MINSK MOTOR PLANT Minsk Technical data

Open Joint Stock Company
MINSK MOTOR PLANT
DIESEL ENGINES
D-245S3A М, D-245.2S3A М, D-245.5 S3A М,
D-245.43 S3A М
OPERATION MANUAL
MINSK, 2010
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Table of Content
1. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION .................................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Description and Operation of the Diesel Engine .................................................................................... 5
1.1.1 Diesel function .................................................................................................................................... 5
1.1.2 Technical characteristics ................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3 Diesel Engine Components .................................................................................................................. 2
1.1.4 Operation and Description ............................................................................................................... 2
1.1.5 Diesel Engine Marking .......................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.6 Packing ................................................................................................................................................. 3
1.2 Description and operation of diesel engine components, its mechanisms, systems and devices .............. 3
1.2.1 General information............................................................................................................................... 4
1.2.2 Description and work............................................................................................................................. 5
3.2. Cylinder Heads............................................................................................................................................ 5
3.4. Valve Mechanism ...................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.3 Marking sealing of diesel engine components ...................................................................................... 8
2. PROPER USE ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.1 Operating Constraints ............................................................................................................................... 8
2.2 Preparation for Use ................................................................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 Safety Precautions during the Engine Preparation ......................................................................... 8
2.2.2 Depreservation of the Diesel Engine, Assembly Units and Parts .................................................. 9
2.2.3 Additional Completing the Diesel Engine Set .................................................................................. 9
2.2.4 Cooling system filling .......................................................................................................................10
2.2.5 Filling with fuel and oil .....................................................................................................................10
2.2.6 Diesel engine operation control elements and inspection tools .................................................10
2.3 Diesel Engine Operation .........................................................................................................................10
2.3.1 Service staff operating procedure during fulfillment of the diesel engine operation tasks .....10
2.3.2 Starting the Engine ...........................................................................................................................11
2.3.3 Stopping the engine..........................................................................................................................12
2.3.4 Run-in .................................................................................................................................................12
2.3.5 Engine operating and service in cold weather ..............................................................................12
2.3.6 Troubleshooting ................................................................................................................................13
2.3.7 Safety requirements at the diesel engine proper use ...................................................................16
2.4 Operation in extreme conditions ...........................................................................................................16
3 TECHNICAL MAINTENANCE .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
3.1 Technical maintenance of diesel engine ...................................................................................................16
3.1.1 General instructions ............................................................................................................................17
3.1.2 Safety measures .................................................................................................................................19
3.1.3 Technical maintenance procedure ......................................................................................................20
3.1.4 Check of diesel engine workability ......................................................................................................22
3.1.5 Preservation (represervation) when placed for storage ......................................................................23
3.1.6 Preparation of engine for operation when removed from storage ......................................................25
3.2 Technical maintenance of engine and its parts .........................................................................................26
3.2.1 Maintenance of cooling system ...........................................................................................................26
3.2.2 Maintenance of lubrication system ......................................................................................................26
3.2.3 Check of oil level in the engine crankcase ..........................................................................................27
3.2.4 Replacement of oil in the engine crankcase .......................................................................................28
3.2.5 Replacement of oil filter.......................................................................................................................28
3.2.6 Drain of sediment form coarse fuel filter .............................................................................................29
3.2.7 Washing of coarse fuel filter ................................................................................................................30
3.2.8 Drain of sediment from fine fuel filter ..................................................................................................30
3.2.9 Replacement of fine fuel filter .............................................................................................................31
3.2.10 Filling the fuel system........................................................................................................................32
3.2.11 Maintenance of air cleaner ................................................................................................................32
3.2.13 Washing of the engine breather ........................................................................................................34
3.2.14 Check of cylinder head bolt tightening ..............................................................................................34
3.2.15 Check of clearance between valves and rockers .............................................................................34
3.2.16 Maintenance of high-pressure fuel pump..........................................................................................36
3.2.18 Check of injectors for pressure at the beginning of injection and quality of fuel atomization ...........40
3.2.19 Alternator maintenance ....................................................................................................................41
3.2.20 Check of belts tension .......................................................................................................................42
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
3.2.21 Check of starter state .......................................................................................................................43
3.2.22 Maintenance of turbocharger ............................................................................................................43
3.2.23 Maintenance of compressor ..............................................................................................................44
4 RUNNING MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................................................................................... 44
4.1 General instructions on engine assembly and disassembly......................................................................44
4.1.1 General instructions ............................................................................................................................44
4.1.2 Safety measures .................................................................................................................................45
4.2 Running repair of components...................................................................................................................46
4.2.1 Main instructions on piston rings replacement ....................................................................................47
4.2.2 Main instructions on valve grinding .....................................................................................................48
5. STORAGE............................................................................................................................................................................................. 50
6. TRANSPORTATION ........................................................................................................................................................................... 50
7. RECYCLING ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 51
ANNEX А (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 52
CHIMMOTOLOGY LIST....................................................................................................................................................................... 52
ANNEX B (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 56
QUANTITY SHEET OF SPARE PARTS, TOOLS AND ACCESSORIES (SPARE PARTS, INSTRUMENT) ............................. 56
ANNEX C (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 57
SIZE GROUPS OF CYLINDERS AND PISTONS ............................................................................................................................... 57
ANNEX D (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 58
ENGINE ADJUSTING PARAMETERS ................................................................................................................................................ 58
ANNEX E (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 58
ADJUSTING PARAMETERS OF FUEL PUMP PP4M10U1I 3793 WHEN CHECKED ON THE STAND. ................................. 58
ANNEX E (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 59
ANNEX E (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................. 60
ANNEX F .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 61
IDENTIFICATION OF ENGINE AND TURBOCHARGER FAULTS .............................................................................................. 61
ANNEX G (REFERENTIAL) .................................................................................................................................................................... 2
SCHEME OF ENGINE STRAPPING ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
The present operation manual is designed for operators, drivers and agricultural
tractors motormen, combine harvesters and agricultural machinery equipped with diesel
engines D-245 S3A М, D-245.2S3A М, D-245.5 S3A М, D-245.43 S3A М, and for
maintenance centers and repair workshops stuff competent to provide repair and
maintenance of the abovementioned diesel engines.
The present manual provides brief technical description, maintenance and service
rules of diesel engines.
Operation and maintenance of diesel engines is allowed by persons specially trained
and familiar with the present manual only.
Routine repair operations for diesel engines and its components can be carried out
by machine men knowing design and operating principles of diesel engines, and
having general technical skills according to training program for machinemen of the 3rd
or 4th grade.
Diesel engine is designed for continuous service without need of major repairs
provided that equipment operating procedures, storage, and timely maintenance
requirements set forth in this manual are complied with.
Diesel engine exhaust gas contains hazardous substances (nitrous oxides, carbon
monoxides, hydrocarbons, solid particles). Diesel engines design is based on technical
solutions which enable reduction of emission impact on human’s health and
environment
Premises where the diesel engine is operated shall have combined extract-and-input
ventilation, and diesel engine exhaust system shall be equipped with independent
offtake ensuring positive offtake of exhaust gases from muffler to the outside of the
room.
Due to the continuous improvement some alterations in diesel engine design can be
made which are not specified in this operation manual.
In case of non compliance with rules and procedures of operation,
maintenance, transportation and storage specified herein, crippling of plant seals,
and use of expandable materials (petroleum, oil and lubricants, parts and assembly
units) of other manufacturers which are not provided with design documentation of
RUE “MMP” during the maintenance and routine repair, and introduction of
changes of engine design, guarantee ceases to be effective.
In the event when maintenance of failed diesel engine parts during a
period of guarantee for engine or its components is carried out by the owner or the
third party without involvement of plant’s technical specialists or an authorized
dialer center, guarantee for engine or its components ceases to be effective.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1. DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
1.1 Description and Operation of the Diesel Engine
1.1.1 Diesel function
Function, range of use and operation conditions of the diesel engines are shown
in Table 1.
Table 1.
Diesel engine
Description
D-245S3A М
D-245.2S3A М D-245.5S3A М
D-245.43S3A М
Purpose
For installation to fodder chopper and tractors of drawbar category
1.4.
Range of use
Places with infinitely large air exchange
Climatic
service
conditions
Macroclimatic areas with moderate climate. Air temperature rate
during operation at temperature from + 40º С to - 45º С.
Macroclimatic areas either with dry or damp tropical climate. Air
temperature rate during operation at temperature from + 50º С to 10ºС.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.1.2 Technical characteristics
1.1.2.1 Characteristics and operating parameters of diesel engines.
Table2
Description
Diesel engine type
Carburetion method
Number and arrangement of cylinders
Cylinders arrangement
Cylinder displacement
Firing order
Crankshaft rotation direction in
accordance with GOST 22836-77 (viewed
from fan side)
Piston stroke
Compression ratio (rated)
Operating engine incline angles:
- lengthway
- crossover
Operating Horse Power
Rated RPM
Fuel consumption at rated HP
Torque peak at the moment of complete
diesel set for determination of nominal
power
Rotating frequency at torque peak, not less
than
Units of
measurement
Items
l
Diesel engine
D-245S3A М
D-245.2S3A М
D-245.5S3A М D-245.43 S3A М
Value
Four-cycle, turbo-charging and supercharging cooler
Voluminous carburetion
4
In four rows, vertical
4,75
1-3-4-2
To the right (Clockwise)
mm
110
mm
125
17
20
20
degrees
kW (Hp)
−1
min
g/kW·h
77 (103)
N·m
440
min
−1
86 (115)
66,7 (89)
2200
235
1800
220
501
1600
58,7 (78)
464
411
1400
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Diesel engine weight without petroleum, oil
and lubricants and liquid coolant in a
complete set according to the GOST 18509
for determination of nominal rating power.
kg
430
450
430
1.1.2.2 Testing parameters of the diesel engines
Table 3
Description of parameters
Rated Horse Power
Rated RPM
Fuel consumption at rated HP
Min. constant idling rpm
Max. idling rpm, not less than
Oil pressure in main lubrication gallery:
- at rated RPM
- at min. RPM
Units of
measurement
kW
−1
min
g/kW·h
−1
min
−1
min
Diesel engine
D-245S3A М
D-245.2S3A М
D-245.5S3A М D-245.43S3A М
Value ± confidence interval (permissible variation)
81,0±2,0
90,0±2,0
70,0±2,0
62,0±3,0
+40
+40
2200 − 25
1800 − 25
225±11
210±11
800±50
2420
2070
MPa
0,25…0,0,35
0,08
Note: Parameters are achieved after operating time equal to 60 - 5 hours with backpressure of 150 KPa in exit channel 200 m
from turbine flange while engine brake is shut down, and with fuel temperature at the inlet of fuel-handling system ranging from
38ºС to 43ºС reference atmospheric conditions according to the rules № 24(03)/Revision 2 of UN's Economic Commission for
Europe:
- atmosphere pressure – 100 KPa;
- vapour pressure – 1 KPa;
- air temperature – 25ºС.
Parameters shall be calculated by the formulae set forth in GOST 18509-88.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.1.2.3 Measurement instrumentation for definition of testing parameters
Table 4
Measurable parameter
Units of
measurement
Torque moment
Nm
RPM
min −1
Oil pressure in
lubricating system
MPa
Hourly fuel consumption
kg/h
Measurement instrumentation
Strain-gauge-type force
measurement system and
dynamometer force measurement
system – acc. to GOST 15077-78
Electronic tachometer of pipeelectrical welding machine acc. to
ТU25-04.3663-78, GOST18303-72
Pressure gauge, vacuum pressure
gauge acc. to GOST 2405-80, GOST
11161-84, pressure and depression
transducer acc. to GOST 22520-85
Nonstandard measurement
instrumentation
Fundamental absolute
accuracy limits of
measurement instruments
±0,005 micron мах
Note
For rated power
calculation
±0,005n noy, but not more
than 10 min −1
±0,02
±0,01Gт
For specific fuel
consumption
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.1.3 Diesel Engine Components
Diesel engine is composed of parts, assembly units, assembly sets.
1.1.3.1 Composition of main assembly units for diesel engine D-245S3A М
Table 5
Description of assembly units and assembly sets
Cylinder block
Installation of cylinder set intake channel
Installation of breather pipe
Installation of clutch
Fuel transfer pump drive
Installation of turbocompressor
Installation of oil crankcase
Installation of fuel equipment
Turbocompressor oil pipeline
Installation of Exhaust Gases Recirculation System
Thermostat housing
Installation of water pump
Installation of fan
Installation of oil pump
Installation of compressor
Installation of electric generator
Installation of heating plug
Installation of starter
Installation of leading foot
Installation of gear wheel pump
Set of spare parts and accessories
Register of spare parts tools and accessories for diesel engines – Annex B of this
manual (Table B.1).
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.1.3.2 Main features in the diesel engines modifications composition
Table 6
Description of a unit,
part
Turbo-compressor
Recirculation valve
Compressor
Diesel engine
D-245S3A М
D-245.2S3A М
D-245.5S3A М
D-245.43 S3A М
Description of a unit, part and (or) its characteristic
С15-505 or С14-198-01of firm CZ («Turbo»),
С14-101-01of firm CZ («Turbo»), Czechia
Czechia
7.22946.25.0 of firm «Pierburg»
Single-cylinder, air cooling, interruptible А29.05.000 BZA or А29.01.000 BZA
Gear wheel pump
High-pressure fuel pump
Nozzle
Coarse fuel filter
Secondary fine fuel filter
Air filter
Oil filter
Fan and its drive
Of NSH 10-3L or NSH 14-3L type
PP4M10U1i-3794
«MERCER»
PP4M10U1i-3793
«MERCER»
PP4M10U1i-3795
«MERCER»
PP4M10U1i-3796
«MERCER»
VA70P360-2996 with spray bar DOP140Р528- 3826
Coarse fuel filter (fuel strainer)
FT020-1117010 or Т6101 (indecomposable type)
* Combined: monocyclone (preliminary stage of air cleaning) and air cleaner with
paper filter cartridge
FM009-1012005 or М5101 (indecomposable type)
Axial type with a drive through a clutch with automatic cutoff
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Table 6 continued
Diesel engine
D-245S3A М
D-245.2S3A М
D-245.5S3A М
D-245.43 S3A М
Description of a unit, part and (or) its characteristic
Clutch
Frictional, double-disk or single-disk, dry, spring-loaded clutch
Electric generator
Alternate current, rated voltage of 14 V or 28 V
Starter
Rated voltage 12 V or 24 V
Diesel engines are supplied with pin heating plug, rated voltage of 11 V or 23 V and provided with openings
Starting aid
for heat input and output during connection of starting preheater.
Note: *- shall be determined by a customer.
Description of a
unit, part
Outside appearance of diesel engine D-245S3A М is shown on Figure 1.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Figure 1 – |The Diesel Engine D-245S3A М
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.1.4 Operation and Description
1.1.4.1 General information
The diesel engine D-245S3A М and modifications of it, is four-cycle
reciprocating four cylinder engine with in-line vertical configuration of cylinders,
and with direct injection of diesel fuel and direct injection diesel fuel and ignition
due to compression.
Main assembly units of the diesel engine are the following: a cylinder block, a
cylinders head, piston, connecting rod, a crankshaft, and a flywheel.
In order to ensure high technical and economic indicators of diesel, turbocharging
with aftercooling is used in an engine intake system.
Use of turbocompressor with charging pressure control in charging system make
it possible to have improved accelerating capacity, achieved due to increased torque
value at low rotating frequency rate of crank shaft.
Diesels are equipped with fuel pump of Motorpal, Czechia with electronic modular
switch of exhaust gas recirculation valve of MERCER system. Exhaust gas
recirculation controlled by MERCER system provides for decrease in operating
procedure temperature and therefore ensures exhaust gases composition corresponding
to ecological requirements of level Tier-3A.
In order to ensure positive start-up in low environmental temperature conditions
heating plugs are installed in a cylinders head, and liquid and oil heat exchanger
installed in the diesel engines allows the fastest attaining of effective oil temperature in
the engine lubricating system, and to maintain it at the required level during operation
process.
1.1.4.2 Diesel engine operating principles and interworking of its components
Diesel engine operating principle, as well as of any combustion engine, appears in
transformation of thermal energy of fuel combustible in working cylinder into
mechanical energy.
At piston down stroke an air charge enters cylinder through an open intake valve at
the moment of intake stroke. During the operating point of the diesel engine an air
charge comprises recirculated exhaust gases, whereas the volume of recirculated gases
makes from 5% to 20% depending on the engine operation speed mode and position of
recirculation valve controlled with MERCER system. After closure of intake valve and
piston up stroke high compression of air charge happens. When this happens, air
charge temperature rises sharply. At the end of compression stroke fuel is injected into
a cylinder through a nozzle. During injection the fuel is sprayed, mixed with hot air in
cylinder and evaporated, forming air-and-fuel mixture.
Flaming of the mixture during the diesel engine operation is effected due to high
compression of air up to mixture self-ignition temperature. Fuel injection in order to
avoid preignition starts at the end of compression stroke.
Air-and-fuel mixture burning out is followed by enlargement and cleanout of
cylinders from residues of combustion through exhaust valve.
Conforming opening and closure of intake and exhaust valves is controlled by
valve timing gear.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
The diesel engine is started by means of functioning of rotation of crankshaft by
electric starting motor via flywheel installed on a crankshaft flange.
Driving of water pump in cooling system is performed via belt drive from a pulley
wheel, installed on a nose of crankshaft to a pulley wheel, installed on the water pump
shaft.
