Owners Manual
IQ SERIES
Industrial Quasi Sine Wave
AC Power Inverter
Models
IQ12-2600
IQC12-2600
IQ12-3600
IQC12-3600
IQC24-3600
Owners Manual
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
-1-
Typical Static Inverter Installation Sketch
OEM
Alternator
OEM Wire
OEM Wire
OEM Wire
Inverter Fuse
See chart for Fuse
and Wire size.
OEM
Battery
1/0 Wire Minimum
1/0 Wire Minimum
Charging Fuses
250 amp fuse at each
end of charge cable.
Fuse pn 03644
Fuse Holder pn 03637
Inverter
Batteries
Common OEM
Ground at Starter
or Engine Block
Inverter
Batteries
Accessory
Polarized Quick
Connectors
IQ Series
Static Inverter
AC-out
Circuit
Breaker
Panel
Field AC Wiring
-2-
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 5
1.1
MODEL LISTING ....................................................................................................................................... 5
1.2
SPECIFICATIONS
FIGURE 1 SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................... 6
1.3
STANDARD FEATURES .............................................................................................................................. 7
1.3.1
IQ Series Standard Features........................................................................................................... 7
1.3.2
Additional Features on inverter models (example: IQ12-2600) ....................................................... 7
1.3.3
Additional Features on “inverter/charger” models (example: IQC12-2600).................................... 7
1.4
ACCESSORIES........................................................................................................................................... 8
1.5
DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 10
1.5.1
Quasi Sine Wave: .......................................................................................................................... 10
1.5.2
Load Demand Feature and Load Demand Mode: ........................................................................... 10
1.5.3
Automatic Transfer Switch:............................................................................................................ 10
1.5.4
Automatic Power Management: ..................................................................................................... 10
1.5.5
Ambulance Mode:.......................................................................................................................... 10
1.6
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ........................................................................................................ 11
1.7
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS......................................................................................................................... 11
1.8
EXPLOSIVE GAS PRECAUTIONS ............................................................................................................... 12
1.9
PRECAUTIONS WHEN WORKING WITH BATTERIES ................................................................................... 12
2
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION........................................ 13
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.21
2.22
2.23
3
(1) INVERTER INDICATOR LIGHT ........................................................................................................ 14
(2) ON/OFF SWITCH ............................................................................................................................ 14
(3) BATTERY LOW INDICATOR LIGHT ................................................................................................ 15
(4) OVER TEMPERATURE INDICATOR LIGHT .................................................................................... 15
(5) OVERLOAD INDICATOR LIGHT ...................................................................................................... 15
(6) BULK CHARGE INDICATOR LIGHT ................................................................................................ 15
(7) FLOAT CHARGE INDICATOR LIGHT .............................................................................................. 16
(8) AC CIRCUIT BREAKER................................................................................................................ 16
(9) AC CIRCUIT BREAKER................................................................................................................ 16
(10) AC CIRCUIT BREAKER.............................................................................................................. 16
(11) AC OUTPUT RECEPTACLE....................................................................................................... 16
(12) FRONT COVER........................................................................................................................... 16
(13) AUTOMATIC POWER TRANSFER SWITCH ............................................................................ 17
(14) AUTOMATIC THROTTLE CONTROL TERMINAL J31 ............................................................ 17
(15) REMOTE CONTROL JACK J9.................................................................................................... 17
(16) BATTERY TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION CONTROL JACK J1....................................... 17
(17) AUTOMATIC POWER MANAGEMENT (APM) PANEL JACK J8 .............................................. 17
(18) PROGRAMMING CONTROL SWITCHES ................................................................................. 18
(19) 120 VOLT AC WIRING ............................................................................................................... 19
(20) DC INPUT WIRING COMPARTMENT....................................................................................... 20
(21) GROUND WIRING LUG ............................................................................................................. 20
(22) MOUNTING BRACKETS............................................................................................................ 21
(23) COOLING FAN ........................................................................................................................... 21
INSTALLATION........................................................................................................................................ 21
3.1
3.2
3.3
UNPACKING THE INVERTER .................................................................................................................... 21
INVERTER INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................................................... 21
DC WIRING CONSIDERATIONS................................................................................................................ 21
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
-3-
Table of Contents
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4
DC WIRING INSTALLATION PROCEDURE ................................................................................................ 23
AC WIRING INSTALLATION PROCEDURE ................................................................................................ 24
REMOTE MONITOR AND CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION ....................................................................... 24
REMOTE AUTOMATIC POWER MANAGEMENT (APM) PANEL INSTALLATION............................................ 25
SYSTEM START-UP AND TESTING PROCEDURES........................................................................... 25
4.1
4.2
5
INVERTER START-UP AND TESTING......................................................................................................... 25
PROCEDURE TO CHECK BATTERY CHARGER OPERATION......................................................................... 27
THEORY OF OPERATION...................................................................................................................... 27
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6
BATTERY CHARGER POWER CONSUMPTION ............................................................................................ 27
BATTERY CHARGER OPERATION ............................................................................................................ 28
AUTOMATIC POWER TRANSFER SWITCH THEORY OF OPERATION ............................................................ 29
AUTOMATIC POWER MANAGEMENT (APM) THEORY OF OPERATION ....................................................... 31
AUTOMATIC THROTTLE CONTROL TERMINAL J31 THEORY OF OPERATION .............................................. 31
AMBULANCE MODE AND STANDARD MODE THEORY OF OPERATION ....................................................... 32
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE.............................................................................................................. 33
6.1
6.2
6.3
7
MAINTENANCE ITEMS ............................................................................................................................ 33
TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES .......................................................................................................... 33
GFCI TEST RECORD .............................................................................................................................. 35
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................ 36
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
8
INVERTER OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 36
PROBLEM LOADS ................................................................................................................................... 36
BATTERY TYPES AND RATINGS .............................................................................................................. 37
INVERTER SIZING................................................................................................................................... 38
DC POWER CONSUMPTION .................................................................................................................... 38
OVERALL SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ......................................................................................... 38
NORTH AMERICAN WARRANTY......................................................................................................... 42
LIST of FIGURES
1.2 SPECIFICATIONS
FIGURE 1 SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................ 6
FIGURE 2 IQ SERIES ILLUSTRATION ................................................................................................................... 13
FIGURE 3 PROGRAMMING SWITCH INSTRUCTION LABEL ..................................................................................... 18
FIGURE 4 DC CABLE AND FUSE SIZING CHART .................................................................................................. 23
FIGURE 5 BATTERY CHARGING GRAPH .............................................................................................................. 29
FIGURE 6 AC POWER TRANSFER SWITCH .......................................................................................................... 30
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Introduction
1 INTRODUCTION
Thank you for purchasing a Vanner Power Group IQ Series Inverter or Inverter/Charger. We are confident
that you will be satisfied with its performance and its many features. With proper installation and care, you
can look forward to years of service from this high performance product.
IQ stands for Industrial Quasi-sine wave.
The IQ Series is a family of dependable inverters (IQ models) and inverter/chargers (IQC models)
designed to meet the severe service requirements of the industrial market. All models of the IQ Series
produce quasi-sine wave AC output power.
This document will describe the operation, technical specifications and installation procedures of the
various models and accessories offered in this product family. We suggest that you familiarize yourself
with the model numbers of the inverter and optional accessories you have purchased before proceeding
with this manual. If you require additional information please contact your dealer, or contact Vanner at
800-227-6937 (800-AC Power) or 614-771-2718.
WARNING:
1.1
Before you install and use your IQ Series Inverter or Inverter/Charger
be sure to read and save these safety instructions.
Model Listing
The IQ Series product line is designed to meet the requirements of a variety of applications. In order to
meet these requirements we offer the following models:
Inverter only models
IQ12-2600
IQ12-3600
Inverter/Charger
IQC12-2600
IQC12-3600
IQC24-3600
PLEASE NOTE YOUR MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER HERE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE
Model Number ____________ Serial Number ______________ Date of Installation ______________
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
-5-
Specifications
1.2
Specifications
Figure 1
Specifications
Model Numbers
SPECIFICATIONS
AC Output Power
Continuous
Surge (3 sec ) amps
Output Voltage - All Models
Output Frequency - All Models
Output Waveform - All Models
DC Input Voltage Range
DC Input Current at no load
Inverter OFF
Inverter ON in Load Demand Mode
Inverter ON - Load Demand OFF
AC Output Wiring Method
All IQ Models (inverter only)
All circuits are breaker protected
IQ12-2600
IQ12-3600
IQC12-2600
IQC12-3600
IQC24-3600
2600 Watts
65 Amps
3600 Watts
80 Amps
120 Volts +/- 5%
60 Hz +/- 0.1 Hz
Modified Sine Wave
10.5 - 16.0 VDC
3600 Watts
80 Amps
21.0 - 32.0 VDC
60 ma
160 ma
60 ma
160 ma
1.8 amps
1 GFCI Duplex Receptacle
1 - 15 amp output terminal
1 - 20 amp output terminal
1 - 30 amp output terminal
1 GFCI Duplex Receptacle
1 - 30 amp output terminal
All IQC Models (inverter/charger)
All circuits are breaker protected
AC Input Wiring Method
All IQC Models (inverter/charger)
1 - 30 amp input terminal for charging and feedthrough
All circuits are breaker protected
1 - 30 amp input terminal for optional feedthrough only
Battery Charger (IQC Models)
60 amps
Charging Output Current
120 amps
AC Input current
Proportional to 30 amps 120VAC input @ 120 amps 12 volt output
WET Bulk Charge Voltage
14.4 vdc
28.8 vdc
WET Float Charge Voltage
13.2 vdc
26.4 vdc
GEL Bulk Charge Voltage
14.1 vdc
28.2 vdc
GEL Float Charge Voltage
13.6 vdc
27.2 vdc
AC Input Voltage Tolerance for Transfer Switch
Low Input Voltage Switchover Value
90VAC or 77VAC (Selectable)
AC Input Voltage
120 VAC + 12 volts / - 30 or -43 volts (selectable)
AC Input Frequency
60 Hz +/- 5 Hz
Transfer Switch transfer time
30 ms
System
Ambient Temperature
Continuous output at -40 to +105 degrees F (-40 to +40 degrees C)
Cooling Air
Thermostatically controlled exhaust fan
Enclosure
White painted aluminum with non-corrosive hardware
Dimensions All Models
8.4"H x 17.5"W x 14.0"D
75 lbs
Unit Weight
60 Ibs
75 lbs
-6-
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Standard Features
1.3
Standard Features
1.3.1 IQ Series Standard Features
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
True RMS regulated 120 volt AC 60 Hz Quasi-sine wave output
Output Short circuit / overload protection through electronic sensing
Output circuit breakers
Automatic shutoff for Low Battery
Automatic shutoff for Overload
Automatic momentary shutoff/restart for Over Temperature
All controls accessible from the front
AC input/output hardwire box
Load Demand including Automatic Throttle Control (1 amp ground signal)
Load Demand Enable/Disable Switch
Built-in GFCI duplex receptacle protected by a 15 amp circuit breaker.
Optional Remote Operating Panel and Remote ON/OFF Switch (capable of single wire control)
1.3.2
Additional Features on inverter models (example: IQ12-2600)
1.
