN
28
PICSCK
27
PICSDO
26
R2
AES/EBU
DIGITA
L
OUTPUT 2
AES11EN2
MC LK
2
3
MC LK_IN
MC LK_ O U T
MMODE_ 1
MMODE_ 0
27
26
3
AD2
TXP
L3
1
T2
5
DOU T2_BC LK
5
SDATA_I
SC LK_O
25
4
RX P
TXN
SCLK_I
LRC LK_O
24
5
DGND
H/S
25
4
24
+5VD
DOU T2_FC LK
6
LRCLK_I
SD ATA _O
23
+5VD
8
+3.3V
VDD _IO
DGND
VD D _CORE
DGND
6
BYPASS
TD M _IN
7
VD
VL
21
8
TEST
DGND
10
11
12
/SRCRST
13
SMOD E_IN _0
SMOD E_OU T_0
SMOD E_ IN _1
SMOD E_OU T_1
SMOD E _IN _2
WL N G TH _O U T_0
TEST
OMCK
21
MC KOU T2
/SRCRST
9
RST
U
20
RESET
WL N G TH _O U T_1
19
10
18
11
17
12
16
13
15
14
TEST
INT
TEST
TEST
ILRCK
TEST
ISCLK
TEST
14
MU TE_IN
MU TE_OU T
SDIN
TCBL
R5
49.9K 1%
19
18
17
16
E6
+5VD
XLR _M ALE
22
E5
C6
0.1U F
L4
FERRITE
22
20
SC 937 2
23
E4
9
SHELL
8
+5VD
+3.3V
7
1
4
3
4
2
DOU T2_DA TA
J2
2
FERRITE
110OH M 1%
C5
0.1U F
IN
GND
15
2
MU TE_OU T
GN D
MU TE_IN
20
14
10
I/
O
BOA R D
CO NNECTOR
+5VD
15
R6
49.9K 1%
AD1 895AYRS
C7
0.1U F
C8
0.1U F
C9
0.1U F
C10
0.1U F
C11
0.1U F
C12
0.1U F
C S8406 CZ Z
Input / Output Daughterboard Schematic
Sheet 1 of 1
Drawing 62280.000.01
6-52
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
DSP BOARD PARTS LOCATOR DRAWING
32170.000.14
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
6-53
E50
FSYNCB
BCLKB
EXTALB
IC101A
DSP56362-120
+3.3V
N/C
N/C
C101
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
E28
4
5
12
14
16
6
7
137
136
135
134
N/C
SD_00
SD_01
(SHT7)
IC102A
DSP56362-120
E29
(SHT7)
+3.3V
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
C103
8200PF
C102
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
E30
(SHT7)
4
5
12
14
16
(SHT7)
N/C
6
SD10
7
SD11
137
(SHT7)
136
+3.3V
135
134
+3.3V
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
C105
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
E32
IC104A
DSP56362-120
E33
4
5
12
N/C
14
N/C
16
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
6
SD20
7
SD21
N/C
137
(SHT7)
136
+3.3V
135
C107
134
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
E34
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
4
5
12
14
16
6
7
137
136
135
134
0.47UF
+3.3V
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
C109
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
E36
R105
0 OHM
E37
4
5
12
N/C
14
N/C
16
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
6
SD40
+3.3V
SD41
7
N/C
137
(SHT7)
136
+3.3V
135
C111
134
8200PF
C112
(SHT7)
+3.3V
FSYNCB
BCLKB
EXTALB
(SHT7)
+3.3V
R101
100K 1%
8200PF
C110
0.47UF
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
IRQB1
BCLKA
IC105A
DSP56362-120
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SD30
SD31
0.47UF
+3.3V
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
E35
FSYNCA
EXTALA
(SHT7)
N/C
IRQB1
0.47UF
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
8200PF
C108
8200PF
C106
0.47UF
IRQB2
IC103A
DSP56362-120
E31
8200PF
C104
0.47UF
FSYNCA
BCLKA
EXTALA
IBCLK
IFSYNC
IDATA1
IDATA0
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
+3.3V
IC106A
DSP56362-120
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
E38
IC107A
DSP56362-120
E39
4
5
12
N/C
14
N/C
16
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
6
+3.3V
SD50
SD51
7
N/C
137
(SHT7)
136
+3.3V
135
C113
134
8200PF
C114
0.47UF
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
E40
IC108A
DSP56362-120
E41
4
5
12
14
16
