Volvo 120 Operating instructions

VOLVO 120
2-DOOR
CARS
(120S)
DESCRIPTION
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
SERVICING
AB VOLVO GOTEBORG SWEDEN
Service
Cables: Volvo, Goteborg, Sweden
Reprinting permitted if source quoted
CONTENTS
BEFORE YOU START DRIVING YOUR NEW VOLVO PLEASE
READ THROUGH THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK CAREFULLY.
IT CONTAINS ALL THE INFORMATION YOU NEED TO
BE ABLE TO DRIVE AND SERVICE YOUR VEHICLE IN THE
BEST POSSIBLE WAY. BY FOLLOWING THE INSTRUCTIONS
GIVEN IN THIS BOOK, YOU WILL FIND THAT YOUR
VOLVO WILL COME UP TO ALL THE EXPECTATIONS
CONCERNING ECONOMICAL OPERATION AND EXCELLENT
PERFORMANCE THAT YOU HAVE EVERY RIGHT TO
EXPECT OF ATOP-QUALITY VEHICLE. DO NOT WAIT
UNTIL SOMETHING GOES WRONG BEFORE YOU START
READING THIS BOOK. READ IT NOW. THE SHORT TIME
THIS TAKES WILL MORE TI IAN REPAY YOU IN THE
LONG RUN. THIS INSTRUCTION BOOK IS NOT INTENDED
TO BE A COMPREH ENSIVE TECHNICAL MANUAL AND
DOES NOT CLAIM TO MAKE THE READER INTO A PERFECT
CAR MECHANIC. IT WILL, HOWEVER, SHOW YOU HOW
TO LOOK AFTER YOUR VEHICLE SO THAT TROUBLE
I N FUTURE CAN BE AVOIDED. FOR MORE DETAILED
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS AND ADJUSTMENTS, YOU
ARE REFERRED TO THE SPECIAL SERVICE MANUAL
FOR THE VEHICLE.
AB VOLVO
VOLVO SERVICE
Page
The Volvo Service Organization
Warranty and Service Booklet Service Inspections
DESCRIPTION
Type designations
Engine
Electrical system
Power transmission
Brakes
Wheels and tyres
Body
Instruments and controls OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Running-in
Starting the engine
Gear-changing
Points worth noting
SERVICING
General
Maintenance scheme
Lubrication
Engine
Electrical system
Power transmission
Brakes
Front end Wheels and tyres
Body
Servicing before long-distance trip
Procedure in cold weather
Lubricating chart
FAULT TRACING
SPECIFICATIONS
4
5
5
page
6
8
9
10
11
11
12
16
page
22
23
24
25
page
27
28
30
34
39
43
43
43
44
46
49
50
60
Page 52
page 53
3
VOLVO
SERVICE
Warranty and Service Booklet
A warranty and service booklet accompanies each vehicle when it is delivered.
This book contains a coupon entitling you to a free service inspection after
2 500 km (1 500 miles) running. If possible, let the dealer who supplied the
vehicle carry out this service inspection. If necessary, however, any of our
dealers can do this.
If our six-month guarantee is to apply, we make one absolute condition and that is that
the above-mentioned cost-free inspection is carried out at roughly the mileage shown and
that the vehicle has been looked after in accordance with the instructions in this book.
Service Inspections
After the cost-free service inspection has been carried out, you should make an
agreement with your dealer concerning continued, regular service inspections in
accordance with the suggestions made in our Service Book. Thorough and regular
servicing is of vital importance for the performance and length of life of the vehicle.
Always use genuine Volvo spares.
Volvo Service Organization
In order to get the most out of the invested capital represented by a car, it must
be looked after and serviced regularly. Volvo has gone to a great deal of trouble
i n the design and selection of material to ensure that the car in question only
requires a minimum of servicing. All this work will be in vain unless we can
count on your co-operation - that is to say, that you make sure that your
vehicle gets the regular servicing it needs. In order to help you, Volvo has built
up a world-wide service organization. All Volvo dealers have specially trained
personnel and receive a continuous supply of technical information from the
Volvo Service Organization concerning repairs and adjustment work. They
have also special tools, designed at the Volvo factory.
All Volvo dealers have a comprehensive stock of spare parts which is your
guarantee for genuine Volvo spares. This is why our dealers are in the very best
position to give your vehicle first-class service concerning both maintenance
operations and repairs. You should also refer to your dealer if you need information about your Volvo that is not included in this instruction book.
Not only in your own country is there a Volvo workshop within easy reach.
Volvo also has a widely distributed service network in other countries.
4
5
DESCRIPTION
Type designations
This instruction book deals with cars having the follow-
ing type designations (note that certain variations are
not to be found on certain markets):
Type designation
13-134
13 -334
13-194
13-394
13-344
Engine
B 20 A
B 20 B
B 20 A
B 20 B
B 20 B
Gearbox
M 40
M 40
M 40
M 40
M 40
1. The car type designation and chassis number are
stamped on the cowl under the bonnet.
2. Stamped on a plate to the left under the bonnet is
1. Air cleaner (B 20 B)
2. Floatchamber (B 20 B)
the type designation together with the code numbers
for colour and upholstery.
3. The engine type designation, part number and serial
number are given on the left-hand side of the cylinder
block. The last figures of the part number are stamped
on a tab. The serial number follows this with all the
figures stamped on. For identifying the engine, both
the part number and serial number should be quoted,
for example 496918-3456.
6
In all correspondence con-
cerning your vehicle with the
dealer
and
when ordering
spare parts, the type designa-
tion, chassis and engine number
should always be quoted.
3. Carburettors (B 20 B)
4. Expansion tank with filler
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
cap for coolant
Voltage regulator
Hoses for air preheating
Alternator
Air cleaner (B 20 A)
Carburettor (B 20 A)
0. Hoses for positive crankcase ventilation
1. Battery
2. Hoses for heater system
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Oil dipstick
Distributor
Car heater
Starter motor
Ignition coil
Plate with type designation and code for colour
and upholstery
19. Fusebox
20. Oil filler cap
21. Brake servo cylinder
22. Relay for reversing lights
23. Relay for headlight flasher
24. Fuel pump
25. Brake fluid container
26. Steering box
27. Windscreen wipers
28. Horn
DESCRIPTION
Engine
DESCRIPTION
Air preheating
Certain variations of the 120 models are provided with thermostatically controlled air preheating.
With this arrangement the induced air is maintained at a constant, favourable
temperature. Air preheating counteracts ice formation in the carburettor and
also contributes to a shorter warming up period after starting from cold.
Lubricating system
The engine is a four-cylinder carburettor unit with overhead valves. The pistons
are made of light-alloy and the upper compression rings on each piston are
chromed. The main bearing and big-end bearing shells are replaceable. The
crankshaft is statically and dynamically balanced.
Engine type B 20 A has an output of 90 h.p. (SAE) and is equipped with a ZenithStromberg horizontal carburettor.
Engine type B 20 B has an output of 118 h.p. (SAE) and is equipped with twin
SU horizontal carburettors. (On certain markets twin Zenith-Stromberg horizontal carburettors.)
Fuel system
Fuel is fed from the tank to the carburettor by a fuel pump which is driven by a
cam on the engine camshaft. There is a filter in the fuel pump which traps water
and other impurities in the fuel.
The engine lubrication is taken care of by a gear pump which sucks up oil from
the sump on the bottom of the engine and forces it through the oil filter out to
the lubricating points in the engine. A relief valve is built into the oil filter which
prevents the oil pressure from reaching excessively high values.
Cooling system
The engine is water-cooled and the cooling system is of the pressure type.
Water is circulated by means of a pump fitted on the fan shaft. A wax-type
thermostat with an opening temperature of about 82°C (180°F) prevents the
cooling water from passing through the radiator before the engine has reached its
normal working temperature. On certain markets a fan with a slip-type coupling
is fitted.
