Whirlpool Residential Electric water heater Specifications

RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
SERVICE HANDBOOK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Page
Introduction
Certification and Approval…………………1
Tools ......................................................... 2
Terms, Definitions, Formulas..................... 2
Residential Electric Water Heaters
Installation.................................................. 4
Construction............................................... 7
Element Test - continuity ........................... 8
Element Test - grounded ........................... 9
Element Test - amperage ........................ 10
Field Wiring.............................................. 12
Thermostats............................................. 13
C-2 Circuit & Sequence of Operation ...... 14
C-2 Circuit Testing ................................... 15
A-6 Circuit and Wiring.............................. 16
A-6 Sequence of Operation ..................... 17
A-9 Off Peak Circuit...........................18
A-9 Circuit Sequence of Oper............19
Three phase unbalanced circuit ........20
A-9 Circuit Testing .............................21
Miscellaneous Information.................24
Service Bulletins
25
RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC HANDBOOK INTRODUCTION
This service handbook is designed to aid in servicing and troubleshooting Residential
Electric water heaters in the field. No duplication or reproduction of this book may be made
without the express written authorization of the manufacturer.
The following text and illustrations will provide you with a step-by-step procedure to
verify proper installation, operation, and troubleshooting procedures. Additional quick reference
data is included to assist you in servicing this product.
The information contained in this handbook is designed to answer commonly faced
situations encountered in the operation of the Residential Electric product line and is not
meant to be all-inclusive. If you are experiencing a problem not covered in this
handbook, please contact the Information Center at 1-800-365-0024 or your local
distributor for further assistance. This handbook is intended for use by licensed
plumbing professionals and reference should be made to the instructional manual
accompanying the product.
CERTIFICATIONS AND APPROVALS
Code Compliance - All models meet or exceed federal minimum energy standards
effective January 20, 2004, according to latest editions of the National Appliance Energy
Conservation Act (NAECA). They also comply with the latest editions of the B.O.C.A.
National Codes, C.E.C., U.B.C., S.B.C.C., C.A.B.O. and the H.U.D. standards. All
models U.L. Listed according to safety specifications outlined in Underwriters'
Laboratories, Inc. Standards for Safety (U.L. 174).
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SERVICE HANDBOOK
GENERAL SECTION
TOOLS REQUIRED:
FOR SERVICING RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC MODELS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
#2 Phillips screw driver
electrical multi-meter (volt/Ohm)
water pressure gauge (with a lazy hand)
thermometer
hose – to drain tank
container – to measure gallons per minute flow
1 1/16 inch – 6 point – socket (for anode removal)
1 ½ inch deep socket or a manufacturer’s element wrench
Amp meter- clamp type
TERMS, DEFINITIONS, AND FORMULAS:
Draw efficiency is the quantity of hot water available to the consumer before the outlet water
temperature decreases 25 degrees F. A 40 gallon water heater will typically provide 70% (28
gallons) of this “usable” hot water. The burner or elements are allowed to operate during this
test. Incoming, cold water mixes the remaining stored water below this 25 degree limitation.
Energy Factor is an indicator of the combined thermal efficiency and standby efficiency of a
water heater. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater will be.
Recovery rate is the amount of water that is heated to a set temperature, per hour. An
example might be that a water heater has a recovery rate of 30 gallons of water per hour at 80
degree F. (Fahrenheit) temperature rise.
Temperature rise is the increase in the temperature from its coldest “inlet” water temperature
to the desired hot (outlet) setting. Typically this is assumed to be 40 degrees entering water;
120 degrees desired stored water or 80 degrees “temperature rise.”
Standby efficiency is the water heater’s ability to contain heat in the tank. A minimum of tank
water heat loss per hour is desired.
Water (for all practical purposes) cannot be compressed.
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GENERAL SECTION – cont’d.
TERMS, DEFINITIONS, AND FORMULAS:
Water Expands when it is heated. Volume increases about 2% from 40° to 140° F.
Minerals and gases will separate from water as temperature increases
Amperage (Amps) (1 phase) = Watts divided by Volts (Ohm’s Law)
KW Required = (GPH X 8.25 X Temp. Rise X 1.0) divided by (3413)
Ohms = Volts divided by Amperes (Ohm’s Law)
One kilowatt is equal to 1000 watts
One kilowatt is equal to 3,413 BTU
Recovery Rate = (KW X 3413) divided by (Temp. Rise X 8.25)
Rise (F°) = (KW X 3413) divided by (GPH X 8.25)
Supply electrical fusing or breakers should be sized at least 125% of expected heater
amperage.
Water weighs 8.25 pounds per gallon at 120°F (49°C).
% of Hot water = (Mixed temp. – Cold) divided by (Hot temp. – Cold). This formula
gives the number of gallons drawn from the water heater for each gallon delivered at a
shower head or faucet. If the shower head flow rate (gallons per minute) is known, the
draw efficiency and gallon capacity of the water heater may be used to calculate the
length of the showering period in minutes.
Watt Density = the density of the wattage output of the element compared to the surface area
of the element (i.e. “High Watt Density Element” will have the most wattage per square inch of
element surface
Energy Factor:
Formula: The minimum EF allowed = .97 - .0019 x V (volume of storage)
Example: Volume (50 gal.) x .0019 = .095 gal.x.97 - .095 = .875 (minimum energy factor).
Note: Since the formula varies by volume, each tank size will have a different minimum
energy factor requirement.
The formula for gas water heaters is different than the above example.
