Cirrus FOM - Inflight Pilot Training

Flight Operations Manual
NOTE
Procedures in this publication are derived from procedures in the FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) Revision A7. Cirrus Design
has attempted to ensure that the data contained agrees with the data
in the AFM. If there is any disagreement, the Airplane Flight Manual
is the final authority.
COPYRIGHT © 2007 CIRRUS DESIGN CORPORATION DULUTH, MINNESOTA, USA
Original Release: August 2007
P/N 23020-001
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Flight Operations Manaul
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Section 1 - Introduction .............................................................. 1-1
General ................................................................................... 1-1
Single Pilot Resource Management ................................... 1-1
Checklist Philosophy .......................................................... 1-2
Classification of Checklists................................................. 1-3
Reference Materials................................................................ 1-3
Terms and Abbreviations ........................................................ 1-4
Contact Information ................................................................ 1-5
Section 2 - Limitations ................................................................ 2-1
General ................................................................................... 2-1
Section 3 - Standard Operating Procedures............................. 3-1
General ................................................................................... 3-1
Checklist Completion for Normal Procedures .................... 3-2
Preflight................................................................................... 3-4
Documentation ................................................................... 3-4
Equipment .......................................................................... 3-4
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-5
Before Engine Start ................................................................ 3-16
Passenger Flight Briefing ................................................... 3-16
Procedure (Do-List) ............................................................ 3-17
Engine Start ............................................................................ 3-18
Procedure (Do-List) ............................................................ 3-18
Before Taxi ............................................................................. 3-22
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-23
Avionics Configuration........................................................ 3-23
Taxi-Out .................................................................................. 3-24
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-25
Before Takeoff ........................................................................ 3-26
Procedure (Do-List) ............................................................ 3-26
Take-Off .................................................................................. 3-30
Sample Takeoff Briefing ..................................................... 3-30
Procedures (Flow Pattern) ................................................. 3-30
En Route Climb....................................................................... 3-36
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-37
Avionics Configuration........................................................ 3-38
Cruise ..................................................................................... 3-40
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-41
Avionics Configuration........................................................ 3-42
Descent ................................................................................... 3-44
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-45
Avionics Configuration........................................................ 3-45
Before Landing / Traffic Pattern .............................................. 3-46
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-47
Avionics Configuration........................................................ 3-47
Approach................................................................................. 3-50
Stabilized Approach Criteria ............................................... 3-50
Procedures ......................................................................... 3-52
Go-Around .............................................................................. 3-64
Procedure (Memory)........................................................... 3-65
Landing ................................................................................... 3-66
After Landing........................................................................... 3-68
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-69
Arrival/Engine Shutdown......................................................... 3-70
Procedure (Flow Pattern) ................................................... 3-71
Section 4 - Maneuvers................................................................. 4-1
General ................................................................................... 4-1
Steep turns.............................................................................. 4-1
Execution............................................................................ 4-1
Maneuvering during Slow Flight.............................................. 4-2
Execution............................................................................ 4-2
Recovery ............................................................................ 4-2
Power off Stalls ....................................................................... 4-3
Execution............................................................................ 4-3
Recovery ............................................................................ 4-3
Power on Stalls ....................................................................... 4-4
Execution............................................................................ 4-4
Recovery ............................................................................ 4-4
Autopilot Stall Recognition ...................................................... 4-5
AP Stall Recognition (Power Off) ....................................... 4-5
Autopilot Stall Recognition (Cont)....................................... 4-6
AP Stall Recognition (Power On) ....................................... 4-6
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Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Section 5 - Emergency and Abnormal Procedures.................. 5-1
General ................................................................................... 5-1
Checklist Completion for Abnormal Procedures................. 5-1
Checklist Completion for Emergency Procedures.............. 5-1
Section 6 - Performance ............................................................. 6-1
General ................................................................................... 6-1
Section 7 - Supplementary Information .................................... 7-1
General ................................................................................... 7-1
Pilot Qualification and Training ............................................... 7-2
Training .............................................................................. 7-2
Medical Certificates ............................................................ 7-4
Takeoff and Landing Wind Proficiency............................... 7-4
Takeoff, Enroute and Landing Minimums........................... 7-5
Currency Requirements ..................................................... 7-6
Pilot Duty Considerations........................................................ 7-7
Duty Time and Rest............................................................ 7-7
Physiological ...................................................................... 7-7
Aircraft Maintenance ............................................................... 7-8
Grounding of Aircraft .......................................................... 7-8
Flight Planning ........................................................................ 7-9
Weather Assessment ......................................................... 7-9
Fuel Requirements ............................................................ 7-10
Minimum Runway Length................................................... 7-10
Noise Abatement................................................................ 7-10
Weather .................................................................................. 7-11
Overview ............................................................................ 7-11
Hazards to Flight ................................................................ 7-11
Current Observations ......................................................... 7-12
Forecasted Weather........................................................... 7-12
NOTAMS ............................................................................ 7-12
Thunderstorm Flying ......................................................... 7-13
Temperature Minimums ..................................................... 7-13
Operations in Icing Conditions ........................................... 7-14
In-Flight Considerations .......................................................... 7-15
Turns after Takeoff ............................................................. 7-15
Weather Status................................................................... 7-15
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Table of Contents
Aircraft Systems Status ...................................................... 7-15
Pilot Status ......................................................................... 7-15
Situational Awareness ........................................................ 7-15
Supplemental Oxygen ........................................................ 7-16
Flight Safety ............................................................................ 7-17
Sterile Cabin ....................................................................... 7-17
Smoking.............................................................................. 7-17
International Border Operations .............................................. 7-18
Preflight .............................................................................. 7-18
Personal Documentation .................................................... 7-18
Aircraft Documentation ....................................................... 7-18
Crossing the United States and Canadian Border.............. 7-19
Incident and Accident Procedures .......................................... 7-20
Emergency Landing............................................................ 7-20
Aircraft Incident and Accident Notification .......................... 7-20
NTSB Field Office............................................................... 7-20
Aircraft Incident and Accident Report ..................................... 7-21
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Section 1
Flight Operations Manual
Introduction
Section 1 - Introduction
General
Procedures in this publication are derived from procedures in the FAA
Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM). Cirrus Design has attempted
to ensure that the data contained agrees with the data in the AFM. If
there is any disagreement, the Airplane Flight Manual is the final
authority.
Single Pilot Resource Management
Single Pilot Resource Management (SRM) is the art and science of
managing all the resources available to a single-pilot to ensure that the
successful outcome of the flight is never in doubt.
The majority of Cirrus aircraft operations are conducted single-pilot.
The work load associated with flying the aircraft, configuring and
monitoring avionics, communicating with air traffic control, and
decision making can be overwhelming at times. The following SRM
procedures have been adapted from cockpit procedures common to
dual pilot transport category aircraft.
General aviation pilots have a great deal of latitude on how to manage
and operate aircraft. To ensure the highest levels of safety it is strongly
recommended that these single pilot operating procedures be
incorporated into the operation of the aircraft.
Priority of Tasks
The following is a list of priorities that apply to any situation
encountered in flight. Pilots must adhere to these priorities during
every flight.
1. Maintain Aircraft Control
The number one priority of the pilot is to maintain aircraft control.
Pilots should maintain a high level of vigilance during periods of
high and low workload to ensure aircraft control is always
maintained.
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Section 1
Flight Operations Manual
Introduction
2. Navigation
Once aircraft control is assured, pilots should set and verify the
avionics are correctly configured for navigation. This task includes
programming GPS units and the PFD. Use of the autopilot may
assist the pilot with accomplishing these tasks. Pilots should
closely monitor flight parameters while programming various
avionics equipment.
3. Communication
Communication is an important task in the aircraft but follows
aircraft control and navigation as a priority. Communicate
intentions and relay instructions clearly to ATC/CTAF while
maintaining aircraft control.
• Note •
Using Standard Operating Procedures will aid the pilot in
timely completion of required tasks and allow the pilot to
maintain high levels of situational awareness.
Checklist Philosophy
When used properly, checklists enhance safety of flight by confirming
the aircraft is appropriately configured for the flight condition. At the
same time, checklists expedite the completion of procedures that are
necessary to transition to subsequent phases of flight.
The electronic checklist in the MFD should be used anytime the MFD
is running. Use of electronic checklists will help keep the cockpit
organized and functional. Use a paper checklist whenever the MFD
electronic checklists are not available.
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Section 1
Flight Operations Manual
Introduction
Classification of Checklists
All checklist procedures can be assigned one of three classifications:
Normal:
Procedures used during normal flight operations.
Normal checklists can be found in the Normal
Procedures section of the POH.
Abnormal:
Procedures used in response to system failures
and malfunctions that, while not immediately
threatening, may affect safety of flight if not
addressed. Abnormal checklists can be found in
the Abnormal Procedures section in the POH.
Emergency:
Procedures used in response to system failures
and malfunctions that are an immediate threat to
the safety of flight. Emergencies require immediate
action by the flight crew to ensure a safe outcome.
Emergency checklists can be found in the
Emergency Procedures section of the POH.
Reference Materials
The following references supplement the content of this publication:
• Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) or governing regulations,
as applicable,
• Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM),
• FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual and Pilot’s Operating
Handbook,
• Advisory Circulars,
• Cirrus Design Training Guide,
• Cirrus Design Envelop of Safety,
• Avionics Pilot Guides and Manuals.
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Section 1
Flight Operations Manual
Introduction
Terms and Abbreviations
The following terms and abbreviations will be referenced in this
manual.
AP
Autopilot
ATC
Air Traffic Control
DA
Decision Altitude
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
ETE
Estimated Time Enroute
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FAF
Final Approach Fix
FITS
FAA Industry Training Standards
GNS
Global Navigation System
GPS
Global Position System
GS
Glideslope
IAF
Initial Approach Fix
IAP
Instrument Approach Procedure
LNAV
Lateral Navigation
LPV
Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance
MAP
Missed Approach Point
MDA
Minimum Descent Altitude
MFD
Multi Function Display
NAS
National Airspace System
PFD
Primary Flight Display
PIC
Pilot in Command
SRM
Single Pilot Resource Management
VNAV
Vertical Navigation
VTF
Vectors to Final
WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System
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Section 1
Flight Operations Manual
Introduction
Contact Information
Air Safety Hotline.............................................................218-788-3400
CIRRUS Standardized Instructor Program......................218-788-3845
csip@cirrusdesign.com
Flight Standards and Operations.....................................866-733-6273
pilotsworld@cirrusdesign.com
Maintenance Hotline........................................................800-279-4322
fieldservice@cirrusdesign.com
Sales Department ...........................................................888-750-9927
info@cirrusdesign.com
Factory Transition Training/Cirrus Concierge...................218-788-3352
concierge@cirrusdesign.com
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Flight Operations Manual
Introduction
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Section 2
Flight Operations Manual
Limitations
Section 2 - Limitations
General
The Limitations Section of the Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH) is
the official document approved by the Federal Aviation Administration.
It provides operating limitations, instrument markings, basic placards
required by regulation, and standard systems and equipment required
for safe operation. For amended operating limitations for airplanes
equipped with optional equipment, refer to Section 9 - Supplements of
the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.
Compliance with the operating limitations in Pilot’s Operating
Handbook is required by Federal Aviation Regulations.
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Limitations
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Section 3 - Standard Operating
Procedures
General
The Standard Operating Procedures section describes the
recommended procedures when operating a Cirrus aircraft during
visual and instrument conditions. This information should serve as a
framework for aircraft and avionics management. These standard
operating procedures were developed and are used by pilots at Cirrus
Design. The procedures outlined are considered the best operating
practices while flying Cirrus aircraft; however, these procedures may
not be inclusive to all variables encountered in the national airspace
system. Cirrus pilots are encouraged to follow the procedures outlined
in this manual and use their best judgment when handling non
standard situations.
Utilizing these standard operating procedures will enhance the
situational awareness of the pilot in both single pilot and crew
situations and allow for timely completion of tasks in the aircraft.
Adhering to these procedures will help the pilot take full advantage of
the aircraft's capabilities while maintaining a high level of safety.
• Note •
Procedures in this publication are derived from procedures in
the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM). Cirrus
Design has attempted to ensure that the data contained
agrees with the data in the AFM. If there is any disagreement,
the Airplane Flight Manual is the final authority.
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Checklist Completion for Normal Procedures
Normal procedure checklists can be completed as a flow pattern or a
do-list. The appropriate method for checklist completion for each
normal procedure is indicated in the procedures section for each
phase of flight.
Do-List:
A do-list checklist is executed by reading the
checklist item and selecting the appropriate
condition of the item. Do-lists are used when
procedure sequence and/or item condition is
critical to completion of the procedure and when
ample time exists for completion of the checklist.
Flow Pattern:
The term “flow pattern” refers to a logical path
through the cockpit that the pilot will move along
during the execution of the checklist. Flow patterns
use a “do and verify” approach to checklist
completion. The items and their conditions are
memorized and executed without immediate
reference to the written checklist. Following
completion of the flow pattern, the checklist is
referenced as soon as time and workload permit to
ensure procedure completion.
When used properly, flow patterns allow timely
configuration of the aircraft for the appropriate flight
condition. Flow patterns are used when procedure
sequence and aircraft condition is not critical and
there is an operational advantage to executing the
checklist items in a timely manner.
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Standard Operating Procedures
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Standard Operating Procedures
Preflight
The preflight inspection should be completed as a flow pattern when
the pilot is familiar with the aircraft preflight inspection checklist.
Always refer to the aircraft checklist after the flow to verify all items
have been completed.
Documentation
The following documents must be in the aircraft for the flight:
• Certificate of Airworthiness,
• Registration,
• FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual and Pilot’s Operating
Handbook, including weight and balance,
• Radio station license for international operations,
• Appropriate avionics publications.
Equipment
The following equipment should be carried in the aircraft when
appropriate:
• Survival kit (appropriate to the climate and conditions),
• Approved flotation devices for flights outside glide distance to
land,
• Supplemental oxygen system for high altitude operations,
• Chocks, tie downs, extra oil, tow bar, engine and airplane
covers.
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Standard Operating Procedures
6
3
5
4
2
7
1
8
13
9
10
11
12
SR22 OP02 2659
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Cabin
a. Required Documents.................................................On Board
Ensure Airworthiness Certificate is visible to occupants,
Registration Certificate, Pilot's Operating Handbook and
Aircraft Weight and Balance are on board the aircraft.
b.
Avionics Power Switch....................................................... OFF
c.