Exhaust emission control
The engine is fitted with exhaust emission control, that is, a system as a result
of better mixing and distributing of fuel and air provides a more complete
combustion and thereby cleaner exhaust gases. On the B 20 A engine, the exhaust
emission control is obtained through the carburettor which is specially designed for this purpose. On the B 20 B engine the exhaust emission control is provided partly through carburettors specially designed for this purpose and partly
by the engine having a special induction manifold with throttles and preheating
chamber. When driving at low speeds the throttles are closed so that the fuel-air
mixture is forced to pass the preheating chamber.
When higher output is required, the throttles open so that the fuel-air mixture
flows directly to the cylinders.
8
Electrical system
The electrical system is of the 12-volt type and is fitted with a voltage-regulated
alternator. The starter motor is operated from the instrument panel by the ignition key, which also switches on the rest of the electrical system. The cables
to the headlights, parking lights and internal lighting, however, are not taken
over the ignition switch but can be switched on and off without the ignition
key being in position.
9
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
Lighting
The lighting on the car consists of two headlights (mainbeam and dipped)
together with two combined flasher and parking lights. The rear lighting
consists of two tail lights including flashers, combined lamps for the tail lights
and brake warning lights as well as the reversing light.
Internal lighting consists of a roof light above the rear view mirror and a light
for the parcel shelf.
See pages 40-42 concerning replacement of bulbs.
Fuses
The electrical system is protected by means of fuses fitted in a fusebox to the
left on the bulkhead under the bonnet. When replacing a fuse, be sure that you
use one with the right rating. If any fuse should blow repeatedly, do not fit
a more powerful fuse. Instead, have a workshop check the electrical system.
Propeller shaft
The propeller shaft, which is the connecting link between the gearbox and the
rear axle, is divided into two sections. The front section is journalled at its rear
end in a bearing housing consisting of a rubberized ring.
Rear axle
The engine driving power is transmitted via the propeller shaft to the rear
wheels through the rear axle. The rear axle is of the hypoid type, that is, the
drive pinion is below the centre line of the drive shafts.
On certain markets, the rear axle is fitted with a differential brake as extra
equipment. The function of the differential brake is to transfer automatically
the pulling power to the wheel with the best grip on the road surface when
one of the wheels begins to skid. Except for the differential, the rear axle is
similar to a conventional rear axle.
Brakes
Power transmission
Clutch
The clutch is of the single dry plate type with diaphragm spring. The diaphragm
spring functions partly as a lever when declutching and partly as a pressure
spring when engaging. Clutch pedal pressure is transmitted mechanically to
the release fork.
Gearbox
The gearbox is used to regulate the speed ratio between the engine and the rear
axle so that the engine always operates in its most favourable speed range. The
gearboxes are fully synchronized. The M 40 gearbox is four-speed.
10
The brake system is of the two-circuit type with disc brakes front and drum
brakes rear. The system is provided with a tandem-type master cylinder and a
directly-operating booster cylinder.
The principle of the two-circuit system is that both front wheels are connected
to a rear wheel. Should there be a failure in one of the circuits there is always
braking power on both front wheels and the other rear wheel. The pressure
lines to the rear wheels are fitted with relief valves which prevent involuntary
locking of the rear wheels.
This system has a warning light located on the instrument panel. The warning
light shows if there is a failure in one of the circuits when braking. It also serves
as a warning light for the handbrake.
Wheels and tyres
The car has pressed steel wheels with lugs for the attachment of the hub caps.
All wheels are carefully balanced and the tyres are of the tubeless type. Tyre
size: 165 S 15, or 165 SR 15.
11
DESCRIPTION
Body
Doors and locks
Bonnet
O
The bonnet is fitted with a locking catch
O
Both the doors are fitted with a lock and
keyhole.
Both doors can be locked from inside the car
which is operated from the driving seat by
means of a handle located to the left under
by pressing down the lock buttons on the
window ledge. The lock button lifts automatically when the door is opened from the
the dashboard.
Pulling out the handle releases the bonnet.
i nside. The doors can be locked from the
outside by pressing the lock button on the
window ledge and shutting the door. Do not
O
leave the keys in the car.
When the bonnet locking catch has been
released, the bonnet is still retained by a
safety catch. Press up this catch as shown in
O
the picture opposite and the bonnet can be
it can only be opened by pulling out the
release handle. Always make sure that the
bonnet locks properly when closed.
then turning the handle upwards. Screwing
in the stud locks the handle.
O
O
turning the door handle to the rear. The ven-
tilation windows for the door are opened by
unscrewing the lock stud, pressing it in and
lifted up. Closing the bonnet locks it so that
Luggage compartment
The doors are opened from the inside by
The rear side windows can be partially open-
ed by setting the handle at the rear edge in
different positions.
The luggage compartment is locked with the
same key as that used for the doors. The lid
is opened by pressing the handle upwards
as shown in the picture opposite. The lid is
To prevent the locks from freezing up in
balanced and will thus remain in the position
cold weather, apply a suitable anti-freeze
spare wheel and a tool kit. Always make sure
exert undue force on the key otherwise you
might break it. Instead, heat it with a match
opened. To the left of the luggage compartment there is space sufficient for the
that the spare wheel is fastened securely and
that the tool kit is firmly stowed, otherwise
agent. If the locks are already frozen, do not
Should you lose the car keys, contact
your nearest Volvo dealer for new keys
and quote the code number of the keys
which have been lost.
or similar and place it quickly in the keyhole.
irritating rattles can occur.
12
13
DESCRIPTION
Front seats
•
The front seats can be moved backwards or
Safety belts
•
Always use the safety belt when driving. Re-
•
If the belt requires lengthening, take hold of
the adjusting piece with one hand and with
the other hand pull out to the desired length
the lower part of the double section of the
lap strap.
forwards after the knob (A) is pressed down.
If necessary, the seats can be moved further
to the rear than permitted by the slide rail by
using the extra holes in the seat frames.
The backrest inclination of the front seats
is smoothly adjusted by means of a knob (B)
on the outside of the seat. A catch automatically locks the backrest and thus prevents it
from falling forwards. To fold the backrest
backwards, release the catch (C).
•
The front seats are also provided with an
adjustable lumbar support. To tension the
lumbar support, and thus exert more pressure
against the small of the back, turn the knob
clockwise. Turning it anti-clockwise slackens
the tension on the support and reduces the
pressure against the small of the back.
•
The inclination angle of the entire seat can be
adjusted with the eyelet screw at the front
under the seat. Remove the screw which
goes through the eyelet and tip the seat back-
wards as shown in the picture. Then slacken
the locknut on the floor and screw the eyelet
screw upwards or downwards to the desired
height. Then secure the eyelet screw with
the locknut.
The whole seat can be raised or lowered,
which is done as follows: Remove the seat
cushion, also the screw and nut on the seat
frame attachment on the floor. Then place
the screw in one of the other holes in the
attaching bracket.
The front seat backrests have built-in attachments for mounting a headrest.
14
•
member that even when driving slowly in
city traffic, serious injury can arise from
sudden, unexpected stopping. The practical
design of the belt makes it very easy to use.
Place one strap across the lap and the other
over the shoulder and breast and lock the
belt by inserting the buckle tongue into the
locking device between the front seats. A
loud clicking noise indicates that the belt is
locked.
Make sure that the parts of the belt in contact with the body are not twisted. Always
ensure that the belt is so adjusted that it fits
well against the body.
If the belt is to be shortened, pull in the upper
part of the lap strap. After a certain amount
of practice, all belt adjustment can be carried
out with the one hand. The belt is released
from the locking device by moving to the
rear the lever concerned on the locking device.
Do not let the belt lie on the floor otherwise
it will become dirty and probably be a
hindrance when getting in and out of the car.
Now and again check that the bolts anchoring the belt are properly tightened and that
the belt is in good condition. Use water
mixed with a synthetic washing agent for
cleaning the belt.
As the safety belts lose much of their strength
when exposed to violent stretching, they
should be replaced after a collision , even
though they may appear to be undamaged.
