Electrolux USER MANUAL BUILT-IN ELECTRIC OVEN B5701-5 User`s manual

Temperature Control for Research and Industry
Apollo Dual Channel
Temperature Controller
User’s Manual
Warranty
J-KEM Scientific, Inc. warrants this unit to be free of defects in materials and workmanship and to give satisfactory
service for a period of 12 months from date of purchase. If the unit should malfunction, it must be returned to the
factory for evaluation. If the unit is found to be defective upon examination by J-KEM, it will be repaired or
replaced at no charge. However, this WARRANTY is VOID if the unit shows evidence of having been tampered
with or shows evidence of being damaged as a result of excessive current, heat, moisture, vibration, corrosive
materials, or misuse. This WARRANTY is VOID if devices other than those specified in Section 3.2 are powered
by the controller. Components which wear or are damaged by misuse are not warranted. This includes contact
points, fuses and solid state relays.
THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES EXCEPT AS STATED HEREIN. THERE ARE NO OTHER WARRANTIES,
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL J-KEM
SCIENTIFIC, INC. BE LIABLE FOR CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL OR SPECIAL DAMAGES. THE
BUYER'S SOLE REMEDY FOR ANY BREACH OF THIS AGREEMENT BY J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. OR
ANY BREACH OF ANY WARRANTY BY J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. SHALL NOT EXCEED THE
PURCHASE PRICE PAID BY THE PURCHASER TO J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. FOR THE UNIT OR UNITS
OF EQUIPMENT DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY SUCH BREACH.
Service
J-KEM Scientific maintains its own service facility and technical staff to service all parts of the controller, usually in
24 hours. For service, contact:
J-KEM Scientific, Inc.
6970 Olive Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63130
(314) 863-5536
FAX (314) 863-6070
E-Mail: JKEM911@jkem.com
Internet on-line catalog: http://www.jkem.com
This manual contains parameters specific to temperature controller Serial #_________________.
When calling with a technical question, please have the controller serial number available.
You’ve purchased the most versatile controller available to the research community. We’re confident it can
regulate ANY heating/cooling situation you’ll ever encounter. If the information in this manual isn’t adequate to
make your application work, call our Engineering Department for assistance.
– With J-KEM’s patented Microtune circuitry –
2
SECTION
INDEX
PAGE
1. QUICK OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
KEM-NET DATA LOGGING AND CONTROL SOFTWARE
......... 5
2. ADJUSTING THE CONTROLLER FOR STABLE
CONTROL WITH DIFFERENT HEATERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 What is Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Autotuning Procedure
.................................
2.3 Tuning for Heating Mantles: A Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Sensor Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
6
7
9
9
3. OPERATIONS GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Front Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Heater Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Ramp-to-Setpoint & Soak Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Temperature Sensor Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Timer Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Power Reduction Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Affect of Power Setting on Heating Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Do's and Don'ts When Using Your Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9 Resetting the Controller for Use With Heating Mantles. . . . . . . . . .
3.10 Changing the Temperature Display Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11 Changing between PID and ON/OFF Operating Modes . . . . . . . .
3.12 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.13 Over Temperature Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
10
11
11
13
14
17
19
20
21
21
21
23
24
4. APPLICATION NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 Theory of How the Controller Works – Simply . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Automatic Storage of Min/Max Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 How to Set Up a Reaction With Your Temperature Controller. . . . .
25
25
26
27
28
APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.
Using the Controller With an Oil Bath (Application Note 1) . . . . .
II.
Safety Considerations and Accurate Temperature Control . . . . . . .
III. Resetting the Controller to Original Factory Settings . . . . . . . . . . .
WARNING:
32
32
33
34
Adhere to the restrictions of SECTION 3.2. Failure to do so may create a
significant safety hazard and will void the warranty.
3
Section 1:
Quick Operating Instructions
The four steps below are the basics of using your temperature controller. The User’s Manual is a reference that explains the
controller more fully as well as some of its more sophisticated features. It’s recommended that new users unfamiliar with
process controllers read the entire manual carefully. The controller is preprogrammed for use with heating mantles fitted to
round bottomed flasks running “typical” organic reactions (i.e., non-polymeric reactions in solvents such as THF, toluene,
DMF, etc.). If the controller is used with this type of reaction, the 3 steps below will help you get started.
For a primer on how to set up a reaction with your temperature controller: See Section 4.4
To use heaters other than heating mantles:
See Section 2.
Do not use the controller to heat oil baths:
See Section 3.2 & Appendix I.
For polymer synthesis, atypical, expensive, or safety critical reactions:
See Appendix II.
NOTE: The Apollo has 2 completely separate temperature controller in a single cabinet labeled “Channel 1” and
“Channel 2”. Any change or adjustment made to Channel 1 will have no affect on Channel 2 and visa versa. The
instructions below apply to each channel individually.
1
Place the thermocouple in the solution being heated. Place at least the first 1/4” of the thermocouple directly in
the solution being heated. Thermocouples can be bent without harming them. If you’re heating a corrosive liquid,
use Teflon coated thermocouples. If you are heating a sealed reaction, see Section 4.2.
2
Set the power level switch to the volume of
solution being heated
(not the size of the flask being used). The
power level switch can be thought of as a
solid state variac. Volume ranges are printed
above this switch as a guide to select the
correct power level since it’s easier to guess
the volume being heated than the appropriate
“percent power” to apply to a heater. ‘Heat
A power
setting of.....
Off’ turns off the heater so the controller
displays temperature only. All new users
1-10 ml
should read Section 3.5.
10-100 ml
50-500 ml
300 ml - 2 L
>2 L
3
4
Enter the setpoint (i.e., the desired temperature). Hold
in the * button and simultaneously press the  key to
increase or the  key to decrease the setpoint. The
setpoint can be seen at anytime by holding in the *
button, the setpoint appears as a blinking number in the
display.
Set the timer.
When power is
applied to the
controller, by default,
the timer turns power
OFF to the heater as a
safety precaution.
is equivalent to
a variac setting of:
3%
10%
25%
50%
100%
TIP: Because the power switch acts
like a variac, if the reaction is heating
too slowly or you need more power
(e.g., heating to high temperatures),
give the heater more power by
turning the power level up one
setting. If the reaction needs less
power than normal (e.g., heating to
low temperatures (<60o C) or the
temperature overshoots the set point
excessively, turn the power down one
setting. DO NOT set the power
switch on a setting too high initially
to heat the reaction quickly and then
lower it to the correct setting, this
degrades heating performance.
8 0. 0
*
To turn power On to the heater, briefly push in on
the round timer knob and the display changes to ON
to show that power to the heater is ON. For
complete instructions on the user of the timer see
the section titled Timer Controls.
If the display does not change when the timer knob
is pressed. make sure that the Power Level Switch is
not set to the “Heat Off” position.
4
KEM-Net Data Logging and Control Software
The USB port on the back panel of the controller is an interface to J-KEM’s KEM-Net Software.
KEM-Net is free and can be downloaded from J-KEM’s web site at www.jkem.com.
KEM-Net provides remote control of up to 8 controllers,
graphical presentations of each digital meter and time &
temperature plots. Highlights of KEM-Net include:
* GLP and GMP compliant data logging
* Runs a 12 step temperature ramp
* Logging of Time and Temperature
* Logging of % Power for Exo and Endotherm detection
* Program KEM-IO Actions (Section 3.10)
* Over- & Under-temperature alarm functions.
KEM-Net also includes a virtual comm port driver that provides a simple ASCII interface to operate
and data log the controller from LabView or other software packages.
New Features:
GMP compliant data logging
Exo and Enotherm monitoring
KEM-IO
Remote Control of Laboratory Equipment based on Time and Temperature
KEM-IO is an optional feature that allows the controller to respond to inputs from instruments, like
a vacuum sensor or a hood door switch, and also to control instruments, like stirrers and chillers
based on reaction temperature. KEM-IO automates programs as simple as:
Heat my reaction to 80o C, then turn on my peristaltic pump to add reagents.
or as sophisticated as:
Turn on my stirrer, then ramp my reaction from 25o C to 100o C if 45 minutes, hold
for 2 hours, then turn off heating. When the reaction cools to 50o C, turn off the
stirrer. If at any point the reaction exotherms and heats above 110 oC, turn on my
chiller and keep it on until I manually reset the system.
Contact J-KEM for additional information.
5
Section 2:
Adjusting The Controller For
Stable Control With Different Heaters
It’s important to remember that this controller has two completely independent controllers in a single cabinet.
The description of the operating characteristics of one channel are identical to those of the second channel.
No setting on Channel 1 affects Channel 2 and visa versa.
2.1
What is Tuning. The controller's most powerful feature is its ability to regulate virtually any heater with
stable temperature control. For stable control the controller requires two things; (1) the controller must be set
to the correct power level (see Section 3.6) and, (2) that it be tuned to the heater being used. Tuning is the
process that matches the control characteristics of the controller to the heating characteristics of the heater.