Bat 2 Master Switch ............................................................ON
d. PFD ...........................................................................Verify ON
Verify on and alignment process beginning.
e. Avionics Cooling Fan .................................................... Audible
Listen for cooling fan operation.
f.
Voltmeter ................................................................ 23-25 Volts
Verify with voltmeter located in the upper left hand corner of
the PFD (volts will be displayed any time voltage is below 25
volts) or analog voltmeter if installed.
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Standard Operating Procedures
g. Flap Position Light ............................................................ OUT
Verify flap position light is not illuminated to ensure isolation
diode is functioning properly.
h. Bat 1 Master Switch............................................................ ON
i.
Lights ............................................................. Check Operation
Verify operation of required interior (overhead, instrument and
panel lights) and exterior (navigation, landing and anticollision lights).
j.
Stall Warning ..................................................................... Test
Test stall warning system by applying suction to the stall
warning system inlet and noting the warning horn sounds.
k.
Fuel Quantity ..................................................................Check
Ensure fuel quantity is sufficient for planned flight and
corresponds to fuel amount in tanks and on MFD.
l.
Fuel Selector ..............................................Select Fullest Tank
Switch fuel selector to the fullest tank. Maximum fuel
imbalance: 7.5 (SR20), 10 gal (SR22).
m. Flaps...................................................100%, Check Lights ON
Visually verify down and ensure light corresponds with flap
setting.
n. Oil Annunciator ................................................................... ON
o.
Bat 1 and 2 Master Switches.............................................OFF
Ensure both battery switches are turned off. Battery master 2
may be left on if engine start is pending to maintain PFD
alignment.
p.
Alternate Static Source............................................. NORMAL
Visually verify alternate static source located near pilot's right
knee, above circuit breaker panel is in the NORMAL position.
q. Circuit Breakers .................................................................... IN
Ensure all circuit breakers are in and none are in re-settable
(tripped) condition.
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r.
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Fire Extinguisher .................................. Charged and Available
Inspect extinguisher and ensure pin and safety wire are in
tact. There is no gauge to measure quantity.
s.
Emergency Egress Hammer ......................................Available
Hammer should be stowed securely inside lid of the arm rest
between the front seats.
t.
CAPS Handle ......................................................Pin Removed
Remove safety pin and stow for remainder of flight. Be sure to
replace CAPS cover after pin removal as it is a required
placard.
2. Left Fuselage
a. COM 1 Antenna...............................Condition and Attachment
Visually check condition of antenna and surrounding area of
fuselage.
b.
Wing/Fuselage Fairing.................................................... Check
Visually inspect the wing root fairing for attachment along
upper and lower surfaces of wing root.
c.
COM 2 Antenna...............................Condition and Attachment
Visually inspect the wing root fairing for attachment along
upper and lower surfaces of wing root.
d. Baggage Door ........................................... Closed and Secure
Physically check for locked and secured door and ensure keys
are removed.
e. Static Button .............................................. Check for Blockage
Ensure removal of static covers if used and check for any
blockage within static port openings.
f.
Parachute Cover...................................... Sealed and Secured
Visually inspect area on top rear of fuselage directly behind
rear top window for any cracks.
3. Empennage
a. Tie Down Rope............................................................Remove
Visually verify tail tie down is removed and stowed.
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b.
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Horizontal and Vertical Stabilizers .............................Condition
Inspect leading edges and top of vertical stabilizer for any
abnormalities. Ensure the clear tape covering inspection hole
on outer tip of elevator, inside of elevator horn is intact.
c.
Elevator and Tab............................... Condition and Movement
Check elevator for range of motion. Inspect tab on left side of
elevator for condition. Visually inspect counter weight inside
elevator horn for security. Check all hinges, bolts and cotter
pins.
d. Rudder............................................... Freedom and Movement
Inspect for full range of motion. Inspect all hinges, bolts and
cotter pins from the left side of the rudder. Visually inspect
counter weight inside top leading edge of rudder horn for
security.
e. Rudder Trim Tab ...................................Condition and Security
f.
Attachment Hinges, Bolts and Cotter Pins ................... Secure
Verify all moveable control surfaces are secure and all bolts
and cotter pins are in place.
4. Right Fuselage
a. Static Button .............................................. Check for Blockage
Ensure removal of static covers and check for any blockage
within static port openings.
b.
Wing/Fuselage Fairings ..................................................Check
Visually inspect the wing root fairing for attachment along
upper and lower surfaces of wing root.
5. Right Wing Trailing Edge
a. Flaps and Rub Strip (if installed) ..........Condition and Security
Inspect flap hinges, bolts and cotter pins for security and verify
a small amount of movement when flaps are in an extended
position. Visually inspect rub strip for abnormal chaffing.
b.
Aileron and Tab................................. Condition and Movement
Verify full deflection of right aileron and ensure opposite
deflection of left aileron. Inspect control assemblies located
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Standard Operating Procedures
near the leading edge of outboard and inboard aileron.
Inspect the security of the bolt located under the inboard edge
of the aileron.
c.
Aileron Gap Seal (SR22)............................................. Security
Visually inspect the aileron gap seal for attachment along the
entire surface.
d. Hinges, Actuation Arm, Bolts and Cotter Pins............. Security
Verify all moveable control surfaces are secure and all bolts
and cotter pins are in place.
6. Right Wing Tip
a. Tip .......................................................................... Attachment
Ensure all screws are in place on upper and lower surfaces.
Visually inspect for damage to leading edge, trailing edge, and
wing tip.
b.
Strobe, Nav Light and Lens ..................Condition and Security
Inspect for security of lights and lighting covers. Strobe lights
are required for all flight operations. Navigation lights are
required for all night operations
c.
Fuel Vent (underside) ..........................................Unobstructed
Verify there are no obstructions to the fuel vent.
7. Right Wing Forward and Main Gear
a. Leading Edge and Stall Strips ................................... Condition
Inspect leading edge for any abnormalities. Ensure both stall
strips are secured.
b.
Fuel Cap....................................... Check Quantity and Secure
Visually check fuel is at desired amount and the fuel cap is
secured and locking tab is facing rearward. Lock fuel caps as
desired.
c.
Fuel Drains (2 underside) ............................ Drain and Sample
Use a clear fuel strainer and sample fuel from the main tank
and the collector tank. Visually check color for grade of fuel
and inspect for contaminants. Ensure fuel drains do not leak
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Standard Operating Procedures
after taking sample. Do not use the same sample cup used to
drain the TKS system.
d. Wheel Fairings...................... Security, Accumulation of Debris
Physically ensure security of wheel pants. Check for and
remove any debris in wheel pants (ice or slush may have
formed during taxi).
e. Tire .............................................Condition, Inflation and Wear
Inspect tire for excessive wear to include flat spots, bald spots
or visible tire chords. Ensure adequate tire inflation. Moving
the aircraft may be necessary to visually inspect the entire tire
for overall condition if excessive wear is suspected.
f.
Wheel and Brakes .....................................................Condition
Inspect the area directly surrounding the wheel for evidence of
fluid leaks. Visually inspect brakes temperature sticker for
evidence of overheating. (Center of blue inspection disc is
white in a normal condition, dark gray when overheated.)
g. Chocks and Tie Down Ropes ......................................Remove
Ensure all wheel chocks and tie down ropes are removed and
stowed.
h. Cabin Air Vent..................................................... Unobstructed
Visually inspect air vent for debris or obstructions which could
prevent fresh air flow to the cabin.
8. Nose, Right Side
a. Vortex Generator (SR22) ...........................................Condition
Inspect condition of vortex generator and ensure it has not
been damaged.
b.
Cowling .................................................... Attachments Secure
Visually inspect each cam lock for secure fitting along top and
side of cowls. Screws should be inspected along center
bottom and directly behind spinner. Two screws behind the
spinner will be removed to de-cowl or to add/remove
winterization kits. It is imperative that these screws not be
overlooked during preflight as severe cowl damage will result
if engine is started without them in place.
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c.
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Exhaust Pipe ..................... Condition, Security and Clearance
SR20/SR22 - Ensure there is adequate clearance between
lower cowling and exhaust pipes and verify they are secure
with some movement. Inspect heat shield for security.
SR22 Turbo - Ensure each tailpipe is secure by grasping the
end of the tailpipe. Loose tailpipes should be serviced prior to
flight. Do not fly an aircraft with loose tailpipes.
d. Transponder Antenna ......................Condition and Attachment
The transponder antenna is located under the engine cowl aft
of the nose wheel strut attachment. Inspect and ensure
secure.
e. Gascolator (underside)............... Drain for 3 Seconds, Sample
Use clear fuel strainer and drain for 3 seconds. Inspect fuel
sample for contaminants and proper color. Ensure drain does
not leak after taking sample.
9. Nose Gear, Propeller and Spinner
a. Tow Bar ....................................................... Remove and Stow
b.
Strut........................................................................... Condition
Inspect strut and fairing for condition and security.
c.
Wheel Fairing ....................... Security, Accumulation of Debris
Ensure fairing is not damaged and is attached securely.
d. Wheel and Tire ...........................Condition, Inflation and Wear
e. Propeller .................................................................... Condition
Inspect the propeller blades for smoothness and ensure there
are no significant nicks in the blades. Check for any damage to
the tips of each blade.
f.
Spinner ................................Condition, Security and Oil Leaks
Ensure spinner screws are secure, check for any oil on
spinner, propeller blades or cowling.
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Standard Operating Procedures
g. Air Inlets.............................................................. Unobstructed
Verify air inlets are free of obstructions and ensure cowling
screws are secured. If winterization kits are installed, check for
security of the kit and screws.
h. Alternator ...................................................................Condition
SR20 - Physically verify security of alternator, electrical
connections and belt.
SR22 - Physically verify security of alternator and electrical
connections.
10. Nose Left Side
a. Landing Light .............................................................Condition
Verify landing light is intact and cover is secure with no cracks.
b.
Engine Oil .......................................................................Check
Visually verify oil quantity, ensure oil cap is tightly secured and
both latches on the oil door are locked.
When opening oil door, do not let latches snap back against oil
door as this may lead to paint chipping and cracking.
c.
Cowling ...................................................... Attachment Secure
Visually inspect each cam lock for secure fitting along top and
side of cowls. Screws should be inspected along center
bottom and directly behind spinner.
d. External Power .....................................................Door Secure
Ensure cam lock is secured. Phillips head screw driver may be
required to secure.
e. Vortex Generator (SR22) ...........................................Condition
Inspect condition of vortex generator and ensure it has not
been damaged.
f.
Exhaust Pipes.................... Condition, Security and Clearance
SR20/SR22 - Ensure there is adequate clearance between
lower cowling and exhaust pipes and verify they are secure
with some movement. Inspect heat shield for security.
3-12
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
SR22 Turbo - Ensure each tailpipe is secure by grasping the
end of the tailpipe. Loose tailpipes should be serviced prior to
flight. Do not fly an aircraft with loose tailpipes.
11. Left Main Gear and Forward Wing
a. Wheel Fairings...................... Security, Accumulation of Debris
Physically ensure security of wheel pants. Check for debris in
wheel pants (ice or slush may have formed during taxi).
b.
Tire .............................................Condition, Inflation and Wear
Inspect tire for excessive wear to include flat spots, bald spots
or visible tire chords. Ensure adequate tire inflation. Moving
the aircraft may be necessary to visually inspect the entire tire
for overall condition if excessive wear is suspected.
c.
Wheels and Brakes ................................................... Condition
Inspect the area directly surrounding the wheel for evidence of
fluid leaks. Visually inspect brakes temperature sticker for
evidence of overheating. (Center of blue inspection disc is
white in a normal condition, dark gray when overheated.)
d. Chock and Tie Down Ropes....................................... Remove
Ensure all wheel chocks and tie down ropes are removed and
stowed securely to prevent hazards to others.
e. Fuel Drains (2 underside) ............................ Drain and Sample
Use a clear fuel strainer and sample fuel from the main tank
and the collector tank. Visually verify color for grade of fuel
and inspect for contaminants. Ensure fuel drains do not leak
after taking sample.
f.
Cabin Air Vent......................................................Unobstructed
Visually inspect air vent for debris or obstructions which could
prevent fresh air flow to the main cabin.
g. Fuel Cap....................................... Check Quantity and Secure
Visually verify fuel is at desired amount and that the fuel cap is
secured and locking tab is facing rearward.
h. Leading Edge and Stall Strips ................................... Condition
Inspect leading edge for any abnormalities. Ensure both stall
strips are secured.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-13
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
12. Left Wing Tip
a. Fuel Vent (underside) ......................................... Unobstructed
Verify there are no obstructions to the fuel vent.
b.
Pitot Mast (underside) .................Cover Removed, Tube Clear
Ensure cover removed and stowed, inspect tube inside and
out for any obstructions.
c.
Strobe, Nav Light and Lens ..................Condition and Security
Inspect for security of lighting covers. Strobe lights are
required for all flight operations. Navigation lights are required
for night operations.
d. Tip...........................................................................Attachment
Ensure all screws are in place on upper and lower surfaces.
Visually inspect for and damage to leading edge, trailing edge
and wing tip.
13. Left Wing Trailing Edge
a. Flap and Rub Strip................................Condition and Security
Inspect flap hinges, bolts and cotter pins for security and verify
a small amount of movement when flaps are in an extended
position. Visually inspect rub strip for abnormal chaffing.
b.
Aileron .................................................. Freedom of Movement
Verify full deflection of right aileron and ensure opposite
deflection of left aileron. Inspect control assemblies located
near the leading edge of outboard and inboard aileron.
Inspect the security of the bolt located under the inboard edge
of the aileron.
c.
Aileron Gap Seal (SR22) .............................................Security
Visually inspect the aileron gap seal attachment along the
entire surface.
d. Hinges, Actuation Arm, Bolts and Cotter Pins .............. Secure
Verify all moveable control surfaces are secure and all bolts
and cotter pins are in place.
3-14
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Intentionally Left Blank
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-15
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Before Engine Start
Complete the Before Starting Engine checklist as a Do-List to start the
aircraft engine. Before starting the engine verify all preflight items are
complete and all emergency equipment is on board and stored in the
proper location. Remove the CAPS pin after all occupants have
boarded the aircraft and are seated with seat belts fastened. Ensure
seats are locked into position by verifying the control handle is in the
full down position.
During engine start the aircraft should be positioned so that the
propeller blast is not directed toward any aircraft, hangar, or person.