Three output circuits with 15 amp, 20 amp and 30 amp output circuit breakers
1.3.3
Additional Features on “inverter/charger” models (example: IQC12-2600)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Three Stage Battery Charger
Manually initiated Equalize Charging Cycle
Adjustable charge rate
Settings for charging wet or gel batteries
No minimum battery voltage required for charging (will charge a dead battery)
Jack for optional Battery Temperature Compensation Sensor (not available as of this printing)
Automatic Power Management (charger power control to prevent overloading the AC source)
Optional Automatic Power Management Panel
Automatic Transfer Switch with 5 second acceptance time delay
Accepts one or two 30 amp AC input circuit
Inverter Disable Switch to allow passthrough and battery charging only
Charger Disable Switch to allow passthrough only
Passthrough capability while battery is disconnected
Low AC input voltage tolerance selectable between 90VAC and 77VAC
Selectable Ambulance Mode to prevent automatic inverter startup upon loss of AC input power
Please note: The Battery Charger, Automatic Transfer Switch and Automatic Power Management are
operational only when AC input power (shore power) is present.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
-7-
Accessories
1.4
Accessories
Part
Number
03644
Name
Description
Fuse, Bussmann ANL-250
250 amp DC fuse for IQC24-3600 and for 1/0 charge cable
04523
Fuse, Bussmann ANN-400
400 amp DC fuse for IQ and IQC12-2600
03646
Fuse, Bussmann ANL-500
500 amp DC fuse for IQ and IQC12-3600
03637
Fuse Holder, Bussmann 4164
Fuse holder for Bussmann ANL and ANN fuses
D08514
Remote Control Panel
Remote Control Panel with ON/OFF Rocker Switch,
Indicator Lights and 50ft 8 pin modular cord*
D07917
Remote Toggle Switch
SPDT Center OFF Momentary Toggle Switch, 25ft cable
and includes D07905 Remote Switch Adapter
D07905
Universal Remote Switch
Adapter
Modular (phone jack) Adapter with screw terminals and 2ft
modular cord*. For use with customer supplied ON/OFF
switch(s). For 12-volt single-wire ON/OFF control use with
Bosch Relay 05235.
For systems requiring multiple
switches use momentary SPDT center OFF switches.
05235
Bosch Relay, 12 volt 30 amp
Automotive 12-volt SPDT relay with 30-amp contacts
D07934
Remote APM Panel
Remote Automatic Power Management Panel w/ 25ft cord*
D08546
Cord Set, 20 Amp AC Output
120 volt, 20 amp, Twist-lock Receptacle (NEMA L5-20R)
on 1’ long 12/3 SO cable. The set includes a mating NEMA
L5-20P plug
D07924
Cord, 30 Amp AC Output
120 volt, 30 amp, Twist-lock Receptacle (NEMA L5-30R)
on 1'long 10/3 SO cable. (Does not include mating plug.)
D07923-01
Cable Set, 1/0 Quick Connect
For use with customer supplied 1/0 DC cable. The set
includes 18" long 4/0 DC input cable with polarized 350
amp quick connector and mating connector for 1/0 cable.
D07923-02
Cable Set, 2/0 Quick Connect
For use with customer supplied 2/0 DC cable. The set
includes 18" long 4/0 DC input cable with polarized 350
amp quick connector and mating connector for 2/0 cable.
D07923-03
Cable Set, 3/0 Quick Connect
For use with customer supplied 3/0 DC cable. The set
includes 18" long 4/0 DC input cable with polarized 350
amp quick connector and mating connector for 3/0 cable.
D07923-04
Cable Set, 4/0 Quick Connect
For use with customer supplied 4/0 DC cable. The set
includes 18" long 4/0 DC input cable with polarized 350
amp quick connector and mating connector for 4/0 cable.
*The orientation of the wire colors in IQ Series modular cord connectors are identical, not mirrored.
-8-
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Accessories
Inverter Power System
INVERTER
ON
BATTERY LOW
OVER TEMP / OVER LOAD
CHARGER-BULK
CHARGER-FLOAT
OFF/RESET
R
INCORPORATED
Remote Control Panel D08514
Shore Power Service
15 Amps
20 Amps
10 Amps
30 Amps
D07934 Remote APM Panel
built before Inverter/Charger
serial number 02154-049638
Charger Current Limit
10 Amps
OFF
15 Amps
30 Amps
D07934 Remote APM Panel
built after Inverter/Charger
serial number 02154-049638
Remote APM (Automatic Power Management) Panel D07934
The optional Remote APM Panel, part number D07934, is designed for use with Inverter/Charger Models
IQC12-2600, IQC12-3600 and IQC24-3600.
Label Clarification: The D07934 Remote APM Panel has been built with two different labels.
The label was updated to show APM values for IQC Inverter/Chargers effective serial number
02154-049638 (June 3, 2002). APM values selected by the Remote APM Panel are
determined by the IQC inverter/charger serial number regardless of the APM Panel label.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
-9-
Definitions
1.5
Definitions
1.5.1 Quasi Sine Wave:
Quasi Sine Wave Inverters are sometimes called "modified sine wave inverters" or "modified square wave
inverters." Quasi sine wave inverters produce an AC output wave different from the power produced by
the electric utility companies and rotating generators. Although this waveform has a higher peak voltage
than do square wave inverters, its peak voltage is not as high as a pure sine wave. Therefore, AC loads
containing power supplies might not always operate properly on the quasi sine wave inverters.
1.5.2 Load Demand Feature and Load Demand Mode:
The Load Demand Feature is an energy conserving feature which allows the inverter to enter the ‘Load
Demand Mode’ whenever the inverter is ON and the AC load has been less than 5 watts for
approximately 5 seconds. While in the ‘Load Demand Mode’ the inverter does not produce 120 volts AC
but instead produces pulses of reduced AC voltage, which the inverter uses to look for a load. When an
AC load greater than 5 watts is sensed, the inverter will turn fully ON to produce 120 Volts AC. The ‘Load
Demand Mode’ is often also described as ‘stand-by mode’ or ‘sleep mode’. While in the ‘Load Demand
Mode’ the inverter consumes approximately 140 milliamps of 12 volt DC power.
The Load Demand Feature can be turned OFF by setting Selector Switch 2 to the OFF position. This will
cause the inverter to remain fully ON, producing 120 Volts AC, whenever the inverter switch is ON and
regardless of AC load. It is desirable to do this when the device being powered draws less than 5 watts.
An example of such a device is a plastic pipe fusion machine, which draws less than 5 watts during the
‘coupling cooling time’. With the Load Demand Feature turned OFF and operating no AC load the
inverter consumes approximately 1.8 amps of 12 volt DC power.
1.5.3 Automatic Transfer Switch:
The Transfer Switch is a standard feature provided on all IQC models. The Transfer Switch automatically
allows input power, from an external AC power source such as shore power or a generator, to pass
through the inverter output circuit and be used to operate inverter loads.
1.5.4 Automatic Power Management:
The IQC’s AC Input 1 is the source of AC power for battery charging and also may provide passthrough
power for AC loads. The Automatic Power Management (APM) circuit monitors total AC amps on the
IQC’s AC Input 1 and reduces the battery charger’s AC power consumption when necessary so that total
AC1 amps do not exceed the APM Setting. The APM circuitry does not limit AC power passing through to
AC loads. The default APM Setting is 30 amps. By using the optional D07934 Remote APM Panel the
APM Setting can be adjusted to lower values. (More details can be found in the Automatic Power
Management description of operation.)
1.5.5 Ambulance Mode:
The primary purpose of Ambulance Mode is to prevent the inverter from coming ON and running down
the ambulance’s battery when the shore power cord accidentally becomes unplugged.
In Ambulance Mode of operation the IQC performs similar to Vanner’s 20-1050CUL Ambulance
inverter/charger. The charger will turn ON and shore power will pass through as soon as shore power is
connected to AC1. The ON/OFF Switch must be in the RUN position but the charger does not need to be
manually turned ON. When shore power is disconnected, the inverter will not turn ON until the ON/OFF
Switch, or remote switch, is manually pushed to the Start position.
- 10 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Important Safety Instructions
If Ambulance Mode is not selected the inverter/charger will function in Standard Mode. In Standard Mode
the charger will not turn itself ON when shore power is connected. The inverter must already be ON or the
charger must be ‘started’ by pushing the ON/OFF Switch to the Start position. In Standard Mode, when
shore power is disconnected the inverter will automatically come ON.
1.6
Important Safety Instructions
This manual contains important safety and operating instructions for the Vanner Power Group “IQ Series”
Power Inverter and Inverter/Charger System as prescribed by Underwriters Laboratory (UL). The IQ
Series Inverter and Inverter/Charger Family is listed as compliant with UL 458 (only if the UL/CUL
symbol is on the front of the unit), Power Converters/Inverters and Power Converter/Inverter Systems
for Land Vehicles. The Vanner Power Group “IQ Series” also is listed to the Canadian National Standard
CSA – C22.2 No. 107.1 – 1951.
SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS
WARNING
This equipment employs components that tend to produce arcs and sparks. To prevent
fire or explosion, DO NOT install in confined areas or compartments that contain batteries
or flammable materials.
WARNING
Risk of electrical shock. Use only the ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) receptacle(s)
or circuit breaker(s) specified in the installation and operating instructions supplied with
this inverter. Other types may fail to operate properly when connected to this equipment.
CAUTION
Read owners manual BEFORE wiring or powering up.
CAUTION
DO NOT cover or obstruct ventilation openings. DO NOT mount in zero-clearance
compartments. Overheating may result which may diminish system capacity.
NOTICE
The output of this device in not sinusoidal. The IQ SERIES inverter has a total harmonic
distortion of 34.6 percent and maximum single harmonic of 24 percent.
1.7
General Precautions
1. Do not expose the Vanner IQ series Inverter to direct water spray or snow.
2. To reduce the risk of a fire hazard, do not cover or obstruct the ventilation openings.
3. Do not cover or obstruct ventilation openings. Do not install this unit in a zero clearance compartment.
The result may be overheating which may diminish performance.
4. To avoid the risk of fire, electric shock, or injury to persons, do not use attachments not
recommended or sold by the Vanner Power Group
5. Vanner recommends that all DC and AC electrical wiring be performed by a certified electrician or
technician to ensure compliance with all proper national and local wiring regulations.
6. To avoid a risk of fire and/or electric shock, always verify wiring connections are in good electrical
condition. All external conductors must use proper wire size to avoid dangerous overheating or
diminished performance.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 11 -
Important Safety Instructions
7. If the Vanner inverter system has been dropped or damaged in any way, do not operate until its
operation has been verified to be safe by a qualified technician.
8. To reduce the risk of electric shock always disconnect the AC and DC connections to the Vanner
Inverter system before attempting any maintenance. Simply turning the unit off does not prevent
electric shock.
9. The Vanner “IQ Series” inverter system must be properly grounded in accordance with local and
national codes and ordinances before operation. For most installations the negative (ground)
conductor should be bonded to the grounding system at one and only one point in the system.