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
6
+3.3V
SD60
SD61
7
N/C
137
(SHT7)
136
+3.3V
135
C115
134
11
10
13
15
17
55
59
61
45
46
47
SD10
SD11
FSR
SCKR
HCKR
EXTAL
CLKOUT
PINIT/NMI
VCCP
PCAP
GNDP
SDO0
SDO1
FST
SCKT
HCKT
SDO2/SD13
SDO3/SD12
MODA/IRQA
MODB/IRQB
MODC/IRQC
MODD/IRQD
+3.3V
100K 1%
4
5
12
14
16
6
7
137
136
135
134
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
R102
100K 1%
R103
(SHT7)
SD62
SD63
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
R104
100K 1%
ODATA2
ODATA3
OFSYNCA
OBCLKA
N/C
SD70
SD71
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
+3.3V
8200PF
C116
0.47UF
IRQB2
DSP ESAI SCHEMATIC
62170.000.12
(SHT7)
6-54
(SHT6)
(SHT6,7)
ORBAN MODEL 9400
A[0..2]
D[0..7]
IC101B
DSP56362-120
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
IC102B
DSP56362-120
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN0
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
(SHT6)
IC105B ?
DSP56362-120
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
*
TECHNICAL DATA
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
NOTE:
IC 104 & IC 105
ARE NOT POPULATED
IN 2300 BUILD.
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
IC103B
DSP56362-120
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN1
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
(SHT6)
IC106B
DSP56362-120
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN4
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
(SHT6)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
IC104B
DSP56362-120
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN2
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
(SHT6)
IC107B
DSP56362-120
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN5
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
(SHT6)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN3
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
(SHT6)
IC108B
DSP56362-120
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN6
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
(SHT6)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
34
35
36
37
40
41
42
43
H7
H6
H5
H4
H3
H2
H1
H0
HA2
HA1
HA0
HRD
HCS
HOREQ
HACK
HWR
RESET
31
32
33
22
30
24
23
21
44
A2
A1
A0
HRD
(SHT6)
DSPEN7
(SHT6)
N/C
HACK
(SHT6)
HWR
(SHT6)
DSPRST
(SHT6)
DSP HOST INTERFACE SCHEMATIC
62170.000.12
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
N/C
N/C
VCCS
25
38
8
57
65
VCCC
VCCH
TDO
TMS
TRST
DE
N/C
28
27
29
141
140
139
142
138
53
60
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS4
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
*
N/C
VCCS
25
8
65
38
VCCH
TDO
TMS
TRST
DE
N/C
GNDS
N/C
TDI
GNDS
60
N/C
TCK
26
53
N/C
TIO0
GNDH
138
N/C
ADO
9
142
N/C
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
ACI
39
139
N/C
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDC
140
N/C
VCCC
57
25
141
N/C
VCCC
VCCS
8
38
57
65
VCCC
VCCH
N/C
29
N/C
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
66
N/C
DE
27
N/C
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
GNDC
N/C
TMS
TRST
28
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS7
58
60
N/C
TDO
GNDS
53
N/C
TDI
26
138
N/C
TCK
GNDS
142
N/C
TIO0
GNDH
139
N/C
ADO
9
140
N/C
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
1
144
143
2
3
NOTE:
IC 104 & IC 105
ARE NOT POPULATED
IN 2300 BUILD.