Passenger Flight Briefing
The pilot should provide a safety briefing, referencing the Passenger
Briefing Card, to all passengers prior to each flight. The briefing shall
provide instructions in the event of a pilot incapacitation including the
use of the CAPS, seat belts, exits, and any other safety equipment on
the aircraft. The pilot should also discuss sterile cabin procedures and
other information as necessary.
At a minimum, passengers should be briefed on the following items;
• CAPS,
• Smoking,
• Seatbelts,
• Doors,
• Emergency Exits/Egress Hammer,
• Use of Oxygen.
3-16
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Do-List)
1. Preflight Inspection ..................................................... COMPLETE
Verify preflight inspection has been completed and all items are
completed.
2. Emergency Equipment ................................................ ON BOARD
Verify all safety equipment required for flight is on board and in
working/proper order. This may include, but is not limited to,
personal flotation equipment, life raft, flash light, batteries, cold
weather equipment, etc.
3. Passengers ..................................................................... BRIEFED
Ensure all passengers have been briefed according to the Cirrus
Aircraft Passenger Briefing Card and verify a briefing card is
located in each seatback. See passenger briefing items listed in
previous section.
4. Seats, Seatbelts and Harnesses ............. ADJUST AND SECURE
Verify all seats, including seat backs and undercarriage is locked,
belts and harnesses are securely adjusted and fastened for all
occupants of the aircraft.
• Caution •
Crew seats must be locked in position and control handles
fully down before flight. Ensure seat belt harnesses are not
twisted.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-17
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Engine Start
The Engine Start checklist should be accomplished as a do-list. Select
the proper engine start procedure based on outside air temperature
and internal engine temperature.
If engine has been exposed to temperatures at or below 20ºF (7ºC) for
a period of two hours or more, the use of an external pre-heater and
external power is recommended. Failure to properly pre-heat a cold
soaked engine may result in congealing within the engine, oil hoses,
and oil cooler with subsequent loss of oil flow, possibly internal
damage to the engine, and subsequent engine failure.
If the engine does not start during the first few attempts, or if the
engine firing diminishes in strength, the spark plugs have probably
frosted over. Preheat must be used before another start is attempted.
Procedure (Do-List)
1. External Power (if applicable)........................................ CONNECT
If required, pilots may want to ensure power connection and brief
assisting personnel on securing external power receptacle door.
• WARNING •
If airplane will be started using external power, keep all
personnel and power unit cables well clear of the propeller
rotation plane.
2. Brakes ................................................................................... HOLD
Parking brake may be used; however, constant pressure should be
applied at all times using toe brakes.
3. Bat Master Switches ............................................ ON (check volts)
Voltage should read approximately 23-25 volts for battery starts.
4. Strobe Lights ............................................................................. ON
Turn strobe lights on prior to engine start. For night operations,
pilot may instead consider the use of navigation lights to avoid
distracting others.
3-18
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
5. Mixture ......................................................................... FULL RICH
Mixture lever should be in the full rich position for normal engine
start.
6. Power Lever ........................................................ FULL FORWARD
Power lever will need to be in the full forward position in order to
prime the engine.
7. Fuel Pump .................................................... PRIME, then BOOST
SR20 - On first start of the day, especially under cool ambient
conditions, holding Fuel Pump switch to PRIME for 2 seconds will
improve starting.
SR22 - Serials 0002-0278 before SB 22-73-01: On first start of the
day, especially under cool ambient conditions, holding Fuel Pump
Switch to PRIME for 30-60 seconds will improve starting.
SR22 - Serials 0002-0278 after SB 22-73-01 and serials 0279 and
subsequent: On first start of the day, especially under cool
ambient conditions, holding Fuel Pump Switch to PRIME for 2
seconds will improve starting.
8. Propeller Area ..................................................................... CLEAR
Visually clear the area around propeller and ensure area behind
aircraft is clear and that no one is approaching the aircraft.
9. Power Lever ............................................................ OPEN ¼ INCH
Open power lever and maintain one hand on power lever.
10. Ignition Switch......................................................................START
Hold key in Start position until positive engine start then release
verifying key is in the BOTH position.
• Caution •
Limit cranking to intervals of 20 seconds with a 20 second
cooling period between cranks. This will improve battery and
contactor life.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-19
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
11. Power Lever ...............................RETARD (to maintain 1000 RPM)
Adjust the power lever as necessary to maintain engine
smoothness and engine speed at 1000 RPM.
a. Oil Pressure................................................................. CHECK
• Caution •
After starting engine, if the oil gauge does not begin to show
pressure within 30 seconds in warm weather and about 60
seconds in very cool weather, shut down engine and
investigate cause. Lack of oil pressure indicates loss of
lubrication, which can cause severe engine damage.
12. Mixture (SR22 Turbo) .............................................................. Lean
Lean the mixture for maximum RPM rise shortly after engine start
and leave the mixture lean during taxi until the run up.
It is acceptable to lean the SR20 and SR22 using the same
procedure described above for high altitude operations or if spark
plug fouling is suspected.
13. Alt Master Switches .................................................................. ON
Turn on both alternator master switches after engine start.
• Caution •
Alternators should be left OFF during engine starting to avoid
high electrical loads.
14. Avionics Power Switch .............................................................. ON
Turn on avionics power switch and verify all avionics power up.
15. Engine Parameters ........................................................ MONITOR
Monitor all engine parameters to include manifold pressure,
engine speed, oil pressure and temperature, EGT's, and CHT's. If
any system displays an abnormal indication, engine shutdown
should be considered and the problem investigated.
16. External Power (if applicable).................................. DISCONNECT
Verify external power is removed and external power door secured
by the assisting personnel. Consider reducing power to idle while
external power is disconnected to minimize propeller blast.
3-20
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Carefully observe the process in case there is a need for engine
shutdown.
17. Amp Meter/Indication ......................................................... CHECK
Check the amperage output of both Alternators; Alt 1 should
indicate a positive amperage and Alt 2 below 1700 RPM's will be
0. Check voltage of both batteries. Excessively high or low
readings may indicate a problem and should be investigated.
Ice Protection System Preflight
The following pre-flight procedures should be completed on aircraft
with the TKS Ice Protection System installed. Complete this procedure
monthly during periods of non-use or anytime use of the system may
be necessary during flight. Flight into known icing is prohibited.
1. Battery Master Switch................................................................ON
Turn on the battery 1 master switch.
2. Ice Protection Switch .....................................................MAXIMUM
Turn the ice protection on and select the maximum position.
3. Anti-Icing Fluid Quantity............................................CHECK FULL
Check fluid quantity by visually inspecting tank quantity. Top off
tank with approved fluids. De-ice fluid must meet DTD 406B
including:
• AVL (DTL 406B) – Aviation Laboratories,
• AL-5 (DTB 406B) – Canyon Industries,
• Dimax 80 (TKS-80) – Canyon Industries,
• TKS-Fluid (DTB 406B) – D.W. Davies & Co.
4. Fluid Vent (underside)....................................... UNOBSTRUCTED
5. Porous Panels.............................................Condition and Security
6. Porous Panels....................................... Evidence of De-icing Fluid
Run system until all panels are wetted by fluid.
7. Slinger Ring .......................................... Evidence of De-icing Fluid
8. Ice Protection Switch ............................................................... OFF
9. Battery Master Switch.............................................................. OFF
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-21
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Before Taxi
Complete the Before Taxi checklist as a flow and reference the aircraft
checklist to verify all items are complete. It is recommended to set up
the required navigation equipment and communication frequencies for
the intended flight at this time. Primary navigation should be set into
GPS 1 and secondary or auxiliary navigation set into GPS 2 if needed.
Set primary airborne frequencies into COM 1 and necessary ground
frequencies into COM 2.
SR22_OP02_2660
Before Taxi Flow
3-22
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Flaps ................................................................................. UP (0%)
Visually verify flaps are in the 0% position and flap position light
UP is illuminated.
2. Radios/Avionics ..................................................... AS REQUIRED
Ensure all radios and avionics are programmed, navigation
frequencies identified, courses set and with required waypoints or
flight plans loaded in GPS.
3. Cabin Heat/Defrost ................................................ AS REQUIRED
4. Fuel Selector...........................................................SWITCH TANK
Switch tank to ensure positive fuel flow from both fuel tanks.
Avionics Configuration
• Transponder - Verify transponder is in STBY mode. Set code if
assigned,
• Autopilot - Verify the autopilot is in A/P RDY mode,
• GPS Units/Audio Panel - Confirm each GPS database is
current. Construct flight plans and configure communications
as required,
• MFD - Confirm database are current, set initial fuel, review
MFD risk assessment pages and verify oil temperature and
pressure are within parameters,
• PFD - Verify PFD is initialized and ready for taxi.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-23
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Taxi-Out
A cause of brake failure is the creation of excessive heat through
improper braking practices. Riding the brakes while taxiing causes a
continuous build up of energy which may lead to excessive heat.
Excessive heat causes warped brake rotors, damaged or glazed
linings, damaged o-rings, and vaporized brake fluid. To avoid brake
failure, observe the following operating and maintenance practices:
• Directional control should be maintained with rudder deflection
supplemented with brake pressure as required,
• Use only as much power (throttle) as is necessary to achieve
forward movement. 1000 RPM is enough to maintain forward
movement under normal conditions,
• Avoid unnecessary high speed taxiing. High speed taxiing will
result in excessive demands on the brakes, increased brake
wear and the possibility of brake failure,
• Use the minimum necessary brake application to achieve
directional control,
• Do not ride the brakes. Pilots should consciously remove
pressure from the brakes while taxiing. Failure to do so results
in excessive heat, premature brake wear, and increased
possibility of brake failure,
• Refer to the Handling, Service and Maintenance section of the
POH or the Maintenance manual for recommended
maintenance and inspection intervals for brakes.
Maintain high levels of situational awareness during all movement on
the airport surface to avoid a runway incursion accident. Minimize
tasks such as reading checklists or folding maps while taxiing. Utilize
the CMax airport diagram to aid in situational awareness.
• WARNING •
Maximum continuous engine speed for taxiing is 1000 RPM
on flat, smooth, hard surfaces. Power settings slightly above
1000 RPM are permissible to start motion, for turf, soft
surfaces, and on inclines. Use minimum power to maintain taxi
speed.
3-24
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
SR22_OP02_2661
Taxi-Out Flow
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Parking Brake ............................................................DISENGAGE
Manually depress parking brake and ensure completely down.
2. Brakes................................................................................ CHECK
Upon initial movement verify both brakes are functioning by
applying pressure.
3. HSI Orientation .................................................................. CHECK
Visually check HSI alignment with magnetic compass.
4. Attitude Gyro ...................................................................... CHECK
Verify gyro is erect and horizon bars are set level.
5. Turn Coordinator ................................................................ CHECK
During turns on the ground, verify the turn indicator displays a turn
in the direction of the turn and inclinometer displays a skid.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-25
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Before Takeoff
Complete the Before Takeoff checklist as a do-list. Complete the
checklist prior to taking the active runway or an appropriate run up
area prior to departure. The Before Takeoff checklist will ensure the
aircraft is properly configured for takeoff. Run-up items are included in
this checklist. Verify engine oil temperature reaches a minimum of
100º F prior to applying run up power settings. Verify all engine and
electrical indications are normal prior to departure.
During cold weather operations, the engine should be properly
warmed before takeoff. In most cases this is accomplished when the
oil temperature has reached at least 100º F. In warm or hot weather,
precautions should be taken to avoid overheating during prolonged
ground engine operation. Additionally, long periods of idling may cause
fouled spark plugs.
Procedure (Do-List)
1. Doors ..............................................................................LATCHED
Verify both top and bottom latch of each door is securely latched.
Press firmly at each door latch position to determine the security
of each door.
2. CAPS Handle ................................................Verify Pin REMOVED
Verify the CAPS pin is removed and stowed. Ensure cover placard
is securely fastened.
3. Seat Belts and Shoulder Harness.................................... SECURE
Verify the security and placement of all seat belts and shoulder
harnesses of each occupant. Also, verify all occupants are
properly informed of seat belt requirements and operation.
4. Fuel Quantity.................................................................. CONFIRM
Confirm the fuel quantity is sufficient for the planned flight and fuel
tank quantities are balanced.
5. Fuel Selector ......................................................... FULLEST TANK
Ensure the fuel selector is drawing fuel from the fullest tank.
6. Fuel Pump (SR20/SR22) .......................................................... ON
Fuel Pump (SR22 Turbo) .......................................... LOW BOOST
3-26
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
7. Mixture ................................................................... AS REQUIRED
SR20 - Set the mixture full rich for all altitudes.
SR22 - Set the mixture full rich for sea level departures. Set
mixture control lever for maximum power on takeoff for altitudes
higher then sea level. Reference the Max Power Fuel Flow placard
for proper mixture setting.
SR22 Turbo - Set the mixture full rich for all altitudes.
8. Flaps ............................................................... SET 50% & CHECK
Select flaps to 50% and visually verify both flaps are in position
prior to takeoff.
9. Transponder ............................................................................. SET
Set assigned squawk code if one is given, otherwise, set the
appropriate code.
10. Autopilot ............................................................................. CHECK
Ensure autopilot modes HDG, ALT, VS, and NAV are tested in
accordance with autopilot supplement in POH.
11. Navigation Radios/GPS ........................................... Set for Takeoff
Verify radio frequencies are set, to include tower/departure
frequencies. Check GPS flight plan for accuracy and correct initial
waypoint.
12. Cabin Heat/Defrost ................................................ AS REQUIRED
Set environmental controls as desired prior to takeoff.
SR22 - Turn the air conditioner OFF for maximum performance
takeoffs and climbs.
13. Brakes................................................................................... HOLD
Firmly hold brakes. Set the parking brake if assistance is required.
14. Power Lever ................................................................... 1700 RPM
Increase power lever to 1700 RPM for engine run-up. Ensure oil
temperature is at least 100º F prior to increasing power.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-27
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
15. Alternator ........................................................................... CHECK
Alternator will be checked by placing greater electrical loads and
turning on additional equipment below.
a. Pitot Heat............................................................................ ON
b.
Navigation Lights ................................................................ ON
c.
Landing Light ...................................................................... ON
d. Annunciator Lights....................................................... CHECK
Verify both ALT 1 and ALT 2 caution lights are extinguished and
positive amps are indicated. If necessary, increase engine speed
to extinguish ALT 2 caution light. ALT 2 caution light should go out
below 2200 RPM.
16. Voltage ............................................................................... CHECK
Verify positive voltage outputs for both the Main and Essential
Bus.
