Sharp EL-738 Specifications

MODEL
EL-738
BUSINESS/FINANCIAL
CALCULATOR
OPERATION MANUAL
1
NOTICE
• SHARP makes no guarantee that this product or this
manual is suitable or accurate for any purpose, commercial or otherwise.
• Rules and practices in financial calculation vary according to country, locality, or financial institution. It
is the consumer’s responsibility to determine whether
or not the results produced by this product conform
to applicable rules and regulations.
• SHARP will not be liable nor responsible for any incidental
or consequential economic or property damage caused
by misuse and/or malfunctions of this product and its
peripherals, unless such liability is acknowledged by law.
• The material in this manual is supplied without representation or warranty of any kind. SHARP assumes no
responsibility and shall have no liability of any kind, consequential or otherwise, from the use of this material.
• SHARP assumes no responsibility, directly or indirectly,
for financial losses or claims from third persons resulting
from the use of this product and any of its functions, the
loss of or alteration of stored data, etc.
• SHARP strongly recommends that separate permanent
written records be kept of all important data. Data may be
lost or altered in virtually any electronic memory product
under certain circumstances. Therefore, SHARP assumes
no responsibility for data lost or otherwise rendered unusable whether as a result of improper use, repairs, defects,
battery replacement, use after the specified battery life
has expired, or any other cause.
For Australia/New Zealand only:
For warranty information please see www.sharp.net.au
Contents
Introduction.................................................................. 3
Operational Notes ...............................................................3
Key Notations in This Manual ..............................................4
Chapter 1: Getting Started .......................................... 5
Preparing to Use the Calculator ..........................................5
Resetting the Calculator In Case of Difficulty ......................5
Calculator and Display Layout.............................................6
The SET UP Menu ..............................................................8
Operating Modes ..............................................................10
Chapter 2: General Information ................................ 11
Basic Calculations .............................................................11
Clearing the Entry and Memories .....................................11
Editing and Correcting an Entry ........................................13
Memory Calculations ........................................................14
Chapter 3: Financial Functions ................................ 17
General Information ..........................................................17
TVM (Time Value of Money) Solver ..................................22
Amortization Calculations .................................................33
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis ........................................37
Bond Calculations .............................................................44
Depreciation Calculations .................................................48
Conversion between APR and EFF ..................................51
Day and Date Calculations................................................52
Percent Change/Compound Interest Calculations ............54
Cost/Sell/Margin/Markup Calculations ..............................56
Breakeven Calculations.....................................................58
Chapter 4: Scientific Functions ................................ 60
Constant Calculations .......................................................60
Chain Calculations ............................................................60
Scientific Calculations .......................................................61
Random Functions ............................................................62
Modify Function .................................................................63
Chapter 5: Statistical Functions ............................... 64
Statistical Calculations and Variables................................67
Appendix .................................................................... 72
Financial Calculation Formulas .........................................72
Statistical Calculation Formulas ........................................75
Errors and Calculation Ranges .........................................76
Battery Replacement ........................................................80
Priority Levels in Calculations ...........................................81
Specifications ....................................................................82
Index ........................................................................... 83
2
Introduction
Thank you for purchasing a SHARP Business/Financial Calculator.
After reading this manual, store it in a convenient location for
future reference.
• Display of examples shown in this manual may not look exactly the same as what is seen on the product. For instance,
screen examples will show only the symbols necessary for
explanation of each particular calculation.
• All company and/or product names are trademarks and/or
registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Operational Notes
• Do not carry the calculator around in your back pocket, as it
may break when you sit down. The display is made of glass
and is particularly fragile.
• Keep the calculator away from extreme heat such as on a car
dashboard or near a heater, and avoid exposing it to excessively humid or dusty environments.
• Since this product is not waterproof, do not use it or store it
where fluids, for example water, can splash onto it. Raindrops,
water spray, juice, coffee, steam, perspiration, etc. will also
cause malfunction.
• Clean with a soft, dry cloth. Do not use solvents or a wet cloth.
• Do not drop the calculator or apply excessive force.
• Never dispose of batteries in a fire.
• Keep batteries out of the reach of children.
• This product, including accessories, may change due to upgrading without prior notice.
3
Key Notations in This Manual
. ? ..................... Q
i Z ..................... J .............................. : . h ..................... : 1 or 1 ....................... : i V ..................... To specify CLR-D:
To specify ENT :
To specify Z
:
To specify DATA :
To specify log
To specify 1
To specify xy
Key operations are described in this manual as follows:
-10
Functions that are printed in orange above the key require
. to be pressed first before the key.
Number entry examples are shown with ordinary numbers
(i.e., “100” will be indicated instead of “ 1 0 0”).
To specify a memory function (printed in green on/above the
key), press i first.
Functions that are printed in black adjacent to the keys are
effective in specific modes.
πA˚_
Using the . and i keys
Press s . t i
A x , 10.
• . t and i A
mean you have to press .
followed by ) key and i
followed by * key.
×
X
Display
Notes:
• The multiplication instruction “×” and alphabetic letter “X” are
distinguished as follows:
Key
Multiplication instruction x
Alphabetic letter
X
• Examples in this manual are performed using default settings
(e.g., SET UP menu items) unless values are otherwise assigned.
4
Chapter 1
Getting Started
Preparing to Use the Calculator
000
Before using your calculator for the first time, you must reset
(initialize) it.
Resetting the calculator
Press the RESET switch located on
the back of the calculator with the tip
of a ball-point pen or similar object. Do
not use an object with a breakable or
sharp tip.
• After resetting the calculator,
the initial display of the NORMAL mode appears.
Resetting the Calculator In Case of Difficulty
Caution:
The RESET operation will erase all data stored in
memory and restore the calculator’s default setting.
In rare cases, all the keys may cease to function if the calculator
is subjected to strong electrical noise or heavy shock during use.
If pressing any of the keys (including s) has no effect, reset
the calculator.
Resetting the calculator
See the above procedure.
Note: Pressing . k and 1 = will also erase all
data stored in memory and restore the calculator’s default
setting.
5
Calculator and Display Layout
Calculator layout
Key
operation
keys
SET UP
key
Display
screen
Power
ON/OFF and
Clear key
Cursor keys
MODE key
Display screen: The calculator display consists of a 12-character dot matrix character line and a 12-digit 7-segment
character line (10-digit mantissa and 2-digit exponent).
Power ON/OFF and Clear key: Turns the calculator ON.
This key also clears the display. To turn off the calculator,
press ., then c.
Key operation keys:
.: Activates the second function (printed in orange) assigned to the following key.
i: Activates the memory (printed in green) assigned to
the following key.
SET UP key: Displays the SET UP menu to select the
display notation, angular unit, depreciation method and date
format.
Cursor keys: Move the cursor.
MODE key: Switches between NORMAL and STAT modes.
6
Display layout
Equation/
variable
name
display
Mantissa
Exponent
Symbol
: Appears when the entire equation cannot be displayed.
Press g / y to see the remaining (hidden) part.
: Indicates that variables or data are present above/below the screen. Press z / i to scroll up/down.
• During actual use, not all symbols are displayed at the same
time.
• Only the symbols required for the operation being explained
are shown in the screen examples of this manual.
/
2ndF
HYP
: Appears when . is pressed, indicating that the
functions shown in orange are enabled.
: Indicates that . ] has been pressed and the
hyperbolic functions are enabled.
ALPHA : Indicates that i, g or f has been pressed,
and storing or recalling memory values or TVM solvers/statistics variables can be performed.
BGN : Indicates that calculations are annuity due (payment
at the beginning of each interval) calculations. When
BGN is not displayed, calculations are ordinary annuity (payment at the end of each interval) calculations.
: Indicates that date calculations are based on a
360
360-day year (12 months with 30 days). When 360 is
not displayed, date calculations use the actual calendar.
: Indicates that a value can be assigned to the displayed
ENT
variable using Q.
COMP : Indicates that the displayed variable can be solved for
by using @.
FLOAT A / FLOAT B / TAB / SCI: Indicates the notation used to
display values. It can be changed in the SET UP menu.
7
: Appears when statistics mode is selected.
DEG / RAD / GRAD : Indicates which angular units are in use.
It can be changed in the SET UP menu.
M
: Indicates that a numerical value is stored in the independent memory (M).
: Indicates that the value of the displayed variable has
not been calculated yet (for variables that can be calculated).
The SET UP Menu
i
3
DATE
Press ~ to display the SET UP menu.
2
DSP DRG DEPR
0 1
• A menu item can be selected by:
• Using g / y to select a number (the selected number
will blink), then pressing =, or
• pressing the number key corresponding to the menu item
number.
• If or is displayed on the screen, press z or i to
view the previous/next part of the menu.
• Press s to exit the SET UP menu.
Selecting the display notation and number of decimal
places
The calculator has three display notation systems (fixed decimal
point, scientific notation and floating point) for displaying calculation results.
•
•
•
•
If ~ 0 0 (TAB) is pressed, “DIG(0-9)?” will be
displayed and the number of decimal places can be set to any
value between 0 and 9.
If ~ 0 1 (SCI) is pressed, “SIG(0-9)?” will be
displayed and the number of significant digit can be set to any
value between 0 and 9. Entering 0 will set a 10-digit display.
If a floating point number does not fit in the specified range,
the calculator will display the result in scientific notation (exponential notation). See the next section for details.
The default setting is a fixed decimal point with two decimal
places.
8
Selecting the floating point number system in scientific notation
The calculator has two settings for displaying a floating point
number:
FLO_A (FLOAT A) and FLO_B (FLOAT B). In each display setting, a number is automatically displayed in scientific notation
outside the following preset ranges:
1—————©3=
1—————©3=
3©1———=
3©1———=
000
3-03
0003
3©1———=
3333333333
33 04
3333333
1—————©3=
Display
• FLO_A ~ 0 2: 0.000000001 | X | 9,999,999,999
• FLO_B ~ 0 3: 0.01 | X | 9,999,999,999
Key operation
Switching the notation setting
Procedure
s 100000 8 3
=
~012
100000 ÷ 3 =
Fixed decimal point
with two decimal
places
Scientific notation
(SCI) with two
significant digits
~02
s 3 8 1000
=
Floating point
(FLO_A)
3 ÷ 1000 =
Floating point
(FLO_A)
~03
~002
Floating point
(FLO_B)
Fixed decimal point
with two decimal
places
Selecting the angular unit (see page 61)
• DEG (°) : ~ 1 0 (default setting)
• RAD (rad) : ~ 1 1
• GRAD (g) : ~ 1 2
Selecting the depreciation method (see page 48)
• SL (Straight-line method): ~ 2 0 (default setting)
• SYD (Sum-of-the-years’ digits method): ~ 2 1
• DB (Declining balance method): ~ 2 2
9
Selecting the date format (see page 44)
• US (Month-Day-Year): ~ 3 0 (default setting)
• EU (Day-Month-Year): ~ 3 1
Operating Modes
STAT
1
000
2
SD LINE QUAD
1
NORMAL
0
This calculator has two operating modes, which can be selected
using the MODE key.
Selecting a mode
1. Press m.
The menu display appears.
2. Press 0 or = to select NORMAL mode.
• Press 1 or y =
to select STAT mode.
0
Operations available in each mode
NORMAL mode:
Allows you to perform financial, arithmetic, or scientific
calculations.
STAT (statistics) mode:
Allows you to perform statistical, arithmetic, or scientific
calculations. The
symbol appears in the display.
10
Chapter 2
General Information
Basic Calculations
Entering numbers and arithmetic operations
•
•
•
•
•
125000000
-9000
343
14000
Result
Use the number keys 0 to 9, decimal point key .,
and sign change key , to enter numbers into the calculator. To clear the display or entry, press s.
Use the S key to enter a value in scientific notation.
Use the arithmetic keys + - x 8 to perform the
standard arithmetic calculations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Press = to perform each calculation.
Use the ( and ) keys to place parentheses around
inner parts of expressions. The closing parenthesis ) just
before = or h may be omitted.
When you enter a series of operations in one sequence, the
calculator performs the calculation according to the priority
levels in calculation on page 81.