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INSTALLATION - typical
SOME MODELS MAY HAVE SIDE OR REAR CONNECTIONS
TEMPERATURE AND
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
OPENING MAY BE ON SIDE
OR TOP OF HEATER. DO
NOT REUSE OLD VALVE
UNION
HOT WATER
TO FIXTURES
ELECTRICAL
JUNCTION BOX
ADJACENT
CONDUIT
ENTRANCE
RATING PLATE
WITH MODEL
AND SERIAL
NUMBER
TO FUSED
ELECTRICAL
SUPPLY
(BREAKER BOX)
UNION
COLD WATER
INLET LINE
SHUTOFF
VALVE
†FUSE SHOULD BE RATED
AT AMPERAGE INDICATED
ON RATING PLATE TIMES
125%
INSTALL THERMAL
EXPANSION TANK AFTER
SHUT OFF VALVE. PREPRESSURIZED TO EQUAL
SUPPLY WATER
PRESSURE
DRAIN LINE
ACCESS PANELS – WATER
TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENT
IS BEHIND THESE PANELS.
RECOMMENDED SETTING IS
125 °
SEE MANUAL
AND LABELS FOR
INSTALLATION
CLEARANCES
6” AIR GAP (LOCAL
CODES VARY)
FLOOR
DRAIN
DRAIN VALVE
INSTALL DRAIN PAN TO PREVENT
FUTURE WATER DAMAGE.
INSTALLATION MUST FOLLOW LOCAL CODES AND INSTRUCTION MANUAL GUIDELINES.
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INSTALLATION - typical
Parallel Piping arrangement for multiple water heaters
ensures maximum hot water and efficient operation.
This piping arrangement
depends on dividing piping
between water heaters evenly.
It may be expanded for more
than two water heaters. Pipe
size may need to increase if
more water heaters are added
to improve water flow for larger
applications.
This balanced piping system is
preferred instead of a series
piping system where one water
heater feeds heated water to
the cold inlet of the second
water heater. A series
arrangement does not deliver
hot water as quickly or in as
great an amount as a parallel
piping arrangement.
Expansion tanks may be
required by local code. Water
expands by about 2% of its
volume as it is heated from
40°F. to 140°F. The
expansion created in a 40
gallon water heater would be
about 8/10 of a gallon.
A 2 gallon expansion tank will
absorb this amount of
expansion. For larger
applications consult the tank
manufacturers sizing
information.
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CONSTRUCTION - typical
This portion of this manual applies to the Operation and Servicing of Residential Electric,
Tank Type, Water Heaters. The illustrations are for two element models but the
information also applies to single element models.
Model and
Rating Plate
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Construction – cont’d.
Heating element(s)
This style water heater will have
one or two electric, heating
elements immersed in the tank.
One element will always be
located low in the tank; a second
element is commonly located
down about 1/3 of the tank height from the top of the tank. These elements will not
operate at the same time unless the water heater was ordered with a simultaneous
wiring system. If they operate at the same time, amperage draw doubles, wire gauge
size increases, fuse size increases and little is gained in heat recovery.
Residential Electric – continued
Since the element’s heating area is totally immersed in the tank, thermal efficiency is assumed
to be 100%. All of the heat generated by the element enters the water.
A.
B.
C.
Watt Density = the density of the wattage output of the element compared to the surface area
of the element (i.e. “High Watt Density Element” will have the most wattage per square inch of
element surface. If the above elements generated 4,500 w. each, “A” might be considered a
“high” watt density element, “B” a medium and “C” a low.)
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ELEMENT TEST – RESISTANCE/CONTINUITY
OHMS Resistance Check**
Disconnect wires from the element terminals.
12.8
NOTE: OHM readings may vary by up to
7.5% depending on the meter and the
element. Always check meter for proper
operation by touching probe ends together.
Test Conditions:
This test uses the multi-meter's battery as the
electrical supply.
Procedures:
Power to the water heater is "OFF".
Multi-meter set to OHMS scale testing.
Black lead "Common" port.
Red lead in "Ω" or “OHMS" port.
Dial indicator set to scale above expected indication.
Note: Volts divided by Amps = OHMS
Example: 240V. ÷ 18.75 Amps = 12.8 OHMS
Element
Continuity Check**
Same as above but with meter set to continuity scale.
If the meter has an audible indicator, listen for sound..
Test probe on each terminal of an element
Rated
Voltage
120
208
240
277
Rated
Voltage
120
208
240
277
480
600
23.2
72.1
92.8
128
3000
4.64
14.4
18.6
25.6
76.8
Resistance of Element in Ohms (± 7.5%)
Rated Wattage
750
1000
1250
1500
18.6
13.9
11.1
9.28
57.7
43.3
34.6
28.8
74.3
55.7
44.6
37.1
102
76.7
61.4
51.2
Rated Wattage
3500
4000
4500
5000
2000
6.96
21.6
27.8
38.4
2500
5.57
17.3
22.3
30.7
5500
6000
12.4
15.9
21.9
65.7
7.85*
10.1*
14.0
41.8
7.2
9.28
12.8
38.4
10.8
13.9
19.2
57.5
9.61
12.8
17.1
51.1
8.65
11.1
15.3
45.7
** The above tests can also be conducted with the element removed from the tank.
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GROUNDED ELEMENT TEST USING A MULTI-METER
Check Continuity to the Tank
Beep
00.0
Note: An element’s resistance wire is
insulated so current cannot reach the
outside of the element and come in contact
with the water or the tank during normal
operation.
1
1. Make sure power to the water heater
is turned OFF at the circuit breaker or
disconnect.
2. Remove the wires from the element
3. Set the meter to the Ohms/Continuity
scale. Check the meter by placing the ends
of the probes against each other. If the
meter has an audible continuity check you
should hear a sound when this check is
done.
Element
4. Place one probe on an element terminal
screw and the other on the tank. Be sure to
test both element screw terminals.
5. If the meter has an audible continuity
check and you hear the sound on either
screw terminal, the element is grounded
and must be replaced.