17. Pitot Heat ............................................................... AS REQUIRED
Pitot heat should be turned ON prior to flight into IMC or flight into
visible moisture and OAT of 40ºF or less. Verify PITOT HEAT
annunciator does not illuminate when pitot heat is turned on to
ensure operation.
18. Navigation Lights.................................................... AS REQUIRED
Select navigation lights ON for night operations.
19. Landing Light ......................................................... AS REQUIRED
Select landing light ON. It is recommended to leave the landing
light on while within 10NM of the departure airport.
20. Magnetos .............................................. CHECK LEFT and RIGHT
a. Ignition Switch ................................. R, note RPM, then BOTH
b.
Ignition Switch .................................. L, note RPM, then BOTH
RPM drop must not exceed 150 RPM for either magneto. RPM
differential must not exceed 75 RPM between magnetos. If there is
a doubt concerning operation of the ignition system, RPM checks
at higher engine speeds will usually confirm whether a deficiency
exists. An absence of RPM drop may indicate faulty grounding of
3-28
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
one side of the ignition system or magneto timing set in advance
of the specified setting.
21. Engine Parameter .............................................................. CHECK
Visually verify all engine parameters are in acceptable ranges.
Check Oil pressure and temperature, RPM, manifold pressure,
EGT and CHT.
22. Power Lever ................................................................... 1000 RPM
23. Flight Instruments, HSI and Altimeter ................. CHECK and SET
Set all flight instruments for initial course and altitude. Verify the
HSI displays proper course and heading when checked with
magnetic compass. Ensure local altimeter has been set and is
within 75 feet of field elevation.
24. Flight Controls................................................. FREE & CORRECT
Check for full range of motion of the control yoke and control
surface deflection corresponds to yoke deflection.
25. Trim ........................................................................ SET for Takeoff
Set electric trim in the takeoff position as displayed on control yoke
arm.
26. Autopilot .................................................................. DISCONNECT
Ensure PFD heading, altitude and vertical speed bugs are set and
the autopilot is disconnected.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-29
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Take-Off
Reference the Takeoff checklist prior to departure. Complete a takeoff
briefing to review the critical items prior to takeoff. A takeoff briefing
allows the pilot to review the takeoff procedure and determine the
actions necessary in the event of abnormal/emergency conditions
during the takeoff roll and initial climb. At a minimum, a takeoff briefing
should include the following items:
• Type of procedure used (normal, short, or soft),
• Takeoff distance required / runway distance available,
• VR and initial climb speed,
• Abnormality / engine failure before VR,
• Abnormality / engine failure after VR.
Sample Takeoff Briefing
This will be a __________ (normal, short, soft) takeoff from RWY
_________ with a takeoff distance of _______ feet and ________ feet
of runway available. Rotation speed is ______ KIAS. Initial heading
after takeoff is _______ degrees to an altitude of _______ feet. Abort
the takeoff for any engine failures/abnormalities prior to rotation. If the
engine fails after rotation I will ______________.
Procedures (Flow Pattern)
Normal Takeoff
The recommended flap setting for a normal takeoff is 50%. Align the
aircraft on the runway centerline and smoothly apply full power. It
should take approximately 4 seconds to add full power. Slight brake
pressure may be required for directional control early in the takeoff roll.
Maintain directional control with rudder during the takeoff roll after
sufficient rudder control is available. Check engine and airspeed
indications early in the takeoff roll to ensure proper function.
Discontinue the takeoff by reducing the power to idle and brakes as
necessary for any abnormal engine or airspeed indications, sluggish
acceleration, or rough engine. At VR smoothly apply back pressure to
the control yoke sufficient to rotate the aircraft. Pitch the aircraft for
approximately 7.5º (SR20), 10º (SR22) to intercept VX or VY as
3-30
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
appropriate. Maintain coordination with proper rudder input during the
climb out.
1. Brakes..................................................Release (steer with rudder)
Initially, a slight amount of differential braking may be required for
directional control. As airspeed increases, both feet should be
removed from toe brakes and directional control maintained with
rudder inputs.
2. Power Lever ........................................................ FULL FORWARD
Smoothly increase power lever full forward for maximum takeoff
power. Do not confuse any detents for a full power setting. Engine
speed should be approximately 2700 RPM. Discontinue takeoff if
any rough or sluggish acceleration is noted.
3. Engine Parameters ............................................................ CHECK
Monitor engine parameters during the takeoff roll. The engine
monitoring page should be displayed on the MFD if possible. If any
abnormal or questionable indications arise, consider aborting
takeoff early in the takeoff roll.
4. Elevator Control ....................................... ROTATE Smoothly at VR
As airspeed approaches VR, smoothly and gradually apply back
pressure to the control yoke to increase the angle of attack
sufficient to rotate the aircraft.
VR (SR20) 65 KIAS
VR (SR22) 70-73 KIAS
5. Flaps .......................................................................................... UP
Retract the flaps after the following conditions have been met.
Slight back pressure may be required after flap retraction
• SR20 - 85 KIAS,
• SR22 - 80 KIAS,
• Positive rate of climb,
• Clear of terrain and obstacles.
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
3-31
Departure Roll
Full Power
Airspeed/Engine Monitor
3-32
Figure 3-1
Take-Off Profile
Rotate
SR22_OP02_2662
After 1000’ AGL
Establish Cruise Climb
Complete Climb Checklist
Intitial Climb
Pitch 7.5° - 10°
- Intercept Vx or Vy as appropriate
Flaps retract
- Clear of terrain
- Positive Rate of Climb
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Short Field Takeoff
Use the short field technique to maximize takeoff performance and
minimize takeoff ground roll. Set Flaps to 50% for a short field takeoff.
Align the aircraft on the runway centerline as close as possible to the
end of the runway. Apply sufficient brake pressure and smoothly apply
full power. Check engine indications and ensure full power before
releasing the brakes. Steer with rudder only to minimize the ground roll
distance. Rotate the aircraft at VR smoothly and pitch for the obstacle
clearance speed if an obstacle is present. Pitch for VY after clearing
obstacles.
1. Flaps ........................................................................................ 50%
Set flaps to 50% and visually verify both flaps are in position prior
to takeoff.
2. Brakes................................................................................... HOLD
Hold brakes firmly, do not allow the aircraft to roll.
3. Power Lever ........................................................ FULL FORWARD
Smoothly increase power lever full forward for maximum takeoff
power. Do not confuse throttle detents for a full power setting.
Engine speed should be approximately 2700 RPM.
4. Mixture ..................................................................................... SET
SR20 - Mixture full rich for all altitudes.
SR22 - Set mixture per the Max Power Fuel placard to obtain
maximum engine power for departures above sea level elevation.
SR22 Turbo - Mixture full rich for all altitudes.
5. Engine Parameters ............................................................ CHECK
Check all engine parameters prior to releasing the brakes. The
engine monitoring page should be displayed on the MFD if
possible. If any abnormal or questionable indications arise,
consider aborting takeoff.
6. Brakes............................................................................ RELEASE
Release the brakes and steer with rudder only. Sufficient rudder
control should be available with full power.
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Standard Operating Procedures
7. Elevator Control ....................................... ROTATE Smoothly at VR
As airspeed approaches VR, smoothly and gradually apply back
pressure to the control yoke to increase the angle of attack
sufficient for rotation.
VR (SR20) - 65 KIAS
VR (SR22) - 70 KIAS
8. Airspeed at Obstacle............................ Obstacle Clearance Speed
Maintain the obstacle clearance speed with flaps at 50% until
safely clear all obstacles.
SR20 obstacle clearance speed- 75 KIAS
SR22 obstacle clearance speed- 78 KIAS
Soft Field Takeoff
Soft or rough field takeoffs are executed using 50% flaps. Add 20% to
the takeoff ground roll distance for dry grass runways and 30% for wet
grass. Ensure the quality of the runway is adequate to support the
aircraft. Avoid runways with long grass, soggy soil and large ruts or
holes. Higher power settings will be required to taxi on grass surfaces.
Hold full back pressure on the control yoke while taxiing and during the
initial takeoff roll to reduce the pressure on the nose wheel. Reduce
the backpressure slightly once the nose wheel lifts off the ground. Hold
the aircraft in a nose up attitude until the aircraft becomes airborne.
Once airborne reduce back pressure as necessary to maintain in
ground effect or within 20 feet of the surface. Accelerate the aircraft to
VX (for obstacles clearance) or VY before climbing out of ground effect.
Cross Wind Technique
Partially deflect the ailerons into the wind during a crosswind takeoff.
Maintain directional with proper rudder input. Allow the aircraft to
accelerate slightly higher then VR prior to rotation. Lift the aircraft off
the ground slightly quicker then a normal takeoff. Shortly after rotation,
crab the aircraft into the wind to track the aircraft along the runway
centerline. Maintain coordination during climb out with proper rudder
input.
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En Route Climb
Complete the Climb checklist as a flow when time and workload
permit. Once clear of obstacles and terrain, normal climbs are
performed flaps UP (0%) and full power at speeds 5 to 10 knots higher
than best rate-of-climb speeds. These higher speeds give the best
combination of performance, visibility and engine cooling. When
desired and clear of obstacles, transition to cruise climb speed for
increased engine cooling, visibility and passenger comfort.
For maximum rate of climb, use the best rate-of-climb speeds shown
in the rate-of-climb chart in Section 5 of the POH. If an obstruction
dictates the use of a steep climb angle, the best angle of climb speed
should be used. Climbs at speeds lower than the best of rate climb
speed should be of short duration to avoid engine cooling problems.
• Caution •
Use caution when engaging the autopilot at low altitude due to
the increased workload of programming the autopilot and
potential for human errors. Pilots should hand fly the aircraft to
a safe altitude and engage the autopilot if desired when time
and workload permit. Consider setting the autopilot bugs prior
to departure to reduce the amount of workload associated
with setting up and engaging the autopilot.
Climb Speeds
SR20 (KIAS)
SR22 (KIAS)
95-105
110-120
(SR22 Turbo) 120-130
Best Rate, Sea Level
96
101
Best Rate, 10,000
91
95
Cruise Climb
Best Angle, Sea Level
81
78
Best Angle, 10,000
85
82
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Standard Operating Procedures
SR22_OP02_2663
En Route Climb Flow
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Climb Power...............................................................................Set
Set climb power considering noise abatement procedures. Normal
climbs are made with full power.
2. Flaps ................................................................................ Verify UP
Verify flaps have been retracted to 0%. If not, verify below VFE and
ensure the following criterion has been met before retracting the
flaps:
• SR20 - 85 KIAS,
• SR22 - 80 KIAS,
• Positive rate of climb,
• Clear of terrain and obstacles.
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Standard Operating Procedures
3. Mixture ........................................................................ As Required
SR20 - Set the mixture full rich for all altitudes.
SR22 - Lean mixture as required for altitude to maintain maximum
climb power using the max power fuel flow chart near MFD.
SR22 Turbo - Climbs can be made at full power with the mixture
set full rich or at an economy cruise climb. Lean the mixture to
17 - 17.6 GPH with the throttle full open to set up an economy
cruise climb. Maintain an airspeed of 130 KIAS during an
economy cruise climb.
4. Engine Parameters ............................................................ CHECK
Check all engine parameters for any abnormal indications that
may indicate impending engine problems.
5. Fuel Pump (SR20/SR22) .........................................................OFF
Select fuel pump OFF above 1000' AGL unless the takeoff was
made with warm or hot fuel.
Fuel Pump (SR22 Turbo) .......................................... LOW BOOST
Select LOW BOOST 30 minutes into cruise flight to reduce the
likelihood of vapor lock, which may be due to a combination of
warm fuel and high altitude. If vapor lock is suspected at altitudes
above FL180 set the fuel pump to HIGH BOOST/PRIME until the
warm fuel has time to cool.
Fuel boost should be left on during takeoff and for climb as
required for vapor suppression with hot or warm fuel.
Avionics Configuration
• Autopilot - Set modes as desired past 400 AGL,
• MFD - Complete Climb Checklist, monitor Map for situational
awareness,
• PFD - Monitor aircraft flight parameters and system status.
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Cruise
Complete the Cruise checklist as a flow when time and workload
permit. Allow the aircraft to accelerate to cruise speeds before setting
the desired cruise power setting. Ensure adequate fuel reserves
remain for the intended destination. Normal cruise power settings are
between 65% - 85% power with mixture setting for best power or best
economy.
For engine break-in, cruise at a minimum of 75% power until the
engine has been operated for at least 25 hours or until oil consumption
stabilizes. Operation at higher power will ensure proper seating of the
rings, is applicable to new engines, and engines in service following
cylinder replacement or top overhaul of one or more cylinders.
SR22_OP02_2664
Cruise Flow
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Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Fuel Pump ............................................................................... OFF
The Fuel Pump may be used for vapor suppression in cruise.
Vapor lock issues may be recognized by fluctuating EGT’s, CHT’s
and fuel flows. Rough engine operation may also be experienced.
2. Cruise Power............................................................................ SET
SR20/SR22 - Allow the aircraft to accelerate to cruise speeds
before setting cruise power. Select the desired percent power
considering range, endurance and desired performance for the
intended flight. Reference the MFD Engine page and adjust the
throttle to set the desired percent power.
SR22 Turbo - Allow the aircraft to accelerate to cruise speeds
before setting cruise power. Start setting cruise power by reducing
the throttle to 2500 RPM with maximum manifold pressure.
3. Mixture .............................................................. LEAN as Required
SR20/SR22 - Use the Lean Assist feature on the MFD Engine
page to set the mixture control for Best Power or Best Economy.
SR22 Turbo - Set the fuel flow to 17-17.6 GPH by adjusting the
mixture control after setting the throttle to 2500 RPM with
maximum manifold pressure. The above conditions will set
approximately 85% power. If a lower power setting is desired to
increase range/endurance reduce the throttle to the desired
percent power.
4. Engine Parameters ........................................................ MONITOR
Fuel BOOST must be used for switching from one tank to another.
Failure to activate the Fuel Pump before transfer could result in
delayed restart if the engine should quit due to fuel starvation.
5. Fuel Flow and Balance .................................................. MONITOR
Check fuel flow gauge and ensure fuel balance is within 7.5
gallons (SR20), 10 gallons (SR22).
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Standard Operating Procedures
Avionics Configuration
• Autopilot - Ensure correct modes are engaged if desired,
• GPS 2 - Monitor for traffic. GPS 1 - Verify correct navigation
information is set,
• MFD - Use Lean Assist to lean the mixture. Complete the
Cruise Checklist,
• PFD - Monitor aircraft flight parameters and system status.