Key operation
s 45 + 285 8 3 =
Example
45 + 285 ÷ 3 =
( 18 + 6 ) 8
( 15 - 8 =
*1
5S384S
,3=
*1 (5 ,)
42 x , 5 + 120 =
18 + 6 =
15 – 8
42 × (–5) + 120 =
(5 × 103) ÷ (4 × 10–3) =
Clearing the Entry and Memories
The following methods of clearing the calculator (restoring default settings) are available:
11
Operation
s
.b
m (Mode selection)
. k 0 (MEM)
×
×
×
×
Entry
A-H,
(display) M, X-Z ANS
. k 1 (RESET)
RESET switch
: Cleared or restored to the default setting
*2
×
×
*5
×
×
*6
× *8
×
Listed
Cash
TVM
financial *3 flow
variables*1 variables *4 data STAT *7
×
×
× : Retained
*1 N, I/Y, PV, PMT, and FV (P/Y and C/Y are not included.)
*2 Note that listed financial variables sharing common memory
with TVM variables, such as “COUPON (PMT)” used in bond
calculations, are also cleared or restored to default settings.
*3 Listed variables used in financial calculations (such as “RATE
(I/Y),” etc.) including P/Y and C/Y
*4 When you press * to enter a financial calculation, AMRT
P1 and AMRT P2 both revert to their default values. The
same holds true for YEAR when you press O.
*5 With one of the variables of a listed group (such as those
used in bond calculations) displayed, when . b is
pressed, all the variables in the listed group are cleared or
restored to their default settings. Note that TVM variables
sharing common memory with listed financial variables are
also cleared or restored to default settings.
*6 Press . b when a cash flow value is displayed.
*7 Statistical data (entered data) and variables (n, x, etc.)
*8 Are cleared when changing between sub-modes in STAT mode.
Notes:
• To clear any of the “A-H, M, X-Z” or “ANS” memories, press
s g and then specify the memory.
• To clear or restore to the default setting one variable or value
of TVM variables, listed financial variables, cash flow data, or
STAT, refer to the relevant section.
• If you turn off the calculator (by pressing . c or by letting it turn itself off automatically), it will resume wherever you
left off when you turn it on again.
Delete key
To delete a number/function, move the cursor to the number/
function you wish to delete, then press L. If the cursor is
located at the right end of an equation or if you are entering a
value, the L key will function as a back space key.
12
Memory clear key
Press . k to display the
menu.
1
MEM RESET
0
• To clear all (A-H, M, X-Z, ANS,
TVM variables, listed financial
variables, cash flow data, and STAT), press 0 0 or
0 =.
• To RESET the calculator, press 1 0 or 1 =.
The RESET operation erases all data stored in memory, and
restore the calculator’s default settings.
Editing and Correcting an Entry
Cursor keys
• In a menu, such as the SET UP menu, use g or y to
select a number (the selected number will blink), then press =.
If you need to scroll up or down the screen, use z or i.
• In financial calculations, such as bond calculations, press
i or z to move through the variables (items).
Playback function
After obtaining an answer, pressing g brings you to the end
of the equation and pressing y brings you to the beginning.
Press g or y to move the cursor. Press . g or
. y to jump the cursor to the beginning or end of the
equation.
Insert and overwrite modes in the equation display
• This calculator has two editing modes: insert mode (default),
and overwrite mode. Pressing . d switches between
the two modes. A triangular cursor indicates an entry will be
inserted at the cursor, while the rectangular cursor indicates
existing data will be overwritten as you make entries.
• To insert a number in the insert mode, move the cursor to the
place immediately after where you wish to insert, then make
the desired entry. In the overwrite mode, data under the cursor
will be overwritten by the number you enter.
• This mode setting will be retained until you press . d
or RESET the calculator.
13
Key operation
s 15 8 3 =
192
500
Display
15©3=
Changing “15 ÷ 3 =” into “25 ÷ 13 =”
Procedure
15 ÷ 3 =
15©3
y
Enter the playback
function.
15©3
25©3
Switch to overwrite . d
mode.
.d
25©13=
25©3
Change to insert
mode.
1=
Change “15” to “25” 2 y y
and move the cursor to “3”.
Change “3” to “13”
and calculate.
Errors
An error will occur if an operation exceeds the calculation
ranges, or if a mathematically illegal operation is attempted.
When an error occurs, pressing g or y automatically
moves the cursor to the place in the equation/number where the
error occurred. Edit the equation/number or press s to clear
the equation. For details, see page 76.
Memory Calculations
This calculator has 11 temporary memories (A-H and X-Z), one
independent memory (M) and one last answer memory (ANS).
It also has various variables for use in financial calculations and
statistical calculations.
× : Unavailable
A-H,
X-Z M ANS
×
×
×
×
TVM
Listed financial Statistical
variables*1
variables *2
variables *3
Memory use in each mode for memory calculations
Mode
NORMAL
STAT
: Available
14
*1 N, I/Y, PV, PMT, FV
All financial variables, except for TVM variables
x, sx, mx, n, Yx, Yx2, y, sy, my, Yy, Yy2, Yxy, r, a, b, c
*2
*3
Temporary memories (A-H, X-Z)
Press g and the variable key to store a value in memory.
Press f and the variable key to recall a value from the
memory.
To place a variable in an equation, press i and the variable key.
Independent memory (M)
In addition to all the other features of temporary memories, a
value can be added to or subtracted from an existing memory
value.
Press s g M to clear the independent memory (M).
Last answer memory (ANS)
• The calculation result obtained by pressing = or any other
calculation ending instruction (including storing and recalling
operations) is automatically stored in the last answer memory.
• Listed financial variables are automatically stored in the last
answer memory by displaying the variable and the value.
TVM variables
TVM variables can be recalled using f in the same way as
temporary memories. It is not necessary to press g to store
a value.
Listed financial variables
Financial variables are specific to the type of calculation they
are used in. For example, the variable N is available to the TVM
solver but not to discounted cash flow analysis calculations. If
you want to carry a value from a variable over into a different
type of calculation, use one of the following methods:
• Last answer memory (ANS): Within the original calculation, display the variable and value that you wish to carry over. The value
is automatically entered into last answer memory. Press s to
exit the calculation (the listed financial variables will disappear
from the screen), and press i / to bring up the value
from the previous calculation. M-D-Y (D-M-Y) 1 and M-D-Y (DM-Y) 2 are not stored in last answer memory.
• Variables common to both calculations: If the value that you
wish to carry over is held in a variable that exists in both types
15
of calculation (for example, both bond calculations and the TVM
solver use the variable I/Y), you can retrieve the value simply by
switching calculation types and bringing up the variable.
Statistical variables
Statistical data is not entered into variables. Statistical variables
are the results of the calculation of statistical data. Therefore,
you cannot enter values directly into statistical variables. After
calculation, however, you can use the values held in statistical
variables in subsequent calculations.
110 g Y
26510 8 f Y =
2750 x f Y =
3220
2827
240
1600
150
8000
000
45000
25000
3500
66500
11000
24100
30250000
300
Result
Note: Use of f or i will recall the value stored in
memory using up to 14 digits.
s8x2gM
24 8 i M =
iMx5=
Key operation
Memory calculations
Example
24 ÷ (8 × 2) =
(8 × 2) × 5 =
sgM
$1 = ¥110
¥26,510 = $?
$2,750 = ¥?
.jfM
$150×3:M1
150 x 3 h
+)$250:M2=M1+250 250 h
–)M2×5%
fMx5.%
M
r = 3 cm (rAY)
2
/r = ?
3gY
. t i Y*
.;=
24
24 8 ( 4 + 6 ) =
= 2.4...(A)
4+6
3 x i / + 60 8
3 × (A) + 60 ÷ (A) = i / =
* Entry of the multiplication procedure is omitted between “/”
and a variable.
16
Chapter 3
Financial Functions
General Information
Financial calculations
The following financial functions are available. Use NORMAL
mode to perform financial calculations.
TVM (Time Value of Money) solver: Analyze equal and regular
cash flows. These include calculations for mortgages, loans,
leases, savings, annuities and contracts or investments with
regular payments.
Amortization calculations: Calculate and create amortization
schedules using values stored in the TVM solver.
Discounted cash flow analysis: Analyze unequal cash flows
and calculate NPV (net present value) and IRR (internal rate of
return).
Bond calculations: Solve bond prices or yields to maturity with
accrued interest.
Depreciation calculations: Obtain depreciation base values
using three types of calculation methods.
Conversion between APR and EFF: Interest rates can be
converted between APR (annual, or nominal percentage rate)
and EFF (effective interest rate).
Day and date calculations: Calculate dates and the number of
days between dates.
Percent change/Compound interest calculations: Calculate
percent change (increase or decrease) and compound interest
rates.
Cost/Sell/Margin/Markup calculations: Calculate cost, selling
price and margin/markup.
Breakeven calculations: Calculate breakeven points (quantity)
using fixed costs, variable costs per unit, unit prices, and profit.
17
Variables used in financial calculations
Financial calculations use multiple variables. By entering known
values into variables, you can obtain unknown values. Variables
used in financial calculations are categorized into the following
two types, depending on the entry method.
TVM variables:
Variables that are used in the TVM solver. These include N,
I/Y, PV, PMT and FV. You can store, recall or calculate values
directly using the corresponding keys.
Listed financial variables:
Variables that are organized into lists in different categories. These
variables can be accessed using the z/i cursor keys in
each calculation. P/Y and C/Y in the TVM solver are of this type of
variable.
Variables shared among calculations
Discounted
cash flow
analysis
CPN/Y (N)
Bond
calculations
DB (I/Y)
LIFE (N)
% (I/Y)
PERIODS (N)
—
—
—
Financial variables are specific to the type of calculation they
are used in. Values are stored in these variables and recalled
as required. Some variables are shared (in the memory area)
among calculations. If you change the value of a variable in one
calculation, the value will change in all the other calculations
as well. The following list shows the variables shared between
calculations. While calculating, be aware of the values stored in
these variables.
TVM
solver
—
YIELD (I/Y)
OLD PRC (PV)
M-D-Y 1*
D-M-Y 1
M-D-Y 2 *
D-M-Y 2
Percent change/
Depreciation
Day and date
Compound intercalculations
calculations
est calculations
N
RATE (I/Y)
COST (PV)
I/Y
PRICE (PV)
—
—
—
PV
—
—
—
PMT
NEW PRC (FV)
—
SALVAGE (FV)
FV
—
—
—
—
COUPON
(PMT)
REDEMPT
(FV)
M-D-Y 1*
D-M-Y 1
M-D-Y 2 *
D-M-Y 2
—
—
—
—
*The variable names vary according to the data format settings.
18
Basic variable operations
TVM variables (N, I/Y, PV, PMT, FV)
A. Entering a value
Enter a value and then press the corresponding TVM variable key.
Note: You can also enter values into variables using arithmetic
operations.
Ex. 100 x 12 u
B. Displaying a value
Press f and the corresponding TVM variable key.
C. Executing calculation
Press @ and the corresponding TVM variable key.
Listed financial variables
A. Entering a value
1. Select the desired financial calculation method by pressing the corresponding financial calculation key.
2. Use z/i to select the variable you wish to enter.
3. Enter the value and press Q when the “ENT” symbol
appears.
Note: In step 3, you can also enter values into variables using
arithmetic operations.
Ex. 100 x 12 Q
B. Displaying a value
1. Use z/i to show the variable and value.
C. Executing calculation
1. Use z/i to select the variable you wish to calculate.
2. Press @ when the “COMP” symbol appears.
Note: Pressing . b resets all the variables in the displayed listed financial group to the default values. For
details, see the relevant sections for each financial calculation.
19
The ENT and COMP symbols
Listed financial variables are categorized by whether they are
known or unknown. When the variable is selected (displayed),
the “ENT” and/or “COMP” symbols will appear to indicate that
the current variable may be entered (known variable) and/or
calculated (unknown variable), respectively. For details, refer to
the explanations or examples for each financial function.
For calculation only
For entry only
ENT COMP
COMP
ENT
Display symbols
Unknown variable, but
the calculator calculates
the value automatically.
Variable can be used
as either a known or an
unknown.
Variable can be used as
an unknown, but not as
a known.
Variable can be used as
a known, but not as an
unknown.
Descriptions
Note: TVM variables (N, I/Y, PV, PMT and FV) can be entered
(known variables) and calculated (unknown variables),
however, neither “ENT” nor “COMP” will appear on the
display.
For entry or calculation
—
Category
Calculated automatically
Notes:
• During financial calculation, the word “calculating!” will be
displayed on the screen. You can press s at this time to
cancel the calculation.
• Calculation-only and automatically calculated variables have
no default values.
• The symbol will be displayed if the value of the displayed
variable has not been calculated yet (for variables that can be
calculated).