Tank Wall
Note: If the meter does not have an
audible continuity check, notice the
meter reading before the probes are
placed together. Depending on the meter
the reading should be 1. Perform the
above test and if the reading changes,
the element is grounded and must be
replaced.
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FAILED ELEMENT TEST - AMPERAGE METHOD
Amperage Check: Measures the flow of current through a wire.
Failed Element Test – using “clamp type” Amperage Meter. Many multi-meters
could be used to conduct this test but be certain that possible amperage will not exceed
the multi-meter’s limit.
Complaint: No hot water. Check for proper voltage across ECO terminals 2 & 4. If
voltage is not detected press the red reset button to activate power and re-check.
Watts divided by volts = Amps Example: 4500W / 240V = 18.75 Amps
Conditions: Power on. Thermostat is calling for heat (water in tank is cold).
TEST: CLAMP METER AROUND EACH WIRE TO THE ELEMENT(S). IF THE WATER
HEATER HAS TWO ELEMENTS, THE TOP THERMOSTAT MUST BE SATISFIED BEFORE
POWER WILL BE SENT TO THE LOWER ELEMENT.
If Amperage is not detected the element must be replaced. (See also: Grounded
Element Check with Multi-meter) If partial amperage is noted, the element may be
grounded and must be replaced.
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GROUNDED ELEMENT CHECK – AMPERAGE METHOD
Amperage Check: Measures the flow of current through a wire.
Grounded Element Test – using “clamp type” Amperage Meter. Many multi-meters
could be used to conduct this test but be certain that possible amperage will not exceed
the multi-meter’s limit.
Complaint: A grounded element is suspected whenever the water temperature becomes
excessively hot and/or the end user must push the high limit reset to reactivate the
heater.
Watts divided by volts = Amps
Conditions: Power on. Thermostat is satisfied
TEST: CLAMP METER AROUND EACH WIRE TO THE ELEMENT(S).
IF AMPERAGE IS NOTED THE ELEMENT IS GROUNDED AND MUST BE
REPLACED. (See also: Grounded Element Check with Multi-meter)
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FIELD WIRING
L1 to Ground = 120 Volts
L2 to Ground = 0 Volts
L1 or L2 to Ground = 120 Volts
L1 to L2 = 240 Volts
L1 to L2 = 480 Volts
L2 to L3 = 480 Volts
L1 to L3 = 480 Volts
L1, L2, or L3 to Ground
= 277 Volts
L1 to L2 = 277 Volts
L1 to Ground = 277 Volts
L2 to Ground = 0 Volts
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SURFACE MOUNTED THERMOSTAT (S) AND HIGH LIMIT (S)
The thermostats and high limits are held against the side of the tank. As the tank surface heats
or cools, a metal disc inside of the control expands or contracts to open or close electrical
contacts in the controls. They will satisfy within 10°F of setting. The tank surface has to cool
8 - 15°F to reactivate these controls.
Thermostat models WH9-6 and WH10-7 include a “high limit” or energy cut off (ECO) switch as
an integral part of the thermostat. The ECO is attached at the top of the thermostat and has a
red reset button in the middle. The ECO will shut off power to the elements if the top of the
water heater tank reaches 180° F. temperature. The ECO must be manually reset when the
tank cools by pressing the red “reset “button.
Note: If the thermostat is not flat against the tank or the insulation has been removed
from the access area, the thermostat may not read the tank temperature properly and
may cause the ECO (high limit/reset button) to trip or the T & P valve to open as a result
of high water temperature in the tank.
TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENT
All thermostats on residential electric water heaters are set by the factory at a temperature that
approximates 120°F (HOT) and are adjustable. Other temperature indicators are “A” = 130°F.,
“B” = 140°F., “C” = 150°F and VERY HOT 160°. Read all warnings before proceeding with a
temperature adjustment. On dual element models the upper and lower thermostats are
adjustable. It is normally not necessary to adjust the upper thermostat. If the upper thermostat
is adjusted, it should not be set higher than the lower thermostat. Some models have an
external temperature adjustment knob on the lower thermostat and the temperature indicators
are the same as the above.
WH9-2
WH9-6
WH10-7
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C-2 CIRCUIT WIRING AND SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
C-2 Circuit – Standard on most single element water
heaters. Operation from a cold tank of water
• Single Element
• Single Thermostat
• Single High Limit
WIRING DIAGRAM
Note: If used on a normally two element
heater, controls will be located behind the
upper service cover and the element behind
the lower service cover.
WH9-6 Thermostat
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C2 CIRCUIT TESTING
SINGLE ELEMENT, SINGLE THERMOSTAT CIRCUIT
COMPLAINT:
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Power off
NO HOT WATER
High Limit (ECO)
Element Burned Out
Thermostat set above desired
temperature
WATER TOO HOT
WATER NOT HOT ENOUGH
Element grounded
Thermostat stuck in call for
heat.
Thermostat set at too low a
temperature
Missing or broken dip tube
REDUCED HOT WATER
DELIVERY
Sediment accumulation in the
tank.
REMEDY
Check fuse or circuit
breaker.
Press red (reset) button (p.10)
Continuity Check (p. 8) or
amperage check (
Adjust thermostat (p.12) Hot
setting is about 120°F.
Check for grounded element
See diagram (p.9 & 10)
Replace thermostat.
See temperature adjustment
(p, 12)
Check dip tube and replace if
necessary
Clean the tank. Drain the tank
or use a chemical de-liming
agent.
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A – 6 CIRCUIT
COMPONENTS
A-6 Circuit
•
•
•
2 Elements
2 Thermostats
1 High Limit
(INTERLOCK OR NON-SIMULTANEOUS)
WIRING DIAGRAM
A-6 WIRING CIRCUIT
A-6 Circuit - Standard on dual
element water heaters nonsimultaneous / interlocked operation.