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Descent
Descents should be planned during cruise considering the amount of
altitude to lose, distance and time to destination, ATC restrictions,
obstacle/terrain clearance, desired rate of descent, and engine care.
Use the vertical navigation function of the GPS to assist descent
planning. To manage workload, complete the descent checklist at the
top of descent or at least 20 minutes from the destination. Set
appropriate frequencies and review weather to determine the active
runway. Verify GPS units are programed as desired for the arrival and
approach into the airport.
Power should be used during descent to manage airspeed and
maintain engine temperatures as desired. Maintain airspeed within the
green arc if turbulence is expected or encountered during the descent.
Use caution and avoid excessive maneuvering when airspeed is within
the yellow arc during the descent. Complete the Descent checklist as
a flow when time and workload permit upon initial descent to land.
Reference the checklist to verify all items are complete once the flow
has been completed.
SR22_OP02_2664
Descent Flow
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Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Altimeter................................................................................... SET
Verify the proper altimeter setting has been set into the PFD and in
the standby altimeter.
2. Cabin Heat/Defrost ................................................ AS REQUIRED
3. Landing Light .............................................................................ON
The landing light should be selected on for visibility to others at the
top of the descent or within 10NM from the destination. If in IMC,
consider leaving off to reduce light reflection in the cabin.
4. Fuel System ....................................................................... CHECK
Ensure fuel is balanced and selected to the fullest tank.
5. Mixture ................................................................... AS REQUIRED
SR20/SR22 - Consider altitude when setting mixture for descent.
Full mixture settings at high altitudes may lead to engine
roughness or flooding resulting in engine loss.
SR22 Turbo - it is not necessary to adjust the mixture during the
descent.
6. Brake Pressure .................................................................. CHECK
Apply pressure to each toe brake and ensure resistance is felt. Be
sensitive for soft or mushy feeling in brakes as this could indicate a
brake failure.
Avionics Configuration
• Autopilot - Set modes on autopilot for descent as desired,
• GPS 1 - Verify correct navigation information is set,
• MFD - Complete Descent Checklist, monitor Map for situational
awareness,
• PFD - Set Altitude and VSI bugs for the descent. Monitor
aircraft flight parameters and system status.
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Standard Operating Procedures
Before Landing / Traffic Pattern
Complete the Before Landing checklist as a flow prior to entering the
traffic pattern when time and workload permit. Slow the aircraft early
enough to allow for an easy transition into the traffic flow and enough
time to ensure the aircraft is configured for landing. The following
profile describes a normal traffic pattern. Pilots should use this profile
as a guide when entering the traffic pattern on the downwind leg and
modify as appropriate for base entry or straight in approaches.
SR22_OP02_2667
Before Landing / Traffic Pattern Flow
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Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Seat Belt and Shoulder Harness .........................................Secure
Ensure the seat belt and shoulder harness is secure for all
occupants in the aircraft.
2. Fuel Pump ......................................................................... BOOST
3. Mixture ................................................................... AS REQUIRED
SR20 - Mixture full rich for all altitudes.
SR22 - Mixture as required for altitude. Reference the max power
fuel flow placard for mixture setting. Avoid rich mixture settings at
high elevations.
SR22 Turbo - Mixture full rich for all altitudes.
4. Flaps ...................................................................... AS REQUIRED
Reference the Traffic Pattern Profile or Approach Profile for
information on the appropriate use of flaps
5. Autopilot ................................................................. AS REQUIRED
It is recommended to disconnect the autopilot prior to entering the
traffic pattern
Avionics Configuration
• Autopilot - Disengage the autopilot prior to entering the traffic
pattern,
• MFD - Complete the Before Landing Checklist, monitor Map for
situational awareness.
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100 KIAS
50% FLAPS
ABEAM
100 KIAS
0% FLAPS
DOWNWIND
Figure 3-2
Traffic Pattern Profile
FINAL
90 KIAS
100% FLAPS
BASE
75 KIAS (SR20)
80 KIAS (SR22)
100% FLAPS
SR22_OP02_2666
As Required
As Required
Final
As Required
25% / 12” MP 15% / 12” MP 25% / 12” MP
Abeam/Base
SR22 Turbo
50% / 20” MP 30% / 15” MP 50% / 15” MP
SR22
Downwind
SR20
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
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Approach
The following Instrument Approach Procedures outline the operating
procedures for executing precision, non precision, and GPS
approaches. The information describes the best way to configure the
aircraft for given instrument procedures, complete checklist items, and
configure avionics in Cirrus aircraft. The purpose of this section is to
supplement the information in the POH and provide greater guidance
on the completion of various instrument procedures in the aircraft. The
techniques outlined in this section may not be inclusive of all variables
encountered in the national airspace system. Pilots should follow
these standard procedures when applicable and exercise good
judgment for non standard procedures.
To reduce workload during the descent and instrument approach
procedure follow these recommendations.
• Obtain destination weather information as soon as possible to
determine active runways and applicable approaches,
• Set up applicable COM and NAV frequencies prior to descent,
• Use the autopilot while briefing and preparing for the approach,
• Reduce unnecessary communications and distractions during
the approach,
• Use the Descent and Before Landing flows outlined in this
manual to complete checklist and avionics set up procedures,
Always reference the checklist after the flow is complete,
• Brief the approach using the guidelines listed in this section.
Stabilized Approach Criteria
A stabilized approach is critical to a safe, successful landing. A
stabilized approach is characterized by a constant angle, constant rate
of descent approach profile ending near the touchdown point.
Stabilized approach criteria apply to all approaches including practice
power off approaches.
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Standard Operating Procedures
VFR Stabilized Approach Definition
All briefings and appropriate checklists should be completed by 500'
AGL in visual conditions.
A VFR approach is considered stabilized when all of the following
criteria are achieved by 500' AGL:
• Proper airspeed,
• Correct flight path,
• Correct aircraft configuration for phase of flight,
• Appropriate power setting for aircraft configuration,
• Normal angle and rate of descent,
• Only minor corrections are required to correct deviations.
A go around must be executed if the above conditions are not met and
the aircraft is not stabilized by 500' AGL.
IFR Stabilized Approach Definition
All briefings and appropriate checklists should be completed by 1000'
AGL for instrument conditions.
An IFR Approach is considered stabilized when all of the following
criteria are met from 1000' AGL and continues to touchdown:
• Proper airspeed,
• Correct flight path,
• Correct aircraft configuration for phase of flight,
• Appropriate power setting for aircraft configuration,
• Normal angle and rate of descent,
• Only minor corrections with pitch and power are required to
correct airspeed and glide path deviations,
• Normal bracketing (+/- 5º) is used to correct for lateral
navigation deviations.
Do not change flap configuration after crossing the FAF until the
runway is in sight and landing is assured.
A missed approach must be executed if the above conditions are not
maintained during an instrument approach.
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Standard Operating Procedures
Procedures
Emphasis should be place on maintaining stability during the entire
approach.
Approach Briefing
The purpose of an approach briefing is to prepare the pilot to execute
an instrument approach procedure. Pilots should brief the instrument
approach procedure when time and workload permits. Preferably, the
approach should be briefed approximately 20 minutes prior to the IAF
or start of vectors. The approach briefing should include the following
items:
• Type of procedure and runway (e.g. ILS 35L),
• Transition to final (vectors or IAF),
• Applicable Nav and Com frequencies,
• DA/MDA,
• MAP and missed approach procedure.
Sample Approach Briefing
This will be a _________ (ILS, GPS…) approach to RWY______ via
the _______ transition (VTF or IAF). The proper navigation source
(GPS, VLOC) for the approach is selected and the proper course is set
in the HSI. Applicable approach frequencies are tuned and identified.
Final approach speed is ______ KIAS with approach flaps (50%) set
prior to the FAF. Call out 1000 feet, 500 feet and 100 feet above
minimums. The minimum altitude for the approach is _______ feet.
The missed approach procedure is climb to _______ altitude and turn
left/right to the _________ fix and hold.
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Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure - Precision Approach (See Figure 3-3)
The following provides guidance for executing a precision approach
using vectors to final or full procedure as the transition. The precision
approach profile may be used for ILS, LPV, and LNAV/VNAV
approaches or any approach that has lateral and vertical course
guidance.
Avionics Configuration
Autopilot - If desired:
Approach Segment
Lateral Mode
Vertical Mode
Vector to final
HDG
As required
Cleared to IAF
GPSS
As required
Procedure turn outbound /
course reversal
GPSSa and/or HDG
As required
Inbound to FAF
NAV APR
ALT
FAF inbound
NAV APR
GS
Missed approach
NA
NA
a.WAAS equipped aircraft may use the NAV GPSS mode to execute procedure
turns or course reversals.
GPS
• Load the approach with the assigned transition (VTF or IAF),
• Verify all Flight Plan waypoints are correct including course
reversals,
• Activate the approach at the start of vectors or when cleared
direct to the IAF,
• Verify all approach frequencies are tuned and identified,
• Verify the navigation mode switches from GPS to VLOC on an
ILS approach when inbound to FAF.
MFD
• Reference CMax for approach information and briefing,
• Reference the electronic checklist at the completion of the
Descent and Before Landing flows.
PFD
• Set the Altitude bug for the DA once established inbound to
FAF,
• Set the HDG bug for the wind correction heading once
established inbound on the final approach course.
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3-54
As required
50% / 22" MP
25% / 12" MP
Final Intercept
1/2 Scale Below Glideslope
FAF Inbound
Full Power
15% / 12" MP
30% / 15" MP
As required
As required
SR22
Transition to final (VTF or IAF),
Applicable Nav and Com frequencies,
DA/MDA,
MAP and missed approach procedure.
•
•
•
•
• Note •
• Execute a missed approach anytime the stabilized approach criteria outlined are not met.
• Sync the HDG bug once established inbound, on the final approach course,
• Set ALT bug to the DA prior to FAF,
Type of procedure and runway (e.g. ILS 31),
•
Precision Approach Briefing Elements
Full Power
As required
Start of Vectors / Cleared to IAF
Missed Approach
SR20
Approximate Power Settings
Full Power
25% / 12" MP
50% / 15" MP
As required
As required
SR22 Turbo
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
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Standard Operating Procedures
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FA F
Decision Altitude
AP Disconnect
DA
Glideslope Intercept
100kts
Time Noted at FAF
Figure 3-3
Precision Approach Profile
1 DOT below GS
100kts
Flaps 50%
Final Intercept
Complete Before Landing Checklist
Slow to 100kts
Start of Vectors / Cleared to IAF
120kts
Complete Descent Checklist
Brief Approach
Missed Approach
Full Power
Pitch 7.5° - 10°
- Intercept Vy
Flaps Retract
- Clear Terrain
- Positive Rate of Climb
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
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Non Precision Approach Procedure (See Figure 3-4)
The following provides guidance for executing a non precision
approach using vectors to final or full procedure as the transition. The
non precision profile may be used for VOR and GPS overlay
approaches or any approach that has only lateral course guidance.
Avionics Configuration
Autopilot - If desired:
Approach Segment
Lateral Mode
Vertical Mode
Vector to final
HDG
As required
Cleared to IAF
GPSS
As required
Procedure turn outbound /
course reversal
GPSSa and/or HDG
As required
Inbound to FAF
GPSS (GPS)
NAV/APR (VOR/LOC)
ALT
FAF inbound
GPSS (GPS)
NAV APR (VOR/LOC)
VS + ALT
Missed approach
NA
NA
a.WAAS equipped aircraft may use NAV GPSS mode to execute procedure turns
or course reversals.
GPS
• Load the approach with the assigned transition (VTF or IAF),
• Verify all Flight Plan waypoints are correct including course
reversals,
• Activate the approach at the start of vectors or when cleared
direct to the IAF,
• Verify all approach frequencies are tuned and identified,
• Verify the navigation mode is set as required (GPS or VLOC).
MFD
• Reference CMax for approach information and briefing,
• Reference the electronic checklist at the completion of the
Descent and Before Landing flows.
PFD
• Set Altitude bug for the MDA once established inbound to FAF,
• Set the HDG bug for the wind correction heading once
established inbound on the final approach course.
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3-58
As required
50% / 22" MP
25% / 12" MP
Final Intercept
2 NM to FAF
FAF Inbound
Full Power
15% / 12" MP
30% / 15" MP
As required
As required
SR22
Transition to final (VTF or IAF),
Applicable Nav and Com frequencies,
DA/MDA,
MAP and missed approach procedure.
•
•
•
•
• Note •
• Execute a missed approach anytime the stabilized approach criteria outlined are not met.
• Sync the HDG bug once established inbound,
• Set ALT bug to the MDA prior to FAF,
Type of procedure and runway (e.g. LOC 31),
•
Non Precision Approach Briefing Elements
Full Power
As required
Start of Vectors / Cleared to IAF
Missed Approach
SR20
Approximate Power Settings
Full Power
25% / 12" MP
50% / 15" MP
As required
As required
SR22 Turbo
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Section 3
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Standard Operating Procedures
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Final Descent / MAP
AP Disconnect
FAF
MAP
MDA
100kts
Flaps 50%
FAF Inbound
100kts
Time Noted
Figure 3-4
Non Precision Approach Profile
2 NM to FAF
100kts
Flaps 50%
Final Intercept
Complete Before Landing Checklist
Slow to 100kts
Start of Vectors / Cleared to IAF
120kts
Complete Descent Checklist
Brief Approach
Missed Approach
Full Power
Pitch 7.5° - 10°
- Intercept Vy
Flaps Retract
- Clear Terrain
- Positive Rate of Climb
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
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GPS Approach Procedures (See Figure 3-5)
The following provides guidance for executing a classic GPS approach
using vectors to final or full procedure as the transition. Use this profile
for executing a partial panel approach in the event of a PFD failure.
Avionics Configuration
Autopilot (if desired):
Approach Segment
Lateral Mode
Vertical Mode
Vector to final
HDG
As required
Cleared to IAF
GPSS
As required
Procedure turn outbound /
course reversal
GPSSa and/or HDG
As required
Inbound to FAF
GPSS (GPS)
ALT
FAF inbound
GPSS (GPS)
VS + ALTb
Missed approach
NA
NA
a.WAAS equipped aircraft may use NAV GPSS mode to execute procedure turns
or course reversals.
b.Altitude preselect may not be available in the event of a PFD failure. For complete PFD failures, pull both PFD circuit breakers to gain the use of vertical speed
control on the autopilot. During partial panel operations use vertical speed control
for climbs and descents and ALT hold to maintain altitude
GPS
• Load the approach with the assigned transition (VTF or IAF),
Always select an IAF for partial panel approaches,
• Verify all waypoints are correct including course reversals,
• Activate the approach at the start of vectors or when cleared
direct to the IAF,
• Verify all approach frequencies are tuned and identified,
• Verify the navigation mode is set as required (GPS or VLOC).
