Craftsman 113.201480 Specifications

Save This Manual
For Future Reference
MODEL NO.
113.201480
Serial
Number
Model and serial
number may be found
at the rear
of the cabinet.
You should
model
record
•
•i•: i•i::¸:_::::
: ;
:•
:;
:
both
and serial number
in a safe place for
future
use.
50-295 AMP
DUAL RANGE
VARIABLE CONTROL
ACARC
CAUTION:
Read
SAFETY
INSTRUCTIONS
e assembly
carefully
® operating
® repair
Sold by SEARS,
Part No. 61421
ROEBUCK
AND
CO.,
parts
Chicago,
IL
60684
U.S.A.
Printed
;inU.S.A_
a:. Never permit the electrode
or live metal parts
of:the eiectrodeholder
t0_t0uch
bare sk nor
any: damp:o_
W_eti::covering of the body. The
electrede:cbating
slioutd be considered
as an
electrical
conducltor_
Do n0t insert electrode
in
electrode
hotde_iWith
your bare hand -- wear
pr0pergloVes
on both hands.
ELECTRODE
WORK
CLAMP
AND
WORK
ELECTRODE
PIECE
HOLDER
METAL
TABLE
80 Volts exist between these parts
when welder ison!
Weardry
hole_free clothing,
gloves and shoes
to protect and insulate the body:
b. Take special
care to insulate
yourself
from
ground
using
dry insulation
(such
as dry
wood) of adequate sizewhen
welding on metal
floors or gratings,
and in:Positions
(such as
sitting or lying) where parts or fargo areas of
your body can be in contact
with possible
grounds:
c: Turn
switch
"OFF", and remove
plug from
power source before picking
up or moving the
welder.
:d. Maintain
the electrode: holder,
work clamp,
welding cable arid welding
machine
in good; :i
i:
safe Operating
i €onditior_
:by : Practii_i_g:!!i: :i:::':
per i o d!ic
i n S pect ion ::=an d p r e v e n tat ive i!,:_i
,:_ _!.il
e. This Welder':_iis ':not;}:::i_uitable i:iori:_:use
electrically
hazardous
conditions
due to
or
persph;atiom
Under
these
c0ndil
automatic
control
equipment
iS required
in
accordance:
with ANSI Z-49.1:.";SAFETY
IN
WELDING
AND CUTTING_"
f. Connect
the welder
on!y
to a source
of
electrical
power
meeting the
requirements,
including
grounding,
of the National
Electrical
Code (ANSI C1) and local codes,
Improperly
wired extension
cords can cause a
potentially
fatal shock hazard by electrically
energizing
the Welder cabinet.
Us_ only a
properly wired and adequately
sized extension
cord which has a grounded
conductor.
(See
"Connecting
the WeJder to the Power Supply ....
elsewhere
in
this
manual
for
more
information).
If you receive a shock from the welder cabinet.
immediately
disconnect
the welder from
the
power supply and obtain help from a qualified
electrician.
g. Do
not
drop
or insert
objects
through
the
area or when near a slag chipping
operation.
c, Wear
oil-free
flame
resistant
protective
garments,
such as leather gloves
heavy long
sleeved shirt, cuffless trousers and high shoes.
See picture of appropriate
dress in "Arc Weld it
YOurself" section
of this manual.
d. Protect
other
nearby
persone]
with suitable
nOn-flammable
screening.
e. Welding
can produce
fumes and gases which
are dangerous
to health. Keep your head out of
the fumes. Use enough ventilation,
exhaust at
the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from
your breathing
zone aod the general
area.
Take
even greater
care when welding
on
galvanized
or cadmium
plated steel and other
metals
which
produce
toxic
fumes.
Air-Supplied
helmets may be necessary.
f. Protect
yourself
against
a fall should
you
recewe
an electric
shock,
particularly
when
working
above floor level. Keep floor around
your operating
position
free of clutter. Never
wrap the electrode
cable around
any part of
your body.
g. Do not weld in locations
close to chlorinated
hydrocarbon
vapors coming from degreasing.
cleaning,
orspraying
operations.
The heat of
the rays of the arc can react with solvent vapors
to form phosgene,
a highlytoxic
gas. and other
irritating
products.
h.
nprotected
spectators
must keepclear
of the
area due to the harmful
nature
of
et and infra-red
arc rays, welding
and weldirig
fumes and gases.
a::Remove:flammable
and explosive
material
at
ieast 35 feet from the welding
arc to prevent
welding sparks or molten metal from starting a
fire. Keep a type ABC fire extinguisher
within
.easy reach.
b. Welding
on or near containers
which hold or
have
held
combustibles
can
cause
an
explosion
even when they have been cleaned.
Do not weld on such containers
until you have
read
"Recommended
Safe
Practices
for
Welding
and Cutting
Containers
and Piping
That Have Heid Hazardous
Substances"
F4.1
available
from the American
Welding
Society.
550 LeJeune
Road, Miami. FL 33135.
c. Vent hollow
castings
or containers
before
heating, cutting,
or welding.
They may explode
from
expansion
of trapped
air or boiling
liquids.
d. When not welding,
place the electrode
holder
where it is insulated from the work clamp, work
piece, or work table. Accidental
grounding
can
cause overheating
of the cables and welder,
creating
a fire hazard.
e. Neverconnectthe workcableor clamptoany
objectbut the workpieceor meta_worktable.
Connectingto otherobjectssuchasbuilding
ground can cause stray currents to flow,
resultingin overheatingor fire.
4. PREVENTATIVE
MAINTENANCE
a. Never apply power to the welder with any part
of the ,cabinet"
removed.
Position
on-off
switch in "off" position and disconnect
welder
from
the
power
supply
before
doing
maintenance
work
inside
the
machine.
Removal
of the welder cabinet should be done
onty by a qualified
service technician.
b. Before
connecting
the welder power cord to
the receptacle,
check the following:
1. Inspect the power cord and welding cables
for cuts or burns and make sure blades and
ground
pin on the plug are straight.
2. Inspect "ON-OFF"
switch leverfor
cracks or
broken parts.
3, Inspect
electrode
holder jaw insulators
for
cracks or broken
parts.
c. Never
weld
anything
on or to the welder
cabinet,
as a burn
through
may
cause
transformer
failure.
d. If any part of your welder is malfunctioning
or
has been damaged
or broken, such as switch,
cables,
helmet,
electrode
holder,
cease
operation
immediately
and disconnect
welder
from the power source and turn switch "OFF"
until the particular
part is properly
repaired
or
replaced.
5. ADDITIONAL
SAFETY
INFORMATION
a. For additional
safety information,
purchase
copies
of "Practice
for Occupational
and
Educational
Eye and Face Protection"
(ANSI
Z87.1), "Safety
in Welding
and Cutting"
(ANSI
Z49.1), and "Fire Prevention
in Use of Cutting
.... , and ,Welding
Processes"
(ANSIiNFPA
No.
518) from the American
National
Standards
Institute,
1430 Broadway,
New
York,
New
York, 10018. Purchase copiesof"OSHA
Safety
and Health Standard"
29 CFR 1910 from the
U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.
SPECiFICATiONS
INPUT
Volts AC.. ............................
.....
230
Hertz (Cycles) .;.....
......................
60
Rated Input Amps ..........................
60
Delay Action Type Circuit Breaker or Fuse 60Amp
Short Circuit Amps .......................
100
Power Cord Length ................
wire direct
OUTPUT
AC Low Range Amps ..................
50-185
AC High Range Amps ..................
65-295
DC Range Amps ............................
*
Arc Voltage ................................
30
AC Open Circuit Volts (max) ...............
80
DC Open Circuit Volts (Max) ................
*
Kilo-Volt-Amps
..........................
16,8
Kilo-Watts
...............................
11.0
Power Factor % ............................
65
Duty Cycle % ..........................
20-100
GENERAL
Electrode Capacity ...................
1/16-1/4
Low Hydrogen ......................
1/16-3/16
Stainless Steel ......................
1/16-3/16
Aluminum
..................................
*
Electrode Cable Length ...................
12'
Work Cable Length
.......................
10'
Dimensions ....................
15" x 12" x 21"
" Does
not apply
to this
welder
READ AND OBSERVE
THE INSTRUCTIONS
APPEARING
ON THE WARNING
INFORMATION
FOUND
ON
THE
CABINET,
ELECTRODE
HOLDER
AND ON THE INSIDE
OF THE WELDING
HELMET.
i
t
.,_
_1_
TURNING
BE SURE
WELDE R ON, CHECK
THERE
ARE NO
THAT
WARNING
AND
THAT
ALL
THE
ELECTRODE
HOLDER
TO
1
PROTRUDING
SCRE WBeFOa_
HEADS
ELECTR,C
SHOCK
CA.BEFATAL!
I
INSULATION
iS SECURE
_
_ :" '_
LENS
SHADE NO.
WARNING!
ARC WELDING
CAN BE iN3URIOUS
_N THE WORK AREA -- CONSULT
OWNERS
To get the most from your welder
even if you're an accomplished
handy reference,
or in the event
FULL
ONE YEAR WARRANTY
(_
TO OPERATOi_
AND PERSONS
MANUAL BEFORE OPERATING
we suggest you read the manual carefully-welder, and keep it available
to serve as a
that repair parts would
be required.
ON
CRAFTSMAN
ELECTRIC
WELDER
if this Craftsman Etectric Welder fails to perform properly, due to a defect in materiaJ or workmanship,within oneyear
from the date of purchase, Sears will repair it free of charge. This warranty applies only while this product is in use in the
United States.
WARRANTY
SERVICE
IS AVAILABLE BY SIMPLY
RETURNING
THE WELDER TO THE NEAREST SEARS SERVICE
CENTER/DEPARTMENT
THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES.
This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may have other rights wtiich vary from state to state_
SEARS,
ROEBUCK
AND CO., Dept, 698/731Ai
Sears Tower,
Chicago,
IL 60684
OPERATING!I_INSTR_CTI
ONS
Warranty _ : ii !:.!
: i _.:_i:::.:
... :.:;_:.:. _.i _. !., _i 3
Getting
tO
::'.. :,:_:i.
:. 4
Unpacking
and C_cki"gGontents
:; : .!;;......
4
GETTING
Operating ContrOls
.................
0
........................
T
.................
ARC
.....
WELDING ROD SPECIFICATIONS
.........
REPAIR PARTS ............................
6
7
8
1-1
2-1
2-6
TO: KNOW YOUR WELDER
HEAT SELECTOR
LOCKING
KNOB
MATERIAL THICKNESS GAUGE
_ELECTRODE DIAMETER GAUGE
WELDING
ON-OFF
SWITCH
DUAL RANGE OUTPUT
HELMET
!
\
\
_"
\
WORK CABLE AND WORK CLAMP
-%
ELECTRODE
ELECTRODE
UNPACKING
SET-UP
AND CHECKING
I NSTRUCTIONS
CONTENTS
_
This Craftsmanwelder:is shipped complete in one
carton_ 'In order to:facilitate
packaging;
ce_'tain
items must be assembled when received by the
purchaser. Remove:all items from the carton and
identify item as _shown in the exploded
view
_:__
--__
CABLE AND
HOLDER
"_
These "Loose
Parts"
should
be
for before discarding
any packaging
Key
No. Part Name
2
3
4
1
5
_i
ii 1
illustration.
accounted
material.