10. Do not disassemble the IQ Series Inverter/Charger; see the service section of this manual for
instructions on obtaining service for the IQ Series Inverter/Charger. Attempting to service the unit
yourself may result in a risk of electrical shock or fire
1.8
Explosive Gas Precautions
1. This equipment contains components, which tend to produce arcs or sparks. To prevent fire or
explosion do not install in compartments containing batteries or flammable materials or in locations,
which require ignition, protected equipment. This includes any space containing gasoline-powered
machinery, fuel tanks, or joints, fittings, or other connection between components of the fuel system.
2. Working in the vicinity of a lead-acid battery is dangerous. Batteries generate explosive gases during
normal battery operation. To reduce the risk of battery explosion, follow these instructions and those
published by the battery manufacturer and the manufacturer of the equipment in which the battery is
installed.
1.9
Precautions When Working with Batteries
1. Always have someone within range of your voice to come to your aid when you work near a lead-acid
battery.
2. Have access to plenty of fresh water and soap nearby in case battery acid contacts skin, clothing, or
eyes.
3. Always wear complete eye protection and clothing protection. Avoid touching eyes while working near
batteries.
4. If battery acid contacts skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap and water. If acid enters eye,
immediately flood eye with running cold water for at least 20 minutes and get medical attention
immediately.
5. NEVER smoke or allow a spark of flame in the vicinity of batteries. Gases produced by batteries are
explosive.
6. Be careful when working with metal tools around batteries. Potential for spark exists or short-circuit
of the battery or other electrical part that may cause an explosion.
7. Never charge a frozen battery. Attempt to warm battery above 32 degrees F before charging.
- 12 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Component Identification and Desription of Operation
2
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION and DESCRIPTION of OPERATION
Numbered paragraphs in this section correspond with Figure 2 – Inverter Illustration.
Figure 2
IQ Series Illustration
FIGURE 2 - IQC SERIES INSTALLATION
INVERTER
BATT
OVER
OV ER
LOW
TEMP
LOAD
BULK
FLOAT
CB-1
CB-2
CB-3
START
15 A MP - 120 VOLT
ON
OFF/RES ET
1
2
3
5
4
13
14
15
7
9
6
16
11
8
17
12
10
18
19
20
CO NTR
OL
SWITCH
ES
APM
BATT
AC1
TEMP
AUTO
THR OT
REM
OTE
AC2
AC3
21
22
23
PICTURED: MODEL IQC INVERTER/CHARGER WITH FRONT COVER REMOVED
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 13 -
Component Identification and Description of Operation
2.1
(1) INVERTER Indicator Light
Light Action
Description
Green Light is OFF
Inverter circuit is OFF
Solid Green
Inverter is ON (producing AC power)
Fast Blinking Light
(2 blinks per second)
Inverter is in Load Demand Mode
IQC Models (Inverter/Charger) in Charger Mode (This is when shore power to AC1 is ON.)
Slow Blinking Light
(1 blink per second)
2.2
Shore power is supplying AC power to the loads.
(2) ON/OFF Switch
The ON/OFF switch is a three-position rocker switch whose function is similar to the ignition switch on a
vehicle. The low position is OFF/RESET. The middle position is ON (RUN). The high position is START,
which is a momentary position.
IQ Models and IQC Models in Inverter Mode (This is when shore power is OFF.)
OFF
In the OFF position the inverter is locked OFF. The indicator lights do not function and
the inverter cannot be started from a remote switch. (Please note that this does not
disconnect power from the inverter system.) Approximately 50ma is being drawn from the
battery.
ON (RUN)
The switch must be in the ON (RUN) position for the inverter to be operational and for
remote switch capability to be enabled.
START
Press the switch to the START position to start inverter operation.
RESET
If the inverter has turned itself OFF due to overload or low battery, the switch must be
moved to OFF/RESET before the inverter can be restarted.
IQC Models (Inverter/Charger) in Charger Mode (This is when shore power is ON.)
OFF
In the OFF position the charger is locked OFF. The indicator lights do not function and
the charger cannot be started from a remote switch. (Please note that this does not
disconnect power from the inverter system.) No power is being drawn from the battery.
Power on AC input is being monitored for proper voltage and frequency but power will not
be accepted for charging or passthrough.
ON (RUN)
- 14 -
The switch must be in the ON (RUN) position for the charger to be operational and for
remote switch capability to be enabled.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Component Identification and Desription of Operation
START
2.3
Press the switch to the START position to initiate acceptance of AC input for
charger/transfer switch function and to start charger operation This is necessary when
the inverter is in Standard Mode but not necessary when in Ambulance Mode.
(3) BATTERY LOW Indicator Light
Light Action
Description
Solid Red
Inverter is On and battery voltage has decayed to 11 or 22 volts DC warning imminent
inverter shutdown unless battery voltage is increased by charging.
Blinking Red
Battery has decayed to 10.5 or 21.0 volts DC causing inverter shutdown. Battery must be
recharged. Then, Inverter On/Off switch must be reset to activate.
2.4
(4) OVER TEMPERATURE Indicator Light
Light Action
Description
Solid Red
Inverter or Charger has shutdown due to over temperature. Shutdown may be caused by
high ambient temperature or restricted cooling airflow to the inverter. Shutdown sensor
will automatically reset when the unit has cooled.
2.5
(5) OVERLOAD Indicator Light
Light Action
Description
Solid Red
The inverter is ON and the inverter’s AC output circuitry is sensing an overload condition.
If the AC load is not reduced the inverter will shut itself OFF.
Blinking Red
The inverter is Off. An overload has occurred and the inverter has shut off to protect
itself. Once shut off, the inverter On/Off switch must be cycled to reset the unit.
2.6
(6) BULK CHARGE Indicator Light
IQC Models
The Bulk Charge indicator light is present on all models but is functional only on IQC Models.
(See ‘Battery Charger Theory of Operation’ for battery charging performance details.)
Light Action
Description
Blinking Yellow
The unit is in Charger Mode (shore power is ON) and the charger is in either the
BULK STAGE or ABSORPTION STAGE of the battery charging cycle.
Solid Yellow
The unit is in Charger Mode (shore power is ON) and the charger is in the
EQUALIZATION CYCLE.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 15 -
Component Identification and Description of Operation
2.7
(7) FLOAT CHARGE Indicator Light
The light is present on all models but is functional only on IQC Models.
(See ‘Battery Charger Theory of Operation’ for charger performance details.)
IQC Models
Light Action
Description
Solid Green
The unit is in Charger Mode (shore power is ON) and the charger is in the FLOAT
STAGE of the battery charging cycle.
Blinking Green
Both the Battery Charger and Inverter functions have been turned OFF by turning
Program Switches 5 and 4 to the left position. Shore power is ON. (See PROGRAM
SWITCH description.)
2.8
(8) AC CIRCUIT BREAKER
2.9
(9) AC CIRCUIT BREAKER
2.10 (10) AC CIRCUIT BREAKER
IQ Models (Inverter Only)
(8)
(9)
CB1
CB2
20 amp
15 amp
Protects AC output circuit
Protects built-in GFCI receptacle.
IQC Models (Inverter/Charger)
(8)
(9)
(10)
CB1
CB2
CB3
30 amp
15 amp
30 amp
Protects AC input circuit
Protects built-in GFCI receptacle.
Protects AC output circuit
2.11 (11) AC OUTPUT RECEPTACLE
GFCI convenience receptacle, 120vac 1800 watt maximum output, protected by 15 amp circuit breaker
CB2. The GFCI is a 15 amp receptacle and is protected by a 15 amp breaker.
2.12 (12) FRONT COVER
BE SURE THE INVERTER IS TURNED OFF AND ALL EXTERNAL SOURCES OF POWER ARE
TURNED OFF BEFORE REMOVING THE FRONT COVER. The Front Cover must be removed to access
the program switches and remote control connections located on the control circuit board.
- 16 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Component Identification and Desription of Operation
2.13 (13) AUTOMATIC POWER TRANSFER SWITCH
IQC Models only
The Automatic Power Transfer Switch is furnished only on IQC Models and consists of a circuit board
containing two relays. (IQ Models do not have the transfer switch but instead have a terminal strip in this
location.) See Automatic Power Transfer Switch Theory of Operation for performance details.
2.14 (14) AUTOMATIC THROTTLE CONTROL TERMINAL J31
All Models
Terminal J31 is provided to be used on utility vehicles where the inverter needs to operate continuous
heavy AC loads and the vehicle is equipped with an Automatic Throttle. Use J31 to turn ON the Auto
Throttle to insure that the vehicle alternator is producing maximum output whenever the inverter is
powering a load.
J31 is controlled by the Load Demand circuit therefore Programming Switch 2 must be in the ON position
when Terminal J31 is used.
J31 is a 1/4" spade terminal located in the lower right midsection of the control circuit board. The terminal
is designed to provide ground control for a Bosch relay, Vanner part number 05235 or equal. Install a 1
amp fuse in line near the inverter.
2.15
(15) REMOTE CONTROL JACK J9
All Models
Jack J9 is an 8 wire modular jack for use with optional Remote Control Switch, Remote Control Adapter
or Remote Operating Panel.
2.16
(16) BATTERY TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION CONTROL JACK J1
Jack J1 is a 4 wire modular jack for use with optional Battery Temperature Sensor. The Battery
Temerature Sensor reduces charging voltage when the batteries are in a high ambient temperature.
2.17 (17) AUTOMATIC POWER MANAGEMENT (APM) Panel JACK J8
(Jack J8 is present on all models but is functional on IQC Models only.)
IQC Models
Jack J8 is a 4 wire modular jack for use with optional Remote Automatic Power Management (APM)
Panel, Vanner part number D07934. The optional Remote APM Panel allows the APM current setting to
be adjusted to suit the circuit breaker at the shore power source. Before inverter serial number 02154049638 the APM values are 10 amps, 15 amps, 20 amps, or 30 amps. After inverter serial number
02154-049638 the APM values are zero amps, 10 amps, 15 amps, and 30 amps. See Automatic Power
Management theory of operation for performance details.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 17 -
Component Identification and Description of Operation
Figure 3
S2
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Programming Switch Instruction Label
A
B
C
D
CHARGE R
OUT P UT
AMPS
BROWN OUT
INV ERT ER
OP EN S WIT CH
CONTROL SWITCH SETTINGS
ON
OFF
HI
L OW
OFF
ON
* = INDICATED FEATURES USED ON CHARGER MODELS ONLY (IQC/IQCE)
* BAT T E RY T YP E ( POS. 1) :
A
B
ON
OFF
LOAD DEMAND
ON
OFF
OP EN S WIT CH (P OS. 4) :
BAT T E RY T Y PE
GEL
W ET
*INVE RT E R ( POS. 5) :
EQUALIZ E
*CAUTION
J8
L OAD T YP E ( POS. 2) :
* EQUALIZ E ( POS. 3 ):
TO PREVENT BATTERY DAMAGE AND ASSURE
DESIRED SYSTEM OPERATION CONSULT
OWNERS MANUAL CONTROL PANEL SECTION
FOR PROPER CONTROL SETTINGS
*BROW N OUT ( POS. 6 ):
APM (N/A ON 5 0HZ)
GEL: GEL LEAD ACID BATTERY TYPE
WET: WET (FLOODED) LEAD ACID BATTERY TYPE.
ON: LOAD DEMAND ENABLED/AUTOMATIC.
OFF: LOAD DEMAND DISABLED.
