Stihl Carburetor Manual

Carburetors
Contents
1.
Safety Precautions
2
2.
Introduction
2
3.
Assignment
3
3.1
Designation
8
4.
Purpose of
Carburetor
8
5.
Construction/Function 9
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
Fuel Pump
Operating Conditions
Full Load
Idle
Carburetor with
Fixed Idle Jet
and Primary Mixture
Control
Carburetor with
Balanced Idle System
(Fixed Idle Jet and
Air Bypass System)
Part Load
Problematic
Operating Conditions
Starting
Temperatures/
Humidity
Acceleration
Dirty Air Filter/
Compensator
Special Features
20
21
Troubleshooting
Chart
23
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.4
6.
9
11
11
12
7.
Servicing
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
Leakage Test
25
Cleaning
25
Pump Diaphragm
26
Metering Diaphragm
26
Inlet Needle
27
Main Jet
28
Full-Load Fixed Jet/
Part-Load Fixed Jet
29
Control Valve
29
Manual Fuel Pump
30
Check Valve
30
Carburetor Body
31
Throttle Shaft
32
Choke Shaft
34
Accelerator Pump
35
Lever Mechanism
on Carburetors with
Automatic Choke
36
Throttle Shaft/
Choke Shaft
38
HL-324A / HL-327D /
LA-S8A Carburetors
38
Throttle Shaft
43
Choke Shaft
44
WYL-63 / WYL-73
Rotary Valve
Carburetors
45
Standard Setting on
Walbro Carburetors
50
WT-283B, WT-323,
WT-325A, WT-326C,
WT-360, WT-396,
WT-403A, WT-493,
WT-498A, WT-503
Fixed Jet Carburetors 50
HD-13A, HD-16, HD-17,
HD-18A, HD-21A, HD-22,
WY-69, WT-329, WT-330,
WT-367, WT-393,
WT-489, WT-492,
WJ-69 Carburetors
with Limiter Caps
51
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.15.1
7.16
14
7.16.1
7.16.2
7.17
15
16
7.18
17
17
7.18.1
19
19
7.18.2
25
7.19
7.19.1
7.19.2
7.20
7.20.1
7.20.2
7.21
8.
8.1
8.2
Standard Setting on
Zama Carburetors
54
C1Q-S30C, C1Q-S37A,
C1Q-S41, C1Q-S42,
C1Q-S34B, C1Q-S36B
Fixed Jet Carburetors 54
C1Q-SK7, C3A-S39A
Carburetors with
Limiter Caps
55
Standard Setting on
Tillotson Carburetors
59
Fixed Jet Carburetors:
HS-275A, HS-279B
59
HL-366A, HS-280A,
HS-281A, HT-12A
Carburetors with
Limiter Caps
60
Flow Chart
64
Special Servicing
Tools and Aids
65
Special Servicing Tools 65
Servicing Aids
65
© 1999 Andreas Stihl AG & Co., Waiblingen
Carburetors
1
1.
Safety
Precautions
If the chainsaw or power tool
is started up in the course of
repairs or maintenance work,
observe all local and countryspecific safety regulations as
well as the safety precautions
and warnings in the owner’s
manual.
Gasoline is an extremely flammable fuel and can be explosive
in certain conditions.
Improper handling may result in
burns or other serious injuries.
Warning! Do not smoke or bring
any fire or flame near the fuel. All
work with fuel must be performed
outdoors only. Spilled fuel must be
wiped away immediately.
Warning! To avoid the risk of
accidents and personl injury, take
extreme care when performing
adjustments without the cutting
tool guard or deflector.
2.
Introduction
This service manual contains descriptions of repair and servicing
procedures as well as functional
diagrams of most carburetors
used in STIHL gasoline power
tools.
Symbols are used in the text and
illustrations for greater clarity.
While carrying out repair work
you should make use of the latest
illustrated parts list of the power
tool concerned. It shows the installed positions and the assembly sequence of individual components
and assemblies.
Parts lists on microfilm and
CD-ROM are always more up
to date than printed lists.
• = Action to be taken as
A fault on the carburetor may
have several causes. Consult the
troubleshooting chart - see 6.
Refer to the "Technical Information" bulletins for engineering
changes which have been introduced since publication of this
service manual. Technical information bulletins also supplement the
parts list until an update is issued.
Service manuals and all technical
information bulletins describing
engineering changes are intended
exclusively for the use of STIHL
servicing dealers. They must not
be passed to third parties.
2
The meanings are as follows:
In the descriptions:
shown in the illustration
(above the text)
- = Action to be taken that
is not shown in the
illustration
(above the text)
In the illustrations:
= Pointer
= Direction of movement
Always use original STIHL
replacement parts.
They can be identified by the
STIHL part number,
the
lögo
and the STIHL parts symbol
The symbol may appear alone on
small parts.
(
Carburetors
Assignment
Carburetors
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Compensator
manual fuel pump
choke shutter in carb
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Equipment
H, L with limiter caps
full-load semi-fixed jet
full-load fixed jet
part-load jet
with bypass air screw (LD)
balanced
preliminary mixture control
x
x
x
Setting
L unlimited adjustment
C1S-S1
WT-29A
C1S-S1C 2)
WT-323
WT-325A
WT-325
C1Q-S37A
WT-15A
C1Q-S32
C1Q-S16A
WT-326C
WT-326
WT-503
WT-286A
WT-283A
C1Q-S11
WT-215
WT-283B
WT-286A
WT-286A
WT-498
WT-498A
WT-360
WT-396
WT-194
WT-110
WT-194
WT-215
WT-286A
WT-396A
WT-498A
WT-283B
WT-313
WT-426
WT-493
WT-403A
WT-427
WT-16
Full
load
H unlimited adjustment
009 ... 012
009, 010, 011
009, 011
009, 011 1)
017
017
019T
020
020
020T
020T 1)
020T
021 1)
021
021, 023 1)
021, 023, 025
023
023
023
023C
023C
023CZ 1)
023L
023L 1)
024
024
024, 026
025
025
025
025
025
025
026
026 1)
026 1)
026W/Pro
028
Part
load
Idle system
fixed idle jet
Carburetor
dependent
Model
independent
3.
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
3
4
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Compensator
x
manual fuel pump
x
choke shutter in carb
x
x
x
x
x
x
Equipment
H, L with limiter caps
full-load fixed jet
part-load jet
with bypass air screw (LD)
balanced
preliminary mixture control
fixed idle jet
x
x
x
x
x
L unlimited adjustment
x
x
x
x
x
x
Setting
H unlimited adjustment
HD-19B
HD-18A
HD-5
C3A-S38A
C3A-S38
C3A-S19
C3A-S4C
C3A-S31D
C3A-S39A
C3A-S27C
HK-42
Bing 48
HD-19B
HD-21A
HD-10
HD-11
HD-15
C3M-S20
C3M-S5G
HD-17
C3M-S21/S12
HD-14
HD-16
HD-24
HS-60D
HS-118B
WJ-4B
WJ-48
WJ-51
WJ-52
WJ-65
WJ-35/41
WJ-66
WJ-67
WJ-69
WJ-76
WJ-66
LB-S9
Full
load
full-load semi-fixed jet
029
029 1)
029, 039
034
034
034, 036
036
036
036 1)
036W
038
038
039
039 1)
044
044
044
044
044
044 1)
044 (SA)
046
046 1)
046 BR
051, 050, 076
056
056
064
064
064
064
064, 066
066
066
066 1)
066 BR
066 MW
070
Part
load
Idle system
independent
Carburetor
dependent
Model
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Carburetors
Carburetors
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Compensator
x
x
x
x
manual fuel pump
x
x
x
x
choke shutter in carb
x
x
x
x
Equipment
H, L with limiter caps
full-load semi-fixed jet
full-load fixed jet
part-load jet
with bypass air screw (LD)
balanced
preliminary mixture control
fixed idle jet
x
x
x
Setting
L unlimited adjustment
HL-324A
HL-324A
HL-166C
HT-7A
HT-12A
LA-S8A
IVH8
LB-S9
WT-253
WT-330
C1Q-S30C
C1Q-SK6
HD-13A
HD-4B
WT-230
WT-230B
WT-489
WT-331
HD-7
HD-13A
HD-4B
HD-4
C1Q-SK5
HL-327E
WT-327
WT-227F
WT-329
C1Q-SK5
C1Q-SK5
C1Q-SK7
C1Q-SK5
C1Q-S35B
C1Q-S36D
C1S-S3D
C1S-S3C
C1Q-S36D
C1S-S3D
WYL-63/-73
Full
load
H unlimited adjustment
070
070, 090
08
084
088 1)
08S
08S
090
BG 72
BG 72 1)
BG 75
BR 106
BR 320 1)
BR 320
BR 320 L
BR 320 L
BR 320 L 1)
BR 320 L
BR 320, 400 1)
BR 400 1)
BR 400
BR/SR 320, 400
BT 106, 108
BT 360
FC 44 1)
FC 72
FC 72 1)
FR 106, 108
FR 108
FR 108 1)
FS 106, 108
FS 120, 300
FS 120, 300
FS 160
FS 160, 180, 220
FS 200, 350
FS 220
FS 25-4
Part
load
Idle system
independent
Carburetor
dependent
Model
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
5
6
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Compensator
manual fuel pump
choke shutter in carb
x
x
x
Equipment
H, L with limiter caps
full-load semi-fixed jet
full-load fixed jet
part-load jet
with bypass air screw (LD)
balanced
preliminary mixture control
fixed idle jet
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Setting
L unlimited adjustment
C1S-S3D
WT-223
WT-160B
WT-492A
WT-327
HD-3
C1Q-S34C
C1Q-S34C
HD-22
HD-23
HD-22
HD-23
WYL-63
WT-227F
WT-393
C1Q-S41A
WT-447
WT-112
WT-45A
WT-367
WT-45A
C1Q-SK7
WT-264
WT-329
C1Q-S42A
HL-292
HL-292G
HL-366A
LAS6
HL-327D
HL-327E
LAS7
HS-274A
HS-274D
HS-279B
HS-262B
HS-275A
HS-276D
Full
load
H unlimited adjustment
FS 280
FS 280
FS 36, 40, 44
FS 36, 40, 44 1)
FS 36, 40, 44
FS 360, 420
FS 400
FS 450
FS 500
FS 500
FS 550 1)
FS 550
FS 65-4
FS 72, 74, 76
FS 72, 74, 76 1)
FS 75, 80, 85
FS 75, 80, 85
FS 81, 86 2)
FS 86 2)
FS 88, FR 88 1)
FS 88, FR 88 2)
FS/FR 108 1)
HS 72, 74, 76
HS 72, 74, 76 1)
HS 75, 80, 85
TS 350
TS 350
TS 350 1)
TS 350
TS 360
TS 360
TS 360
TS 400
TS 400
TS 400 1)
TS 460
TS 460 1)
TS 460
Part
load
Idle system
independent
Carburetor
dependent
Model
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Carburetors
TS 510
TS 510 1)
TS 510, 760
TS 760
TS 760 1)
Carburetors
HS-277A
HS-280A
HS-212B
HS-277A
HS-281A
1)
2)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Compensator
manual fuel pump
Setting
choke shutter in carb
Full
load
H, L with limiter caps
L unlimited adjustment
x
H unlimited adjustment
full-load semi-fixed jet
Part
load
full-load fixed jet
Idle system
part-load jet
with bypass air screw (LD)
balanced
preliminary mixture control
Carburetor
fixed idle jet
independent
dependent
Model
Equipment
x
x
x
x
CARB, EPA
Accelerator pump
7
3.1
Designation
4.