Driving of gear wheel pump is carried out by gear drive of trip valve gear.
Drive of compressor A 29.05.000 BZА, А29.01.000 BZА is carried out by gear
drive of trip valve gear.
During the operation the diesel engine provides for automatic power control to
maintain constant speed of rotation, by means of speed controller installed on highpressure fuel pump.
1.1.4.3 Tools and Accessories
For the purpose of scheduled maintenance on verification and adjustment of
clearance between rocker striker and valve end, carried out during maintenance and
repair, SPTA for engine are supplied with a tool according to the List of Table Б.1
Annex Б.
1.1.5 Diesel Engine Marking
Nameplate of each diesel engine contains the following information:
- name of the manufacturer and its trade mark;
- model (modification) of the diesel engine;
- serial manufacturing number of the diesel engine;
- label “Made in Belarus”.
Cylinder block contains a serial manufacturing number identical to the serial
manufacturing number specified on the nameplate. The diesel engine with its type
having been officially approved according to the Rules of UN's Economic Commission
for Europe has marks of official type approval.
The diesel engine for which Certificates of Conformance of the Republic of Belarus
or of CIS-countries has been issued, are marked with correspondence signs of National
Conformity Approval System of countries issuing the certificate.
Marks of official type approval are placed near the nameplate, and mark of
compliance is on the nameplate.
Transport marking of the diesel engine shall be made according to GOST 14192.
Marking method ensures its persistence during transportation, storage and operation
of the diesel engine.
1.1.6 Packing
If transportation of the diesel engine is carried out in closed wagons, containers or
cars, the diesel engines shall be placed on support frames according to drawings of the
diesel engines manufacturing works.
If transportation of the diesel engine is carried out open (automobile or railway
transport), the diesel engines shall be packed in plastic bags and wooden boxes
according to manufacturing documentation, if transportation is carried out in
containers – in plastic begs only.
1.2 Description and operation of diesel engine components, its mechanisms, systems
and devices
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Drives
Devices
Systems
Mechanisms
1.2.1 General information
The diesel engine is complex aggregate containing a range of independent
mechanisms, systems and devices. The diesel engine structure is shown in Table 7.
Table 7
Description of units and parts from
Diesel Engine Structure
which mechanisms, systems and
devices are made
Cylinders block and suspension
Case
Cylinder head. Valve and valve push
rods
Cylinder head cover, exhaust channel
Valve Timing Gear
(collecting channel)
Distribution mechanism
Pistons and piston rods. Crankshaft
Crank-and-Rod Mechanism
and flywheel.
Breather
Oil crankcase
Oil pump receiver and oil pump
Lubricating System
Oil filter with liquid-and-oil with heat
exchanger
Turbocompressor oil pipeline
Combustible equipment and fuel
pipelines
Coarse fuel filter
Feed System
Secondary fine fuel filter
Air cleaner и air delivery channel
Integrated modular switch,
Exhaust Gases Recirculation System
electromagnetic recirculating valve
Water pump
Cooling system
Thermostatic regulator
Fan
Supercharging Device
Turbocompressor
Exhaust Gases Recirculation Device
Exhaust gases recirculation system
coolant, valve, tubes
Starter
Starting Device
Heating plugs
Electrical Equipment Drive
Electric generator
Compressor
Gear wheel pump
Accessory Drive
Clutch
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.2.2 Description and work
1.2.2.1 Cylinder Block
Block of cylinders is the main engine case and is designed as a special rigid
cast-iron alloy mono-block.
Four removable sleeves made of special cast-iron, are fixed in block bores.
Sleeves are installed into the block of cylinders in two centering leads – in the
upper and bottom lead. In the upper lead the sleeve is fixed by collar, in the lower
land it is sealed by two rubber rings in cylinder block grooves.
According to inner diameter sleeves are classified into three size groups: big (B),
medium (M) and little (L). Group marking is made on lead-in chamfer of sleeve.
Sleeves sizes are listed in Table В.1 (Annex B). Sleeves of one size group shall be
installed on a diesel engine.
The coolant circulates in the space between cylinder block sidewalls and the
sleeves.
Head walls and cross walls of the cylinder block have special lugs for crankshaft
supports. The lugs are covered by caps and together with them form saddles for
main bearings. The saddles are bored in assembly with the caps, therefore it is not
allowed to interchange them.
Cylinder block has a main oil channel supplying oil via a number of cross
channels to main bearings of the crankshaft, and then to camshaft bearings.
Diesel engine cylinder block is design with three camshaft bearings.
Piston cooling injectors are mounted into the upper part of the second and
fourth supports of the crankcase.
On the outside surfaces of cylinder blocks processed joint faces for fastening of oil
filter, water pump, coarse fuel filter, secondary fine fuel filter, switch panel and rear
web.
3.2. Cylinder Heads
Cylinder heads are made of a special cast iron alloy which contain intake and
exhaust channels closed with valves. Intake channels are designed with screwed
profile. Every head contains inner passages for coolant circulation ensuring dissipation
of heat.
Cylinder heads have inserted valve seats made of heat- and wear-resistant alloy. On
the top of cylinder head there are columns, rocker arm shaft, rocker arms, head covers
and intake collector and cover cap, covering valve mechanism. On the left side of the head
(from the side of fuel pump) four nozzles and four heating plugs are installed, and on the
right side of the head exhaust collector is installed. To seal the joint between cylinder
heads and cylinder block there is a gasket made of asbestos-free sheet amoured
perforated sheet iron. Cylinder sleeve boring and oil passage are back-lined by sheet iron.
When mounted at the works cylinder gasket inlets are additionally back-lined
fluoroplastic rings.
1.2.2.3. Crank Mechanism
The main parts of the crank mechanism are the crankshaft, pistons, piston rings,
piston pins, main and connecting rod bearings and flywheel
Crankshaft is made of steel. It has five main bearing journals and four rod journals.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Axial force of the crankshaft is taken by four semi-rings made of ferro-aluminum
alloy, that are fixed in cylinder block and main bearing cap bores. To reduce inertial
force influence on the main bearings, counterweight is installed on the first, fourth, and
fifth crankshaft cheek. At the front and at the back the crankshaft is sealed by collars.
Valve timing drive gear (crankshaft gear), oil pump driving gear, water pump and
alternator driving pulley are installed on the front end of the crankshaft.
Crankshaft can be produced and mounted to the diesel engine in two production
sizes (nominal values). The crankshaft with its rod bearing journal and main bearing
journal mounted according to the size of the second nominal value, has additional
marking on the first cheek (Table B.2, Annex B).
Piston is made of aluminum alloy. Piston top has compression chamber.
Compression chamber is displaced from the piston centerline. Piston has three
grooves, two of them are provided with the corresponding piston rings, and the third
one provided with oil-control ring. Special patch is added under the groove of the
upper piston ring. Gudgeon pin boss has bores for piston pin. Sizes of the pistons are
listed in Table B.1 (Annex B).
Piston rings are made of cast iron. Upper piston ring is made of high-grade cast
iron, and is shaped as isosceles trapeze in section. The second piston ring is coneshaped. At butting end near the lock the piston rings have marking “TOP”. Box-type
oil-control ring with spring-mounted conservator tank.
Piston Pin is hollow, made of chromium-nickel steel alloy. It is retained in the
piston by two snap rings.
Connecting rod is made of steel alloy, of double-T section. A bushing is pressed in
the small end of the connecting rod. Lubricating oil is supplied to the piston pinbushing clearance via the hole drilled in the small end of the connecting rod and
hushing.
Housing for liner in saddle in connecting-rod big end is bored in assembly with
the caps, and therefore the caps should not be interchanged during re-assembly.
Connecting rods and caps have the same identification numbers stamped on the
surfaces. Besides connecting rods have marks identifying weight groups according to
weights of the connecting-rod small and big ends. Marks identifying weight groups
shall be stamped on the butting end of the connecting-rod small end. Connecting rods
of the same weight group shall be installed on the diesel engine.
Liners of the Main and Connecting Rod Bearings of the crankshaft are made of
bimetallic strip. Regarding inner diameter the bearings can be of two sizes in
correspondence with crankshaft journals. During the repair process four repair sizes of
the liners are designed also.
Flywheel is made of cast iron and bolted to the crankshaft flange. The steel gear
ring is pressed onto the flywheel.
3.4. Valve Mechanism
Valve Mechanism includes camshaft, intake and exhaust valves, as well as the
following accessories for their installation and drive: cam followers (pushers), push
rods, rocker arms, rocker shafts, adjusting screws and nuts, plates, valve keepers, valve
springs, brackets and rocker arm shafts.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Camshaft is supported by three journals and is connected with a crankshaft via
timing gears. Three sleeves pressed in unit borings are the bearings of the camshaft.
Front sleeve (on the fan side) is made of aluminum alloy, has thrust land preventing
camshaft from axial displacement, the rest of sleeves are made of cast iron.
Cam Followers (Pushers) are made of steel and have spherical bottoms of large
radius (750 mm) built-up with chill cast iron. Camshaft lobes are designed with a small
inclination to provide pushers rotation.
Push Rods are made of steel bars. Spherical part, that goes inside the cam follower,
and rod cup are hardened.
Valve Rocker Arms are made of steel, swing on the rocker shaft, which is supported
by the brackets. The outer brackets are of enhanced firmness. The axle is hollow and
contains eight radial holes to supply lubrication oil to the rocker arms. Rocker arms
displacement along the axle is limited by spacer springs.
Intake and Exhaust Valves are made of heat-resistance steel; they travel in guide
bushings pressed in cylinder heads. Each valve is closed by means of two springs:
outer spring and inner spring. The springs are fixed by plates and valve keepers.
Seal Collars are fixed on guide bushings do not let oil leak into engine cylinders
through clearances between valve stems and guide bushings.
Valve Timing Gears are mounted in the crankcase formed by power distributor that
is attached to the crankcase with bolts, and by distribution cap.
Conformal operation of fuel injection pump and valve timing gear is achieved by
installation of front gears according to the marks as shown in Fig. 2.
1 - camshaft gear; 2 - idler gear; 3 – crankshaft gear; 4 – reducing gear drive of fuel
injection pump assembly (FIPA).
Figure 2 - Front Gears Installation Diagram.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.2.2.5 Lubricating System
The lubricating system of the engine (Fig. 3) is a combined type: some components
receive pressure lubrication, others are splash lubricated.
The crankshaft main bearing and camshaft bearings, camshaft drive gear bushing,
crankshaft rod bearer compressor, valve (rocker arms) operating mechanism, shaft
support bearing are lubricated under pressure via oil pump. The sleeves, pistons, piston
pins, rods, cam followers (pushers), valve lifting cam, fuel pump drive are splash
lubricated.
The oil pump is a gear type, single-section, mounted to the first main bearing cap by
bolts. The oil pump is driven by the crankshaft via the spur gear.
Oil pump 9 takes oil from the oil pan 1 via oil receiver 8 picks and supplies it
through cylinder block channels and oil filter body channels to liquid and oil heat
exchanger 10, and then to full-flow oil filter 12 where it is to be cleaned from impurity,
wear debris and oil breakdown product as a result of heating and combustion.
Oil cleaned in the oil filter, proceeds to the diesel engine oil gallery.
Bypass valves are positioned in:
- liquid and oil heat exchanger housing 11 (operating pressure value is 0.15+0.05
MPa);
- oil filter 13 (operating pressure value is 0.15±0.02MPa).
If the the operator starts the engine when the oil is cold, the filter element resistance
exceeds 0.15…0.2MPa, than the bypass valve is opened and the oil is goes to oil filter
passing by liquid and oil heat exchanger. If the filter element resistance exceeds
0.13…0.17MPa, than the bypass valve of the oil filter is opened, and the oil is passing
by oil filter and proceeds to the oil gallery.
There is a safety valve 14 in the filter body. It keeps the oil pressure in the main oil
gallery at the same level of 0.25…0,35 MPa. In case, oil pressure exceeds this level,
the safety valve opens and excess oil is drained to engine crankcase.
In case paper filter element is highly clogged, when the filter element resistance
exceeds 0.13 – 0.17 MPa, the bypass valve is opened too. As a result oil is passing by
oil filter and proceeds to the oil gallery.
It is expressly prohibited to back off plugs of the pressure reducing valve.
From main gallery oil is passing through cylinder block channels to all main
bearings of the crankcase and camshaft journals. From the main bearings the oil goes
through the crankcase channels to all connecting rod bearings. From the first main
bearing oil proceeds through special channels to idler gear bushings, to oil pump drive
gear, and to fuel pump also.
Valve mechanism parts are lubricated by oil supplied from the rear camshaft bearing
via channels in cylinder block and heads, through the bores in the IVth bracket of
rocker arms inside the rocker arms shafts and then through the opening to the rocker
arm bushing, and then to adjusting screw and push rod.
Oil supplied to air compressor proceeds via oil-conducting pipes connected to heat
exchanger. Oil in compressor is drained to engine crankcase.
Oil supplied to bearing assembly of the turbo-compressor flows by pipe connected
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
at the output of oil filter body. From the turbo-compressor bearing assembly the oil is
supplied to oil crankcase.
1 – oil crankcase; 2 – piston cooling jets; 3 – crankshaft 4 – camshaft; 5 – idler
gear; 6 – oil filler; 7 – oil crankcase plug; 8 – oil receiver; 9 – oil pump; 10 – liquid
and oil heat exchanger (LOHE); 11 – bypass valve; 12 – oil filter; 13 – bypass valve;
14 – blow-off valve; 15 – pressure sensor; 16 – turbo-compressor; 17 – compressor;
18 – fuel injection pump; 19 – rocker arm shaft oil passage.
Figure 3 – The Diesel Engine with Liquid and Oil Heat Exchanger and
Indecomposable Oil Filter with Paper Element Lubrication System Schematic.
1.2.2.6 Fuel Feed System
Engine Fuel System (Fig. 4) of the diesel engine according to the list of equipment
of single order comprises fuel pump, injectors, low and high pressure pipes, intake and
exhaust manifolds, turbo-compressor, coarse fuel filter, fine fuel filter, recirculating
exhaust gases cooler, coarse air filter (monocyclone)*, air cleaner*, fuel tank*, charge
air cooler*, and muffler.
In fuel feed system diagram, the diesel engine starting aid - the heating plug - at the
low ambient temperature is shown.
* - shall be determined by a customer.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1 – fuel tank; 2 – coarse fuel filter; 3- low pressure pipes; 4 – fuel injection pump;
5 – fuel-feed pump; 6 – high pressure pipes; 7 – fine fuel filter; 8 – air cleaner; 9 –
monocyclone; 10 – heating plug; 11 – intake manifold; 12 – exhaust manifold; 13 –
muffler; 14 – injector; 15 – remaining fuel return line; 16 – cylinder head; 17 –
turbocompressor; 18 – pneumatic corrector pipe; 19 – charge air cooler; 20 – air
cleaner dirtiness indicator pipe; 21 – recirculating exhaust gases cooler; 22 –
recirculating valve.
Figure 4 – Fuel Feed System Diagram.
1.2.2.6.1 Fuel Injection Pump
For fuel feed the diesel engine is equipped with the fuel injection pump PP4M10Uli
by Motorpal, specified in Table 6 and shown in Figure 5.
The fuel injection pump assembly (FIPA) makes a single unit of four injection units
placed in one housing, and having camshaft drive plunger piston and spool-type
metering cyclic fuel feeding.
FIPA is designed for pressurized feeding of fuel charges into cylinder combustion
chambers at a given time.
The fuel pump is driven by crankshaft via timing gears.
Relative position of fuel transfer pump drive gear and drive mechanism semi-
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
coupling is locked by drawing up the nuts, fixed in half-coupling stud-bolts. Nut torque
value ranges from 35 to 50Nm.
The fuel injection pump assembly (FIPA) makes a single unit together with allspeed governor and piston type fuel feed pump.
FIPA has an engine start RPM automatic fuel corrector (starting solenoid 23,
connection diagram – Fig. 5a), smoke supercharge pneumatic corrector 20.
Use of starting solenoid actuating only at diesel engine start up, prevent from entry
to starting fuel delivery mode during operation if operating control is incorrectly
operated, excluding the possibility of unauthorized volume of content of harmful
substances in exhaust gases.
The fuel injection pump is equipped with 24; 25 exhaust gases recirculation valve
regulator MERCER (connection diagram – Fig. 5c) and shutdown solenoid 17
(connection diagram – Fig.5b).
The fuel priming pump is installed in high-pressure pump case and is driven by
camshaft gear.
Fuel pump parts are lubricated by flowing oil via engine lubricating system. Oil
drained is transferred from the pump case to the diesel engine crankcase. A reinstalled
pump shall be filled with oil in the amount of 250 cm3.
Oil shall be primed through filler 14 (Figure 5).
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1 – fuel injection pump; 2 – fuel feed pump; 3 – flange; 4 – camshaft; 5 – individual
injection pump; 6 – armature key; 7 – drive semi-coupling; 8 – semi-coupling retaining
nut; 9 – Fuel supply pipe connection bolt; 10 – Fuel drain pipe connection bolt for fuel
drain from fuel feed pump to fine fuel filter (FF); 11 – bypass valve; 12 –Bolt of pipe
for fuel supply from FF; 13 – air-vent plug; 14 – oilfiller plug; 15 - regulator housing;
16 – shutdown lever; 17 – э shutdown solenoid; 18 – operating lever; 19 – minimum
RPM regulating bolt; 20 – supercharge pneumatic corrector; 22 – maximum RPM
regulating bolt; 23 – starting solenoid; 24 – rotation velocity sensor/integrated switch
of recirculation valve solenoid; 25 – rack position sensor of fuel injection pump
assembly/integrated switch of recirculation valve solenoid; 26 – Oil supply pipe
connection bolt; 27*– camshaft position regulator of fuel injection pump assembly.