' Oty
Helmet band assembly (Not Assembled) .............
Electrode cable assembly ..........................
Owners
Manual ................................... ...............
WeidingHetmet(Partia,lyassembted)
Loose Parts Bag -- Containing the following items: ,..
1/4" Hex "L" Wrench .............................
Work Clamp .:....................................
E,ectrodeHoJder ..............................
Screw. Pan Hd: Ty, "AB" No. 10 x 1/2 ..............
2
i ]
i• Outlet
BoxCover. ......
...... ; .-:...........................
..: .......................
G_oundTerminal
Screw PahHdi10-32 x'_t2 .. .... , ................
J Nut, Hex 10:32 ..... ::..:_..:
, ConnectionLabel ;...
:..
.... ..................
.........
1
1
t
1
1
1
1
I
I
2
t
' t
1
1
1
1
ASSEMBLY
TOOLS
NEEDED
@
7/16-inch
,
,
wrench
Screwdriver (small)
ATTACHING
ELECTRODE
HOLDER
TO ELECTRODE
CABLE
Grasp the electrode holder and locate the
slotted head, handle locking screw near the
mid-point of the insulating handle. Loosen this
screw approximately two turns, or until the
handle can be slipped off the electrode holder.
DO NOT REMOVE THIS SCREW COMPLETELY. Slide the handle off electrode holder and
insert end of electrode cable assembly through
the handle.
The electrode cable is the one with insulation
stripped from one end.
3. Using the sockethead wrench (supplied) back
out the hex-head set screw, located near the
end of electrode holder until the end of screw
does not protrude into the wire socket in the end
of holder.
4. Make sure the wire strands on stripped end of
electrode cable have not been "frayed". Twist
together with fingers if necessary.
5. Insert end of electrode cable into electrode
holder and tighten the socket-head
set screw
very firmly using the 1/4" Hex "L" wrench
furnished.
6. Slide the handle back into place on electrode
holder and position it until the hole in handle is
directly' over the head of handle Iock__nng
screw.
Tighten
the screw clockwise
(,"_.)
just
enough
to secure the handle on e_ectrode
holder.
ATTACHING
THE WORK CLAMP
TO THE WORK CABLE
1. Attach the terminal on end of work cable to the
work clamp.
2. Do not use either of the holes in handle ends of
work clamp.
3. Tighten the screw firmly enough to insure good
contact and prevent the cable terminal from
slipping on the clamp.
1/4" Hex "L" Wrench
(furnished)
CONNECTING
WELDER
TO POWER
SUPPLY
CAUTION:
Do not attempt to connect this welder to
a regular
household
outlet.
Make
sure
the
power-line
voltage and frequency
agree with the
ratings shown on the selector plate attached tothe
cabinet_
Electrical connections
between the welder and
230-volt, single-phase, 60-cycle AC power source
should be made by a qualified electrician. All wiring
must comply With the National
Electrical Code
(ANSI Ct)a'nd theLocal Electrical Code.
1. Install an individual
(separate)line
for the
welder With;delayed action type circuit breaker
or fuse in the line:: For best results, this circuit
should: boas shortas possible. The size of the
leads:will depend Upon:their length as shown in
the: table belOW_:i:::
_
Suppty
C0nduCtor
(i.c.
Exteriston
Up to 50 feet ._- ........
Over 50:feet .._ ..........
NOTE .-These conductor
i ............
,
.
PANEL,
POWER
A SINGLE
TO
HOT
PHASE
WIRES
SYSTEM
BUSS
OF
ONLY.
OUTLET BOX AND INSULATE
PROPERLY IN ACCORDANCE
WITH
MAKE
LOCAL CONNECTIONS
CODE. INSTALL. INSIDE
COVER,
_ _
a welder having a rated input not more than 60
amps at 20% dutY cycle in accordance with
Article 630 of the National
Electrical Code
(ANSI C1) and may not be adequate for other
loads. Consult a qualified electrician
before
using for other loads.
2_
Connect 230-vott power lines and ground as
shown.
3. Install 60 am pete circuit breakers or fuses of the
delay action type such as "Fustron" or "Fustat".
Cords)
,
TO GROUND
IN
CONNECT
No. 8 AWG Copper
No. 6 AWG Copper
sizes are for use with
,.,,
CONNECT
,
,
H
L
,
LOW r_O-18,_
Am_ Rar_ge
M=xLmum
Arc $_I_#_v
effect on other electrical appliances, motors, and
lights, on your electrical system.
Either range may be used, depending on operator
preferences when the electrode diameter permits.
CON NECTING ELECTRODE
AND WORK CABLES
L
AC Amp Output
Insert the tapered plug on the end of the electrode
cable into the proper outlet jack depending on
amperage required or operator preference.
To insure a good electrical connection always twist
the electrode
plug slightly while inserting.
To
remove the Dlug twist in theoppositedirection
while
removing.
NOTE: If you extend the welding cables beyond
those already supplied, they must be No. 3 AWG or
larger to avoidan unduedrop in welding current. Do
not extend cables over 50 feet.
leArnp se
$MRN Arc Welder
__J
6
Connectthe work
clamp to the piece to be welded,
(to complete the electrical circuit) or to the welding
table itself provided it is metallic or wilt conduct
electricity!
OPERATING
INSTRUCTIONS
We feel that welding
with your new Craftsman
dual
range arc welder is as simple as A.B.C.
A. Determine
what diameter electrode
should
be
used by gauging
the piece to be welded on the
material
thickness
gauge.
The
fractional
number
directly
beneath the bar chart dictates
what the proper electrode
diameter
is for given
thicknesses
of metals.
You will note that a
specific
diameter
of electrodes
can be used on
varying
thicknesses
of
material.
This
is
accomplished
by adjusting
the heat selector, for
more or less amperage.
B. Next verify the electrode
diameter,
by placing
the bare portion
of the electrode
against
the
electrode
diameter
gauge located under the bar
chart.
Because
electrodes
are mass produced,
there
may be small burrs on the bare ends of the
electrode.
Make sure the bare end of the rod is
as clean as possible
for accurate
sizing.
C. Finally, determine
the type of electrode
by the
identification
on
the
package
or
by the
American
Welding
Society
number
stencilled
on the coated portion of the electrode,
bearing
in mind the type of electrode
you have chosen
E6013 or E7014, and also its' diameter
(as
previously
determined).
Locate that band on the amp scale. There are
two E6013 bands and two E7014 bands, use the
band which coordinates
with the amp rangeyou
have selected.
7
weld.
Because
metals
vary
{n
their
make
up
and
the
technique of each operat0r is different, you may
find it necessary to: increase: or decrease the
amperage output accord!ngly.
CAUTION: Donol loosen and move amp se|ector
while welding..
The duty cycle scales bracketing the amperage
sca':les are provided for your convenience
and
protection of your new weGder. Duty cycle is the
performance
level of the welder based on a 10
minute time span. For example welding for 6
TROUBLE
minutes
out of 10 minutes is a 60% duty cycle. To
avoid
possible
overheating
of
the
welding
transformer,
which could shorten
the life of your
welder,
Do Not exceed the duty cycles indicated
on
the duty cycle scales.
SHOOTING
WARNING:
Removal of the welder cabinet top for any reason
by a q ualified service technician.
TROUBLE
TROUBLE
SHOOTING
PROBABLE
,
Fan and welder do not
operate; orcontinually :
blow fuses.
'
I
1. Improperly
protected,
CHART
CAUSE
SUGGESTED
fuse_l or
i 2, Blown:fuse,; or open
Circuitbreaker.
i; Welding current low:
!i:i i':: ':_ilLow
or:weak;
....
:
:
:
...... :- :
Can't
hold an arc.
!
I:
2. Replace fuse, or reset the circuit
breaker.
not "On".
3. Turn switch
ine voi'tage
, "t.
: : !
: setting:too
Iowl
:
i I 3 P0or:c0nnect ons
; I : .....
....
I
I
1. Using a D.C. welding rod.
3. Damp
coatings
_'On".
Have a voltage 'c'heck performed
:/ : :the local powerl Company.
I 2! Check current recommended
;
Welding current
2. Low hydrogen
REMEDY
1. Use 60 ampere fuses of the delayed
action type such as "Fusetron" or
"Fustat" or 60 ampere 240 volt
circuit breaker.
:
................
.3,?"OPi:-0ff":switch
must be done
i
1: Use ACor
3. Get new
or damaged
on rod.
SERVICE
AC-DC
WARNING:
No provision has been made for lubricating the fan
motor,
as extra
large oil reservoirs
provide
lubrication for the life of the motor.
dry
rods.
maximum
on 50-185
undamaged
rod.
TIPS
SELECTOR
FAN MOTOR
for
the electrode being used.
3: Check eiectrode holder work and
: electrode
Cable Connections.
2. Use rod of 3/16-inch
diameter,
or smaller
amp range or lower.
rod.
by
PLUGS OR CONTACTS
Be positive you :have disconnected the
power supply to the welder.
If for any reason the selector plugs or mating
contacts become burned or pitted, they should be
cleaned-up
with a fine grade of emery cloth or
dressed very lightly with a fine fife.
8
fl
A COMPREH ENSIVE
GUIDE FOR YOUR
NEW CRAFTSMAN
ARC WELDER AND
WHAT iT W=ILL DO
CONTAt NS:
INFORMATION
o VARIOUS
o USEFUL
ABOUT
TYPES
ACCESSORIES
e TIPS ON CUTTING,
AND BRAZING
%_
Form
No. SP574+5
OF RODS
WELDING
,,J
t.1
_i_?/:-:
¸ _:!. ......
TABLE
OF
_cONTENTs
Page
_iii_!i.
i___
Your WelderandWhat it Will Do .............
1-3
Howthe CraftSmanCOntactRod SimplifiesWelding 1-3
WhatHappensWhenYou Weld? .. ..........
1-3
RoadeefareWeiding .:i._._,.!..:,....i.,....
1-4
LearnBy Doing ...........................
1-5
PositionWelding .........................
1-11
Cast4ronWelding....;
.... ......
. 1-14
.a,dSu ,,=jn.Wor,,C. .gEd,IIZ
1-15
TheTwin CarbonArc Torch
1-16
...............
CuttingandOtherMiscellaneousOperations ...
Read this Manual
carefully
1-17
for additional
welding
.
SEARS, ROEBUCK AND COMPANY
AND S|MPSONS-SEARS
LIMITED
1.2
_
•••
H•
••••
information.
H•¸
YOUR
WELDER
and what H wil/ do . .
Your CRAFTSMAN Arc Welderisa sturdily constructedandthoroughlytestedmachineengineeredto
give many years of efficient trouble-free service. It is listed by Underwriters' Laboratories,
incorporated,which meansthat it passesal! requirementsof safety, fire hazardand temperaturerise
limits asspecifiedin their Standardfor Transfer-TypeArc-WeldingEquipment.
S reply rest the electrode :an the iwork, Maintaining consta_nt:
arcilength::is _
effortless as the cOne_:depth aOtomatiCaly pt+oydes the correct! spacin[i
between electr#de: a:ndlw0rkfor proper arc length andals0 p{ev _ht_,e ei_trede
freezinj Drag the electrode at the appropriate speed f0r the Weld:desired_:
E
,ec/_'/_#
MUSe'
WAY
/Ji''LoEC_OOe
Special coating containing
powdered iron forms a shell around wire
Core, Core burns
back from
outside coating to keep proper: go:p;
Easiest arc_welding method known.