Purpose of Carburetor
The carburetor has to mix fuel and
air in an optimum ratio for each
phase of engine operation. It prepares the mixture for vaporization
by breaking it down into fine
droplets.
HT 7A
915RA001 VA
WT
223
The carburetor designation is
stamped or printed on the body
of some models (e.g. HT-7A or
WT-223).
In the carburetor, fuel is atomized
but not completely vaporized.
The heat necessary to vaporize
the fuel is taken from the components the fuel flows through, i.e.
primarily the engine. Therefore,
complete vaporization does not
take place until the mixture reaches the combustion chamber.
The absorption of vaporization
heat by the fuel represents a form
of cooling for the components that
give off the heat. One talks about
internal cooling.
C3M
HD
H
915RA002 VA
L
L
H
On some models the family
designation (e.g. C3M or HD) is
integrally cast on the body.
As there is a lack of fuel, the
engine does not produce its full
power. Furthermore, the engine
overheats because insufficient
heat is dissipated to vaporize the
fuel. The lack of fresh gas containing oil results in inadequate lubrication and a risk of seizure.
A rich mixture contains less air.
Combustion is incomplete. Apart
from other effects, unburned fuel
is seen as smoke at the exhaust.
A certain amount of oil is added
to the fuel for lubrication of the
bearings and piston.
The ideal fuel-air ratio (Lambda (λ)
= 1) is reached when the composition of the mixture is 14.8 kg air to
1 kg fuel. Fuel burns cleanly at this
mixture ratio.
The mixture is combustible
between Lambda 0.7 and 1.25.
The mixture ratio deviates from
the ideal value depending on the
prevailing operating conditions
(temperature, humidity, air pressure) and the operating phase
(starting, idle, part load, full load).
When the actual mixture ratio
deviates from the ideal value, the
mixture is said to be either rich or
lean.
A lean mixture contains more air.
915RA003 VA
S20
Other identification numbers are
stamped on the body of such
models (e.g. S 20) or printed (e.g.
S36C).
8
Carburetors
5.
Construction/
Function
5.1
Fuel Pump
Low pressure is created in the
crankcase by the upward stroke of
the piston. This causes the pump
diaphragm (3) to flex. A vacuum is
also created in the pump’s fuel
chamber (4).
In view of the machine applications, the carburetor must operate
trouble-free in all positions. For
this reason only all-position
diaphragm carburetors with an
integral fuel pump are used in
STIHL outdoor power tools. Such
carburetors have no float.
A carburetor consists of a hollow
housing which has a special
internal contour, i.e. the choke
tube (venturi) (1). Engine intake
air flows through this venturi. The
smaller the cross section of the
venturi, the greater the air flow
speed and the vacuum created.
Fuel jets open into the venturi at
various points from which the airstream draws fuel.
Atmospheric pressure in the tank
now pushes fuel via the intake
fitting (5) and inlet valve (6) into
the fuel chamber (4).
The fuel pump operates as a
completely separate unit even
though it is integrated in the
carburetor housing.
The outlet valve (7) is pressed
against its seat and closes the
passage to the fuel port (8).
The fuel pump is controlled by
the changes of pressure in the
cylinder and crankcase.
Note: The pump inlet and outlet
valves are flaps stamped out of
the pump diaphragm but still
attached to it at one side.
The fuel pump, nozzle or jet systems and metering devices for
optimum preparation of the fuel-air
mixture are integrated in or
mounted on the carburetor.
The flow of air, and thus engine
power, is regulated by the throttle
shutter (2).
1
3
2
7
1
3
6
5
6
5
8
4
915RA004 VA
8
Carburetors
7
4
915RA005 VA
2
Intake process
Delivery process
The impulse chamber (1) is connected to the crankcase via the
impulse port (2).
The downward stroke of the piston
creates an overpressure which
presses the pump diaphragm (3)
towards the fuel chamber.
9
The pump diaphragm therefore
reduces the volume of the fuel
chamber (4).
Inlet valve (6) is now pressed
against its seat and closes the
passage to the intake fitting (5).
The outlet valve (7) is lifted off its
seat and allows a certain amount
of fuel to flow into the fuel port (8)
which leads to the carburetor inlet
valve.
Note: During each complete pump
stroke an amount of fuel is delivered which is equivalent to the
difference in volume between the
two end positions of the pump
diaphragm in the fuel chamber.
On machines with a fuel tank
mounted lower than the carburetor
it is necessary to prime the carburetor with fuel after a prolonged
out-of-service period by pulling the
starter rope a few times.
This problem can be overcome
with a manual fuel pump (see
below).
Atmospheric pressure is applied to
the metering diaphragm through
bore (4).
If the machine is equipped with a
compensator, the pressure prevailing at the clean side of the air filter
acts on the metering diaphragm
(see chapter 4.3.4).
When air flows through the
venturi, fuel is drawn out of the
metering diaphragm chamber, i.e.
the volume of fuel is reduced. The
metering diaphragm is pushed
upwards by atmospheric pressure.
The metering diaphragm (2)
applies pressure to the inlet lever
(5) and thus lifts the inlet needle
(6) off its seat. Fuel now flows
from the pump’s fuel chamber to
the metering diaphragm chamber
until the pressure in the metering
diaphragm chamber is approximately equal to the pressure
applied to the outside of the
metering diaphragm.
When the pump bulb (1) is depressed, the valve (2) opens and
allows air or any fuel in the bulb
to flow back to the tank via the
fitting (3).
The metering diaphragm always
allows a quantity of fuel to flow
which is equal to that which is
drawn out of the jets.
Manual fuel pump
Some carburetors (on power tools)
are equipped with an additional
manual fuel pump for priming the
fuel system prior to starting.
Note: On chainsaws the manual
fuel pump is a separate component, i.e. it is not integrated in the
carburetor.
A vacuum is created in the metering diaphragm chamber when the
pump bulb is released. This causes the metering diaphragm (1) to
be pulled against the inlet control
lever (2). The inlet needle (3)
opens and fuel then flows from the
pump chamber into the metering
diaphragm chamber.
Excess fuel pumped into the
metering diaphragm chamber
passes through the bore (4) to the
valve. The valve tabs open and
fuel flows into the pump bulb.
When the pump bulb is pressed,
fuel is pumped back into the tank
via valve (2).
Inlet needle valve
The chamber (1) above the
metering diaphragm (2) is filled
with fuel through port (3).
10
Carburetors
Operating Conditions
Full Load
915RA009 VA
5.2
5.2.1
Check valve
A check valve is installed in the
metering diaphragm chamber of
all carburetors equipped with an
additional manual fuel pump.
When the manual fuel pump is
operated, the check valve (1) closes to prevent air being sucked
into the metering diaphragm chamber from the venturi and the idle
jet bores. During operation the
check valve opens and allows fuel
to flow to the main jet and the idle
jet bores.
Full load is the operating condition
with the throttle shutter wide open.
Fuel is drawn from the main jet (1)
and the idle jets (2 and 3).
Main jet (valve jet)
The main jet (1) is situated at the
narrowest point of the venturi. It is
at this point that air flow speed is
highest and pressure is lowest.
Full-load semi-fixed jet
At full load, a defined quantity of
fuel (approx. 80% at H = 1) is always pumped from the metering diaphragm chamber (3) via the fullload semi-fixed jet (1) and through
the main jet (4) to the venturi, irrespective of the setting of the high
speed screw (2). This means that
the change in the composition of
the mixture for a given adjustment
of the high speed screw is far less
than on a carburetor that has no
full-load semi-fixed jet.
The semi-fixed jet may be installed
as a separate component or be
integrated as a nozzle bore in the
main jet. There is no direct connection between the separate semifixed jet and the venturi. It is connected to the main jet via a
passage (5).
The main jet is equipped with a
check valve (2) to prevent air
being sucked into the metering
diaphragm chamber at idle speed.
The amount of fuel drawn in by the
main jet can be adjusted with the
high speed screw (3).
Full-load fixed jet
On carburetors with a full-load
fixed jet (1) all the fuel required for
full-load operation flows via this
jet.
Carburetors
11
5.2.2
Idle
When the throttle shutter is closed
there are two bores (secondary
idle or bypass) (1 and 2) in front of
it and one (primary idle) (3) behind
it (viewed in the flow direction).
There is no high speed screw. The
full-load setting cannot be altered.
Like the semi-fixed jet, the full-load
fixed jet may be installed as a
separate component or be integrated as a nozzle bore (2) in the
main jet. There is no direct connection between the separate fixed jet
and the venturi. It is connected to
the main jet via a passage (3).
In this position the air flow in the
venturi is very slow and the vacuum is slight. Fuel is drawn only
from the primary idle jet at the air
gap between the throttle shutter
and carburetor body.
The throttle shutter (1) alters the
cross section of the venturi and
thus regulates the flow of intake
air.
It is operated by the user via the
throttle rod.
The idle position of the throttle
shutter is adjusted by means of
the idle speed screw.
The throttle shutter is almost
closed. Air flows through a narrow
gap between the throttle shutter
and venturi. Fuel is drawn from
the primary idle jet (2).
There is only a slight vacuum in
the area of the main jet (3) so no
fuel flows at this stage.
As a result of the difference in
pressures (pressure in front of
throttle shutter is close to atmospheric pressure), air from the
venturi passes through the
secondary idle jets (bypass bores)
(1 and 2) into the idle chamber (4).
This air mixes with the fuel and is
drawn out of the primary idle jet
(3) as a fuel-air mixture at the low
pressure side.
In this process more air is added
to the relatively small amount of
air which flows through the small
notch or hole in the throttle shutter
and only the quantity of fuel required for idling is drawn off.
Idle jets - bypass bores
12
3
4
3
5
915RA184 BL
4
There are two or three idle bores
in the area of the throttle shutter.
12
915RA185 BL
1 2
When the throttle shutter is
opened the vacuum acts on the
area of the secondary idle jets
(1 and 2). Fuel is then drawn
from these bores as well.
Carburetors
12
3
5
915RA185 BL
4
As the quantity of air that flows
through the venturi is now greater,
this fuel is necessary to enrich the
mixture during acceleration.
The amount of fuel drawn from
idle jets (1, 2 and 3) can be increased or decreased by means
of the low speed screw (5) whose
pointed tip varies the size of the
passage to the idle chamber (4).
Idle system independent of
main jet system
Idle system dependent on
main jet system
In these carburetors the main jet
and idle systems are arranged in
parallel.
Changes in the idle fuel volume
mean a change in the full-load fuel
volume. If the idle fuel volume is
altered with the low speed screw
(2), it is necessary to readjust the
high speed screw (1).
In these carburetors the idle
system branches off the full-load
system after the high speed screw
(1). It is not directly connected to
the metering diaphragm chamber.
Full-load fuel flow is determined
by the high speed screw.