UPPER THERMOSTAT
WH10-7
LOWER THERMOSTAT
WH9-2
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SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:A-6 CIRCUIT COLD TANK STARTUP
Note: The operation
sequence at right only
applies to the initial
cold tank start. On
successive cycles cold
water entering the tank
is forced to the bottom
by the dip tube. The
lower
element
is
usually energized first
on successive hot
water draws as cold
water enters the tank.
In most water heater
applications the lower
element and the lower
thermostat do over
90% of the water
heating job.
The upper element is
only energized again
when the entire tank is
cold and the upper
thermostat calls for
heat.
If the upper element
burns out, the upper
thermostat call for heat
will never be satisfied
and power will not be
transferred
to
the
bottom thermostat and
element.
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A-9 OFF PEAK/TIME CLOCK CIRCUIT
• 2 Elements
• 2 Thermostats
• 2 High Limits
• 3 Wire
Three wire circuit for non-simultaneous element operation and single-phase power.
This circuit permits off-peak meter usage or connection to a 3-phase supply circuit.
UPPER THERMOSTAT
WH10-7
LOWER THERMOSTAT
WH9-6
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SEQUENCE OF OPERATION: OFF-PEAK/TIME CLOCK CIRCUIT COLD TANK START
Cold tank of water
• Single Electrical Service
• Single Phase
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THREE-PHASE UN-BALANCED CIRCUIT
Note: For simplicity, the thermostats are not shown.
UNBALANCED 3 PHASE LOAD
Three phase power delivers power
with 3 legs to the water heater. The
water heater must be specially wired
to accept three phase power. Since
there are only two elements with two
wire terminals each in the water
heater, power from a three leg power
supply cannot be divided evenly.
One leg will have a higher amperage
draw than the other two.
In the diagram at right the connection
to power leg L2 will have the higher
amperage draw. The chart below
gives the amperage draw for L1, L2,
and L3. The maximum amperage
draw per leg is never allowed to
exceed 48 Amps in accordance with
the National Electric Code. The
chart only applies when elements
are wired for simultaneous
operation.
SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ELEMENTS
(both elements ‘on’ when entire tank is cold)
Element
Full Load Current in Amperes
Wattage
Connected to Three Phase Power
Upper/Lower
(Terminal L2/ Terminals L1 & L3
208V
240V
480V
3000/3000
25.0/14.4
21.7/12.5
10.8/6.3
4000/4000
33.3/19.2
28.9/16.7
14.4/8.3
4500/4500
37.5/21.6
32.5/18.8
16.2/9.4
5000/5000
N/A
36.1/20.8
18.0/10.4
6000/6000
N/A
N/A
21.7/12.5
Formula: L2 Amps = wattage* x 1.73 / volts
*Wattage = ½ of total wattage.
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TESTING THE A-9 OFF-PEAK / TIME CLOCK CIRCUIT
OPTIONAL UNBALANCED 3-PHASE CIRCUIT
A-9 Circuit:
Two elements
Two thermostats
Two high limits
3 wires
Note: The standard A-9 circuit is
designed as an interlock circuit –
only one element at a time can
receive power.
If the water heater has been wired
for simultaneous operation, the
red wire on upper thermostat
terminal 4 in the diagram will be
moved to upper ECO terminal 4.
Warning:
Attempting an unauthorized
field conversion will double the
amperage draw and may
overload the wiring to the water
heater resulting in a fire hazard.
Warning
Maximum amperage draw if
wired
for
simultaneous
operation
is
48amps
in
accordance with the National
Electrical Code. Internal wiring
may further reduce maximum
amp draw.
The A-9 circuit may also be used
for three phase power. Three
phase power is typically used in
commercial applications. Using a
residential water heater in a
commercial application will result
in a reduction of the tank warranty
and the parts warranty.
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TESTING THE A-9 OFF-PEAK / TIME CLOCK CIRCUIT
Connection to an off-peak clock interrupts power to the lower thermostat and heating
element during the designated time period but does not interrupt power to the upper
thermostat. If the consumer uses enough of the stored hot water to drop tank
temperature at the top of the tank to call for upper element activation, then the upper
element will reheat the upper third of the tank. This installation typically requires a
larger volume tank to give the homeowner as much hot water as possible while the
clock has the power interrupted.
VOLTAGE CHECKS
These tests are conducted on the water heater, below the junction box.
Complaint:
Test Conditions:
No Hot Water
Power on:
Upper thermostat calling for heat
Tank is full of cold water (or at least 15°F below the upper
thermostat setting).
Multi-meter set to the proper AC voltage scale.
Test between upper high limit terminals 1 and 3
If …
… then
the proper voltage is not present
(disconnect)
the proper voltage is present
Check the power from the breaker or fused
disconnect.
Check the wiring in the water heater
junction box and continue to the next step.
Test between upper high limit terminals 2 and 4
If …
… then
the proper voltage is not present
pushing the reset does not restore voltage
the proper voltage is present
Push the red reset button – if this
establishes proper voltage, conduct the
thermostat and element checks before
changing the high limit.
Replace the high limit.
Continue to the next step.
Test between upper high limit 4 and upper thermostat 2
If …
… then
the proper voltage is not present high limit Replace the upper thermostat
4 and upper thermostat 2
the proper voltage is present
Conduct upper element checks. The top
1/3 of the tank should be hot.
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TESTING THE A-9 OFF-PEAK / TIME CLOCK CIRCUIT
Complaint:
Lack of Hot Water
Test Condition:
Upper thermostat satisfied
Test between upper high limit 4 and upper thermostat 4
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present
proper voltage is present
Replace upper thermostat.