W H AT
H A P P
N S
HOW THE CRAFTSMAN ELECTRODE
SIMPLIFIES WELDING
Craftsman
Contact Electrode is se/f-starting--p{usautomatic
restarting... The electrode startson contact.
Craftsman Contact Electrode is self-cleaning... Under normal
conditionsthe slagremovesitselfasthe weld cools.Spatter is almost
non-exiszent. Craftsman Contact Electrode has an exceptionally
good appearance... With fine ripple, unusuafiyclean, smooth
appearance,and reduced slaginclusions.
Craftsman Contact Electrodedepositsmore metal faster... Because
the powderediron in the flux goesintothe weld.
WHEN
YOU
WELD?
Arc Welding is the process of fusing two or more pieces of
metal together to form one piece. It is accomplished by
heating adjacent metal surfaces to the melting point with an
electric arc, then adding a sufficient amount of molten
metat to provide reinforcement and fill any vacant space
between the parts being ioined, as shown in the accompanying itlustrations.
The arc is created when an electric current, regulated by
a welding transformer, flows across an air gap between an
electrode and the work being welded. The intense heat
generated by the arc is ideally suited for welding, as it
:can be directed to affect only the part of the metal to be
welded, uniform heat from the arc, is acquired by keeping
its length the same for a given rod size and current setting.
At the instant an arc is "struck", a portion of the base
metal directly beneath it, is melted, resulting in a small
pool of molten metal, some of which is forced out by the
blast of the arc a_d deposited along the weld path. The
depth of the crater thus formed, is the distance the" weld
will extend into the base metal and is referred to as the
penetration of the weld.
1
Bath edges of the metal
are heated by the arc,
until --
mare molten metal and
flux is added from the
rod, which5
2
4
_hey melt and flow together forming onepiece,
instantly -
fills the crater and covers
the top of the weld with
sing.
This process continues the entire length of the weld.
Some of the electrode (which consists of a metal rod surrounded by a flux coating) is melted simuhaneousty with
the base metal and is carried by the arc to the liquid pool
This added mete! combines with the base metal to form
the deposited we}.d.
During this operation a part of the flux coating burns off
and forms a gaseous smoke screen that completely enve!ops the arc, protecting the molten metal from harmful
effects of oxygen and nitrogen in the surrounding atmosphere. The remainder of the flux coating that melts is
carried to the molten pool where it mixes with th_ metal
to combine with various impurities. It then floats to the
surfaces to form a coating Of slag which covers the deposited weld metc_{, protecting it from the atmosphere and
retarding its coollng.
When operating
a welder,
certain precautions
must be
taken to prevent injuries to yourseff and others. Knowing
ha w to use the protective
equipment
to safeguard against
them is the first step in learning
to weld.
The effects of heat arid:tight
given off by the arc, while
electr €I welding, may belcompared
to that of the sun's rays.
Even greater precautions
are necessary
for electric
arc
welding.
Before starting
a weld,
caution anyone
in the
immediate
vicinity
against looking
at the arc. In case of
accidental
eye injury,
contact
a physician
immediately.
Animals are also affected
by the rays and should be kept at
a safe distance.
To protect
the face and eyes a heat-resisting, i fiber-glass
he met s used. The special lens,:i which alloWs the User to
view the arc safely, is inserted into the framed opening
of
the helmet. The clear glass, which should be replaced from
time
to time,
protects
the expensive
special lens from
breakage and weld
spatter.
The helmet
is held firmly
in
place on the head with an adjustable
head band, thereby
leaving both hands free. A close-fitting
skull cap should be
worn
with
the helmet.
As t.he helmet
is used only when
actually
welding,
a tilting
arrangement
permits
it to be
swung up clear of the face. When the welding is resumed a
slight nod of the head tips the helmet
down over the face.
To protect
the eyes further
while cleaning the weld, goggles
should
be worn
by the welder and others working
around
him.
To safeguard
the hands against
heal and weld spatter,
gauntlet-type
leather
gloves shou|d
be worn.
A leather
jacket
or apron
will give better
protection
against
the
shower
of sparks than ordinary
clothing.
High top shoes
_4
(not oxfords)
should be worn. If a great
to be done, foundrymen's
shoes are best.
deal of welding
is
PrecaOtions must also be taken to protect property and
equipment against fire. A large fire extinguisher should be
within easy reach. The welding area should have a concrete
or cinder floor, kept dry and clear of inflammable rubbish.
Sometimes, it is{necessary to weld dose to a fuel tank. If
practical; rem0ve-the part to be welded. If not, drain the
tank and comptetelyfil!
it with water,
Few tools, in addition to those supplied with the welding
machine, are needed and most of them can be found in
the average shop. Two sawhorses supporting a 1/4-inch
steel plate makes an excellent welding table. A permanent
bench, using the same steel plate, can be made of angle
iron or pipe: A Chipping hammer is used to clean slag off
a weld and pliers will be useful for handling hot metal. A
wire brush is used to clean the work before welding and
remove small pieces of slag after chipping.
Small pieces of mild-steel scrap iron, reasonably free of
rust and paint, should be used for practice welding. Angle
iron, bar stock or plate steel are good examples. Do not
use scrap cast iron, high carbon or hardened steel as these
metals require special electrodes and welding techniques.
These should be set aside for future practice after completing elementary practice lessons.
LEARN
BY DO|NG
I
90':
OFWELD
DIRECTIOH
Experience has proven that short periods of practice at
regutar intervals are the best way to teach yourself how
to weld. As learning to weld is simply a process of trial
and error, all practice work should be done on scrap metal
that can be discarded. Do not attempt to make repairs on
valuable equipment until you have satisfied yourself that
your practice welds are of good appearance arid free of
slag or gas inclusions. Remember, what you fail to tearn
while practicing, must be ]earned through a series of
mistakes and rewetds later on.
A comfortable body position is important when learning,
as tensed muscles will result in fatigue and lack of control.
Sit on a tow stool and grasp the electrode holder in one
hand with the cable drawn across the lap. Allow enough
slack to move the holder freely and yet keep the weight
and drag of a long length of cable from becoming tiring.
The work
connection
is as much a part of the welding
circuit
as the cable and electrode
holder,
A poor work
connection
can
render
the
best
welding
equipment
inefficient.
When using a table with a steel top, fasten the
tug of the work cable to it securely with a bolt or C-c_amp,
so that any piece of iron placed on the table top will be
properly
grounded.
If a steel table is not used, connect the
work cable directly
to the work with a work clamp or belt.
Select a fairly large piece of steel plate approximately
1/4-inch thick and clamp it to the table top to prevent it
from lifting, should the electrode stick or "freeze" when
first
attempting
to weld.
Insert a small, mild-steel
welding
electrode
in the electrode
holder and connect the welding
cables to produce
the heat specified
by the CONTROL
panel. Connect
the ground
cable to the work and set the
indicator
in the
current
range recommended
for
the
diameter
of rod used.
Any method of bringing the tip of the rod in contact with
the work, then quickly raising it until there is approximately
a 1/8-inch gap between the rod and the work, will start an
arc. The easiest way for a beginner to strike an arc is to
scratch the tip of the rod a short distance on the surface of
the work, as you would a match, then lift it (quickly) the required 1/8-inch (fig. 1). Another method is to strike the work
a hard blow with the tip of the rod and aIIow it to bounce
up to form the arc gap. The important thing is to strike
the arc quicNy and not allow the rod to remain in contact
with the work.
A common
mis{ake often made by a beginner is to point
the rod toward
the work and, after lowering
the helmet,
feel slowly
about until the tip of the rod touches the work.
This always
results in sticking
or "freezing"
of the rod
which produces a direct short circuit.
When this occurs the
rod can be loosened
by bending it from side to side while
pulling
on the holder
(fig. 2). If this fails, turn the welder
off. The electrode
must be released in a matter of seconds
to avoid unnecessary
heating
the flux coating on the rod.
of
the
welder
or damage
/
I
/
tl
f
/
Figure
1
To strike an arc, scratch the
end of the rnd on the plate
and then quickly raise approximately 1/8-inch.
i/
.......s/ /.
Figure 2
Should the rod stick ur
"freeze" bend it frum side
to side while pulling upward
un the rod holder.
to
i :V /
\
i
\
!
t
\
\
\
9
/
!
j HJInn
¢
_/?/////////,_ _/_ ¢?'///////1,,_
Figure 3 .....
Figure 4
TO lay a weld:bead _nly two
movements are ,sod. down*
ward andin the eirectiOnthe
weld is to be:laid.
i ....: : .......
:,
i _
"
_:
;'
Watch the weld puddle ta
keep the slag from flowing
in front of it. causing ioclu:sions and gas pockets
Striking and
by gradually
maintc_ining an arc for a few seconds,
shorteninglthe
arc until
it sputters irregularly
as though
it were going to _'choke out"
and stick-then
slowly {engthening
the arc by pulling the rod away from
the work until it snaps out. Somewhere
between these two
extremes the steady
will be heard.
5
Figure
Fill the crater, when starting
a new rod, by std.king the
arc at A then moving to B
and back to C pnsitinnl
6
1"owiden the bead, work the
rod from side tn side sliEhtly_ with a slow, zigzagging
crescent-shaped motinn.
:
If difficulW
is experienced
after
repeated
attempts
t9
maintain
an arc;
Check:the
work.connection
for •proper
contact
with the work.
If this _does not help, increase the
welding
current.
AlSocheck
the rod size, as [arger rods
require higher current settings.
Practice
Figure
crackling
sound of a proper arc length
To lay a weld bead,! only two movements are used, a
steady downward feeding of the rod to maintain the correct
arc lef_gth and a :slave :travel in the direction in which the
i.ay a bead approximately four inches 10ng. After allowing
it to cool slightly, iemove the slag coating, whichcovers the
top of the weld; foy Scraping ai0ng:each edge of the weld
with o Cold-chisel to]owed by wire brushing until it is bright
and clean. Inspect the surface of the weld carefully before
starting another. The surface of a good weld is rippled
uniformly, which results from a steady rote of travel and
uniform arc length
After
laying
from
side to side
a
number
of
slightly
beads,
(fig.
try "working"
be slow and not wider
than the diameter
used. Experiment
different
and
rates
the
diagrams
with
of travel.
Compare
the
6), This movement
current
results
rod
should
of the rod being
settings, rod
with
welds
sizes
shown
in
(fig. 9).
Too low a current setting tends to deposit the bead on top
of the plate with very little penetration. The arc sound will
be an intermittent crackle with irregular sputtering. Too
high a current setting (for the size of the rod being used)
will provide sufficient penetration but the bead will be thin
and undercut in places. The arc makes a hissing sound and
the rod becomes red hot before it is half used:
If travel is too slow it will pile up a wide, heavy bead with
good penetration but witff overlap of the weld metal on
sides without fusion. A large area surrounding the weld is
heated to a high temperature which produces distortion,
even on a simple we{d. If the rod is moved too fast the
small bead will result with little more than melted base
metal An extremety long arc causes the rod tc melt off in
globules, with little or no penetration, and a very irregular
Weld surface. The arc produces a hissing sound.