NOTE: EQUALIZE MODE SHOULD BE IN THE "OFF"
POSITION AS A STANDARD OPERATING MODE. IF BATTERIES
NEED TO BE EQUALIZED, SET SWITCH TO THE "ON" POSITION
THEN BACK TO THE "OFF" POSITION. THIS WILL INITIATE
EQUALIZE FOR ONE CYCLE. IF LEFT IN THE "ON" POSITION
BATTERIES COULD BE DAMAGED.
DEFAULT SETTING IS "B" POSITION.
OFF= INVERTER DISABLED. CHARGER AND AC TRANSFER
SWITCH WILL OPERATE.
ON= INVERTER ENABLED.
HI= UNIT SWITCHES TO INVERTER MODE WHEN AC INPUT DROPS
BELOW 90VAC (199VAC ON 50HZ)
LOW= UNIT SWITCHES TO INVERTER MODE WHEN AC INPUT DROPS
BELOW 77VAC (190VAC ON 50HZ)
CHARGER OUTPUT SETTINGS
J1
AC OUTPUT
BAT T ERY T EMP.
2600W OR 3600W
1800W
DC VOLTAGE
A (POS. 10)
12 VDC
64A
24 VDC
32A
12 VDC
32A
24 VDC
16A
B (POS. 9)
C (POS. 8)
32A
16A
16A
8A
16A
8A
8A
4A
J9
RE MOT E
D (POS. 7)
8A
4A
4A
2A
MAX AMPS
120A
60A
60A
30A
D07806-D
2.18 (18) PROGRAMMING CONTROL SWITCHES
IQ Models (Inverter only)
Only Switch 2 is functional
Switch 2 allows Load Demand to be turned ON or OFF.
IQC Models (Inverter/Charger)
All positions of the Programming Switch are functional on IQC Models.
Switch#
Position Left / Right
Function
10
9
8
7
Add 64 amps / 0
Add 32 amps / 0
Add 16 amps / 0
Add 8 amps / 0
Switches 7 through 10 add to set the bulk charge rate.
6
90VAC / 77VAC
Low AC Input Voltage switchover tolerance value.
5
Disable / Enable
Disable Inverter operation. While the inverter is disabled the
battery charger and transfer switch remain operational.
4
Disable / Enable
Disable Charger operation. The charger will be disabled only if
the inverter is also disabled at dip switch 5. The transfer switch
remains operational.
3
Start / Off
Equalize Start
2
Enable / Disable
Load Demand
1
Gel / Wet
Battery Type
- 18 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Component Identification and Desription of Operation
The battery charger will draw 27.5 AC amps from shore power when the 12 volt charging output is 120
amps. A lower charger setting will draw proportionally lower AC input amps.
2.19 (19) 120 VOLT AC WIRING
CAUTION:
BE SURE THE INVERTER IS TURNED OFF AND ALL EXTERNAL SOURCES OF
POWER ARE TURNED OFF BEFORE ACCESSING THE AC INPUT/OUTPUT WIRING.
General
AC output and input wires will enter through the two strain relief cable clamps located on the right side of
the unit.
The installer should verify that all AC circuits connected to the unit output are an insulated neutral type as
required by the National Electrical Code (NEC) article 551.
Refer to local codes for correct AC wire size appropriate for your inverter system and loads.
Ground Fault Circuit Interruption
Some installations require the installation of Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) type circuit breakers
in the AC distribution system. Because the output waveform of the inverter is not the same as that
supplied by a generator or the utility, some GFCI devices do not function properly. The following list of
GFCI circuit breakers have been tested and function properly with this inverter system.
Table 6 - Approved Ground Fault Current Interrupters (GFCI Recommendations)
Manufacturer Part Number
Manufacturer
Hubbell
GFR5252W
Hubbell
GFR5252WA
Hubbell
GFR5252I
Leviton
1591
Leviton
6599-I
IQ Models (Inverter only)
General
AC1
AC2
AC3
AC1, AC2 and AC3 are all output circuits.
AC output circuit protected by 20 amp circuit breaker CB1.
AC output circuit protected by 15 amp circuit breaker CB2. (The built-in GFCI
receptacle receives its power from AC2.)
AC output circuit protected by 30 amp circuit breaker CB3.
IQC Models (Inverter/Charger)
AC1
Primary AC input circuit protected by 30 amp circuit breaker CB1. Input voltage and frequency
are monitored for proper tolerance at all times on AC1. Input power supplied to AC1 is used for
battery charging and, when power is not applied to AC2, for passthrough to AC3.
Note: The battery charger will draw approximately 27.5 AC amps from shore power through AC1
when the 12 volt charging output is 120 amps. A lower charger setting will draw proportionally
lower AC input amps. Be careful that the AC input power required for battery charging combined
with the passthrough power required for the AC loads does not overload the AC source. Use the
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 19 -
Component Identification and Description of Operation
optional Remote Automatic Power Management (APM) Panel, Vanner part number D07934, to
limit the maximum AC input amps the charger can draw.
AC2
Optional AC input circuit used only for passthrough. Input power supplied to AC2 will pass
through only while input power is supplied to AC1. When input power is supplied to both AC1 and
AC2 then AC1 is used only for battery charging and AC2 is used only for passthrough.
The passthrough circuit automatically switches away from AC1 when input power is applied to
AC2. The passthrough circuit automatically switches back to AC1 when input power is removed
from AC2.
AC3
Notice:
AC output circuit protected by 30 amp circuit breaker CB3. (The built-in GFCI receptacle receives
its power from AC3 via CB2.)
1. When the inverter/charger is connected to an external power source, the internal circuit
breakers (CB1, CB2 and CB3) are considered supplemental and do not qualify as “branch rated”
circuit breakers. External AC circuits carrying power to and from the unit must conform to
National Electric Code and any other applicable codes.
2. The Automatic Power Transfer Switch switches both hot and neutral. For safety purposes the
inverter output neutral (terminal #8) is connected to the inverter chassis ground only when the
unit is in inverter mode. This is a requirement of the National Electric Code for all systems of this
type that neutral should be connected to ground only at the source of AC power, which is the
inverter when in inverter mode. When an external AC input (shore power, generator) is available,
the IQC Transfer Switch system breaks the connection between neutral and inverter chassis
ground. The neutral-to-ground connection for passthrough power is then provided by the AC input
source.
2.20 (20) DC INPUT WIRING COMPARTMENT
All Models
The DC wiring enclosure is located on the top right side of the inverter and contains 5/16 “
diameter studs to permit connection of two cables from the battery.
BE AWARE that, as a large number of capacitors become charged upon completion of the DC
circuit, THERE WILL BE A LARGE SPARK when the last battery connection is made. The spark
is normal and will occur every time the batteries are connected.
2.21 (21) GROUND WIRING LUG
All Models
This is a compression type terminal requiring only a flat blade screwdriver to make the
connection. This terminal has been provided for safety to prevent possible shock hazards.
Connect a #8 AWG minimum size wire to this terminal and then to the vehicle chassis ground or
to earth ground.
- 20 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Installation
2.22 (22) MOUNTING BRACKETS
All Models
The IQ Series utilizes detachable mounting brackets, which offer a variety of mounting
configurations.
WARNING:
Do not remove the plastic mounting feet. All units requires 3/4" space minimum
under the unit to allow air flow for proper cooling.
2.23 (23) COOLING FAN
All Models
The cooling fan exhausts air out through the cooling fan opening. Cool air is drawn in from the
bottom and left sides of the unit. Obstruction of the intake or exhaust air flow will create
overheating problems, which will diminish the performance of the unit.
3
INSTALLATION
3.1
Unpacking the Inverter
Inspect the shipping container and equipment for loose or damaged parts. If any damage is
found, immediately notify the freight carrier.
3.2
Inverter Installation Considerations
The wiring of your inverter installation should conform to the National Electric Code (NEC) and
any other state or local codes in effect at the time of installation. These codes have been written
for your protection and their requirements should be followed.
Mounting
Locate a secure, dry, flat horizontal or vertical surface large enough to mount the inverter. The
location should be as close to the battery as possible without being in the same compartment and
should provide adequate ventilation to maintain room temperature while the inverter is operating.
The location must allow unobstructed cooling air flow at sides and bottom of the unit, and the
location must be free from road spray, dripping water or other moisture contamination. A
recommended minimum clearance of 4 inches (102 mm) should be maintained on all sides of the
unit.
3.3
DC Wiring Considerations
BE AWARE that, as a large number of capacitors become charged upon completion of the DC
circuit, THERE WILL BE A LARGE SPARK when the last battery connection is made. The spark
is normal and will occur every time the batteries are connected.
1.
The DC cables should be as short as possible. It is more electrically efficient to run the lower
current AC wiring longer distances (see battery cable sizing table for proper size)
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 21 -
Installation
2.
3.
4.
5.
Route the DC positive and negative cables as close together as possible, and use cable ties to
keep them together. This reduces some electromagnetic radiation that could interfere with some
sensitive electronics.
On vehicle installations do not use the vehicle chassis as the DC negative conductor. Use a
cable the same size as the DC positive to go directly from the inverter to the battery negative.
Route the AC and DC power wiring separately, and with as much physical separation as possible,
from low voltage wiring such as audio and video signal wires.
DC power input cables which pass through steel or other ferrous metal walls need to pass
through the same hole. If two holes are required cut a slot connecting the two holes to prevent a
transformer effect.
WARNING:
Do not allow wire fragments or metal shavings to fall
into the DC wiring compartment or to enter the
inverter in any way.
DC INPUT WIRING CONNECTIONS
A DC fuse is required to properly protect the inverter.
The DC wiring enclosure is located on the top right side of the inverter system to permit
connection of the two cables from the battery. Cable clamps are provided to secure the cables
after they are terminated in the wiring enclosure. A removable cover allows access to the wiring
enclosure.
DC input studs have been provided to accommodate crimp or compression lugs (Vanner part no.
04505, ILSCO part no. TZ-250 #6-250 MCM or similar) with 5/16” hole with battery cable up to
4/0 AWG cable. Good DC connections are critical for the performance and safe operation of the
inverter system. Torque the DC input stud nut to 119 – 158 in. lbs. and repeat torque procedure
after 30 days. The positive and negative cables enter the compartment through separate strain
reliefs located at the upper right side of the unit.
Table below shows the recommended minimum cable size that should be used. Wire sizing
charts published in the NEC may allow a greater amp capacity than we recommend. We have
sized the cable for a maximum voltage drop to maintain better performance of your inverter
installation. For best performance, wire the DC negative directly back to the battery, and in the
case of a mobile installation, do not use the vehicle chassis as the DC negative conductor.
The wiring of your inverter installation should conform to the National Electric Code (NEC) and
any other state or local codes in effect at the time of installation. Article 551 of the NEC requires
any DC cable from a battery, which measures longer than 18 inches along its length, be protected
by a fuse.
- 22 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Installation
Figure 4
DC Cable and Fuse Sizing Chart
IQ SERIES DC Cable and Fuse Sizing Chart
Model Number
IQ12-2600
IQC12-2600
IQ24-2600
IQC24-2600
IQ12-3600
IQC12-3600
IQ24-3600
IQC24-3600
Distance from battery to inverter in feet
(Length of cable needed is 2 times the distance.)