Never modify or repair the belt on your own
but have this done by a Volvo workshop.
Rear seat
As standard, the rear seat has anchorages for
safety belts. On certain markets, safety belts
are also fitted to the rear seat.
DESCRIPTION
I nstruments and controls
Before you start the car, sit behind the wheel and carefully check through all
the instruments and controls. The location of these is shown in the illustration
opposite. The instruments and controls arc described in more detail on the
following pages with reference to the numbers in the illustration. Note that
variations may occur on different markets.
Immediately after starting, and now and then while driving, glance at the instruments to make sure they are showing normal readings according to the values
given in the following text.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
16
Temperature gauge
Warning light, battery charging
Trip meter
Speedometer
Mainbeam control light
Direction indicator control light
Milometer
Oil pressure warning light
Fuel gauge
Warning lamp, handbrake,
brake system
Windscreen wiper and washer
switch
Choke control
Horn ring
Ignition switch and steering
wheel lock
15. Cigarette lighter
16. Fan switch, heater/ventilation
controls
17. Grab handle
18. Switch for glove compartment
light
19. Bonnet release handle
20. Foot dipper switch
21. Clutch pedal
22. Brake pedal
23. Accelerator pedal
24. Lighting switch
25. Director indicator, switch
headlight flasher
26. Steering wheel
27. Gear lever
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION
1
Temperature gauge
2
Battery charging warning light
3
4
7
8
18
The temperature gauge shows the temperature of the coolant and thus indicates
the working temperature of the engine. The pointer on this gauge should remain within the green sectors.
This light goes on when the battery discharges. If it goes on during driving,
this means either that there is some fault in the electrical system or that the fan
belt is not sufficiently tensioned and is thus slipping on the pulley, causing
poor charging.
10
Handbrake warning light
11
Windscreen wiper and washer switch
12
Choke control
14
Combined ignition switch and steering wheel lock
Trip meter
The trip meter, which is graduated in tenths of a mile, can be used to measure
even short distances. The meter can be reset to zero by means of a reset knob
placed under the instrument panel to the left of the steering column. The knob
is turned first to the right and then to the left.
Speedometer
The speedometer has a horizontal red ribbon indicator, the ribbon point showing the speed at which you are travelling. Since the length of the red ribbon is
proportional to the speed, this is in itself a safety factor - the more red shown,
the more dangerous your speed.
This lights red when the handbrake is applied and the ignition is on.
The light also functions as a warning light should a failure arise in one of the
brake service circuits. If the light goes on when driving, the car should be
taken without delay to a workshop for a check on the brake system. Observe
due care when driving on such occasions.
The windscreen wiper and washer switch has four positions. When pressed
fully in, the switch is switched off. When the switch is pulled out to the first
position, the windscreen wipers operate at normal speed. When it is pulled out
to the second position, the wipers operate more quickly. Pulling the switch out
fully also operates the windscreen washers.
The liquid container for the windscreen washers is placed under the bonnet
and holds about 1.5 litres (2.6 Imp. pints = 3.2 US pints). Never allow the
wiper blades to operate on a dry and dusty surface since this can easily scratch
the glass and blades.
The choke control is used when the engine is started from cold. When pulled
out about 10-15 mm (1/ a ") the control operates the throttle flap and increases
idling speed. Pulling the control out further, enriches the fuel-air mixture, and
this steps up the idling speed.
Milometer
The milometer shows the total distance covered in miles. After 99 999 miles it
returns to zero and starts going round again.
The switch has four positions:
(0) Locking position, (1) Garage
position, (2) Driving position and
(3) Starting position.
The key can only be inserted or
taken out of the lock in the Locking
or Garage position.
Removing the key when in the
Locking position automatically
locks the steering wheel.
Oil pressure warning light
This light goes on when the engine oil pressure is too low. When the ignition
is switched on, the light should go on and then go out again when the engine
has been started. Never start driving until the light goes out. Should the light remain on during driving, the engine should be stopped and the cause for this
determined. In most cases it means that the oil level is too low. After hard driving it may happen that the warning light comes on when the engine is at idling
speed. This is normal providing it goes out again when the engine speed is
increased.
15
Cigarette lighter
If the key is removed from the lock
in the Garage position, the electrical system is disconnected, except
for the radio. The steering wheel
is not locked.
During driving, the key should be
in the Driving position.
To start the engine, turn the key to
the Starting position and this automatically engages the starter motor.
As soon as the engine starts, release
the key which automatically returns
to the Driving position.
If the car is parked in such a way
as to make it difficult to unlock the
steering wheel, unlocking can be
made easier by slighting turning
the steering wheel one way and
then the other.
To use the cigarette lighter, push it in. As soon as it attains sufficient heat, it
will automatically spring out.
19
DESCRIPTION
16
Heater and ventilation system
Fresh-air fan switch
Air flow
Air temp.
Parking lights
Dipped headlights
Pushed right in - closed
Interm. pos. - full output
Fully out - half output
FLOOR - - Air to front seat floor
DEFR = Air to windscreen
and to rear seat floor
This control is used to regulate
the temperature of the incoming
air.
(Lighting switch pulled out one
notch)
(Lighting switch fully out and
foot dipper switch in dipped position)
Mainbeam
(Lighting switch out fully and
foot dipper switch in mainbeam
position)
Panel light switch
The heating and ventilation system of the car is operated as shown above. Air is
sucked in by the fan and then passes through a heater element to a distributing
chamber where it is distributed to the floor and windscreen by means of the
controls. NOTE: Under normal conditions there is sufficient air-flow due to
the fact of the overpressure at the air inlet of the vehicle. If greater quantities
of air are required, use the fan.
The heater element is connected with a thermostat which keeps the temperature
constant. When the temperature control is moved, there will he a slight delay
before the heater element adjusts itself to the desired temperature.
The illustration shows the air duct to
the rear seat and the air distribution in
the vehicle when both the "FLOOR"
and "DEFR" controls are used.
The panel light switch is regulated by rotating the small lighting switch knob.
Warning signal flashers
On certain markets, the car is fitted with warning signal flashers which are operated by pulling out the switch next to the heater controls.
25
Direction indicator switch lever
The direction indicators are controlled by means of the switch lever mounted
on the left-hand side of the steering column under the steering wheel.
Interior lighting
Mainbeam flasher
1. The light goes on when the front doors
are opened.
2. The light is off all the time.
3. The light is on all the time.
Moving the direction indicator switch up
towards the steering wheel switches on the
mainbeam lighting which remains on until
the switch lever is released.
During cold or damp weather mist can
easily form on the windows, particularly with a full number of passengers.
The best way of getting rid of this or
to avoid it altogether is to open the
ventilation windows partly or fully and
to set the fan and defroster controls at
max. output.
20
21
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Before being delivered, Volvo engines are test-run on test benches and in the
cars on test tracks. We are therefore assured that all clearances are satisfactory
and thus accept no responsibility for damage caused by careless running-in.
Starting the engine
Starting a cold engine
1.
2.
3.
4.
Running-in
As the car is new, we recommend that a certain amount of caution be observed
during the running-in period, for it is during this time that the movable parts
of the car must be properly bedded in so as to obtain smooth and durable sliding
surfaces. Do not drive at full engine output for more than short periods during
the first 500 km (300 miles) and avoid labouring in all gears.
Check that the handbrake is on and the gear lever is in neutral.
Pull the choke control out fully.
Depress the clutch pedal to assist when starting especially in cold weather.
Turn the ignition key to the starting position. Release the key as soon as the
engine has started.
5. Push in the choke control until the best idling speed is obtained. As the
engine becomes warmer push in the control more and more but never so far
that the engine starts to run unevenly. Drive for as short a period as possible
with the choke out. With the air preheating arrangement, the engine runs
smoothly already some minutes after starting. When the engine is thoroughly warm, the controls should be pushed right in.