IC108D
DSP56362-120
+3.3V
+3.3V
ACI
39
141
N/C
VCCC
25
8
VCCS
VCCH
65
VCCC
57
VCCC
38
N/C
29
N/C
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDC
N/C
DE
27
N/C
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
66
N/C
TMS
TRST
28
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS6
GNDC
60
N/C
TDO
1
144
143
2
3
58
53
N/C
TDI
GNDS
138
N/C
TCK
26
142
N/C
TIO0
GNDS
GNDS
26
9
GNDS
N/C
139
N/C
ADO
9
DE
140
N/C
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
IC107D
DSP56362-120
+3.3V
+3.3V
ACI
GNDH
TMS
TRST
141
N/C
GNDC
TDO
29
N/C
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
39
TDI
27
N/C
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
66
TCK
28
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS5
GNDC
TIO0
1
144
143
2
3
58
ADO
GNDH
GNDC
ACI
39
66
+3.3V
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
IC106D
DSP56362-120
+3.3V
25
8
VCCS
VCCH
65
VCCC
57
VCCC
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDC
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
58
+3.3V
38
IC105D
DSP56362-120
+3.3V
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
GNDS
N/C
TDI
GNDS
60
N/C
TCK
1
144
143
2
3
26
53
N/C
TIO0
GNDH
138
N/C
ADO
9
142
N/C
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
ACI
39
139
N/C
GNDC
140
N/C
VCCC
25
8
VCCS
38
57
65
VCCC
VCCH
N/C
141
N/C
66
N/C
DE
29
N/C
IC104D
DSP56362-120
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDC
N/C
TMS
TRST
27
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
58
N/C
TDO
28
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS3
GNDS
N/C
TDI
1
144
143
2
3
26
60
N/C
TCK
GNDS
53
N/C
TIO0
GNDH
N/C
138
N/C
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
ADO
9
DE
142
N/C
VCCC
25
8
VCCS
38
VCCH
65
VCCC
57
VCCC
58
TMS
TRST
139
N/C
+3.3V
ACI
39
N/C
TDO
140
N/C
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDC
N/C
TDI
141
N/C
+3.3V
IC103D
DSP56362-120
66
N/C
TCK
29
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
GNDC
N/C
GNDS
60
N/C
TIO0
27
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
58
53
N/C
ADO
28
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS2
GNDS
138
N/C
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
1
144
143
2
3
26
142
N/C
26
9
GNDS
N/C
139
N/C
+3.3V
ACI
GNDS
DE
140
N/C
9
TMS
TRST
141
N/C
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
GNDH
TDO
29
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
GNDC
TDI
27
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
39
TCK
28
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS1
+3.3V
IC102D
DSP56362-120
66
TIO0
1
144
143
2
3
GNDC
SCK
MISO
MOS1
SS
HREQ
ADO
GNDH
GNDC
+3.3V
ACI
39
66
25
8
VCCS
38
VCCH
65
VCCC
57
VCCC
VCCD
VCCD
VCCA
VCCA
VCCA
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQH
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
VCCQL
GNDP1
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDQ
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDA
GNDD
GNDD
58
129
119
111
103
86
80
74
95
49
20
126
91
56
18
48
19
54
90
127
75
81
87
96
104
112
120
130
GNDC
+3.3V
+3.3V
IC101D
DSP56362-120
+3.3V
1
144
143
2
3
SCK
SDO
SDI
SS8
28
IOLINK
27
29
141
140
139
142
138
53
60
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
N/C
(SHT7)
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
DSP SERIAL PERIPHERAL INTERFACE,
POWER, AND GROUND SCHEMATIC
62170.000.12
6-55
6-56
TECHNICAL DATA
IC503
EPM7064AETC44-10
IC502
74LVX4245
+3.3V
+3.3V
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
(SHT5)
SA9
SA8
SA7
SA6
SA5
SA4
SA3
3
5
20
6
8
10
11
AEN
12
SMEMR 13
SMEMW 14
BIOR
15
BIOW
18
RESET 19
PTCK
26
32
P2TDI
4
29
17
VCCINT
VCCINT
R502
100K
1%
VCCINT
GCLRn
TCK
TDO
GND
16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
N/C
(SHT7)
(SHT7)
TMS
OE2
RN501
100K-RESNET
DO NOT STUFF J503
OE1
GCLK1
41
2
44
43
42
35
34
33
31
30
28
39
27
25
23
22
21
38
37
R503
100K
1%
J503 ?