20
Compound interest
This calculator assumes interest is compounded periodically in
financial calculations (compound interest). Compound interest accumulates at a predefined rate on a periodic basis. For
example, money deposited in a passbook saving account at
a bank accumulates a certain amount of interest each month,
increasing the account balance. The amount of interest received
each month depends on the balance of the account during that
month, including interest added in previous months. Interest
earns interest, which is why it is called compound interest.
It is important to know the compounding period of a loan or
investment before starting, because the whole calculation is
based on it. The compounding period is specified or assumed
(usually monthly).
Cash flow diagrams
Present
value (PV)
Payment (PMT)
Time
......
Future
value (FV)
The direction of arrows indicates the direction of cash movement
(inflow and outflow) with time. This manual uses the following
cash flow diagrams to describe cash inflows and outflows.
Inflow (+)
Cash
flow
Outflow (–)
21
TVM (Time Value of Money) Solver
Analyze equal and regular cash flows. These include calculations for mortgages, loans, leases, savings, annuities, and
contracts or investments with regular payments.
Note: Discounted cash flow analysis can be done using unequal cash flows (see page 37).
An amortization schedule can be calculated using the
information stored in the TVM solver (see page 33).
Variables used in the TVM solver
PV
I/Y
N
u
v
f
N
Future value
Payment
Present value
Interest rate per year
Total number of payments
1
0
0
0
0
1
Default
value
PMT
T
Number of payments per year
Description
FV
.w
1
Corresponding
variable key
P/Y
. w i Number of compounding
periods per year
Variable
C/Y
Setting the payment period (payment due)
You can toggle between ordinary annuity (payment at the end
of the period) and annuity due (payment at the beginning of the
period) using . ". The default setting is ordinary annuity
(BGN is not displayed).
Refer to page 28 for details.
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
• All the TVM solver variables retain their previously entered
values. If you wish to clear all the data, press . b.
2. Select ordinary annuity or annuity due using . ".
22
3. Enter values into TVM solver variables.
• Enter a value and press the appropriate TVM variable key
(N, f, v, u, T).
• Press . w and then enter a value for P/Y. The
same value is automatically assigned to C/Y as well. Values entered into P/Y or C/Y must be positive. After entering values, press s to quit the P/Y and C/Y settings.
• After setting P/Y (number of payments per year), you can
use . < to enter N (total number of payments).
Enter the number of years and press . <. The
calculator automatically calculates the total number of
payments.
• By pressing f / you can use the result of the previous normal calculation stored in ANS memory as a TVM
variable.
• Note that some variables are shared by other calculations
and may have values assigned by those calculations.
4. Press @ and the TVM variable key that you wish to solve.
• The calculation is performed and the obtained values are
displayed.
Calculating basic loan interest
Basic examples for the TVM solver
1
......
I/Y = ?%
FV = 0
A $56,000 mortgage loan (compounded monthly) requires
monthly payments of $440 during its 20-year amortization period. Calculate the annual interest rate on the mortgage.
PV = $56,000
PMT = –$440
N = 12 × 20 years = 240
Default values for the number of payments per year (P/Y) and
the number of compounding periods per year (C/Y) are both set
to 1. Set these values before entering TVM variable values.
23
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
Key operation
.b
. w 12 Q
1200
000
Display
P/Y=
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 12.
i
s
C/Y=
I/Y=
—~FV
000
24000
717
000
-44000
(-44—)~PMT
5600000
56———~PV
ANS~N
1200
The number of compounding periods per year is automatically set to the
same value as P/Y.
Confirm the number of
compounding periods
per year.
Quit the P/Y and C/Y
settings.
Calculate the total num- 20 . < N
ber of payments and
store in N.
@f
0T
, 440 u
Enter the present value. 56000 v
Enter payment.
Enter the future value.
Calculate the annual
interest rate.
Answer: The annual interest rate is 7.17%.
Note: If you make a mistake, press L to erase the number
and enter the correct number to continue.
After pressing the TVM variable key, you must re-enter
values from the beginning.
24
2
Calculating basic loan payments
......
—~FV
000
400
400
000
8000
6.5~I/Y
650
-125586
PMT=
000
5600000
56———~PV
ANS~N
C/Y=
P/Y=
Display
FV = 0
Calculate the quarterly payment for a $56,000 mortgage loan
at 6.5% compounded quarterly during its 20-year amortization
period.
I/Y = 6.5%
.b
Key operation
N = 4 × 20 years = 80
PV = $56,000
PMT = ?
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
.w4Q
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 4.
Confirm the number of
i
compounding periods per
year.
@u
6.5 f
0T
56000 v
20 . < N
Quit the P/Y and C/Y set- s
tings.
Calculate the total
number of payments and
store in N.
Enter the present value.
Enter the future value.
Enter the annual interest
rate.
Calculate the quarterly
payment.
Answer: The quarterly payments are $1,255.86.
25
3
Calculating future value
......
FV = ?
000
1200
400
000
000
3600
6.5~I/Y
FV=
792219
650
-20000
(-2——)~PMT
—~PV
ANS~N
C/Y=
P/Y=
Display
PMT = –$200
I/Y = 6.5% (quarterly)
You will pay $200 at the end of each month for the next three
years into a savings plan that earns 6.5% compounded quarterly. What amount will you have at the end of period if you
continue with the plan?
PV = 0
.b
Key operation
N = 12 × 3 years = 36
PMT = –$200
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
. w 12 Q
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 12.
s
Set the number of com- i 4 Q
pounding periods per
year to 4.
Quit the P/Y and C/Y
settings.
Calculate the total num- 3 . < N
ber of payments and
store in N.
@T
6.5 f
, 200 u
Enter the present value. 0 v
Enter payment.
Enter the annual interest rate.
Calculate the future
value.
Answer: You will have $7,922.19 at the end of the three-year
period.
26
4
Calculating present value
P/Y=
100
000
Display
N = 20 years
I/Y = 5%
Key operation
.b
FV = $10,000
You open an account that earns 5% compounded annually. If
you wish to have $10,000 twenty years from now, what amount
of money should you deposit now?
PV = ?
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
.w1Q
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 1.
s 20 N
10000 T
0u
5f
@v
2—~N
—~PMT
500
-376889
5~I/Y
PV=
000
1000000
1————~FV
2000
The number of compounding periods per year is automatically set to 1.
Press s to exit the P/Y and C/Y settings.
Enter the total number
of payments.
Enter the future value.
Set payment to zero.
Enter the annual interest rate.
Calculate the present
value.
Answer: You should deposit $3,768.89 now.
27
Specifying payments due (. ")
This calculator can select ordinary annuity or annuity due depending on the regular cash flow (payment) conditions.
Ordinary annuity (END):
This is the default setting for financial calculations. BGN is not
displayed. A regular cash flow (payment) is received at end of
each payment period. Often applied to loan calculations, etc.
Annuity due (BGN):
BGN appears on the display. A regular cash flow (payment) is
received at the beginning of each payment period. Often applied
to the finance lease of an asset.
To toggle between ordinary annuity and annuity due, press
. ".
Ordinary annuity
Note: The above selection only affects the TVM solver.
1
.b
P/Y=
1200
000
Display
FV = $300,000
......
Key operation
N = 18
I/Y = 3.6%
Your company wishes to accumulate a fund of $300,000 over the
next 18 months in order to open a second location. At the end of
each month, a fixed amount will be invested in a money market
savings account with an investment dealer. What should the
monthly investment be in order to reach the savings objective, assuming the account will earn 3.6% interest compounded monthly?
PV = 0
PMT = ?
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
. w 12 Q
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 12.
The number of compounding periods per year is automatically set to
12. Press s to exit the P/Y and C/Y settings.
28
Procedure
Enter the total number
of payments.
Enter the future value.
Key operation
s 18 N
300000 T
@u
3.6 f
Set the present value to 0 v
zero.
Enter the annual interest rate.
Calculate payment.
Annuity due
Display
18~N
1800
3—————~FV
360
000
30000000
—~PV
3.6~I/Y
PMT=
-1624570
Answer: The monthly investment should be $16,245.70.
2
FV = $2,995 × 10% = $299.5
1200
000
000
Display
P/Y=
I/Y = ?%
. w 12 Q
."
.b
Key operation
N = 24
......
Your company wishes to obtain a computer system with a value of
$2,995. The same system may be leased for 24 months at $145 per
month, paid at the beginning of each month. At the end of the lease,
the system may be purchased for 10% of the retail price. Should
you lease or purchase the computer if you can obtain a two-year
loan at 7.2%, compounded monthly, to purchase the computer?
PV = $2,995
PMT = –$145
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
Set to annuity due
(BGN is displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 12.
29
Procedure
Key operation
Display
24~N
ANS~FV
I/Y=
708
299500
2995~PV
-14500
(-145)~PMT
29950
2400
The number of compounding periods per year is automatically set to
12. Press s to exit the P/Y and C/Y settings.
2995 x 10 .
%T
s 24 N
Enter the future value.
, 145 u
Enter the total number
of payments.
Enter payment.
@f
Enter the present value. 2995 v
Calculate the annual
interest rate.
Answer: If you lease the computer system, the annual interest
rate would be 7.08%, which is less than that of the
interest rate on a two-year loan, so it would be more
cost-effective to lease a computer system than to
purchase one.
I/Y = 18%
......
FV = –$1,500
3
Calculating the present value of a lease with
trade-in value
Your client wishes to buy a machine currently leased from your
company. On a five-year lease with payments of $200 at the
beginning of each month, the machine has a trade-in value of
$1,500 with 34 monthly payments remaining. If your company
sells the machine at the present value of the lease, discounted
at an annual interest rate of 18%, compounded monthly, how
much should your company charge for the machine?
PV = ?
PMT = –$200
N = 34
30
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
Set to annuity due
(BGN is displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 12.
Key operation
.b
."
. w 12 Q
s 34 N
, 200 u
18 f
, 1500 T
@v
1200
000
000
Display
P/Y=
34~N
18~I/Y
PV=
627995
-150000
(-15——)~FV
1800
-20000
(-2——)~PMT
3400
The number of compounding periods per year is automatically set to
12. Press s to exit the P/Y and C/Y settings.
Enter the total number
of payments.
Enter payment.
Enter the annual interest rate.
Enter the future value.
Calculate the present
value.
Answer: $6,279.95 should be charged for the machine.
PV = ?
......
N = 12 × 25 years = 300
PMT = –$900
I/Y = 5.5%
FV = 0
4
Calculating down payment and amount to
borrow
You wish to buy a house for $180,000. The finance company
charges a 5.5% APR, compounded monthly, on a 25-year loan.
If you can afford a monthly payment of $900, how much can you
borrow? How much do you need for a down payment?
31
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
Key operation
.b
. w 12 Q
1200
000
Display
P/Y=
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set the number of payments per year to 12.
s 25 . <
N
ANS~N
5.5~I/Y
—~FV
000
3344108
18————-PV=
14655892
PV=
550
-90000
(-9——)~PMT
30000
The number of compounding periods per year is automatically set to 12.
Press s to exit the P/Y and C/Y settings.
Enter the total number
of payments.
, 900 u
s 180000 fv=
@v
0T
5.5 f
Enter payment.
Enter the annual interest rate.
Set the future value to
zero.
Calculate the present
value.
Calculate the down
payment.
Answer: You can borrow $146,558.92 in total. The price of the
house is $180,000, so:
Down payment = $180,000 – present value
= $180,000 – $146,558.92
You need $33,441.08 for a down payment.
32
Amortization Calculations
Calculate and create amortization schedules using values
stored in the TVM solver.
Note: Prior to using amortization, you need to enter values into
TVM variables.
Variables used in amortization
AMRT P2
AMRT P1
Remaining balance after payment
End of payment (nth time)
Start of payment (nth time)
—
—
1
1
Default value
BALANCE
Principal paid
—
Description
PRINCIPAL
Interest paid over the specified periods
Variable
INTEREST
• BALANCE, PRINCIPAL and INTEREST are calculated
automatically, so no default values are set.
• AMRT P1 and AMRT P2 must be between 1 and 9,999.
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
• All the TVM solver variables retain their previously entered
values. If you wish to clear all the data, press . b.
2. Select ordinary annuity or annuity due using . ".
100
AMRT P1=
3. Enter the appropriate numeric values for the variables used
in the TVM solver.