After starting a cold engine, do not race it immediately but run it at moderate
speed and do not subject it to heavy loading until engine temperature has reached normal level.
Warranty inspection
After 2 500 km (1500 miles) running, the car should be taken to a Volvo workshop for the free warranty inspection. The procedure then carried out also
includes an engine oil change. It is very important to ensure that this oil change
is carried out since during the first period the engine oil usually collects a lot
of impurities.
After 5 000 km (3 000 miles) running, the oil in the gearbox and rear axle should
be changed. Subsequent changes should be carried out at approximately those
intervals indicated in the maintenance scheme on page 28 and in the lubricating
chart at the end of the book.
22
Starting a warm engine
1. Check that the handbrake is on and the gear lever is in neutral.
2. Depress the clutch pedal.
3. Turn the ignition key to the starting position. Release the key as soon as
the engine has started. If the engine does not start immediately, depress the
accelerator pedal fully and hold it there until the engine has started.
23
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Warming up the engine
Experience has shown that engines in vehicles which are frequently stopped and
started are subject to abnormally rapid wear. The reason for this is that the en-
gine is not given a chance to reach its normal working temperature. When the
engine is cold, it should be taken up to its normal working temperature as quickly as possible. Do not therefore idle the engine too long but start driving with
a light load on the engine as soon as the oil pressure light goes out.
Recommended speed ranges, km.p.h. (m.p.h.)
for the different gears
Engine
Gearbox
B 20 A
M 40
B 20 B
M 40
1st gear
0---45
(0-28)
0-50
(0-30)
2nd gear
15-70
(10-45)
20-80
(15-50)
3rd gear
25-100
(15-G0)
30-115
(20-70)
4th gear
35-
(22- )
40(25- )
Points worth noting
Starting in a garage
If you start your car in a garage, always open the garage doors before starting
the engine. The exhaust gases from the engine contain poisonous carbon monoxide gas which is particularly dangerous since it is both invisible and odourless.
Gear-changing
The gearbox has synchromesh on all forward gears. If this is to function satisfactorily,
the clutch pedal must be fully depressed.
To obtain good acceleration, it is important
that the gear-change timing is adapted to the
speed in such a way that the engine speed is
Driving with the luggage compartment lid open
within suitable limits, neither too high nor
too low.
While driving with the luggage compartment lid partly or fully open, exhaust
The gear positions are shown in the picture
gases (and consequently also carbon monoxide) can be sucked into the car
opposite.
through the luggage compartment, particularly if a window is open. Normally
this involves no risk to the passengers. However, on such occasions, the following advice should be followed:
1. Keep all windows closed.
2. Set the fresh air and defroster levers to fully open and the fan control to
Gear positions for 4-speed gearbox
24
full speed.
25
SERVICING
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
Braking
Steady acceleration and gentle braking are characteristic of a good driver and
also result in the most economic running. Apply the brakes before going into
a curve and use your gearbox on downhill gradients so that you save unnecessary
wear on both brakes and tyres.
Violent braking is only justified in dangerous situations.
Towing
If the car is to be towed, the
tow line should not be attached directly to the bumpers,
but should be taken round the
bumper supports as shown in
the picture opposite. While
the car is being towed, the
tow line should be kept evenly stretched since violent jerks
can damage the bumpers.
General
Before the car was delivered from the factory it was subjected to a very thorough
i nspection. Your dealer, in his turn, carried out a further delivery inspection in
accordance with the specifications of the Volvo factory. In addition to this
there is the free service inspection after 2 500 km (1 500 miles). Subsequent
service book which is based
on a system involving an oil change, oil level check and service inspections
servicing of the car should follow the routine in the
after every 10 000 km (6 000 miles).
The simplest (and in the long run most profitable) way to give the car the servici ng it requires is to have all servicing done by a Volvo workshop. You will
then have all the work specified in the service book carried out in accordance
with recommended prices and the workshop stamp in the service book will
show when the car was serviced - this is also extremely important as far as
second-hand value is concerned.
During the designing of the car, particular attention was given to the "safety
details" (e.g. suspension, brakes and steering). They are calculated to withstand
the severest stresses with a wide safety margin. However, if you use your car
for hard driving, you should take the precaution of checking these parts for
fatigue cracks sometime during the car's useful life, for instance when the parts
concerned are reconditioned.
If you prefer to carry out the simpler servicing procedures yourself or if you are
sometimes obliged to have them done by a workshop outside the Volvo organization, this chapter contains some advice as to when and how they should
be carried out.
For the sake of convenience, the servicing procedures have been summarized
in a maintenance scheme in the next two pages.
26
27
SERVICING
Maintenance scheme
In the maintenance scheme below the servicing procedures have been given
certain numbers which refer to the detailed descriptions on the following pages.
Some of the work must be carried out by skilled mechanics or requires the use
of special tools and these have been marked D.
SERVICING
In addition to the servicing procedures mentioned in this scheme, you should
also regularly check the following from the point of view of traffic safety:
a) Lighting, including brake warning light
b) Direction indicator lights
c) Horn
SERVICING
SERVICING
Lubrication
2
The oil level in the engine should be checked
each time the fuel tank is filled. The check
should be carried out with the engine switched off but warm and, in order to obtain
comparable values, about 1 minute after the
engine has been stopped. Wipe the dipstick
before measuring. The oil level should be
between the two marks on the dipstick. It
must never be permitted to go down below
the lower mark but on the other hand, it
should not be above the upper mark since
oil consumption will then be abnormally
high. If necessary, top up by filling through
the oil filler hole on the rocker arm casing
with new oil of the same type already in the
engine.
Chassis maintenance
To simplify maintenance of your Volvo, the vehicle has been equipped with
ball joints, steering rods and propeller shaft of such a design that they do not
require regular lubrication. This has been possible due to the fact that points
which normally require lubricating have been packed with very durable grease
at the factory and then carefully sealed, thus obviating the need for lubrication.
However, in order to be certain that these parts are functioning properly, it is
necessary to inspect their seals and rubber sleeves thoroughly after every 10 000
km (6 000 miles) or at least once a year.
Oil should be changed or the oil level checked after every 10 000 km (6 000) miles
in accordance with the lubricating chart at the end of the book. This can be
done in connection with the 10 000 km (6 000 miles) inspection at a Volvo
workshop. The measures taken during this inspection are also to be found in
the lubricating chart.
You should follow the recommendations of the Service Booklet, which are
based on Volvo's own investigations. Use only first-class lubricants of a wellknown make. The right lubricant in the right quantity at the right time will
increase both the lifetime and reliability of your car.
1
Body lubrication
In order to avoid squeaks and unnecessary wear, the body should be lubricated
about every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) or at least once a year. During very cold
weather the door locks and luggage compartment lock should be treated with
a suitable anti-freeze agent to prevent them from freezing up.
Check the oil level in the engine
3
Changing the engine oil
With a new or reconditioned engine, the oil should be changed after the first
2 500 km (1 500 miles). Subsequent oil changing is according to the intervals
given below.
The intervals will depend to a great extent on the type of oil used. For engine
lubrication, oil grade "For Service MS", is to be used. As far as viscosity is
concerned, multigrade oil is recommended. These oils are better suited for demanding driving conditions, for example continuous driving in city traffic with
incessant stopping and starting or with lengthy idling periods.
For engine oil with viscosity SAE 10 W - 30 (multigrade), 10 w-40 or 20 W-50,
the oil should be changed every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) or at least once a .year.
If engine oil with viscosity SAE 10 W (singlegrade), 20/20 W or 30 is used, the oil
should be changed every 5 000 km (3 000 miles), or at least twice a year.
At very low temperature (below -20°C = -4°F) multigrade oil SAE 5 W-20
is recommended. However, this oil should not be used when the temperature
is continuously above 0°C (32°F).
30
31
SERVICING
4
SERVICING
Carburettor(s)
The old oil is drained off by removing the drain plug on the sump. Draining
should take place after driving when the oil is still warm.