Continue to next step.
Test between lower high limit 2 and upper thermostat 4
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present
pushing reset restored voltage
pushing reset did not restore voltage
proper voltage is present
Push lower high limit reset. Check time clock or off
peak meter.
Conduct lower element checks
Replace lower high limit
Test between the terminals of the lower element
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present:
proper voltage is present:
Check wire connections to lower controls.
Conduct grounded element checks.
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Miscellaneous Residential Electric Water Heater Service Items:
•
Watts divided by Volts = Amps
Supply wire gauge and fuse (breaker) protection must be at least 125% of the expected
Amperage draw of the water heater.
•
Volts times Amps = Watts
Replace elements with elements rated at the same wattage and voltage indicated on the
water heater model and rating plate. Installing an element with a higher voltage rating or
wattage output may create a safety hazard by overloading the water heater wiring or supply
wiring or fusing. Installing an element with a lower wattage or voltage rating will reduce
performance.
•
Normally, a residential electric water heater with two elements will have only one element
operate at a time. If the upper element or thermostat fails, the customer will be out of hot
water. If the lower element or thermostat fails, the customer should still have 1/3 of the
tank with hot water.
•
With a two element water heater, the lower element and thermostat will cycle more
frequently than the upper element and thermostat. For this reason, the lower element will
normally accumulate lime faster and fail more often than the upper element. Lower
thermostats will fail more often than upper thermostats.
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SERVICE BULLETINS
The following are bulletins designed to help service the standard, residential gas and
electric model water heaters. These bulletins and more are available on the website
www.statewaterheaters.com.
This information is intended to supplement service and maintenance information found
in the heater installation and operation manual.
“Why water heaters leak” information .............................................. 26
Index of Technical Bulletins:
Water Hammer .................................................................................. 27
Mineral Buildup ................................................................................. 28
Aluminum Hydroxide ......................................................................... 29
Discolored Water............................................................................... 30
Smelly Water..................................................................................... 31
Chlorination Procedure...................................................................... 32
Not Enough Hot Water – Electric ...................................................... 33
Thermal Expansion ........................................................................... 34
Leaking Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve.............................. 36
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WHAT
WHY WATER HEATER TANKS LEAK
WHY
PREVENTION
Water
Pressure
Water expands when it is heated
(Thermal Expansion). Water
cannot be compressed.
Excessive Pressure in the tank
causes failure of joints, welds or
gaskets.
A Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve
limits pressure to a maximum.
Adding a Thermal Expansion Tank limits
pressure to near supply water pressure.
Soft Water
Soft water minimizes mineral
buildup within the tank. Minimal
minerals maintain the water
heater at high efficiency but may
also expose interior surfaces to
corrosion. Mineral buildup in
some heaters prevents them
leaking while greatly reducing
efficiency.
A metal “Anode” rod within the tank helps
to prevent internal corrosion. Maintain the
self sacrificing “anode” rod by inspecting
the rod annually and replacing when large
“gouges” appear in its surface.
WATER CONDITIONS
WHAT
“Hard” Water
(Electric Water
Heaters)
WHY
PREVENTION
Inspect and clean elements as
See above explanation.
necessary.
Lime (calcium) forms on the
Add a water softener.
electric elements.
Elements become excessively hot Install elements resistant to failure due to
Lime (mineral) build up.
and may split.
Split elements often leak to the
outside of the heater.
Begin with a water heater setting of
Water
Water stored at 160°F (72 °C)
Temperature
may be twice as corrosive as
120°F (49°C) and increase only as
necessary.
water stored at 140°F (60°C)
Purchasing a proper sized tank will
Usage
Each time the burner or elements
minimize burner or element operation
cycle on and off, a small amount
when only small quantities of hot water
of metal expansion and
are used.
contraction take place. As
bending a piece of wire back and
forth will break the wire, this
expansion and contraction will
eventually crack tank joints or
welds.
For more detailed explanation on this information as well as additional service information, see
the State Industries Web site www.statewaterheaters.com under “Technical Information”. 0801
form TC-063
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 11
WATER HAMMER
GENERAL
Water hammer is the destructive forces, pounding noises and vibration in a piping
system when water flowing through a pipeline is stopped abruptly. When water
hammer occurs, a high intensity pressure wave travels back through the piping
system until it reaches a point of some relief. The shock wave will then surge back
and forth between the point of relief and the point of stoppage until the destructive
energy is dissipated in the piping system. The violent action accounts for “banging”,
“thumping”, and/or intense vibration in the pipe line. Although noise is generally
associated with the occurrence of water hammer, it can occur without audible sound
or noise. Quick closure always causes some degree of shock with or without noise.
The common cause of water hammer is single lever faucets (sinks/lavatories) or
automatic solenoid valves (dishwashers, washing machines, etc.). The speed of the
valve closure time is directly related to the intensity of the surge pressure.
EFFECTS
The damage from water hammer can manifest itself in a number of ways. The most
common are:
•
Expanded Tank Shell - This can be demonstrated by measuring the circumference at
various locations along the shell. Pressures in excess of the maximum design working
pressure can cause permanent deformation of the shell.
•
Collapsed Flue Tube - This will choke off the ability to vent the products of combustion
causing the flame and/or combustion to spill out from the combustion chamber. Often
this will occur where thinning of the flue tube walls has occurred due to contamination
of the combustion air or because of excessive condensation.
•
Inverted or Deformed Tank Heads - Often this accompanies collapsed flues, but one
or both heads can be deformed.
THE FIX
The only effective means of control is to install water hammer arrestors. These
devices have diaphragms, which separate an air chamber from the water in the piping
system. As the shock wave reaches this device, the air chamber absorbs the shock.
Arrestors should be located as close as possible to the source of the shock wave.