• Confirm the values of N, I/Y, PV, PMT, FV, P/Y and C/Y.
4. Press * to use amortization calculation.
5. Enter a value for “AMRT P1”
and press Q.
6. Press i, enter a value for “AMRT P2” and press Q.
7. Display values for BALANCE, PRINCIPAL and INTEREST
by pressing i once for each. Each value is calculated
automatically.
33
8. Press i to calculate the next period of the amortization
schedule.
9. Repeat steps 5 to 7 above.
• If you press @ during “AMRT P1” and “AMRT P2” entry,
the values for the next period of payment will be automatically
calculated and displayed.
• To end amortization calculations, press s. Pressing s
during entry will clear the value entered.
1
Calculating mortgage payments and generating an amortization schedule
.b
Key operation
-61656
000
Display
1. Calculate the monthly payment of a 20-year loan with a loan
amount of $90,000 and a 5.45% APR.
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
PMT=
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set TVM solver variables and calculate
payment.
. w 12 Q
s 20 . <
N 90000 v 0
T 5.45 f @
u
Answer: The monthly payment is $616.56.
Now generate an amortization schedule for the first 5 years of the
loan. If the first payment is in August, the first year has 5 payment
periods and the following years have 12 payment periods each.
Key operation
8895148
BALANCE=
500
AMRT P2=
100
AMRT P1=
Display
2. Calculate the amortization schedule for the first year.
Procedure
i
i5Q
Change to amortization * 1 Q
calculation and enter 1
(August) for the starting
payment.
Enter 5 (December) for
the ending payment.
Display the remaining
balance.
34
Procedure
Display the principal
paid.
Display the interest
paid.
Key operation
i
i
Key operation
Display
ÍPRINCIPAL=
-104852
ÍINTEREST=
-203428
-478316
ÍINTEREST=
-261556
ÍPRINCIPAL=
8633592
BALANCE=
1700
AMRT P2=
600
AMRT P1=
Display
3. Calculate the amortization schedule for the second year.
Procedure
Change amortization
i6Q
schedule to the second
year and enter 6 (January) for the starting
payment.
i
i
i
Enter 17 (December)
i 17 Q
for the ending payment.
Display the remaining
balance.
Display the principal
paid.
Display the interest
paid.
i
i
i
i@i
Key operation
-463701
ÍINTEREST=
-276171
ÍPRINCIPAL=
8357421
BALANCE=
2900
AMRT P2=
Display
4. Calculate the amortization schedule for the third year.
Procedure
Change amortization
schedule to the third
year and enter the next
12 months automatically.
Display the remaining
balance.
Display the principal
paid.
Display the interest
paid.
5. Repeat the above operation for the fourth and fifth years.
35
2
Calculating payments, interest, and loan balance after a specified payment
s.b
Key operation
000
Display
You have taken out a 30-year loan for $500,000, with an annual
interest rate of 8.5%. If, after the 48th period, you want a balloon
payment due, what amount of monthly payment must you make
with monthly compounding and how much will the balloon payment be?
Procedure
Set all the variables to
default values.
-384457
PMT=
Make sure ordinary annuity is set (BGN is not displayed).
Set TVM solver variables and calculate
payment.
. w 12 Q
s 30 . <
N 500000 v 0
T 8.5 f @
u
Answer: The monthly payment is $3,844.57.
Key operation
-16729460
ÍINTEREST=
-1724476
ÍPRINCIPAL=
48275524
BALANCE=
4800
AMRT P2=
100
AMRT P1=
Display
Now generate an amortization schedule from the first to the
48th payments.
Procedure
Change to amortization * 1 Q
calculation and enter 1
for the starting payment.
i
i
i
Enter 48 (December)
i 48 Q
for the ending payment.
Display the balance after 48 months. (balloon
payment)
Display the principal
paid over 48 months.
Display the interest
paid over 48 months.
Answer: The balloon payment after the 48th period would be
$482,755.24.
36
Discounted Cash Flow Analysis
Analyze unequal cash flows and calculate the net present value
(NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR).
Note: Use the TVM solver for equal and regular cash flow
analysis (see page 22).
Entering cash flow data
To find NPV and IRR using discounted cash flow analysis, enter
cash flow data, one data item at a time, in the following format:
Single cash flows
Cash flow value J
Repeated cash flows
Cash flow value > frequency value J
Notes:
• Before entering data, press > . b to clear any
previously entered cash flow data.
• Press , to enter a negative cash flow (outflow).
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode. It is not possible to enter cash flow data when listed financial variables are
shown on the display. Press s to exit.
• You can enter a total of up to 100 cash flow and/or statistical
data items. A single cash flow value is counted as one data
item, while a cash flow value with an associated frequency
value is counted as two.
• Frequency values must be integers between 1 and 999.
• If you wish to correct a value before pressing J, press
s to delete the entry and enter the correct value.
Entering cash flow data
–$25,000
$7,000 $9,000 $5,000 $5,000 $8,000
Enter cash flow data according to the following cash flow diagram.
37
Procedure
Key operation
8000 J
5000 > 2 J
9000 J
7000 J
, 25000 J
Bring up the initial dis- s *1
play in NORMAL mode.
Enter cash flow data.
*1
*2
Display
000
DATA SET:CF
000*
DATA SET:CF
100
DATA SET:CF
200
DATA SET:CF
300
DATA SET:CF
400
2
If there is cash flow data stored, press > . b to
clear it.
The format of the data set (cash flow and frequency values)
number, which is initially set to “0.00,” is dependent on calculator display notation settings.
Confirming and editing data
CF D—=
CF N—=
-2500000
Frequency
value
Data set
number
Cash flow
value
Data set
number
Confirming data
Press > to display any previously entered cash flow data.
The data is displayed in order by data item (identifier, number,
and value).
Use z/ i to display a data item from a previously entered
data set.
Cash flow
identifier
Frequency
identifier
100
38
• Press . z or . i to jump to the first or the last
data item, respectively.
• Each data item is displayed in the form CF Dn= (cash flow
value) or CF Nn= (frequency), where n indicates the data set
number.
Editing data
• Display the data item you wish to modify by using z/i,
enter a new value and press J.
• If a frequency value is set to zero, then the associated data
set is deleted.
Deleting data
• Display the data item to be deleted by using z/i, and
press . ?.
• If a cash flow value/frequency is deleted, the corresponding
frequency/cash flow value is also deleted.
• If you wish to delete all data, press . b.
Inserting data
Using the z and i keys, specify the correct place to
insert your new data by displaying the value that is to come
directly after, and then press . e. A new data set with
a cash flow value of zero and a frequency value of one will be
inserted. Modify the new data set to include your data.
Correcting cash flow data
Chart B
Currently the cash flow data is that shown in chart A. Change it
according to chart B.
Chart A
$7,000 $9,000 $6,000 $5,000 $8,000
–$30,000
Key operation
-2500000
CF D—=
Display
$7,000 $9,000 $5,000 $5,000 $8,000
–$25,000
Procedure
Display previously
s>
entered cash flow data.
(Example on page 37)
39
Procedure
Key operation
Display
CF D—=
100
-3000000
iiii
CF N3=
iii1J
Change the first cash
, 30000 J
flow value from –25,000
to –30,000.
Change the frequency
of 5000 from 2 to 1.
. e 6000 J
600000
CF D3=
Add a new data set
(6000) immediately
before 5000.
To confirm the corrections, press . z to jump to the first
data item and press i to browse through each data item.
Variables used in discounted cash flow analysis
0
Default value
Internal rate of return (IRR)
—
Description
RATE (I/Y)
Net present value (NPV)
Variable
NET_PV
• The variable RATE (I/Y) is shared by the variable I/Y. NET_PV
is for calculation only and has no default value.
• The BGN/END setting is not available for discounted cash flow
analysis.
NPV and IRR
The calculator solves the following cash flow values:
Net present value (NPV):
The total present value of all cash flows, including cash paid out
(outflows) and cash received (inflows). A profitable investment is
indicated by a positive NPV value.
Internal rate of return (IRR):
The interest rate that gives a net present value of zero.
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
40
2. Enter cash flow data.
• Refer to page 37 for instructions on entering cash flow data.
3. Press . < to begin discounted cash flow analysis.
• If a previously entered cash flow value is displayed, press
s to exit and then press . <.
4. To find NPV or IRR, do the following:
To obtain NPV:
Enter the interest rate (discounted rate) into RATE(I/Y) and
press Q. Move to NET_PV and calculate by pressing i
and @.
To obtain IRR:
Press @ to calculate IRR (RATE(I/Y)).
Solving for unequal cash flows
Note: If “Error 5” is displayed in step 4, or if you want to find
another IRR, enter an estimated value into RATE(I/Y) and
calculate again in step 4.
1
Your company pays $12,000 for a new network system, and
expects the following annual cash flows: $3,000 for the first year,
$5,000 for the second to fourth years, and $4,000 for the fifth
year. At what IRR does the net present value of the cash flows
equal zero?
Key operation
000
Display
$3,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $4,000
–$12,000
1. Enter cash flow data.
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s *1
play in NORMAL mode.
41
Procedure
Enter cash flow data.
Key operation
, 12000 J
3000 J
5000 > 3 J
4000 J
Return to the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
*1
Key operation
Display
DATA SET:CF
000
DATA SET:CF
100
DATA SET:CF
200
DATA SET:CF
300
000
2314
RATE(I/Y)=
000
RATE(I/Y)=
Display
If there is cash flow data stored, press > . b to
clear it.
2. Calculate IRR.
Procedure
@
Select discounted cash . < . b
flow analysis, and set all
the variables to default
values.
Calculate IRR (RATE
(I/Y)).
Answer: The net present value of the cash flows equals zero at
an IRR of 23.14%.
2
Calculating the present value of variable cash
flows
Your company has prepared forecasts for the development costs
and operating profits of the next generation of your product.
Development costs for each of the next three years (Years 1 to
3) will be $50,000. Manufacturing equipment costing $100,000
will be purchased at the end of Year 3. Annual profits for the
five-year product life (from Year 4 to Year 8) are projected to be
$80,000. The salvage value of the manufacturing equipment at
the end of Year 8 is $20,000. Given a 12% discount rate, should
your company proceed with the product development?
42
000
300
DATA SET:CF
200
DATA SET:CF
100
DATA SET:CF
000
DATA SET:CF
000
Display
–$20,000
$80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000 $80,000
–$50,000 –$50,000
–$50,000
–$100,000
Key operation
1. Enter the cash flow data.
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s *1
play in NORMAL mode.
Enter cash flow data.
, 50000 > 2
J
, 150000 J
80000 > 4 J
60000 J
Return to the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
*1
Key operation
662752
NET_PV=
1200
RATE(I/Y)=
000
RATE(I/Y)=
Display
If there is cash flow data stored, press > . b to
clear it.
2. Calculate NPV.
Procedure
Select discounted cash . < . b
flow analysis, and set all
the variables to default
values.
i@
Enter the discount rate. 12 Q
Calculate NPV
(NET_PV).
Answer: As NPV = 6,627.52 > 0, the product can be developed.
43
Bond Calculations
Default value
Using bond calculations, you can obtain bond prices, yields to
maturity, and accrued interest.
Description
Variables used in bond calculations
Variable
CPN/Y (N) *3
M-D-Y 2 *2
M-D-Y 1 *2
REDEMPT (FV)
Yield to maturity (%)
Number of coupons per year
Redemption date
Settlement date (date of bond purchase)
Redemption value *1
0
0
1
1-1-2001
1-1-2001
0
YIELD (I/Y)
Bond price *4
—
COUPON (PMT) Annual coupon rate (%)
PRICE (PV)
Accrued interest
0
ACCU INT
*1 Redemption value of the security per $100 par value.
*2 You can change the date format to D-M-Y (see page 10).
*3 You can only enter “1” or “2” — “1” for annual coupons and “2”
for semi-annual coupons.
Per $100 par value.
*4
Note: Bonds are associated with payment methods known as
coupons. A coupon is like an “interest-only payment,” and
it is based on the future value of the bond. COUPON is
a percentage of the bond par value, usually annually, by
the owner of the bond.
For bonds that have annual coupons, the owner receives
one payment of the coupon amount each year. Some
bonds have semi-annual coupons. For these, each year’s
coupon amount is paid in two equal payments six months
apart. The date on which a coupon payment is made is
called the “coupon date.” The bond maturity date is usually the last coupon date.