The controller is said to be tuned to the heater when its memory is programmed with values telling it how fast
the heater warms up, cools off, and how efficiently it transfers heat. For example, consider the difference
between a heat lamp and a hot plate. When electricity is applied to a heat lamp it begins to heat
instantaneously, and when it's turned off it stops heating instantaneously. In contrast, a hot plate may take
several minutes to begin heating when electricity is applied and even longer to start cooling when electricity
is turned off. Your controller can regulate both a heat lamp and a hot plate to 0.1o C. But, to do this it must
be programmed with the time constants describing how fast the heater heats when electricity is turned on and
how fast it begins to cool when it's turned off. These time constants are called the tuning parameters.
Every type of heater has its own unique set of tuning parameters. For the controller to heat with
stability, it must have programmed with the tuning parameters for the heater currently being used. Prior to
shipment, tuning parameters were programmed into the controller that maximize heating performance for
laboratory heating mantles since these are the most common heaters used in research. Tuning is regulated by
5 of the temperature meter’s user programmable functions. The correct value for these 5 functions can be
calculated and loaded by the user manually, or the controller can do it automatically with its autotune feature.
When Should the Controller be Tuned? If the controller is tuned to one type of heater, heating mantles
for example, any size-heating mantle can be used without the need to retune. When changing from
heating mantles to a different type of heater, an oven for example, the controller should be tuned with
values describing the oven’s heating characteristics. The effect of tuning is seen below. When the
controller is tuned for heating mantles, using it with any size-heating mantle yields stable temperature
control (Plot 1), but poor control results when the same tuning parameters are used with an oven (Plot 2,
Curve 1). However, after tuning the controller to the oven, stable temperature control results (Plot 2,
Curve 2).
Plot 2
Plot 1
80
80
70
70
60
Temp.
o
C
50
Conditions: 100 ml Toluene
250 ml Round bottomed flask
250 ml Heating mantle
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
40
40
30
30
20
0
10
20
30
Time (min)
40
50
Curve 2: Controller loaded with
tuning parameters for
drying oven
60
Temp.
o
C
50
Curve 1: Controller loaded with
tuning parameters for
heating mantles
20
60
0
6
10
20
30
40
Time (min)
50
60
It’s important to understand that this controller isn’t a simple ON/OFF type controller (i.e. ON when below
the set point, OFF when above [though it can be made to work this way, see Section 3.11]). Rather it’s a
predictive controller. Based on the shape (slope) of the heating curve, the controller predicts (calculates) the
percent of power to apply to the heater now to control the shape of the heating curve minutes in advance. The
importance of the tuning parameters is that they are constants in the equation the temperature meter uses to
perform its predictive calculations. If the temperature meter is programmed with tuning parameters that
incorrectly describe the heater being used, poor temperature control will result. But, when the correct values
are loaded, temperature regulation of ± 0.1o is typically achieved.
Manual Tuning. Manual tuning is when the values of the 5 tuning parameters are determined manually
then entered into the temperature meter via the push buttons on the front of the controller. Experienced
users might prefer to manually tune the controller since this allows customization of the heating process.
2.2
Autotune. Autotune is a feature built into the temperature meter that automatically calculates the tuning
parameters (i.e. delay times, heating efficiency, etc.) for any type of heater. After the autotune procedure
is complete and the tuning parameters are determined, the controller loads them into its memory for
current and future use. Heating mantles are a special case and are covered in a separate paragraph
(Section 2.3).
 and 
Autotuning Procedure.
This procedure is not recommended for heating mantles (see Section 2.3).
1.
Set the equipment up in the exact configuration it will be used. For example, to tune to a vacuum
oven, place the thermocouple in the room temperature oven and plug the oven into the controller.
If the oven (or heater) has its own thermostat or power control, turn both as high as they’ll go.
2.
Set the controller to the appropriate power level (see Section 3.6). Make sure timer circuit is set to
ON (i.e., the timer window displays On; see Section 3.5). Turn the controller and heater on, and
o
enter the desired set point temperature. If the set point isn’t at least 30 C above ambient, skip this
procedure and go to the next procedure, “Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control”
3.
Press and hold in both the  and  buttons (for 3 seconds) on the front of the temperature meter
until the word “tunE” appears in the display then release both buttons.
4.
Press the  button (5 times) until “CyC.t” appears in the display (if you go past this setting, press
the  button until you get back to it).
5.
First, hold in the ‘*’ button, while holding in the ‘*’ button press the  button. Continue to hold
both buttons in until the display reads “A --”, or “A ##” where “##” is some number.
6.
Release the ‘*’ button and press the  button until “tunE” once again appears in the display.
7.
Press and hold the ‘*’ button and “tunE” will change to “off” to indicate that autotune is currently
off.
8.
While holding in the ‘*’ button, press the  button to change the display to “on”, then release both
buttons.
9.
Press and hold both the  and  buttons (for 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the
display. The controller is now in its autotune mode. While in autotune the display alternates
between “tunE” (for autotune) and the process temperature. When the autotune sequence is done
(this may take in excess of an hour) the controller stops displaying “tunE” and only displays the
process temperature. [To abort autotune manually, repeat steps 3, 8 and 9 except in step 8 press the
 button until “off” is displayed].
7
New tuning
values loaded
into memory
Temp
Set
Point
75% of
set point
Start
AT
Heat to set point
after entering
new parameters
OS1
OS2
US
During T1 - 4 the controller
measures heating delays and
rates of heating and cooling
T1
T2
T3
T4
Quarter cycle times
Time
The autotune sequence.
During autotune the controller heats to
75% of the setpoint temperature,
where it oscillates for several cycles
before loading the new tuning
parameters. After the tuning
parameters are loaded it heats to the
set point temperature. Tuning below
the set point prevents any damage that
might occur from overheating.
Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control.
This procedure is not recommended for heating mantles (see Section 2.3).
In the majority of cases, the procedure above results in stable temperature control with any heater. A
second version of the autotune routine is available and can be used when the heater is already at or close
to the set point, is being tuned at a temperature close to room temperature, or for very fine control in
demanding situations. If stable temperature control doesn’t result after performing the first autotune
routine, the procedure below should be performed. Before performing the ‘fine tune’ autotune procedure,
the ‘regular’ autotune procedure that precedes this should normally be performed.
1.
Set the equipment up in the exact configuration it will be used. If the heater has its own thermostat
or power controls, turn both as high as they’ll go. With this procedure it’s not necessary for the
equipment to start at room temperature. This procedure can be performed at any time and any
temperature.
2.
Set the controller to the appropriate power level (see Section 3.6). Make sure timer circuit is set to
ON (i.e., the timer window displays On; see Section 3.5). Turn the controller and heater on, then
enter the desired set point temperature.
3.
Press and hold in both the  and  buttons (for 3 seconds) on the front of the temperature meter
until the word “tunE” appears in the display then release both buttons.
4.
Press the  button (5 times) until “CyC.t” appears in the display (if you go past this setting, press
the  button until you get back to it).
5.
First hold in the ‘*’ button, while holding in the ‘*’ button press the  button. Continue to hold
both buttons in until the display reads “A --”, or “A ##” where “##” is some number.
Release the ‘*’ button and press the  button until “tunE” once again appears in the display.
6.
7.
Press and hold the ‘*’ button and “tunE” will change to “off” to indicate that autotune is currently
off.
8.
While holding in the ‘*’ button, press the  button to change the display to “At.SP”, and release
both buttons.
8
9. Press and hold both the  and  buttons (≈ 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the display. The
controller is now in its autotune mode. While in autotune the display alternates between “tunE” (for
autotune) and the process temperature. When the autotune sequence is done (this may take in excess of
an hour) the controller stops displaying “tunE” and only displays the process temperature. [To abort
autotune manually, repeat steps 3, 8 and 9 except in step 8, press the  button until “off” is
displayed].Autotune Errors. The autotune routine can fail for several reasons. If it fails, the controller
displays the error message “tunE” “FAiL”. To remove this message, turn the controller off for 10
seconds. Try the procedure titled “Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control” above. If autotune
fails again, call and discuss your application with one of our engineers. A common problem when tuning
at high temperatures or with large volumes is for the heater to be underpowered. A more powerful heater
may be needed (contact J-KEM for assistance).
2.3
Tuning for Heating Mantles: A Special Case. This section gives special consideration to heating mantles,
since they’re the most commonly used heaters in research. Every heating mantle size has its own optimum set
of tuning parameters and if you wanted, the controller could be tuned (or autotuned) every time a different
size was used. However, this is cumbersome and is also unnecessary. Factory tests show that there’s one set
of tuning parameters that delivers good performance for all heating mantle sizes. These tuning parameters
were loaded into the controller at the factory prior to your receiving it. If you’re using a heating mantle and
none of the parameters have been changed or the controller hasn’t been autotuned since you’ve received it,
you’re ready to go. If the tuning parameters have been changed or the controller has been autotuned and you
want to go back to using heating mantles, J-KEM recommends that the tuning parameters for heating mantles
be loaded manually (i.e., don’t autotune to the heating mantle) by following the step-by-step instructions
given in Procedure 1 of Section 3.9.