Cable Size
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
250MCM
Fuse
Bussman Fuse
Vanner P/N
Bussman Fuse Holder
Vanner P/N
3.4
Steps
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
NR
NR
10
14
16
12
15
20
20
20
NR
NR
NR
10
12
8
13
16
20
20
ANN400
04523
4164
03637
ANN200
04522
4164
03637
ANL500
03646
4164
03637
ANL250
03644
4164
03637
DC Wiring Installation Procedure
Turn the inverter OFF and disconnect power to the wiring harness. Make sure power to the
inverter is disconnected. Verify that the inverter is turned OFF (the ON-OFF/RESET Inverter
switch is in the OFF-RESET position).
Select a location for the unit. An ideal installation location has the following characteristics:
a. Close to the battery (usually within six feet).
b. Protected from the weather.
c. Well ventilated.
Remove the cover plate on the DC cable compartment ( #20 ) exposing the positive and negative
terminal studs.
Prepare DC cable end with appropriate terminals (crimped or compression lugs), verify battery
positive cable is disconnected from battery, and insert DC cable through strain relief openings
leading to DC cable compartment. Tighten DC cable stud nuts to 119-158 in. lbs. of torque.
Tighten the two strain relief cable clamps.
After installation of DC cables, inspect the DC cable compartment to ensure that no foreign
particles (copper wire fragments) are present.
Replace the cover plate over the DC cable compartment.
Tighten DC cable stud nuts to 119-158 lbs of torque.
Route the negative and positive DC input cables from the inverter to the battery but do not
connect to battery at this time. Protect cables with grommets or other appropriate means where
they may contact hard, sharp edges throughout the installation path.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 23 -
Installation
9.
10.
11.
3.5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
3.6
Install the in-line fuse. Install an in line fuse in the red, positive DC input cable between the
battery and inverter, within 18 in. of the battery or DC wiring bus system. Be sure to mount fuse
in easily accessible location for replacement. It is also “good practice” to note on the inverter to
check the fuse condition before involving any troubleshooting procedure.
Connect Bonding Lug. ( see #21 ). Use AWG No.8 or larger copper conductor to connect chassis
bonding lug to the vehicle chassis and/or earth ground.
Do not connect the inverter to the battery at this time. Final battery connections will be made
after all installation issues have been inspected.
AC Wiring Installation Procedure
Remove the front cover of the inverter exposing the AC wiring compartment. Identify location of
AC wiring terminal block (see item 2.19).
Insert the AC line (input) and load (output) wires through the appropriate strain reliefs into the AC
wiring compartment, and tighten the strain relief with a screwdriver.
Connect the AC output wire to the appropriate Hot, Neutral, and Ground terminals inside the AC
wiring compartment using suitable wire terminators such as crimped spade or ring terminals.
Connect AC Inputs (IQC Models only). Install the two line input wires and connect them to the
appropriate Hot, Neutral, and Ground terminals for AC1 and AC2. Tighten the strain reliefs with a
screwdriver and replace the AC wiring compartment cover.
NOTE: AC Input 1 (AC1) and AC Input 2 (AC2) should be connected to two separate 30 amp
branch-rated AC circuit breakers in the main AC input distribution panel (from shore/utility power
or generator) if a 60 amp supply will be used. If a single 30 amp supply only will be used, it is only
necessary to connect AC Input 1 (no connect to AC Input 2) to a single branch-rated circuit
breaker in the main AC distribution panel. See Section 5.2, AC Power Transfer Switch for more
details.
Verify Installation. Verify all connections are tight and secure for maximum safety and
performance.
Remote Monitor and Control Panel Installation
Unpacking the Remote Monitor/Control Panel
Inspect the shipping container and equipment for loose, damaged, or missing parts. The remote
panel includes a 20-ft. interconnecting cable. If any damage is found, immediately notify the
freight carrier.
Steps
1.
Locate a suitable place to install the remote panel such as a flat surface near the power
control/distribution panel or driver’s compartment. The mounting surface should have sufficient
space to accommodate the remote panel'
s depth and cable routing. Cut surface material large
enough to accommodate the remote control box leaving sufficient surface material to attach panel
with #8 mounting screws.
2.
Route the 20-ft. interface cable from the remote panel mounting area to the inverter being careful
to avoid unprotected sharp corners or moving parts.
3.
Plug the interface cable into the inverter'
s wiring panel (RJ-11 telephone-type jack labeled J9 on
the control printed circuit board). Plug the other end of the cable into the rear of the remote
panel.
4.
Mount the remote panel using four #8 screws.
- 24 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Installation
3.7
Remote Automatic Power Management (APM) Panel Installation
Unpacking the Remote Automatic Power Management (APM) Panel
Inspect the shipping container and equipment for loose or damaged parts. If any damage is
found, immediately notify the freight carrier.
Steps
1.
Locate a suitable place to install the APM panel such as a flat surface near the power
control/distribution panel, shore power switch, or driver’s compartment. The mounting surface
should have sufficient space to accommodate the remote panel'
s depth and cable routing. Cut
surface material large enough to accommodate the remote control box leaving sufficient surface
material to attach panel with # 8 mounting screws.
2.
Route the 20ft. interface cable from the remote panel mounting area to the inverter.
3.
Plug the interface cable into the inverter'
s wiring panel (RJ-11 telephone-type jack labeled J8 on
the control printed circuit board).
4.
Plug the other end of the cable into the rear of the APM panel.
5.
Mount the remote panel using four # 8 screws.
4
SYSTEM START-UP AND TESTING PROCEDURES
WARNING:
THESE PROCEDURES ARE TO BE PERFORMED ONLY BY A QUALIFIED
INSTALLER.
After the IQ series inverter has been properly mounted with sufficient ventilation, DC cables have been
connected, AC wiring has been completed, and all remote connections have been checked, the Start-up
and Testing procedure may now be performed .
4.1
Inverter Start-up and Testing
1.
Place the System On/Off switch on the inverter and remote LED panel in the OFF position.
2.
Remove the front cover of the inverter to access the Programming Switch.
3.
Place the Load Demand switch on the internal Programming Switch 2 to the ON position to test
Load Demand function. It can be changed later if this feature is not used.
4.
Verify that the external GFCI breaker, breakers, or receptacles are reset and connect an AC load,
such as a 100-Watt light.
5.
FOR IQC MODELS - Place the Wet/Gel Setup switch to the correct position for the installed
battery type and place the Equalizer Setup switch to the OFF position.
6.
Connect both battery cables to battery and turn on the battery DC power to the inverter (if battery
switch is used).
7.
FOR IQC MODELS - Do not connect shore/utility (generator) power at this time.
8.
Place the System On/Off switch on the Inverter panel to the START position.
9.
Place the System On/Off switch on the Remote panel (if used) to the ON position.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 25 -
System Start-up and Testing Procedures
10.
Plug AC output test light (eg. 100 watt trouble light) into 15A convenience receptacle and turn on
to verify inverter produces AC power and the Load Demand function powers up from stand-by
mode. Applying any AC load greater than 5 Watts should start inverter from Load Demand “stand
by” mode.
11.
FOR IQC MODELS - Connect and activate AC shore/power (or generator).
12.
FOR IQC MODELS – When shore/utility power (or generator) has been connected the inverter
the following should occur:
If AC test light is off.
• Inverter LED will blink slowly
• Charge Bulk or Charge Float mode LEDs will illuminate. (If the battery is fully charged, it
will advance from Bulk mode to Float mode after a time delay).
If AC test light is on.
• Inverter LED will blink.
• Battery charge stage LEDs will illuminate as described above.
• The AC output test light should be on, indicating the presence of shore power and correct
operation of the AC Transfer switch.
13.
FOR IQC MODELS - Disconnect the AC shore power input. The AC output test light blinks
momentarily, indicating the operation of the Transfer switch connection to connect the AC loads
to the inverter output.
14.
The Inverter LED on the inverter control panel has a solid green light indicating correct inverter
operation. At this point, apply AC loads up to the models rated capacity to verify full-power
operation.
15.
Disconnect all AC loads. The Inverter LED blinks, indicating that the inverter has returned to Load
Demand mode.
16.
FOR IQC MODELS - Determine the correct charger output amps and place the Programming
Switch (#18) positions to match this value. Multiple switches can be activated at the same time to
combine values.
For 12-Volt models, the output amps corresponding to the switch positions are:
A
8 Amps
B
16 Amps
C
32 Amps
D
64 Amps
For 24-Volt models, the output amps corresponding to the switch positions are:
A
4 Amps
B
8 Amps
C
16 Amps
D
32 Amps
Determine the combined value of switches that match the desired charger output amps and place
these switches to the ON position. For example for a charger output of approximately 80 Amps,
the 64-Amps and 16-Amp switch positions would be ON and the 8-Amp and 32-Amp switch
positions would be OFF.
- 26 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Theory of Operation
If the Load Demand function is not appropriate for the intended application, reset the Load
Demand Switch, Programming Switch 2, to the OFF position. This will allow the inverter to be
fully On continuously unless switched off with the On/Off front panel switch or remote control.
Replace front cover of the inverter.
4.2
Procedure to Check Battery Charger Operation
Due to the amount of time to perform this procedure, verifying the battery charger function, it may
be postponed to a convenient time.
To test the battery charger operations, first discharge the battery by placing a large AC load
(approx. 50% of the unit’s rated capacity) on the system and operating the inverter with shore
power off. The AC load will discharge the battery over a time relative to the amount battery
capacity, size of load, and ambient temperature.
When the battery charge level is low, the Battery Low LED turns on and will stay on until the
battery voltage has dropped to the Battery Low shutdown stage the inverter shuts off and the LED
begins to blink. The battery voltage has decayed to 10.5 Vdc (or 21.0 Vdc for 24 volt models).
Now, apply shore power and observe the battery charger operation. The system begins with the
Charger-Bulk Light blinking, indicating bulk charge operation. This supplies a constant current
charge output. Connect an ammeter to the DC cables between the inverter and the battery to
monitor the current (DC amps), and a volt meter to the battery to monitor the battery voltage
rising.
After some time, the battery voltage rises to the Absorption voltage (14.4 VDC for wet batteries or
14.1 VDC for gel batteries). The Charger-Bulk light continues to flash, indicating the charger is in
Bulk or Absorption mode. The battery voltage remains constant (Absorption voltage value), and
the charger output current tapers off. After approximately twenty minutes, the charge advances to
Float mode. The Charger Float LED turns ON and the battery voltage drops to the float voltage
value (13.2 VDC for wet batteries or 13.6 VDC for gel batteries). The charger will remain in this
stage until shore power is removed or until the battery will again accept the bulk charge
amperage.
5
THEORY OF OPERATION
5.1
Battery Charger Power Consumption
The battery charger will draw approximately 27.5 AC amps from shore power when the 12 volt charging
output is 120 amps. A lower charger setting will draw proportionally lower AC input amps. Be careful that
the AC input power required for battery charging combined with the passthrough power required for the
AC loads does not overload the AC source. The optional Remote Automatic Power Management (APM)
Panel, Vanner part number D07934, allows remote adjustment of the maximum AC input amps the
charger can draw.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
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Theory of Operation
5.2
Battery Charger Operation
The IQ Series'Battery Charger incorporates an automatic, three-stage charger. This design enables the
unit to automatically charge batteries, maintaining the battery'
s integrity and reducing the likelihood of
premature failure. The battery charger is designed to be used with lead-acid type batteries including
sealed and gel types, but not for nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cad) or nickel-iron types.