A good weld laid with correct current setting, speed and arc
length wifl produce a surface that is rippled uniformly, with
the same width throughout its length, and wet! formed
crater:, The cross-sectional view shows it to have good penetration; and no undercut or overlap.
i i
If the scrap plate used is small, it will become very hot after
laying a few beads. This will alter welding conditions
which could be very confusing to a beginner. Have several
scrap pieces handy so each may be allowed to coo! before
laying a second bead.
When starting with a new rod, chip slag from the crater
and strike the arc at the forward end as shown at "A" in
Figure 7
figure 5. Then move the rod to "B" and back to "C," at
about twice the normal rate of travel to give the rod end
base metal time to heat up for proper fusion.
Lay the weld beads about
one inch aparL Remove the
stag and examine each weld
before starting the nexL
Figure
8
A pad of weld metal is built
up by running a series of
beads in layers at right
angles to each other.
CURRENT
TOO LOW
Arc is difficult to maintain.
Very little penetration.High
bead.
TRAVELTOO FAST
Small bead undercut in
some places. Rough top
and little penetration.
T .........
CURRENTTOO HIGH
ARC TOO LONG
Wide thin bead, undercut.
Crater pointed and tong.
Rod burns off very fast.
Surface of weld rough.
Rod melts off in globules.
Arc makes hissing sound.
TRAVELTOO SLOW
NORMAL COHOITIONS
Uniform ripples on surface
of wetd. Arc makes steady
crackling sound.
Metal piles up, making a
wide heavy bead, overlapped at sides in places.
Figure
9
,i
Practice
laying
beads
approximate]y
one
inch apart
ii
i,
....................
until
a good weld can be produced
with aft the different
rod
sizes the welder wit] handle (fig. 7). After becoming
proficient in running a bead, build up a pad of weld meta!.
Clean each bead before
laying the next and make sure
they are fused together
(fig. 8). Run the second layer at
right angles to the first and the third at right angles to the
second, etc., until a pad approximately
1i2-1nch
thick has
been built up. This type of welding
is used to buiid up
round or flat surfaces or reinforce
parts that are rusted thin.
.........
i
Ll' I!
To avoid distortion when building up the end of a shaft,
run the beads parallel to the axis and lay each successive
bead on the opposite side as shown by the numbered steps
in figure 10. Cover the entire shaft with we{d metal for
the desired length. If the place to be welded is not at the
end of the shaft, weld around it and turn the shaft slowly
to keep the weld puddle in the flat position (fig. 11). Clean
off the stag after each bead, then machine the shaft to
proper size.
_-7
STRIP
Figure 4
Figure
3
1/16-INCH
REIKFORCEMENT
Flat welding includes all types of joints in which the weld
ishorizontal; and the electrode is fed d own as in the practice
Welds Of previous pages_ The five types of ioints in figure 1
can b_ welded in the flat position.
Butt welds
on light
material
should
be practiced
first
Figure
6
p_
Figure
on
scrap Stocki Use 16-gauge
mild steel sheet meta! (approximately t/16_inch
thick) and 5/64-inch
rods with the welder
set at approximately
30to 50 amperes. Butt edges of metal
together and tack-weld
approximately
every three inches
(fig. 2). (Tack welds are small beads I/4 to 3/8-inches
in
length.)
provide
F_gure
Place bars of scrap iron under ends of the work to
an air space above the table. Simply move the rod
in a straight
line directly
above
the edges
welds
on
sheet
metal
lighter
than
18 gauge
f:ii!ii:
;?
_i_i
:_?-ii?;,
GAP
oo
However, once the arc iS :started, there will be sufficient
heat to make a sound weld. After laying a bead; turn the
work over and inspect the underside which: should also have
a small uniform bead. To prevent burning through where
the edges are not butted tightly together, move the rod back
and forth with short quick strokes inthe direction of the
weld to bridge the gap and glVe the metat in ithe:crater a
chance to solidify (fig,:3)i
not be
back-up
7
-'Y-/' EOGES
::-r_ ure
to be joined.
If theweld burns thrQugh in places, reduce the welding current or increase :the: rate of travel. Some difficulty may be
experienced in starting the arcat these low current settings.
Butt
5
E V-WEt_O
Figure
9
k45_p " SINGLE-BEVEL
WELD
4-PASS
BUTTWELO
Figure
10
should
attempted
by the beginner
without
the use of a
strip (fig. 4). This consists of a bar of copper
clamped tightly against the underside of the seam to absorb
the heat of the arc and prevent
the weld from burning
over and
through. To assure complete
penetration
with butt welds
an 8-gauge
metc_t or heavier,
a !/16
to 3/32-inch
gap
should be aJlowed between them (fig. 5). Insert a wedge or
no danger
of burning
bead will be assured.
screwdriver
between the plates when tack-welding
to maintain the gap, then turn the piece over, so the tack welds are
on the underside.
Although
butt welds can be made on steel plates up to
3!8-inch
thick,
with a 295_ampere
machine using 1/4-inch
rod, the same results can be obtained
with smaller welders
if edges of plates are beveled (fig, 8). Metal of almost any
thickness
ca_ be welded
in this manner
by depositing
a
Use enough current to muff edges of plates to a depth of
at feast one-haft
their thickness.
Clean
off the slag and
inspect it for smoothness,
penetration
and height of reinforcement.
A good wetd should have a reinforcement
slightly
more than flush with the surface (fig. 6). Turn the plate
To8
higher
weld
welding
a similar
current
bead
on the other
side
(fig.
7). A
can be used on this side as there
through
and
fusion
with
the
is
first
number of beads, one on top of the other until the groove
is completely
filled.
If the plate can be welded from both
sides, always use a double bevel (fig. 9). If only one plate is
beveted, the angle should be at 45 degrees (fig. 10).
!
i •¸
•
•
••
UNDERCUT GASPOCKET
TRAPPEDSLAG
PENETRATION
Figure
T!
F_gure
Figure
!2
13
FJLLEET
Run the first pass on beveled plates with a 5/32-inch rod
and use as high a current as you can handle to obtain a
small bead on the underside. If this is not done, insufficient
penetration wit] result, as shown in figure 11. Be sure to
clean each pass before laying on the next. Aft beads are
laid by moving the rod in a straight line with no weaving
or side-to-side movement. On the last or reinforcing pass,
a weaving motion must be used to obtain a wide weld that
witl completely cover preceding beads. For the beginner,
the side-to-side movement (with a slight hesitation at each
end) will produce a smooth top without undercut or overlap.
Select severat practice welds of different thicknesses and
cut them into 1-1/2-inch strips. Clamp each strip in a vise
and bend it at the weld (fig. t2). If it breaks through the
weld, study it to find the cause of failure.
Corner welds are made on light sheet metal by running
a single bead along the top, after tack-welding at threeinch intervals to prevent warping (fig. 13). If numerous gaps
are present, a back-up strip may be used. On heavier
:metal two passes may be necessary and, if the design
permits, a smaller pass can be laid on the underside.
Beveling may be used to advantage on the thicker metals.
WELDS
Figure
FRONT
6
Fillet welds are used to join two pieces of metal with sides or
edges at right angles to each other. The size of such a
weld is based on the leg length of the largest isosceles right
triangle that can be inscribed within the cross sectional
area, as shown by the dotted-line triangle (fig. 1). The
size of a fillet weld may also be measured with a square
and ruler, subtracting 1/32-inch from all dimensions under
3/16-inch and 1/16-inch from all over 1!4-inch (fig. 2).
For example, a 1/4-inch fillet weld should measure 5/16inch. This will offset any inaccuracy due to the slight radius
at the toe of the weld and allow for concavity of the bead.
When a fillet weld is stressed to its maximum capacity,
failure wiff usually occur through the throat section (fig. 3).
Therefore, the strength is determined by the throat dimension multiplied by the length of the weld. Finished welds of
this type should always be at least four times their size in
Length; that is, a 1/4-inch fillet weld should never be tess
than one inch long. The direction in which the load is applied
to a weld greatly affects its strength, which can be clearly
demonstrated by breaking the weld (fig. 4). A joint so
loaded should always be welded on both sides with fillets
equal to the plate thickness (fig. 5). if this cannot be done,
bevel the plate to assure complete penetration and position
the work at a 45_degree angle if possible.
For practice, tack-weld
three pieces of scrap iron together
to form a cross (fig. 6). Use a 5/32-inch
rod with high current
and hold it as indicated in the front and side views. Move
the rod at a steady even pace atong the seam without any
side-to-side movement
and deposit one inch of weld for
each inch of rod melted. The surface contour of a good weld
LAP WELDS
LAP WELDS
Figure _14
Figure
15
.....
i•
should be nearly flat with a slight radlus at the SidesOr
toes. AVoid excessive concave or convex surfaces of the
fillet (fig: 7): UnderCuts and Cold-laps are caused by not
holding the rod in the cen_r! 0f the :seam: (fig; 8). ff the
desired fillet weld cannot be ma_e with a Sing!e pass,
several passesare used to build it up to required size (fig_ 9).:
Slag must be cleaned from each pass before depositing
the next. Fillet welds over 1!2dnch in size a_e rarely used
because ioints requiring more strength can be made more
economically by beveling and groove-welding0 followed
by a small concave fillet weld to provide a radius in the
corner,
Horizontal
fillet
welding
is used when
the side or edge
of
one member of the joint is in the vertical position particularly
for small single-pass welds where the work cannot be tilted,
Far practice,
tack-weld
two pieces of scrap together
to
form a tee-joint
(fig. 10). Use a 5/32-inch
rod held at
angles indicated, and direct the arc into the corner of the
joint. The arc _ength should be somewhat shorter than for
fiat fillet wetding. To assure penetration
at the root, use the
highest
Good
_-_0
welding
penetration
current
that
is of prime
can
be
importance
handled
and
(fig.
11).
appearance
•
• •11
•
i
•
•
wilL come: with experience, ffthe arc is advanced too fast,
held:t6o: close to the vertical plate, undercutting may
result (fig. ]2).::Toostow trove] will cause oVerlapping and
an extremely close arc or low current will produce a bead
_iith a convex surface (fig. 13). To check the penetration and
soundnessof the bead, break some of the Weldi_for inspection, as shown in figure 4.
When making a lap weld, care should be taken not to melt
too much Of the upper corner on the top plate (fig. 14).
sorine melting wil! take place, but proper advance of the
rod will cause the weld metal to build up and blend into the
top surface. On sheet metal, hold the 3/32-inch rod almost
perpendicular and move the arc rapidly. Welds of this
type should be wider than they are high, somewhat like
flat bead (fig. 15). A slight discoloration on the underside
of the lower sheet indicates good penetration. On heavy
metal, (: 3/8-inch fillet weld can be laid in one pass with a
1/4-inch rod using a 295-ampere machine. However, with
smaller machines, the same weld or larger can be made by
building up with a number of passes (fig: 16}. When
welding long narrow pieces, stagger the welds in short
intermittent beads, first on one side then on the Other side,
to minimize distortion (fig. 17).