2.4
Sensor Placement. Placement of the sensor is basically common sense. The sensor should be positioned to
sense the average temperature of the medium being heated. That means the thermocouple should be shielded
from direct exposure to the heater but not so distant that rise in temperature isn’t sensed by the controller
within a reasonable period of time. Several examples follow that show the type of consideration that should
be given to sensor placement.
Use With:
Solutions
HPLC column heated
with a heating tape
Oven
Place the sensor in the solution. Stir vigorously so that heat is homogeneously mixed
throughout the solution.
Tape a thin wire thermocouple directly to the HPLC column. Place several layers of
paper over the thermocouple to insulate it from the heating tape (the thermocouple
should sense the column temperature, not the heater temperature). Wrap the HPLC
column completely with heating tape.
The thermocouple needs to be shielded from transient hot and cold air currents. Don’t
place the thermocouple near the heating coil or an air vent. A small thermocouple
(1/16” or 1/8” thermocouple) that responds rapidly to changes in air temperature is
better than a larger one.
9
Section 3:
Operations Guide
3.1
Front Panel Description.
It’s important to remember that this controller has two completely independent controllers in a single cabinet.
The description of the operating characteristics of one channel are identical to those of the second channel. No setting
on Channel 1 affects Channel 2 and visa versa.
13 - Serial connection (on back)
5
9
12
8
10
1
6
2
3
4
7
11
Figure 1
NOTE: The controls for Channel 1 and Channel 2 are independent of each other. The description of the controls for
Channel 2 are identical to the description of those for Channel 1 presented below.
J-KEM highly recommends that all users read Section 4.4 - How to Set Up a Reaction with J-KEM Scientific’s Digital
Temperature Controller prior to using the controller for the first time.
1.
Temperature Display. Shows temperature of the process as the default display. Shows set point
temperature (i.e. desired temperature) when ‘*’ button is pressed.
2.
Control Key. When pressed, the display shows the set point temperature. To decrease or increase the
set point, press the ‘▼’ key (3) or ‘▲’ key (4), while simultaneously pressing the control key. The set
point appears as a blinking number in the display.
3.
Lowers set point when ‘*’ button (2) is simultaneously pressed.
4.
Raises set point when ‘*’ button (2) is simultaneously pressed.
5.
Controller On/Off switch. For maximum accuracy of the displayed temperature, turn on controller 30
minutes prior to use. WARNING: Due to the nature of solid-state relays, a small amount of output
power (7.5 mA @ 120 VAC; 0.9 watts) is present at outlet (6) even when the controller is turned off.
Take appropriate precautions to avoid electrical shock.
10
3.2
6.
Power Outlet. Plug only 120 VAC devices into this outlet (see Section 3.2).7.
Temperature Sensor
Input. Use the same type of sensor probe as the sensor plug installed on the controller (see Section 3.4).
The correct sensor type will have the same color plug as the receptacle (7) on the front of the controller.
7.
Thermocouple Input. The temperature sensor for the process plugs in here. The thermocouple of the
correct type must be used or incorrect temperatures will be displayed. Thermocouples are color coded,
so the male plug on the end of the thermocouple must be the same color as the receptacle on the front of
the controller. Type  thermocouples are blue, type J are black, and type K are yellow.
8.
Timer Display. The timer display always shows the status of the timer circuit (see Section 3.5). The
display can show “On” meaning that the circuit will allow power to be applied to the heater, “Off”,
meaning that the circuit will not allow power to be applied to the heater, or it will show a time when
power will be applied or removed from the heater depending on the settings in the timer.
9.
Timer Function Knob. Multi-function knob that selects timer function (push knob in) and enters the
amount of time in the timer (rotate). See Section 3.5.
10.
Timer State LED’s Timer status LED’s indicate whether power will be applied or removed from the
heater when the time in the timer goes to 0. See Section 3.5.
11.
Heater Status LED. This (small) LED is On when power is being applied to the heater and Off when
power is not applied to the heater.
12.
Power Reduction Circuit. This switch is the interface to J-KEM’s patented power control computer that
limits the maximum power delivered to the heater. See Sections 3.6 and 4.1.
13.
USB port for serial communications is on back.
Heater Restrictions. The controller delivers 10 amps of current at 120 VAC from the outlets on Channel 1
and Channel 2 into resistive loads (heating mantles, hot plates, ovens, etc.). The controller is limited to a
total of 15 amps output current for the sum of the current from Channel 1 and Channel 2. Use only resistive
loads that are safely operated at 120 VAC and require less than 10 amps or damage to the controller
and a safety hazard may result.
•
Do not plug oil baths into your controller. Oil baths are not 120 VAC devices and
become a fire hazard unless properly connected to the controller. (See Appendix for an
application note describing the use of oil baths with this controller)
•
Devices other than resistive loads can be used with your controller but certain restrictions
apply.
Device Type
3.3
Restrictions
Comments
Incandescent lamps
Infrared heaters
≤ 700 watts
Set the power reduction circuit
to the > 2 L setting.
Inductive loads:
* solenoids
* transformers
* motors
≤ 4 amps; 480 watts
The controller must be
programmed for this use.
Request application note AN5.
Ramp-to-Setpoint & Soak Feature. A new feature of J-KEM’s controllers called ‘Ramp-To-Setpoint’
allows you to enter a specific heating rate (e.g., heat to 120o C at a rate of 5o C/Hour), a second feature called
‘Soak’ then lets you specify how long to stay at that temperature before turning off.
11
Examples of Program Ramps
Temperature
Soak
Temperature
Setpoint
Ramp
Power Off
Ramp
Soak
Setpoint
Time
Power Off
Time
The controller is shipped with the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature OFF, the user must specifically turn Ramp-toSetpoint ON. When Ramp-to-Setpoint is OFF, the controller heats to the entered setpoint at the fastest rate
possible. When Ramp-to-Setpoint is ON, the controller heats at the user entered ramp rate.
The Ramp-to-Setpoint feature and its associated parameters are turned on and set in the controller’s
programming mode. The parameters of importance are:
SPrr
SetPoint Ramp Rate. Allowable Values: 0 to 9990 deg/Hr.
This specifies the desired rate of heating (cooling). Note, this parameter specifies the desired rate of heating
(cooling), but in cases of extremely high ramp rates the reaction will not actually heat faster than the power of
the heater will allow.
SPrn
SetPoint Ramp Run. Allowable Values: ON, OFF, Hold
This parameter turns the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature ON or OFF. During an active run, if this parameter is set
to ‘Hold’, the setpoint ramp stops and holds at its’ current value. This continues until the parameter is set to
ON or OFF. When set to OFF, the values in SetPoint Ramp Rate and Soak Time are ignored.
SoAK
Soak Time. Allowable Values: “- -”, 0 to 1440 min.
This specifies the amount of time to soak at the setpoint after the setpoint temperature ramp is complete. A
setting of “- -” causes the controller to remain at the final setpoint indefinitely. A numeric value causes the
controller to stay at the setpoint for the entered time and then turn power to the heater off after the time
expires.
Important Points to Know
1.
While the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature in activated, the display alternates between the current reaction
temperature and the word “SPr” to indicate that a “SetPoint Ramp” is active.
2.
This controller is equipped with a digital 100-hour timer, the digital timer and the Ramp-to-Setpoint
feature are completely independent of each other. For example, if the digital timer is set to turn heating
OFF after 5 hours, heating is turned off even if a ramp step is in progress. Likewise, if a Soak time turns
heating off after 3 hours and the digital timer is set to turn heating off after 10 hours, the digital timer has
no effect since the expired Soak time already has turned heating off. To avoid confusion and conflicts
between the meters “Hold” feature and the front panel digital timer, it’s recommended that the Soak
Time feature be set to “– –” in the meters setup menu and not changed.
12
3.
Setting a ramp rate will not guarantee that the reaction temperature is at the specified ramp temperature
since heating is dependent on the power of the heater. For example, if a ramp rate of 1200 deg/Hr (i.e.,
20 deg/min) is set, unless the heater is powerful enough to impart heat at such a high rate, the reaction
temperature will not track the ramp temperature. Likewise, a reaction can’t cool faster than natural
cooling by ambient air.
4.
Once the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature is activated in programming mode, it remains on until it’s deactivated
in programming mode. The Ramp-to-Setpoint feature remains activated even if power is turned off to
the controller.
Activating & Programming the Ramp-to-Setpoint Feature
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the
display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key (8 times) until the word “SPrr” appears in the display.
This is where you set the ramp rate in units of degrees/hour. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key
press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired ramp rate appears in the display, then let go of all the keys. Units are in
degrees/hour.
Press the▲ key once and the word “SPrn” will appear in the display.