MFD
• Reference CMax for approach information and briefing,
• Reference the electronic checklist at the completion of the
Descent and Before Landing checklist flows.
PFD
• Set Altitude bug for the MDA once established inbound to FAF,
• Set the HDG bug for the wind correction heading once
established inbound on the final approach course.
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3-62
As required
50% / 22" MP
25% / 12" MP
Final Intercept
2 NM to FAF
FAF Inbound
Type of procedure and runway (e.g. LOC 31),
Transition to final (VTF or IAF),
Applicable Nav and Com frequencies,
DA/MDA,
MAP and missed approach procedure.
•
•
•
•
•
• Note •
Full Power
25% / 12" MP
50% / 15" MP
As required
As required
SR22 Turbo
Proceed to VFR conditions in the unlikely event of a PFD failure. Execute an autopilot coupled approach if VFR conditions are
not available. Start the approach at an IAF that does not require a procedure turn or course reversal.
• Caution •
• Execute a missed approach anytime the stabilized approach criteria outlined are not met.
• Sync the HDG bug once established inbound,
• Set ALT bug to the MDA prior to FAF,
Full Power
15% / 12" MP
30% / 15" MP
As required
As required
SR22
GPS Approach Briefing Elements
Full Power
As required
Start of Vectors / Cleared to IAF
Missed Approach
SR20
Approximate Power Settings
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
2 NM to FAF
100kts
Flaps 50%
Final Intercept
Complete Before Landing Checklist
Slow to 100kts
Figure 3-5
GPS Approach Profile
Final Descent / MAP
AP Disconnect
FAF
Missed Approach
Full Power
Pitch 7.5° - 10°
- Intercept Vy
Flaps Retract
- Clear Terrain
- Positive Rate of Climb
SR22_OP02_2672
MAP
MDA
100kts
Flaps 50%
FAF Inbound
100kts
Time Noted
Start of Vectors / Cleared to IAF
120kts
Complete Descent Checklist
Brief Approach
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
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Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Go-Around
A go around should be executed anytime an approach does not meet
the stabilized approach criteria outlined in this manual for instrument
or visual conditions. A go around should be completed from memory
since it is a time critical maneuver.
In addition to the stabilized approach criteria, execute a go around/
missed approach for these conditions:
• Excessive ballooning during round out or flare,
• Excessive bouncing or porpoising,
• Landing beyond 1st third of the runway,
• Any condition when a safe landing is in question.
The first priority of executing a go around is to stop the aircraft’s
descent. Smoothly and promptly apply full power while simultaneously
leveling the wings and pitching the aircraft to stop the descent.
Maintain coordination while adding power by applying rudder
pressure. Retract the flaps to 50%. Do not fully retract the flaps at this
point in the go around because it may lead to excessive altitude loss.
Begin pitching for a climb attitude once the aircraft's descent rate has
been stopped. Pitch for VX if obstacle clearance is an issue. Pitch for
VY for all other situations. Retract flaps to 0% once the aircraft is
climbing, and clear of obstacles, and at 80kts (SR20), 85kts (SR22)
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P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Memory)
1. Autopilot .....................................................................DISENGAGE
Disengage the Autopilot by depressing the AP DISC on the control
yoke.
2. Power Lever ........................................................ FULL FORWARD
Increase power lever to the full forward position. Ensure full power
is used and do not stop at any detents along power lever travel.
3. Flaps ........................................................................................ 50%
Select flaps to 50% to decrease drag and maintain maximum lift
as a climb is initiated.
4. Airspeed..................................................................... SEE BELOW
SR20 - 81 to 83 KIAS
SR22 - 75 to 80 KIAS
5. Flaps .......................................................................................... UP
Verify flaps have been retracted to 0%. If not, ensure the following
criteria is met before retracting the flaps:
SR20 - 85 KIAS
SR22 - 80 KIAS
Positive rate of climb
Clear of terrain and obstacles
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Landing
Approach Speeds
SR20
SR22
100% Flaps
75 KIAS
80 KIAS
50% Flaps
80 KIAS
85 KIAS
0% Flaps
85 KIAS
90 KIAS
Short Field (100% Flaps)
75 KIAS
77 KIAS
Max Demonstrated Crosswind
21 KIAS
20 KIAS
Normal Landing
Normal landings should be made with 100% flaps. Final approach
speeds should be adjusted to account for gusts exceeding 10 KTS by
adding half of the gust factor. Reduce power smoothly and begin
slowing from the final approach speed at a time that allows an easy
transition from final descent to round out and flare with minimum
floating or ballooning. Touch downs should be made on the main
wheels first at speeds slightly above stall. Gently lower the nose wheel
after the mains are on the ground.
Short Field Landing
Landings on short runways should be made with 100% flaps. Final
approach speeds should be adjusted to account for wind gusts
exceeding 10 KTS by adding half the gust factor. Progressively reduce
power after clearing all approach obstacles. Proper airspeed and
power control should result in an approach with minimal floating in
ground effect and excessive sink rates during the approach.
Touchdown should be made on the main wheels first. Immediately
after touchdown, ensure power idle, lower the nose wheel and brake
as required. To decrease stopping distances considers retracting the
flaps and holding the control yoke full aft. Emphasis should be placed
on the accuracy of the touchdown to ensure enough runway remains
after touchdown to stop the aircraft.
3-66
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Soft Field Landing
Cirrus aircraft are approved for landings on soft field or turf runways.
Add 20% to the landing ground roll distance when landing on a dry
grass runway and 60% when landing on a wet grass runway. Always
ensure that the quality and condition of the runway surface is
adequate to support the aircraft. Avoid turf runways with long grass,
wet or soggy soil, large ruts or holes. A soft field approach is similar to
and normal landing approach. Touchdowns should be made on the
main wheels first. A soft touchdown will reduce the stress on the
landing gear and make it easier to keep the nose wheel from digging
into the turf and possible loss of directional control. Keep the nose
wheel off the ground as long as possible by applying sufficient back
pressure to the control yoke. A little power can be added immediately
after touchdown to aid in keeping the nose wheel off the ground.
Braking should be minimized. Excessive braking could lead to a loss
of directional control on the runway. Higher power settings will be
required to taxi on a soft field.
Crosswind Landing
Crosswind landings should be made with 100% flaps. It is
recommended to crab the aircraft into the wind sufficient to track the
aircraft along the extended centerline of the runway. Hold the crab until
the beginning of the round out. At the start of the round out, enter a
slip by applying rudder pressure to align the longitudinal axis of the
aircraft with the runway and simultaneously apply aileron to keep the
aircraft tracking the runway centerline. Touchdowns should be made
on the upwind main landing gear first followed by the downwind main
landing gear and nose gear. Hold aileron correction into the wind
during the rollout and apply rudder as necessary to maintain
directional control.
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
After Landing
Complete the After Landing checklist as a flow after clearing the active
runway. Ensure the pitot heat is turned off. The mixture can be leaned
if desired. Set the mixture by leaning for max RPM rise.
SR22_OP02_2668
After Landing Flow
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August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Power Lever ................................................................... 1000 RPM
Reduce power to 1000 RPM during taxi. Changes in engine speed
should be used to accelerate or decelerate the aircraft along with
minimal braking as necessary.
2. Fuel Pump ............................................................................... OFF
Select Fuel Pump OFF after clearing runway.
3. Flaps .......................................................................................... UP
Select flaps to 0% (UP) after clearing runway.
4. Transponder ...........................................................................STBY
Ensure transponder has automatically cycled to STBY. If not,
select STBY manually.
5. Lights ..................................................................... AS REQUIRED
Reduce external lighting once clearing the runway to the minimum
required for safe/legal operation so as to avoid creating a hazard
to others.
6. Pitot Heat ................................................................................. OFF
Select Pitot Heat OFF to avoid overheating heating element.
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Arrival/Engine Shutdown
Complete the shutdown checklist as a flow pattern. Verify with the
checklist to ensure all items have been accomplished when completed
with the flow. The avionics switch may be left on during engine
shutdown. Notify maintenance personal immediately and do not move
the propeller if a hot magneto is found during the shutdown process.
The aircraft should be parked on a ramp or in a hangar. If the aircraft is
parked outside, it should be chocked and tied down if possible.
SR22_OP02_2669
Arrival/Engine Shutdown Flow
3-70
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August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Procedure (Flow Pattern)
1. Fuel Pump (if used) ................................................................. OFF
2. Throttle.................................................................................... IDLE
3. Ignition Switch..................................................................... CYCLE
• Caution •
Note that the engine hesitates as the switch cycles through
the OFF position. If the engine does not hesitate, one or both
magnetos are not grounded. Prominently mark the propeller
as being HOT, and contact maintenance personnel
immediately.
4. Mixture ..............................................................................CUTOFF
Reduce mixture control to the full CUTOFF position and ensure
engine stops running. If the engine continues to run with the
mixture at idle, ensure the boost pump is in the off position.
5. All Switches ............................................................................. OFF
Turn off all remaining switches including the AC and fan if
equipped.
6. Magnetos ................................................................................. OFF
Turn off magnetos and remove key.
7. ELT........................................................... TRANSMIT LIGHT OUT
After a hard landing, the ELT may be activated. If this is
suspected, press the RESET button located below the CB panel
near the floor by the pilot's right ankle.
8. Chocks, Tie-downs, Pitot Cover ............................. AS REQUIRED
Set parking brake if required, chock both main wheels, use tie
downs under wings and tail if necessary. Place pitot cover and
static covers if needed.
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August 2007
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Section 3
Flight Operations Manual
Standard Operating Procedures
Intentionally Left Blank
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August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 4
Flight Operations Manual
Maneuvers
Section 4 - Maneuvers
General
The following maneuvers should be complete with a minimum
recovery altitude of 1500' AGL. Follow these guidelines for set up and
execution of the following maneuvers.
Steep turns
Enter this maneuver at 120 KTS by smoothly banking the aircraft to
45º (Private) / 50º (Commercial) and simultaneously adding back
pressure to maintain altitude. Maintain coordination with rudder.
Additional power may be necessary to maintain airspeed. Continue
the turn for 360 degrees. Start the roll out approximately 10 degrees
before completing the full turn and simultaneously releasing
backpressure. Reduce any power that was added during the
maneuver.
Execution
• Execute clearing turns,
• Airspeed 120 KIAS,
> SR20 - 60% Power / 21" MP (approximately),
> SR22 - 30% Power / 18" MP (approximately),
> SR22 Turbo - 50% Power / 18" MP (approximately).
• Bank Angle 45º (Private) or 50º (Commercial).
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Section 4
Flight Operations Manual
Maneuvers
Maneuvering during Slow Flight
Practice this maneuver with a variety of flap configurations while
climbing, descending and turning. Enter the maneuver in level flight
and smoothly reduce power. Maintain altitude while the aircraft slows
to the desired airspeed and trim the aircraft. Add flaps as desired at
VFE. Add power as necessary to maintain the desired altitude.
Maintain coordination throughout the maneuver with rudder control.
Recover from this maneuver if a stall is encountered.
Execution
• Execute clearing turns,
• Reduce power,
> SR20 - 20% Power / 15" MP (approximately),
> SR22 - 15% Power / 12" MP (approximately),
> SR22 Turbo - 25% Power / 12” MP (approximately).
• Flaps as desired (0% - 100%),
• Bank angle as desired (20º maximum),
• Airspeed - an airspeed at which any further increase in angle of
attack, increase in load factor, or reduction in power would
result in an immediate stall (current PTS standards).
Recovery
• Reduce angle of attack and level wings,
• Apply full power,
• Flaps 50%,
• Accelerate to VY,
• Flaps 0%,
> SR20 - 85 KTS,
> SR22 - 80 KTS.
• Clear of terrain and obstacles,
• Positive rate of climb.
4-2
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 4
Flight Operations Manual
Maneuvers
Power off Stalls
Practice this maneuver with varying flap configurations. Enter this
maneuver from a level attitude by reducing the power and adding flaps
as desired at VFE. At 80 KTS establish a descent of approximately
500fpm, straight or turning. Once a stabilized descent is established,
reduce power to idle and gradually increase pitch to a normal
touchdown attitude (7.5º approximately). Adjust pitch to reduce
airspeed approximately 1 KTS / second. Recovery can be initiated at
the incipient phase or full stall.
Execution
• Execute clearing turns,
• Flaps as desired (0% - 100%),
• Establish glide or gliding turn,
> SR20 - 20% Power / 15" MP (approximately),
> SR22 - 15% Power / 12" MP (approximately),
> SR22 Turbo - 25% Power / 12" MP (approximately).
• Descent rate 500 fpm (approximately),
• 20º max bank angle,
• Reduce throttle to idle and increase pitch to a normal landing
attitude (5º to 7.5º) and induce a stall.
Recovery
• Reduce angle of attack and level wings,
• Apply full power,
• Flaps 50%,
• Accelerate to VY,
• Flaps 0%,
> SR20 - 85 KTS,
> SR22 - 80 KTS.
• Clear of terrain and obstacles,
• Positive rate of climb.
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August 2007
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Section 4
Flight Operations Manual
Maneuvers
Power on Stalls
Practice this maneuver with 0% and/or 50% flaps, straight and turning.
Enter the maneuver from level flight by reducing power and adding
flaps as desired at VFE. Slow the aircraft to VR while maintaining
altitude. At VR smoothly apply a minimum of 65% power and pitch the
aircraft at an angle to induce a stall. Apply rudder to maintain
coordination. Recover from this maneuver at the incipient phase or full
stall.
Execution
• Execute clearing turns,
• Flaps 0% or 50% as desired,
• Airspeed- slow to VR,
> SR20 - 20% Power / 15" MP (approximately),
> SR22 - 15% Power / 12" MP (approximately),
> SR22 Turbo - 25% Power / 12" MP (approximately).
• Bank angle as desired (20° maximum),
• Apply minimum 65% power,
• Increase pitch angle to induce stall (Maximum 25° pitch
attitude).