HDR 2X2
1 2
3 4
UNSHRD
DSPEN7
DSPEN6
DSPEN5
DSPEN4
DSPEN3
DSPEN2
DSPEN1
DSPEN0
DSPRST
(SHT3,7)
BUSEN
PLDEN
(SHT7)
R/W
START
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT7)
GND
(SHT3,7)
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
SS1
SS2
SS3
SS4
SS5
SS6
SS7
SS8
7
40
*
+3.3V
R506
75.0 OHM
J503
36
D[0..7]
+3.3V
VCC
GND
OE
GND
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
2
5
6
9
12
15
16
19
PTMS
24
BUSEN
3
4
7
8
13
14
17
18
CLK
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
11
D[0..7]
(SHT3,7)
9
1
TDI
20
VccB
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
10
1
12
NC
OE
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
SA[3..9]
IC504
74HC374
(SHT7)
13
B to A
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
GND
GND
BD0
BD1
BD2
BD3
BD4
BD5
BD6
BD7
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
+3.3V
GND
24
1
VccA
R/W
P1TDI
(SHT7)
GND
+3.3V
+5VB
BD[0..7]
ORBAN MODEL 9400
I/O ADDRESS SPACE
NONE
3XX
1 - 2
2XX
3 - 4 (R506)
1XX
IC501
74AHC541
+3.3V
BD0
SMEMW
SMEMR
BIOR
(SHT5)
SDO
R510
10.0K
1%
(SHT5)
SCK
DRQ1
SA9
SA8
SA4
SA3
SA1
SA0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
20
+3.3V
BD7
BD5
BD2
BD1
AEN
R505
75.0 OHM
1%
BIOW
BIOR
BIOW
SA0
SA1
SA2
+3.3V
R508
75.0 OHM
1%
DACK1
R504
100K
1%
/SPI_CS
1
19
DACK1
SDI
SA6
SA7
SA5
SA2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
E1
E2
VCC
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
10
RESET
/SPI_CS
BD6
BD4
BD3
+5VB
GND
J504
(SHT5)
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
Q8
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
HRD
HWR
A0
A1
A2
HACK
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
(SHT3)
J500
DRQ1
1
2
HDR 2
R509
100K
1%
R507
10.0K
1%
HDR 20X2
SHRD
BASE BOARD
CONNECTOR
DSP ISA BUS 8-BIT I/O SCHEMATIC
62170.000.12
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
IC604
IC603
EPM7256ATC100-10
(SHT6)
P1TDI
R603
100K
1%
75.0 OHM
R612
ODATA1
75.0 OHM
1
19
DACBCLK
OE1
OE2
16
14
R808
E48
33.2OHM
18
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
2
1
20
19
C801
10UF 20V
74LVC2244
6
5
0.1UF
16
8
RST
MODE
ML/SR01
MC/FS1
MD/FS0
Vddb
IDATA0
IDATA1
IDATA2
3
R801
10.0K
1%
18
16
14
12
9
7
5
3
* DO NOT STUFF
MCKO
MCKO
RSV
XT2
YES
NO
1
3
5
7
9
2
4
6
8
10
HDR 5X2
UNSHRD
JTAG PORT
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
N/C
N/C
OFSYNCB
OBCLKB
ODATA0
ODATA1
ODATA2
ODATA3
DOUTFSYNC
DOUTBCLK
2
4
6
8
11
13
15
17
1
19
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
OE1
OE2
24.576MHzB
PLL1700E
10
11
9
E42
E43
N/C
12
14
17
13
5
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
18
16
14
12
9
7
5
3
74LVC2244
R807
33.8688MHz
33.2OHM
74AHCT04
IC807A
1
2
R809
18.432MHzA
33.2OHM
C804
74AHCT04
10UF 20V
+3.3V
6
N/C
IC807B
+
IC602
+3.3V
J603
0.1UF
15
NO
7
YES
YES
R806
IC807C
SCK01
SCK02
SCK03
SCK04
XT1
4
NO
J615_3-4
J616
R601
100K
1%
N/C
J615_1-2
C803
+3.3V
OTHER
C805
3
0.1UF
4
R811
36.864MHzB
33.2OHM
R810 74AHCT04
33.2OHM
L2
4
PTCK
PTDO
9400
8
IC801
?