For lengthy motorway driving fuel with an octane rating of 97 (ROT*) can also
be used for the B 20 B engine.
At each engine oil change, check that the oil level in the centre spindle of the
carburettor(s) is about 6 mm ( 1/ ") from the top of the spindle. If it is not, top
up to the level using oil ATF, type A (transmission oil).
The carburettors are adjusted and tested in a test bench at the factory with a
CO-meter. No subsequent checking or setting of the carburettors is necessary
other than in connection with repairs to or replacement of the carburettors.
* Research Method
7
8
4
5
6
The oil level in the rear axle should be checked after every 10 000 km (6 000
miles). The oil should be up to the level of the filler hole. Top up with the recommended oil if necessary.
The oil in the rear axle should be changed after the first 5 000 km (3 000 miles),
and should also be flushed thoroughly with the same type of oil used for topping up. The used oil should be drained off immediately after the vehicle has
been run, when the oil is still warm.
After this oil change, only the oil level need be checked and topping up take
place if necessary.
Gearbox, M 40
The oil in the gearbox should be checked after every 10 000 km (6 000 miles).
The oil should be at the level of the filler hole. Top up with the recommended
oil if necessary. The oil in the gearbox should be changed after every 40 000
km (25 000 miles). In the case of a new or reconditioned gearbox, the oil should
be changed after the first 5000 km (3 000 miles), on which occasion the gearbox
should be thoroughly flushed with oil of the same type to be subsequently used.
The old oil should be drained off immediately after the vehicle has been run
when the oil is still warm.
9
10
32
Rear axle
Rear axle with differential brake
A rear axle fitted with differential brake is filled at the factory with transmission
oil according to the American military standard MIL-L-2105 B provided with
an additive for rear axles with differential brake. The same type of oil should
be used for topping up and when changing. Oil level checking and changing
should take place at the same intervals and in the same way as for a rear axle
without differential brake.
33
SERVICING
11
Steering box
The oil level in the steering box should be checked after every 10 000 km
14
(6 000 miles). The oil should be at the level of the filler plug. It necessary, top
For this reason, it must be replaced for
example after every 10 000 km (6 000 miles)
and preferably by a Volvo workshop.
changed, the old oil can be sucked up by means of an oil syringe or similar,
which is inserted down through the filler hole.
12
Viscosity
Oil capacity
Hypoid oil
SAE 80 (all year round)
0.25 litre
0. i-i Imp. pint
0.53 U. S. pint
The oil filter traps any impurities in the oil
so that it becomes blocked after a time.
up with the recommended oil. The oil in the steering box generally does not
need to be changed except when reconditioning takes place. If the oil is to be
Oil grade
Oil filter
If the filter is replaced without the oil being
changed, 0.5 litre (approx. 1 pint) of oil
should be added.
Brake fluid
The brake fluid level in the brake hydraulic
system should be checked after every 5 000
km (3 000 miles). The brake system is provided with twin brake fluid containers, one
for each system. Both containers have a
common filler cap. The level of the brake
15
Fuel filter
fluid should be between the "Max" and
The fuel filter should be cleaned after every
Only brake fluids which meet the requirements
and remove the cover and strainer and clean
according to the specifications under .SAE 70 R 3
may be used for the hydraulic brake system.
that the gasket seals properly.
10 000 km (6 000 miles). Loosen the screw
"Min" marks.
these. When refitting the cover make sure
Engine
13
Crankcase ventilation
The engine is provided with positive crank-
case ventilation which prevents the gases in
the crankcase from being released into the
atmosphere. Instead, they arc sucked into
Air cleaner (B 20 A)
the intake manifold and take part in the com-
The air cleaner should be replaced with a
out through the exhaust pipe together with
Replacement should be more frequent if the
nozzle (1), the hoses (2 and 4) and the flame
moistened or oiled.
bustion process whereupon they are blown
new one after 40 000 km (25000 miles).
the other combustion gases. Every 40 000
km (25 000 miles) remove and clean the
driving conditions are dusty.
NOTE. On no account must the element be
protector (3). Rubber hoses should also be
replaced if they are in a poor condition.
34
16
SERVICING
17
Air cleaner (B 20 B)
The air cleaner consists of a plastic cover
with a replaceable paper insert. The insert
SERVICING
22
The cooling system must be well filled with
coolant and not leak if it is to operate at
maximum efficiency.
Check the coolant level when filling up with
fuel. The level should be between the "Max"
and "Min" marks on the expansion tank.
When the engine is new or the cooling system has been emptied, this check should be
carried out with particular thoroughness.
The cooling system filler caps on the radiator and expansion tank should not be removed other than for topping up with coolant.
More frequent removal may impede the circulation between the expansion tank and the
engine when the latter is warming up and
cooling.
should be replaced every 40 000 km (25 000
miles). Where driving conditions are particularly
dusty, it should be changed more
often. Between the interval just mentioned
the insert must not be cleaned.
To replace the insert, undo the hose clamp
for the preheating hose as well the clamps
securing the top of the cleaner. Then remove
the top so that the insert is accessible for
removal.
18
Cleaning the air cleaner with
foam plastic sleeve
Topping up with coolant
Cars intended for markets where dusty conditions are prevalent are fitted with
Top up with coolant when the level in the expansion tank drops down to the
air cleaners provided with a foam plastic sleeve. This sleeve is normally washed
or changed after every 20 000 km (12 500 miles). After every 80 000 km
"Min" mark. Top up to the level of the "Max" mark. Use a good quality
(50 000 miles) the paper filter must also be replaced.
anti-freeze.
NOTE. Do not top up with water only, particularly during the winter. Water
(kerosene), fuel oil or warm water mixed with a washing agent. Squeeze the
Topping up with water only in the winter can also damage the cooling system
The foam plastic sleeve is removed from the air cleaner and washed in paraffin
by itself reduces both the rust-protective and anti-freeze qualities of the coolant.
sleeve until it is clean and then rinse it in clean water. When the sleeve is dry,
dip it in engine oil SAE 30. Squeeze the sleeve in the oil and remove surplus
19
20
21
oil by rolling the sleeve in a clean cloth. Fit the sleeve on the paper filter.
Valves
Let your Volvo workshop check the engine valve clearances after every 10 000
km (6 000 miles). Too narrow clearances can cause burnt valves.
Compression test
Every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) a compression test should be carried out to get
some idea of the condition of the engine. The test should be carried out at a
Volvo workshop.
Fan belt
The fan belt tension should be checked every 10 000 km (6 000 miles). Due to
wear or dirt, this belt can start slipping with poor cooling and poor alternator
output as the result.
A way to test the tension is to press in the fan belt at a point midway between
the alternator and the fan. It should be possible to press down the belt about
10 mm (3/8') with normal pressure.
36
Check the coolant level
The check can be suitably carried out by a Volvo workshop.
due to ice forming in the expansion tank.
23
Change coolant
The coolant retains its properties for approx. 2 years when it should be changed.
To drain the coolant, open the tap on the right-hand side of the engine. Then
disconnect the hose between the lower part of the radiator and the engine.
This empties the radiator.
The expansion tank is emptied by lifting it up from its brackets and holding it
so high that the coolant runs down into the radiator.
Before filling with new coolant, flush the entire system with clean water. The
cooling system is filled with coolant through the filler opening on top of the
radiator. When this has been done, the heater control should be set to max. to
ensure that the entire system will be filled. Fill the radiator to the top and refit
the cap. Then fill the expansion tank to the "Max" level or somewhat above
this. Refit the expansion tank cap. Run the engine warm, switch off the ignition
and allow the engine to cool. Then check the radiator to make sure that it is
completely filled and that the level in the expansion tank is at the "Max" mark.
The capacity of the cooling system is 8.6 litres (1.9 Imp. galls. = 2.3 U.S.
galls.) when the level is at the "Max" mark in the expansion tank.