* - available as agreed.
Figure 5 – Fuel Injection Pump
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
Figure 5a - Starting Solenoid Connection Diagram
Switch position
OFF – Diesel engine is stopped;
ON - Power supply diagram is linked up
START - Diesel engine start-up, electric current in solenoid coil:
1) max. 16A for 400 milliseconds – battery 12V;
max. 10A for ~ 350…450 millisecond - battery 24V:
2) max. 0.4A in the course of the diesel engine start-up time - battery 12V;
max. 0.3A in the course of the diesel engine start-up time - battery 24V.
Starting solenoid has specific protective current electronic circuit protection (~ 0.4A
– battery 12V; ~ 0.3A – battery 24V), therefore a number of tries to start the diesel
engine and their duration is unlimited.
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
POSITION SWITCH:
OFF: Diesel engine is
stopped – stopping lever in
SHUTDOWN position
ON: power supply is on,
electric current in solenoid
coil:
3) max. 45A for ~ 350 ÷
450 milliseconds – battery
12V;
max. 35A for ~ 350 ÷ 450
millisecond - battery 24V:
4) max. 0.3A in the course
of the diesel engine start-up
time - battery 12V;
max. 0.2A in the course of
the diesel engine start-up time
- battery 24V.
Stopping solenoid has
specific protective current
electronic circuit protection (~
0.3A – battery 12V; ~ 0.2A –
battery 24V), therefore
duration of START cycle is
unlimited.
Figure 5b - Stopping Solenoid Connection Diagram
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
INTEGRATED MODULAR SWITCH APE 750
ELECTROMAGNETIC RECIRCULATION VALVE P/N 7.22946.25.0
Figure 5c – Integrated Modular Switch АРЕ 750 Connection Diagram
1.2.2.6.2 Fuel Injector
Fuel Injector is designed for fuel injection into diesel engine cylinder. It ensures
required spraying of the fuel and its spreading inside the combustion chamber.
The diesel engines are equipped with VA70P360-2996 model fuel injectors with
spray DOP140Р528-3826 with axial fuel delivery, and with detachable clamping
flange. Pressure at which fuel spraying occurs is 28+1.2 MPa.
1.2.2.6.3 Coarse Fuel Filter
The coarse fuel filter is designed for preliminary fuel cleaning by removing water
and coarse contaminants. It comprises the housing, deflector with net, diffuser, cup
with the damper.
Residue from the filter is drained through the opening at the bottom of the cup that
is closed by the plug.
1.2.2.6.4 Fine Fuel Filter
The fine fuel filter (Figure 16) is for final fuel cleaning, and it is indecomposable.
The fuel passes through the paper filter element, and in that way foreign particles
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
are removed. In the bottom part of the filter housing there is a fuel-draining outlet with
a drain plug.
There is a bleeding plug 6 (Figure 16) on the filter cover for bleeding air from the
fuel system.
1.2.2.6.5. Air Duct
Air duct comprises an air cleaner and turbo-compressor junction pipes connecting
the air cleaner with turbo-compressor, charge air cooler and intake manifold (Figure
4).
Dry-type air cleaner with paper filter element made of special high-porous
cardboard, is designed for cleaning of the air drawn in cylinder.
There are three stages of air cleaning. The first stage is a monocyclic process, the
second and the third stages are main and paper filter elements.
The air cleaned of dust in the air cleaner under reduced pressure created by means
of the turbo-compressor, and then it is transferred to fluid end of the compressor, and
is delivered under pressure through charge air cooler to cylinders.
For filter elements clogging level control and timely service of the air cleaner the
engine is equipped with a special clogging level control indicator. The air cleaner and
clogging level control indicator is supposed to be installed by a client.
The higher the air cleaner clogging the higher the pressure reduction in the intake
pipeline, and when pressure comes up to 6.5 KPa the signaling device responds. After
the signaling device has responded you should make air cleaner maintenance services.
1.2.2.6.8 Diesel Engine Gas Exchange
Gas exchange diagram is shown in Figure 6.
For air-fuel mixing in cylinders the air charge scheme structure is equipped with
exhaust recirculation gases device.
Exhaust gas recirculation device for account of 5 to 20 % of exhaust gases blow-off
into an inlet channel ensures combustion temperature lowering reducing NOx
emission.
The device is driven by supply of a part of exhaust gases from outlet to inlet
manifold via recirculation gases cooler as a result of unforced difference between
exhaust gases pressure level in front of turbine and charge air pressure, and it depends
on recirculation valve position (opened/closed).
Recirculation valve is controlled by MERCER System installed on the fuel
injection pump.
MERCER System comprises integral modular switch АРЕ 750 and active devices
for signal generation rate of rotation frequency of camshaft of fuel injection pump and
cyclic supply metering control rod position.
Exhaust gas recirculation cooler work on heat-exchange principle, included in the
engine cooling system.
Breather is designed for exclusion of: excessive pressure in lubricating system,
created by exhaust gases infiltrating to oil crankcase through gas joints of cylinder and
piston group, and by export of oil to the atmosphere.
In the realized gas exchange scheme crankcase blow-by gases via channels in
cylinder block and head enters the pocket created by cylinder head cover and cover
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
cap. Breather body 1 (Figure 6) is mounted onto cover cap 4 of the cylinder head.
Under the influence of pressure difference in atmosphere and in the pocket cylinder
head cover, the crankcase blow-by gases pass through slot gaps of the cap 6 in the
breather body 1. Penetrating into the pocket crankcase blow-by gases expand and
collide with oil deflector 2 whereupon they lose energy and are cooled, as a result a
considerable proportion of crankcase blow-by gases oil fog falls out as oil. Oil-free
crankcase blow-by gases is delivered into the atmosphere.
1 – breather body; 2 – oil deflector; 3 – cup; 4 – cover cap
Figure 6 – Diesel Engine Gas Exchange Scheme
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1.2.2.7 Cooling System
Cooling system (Figure 8) is a closed type, with the forced circulation of the
cooling liquid, centrifugal pump assisted. The cooling system of a tractor, agricultural
machine ensures that the temperature of liquid coming out of the diesel engine is
below 100°С and oil is below 115°С while surrounding air temperature is 40°С.
The water pump is driven by crankshaft pulley via a "V"-belt. Lubricant "Litol-24"
is supplied to bushing chamber during assembly. When the diesel engine is operated it
does not need lubrication.
The coolant temperature shall be maintained in the range of 85°С to 95°С. In order
to gear up the diesel engine warming-up after start-up, and for automatic regulation of
temperature conditions at various loads and surrounding temperatures a thermostatic
regulator is used with primary valve start temperature.
The fan with viscous coupling of fan shutdown shall be mounted on water pump
axle (Figure 7).
1– fan; 2 – viscous coupling; 3 – bolt.
Figure 7 – Fan with Viscous Coupling of Fan Shutdown Installation
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1- water pump; 2 - thermostatic regulator; 3 – strap water pump drive belt; 4 – fan; 5 – cylinder head cooling jacket; 6 –
cylinder block cooling jacket; 7 – cylinder block sleeve; 8 – small cocks for coolant drain; 9 – junction pipe; 10 – filler plug;
11 – heat radiator; 12 – oil filter; 13 – oil and liquid heat exchanger; 14 – coolant drain plug; 15 – coolant drain pipe into oil and
liquid heat exchanger; 16 – coolant supply pipe into oil and liquid heat exchanger; 17 – coolant temperature sensor for fuel
supply system CRS; 18 – coolant supply pipe into oil and liquid heat exchanger; 19 – emergency coolant temperature indicating
light; 20 – recirculation exhaust gases cooler.
Figure 8 – Cooling System Scheme
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
1- thermostat housing; 2 - piston; 3 – primary valve; 4 – primary thermal-load carrying member; 5 – valve spring; 6 – by-pass
valve spring; 7 – by-pass valve.
Figure 9– Thermostatic Regulator
245S3A М– 0000100 Operating Manual
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
1.2.2.8 Charging mechanism
1.2.2.8.1 Turbo-compressor
The diesel engines D-245.5S3A M, D-245.43S3A M are equipped with turbocompressor for air supercharge into cylinders, it uses exhausts energy.
The turbo-compressor supply under pressure the exhaust gases from diesel engines
cylinders to cochlear turbine channels through exhaust manifold. As a result of gas
expansion, turbine wheel is rotated together with the shaft and compressor wheel, which
intake air and deliver it to cylinders under pressure.
1 - turbine wheel with shaft; 2 - turbine housing; 3 – single bushing; 4 – oil deflector; 5
- eccentric ring; 6 - compressor ring; 7 - special nut; 8, 15 – O-ring; 9 - diffuser; 10 cover; 11 - compressor housing; 12 – axial bearing; 13 – spacing sleeve; 14 - intermediate
housing (bearing body).
Figure 10 – Adjustment-Free Turbo-Compressor
Turbo-charger according to Figure 10 consists of centrifugal one-step compressor with
cantilevered design of wheels position against the supports, and radial centrifugal turbine.
Rotary rotations per minute, supply and pressure of delivery air depend on the diesel
engine operation modes.
Turbine housing 2 of turbo-compressor is made of aluminium alloy, and its air-gas
channel comprises compressor housing and wheel. Compressor and turbine housing are
fixed to bearings bodies 14, made of high-grade cast iron.
Turbine wheel 1 is made of heat-resisting alloy and is welded to rotor shaft.
Compressor wheel 6 is made of aluminium alloy and is fixed on the shaft by special
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
nut.
Rotor shaft is rotated in radial bearing in the form of nonrotating floating single
bushing 3. The single bushing is fixed in the bearing body by means of locking
mechanism. Rotor axial movement is taken by axial bearing 12.
Turbo-compressor bearings are lubricated and cooled by oil delivered through pipeline
from full-flow oil filter. Optionally centrifugal oil filtration is carried out both in radial
and axial bearing. The oil is drained from the turbo-compressor into the crankcase through
oil return pipe.
On the side of the compressor and turbine there are spring O-rings 8 and 15, fixed in
rotor grooves used as gas-oil seals. On the side of the compressor there is oil deflector,
and on the side of turbine there is a screen to improve efficiency.
The diesel engines D-245S3A M, D-245.2S3A M are equipped with adjustable turbocompressor.
1 - rotor; 2 - turbine housing; 3 – bearing body; 4 - compressor housing; 5 - actuating
device; 6 - actuating device mounting bracket; 7 – air duct.
Figure 10a – Adjustable Turbo-Compressor.
Supercharge adjustment is carried out by bypass of a part of exhaust gases past turbine
wheel when the charge pressure lever exceeds the set value.
Structurally turbo-compressor according to Figure 10a consists of the following units:
rotor 1, turbine housing 2, bearing body 3, compressor housing 4, actuating device 5,
actuating device mounting bracket 6, air duct 7.
Rotor comprises shaft welded to turbine wheel and compressor wheel, oil seal spacing
sleeve, two washers, a nut and two O-rings. Rotor is rotated in radial bearing placed in the
bearing body. Rotor axial movement is taken by axial bearing.
Adjustable turbo-compressor turbine housing has a built-in by-pass valve. By-pass
valve lever is connected via adjustable rod with actuating device, connected with
compressor output via air duct. Regulating device is adjusted for the set pressure by means
of regulation of the rod length.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Change of length of the rod of turbo-compressor actuating device is not allowed
during the operation.
Turbo-compressor bearings are lubricated and cooled by oil delivered through pipeline
from the diesel engine lubricating system. The oil is drained from the turbo-compressor
into the crankcase.
Disassembly and repair of turbo-compressor is not allowed during the operation,
and shall be carried out in a special repair workshop.
1.2.2.9 Starting Device
The starting device consists of electric starter with rated voltage of 24V or 12V. Starter
constitutes D.C. motor, mixed excitation with electromagnetic relay and drive gear.
To start the engine in cold weather, the tractor (machine) has to be equipped with
heating plug with rated voltage of 23V or 11V, and there are holes in the intake manifold
for coolant intake and drain from prestart warming-up system installed on a vehicle by a
client.
In wiring arrangement of a tractor, and of an agricultural machine, starter blockage shall
be carried out after diesel engine start up that is automatic starter disengagement t
camshaft rpm from 900 min -1 up to 1000 min-1, and inability of its engagement during the
diesel engine operation.
1.2.2.10 Electric Generator and Its Drive
The diesel engine use generators being the source of electric power in wiring
arrangements.
The generators have outputs for connection to circuits: “+” (“B”) – of load and
accumulator battery; “D” - starter blocking relay; “~” (“W”) – tachometer.
The generator is used for battery recharging, and for dc power supply to power
consumers, mounted on a tractor or an agricultural machine.
The generator is driven by "V"-belt via crankcase pulley.
1.2.2.11 Compressor and Its Drive
Diesel engines installed on tractors or vehicles are equipped with piston single-stage
compressor for trailer air pressure brake driving and tires inflation (Table 6).
The compressor is installed break-down cover flange and is driven by the gear of
compressor drive and fuel pump admission gear. Purified air is supplied to compressor
cylinder from the engine intake channel.
The compressor shall be shut down during farm operations involving no air
power.
The compressor is cooled by air.
Oil for lubrication of the compressor parts and units is delivered from the engine
lubricating system. The oil is drained from the compressor into the crankcase.
1.2.2.12 Gear Wheel Pump and Its Drive
For supporting of tractor hydraulically operation system a gear wheel pump NSH 10-3L
or NSH 14-3L is mounted on the engine.
The pump is rotated by engine timing gears.
1.2.2.13 Clutch Coupling
Clutch coupling is designed for torque transfer from camshaft to transmission line, and
for short-term disconnection of the diesel engine from the transmission line during the
engine operation to ensure faultless gear change and smooth starting.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
The diesel engines are equipped with spring-loaded clutch coupling, friction singledrive or double-disk.
1.2.3 Marking sealing of diesel engine components
Marking of diesel engine components manufactured in MMZ and received on
cooperation, is carried out according to the current construction documentation of the
plant.
Marking of purchased components, is carried out according to construction
documentation of delivery plants.
Position of regulating elements (bolts) of fuel injection pump, affecting the engine
technical data parameters, shall be fixed by means of wire and seal with brand marked
during fixation. This excludes possibility unauthorized adjustment of fuel pump.
Points of sealing are determined by construction documentation of the plant producing
fuel injection pumps.
2. PROPER USE
2.1 Operating Constraints
To ensure safe and effective operation of the engine, to prevent accidents when
operating and servicing the engine, it is important to follow the below-stated requirements:
– before operating a new diesel engine make run-in test according to the paragraph
2.3.4;
– in the beginning of the shift before starting the engine check oil level in the
crankshaft and cooling liquid in the heat radiator;
– after starting the engine prior to load switching on let the engine to work for 2 or 3
minutes at minimum idle speed raising it gradually up to 1600 min-1 and not more.
Overall load of the cold engine is not allowed;
– it is not recommended to operate the engine for more than 15 min. at min. idling
rpm, because the discharge of the compressor cascade of turbo-compressor that occurs
during the operation can result in oil breaking out through the sealing and release of the oil
into the intake manifold;
– when operating the engine notice control devices indications;
– diesel engine operation at oil pressure below 0.1MPa in the mail oil gallery is
not allowed;
– remember of timely service in accordance with Chapter 3.1 of the present manual;
– check assembly units mounting occasionally, fasten them if necessary;
– use only fuel and oil types specified in the present manual depending on the season;
– keep the engine clean, check for fuel, oil and cooling liquid leaks, avoid crude air
suction into cylinders.
2.2 Preparation for Use
2.2.1 Safety Precautions during the Engine Preparation
The engine preparation can be carried out only by tractors operators, drivers and
motormen, having received special training and having been issued the qualification
certificate, and having taken safety and fire protection training.
Get down to work only after careful study of the diesel engine mechanism and
operation regulations.
During loading and unloading operations sling ropes fastening shall be carried out by
eye-bolt on the engine (diesel engine fastening scheme according to the Annex H).
During depreservation of the engine comply with the safety requirements and hygienic
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
regulations during reagents, used rags and oiled paper handling.
Do not remove the safety guards from the engine required according to the engine
design.
When inspecting diesel use portable lamp with voltage not exceeding 24V.
Tools and accessories for diesel engine preparation shall be in good order, answer the
purpose and ensure safe execution of the work.
Working place where engine preparation is carried out can be equipped with firefighting equipment.
2.2.2 Depreservation of the Diesel Engine, Assembly Units and Parts
Engines supplied to the client are preserved for storage time of 6 months or 1 year. The
preservation term shall be specified in the diesel engine license. The list of depreservation
steps is shown in Table 8.
Table 8
Preservation
Term
№
List of Depreservation Steps
1 year
6
months
Diesel Engine Depreservation
1 Remove the engine cover
+
Clear the unpainted outside preserved surfaces corrosion2
+
+
preventing oil using diesel fuel.
Remove plugs or polyethylene overwrap, covering the outside
vents of the exhaust manifold, intake manifold, thermostat
3
+
+
housing, water pump pipe, turbo-compressor and breather.
Remove plug out of the hydraulic pump opening of type NSH.
4 Drain the oil residue through the case drain hole.
+
Drain the corrosion-preventing solution residue from the system
5
+
through drain cock.