When the idle setting is made
leaner, the overall fuel-air mixture
becomes leaner too. This increases engine speed as well as
the risk of engine damage as a
result of overheating.
Carburetors
Adjusting the low speed screw (2)
to change the idle fuel volume
does not result in a change to the
overall fuel volume.
13
5.2.3
Carburetor with Fixed Idle Jet and Primary Mixture Control
The proportion of primary mixture
in the idle mixture can be adjusted
with the idle screw (7) (primary
mixture control).
The machine will run with the
basic setting (approx. 1 turn open).
The idle mixture is made richer by
opening the idle screw (7) or
leaner by closing the screw.
If necessary, the idle speed can
be adjusted with the idle speed
screw (LA).
Reduced sensitivity
to temperature
Carburetors with fixed idle jets
ensure a much steadier idling
behavior at low temperatures:
Fuel becomes viscous at lower
temperatures.
Idle
The pressure in front of the throttle
shutter is close to atmospheric
pressure, while the vacuum
created by the engine prevails
behind the throttle shutter.
Vacuum acts on the idle chamber
(3) via the primary idle jet (6). As a
result of the pressure differential,
air flows from the venturi through
the secondary idle jets (4 and 5)
into the idle chamber (3).
At the same time, fuel is drawn
out of the metering diaphragm
chamber (1) and into the idle
chamber (3) via the fixed idle jet
(2).
A primary mixture is created in
the idle chamber (3) which is
sucked through the primary idle
bore (6) into the area at the engine
side of the throttle shutter.
The idle air is drawn through a
notch or a hole in the throttle
shutter and mixes with the primary
mixture to form the idle mixture.
14
Transition from idle to
part load
When the throttle shutter is
opened, vacuum acts on the
secondary idle jets (4 and 5).
Fuel is then drawn from all three
idle jets (4, 5 and 6).
Transition from part load to
full load
The main jet begins to deliver fuel
when the throttle shutter has
opened about 20 degrees. The
idle and full-load system deliver
the optimum amount of fuel to suit
given opening conditions when the
throttle shutter is opened fully.
Advantages over conventional
carburetors
The fixed idle jet (2) limits enrichment for acceleration and the
amount of fuel that flows via the
idle system during full-load operation. As a result, the setting of
the idle screw (7) has no effect
at all on the volume of fuel at
full load.
1
2
915RA292 VA
In the idle positon, the throttle
shutter is situated between the
2nd secondary idle jet (5) and the
primary idle jet (6).
The more viscous the fuel is, the
greater the influence the shape of
the throttle orifice has on the flow
rate.
Conventional adjusting screws
create an annular gap (1) at the
throttle orifice which can become
blocked within a relatively short
time.
Fixed jets have a round cross section (2) at the throttle orifice which
allows a constant flow of fuel even
at low temperatures. A constant
fuel flow rate is the precondition
for a steady idling behavior.
Carburetors
5.2.4
Carburetor with Balanced Idle System
(Fixed Idle Jet and Air Bypass System)
Most of the air required to form the
idle mixture flows through the hole
in the throttle shutter.
The air required to adjust the idle
speed is sucked in via the idle
chamber - or air bypass port.
The amount of bypass air can be
adjusted with the idle speed screw
(LD screw).
The graph shows the air-fuel ratio
(Lambda λ) or the carbon monoxide content (CO) in the exhaust
gas plotted against the idle RPM:
The idle chamber (3) receives air
via the secondary idle bore (5) as
well as the connecting passage (4).
At the same time, fuel is drawn out
of the metering diaphragm chamber (1) via the fixed idle jet (2).
Carburetors with a balanced idle
system (BIS) guarantee an ideal
idle mixture at all idle speeds.
A primary mixture is formed in the
idle chamber (3) which is sucked
through the primary idle bore (6)
into the engine side of the throttle
shutter.
Benefits
These carburetors are
characterized by:
- Smooth, uniform idle speed
- Good response and acceleration
- Lower emissions under all
operating conditions
- Stable adjustment over a wide
ambient air temperature range
- Only one adjusting screw
makes adjustment simpler.
Primary mixture, air from the bypass port (10) and the air which
flows through the hole (8) in the
throttle shutter mix together to
form the idle mixture.
Low engine idle speed,
the LD screw restricts the
air bypass port:
Special features
A fixed idle jet and an air bypass
system with calibrated bores are
typical features of carburetors with
a balanced idle system.
The throttle shutter is completely
closed in the idle position.
If pressure P11 in air bypass
chamber (11) is - lower than the atmospheric
pressure in front of throttle
shutter (7), air flows through bypass port (9) into the air bypass
chamber (11)
- greater that pressure P3 in idle
chamber (3), air flows from bypass chamber (11) through the
connecting passage (4) to the
idle chamber (3).
The vacuum Pu behind the
completely closed throttle
shutter (7) causes - air to flow through the hole (8) in
the throttle shutter
- vacuum P3 in idle chamber (3)
via the primary idle bore (6)
- vacuum P11 in air bypass chamber (11) via the bypass port (10).
Higher engine idle speed
The LD screw is turned clockwise
to increase idle speed.
Note: The LD screw has a lefthand thread in order to retain the
familiar directions of rotation for
adjustments:
- Rotating the screw clockwise
increases engine speed.
- Rotating the screw counterclockwise reduces engine speed.
Turning the LD screw clockwise
reduces the pressure P11 in the
air bypass chamber (11). This
increases the air throughput in
bypass port (10). The difference
between P3 and P11 becomes
smaller so that less air flows
through the connecting passage
(4) to the idle chamber.
Carburetors
15
5.2.5
Part Load
The low pressure causes additional fuel to be drawn off and
enrich the fuel-air mixture in
response to the throttle shutter
position.
The flow of air in connecting
passage (4) stops when P3 and
P11 are equal.
Part load means all stages of
engine operation with a partly
opened throttle shutter.
Fuel is drawn from the primary
idle jet (1) and the secondary
idle jet (2).
Part-load fixed jet
When working in the part-load
range (e.g. limbing) the throttle
shutter is often in a position between idle and full throttle. In this
situation the fuel-air mixture may
become over-lean ("part-load flat
spot") and there is then a danger
of seizure.
Turning the LD screw further
clockwise reverses the pressure
gradient. P11 is then lower than P3
so that primary mixture from the
idle chamber (3) is added to the
bypass air flowing through bypass
ports (9 and 10) via the connecting
passage (4).
The part-load fixed jet (1), which
opens into the venturi between the
idle jets and the main jet, prevents
the mixture becoming over-lean.
16
Carburetors
Problematic Operating Conditions
Starting
Hot start
Compared to engine idle RPM, the
speed achieved by cranking the
engine on the starter is very low.
The gas flow speed and the vacuum in the venturi are therefore
limited. Fuel and air mix poorly in
this situation.
Moreover, fuel is more sluggish
than air. This means than considerably more air than fuel is sucked
in, the mixture becomes too lean
and does not burn well.
Cold start
During a cold start the problems
described for a hot start are further
amplified.
Cold components cannot transfer
heat to the mixture. As a result,
the mixture gasifies poorly and
a large proportion of the fuel
condenses on the walls of the
components it flows through.
The full vacuum acts on the idle
jets (3 and 4) and main jet system
(2) in the metering diaphragm
chamber. Fuel is drawn in and mixed only with the air that flows
through the notch or hole in the
choke shutter.
As soon as the engine has fired it
is necessary to make the mixture
leaner, i.e. open the choke shutter.
The heat generated by initial combustion evaporates part of the fuel
that had previously settled on the
component walls. This has an
enriching effect while the engine
is warming up.
Note: Once the engine is running,
open the choke shutter immediately to avoid an over-rich fuel-air
mixture (the engine would otherwise stall again).
915RA026 VA
5.3
5.3.1
Automatic choke
Some machine versions are
equipped with an automatic
choke. It sets the throttle and
choke shutters to the correct
positions for an optimum mixture.
Choke shutter and throttle shutter
with bellows and control valve are
connected via a lever mechanism
on the carburetor.
The mixture in the carburetor
has to be highly enriched for the
cold start: the choke shutter (1)
is closed.
Carburetors
17
1
2
915RA027 VA
37°
The throttle shutter (1) is at an
angle of 37 degrees to the
carburetor mounting flange just
before the choke shutter (2) opens
fully. The throttle shutter returns to
the idle position when the choke
shutter is fully open.
Following a starting attempt, the
bellows are filled with air from the
carburetor box and returned to the
neutral position. The air required
to pressurize the bellows is drawn
in from the carburetor box via a
foam filter, a polymer sintered
filter, a hose and control valve.
The pressurizing process is
accompanied by a low whistling
noise.
The automatic choke uses cylinder
temperature as a parameter.
Cross section "A" is changed as a
function of cylinder temperature.
This, in turn, alters the time required to vent the bellows and
thus the opening speed of the
choke shutter.
The period for which the bellows
open the choke shutter depends
on cylinder temperature. It varies
between 3.5 seconds on a cold
engine to approx. 0.1 seconds on
a hot engine.
A depression is maintained in
the bellows while the engine is
running, i.e. the bellows are
contracted; the choke shutter is
open.
The regular changes in pressure
which occur in the crankcase are
used to operate the automatic
choke.
The control valve directs the low
pressure waves at a predetermined interval to the bellows (2)
which contract and thus open the
choke shutter (3).
18
915RA023 VA
These pressure waves are fed via
a hole in the crankcase and
through a port in the cylinder to
the control valve (1).
A lever mechanism connects
the choke shutter to the throttle
shutter.
Carburetors
Temperatures/Humidity
Cause:
Air can absorb a certain amount of
moisture. The higher the air temperature the greater its capacity to
absorb moisture.
If the engine draws in damp cold
air, pressure and temperature
drop and so does the ability to absorb moisture. Moisture condenses on the intake passages, especially in the carburetor. This
results in ice forming, which blocks
the jets and causes engine running problems.
If the air filter is dirty, the air flow
rate and pressure in the venturi
(Pi) drop.
Carburetor heating
Some models are equipped with
an electric carburetor heating
system for operation in extremely
cold climates, in which the intake
air from around the engine is still
too cold.
Acceleration
2
1
The thermostatic switch (1) is
located on the pump end cover.
Power supply takes place automatically via the heating generator.
915RA029 VA
Icing can occur in the area of the
intake if humidity is high and temperatures are below + 10°C (50°F).
5.3.3
915RA291 VA
5.3.2
1 3
Accelerator pump
Some carburetors are equipped
with an accelerator pump. The
piston (1) is located in a bore
behind the throttle shaft (2) and
is held in its neutral position by a
spring (3).
When the throttle shutter is
opened quickly for acceleration,
the air is able to adapt rapidly to
the new flow conditions because
of its low mass.
The reaction of the fuel, however,
is sluggish by comparison
because it first has to be set in
motion by the vacuum. This
means that a certain time lapses
before the fuel has also adapted to
the new conditions in the venturi.
A flat spot would normally occur
because of the over-lean fuel-air
mixture.
The accelerator pump offsets this
effect.
The heating element (1) is positioned on the carburetor mounting
studs.