Setting the day-count method
You can toggle between the actual calendar (365 days plus leap
years) and a 360-day calendar (12 months of 30 days each)
using . &. The actual calendar is set by default (360 is
not displayed). The calendar range is from January 1, 1901 to
December 31, 2099.
44
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
000
COUPON(PMT)=
2. Select bond calculations by
pressing #.
• To end bond calculations,
press s.
• If you press s during entry, any entered values will be
cleared.
3. Change the day-count setting, if necessary, by pressing
. &.
4. Enter the coupon rate (%) into COUPON (PMT) by entering
the value and pressing Q.
5. Enter the redemption value into REDEMPT (FV) by pressing
i, entering the value, and pressing Q.
6. Enter the date of bond purchase into M-D-Y 1 (or D-M-Y 1)
by pressing i, entering the date, and pressing Q.
• For date entry, refer to page 47, ”Entering dates”.
7. Enter the redemption date into M-D-Y 2 (or D-M-Y 2) by
pressing i, entering the date, and pressing Q.
• For date entry, refer to page 47, ”Entering dates”.
8. Enter the number of coupon payments per year into CPN/Y
(N) by pressing i, entering the value, and pressing Q.
9. To find bond price or yield to maturity, do the following:
To obtain bond price (PRICE (PV)):
Enter annual yield (%) into YIELD(I/Y) by pressing i, entering the value, and pressing Q. Move to PRICE (PV) and
calculate by pressing i and @. Display the accrued
interest (ACCU INT) by pressing i. The accrued interest is
calculated automatically.
To obtain yield to maturity (YIELD (I/Y)):
Move to PRICE (PV) and enter the bond price by pressing i
i, entering the value, and pressing Q. Move to annual
yield, YIELD (I/Y) and calculate by pressing z @. Display
the accrued interest (ACCU INT) by pressing i i. The
accrued interest is calculated automatically.
45
Calculating bond price and accrued interest
Key operation
141
9464
PV+ANS=
ACCU INT=
9323
PRICE(PV)=
720
YIELD(I/Y)=
200
CPN/Y(N)=
8-15-2023
M-D-Y 2=[TU]
11- 3-2006
M-D-Y 1=[FR]
10000
REDEMPT(FV)=
650
COUPON(PMT)=
000
COUPON(PMT)=
000
Display
A $100, 20-year, 6.5% coupon bond is issued to mature on
August 15, 2023. It was sold on November 3, 2006 to yield the
purchaser 7.2% compounded semiannually until maturity. At
what price did the bond sell? Also calculate the accrued coupon
interest.
Procedure
#
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
Select bond calculations.
siv+
i/=
i
i @
i 7.2 Q
i2Q
i 08152023 Q
i 11032006 Q
i 100 Q
6.5 Q
Make sure the actual calendar is set (360 is not displayed).
Enter the coupon rate
(%).
Enter the redemption
value.
Enter the settlement
date.
Enter the redemption
date.
Enter the number of
coupon payments per
year.
Enter the annual yield
(%).
Calculate bond price.
Calculate the accrued
interest.
Calculate bond price
including accrued
interest.
Answer: The bond sold at $93.23 and the accrued coupon
interest was $1.41 (the bond price including accrued
interest would be $94.64).
The asking price on the above bond is $92.50. What will your
yield be?
46
Calculate the yield.
Change the bond price
to $92.50.
Procedure
z@
#iii
i i i 92.5
Q
Key operation
Answer: The yield will be 7.28%.
Entering dates
Refer to the following notes for date entry.
Display
PRICE(PV)=
9250
YIELD(I/Y)=
728
• Enter using US date format (MM-DD-YYYY) or EU date format (DD-MM-YYYY). Refer to the previous example and the
following explanation.
Month entry
Enter two digits. From 2 to 9, the preceding zero may be omitted.
Day entry
Enter two digits. From 4 to 9, the preceding zero may be omitted.
Year entry
Enter four digits. From 2010 to 2099, the zero following the
first “2” may be omitted. From 1901 to 1989, the “9” following
the first “1” may be omitted.
• After entry, the date will be stored and the abbreviated day of
the week will be displayed.
• [SU]: Sunday, [MO]: Monday, [TU]: Tuesday, [WE]: Wednesday, [TH]: Thursday, [FR]: Friday, [SA]: Saturday.
•
•
•
•
The default value for dates is: January 1, 2001 (1-1-2001).
The effective range of dates is: January 1, 1901 to December
31, 2099.
If an inappropriate date is entered (e.g., February 31), an error
message (Error 7) will appear immediately after pressing Q.
In this case, follow either of the following procedures:
• Press s to return to the display before the entry, enter
the appropriate date, and press Q.
• Press g/y to go back to the display that was shown
before you pressed Q. Press s or L, enter the
appropriate date, and press Q again.
If you wish to correct numbers during entry, use L as a
backspace key.
47
Depreciation Calculations
Using depreciation calculations, you can obtain depreciation
base values using three types of calculation methods: the
straight-line method, the sum-of-the-years’ digits method, and
the declining balance method.
Description
Default value
Variables used in depreciation calculations
Variable
0
0
Interest per year
Cost of asset
0
DB (I/Y)*1
COST (PV)
Salvage value
1
1
SALVAGE (FV)
Year for calculating depreciation value
—
Years of depreciation
YEAR
Depreciation value of above year
—
LIFE (N)
DEPRECIATE
Remaining book value
—
1
RBV
Remaining depreciation value
START MONTH Starting month
RDV
*1 DB (I/Y) appears only when you select DB (declining balance
method) for the depreciation method.
Setting the depreciation method
• Select the depreciation method in the SET UP menu. It is
initially set to SL.
~20
SYD (Sum-of-the-years’ digits method)
SL (Straight-line method)
Description
~21
DB (Declining balance method)
Key operation
~22
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
48
2. Select the depreciation method (see page 48).
----------
3. Select depreciation calculations
by pressing O.
SL
• When using the declining
balance method, DB (I/Y) appears. Enter the number and press Q.
• To end depreciation calculations, press s. If you press
s during entry, any entered values will be cleared.
4. Enter the number of years of depreciation into LIFE (N) by
pressing i, entering the value, and pressing Q.
• When using the straight-line method, the value should be a
positive real number, while for the SYD or DB methods, it
should be a positive integer.
5. Enter the starting month into START MONTH by pressing
i, entering the value, and pressing Q.
• You can enter values between 1 and 13.
• Generally, it is not necessary to enter a decimal value.
However, if you wish to enter, for example, the middle of
July, enter 7.5; where the decimal is equal to the number
value of the given date divided by the total number of days
in the month.
6. Enter the cost of asset into COST (PV) by pressing i,
entering the value, and pressing Q.
7. Enter the salvage value into SALVAGE (FV) by pressing i,
entering the value, and pressing Q.
8. Enter the year for calculating depreciation value into YEAR by
pressing i, entering the value, and pressing Q.
• The year for calculating depreciation value is initially 1.
Pressing @ increments this number by 1.
• This value must be a positive integer.
9. Calculate depreciation for the year by pressing i.
10. Calculate the remaining book value by pressing i.
11. Calculate the remaining depreciation by pressing i.
12. To calculate depreciation value for another year, press z
three times to go back to YEAR, enter a value for the new
year, and recalculate.
49
Calculating straight-line depreciation
Key operation
s~20
O
i 30 Q
i4Q
i 1500000 Q
Display
000
000
300
136250000
RDV=
136250000
RBV=
5000000
DEPRECIATE=
YEAR=
SALVAGE(FV)=
150000000
COST(PV)=
400
START MONTH=
3000
LIFE(N)=
----------
SL
In April, your company begins depreciation of a commercial
building with a 30-year life and no salvage value. The building
costs $1,500,000. Calculate the depreciation amount, remaining
book value and remaining depreciable value for the third year
using the straight-line depreciation method.
Procedure
Bring up the initial
display in NORMAL
mode, and select the
straight-line depreciation method.
Select depreciation
calculations.
Enter the number of
years of depreciation.
Enter the starting
month.
Enter the cost of asset.
Enter the salvage value. i 0 Q
i
Enter the year for calcu- i 3 Q
lating depreciation value.
Calculate depreciation
for the year.
Calculate the remaining i
book value.
Calculate the remaining i
depreciation value.
Answer: At the third year, the depreciation amount is $50,000,
the remaining book value is $1,362,500, and the remaining depreciable value is $1,362,500.
50
Conversion between APR and EFF
Interest rates can be converted between APR (annual, or nominal percentage rate) and EFF (effective interest rate).
• The APR is an investment’s annual rate of interest when compounding happens only once a year. The interest rate printed
on a bond is an example of an APR.
• The EFF is an investment’s annual rate of interest when compounding happens more often than once a year. It reflects the
actual amount of return for a given nominal rate. For example,
if your investment compounds monthly, then the stated nominal percentage rate becomes a monthly rate, and the EFF
reflects your actual annual rate of return.
Basic operations
1. Press s to clear the display. Make sure the calculator is
in NORMAL mode.
2. Enter the calculation data in the following format:
• To change APR to EFF:
Number of compounding periods per year > Nominal
percentage rate . P
Display
• To change EFF to APR:
Number of compounding periods per year > Effective
interest rate . !
Key operation
1800
12,19.56¬APR
1956
12,18¬EFF
Converting between APR and EFF
Procedure
s 12 > 18 . P
12 > 19.56 . !
Calculate the
effective interest
rate for twelve
compounding
periods with an
18% APR.
Convert this rate
back to the original APR.
51
Day and Date Calculations
Using day and date calculations, you can find dates and the
numbers of days between dates.
Variables used in day and date calculations
1-1-2001
Default value
The first date
1-1-2001
Description
M-D-Y 1 *1
The last date
Variable
M-D-Y 2 *1
Number of days
You can change the date format to D-M-Y (see page 10).
0
DAYS
*1
Setting the day-count method
You can toggle between the actual calendar (365 days plus leap
years) and a 360-day calendar (12 months of 30 days each)
using . &. The actual calendar is set by default (360 is
not displayed). The calendar range is from January 1, 1901 to
December 31, 2099.
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
1- 1-2001
2. Select day and date calculaM-D-Y 1=[MO]
tions by pressing K.
• To end day and date calculations, press s. If you press
s during entry, any entered values will be cleared.
3. Change the day-count method, using . &, if necessary.
4. Enter the values of any two known variables: the first date,
the last date, or the number of days.
• For date entry, refer to page 47, ”Entering dates”.
5. Move to the variable you wish to calculate, using the z
and i keys, and press @ to calculate.
• If the calculator is set to 360-day calendar mode (360 is
displayed), it is not possible to obtain either the first or last
dates, only the number of days.
52
1
Calculating number of days
Key operation
1- 1-2001
M-D-Y 1=[MO]
000
Display
Calculate the number of days between December 25, 2008 and
August 10, 2009 (using US date format and the actual calendar).
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
Select day and date
K.b
calculations, and set all
the variables to default
values.
i@
i 8102009 Q
12252008 Q
DAYS=
22800
8-10-2009
M-D-Y 2=[MO]
12-25-2008
M-D-Y 1=[TH]
Make sure the actual calendar is set (360 is not displayed).
Enter the first date.
Enter the last date.
Move to DAYS and
calculate.
Finding a date
Answer: 228 days
• If the 360-day calendar is selected, the answer will be 225 days.
2
Key operation
1- 1-2001
M-D-Y 1=[MO]
000
Display
Find the date 100 days after November 13, 2010 (using US date
format and the actual calendar).
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
Select day and date
K.b
calculations, and set all
the variables to default
values.
i i 100 Q
1113210 Q
DAYS=
10000
11-13-2010
M-D-Y 1=[SA]
Make sure the actual calendar is set (360 is not displayed).
Enter the first date.
Move to DAYS and enter the number of days.
53
Procedure
Move to the last date
and calculate.
Key operation
z@
Answer: The last date is February 21, 2011.
Display
M-D-Y 2=[MO]
2-21-2011
Percent Change/Compound Interest Calculations
Using percent change/compound interest calculations, you can
determine the values of percentage rates of change (increase or
decrease) or interest rates compounding periodically.
Description
Default value
Variables used in percent change/compound interest
calculations
Variable
0
Old price (old value)
0
OLD PRC (PV)
Percent change
1
0
% (I/Y)
Number of compounding periods
NEW PRC (FV) New price (new value)
PERIODS (N)
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
000
2. Select percent change/compound interest calculations by
OLD PRC(PV)=
pressing . B.