This function turns the ramping feature ON, OFF, or to Hold. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’
key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired setting appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SoaK” will appear in the display.
This is where the soak time is set in units of Minutes. A soak time of ‘ -- ‘ means to ‘soak forever’ (this setting is one
below ‘0’). First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired time
appears in the display, then let go of all the keys. If a soak time is set, the controller display will alternate between
showing the current reaction temperature and the word “StoP” when the soak time has expired to indicate that power
has been turned off.
To exit programming mode, press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then
release both keys.
Deactivating the Ramp-to-Setpoint Feature
1.
2.
3.
3.4
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the
display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key (9 times) until the word “SPrn” appears in the display.
This function turns the ramping feature ON and OFF. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press
the ▼ or ▲ key until OFF appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
To exit programming mode, press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then
release both keys.
Temperature Sensor Input. Every controller is fitted with a specific type of thermocouple input and can
only be used with a thermocouple of the same type. For the correct temperature to be displayed, the
thermocouple type must match the receptacle type on the front of the controller (Figure 1; # 7). All
thermocouples are color coded to show their type (Blue = type T; Yellow = type K; Black = type J). The
color of the thermocouple plug must match the color of the receptacle on the front of the controller. If the
thermocouple is broken or becomes unplugged, the error message "inPt" "FAiL" blinks in the temperature
meter display and the controller stops heating.
13
3.5
Timer Controls. The timer circuit works in conjunction with the digital meter to determine when power is
applied to the heater. The digital meter is the actual temperature controller, the timer circuit only acts as a
gatekeeper to determine if the digital meter (temperature controller) is allowed to apply power to the heater or
not. By inserting the timer between the digital meter and the heater, the timer can turn heater power On or
Off based on a user entered time.
The timers on channel 1 and 2 work exactly the same way but are
completely independent of each other. So the explanation of the
timer on channel 1 equally applies to the timer on channel 2.
When power to the controller is turned on, the timer defaults to the
Power Off state as is indicated by the word Off in the display. In this
state no power is applied to the heater. This is a safety feature that
insures that power is not applied to a heater following recovery from
a power failure.
The timer has 4
states. The timer
Push
Push
Push
cycles between the 4
states by pushing in
on the silver timer
knob momentarily.
For example, push the
timer knob once and
Push
the timer changes
NOTE: Pushing in on the timer knob quickly for about 1/4 second causes it to advance to the next
state. Holding in the knob for 1 second changes to the mode where time is entered into the timer.
from the Off state to
the On state, push it again and it changes to the toFF state. Repeatedly pushing the knob cause the time to
cycle between its three normal states of On, toFF, and t-on. If the Power Reduction Circuit (Section 3.6) is
set to the Heat Off position, the timer window always displays oFF.
The four states of the timer circuit are explained below.
In the off state, no power is applied to the heater, even if the temperature meter calls for
power to be applied.
The controller always enters the off state when power is turned on or following recovery
from a power failure. The controller also enters the off state when the power reduction
circuit is set to the Heat Off position (see Section 3.6).
In the on state, the timer circuit applies power to the heater when the temperature meter
calls for power to be applied. Whenever power is applied to the heater, the small LED dot
on the left of the timer window is lit. Depending on the power needs of the heater, this dot
may blink rapidly.
The “toFF” state (standing for Time Off) allows the user to enter the amount of time the
controller should heat until heating is automatically turned off. While time is present in
the timer, power is applied to the heater, when the time counts down to 0, heating is turned
off. See the section below titled Heating for a Set Period of Time.
The “t-on” state (standing for Time On) allows the user to enter an amount of time to delay
before applying power to the heater. While time is present in the timer, no power is
applied to the heater even if the temperature meter calls for power to be applied, but when
time counts down to 0, heat is turned on indefinitely. See the section below titled Delay
Heating for a Set Period of Time.
14
Over View of the Timer Functions
The timer knob is a multi-function knob. When it’s pushed in for 1/4 second it causes the timer to advance to
the next function. When it’s pushed in for 1 second it enters programming mode. In programming mode, the
user enters time into the timer or locks the entered time into the timer which starts the program running (a
running program can be aborted by holding in the timer knob for 1 second).
When in programming mode, rotating the knob in a clockwise direction increases the amount of time entered
into the timer. Rotating the knob in a counter clockwise direction decrease the amount of time (when rotating
in a counter clockwise direction, the timer rolls over from “00” to “59” minutes, when entering minutes, or
from “00” to “99” hours, when entering hours).
When the timer counts to 00:00, power is turned Off indefenently
Function
Change
Push knob for
1/4 second
When the timer counts to 00:00, power is turned On indefenently
To immediately exit a timed run, hold in the timer knob for 1 second
Push knob for
1/4 second
Function Change
Push knob for 1/4 second
Function
Change
Function
Change
Hold in knob
for 1 second
Push knob for
1/4 second
Hold in knob
for 1 second
Program
Change
Function
Change
Program
Program
Change
Change
then
Enter Minutes
Push knob for
1/4 second
Enter Hours
Hold in knob
for 1 second
Push knob for
1/4 second
Hold in knob
for 1 second
Program
Change
Function
Change
Program
Program
Change
Change
then
Enter Minutes
Enter Hours
To immediately exit a timed run, hold in the timer knob for 1 second
15
Heating for a Set Period of Time
In this mode, the user enters the amount of time to heat before turning heating
off permanently. This is useful to heat a reaction or other lab instrument for a
set period of time and then have the reaction stop heating automatically.
While at this setting and while entering a time into the timer, no power is
applied to the heater.
Step 1. When the timer displays “toFF”, holding in
the timer knob causes the display to change to a clock
showing 00 : 00. The left 2 digits are hours and the
right 2 digits are minutes. The minutes digits are
blinking which indicates that their value can be
changed.
Hold in the timer
knob for 1 second
Step 2. To increase the number of minutes, rotate the
timer knob to the right. To decrease the number of
minutes, rotate the timer knob to the left.
Step 3. To change the number of hours in the
display, momentarily press the timer knob (1/4
second) and the hours digits begin to blink. To
increase the number of hours, rotate the timer knob to
the right. To decrease the number of hours, rotate the
timer knob to the left.
Step 4. When the desired time is displayed, hold in
the timer knob for 1 second to enter the time and start
the timer. When the timer starts, the LED under the
label “OFF at Zero” lights. This indicates that power
to the heater will turn OFF when the timer counts
down to zero.
At any time, the timer program can be aborted by
holding in the timer knob for 1 second. When this is
done, the display changes to toFF. To turn on heating,
push the timer knob twice until the display reads On.
16
Rotate knob to
enter minutes
Momentarily push knob
Rotate knob to
to lock in minutes
enter hours
Hold in timer knob for
1 second to store time
and start timer
Push
Push
Delay Heating for a Set Period of Time
In this mode, the user enters an amount of time to delay before turning
on power to the heater. This is useful to start heating a reaction or
piece of equipment automatically at a specific time. While at this
setting and while entering a time into the timer, no power is applied to
the heater.
Step 1. When the timer displays “t-on”, holding the
timer knob in for 1 second causes the display to
change to a clock that shows 00 : 00. The left 2 digits
are hours and the right 2 digits are minutes. The
minutes digits are blinking which indicates that their
value can be changed.
Step 2. To increase the number of minutes, rotate the
timer knob to the right. To decrease the number of
minutes, rotate the timer knob to the left.
Step 3. To change the number of hours in the
display, momentarily press the timer knob (1/4
second) and the hours digits begin to blink. To
increase the number of hours, rotate the timer knob to
the right. To decrease the number of hours, rotate the
timer knob to the left.
Step 4. When the desired time is displayed, hold in
the timer knob for 1 second to enter the time and start
the timer. When the timer starts, the LED under the
label “ON at Zero” lights. This indicates that power
to the heater will turn ON when the timer counts down
to zero.
At any time, the timer program can be aborted by
holding in the timer knob for 1 second. When this is
done, the display changes to t-on. To turn on heating,
push the timer knob until the display reads On.
3.6
Hold in the timer
knob for 1 second
Rotate knob to
enter minutes
Momentarily push knob
Rotate knob to
to lock in minutes
enter hours
Hold in timer knob for
1 second to store time
and start timer
Hold in knob
for 1 second
Power Reduction Circuit.
This switch (12) is the user’s interface with J-KEM’s patented power control
computer that limits the maximum output power delivered by the controller. It determines whether the
controller heats at a very low (1-10 mL), low (10 - 100 mL), intermediate (50 - 500 mL), medium (300 mL - 2
L), or high (>2 L) power level. The power reduction circuit acts as a solid state variac. This circuit has an
additional setting: “Heat Off” which, when selected, turn heating off and allows the controller to act as a
digital thermometer. The table to the right shows the maximum output power from the controller to the heater
depending on the position of the power switch. The correct setting for this switch is the setting that supplies
adequate power for the heater to heat to the set point in a reasonable period of time while at the same time not
overpowering it. See Section 4.4 for a detailed explanation of how to correctly set up a reaction
using your J-KEM controller.