NOTES
Since water hammer exposes the equipment to pressures in excess of its design
limits, failures caused by water hammer are not eligible for warranty consideration.
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 13
MINERAL BUILD-UP
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
•
Rumbling
•
Crackling
•
Popping
With the advent of high input and larger storage tanks in both commercial and
residential heaters, deliming has become a necessity of modern maintenance. Lime
(CaCO3), is the most notable factor when discussing water hardness. Lime is present
in every water system to some degree across the entire United States. Since lime is
inversely soluble [the more you heat, the more lime comes out], higher usage,
excessive hardness, and increased heating surface can lead to a high incidence of
“limed-up” heaters.
Symptoms often include a popping of water trapped under lime deposits or the
sizzling of water trapped next to elements, boiling it to steam.
THE FIX
Treatment of a “limed-up" water heater is relatively simple. Since CaCO3 is a base,
the easiest way to dissolve it so it can be flushed from the heater is with an acid. The
most commonly used is phosphoric acid at a food-grade level.
Two common treatments marketed by the manufacturer are Mag-Erad® and UnLime®. Any well-stocked plumbing supply house should have a deliming solution
available.
The directions on the product should be followed explicitly.
NOTES
For additional information and instructions in deliming water heaters and boilers,
please refer to the following pamphlets available from A.O. Smith:
•
•
•
•
Why? When & How: To Remove Water Scale from Tank Type Water Heaters
The Mag-Erad® Method of Cleaning Gas Fired Water Heaters
Up-N-Down™ Transfer Kit
All About Deliming Coil Type Water Heaters
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 14
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE
SYMPTOMS
“Crackling”, “gurgling”, or “popping” noises from new water heaters (installed less than
six months).
CAUSE
In a few isolated parts of the United States where the water supply has a relatively high pH (8+),
water conditions will react with the aluminum anode to form excessive amounts of aluminum
hydroxide on the anode and in the bottom of the tank. Aluminum hydroxide looks like “jelly
beads” or a green, blue or gray gel like substance in the heater drain or at faucet aerators.
THE FIX
This procedure should only be performed by someone with abilities equal to a licensed
tradesman. Aluminum hydroxide can be removed by using one of the methods outlined.
If tank is new with no lime build-up to any degree:
1
2
3
4
Turn off the heater.
Remove the anode.
Flush the tank thoroughly with water.
Replace the aluminum anode (identifiable by smooth surface on plug) with magnesium
anode (identifiable by weld bead on plug).
If the tank is new with lime build-up to any degree:
1
2
3
4
Turn off the heater.
Drain the heater.
Remove the anode.
Add UN-LIME to the tank.
20-40 gallon models (use 3 gallons of UN-LIME)
41-65 gallon models (use 5 gallons of UN-LIME)
66-100 gallon models (use 7 gallons of UN-LIME)
5
(On electric models, be certain the lower element is immersed in solution.)
Heat the UN-LIME to a temperature of 140°F to 160°F.
•
•
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
NOTE
GAS - Heat for 7 to 10 minutes.
ELECTRIC - Power off and remove the yellow wire from terminal 2 on the upper thermostat.
Move the red wire from terminal 4 of the upper thermostat to terminal 2 of the upper
thermostat. This allows operation of the lower element only. Restore power to the heater.
Be certain that only the lower element is operating. Heat for 7 to 10 minutes.
Shut off the water heater.
Allow the heated UN-LIME to stand for up to 12 minutes.
Drain and flush the tank. Caution: UN-LIME will still be hot.
Replace the original aluminum anode with a magnesium anode.
Fill the system with water.
On electric models, return the wiring to its original configuration.
Turn heater fuel “ON”.
Since aluminum hydroxide is a product of a chemical reaction dependent on the water condition,
any treatment is not considered warranty related.
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 21
DISCOLORED WATER
SYMPTOMS
Rusty, brown, black, or yellow water appearing in the hot water.
CAUSE
Complaints of discolored water are commonly blamed on water heaters and
storage tanks, but in fact, it is a rare occurrence for today’s high quality glass
lined tanks to have a lining failure significant enough to allow water to contact
enough bare metal to discolor the contents of even a small tank.
The most common cause of “rusty” water is a non-toxic iron reducing bacteria,
scientifically termed Crenothrix, Leptothrix, and Gallionella. Iron bacteria is
commonly found in soil, water wells, water treatment plants and water
distribution piping systems where soluble iron exceeds 0.2 ppm, higher levels
make conditions even more favorable. Soluble iron in the water provides food
for the bacteria. Rusty discolored water is the end result of the bacteria
feeding process. Water heaters and storage tanks usually require new anode
rods as presence of iron bacteria contributes to premature anode failure.
The requirements for the bacteria to thrive are:
• Elevated level of iron and manganese in the water
• Water with little or no dissolved oxygen
• Temperatures below 138°F
Items that can increase the potential for this bacteria are:
• Water softeners
• Well water
• Long periods of no water movement
TREATMENT
The simplest treatment available is shock-chlorination of the system. This is a
surface treatment, and often requires repeated trials in heavily infected
systems. The chlorination of a system requires that you follow each step
explicitly to avoid an un-treated portion of the piping system from reinfecting
another part. See Bulletin 23 for the chlorination procedure.
NOTE
Since rusty water is caused by a bacteria presence and is not caused by the
water heater, any treatment would not be considered warranty related.
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 22
SMELLY WATER
CAUSE
The most common cause of “smelly water” is a non-toxic sulfate reducing bacteria,
scientifically termed Divibrio Sulfurcans. This bacteria often enters the water system
through construction or a break in ground piping. The bacteria create the energy it
needs to survive by converting sulfate (SO4) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas you smell in
the water.