POS}ITtON
WELDING
BUTT WELl)
In order to derive the greatest benefits from your we{der,
you should practice until you can make a welded joint
in almost any conceivable position. The ability to do this
is especially useful when making repairs on machinery as
the amount of welding in most cases is small and does not
warrant disassembling the parts to weld them in the flat
position. Welds of this type have been classified into three
groups according to their location and are referred to as
vertical, horizontal and overhead welds (fig. t). Of the
three positions, vertical welding win be used the most and
should be practiced first. Skill gained in this type of weld
will make horizontal and overhead welding easier.
VERTICAL
WELDING
The two methods of welding in the vertical position are
commonly known as "'vertical-down"
and "vertical-up*'
welding (fig. 2). In the former the bead is started at the
top and welded in a straight line downward, in the latter
the bead is started at the bottom and welded up, _suaIty
with a weav{ng motion.
The chief difficulty encountered with any position weld is
keeping the molten metal in the puddle from falling out.
To prevent this the arc must be held as short as possible and
the weld puddle kept fairly small so it wilt solidify rapidIy.
Verfica{-down welding is the easiest to perform and is used
on material up to 1/8-inch _hlck. Before attempting a vertical
weld, run a few practice beads to get the "'feel" of the
arc. Tack-weld a piece of scrap iron to an old practice plate
so it is positioned vertically (fig. 31. Use 1/8-inch rods for
the first welds and a current of about 75 to 115 amperes.
Experiment with various amperage settings until you are
using the highest current you can handle. Hold the rod at
right angtes to the plate laterafly, with the tip pointed up
at the angle shown in figure 3. Start the weld at the top
of the plate and move the rod in a straight line downward.
The correct rate of travel can be determined by gradually
reducing the speed unti{ molten metal in the puddle con no
longer be kept in place. Then, increase the speed slightly
while watching the puddle, arc length and angle of the rod.
A short arc provides better controf of the mohen metal.
Fol{ow the same procedure with 3/32 and 5i32_inch rods.
ft will be noted that the larger the rod the more difficuh i_
is to control the puddle. For this reason smaller diameter
rods are a{ways used for position welding.
Lap or tee-joints are made by simply directing the arc into
the corne_ of the joint as in fiat welding and moving the
rod down the seam at a steady pace. _utt welds may require
more practice, as there is a tendency to burn through on
light gauge material Jf this occurs, continue until the seam
is comp{eted and patch the hole by chipping the slag and
wire brushing until dean. Then, with slightly lower current,
strike an arc on the weld directly above the hole and quickly
bring the rod down to the fower rim of the hole to deposit
a small amount of metal. Raise the rod for an instant to
let the metal solidify and repeat until the hole is welded.
Hotd a long arc when raising, so there will be no metal
deposited except when the rod is lowered. Any hesitation
in the rate of travel wl]i cause a "'burn through." if this
happens repeatedly, lower the welding current.
Leave a siight gap between pieces for butt welds on material
over 3!32-inch thick, inspect the back side after welding
for small bead along the seam, indicating complete penetration (fig. 4). Butt ioints on material around 3!16-inch
thick shou{d be welded on both sides.
vertical-down
welds
may
be made
on heavier
material
by
laying in a number of passes (fig. 51, however, this practice
is not recommended
as it takes longer than a heavier singlepass weld made by the verfica{-up
method.
VERTICAL-DOWN
WELDING
A SMALL_EAgON
%
BACK ST{IFINDICATES
COMPleTE P_IfETRATION
F_gure
2
Figure
....
!"!'
'
I '
IIIIIIII1,11
[,llllll IIII, III
3
Figure
4
•
iiiiiii
re5
II
IIII
I
I'11111'
WELOING
Figure
F.;gure
9
8
Figure 6
Figure
r
Use 1/8
and
5/32qnch
rods
for all
vertical-up
welds
I0
,
and
of the electrode points upward, Strike and hold a short arc
until a small amount of metaf is deposited, th,en quickty
raise the rod upward with a wrist movement to increase
the
length of the arc at the top of the stroke (fig, 7), As soon
as the metal deposited in the crater has solidified,
bring
the
rod Clown and deposit more metal. Keep repeating
this
whipping motion_ while gradually moving the rod upward
and toward the plate asthe electrode burns off. The [ength
weave
(fig. 9), This will produce
a "shelf"
_pon which
additional
metal is deposited
intermittently
as the welding
progresses. There shouJd be a slight pause in the weaving
motion at the toes of the weld to avoid making a bead that
is too convex. Materials
1/4-inch
and thicker must be hew
eled on one or both
sides, depending
Practice making a wide bead using a side-to_side
weaving
motion with a very slight whipping
action at each end to
give the metat at each end a chance to solidify
and avoid
undercutting
along the sides of the weld (fig, 10). This type
of bead is used on welds that require more than one pass
and is called the finish bead or "wash"
pass. Hold a short
arc, making the bead approximately
3/4-inch
wide and
fairly light. Multiple
vertical welds may be made c_s shown
in the series of diagrams, figure 11.
along the sides. Better penetration can be had
by the
vertical-up method. This can be demonstrated
by
joining
two pieces of 3/16-inch metal With a butt welcl; using the
whipping motion. Leave a gap between the plates
and use
a 5/32-inch rod with a fairly high current, determined
by
experimenting. The whipping motion wilt melt the corne_s of
the plate and form a pocket in which to deposit
the
weld
metal (fig. 8).
Burn the rod in deep so the crater extends through
to the
back side. After completing the weld, inspect" the
back
side for the smo_Jbead, which indicates ]O0-percent
penetration. Butt welds on heavier materlaFs should be welded
on both sides.
On materials up to ]/4-inch thick, use the whipping
:motion
on smafJsingle-pass filtet welds for lap and tee-joints.
Larger
single-pass fillet wetds can be made by the whipping
motion
with a stighf side-to-side weave added and combined
with
the up and down movement to make a triangular
shaped
upon the joint.
[ ,
,p,JlL
Figure
HORIZONTAL
WELDING
Horizontat welding refers to one type of butt weld between
two plates in a ve_tica] plane. For practice, set up a plate
as for vertical welding and run straight beads across from
]eft to right (fig. t..'2). Use the same current settings as for
verffcal-down welding and hold the rod as indicated with
a short arc. Move the rod in c_ straight line and deposit
a light bead. The rate of travel will c_epend upon the current
used. Too slow a travel wiff cause the bead to sag (fig. t3).
Practice with 3/32, 1/8 and 5/32-inch
rods until a well
formed bead can be made with each size rod (fig. 14).
Sheet metal
up to 1/16-inch
OVERHEAD
17
thick can be butt welded
from
one side. If the seam
has
numerous
gaps, use a back-up
strip, allowing
a sffght
gap
between
edges of 1i8qnch
thick meta! and weld
from
both sides (fig. 15). All metal
3/16-inch
tt_ick and over
should
be beveled
and welded
with a number oF £asses
bead before laying
the
for single-pass
welding.
The appearance
(f_g. 16). Tharough}y dean
next
and use higher current
of c_ multiple-pass
improved
by vertical
down
Use a swift circular
motion
while welding
(fig. 17)-
horizontal
weld
each
than
can be
beads
laid ctosety together.
to the right; slowly downward
WELDING
Although overhead welding _sgenerally considered difficult, do not become discouraged, as it is being done every
day by people wl_o have taught themselves. Once the art
of maintaining a short arc has been mastered, the rest
will be easy.
Since there wilt be a shower of sparks, wear a leather jacket,
tight fitting
cap and ear plugs and keep the practice plate
slightly
higher than the top of your head when stanoqng. To
keep sparks out of your glove, grasp the electrode holder as
indicated
in figure 18 and hold the rod in a nearly vertical
position
with a slight tilt to the right. Drape the cable over
your shoulder so its weight will not interfere
with the use
of the electrode,
Use 7/8.inch
rods and a current setting the
same as for vertical
welding,
and move the rod in a straight
line
without
any
weaving
or
whipping
motions.
A
reasonably
fast rate of travel must be used to prevent the
bead from sagging and undercutting
along the edges. Vary
the rate of travel and notice its effect
on the size and
appearance
of the weld, When you
feel you can run a
satisfactory
bead, try the side-to-side
weaving motion
and
deposit
a thin weld
approximately
3/4-inch
wide,
The
movement
must
be somewhat
faster
than
for
other
positions
to keep the bead from sagging. (This method
of
weaving is used only
improved
appearance
for the last pass on heavy welds where
is necessary.)
The whipping motion is used where a gap exists between
the plates as it provides better penetration with higher
welding current. For practice work, set up two plates approximately 1/8-inch thick, allowlng a gap between them.
Burn in deep for good penetration with 1/8 and 5/32-inch
rods, varying the plate size and gap distances.
F;gu_'e
18
Figure
plrll
Fillet welds
for
lap
I
or
19
I
tee-}o_nts
are
most common
in the
overhead
poshiom
Tc_ck-wetd
two pieces of scrap iron
together to form
a tee-joint,
and clamp in the overhead
position
so one plate
ts t_eld vertically
(fig. 19). Hofd the
rod at angles indicated
and
deposit a light bead from left
to right without weaving
o,r whipping
movements.
A slightly
higher current than used
fo:r overhead
butt welds wifl be
necessary
to get goad
:penetration
at the root of the weld.
To simulate actual conditions tack-weld a piece with on
irregular edge to another piece leaving numerous gaps
along the ioint. Use the whipping motion and deposit a
fairly heavy bead, slowing down the rate of travel where
the gaps are widest to build up a weld of uniform size
throughout its length. If the gaps are rather wide, fill them
first, clean off the slag and lay in a fillet weld the entire
length of the ioint (fig: 20),
Whei_ y0u can:10y single-pass butts and fillet welds you will
be6bleto,
make anioverhead
weld of any size, as it is
simply a matter :of fusing a number of straight beads together, one on top the other (fig. 21).
Weld appearance can be improved by grinding with a
properly guarded abrasive wheel mounted on the end of
a flexible shaft.
EXPANSION;
AND.
CONTRACTION
Metals expand When_heOted; cOntraCt:when coo_ed. In;arc
:anti: edggs being oined: are
molten and: the metal ::sUrroundirfg: ithe weld is }_eaie(JlsufL
flc
entt_/ to cause eXp:ansion
0sted meta
: ......
....
: _Whe:_
.......... ::the
.... :de P....
solidifies; it becomes €¢parf all the: plates; but, :being Unr_
stricted in its eXpansi0n in:the molten::state, it I tends: t0
c0ntract_m0re thanlthel heated SurroOn_Jing_metal_ lf the
CAST:
iRON
Previous experience in handling the arc, plus good judgment regarding expansion and contraction, will enable
you to weld gray cast iron successfully in o short time.
Two types of electrodes are used, namely: r_on-machinable
for use in cases where the weld does not have to be
machined, and machinable which deposits a file-soft weld
that can be drilled or machined to close tolerances. Nonmachinable rods are used for most repair jobs such as
cracked motor blocks, water iackets, pump and gear housings, etc. If the weld must be made across a machined
surface that need not be refinished to a close tolerance,
the face of the weld may be ground flush with an abrasive
wheel.
As cast
expansion
!-14
iron is very
and
brittte,
contraction,
care
must
be taken
to controt
and thus c_void cracking
of the
surrounding metal is free to move (not clamped or tacked)
it cannot resist these forces and bends (fig. 22).