17
Heating Liquids. Each power level is associated with a
Front Panel
Approx. % of
volume range that acts as a guide when heating solutions
Volume Range
Full Power
with heating mantles. When solutions are heated with
1 - 10 mL
3
heating mantles set the power switch to the range that
10
100
mL
10
includes the volume of solution being heated [Note: this
50 - 500 mL
25
switch is set to the volume of solution, not the size of the
300
ml
2
L
50
flask]. For example to heat 250 ml of toluene to 80o C in a 1
≥2L
100
L round bottomed flask choose the third power setting
(50 - 500 ml) since the solution volume falls within this range. There are situations when a power level other
than that indicated on the front panel should be used:
Example
80 ml toluene
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 80o C
80 ml collidine
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 170o C
80 ml water
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 80o C
125 ml toluene
1 L flask
1 L heating mantle
SP = 80o C
150 ml toluene
250 ml flask
250 ml heating mantle
SP = 35o C
Power Setting
50 - 500 ml
(25% power)
300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
10 - 100 ml
(10% power)
10 - 100 ml
(10% power)
Explanation
Organic solvents heated to ≈ 50 - 110o C are set to the
volume range on the front panel. When choosing between 2
power settings (i.e. 80 ml also falls within both the 10 - 100 ml
range and the 50 - 500 ml range) choose the higher setting.
Even though the solvent volume is less than the range of this
power setting, it should be used because high temperatures
require additional power.
While the setting 50 - 500 ml would work, since the heat
capacity of water is twice that of a typical organic solvent
(1 cal/g/o K), a higher power setting can be used to
compensate for the higher heat capacity.
When the heating mantle size is substantially larger (≥ 5X)
than the volume being heated (i.e. the heating mantle has
excess heating capacity for the volume being heated), a lower
power setting gives better control.
Even though the solvent volume isn’t included in this power
setting, it should be used because low temperatures are better
regulated with less power.
Avoid switching between the different power levels while the controller is heating. Specifically, do not
initially set the controller on a high power level to rapidly heat the solution, and decrease the power level to
the correct setting as the solution approaches the set point. Changing power levels doesn’t damage the
Heating Equipment. Two factors need to be
controller, but it will reduce its heating performance.
considered when heating equipment (ovens, hot plates, furnaces, HPLC columns, etc.); (1) placement of the
temperature sensor (Section 2.4) and, (2) the appropriate power setting. The best guide to the correct power
setting for various pieces of equipment is the researcher's experience. If your best guess is that the equipment
needs 1/3 full power to heat to the set point, set the power switch on the 300 ml - 2 L setting (i.e., 50% power,
it’s usually better to have too much power rather than too little). If the heater heats too slow increase the
power (to the >2 L setting), if it heats too fast or has excessive overshoot, decrease the power (to the 50 - 500
ml setting). If the amount of power seems to be adequate, but the heater doesn’t heat with stability, the
controller probably needs to be tuned (see Section 2). Section 3.7 shows the type of performance you should
expect from the controller with different pieces of equipment.
18
3.7
Affect of Power Setting on Heating Profile. The following graphs show the affect of selected power
levels on heating performance in a variety of situations. Each example contains 1 optimal and 1 or 2 less
optimal settings demonstrating use of the power reduction circuit.
Graph 1
80
70
Conditions: Set point = 75 oC
Laboratory oven
60
Temp
oC
This graph shows typical
heating profiles for a laboratory
oven and an HPLC column. In
the example of the oven the
heating curves for 2 different
power levels are shown. The
50 - 500 ml setting is the
appropriate amount of power to
heat to 75o C and thus results in
a smooth heating curve. The
> 2L power setting is too much
power and results in oscillation
around the set point.
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
Power Setting = > 2L
50
40
o
Conditions: Set point = 45 C
HPLC Column wrapped with heating tape
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
30
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Time (min)
Graph 2
80
This graph shows the affect of
different power settings when
heating liquids with heating
mantles. The 10 - 100 ml
setting (10% power) is
underpowered and results in
slow heating. The 300 ml - 2 L
setting (50% power) is too much
power and results in sporadic
control. The controller adapts to
a wide range of power settings.
In this example the power is
varied by a factor of 5X,
nevertheless, reasonable control
is maintained in each case.
70
Temp.
o
C
60
Conditions: Set point = 70 o C
50 ml Toluene
100 ml Round bottomed flask
50
40
Power Setting = 10-100 ml (i.e., 10% power)
Power Setting = 50-500 ml (i.e., 25% power)
Power Setting = 300 ml - 2 L (i.e., 50% power)
30
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Time (min)
19
70
Set point = 155o C
Power = > 2 L
(100% power)
170
Graph 3
Another factor affecting the
choice of power setting is the set
point temperature. For set points
near room temperature a low
power level is adequate. For
average temperatures (50 - 100o)
the volumes are printed on the
front of the controller are a good
guide. For high temperatures, the
next higher power setting might
be needed to supply the heater
with additional power.
145
o
Set point = 100 C
Power = 300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
120
Temp
oC
95
Conditions: 300 ml collidine
500 ml flask
500 ml heating mantle
70
45
o
Set point = 45 C
Power = 50 - 500 ml
(25% power)
20
0
10
20
30
40
Time (min)
50
60
70
The power reduction circuit limits the total amount of power delivered to the heater. In this sense it works
like a variac and can be used like one. If the heater isn’t getting enough power, turn the power level up one
notch, if it is getting too much power, then turn the level down one.
3.8
Do's and Don'ts When Using Your Controller.
The controller, heater and thermocouple form a
closed loop feedback system (see Fig. 2 in Section 4.1). When the controller is connected to a heater, the
feedback loop should not be broken at any point.
Don't
Don't
Do
Do
Do
remove either the thermocouple or heater from the solution without setting the power level to the
"Heat Off". With the thermocouple or heater separated from the solution, as the thermocouple cools
the controller turns the heater on. Since this heat is never fed back to the controller it heats
continuously.
use the controller to regulate an exothermic process.
The controller has no capacity for cooling. If an exotherm is expected, it must be controlled in
another way.
use an appropriate size flask and heater for the volume being heated.
Use the smallest flask and heating mantle that accommodates the reaction. This ensures that the
heating power of the heating mantle closely matches the volume being heated. This also allows the
solution to radiate excess heat to minimize temperature overshoots.
place the thermocouple directly in the solution.
Place at least the first 1/4” of the thermocouple directly into the solution. If a corrosive mixture is
heated, use a Teflon-coated thermocouple (or use the external thermocouple method; Section 4.2).
avoid exposure of the controller to corrosive gases and liquids.
The atmosphere of a research hood is corrosive to all electronics. Place the controller outside the
hood away from corrosive gases.
20
3.9
Resetting the Controller for Use With Heating Mantles. If you want to use your controller with heating
mantles after it’s been tuned for a different style heater, rather than autotuning the controller with the heating
mantle, J-KEM recommends that the controller be manually tuned by following the procedure below.
Procedure 1. Perform when using heating mantles with round bottom flasks.
[This procedure takes about 2 minutes to perform]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.10
1.
2.
3.
4.
3.11
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “50” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “5.0” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “30” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
Changing the Temperature Display Resolution The controller is programmed to display temperature
resolution within 0.1o C. The controller can be changed to 1o C resolution if by following the procedure below
(the display can also be changed to read in o F, call for information). There are two reasons to change the
display resolution:
1) To enter a setpoint faster (the display scrolls 10X faster in 1o mode than in 0.1o mode).
2) To display temperatures above 999.9o.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “2” appears in the display then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key repeatedly until the word “diSP” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “1” [not “0.1”] appears in the display, then
let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
Changing Between PID and ON/OFF Operating Modes. The controller can heat in either of 2 operating
modes, PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) or ON/OFF mode. The difference between them is the way
they supply power to the heater.
In ON/OFF mode (the simplest heating mode),
the controller is ON when it’s below the set point
and OFF when above. The disadvantage of this
mode is a large over shoot of the set point (5 30o) on initial warm up and oscillation of
temperature around the set point thereafter. The
reason for the overshoot is because the heater
turns off only after crossing the set point and
until the heater cools down the temperature
continues to rise. This method works well for
heaters that transfer heat rapidly (such as heat
lamps), it’s acceptable for heaters such as heating mantles (≈ 5o overshoot), but it’s terrible for heaters that
transfer heat slowly (vacuum ovens, heating blocks, etc.).
21
In PID mode the controller monitors the shape of
the heating curve during initial warm up and
decreases power to the heater before the set point
is reached so that the solution reaches the set
point with minimal over shoot. [Notice that the
heater turns off for varying periods of time before
the set point temperature is reached]. The second
feature of PID mode is that it adjusts the percent
of time the heater is on so that the set point is
maintained precisely. The advantage of PID
mode is that it delivers stable temperature control
with any heater from heat lamps to vacuum oven.