37
SERVICING
SERVICING
24
25
Check, replace the sparking plugs
Electrical System
The electrical system in the car is equipped with an alternator. When changing
the battery or carrying out any other work with the electrical system, the following should be observed:
When changing the battery or when carrying out work involving the electrical
system, the following should be observed:
1. A battery connection to the wrong terminal will damage the rectifiers. Before the connections are made, check the polarity of the battery with a voltmeter.
2. If extra batteries are used for starting, they must be properly connected to
prevent the rectifiers from being damaged.
The negative lead from the auxiliary battery for starting must be connected
to the negative terminal stud of the car battery and the positive lead from the
auxiliary battery for starting to the positive terminal stud.
3. If a rapid charger is used for charging the battery, the car battery leads should
be disconnected.
The rapid charger must never be used as an auxiliary unit for starting.
The sparking plugs should be removed every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) and the
electrode cap checked. The gap should be 0.7-0.8 mm (0.028-0.032"). After
20 000 km (12 500 miles) the plugs should be changed. This replacement should
preferably be carried out by a Volvo workshop where the plugs should be
tightened with a torque wrench. When fitting new plugs, be sure to fit the right
type (see page 54). Consult a Volvo workshop if you intend changing to a
harder or softer type of plug. The appearance of the old sparking plugs will
easily tell whether or not they were the right type for your driving.
4. Never disconnect the battery circuit (for example, to change the battery)
while the engine is running, as this will ruin the alternator immediately.
Always make sure that all the battery connections are properly tightened.
26 Ignition system
27
The distributor contact breaker gap should be checked at a Volvo workshop
after every 10 000 km (6 000 miles).
All adjusting work to the engine ignition system should be done by the workshop which has the proper equipment for this purpose. The distributor is one
of the most sensitive units in the engine and careless handling can lead to decreased engine output and high fuel consumption or even serious damage to
the engine.
Fuel
The petrol used for fuel should be at least 97 (ROT)* octane for the B 20 A engine. For the B 20 B type engine an octane rating of 100 (ROT)* is recommended. If petrol with too low an octane rating is used, knocking or pre-ignition
can occur.
However, if highway motoring is often involved, the octane rating should be
at least 97 (ROT)* even for the B 20 B engine.
38
* Research Method
5. If any electrical welding work is to carried out on the vehicle, the earth lead
and all the connecting cables of the alternator must the removed. The welding unit should be placed as near the welding point as possible.
28
Check the battery electrolyte level
To ensure that the battery functions properly, the electrolyte level should be
checked regularly. A suitable time to do this is when the fuel tank is being filled.
The electrolyte level should be 5-10 mm (3/16-3/g") over the top of the cell
plates. Top up with distilled water if necessary. Never add too much distilled
water since this can cause the acid to splash over and cause damage in the
engine compartment. Never check the electrolyte level by lighting a match. The gases
formed in the cells are highly explosive.
39
SERVICING
29
The state of charge of the battery should be checked after every 10 000 km
(6 000 miles). The check is carried out with the help of a hydrometer, this showing the specific gravity of the electrolyte which varies with the state of charge.
See page 55. When checking the battery, check also the terminals and terminal
bolts to make sure they are well tightened and smeared with grease or vaseline.
If necessary, wipe off the terminals and terminal bolts with a rag or brush them
with a wire brush before greasing them.
30
Replacing the headlight bulbs
Check the state of charge of the battery
•
•
Loosen the three screws retaining the rim
with a screwdriver.
Pull out the bottom part of the rim slightly
and then lift upwards so that the retainer
catch releases its grip. (Do not pull out the
headlight rim so far forwards that the catch
at the top becomes bent, otherwise water
can penetrate into and damage the reflector.)
Check headlight alignment
The alignment of the headlights should be checked in a Volvo workshop after
every 10 000 km (6 000 miles). Remember that the section of the road lit up by
the headlights can vary depending on the load in the vehicle.
Replacement of bulbs
To obtain maximum lighting effect and to forestall the chances of lights going
out, the headlights bulbs should be changed every year, suitably during the
autumn. Some of the bulbs have two functions, for example, the headlight
bulbs which have filaments for both mainbeam and dipped lights. The guide pins
on the sockets of these bulbs arc either of different thickness or they are staggered so that the bulbs can only be fitted in one definite position. Certain makes of
bulbs have a "Top" mark on the socket and this should face upwards.
Replacing the roof light bulb
When replacing the roof light bulb, the
l amp shade is pulled straight out.
[[When fitting headlight bulbs do not touch the glass
with your fingers. The reason for this is that grease,
oil or any other impurities can be carbonized onto
the bulb and this may damage the deflector.
•
•
•
It is not necessary to remove these screws
completely. The insert can be removed by
turning it in an anti-clockwise direction.
Remove the bulb holder contact and take off
the rubber sleeve. Remove the spring fixing
the lamp holder in the correct position.
The bulb and holder are changed completely as one unit. When fitting the bulb holder
into the insert, make sure that the small
spring retainer engages in the notch.
SERVICING
SERVICING
Power transmission
Replacing the bulbs in the front parking lights/flashers
Unscrew the two screws by means of a
Philips screwdriver and lift off the glass and
the metal frame. The bulbs can now be removed by pushing in and twisting anticlockwise.
The larger one is the direction indicator
flasher and the smaller one the parking light.
Make sure that the glass fits well against the
gasket.
Replacing the bulbs in the rear flashers,
stop/tail lights and reversing light
Unscrew the two screws, one
at the upper and at the lower
end of the lighting fixture, by
means of a Philips screwdriver. Lift off the glass and the
metal frame. The bulbs can
now be removed by pushing
in and twisting anti-clockwise.
42
The top bulb is the direction
indicator, the middle one the
combined stop/tail light, and
the bottom one the reversing
light. Make sure that the glass
fits properly on the sealing
strip when assembling the fixture. The untinted part of the
Replacing the bulbs in
the number plate light
glass should b e at the bottom.
The number plate light is built
into the handle on the luggage compartment lid with one
bulb on each side of the
emblem. The bulbs are accessible from the underside of
the emblem.
31
Checking the clutch yoke free travel
32
Check the propeller shaft
To avoid risk of the clutch slipping, the clutch yoke free travel should be
checked and adjusted if necessary every 10 000 km (6 000 miles). For data see
page 55.
The clutch should be checked and adjusted at a Volvo workshop since these
workshops have the proper equipment.
Every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) or once a year the rubber seal on the spline shaft
should be checked as well as the universal joints. If the rubber seal is damaged,
it should be replaced and the new seal filled with molybdenum disulphide grease.
Brakes
33
Check and overhaul the brakes
34
Replacing the booster cylinder air filter
After every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) vehicles should be taken to a Volvo workshop for a check on the functioning of the brakes.
In connection with this check, the brakes should also be inspected for wear.
Every third year or 60 000 km (36 000 miles) the brakes system seals should
also be replaced.
Normally, the booster cylinder air filter should be replaced every 40 000 km
(25 000 miles). Where driving conditions are mainly dusty, replace more often.
Replacement should be done by a Volvo workshop which has the proper
equipment.
Front end
35
Check the front wheel alignment
36
Check the ball joints, tie-rod, etc.
Correct front wheel alignment is of vital importance for the steering of the
vehicle. Faulty adjustment can mean heavy wear on the tyres. For this reason,
have the front wheel alignment checked regularly at your local Volvo workshop,
for example after every 10 000 km (6 000 miles). If the vehicle has met with a
collision involving heavy impact and it is suspected that the front end may have
been affected, take the vehicle to a Volvo workshop for a check on the front
wheel alignment as soon as possible. Volvo workshops have special measuring
equipment for this purpose and can therefore carry out this control very quickly.
The front wheel alignment angles are shown on page 56.
After every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) the vehicle should be taken to a Volvo
workshop for a check on the front end concerning excessive play in the ball
j oints, tie-rods etc. At this check, the ball joint seals should be inspected for
damage and leakage. When new seals are fitted, they should be filled with the
recommended grease.