The weld also contracts in width, as well as in length,
tending to pull the plates together, resulting in locked-up
stresses (fig. 23). This is not too serious when welding mitd
steet up to 1!2-inch thick, as the ductility and elongation of
the metal will permit it to deform slightly to compensate
for these forces, and prevent cracking. On sheet metal and
light structural members, lor_g continuous welds may cause
considerable bending and result in o badly distorted weldment. Fortunately most of this can be avoided by studying
the effects of expansion and contraction, as related to the
job before welding and working out a procedure to follow.
For example: first assemble the job with tack welds, and
install temporary braces tack-welded to supporl parts that
m_ght bend. The braces can be removed after the job is
completed. Lay the beads so the stresses witl counteract
or n_utralize one another, by running a short pass first o_
one side then on the other, etc. Often the neutralizing weld
is at the other end of the iob. Do not concentrate too many
welds in one place but space them to distribute the heat
and stresses throughout the entire structure. Use intermittent
Welds whenever, possible, if continuous welds are necessary
to make a: water-tight compartment,
use the back-step
method as shown in figure 24, fusing each bead together
at the: end.
WIELDING
weld or the casting. Because of low tensile strength and
Jack of ductility it canno_ bend, stretch or distort itself to
conform to the contraction of the weld metal. In some cases
it may be necessary to pre-heat the entire casting before
welding. However, as most cast iron welding jobs can be
done without pre-heating, this method wilt be considered
first.
The part must be free of rust, grease, paint or dirt; cleaned
by wire brushing, grinding or washing with solvent. The
crack shouid be beveIed for penetration. Jf the parts are
broken apart completely, they may be ground on an abrasive
wheel to a single or double bevel, depending upon the
thickness of parts and whether or not the joint can be
welded from both sides. Do not bevel to a sharp edge along
the entire crack. Instead, allow approximately
1i16_inch
of the fractured surface to line up the two pieces. Tack-weld
or cramp parts in position. If the crack has not separated
the casting, a vee-groove can be chipped out with a dlamond_point chisel. Chip an inch or so beyond the visible
ends of the crack as it may extend under the surface. On
cracked water jackets, where only a seal is required, the
depth of the groove need only be one-half the thickness
of the casting.
Keep the casting as cool as possible and do not expect to
compiete a weld in cast iron as rapidly as in the same Length
in mild steel. Use a smaWer rod and a slightly higher current
than for the same thickness of steel. Lay a short bead, about
an inch tong, at one end of the crack and peen it immediately
with a cross-peen hammer or blunt chisel to spread the
weld metal and relieve locked-up stresses. Do not strike the
edges of the casting. Place the second bead at the opposite
end of the crack and the next in the center, etc (fig. I).
Allow enough lime between welding to permit your bare
hand to be held on it. Never use water or a blast of air
to cool the casting. Although cracks may not show up
immediately, the tacked-up stresses due to uneven cooling
will cause the casting to fail after it is back in service. Wire
FACING
brush each bead before depositing the next. Then continue
to fil! the groove with short weld beads as before, working
rapidly when depositing and peening the bead. Albw plenty
of time for co01ing. Examine the casting for cracks that may
develop during cooling periods. If any of the beads crack,
chip them out and re-wetd, tf c_acking persists, preheat
the entire casting slowly to a dull red heat with ar_ oxyacetylene torch or blow-torch. When the preheated method is
used, the welding can be continuous. After completing the
weld, cover the casting with warm dry sand or slaked lime
so it will coof slowly.
Malleable iron is ordinary gray cast iron that has been heat
treated to give it a tough ductile outer skin. The method of
welding is the same as for cast iron.
FIRST BEAD
WORN
THIRD HEAO
CUTTING
SECBH_ READ
EDGES
___
........................
i
GRIND OFF
,1"'_
1-1/2 IHCH "_
_MAt.L
HARD FACING
OR UHOERSI_E
F_gure
2
3
/-
F;gure
HARO FACIH_
4
SOFT BASE METAL
WEARSAWAY FASTER
THAH HARD FACIN_
_111,,i,,,
i
_
_EEL
.,L!D-S'tEEL
WELDS
PATC,
Figure
1,1!
5
ii
t
Excavating
equipment,
earth-cutting
farm
machinery
or
others such as plow shares, lister shares, cultivator
shovels,
sweeps, subsoilers,
spike harrow
teeth, tractor
treads, excavating
buckets, or any surface subject to abrasive
action
will last much longer
and require
less sharpening
when
their cutting
edges are hard faced with
hard surfaclng
electrodes.
The arc welding
process consists of depositing
a fayer of abrasion
edges as indicated
BEAt]..,.J
F_gure
HARD FACING
--
Figure
_, iiiiiiiii
WEAVE BEADS
resisting weld metal on the worn cuffing
in red on the parts shown in figure 1.
Prepare the part for welding by cleaning the surface to be
welded by grinding it approximately
1-1/2 inches back
from the edge (fig. 2). Position the part so weld metal can
be deposffed in the flat position. If the material is 1!4-inch
thick or less, use a Ii8-inch rod and as low a current as
possible that will still permit the metal to flow out smooth
and fairly thin (t/t6
to 1/8-inch thick). Weave the rod
from side-to-side in a crescent-shaped movement and de_
posit a bead about 3/4 to 1-inch wide. Severat passes
(lald side-by-side) may be necessary where the worn surfaces are quite wide. In some cases a small straight bead
must be deposited along the edge to buiJd it up (fig. 3).
Make beads heaviest where the wear will be greatest, but
avoid excessive build-up as the metal cannot be flied or
machined, if shaping is required, heat the wetd metal and
forge it. Smoothing and sharpening can be accomplished
by grinding.
For plow and tister shares, cultivator
shovels and similar
cutting
points, deposit
the weld metat on one side only
which wilt result in a self.sharpening
edge (fig. 4). The
softer base metal on the other side will wear away first and
leave a knife-like
edge of hard facing materlai.
Parts that
must wear uniformly
on both sides shoutd be hard faced
on both sides. The condition
of the worn part must afso be
taken into conslde_ation.
If the part requires a number of
passes to bring it up to the desired thickness, use mild-steel
welding
rods first; then cover with deposited
metal from
hard surfacing
rods. tf the edge is entirely worn away, a
steel patch (cot to fit) may be welded in place with mild_steef
electrodes,
then hard faced
(fig. 5). To prevent
distortion
when hard facing
smatl parts, peen the deposited
wetd
metat before it cools,
TH
TIWIN iCAR
B O N I:A R C
TO R C H
To prepare the torch for use, connect its two cables to the
ground
and electrode cables
of the welding
machine.
-[
Grounding of the work is not necessary as the operation of
the arc flame is entirely independent. With the thumb knob
on the handle in the !'off" position, insert two 3/8-inch
carbon electrodes in the holders and damp in pIace at approxi-
CAH_ON ELECTRODES
mately
one-half their length
(fig. 2). Do not clamp them
on or near the ends opposite from the arc as this will cause
Overheating of the carbons. When tightening the clamping
CONNECTTO
SCREY+VS
EI.ECTROOETIPS
screws, be careful not to apply too much pressure on the
carbons, as they are very brittle and break easily. Use only
enough pressure to hold them firmly in p_ace. If the tips
6ROUHt] AND ©
F+IJF+CTR
ODE
CABLESOF
A. C+WEILOER
Figure
of the carbons do not line up with each other, an adiustment
may be made by turning the longest of the electrode holders
slightly; too much turning will loosen it, and make it necessary to disassemble
the torch to again tighten it properly.
I
Do not make any turning adjustments with the sliding holder
as this would spoil the contact tension in the switch.
Work ordinarily done with a gas welding torch is possible
with the twin-carbon arc torch connected to an A.C. welder.
The carbon-arc flame is similar to the flame of a gas we]d_
ing torch in that it provides heat by radiation, rather than
by direct arc between work and electrode. This flame heat
greatly widens the scope of work possible with the arc
welder for brazing, soldering, welding of non-ferrous metals
and localized heating for bending, forging and hardening.
To strike the arc, turn on the welding
claw.
::
are
na valves
or: gauges
that:require
i ::withan oxyacetylene:torch_
::: i
na:rya:rC
::::
i:i:
:
fine
adjustment
The sam e pr0tectlve
:e_CesS0f thoseglven
1/4-ira
: 5/16-in.
3/8-in.
!_.
i, .!L30
_!40
as
arc
carbons.
65
thumb
knob
forward
until
flame will have a sharp crackling
between
the carbons is increased,
contact
flame.
to a soft purring
There are
two
sound which
heat
zones
noise. As the
the crackling
indicates
and
iii: i
The shape
Of the flame
greatly
life.
theWay
°nvbeveled
f_a_:
t ° ! e gr: o e so:the
.
in which
twhi; ;:ar_hh
:
at this: type.:.
The soft, bushy flame
is pressureless and
to blow the molten metal This is a distinct
to 90 amperes
inner
temperature
the bottom (!Ig,
r'cghtLahg_es
t twOiltlheo?r:eOV
_ _h_
flame straddles th e groo e a
bottom (fig: 5). Filler rod s, as for gas welding, must be used
On joints
amperes
amperes
influences
the best
the small
z.one Lsby far thehottest,
hav!ng an estimated
at yuuu cfegrees ranrenne_r Lng ' .3) "
heat:ir_creaSes
:
amperages
in :
to40
to65
the
,t, mus _:ibel. USed?i
: Sn°U_a: bene!aPara!!e!
belbw will Onty cause Short Carb0_
carbons:_;.:;:..,
carbons.:_:!.';
move
will change
: :I:A: wide Selection:lot flame heats may be:iha:d:
the_Current and size of the Carbon
acfuai temperature
of
current seffing; the Volume 0f transferable
_with an increase in :arn'perage.
However;
Slowly
the arc
distance
equipment
::i
set it for
gap between the carbons. The actual distance can be determined with a little practice. When the carbons are too close
welding::is:usedWhehoperatingthe
:::;i::i=i:
and
is made between the tips of the carbons. This wifl start the
arc. Then immediately
move the knob back to increase the
The arc torch (fig. 1) consists of an insulated handle with
two projecting carbon electrode holders, one of which is adjustable to permit striking and breaking an arc at the carbon
tips, A thumb knob on the handle performs the adjustment
and Operates a shut-off switch built into the handle. There
i_:::
machine
approximately
70 amperes. Lower the welding
helmet and
hold the torch up to silhouette
it against the light of a win_
welding
thin sheet metal.
Joints on light
has no tendency
advantage
when
material
should
be
H
i ii
iii iiii
II iiii
i I I
III !ll iii
III
i[ I
/
Cg_RECT
Figu_'e
2
i
iu ........
L_
INCORRECT
POSITION
F_gure
Figure 3
L
1_16
FLAME
Figure
4
,
FLAME
i
IHI
,11_
POSITION
5
..
bent and edges fused together
by melting down the excess
metal to form a bead (fig. 6). No filler rods are required.
The carbon-arc
torch is ideally
suited for brazing
and
soldering
small tubing.
Cast
and
results.
malleable
A bronze
iron
filler
can
rod
and
be
brazed
common
with
excellent
brazing
flux
are
used. Rust, paint or grease must be cleaned from the area
to be brazed. If it is a butt joint, such as a crack in a casting,
grind or chip out a beveled
groove
as for arc welding.