The disadvantage is that the controller must be properly tuned to the heater being used, whereas ON/OFF
mode requires no tuning. Since both heating modes have their advantages (simplicity vs. accuracy),
instructions to change the controller to ON/OFF mode are given below (though PID mode will probably give
better results 95% of the time). The controller can be set back to PID mode by following Procedure 1 in
Section 3.9.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature
meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then let go of the buttons.
Press ▲ until the word “CyC.t” appears in the display.
While holding in the ‘*’ key, press the ▼ key until the word “on.of” appears
in the display. NOTE: if the display shows the letter “A” when the ‘*’ keys is
held in, press the ▲ key until “on.of” is in the display, then let go of all the
keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “bAnd” appears in the display. While
holding in the ‘*’ key, press the▼ key until the value “0.1” appears in the
display, then let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the controller until
the temperature is displayed, then release both keys.
22
Procedure to change
controller to ON/OFF
mode
The controller can be set back
to PID control by following
Procedure 1 in Section 3.9. To
completely reset the controller
to original factory settings,
follow the procedure in the
Appendix, Section II.
3.12
Troubleshooting.
Problem
Large over shoot of the set point
(> 3o) during initial warm-up or
unstable temperature control.
The process heats too slowly.
The controller does not come
on.
The controller comes on, but
does not heat.
Controller blinks:
“inPt” “FAiL”
“-AL-”
“PArk”
“tunE” “FAiL”
Displayed temperature is
incorrect.
[Note: Types ‘K’ & ‘J’
Thermocouples display negative
temperatures, but are not
calibrated for them]
Cause
Corrective Action
Output power level is set too high.
Set the output power level to a lower setting (see Section 3.6).
Controller is not tuned for process
being heated.
Output power level is set too low.
Tune the controller as outlined in Section 2.
The heater doesn’t have enough
power.
Internal 2 Amp fuse has blown.
Circuit breaker on back has tripped.
The timer controls are set
incorrectly.
The heater is broken.
The temperature sensor is
unplugged, excessively corroded or
broken.
The process temperature is hotter
than the alarm temperature.
Controller has been placed in “Park”
mode.
Autotune routine failed.
The controller has not warmed-up.
Wrong type of thermocouple is
plugged into controller.
Corroded thermocouple
connections.
Corroded thermocouple.
Temperature display offset needed.
Increase the output power level to the next higher setting (Section
3.6).
Replace with a more powerful heater. For assistance contact JKEM.
Not user serviceable. Have qualified electrician replace.
Allow unit to cool, and reset circuit breaker.
Change the position of switch 8 or enter a time into the timer. See
Section 3.5.
To verify that the controller is functioning properly, place the
power level switch on the >2L setting and enter a set point of 100o
C. Plug a light into the outlet of the controller, then wait 1 minute.
If the light comes on the controller is working properly.
Clean or replace broken sensor.
Correct the over temperature condition.
See Section 3.13.
1. Hold in both the  and  keys on the front of the J-KEM
temperature meter until ”tunE” appears in the display.
2. First hold in the “*” key, then while holding in the “*” key press
the  key until “oFF” appears.
3. Hold in the  and  keys until the temperature appears in the
display.
Turn off controller for 10 seconds. See Section 2.2.
The display temperature reads low when the controller is first
turned on, but will self-correct as it warms up. The controller can
be used immediately since it will warm up during the initial stages
of heating.
Thermocouples are color-coded. Thermocouple plug and
thermocouple receptacle must be the same color (see Section 3.4).
Clean plug on thermocouple and receptacle on controller with
sandpaper or steel wool.
If the temperature-measuring end of the thermocouple is corroded,
discard thermocouple.
To enter a controller display offset:
1.
Turn on controller. Allow unit to warm up for 30 minutes.
2.
Record displayed temperature.
3.
Press both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature
meter until “tunE” appears, then let go of the keys.
4.
Press the ▼ key until “LEVL” appears.
5.
First hold in the “*” key, then while holding in the “*” key
press the ▲ key until “3” is showing in the display, then let
go of all keys.
6.
Press the ▲ key until “ZEro” is showing in the display.
7.
Note the current display offset (this is the number blinking in
the display).
8.
Calculate the new offset temperature using the equation:
New
Display =
Offset
Current
display offset
- Displayed + Correct
blinking in display temperature
temperature
First hold in the “*” key, then while holding in the “*” key
press the ▼ or ▲ keys until the new offset temperature is
showing, then let go of all the keys.
10. Press the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature is displayed.
9.
23
3.13
Over-Temperature Protection Circuit The temperature controller is equipped with an over-temperature
protection circuit that turns off heating any time the temperature of the reaction goes 10o C above the entered
setpoint. When the temperature of the reaction cools to 10o C above the setpoint the circuit is reset and the
controller begins to operate normally. An over temperature condition is indicated by the display blinking the
message ’-AL-’. This over temperature feature acts to prevent accidents from reactions where something
significant has gone wrong since no application with J-KEM’s controllers should over shoot the setpoint by
more than 2o C. For applications requiring more versatile and accurate over-temperature protection circuits,
the user is refereed to J-KEM’s Model 260 and Model 270 controllers.
There may be situations where it’s desirable to disable the over temperature protection circuit (for example, if
the controller is often used as a digital thermometer). The two procedures below give directions on disabling
and re-enabling the over temperature circuit. In reality, the over-temperature alarm can’t be turned off
because it’s hard-wired in the controller, but what you can do is program an over-temperature condition so
high (i.e., 999.9o C) that it has the effect of disabling the alarm. What you’ll do in the procedure to deactivate
the over temperature circuit is enter the number of degrees that the reaction temperature must exceed the set
point to cause the over-temperature circuit to come on. If you enter a small number such as 10o C (which is
the factory default) the alarm will turn off heating when the reaction exceeds the set point by 10o C. If you
enter a large number such as 999.9o C you’ll, for all practical purposes, turn the over-temperature circuit off
since with this setting the reaction must exceed the set point by 999.9o C before the alarm would come on.
Procedure to DEACTIVATE Over Temp Alarm
1
2
3
4
Procedure to RE-ACTIVATE Over Temp Alarm
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the
temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display,
then release both keys. This places the controller in programming
mode.
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2“ appears in the display, then release
all keys.
1
Press and hold in the * key. When the * key is held in, the display
shows the number of degrees that the set point must be exceeded by
to cause the over-temperature alarm to activate. To effectively
disable the over-temperature alarm, press the ▲ key (while holding
in the * key) until a very high value is entered (such as 900
degrees). When you’re done, let go of all the keys. Whatever
number you entered at this point is the number of degrees that the
reaction temperature must exceed the set point before the alarm
comes on.
To return to normal temperature display, press and hold in both the
▼ and ▲ keys (about 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in
the display.
3
Press and hold in the * key. While holding in the * key, press the
▼ or ▲ keys until the display shows 10.0, then release both keys.
4
To return to normal temperature display, press and hold in both the
▼ and ▲ keys (about 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in
the display.
2
24
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the
temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display,
then release both keys. This places the controller in programming
mode.
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2“ appears in the display, and release
all keys.
Section 4: Application Notes
Supplemental application notes on the following topics are available by contacting J-KEM.
Application
Note
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
Subject
How to heat oil baths with your controller. (Included in Appendix)
Changing the controller’s thermocouple type.
Changing the heating outlet into a cooling outlet.
Using the controller for unattended fractional distillations.
Using the controller with inductive (motors, valves) loads.
4.1
Theory of How the Controller Works – Simply.
For the purpose of explaining how the controller
works, the example of a solution heated with a heating mantle is used. The principles are the same for all heater
types.
Thermocouple
J-KEM
Scientific
Instruments for Science
10-100ml
ON
8 0. 0
oC
Power
1-10ml
Heat
Off
50-500ml
300ml-2L
>2L
Output
Power Level
120 vac
Power to heater
*
Model 210
120 Vac, 840 watts
Temperature of process
from the thermocouple
Heating mantle
Figure 2
The controller, the heating mantle and the thermocouple form a closed loop feedback system. If the
process temperature is below the set point, the controller turns the heating mantle on and then monitors the
temperature rise of the solution. If a small rise results (indicating a large volume is being heated) the
controller sets internal parameters appropriate for heating large volumes. If a large rise in temperature results,
the controller responds by loading a set of parameters appropriate for heating small volumes. For the
controller to work ideally, information needs to travel instantaneously around the feedback loop. That means
that any power the controller applies to the heating mantle must reflect itself in an instantaneous temperature
rise of the solution and the thermocouple. Unfortunately, this type of instantaneous heat transfer from the
heating mantle to the solution to the thermocouple just doesn't occur. The delay time between when power is
applied to the heating mantle and when the solution rises in temperature; and also the converse, when power
is removed from the heating mantle and the solution temperature stops rising is the source of most controller
errors. The reason for this can be seen in a simple example.