Recovery
• Reduce angle of attack and level wings,
• Verify full power,
• Accelerate to VY,
• Flaps 0%,
> SR20- 85 KTS,
> SR22- 80 KTS.
• Clear of terrain and obstacles,
• Positive rate of climb.
4-4
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 4
Flight Operations Manual
Maneuvers
Autopilot Stall Recognition
The purpose of this maneuver is to identify the conditions when a stall
with the autopilot engaged may occur, recognize the affects of an
impending autopilot stall and learn the recovery procedure. Do not
exceed any autopilot limitations during this maneuver. The maneuver
is started by programming the autopilot for conditions it is not capable
of maintaining (excessive climb rate, insufficient power…) This
maneuver will not be executed to a full stall condition. Recovery will be
initiated at by disconnecting the autopilot and following the stall
recovery procedure.
AP Stall Recognition (Power Off)
Execution
• Execute clearing turns,
• Flaps 50%,
• Engage HDG and ALT modes on the autopilot,
> SR20 - 20% Power / 15" MP (approximately),
> SR22 - 15% Power / 12" MP (approximately),
> SR22 Turbo - 25% Power / 12" MP (approximately).
• Note •
Autopilot will increase the angle of attack to maintain altitude
sacrificing airspeed. Recovery will be performed at a speed no
lower than 1.2 VS, as per the S-Tec autopilot limitation.
Recovery
• Disconnect autopilot,
• Reduce angle of attack and level wings,
• Apply full power,
• Accelerate to VY
• Flaps 0%,
> SR20- 85 KTS,
> SR22- 80 KTS.
• Clear of terrain and obstacles,
• Positive rate of climb.
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August 2007
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Section 4
Flight Operations Manual
Maneuvers
Autopilot Stall Recognition (Cont)
AP Stall Recognition (Power On)
Execution
• Execute clearing turns,
> SR20 - 25% Power / 11" MP (approximately),
> SR22 - 15% Power / 12" MP (approximately),
> SR22 Turbo - 25% Power / 12" MP (approximately).
• Flaps 0%,
• Engage HDG and VS with a 1600 FPM climb,
• Apply minimum 65% power.
• Note •
Autopilot will increase the angle of attack to increase altitude
sacrificing airspeed. Recovery will be initiated at a speed no
lower than 95 KIAS as per the S-Tec autopilot limitation.
Recovery
• Disconnect autopilot and simultaneously,
• Reduce angle of attack and level wings,
• Verify full power.
4-6
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 5
Flight Operations Manual
Emergency and Abnormal Procedures
Section 5 - Emergency and
Abnormal Procedures
General
Section 3 and 3A of the Pilot’s Operating Handbook provide the
procedures for handling emergency and abnormal system and/or flight
conditions which, if followed, will maintain an acceptable level of
airworthiness and reduce operational risk. The guidelines described in
these sections are to be used when an emergency and/or abnormal
condition exists and should be considered and applied as necessary.
Checklist Completion for Abnormal Procedures
Completion of abnormal procedures should be done using the do-list
method. The appropriate checklist should be directly referred to and
each item should be completed in the order prescribed.
Checklist Completion for Emergency Procedures
Emergency checklists should be completed from memory. The
Emergency Procedures section of the POH identifies checklist items
for emergency procedures that must be memorized. Execution of
these procedures is considered time critical and is done without
reference to a checklist. The checklist should only be referenced
during an emergency if time permits.
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Section 5
Flight Operations Manual
Emergency and Abnormal Procedures
Intentionally Left Blank
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Section 6
Flight Operations Manual
Performance
Section 6 - Performance
General
To determine what performance to expect from the airplane under
various ambient and field conditions, Refer to Section 5 - Performance,
of the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Performance data are presented for
takeoff, climb, and cruise (including range & endurance).
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Section 6
Flight Operations Manual
Performance
Intentionally Left Blank
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Section 7 - Supplementary
Information
General
This section should be used as a supplement for the planning and
execution of all flights in Cirrus aircraft. Although an excellent
resource, this information will not guarantee a safe flight. Minimizing
flight risk requires sound judgment and sensible operating practices.
Safety of flight ultimately depends upon the decisions made by you,
the pilot.
Safe flights should be conducted in accordance with regulations, ATC
clearances, personal capabilities, and the aircraft operating limitations
described in the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual and Pilot’s
Operating Handbook (POH). Procedures in this publication are derived
from procedures in the FAA Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM).
Cirrus Design has attempted to ensure that the data contained agrees
with the data in the AFM. If there is any disagreement, the Airplane
Flight Manual is the final authority. For operations outside the
United States, refer to the appropriate regulations for that country. This
publication should be in the pilot's possession during all flight
operations.
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Pilot Qualification and Training
The pilot in command of any Cirrus aircraft is responsible for its safe
operation. It is recommended that all pilots operate in accordance with
the policies and procedures prescribed within this publication. In no
case does this document relieve the pilot in command from the
responsibility of making safe decisions regarding the operation of the
aircraft.
Training
Initial Training
Cirrus pilots should satisfactorily complete the Cirrus Transition
Training Course or the Cirrus Standardized Instructor Program (CSIP)
course prior to acting as pilot in command of a Cirrus aircraft.
• Note •
Instrument rated pilots should complete an instrument
proficiency check prior to flying in IMC.
Recurrent Training
Cirrus pilots should complete recurrent training at a Cirrus
Standardized Training Center (CSTC) or with a Cirrus Standardized
Instructor (CSI) under the guidance of the Cirrus Pilot Learning Plan.
Recurrent training emphasizes aeronautical decision making, risk
management, and airmanship, which leads to increased proficiency.
The recurrent training program provides an opportunity to meet the
requirements of a biennial flight review or instrument proficiency
check.
• Note •
Instrument rated pilots should complete an instrument
proficiency check every 6 months.
Additional Training Resources
Pilot's World Magazine
Pilot's World is a free online monthly proficiency program used to
increase a pilot's knowledge, proficiency and safe utilization of a Cirrus
aircraft. It is designed for pilots, with or without an instrument rating.
Each month this program provides a Ground Segment and Flight
7-2
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Segment that address important topics of value to all Cirrus pilots.
Pilot's World is accessible at http://www.cirrusdesign.com.
Jeppesen Learning Center
Jeppesen Learning Center is an online training resource used by
Cirrus pilots before, during and after the initial transition training. The
Jeppesen Learning Center includes approximately eight hours of
online ground school and syllabi for six scenario-based flight
workshops. A bookshelf containing publications specific to the aircraft
and avionics along with additional information is included. Access to
Jeppesen Internet Flight Planner is also provided. Cirrus and
Jeppesen believe that this is the first time that such an integrated
curriculum has been provided in a general aviation training program.
Cirrus Pilot Leaning Plan
The Cirrus Pilot Leaning Plan provides guidance on the recurrent
training events recommended by Cirrus Design. Following the
guidance provided in the learning plan will help Cirrus pilots develop
and maintain a high level of proficiency. This training, coupled with
exercising sound judgement, will help ensure the safe completion of
flight.
Cirrus Owners and Pilots Association
Cirrus Owners and Pilots Association (COPA) is an organization that
welcomes the membership of Cirrus owners, pilots and enthusiasts
with an interest in aviation and particularly, Cirrus aircraft, issues and
events. Three main training and safety related events provided by
COPA are the Cirrus Pilot Proficiency Program (CPPP), the Critical
Decision Making (CDM) course and the Partner In Command (PIC)
course. The CPPP course is designed to expose Cirrus pilots issues
they may encounter while operating their aircraft. Topics such as
weather, accident review, advanced avionics, emergency procedures
and engine management are discussed and applied during a CPPP
course.
Critical Decision Making Course
The Critical Decision Making course is typically presented in
conjunction with a Cirrus Mobile Showroom Event and may take place
at any number of cities throughout North America. The CDM course
addresses issues related to aeronautical decision making as it relates
to Cirrus pilots. The PIC course has been designed to give frequent
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Cirrus passengers more knowledge regarding safety system
operations in the unlikely event that the Pilot in Command should
become incapacitated. Procedures include using basic radio
communication and CAPS activation. The PIC course is provided by
both Cirrus Design and COPA.
PIC, CPPP and CDM schedules and information can be found on the
COPA website; www.cirruspilots.org
Medical Certificates
In order to exercise the privileges of a private pilot certificate the pilot
must hold a third class medical certificate, which is valid for 24 months
from the date of issue (36 months if the person is under 40.) In order to
exercise the privileges of a commercial pilot certificate a pilot must
hold and maintain a second-class medical certificate valid for 12
calendar months from the date of issue.
Takeoff and Landing Wind Proficiency
A Cirrus pilot should not attempt to takeoff or land when the wind
speed and crosswind component exceed the individual's capabilities.
Non-Instrument Rated or Instrument Rated (Non-Proficient)
• Day: Maximum 25 knots sustained and 15 knots crosswind.
• Night: Maximum 25 knots sustained and 10 knots crosswind.
Instrument Rated (Proficient)
• Day: Maximum 30 knots sustained and 15 knots crosswind.
• Night: Maximum 25 knots sustained and 15 knots crosswind.
Instrument Rated (Proficient with Demonstrated Ability to
Category I Minimums within 60 days)
• Maximum 35 knots sustained and 20 knots crosswind or
maximum demonstrated crosswind component.
When taking off or landing on ice-covered runways (braking action
reported POOR), the crosswind component should not exceed 50% of
the aircraft's demonstrated crosswind component. Takeoff and landing
training should not to be conducted if the wind exceeds 25 knots or the
gust factor exceeds 10 knots. Land into the wind whenever possible
during normal operations. Where airport layout or the type of operation
requires landing with a tailwind - for example, an ILS approach - up to
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
a 10 knot tailwind component is allowed per the Performance Section
of the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.
Takeoff, Enroute and Landing Minimums
Cirrus pilots should not operate below the following minimum ceiling
and flight visibility limitations:
Non-Instrument Rated or Instrument Rated (Non-Proficient)
A pilot should only operate when the ceiling and visibility are at least
3000 feet and 5 miles, respectively, during the day. For night
operations the minimum ceiling and visibility should be at least 5000
feet and 10 miles, respectively.
Instrument Rated (Proficient)
A pilot who has fewer than 100 hours in a Cirrus aircraft should only
operate in that aircraft type when the ceiling and visibility are at least
1000 feet and 3 miles, respectively.
For day operations, a pilot who has logged more than 100 hours in a
Cirrus aircraft should only operate that aircraft type when the ceiling
and visibility are at least 500 feet and 1 mile, respectively. For night
operations, a pilot who has logged more than 100 hours in a Cirrus
aircraft should only operate that aircraft type when the ceiling and
visibility are at least 600 feet and 2 miles, respectively.
Instrument Rated (Proficient with Demonstrated Ability to
Category I Minimums within 60 days)
• Note •
Initial Category I currency should be obtained with a CSTC
instructor or a CSI.
A pilot who has logged fewer than 100 hours in a Cirrus aircraft should
only operate when the ceiling and visibility are at least 500 feet and 1
mile, respectively. A pilot who has logged more than 100 hours in a
Cirrus aircraft should only operate that aircraft type when the ceiling
and visibility are at least 200 feet and 1/2 mile, respectively.
• Note •
Pilots should file an IFR flight plan any time the weather conditions are
below 3000 feet and/or 5 miles visibility.
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Currency Requirements
VFR
Cirrus pilots should maintain VFR currency by completing each of the
following items in a Cirrus aircraft:
• The Cirrus Transition Training course,
• 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop within the previous 60
days,
• 10 hours as the PIC within the previous 60 days,
• The training events outlined in the Cirrus Pilot Learning Plan.
Cirrus pilots should fly with a CSTC instructor or with a CSI to meet
the flight currency requirement if currency lapses. Completion of
training events outlined in the Cirrus Pilot Learning Plan will also
restore flight currency.
IFR
Cirrus pilots should maintain IFR currency by completing each of the
following items in a Cirrus aircraft:
• VFR currency requirements,
• an IPC with CSTC instructor or a CSI within the previous 6
months,
• 3 instrument approaches in actual or simulated instrument
conditions within the previous 60 days.
• For Category I currency, demonstrate the ability to execute an
instrument approach to Category I minimums within the
previous 60 days.
• Note •
Initial Category I currency should be obtained with a CSTC
instructor or a CSI.
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Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Pilot Duty Considerations
Duty Time and Rest
Pilots should avoid a duty period greater than 14 hours including a
maximum of 8 hours of flight instruction. A pilot should have a 10 hour
rest period prior to flying the following day. Pilots should consider
non-flight related working periods as duty time.
Physiological
Intoxicants
Pilots should not consume alcohol or other intoxicants within 12 hours
prior to flying and should always consider the lasting effects of alcohol
the following day.
Blood Donations
A pilot should not operate an aircraft within 72 hours after a blood
donation or transfusion due to temporary lowering of oxygen carrying
capacity of blood following a blood donation or transfusion.
Scuba Diving
A pilot or passenger who intends to fly after scuba diving should allow
the body sufficient time to rid itself of excess nitrogen absorbed during
the dive. The recommended wait times are as follows:
• Wait 12 hours - if flight will be below 8,000 feet pressure altitude
and dive did not require a controlled ascent.
• Wait 24 hours - if flight will be above 8,000 feet pressure
altitude or dive required a controlled ascent.
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7-7
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Aircraft Maintenance
Cirrus aircraft owners and operators are to maintain their aircraft in
accordance with the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness found in
the Airplane Maintenance Manual. Aircraft maintenance should be
completed at a Cirrus Authorized Service Center.
There is a worldwide network of Cirrus authorized professionals that
are trained to maintain Cirrus aircraft. Cirrus Authorized Service
Centers are available for regularly scheduled aircraft maintenance or
needed repairs. A complete listing of service centers is available at
http://www.cirrusdesign.com.
If a Cirrus aircraft is damaged or encounters mechanical difficulty that
is hazardous to flight or ground operations away from home base, the
pilot should land as soon as practical and not attempt to take off. The
pilot should secure the aircraft and contact a Cirrus Authorized Service
Center or call the Cirrus Hotline 800-279-4322. The purpose of this
call is to assist the pilot in analyzing the problem and determining the
best solution.
Grounding of Aircraft
A Cirrus pilot or mechanic has the authority to ground an aircraft
anytime it is determined to be not airworthy.
7-8
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Flight Planning
Pilots are encouraged to file VFR or IFR flight plans for all crosscountry flights. Pilots should always plan an alternate, whether
operating VFR or IFR.