• To end percent change/compound interest calculations, press s.
• If you press s during entry, any entered values will be
cleared.
3. Enter the values of any three known variables: old price, new
price, percent change, or number of compounding periods.
4. Move to the variable you wish to calculate, using the z
and i keys, and press @ to calculate.
54
1
Calculating percent change
Key operation
5467
%(I/Y)=
11600000
NEW PRC(FV)=
7500000
OLD PRC(PV)=
000
OLD PRC(PV)=
000
Display
Sales in a company were $75,000 during the first year of operation. The second year’s sales were $116,000. What percentage
greater were the second year’s sales than first year’s sales?
In this calculation, the number of compound periods is set to 1
(default).
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
i@
i 116000 Q
75000 Q
Select percent change/ . B . b
compound interest
calculations, and set all
the variables to default
values.
Enter the old value.
Enter the new value.
Calculate the percent
change.
Calculating compound interest rate
Answer: The second year’s sales increased by 54.67% over
the first year’s sales.
2
Key operation
800000
OLD PRC(PV)=
000
OLD PRC(PV)=
000
Display
You opened an account compounding annually and deposited
$8,000 eighteen years ago. You currently have $9,800. What is
the compound interest rate?
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
8000 Q
Select percent change/ . B . b
compound interest
calculations, and set all
the variables to default
values.
Enter the old value.
55
Procedure
Enter the new value.
Key operation
i 9800 Q
z@
Set the number of com- i i 18 Q
pound periods to 18.
Calculate the compound interest rate.
Display
NEW PRC(FV)=
980000
PERIODS(N)=
113
1800
%(I/Y)=
Answer: The compound interest rate is 1.13%.
Cost/Sell/Margin/Markup Calculations
Using cost/sell/margin/markup calculations, you can determine
costs, selling prices, margins and markup.
Variables used in cost/sell/margin/markup calculations
COST
Selling price
Cost
0
0
0
Default value
SELL
Profit margin (%) *1
0
Description
MARGIN
Markup (%) *2
Variable
MARK UP
*1 Profit margin (%) is calculated based on selling price.
Markup (%) is calculated based on cost.
*2
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
000
2. Select cost/sell/margin/markup
COST=
calculations by pressing I.
• To end cost/sell/margin/markup calculations, press s.
• If you press s during entry, any entered values will be
cleared.
56
3. Enter the values of any two known variables as follows:
SELL
COST
COST and SELL
COST, and MARGIN or MARK UP *1
SELL, and MARGIN or MARK UP *1
Known variables
MARGIN
COST and SELL
Unknown variable
MARK UP
*1
Because only either MARGIN or MARK UP is used in any
cost/sell/margin/markup calculation, the unused variable
is given a value of “----------”. Initially, MARK UP is set to
“----------”. If you enter a value for MARK UP, MARGIN is set
to “----------”, and vice versa.
4. Move to the variable you wish to calculate, using the z
and i keys, and press @ to calculate.
Determining selling price
Key operations
SELL=
000
000
45560
88842
9500
MARK UP=
COST=
COST=
Display
In a furniture business, it is desirable to realize a 95% markup
from cost to retail price for each item. A certain sofa costs
$455.60. What should its selling price be?
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
Select cost/sell/margin I . b
markup calculations,
and set all the variables
to default values.
i i i 95
Q
455.6 Q
Enter markup rate.
zz@
Enter cost.
Calculate selling price.
Answer: The selling price should be $888.42.
57
Breakeven Calculations
Using breakeven calculations, you can calculate fixed cost, variable cost per unit, unit price, profit and quantity.
Variables used in breakeven calculations
VARIABLE
FIXED
Unit price
Variable cost per unit
Fixed cost
0
0
0
0
Default value
PRICE
Profit
0
Description
PROFIT
Quantity
Variable
QUANTITY
Basic operations
Refer to page 19 for basic variable operations.
1. Press s to clear the display.
• Make sure the calculator is in NORMAL mode.
000
2. Select breakeven calculations
FIXED=
by pressing $.
• To end breakeven calculations, press s.
• If you press s during entry, any entered values will be
cleared.
3. Enter the values of any four known variables.
4. Move to the variable you wish to calculate, using the z
and i keys, and press @ to calculate.
Calculating the breakeven point
Key operation
000
Display
Your company has developed a new product and plans to sell it
at a price of $120 per unit. The variable cost per unit is $75.80
and the fixed costs total $15,000. What is the breakeven point
for this product?
Procedure
Bring up the initial dis- s
play in NORMAL mode.
58
Procedure
Key operation
i@
i
i 120 Q
i 75.80 Q
15000 Q
Select breakeven
$.b
calculations, and set all
the variables to default
values.
Enter fixed cost.
Enter variable cost per
unit.
Enter unit price.
Leave profit as is.
Calculate quantity.
000
Display
FIXED=
FIXED=
1500000
7580
VARIABLE=
PRICE=
12000
PROFIT=
000
QUANTITY=
33937
Answer: The breakeven point of this product is 339.37 units.
59
Chapter 4
Scientic Functions
This calculator has a variety of functions. Press m 0 to
select NORMAL mode and perform scientific calculations.
•
•
•
•
34 + 57 =
45 =
s 34 + 57 =
9100
10200
170000
272000
Result
For basic calculations, see page 11.
When a listed financial variable is displayed, you can enter
the result of a scientific calculation into it by pressing Q
immediately after completing the calculation.
Scientific calculations can also be performed in STAT mode.
The examples in this chapter are all performed under the SET
UP menu’s default settings. Before starting calculation, press
s to clear the display.
Constant Calculations
45 + 57 =
68 x 25 =
Key operation
68 × 25 =
40 =
Example
68 × 40 =
• In constant calculations, the addend becomes a constant.
Subtraction and division behave the same way. For multiplication, the multiplicand becomes a constant.
• In constant calculations, constants will be displayed as .
Chain Calculations
s6 +4 =
+5 =
1000
1500
1600
25600
8100
900
Result
A calculation result (ANS memory) can be used in a subsequent calculation. However, it cannot be recalled after entering
multiple instructions.
6 + 4 = ANS
ANS + 5 =
8x2=
.;=
Key operation
8 × 2 = ANS
ANS2 =
44 + 37 =
.}=
Example
44 + 37 = ANS
ANS =
60
s . { 60
=
Key operation
Scientific Calculations
Example
sin 60 [°] =
cos — [rad] =
4
tan–1 1 [g] =
~12.
71 =
~11.
c(.t
84 ) =
tan–1 1 [°] =
~10.
71 =
Display
sin60=
087
5000
071
cos(π©4)=
tan-|1=
tan-|1=
4500
DEG
–—””—
2
2
–90 ” ” 90
–1
–1
= sin x, = tan x
0””
0 ” ” 180
–1
= cos x
2009
• The range of the results of inverse trigonometric functions
RAD
0 ” ” 200
. h 50 =
090
170
300
5012
2009
031
400
645
-202498
Result
–100 ” ” 100
s ( . ] c1.5
+ . ] {1.5 )
.;=
Key operation
GRAD
Example
(cosh 1.5 +
sinh 1.5)2 =
log 50 =
. d 20 =
. ] 7 (5 8 7
)=
In 20 =
. :1.7 =
5
7
101.7 =
.R3=
tanh–1 — =
e3 =
1
7
6.;+7.;
=
1
6
—+—=
8–2 – 34 × 52 = 8 . @ , 2 - 3
.@4x5.;
=
(123)4– =
12 . @ 3 . @ 4
.;=
1
49 – 4
81 = . } 49 - 4 . :
81 =
61
Key operation
4.o=
Example
4! =
10 . q 3 =
P3 =
500 x 25 . %
5.p2=
10
C2 =
5
What is 25%
of 500?
Result
2400
72000
1000
12500
500 + 25 . %
28000
62500
3000
500 + (500 ×
25%) =
400 - 30 . %
120 8 400 . %
What
percentage of
400 is 120?
400 – (400 ×
30%) =
Random Functions
This calculator has four kinds of random functions (the 2nd function of the - key).
Random numbers
A pseudo-random number, consisting of three significant digits
from zero up to 0.999, can be generated by pressing . |
0 =. To generate further random numbers in succession,
press = for each number. Press s to exit.
• To display numbers with three significant digits, set the display
notation settings to “floating point”.
Random dice
To simulate a die roll, a random integer between 1 and 6 can
be generated by pressing . | 1 =. To generate
further random numbers in succession, press = for each
number. Press s to exit.
Random coin
To simulate a coin flip, 0 (heads) or 1 (tails) can be randomly
generated by pressing . | 2 =. To generate
further random numbers in succession, press = for each
number. Press s to exit.
62
Random integer
Key operation
532
RANDOMx1—=
Display
An integer between 0 and 99 can be generated randomly by
pressing . | 3 =. To generate further random
numbers in succession, press = for each number. Press
s to exit.
Example
Pick a random number s . | 0
between zero and 9.99. x 10 =
• The result will not be the same each time this operation is
performed.
Modify Function
Example
s589=
x 9 = *1
Key operation
Result
056
500
056
504
Calculation results are internally obtained in scientific notation
with a mantissa of up to 14 digits. However, because calculation
results are displayed in the form designated by the display notation and the number of decimal places indicated, a displayed
calculation result may differ from that held internally. By using
the modify function (the 2nd function of the + key), the
internal value is converted to match that of the display, so that
the displayed value can be used without change in subsequent
operations.
5 ÷ 9 = ANS
ANS × 9 =
[FIX, TAB = 2]
589=
. l x 9 = *2
*1 5.5555555555555 × 10–1 × 9
0.56 × 9
*2
63
Chapter 5
Statistical Functions
Sub-mode
Stat 6
Display
Statistical calculations can be performed in STAT mode. The
symbol will be visible if you are in STAT mode.
There are seven sub-modes within STAT mode, corresponding
to each of the functions below:
Key operation
SD: Single-variable statistics
LINE: Linear regression
QUAD: Quadratic regression
EXP: Exponential regression
LOG: Logarithmic regression
PWR: Power regression
INV: Inverse regression
Stat 5
Stat 4
Stat 3
Stat 2
Stat 1
Stat —
m10
m11
m12
m13
m14
m15
m16
Entering statistical data
Before you can perform statistical calculations, you will need to
enter your data. In STAT mode, use > and J (the Q
key) to enter the following:
For a single-variable data set:
Value J
Value > frequency J (To enter multiples of the same
value)
For a two-variable data set:
x value > y value J
x value > y value > frequency J (To enter multiples
of the same x and y values)
Note: Before entering data, clear any previously entered data
from memory by doing either of the following:
• Press . b in STAT mode.
• Switch sub-modes within STAT mode.
64
DATA
30
40
40
50
Display
Stat —
000
DATA SET=
100 *
DATA SET=
200
300
DATA SET=
Stat —
000
2
• You can enter a total of up to 100 statistical and/or cash flow
data items. For single-variable data, a data set without a
frequency is counted as one data item, and a data set with
an assigned frequency is counted as two data items. For twovariable data, a data set without a frequency is counted as
two data items, while a data set with an assigned frequency is
counted as three data items.
• If you wish to correct a value before pressing J, press
L or s to delete the entry, then enter the correct value.
Entering statistical data
Key operation
Enter the data in the table to the right using
the “Stat 0” sub-mode.
Procedure
sm10
s
50 J
40 > 2 J
30 J
Enter the “Stat 0” submode.
Enter statistical data. *1
Return to the “Stat 0”
display.
*1 If there is data stored in memory, press . b (within
STAT mode) to clear it.
*2 The format of the data set (the sample and frequency values)
number, which is initially set to “1.00”, is dependent on calculator notation settings.
65
Confirming and editing data
2000
1000
Frequency
Data set number
y value
Data set number
x value
Data set number
• Use z / i to display a data item from a previously
entered data set.
X1=
Y1=
FRQ1=
1100
• Press . z or . i to jump to the first or last
data item, respectively.
• Each data item is displayed in the form: “Xn = (x value)”, “Yn =
(y value)”, or “FRQn = (frequency)”, where “n” is the data set
number.
Editing data
• Display the data item you wish to modify by using z / i,
enter a new value and press J.
Deleting data
• Display the data item to be deleted by using z/i, and
press . ?.
• If a value/frequency is deleted, the corresponding frequency/
value is also deleted.
• If you wish to delete all data, press . b.