6 Prepare the engine for start. Fill the crankcase with clean oil.
+
Bleed the fuel supply system with hand-priming pump, deairing
7
+
the fine filter and fuel pump head (see. paragraph. 3.2.10).
Depreservation of Assembly Units and Parts
8 Depreservation of the assembly units supplied with the diesel
+
+
engine shall be carried out by way of wiping by rags wetted with
white spirit (GOST 3134-78), followed by wiping clean.
9 Depreservation of the parts supplied with the diesel engine shall
+
+
be carried out in cleaning solution with use of jet method or
dipping method followed by thermal drying:
- cleaning solution temperature ranges from 60°С to 80°С;
- drying temperature ranges from 70°С to 80°С.
2.2.3 Additional Completing the Diesel Engine Set
When installed on the vehicle the diesel engine shall be completed with fuel feeding
lines and fuel drain lines, fuel tank, water radiator, charge air cooler, electric accessory and
checking instrument, dirtiness indicator, monocycle and air cleaner.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
The engine mechanism is provided with spaces for input and output of heat transfer
medium from preheating system that shall be installed on a vehicle and shall be used for
the engine preheating for starting it up at the ambient temperature below – 20°С.
2.2.4 Cooling system filling
Fill cooling system tank by way of filling the heat radiator with cooling liquid (liquid
brand and volume of filling is specified in Table of Annex A).
Do not start the diesel engine with empty cooling system.
Do not use water in cooling system to avoid scale formation.
2.2.5 Filling with fuel and oil
Fill the fuel tank with the diesel fuel, oil crankcase and fuel pump - with engine oil.
Fuel and oil brands shall be used according to temperature range of ambient air during
diesel engine operation. Recommended brands of the diesel fuel and oil are specified in
the Table of Annex A.
Use of other fuel and oil brands can result in premature engine failure, in noncompliance with ecological index, and in hard start in cold weather.
Use diesel fuel that is clean, free of mechanical impurities, oil and water.
Use lubricating agents that are clean, free of mechanical impurities and water.
2.2.6 Diesel engine operation control elements and inspection tools
The diesel engine is remotely controlled from the operator or driver seat. Mounting of
control tools and elements is carried out by the end user during the engine installation on a
tractor.
Camshaft rpm is changed by means of the lever or foot pedal connected to regulating
device operating lever of the fuel pump.
Switching of heating plug and starter at the diesel engine start up is effected by threeposition ignition switch placed on the tractor gauge board. When the key in ignition switch
is placed in position I, the heating plug, shutdown solenoid starting winding, shutdown
solenoid holding winding, starting solenoid, and MERCER System electrical circuit is
engaged; and when the key in ignition switch is in position II - the starter electrical circuit
is engaged.
Oil pressure indicator in the lubricating system and pressure warning switch indicator
shall be installed in the full-flow oil filter body.
Coolant temperature gage and coolant temperature warning switch indicator shall be
installed in the cylinder heads and thermostatic regulator cover correspondingly.
Air cleaner plugging level is controlled by means of air cleaner plugging signaling
inducator designed for indicator lamp lightning when the air cleaner plugging overrides
the standard.
Air cleaner plugging signaling inducator is installed in the intake channel on the air
cleaner exit branch.
Camshaft rpm is controlled by means of tachometer. The signal is received by the
tachometer from the electric generator alternate current terminal.
Diesel control elements are at the gauge board.
2.3 Diesel Engine Operation
2.3.1 Service staff operating procedure during fulfillment of the diesel engine
operation tasks
Before starting the engine complete the following steps:
- check oil level in the engine crankcase;
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
- check cooling liquid level in the cooling system;
- check weather the fuel tank valve;
- fill the diesel engine fuel system with fuel according to the procedure prescribed in
paragraph 3.2.10.
Fuel is drained in a tank.
2.3.2 Starting the Engine
Put the transmission gear shift lever in neutral.
Switch the accumulator battery switch on.
Engage the heating plug control unit by way of turning the ignition key in position I; by
doing so you start heating plugs warming up, disengage the starting and holding winding
of shutdown solenoid, and the solenoid drives the shutdown lever into position “Opened”
(starting winding of shutdown solenoid is disengaged by a built-in restraining device in
two seconds); power supply voltage of MERCER System is supplied.
Period of warming-up depends on the engine temperature, or can be fixed depending
on the type of the used heating plug control unit. When the engine is switched on, an
indicator at the gauge board flashes signing on the end of the heating plugs warming-up.
The indicator is switched off in response to a command of control unit after complete
warming-up of the heating plugs.
After the indicator has switched off, disengage the clutch of the tractor, engage the
starting solenoid (engage the starting solenoid ensures injector control bar position which
corresponds to the greatest fuel supply), turn and hold the ignition key in the position II
and start the engine. During starting duty the plugs remain engaged.
Having started the engine turn the ignition key from the position II into position I. The
starter is switched off. After the starter has switched off during the engine operation, the
heating plugs remain engaged for 180-240 seconds.
Engage the clutch in a smooth manner.
Warm up the diesel engine to achieve the stable operation at camshaft, rpm equal to
1000-1300 min -1 (within 2-3 min), then let the engine operate at increased rpm scaling the
value up to 1600 min -1 until the cooling liquid temperature amounts up to 40º С.
Ensure further warming-up of cooling liquid up to 70ºС during the tractor or
agricultural machine movement in creeper gear.
Use of the diesel engine with full power is allowed only when the cooling liquid
temperature achieves 70ºС.
If the engine is warm, or if it is summer, the engine start can be carried out without
prior engagement of the heating plugs, by turning the ignition key into position II skipping
the position I.
Time of continuous starter operation should not exceed 15 sec. Should the engine
not start, repeat the operations as described after 30 - 40 sec. Should the engine not
start after 3 tries, find the cause of the problem and eliminate it.
In order to facilitate the start at cold weather (when the temperature is below - 20ºС,
perform the following steps:
- disengage all drives of the tractor or agricultural machine make-up systems (Power
take-off shaft (PTO shaft), hydraulic systems pump, compressor);
- bleed the fuel-handling system by manual priming pump to de-air it and to create the
pressure in the fuel pump head;
- warm up the diesel engine with use of starting preheater for cooling liquid;
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
- start up the engine as described above.
At cold start the exhaust smokes white for a while which is not a trouble because the
diesel is operated with overcooling.
Do not warm up the draw-in air before the air-cleaner by direct flame.
Do not start the engine by towing the tractor or agricultural machine.
2.3.3 Stopping the engine
Before you stop the engine after operating under a high load, run the engine for 35 min. first at middle, then at min. idle rpm. That will allow the cooling liquid and oil
temperature to cool and stabilize gradually. Failure to meet these requirements will
result in compressor failure.
To shutdown the engine move the ignition key in zero position. After the engine has
been stopped, switch off the accumulator battery switch.
2.3.4 Run-in
Before operating the engine, it must be given a run-in to obtain the wearing-in of the
diesel engine ribbing matters.
Operating the engine at full load without run-in is not allowed.
Run-in shall be carried out by operating organization only.
After starting the engine, make sure it works properly and begin run-in.
The engine must be given 5min. run-in at idling with the gradually increasing rpm to
1600 min -1. and then with full load during 30 hours.
Run-in of the engine mounted at a tractor, agricultural machine is to be done while
operating at reduced load range, gradually increasing the load.
After run-in follow the below-stated requirements:
– check the cylinder bolts tightness, tighten them if necessary;
– check the clearance between valves and rocker arms;
– clean the oil filter;
– change oil in the engine crankcase;
– drain the coarse and fine fuel filters;
– check and tighten if necessary outer tread parts.
2.3.5 Engine operating and service in cold weather
The diesel engine operation becomes more complicated at cold weather. To ensure
continuous engine operating under cold temperature up to +5º С and less make cold
weather preparations, combining regular and seasonal service.
If the engine is equipped with ether type starting aids, get it ready for operation.
The engine compartment of the tractor shall be equipped with cold weather heating
jacet, and the diesel engine - with starting aids (pre-heater) if necessary. Fill the cooling
system with the cooling liquid according to Table A (Annex A), check the accumulator
batteries operation state, recharge them if necessary (accumulator batteries shall be fully
charged).
If during warm seasons a special non-freezing coolant was used, make sure it is frostresistant and, if needed, introduce the required changes in accordance with the expected
temperature.
When entering in winter operation mode use winter oil and fuel grades according to
Chimmotology List (Annex A).
In case, water is used as a coolant (emergency operation exploitation), be sure to
drain it through plug 9 (Figure 13), when the tractor (machine) is parked for a long
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
period.
2.3.6 Troubleshooting
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
Troubles, possible causes
Probable remedy
1. The engine can not be started
Air in the fuel delivery system
Bleed fuel system by manual priming
pump. Eliminate air inflow in the fuel
pump.
Failure of fuel pump
Repair or replace the fuel pump
Fuel filters clogged
Rinse the coarse fuel filter and replace
filter elements of the fine fuel filter
2. Engine runs but loses power under load
Fuel pump lever does not go to the end Adjust fuel pump control rods
Dirty filter element of the fine fuel filter Clean and/or replace filters
Failure of the injectors
Repair and adjust or replace injectors
Wrong fuel pump calibration
Have the fuel pump calibrated
Dirty air cleaner
Clean oil bath air cleaner
Failure of the fuel pump
Repair or replace fuel pump
Low supercharge pressure
Send turbocharger for a qualified
repair
Air-tightness is impaired
Find the cause of depressurization and
eliminate it
3. The Diesel Engine Demonstrate Smoke at All Operating Modes
3.1 The exhaust manifold smoke is black
Insufficient air supply
Make the maintenance servicing of the
air cleaner
Injector nozzle needle sticking
Find the faulty injector, clean or
replace the nozzle and adjust the
injector
3.2.2
3.2.3
Failure of the fuel pump
Send fuel pump for a qualified repair
3.2 The exhaust manifold smoke is white
Engine is overcooled
Warm up the engine, keep coolant
temperature to 70-95° C.
Water in the fuel
Change the fuel
No valve and rocker arms clearance
Adjust valve and rocker arms clearance
3.2.4
Wrong angle of fuel injection lead
3.2.1
3.3.1
3.3.2
Set the recommended angle of fuel
injection lead
3.3 The exhaust manifold smoke is blue
Oil in combustion chamber due to
Replace the worn-out parts.
sleeve and piston parts wearing
Excessive oil in crankcase
Drain excessive oil, check the level with
the dipstick.
4. The Diesel Engine is overheated
4.1
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Add coolant and check the level
Insufficient quantity of coolant in the
cooling system
4.2
Dirt on the outside of the radiator
Clean the radiator
4.3
Thermostat valve does not open fully
Replace thermostat
4.4
Fan belt loosening
Replace the belt
4.5
Oiling of fan drive belt and pulley
Take the driving belt off, remove oil
wheel
from belt and pulley
5. Low pressure of the warmed up engine
5.1
Faulty pressure-gauge
Replace the pressure-gauge, after check
of oil pressure with the gauge package
5.2
Oil lines air-tightness is violated
Find the cause and eliminate it
5.3
Failure of the oil pump
Find the cause and eliminate it
5.4
Oil level is too low
Add oil, check the level with
the dipstick
5.5
Safety valve sticking in the oil filter
Wash the valve and adjust pressure
in lubricating system
5.6
Extreme wearing of the junctions
Eliminate the trouble
crankshaft pivot-bearings
6. The Diesel Engine Overspeeds
Immediately stop the engine by way of fuel supply shutting down. Dismount the fuel
pump from the diesel engine and send it for a qualified repair.
7. Turbo-compressor – See Annex F
8. Starter
8.1 When engaged the crankshaft either does not turn or turns slowly
8.1.1 Accumulator battery connections
Clean the ends or tighten the terminals
corroded or loose
8.1.2 Accumulator batteries are discharged
Charge or replace
8.1.3 Dirty collector and brushes
Clean collector and brushes
8.1.4 Collector and brushes poor connection Dismount the starter from the engine,
clean the collector, eliminate the troubles
or replace faulty parts, if they are worn
8.1.5 Starter relay contact bolts and contact Clean the points of contact, or place the
plate surface are burned
contact bolts into cover seats, rotating
about an axes by 180°, and place the
contact plate by the underside.
Failure of the starter drive
Replace starter drive
8.2 After the engine is started, the starter is still on
8.2.1 The contact plate or the contact points Stop the engine, switch off the batteries
in starter control wiring relay is welded and clean the terminals
to the starter relay contact bolts
8.3 Starter armature rotates at high speed but do not crank the diesel engine crankshaft
8.3.1 Flywheel rim drive gear breakage
Replace the flywheel rim
8.3.2 The starter drive fails
Replace the starter drive
8.4 The starter relay runs harshly (switches the starter on and then switches it off at once)
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
8.4.1 Abrupture of the relay holding winding Replace the relay
8.4.2 The accumulator battery is discharged Charge or replace
8.5 Driver pinion is not regularly engaged with the flywheel crown in normal conditions
of the relay operation
8.5.1 Front wear and tear of the backed-off
Back-off the flywheel rim gears or
part the flywheel gear rim
replace the rim of the flywheel.
8.5.2 Sticking of the driver pinion on
Clear the drive from the old lubricating
armature shaft due to the lack of law
agent and coat with the lubricant
quality of lubricator
CIATIM-201/203/221
8.5.3 Front wear and tear of the backed-off
Back-off the teeth or replace the drive
part the flywheel gear teeth
9. Electric Generator
9.1 Ampere-meter (voltmeter) shows no voltage after start and during the engine
operation
9.1.1 "+"-terminal is broken or faults to the
Remove rectifier, solder and insulate the
generator housing
faulty point. Isolate the insulation fault
point.
(Repair in special workshop)
9.1.2 Excitation coil circuit opening
re-assemble generator, solder and
insulate the fault place, and in case it is
impossible, replace the coil.
(Repair in special workshop)
9.1.3 One of the stator phase faults to the
Replace stator
generator housing
(Repair in special workshop)
9.1.4 Short circuit of power rectifier outputs or Replace the rectifier
diode of direct and indirect polarity
(Repair in special workshop)
breakdown
9.1.5 Voltage adjuster failure
Replace voltage adjuster
(Repair in special workshop)
9.1.6 Collector and brushes poor connection,
Clean the collector, eliminate hanging or
brushes hanging and wear
replace the brushes
9.2 No full power output from electric generator
9.2.1 Voltage regulator connecting wires are
Solder and insulate the fault point
broken
(Repair in special workshop)
9.2.2 One of the stator phase is broken
Replace stator
(Repair in special workshop)
9.2.3 Turn-to-turn fault of the stator coil
Replace the stator
9.2.4 Turn-to-turn fault of the excitation coil
Replace the coil
A diod of the power rectifier failure
Replace the rectifier
(Repair in special workshop)
9.3 Accumulator battery is recharged regularly
9.3.1 Voltage adjuster failure
Replace voltage adjuster
(Repair in special workshop)
9.3.2 faults to the voltage adjuster output “SH” Isolate the fault point
housing
(Repair in special workshop)
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
9.4.1 Driving belt slippage
9.4 Electric generator noise
Replace the belt
2.3.7 Safety requirements at the diesel engine proper use
To ensure safe and effective operation of the engine, to prevent accidents when
operating and servicing the engine, it is important to comply with the following
requirements:
– before operating the engine read this manual completely and make sure you are
familiar with the controls, maintenance information and safety rules;
– do not operate the tractor if the diesel engine is out of order;
– never start the engine in a sealed building with poor ventilation;
– technical service and troubling-shooting are to be done only when the engine is
shutdown;
– to avoid face and hands burns, loosen radiator plug carefully, use gloves or rags;
– do engine assembling. and disassembling with the help of rope fastened by eye-bolts
of the engine (the diesel engine fastening scheme according to Annex G);
– do not use open flame to warm up fuel lines and oil pan of the engine in cold
weather;
– when operating the engine, no inflammables should be near exhaust manifold,
turbo-compressor and muffler;
– use fuel and grease to fill up fuel and lubricate in accordance with safety
requirements;
– do not warm up the intake air before the air-cleaner by open flame;
– do not start the engine without the cooling liquid in cooling system;
– after the engine has been stopped, switch off the accumulator battery disconnect
switch.
Rooms where the engine is operated or a tractor is used as a power drive, shall be
equipped with the combined extract-and-input ventilation, and the diesel engine intake
system shall have independent offtake ensuring positive exhaust gases discharge from the
muffler to the outside the room.
2.4 Operation in extreme conditions
In the event of emergency stop the engine by means of fuel shutoff.
In case of fuel inflammation, use sand, cover the flame with canvas, sackcloth or any
dense texture. Use carbon dioxide extinguisher. Do not use water.
If the camshaft prm increases excessively during the engine no-load operation (“the
engine overspeeds”), stop the engine by turning the ignition key in zero position.
If for any reasons the described actions did not result in the engine immediate
shutdown, cut off the air cleaner intake pipe by a flat object (a plate, a book and etc.,)
To avoid severe injuried do not close the air cleaner intake pipe with hands.
Any actions on engine uncontrolled operation stoppage shall be carried out in an
expeditious manner to prevent the diesel engine from failure.
3 Technical maintenance
3.1 Technical maintenance of diesel engine
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
3.1.1 General instructions
Technical maintenance is carried out to keep the engine in working order during its
operation.
Non-compliance with the approved maintenance periodicity and low quality of
maintenance of diesel engine significantly reduce its life cycle, result in increase of the
number of engine failures, decrease of its power and ecological indicators, increase of
operation costs.
Running diesel engine without regular technical maintenance is forbidden.