JUMPERS
INSTALL
24.576MHz
IC807D
9
15
7
Gndb
Gndp
E46
E47
HDR 2
Y1
Y2
Y3
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
C809
0.1UF
7
Vddb
8
Vddp
3
Vdd
Gnd
4
12
14
17
13
Gndb
ODATA0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
IC807G
74AHCT04
N/C
+5V
Vddp
DACFSYNC
2
4
6
8
11
(SHT5)IOLINK
13
DACFSYNC 15
17
DACBCLK
9
1
2
Gndp
R611
IFSYNC
IBCLK
IMCLK
J616
Gnd
75.0 OHM
IC601
E44
E45
0.1UF
C806
R812*
75.0 OHM
R609
PILOTWCLK
XT2
10
11
74AHCT04
+3.3V
PILOTDATA
5
PLL1700E
33.2OHM
RIBBON CABLE_26P
*
C810
R608
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
RSV
SCK01
SCK02
SCK03
SCK04
XT1
Vdd
OFSYNCB
PILOTWCLK
PILOTBCLK
PILOTDATA
1
C3
0.1UF
OE
R802
150OHM
36.864MHz
IC804
GND +3
+3.3V
R607
75.0 OHM
6
OSC
2
(SHT6)
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
18.432MHzA
36.864MHzB
24.576MHzB
33.8688MHz
(SHT2)
75.0 OHM
R610
PILOTBCLK
+3.3V
(SHT6)
C1 0.1UF
J601
C802
+3.3V
R602
100K
1%
PTMS
I/O BOARD
CONNECTOR
0.1UF
OFSYNCA
100
99
98
97
96
94
93
92
85
84
1000PF
C600
MCKO
MCKO
MODE
ML/SR01
MC/FS1
MD/FS0
+
91
39
3
1
2
5
7
22
24
27
28
49
50
53
55
70
*
C2 0.1UF
20
DOUTFSYNC
DOUTBCLK
(SHT2)
OBCLKA
DACBCLK
1 2
3 4
2
1
20
19
+3.3V
VCC
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
TDI
TMS
TCK
TDO
J615 ?
RST
IC802
+3.3V_FILTERED
(SHT6)
P2TDI
PTMS
PTCK
PTDO
IDATA2
SD62
SD63
C601 +3.3V
GND
36.864MHZ
GCLK1
GCLRn
OE1
OE2/GCLK2
18
10
24.576MHZ
N/C
CY2305
R606 75.0 OHMOBCLKB
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
+5V
(SHT2)
R605 75.0 OHM
IRQB1
IRQB2
SD_00
SD_01
SD10
SD11
SD20
SD21
SD30
SD31
SD40
SD41
SD50
SD51
SD60
SD61
SD70
SD71
8
L1
Ferrite 0805
IMCLK
75.0 OHM
1%
N/C
N/C
N/C
20
DSPRST
HWR
PLDEN
6
8
9
10
12
13
14
16
17
19
20
87
89
88
90
11
26
38
43
59
74
86
95
4
15
62
73
71
75
76
83
77
VSS
CLKOUT
IBCLK
R613
3
2
5
7
CLK1
CLK2
CLK3
CLK4
VCC
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
(SHT6)
START
4
6
VCC
CLKREF
10
(SHT6)
51
66
82
68
67
65
64
63
61
60
58
57
56
54
52
48
47
46
45
44
42
41
40
37
36
35
33
32
31
30
29
25
23
21
81
80
79
78
72
1
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
(SHT2)
GND
EXTALA
EXTALB
FSYNCA
FSYNCB
BCLKA
BCLKB
IFSYNC
+3.3V
18
34
69
+3.3V
+3.3V
+5V
+3.3V
+3.3V
6-57
3
CMX-309FBC-27.000000M
DSP SERIAL AUDIO INTERFACE
AND CLOCK GENERATION
62170.000.12
6-58
TECHNICAL DATA
C740
0.1UF
C742
0.1UF
ORBAN MODEL 9400
+3.3V
C709
0.1UF
C711
0.1UF
C712
0.1UF
C713
0.1UF
C714
0.1UF
C715
0.1UF
C716
0.1UF
C718
0.1UF
C719
0.1UF
C720
0.1UF
C723
0.1UF
C724
0.1UF
C725
0.1UF
C726
0.1UF
C727
0.1UF
C732
0.1UF
C733
0.1UF
C734
0.1UF
C739
0.1UF
C741
0.1UF
C744
0.1UF
C751
0.1UF
C754
0.1UF
C756
0.1UF
C758
0.1UF
C759
0.1UF
C761
0.1UF
C762
0.1UF
C771
1000PF
C772
1000PF
C773
1000PF
C774
1000PF
+3.3V
+3.3V
C701
0.1UF
C702
0.1UF
C703
0.1UF
C704
0.1UF
C705
0.1UF
C706
0.1UF
C707
0.1UF
C708
0.1UF
C710
0.1UF
C728
0.1UF
C729
0.1UF
C743
0.1UF
C752
0.1UF
C753
0.1UF
C755
0.1UF
C757
0.1UF
C760
0.1UF
+ C4
10UF 20V
+ C5
10UF 20V
+ C6
10UF 20V
+ C7
10UF 20V
+ C8
10UF 20V
+ C9
10UF 20V
POWER SUPPLY
CONNECTOR
+3.3V
+5V
J701
CR700
6.8V
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
TP703
TP-DUAL
+RAW
1
IC807F
13
2
11
250UH
C749
0.1UF
10
74AHCT04
TP702
TP-DUAL
HS703
HEAT_SINK
5
+RAW
+ C776
100UF
50V
C775
0.1UF
VIN
4
+3.3V
GND
CR702
33V
FDBK
3
1
IC703
/ON
+ C736
22UF
12
74AHCT04
IC807E
HDR 2X8
SHROUDED
L701
+5VB
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
OUT
*
L700
2
CR703
31DQ04
PE-53113
150UH
+ C777
470UF
16V
+ C778
470UF
16V
DSP POWER DISTRIBUTION
62170.000.12
+ C10
10UF 20V
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
IC101C
DSP56362-120
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
N/C
R301
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
10.0K
1%
IC102C
DSP56362-120
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
N/C
R302
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
10.0K
1%
IC104C?