The pilot should complete the following flight planning responsibilities:
Determine the best route and altitude considering; winds aloft,
freezing levels, cloud bases and tops, turbulence, terrain, airspace and
TFRs.
• Determine alternate airport.
• Calculate fuel requirements.
• Verify aircraft is within weight and balance limitations.
• Calculate takeoff and landing distances. Verify runway lengths
for intended airports.
• File flight plan.
Weather Assessment
Pilots should determine if the weather conditions exceed their
qualifications and capabilities. A decision should be made to postpone
the flight if the weather is not acceptable. Flight planning should
continue if the weather is acceptable.
• Note •
To facilitate flight planning, the U.S. Government provides a
free Direct User Access Terminal Service (DUATS) for all
licensed pilots at http://www.duats.com.
IFR Alternate Airport Weather Requirements
If from 1 hour before to 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival at the
destination airport, the weather is forecast to be at least 2,000 foot
ceilings and 3 mile visibilities, no alternate is required, though it is
important to be familiar with the area if a diversion is required. If
forecasted weather conditions are less than 2,000 feet and 3 miles, an
alternate must be filed.
A pilot may only include an alternate airport in an IFR flight plan when
appropriate weather reports or forecasts, or a combination of them,
indicate that, at the estimated time of arrival at the alternate airport,
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Supplementary Information
the ceiling and visibility at that airport will be at or above the following
weather minima:
• For a precision approach procedure. Ceiling 600 feet and
visibility 2 statute miles.
• For a Non-precision approach procedure. Ceiling 800 feet and
visibility 2 statute miles.
If no instrument approach procedure has been published, the ceiling
and visibility minima are those allowing descent from the MEA,
approach and landing under basic VFR.
Fuel Requirements
No person may operate an aircraft in IFR conditions unless there is
enough fuel (considering weather reports, forecasts, and weather
conditions) to:
• Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing,
• Fly from that airport to the alternate airport,
• Fly after that for 45 minutes at normal cruising speed.
No person may begin a flight in an aircraft under VFR conditions
unless (considering wind and forecast weather conditions) there is
enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and assuming
normal cruising speed and at least an additional 45 minutes beyond
that point in either day or night conditions.
Minimum Runway Length
Cirrus pilots are encouraged to operate off a minimum runway length
of 2,500 feet or twice the expected takeoff and /or landing distance,
whichever is higher. Cirrus pilots should receive short field takeoff and
landing instruction prior to operating at fields shorter then 2,500 ft.
Noise Abatement
When operating out of noise sensitive airports pilots are encouraged
to follow local noise abatement procedures and consider a power
reduction during the climb if necessary and safe.
7-10
P/N 23020-001
August 2007
Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 7
Flight Operations Manual
Supplementary Information
Weather
A critical factor in a successful flight is the pilot's evaluation of weather
conditions. Many weather related accidents could have been
prevented during preflight if the pilot had thoroughly evaluated the
weather conditions. The following weather resources will be useful for
evaluating the weather:
Flight Service Station: .................................................. 800-WX-BRIEF
Aviation Weather Center ...................... http://www.aviationweather.gov
Direct User Access Terminal Service (DUATS) ... http://www.duats.com
National Weather Service.............................. http://www.nws.noaa.gov
The go/no-go decision and the route to the intended destination
greatly depend on the weather at the departure airport, along the route
and destination. The pilot's ability to interpret and understand aviation
weather is critical to the safety of flight. Follow the steps below when
assessing the weather for every flight.
Overview
The first step to understanding the weather conditions along the
intended route is to assess the big picture. The pilot should become
familiar with pressure systems, frontal systems, precipitation, areas of
marginal VFR and IFR conditions, and areas of icing and turbulence.
Weather products available include:
• Surface analysis chart,
• Weather radar,
• Satellite Imagery.
Hazards to Flight
The second step is to identify any potential hazards for the intended
flight. The pilot should become familiar with areas of marginal VFR
and IFR conditions, convective activity, and areas of icing and
turbulence. Weather products available include:
• Weather depiction chart,
• AIRMETs, SIGMETs and Convective SIGMETs,
• Weather radar,
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Supplementary Information
• Pilot reports,
• Area forecast,
• Current and forecasted icing potential tools,
• http://www.aviationweather.gov.
Current Observations
The third step is to become familiar with the current observations
along the intended flight. Current weather observations within 50 miles
of the departure, intended route and destination airport should be
analyzed. Weather products available include:
• METARs,
• Pilot reports.
• Note •
Go to http://adds.aviationweather.gov/java/ for an interactive
weather tool.
Forecasted Weather
The fourth step is to understand what the weather is expected to do
during your flight. Evaluate the weather +/- 2 hours from your
estimated time of arrival at the destination or planned alternate.
Weather products available include:
• TAFs,
• Area forecast,
• Prognostic charts,
• Winds and temperature aloft,
• AIRMETs, SIGMETs and Convective SIGMETs.
NOTAMS
The fifth step is to become aware of any NOTAMs that may affect the
flight. Pay close attention to any TFRs that may interfere with your
routing.
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Cirrus SR20 and SR22
Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Thunderstorm Flying
Never regard a thunderstorm lightly - even when radar observers
report the echoes are of light intensity. Avoiding thunderstorms is the
best policy. The following are some Do's and Don'ts of thunderstorm
avoidance:
• Don't land or takeoff in the face of an approaching
thunderstorm. A sudden gust front or low level turbulence could
cause loss of control.
• Don't attempt to fly under a thunderstorm even if you can see
through to the other side. Turbulence and wind shear under the
storm could be disastrous.
• Don't trust the visual appearance to be a reliable indicator of
the turbulence inside a thunderstorm.
• Avoid by at least 20 miles any thunderstorm identified as severe
or giving an intense radar echo. This is especially true under
the anvil of a large cumulonimbus.
• Circumnavigate the entire area if the area has 6/10
thunderstorm coverage.
• Remember that vivid and frequent lightning indicates the
existence of a strong thunderstorm.
Regard as extremely hazardous any thunderstorm with tops
35,000 feet or higher, whether the top is visually sighted or
determined by radar.
Temperature Minimums
Flight training operations should not be undertaken when the outside
air temperature falls below -20 Fahrenheit. Cirrus aircraft should be
preheated if exposed to ground temperatures below 20 Fahrenheit for
more than two hours. Do not operate the engine at speeds above 1700
RPM unless oil temperature is 75 Fahrenheit or higher and oil
pressure is within specified limits of 30-60 PSI. When oil temperature
has reached 100 Fahrenheit and oil pressure does not exceed 60 PSI
at 2500 RPM, the engine has been warmed sufficiently to accept full
rated power.
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Operations in Icing Conditions
• WARNING •
Flight into known icing is prohibited.
A pilot should not take off in an aircraft that has frost, snow, or ice
adhering to any external surface.
A pilot can expect icing when flying in visible moisture, such as rain,
snow or clouds, and the temperature of the aircraft is below freezing. If
icing is detected a pilot should turn on all available anti-icing
equipment and do one of two things to exit the icing conditions; get
out of the area of visible moisture or go to an altitude where the
temperature is above freezing. The warmer altitude may not always be
a lower altitude. Proper preflight action includes obtaining information
on the freezing level. Report icing to ATC, and if operating IFR, request
new routing or altitude if icing is encountered.
7-14
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
In-Flight Considerations
Turns after Takeoff
The recommended turn altitude after takeoff is 400 feet AGL, unless
obstacle departure procedures or ATC instructions dictate otherwise.
When cleared to Fly Runway Heading pilots should maintain the
heading that corresponds with the extended centerline of the
departure runway until otherwise directed by ATC. Drift correction
should not be applied; i.e., Runway 04, with an actual magnetic
heading of the runway centerline being 044 degrees, fly 044 degrees.
Weather Status
Pilots should monitor the weather along the route and destination
airport for deteriorating conditions using onboard weather resources
and ground based weather resources. Enroute Flight Advisory
Service, Flight Watch, is generally available on 122.0 anywhere in the
contiguous United States. A diversion may be necessary if the weather
deteriorates beyond the pilot's qualifications and/or capabilities.
Aircraft Systems Status
Pilots should monitor the flight, engine and system parameters
throughout the flight. Verify adequate fuel remains to reach the
intended destination and switch fuel tanks as required to maintain an
equal balance.
Pilot Status
Pilots should monitor fatigue and stress levels during the flight. A
diversion may be necessary if the pilot has any reason to believe the
flight can not be safely completed.
Situational Awareness
Pilots should maintain situational awareness throughout the entire
flight using all available equipment and resources.
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Supplemental Oxygen
According to Title 14 CFR Part 91.211 no person may operate an
aircraft1. At cabin pressure altitudes above 12,500 feet (MSL) up to and
including 14,000 feet (MSL) unless the required minimum flight
crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part
of the flight at those altitudes that is of more than 30 minutes
duration;
2. At cabin pressure altitudes above 14,000 feet (MSL) unless the
required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses
supplemental oxygen during the entire flight time at those
altitudes; and
3. At cabin pressure altitudes above 15,000 feet (MSL) unless each
occupant of the aircraft is provided with supplemental oxygen.
• Note •
For optimal protection pilots are encouraged to use
supplemental oxygen above 10,000 feet during the day and
above 5,000 feet during the night.
7-16
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Section 7
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Flight Safety
In addition to the operating limitations specific to each aircraft type, the
following actions are not recommended:
• Parachuting activities,
• Hand propped engine starts,
• Flight below 500' AGL except for takeoff and landing,
• Flight beyond the safe gliding distance of land.
• Note •
The pilot should ensure that adequate survival gear is readily
accessible if flight beyond the safe gliding distance is required.
Sterile Cabin
During sterile cabin operations all distractions such as XM radio, nonflight related materials and unnecessary communication with
passengers should be minimized. A sterile cabin should be observed
during departure, arrival and abnormal/emergency operations.
Smoking
Smoking is prohibited inside or near aircraft and hangars. It is the
responsibility of the pilot to ensure that their passengers comply with
these restrictions.
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Supplementary Information
International Border Operations
Preflight
• Appropriate charts and flight supplements
Personal Documentation
• Pilot certificate,
• Medical certificate,
• Notarized letter authorizing children to fly (only if accompanied
by one parent),
• Proof of citizenship,
• Passport,
• Birth certificate (original or certified true copy),
• Photo ID (required with birth certificate),
• Resident alien ID Card,
• Other Visa documentation as required,
• Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit.
Aircraft Documentation
• Airworthiness certificate,
• Registration certificate (not temporary registration certificate),
• Operating limitations,
• Weight and balance information,
• Experimental Aircraft - Standardized Validation (for operations
in Canada) or Special Flight Authorization (for operations in
U.S.),
• Proof of liability insurance for the specific country,
• FAA Form 337 (U.S. aircraft only) or STC documentation if fuel
tanks have been added compartments,
• Aircraft Radio Station License,
• Customs Form 339A: Annual User Fee Decal Request Aircraft.
7-18
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Crossing the United States and Canadian Border
Departure
• Give advance notification to Customs.
• U.S. to Canada - contact CANPASS no less than two hours
before and no more than 48 hours before arrival at 888CANPASS or 888-226-7277.
• Canada to U.S. - telephone Customs office at airport of
entry no less than two hours and no more then 23 hours
before arrival; enter ADCUS in Remarks block of flight plan
form.
• File and activate a VFR or IFR flight plan.
• Advise Customs if any change in ETA at AOE via ATC/FSS
while in flight, get badge number and name of Customs official
that ATC/FSS is communicating with.
Arrival
• Make first landing at an airport of entry (AOE).
• Taxi to Customs area on ramp.
• In the U.S. - Do not be early and no more than 15 minutes
beyond your ETA; wait for Customs official to motion you out of
aircraft.
• In Canada - if not met, find a telephone and call 888-CANPASS,
follow directions from Customs official, obtain arrival report
number.
• If inspected, present documentation as required, fill out any
declaration forms and pay appropriate duties and taxes.
• Close your flight plan.
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August 2007
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Incident and Accident Procedures
The pilot shall immediately notify the nearest National Transportation
Safety Board field office if an aircraft incident or accident occurs as
defined in NTSB Part 830. The proper law enforcement agency and/or
search and rescue shall be notified if necessary. The pilot should
complete the Aircraft Accident and Incident Report, found in this
section, after any accident or incident. The pilot should not discuss the
circumstances with anyone not involved with the investigation.
Emergency Landing
If a Cirrus aircraft makes an emergency landing at a site not
designated as an airport, the pilot should not attempt to take off, but
should immediately contact the proper authorities.
Aircraft Incident and Accident Notification
An Aircraft Incident and Accident Report should be completed by the
pilot any time a Cirrus aircraft sustains any damage or is involved in an
accident or incident. The information may be useful in a future
investigation. The report form is found in this manual.
NTSB Field Office
Southeast - Atlanta ......................................................... 404-562-1666
Southeast - Miami........................................................... 305-597-4610
North Central .................................................................. 630-377-8177
Northeast - Parsippany................................................... 973-334-6420
Northeast - Ashburn ....................................................... 571-223-3930
Central Mountain ............................................................ 303-373-3500
South Central.................................................................. 817-652-7800
Northwest ....................................................................... 206-870-2200
Southwest....................................................................... 310-380-5660
Alaska............................................................................. 907-271-5001
7-20
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
Aircraft Incident and Accident Report
Date of accident: ____________ Time:________________________
Pilot's Name: _______________ Phone No:____________________
Owner and/or Operator: ___________________________________
Aircraft Type: _______________ N-No: _______________________
Type of Event (circle one):
Accident
Incident
Damage
Last point of departure: ____________________________________
Point of intended landing: __________________________________
Position of aircraft in reference to an easily defined geographical point:
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Number of persons aboard:______ Fatalities:_____ Injured:________
Description of injuries: (if applicable): _________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Names of passengers: ____________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
Weather conditions (attach weather print-off if available):
Wind Direction: _____________ Wind Velocity:
__________________
Visibility: __________________ Sky Condition:_________________
Temp/Dewpoint:_____________ Altimeter Setting:_______________
Other __________________________________________________
Eye Witnesses:
Name
Phone Number
1. ________________________
__________________________
2. ________________________
__________________________
3. ________________________
__________________________
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Damage to Aircraft/Property (If yes, explain):____________________
_______________________________________________________
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Description of any dangerous cargo: __________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Detailed explanation of incident, accident, or damage: ____________
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Section 7
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Supplementary Information
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Supplementary Information
P/N 23020-001
August 2007