Deviation from the approved periodicity of technical maintenance is permitted within
the range of ±10%.
Marks concerning carrying out regular technical maintenance (excluding STM) shall
be included into a tractor/agricultural machine service book.
During technical maintenance when preparing for long-term storage and during
technical maintenance TM-3, a technical diagnostics of the engine is carried out, where
necessity of engine repair is defined as well as the kind of repair – current or capital.
All troubles, identified during carrying out technical maintenance, shall be
eliminated. Maintenance operations, associated with disassembly of its assembly units,
shall be conducted in indoor area to keep dust and dirt away form getting into body
cavities of engine assembly units.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
3.1.1.1 Kinds and periodicity of technical maintenance
Kinds and periodicity of technical maintenance are given in table 10.
Table 10
Type of technical maintenance
1 Technical maintenance when preparing for
running-in
Diesel operation
Yearly
Seasonal
Periodicity or hours
Before operating a new engine or an
engine after capital repair.
It is carried out in accordance with
instructions of clause 2.2.2 – 2.2.5
2 Technical maintenance on finishing running- Before operating a new engine or an
in
engine after capital repair.
3 Shift-time technical maintenance (STM)
It is carried out in accordance with
instructions of clause 2.3.4
8-10
4 First technical maintenance (TM-1)
125
5 Second technical maintenance (ТM-2)
500
6 Third technical maintenance (ТM-3)
7 Seasonal technical maintenance when passing
to autumn-winter (TM-AW) or spring-summer
(TM-SS) operation periods
1000
Conducted
simultaneously with
regular technical
maintenance (TM1, TM-2, TM-3)
8 Technical maintenance by short-time storage It is carried out in accordance with
(from 10 days to 1 month)
clause 3.1.5.1 and unit 5
9 Technical maintenance when preparing for
It is carried out in accordance with
long-term storage
clause 3.1.5.2 and unit 5
It is conducted in accordance with
10 Technical maintenance by long-term storage instructions of clause 3.1.5.2 and unit
5
It is conducted in
11 Technical maintenance before beginning of
accordance with
operation season (TM-O)
clause 3.1.1.1.1
Cycle of technical maintenance (exclusive of STM, TM-AW and TM-SS) when
operating a tractor, harvester, machine will be the following: TM-1 “ 2TM-1 “ TM-1 “
TM-2 “ TM-1 “ 2TM-1 “ TM-1 “ TM-3 “ TM-1 ” 2TM-1 “ TM-1 “ TM-2 “ TM-1 “ 2TM1 “ TM-1 “ 2TM-3.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
3.1.1.1.1 Technical maintenance of engines before beginning of harvester operation
season (TM-O)
Remove engine from storage following clause 3.1.6.2
Mount removed units and parts, stocked during storage.
Check all connections of air purifier and inlet pipe for tightness.
3.1.1.2 Requirements for composition and proficiency of attending personnel
Table 11
Type of technical
maintenance
STM
TM-1; 2TM-1;
TM-2; SS; AW
ТM-3; 2ТM-3
Composition and proficiency of attending personnel
Operator, driver of a tractor, equipped with diesel engine
Mechanic of 3 – 4 skill-category, who passed general technical
training under the program of mechanics teaching, possessing
knowledge on organization and general operation principle of
diesel engines Д-245S3A M and their modifications; operator
driver of a tractor, equipped with the engine
Motorman of 4-5 skill-category or set-up man and mechanic of
3-4 skill-category, who passed general technical training under
the program of mechanics teaching, possessing knowledge on
organization and general operation principle of diesel engines Д245S3А M and their modifications, or operator, driver of a
tractor, equipped with engine
3.1.1.3 Requirements for diesel engine placed on technical maintenance
Diesel engine, subjected to technical maintenance, shall be exposed to technical
examination to identify places of fuel and oil leakage, which are difficult to find after
washing.
After technical examination, diesel engine in assembly with the machine, where it is
fitted, is exposed to cleaning and washing.
Quality of washing influences greatly on operational safety and lifetime of engine units.
Non-complete cleaning of parts can shorten engine service life by 20-30% and more.
To carry out certain adjustment works, conducted by technical maintenance, it is
necessary to warm up diesel engine to required temperature mode in accordance with the
instructions of the this manual.
Technical maintenance shall be conducted after examination and tightening of loosened
attachments, detected during examination.
After technical maintenance is finished, diesel engine assembled with the machine is
sent to storage area or to get filled with fuel for continuation of the conducted works.
List of main and duplicate POLs is presented in table A.1 (Annex A).
3.1.2 Safety measures
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
To ensure safe work and to forestall casualties during technical maintenance of diesel
engine observe the following rules:
- washing operations can be carried out by a person only after he has got theoretical and
practical instructions;
- work with washing equipment unearthed and electric motor of a pump with neutral
wire unearthed is not permitted;
- washing outside equipped washing places, which ensure ecological safety, is not
permitted;
- do not start the engine in a closed room with poor ventilation;
- technical maintenance and elimination of faults shall be conducted with the engine
stopped;
- to prevent burns on face and hands, radiator filler cap on a hot engine shall be opened
using a glove or cloth;
- fixtures used at work shall be in operating conditions;
- tools shall be in good order and correct in size;
- for inspection use portable lights with voltage not higher than 12V;
- fuel is drained outside fuel system (by bleeding) to a container only;
- oil and preservative mixtures shall be drained to containers only;
- prevent POLs from spilling at working place;
- when conducting technical maintenance ensure that working place is fitted with fireextinguishing means;
3.1.3 Technical maintenance procedure
3.1.3.1 Scope of work when conducting approved kinds of technical maintenance
Table 12
Name of work
1 Check oil level in engine
crankcase
2 Check coolant level in
cooling system
3 Drain sediment outside
coarse fuel filter
4 Replace oil filter
5 Replace oil in engine crank
case
6 Drain sediment outside fine
fuel filter
7 Carry out maintenance of air
cleaner
8 Check all connections of air
cleaner and inlet pipeline for
tightness
Kind of technical maintenance
SТM ТM-1 2ТM-1 ТM-2 ТM-3 2ТM-3 SS AW
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Table 12 continued
Name of work
9 Check clearance between
valves and rocker arms
10 Check cylinder head bolts
for tightness
11 Wash coarse fuel filter
12 Replace fine fuel filter
13 Check fuel pump on a test
stand
14 Check injectors for
injection pressure and quality of
fuel atomization
15 Check fixed advance angle
of fuel injection
16 Check condition of engine
starter (brushes, collector,
springs, terminals and other
parts)
17 Wash cooling system
18 Replace winter-type oil in
engine crankcase with summertype oil
19 Set screw of voltage
seasonal adjustment of
alternator into position “Л”
(“S”) (summer)
20 Replace summer oil with
winter oil in engine crankcase
21 Set screw of voltage
seasonal adjustment of
alternator into position “З”
(“W”) (winter)
Kind of technical maintenance
SТM ТM-1 2ТM-1 ТM-2 ТM-3 2ТM-3 SS AW
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
3.1.4 Check of diesel engine workability
Engine workability is checked by means of conducting technical testing.
Engine testing is conducted when putting engine for long-time storage, when
conducting TM-3, after planned overhaul period and when checking quality of the repair
conducted.
Companies which carry out TM-3 shall have equipment for life cycle technical tests or
use a mobile test unit.
Before carrying out engine testing operations it is necessary to perform the following
preparatory works: inspect the engine, clean it out, wash it and ask operator about its
functioning.
When there is information about signs of units and parts wear limits (destruction of
crankcase bearings, identified by knocks during operation; failures or serious defects of
cylinder block), diesel is sent to capital repair.
Testing a number of units, components and systems is conducted according to
composite indexes of technical state (power, oil pressure, coolant temperature, specific
fuel consumption, volume of gases getting inside the crankcase), in accordance with which
state of pistons, piston rings, cylinder liners, crank mechanism can be evaluated.
Before testing the engine it is required to check attachment of units, high pressure fuel
pump, injectors and fuel injection advance angle (make adjustments if necessary), carry
out air cleaner maintenance (clean), replace fine fuel filter, check turbocharger, check and
adjust tension of drive belts, valves of timing gear, check and if necessary restore oil level
in cases of engine, fuel pump and pony motor reduction gear, level of coolant in radiator,
check availability of fuel in the tank.
After the abovementioned work has been done and recognized failures have been
eliminated testing is started.
Controlled engine parameters are presented in clause 1.1.2.2, table 3.
Measurement tools for defining controlled parameters are presented in clause 1.1.2.3,
table 4.
After the guarantee period for engine operation has expired it is admitted to define
power by non-stop method. The non-stop method allows to define power and fuel
efficiency according to effective fuel consumption, herewith it is not required to take the
engine off the tractor.
By non-stop method of testing, fuel flowmeter of КИ-8955 or КИ-8940 type shall be
connected to low-pressure fuel supply system and a load simulator shall be mounted on
inlet pipe of air intake of КИ-5653 type.
Piezometer shall be connected to inlet pipe of air supply system.
The engine is started and warmed up to normal thermal condition, and in set modes fuel
consumption and, basing on it, engine power are defined.
If necessary, to evaluate technical condition of units and parts (bearing assemblies, belt
drives, shafts), which don't have composite indexes, technical state is defined by
measurement of dimensionals (clearances, plays) or by checking, inspection.
All faults, detected during technical testing, shall be eliminated by means of conducting
current or capital repair.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
3.1.5 Preservation (represervation) when placed for storage
Depending on the kind of delivery, specified in an agreement or a contract, diesel
engines, supplied to the customer, are preserved for a period of 6 months or for one year.
Specific period of preservation is given in the engine passport.
When the engine is stored for a longer period than the preservation period given in the
passport, it shall be exposed to represervation.
Represervation after six months' storage period shall be made for 1 year of storage.
Represervation for six months' storage period is not permitted.
When put for short storage period (10 days – 1 month) diesel engine in a tractor or
vehicle assembly is preserved in accordance with clause 3.1.5.1.
When put for long storage period (1 month and more) diesel engine in a tractor or
vehicle assembly is preserved, or exposed to represervation when the storage period is
more than 6 months, in accordance with clause 3.1.5.2.
It must be noticed that after the engine has been started, its inner cavities, cooling
system and fuel supply get depreserved.
3.1.5.1 Preservation of engine when putting for short-period storage
In conditions of ambient temperature and temperature of engine parts not exceeding
60ºC drain oil out of heated engine crankcase to a suitable container.
Mount and screw oil drain tube assembly in oil sump.
Fill oil sump with oil to the relevant level in accordance with Chimmotology list
(Annex A).
Fill fuel tank with recommended type of fuel (Annex A).
Let the engine work for 2 minutes at 1200 min −1 of frequency.
Do not drain oil out of lubrication system and fuel out of supply system after the engine
has been stopped.
Check air cleaner and carry out its maintenance, if necessary.
If frosts are expected during the storage period, check coolant for conformity with
respective freezing resistance and if necessary replace it. If required, add coolant up to the
guide mark of the expansion tank.
Clean the engine outside (except for electrical parts) with fuel and compressed air.
Cover air cleaner inlet pipe, muffler outlet pipe and engine breather with polyethylene
film GOST 10354-82 and fasten with twine ШЛ 4,0 (0,25) Н1 “б” GOST17308-88;
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
3.1.5.2 Preservation (represervation) of engine when putting for long-period storage
Drain coolant from cooling system and wash with clean soft water under pressure.
Fill cooling system with preservative solution (thickened aqueous solution of
chromates) having the following composition (g/l):
- glycerine GOST 6823-77
- 800;
- potassium bichromate GOST 4220-75
- 30…50;
- calcined soda GOST 5100-85
- 6…10;
- drink water GOST 2874-82
- 140…165
(To prepare solution, salt should be preliminary dissolved in warm water and after
cooled down it is added to preservative solution).
Start the engine and let it work until it reaches a temperature of 60…80 ºС.
Drain motor oil from engine oil sump into a suitable container when the ambient
temperature and the temperature of engine parts doesn't exceed 60ºС.
Remove and recycle oil filter. Fix oil drain plug and screw it up in oil sump.
Mount a new oil filter.
Fill flushing-preservative oil Belakor АН-Т ТУ РБ (technical requirements of the
Republic of Belarus) 03535026.291-97 or motor oil recommended for the engine (Annex
A) with 15…25% of additive АКОР-1 GOST 15171-78 in the oil sump to the relevant
level. (Add additive АКОР-1 to the motor oil by stages (along with rapid mixing to get
homogenious mass). Homogeneity of mixture is defined as absence of black and dark
brown blotchiness in the flow of mixture leaking out of agitator.
Before using oil Belakor АН-Т shall be thoroughly mixed. Oil Belakor АН-Т is not
warmed up. In winter time when the oil gets thick it is allowed to warm it up to 80°С.)
Drain fuel from the fuel tank.
Fuel system preservation (fuel pipelines, fuel filters, injectors, fuel pump) is carried out
with a preservation mixture of diesel fuel in conformity with GOST 305-82 with 5…10%
of АКОР-1 additive.
Add additive АКОР-1 to diesel fuel by stages (along with rapid mixing to get
homogeneous mass). Homogeneity of mixture is defined as absence of black and dark
brown blotchiness in the flow of mixture leaking out of agitator.
Drain fuel from coarse fuel filter. Connect pipe coming from the container with a
preservative mixture to the fuel delivery point on the fuel coarse filter.
Replace fine fuel filter, recycle the removed filter.
Fill fuel system in conformity with instructions in clause 3.2.10.
Crank the engine without fuel supply by means of triple starter engagement with 1-2
min. switching interval. Duration of each engagement is 15 sec.
Remove monocyclone of air cleaner (if available) and put a cap on a suction hole of air
cleaner and turbocharger. Set fuel supply lever to the position of max. supply and crank
the engine with a starter for 15 sec. to deliver the preservation mixture to engine cylinders.
Detach a pipe from the coarse fuel filter.
Drain preservative oil from the oil filter.
Drain preservative mixture from fine and coarse fuel filters.
Drain preservative mixture from the cooling system through drain cock.
Remove the cap from the hole of air cleaner pipe and mount the monocyclone, remove
the cap from the suction hole of turbocharger and mount a temporary cover.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Drain preservative mixture from the cooling system.
Drain preservative oil from the oil sump, mount and tighten the oil drain plug.
Remove, serve and store the accumulator battery in conformity with instructions of
Tractor, machine operations manual.
Clean the engine outside (except for electrical parts) with fuel and compressed air.
Detach compressor air-delivery pipe and add 4-6 grams of preservative oil to the
compressor cylinder. Mount air delivery pipe. Engage the compressor (for single-cylinder
compressor).
Cover air cleaner inlet pipe, muffler outlet pipe and engine breather with polyethylene
film GOST 10354-82 and fasten with twine ШЛ 4,0 (0,25) Н1 “б” GOST 17308-88.
Protect the engine with weatherproof canvas, positioned so that to provide for air
circulation.
The engine at storage shall be periodically checked. If there are any signs of rust or
corrosion, proper measures shall be taken to prevent damage of engine parts.
For engines prepared for preservation repeatedly, which are stored unassembled on a
tractor, machine, the following shall be done additionally:
Clean with a napkin and apply oil Belakor АН-Т or operation preservative oil to
flywheel mounting face (by absence of coupling clutch), mounting faces of hydraulic
pumps of НШ type, splines of clutch pressure plate, flange connector of turbocharger
outlet hole (for engines without outlet pipe, tube).
Outer holes of exhaust manifold, of intake manifold, of thermostat housing, of pipes of
water pump and turbocharger, of engine breather shall be covered with polyethylene film
GOST 10354-82 and fastened with twine ШЛ 4,0 (0,25) Н1 “б” GOST 17308-88.
Starter and monocyclone of air cleaner shall be covered with bags made of polyethylene
film and pasted with polyethylene band with adhered layer GOST 20477-86 or fastened
with twine ШЛ 4,0 (0,25) Н1 “б” GOST 17308-88.
3.1.6 Preparation of engine for operation when removed from storage
3.1.6.1 Removal of engine from short-time storage
Remove protective seals from the engine inlet and outlet pipes and a breather.
Check the level of coolant and oil.
Fill (bleed) the supply system with fuel in conformity with clause 3.2.10.
Check and charge the accumulator battery if necessary.
Start the engine.
3.1.6.2 Removal of engine from long-time storage
Remove protective seals from the engine inlet and outlet pipes and a breather.
Remove plugs from inlet and outlet fuel pipelines and connect the fuel pipelines to their
normal position.
Remove preservation oil from outer preserved surfaces of the engine with diesel fuel.
Fill oil sump with motor oil to the relevant level in conformity with Chimmotology list
(Annex A).
Fill the fuel tank with recommended type of fuel (Annex A). Fill (bleed) the supply
system with fuel in conformity with clause 3.2.10.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Turn off all drain cocks and fill the cooling system with coolant of recommended type
to the relevant level in conformity with Chimmotology list (Annex A).
Mount and connect the accumulator battery. Charge the battery if necessary.
Disconnect oil delivery pipeline from the casing of central bearings of turbocharger.
Previously lubricate the bearings, pouring oil to the hole up to the flange level. Connect
the delivery pipeline using a new gasket, tighten bolts of the delivery pipeline flange.
Start the engine.
3.2 Technical maintenance of engine and its parts
3.2.1 Maintenance of cooling system
3.2.1.1 Check of cooling fluid level in cooling system
Carry out a shift-time check of cooling fluid level before engine start.
Remove radiator cap and check the cooling fluid level which shall reach the upper end
of the filler neck. Do not let the level drop beyond 40 mm from the upper end of the filler
neck.