43
SERVICING
Wheels and tyres
37
Changing a wheel
Check the tyre pressure
Always make a habit of checking the air
pressure in the tyres regularly. The simplest
way to do this is to check the pressure when
filling the fuel tank. See page 56 for the
correct air pressures.
Do not forget the spare wheel when checki ng the air pressure. Even if this wheel is not
used, its air pressure can go down and you
may find that the tyre is flat just when you
need it. Do not let the spare wheel he unused for a considerable period, but change it
regularly with one of the other wheels.
During driving, the temperature of the tyre
rises and also the air pressure in relation to
the speed of the vehicle and its load. Normally the air pressure should only he checked when the tyres are cold. If the tyres are
warm, any alteration should be made in those
cases when the tyres must be pumped with
air.
Size 165 S 15 tyres are intended for speeds
up to 175 km.p.h. (110 m.p.h.). For prolonged driving at speeds above 140 km.p.h. (90
m.p.h.) the air pressure in the tyres should
be increased by 0.3 kg/cm 2 (4.5 lb/sq. in.).
The pressure must not exceed 2.1 kg/cm 2
(30 lb./sq. in.).
For size 165 SR 15 tyres, the air pressure
should he 1.8 kg/cm 2 (25.5 lb/sq. in.) front,
and 2.2 kg/cm 2 (31.0 lb/sq. in.) rear, irrespective of the driving speed. If inspection of the
tyres shows that there are worn spots and
unusual wear on the tread, take the vehicle
to a Volvo workshop for the wheels to be
balanced. Check also that the tread pattern
is not less than 1 mm ('/32') in depth. If it is,
the tyre must be changed.
Before the car is jacked up, the handbrake
should be applied and one of the gears engaged to ensure that the vehicle stands still.
If possible block those wheels remaining on
the ground as an extra safety precaution.
Remember that the handbrake operates only
on the rear wheels.
Removing
• Lever off the hub cap with the help of
the spade-shaped lever.
• Insert the lifting arm of the jack in the
appropriate jack attachment of the
wheel to be changed. Jack up the side
of the car far enough for the wheel to
turn freely.
• Unscrew the wheel nuts completely
and lift off the wheel. Be careful when
lifting of the wheel that the threads of
the wheel studs arc not damaged.
Fitting
Avoid damaging the tyres against pavement
kerbs.
44
• Loosen the wheel nuts with the help of
the box spanner and tommy bar. All
the wheels have nuts with right-hand
threads and are loosened by turning
them anti-clockwise.
Excessively low air pressure is one of the
most common reasons for tyre wear. If the
pressure is too low, the tread shoulders
hear the entire load and wear down very
quickly. Tyres which are insufficiently inflated
also result in difficult steering and high fuel
consumption. Excessively high air pressure
means tyre wear along the centre of the tread.
It also tends to make travelling less comfortable.
Fit on the new wheel and tighten the nuts
until the wheel makes good contact with the
hub flange. Then lower the car and tighten
the nuts alternately.
Warning. On cars fitted with a differential
brake, a jacked-up rear wheel must not be
turned if the other rear wheel is on the
ground. Because of the differential brake,
turning the jacked-up wheel will also move
the other rear wheel, and this may cause the
car to topple off the jack.
SERVICING
Body
38
Washing
The car should he washed often since such things as dirt, dust, dead insects, tar
spots, etc. usually adhere firmly to the body and may damage the paintwork.
Washing also helps to counteract rusting. During the winter, make sure that all
road salt residue is washed off as soon as possible, otherwise corrosion can easily
occur. A car, the bodywork of which has been well taken of, has of course a
higher second-hand value, should the owner consider selling it.
When washing the car, make sure that it is not exposed to direct sunlight since
to the synthetic finish requires the use of
special equipment and skill, so that the repairing of any such damage should be en-
trusted to a Volvo workshop. Minor damage
caused by flying stones, etc. and small
scratches can, however, be attended to by
you yourself.
Damage caused by flying stones requires
i mmediate treatment. Therefore, make a habit
down the whole body with a light jet until the dirt has loosened up. Use plenty
of water. After this wash off the dirt with a sponge using plenty of water.
touching-up work regularly - for example
A washing agent can be used to facilitate washing. Special washing agents are
now available on the market - even dish-washing fluids can be used.
A suitable mixture is about 5-10 cl of fluid dish washer to 10 litres (2.2 Imp.
galls = 2.6 US galls) of water. Asphalt spots and tar pittings can easily be removed with white spirit or equivalent, but this should be done after the washing. Whenever a washing agent is used, the car should be well rinsed down
with clean water afterwards.
After washing, dry the car with a soft, clean chamois leather. Use different
leathers for the windows and the remainder of the car, otherwise using the same
leather can cause greasy smears on the windows.
Polishing (waxing)
of checking the finish and carrying out
when washing the car. Volvo dealers can
supply you with suitable touching-up paint
with brush. Always check to make sure that
you get exactly the right colour.
1 If flying stones should penetrate the paintwork and reach the metal of the bodywork, the damaged surface is to be scrap-
ed completely clean with a penknife or
similar. If, however, the paintwork is not
The car does not need polishing until the surface finish begins to lose its lustre
damaged by stones, then all that is need-
conditions it is sufficient to polish the car a couple of times a year on condition
2 The picture shows a damaged spot scraped
clean with "chamfered" edges ready for
and normal washing is no longer sufficient to make it shine again. Under normal
that it is carefully looked after and thoroughly washed as soon as it has become
dirty or dusty. During the winter and in coastal or industrial areas it may,
however, be necessary to polish the car more often in order to avoid rusting.
Before the vehicle is polished it should be carefully washed and dried so that
scratches do not occur in the paintwork.
Polishing a couple of times a year is generally sufficient to give the surface
finish the maintenance it needs. If you want to wax the vehicle, be very care-
ful to ensure that the surface is absolutely clean before application. Often it is
necessary to use white spirit for cleaning.
Waxing should neither be considered as a substitute for polishing nor as a necessary protection for the paintwork against unfavourable weather. For the
most part waxing is not necessary until one year after delivery of the car.
Use only a good quality polish intended for a synthetic finish. Never polish or
wash the vehicle in direct sunlight as this can easily result in a smeary surface.
i6
The touching-up of any extensive damage
this can cause drying patches. Begin by softening up the dirt on the underside
of the body with a jet of water and use if necessary a soft brush. Then rinse
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Touching-up surface finish damage
ed is light scraping to remove the dirt.
touching-up.
3 In the event of severe damage due to flying stones, it is necessary to treat the spot
with anti-rust primer. This can be applied
with a matchstick or fine brush. The primer should cover the whole of the scraped and "chamfered" surface.
4 When the anti-rust primer has dried,
genuine Volvo paint is applied. Stir the
paint well (but not with a brush). Apply
several thin coats of the paint allowing
it to dry thoroughly between each application.
SERVICING
SERVICING
Chromed parts
The chromium-plated and anodized parts should be washed with clean water
as soon as they become dirty. This is particularly important if you drive on
gravel roads which are treated with chemicals to keep down the dust or in the
winter when salt is used to melt down the snow or if you drive near the sea.
After washing you can apply wax or anti-rust preparation.
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Anti-rust treatment
The Volvo 120 models are anti-rust treated at the factory.
The door sills are made of galvanized sheet metal and do not require any maintenance. The lower part of the body is treated with underbody sealing compound
on those places subjected to flying stones from the wheels, that is, the wheel
arches, the entire floor and the underside of the sills. Anti-rust fluid is sprayed
on the chassis parts.
Inspection and touching-up of the anti-rust protection should be done at regular intervals, and at least once a year.
If any touching-up of the anti-rust protection is necessary, this should be done
immediately to prevent moisture from seeping in and consequently damaging it.
Cleaning
Cleaning the upholstery
The upholstery consists of vinyl-coated fabric which is very resistant to dirt so
that it rarely requires any maintenance. If it becomes stained, the upholstery
can easily be cleaned with a synthetic washing agent and lukewarm water.