Carburetors
19
5.3.4
Dirty Air Filter/
Compensator
3
Pa
915RA030 VA
2
1
1
Pi
3
2
9
The accelerator pump’s piston (1)
is located in a bore behind the
throttle shaft. The space below the
piston is filled with fuel.
5
Pr
7
915RA031 VA
8
Compensator
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Pa
Pi
Pr
Air filter
Carburetor
Valve jet
Cylinder
Metering diaphragm
Inlet control valve
Fuel pump
Fuel tank
Compensator
Atmospheric pressure
Internal pressure
Pressure in metering
chamber
The compensator connects the
clean side of the air filter to the
fuel metering system in the
carburetor. This means that the
pressure applied to the metering
diaphragm is identical to the
internal pressure Pi in the intake not atmospheric pressure Pa.
20
Pi
6
When the throttle is opened, the
control face on the throttle shaft
pushes the piston inwards. The
fuel below the piston is then
injected into the venturi via the
valve jet (3).
This enriches the fuel-air mixture
to ensure a smooth transition
without a flat spot during acceleration. When the throttle shaft is
turned back, the spring (2) returns
the pump piston to its neutral position. A vacuum is created and
fresh fuel is drawn from the metering system into the space below
the piston.
4
In this way fuel feed is dependent
on the current internal pressure Pi
and the amount of air or oxygen
that is actually available.
The air flow volume is reduced
when the air filter is dirty. This
causes the pressure Pi at the
clean side of the air filter to drop,
and also the pressure applied
to the outside of the metering diaphragm. The metering diaphragm
moves outwards and the inlet
control valve reduces the cross
section.
The flow of fuel is reduced so
that the mixture cannot become
over-rich.
Carburetors
5.4
Control valve
A carburetor equipped with a compensator therefore keeps the fuel
content in the mixture constant at
all times, irrespective of air filter
contamination.
It is no longer necessary to alter
the setting of the high speed
screw as contamination of the
air filter increases.
Power curve
P
n
a
b
c
=
=
=
=
Power
RPM
Clean air filter
dirty air filter,
with compensator
= dirty air filter,
without compensator
The mixture cannot become overrich. And it is no longer necessary
to alter the setting of the high
speed screw as contamination of
the air filter increases. However,
engine power drops due to the
reduced quantity of air and fuel.
Optimum power can only be restored by cleaning the air filter.
2
1
915RA033 VA
A conversion from a HD (textile)
filter to a standard (wire mesh)
filter or vice versa does not necessitate readjustment of the mixture
either.
Carburetors that are directly
flange-mounted to the cylinder
(without a resilient manifold to
insulate vibrations) may be
equipped with a control valve.
915RA298 VA
However, engine power drops as
a result of the reduction in air
volume and can only be restored
to normal by cleaning the air filter.
There is no need for any further
adjustment after cleaning.
Special Features
This valve (1) opens in response
to resonance at a predetermined
engine speed. Additional fuel is
drawn into the venturi through the
passage (2) and the outlet bore.
The fuel-air mixture is enriched so
that the engine speed cannot
increase any further.
Carburetors
21
1
915RA034 VA
2
Speed governor (vane)
A torsion spring (1) acts via the
governor lever and rod to keep
the vane (2) in its neutral position
(choke shutter is open). As engine
speed increases, the force of the
cooling airstrean overcomes
spring tension and deflects the
governor vane. This movement is
transmitted to the choke shutter.
When a predetermined limit RPM
is reached, the governor vane is
deflected to a maximum degree
and the choke shutter closes to a
point where the richer mixture
prevents any further increased in
RPM.
Note: The cut-off speed can be
adjusted by changing the spring’s
preload.
22
Carburetors
6.
Troubleshooting Chart
Condition
Cause
Remedy
Carburetor floods;
engine stalls
Inlet needle not sealing.
Foreign matter in valve seat
or cone damaged
Remove and clean or replace
inlet needle, clean fuel tank,
pickup body and fuel line if
necessary
Inlet control lever sticking on
spindle
Free off inlet control lever
Helical spring not located on
nipple of inlet control lever
Remove inlet control lever
and refit correctly
Perforated disc on diaphragm
is deformed and presses
constantly against inlet control
lever
Fit new metering diaphragm
Inlet control lever too high
(relative to design position)
Set inlet control lever flush
with top of body or bottom
of metering chamber
Idle jet "too lean"
Back off low speed screw
slightly
Main jet "too lean"
Back off high speed screw
slightly
Inlet control lever too low
(relative to design position)
Set inlet control lever flush
with top of body or bottom
of metering chamber
Inlet needle sticking to valve
seat
Remove inlet needle, clean
and refit
Connecting bore to atmosphere
blocked
Clean bore
Diaphragm gasket leaking
Fit new diaphragm gasket
Metering diaphragm damaged
or shrunk
Fit new metering diaphragm
Poor acceleration
Carburetors
23
Condition
Cause
Remedy
Engine will not idle,
idle speed too high
Throttle shutter opened too wide
by idle speed screw
Reset idle speed screw
correctly
Idle speed screw (LD) opened
too far
Adjust idle speed screw correctly
Idle speed screw (LA) opened
too far
Adjust idle speed screw correctly
Machine leaking
Locate and repair leak
Idle jet bores or ports
blocked
Clean jet bores and ports
with compressed air
Idle jet "too rich"
Screw down low speed screw
slightly
Setting of idle speed
screw incorrect
- throttle shutter completely
closed
Set idle speed screw
correctly
Setting of idle speed
screw (LD) incorrect
Set idle speed screw
correctly
Small plastic plate in valve
jet does not close
Clean or renew valve jet
Air filter plugged
Clean air filter
Tank vent faulty
Clean or replace tank vent
if necessary
Leak in fuel line between
tank and fuel pump
Seal or renew connections
and fuel line
Pump diaphragm damaged
or fatigued
Fit new pump diaphragm
Main jet bores or ports
blocked
Clean bores and ports
Fuel pickup body dirty
Clean pickup body, fit new
filter
Fuel strainers dirty
Clean fuel strainers
Engine stalls at idle speed
Engine speed drops quickly
under load - low power
24
Carburetors
7.
7.1
Servicing
Leakage Test
7.2
If this pressure remains constant,
the carburetor is airtight. However,
if it drops, the likely causes are:
The inlet needle is not sealing
(foreign matter in valve seat or
sealing cone of inlet needle is
damaged or inlet control lever
sticking).
Check the metering diaphragm for
distortion and replace if necessary.
The carburetor can be tested
for leaks with the carburetor
and crankcase tester (1)
1106 850 2905.
In these cases the carburetor must
be serviced.
- Check the tester for leaks.
- After completing the test, open
the vent screw and remove the
fuel line from the intake fitting.
The following test values refer
to carburetors that have been
flushed with fuel and have
moist diaphragms. Dry carburetors must not be subjected to
pressures of more than 0.35 bar
(5 psi).
Cleaning
Carburetor problems are often
caused by blocked jets, bores and
fuel strainers. Even water droplets,
which get into the carburetor with
the fuel, can cause trouble. Owing
to its high surface tension, water
restricts the flow of fuel in the fine
jet bores.
Water droplets may freeze in
winter and completely block fuel
passages.
To clean the carburetor, strip it
down and remove the adjusting
screws, jets and inlet needle. Use
a brush or a clean leather cloth
and fresh fuel to clean the carburetor body. Then blow out all ports
and jets with compressed air.
Warning: Never use needles,
wires or similar tools or fibrous
cloths for cleaning the carburetor
or jets.
• Flush dry carburetors with fuel
before starting the test.
Carburetors can only seal properly
when the fuel passages and all
sealing points are wetted with fuel.
The pressure applied during
the test must not exceed 1 bar
(14.5 psi).
If higher pressures are applied,
the control valve will open and
allow the pressure to enter the
metering chamber and possibly
over-stretch the metering
diaphragm.
• Push fuel line (2) 1110 141 8600
with nipple (3) 0000 855 9200
onto the carburetor’s intake
fitting.
• Connect tester’s pressure hose
to nipple.
• Close vent screw (4) on the
rubber bulb (5) and pump air into
the carburetor until the pressure
gauge shows a reading of
approx. 0.8 bar (11.6 psi).
Carburetors
25
7.3
Pump Diaphragm
7.4
Metering Diaphragm
915RA036 VA
- Inspect diaphragm and gasket
and replace if necessary.
Note: The diaphragm and the inlet
and outlet valves are exposed to
continuous alternating stresses
and the material eventually shows
signs of fatigue. The diaphragm
distorts and swells and has to be
replaced.
• Take out the screws.
• Take out the screws.
• Remove the end cover.
- Remove the end cover.
- For carburetors with manual fuel
pump see 7.9.
1
2
3
1
• Remove the gasket (1) and
915RA039 VA
915RA037 VA
2
• Place the gasket (1) on the end
pump diaphragm (2) from the
end cover or carburetor body.
cover (2).
• Wet the pump diaphragm (3)
Note: If the gasket and diaphragm
are stuck, remove them carefully.
with fuel and place it on the
gasket.
• Remove metering diaphragm
and gasket from carburetor body
or end cover.
Note: If the gasket and diaphragm
are stuck, remove them carefully.
- Fit the end cover on the
carburetor body.
Note: Pump diaphragm, gasket
and end cover are held in position
by the integrally cast pegs on the
end cover.
915RA038 VA
- Insert screw(s) and tighten down
securely.
• Carefully separate the
diaphragm and gasket.
26
• Carefully separate the
diaphragm and gasket.
Carburetors
7.5
Inlet Needle
- Inspect diaphragm and gasket
and replace if necessary.
Note: The diaphragm is exposed
to continuous alternating stresses
and the material eventually shows
signs of fatigue. The diaphragm
distorts and swells and has to be
replaced.
915RA045 VA
915RA048 VA
1
2
• Fit pump diaphragm so that
- Remove metering diaphragm see 7.4.
perforated plate (1) points
towards the inlet control
lever (2).
• Take out the screw.
- Remove inlet control lever with
spindle or plate with inlet control
lever and gasket. Pull out the
inlet needle.
3
• Place gasket on carburetor body.
2
915RA046 VA
915RA043 VA
1
• If the peg (1) is on the end cover,
place the metering diaphragm
(2) and gasket (3) on the end
cover.
• Place metering diaphragm on
gasket.
Note: Gasket and metering diaphragm are held in position by the
integrally cast pegs.
Carburetors
915RA047 VA
915RA044 VA
- Fit end cover in position.
Carburetors with compensator:
• Install end cover with connector.
• Fit screws and tighten down
securely.
• If there is an annular indentation
on the sealing cone of the inlet
needle, it will be necessary to
replace the inlet needle because
it will no longer seal properly.
27
7.6
Main Jet
If the plate of the check valve in
the main jet no longer moves
freely, install a new main jet.
3
- Remove metering diaphragm see 7.4.
915RA051 VA
1
915RA058 VA
4
2
• Fit the inlet needle (1).
• Install the main jet exactly
vertical in the bore. Press it
home until it is flush with the
bottom of the metering chamber.
• Fit helical spring (2) in the blind
hole.
• Insert spindle (3) in the inlet
control lever (4).
- Engage clevis of inlet control
lever in annular groove on the
head of the inlet needle.
- Press down the inlet control
lever and secure it with the
screw.