There are three automatic charge stages; Bulk, Absorption, and Float.
Bulk Charge Stage
The Bulk Charge Stage (fixed current) provides a fixed charging current for rapid charging of the
battery bank. The charger output current is adjustable in 8-Amp steps (4-Amp steps on 24-Volt
systems), up to the maximum charger rating, to match the charging requirements of the battery.
The Bulk Stage is initiated when the battery will accept the charging amps selected. As the
battery accepts charge the battery voltage will rise to the charger'
s Bulk Voltage value, 14.4 VDC
for flooded batteries, or 14.1 VDC for gel batteries (on 24-Volt systems 28.8 and 28.2
respectively). When battery voltage reaches the Bulk Voltage Value the Bulk Charging Stage is
complete. At this point, the battery is approximately 80-percent charged.
Absorption Charge Stage
During Absorption Charge Stage (fixed voltage), the charger'
s output voltage remains fixed at the
Bulk Charge value and the output current will decrease as the battery becomes fully charged. The
Absorption Stage ends after twenty minutes and the charger advances to the Float Stage.
Float/Maintenance Charge Stage
When the charger enters Float Stage, its output voltage is reduced to the float voltage value 13.2
VDC for flooded batteries, or 13.6 VDC for gel batteries (on 24-Volt systems 26.4 and 27.2 VDC
respectively). This setting is sufficient to keep the battery charged, but not so high as to boil or
over-charge the batteries. The charger will remain in Float Stage until the battery will accept the
Bulk Charge Output Amps selected.
Equalization Cycle
This manually initiated cycle provides a 1 hour equalization charge at the Bulk Voltage level to
boil the battery. This removes the sulfate build-up on the battery plates, and is used only on
flooded lead acid batteries. Refer to the battery manufacturer for frequency recommendations.
WARNING: DO NOT USE WITH SEALED OR LEAD CALCIUM MAINTENANCE FREE BATTERIES.
The Equalization Charge Cycle is initiated by switching Program Switch 3 from OFF to the ON position.
The Equalize Cycle is automatically terminated after 1 hour. The Equalize Cycle will be manually
terminated by turning the Program Switch 3 to the OFF position or by turning the Main ON/OFF Switch
OFF or by turning shore power OFF.
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Theory of Operation
Figure 5
5.3
Battery Charging Graph
Automatic Power Transfer Switch Theory of Operation
The function of the Automatic Transfer Switch is to automatically accept AC input power from shore or generator,
and use this power to operate inverter loads and to provide power for battery charging. Upon loss of AC input
power, the transfer switch automatically switches the AC loads back to inverter power. Transfer time is
approximately 30 milliseconds (0.030 seconds). The 0.030 second transfer time allows all but the most sensitive
loads to transfer from inverter power to shore power and back to inverter power without interruption.
AC input voltage and frequency are monitored for proper tolerance at all times on AC1. When the AC input is
within tolerance for approximately 5 seconds, the power is passed through to AC3 output circuit and the IQC
automatically switches from inverter mode to battery charger mode. The IQC automatically switches back to
inverter mode when input power is disconnected or when input power is no longer within tolerance. See IQ Series
Specifications page for AC input voltage and frequency tolerances. The 5 second delay occurs only if the inverter
is fully ON when input power becomes available. There is no 5 second time delay if the inverter is in the ‘Load
Demand Mode’ when input power becomes available.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 29 -
Theory of Operation
Switch 6 on the Programming Switch allows the user to select either 90 AC input volts or 77 AC input volts to be
the Low AC Input Voltage switchover tolerance value. Set switch 6 to match the quality of AC being supplied. HI
(90 VAC) is generally used on more stable AC power (Residential or Industrial Supplies). LOW (77VAC) is used
with less stable AC power (motor generator, solar, rural supplies).
For all IQC models, the factor that determines whether the unit is in ‘inverter mode’ or ‘battery charger mode’ is
the presence or absence of ‘in-tolerance’ input power. Whenever ‘in-tolerance’ input power becomes available the
IQC automatically switches from inverter mode to charger mode.
The transfer switch switches both hot and neutral. For safety purposes the inverter output neutral (terminal #8) is
connected to the inverter chassis ground only when the unit is in inverter mode. This is a requirement of the
National Electric Code for all systems of this type that neutral should be connected to ground only at the source of
AC power, which is the inverter when in inverter mode. When an external AC input (shore power, generator) is
available, the IQC Transfer Switch system breaks the connection between neutral and inverter chassis ground.
The neutral-to-ground connection for passthrough power is then provided by the AC input source.
Figure 6
AC Power Transfer Switch
FIGURE 6 - AC Power Transfer Switch
OPTIONAL
APM
PANEL
OPTIONAL
REMOTE
PANEL
OPTIONAL BATTERY
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
MICROPROCESSOR
CONTROLLER
APM
SENSE
AC
DC
BATTERY CHARGER IN
OUT
30 AMP
BATTERY
DC
IN
INVERTER
AC
OUT
SW1
A
SW2
AC
INPUT 1
A
AC
INPUT 2
B
B
AC
OUTPUT
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Theory of Operation
5.4
Automatic Power Management (APM) Theory of Operation
‘AC power for battery charging’ enters the IQC through AC1. ‘AC power for passthrough to AC loads’ enters
through AC1 when AC2 is not used. The Automatic Power Management circuit monitors total AC amps entering
through AC1 and, when necessary, reduces the battery charger’s AC power consumption so that total AC1 amps
do not exceed the APM Setting. The default APM Setting is 30 amps. The APM circuitry does not limit AC power
passing through to AC loads. The battery charger will draw approximately 27.5 AC amps from shore power when
the 12 volt charging output is 120 amps. A lower charger setting will draw proportionally lower AC input amps.
When shore power is connected to both AC1 and AC2, then AC1 only supplies power to the battery charger and
AC2 only furnishes power to passthrough to the AC loads. Automatic Power Management still applies to AC1,
controlling the battery charger power consumption, but without being affected by power passing through to the AC
loads.
AC1 is rated 30 amps and is protected by the 30 amp input circuit breaker CB1. When AC2 is not used it is
expected that the AC current passing through to AC loads combined with AC current needed for battery charging
may exceed 30 amps. The APM circuit prevents the 30 amp breaker from tripping by reducing the battery charger
output as needed until either the AC1 input current is less than 30 amps or until the battery charger power is zero.
The optional D07934 Remote APM Panel allows adjustment of the APM Setting to values lower than 30 amps.
For inverter/charger serial numbers up to 02154-049638 the Remote APM Panel selects APM Settings of 30
amps, 20 amps, 15 amps and 10 amps. For inverter/charger serial numbers 02154-049638 and higher the
Remote APM Panel selects APM Settings of 30 amps, 15 amps and 10 amps and 0 (zero) amps.
In motor home applications where the available shore power source may be limited from campground to
campground the Remote APM Panel is useful in preventing nuisance tripping of the shore power circuit breaker.
The APM Setting can be adjusted to suite the shore power source or to zero.
As a battery charger control the Remote APM Panel can be used as an alternate, and remote, means of adjusting
the battery charger output amps to values less than the program switch setting. The ratio between battery charger
DC output amps to AC1 input amps is approximately 4:1. Remote APM Panel settings of 30, 15, 10 and 0 (zero)
correspond to battery charging DC amperages of 120 amps, 60 amps, 40 amps and 0( zero) amps.
Example 1: Shore power is connected only to AC1. AC2 is not being used. (This means the battery charger and
the AC loads are both being fed by AC1.) The Remote APM Panel is set at 15 amps. The AC passthrough load is
drawing 10 amps.
Under these conditions the APM circuit will allow the battery charger to draw up to 5 AC amps. If the
AC passthrough load is increased beyond the 15 amp APM Setting then the APM will reduce the AC power
consumed by the battery charger to zero AC amps.
Example 2: Both AC Input 1 and AC Input 2 are receiving power and the APM Panel switch is set at 15 amps.
Under these conditions the battery charger will be allowed to draw up to 15 AC amps regardless of the AC
passthrough load. This would correspond to a 12 volt battery charging setting of approximately 60 amps.
5.5
Automatic Throttle Control Terminal J31 Theory of Operation
Terminal J31 is provided on all model and is to be used on utility vehicles where the inverter needs to operate
continuous heavy AC loads and the vehicle is equipped with an Automatic Throttle. Use J31 to turn ON the Auto
Throttle to insure that the vehicle alternator is producing maximum output whenever the inverter is powering a
load.
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Theory of Operation
J31 is controlled by the Load Demand circuit therefore Programming Switch 2 must be in the ON position when
Terminal J31 is used.
J31 is a 1/4" spade terminal located in the lower right midsection of the control circuit board. The terminal is
designed to provide ground control for a Bosch relay, Vanner part number 05235 or equal. Install a 1 amp fuse in
line near the inverter.
5.6
Ambulance Mode and Standard Mode Theory of Operation
General: Ambulance Mode and Standard Mode only applies to inverter/charger models.
In both modes, if the inverter is ON when shore power is applied, the charger will turn ON and will pass
power through. Then, when shore power is removed, the inverter will automatically turn ON to continue to supply
power to the AC loads.
In both modes, if the ON/OFF Switch is in the OFF POSITION, the system is locked OFF and neither the
inverter nor the charger will operate, even if the Remote Switch is turned ON.
Standard Mode: The inverter and the charger functions are controlled together by the ON/OFF Switch. The
system will only operate like a UPS (Uninteruptable Power Supply).
When shore power is applied while the inverter is OFF, the charger will remain OFF. The ON/OFF Switch,
or Remote Switch, must be pushed to the START position to start the charger, which also allows the inverter to
come ON automatically when shore power is removed.
Ambulance Mode: (It is common in these applications for the shore power cord to accidentally become
unplugged. If the inverter were in Standard Mode and the shore power became unplugged, the inverter would
automatically come on and the vehicle batteries would be run down. Ambulance Mode is offered to prevent this.)
Intended for ambulance and fire truck applications, in Ambulance Mode the inverter will remain OFF when
shore power is removed even if the inverter was ON when shore power was connected. The system will not
operate like a UPS. After shore power is removed, the ON/OFF Switch, or Remote Switch, must be pushed to the
START POSITION to start the inverter.
As long as the ON/OFF Switch and Remote Switch are in the RUN POSITION, the charger will turn ON
when shore power is applied.
How to select Ambulance Mode: Selection is accomplished by relocating the two-pin jumper found on terminal
J3 on the LED Display Circuit Board. The factory position of the jumper is over only one pin for Standard Mode.
To select Ambulance Mode place the jumper over both pins. See Figure 1 (below).
Turn the inverter OFF. Remove the front cover of the inverter to gain access to the LED circuit board located at
the front of the inverter. Terminal J3 is a two-pin terminal identified on the circuit board and located approximately
1” above the yellow bulk charge indicator light. The factory position of the jumper is outlined on the board over
only one pin for Standard Mode.
To select Ambulance Mode remove the jumper from the factory position and reinstall the jumper over both pins of
terminal J3.
To reselect Standard Mode install the jumper over only one pin of terminal J3.