Servicing before a long-distance trip
If you are thinking of travelling abroad
or taking a long trip, with your car,
you should first have it completely
checked at a Volvo workshop. You
will enjoy your journey better if you
know that your car is in perfect trim.
Irritating incidents can be avoided as
well as expensive time-absorbing stoppages. Even if something unforeseen
should happen, your journey does not
need to be spoiled. Wherever you go
you know you have Volvo workshops within reach to take care of your
car, if it should be necessary. Do not
forget the regular servicing during trips abroad. All Volvo workshops abroad
are equipped to give your vehicle the service it requires.
If you prefer to look over your vehicle yourself,
the following hints are worth noting:
1. Check the brakes, front wheel alignment and steering gear.
2. Check the engine and drive units concerning fuel oil and coolant leakage.
3. Examine the tyres carefully. Replace worn tyres.
4. Check that the engine is running perfectly and the fuel consumption is normal.
5. Examine the state of the battery and clean the terminals.
Cleaning the floor mats
The floor mats should be taken out at least twice a year and cleaned and dried,
particularly during the winter. The floor under the mats can be cleaned at the
same time.
If the mats have become stained, they can be cleaned with methylated spirit
and then rinsed off with water.
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6. Look over the tool equipment and check the spare wheel.
7. Check the lighting.
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SERVICING
SERVICING
Procedure in cold weather
Engine lubricating system
When cold weather is on the way, it is time
During the winter multigrade oil or engine oil with a viscosity of SAE 10 W
to think of the winter servicing of your car.
should be used for the engine lubricating system. At continuous temperatures
The first night of frost can come as a very
below -20°C (-4°F) use multigrade SAE 5 W-20. These oils reach the lubricat-
unpleasant surprise unless preventive precautions have been taken.
ing points mentioned more easily at low temperature and also facilitate cold
starting. See page 31.
Engine cooling system
A good quality anti-freeze should be used all the year round. Thus, the cooling
system should always contain water plus anti-freeze and rust inhibitor, even in
the summertime.
The coolant keeps its properties for approximately 2 years when it should be
changed. A suitable time for doing this is during the autumn. This would ensure
against possible damage caused during the winter months. When the coolant
is being changed, the cooling system should be flushed out with clean water.
For further details, see page 37. If the coolant has to be topped up during the
winter, use only a good quality coolant. Water alone weakens both the anti-rust
properties of the coolant as well as its rust-proofing effectiveness. It is a good idea
when topping up with coolant to have the concentration checked in order to be
certain that there is always sufficient protection against damage by frost.
Experience has also shown that extremely weak anti-freeze solutions (10-20%)
are very unfavourable from the viewpoint of rust protection. For this reason,
the quantity of anti-freeze should amount to 50% of the coolant, that is, 4.3
litres (7.57 Imp. pints = 9.10 U.S. pints), which is effective below -35°C
( -31°F). The maximum freezing point, -56°C (-69°F) is obtained when
5.2 litres (9.15 Imp. pints = 10.97 U.S. pints) of anti-freeze is in the cooling
system.
Radiator alcohol is not recommended as an anti-freeze agent since it evaporates
at normal engine temperature.
Location of drain tap for cooling system
Electrical system
The electrical system in the vehicle is subjected to greater stresses during the
winter than during the warm summer months. The lighting and starter motor
are used more and since the capacity of the battery is also considerably lower
at low air temperature, the state of charge must be checked more often and, if
necessary, the battery charged. If the specific gravity of the electrolyte is excessively low, there is risk of frost damage to the battery.
Brake system
During very cold weather, the brakes are subjected to splash and condensation
water which can result in the handbrake freezing up if left on. Therefore, never
park the car with the handbrake applied, engage instead 1st gear or reverse and
if possible place blocks behind the wheels.
Windscreen washer
In the same way as anti-freeze is added to the cooling system during the winter
to prevent frost damage, anti-freeze should also be added to the water container
for the windscreen washer. This is particularly important because the windscreen during the winter frequently becomes dirty and is often splashed with
water which rapidly freezes and thus necessitates the frequent use of the windscreen washer and wipers. Your Volvo dealer can supply you with a suitable
anti-freeze for this purpose.
Anti-freeze for door locks
A frozen door lock is one of the most irritating things that can happen to a car-
owner. Many valuable minutes early in the morning can be wasted warming
up keys and melting ice in locks. Remember this in good time and lubricate the
1. Right side of radiator
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2. Right side of engine
lock with some anti-freeze preparation. These are now available in small handy
tubes which can be kept in a handbag or coat pocket.
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FAULT TRACING
The information given below is only intended to serve as a guide in localizing
and temporarily correcting minor faults. After having carried out any such
measures, have them checked and adjusted by an experienced mechanic.
The engine does not start although the starter motor
turns it round at normal speed
1 Check that there is fuel in the tank.
2 If the engine is warm, starting should be done with the accelerator pedal
slowly depressed as far as it will go.
3 In wet weather the sparking plug insulators should be wiped clean and the
distributor cap removed and wiped dry if flash-over is suspected.
4 Check that the fuel line connections on the pump and carburettor are not
leaking and that fuel is supplied to the carburettor.
5 If the engine is turned round for a while without having started, too rich a
fuel mixture can enter the cylinders resulting in the sparking plugs becoming
moist. Blow the cylinders clean by screwing off the sparking plug and turning
round the engine with the starter motor. Dry the sparking plugs before
fitting them.
If the engine misfires, the reason can be:
1 That one of the ignition cables has loosened in the distributor cover or from
the sparking plug.
2 That one of the sparking plugs is coated with soot or oiled up, in which case
the plug concerned should be cleaned or changed and the sparking plug gap
adjusted.
3 That the distributor cover and rotor arm are cracked or damaged.
4 That one of the ignition cables is in poor condition.
5 That the contact breaker gap in the distributor is insufficient or non-existent.
6 That the breaker contacts are badly burned.
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SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
Lubricating chart
Check the following when filling the tank
1. Check the engine oil level.
2. Check without removing the cap that the level in the brake fluid container
is above the "Min" mark. (Right-hand steering: Check also the clutch fluid
level.)
3. Check that the coolant level is between the "Max" and "Min" marks on
the expansion tank.
4. Check that the fluid container for the windscreen washers is filled.
About every other week
Check the tyre pressure and the battery acid level.
Notes for lubricating chart
Note I
Note 2
Note 3
Note 4
Note 5
Note 6
Note 7
Note 8
Note 9
Note 10
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Check that the oil reaches up to the filling plug. Use all year round hypoid
oil SAE 80.
In connection with any work in the workshop involving exposing the wheel
bearings, remove the bearings, clean them and lubricate them with highclass durable grease in accordance with the instructions in the service manual. Subsequent adding or changing of this grease in addition to the above
is not required.
Check that the fluid is between the "Min" and "Max" marks.
Lubricate the felt wick under the rotor and fill a few drops of light engine oil
into the lubricating cup.
Check the oil level when filling up with petrol. Concerning changing the oil,
see page 31.
Have the handbrake cable lubricated with graphite grease a couple of times
a year.
Check every 10 000 km (6 000 miles) that the oil reaches up to the filler plug.
Concerning oil change, see page 32.
At every engine oil change check that the oil level in the centre spindle of the
carburettor(s) reaches up to about 6 mm ('/4') from the top of the spindle.
If it does not, top up to this level. Use oil ATF type A (transmission oil).
The oil filter should be changed every 10 000 km (6 000 miles), see page 35.
Check the oil level every 10 000 km (6 000 miles). Concerning lubricant for a
final drive with differential brake, see page 33.
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Text for wiring diagram
Note that the electrical equipment can vary for the different models on different markets.
A = White B = Black C = Blue D = Green E= Grey F = Yellow G = Brown H = Red
Volvo 121, 122 S
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ACCESSORIES
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