3.2.1.2 Maintenance and washing of cooling system
Fill the cooling system with low-freezing-point cooling fluid.
Watch the cooling fluid temperature, the normal temperature shall be 85-95°С. If the
temperature goes higher than the normal, check the level of the cooling fluid in the
radiator, radiator integrity and fan belt tension.
Wash dirt out the cooling system if necessary but not less than every 2000 hours of
engine work. Use solution of 50-60 g of calcined soda per 1 l of water for washing.
Wash the system in the following order:
pour 2 l of kerosene to the radiator and fill the system with the prepared solution;
start the engine and let it work for 8-10 h or 350-400 km of kilometrage, after that drain
the solution and wash the cooling system with clean water.
3.2.2 Maintenance of lubrication system
To ensure engine normal operation follow the instructions for maintenance of the
lubrication system:
- fill the oil sump only with the oil, recommended for use in the present Manual (Annex
A, “Chimmotology list”);
- timely replace oil and oil filter in conformity with periods, provided in clause 3.1.3;
- constantly watch the values of oil pressure on pressure indicator, located on the
dashboard (when the engine works with rated speed and 85…95ºС of coolant temperature,
oil pressure shall be at 0.25…0,35 MPa, with the hot engine 0,8 MPa of pressure value is
admitted);
- pressure value is adjusted in accordance with figure 11 in the following way:
- unscrew plug 3, remove gasket 4;
- using screwdriver 6 turn the adjusting plug 5 in the channel of oil filter casing 2 by
one revolution to the side of increasing or decreasing of pressure (depending on the real
pressure)
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- mount gasket 4 and screw the gasket 3;
- repeat the abovementioned adjustment actions if necessary.
Making adjustments with the working engine is FORBIDDEN.
Increase
Decrease
pressure
1 – oil filter; 2 – oil filter body; 3 – valve plug; 4 – plug gasket;
5 – adjusting plug; 6 – screwdriver; 7 – liquid-oil heat exchanger;
Figure 11 – Oil pressure adjustment.
3.2.3 Check of oil level in the engine crankcase
Carry out a shift-time check before starting the engine using oil dipstick, located on the
engine cylinder block. The level of oil shall be between lower and upper marks of the
dipstick in accordance with figure 12. The check is made not earlier than 3-5 min. after the
engine stop, when oil fully drains to the crankcase.
It is forbidden to run the engine with oil level in the crankcase below the lower and
above the upper marks of the dipstick.
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Figure 12 – Check of oil in the engine crankcase
3.2.4 Replacement of oil in the engine crankcase
Oil in the engine crankcase is replaced in every 250 hours of work and in the case of
using duplicate types of oil and fuel with high sulfur concentration every 125 hours of
work. Drain used oil only from the hot engine. To drain the oil unscrew oil sump plug.
After the oil has leaked out of the crankcase, screw the plug back. Fill oil in the engine
through oil filler pipe until it reaches upper mark on the dipstick. Fill in only the oil,
recommended by this manual, according to the operation period.
3.2.5 Replacement of oil filter
Replace oil filter according to figure 13 simultaneously with replacement of oil in
engine crankcase in the following order:
- unscrew filter ФМ 009-1012005 from the fitting, using a special wrench or any other
materials at hand;
- screw a new filter ФМ 009-1012005 (JSC “Avtoagregat”, city of Livny, Russia) or
М5101 (EJSC “DIFA”, Grodno, Republic of Belarus) on the fitting.
When mounting the filter, lubricate gasket 4 with motor oil. As soon as the gasket
touches the mounting surface of filter gasket 1, turn the filter by 3/4 revolutions. Mount
the filter in the body only by force of hands.
In future order the following oil filters:
a) ФМ 009-1012005 at the address: JSC “Avtoagregat”, 303858, 2а Industrialnaya
Street, Livny, Orlovskaya oblast, Russia;
b) М5101 at the address: EJSC “DIFA” 230019, 45 Belusha Street, Grodno,
Republic of Belarus
It is possible to install element filters of solid type: modification X149 by company
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“АС Lelko” (France); modification L37198 by company “Purolator” (Italy).
Filter ФМ 009-1012005
Oil
1-filter body; 2 – liquid-oil heat exchanger (LOHE); 3 – fitting; 4 – filter gasket; 5 – LOHE gasket; 6 – contra-discharge
valve; 7 – overflow valve; 8 – protection valve; 9 – plug for coolant drain; 10 – seal ring; 11 – LOHE protective valve.
Figure 13 – oil filter with LOHE
3.2.6 Drain of sediment form coarse fuel filter
Drain sediment in every 125 hours of engine operation.
Unscrew sediment drain plug, located in the lower part of the filter bowl in accordance
with figure 14, and drain sediment until clean fuel remains. Screw the plug.
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Figure 14– Drain of sediment from coarse fuel filter.
3.2.7 Washing of coarse fuel filter
Wash the filter in every 1000 hours of engine operation in the following order:
turn off the fuel tank valve;
unscrew nuts of bowl attachment bolts;
remove the bowl 3 in accordance with figure 15;
using a wrench unscrew a deflector with net 2;
remove a diffuser;
wash the deflector with the net, the diffuser and the filter bowl with diesel fuel and
mount them back.
1 – filter body; 2 – deflector with net; 3 – bowl
Figure 15 – Washing of coarse fuel filter
After the filter is assembled, fill the system with fuel.
3.2.8 Drain of sediment from fine fuel filter
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Drain sediment in every 250 hours of engine operation.
Unscrew plug 4 in the lower part of fine fuel filter by 2…3 revolutions in accordance
with figure 16 and drain sediment until clean fuel remains. Screw the plug.
3.2.9 Replacement of fine fuel filter
Life time of fine fuel filter depends on cleanliness of the fuel used.
Replace filter ФТ020-1117010 when conducting TM-3 according to figure 16, for this
purpose:
- drain fuel from the filter, having unscrewed plug 4 in the lower part of the body;
Do not let the fuel spill, drain the fuel only to a container.
- unscrew filter 1 from fitting 8 in body 2 and replace it with a new filter ФТ0201117010 (JSC “Avtoagregat”, Livny, Russia) or Т6101 (EJSC “DIFA”, Grodno, Republic
of Belarus), supplied in assembly with gasket 7, which shall be previously lubricated with
motor oil;
- as the gasket 7 touches mounting surface A on the body 2, turn the filter by ¾
revolutions more. Herewith, turn the filter only by force of hands;
- turn on the fuel tank valve and fill the system with fuel.
Fuel inlet
Fuel outlet
1 – filter ФТ020-1117010; 2 – body; 3 –
bracket; 4 - plug (for drain of sediment);
5-outlet union; 6 – plug (for air outlet);
7 – gasket; 8 – fitting.
Figure 16 – Replacement of fine fuel filter.
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In future order the following oil filters:
a) ФТ020-1117010 at the address: JSC “Avtoagregat”, 303858, 2а Industrialnaya
Street, Livny, Orlovskaya oblast, Russia;
b) T6101 at the address: EJSC “DIFA” 230019, 45 Belusha Street, Grodno, Republic
of Belarus
3.2.10 Filling the fuel system
To de-aerate the system, unscrew plug 2 (Figure 17), located on bolt of outlet union
attachment, by 2…3 revolutions. Bleed the system with manual purge pump 1, screwing in
the plug when the fuel without air bubbles appears.
Unscrew the plug 4 on the body of fuel pump. Bleed the system with the boost pump
until fuel without air bubbles appears, herewith screwing in the plug 4.
1- purge pump 2 - plug (for air outlet); 3-fine fuel filter;
4 - plug;
Figure 17 – De-aerating fuel supply system.
3.2.11 Maintenance of air cleaner
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Carry out maintenance of air cleaner with paper filtering elements of special highporous cardboard in every 500 hours of engine work or, if necessary, by indications of
impurity annunciator. Maintenance of air cleaner consists in bleeding the main filtering
element that captures dust entering the air cleaner. Contamination of the control filtering
element points to failure of the main filtering element (tear of paper curtain, bedplates
coming unstuck). In this case it is necessary to bleed the control filtering element and to
replace the main one.
Carry out maintenance of the air cleaner in accordance with figure 18 in the following
order:
- remove the monocyclone, clean the net, swirler and monocyclone discharging slits
from dust and dirt;
- remove bottom 6;
- remove the main filtering element 1.
It is not recommended to remove the control filtering element 2 from the body.
Bleed the main filtering element with compressed air, first outside and then inside, until
dust is fully removed. To prevent tearing of the paper curtain, air pressure should be not
higher than 0,2-0,3 MPa.
1 – main filtering element; 2 – control filtering element;
3 – gasket; 4 – wing nut; 5 – ring; 6 – bottom; 7 – body, 8 - monocyclone
Figure 18 – Air cleaner
Air jet must be directed at an angle to the filtering element surface. During maintenance
it is required to protect the filtering element from mechanical damages and oiling.
It is forbidden to bleed the filtering element with exhaust gases or to wash with diesel
fuel.
Clear out the delivery pipe, inner surfaces of the air cleaner body and bottom.
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Before assembling the air cleaner check the state of seal rings. When assembling make
sure that all filtering elements are correctly mounted in the body and firmly tighten the
wing nut manually.
3.2.12 Check of air cleaner and inlet channel for connections tightness
Check air cleaner and inlet channel for connections tightness when conducting TM-2.
Use a devise КИ-4870 ГОСНИТИ for tightness check.
If the devise is not available, check tightness of connections visually.
3.2.13 Washing of the engine breather
Maintenance of breather of the engine Д-245S3А М and its modifications is not required.
3.2.14 Check of cylinder head bolt tightening
Check cylinder head bolts for tightening after running-in and in every 1000 hours of
operation on hot engine in the following order:
- remove a cap and a cover of the cylinder head;
- remove a rocker arm shaft with rockers and brackets;
- using a torque wrench check all cylinder head bolts for tightness in the order, given in
figure 19, and if necessary tighten them.
Bolt torque is 200±10 N.m
After checking of cylinder head bolt tightening mount the rocker arm shaft back and
adjust the clearance between valves and rockers.
Figure 19 – Sequence diagram of cylinder head bolt tightening
3.2.15 Check of clearance between valves and rockers
Check clearance between valves and rockers and adjust, if necessary, in every 500
hours of work and also after removing cylinder head, tightening of cylinder head bolts and
when there is knocking of valves.
When checked on cold engine (oil and water temperature not higher than 60ºC),
clearance between the rocker poll and valve-stem end shall be the following:
inlet valves – 0,25 +−00..0510 mm;
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+0.05
− 0.10
outlet valves - 0,45 mm.
When making adjustments, set the following clearance between valve-stem end and the
rocker poll:
inlet valves - 0,25 −0.05 mm;
outlet valves - 0,45 −0.05 mm;
Make adjustments in the following order:
- remove the cap of cylinder head cover and check the attachment of rocker arm shaft
bracket;
- turn the crankshaft up to the moment of valve overlapping in the first cylinder (the
first cylinder inlet valve starts to open and the outlet valve finishes to close) and adjust
clearances in the forth, sixth, seventh and eights valves (counting from the fan), then turn
the crankshaft by one revolution, having set the overlapping in the forth cylinder, and
adjust clearances in the first, second, third and fifth valves.
To adjust the clearance loose the screw locknut on the rocker of the valve being
adjusted in accordance with figure 20 and turning the screw set a required clearance
against the probe between the rocker poll and valve-stem end. Having set the clearance
tighten the locknut. After finishing the adjustment of valve clearance, put back the cap of
the cylinder head cover.
1 – adjusting screw; 2 – probe; 3 – locknut.
Figure 20- Valve clearance adjustment.
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3.2.16 Maintenance of high-pressure fuel pump
During the operation of high-pressure fuel pump and upon wearing of the main parts,
the adjustment parameters of the high-pressure fuel pump get violated.
Lubrication of high-pressure fuel pump is centralized from the engine lubrication
system through a special oil pipeline.
If the high-pressure fuel pump is left without lubrication, it will break down!
Necessary level of oil in the pump crankcase is set automatically.
To reduce wears of precision parts operation of high pressure fuel pump without
filtering element or with clogged fine fuel filter is not permitted. Neither operation with
fuel having enhanced water concentration is permitted.
If necessary and when conducting engine technical maintenance 2TM-3 it is required to
remove the high-pressure fuel pump from the engine and check the fuel pump on the stand
for compliance with the adjustment parameters, presented in annex D, and also fixed fuel
injection advance angle. If necessary, make appropriate adjustments.
Fuel pump shall be checked and if necessary adjusted by a qualified specialist in a
workshop on a special adjustment stand equipped with instruments according to GOST
10578-96, in conformity with requirements of the fuel pump manufacturing works.
Fuel pump adjustment parameters for stand check are presented in Annex D.
3.2.16.1 High-pressure fuel pump sealing
After adjustment fuel pumps shall be sealed in a manner, which excludes the
possibility of making adjustments without seal removing.
3.2.17 Check and adjustments of the fixed fuel injection advance angle
When it is difficult to start the engine or the exhaust is smoky and also when replacing,
mounting the fuel pump after check on a stand through 2TM-3 or when repairing the
engine, check the fixed fuel injection advance angle.
Parameters for the fixed fuel injection advance angle are presented in table 13.
Table 13
Diesel
High-pressure
fuel pump
Д-245S3А М
Д-245.2S3А М
Д-245.5S3А М
Д-245.43S3А М
Fixed fuel injection advance angle,
degrees of crankshaft turn
РР4М10Uli-3794
3,5±0,5
РР4М10Uli-3793
3,5±0,5
РР4М10Uli-3795
4,0±0,5
РР4М10Uli-3796
The fixed fuel injection angle is checked in the following sequence:
а) for high-pressure fuel pump without camshaft position detent:
4,0±0,5
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-set a governor control lever to the position of max. fuel supply;
-detach a high-pressure pipe from the fitting of pump first section and connect an
ignition tester instead (a captive nut with short pipe, to which a glass pipe with inner
diameter 1-2mm is connected through a rubber pipe, fig.21);
1 – glass pipe; 2 – rubber adapting pipe; 3 – segment of high-pressure pipe;
4 – washer; 5 – nut
Figure 21 – Ignition tester
-turn the engine crankshaft clockwise with a wrench until fuel without air bubbles
appears outside the ignition tester glass pipe;
-release some air from the glass pipe by shaking it;
-turn the crankshaft back (contraclockwise) by 30º-40º;
-turning the crankshaft clockwise slowly, watch fuel level in the pipe, as the fuel
starts going up stop turning the crankshaft;
- screw the detent out of threaded hole of rear plate and insert it with its back side
in the same hole until it stops against the flywheel (Figure 22), herewith the detent shall
coincide with the hole in the flywheel (this means that the first cylinder piston is set in a
position, corresponding to the fixed fuel injection angle given in table 13);
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Figure 22 – Mounting a detent in the hole of rear plate and flywheel.
If the detent does not coincide with the hole in the flywheel, make adjustments, for
this do the following:
- mate the detent with the hole in the flywheel, turning the crankshaft to this or that
side;
- remove a hatch cover (Figure 23);
Hatch cover, pos.1, not displayed
1 – hatch cover; 2 – nut; 3 – pin; 4 – special nut; 5 – drive half-coupling;
6 – fuel pump drive gear
Figure 23 – Fuel pump drive
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- release nuts of fuel pump drive gear attachment by 1…1,5 revolutions;
- remove some fuel from the ignition tester glass pipe if any;
- using a wrench turn the roller of fuel pump by the special nut forward and
backward within the slots positioned on the end surface of the fuel pump drive gear until
the ignition tester glass pipe gets filled up with fuel.
- set the fuel pump roller to the farthest (contraclockwise) position within the slots;
- remove some fuel from the glass pipe;
- slowly turn the fuel pump roller clockwise until the fuel goes up in the glass pipe;
- as the fuel starts going up in the glass pipe, stop turning the roller and tighten the
gear attachment nuts;
- carry out a repeated check of fuel supply starting moment;
- disconnect the ignition tester and mount back the high-pressure pipe and hatch
cover;
- screw the detent in the hole of rear plate.
б) for high-pressure fuel pump with camshaft position detent (pos.27, Figure 5):
- screw the detent out of threaded hole of rear plate and insert it with its back side
in the same hole until it stops against the flywheel (Figure 22);
- slowly turn the engine crankshaft clockwise until the detent coincides with the hole
in the flywheel;
- remove the hatch cover 1 (Figure 23);
- release nuts 2 of the fuel pump drive gear attachment by 1…1,5 revolutions;
- unscrew cap 4 (Figure 23a) of the position detent of the high-pressure fuel pump
camshaft 27 (Figure 5);
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a) detent position by engine
operation
b) detent position when setting the
fuel injection advance angle
1 – camshaft segment disk; 2 – detent bar; 3 – detent body; 4 – cap; 5 – spring.