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Preventive Maintenance
Figure 1 Selecting Ambulance Mode or Standard Modes
6
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
There are no user serviceable components inside these inverters. For service refer to the Vanner Power Group
or other qualified service personnel.
6.1
Maintenance Items
For continued reliability and safety, a monthly maintenance program should be implemented to include the
following:
1.
1.
2.
3.
6.2
Check to insure that all DC and AC wiring connections are secure and corrosion free.
Check air ventilation openings for dust and other obstructions
Examine receptacle, indicators and switches for cracks and breaks.
Examine for any surfaces that are discolored or deformed due to excessive heat.
Troubleshooting Procedures
The following are the most common questions heard by Vanner service professionals. If your situation does not
apply to the following categories, please contact your local Vanner Power Group Service Center or the Vanner
Power Group Customer Service department: 1-800-AC-POWER (1-800-227-6937). Please have your model and
serial number available when consulting customer service.
ALWAYS CHECK THE FOLLOWING FIRST:
DC Fuse condition
AC output and input breakers AC1, AC2, and AC3
Check all GFCI breakers as equipped throughout AC system
Unit On/Off and Remote On/Off switch positions
Plug-in and operate an AC load from the convenience receptacle located on inverter front panel.
Check battery connections for tightness or corrosion
Check battery voltage at battery and inverter
Symptom
Solution
ON LED does not light steadily after pushing in the ON-OFF/RESET Inverter Switch.
Lamp flashes in Load Demand Waiting mode.
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
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Preventive Maintenance
FOR IQC MODELS -
Check battery connections if utility power is OFF.
Check DC fuses if utility power is OFF.
Lamp flashes when utility power is present.
Symptom
Solution
Inverter LED does not illuminate
Reset On/Off switch on unit and remote
Disconnect remote switch and attempt starting with unit On/Off switch
Check DC fuse condition
Symptom
Solution
ON lamp fully illuminates. AC load does not run.
Check and reset AC circuit breakers.
Check and reset any GFCI breakers in AC circuit.
Verify AC load and wiring are in proper condition.
Symptom
Solution
BATTERY LOW lamp illuminates when AC load is applied.
Check battery connections.
Check battery condition.
Recharge battery if voltage is less than 10.5 VDC.
Check the charging system for proper operation (vehicle alternator, PV array, generator).
Symptom
Solution
OVER TEMP lamp illuminates.
Something has caused the unit to overheat. Check for obstruction of air flow to the cooling fan or
from ventilation holes. Verify AC load is within unit'
s rated capacity.
Symptom
Solution
OVERLOAD lamp illuminates with AC load applied.
Verify AC load is within unit'
s rated capacity.
Symptom
Solution
DC fuse blows when connecting DC input cables.
Check for reverse polarity: red cable to battery positive (+), black cable to battery negative (-) The
unit may be damaged and require repair service.
Symptom
Solution
Excessive audible buzzing during inverter operation but inverter operates loads.
Check mounting bracket bolt tightness
Remount inverter with rubber insulator washers
Symptom
Solution
AC loads do not seem to be fully energized when operating from inverter power
Check AC output voltage at convenience receptacle.
Check for overheated DC or AC wiring
Symptom
Solution
Unit does not operate and a “burnt wire” smell emits from inverter
Disconnect AC loads and battery immediately
Unit may require service
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
GFCI Test Record
6.3
GFCI Test Record
For maximum protection against electrical shock hazard, operate the Test Switch on the Ground Fault Circuit
Interrupter at least once a month.
ENTER
YEAR
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUG
SEPT
OCT
NOV
DEC
20_____
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 35 -
Appendices
7
APPENDICES
7.1
Inverter Overview
An inverter converts DC electrical power into AC power. This power can be used to operate various AC-driven
appliances.
The most common battery systems are 12 or 24 volt. Some systems, however, operate on higher voltages such
as 32, 36, 48, or 120 volts. The most common inverter AC output power is 120 volts at a frequency of 60 Hz,
although some inverters are designed to produce 240 volts, or both 120 and 240 volts at 60 Hz. Because some
countries use power of different voltage and frequency (e.g. 230 volts at 50 Hz), inverters are available to conform
to these requirements.
Inverters use electronic circuits to switch DC input power at the required frequency, such as 60 Hz. This
"switched" DC resembles AC power, and is then stepped up in voltage through a transformer. The result is a
modified sine wave AC output of the required voltage and frequency that can power AC-driven equipment.
Inverter Types
The three available inverter types are distinguished by the type of AC output wave form they produce. This wave
form affects the AC loads they operate. This section provides an overview of these inverter types, including the
advantages and disadvantages associated with using each type.
Sine Wave Inverters
produce an AC output wave form like power produced by the electric utility companies and rotating
generators. The sine wave inverter'
s wave form is characterized by the highest peak voltage and smooth
voltage transitions (no square wave components). Such inverters are the most costly of the three inverter
types because they contain extra electronics to produce the required wave form.
Modified Sine Wave Inverters
are sometimes called "quasi sine wave inverters" or "modified square wave inverters."
Modified sine wave inverters produce an AC output wave different from the power produced by the
electric utility companies and rotating generators. Although this wave form has a higher peak voltage than
do square wave inverters, its peak voltage is not as high as a pure sine wave. Therefore, AC loads
containing power supplies might not always operate properly on the modified sine wave inverter.
Square Wave Inverters
are low cost devices that produce a square wave AC power output. This AC power can be an accurate 60
Hz frequency if it is crystal controlled. It does not have the peak voltage necessary to properly operate
many AC appliances that contain electronic power supplies (e.g. computers, TVs, and VCRs). The square
wave is appropriate when operating AC loads such as resistive heating devices, lighting loads or
universal motor loads.
7.2
Problem Loads
Although modified sine wave inverters will operate most AC loads, some loads may exhibit problems because the
wave form is different than the pure sine wave of utility power. This is due to the square wave components and
that the peak voltage is not quite as high as a pure sine wave. Loads that may exhibit problems include motor
speed controls found on ceiling fans and air conditioner fans; light dimmer controls; clocks; microwave ovens
(cooking time may vary and the clock may be erratic); video monitors and TVs (may have lines in the picture); AM
radios (may pick a noise); laser printers; copying machines; fluorescent lights; and power supplies in some
electronic devices. Rechargeable battery devices may also overheat and be damaged by the inverter. If you
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Appendinces
desire to operate a rechargeable battery device on the inverter you should first power it up and closely observe it
for a period of time to ensure that it does not run too hot.
7.3
Battery Types and Ratings
The batteries in general use for automotive, solar, and marine use are lead-acid storage batteries. They can be
separated into two categories according to their use: engine cranking batteries and deep cycle batteries. The
engine cranking battery is specifically designed to supply hundreds of amps for a short period of time to start an
engine. Cranking an engine usually uses a small portion of the battery'
s total capacity and once the engine is
running, the battery is quickly recharged by the engine'
s alternator. The deep cycle battery is specifically
designed to deliver current for extended periods of time and can be almost totally discharged before recharging.
The "deep cycle" lead-acid battery is designed to withstand the deep discharge/recharge cycling that is typical of
most inverter installations. These batteries are available in the "maintenance free" style where the electrolyte
does not need to be checked or replenished and they also are available in the gelled electrolyte style or "Gel
Cells". Deep cycle batteries are generally advertised for use in recreational vehicles or boats and are sometimes
referred to as RV or marine batteries.
Battery Council International (BCI) is a voluntary industry organization which has helped to standardize battery
ratings. Ratings in use at this date are: Cold Cranking Amperes (CCA), Marine Cranking Amperes (MCA),
Reserve Capacity (RC) and Ampere-Hour (A-H). The first two of these ratings are used for sizing an engine
cranking battery and have no bearing on a battery'
s cycling ability. Reserve Capacity is a rating given to cranking
batteries to give a person some idea of how long the battery may last if the vehicle charging system were to break
down and needed to continue driving the vehicle (to the nearest freeway off ramp or service station). This brings
us to the oldest and probably least understood battery capacity rating, the ampere-hour. The ampere-hour is
defined as follows:
Ampere-Hour (A-H):
A unit of measure for a battery'
s electrical storage capacity, obtained by multiplying the discharge current in
amperes by the time in hours of discharge. The rating is usually for a discharge period of 20 hours and an end
voltage of 10.5 volts. Example: A battery which delivers 5 amperes for 20 hours has a capacity of 100 A-H. 5
amperes x 20 hours = 100 Amp-Hr.)
The reason the A-H rating is misunderstood is simple. A battery that has a rating of 100 AH cannot always deliver
100 A-H. The underlying reason is the efficiency with which the battery converts its chemical energy into electric
energy. The A-H capacity of a battery is affected in the following ways:
Discharge Rate:
A battery becomes less efficient as the discharge current increases. For example, a typical 100
A-H battery is specified to be able to deliver 5 amps for a period of 20 hours. If the discharge
current were increased to 25 amps, the capacity will be reduced to approximately 75 A-H (25
amps x 3 hours = 75 A-H).
Operating Temperature:
A battery becomes less efficient at lower temperatures. Most battery manufacturers specify the
battery A-H capacity at 80øF. At a temperature of 32øF, the same battery will have only about
65% of its rated capacity even though it may be fully charged. At a temperature of 0øF, a
battery'
s capacity will be reduced to about 40% of its rated capacity.
Battery Age:
As a battery is used, some of the active material on the battery plates will deteriorate and become
useless. As the battery gets older, there will be less and less useful material left on the plates
and the operating time will become noticeably shorter. A battery will age faster (loose active
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
- 37 -
Appendices
material from its plates faster) if it is deeply discharged regularly, if it is left in a discharged state
for extended periods of time, or if it is repeatedly overcharged.
7.4
Inverter Sizing
Power output is an important consideration when purchasing an inverter. Power is defined as the rate that a
device produces (or uses) electrical energy. This rate is measured in watts of kilowatts (one kilowatt equals 1,000
watts), or sometimes in volt-amps. Volt-amps are obtained by multiplying volts times amps produced or used by a
device.
The VA (volt-ampere) rating is always equal to, or greater than the power rating of the device. The difference
between the power rating and the VA rating is called the "power factor" (PF), for example: Power Rating = VA x
PF. The inverter will protect itself based on the output current, and therefore must be sized to handle the VA
rating of the load.
To properly determine an inverter size (in watts) for your application, decide which AC loads you plan to operate.
Inverter size is the sum of the wattages of the AC loads that you wish to run at the same time, plus a safety factor
of 10 to 20 percent.
Inverter Power Ratings
Continuous Power is defined as the AC power in watts (or voltamps) an inverter can produce on a continuous
basis. The ambient temperature can affect the continuous rating of the inverter, and is normally specified, e.g., 25
C.
Surge Power is the short term duration of AC power that the inverter can produce. It is often specified as the
watts (or volt-amps) that can operate a resistive load for two or three seconds. Sometimes this specified in AC
amps because the inverter may allow is output voltage to drop (which would reduce is wattage). Like continuous
power, the surge rating is affected by ambient temperature.
The surge power that the inverter can produce is dependent on the inverter surge rating, the battery size, and
state of charge.