DSP56362-120
IC103C
DSP56362-120
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
N/C
R303
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
10.0K
1%
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
6-59
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
R304
10.0K
1%
IC105C?
DSP56362-120
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
IC106C
DSP56362-120
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
R306
R305
10.0K
1%
10.0K
1%
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
IC107C
DSP56362-120
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
R307
10.0K
1%
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
IC108C
DSP56362-120
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
+3.3V
R308
10.0K
1%
99
98
97
94
93
92
89
88
85
84
83
82
79
78
77
76
73
72
70
69
51
50
52
68
67
62
63
71
64
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
AA0/RAS0
AA0/RAS1
AA0/RAS2
AA0/RAS3
CAS
RD
WR
TA
BR
BG
BB
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
133
132
131
128
125
124
123
122
121
118
117
116
115
114
113
110
109
108
107
106
105
102
101
100
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
N/C
*
NOTE:
IC 104 & IC 105
ARE NOT POPULATED
IN 2300 BUILD.
DSP NO-CONNECT SCHEMATIC
62170.000.12
6-60
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
DISPLAY BOARD PARTS LOCATOR
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
DISPLAY BOARD
6-61
6-62
TECHNICAL DATA
ORBAN MODEL 9400
HF LIMITER FEEDBACK LINE
ALL CONTROLS TO THE RIGHT OF THIS LINE
ARE INDEPENDENT BETWEEN THE HD
AND ANALOG PROCESSING CHAINS
CLIPPING DISTORTION
CONTROLLER
FEEDBACK LINE
CLIPPER AND OVERSHOOT COMP
IMPLEMENT OUTPUT LOWPASS FILTERING
TRACKS OUTPUT LPF
TWO-BAND
STEREO
INPUT
STEREO
ENHANCER
LOW
PASS
FILTER
HIGHPASS
FILTER
STEREO
MONO L
MONO R
MONO SUM
AGC
EQUALIZER
HF ENHANCER
5-BAND
5-BAND
COMPRESSOR
LIMITER
RECEIVER EQ
CLIPPING
DISTORTION
CONTROLLER
DISTORTIONCANCELLED
CLIPPER
OVERSHOOT
COMPENSATOR
TRANSMITTER
EQUALIZER
ANALOG TX
MONITOR
COMPRESSOR/LIMITER
CONTROL COUPLING
ANALOG OUTPUT #1
HD TX
ANALOG TX
MONITOR
ANALOG OUTPUT #2
HD TX
ANALOG TX
MONITOR
AES3 OUTPUT #1
HD TX
ANALOG TX
MONITOR
HD TX
STEREO
MONO L
MONO R
MONO SUM
EQUALIZER
HF ENHANCER
5-BAND
5-BAND
COMPRESSOR
LIMITER
LOOK-AHEAD
LIMITER
COMPRESSOR/LIMITER
CONTROL COUPLING
OPTIMOD-AM 9400 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
AES3 OUTPUT #2
OPTIMOD-AM DIGITAL
TECHNICAL DATA
6-63