Inserting data
Using the z and i keys, specify the correct place to
insert your new data by displaying the value that is to come
directly after, and then press . e. A new data set with a
value of zero and a frequency of one will be inserted. Modify the
new data set to include your data.
66
Editing statistical data
DATA
30
40
40
50
DATA
30
45
45
45
60
Key operation
i
X1=
FRQ2=
300
000
300
DATA SET=
Stat —
3000
Display
Change the previously entered data from page 65 as follows:
Procedure
Display the statistical
data.
60 J
i.?
Change the “40, 2” data i i 45 J
set to “45, 3”.
i3J
Delete “50”.
Add “60”.
Statistical Calculations and Variables
The following results can be obtained for each statistical calculation (refer to the table below):
Single-variable statistical calculations
Section results only.
Linear regression calculations
Section and results, except for coefficients c.
The estimate of y for a given x (estimate y´) and the estimate of
x for a given y (estimate x´) can also be found.
Quadratic regression calculation
Section and results, and coefficients a, b, and c in the quadratic regression formula (y = a + bx + cx2). In quadratic regression calculations, no correlation coefficient r can be obtained.
67
The estimate of y for a given x (estimate y´) and the estimate
of x for a given y (estimate x´) can also be found. When there
are two x values, the COMP symbol will appear. Press @ to
switch between x values.
Exponential regression, logarithmic regression, power regression, and inverse regression calculations
Section and results, except for coefficients c.
Number of samples
Content
n
Mean of samples (y values)
Mean of samples (x values)
y
Sample standard deviation (y values)
x
sy
Population standard deviation (y values)
Sample standard deviation (x values)
y
Sum of samples (y values)
sx
y
Sum of squares of samples (y values)
Population standard deviation (x values)
2
y
Sum of products of samples (x, y)
x
xy
Coefficient of regression equation
Sum of samples (x values)
a
Coefficient of regression equation
x
b
Coefficient of quadratic regression equation
Sum of squares of samples (x values)
c
Correlation coefficient
2
x
Variables
The estimate of y for a given x (estimate y´) and the estimate
of x for a given y (estimate x´) can also be found. Because the
calculator converts each formula into a linear regression before
actual calculation takes place, it obtains all statistics — except
coefficients a and b — from converted data rather than from
entered data.
①
②
r
• Use i or f to perform a variable calculation in STAT
mode.
68
1
Key operation
Result
Single-variable statistical calculation
Example
x =
x=
50
75
75
75
80
80
95
fn
f2
f=
50 J
75 > 3 J
J
80 J
95 J
Í≈=
n=
σ≈=
x– =
4120000
53000
700
1237
7571
DATA SET=500
DATA SET=400
DATA SET=300
DATA SET=200
DATA SET=100
Stat —
n=
fU
Í≈Œ=
1336
000
x =
f[
Sx=
17857
m10.
b
2
x =
f4
SxŒ=
DATA
sx =
.;=
6443
sx2 =
( 95 - i
=
(95 – x )
=)8i
— × 10 + 50 =
sx
4 x 10 + 50
69
2
Example
Linear regression calculation
Key operation
Result
2>5J
DATA SET=200
DATA SET=100
Stat 1
5
J
DATA SET=300
m11
2
5
12 > 24 J
000
2
24
DATA
x
y
12
a=
DATA SET=400
fa
b=
21 > 40 > 3 J
a=
fb
r=
40
40
40
b=
fr
Sx=
21
21
21
r=
f4
Sy=
DATA
sx =
f5
3y´
15 > 25 J
sy =
3.?
SET=500
105
183
100
854
1567
653
2462
25
y´ = ?
46 . 9
15
x=3
x´ = ?
46x´
y = 46
70
3
Quadratic regression calculation
12
x
13
41
y
5>2J
8 > 13 J
12 > 41 J
m12
DATA
DATA
DATA
DATA
Stat 2
Result
8
2
23 > 200 J
DATA
Key operation
5
200
15 > 71 J
Example
23
71
b=
a=
fa
fb
fa
10y´
c=
b=
a=
DATA
15
c=
10 . ?
000
SET=100
SET=200
SET=300
SET=400
SET=500
536
-312
050
2449
963
y´ = ?
≈¡=
-343
x = 10
@
@
22 . 9
≈™=
963
x´ = ?
≈¡=
y = 22
71
Appendix
m
+
IRR is obtained as i, which satises NPV = 0
in the above equations.
RATE(I/Y)
where i =
100 , CFimax = the maximum data set number
CF
m
Discounted cash flow
analysis
Error
AMRT P1 > AMRT P2
Results
ROUND(NUM): If a display notation tab
setting has been chosen, NUM is rounded and
truncated to the specied number of places
after the decimal point.
BAL(m) = PRN(m) + BAL(m – 1)
PRN(m) = –INT(m) + ROUND(PMT)
INT(m) = ROUND(–BAL(m – 1) × i)
BAL(1) = PRN(1) + PV
PRN(1) = –INT(1) + ROUND(PMT)
BGN INT(1) = 0
END INT(1) = ROUND(–PV × i)
Calculations
(for PV, PMT, and i, see the TVM solver)
Amortization calculations
Error
i –1
If PMT 0 or N 1 then nd i using the following equations:
Financial Calculation Formulas
TVM solver
PMT, PV, FV, N
Error
I/Y
If PMT = 0 then
If N = 1 then
72
Bond calculations
In its bond calculations, this calculator conforms to rules set up by
the book titled Standard Securities Calculation Methods, by Jan
Mayle, Securities Industry Association, 1993.
Bond calculation is based on the following rules:
1. Whenever the redemption date happens to be the last day of a
month, coupons are also paid on the last days of months. For
example, if coupon payments are semi-annual and the redemption date is September 30, coupon payments occur on March 31
and September 30.
2. If coupons are to be paid twice a year and the redemption date
is set to August 29, 30, or 31, coupon payments for February
occur on the 28th (29th for leap years).
3. The “Odd Coupon” is not supported.
4. All data stored or calculated for bonds are assumed to be positive values. Negative values in any of the variables used by bond
calculations will cause errors.
The formulas used for bond calculations are shown using the following variable definitions:
TD: Total number of days in the coupon period that begins with the
coupon date previous to the settlement date and ends with the
first coupon date after the settlement date. (On the 360-day
calendar, TD is 180 for semi-annual coupon and 360 for annual
coupon.)
PD: The number of days preceding the settlement date in the coupon period described above. (see “Day and date calculations”)
FD: The number of days following the settlement date in the coupon
period described above (in TD).
FD = TD – PD
NP: The number of whole coupon periods between the settlement
date and the redemption date (rounded up to the next highest
whole number, if necessary).
For one coupon period or less until redemption of bond:
For more than one coupon period until redemption:
where CPN = COUPON(PMT), RDV = REDEMPT(FV), N = CPN/Y(N), YIELD = YIELD(I/Y),
PRICE = PRICE(PV).
Yield is obtained as YIELD, which satises the above equations.
CPN < 0 or RDV < 0 or PRICE < 0 or M-D-Y 1 M-D-Y 2 or YIELD –100
Error
73
Depreciation calculations
ROUND(NUM): If a display notation tab
setting has been chosen, NUM is rounded and
truncated to the specied number of places
after the decimal point.
In the following equations, M01 = START
MONTH, LIF = LIFE(N), CST = COST(PV),
SAL = SALVAGE(FV), and DB = DB(I/Y).
Straight-line method (SL)
Calculations
If 1 < n < end_year then
Results
Sum-of-the-years digits method (SYD)
Calculations
Results
Declining balance method (DB)
Calculations
Results
CST < 0
Error
SAL < 0
CST < SAL
LIF: when SL, LIF 0
when SYD or DB, LIF is not a positive
integer
I/Y < 0 (DB only)
N
+ 1) –1)
100
N
100
Conversion between
APR and EFF
N, EFF ¬ APR
1
EFF
((
+ 1)N –1)
100
Error
EFF –100
100
APR
N
N, APR ¬ EFF
((
Error
APR ≤ –100
N
Day and date calculations
In day and date calculations, this calculator
conforms to rules set up in the book titled Standard Securities Calculation Methods, by Jan
Mayle, Securities Industry Association, 1993.
74
30/360
1. Adjust D1 and D2 according to the following rules:
(1) If D2 and D1 are both the last day of
February, change D2 to 30.
(2) If D1 is the last day of February,
change D1 to 30.
(3) If D2 is 31 and D1 is 30 or 31, change
D2 to 30.
(4) If D1 is 31, change D1 to 30.
2. Calculate using the following formula:
DAYS = (Y2 – Y1) × 360 + (M2 – M1) ×
30 + (D2 – D1)
Actual
Percent change/Compound
interest calculations
where NEW = NEW PRC(FV), OLD = OLD
PRC(PV), %CH = %(I/Y), PD = PERIODS(N)
Error
%CH –100
NEW × OLD 0
Cost/Sell/Margin/Markup
calculations
where MAR = MARGIN, MU = MARK UP
Breakeven calculations
75
Statistical Calculation Formulas
Logarithmic
Exponential
Quadratic
Linear
y = a • xb
y = a + b • Inx
y = a • ebx
y = a + bx + cx2
y = a + bx
Regression formula
Power
1
y=a+b x
Type
Inverse
sx =
Σ x2 – nx2
n
Σ x2 – nx2
n–1
x = Σnx
σx =
Σ x = x1 + x2 + ··· + xn
Σ x2 = x12 + x22 + ··· + xn2
Σ y2 – ny2
n–1
Σy
n
sy =
Σ y2 – ny2
n
y=
σy =
Σ y = y1 + y2 + ··· + yn
Σ y2 = y12 + y22 + ··· + yn2
Σ xy = x1y1 + x2y2 + ··· + xnyn
An error will occur in a statistical calculation if:
•
•
•
•
The absolute value of an
intermediate or calculation
result is equal to or greater
than 1 × 10100.
The denominator is zero.
An attempt is made to find
the square root of a negative
number.
No solution exists for a quadratic regression calculation.
Errors and Calculation Ranges
Errors
An error will occur if an operation exceeds the calculation ranges, or if a mathematically illegal operation is attempted. When
an error occurs, pressing g or y automatically moves
the cursor back to the place in the equation where the error occurred. Edit the equation or press s to clear the equation.
Note: If an error occurs during the automatic calculation of a
listed financial variable, pressing s, g, or y
displays the first variable in the function.
Error codes and error types
Syntax error (Error 1):
• An attempt was made to perform an invalid operation.
Ex. 2 + - 5 =
• During the editing or insertion of cash flow or statistical data,
a value was entered but . ? was pressed before J.
Calculation error (Error 2):
• The absolute value of an intermediate or final calculation
result equals or exceeds 10100.
• An attempt was made to divide by zero.
• The calculation ranges were exceeded while performing calculations.
• There was a financial calculation error, such as:
• an error listed in “Financial Calculation Formulas” (see
pages 72 – 75) occurred
• an attempt was made to find I/Y when PV, PMT × N, and
FV contain all negative or all positive values
• an attempt was made to find IRR when the cash flow data
contains all negative or all positive values
• an attempt was made to find YIELD in a bond calculation
when any of COUPON, REDEMPT, or PRICE contain
negative values
Depth error (Error 3):
• The available number of buffers was exceeded. (There are
10 buffers for numeric values and 24 buffers for calculation
instructions).
• The number of entered cash flow and statistics data items
combined exceeded 100.
76
Equation too long (Error 4):
• The equation exceeded its maximum input buffer (160 characters).
An equation must be shorter than 160 characters.
No solution (Error 5):
• The iteration limit was exceeded while calculating one of the
following values in an overly complex problem:
• I/Y (TVM solver)
• IRR (Discounted cash flow analysis)*1
• YIELD (Bond calculations)
*1 If you get an error while calculating IRR, enter an estimated
value into RATE(I/Y) and calculate again.
Display error (Error 6):
• An attempt was made to display “9.999 × 1099” when the display notation tab number was set to “2”.
If this happens, press s and ~ 0 2 to set the
display notation settings to “floating point”. Then try again.
Input value error (Error 7):
• An attempt was made to enter a nonexistent date.
Ex. February 30th
• An attempt was made to enter an invalid numeric value into a
financial calculation.