7.5
DC Power Consumption
An inverter takes in DC power, and produces AC power to operate attached loads. In general, we can
see a direct relationship between DC input power and AC output power. This allows us to establish the
following rule:
For every 10 watts of AC output power, an inverter requires one amp of DC input power on a 12
volt input inverter.
Example:
An inverter powering a 1,000 watt AC load requires 100 amps DC at 12 volts.
1000 watts/10 = 100 amps
Using our rule, we can determine the requirements for an electrical system needed to power our
inverter (typically, an alternator and battery combination, or a photovoltaic panel and battery
combination).
7.6
Overall System Design Considerations
To get the best performance from your inverter, it must be installed properly and have an ample DC supply. We
will not be able to cover all the possible situations encountered when installing a power inverter, but we will cover
- 38 -
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
Appendinces
the basic information required to properly size your vehicle alternator and inverter battery, as well as give some
examples of AC power distribution systems which are commonly used. Keep in mind that if information in this
manual directly conflicts with instructions from a specific battery or other equipment manufacturer, you should
follow that manufacturer'
s recommendations.
Inverter DC Input Current Requirements
A DC to AC inverter converts DC power into AC power. For the purposes of this discussion, power (watts) is
equal to the supply voltage (volts) multiplied by the current draw (amps) from the supply for both AC and DC
circuits. For example, 2400 watts = 12 volts DC x 200 amps, and 2400 watts = 120 volts AC x 20 amps. From
these two examples of 2400 watts at 12 volts and 2400 watts at 120 volts, it is easy to see that since there is a 1
to 10 voltage conversion (12 to 120), there is a 10 to 1 amp conversion (200 to 20). A more accurate relationship
between the input power and output power is:
(DC Input Power) x (Efficiency) = (AC Output Power)
This formal relationship has lead to the following rule of thumb for estimating the DC input amps for an inverter:
For 12 volt DC inverters: output watts ÷ 10 = DC input current
For 24 volt DC inverters: output watts ÷ 20 = DC input current
This rule of thumb can be used to estimate the minimum alternator size required for your application and is also
used later in calculating the minimum size battery required when operating from battery only. The following
examples should help to clarify the use of this rule of thumb.
Example A:
What is the DC current draw of a 12 volt DC input inverter when it is operating a vacuum cleaner with a
name plate rating of 6 amps at 120 volts AC?
The appliance rating is given in amperes, so we must first calculate the power it consumes. Then the rule
of thumb can be used to find the DC input current of the inverter.
Output power = 120 volts x 6 amps = 720 watts, and DC input current = 720 ÷ 10 = 72 amps DC.
Example B:
What is the DC current draw of a 24 volt DC input inverter when it is operating a toaster with a name plate
rating of 1050 watts at 120 volts AC?
Since the appliance is rated in watts, the rule of thumb can be applied directly:
DC input current = 1050 ÷ 20 = 52.5 amps DC.
This information on estimating the DC input current requirement for an inverter will allow you to size an
alternator or charging system to supply an inverter for continuous operation.
Sizing the Inverter Battery
Sizing a battery system for an inverter application can be a very tedious task if all the different variables, such as
discharge rate, depth of discharge, and operating life time are included in the calculations. To simplify these
calculations and get a reasonably correct battery size, we will assume: 1) A 50% depth of discharge for the
purpose of obtaining a reasonable life time for a reasonable battery system cost, 2) there is no charge current into
the battery system, 3) the batteries are in a fully charged state at the beginning of the discharge cycle, and 4) the
DC current draw from the battery does not exceed 1/3 the battery C rate for any length of time.
Follow the steps listed below to find the A-H capacity required for your application.
Steps
1.
Make a list of each appliance, its power requirement in watts, and the amount of time in hours it will be
operating between charging cycles.
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Appendices
2.
Calculate the watt-hours required for each appliance by multiplying the power requirement by the
operating time of that appliance.
3.
Calculate the total watt-hours needed by adding together the watt-hours of each appliance.
4.
Find the amp-hours consumed by dividing the total watt-hours found in step 3 by 10 for 12 volt DC
systems or by 20 for 24 volt DC systems.
5.
Multiply the amp-hours consumed by 2 (for 50% depth of discharge) to get the battery amp-hour capacity
desired.
DC Charging Systems
The DC charging system is a very important part of your inverter installation. The system consists of the primary
charger (engine alternator or photovoltaic array), a secondary charger, if used, the battery, and other equipment
which may be used such as battery isolator diodes. The complexity of the system depends on the way the
inverter is used. In some cases, such as utility or service vehicles, the system may be as simple as the engine
alternator and the cranking battery which also powers the inverter. In most cases, additional equipment is needed
to provide additional DC power and/or protection. These systems can be grouped into two categories, the single
battery and the dual battery systems.
In the single battery system, there is one battery which is shared for starting the engine and operating the inverter.
This is a common practice in a service vehicle where the engine runs all the time and allows the alternator to
provide continuous charging for the battery. In this case, the inverter’s auxiliary batteries can be connected
directly to the engine cranking battery. Great care should be used when operating this type of system. If the
engine were to be shut off and the inverter operated, it would not take a very long time for the inverter to
discharge the cranking battery and disable the vehicle! The most important detail of this system is the alternator
output rating. The continuous output of the alternator needs to be at least as much as the total DC current draw
on the system. The total DC current draw must include the inverter, warning lights, radios, engine controls, and
any other device connected to the DC system.
The dual battery system uses two separate batteries, one for starting the engine and operating the vehicle'
s
systems, and one for operating the inverter. The two batteries are usually referred to as the "cranking battery"
and the "house battery" respectively. The two separate batteries are usually charged from the same source, the
engine alternator, but are separated by a device called a battery isolator. The battery isolator allows DC current
to flow from the alternator into each battery, but blocks current from flowing from one battery to the other. This is
a must to protect the cranking battery in recreation vehicles, boats and other vehicles where the inverter needs to
be operated when the engine (therefore the alternator) is not running.
Up to this point we have spoken of the battery as if it were a single battery. In some cases this may be true, but in
general, the battery may be made up of several individual batteries electrically connected together to form a
"Bank" of batteries. Batteries can be connected in series, parallel, or a combination of series and parallel as long
as all of the batteries in the bank are of equal ratings, are from the same manufacturer, and are the same age.
Old and new batteries should never be mixed in the same battery bank. A series connection is where two or
more batteries are connected positive (+) to negative (-) and the total voltage of the battery bank is the sum of the
voltage of each battery in the bank. For example, most large custom coaches require a 24 volt battery to crank
the large diesel engine. The 24 volts is usually provided by connecting two 12 volt batteries in series, and
sometimes by connecting four 6 volt batteries in series. The ratings of the series connected battery bank remain
the same as the individual battery'
s rating. If the battery bank is made up of two 8D size batteries in series, each
with a CCA of 1050 amps, 425 minutes RC, and amp-hour capacity of 200 A-H, then these individual battery
ratings are also the ratings of the entire 24 volt battery bank. This unit is considered a 200 A-H battery system, but
running at 24 volts.
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Appendinces
Parallel connected batteries are batteries of the same voltage and rating which are connected positive to positive
and negative to negative. They form a battery bank that has the same voltage as each individual battery. The
ratings of a parallel connected battery bank, in general, are the sum of the individual batteries. For instance, if
two 8D batteries are connected in parallel, and each battery has the ratings given in the paragraph above, then
the ratings for the battery bank become 2100 CCA, 900 minutes RC, and approximately 400 amp-hours.
Inverter AC Wiring Applications
There are many different ways that an inverter can be installed and is probably only limited by one’s imagination
and wiring codes. There are only a few types which we will convey to you that use good engineering practices
and will cover most needs in a recreational or service vehicle.
Inverter Only Installation
The term "inverter only" means that the inverter is the only source of AC power on board the vehicle. This type of
installation is typical of a service vehicle which needs AC power to run power tools and other equipment during
the work day and does not require the inverter to operate when the vehicle engine (and therefore the battery
charging system) is not running. The AC power distribution system usually consists of an AC circuit breaker and
one or more receptacles.
Inverter with Multiple AC Power Sources
In an installation where there are multiple AC sources, the system needs to be designed so that one and only one
AC source can be connected to the distribution wiring at any one time. This is to prevent the selected power
source from back feeding one of the other power sources. It may be accomplished by using a manual transfer
switch, or an elaborate automated system which chooses and switches to the best available AC source. A very
simple manual transfer system may consist of a cable which is plugged into the desired AC source. Please note
that in all cases where a transfer switch is used, it must switch both the AC "HOT" and "Neutral". This will prevent
many problems, especially when a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) is used. Also note that the AC
distribution panel must have an insulated neutral bus. The insulated neutral is a requirement of the Nation
Electrical Code (NEC) Article 551-54(c).
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North American Limited Warranty
8
North American Warranty
____________________________________________________________________________________
NORTH AMERICAN LIMITED WARRANTY
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Vanner Inc. doing business as The Vanner Power Group, referred to herein as Vanner, warrants that this
product is free from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from date of
installation or one and one half (1-1/2) years from date of manufacture, whichever is less if and only if the
following requirement is complied with:
1. The product is installed and checked out properly according to all guidelines, instructions, and
checkout procedures set forth in the product Installation and Operating Manual.
2. The installer records all checkout data required and completes, signs, and returns the warranty
registration card to Vanner within ten (10) days after installation.
Vanner does not warrant its products against any and all defects when; Defect is a result of material or
workmanship not provided by Vanner; normal wear and tear, or defects caused by misuse or use in
contrary to instructions supplied, neglect, accident, reversed polarity, unauthorized repairs and/or
replacements.
All warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose: written or oral, expressed or implied,
shall extend only for a period of one (1) year from date of installation or one and one half (1-1/2) years
from date of manufacture, whichever is first. There are no other warranties which extend beyond those
described on the face of this warranty. Some states do not allow limitation on how long an implied
warranty lasts, so the above limitations may not apply to you.
Vanner does not undertake responsibility to any purchaser of its product for any undertaking,
representation, or warranty made by any dealers or distributors selling its products beyond those herein
expressed unless expressed in writing by an officer of Vanner.
Vanner does not assume responsibility for incidental or consequential damages, including, but not limited
to responsibility for loss of use of this product, removal or replacement labor, loss of time, inconvenience,
expense for telephone calls, shipping expense, loss or damage to property, or loss of revenue. Some
states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so these limitations
may not apply to you.
Vanner reserves the right to repair, replace, or allow credit for any material returned under this warranty.
Any damage caused by the customer will be charged or deducted from the allowance.
All warranty work will be performed at Vanner’s factory, or authorized repair facility utilizing a valid
Warranty Authorization Number (WAN) prior to repair. Products shall be delivered to Vanner’s facility,
freight prepaid and fully insured. Products repaired under warranty, or replacement parts or products will
be returned to North American location prepaid via same transportation means and level of service as
received, unless directed otherwise. Prepaid freight policy does not apply to locations outside North
America.
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
IQ Series Owner's Manual
IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL
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North American Limited Warranty
Vanner Incorporated
4282 Reynolds Drive
Hilliard, Ohio 43026
1-800-AC POWER
(1-800-227-6937)
Tel: 614-771-2718
Fax: 614-771-4904
www.vanner.com
e-mail: pwrsales@vanner.com
Manual Part Number 97854-C
Printed in USA
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IQ SERIES OWNERS MANUAL