Hydrogen sulfide gas is distinctive because of its rotten egg-like stench. Its presence
can severely affect the taste as well as the odor of the water. Occasionally this
bacteria can be accompanied by black deposits, the result of pipe and fitting corrosion.
In extremely high concentrations, hydrogen sulfide gas can be toxic though the gas is
detectable long before harmful levels are reached.
The requirements for the bacteria to thrive are: a) an elevated level of sulfur in the
water, b) activated hydrogen from cathodic reactions within the tank, c) water with little
or no dissolved oxygen, d) and temperatures below 138°F.
Items that can increase the potential for this bacteria are: a) water softeners, b) well
water, c) and long periods of no water movement.
TREATMENT
NOTE
CAUSE
Other factors that may contribute to smelly water:
• Chlorides of Magnesium and Calcium leave a bitter taste.
• Chloride of Sodium produces a salty taste.
• Sulfates (50 ppm) give a medicinal taste.
• Carbon Dioxide in a low pH water gives fizzy water.
• Iron and tannic waters also give a bad taste and odor.
The simplest treatment available is the shock-chlorination of the system. This is a
surface treatment, and often requires repeated trials in heavily infected systems. The
chlorination of a system requires that you follow each step explicitly to avoid an untreated portion of the piping system from reinfecting another part. See Bulletin 23 for
the chlorination procedure. Longer lasting solutions include chlorination or aeration of
the water supply.
Since smelly water is caused by a bacteria presence and is not caused by the water
heater, any treatment would not be considered warranty related.
The chlorination procedure is used to eliminate various bacteria that accumulate and
grow in water heaters. These bacteria often cause odorous or discolored water
conditions.
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 23
CHLORINATION PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE
Please read the steps of the chlorination procedure prior to beginning. If you
feel uncomfortable performing any of these steps, contact a service person to
perform this procedure for you.
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
STEP 5
STEP 6
Turn off the gas or electric supply to the tank.
Turn off the cold water supply valve to the tank.
Open a nearby hot water faucet to relieve the vacuum.
Drain all the water from the tank (a water-hose may be needed).
Remove the anode rod(s), and close the drain valve.
Using a funnel in the anode opening add one gallon of household chlorine
bleach (e.g. Clorox or Purex) for every 25 gallons of tank capacity.
Reinstall anode rod(s) after inspecting and replacing as needed.
Open cold water supply valve and refill the system. Then draw the water to
every hot water fixture, until the smell of chlorine is detected. Operate dish
and clothes washers until a noticeable amount of the chlorine is detected as
well. All hot water lines must receive treatment.
Leave the chlorine solution undisturbed for one hour or more.
After the contact time has elapsed, drain the tank according to steps #2, #3, &
#4.
Close the drain valve and refill the tank. Allow the tank to sit for 15 minutes.
Repeat steps #2, #3, and #4. Continue to flush the tank if the water is
discolored or contains a chlorine odor.
Close the drain valve and refill the tank. Flush all chlorine from the piping by
opening every hot water outlet/ appliance.
Return hot water heating system to service by following the recommended
start-up procedure posted on the unit or in the manual.
STEP 7
STEP 8
STEP 9
STEP 10
STEP 11
STEP 12
STEP 13
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 36
NOT ENOUGH HOT WATER - ELECTRIC
CAUSE
Not enough hot water complaints are becoming more frequent in the water heater
industry. This increase was triggered when changes required by our regulatory
agencies were implemented. For example, heaters are now factory preset at a
lower temperature and inlet tubes have been shortened. While lower temperatures
settings reduce the burn rate, and shorter dip tubes guard against stacking, both
affect the amount of hot water a water heater can supply. The following test will
help determine if a water heater is supplying the intended amount of hot water and
will help pinpoint any problems that exist.
TEST
Please read all the steps of the test prior to beginning. If you feel uncomfortable
performing any of these steps, contact a service person to conduct this test for you.
STEP 1
At the faucet nearest to the water heater, time (in seconds) how long it takes to fill a
1 gallon bucket (flow rate).
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
STEP 5
STEP 6
STEP 7
STEP 8
STEP 9
THE FIX
Gallon per minute (gpm) = 60 seconds / seconds to fill a 1 gallon bucket
If the bucket fills in: 10 sec = 6 gpm
12 sec = 5 gpm
15 sec = 4 gpm
20 sec = 3 gpm
24 sec = 2.5 gpm
Turn both upper and lower thermostat dials on the water heater to 130° F.
Run about 15 gallons of hot water from the nearest faucet. Shut water off.
Water heater should complete heating 15 gallons in approximately 45 minutes
At a nearby faucet using a candy thermometer, measure the hot water temperature.
The temperature should fall between 120°F to 140°F.
Continue running the hot water until 60% of the tank capacity is depleted:
CAPACITY
DEPLETE
30 gallons
18 gallons
40 gallons
24 gallons
50 gallons
30 gallons
66 gallons
39 gallons
80 gallons
48 gallons
120 gallons
72 gallons
At the same faucet using a candy thermometer, measure the water temperature.
The temperature should be about 30°F below the temperature in step 6.
Step 6 - if the temperature was not within range, check the thermostats.
Step 9 - if more than 30 °F was lost; check the lower element for continuity and the
dip tube.
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 45
THERMAL EXPANSION
SYMPTOMS
•
•
•
•
•
CAUSE
The water in a water heating system expands when it is heated and has a greater
volume. Since water will not compress (like air), system designers must include
provisions for thermal expansion. (Water in a closed tank at 50 psi, when heated just
10 degrees, will reach a pressure of 250 psi).
Effects are only noticeable after hot water use followed by periods of no water use.
Relief valve drips during any recovery cycle when no hot or cold water is used.
Hot water pipes creak while heater is recovering and all valves are closed.