Figure 23а – Detent of position of high-pressure fuel pump camshaft
- remove spring 5 and sink in the detent bat until it touches the camshaft segment
disk;
- turn the high-pressure fuel pump camshaft to one and other side using special nut 4
(Figure 23) within the slots of the fuel pump drive gear 6 until the detent bar 2 coincides
with a hollow in the segment disk 1;
If the detent bar 2 has not coincided with the hollow in the segment disk 1:
- remove the detent bar 2 from the detent body 3;
- remove the detent from the hole in the flywheel and turn the crankshaft by one
revolution (360º) until the detent coincides with the hole in the flywheel;
- turn the high-pressure fuel pump camshaft to one and other side using a special nut
4 (Figure 23) within the slots of the fuel pump drive gear 6 until the detent bar 2 coincides
with a hollow in the segment disk 1;
- fix the camshaft position, screwing cap 4 with spring 5 on detent body 3 (Figure
23a, position b));
(such fixation of crankshaft and camshaft positions means that the first cylinder
piston is set to a position corresponding to the fixed fuel injection advance angle, given in
table 13, and section 1 of the fuel pump is set to the position of start fuel geometric
delivery);
- tighten nuts 2 of fuel pump drive gear attachment;
- unscrew cap 4 and set spring 5 and detent bar 2 to the position a), shown in picture
23a;
- mount the hatch cover back and screw the detent to the rear plate hole;
3.2.18 Check of injectors for pressure at the beginning of injection and quality of fuel
atomization
Check injectors in every 2000 hours of engine operation.
Take the injectors off the engine and inspect them on a stand.
The injector is considered in good order if it atomizes fuel in the form of fog from all
five atomizer holes, without separately outcoming drops, solid streams and concentrations.
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Beginning and end of injection shall be clear, appearing of drops on atomizer tip is not
permitted.
Check atomization quality at frequency of 60-80 injections per minute.
If necessary adjust the injectors changing the total thickness of adjusting washers 2
(Figure 24): increase of total thickness of adjusting washers (increase of spring
compression) enhances the pressure, their decrease reduces the pressure. Change of the
washer thickness by 0,1 mm results in change of pressure of injector needle rise start by
1,3…1,5 MPa.
Value of injection start pressure for injectors is 28,0 +1, 2 MPa;
Mount injectors on the engine. Tighten bolts of injectors attachment evenly in 2-3 in 23 steps. Final tightening torque is 20…25 N·m.
1 – injector body; 2 – adjusting washer; 3 – spring; 4 – injector plunger; 5 – spacer;
6 – atomizer nut; 7 – atomizer; 8 – seal ring.
Figure 24 - Injector
3.2.19 Alternator maintenance
During engine operation special maintenance of alternator is not required. Seasonal
adjustment of alternator voltage in accordance with figure 26 is made by a screw of
voltage seasonal adjustment “winter-summer”, positioned at the alternator rear wall.
Engines can be completed with alternators with automatic seasonal voltage
adjustment. Herewith there is no screw 1.
During operation watch the security of alternator and wires attachment as well as
cleanness of the outside surface and terminals.
Check alternator working order with voltmeter or control lamp and ampere-meter,
installed on instruments dashboard of a tractor (machine).
If the alternator is functioning properly a control lamp lights up when switching the
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ground switch before engine start.
After the engine has been started and is operating with mean speed, the control lamp
goes out (for engines started on electric starter) or dims (for engines started on pony
motor), the voltmeter point shall be in green zone and the ampere-meter shall indicate
some charge current, the value of which drops as the battery charge recovers.
3.2.20 Check of belts tension
Poly-V belt of Д-245S3A engines is equipped with automatic tensioner and doesn't
require tension adjustment.
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3.2.21 Check of starter state
Every 1000 hours of engine operation do the following:
- check fastening bolts for tightening, tighten them if necessary;
- scrape wire lugs coming to starter terminals and accumulator battery and tighten
their attachments.
- Carry out preventative inspection and maintenance every 2000 hours of engine
operation
Remove the cap on commutator side and check the state of brush-commutator
group. The working surface shall be smooth and without significant burning. If the
commutator is contaminated or has significant burning traces, clean it with a napkin,
soaked in gasoline. When it is not possible to eliminate dirt or burning by cleaning, peel it
with fine emery cloth. If there some significant burnings on the commutator which are
impossible to clear, turn down the commutator.
Brushes shall freely move in brushholders and bear against the commutator. When
the brushes are worn out up to the height of 13 mm and when there are significant spalls,
replace them with new ones.
Bleed the brush-commutator group and cover on commutator side with compressed
air.
Check the state of contact structure of the starter relay. In case of significant
burning, peel contact bolts and contact plate with fine emery cloth or rusp-file, removing
asperity caused by burning and herewith not infringing flatness of copper bolt contact
surfaces. If the plate and bolts are significantly worn out, turn the contact plate over and
turn the contact bolts through 180º.
Check the drive for ease of moving on rotor shaft. At the moment when the relay is
being engaged and disengaged, the drive group shall smoothly move on rotor shaft splines.
Inner surfaces of the drive guide bushing (splined and flush), adjacent shaft parts
shall be cleared from thickened grease with chips getting from the crankcase which hinder
drive axial movement on the shaft splines when the gear engages flywheel gear rim. The
cleared surfaces shall be covered with thin layer of grease ЦИАТИМ-221 (ЦИАТИМ203, ЦИАТИМ-201).
Check the state of drive gear and thrust washers visually. The spacing between gear
face and thrust washers at engaged condition shall be 2…4 mm.
3.2.22 Maintenance of turbocharger
During operation it is not required to carry out a special maintenance of turbocharger,
its disassembly and repair are not permitted. Partial or complete disassembly as well as
repair are only possible in a specialized enterprise and after the turbocharger has been
removed from the engine.
Reliable and durable operation of turbocharger depends on compliance with rules and
maintenance periodicity of lubrication system and system of air purification, type of oil
recommended by manufacturing works, oil pressure control in the lubrication system,
replacement and cleaning of oil and air filters.
Damaged pipelines of oil delivery and drain and also turbocharger attachment
pipelines shall be immediately replaced. When replacing a turbocharger, pour clean engine
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
oil to the oil delivery hole up to the flange level and do not use joint sealants when
mounting gaskets under flanges.
3.2.23 Maintenance of compressor
During operation, maintenance of compressor is not required.
In case of fault inception the compressor shall be sent to a repair shop where qualified
specialists will spot the cause of trouble and eliminate it.
4 RUNNING MAINTENANCE
4.1 General instructions on engine assembly and disassembly
4.1.1 General instructions
Running maintenance is carried out in case of engine failures and damage (breakdown)
which can be eliminated by way of adjustments.
Signs of necessity for carrying out running maintenance are: increased fuel
consumption, increased oil burn-out loss, low lubrication pressure, worsening of starting
capability.
The running maintenance shall be carried out under pooled method, according to which
assignment of repairable parts to a definite engine is kept. With this method remaining life
of parts and assembly units is preserved more fully by maintenance given that it is not
required to increase alignment durability and herewith there is no increased worn-out of
parts and mating, which are worthy without repair.
The running maintenance works shall be performed by workers that have been trained
under the program of training engine repair mechanics and having 3-4 skill-category,
possessing knowledge on organization and general operation principle of diesel engines.
For preliminary testing engine technical condition during its operation the following
equipment is installed on the engine: sensor of lubrication system oil pressure gauge and
emergency pressure sensor; sensor of coolant temperature gauge and sensor of emergency
coolant temperature.
Air cleaner contamination rate is controlled by air cleaner contamination sensor,
destined for engaging signal lamp when the air filter is contaminated above the admissible
level.
Control instruments indicating sensor information are positioned on the dashboard of a
tractor, agricultural machine.
List of possible failures and damages of engine components and conditions of their
elimination by current repair are given in table 14.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Table 14
Failures and damages eliminated by current repair in conditions
of:
Engine component
specialized maintenance rooms,
household shops
enterprises
Turbocharger
all faults and damages
Fuel pump
all faults and damages
valve leakage
Wear of inner surfaces of valve
Cylinder head
guides; limit of valve seat wear;
distortion of surface of head
adjoining block; cracks; damages
of thread holes
Sleeve - piston
decrease or loss of
conjugacy sealing
capability
Water pump
all faults and damages
Oil pump
loss of efficiency
Gear pump
loss of efficiency
Clutch
loss of efficiency
Compressor
loss of efficiency
erosive
wear
of
starter
coil
turn-to-turn short circuit;
Starter
relay terminal pair; wear
damage of coil insulation; wear of
of brushes; of commutator bearings; drive fault
4.1.2 Safety measures
The current maintenance can be performed by the workers that have passed special
training and having a proof of a qualification, that have had safety training as well as
training and check of knowledge on issues of labor protection and provided with special
clothes, special shoes and other individual protection equipment.
Disassemble faulty units only with the engine stopped.
When inspecting the engine, use portable lamp up to 12V.
Drain fuel and oil only to relevant containers. Fuel and oil spilled on the ground shall be
covered with chips or sand and removed from the working area.
When using lift-and-carry machines by disassembly it is necessary to fix the shift cargo
firmly. Lift-and-carry machines shall contain data on their loading capacity and inspection
date.
It is forbidden to use a lifter if cargo weight exceeds the machine loading capacity and
to carry any cargoes above people.
It is inadmissible to position large parts and units one over the other making dangerous
structures.
Wash engine and units at a specially equipped working place.
Work with unearthed washing equipment and having unearthed neutral wire of pump
electric motor is forbidden.
Assemble and disassemble small units at a work bench, large ones – at special stands.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Fixtures used in work shall be in good order. Withdrawal tools shall have no cracks,
bent rods, slipped or crushed thread. Use of worn-out or faulty withdrawal tools is
forbidden.
Working tools shall be in good order and of proper size. Wrenches with worn or
deformed opening are forbidden to use.
To check coincidence of holes, use an internal tool, a short crowbar or a bolt and never
a finger.
When working on drilling or snagging grinder or when using pneumatic tools, it is
required to follow specified safety precautions.
When using electric tools, it is required to follow measures of electrical safety: use tools
with unfaulty electrical insulation, ground the equipment, use individual protection
equipment.
The working place shall be provided with fire-extinguishing equipment.
4.2 Running repair of components
Table 15
Description of
failure and damage
results
1 Exhaust pipe
exhausts blue smoke
2 Difficult to start
the engine.
Reduction of
spinning up
dynamics when the
fuel supply is
increased. Exhaust
pipe exhausts white
smoke
Possible causes
Instructions on
defining results of
failures and damages
of assembly unit
Diesel engine
1.1 Oil in
1.1; 2.1
combustion
Control oil burn-out
chamber because loss by adding oil
piston rings are
when carrying out
worn-out
STM; pay attention
to rate of oil color
change for the
operating time set for
oil replacement.
Carry out engine and
turbocharger faults
2.1 Insufficient
identification
hermiticity in
according to the table
combustion
(Annex E) by way of
chamber when
exclusions
valve plates fit
into valve seats.
Instructions on
eliminating
results of
failures and
damages
1.1 Replace
piston rings (cl.
4.2.1)
Remove
cylinder head
from the engine
and carry out
valve grinding
(cl.4.2.2)
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Table 15 continued
Description of
failure and damage
results
Possible causes
Instructions on
defining results of
failures and damages
of assembly unit
Instructions on
eliminating
results of
failures and
damages
Water pump
3.Coolant leaks
through drains
orifice
3.1 Wear of
contact surfaces
of face seal
3.2 Wear of
bearing unit
4.No coolant
circulation in engine
coolant system
Turning of
impeller on pump
shaft
3.1 When conducting
STM control coolant
level in the cooling
system
Remove water
pump from the
engine,
disassemble the
pump (cl.4.2.3)
3.1.1 Inspect the
water pump on
started engine during
warm-up.
3.2 Applying force to
the pump pulley on
stopped engine
inspect radial play in
bearing unit
Replace water
pump sealing
gland
Replace
bearings, water
pump body (if
necessary)
Remove water
pump from the
engine,
disassemble the
water pump
(cl.4.2.3)
Controlling
temperature mode of
engine cooling
system on
temperature indicator
a steep rise of coolant Replace the
temperature is
impeller and
observed
(or) the pump
shaft
4.2.1 Main instructions on piston rings replacement
Remove the cylinder head and oil sump from the engine. Set the piston to lower dead
centre, manually turning the engine flywheel. Clear sludge from sleeve top chord,
preventing sludge particles from getting inside the cylinder.
It is forbidden to use a steel scraper by cleaning with the aim to prevent the sleeve
surface from damage.
Unscrew nuts of connecting rod attachment, remove the connecting rod cover and take
piston-rod group out from the cylinder. Take the piston-rod group up – to the side of
cylinder head installation.
Each piston of the engine is provided with upper trapezoidal compression ring, one
compression V-ring and one oil scraper ring of box-type with spring extender.
Compression rings at the end surface by the lock have a mark “верх” and «TOP»,
which shall be turned to piston top by rings installation. Extender joint of oil scraper ring
must not coincide with the ring lock.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Piston ring locks shall be positioned at equal distance round the circle.
Put the piston-rod group inside the cylinder, mount the rod cover.
To prevent piston rings from damages by piston-rod group installation inside the
cylinder, use a tool for ring pinching.
Torque value of piston cover attachment nut is given in table (Annex D).
Atomizing nozzle
Combustion
chamber axis
Figure 25- Diagram of piston rings installation
4.2.2 Main instructions on valve grinding
Unscrew attachment nuts of rocker arm shaft bracket and dismantle rocker arm shaft
with springs and rockers.
Unscrew head attachment bolts, remove the head.
Remove the cotter from the valve, take off the plate of valve springs, valve springs,
washers of valve springs; remove the sealing cup from the valve guide.
The valves shall be ground on special machines of ОПР-1841А type or on stands ОР6687М. Valve face or cylinder head socket face shall be covered with paste, prepared with
one of the following compositions:
boron carbide M40 – 10%; microcorundum M20 – 90%;
granular electrocorundum M14 – 87%; paraffin – 13%;
The solution is dissolved in diesel oil to reach sour cream state. To increase quality it is
recommended to add oleinic or stearinic fatty acid.
Continue to grind until continuous dull string-course with width not less than 1,5 mm
appears on valve face or on valve seat face, breakage of the strip and scratch marks are not
admitted. Width variation of the string-course shall not exceed 0,5 mm.
After grinding valves and head shall be washed.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
By the head assembly the valve rod shall be lubricated with motor oil.
It is possible to ground the valves manually, using a bench tool, but the labor content of
grinding operation will thus significantly increase.
4.2.3.1 Water pump disassembly.
Unscrew nut 9 (figure 26) of water pump drive pulley.
Using a puller remove the pulley 7 of water pump. Remove ring 12, locking a bearing
unit, from the pump body. Remove impeller 3 from pump shaft 2, using a thread hole at
the impeller butt end (М18x1,5) by means of a special bolt.
Press shaft with bearings out of the water pump body. The direction of pressing-out is
to the side of pulley installation. Press the bearings out of the shaft. Remove thrust ring 13.
Press a gland seal out of the pump body.
Inspect the parts for faults.
1 – body; 2 – pump shaft; 3 – impeller; 4 – water pump sealing SP/1341; 5 – bearing; 6 – liner; 7 – pulley; 8 – dowel; 9 – nut;
10 – blind plug; 11 – washer; 12 – lock ring; 13 – thrust ring.
Figure 26 – Water pump
4.2.3.2 Water pump assembly.
Mount thrust ring 13 on the shaft, press on the bearings. Fill bearings and bearing cavity
with grease Litol 24-MLi 4/12-3 in the amount of 45g. Press the shaft with bearings in the
pump body. Mount ring 12, locking the bearing unit.
Install the pump pulley, the washer and the nut. The nut shall be tightened providing for
120…140 N·m of turning torque.
Using the tool (Figure 27) press the water pump sealing 4 on the water pump shaft with
inner housing and simultaneously press the sealing in the water pump body with the outer
housing until the sealing body flange rests against the water pump mounting surface,
herewith the tool design shall provide pressing-on the inner housing of the sealing so that
the end surface of the inner housing was located at the distance of 11,2±0,2 mm from the
mounting surface of the pump body.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Figure 27- Tool for pressing-on water pump sealing (main structural dimensions)
Press the impeller on the shaft, install the blind plug in the impeller butt end.
Sinking of the impeller butt end against the mounting surface of the water pump body
shall not exceed 0,3 mm, jutting of the impeller is not allowed.
Install the water pimp on the engine.
5. STORAGE
To insure engine workability, to save in material and monetary resources for their repair
and preparation for work, it is strictly required to follow the rules of engine storage in idle
time.
The engine shall be stored in absolute compliance with GOST 7751-85 irrespective of
the time of the year. By long-time storage (over one month) a tractor, harvester or a
machine with the engine installed shall be put in a closed room or under a tent. It is also
allowed to store tractors, harvesters, machines in open improved space, obligatory having
performed all works on preservation and encapsulation.
Engine preparation for storage shall be finished not later than 10 days from the moment
of work ending.
Preparing the engine for long-time storage do the operations in accordance with clause
3.1.5.2.
If a tractor, agricultural machine is stored under the tent or at outdoor area, remove an
alternator and a starter from the engine and sent then to a warehouse. Cover the place of
starter installation with a cap.
Diesel engines that have been removed from tractors, harvesters, machines or received
as spare parts shall be stored in a preserved condition in a closed room on special
platforms. It is forbidden to store accumulator batteries, acids, salts, alkalies and other
substances which can cause metal corrosion together with diesel engines and spare parts in
one room.
In case of short-time storage of a tractor, a harvester, a machine in outdoor area or
under a tent (10 days – 1 month), do the operations in accordance with clause 3.1.5.1.
Before placing a tractor, a harvester, a machine in operation, execute all preparatory
works in accordance with clause 3.1.6.1 or clause 3.1.6.2.
6. TRANSPORTATION
By engine transportation all external orifices shall be closed with plugs.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Engine transportation shall provide protection against moisture attack and mechanical
damages under storage conditions 2 (C) GOST 15150-69.