- Check easy action of the inlet
control lever.
• Use a suitable pin punch to
- If this is not the case, the inlet
control lever is bent and must be
replaced.
- Install metering diaphragm see 7.4.
28
915RA057 VA
2
press the main jet out of its seat
in the direction of the venturi.
915RA054 VA
Important: The top of the inlet
control lever must be level with the
bottom of the metering chamber
(1) or the top face of the carburetor body (2).
1
915RA056 VA
Note: Make sure that the helical
spring locates on the control lever’s nipple.
WS-26A carburetor:
• Use a screwdriver to push the
valve jet out of its seat from
inside the venturi.
- Wash the main jet in white spirit.
Carburetors
7.7
Full-Load Fixed Jet/
Part-Load Fixed Jet
7.8
Control Valve
3
1
2
1
2
2
915RA062 VA
915RA060 VA
HD-5 carburetor:
• Use a scriber to remove the
retaining ring (1).
- Remove metering diaphragm see 7.4.
Note: The part-load fixed jet (1)
cannot be replaced, it can only be
blown clear with compressed air.
• Tap the carburetor body against
• Use a pin punch to press the fullload fixed jet (2) out of its seat in
the direction of the venturi.
915RA063 VA
3
1
a wooden base to remove the
full-load fixed jet (2) and 0-ring
(3).
WT-227E and WT-264
carburetors:
- Remove the manual fuel pump see 7.9.
• Unscrew the control valve (1).
• Take the copper washer (2) out
of the bore (3).
- Wash full-load fixed jet in white
spirit and blow out with compressed air.
- Fit a new copper washer in the
bore for the control valve.
Note: Replace damaged full-load
fixed jet.
- Screw in new control valve about
2 full turns.
- Install full-load fixed jet exactly
vertical in the bore. Press it
home until it is flush with the
bottom of the metering chamber.
- Coat the thread that still projects
from the carburetor body with
Loctite - see 8.2.
HD-5 carburetor:
- Fit a new 0-ring in the bore.
- Carefully screw home control
valve as far as stop and tighten
down to 4 Nm (3.0 lbf.ft).
- Press home the fixed jet (flat
side up) as far as stop and
secure in position with retaining
ring.
915RA061 VA
- Install metering diaphragm see 7.4.
HS-262B carburetor:
• Unscrew the full-load fixed jet.
Carburetors
29
7.9
Manual Fuel Pump
7.10
Check Valve
1
• Take out screws (1).
• Take valve out of flange.
• Remove end cover with pump
- Check valve and replace if
necessary.
bulb (2).
915RA069 VA
915RA064 VA
1
915RA067 VA
2
- Remove metering diaphragm see 7.4.
• Fit a 2.5x13 mm self-tapping
screw in the check valve’s bore
and use it to pull out the check
valve.
915RA070 VA
915RA065 VA
Note: If the circuit for filling the
metering chamber is malfunctioning, if the valve is dirty, distorted or
damaged, install a new valve.
• Remove the pump bulb.
• Use a 4 mm (approx. 5/32") pin
punch to press the check valve
squarely into the metering
chamber as far as stop.
• Remove the flange.
915RA068 VA
915RA066 VA
- Install metering diaphragm see 7.4.
• Check metering diaphragm and
sealing ring and replace if
necessary - see 7.4.
Assemble in the reverse sequence.
30
Carburetors
7.11
Carburetor Body
- Remove pump diaphragm see 7.3.
- Wash the carburetor body in
fresh white spirit and blow all
ports and bores clear with
compressed air.
- Remove inlet needle - see 7.5.
- Remove valve jet - see 7.6.
915RA075 VA
- Remove full-load fixed jet, if
fitted - see 7.7.
- Remove check valve, if fitted see 7.10.
Caution: Idle speed screw (LD)
has a left-hand thread.
- To replace the carburetor body,
remove the throttle shaft and, if
fitted, the choke shaft - see 7.12
and 7.13.
- Place the new sealing plug or
plate in the bore with its convex
side facing up.
- Use a large pin punch to apply
light pressure until the sealing
plug or plate is flat.
- Secure new sealing plate or
plug with Loctite - see 8.2.
(Apply Loctite to gap between
carburetor body and sealing
plate or plug.)
915RA071 VA
Assemble all other parts in the
reverse sequence.
• Use a scriber to pry out fuel
• Use a pin punch to press the
strainer and then clean it.
center of the sealing plug (1) or
sealing plate (2) until it buckles
and can be taken out.
Important: Always replace a
damaged fuel strainer.
Important: The sealing plug or
sealing plate is destroyed during
removal.
3
915RA074 VA
2 1
• Take out the high speed screw
(1), low speed screw (2) and, if
fitted, the idle speed screw (3).
Carburetors
31
915RA080 VA
915RA086 VA
Throttle Shaft
915RA077 VA
7.12
- For carburetors with automatic
choke see 7.15.1.
• On some carburetors, remove
• Take out the screw.
- Remove the lever.
• Carefully withdraw the throttle
the screw from the lever.
shaft.
- Check for excessive play which
may be a source of secondary
air.
- Remove the throttle shutter or
pull it out of the throttle shaft.
- For carburetors with accelerator
pump see 7.14.
2
- On some carburetors it is
necessary to remove the pump
end cover before withdrawing
the throttle shaft - see 7.3.
• On C1Q-S11G, detach torsion
915RA081 VA
915RA078 VA
1
• Remove spacer sleeve.
spring (1) from groove in throttle
shaft (2).
• Remove the E-clip.
• On some carburetors, take out
915RA087 VA
1
915RA085 VA
915RA079 VA
2
• Pull off the torsion spring.
the screw (1).
- Take off the washer, if fitted.
• Pull the clip (2) off the throttle
shaft.
32
Carburetors
3
2
1
1
• On throttle shafts with a slotted
• On C1Q-S11G, attach torsion
pin (1), remove the E-clip (2).
1
• On WT-253, fit lever (1) so that it
spring (1) to groove in throttle
shaft (2).
• Take slotted pin out of the
915RA093 VA
915RA090 VA
2
915RA088 VA
2
points towards intake fitting (2).
lever (3).
4
3
2
3
1
• After pushing home the throttle
shaft, check that torsion spring
is correctly positioned.
Note: The illustration shows the
WT-227F carburetor. The position
of the torsion springs on other
carburetors is similar.
- Install throttle shutter so that its
entire circumference locates
against the wall of the venturi.
1
• On WT-230, push spacer sleeve
(1) into position.
915RA094 VA
915RA091 VA
915RA089 VA
2
• On C1Q-SK6, fit lever (1) so that
slotted pin (2) points towards the
metering chamber end cover (3).
• Fit lever (2) so that the slotted
pin (3) points towards metering
chamber end cover (4).
4
- Fit E-clip or clip in the groove.
- Secure clip with screw.
1
3
2
915RA092 VA
- Coat screw with Loctite, see 8.2,
and tighten down securely.
• On HD-3A, fit the spacer
sleeve (1).
• Fit lever (2) so that slotted pin (3)
points towards intake fitting (4).
Carburetors
33
• Remove the E-clip, if fitted.
- For carburetors with automatic
choke see 7.15.1.
915RA105 VA
915RA102 VA
Choke Shaft
915RA099 VA
7.13
• Remove the torsion spring.
• Pull off the lever, if fitted.
2
• On C1Q-S11G, detach torsion
• Withdraw the choke shaft with
spring (1) from groove in throttle
shaft (2).
915RA106 VA
915RA103 VA
915RA078 VA
1
- Fit the torsion spring.
torsion spring.
• After fitting the choke shaft,
• Take out the screw.
- Remove the choke shutter or pull
it out of the choke shaft.
915RA104 VA
915RA101 VA
check that the torsion spring is
correctly positioned.
• Carefully withdraw choke shaft
without torsion spring so that
the ball does not pop out and be
lost.
- Take out the ball and spring.
34
Carburetors
7.14
Accelerator Pump
2
2
1
2
1
1
• On choke shafts without torsion
• On C1Q-S11G, attach torsion
spring, fit the spring (1) and ball
(2).
spring (1) to groove in throttle
shaft (2).
• Push home the choke shaft until
the ball engages the groove (3).
- Install choke shutter so that its
entire circumference locates
against the wall of the venturi.
- Fit screw with Loctite, see 8.2,
and tighten down securely.
- Refit the lever, if removed.
2
4
1
915RA109 VA
3
915RA090 VA
3
915RA107 VA
3
- Remove the throttle shaft see 7.12.
• Knock the pump piston (1) and
spring (2) out of the bore (3).
• Take the sealing ring (4) off the
pump piston.
- Inspect pump piston and spring
and replace if necessary.
• Fit new sealing ring (4) in groove
of pump piston (1).
- On choke shafts with torsion
spring, fit the E-clip.
• Place spring (2) in the bore (3).
• Fit pump piston (1) in the bore,
closed end facing outward.
- Install throttle shaft - see 7.12.
- Press down the pump piston so
that throttle shaft can be pushed
home.
Carburetors
35
7.15
Lever Mechanism on Carburetors
with Automatic Choke
H
G
G
D
• Fit the torsion spring "D" on the
Removal:
• Fit the bell crank "G" (with flat
throttle shaft "E" so that its bent
end points away from the
carburetor.
• Carefully pry bell crank "G" and
lever "H" off the shafts.
915RA115 VA
E
915RA112 VA
915RA110 VA
B
face pointing to lever "B") over
the choke shaft so that the pin
on lever "B" is between the arms
of bell crank "G".
- Remove the lever system from
the shafts.
• Rotate bell crank counterclockwise until its right arm butts
against the pin on lever "B".
- Take the torsion spring off the
throttle shaft.
Installation:
B
A
915RA113 VA
Note: Bell crank "G" and lever "H"
have to be pressed onto the
shafts. To do this, clamp the carburetor body in position so that the
pressure used to install the levers
is transmitted to the carburetor
body via a short part of the shaft
and the retaining ring. This procedure ensures that the shaft is
not loaded beyond its buckling
strength.
• Push lever "A" on to the throttle
shaft and, at the same time,
lever "B" on to the choke shaft.
B
B
• Carefully push the link "C" into
position to connect levers "A"
and "B".
• Rotate lever "B" on choke shaft
counterclockwise as far as stop.
915RA116 VA
915RA114 VA
915RA111 VA
A
C
• With the bell crank in this position, carefully press it on to the
choke shaft.
Caution: Take care not to bend
the choke shaft.
36
Carburetors
LA
- Open the choke shutter by
slowly turning the right-hand end
of the choke shaft. The throttle
shutter must jump to the closed
position just before the choke
shutter is fully open.
H
915RA117 VA
915RA119 VA
A
• Turn the idle speed screw "LA"
• Fit lever "H" on the throttle shaft
• Open the choke shutter "I" and
hold it steady in that position.
• Swing lever "A" counterclockwise as far as stop.
• Press lever "H" on to the throttle
915RA121 VA
H
915RA120 VA
I
and rotate it counterclockwise
until it butts against the pin on
lever "A".
915RA118 VA
counterclockwise until the
throttle shaft is clear of the taper
on the idle speed screw.
A
Note: This is accompanied by a
definite clicking sound.