Imagine heating a gallon of water to 80o C in a 5-quart pan on an electric range. Placing the pan on
the range and turning the heat to ‘high’ you’d observe a delay in heating while the range coil warmed-up.
This delay might be a little annoying, but it's really no problem. The real problem comes as the water
temperature approaches 80oC. If you turned the range off just as the water reached 80o C the temperature
would continue to rise – even though all power had been disconnected – until the range coil cooled down.
This problem of overshooting the set point during initial warm-up is the major difficulty with process
25
controllers. Overshooting the set point is minimized in two ways by your J-KEM controller – but first let's
finish the range analogy. If you had turned the range off just as the water temperature reached 80o C, the final
temperature probably would not exceed 82o C by the time the range coil cooled down, because the volume of
water is so large. In most situations a 2o C overshoot is acceptable. But what if you were heating 3
tablespoons (45 mL) of water and turned the stove off just as the temperature reached 80o C. In this case, the
final temperature would probably approach 100o C before the range cooled down. A 20o C overshoot is no
longer acceptable. Unfortunately, this is the situation in most research heating applications. That is, small
volumes (< 2 L) heated by very high efficiency heating mantles that contain large amounts of heat even after
the power is turned off. Your controller handles the problem of ‘latent heat’ in the heating mantle in two
ways:
1)
The controller measures the rate of temperature rise during the initial stages of heating. It then uses
this information to determine the temperature at which heating should be stopped to avoid exceeding the set
point. Using the range analogy, this might mean turning the power off when the water temperature reached
60o C and allowing the latent heat of the burner to raise the water temperature from 60 to 80o C. This
calculation is done by the controller and is independent of the operator. The next feature of the controller is
directly under operator control and has a major impact on the amount of overshoot on initial warm-up.
2)
4.2
Again referring to the range analogy, you'd obtain better control when heating small volumes if the
range had more than two power settings; Off and High. J-KEM’s patented power reduction circuit
(12) serves just this function. It allows the researcher to reduce the power of the controller depending
on the amount of heat needed. This circuit can be thought of as determining whether the heating
power is Very low (1-10 mL), Low (10-100 mL), Intermediate (50-500 mL), Medium (300 mL-2 L),
or High (> 2 L). The proper power setting becomes instinctive after you've used your controller for a
while. For additional information see Section 3.6.
Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly. In a normal heating setup, the thermocouple is
placed in the solution being heated. The controller then regulates the temperature of the solution directly.
The thermocouple could alternately be placed between the heating mantle and the flask so that the controller
regulates the temperature of the heating mantle directly, which indirectly regulates the temperature of the
solution.
Advantages to this method include:
1. The temperature of any volume (microliters to liters) can be controlled.
2. Temperature control is independent of the properties of the material being heated (e.g., viscosity,
solid, liquid, etc.).
3. Air and water sensitive reactions can be more effectively sealed from the atmosphere.
The temperature controller must be programmed for use with an external thermocouple before this procedure
is used (see following procedure). The following step-by-step procedure programs the controller to regulate
heating mantle temperature. If you switch back and use the controller with the thermocouple in solution,
Procedure 1 in Section 3.9 will program the controller for heating mantles. For all other heaters, see tuning
instructions in Section 2.
26
After the controller is reprogrammed, place a fine gage wire thermocouple
(≈ 1/3 the size of kite string; available from J-KEM) in the bottom third of
the heating mantle and fit the flask snugly on top so that the thermocouple
is in intimate contact with the heating mantle. Set the power reduction
circuit to the power level shown in the table at the right. Turn the
controller on and enter the set point.
Heating
Mantle Size
5 & 10 ml
25 ml
50 ml - 22 L
Power
Level
1-10 ml
10-100 ml
50 - 500 ml
For temperatures over ≈ 120 oC,
the next higher power level may be
necessary
Procedure to Load Tuning Parameters for External Thermocouples.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“2” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5.0” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5.0” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
To return to using thermocouples in solution, perform Procedure 1 in Section 3.9.
4.3
Automatic Storage of Min/Max Temperatures
The controller will automatically record the
minimum and maximum temperatures of a process by following the procedure below. These temperatures are
updated continuously after the routine is started and cleared by turning the controller off. This procedure
must be started every time you want to record temperatures.
Procedure to Start Temperature Logging
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the  key once and the word “LEUL” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3”
appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the  key until the word “ChEy” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “on” appears in the
display, then release all keys.
Hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, and release both keys. Automatic temperature logging is now
on and will remain on until the controller is turned off or logging is turned off manually by repeating this procedure except in Step 3
pressing the  key until the word “off” appears.
Procedure to Read Minimum and Maximum Temperatures
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and the word “LEUL” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3”
appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “rEAd” appears in the display. The “rEAd” screen displays 3 parameters.
1.
Variance (the difference between the highest and lowest logged temperatures) hold in the ‘*’ key and the display will alternate
between “UAro” and number of degrees of variance.
2.
High Temperature (the highest temperature since the logging option was turned on). While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key
once and the display will alternate between “hi o” and the highest recorded temperature.
3.
Low Temperature. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key once and the display will alternate between “Lo o” and the lowest
recorded temperature.
The High and Lo temperatures can be examined as often as you like since updating and monitoring continues until the monitor is stopped
by turning the controller off.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
27
4.4.
How to Set Up a Reaction with J-KEM Scientific’s
Digital Temperature Controller
This application note shows how to set up a typical heated reaction using J-KEM Scientific’s digital
temperature controller. For this example, the Model Gemini controller is used, but the application note
applies equally well to all J-KEM temperature controller models. If you have questions about specific
models of temperature controllers, or any safety related question, please feel free to contact J-KEM
Scientific. This application note does not supercede any information in the Controllers actual User
manual. The User manual for each model is always the reference for that model.
The Model Gemini is a dual channel controller that allows two independent reactions to be run on the same
controller, one reaction on Channel 1 and the second on Channel 2. In this example, we will only use
channel 1.
Gemini Dual Channel
Temperature Controller
Thermocouple
receptacle
Channel 1 has a 100 hour
to turn heating On (Off)
at a user set time.
Channel 2 does
not have a timer
Thermocouple extension
cord
Thermocouple
28
Thermocouples – Thermocouples are color coded. When the plastic connector on the end of the
thermocouple is blue, it is a type T thermocouple, when it is yellow it is a type K, and when it is black it is a
type J. The color of the thermocouple, the thermocouple extension cord, and the thermocouple receptacle
on the face of the controller must all be the same color (i.e., thermocouple type) or the controller will not
read the correct temperature. Thermocouples are available in many different styles. As long as the
thermocouple has the same color connector as the connector on the controller, they are 100% compatible.
Stainless steel,
no Teflon coating
12 inch length, Teflon coated
Bend
Teflon coated
hypodermic needle
6 inch length, Teflon coated
Temperature sensitive end
of the thermocouple
When a thermocouple is placed in solution, often it is desirable to bend the thermocouple slightly so that
more of the tip extends into the solution. It does not hurt a thermocouple to be bent slightly.
The temperature sensitive portion of a thermocouple is the first ¼” of the tip. It’s good for the first ½” to
be is solution, but the first ¼” must be in solution to read the temperature correctly.
Heaters – Your J-KEM controller works with virtually any 120 volt (or 230 volt heaters outside of the
USA) heater, including any size heating mantle, 120 vac oil baths, hot plates, ovens, and many other style
heaters. If you have questions about the compatibility of specific heaters, please contact j-KEM.
1 liter heating mantle
10 ml heating mantle
Oil bath
29
Classes of J-KEM Scientific Temperature Controllers
J-KEM’s 200-Series, Apollo, and Gemini controllers are compatible with any size heating mantle from 5 ml
to 50 liter, and any 120 Vac oil bath (do not use with oil baths rated less than 120 Vac).
J-KEM’s 150-Series economy controllers are compatible with 500 ml heating mantles and larger, and 120
Vac oil baths (do not use with oil baths rated less than 120 Vac).
J-KEM’s 230 Vac controllers are compatible with any 230 Vac heating mantle 100ml and larger. They are
not compatible with any size oil bath.
Shown is a typical set up for a solution phase reaction.
1.
2.
3.
Place the reaction flask in the appropriate size heating mantle., then plug the power cord from the
mantle directly into the power outlet of the temperature controller.
Place a stirring bar inside of the flask, in the solution. Place the flask on a magnetic stirrer and stir the
reaction for good heat transfer.
Place a thermocouple in solution and make sure that at least the first ¼” (1/2” is better) is covered by
the fluid in the reaction flask.
100 ml Heating
mantle
Thermocouple
in solution
Heater power cord
30
4.
Enter the temperature that you want to heat the reaction to (i.e., the Setpoint) into the digital meter.
To enter the setpoint temperature (i.e., the
temperature to heat to) into the controller:
1. Hold in the Star button on the face of the digital
meter.