Tanks or other components of the water supply system fail prematurely.
A metallic creaking noise might actually be heard in the location of the heater as the
pressure is relieved and the stretched tank returns to a natural shape.
• Faucets drips during any recovery cycle when no hot or cold water is used.
Water surges when a valve is first open and then pressure drops.
Many water supply systems have check valves at the water meter to prevent any
possible contamination of the public water supply by the accidental back-flow of
contaminated water into the supply mains. These check valves are often required by
code, and some cities are even installing the check valves. They serve a useful
purpose. Do not remove them!
TEST
The use of pressure reducing valves (PRV) is another cause. PRVs are designed to
conserve water and prolong fixture life. Many PRVs also act as very effective check
valves. Again, do not remove them!
Water softeners in the system may also act as a back-flow prevention device.
Follow these easy steps to diagnose thermal expansion:
• Turn the heater thermostat all the way down, and install a water pressure gauge
with dead hand (AOS part #4798) on the drain valve. Open the drain valve, so the
gauge reads system pressure.
• Open a hot water tap and allow 15% to 20% of the tanks volume to run out. Shut
off the drain valve and make sure that no other fixture in the system, hot or cold, is
open. Make sure that outside fixtures, if they are on the same system, are turned
off too. Any water leaks or use will make the test meaningless.
• Check the water pressure gauge, and turn the pointer so it lines up with the
pressure indicating needle. Turn the thermostat back up to its normal position, so
the heater cycles on. Watch the pressure gauge.
• If the system is closed, the pressure will start to climb steadily and rapidly. A small
amount of thermal expansion control may be built into the system because of
trapped air pockets or a water hammer arrestor. In that case the pressure will
increase slightly, hold steady for a short time and then rapidly increase. The
temperature and pressure relief valve (T&P) or PRV should open and release water
once the pressure reaches the maximum setting on the valve. The valve will close
once the pressure falls below the pressure setting of the valve.
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THE FIX
The ideal fix involves the use of a pressure reducing valve if supply pressures are
above 60 to 70 psi, and a properly sized expansion tank. The PRV reduces supply
pressures to 40 to 60 psi allowing an economically priced and sized expansion tank to
be used. The PRV also offers the benefit of saving water and prolonging the life of
water flow valves. The PRV is not required if the system already has one or if high
supply pressures are desired.
The PRV is installed between the check valve and the water heating system. The
expansion tank is installed between the PRV and the water heating system. Follow the
manufacturer’s instructions for installing the expansion tank.
Run the thermal expansion check again. The pressure should increase only slightly
then hold steady throughout the recovery cycle. The expanded water is flowing back
from the heater and into the pressurized storage bladder of the expansion tank. Air
pressure will force this water out of the expansion tank into the supply once usage
resumes.
DO NOT DEPEND ON THE T&P VALVE TO HANDLE THERMAL EXPANSION! The
T&P valve, according to the makers of those valves, was designed as an emergency
relief device only. The T&P could be subject to reduced effectiveness or failure.
FIGURE
WARNING
Thermal expansion of water, if not compensated for in system design, will lead to the
early failure of components. These failures are not covered by the manufacturer’s
warranty, so it is extremely important that everyone be aware of the causes, symptoms
and solutions to thermal expansion in a closed water heating system.
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TECHNICAL BULLETIN
BULLETIN 52
LEAKING TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
SYMPTOMS
•
•
•
•
GENERAL
The temperature and pressure relief valve (T & P) is a safety device limiting temperature
and pressure levels in a water heater. Each T & P has both a temperature and pressure
rating.
Water seeping around the relief valve tank connection
Leakage at the threaded portion of the relief valve connection
Intermittent weeping and/or dribbling from the relief valve
Large volume of hot water sporadically discharged from the relief valve
Normally, the temperature and pressure relief valve will have a temperature rating for
210°F. A probe (part of the relief valve) extends into the tank measuring the stored water
temperature. This probe must be within the top six inches of the water heater. However, if
the water heater’s thermostat malfunctions, higher than normal water temperatures could be
produced. Once the probe senses a temperature exceeding its temperature rating, the relief
valve will open to full capacity releasing “very hot” water until the temperature is below its
reset temperature.
The pressure rating on the relief valve should be the same or less than the certified working
pressure of the tank (generally 150 psi) and be below the lowest pressure rating of any
system components. It is not acceptable to install a relief valve that exceeds the maximum
working pressure of the water heater. Once the pressure in the tank reaches the valve’s
pressure rating, it will slightly open relieving the pressure. Relieving of pressure can be
noted as “dribbling” or “weeping” water from the relief valve.
If an incorrectly sized temperature and pressure relief valve is installed, the warranty will be
void.
THE FIX
•
•
•
•
Seeping at the spud of the water heater - Spuds are welded to the tank and are not
repairable. The heater should be replaced.
Leakage at the threaded relief valve connection - Remove relief valve and reseal
connection.
Intermittent weeping and/or dribbling at the relief valve - The relief valve relieves water
slowly when actuating on pressure. A closed system can cause pressure to increase in
the system. This condition is called thermal expansion. For additional information
regarding thermal expansion please see Bulletin 45.
Large volume of hot water sporadically discharged from the relief valve - The relief valve
relieves water quickly when actuating on temperature. The only cause of this problem
is a malfunctioning thermostat.
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To order additional copies of this Service Handbook and to view
other service and presentation literature and CDs that are
available from State Water Heaters:
Telephone 1-800-821-2017, Fax number 800-644-9306 or visit our
web site at www.statewaterheaters.com
For additional information or assistance in servicing your
State water heater, visit our web site or telephone the Technical
Information Department at 1-800-365-0024
This Service Handbook was prepared by the Technical Training Department,
Ashland City, TN.