H
• Attach bent end of torsion spring
shaft.
to pin on lever "H".
Caution: Take care not to bend
the throttle shaft.
Important: The choke shutter
must be held open for the next
two operations.
Installed positions of levers:
• In the idle position the choke
shutter must be closed and the
throttle shutter at an angle of 37
degrees to the carburetor mounting face.
Carburetors
A
915RA122 VA
915RA059 VA
37°
• Push the straight end of the
torsion spring between the
carburetor body and pin on
lever "A" and locate it behind
the lever’s pin.
37
7.15.1 Throttle Shaft/
Choke Shaft
7.16
HL-324A/HL-327D/LA-S8A
Carburetors
- Remove lever mechanism see 7.15.
- Remove the throttle shaft see 7.12.
Note: The throttle shaft is longer
than on carburetors without
automatic choke.
915RA126 VA
A
915RA123 VA
B
- Remove the choke shutter see 7.13.
• Slip the grommet, if fitted, off the
Checking installed position of
torsion spring:
carburetor adjusting screws.
- Open throttle and choke shutters
simultaneously and hold them
steady.
• The torsion spring must move
levers "A" and "B" into the
positions shown in the illustration.
3
2
915RA127 VA
915RA124 VA
1
- Ease the E-clip off the choke
shaft.
• Remove screws (1) from intake
• Pull out the choke shaft.
• Remove the intake manifold (2)
manifold, if fitted.
and gasket (3).
1
2
3
• Remove torsion spring (1),
choke lever (2) and torsion
spring (3) from the choke
shaft (4).
Install in the reverse sequence.
38
915RA128 VA
915RA125 VA
4
- Mark position of intake fitting
relative to fuel pump body.
• Take out the screw.
- Remove the end cover.
Carburetors
• Take out the gasket (1) and fuel
• Carefully separate the
strainer (2).
• Remove the metering diaphragm
diaphragm and gasket.
- Clean the fuel strainer.
915RA134 VA
915RA132 VA
2
915RA129 VA
1
and gasket from the carburetor
body or diaphragm cover.
- Inspect diaphragm and gasket
and replace if necessary.
Note: If the gasket and diaphragm
are stuck, remove them carefully.
915RA135 VA
915RA130 VA
Note: The diaphragm and the inlet
and outlet valves are exposed to
continuous alternating stresses
and the material eventually shows
signs of fatigue. The diaphragm
distorts and swells and has to be
replaced.
• Take out the screws.
• Carefully separate the
diaphragm and gasket.
- Remove fuel pump body.
- Inspect diaphragm and gasket
and replace if necessary.
915RA133 VA
Note: The diaphragm is exposed
to continuous alternating stresses
and the material eventually shows
signs of fatigue. The diaphragm
distorts and swells and has to be
replaced.
• Remove pump diaphragm and
• Remove diaphragm cover.
gasket.
Note: If diaphragm and gasket are
stuck, remove them carefully.
Carburetors
39
• Use a thin-walled 8mm socket
• On HL-327D, unscrew the
wrench to unscrew the valve
body.
control valve.
- Take the copper washer out
of the bore.
- Take out the gasket.
1
1
2
• Remove inlet control lever (1)
• Unscrew the high speed screw
with spindle (2).
• Use a 5 mm (approx. 3/16") pin
(1), low speed screw (2) and idle
speed screw (3).
• Remove the helical spring (3).
• Pull out the inlet needle (4).
punch to press the valve jet out
of its seat in the direction of the
venturi.
• Remove washer (1) and 0-ring
on the sealing cone of the inlet
needle, it will be necessary to
replace the inlet needle because
it will no longer seal properly.
(2) from the carburetor body or
the adjusting screws.
915RA144 VA
1 2
915RA141 VA
915RA138 VA
- Wash valve jet in white spirit.
• If there is an annular indentation
40
915RA143 VA
3
915RA140 VA
3
915RA137 VA
4
2
915RA142 VA
915RA139 VA
915RA136 VA
• Take out the screw.
• Apply a 3 mm (1/8") pin punch to
the center of the sealing plug
and press down until it buckles
and can be taken out.
Carburetors
- Wash the carburetor body and
all serviceable parts in fresh
white spirit and blow clear with
compressed air, paying special
attention to the bores and ports.
2
915RA146 VA
- Place the new sealing plug in the
bore with its convex side facing
up.
• Fit a new gasket (1).
• Fit valve body (2) and tighten
915RA148 VA
1
- To replace the carburetor body,
remove the throttle shaft and
choke shaft see 7.16.1 and 7.16.2.
Important: The top of the inlet
control lever must be level with the
bottom of the metering chamber.
down securely.
- Use a 8 mm (5/16") pin punch
to apply light pressure until the
sealing plug is flat.
- If this is not the case, the inlet
control lever is bent and must
be replaced.
- Secure new sealing plug with
Loctite - see 8.2. (Apply Loctite
to gap between carburetor body
and sealing plug.)
1
2
915RA149 VA
2
2
• Fit helical spring (2) in blind hole.
• Fit spindle (3) in inlet control
lever (4).
• Fit the gasket and metering
diaphragm (1).
Note: They are held in position by
the integrally cast pegs (2) on the
carburetor body.
- Engage clevis of inlet control
lever in annular groove on the
head of the inlet needle.
1 2
915RA145 VA
- Press down the inlet control
lever and secure it with the
screw.
• Install the valve jet exactly
vertical in the bore. Press it
home until it is flush with the
bottom of the metering chamber.
Carburetors
3
Note: Make sure that the helical
spring locates on the control
lever’s nipple.
- Check easy action of the inlet
control lever.
1
1
915RA150 VA
• Insert inlet needle (1).
• On the LA-S8A, the locating
pegs (1) are on the diaphragm
cover. Therefore, the metering
diaphragm (2) and gasket (3)
should be fitted on the
diaphragm cover.
41
- Fit fuel strainer and gasket in the
fuel pump body.
- Screw in new control valve about
2 full turns.
Note: Always replace a damaged
fuel strainer.
- Coat the thread that still projects
from the carburetor body with
Loctite - see 8.2.
915RA151 VA
- Fit the end cover.
• Fit the diaphragm cover.
- Screw home control valve and
tighten down to 4 Nm (3.0 lbf.ft).
- Line up the intake fitting according to mark made prior to disassembly.
- Fit screw and tighten down
securely.
3
2
1
2
• Fit the gasket (1) and pump
915RA154 VA
915RA152 VA
1
• Slip spring (1), washer (2) and
diaphragm (2).
new 0-ring (3) over high speed
and low speed screws.
Note: The gasket and pump
diaphragm are held in position by
the integrally cast pegs on the
diaphragm cover.
- Carefully screw high speed and
low speed screws down onto
their seats and then back them
off one full turn.
- Fit idle speed screw.
915RA153 VA
- On HL-327D, fit new copper
washer in bore for control valve.
• Fit the fuel pump body.
- Fit screws and tighten them
down alternately in a diagonal
pattern.
42
Carburetors
7.16.1 Throttle Shaft
- Install throttle shutter so that its
entire circumference locates
against the wall of the venturi.
1
- Fit screw with Loctite, see 8.2,
and tighten down securely.
• Take out the screw.
1
2
915RA165 VA
915RA162 VA
- Fit clip in the groove.
• Remove screws (1) from cable
- Insert screw and tighten down
firmly.
- Install cable guide, if fitted.
guide (2), if fitted.
- Remove lever or throttle lever.
- Lift away cable guide.
2
• Take out the screw.
• Pull out the throttle shaft.
- Pull the throttle shutter out of the
throttle shaft.
• Remove the torsion spring (1).
915RA168 VA
915RA166 VA
915RA163 VA
1
1
• On HL-327D, fit lever so that the
slotted pin (1) points towards
diaphragm cover (2).
- Insert screw and tighten down
firmly.
• Take out the screw (1).
• Pull off the clip (2).
• After pushing home the throttle
shaft, check that torsion spring
is correctly positioned.
2
1
915RA169 VA
1
915RA167 VA
2
915RA164 VA
3
• On LA-S8A and HL324A, fit
throttle lever (1) so that round
end (2) point downwards to
connecting flange (3).
- Insert screw and tighten down
firmly.
Carburetors
43
7.16.2
Choke Shaft
2
1
1
2
915RA160 VA
915RA155 VA
1
915RA158 VA
2
3
- Remove the intake manifold, if
fitted - see 7.16.
• On HL-327D and HL-324A, take
out the screw (1).
Note: On HL-327D, fit the spring
(1) and ball (2).
• Ease the E-clip (1) off the
• Pull off the clip (2).
• Push home the choke shaft until
governor rod (2), if fitted.
the ball engages the groove (3).
- Remove the governor rod.
- Fit clip in groove in choke shaft.
1
• On LA-S8A and HL327D, take
915RA159 VA
2
915RA156 VA
- Secure clip with screw.
• Withdraw the choke shaft.
out the screw (1).
Note: On HL-327D, carefully withdraw choke shaft so that the ball
does not pop out and be lost.
• Remove the governor lever (2).
• Take out the screw.
- Pull the choke shutter out of the
choke shaft.
44
2
1
915RA161 VA
915RA157 VA
- Slide choke shaft into the
carburetor from the adjusting
screw side.
• On LA-S8A and HL327D, rotate
choke shaft so that slot (1) is
horizontal and the flat side (2)
points down.
Carburetors
7.17
3
WYL-63 / WYL-73
Rotary Valve Carburetors
1
1
2
• On HL-324A, rotate choke shaft
so that the pin (1) points forward.
• Fit the choke shutter so that the
915RA191 VA
1
1
915RA192 VA
2
915RA055 VA
1
• Take out the screws (1).
• Take valve out of flange.
• Remove the end cover (2) with
- Check valve and replace if
necessary.
cap.
hole (2) points forward and the
indentations (3) face the end
cover.
Note: If the circuit for filling the
metering chamber is malfunctioning, if the valve is dirty, distorted
or damaged, install a new valve.
915RA193 VA
- Fit screw with Loctite, see 8.2,
and tighten down securely.
• Pull out the cap.
- On LA-S8A and HL327D, close
the choke shutter.
• Fit governor lever (1) so that the
pin (2) lines up with the center of
the high speed screw (3).
- Fit screw and tighten down
securely.
Carburetors
• Remove the flange.
915RA196 VA
1
915RA194 VA
2
915RA171 VA
3
• Remove metering diaphragm
and gasket.
Note: If the gasket and diaphragm
are stuck, remove them carefully.
45
1
• Carefully separate the
915RA197 VA
• Remove the screw (1).
diaphragm and gasket.
• Remove gasket and pump
diaphragm.
• Remove inlet control lever (2)
- Inspect diaphragm and replace
if necessary.
915RA201 VA
2
915RA195 VA
3
Note: If gasket and diaphragm are
stuck, remove them carefully.
with spindle (3) and spring.
915RA199 VA
915RA202 VA
Note: The diaphragm is exposed
to continuous alternating stresses
and the material eventually shows
signs of fatigue. The diaphragm
distorts and swells and has to be
replaced.
• Carefully separate the
- Pull out the inlet needle.
diaphragm and gasket.
• If there is an annular indentation
• Remove pump housing.
- Inspect diaphragm and replace if
necessary.