• a negative value or 0 into P/Y or C/Y
• anything except an integer between 1 and 9,999 into AMRT
P1 or AMRT P2
• a non-integer into DAYS
• anything except 1 or 2 into CPN/Y
• anything except an integer between 1 and 999 as a cash
flow frequency
• anything except a positive integer into YEAR
• anything except a value between 1 and 13 into START
MONTH
77
Calculation ranges of functions
• Within the ranges specified, this calculator is accurate to within ±1
of the least significant digit of the mantissa. However, a calculation
error increases in continuous calculations due to accumulation of
each calculation error. (This is the same for financial calculations,
x x
x
, e , ln, n!, etc.], where continuous
scientific calculations [y ,
calculations are performed internally.)
Additionally, a calculation error will accumulate and become larger
in the vicinity of inflection points and singular points of functions.
In financial calculations, a calculation error increases if the
interest is low or the number of payments is high. Press s
if you’d like to cancel the calculation while the “calculating!”
screen is displayed.
• Calculation ranges
±10–99 to ±9.999999999 × 1099 and 0.
If the absolute value of an entry or a final or intermediate result
of a calculation is less than 10–99, the value is considered to be
0 in calculations and in the display.
tan–1 x
sin–1 x, cos–1 x
sin x, cos x,
tan x
10–99 x < 10100
| x | < 10100
|x|1
DEG: | x | < 1010
(tan x : | x | 90 (2n – 1))*
RAD: | x | < — × 1010
180
(tan x : | x | — (2n – 1))*
2
10 × 1010
GRAD: | x | < —
9
(tan x : | x | 100 (2n – 1))*
Calculation range
In x, log x
Function
yx
• y > 0: –10100 < x log y < 100
• y = 0: 0 < x < 10100
• y < 0: x = n
1
x
(0 < | x | < 1: —
x = 2n – 1, 0),*
–10100 < x log | y | < 100
78
sinh–1 x
sinh x, cosh x,
tanh x
10x
ex
x y
1 x < 1050
| x | < 1050
| x | 230.2585092
–10100 < x < 100
–10100 < x 230.2585092
1
y
• y > 0: –10100 < —
x log < 100 (x 0)
• y = 0: 0 < x < 10100
• y < 0: x = 2n – 1
1
x
(0 < | x | < 1: —
x = n, 0),*
1
y
–10100 < —
x log | | < 100
Calculation range
cosh–1 x
|x|<1
Function
tanh–1 x
| x | < 10100 (x 0)
| x | < 1050
1/x
0 n 69*
x2
n!
0 r n 9,999,999,999*
n!
— < 10100
(n – r)!
0 x < 10100
nPr
x
nCr
0 r n 9,999,999,999*
0 r 69
n!
— < 10100
(n – r)!
* n, r: integer
79
Battery Replacement
Notes on battery replacement
Improper handling of battery can cause electrolyte leakage or
explosion. Be sure to observe the following handling rules:
• Make sure the new battery is the correct type.
• When installing, orient the battery correctly, as indicated in the
calculator.
• The factory-installed battery may be exhausted before it
reaches the service life stated in the specifications.
Note on the erasure of memory contents
When the battery is replaced, the memory contents are
erased. Erasure can also occur if the calculator is defective
or when it is repaired. Make a note of all important memory
contents in case accidental erasure occurs.
When to replace the battery
If the display has poor contrast, or if nothing appears on the
screen, even when s is pressed, it is time to replace the battery.
Caution
• Fluid from a leaking battery accidentally entering an eye could
result in serious injury. Should this occur, wash with clean
water and immediately consult a doctor.
• Should fluid from a leaking battery come into contact with your
skin or clothes, wash them immediately with clean water.
• If the product is not to be used for some time, to avoid damage to the unit from leaking battery, remove it and store in a
safe place.
• Keep battery out of the reach of children.
• Exhausted battery that is left in the calculator may leak and
damage the unit.
• Explosion risk may be caused by incorrect handling.
• Do not throw battery into a fire, as it may explode.
80
Replacement procedure
1. Turn the power off by pressing . c.
2. Loosen the screw and remove the battery cover.
(see fig. 1)
3. Remove the used battery using a ball-point
pen or similar object. Do not use a mechanical pencil or any sharp or pointed object to
remove the battery. (see fig. 2)
4. Install a new battery into the battery housing
with the positive side (+) facing up. (see fig. 3)
5. Replace the battery cover and the screw.
6. Press the RESET switch located on the back of
the calculator with the tip of a ball-point pen
or similar object. Do not use an object with a
breakable or sharp tip. (see fig. 4)
• Make sure that the display appears as shown.
If not, remove the battery, reinstall, and check
the display again.
000
Automatic power-off function
fig. 1
fig. 2
fig. 3
fig. 4
This calculator will turn its power off automatically if no key is
pressed for about 10 minutes.
Priority Levels in Calculations
This calculator performs operations according to the following
priority:
1. Functions preceded by their argument (x2, n!, etc.)
x x
2. y ,
3. Implied multiplication of a memory value (2Y, etc.)
4. Functions followed by their argument (sin, cos, etc.)
5. Implied multiplication of a function (2sin 30, etc.)
6. nCr, nPr
7. ×, ÷
8. +, –
9. =, M+, M–, M, and any other calculation ending instructions
81
Key operation and calculation priority
5 + 2 x . { 30 + 25 x 5 . @ 3 =
• Parenthesized operations take precedence over other operations.
Specifications
Calculations:
Financial calculations
General arithmetic calculations
Scientific calculations
Statistical calculations
Calculation method:
D.A.L. (Direct Algebraic Logic)
Internal calculations:
Mantissas of up to 14 digits
Pending operations:
24 calculations, 10 numeric values
Power source:
3.0 V … (DC)
Lithium battery (CR2032) × 1
Power consumption:
0.0004 W
Operating life:
Approx. 5 years (with 1 hour of daily
use)
• May vary depending on the operating
environment and operation method.
Operating temperature: 0°C – 40°C (32°F – 104°F)
External dimensions:
83 mm (W) × 150 mm (D) × 11 mm (H)
3-9/32” (W) × 5-29/32” (D) × 7/16” (H)
Weight:
Approx. 98 g (0.22 lb.)
(including battery but not wallet-type
case)
Battery × 1 (installed), operation
manual, and wallet-type case.
Accessories:
For more information about business/
financial calculators
Visit us on the Internet at:
http://sharp-world.com/calculator/
82
Index
>, 37, 51, 64
+ - x 8, 4, 11
=, 11, 15
,, 11, 37, 61
( ), 11, 16, 61
<, 23
} :, 60, 61
%, 16, 62
B, 54
z i g y, 6, 13
! P, 51
., 11
t, 16, 61
;, 61
:, 61
., 4, 6, 7
&, 44, 45, 52
i, 4, 6, 7, 15
*, 33
/, 15, 16, 23
", 22, 28, 33
#, 45
$, 58
b, 12, 19
<, 41
>, 37, 38
?, 39, 66
@, 7, 19
I, 56
J, 37, 64
K, 52
L, 12
O, 49
Q, 7, 19
R, 61
S, 11
T, 22, 23
], 7, 61
f, 22, 23
d, 13
e, 39, 66
d, 61
h, 61
M, 15
h, 11, 16
j, 16
k, 5, 12, 13
l, 63
m, 6, 10, 12
N, 22, 23
o, 62
p q, 62
c, 6
s, 6, 12
w, 22, 23
u, 22, 23
83
v, 22, 23
|, 62, 63
f, 7, 15
~, 6, 8–10
g, 7, 15
;, 16, 60, 61, 69
@, 61
% (I/Y), 18, 54, 75
INTEREST, 33, 72
PRINCIPAL, 33, 72
ACCU INT, 44
Amortization calculations,
17, 33–36, 72
AMRT P1, AMRT P2, 12, 33, 77
Angular unit, 8, 9, 61
Annuity due, 7, 22, 28
ANS (last answer memory), 14, 15
APR, 17, 51, 74
Arithmetic calculations, 11
Arithmetic operations (+, –, ×, ÷), 11
Automatic power-off function, 81
BALANCE, 33, 72
Battery replacement, 80, 81
Bond calculations, 17, 18, 44–47, 73
Breakeven calculations, 17, 58, 59, 75
(symbol), 8, 20
Calculation ranges, 78, 79
Calculator layout, 6
Calendar range, 44, 47, 52
Cash flow data, 12, 37–40, 76
Cash flow diagrams, 21
Chain calculations, 60
COMP (symbol), 7, 20
Compound interest, 21, 54–56, 75
Constant calculations, 60
Conversion between APR and EFF, 17, 51
COST, 56, 75
COST (PV), 18, 48, 74
Cost/sell/margin/markup calculations,
17, 56, 57, 75
COUPON (PMT), 18, 44, 73, 76
CPN/Y (N), 18, 44, 77
Cursor key, 6, 13
C/Y, 18, 22, 72, 77
Date format, 10, 44, 47, 52
Day and date calculations,
17, 18, 52–54, 74
Day-count method (ACT/360), 44, 52
DAYS, 52, 53, 75
DB, 9, 48, 74
DB (I/Y), 18, 48, 74
Decimal place, 8, 9, 63
DEG, 8, 9, 61, 78
Delete key, 12
DEPRECIATE, 48
Depreciation calculations,
17, 18, 48–50, 74
Depreciation method, 9, 48
Discounted cash flow analysis,
17, 18, 37–43, 72
Display layout, 7
Display notation, 8
EFF, 17, 51, 74
ENT (symbol), 7, 20
Entering dates, 47
Entering numbers, 11
Error, 14, 76–78
EXP, 64
Financial calculations, 17, 18, 72
FIXED, 58, 75
FLO_A (FLOAT A), FLO_B (FLOAT B), 7, 9
Floating point, 8, 9
Formulas, 72–75
FV, 18, 22, 72
GRAD, 8, 9, 61, 78
Independent memory (M), 8, 12, 14, 15
Insert mode, 13
INV, 64
IRR, 40, 41, 72, 77
I/Y, 18, 22, 72, 77
LIFE (N), 18, 48, 74
LINE, 64
Listed financial variables, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19
LOG, 64
M (symbol), 8
MARGIN, 56, 75
MARK UP, 56, 75
M-D-Y 1, M-D-Y 2, 18, 44, 52, 73, 75
Memory clear key, 5, 12, 13
Modify function, 63
N, 18, 22, 72
NORMAL mode, 10, 17, 60
NET_PV, 40
NEW PRC (FV), 18, 54, 75
NPV, 40, 41, 72
OLD PRC (PV), 18, 54, 75
Ordinary annuity, 7, 22, 28
Overwrite mode, 13
Payment period (payment due), 22, 28
Percent change/compound interest
calculations, 17, 18, 54–56, 75
PERIODS (N), 18, 54, 75
Playback function, 13
PMT, 18, 22, 72
PRICE, 58, 75
PRICE (PV), 18, 44, 45, 73, 76
Priority levels in calculations, 81, 82
PROFIT, 58
PV, 18, 22, 72
PWR, 64
P/Y, 18, 22, 72, 77
QUAD, 64
QUANTITY, 58
RAD, 8, 9, 61, 78
Random coin, 62
Random dice, 62
Random functions, 62–63
Random integer, 63
Random numbers, 62
RATE (I/Y), 18, 40, 72
RBV, 48, 74
RDV, 48, 74
REDEMPT (FV), 18, 44, 73, 76
RESET switch, 5, 12, 81
Resetting the calculator, 5
SALVAGE (FV), 18, 48, 74
SCI, 7, 8
Scientific calculations, 60–63
Scientific notation, 8, 9, 11, 63
SD, 64
SELL, 56, 75
SET UP menu, 8–10
SL, 9, 48, 74
Specifications, 82
START MONTH, 48, 74, 77
(symbol), 8, 10, 64
STAT (statistics) mode, 10, 64
Statistical calculations, 10, 64–71
Statistical data, 12, 64–67, 76
Statistical variables, 12, 14, 16, 68
Symbol, 7
SYD, 9, 48, 74
TAB, 7, 8
Temporary memory (A-H, X-Z), 12, 14, 15
TVM (time value of money) solver,
17, 22–32, 72
TVM variable, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22
VARIABLE, 58, 75
YEAR, 12, 48, 77
YIELD (I/Y), 18, 44, 45, 73, 76, 77
84
MEMO
85
For USA only:
This product contains a CR Coin Lithium Battery which
contains Perchlorate Material – special handling may apply,
California residents,
See www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/perchlorate/
86
PRINTED IN CHINA / IMPRIMÉ EN CHINE / IMPRESO EN CHINA
06GGK (TINSE1258EHZZ)