Apply the heat from the arc tame
gradually
by passing
it over the metal surrounding
the joint. When
the casting
has become warm, concentrate
the arc flame at the joint.
The important
thing to remember
when brazing
cast iron
is never to heat the edges of the ioint to the mehing point.
The temperature
of the work should not exceed the melting
point of the filler rod. The carbons are held as close to the
work as possible without causing the metal to bubble. Hold
the filler rod in the left hand and heat the end of it sfghfly
by passing it through
the arc flame. Then dip the heated
end in brazing
flux. Raise the torch slightly
and deposit
some of the flux at the part of the joint being heated. When
the surface of the heated
metal takes on a shiny or wet
appearance,
the filler
rod can be applied.
Do not put the rod directly
;n the flame, but hold it on the
work and let the heat of the edge of the flame and the work
melt the rod. Deposit only enough metal to fill the part of
the joint that has been coated with flux. As the metal is
being deposited,
move the torch along
the joint slowly,
applying
flux
to the
rod and
ioint as required.
Copper
and copper-base
alloys such as bronze and brass
may also be brazed, but as their melting temperatures are
so close to the melting point of the filer
rod, the process
in many cases becomes one of welding rather than brazing.
A bronze filler rod and common brazing
flux are used.
Most non.ferrous
metals can be welded
by manipulating
the torch and fiHer rod in the same manner as for brazing,
with the exception
the melting point
work
is a copper
that the edges of the joint are heated to
before depositing
the filer
metal. ,:If the
alloy,
use common
brazing
flux.
If it is an
aiumlnum
alloy,
use aluminum
flux. The filler rod should
be of the same analysis
as the work. If regular
welding
rod is not avaifable,
strips of the parent metal may be used.
A back-up strip should be used when welding thin material
Small diameter
carbons
and }ow
used for soldering.
The torch is held
the visible edge of the flame. Apply
play the flame over the work untt
melt the solder. If the ioint is to be
amperage
setting are
so the work is just within
the soldering
flux and
it is just hot enough to
sweat-soldered,
tin the
surfaces to be joined, then press them together
adding
more solder at the edges of the joint.
and reheat,
One of the most practicaJ uses of the arc torch is heating
metal for bending, forging, etc. Set the torch for a wide,
enveloping-type flame and apply the heat to the bottom of
the work (fig. 7). Since a red heat is not visible through the
dark welding glass, the helmet must be raised periodically
so the work can be inspected to avoid overhec_ting. To protect the eyes from the rays of the arc, hold the torch to
one side a:nd above your head. The carbon-arc torch is
not recommended for welding mild-steel. However, it may
be used for brazing mild-steel if the metat is too thin for
regular metallic-arc welding,
CUTTING
and
CUTTING
WITH
olher
miscellaneous
operations
i
THE ELECTRIC ARC
Arc cutting is simply the continuation of a "burn through"
such as you probab]y experienced when practicing with
light sheet-metal welding. When this action is accelerated
by using extremely high currents, it becomes an efficient
method of cutting metals. Affhough the edges of the cut
surfaces are not as smooth as when cut with o saw or
oxyacetylene torch, there are many cases where such precision is not required. Ordinary mild-steel welding rods
may be used. The current will vary with the type and thickness of the material. In general, high currents increase the
speed of cutting but also increase the rod burn-off rate and
width of the cut.
11 i1,,111
START
C_T
HERE
Figure
I
_MOLTEN METAL.
'
STEEL
RTAIHER
__
i
,11
ii ii
i
!1
iii
,I
t-17
BOLT AND
RIVET CUTTING
Removing rusty botts Or rivets is an easy i0b with an electric
arc welder. _The arc is struCk on the head or nut of the bait
and w0rkedaround in a slight circular movement untll the
head s complete]y meffed 0ff(fig.
4)° A punch is then
L_sedto drive out the remaining part. The bolt or rivet can
be removed byheating the head almost to the melting point,
then qu!ckly shearing it off With a coJd chisel. Care must be
taken not to cause the bolt to become welded to the metal
START
CUT
HERE
HOLE
Figure 2
To make a trial cut, place a bar of steel approximately
1/4-inch thick on the table so that one end proiects over
the edge._ Usea 3/32-inch rod and a current setting of
around 140 amperes. Hold the rod as shown in figure 1 and
strike an arc on the top corner at the edge of the bar where
the cut isto be made. Feed the rod into the molten puddle
and: keep the Crater burning through as the rod is moved
across the bar. To catch the molten metal, place a metal
container onthe floor directly under the cut.
When cutting metal heavier than 1/4-inch, the arc is started
at:the bottom corner and worked up and down vertica!ly
as shown in figure :2, advancing the bottom of the cut
slightly ahead of the top of the cut to permit molten metal
to run out more easily, if a smooth edge is desired, the
pieces can be ground on an abrasive wheel. Electrodes
designed especially for cutting may also be used.
PIERCING
Another useful application of the welding arc is piercing
holes in metal. Coated metallic electrodes are best for
this purpose because of their small size and insulation
afforded by the coating. The process is extremely fast and
a surprisingly clean circular hole can be made. For practice,
place a piece of scrap iron !/4-inch thick (or less) on the
table and allow it to proiect over the edge as for arc
cutting. Use a 3/32-inch rod and the same current as for
cutting. At the place where the hole is to be pierced, strike
an arc and hold it unti{ a molten puddle is formed, Then
push the electrode down against the molten puddle and
force it through the plate. It is possible to hold the electrode
against the melted plate because the metal core melts off
faster than the coating. The coating (not the rod) touches
the molten metal (fig. 5). The gap maintained by the protruding coating prevents the metal core of the electrode
from sticking or freezing to the plate.
If a larger diameter hole is desired, first pierce a hole as
described. Then, holding a fairfy long arc, melt the edges
of the hole away by moving the rod around it (fig. 6). Holes
of almost any diameter can be made. To pierce a hole
through :materia i_ithic.ker than 1/4-inch, I work from the
!HEATING
i _i:i,
_The
method for localized
i_eatlng of all metals. Simply strike an arc on the part to be
heated and "'play" it across the surface until the required
out and work Upward-The rate of speed wit1 depend upon
thedepth o_ the groove and the amount of metal removed'
temperature is reached.
BOLT
RIVE
MOLTE#
GOUGING
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
3
4
5
6
NOTES
• ,,__,;,i_:_i,i
i
NOTES
1-20
WELDING
ROD
AWS
GENERAL
Body and
e General
E-6011
APPLICATIONS:
Fender
Repairs
....
l
_
1/16"
20-55
MiLD
Farm
Equipment
._
AND
II
20+55
20-55
•
HEATS
Sheet
AC-DC
Meta/
_ Jigs and
•
Car and Truck
Fixtures
•
•
Cabinets
lAMPS)
3/32"
20-80
75-130
Vertical
Overhead
STEEL
® Pipe • Tanks
e Maintenance
e Structural
Steel
SIZES
Diameter
Flat
SPECJF|CATiONS
!
20.6,5
20-65
100+175
I
150+225
i
175-250
200-375
7,-,,5
i ,50.2o0 i
75.,15
l _ 1oo.,5o
100+150
J
J
SPECIFICATIONS
P hys!cal
Pro_rties
Tensile Strength
YieldPoint
of
Deposited
Metal:
As Welded
.................................
.....................................
% Elongation in 2-inches
...........................
Reduction in Area ................................
Stress
Relieved
70,000 to 75,000 psi
65,000 to 70,000 psi
60,000 to 65,000 psi
55,000 to 60,000 psi
23% to 25%
30% to 35%
50% to 55%
65% to 75%
DESCRIPTION
The AWS E-6011 is an AC-LC
(reverse polarity)
electrode
with a specia_ coating that provides strong fluxing
action for high quality
welds, even in dirty,
rust covered, galvanized
or plated steels. An extremely
stable,
spray type penetrating
arc, is produced
that is easy to start and restart after interruption.
It is a versatile
electrode.
|t adapts to a wide
resuJts are obtained.
Features:
Deeper
Penetration
variety
-
of jobs due to the wide
Fast-Freeze
Puddle
-- Greater
range of amperage
settings
at which
top quality
Arc Stability.
WELDING
PROCEDURE:
Weld with AC or DC (reverse polarity). Strtke the arc by brushing rod tip lightly
at the point where weld is to be made. After
the arc is established
and weld mater;at
is deposited,
concentrate
on holding a short arc that is just long enough to keep the electrode from touching
the molten
metal. In the flat position, use a slight oscillating
motion as you advance, in vert+ca; position,
on sheet steel
start at the top of the seam and weld down. This provides a more rapid speed of travel, lower penetration,
and minimum
warpage. When we_ding overhead use a straight
stringer bead or a circular motion. Keep the
molten pool .assmall as possible. Use small electrodes
overhead, none larger than ,5/32 diameter.
2-1
II
I
AWS
E-6013
MILD
STEEL
multi-purpose
GENERAL
Pipe •
Work
APPLICATIONS:
Tanks
•
Boilers
Farm
o
all position
Equipment
Structural
Steel
=
e
. _-..o,,_,
5164"
20-55
,3132"
20-75
_ Vertical
20-55
:: Overhead
20-55
,
Car and
Maintenance
SIZES AND HEATS
Diameter
Flat
AC'DC
Truck
e
Repairs
o General
Sheet
Metal
e
Repair
(AMPS)
1/8"
75-1":3'0
5/32"
100-t75
3t16""
150-225
20-65
75-115
100-150
150-200
20-65
75-115
100-150
1/4"
200-375
SPECI FICATIONS
Physical Pro_erties of Deposited Metal:
Tensile Strength
Yield Point
As Welded
_. ...................................
.....................................
Stress
Relieved
75,000 to 80,000 psi
65,000 to 70,000 psi
62,000 to 67,000 psi
50,000 to 60°000 psi
% EI0ngation in 2-inc_es ............................
20% to 29%
27% to 35%
Reduction inArea
40% to 55%
60% to 70%
................................
The AWS; E:6013 is a generaLpurpoSe
mild steel:elec:trode
for use with AC or DC. tt produces a very stable,
easily handled arc throughout
a wide amperage range,: The moderately
penetrating and easily directed
arc
provides
eXCellent-results
i_: allposi_ions_(flat_:vertical
or ioverhead) and is ideal for single pass horizontal
fillet
welds, s_atter
loss is 10w, asthe
weld metal Solidifies quickly
producing
a c!ose]v rippled deposit with
good
appearance.
Even though
muiti-pu[pose
The
arc
amperages
it:: is designed
for production
welding
in mild
usewhere
sound durabie Welds are required.
is easily
needed
started,
even at:low
for higher
welding
amperage
settings
speeds, and for heavier
steel
for light
fabrication,
gauge
steel,
this
yet
rod
is excellent
_s stable
at the
for
htgh
sections.
Use with AC or DC (see recommencted
amperages). Hold a short arc, just long enough [o keep the electrode
from
touching
the molten, metal.
In fiat position
single pass fillets
or butt welds may be made with or
without
weaving.
Weld from
bottom
up on vertical
welding of heavy sections.
Welding
down on hght
material
or fillets produces excellent
results. Use 5/32-inch
or smaller electrodes
for overhead work, making
either
2-2
stringer
or weaving
beads.
i
::
:
i¸ :
L :¸
::
.