Positioning and fastening of engines when transported in closed railway cars shall
comply with the requirements of “Technical conditions of freight handling and fastening”,
Ministry of railway, 1969, and also “Rules of freight hauling”, published by “Transport”,
Moscow, 1977.
In case of hauling by automobile transport, loading, positioning, fastening, covering and
unloading shall comply with “Rules of freight hauling by automobile transport”, approved
by Ministry of automobile transport of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on
July 30, 1971.
7. RECYCLING
The engine does not contain substances which are dangerous for life, health, people and
environment.
To recycle the engine after its life end it is necessary to do the following:
- drain oil from the lubrication system and send it for reprocessing in a set order;
- drain coolant from the cooling system (if it was used during engine operation) and put
it into containers destined for storage;
- carry out complete engine disassembly into parts, sorting them to steel-made, ironmade, aluminum-made, made of non-ferrous and precious metals, rubber and plastic, and
send for reprocessing in a set order.
In case of carrying out maintenance or running maintenance of the engine, parts and
assembly units subjected to replacement (if necessary) shall be sent to reprocessing,
herewith assembly units shall be taken into parts and sorted according to their material.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex А (referential)
Chimmotology list
Table А.1
Ref.
numb
er
Assembly unit name,
index
(stand-alone device,
mechanism, friction
unit)
Amount
of
assembly
units in
item, pcs
Designation and denomination of petroleum
oil and lubricant (POLs)grades
Basic
1
Fuel tank
1
Duplicating
Diesel fuel, the specifications Not available
of which comply with
requirements of STB 16582006 with sulfur content not
more than 50 mg/kg (0,005%)
of a grade (for moderate
climate) or of a class (for
arctic and cold climate) in
accordance with ambient
temperature at a place of
engine operation.
Reserve
Not available
Foreign
Mass
(volume) of
POLs filled in
an item by
replacement
(adding), kg
(dm³)
Periodicity
of POLs
replacement
(adding),
h
Diesel fuel,
the
specifications
of which
comply with
requirements
of EN
590:2004 with
sulfur content
not more than
50 mg/kg
(0,005%)
Note
According to
Directive
2004/26/EU and
Rules of UN's
Economic
Commission for
Europe No 96 (02)
(stage IIIA) it is
allowed to use fuel
with sulfur content
not more than
0,3g/kg (0,03%)
Notice:
For moderate climatic zones it is recommended to use the following fuel grades
with the given ambient temperature (Сº):
Temperature (Сº) up to (not
+5
lower)
Fuel grade
A
0
-5
B
C
-10 -15 -20
D
E
F
For arctic and cold climate it is recommended to use the following fuel classes with the given
ambient temperature (Сº):
Temperature (Сº) up to (not
lower)
Fuel class
-20
-26
-32
-38
-44
0
1
2
3
4
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Seasonal use of diesel fuel grades in the Republic of Belarus depending on the ambient temperature
Summer period
Grade В
Up to 0º С (not lower)
From May 1 till September 30 (5 months) –
agreed upon with a consumer
Grade С
Up to -5º С (not lower)
From April 1 till October 30
(7 months)
Winter period
Grade F
Up to -20º С (not lower)
From November 1 till March 31
(5 months)
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Table А.1 continued
Ref.
numb
er
2
Assembly unit name,
index
(stand-alone device,
mechanism, friction
unit)
Oil sump*
Amount
of
assembly
units in
item, pcs
Designation and denomination of petroleum
oil and lubricant (POLs)grades
Basic
Duplicating
Reserve
1
Foreign
Mass
Periodici
(volume) of
ty of
POLs filled in POLs
an item by replacem
replacement
ent
(adding), kg (adding),
(dm³)
h
Note
In summer (stationary ambient temperature higher than +5º С)
10,7 (12)**
250
Motor oil
Not available
Not available Motol oils
«Lukoil
Liqui Moly Super Leichtlauf
Avangard
SAE 10W-40,
125
For diesel engines,
Extra»
BP Visco 3000
mounted in harvesters
SAE 10W-40
SAE 10W-40,
Shell Helix Plus
SAE 10W-40,
Use of motor oil depending
Elf Competition SX
on operation conditions:
SAE 10W-40,
а) summer (plus 5˚С and
Agip 2000 GPX
higher) – SAE 30; SAE
SAE 10W-40,
10W-40 (30); SAE 15W-40
Esso Ultra Oil X
(30); SAE 20W-40 (30)
SAE 10W-40,
б) winter (minus 10˚С and
Mobil Super Formula
higher) – SAE 20; SAE
SAE 10W-40
10W-40 (30)
In winter (stationary ambient temperature below +5º С)
в) winter (minus 20˚С and
Motor oil
Not available
Not available Motor oils
higher) – SAE 10W-20 (30,
«Lukoil
Liqui Moly Diesel Synthoil
40); SAE 5W-30 (40)
Avangard
SAE 5W-40,
г) winter (below minus 20
Ultra»
Ethyl Hitec 5909,
˚С) – SAE 5W-30 (40);
SAE 5W-40
Castrol TXT Softec Plus,
SAE 0W-30 (40)
Elf Synthese SAE 5W-40,
Esso Ultron SAE 5W-40,
Shell Helix Ultra
SAE 5W-40,
Mobil 1 Rally Formula
SAE 5W-40
* All oil grades presented in the chimmotology list shall comply with classes CH-4, CI-4 under classification API and with E4-99, 5-02 under classification АСЕА
**- oil mass (volume) is defined by topping to the upper mark on oil dipstick when refilled.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Table А.1 finished
Assembly unit name,
index
Ref.
(stand-alone device,
numb
mechanism, friction
er
unit)
Amount
of
assembly
units in
item, pcs
Designation and denomination of petroleum
oil and lubricant (POLs)grades
Basic
3
4
5
Water pump
(bearing cavity)
High-pressure fuel
pump
Cooling system
volume (without a
radiator and
connection
pipelines)
Duplicating
Reserve
Foreign
Mass
(volume) of
POLs filled in
an item by
replacement
(adding), kg
(dm³)
1
Grease Litol-24-MLi4/12-3
GOST 21150-87
1
1
Not available
Shell Retinax EP,
0,045 (0,05)
Shell Retinax HD
Motor oil, the same as in engine crankcase
Low-freezing coolant «Tosol
Dzerzhinsky TS-40»,
(up to minus 40ºС)
«Tosol Dzerzhinsky TS-65»
(up to minus 65ºС) produced
by LLC “Tosol-Sintez», town
of Dzerzhynsk , Russian
Federation
TU 2422-050-36732629-2003
Low-freezing coolant OZH-40
(up to minus 40º С), produced
by JSC “Lesokhimik”,
Borisov, Republic of Belarus
GOST 28084-89
Low-freezing coolant “SiburPremium”
OZH-40 (up to minus 40ºС),
OZH-65 (up to minus 65ºС)
TU 2422-054-52470175-2006
produced by JSC “SiburNeftehim”, Dzerzhynsk,
Russian Federation
Low-freezing coolant
“Tasol-АMP 40” (up to minus
40°С)
TU BY 101083712.009-2005
produced by RUE
“Gomelkhimtorg”, Gomel,
Republic of Belarus
Coolant
OZH-40 (up
to minus
40ºС)
OZH-65 (up
to minus
65ºС)
GOST 2808489
Not
available
Periodicity
of POLs
replaceme
nt
(adding),
h
Oncethrough
8,1 (7,5)
Put in by a manufacturer.
It is not required to add
grease during operation
By installation of a new or a
repaired pump
0,225 (0,25)
MIL-F-5559
(BS 150)
(США)
FL-3 Sort S-735
(England)
Note
Once in
two
years
Check of coolants by a
consumer is necessary
against incoming
inspection
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex B (referential)
Quantity sheet of spare parts, tools and accessories (spare parts, instrument)
Table B.1 –Tools and fixtures
Designation of a tool, accessory
50-3901034
60-3901034
Product code
47 5341 2815
47 5341 3054
Name of a tool, accessory
Plate 0,25х100
Plate 0,45х100
Amount in a kit
1
1
Note
Lay-in point –
CHP-10-01
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex C (referential)
Size groups of cylinders and pistons
Table C.1
Group marks
Sleeve diameter, mm
Piston skirt diameter, mm
+0.06
110 + 0.04
110 −−00..0507
Б (B – eng.)
110 ++00..0402
110 −−00..0709
С (S – eng.)
110 −−00..0911
М (M – eng.)
110 +0.02
One engine kit shall consist of pistons, connecting rods and piston rings of the same
weight group, weight difference of connecting rods in a set with pistons shall not exceed
30 g.
Nominal dimensions of crankshaft main and connecting rod journals
Table C.2
Designation of liner
rating
1Н
2Н
Journal diameter, mm
Main journal
Connecting rod journal
−0.082
75,25 −0.101
68,25 −−00..077
096
−0.082
−0.077
75,00 −0.101
68,00 −0.096
Table C.3
Diesel engine Д-245.35Е3
Journal diameter, mm
Designation of liner
rating
Main journal
Connecting rod journal
−0.085
85,25 −0.104
73,00 −−00..100
1Н
119
−0.085
−0.100
85,00 −0.104
72,75 −0.119
2Н
Main and connecting rod journals and crankshaft bearing liners are made in two rating
dimensions.
Crankshafts, main and connecting rods of which are made according to the second rating
dimension, have additional designation on the first cheek:
“2К” – main journals of the second rating;
“2Ш (2SH)” – connecting rods of the second rating;
“2КШ (2KSH)” – main and connecting rod journals of the second rating.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex D (referential)
Engine adjusting parameters
Table D.1
Denomination
1 System oil pressure (on hot engine) at
rated crankshaft speed
2 Coolant recommended temperature
(heating rate)
3 Clearance between rocker poll and valve
stem end on cold engine for inlet and
outlet valves:
а) for inlet valves
b) for outlet valves
4 TDC timing angle for:
5 Torque of main threaded fasteners:
- main bearing bolts
- bolt nuts of rod bearings
- cylinder head attachment bolts
- flywheel attachment bolts
- balance weight attachment bolts
- nozzle attachment bolts
- crankshaft pulley attachment bolt
Unit of
measure
MPа
rated
0,25 - 0,35
accepted
0,13
°С
85-95
100
Value
mm
0,15-0,30
0,25 +−00..0510
0,35-0,50
0,45 +−00..0510
See table 13
N.m
210-230
180-200
210-230
240-260
120-140
20-25
270-300
Annex E (referential)
Adjusting parameters of fuel pump PP4M10U1i 3793 when checked on the stand.
Fuel pump shall be adjusted in the stand MOTORPAL NC132:
- nozzles BOSCH 1 688 901 101 (Ø0,6 mm, opening pressure is 20.7 MPa);
- fuel pipelines Ø6/Ø2 – 600 mm;
- test fluid ISO 4113 (SHELL S.9365), temperature - 40º±2º С;
- pressure valve is adjusted at 0,16 – 0,20 MPa.
1
Section adjustment
for equal deliverу
Overtravel
adjustment
Negative correction
adjustment
2
3
4
1100
Max.
difference
between
sections
(mm3/stroke)
Limiting
values of fuel
delivery
(mm3/stroke)
Revolutions
(min-1)
Operation
Operation
No
Table E.1
Note
Excessive pressure corrector shall be taken out of service by means of a fixture – refers to operation 2÷9.
Negative corrector spring shall be displaced by a bolt from idle position by 90º±5º of bolt revolution –
preliminary done during production.
Jutting of control rod shall be adjusted by adjusting bolt up to the level
1100
153,0÷156,0
8,0
of approximately 1,5 mm from high-pressure fuel pump body end.
Beginning of control rod
1120÷1140
Adjusted by regulator cam stop bolt
travel in “STOP” direction
“STOP”. Setting lever stop bolt shall be screwed to contact the setting lever and then unscrewed by
max.1230
1.25 revolutions (i.e. 1 mm)
Complete sleeve of idle running shall be unscrewed from the main
100
145,0÷148,0
8,0
lever.
If necessary adjust by changing of negative corrector shift.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Adjustment of start
ending
Positive correction
adjustment
Adjustment of start
ending
7
A complete sleeve of idle running shall be screwed in the main lever so that automatic start ended at
450÷490
this speed. Start ending is controlled by speed decreasing.
138,0÷142,0
8,0
Fuel supply shall be adjusted by screwing a corrector in the regulator
800
(10,0)
(136,0÷144,0)
main lever.
6
8
420÷450
Delivery for starting
9
10
Excessive pressure
corrector
adjustment
Control of idle
running
11
700
13
800
14
400
15
16
350
max. 525
17
Control of Speed
switch
18
Control of rated
delivery
19
130,0÷150,0
12,0
(130,0÷150,0)
(20,0)
128,0÷132,0
(126,0÷134,0)
138,0÷142,0
(136,0÷144,0)
20,0÷24,0
8,0
(10,0)
8,0
(10)
6,0
(18,0÷26,0)
(10)
min. 40
-
Mount a plug of control rod arrester. Control of supply for start in
control lever position “МАКС” (“MAX”) and “ХОЛ. ХОД”(“IDLE
RUNNING”).
Bring the excessive pressure corrector into service by a fixture. Set the stop lever into position “STOP” and back
into position “RUN”. Connect a pressure air line. Adjustment and supply control are carried out by means of
gradual increase of speed and air pressure by data under clauses 11÷19
122,0÷126,0
8,0
The pressure is 0,0MPa. The control lever is in “МАКС” (“MAX”)
position. The supply shall be adjusted by the adjusting bolt of the
500
(122,0÷128,0)
(10,0)
excessive pressure corrector.
100
12
Adjustment of
control rod switch
Automatic start ending is controlled (aligned if necessary) by the adjusted positive corrector.
The pressure is 0,113 МPа. The supply is adjusted by displacing the
spring of excessive pressure corrector.
The pressure is 0,120 МPа. Control of supply and correction ending by
the excessive pressure corrector.
The pressure is 0,0 МPа. The supply shall be adjusted by the bolt of
idle running arrester. Control of stop setting function. In case of a stop
the supply shall be zero.
The pressure is 0,0 МPа. Control of idle running supplement.
«STOP» of idle running.
Mount a fixture with micrometer in a hole opposite the control rod. Adjust the supply in conformity with the
instruction.
118,0÷122,0
The pressure is 0,131 МPа. The disconnect switch shall be adjusted by
turning the adjusting bolt. So that engagement/disengagement (light
1100
(116,0÷124,0)
emitting diode glows/ doesn't glow) occurred in the supply interval.
Mount the cover.
The pressure is 0,131 МPа. Adjust the supply with the fixture with
1100
110,0÷113,0
micrometer so that all switches were linked (the LED glows).
670
The same
Control of switches disconnect (the LED doesn't glow).
position of
720
Control of switches disconnect (the LED glows)
micrometer
145,0÷148,0
8,0
The pressure is 0,131 МPа. Control of operation No2. Tighten bolts of
1100
sections, mark their position. Control of the stop setting function. In
(143,0÷150,0)
(10,0)
case of the stop the supply shall be zero.
Note: It is impossible to check clauses 5 and 6 by the pump maladjusted.
Values in brackets are given for adjustment on the other stand.
Annex E (referential)
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex E (referential)
Operation
Stop
Adjustment control of stop lever by stop
solenoid
1. The stop lever shall be mounted and fixed on the control shaft in the extreme position
OPERATION so that the angle between the lever axis and the horizontal was 77º ÷
90º.
2. Holding the stop level in the extreme position OPERATION, screw out the articulated
rod until the electromagnet core shifts against the stop and starts to force down the
stop lever. From this moment on, screw out the rod by two revolutions more.
3. Fix the rod with a lock nut.
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex F
Identification of engine and turbocharger faults
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Engine fault
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Х
Bearing case is damaged with carbon
Х
Х
Х
Exhaust pressure decrease
High pressure in outlet pipeline
High pressure of crankcase fumes
Insufficient lubrication
Excessive lubrication
Low compression
Oil in combustion chamber
Bad injection
Content of foreign particles
Foreign particles in exhaust
Vibration
Turbocharger is out of order
Symptom
Х
Turbine operating wheel is damaged
Х
Х
Х
Х
Excessive oil consumption
Х
Х
Х
Black smoke
Х
Power decrease
Х
Х
Х
Х
Blue smoke
Х
Х
Х
Inspect
Air filter for cleanliness. Air delivery pipe is too narrow, loose (leaky) connections.
Constricted (damaged, leaky, loose) connection between the turbocharger and the
engine).
The outlet pipeline (sealing) is loose, damaged, leaky.
There are obstacles in the outlet pipeline, the outlet pipeline is damaged.
Engine breather for cleanliness
Turbocharger delivery pipeline for cleanness
Turbocharger oil outlet pipeline is constricted
Condition of valves, pistons and piston rings
Condition of valves and guides, piston rings for wear
Fuel pump and injection nozzles
Air purifier (completeness, cleanness)
The turbine casing is damaged, missing part of the turbine wheel
Installation of turbocharger on the engine
Remove the turbocharger and send it for repair.
Compressor wheel is damaged
Х
Cause
Air deficiency
Boost pressure decrease
Oil in compressor casing
Х
Х
Х
Х
Oil in turbine casing
Х
Х
Symptom
Х Х
Noisy turbocharger
Х
Х
Oil in outlet pipeline
Х
Х
Turbocharger fault
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
Annex G (referential)
Sch
eme
of
engi
ne
stra
ppi
ng
mm
(obligatory dimension)
245S3A М – 0000100 РЭ
1– beam 2 – hoist cable; 3 – clevis.
Figure 1 – Scheme of engine strapping