Note: The diaphragm is exposed
to continuous alternating stresses
and the material eventually shows
signs of fatigue. The diaphragm
distorts and swells and has to be
replaced.
915RA200 VA
915RA198 VA
on the sealing cone of the inlet
needle, it will be necessary to
replace the inlet needle because
it will no longer seal properly.
• Use a scriber to pry out fuel
strainer and then clean it.
Important: Always replace a
damaged fuel strainer.
46
Carburetors
- Insert screws and tighten down
securely.
2
• Remove the spring.
1
4
915RA206 VA
915RA203 VA
3
• If necessary, pry off the retaining
ring (1) and pull out the slotted
pin (2) with washer (3).
• Take out the idle speed
screw (4).
- Wash the carburetor body and
all serviceable parts in fresh
white spirit and blow clear with
compressed air, paying special
attention to the bores and ports.
915RA204 VA
2
• Use a scriber to carefully ease
• Slip 0-ring (1) over the main
the main jet out of its seat.
jet (2).
- Remove the sealing ring.
- Press main jet into carburetor
seat as far as stop.
1
• Take out the screws (1).
• Pull out the control valve (2).
Carburetors
Note: Check size of main jet
(number on main jet):
40 = WYL-63
36 = WYL-73
1
2
915RA207 VA
1
915RA205 VA
2
915RA208 VA
40
1
• Install the control valve so that
the idle speed screw (1) points to
the left - viewed from stub (2).
47
• Insert spindle (3) in the inlet
2
control lever (4).
- Press down the inlet control
lever and secure it with the
screw.
915RA213 VA
915RA209 VA
1
- Engage clevis of inlet control
lever in annular groove on the
head of the inlet needle.
Note: Make sure that the helical
spring locates on the control
lever’s nipple.
• Fit the spring (1).
• Fit a new gasket (2).
• Fit the pump housing.
• Place pump diaphragm on the
Important: Measure distance "a"
between upper edge of inlet control lever and pump housing. It
must be 1.5 mm (0.06").
gasket.
Note: Gasket and pump
diaphragm are held in place
by the integrally cast pegs.
915RA214 VA
915RA210 VA
915RA212 VA
a
• Fit a new gasket.
- If the distance more or less than
specified, the inlet control lever
is bent and must be replaced.
3
1
• Fit the inlet needle (1).
• Fit helical spring (2) in the blind
915RA215 VA
4
915RA211 VA
2
• Fit diaphragm on the gasket
so that perforated plate points
towards the inlet control.
hole.
48
Carburetors
Note: Gasket und pump
diaphragm are held in place
by the integrally cast pegs.
- From that position, turn the idle
jet needle one eight turn counter clockwise to reduce engine
speed by 200 - 500 rpm.
- Insert screws and tighten down
securely.
Adjusting idle speed and
idle mixture
Note: If either the carburetor or
the control valve has been replaced, it will be necessary to
adjust idle jet needle in the control
valve.
- Remove the screwdriver and
once more set idle speed to
3100 ± 200 rpm with the idle
speed screw.
Note: Adjustment of maximum
engine speed is not necessary
because it is determined by the
main jet.
- Fit plug in the control valve.
3
1
4
915RA217 VA
915RA194 VA
2
• Set the idle speed to 3100 ±
- Insert the valve in the flange.
200 rpm with the idle speed
screw (1).
• Fit the flange in position.
Note: Use a tachometer.
• Pull plug (2) out of the control
valve.
- Start the engine.
• Use a small screwdriver (3) to
915RA216 VA
rotate the idle jet needle (4)
clockwise or counterclockwise
until maximum engine speed is
reached.
- Fit the cap in the end cover.
• Fit the end cover.
Carburetors
49
7.18
7.18.1
Standard Setting on Walbro Carburetors
Fixed Jet Carburetors
WT-283B, WT-323, WT-325A,
WT-326C, WT-360, WT-396,
WT-403A, WT-493, WT-498A,
WT-503
• Carefully screw down the low
These carburetors have a fixed jet
in place of a high speed adjusting
screw (H screw).
- Check chain tension.
speed screw (L) clockwise until it
is against its seat. Then back it
off one full turn counterclockwise.
Maximum engine speed is preset
and no longer adjustable. It is only
possible to correct idling speed
within certain limits.
- Check air filter and clean if
necessary.
Engine stops while idling:
- Check standard setting.
- Check spark arresting screen
and clean or replace if necessary.
- Start the engine and allow it to
warm up.
These carburetors guarantee an
optimum fuel-air mixture in all
operating conditions.
Note: Turn screws very slowly and
carefully - even slight movements
produce a noticeable change in
engine running behavior.
- Turn idle speed screw clockwise
until the chain begins to run then turn it back one quarter turn.
Chain runs while engine is
idling:
- Check standard setting.
- Turn the idle speed screw
counterclockwise until the chain
stops running - and then turn it
about another quarter turn in
the same direction.
Erratic idling behavior, poor
acceleration even though low speed screw (L)
is one turn open:
- Idle setting is too lean.
- Turn the low speed screw (L)
counterclockwise until the engine
runs and accelerates smoothly.
LA
Standard setting
Adjusting idle speed
To readjust the carburetor, start
with the standard setting.
• A correction at the low speed
50
915RA295 VA
915RA294 VA
L
screw (L) usually necessitates a
change in the setting of the idle
speed screw (LA).
Carburetors
Carburetors with Limiter Caps
One brushcutters:
Note: Limiter caps are damaged
during removal. They must not be
used again.
- Mount STIHL Autocut or
Polymatic cutting head.
- If necessary, take out the low
speed and high speed screws.
915RA293 VA
2
• Turn the cap to line up the lug
- Adjust line length so that it
extends as far as limiter blade
on deflector.
3
1
• Carefully screw high speed
with the slot.
screw (1) and low speed screw
(2) with sealing rings (3) down
onto their seats.
- Refer to flow chart for carburetor
adjustment - see 7.21.
Preparations
- Check air filter and clean if
necessary.
1
• Screw puller (1) 5910 890 4500
into cap counterclockwise until
it comes off the the head of the
adjusting screw (left-hand
thread).
915RA218 VA
- Inspect spark arresting screen
and clean or replace as
necessary.
On blowers:
- Fit blower tubes and nozzles.
915RA225 VA
HD-13A, HD-16, HD-17,
HD-18A, HD-21A, HD-22,
WY-69, WT-329, WT-330,
WT-367, WT-393, WT-489,
WT-492, WJ-69
915RA219 VA
7.18.2
Basic setting
(all models)
• Starting with the adjusting
screws (H) and (L) firmly against
their seats, open them by the
number of turns specified below.
Model
BR 320 L
BR 320, 400
FC 44
FS 36, 40, 44
FS 72, 74, 76
FS 88
FS 550
HS 72, 74, 76
BG 72
MS 044, 046
MS 029, 039
MS 066
H
1.5
2
4
1.5
L
4
2.5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
On hedge trimmers:
- Clean and oil cutting blades.
Carburetors
51
- This enables the mixture to be
made leaner, if necessary, for
operation at high altitudes and
prevents it being enriched
beyond the emission limits
specified by EPA.
Model
BR 320 L
BR 320, 400
FC 44
FS 36, 40, 44
FS 72, 74, 76
FS 88
FS 550
HS 72, 74, 76
BG 72
RPM
3100
3100
3100
3100
2800
MS 029/039 and MS 044/046
Fitting limiter caps
• Insert the new caps in the bores,
making sure the lugs are
correctly positioned (arrows).
• Push the caps on to the adjust-
BR 320 L, BR 320, 400,
FC 44, FS 36, 40, 44,
FS 72, 74, 76, FS 88, FS 550,
HS 72, 74, 76, BG 72
Full-load setting
ing screws until they are flush
with the insert (1).
Adjusting idle speed
915RA228 VA
• Set idle speed to 2800 rpm
(029/039) or 2500 rpm (044/046)
with the idle speed screw (2).
915RA229 VA
Note: Use a tachometer.
Adjusting idle speed
On blowers:
- Refer to flow chart for carburetor
adjustment - see 7.21.
• Running at full load, turn high
• Use the low speed screw (L) to
set maximum idle speed.
• Turn low speed screw (L)
counterclockwise until engine
speed drops about 300 rpm.
speed screw (H) slowly clockwise until maximum engine
speed is reached.
• Turn high speed screw (H)
counterclockwise until engine
speed drops about 100 rpm.
• Use the idle speed screw (LA)
to set engine speed as specified
below.
L
270
915RA227 VA
H
270
• Corrections are now possible
only within a range of
270 degrees because the
integrally molded stops in the
bores limit any further adjustment.
52
Carburetors
Checking running behavior
90
- Open the throttle several times
to check that engine accelerates
smoothly.
915RA229 VA
915RA231 VA
- Engine must run uniformly at
idle speed.
• Corrections are now possible
On brushcutters
(with cutting head and deflector
fitted):
only within a range of 90
degrees because the integrally
molded stops in the bores limit
any further adjustment.
• Running at full load, turn high
speed screw (H) slowly clockwise until no further increase
in engine speed is achieved
within a speed range of 6500 8500 rpm.
- This enables the mixture to be
made leaner, if necessary, for
operation at high altitudes and
prevents it being enriched
beyond the emission limits
specified by EPA.
3
Note: If the required speed range
is not reached, adjust the length of
the nylon line until it is.
2
• Turn high speed screw (H)
1
915RA230 VA
counterclockwise until engine
speed drops about 100 rpm.
On edgers:
• Running at full load, turn high
speed screw (H) slowly clockwise until engine speed of
9000 rpm is exceeded.
• Turn high speed screw (H)
counterclockwise until an engine
speed of about 8000 rpm is
reached.
Fitting limiter caps
• Fit cap (1) on adjusting screw so
that the integrally molded lug (2)
locates in the gate (3) in the bore.
- Push caps into bores until they
are flush with the carburetor
body.
• Turn high speed screw (H) one
half turn clockwise (leaner).
Carburetors
53
7.19
7.19.1
Standard Setting on Zama Carburetors
Fixed Jet Carburetors
• Carefully screw down the low
C1Q-S30C, C1Q-S37A, C1Q-S41,
C1Q-S42, C1Q-S34B, C1Q-S36B
These carburetors have a fixed jet
in place of a high speed adjusting
screw (H screw).
C1Q-S34B and C1Q-S36B carburetors (FS 300...450) have no low
speed screw (L screw).
Maximum engine speed is preset
and no longer adjustable. It is only
possible to correct idling speed
within certain limits.
These carburetors guarantee an
optimum fuel-air mixture in all
operating conditions.
speed screw (L) clockwise until it
is against its seat. Then back it
off one full turn counterclockwise.
- Mount an approved cutting tool.
If cutting head is fitted:
- Adjust nylon line to correct
length. Each line must extend
as far as limiter blade on the
deflector.
- On HS 75, 80, 85, check
cutting blades and clean if
necessary (they must be clean,
move freely and not be warped).
Cutting head rotates while
engine is idling:
- Check standard setting.
- Turn the idle speed screw (LA)
counterclockwise until the cutting
head stops rotating - and then
turn it about another half turn in
the same direction.