'i
_
• _:
WELD,NG
//::
i•:
I ::/•:
ROD
,
,
::•::•::i: •i¸'¸
':_'?_
:_
_i :_•:': _:::•••:,?•
¸'¸ :::
SP;=CUF,CATIONS
.....
__
HARD
_! •i•/:i•::••:::
SURFACmNG
__.'---____!
......
AC-DC
medium chrome-carbon electrode
Coal Cutters
SIZES
I
Diameter
....
3/32"
=55-85
[ Amperes
o Conveyor
AND
,/8"
100-130
and Rollers
Hitches
•
Rolls
HEATS
e
Power
Scraper
Shovel
• Mining
•
Blades
Dipper
Buckets
e
Agri-
Teeth
• Rock
and
Crushers
(AMPS)
130-150_
175-200
I_ l
175-250
225-275
1/4''
Grousers
o
]
Tractor
Shares
7/32"
e
Plow
I}
Drive Sprockets
• etc.
o
',_
APPLICATIONS:
Implements
3/l'l
cultural
5/32"
GENERAL
I_
SPECI FICATIONS
Physical Properties of Deposited Metal
As Welded Condition
....
(Rockwell "C" 46-50)
After Cold Working (R0ckwelt "'C" 50-54)
........................................
450-500 Brinell Hardness
.........................................
500-550 Brinetl Hardness
DESCRIPTION
The Medium Chrome-Carbon
rod is a hard-surfacing
alloy
and flux. When welding,
this special coating
combines
steel electrode with a coating of powdered
in the arc with the steel core wire to
metals
give an
extremely
hard weld-metal
deposit.
Deposited
weld metal requires
no heat treatment
for maximum
strength, ductility,
and wear resistance. Annealing
or heat treating will not soften the metal deposit, which
is not machinable,
but may be hoI forged to any desired shape. Deposited metal has a very fine grain and is
free of stag and porosity.
The metal is tough and highly resistant to wear and impact.
The rod is designed for use with either AC or DC (either polarity).
Hold a medium short arc and deposit the
metal with a weaving motion.
Excellent
welding results are obtained
in either the vertical or flat position.
WELDING
PROCEDURE:
Grind
the surface
materiatl Cracks too deep to be removed
rod. Use the "drag"
technique
to deposit
or use a "free"
arc.
to
clean
and
remove
shaltow
cracks,
rust,
or other
foreign
by grinding
should be gouged out with a cutting torch or cutting
weld metal, to thin edges when desirable or weave a wider bead,
2-3
CIFICATION$
AWS
E,70141CONTACT
f0r welding
AC-DC
of mild steel
GENERAL. APPLICATIONS:
Sheet Metal Fabrication and Repairs = Machinery
Fabrication o Construction Equipment Repairs e Storage Tanks e Shipbuilding
Fabricating Structural Shapes and Heavy Equipment
e Equipment and Heavy Pipe
Welding.
SIZES AND HEATS {AMPS)
Diameter
Lengtl_
:Amperes
....
,....
1/16"
12-:
: 70-90
3/32"
, .... |4
:
90-110
1/8"
i :' 14"
i
5/32"
14"
t/4"
18"
250-350
18""
200-250
190-210
i30"165
3/1s"
I
SPEC! FICATIONS
Physical
P,roperties
of Deposited
Metal:
As Welded
TensileStrength ................................................................
Yield Point . ....................................................................
% Elongationin 2-inches ..................................................................
72,000 psito 76,000 psi
60,000 psito 69,000 psi
17%to 28%
DESCRIPTION
The AWS E-7014: iS an excellent electrode:for:the inexperienced or experienced welder. Starts on contact
With Sm00th: Surge:free arc; als() restrikes instantly; Thls Craftsman electrode has powdered iron in the
coating wi_ich:makes welding easier and faster, :The •slag is easy to remove in most casesself-peeling as the
_td
cools:.
Ideal for fixture
Welding Where weld
permits use in all welding positions.
appearance
and lack
of spatter
is important.
The
amount
of
slag
WELDING PROCEDURES:Weld
materials should be clean. Best results are obtained when fit-up is good.
Either AC or DC current may:be used. When arc is established, deposit metal holding a short arc or place
electrode in contact with work:
2.4
MACHINABLE
CAST
rnachineable
GENERAL
Castings
APPLICATIONS:
e Gears
e Sprockets
welds
iRON
on all cast
Cylinder
Blocks
• Casting
Repairs in General
AC-DC
irons
• Crankcases
= Valve
e Garages
Seats
e Defective
e Farms
e Shops
SIZES AND HEATS (AMPS)
I
Oiameter
3/32"
48-85
/
t
Amperes
t
I/8"
75-130
5/32"
|
J.
3/I 6;'
I00d50
|
t30-775
DESCRIPTION
This electrode
uses a nickel core wire, and produces
a fully
pre-heating
the casting, Cast irons can be joined to steel, nickel
This
electrode
characteristics.
operates
with
AC
or
DC
tt is recommended
for automotive
repairs,
and other cast iron parts, In maintenance
many farm machinery
parts.
(reverse
machinable
weld without
alloys and copper,
polarity).
It
has very
stable
arc
such as cylinder
blocks, crank cases, valve seats
and repairs it is used on gears, sprockets,
anc_
WELDING
PROCEDURE:
Remove all dirt and grease from work piece before starting to
weld. A cutting electrode may be used to burn a groove along the break where the weld is
to be made, This cutting electrode
removes the grease and scale, and then seals in any oif
soaked into the cast iron.
Use the lowest amperage
relieve strain and stress.
.........
=...........
_
....
;.--..
_
that
gives good fusion.
....
_........
='_.-"
CUTT|NG
quick,
GENERAL
easy
Cutting
peen hammer
the weld to
,___
......
ROD
inexpensive,
APPLICATIONS:
Durir_g cooling,
AC-DC
cuts
o Piercing
through
all
• Gouging
SIZES AND HEATS
metals
o Scarfing
• Beveling
o etc.
lAMPS)
i
Diameter ......
J_
-A-c
Amperes-
DC
t
3/32"
1/8"
80. 5o
150-250
75- 3o
I
5132"
3t16"
100-t50
t30-175
-
DESCRIPTION
For p;ercing,
Excellent
for
gouging,
removing
cutting,
old
and scarfing.
welds
in preparation
to
rewelding.
Also
used for
cracks in castings or removing
sharp edges prior to welding.
Needs no oxygen
equipment
to cut
carbon
steels,
stainless
steel,
manganese
steel, cast
Recommended
for the owners of atl arc welders. AC or DC.
beveling
or special
iron, etc.
WE LDING
PROCEDURE:
Place electrode in holders so that it's positioned
like a lance in
the direction
of travel. The angle between
the electrode
and work metal should not
e×ceed 15 °. Strike arc at starting
point. Push electrode
along the line of cut, forcing the
molten
metal ahead and away.
If deeper gouge is required,
repeat procedure until the
desired depth has been reached.
2-5
• _ i,,,_:_ ,_
I_
145
56
:47
49
1
42
19
19 18 17
23
24
25
/
28 _
/
•
_32
34
2_
/
PARTS LIST FOR CRAFTSMAN
50-295 AMP
DUAL RANGE ARC WELDER MODEL 113.201480
Always order
Key
No,
Pa rt
No.
by Part Number
Description
-- not by Key Number
Key
No.
Part
No.
Description
i,i
,i!
!:i
1
2
3
4
61416
61276
61419
60359
5
6
7
8
61350
61279
60325
STD611005
61332
10 61335
11 STD601103
•!
12
13
14
15
16
17
!8
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
6! 356
61334
61391
61420
61418
STD541 ! 10
STD551010
14201
STD551110
61417
61314
61302
STD501102
61315
!STD541006
STD 5512O8
61264
STD541025
Cabinet,
Spacer
Pointer
Screw,
1-1/4
Top
STD551025
51439
*Washer, 17/64 x 5/8 x 1/16
+Clamp, Ground
33
34
35
61342
60444
36
37
38
39
40
41
9415852
61310
30332
61171
STD510607
STD512507
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
--
61086
STD510805
61269
61422
STD551108
STD541008
61115
61116
61117
STD511105
30298
37526
37525
Cabie Assembly, Work
Washer, Spring
Screw, Hex Hd. 1/4-20 x 1
Cable Assembly, Electrode
Insulator, Plug
Plug
*Screw Pan Hd. 6-32 x 3/4
*Screw, Pan Rec. Type "T"
1/4-20 x 1/2
Relief, Strain
*Screw, Pan Hd. 8-32 x 9/16
Switch
Lead, Primary
*Lockwasher, No. 8
*Nut, Hex 8-32
Block, Contact Mounting
Contact, Selecting Plug
Block, Contact Mounting
*Screw, Pan Hd. 10-32 x 1/2
Terminal, Ground
Cover, Outlet Box
Ring, Outlet Box
oTransformer Assembly
+Helmet
Wrench, Hex "L'? 1/4
Owners Manuat (Not
Illustrated)
31
Pan Rec. Type AB 10x
Knob Assembly
Bushing
Washer, 3/6 x 1-3/8 x 3/64
*Screw, Pan Rec. Type AB 10x
1/2
Slide Assembly
Bracket, Guide
*Screw, Pan Rec. Type "T"
10-32 x 3/8
Guide Assembly,
Shunt
Spring
Pin, Guide
Shunt Assembly
Clip, Spring
*Nut, Hex 10-32
*Washer,
13/64 x 5/8 x 1/32
Clamp
*Lockwasher,
No. 10
Cabinet,
Bottom
Motor
Bracket, Fan
*Screw, Set Hex Cup 10-32 x
1/4
Blade Assembly,
Fan
*Nut, Hex 6-32
*Lockwasher,
External No. 8
+Holder,
Electrode
*Nut, Hex 1/4-20
37952
37435
61421
* Standard Hardware Item -- May be Purchased
Locally.
+ Stock Item -- May be secured through the
hardware department of most Sears Retail Stores
or Catalog Order Houses,
o Transformer not replaceable.
2-7
Sears
50=295 AMP DUAL RANGE:
ARC WELDER
SERVICE
MODEL NO.
113o201480
HOW TO ORDER
REPAIR
PARTS
Now that you have purchased
your 295 amp arc welder,
should a need ever exist for repair parts or service, simply
contact any Sears Service Center and most Sears, Roebuck
and Co. stores. Be sure to provide afl pertinent
facts when
you call or visit.
The model number of your arc welder will be found on a
plate attached
to your welder, at the rear of the cabinet.
WHEN ORDERING
REPAIR
FOLLOWING
INFORMATION:
PART
NUMBER
MODEL
NUMBER
113.201480
PARTS,
PART
NAME
50-295
ALWAYS
GIVE
THE
DESCRIPTION
OF ITEM
AMP ARC
WELDER
All parts listed may be ordered
from any Sears Service
Center and most Sears stores. If the parts you need are not
stocked
locally,
your
order
will
be etectronicaIfy
transmitted
to a Sears Repair Parts Distribution
Center for
handling,
Sold by SEARS,
Part No. 61421
ROEBUCK
AND
CO.,
Form No. SP4654-2
Chicago,
IL
60684
U.S.A.
Printed in U.S.A. 7/84