2. While holding in the Star button, press the Up
Up (to increase) and
arrow to increase, and the Down arrow to decrease Star button
Down (to decrease) arrows
the setpoint temperature.
When the desired setpoint temperature is showing in the display, release the star button to load the
setpoint. When no buttons are pressed on the controller, the controller shows the temperature sensed
by the thermocouple. When the Star button is pressed, the setpoint appears as a blinking number.
5.
Set the correct Power Control Level. Your J-KEM controller has a built in Power Control Computer
PCC) that precisely regulates power to the heater. For the computer to work correctly, it must know
the volume of solution that is being heated. It’s important to understand that the PCC is set to the
Volume of solution being heated, not the size of the heater or the size of the flask.
75 ml of solution in a 100 ml flask
15 ml of solution in a 100 ml flask
If the flask above is placed in a
100 ml heating mantle, the
power control input should be
set to the “10-100 ml” setting.
The power control computer is
always set to the Volume of
solution being heated, not the
size of the flask or heater.
If the flask above is placed in a
100 ml heating mantle, the
power control input should be
set to the “50-500 ml” setting.
When the power control computer is set
to the correct power level, your
controller can regulate virtually any
heater to +-0.1o C with less than 1o C
overshoot on initial warming.
For a detailed explanation of the Power Control Computer, see Section Two in the controller’s User
manual.
31
Appendix
I.
Using the Controller With an Oil Bath
Application Note #1
Using your 200-Series controller with oil baths rated for less than 120 volt operation is not recommended.
J-KEM manufactures a 400-Series controller designed for use with oil baths rated for any voltage and is
recommended for this application. The 200-Series controller can be used with an oil bath rated for 120 volt
operation without any special setup. Simply place the flask and the thermocouple directly in the oil, set the
appropriate power setting and enter the reaction setpoint temperature..
If you need to use an oil bath with you J-KEM controller, J-KEM recommends the Instatherm oil baths.
The two largest baths, Catalog #’s INS-150 and INS-160 are both rated for use with 120vac controllers and
provide good temperature regulation.
If you frequently heat reactions using oil baths, we recommend J-KEM’s 400-Series oil bath controller.
If the reason for using an oil bath is that a small volume is being heated, and you want to use your
200-Series controller for the job, you have a second option. J-KEM sells heating mantles for small volumes
(5, 10, 25, 50 ml) which can be plugged directly into the temperature controller. Your controller regulates
volumes as small as 1 ml in a 5 ml flask using a 5 ml heating mantle. If you need to heat even smaller
volumes, your User’s Manual describes a technique for heating microliters (“Controlling the Heating
Mantle Temperature Directly”; in Section 4). The advantage of this option is that it eliminates the mess
and safety hazards associated with oil baths. Accessories for regulating the temperature of small volumes
are available from J-KEM including small volume heating mantles and micro thermocouples.
Call if you have any concerns or would like to discuss your application with a technical representative.
Accessories for Heating Small Volumes Available From J-KEM
Heating Mantles
Teflon Coated Microscale Thermocouples
Thermocouples hermetically sealed in
various size hypodermic needles
All sizes from 5 ml to 50 L.
See Catalog.
See Catalog
32
II.
Safety Considerations and Accurate Temperature Control
For safety critical and non-typical organic reactions (especially polymeric reactions) or for use
with heaters other than heating mantles the user must either 1) monitor the reaction closely to verify
the tuning parameters are appropriate for the current application, or 2) autotune the controller for the
application. For any safety critical or high value reaction, call J-KEM to discuss your application
with an engineer prior to beginning.
Your J-KEM controller is capable of regulating virtually any application to ± 0.1o C if the controller is tuned
to the application being heated. Since it’s possible that the tuning parameters are not set correctly for your
application, the user must monitor a new reaction to verify the controllers operation. A short primmer on tuning is
presented below, a more detailed explanation is presented in Sections 2.1 and 4.1.
Tuning is the process that matches the control characteristics of the controller to the heating characteristics of
the process being controlled. The controller uses a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) algorithm to regulate
heating. Each of the terms in the PID equation has a constant that scales the equation to the process being heating.
These constants (plus two other related terms) are collectively known as the ‘tuning constants’ and for the most part
they are expressed in units of time, since they represent delay times, rate of heat transfer times, and rate of error
accumulation. The relative value of each constant depends on the physical characteristics of the process being heated.
For example, for the same amount of input power, the rate of heat transfer is twice as high for hexane as compared to
water, since the coefficient of heat for hexane is 0.54 calories/g/o C and water is 1.0 calorie/gram/o C. That means that
1000 watt-seconds of input power will raise the temperature of 10 g of hexane 44o C while the same amount of power
causes a 24o C rise in water. In theory, the tuning constants needed to heat hexane are different from those to heat
water. Fortunately, your J-KEM controller is self-adaptive and is able to adapt its heating characteristics for different
solvents such as hexane and water. Even with the controller’s self-adaptive algorithms, the tuning constants have to
be reasonably close to a proper set or the controller will not produce stable temperature control (see Section 2.1).
When a controller is shipped, the default set of tuning constants loaded into the controller are those
appropriate for heating typical organic reactions (i.e., small molecule chemistry in low boiling (< 160o C) organic
solvents) using heating mantles, since this is the most common application for J-KEM controllers. Since it’s
impossible for J-KEM to predict the application the controller will be used for, the researcher must be aware
of the possibility that the tuning constants loaded into the controller may not be a set that results in stable
temperature control. It’s the researcher’s responsibility to monitor the temperature regulation of a reaction.
If you encounter a process that your J-KEM controller does not heat with stability, you have two resources.
Autotune Feature. Your controller has and autotune feature that when turned on (see Sections 2.1 & 2.2)
automatically determines the proper tuning constants for your application and then loads them into memory for
future use.
J-KEM Technical Assistance. If you have an application you wish to discuss, call us, we’re always anxious to
help our users.
For an additional description of the PID algorithm and the concept of tuning, see Sections 2 and 4.1.
33
III.
Resetting the Controller to Original Factory Settings
J-KEM manufactures the most technically advanced temperature controller available and should give you consistently flawless
control. If you have difficulty with your controller, a good place to start to correct the problem is by loading the original factory
settings. If you still have difficulty with your controller, our Engineering department is available to help resolve any problem.
The factory settings of a J-KEM controller are: 0.1o C resolution, PID control with tuning parameters for a heating mantle,
thermocouple type to match the thermocouple originally installed on the controller, high temperature alarm turned on, and a
thermocouple offset entered at the time of original calibration.
This procedure should be followed for each of the two independent meters in this dual channel controller.
1.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears
in the display, then release both keys.
2.
Press the ▼key until “LEVL” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key press the ▲ key until “3” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
3.
Press the ▲ key until “rSEt” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key press the ▲ key until the word “All” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the word “inPt” appears in the display, then release both keys.
The value that needs to be entered depends of the type of thermocouple receptacle your controller was shipped
with.
Determine the thermocouple type below.
Color of thermocouple receptacle (Fig 1; # 7) Value to enter:
Blue (type T)
“tc ”
Yellow (type K)
“tc ”
Black (type J)
“tc ”
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value from the table above
appears in the display. Let go of all the keys. NOTE: Many of the patterns for this parameter look similar,
be careful to select the exact pattern shown above.
5.
Press the ▲ key once and “unit” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in
the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “o C” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
6.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SP1.d” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while
holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “SSd” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
7.
Press in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display (the word “PArk” also appears),
and release both keys.
8.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter for the channel you want to
change until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release both keys.
9.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while
holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
10.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while
holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
11.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display.
Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “50” appears in the
display. Let go of all the keys.
12.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while
holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3.0” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
13.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while
holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “30” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
14.
Press the ▲ key until the word “SPrn” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in
the ‘*’ key press the ▲or ▼ key until the word “OFF” is displayed. Let go of all the keys.
15.
Press the ▲ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
16.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “2” appears in the display.
Let go of all the keys.
17.
Press the ▲ key until “SP2.A” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key press the ▲ key until the word “Dvhi” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
18.
Press the ▲ key until “diSP” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key press the ▲or ▼ key until the value “0.1o” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
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19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Press the ▲ key until “Lo.SC” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key hold in the ▼ key until the number in the display stops changing (this will be “0” or “-50” or “-199.9”
depending on thermocouple type). Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “3” appears in the display.
Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “ZEro” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key press the ▼ or ▲ key
until the correct value (see below) appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
If the TOP meter is being reset, enter the value: ___________.
If the BOTTOM meter is being reset, enter
the value: ___________.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ key until “1” appears in the display.
Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’
key press the ▲ or ▼ keys until the value 5.0 is entered. Let of go of all keys. If your controller does not
have a USB port on the back, skip to step 30.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ key until “C” appears in the display.
Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key and “Addr” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the
‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “1” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key and “bAud” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the
‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “9600” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key and “dAtA” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the
‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “18n1” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
The word “PArk” in the display will go away when a set point is entered.
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