Engine accelerates poorly
or stops after idling for long
period:
- Check standard setting.
- Check air filter and clean if
necessary.
- Turn low speed screw (L) one
quarter turn counterclockwise.
- Inspect spark arresting screen
and clean or replace as
necessary.
- Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
engine speed to 2800 rpm,
repeat both settings if necessary.
- Start the engine and allow it
to warm up.
Engine stops while being swung,
during transition from full load to
idle or idles erratically:
Adjusting idle speed
- Check standard setting.
Engine stops while idling:
- Turn low speed screw (L) one
eight turn clockwise.
- Check standard setting.
• Turn idle speed screw (LA)
clockwise until the cutting head
begins to rotate - then turn it
back one half turn.
- Use idle speed screw (LA) to
set engine speed to 2800 rpm,
repeat both settings if necessary.
• On HS 75, 80, 85, use the idle
915RA296 VA
speed screw (LA) to set idle
speed to 2800 rpm.
Standard setting
To readjust the carburetor, start
with the standard setting.
54
Carburetors
7.19.2
Cutting tool rotates when
engine is idling:
HS 75, 80, 85
Cutting blades run while
engine is idling:
- Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
engine speed to 2800 rpm.
- Turn idle speed screw (LA)
counterclockwise until cutting
blades stop running – and then
turn it about another half turn in
the same direction.
Carburetors
with Limiter Caps
C1Q-SK7, C3A-S39A
- Turn idle speed screw (LD)
counterclockwise until cutting
tool stops rotating – and then
turn it about another full turn in
the same direction.
C1Q-SK7
FS 300...450
+
LD
• Set idle speed correctly with
the idle speed screw (LD). The
cutting tool must not rotate.
Adjusting idle speed
915RA232 VA
915RA297 VA
-
• Pull the cap off the adjusting
screw.
Note: Limiter caps are damaged
during removal. They must not be
used again.
Engine stops while idling:
3 2
3 2
1
1
915RA233 VA
- Turn the idle speed screw (LD)
clockwise until the engine runs
smoothly. The cutting tool must
not rotate.
• If necessary, take out the adjusting screws (1) with washers (2)
and springs (3).
Carburetors
55
• Turn low speed screw (L)
counterclockwise until engine
speed drops about 300 rpm.
H
L
• Use the idle speed screw (LD) to
915RA236 VA
set engine speed to 2800 rpm.
Basic setting
Note: Use screwdriver (1)
5910 890 2305 or 0000 890 2300
to install the adjusting screws and
adjust the carburetor.
Note: Use a tachometer.
• Starting with the adjusting
screws (H) and (L) firmly against
their seats, open each screw two
full turns.
Full-load setting
- Start the engine.
- Carry out full-load setting.
H
1
915RA238 VA
32
915RA235 VA
Warning! Observe safety
precautions - see 1.
• Running at full load, turn high
Installation
speed screw (H) slowly clockwise until no further increase
in engine speed is achieved
within a speed range of 6500 8500 rpm.
• Carefully screw the adjusting
screw (1) with washer (2) and
spring (3) down onto its seat.
- Refer to flow chart for carburetor
adjustment - see 7.21.
Preparations
- Check air filter and clean if
necessary.
Note: If the required speed range
is not reached, adjust the length of
the nylon line until it is.
Adjusting idle speed
LD
L
- Mount STIHL Autocut or
Polymatic cutting head.
- Adjust line length so that it
extends as far as limiter blade
on deflector.
56
915RA237 VA
- Inspect spark arresting screen
and clean or replace as
necessary.
• Use the low speed screw (L) to
set the maximum idle speed.
Carburetors
a
90
H
d
b
• Turn high speed screw (H) counterclockwise until engine speed
drops about 100 rpm.
e
• Use a standard commercial
operates when the cap is fixed
in position.
• The stop limits the adjustment
a = ≥ 75.0 mm
b=
5.6 mm
c=
1.0 mm
d=
1.5 mm
e=
4.0 mm
- Open the throttle several times
to check that engine accelerates
smoothly.
L
• The integrally molded stop
screwdriver to make up an
installing tool to push the caps
on to the adjusting screws.
Checking running behavior
H
915RA242 VA
915RA240 VA
915RA238 VA
c
range of the screw to 90 degrees.
- However, it allows a correction
to the setting if the engine runs
unsatisfactorily after extreme
changes in altitude, humidity or
outside temperature.
- Engine must run uniformly at
idle speed.
- Emissions always remain below
the limits set by CARB.
Fitting limiter caps
- Shut off the engine.
Identification of caps:
High speed screw = red
Low speed screw = white
2
915RA239 VA
• Slip both caps together over the
adjusting screws in the position
shown.
Carburetors
1
915RA241 VA
2
• Use the installing tool to carefully
push the caps (1) one after
another on to the adjusting
screws (2).
57
• Carefully screw the high speed
• First push the white cap on to
the low speed screw so that the
slot (1) is vertical and stop (2)
points to the bottom right.
915RA243 VA
screw (2) and low speed screw
(3) with washers (4) and springs
(5) down onto their seats.
C3A-S39A
• Pull the cap off the adjusting
screw.
Note: Limiter caps are damaged
during removal. They must not be
used again.
- If necessary, take out the adjusting screws with springs and
washers and remove the retainer.
1
H
• Push the red cap on to the high
• Starting with the adjusting
screws (H) and (L) firmly against
their seats, open them one full
turn.
- Push the caps on to the adjusting screws until they snap into
position.
915RA244 VA
5
L
Installation
Fitting limiter caps
• Fit the retainer (1).
Note: Use new caps.
2
915RA246 VA
4
58
speed screw so that the slot (1)
is vertical and the stop (2) points
to the bottom right (rich stop).
1
1
3 4
H
915RA247 VA
915RA245 VA
L
Basic setting
2
2
Carburetors
7.20
7.20.1
Standard Setting on Tillotson Carburetors
Fixed Jet Carburetors
HS-275A, HS-279B
These carburetors guarantee an
optimum fuel-air mixture in all
operating conditions.
• The two stops limit the range of
adjustment.
L
Maximum engine speed is preset
and no longer adjustable. It is only
possible to correct idling speed
within certain limits.
LA
915RA250 VA
915RA248 VA
These carburetors have a fixed jet
in place of a high speed adjusting
screw (H screw).
Standard setting
To readjust the carburetor, start
with the standard setting.
• Carefully screw down the low
speed screw (L) clockwise until it
is against its seat. Then back it
off one full turn counterclockwise.
- Check air filter and clean if
necessary.
- Inspect spark arresting screen
and clean or replace as
necessary.
915RA249 VA
270
• Corrections are now possible
only within a range of
270 degrees.
- This enables the mixture to be
made leaner, if necessary, for
operation at high altitudes and
prevents it being enriched
beyond the emission limits
specified by EPA.
- Start the engine and allow it to
warm up.
Adjusting idle speed
Note: Use a tachometer.
• Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
engine speed to 2500 rpm.
Adjusting idle speed
Note: Use a tachometer.
- Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
engine speed to 2800 rpm.
Carburetors
59
7.20.2
Carburetors with Limiter Caps
915RA254 VA
HL-366A, HS-280A, HS-281A,
HT-12A
• Carefully screw low speed screw
(1) and high speed screw (2)
with springs (3) down onto their
seats.
Fitting limiter caps
Note: Use new caps.
• Fit cap for high speed screw so
that it is against ’rich’ stop and
cap for low speed screw so that
its is against ’lean’ stop.
Preparations
- Check air filter and clean if
necessary.
- Push the caps on to the adjusting screws until they are flush
with the molding.
- Inspect spark arresting screen
and clean or replace as
necessary.
915RA251 VA
- Check chain tension and adjust
if necessary.
HT-12A
• Pull cap off the adjusting screw.
Note: Limiter caps are damaged
during removal. They must not be
used again.
Basic setting
L
• Starting with the adjusting
screws (H) and (L) firmly against
their seats, open the high speed
screw (H) one full turn and the
low speed screw (L) seven
eights of a turn.
60
915RA255 VA
H
915RA253 VA
- If necessary, take out the adjusting screws with springs.
• The two lugs on the molding limit
the range of adjustment.
Carburetors
• Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
4
engine speed to 2500 rpm.
2
Checking running behavior
- Open the throttle several times
to check that engine accelerates
smoothly.
- Engine must run uniformly at
idle speed.
1
• Corrections are now possible
915RA259 VA
915RA256 VA
180
3
• Place module (1) in position.
only within a range of
180 degrees.
• Carefully screw high speed
915RA258 VA
HL-366A
Basic setting
• Use a scriber to ease the caps
• Starting with the high speed
and rings out of the module.
Note: Limiter caps and rings are
damaged during removal. They
must not be used again.
Adjusting idle speed
Note: Use a tachometer.
915RA260 VA
screw (2) and low speed screw
(3) with springs (4) into module
as far as stop.
- This enables the mixture to be
made leaner, if necessary, for
operation at high altitudes and
prevents it being enriched
beyond the emission limits
specified by EPA.
screw (H) and low speed screw
(L) firmly against their seats,
open them one and a half turns.
H = L = 1.5.
- If necessary, take out the adjusting screws with springs.
915RA257 VA
- Remove the module.
• Turn low speed screw (L) one
quarter turn counterclockwise.
Carburetors
61
1
Adjusting idle speed
Important: The positions of the
rings and adjusting screws must
not be altered while aligning and
fitting the caps.
2
Note: Use a tachometer.
- Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
engine speed to 2500 rpm.
915RA261 VA
- Use carburetor screwdriver to
push caps into the rings until
they snap into position.
Fitting rings and limiter caps
Note: Use new rings and caps.
• Fit the blue ring (1) over the low
speed screw (L) so that the
markings line up.
- Press the ring home until it is
flush with the module.
• Fit the red ring (2) over the high
speed screw (H) so that the
markings line up.
90
915RA263 VA
• Corrections are now possible on
the low speed screw within a
range of 180 degrees and on the
high speed screw within a range
of 90 degrees.
- This enables the mixture to be
made leaner, if necessary, for
operation at high altitudes and
prevents it being enriched
beyond the emission limits
specified by EPA.
915RA264 VA
180
- Press the ring home until it is
flush with the module.
1
HS-280A, HS-281A
- Turn caps counterclockwise as
far as stop.
• Screw puller (1) 5910 890 4500
into cap counterclockwise until it
comes off the the head of the
adjusting screw (left-hand
thread).
Note: Limiter caps are damaged
during removal. They must not be
used again.
915RA262 VA
- If necessary, take out the low
speed and high speed screws.
- Remove the module.
• Align and fit caps so that the
cap’s flattened lug projects
exactly into the slot in the
adjusting screw.
62
Carburetors
4
• Insert caps in the bores so that
2
the lug on the high speed screw
points to the left and the lug on
the low speed screw points
downwards.
915RA265 VA
1
3
- Push the caps on to the adjusting screws until they are flush
with the module.
• Place module (1) in position.
• Carefully screw high speed
screw (2) and low speed screw
(3) with springs (4) into module
as far as stop.
180
H
1/2
180
915RA268 VA
915RA266 VA
L
1/4
• Corrections are now possible
Basic setting
only within a range of
180 degrees.
• Starting with the high speed
screw (H) and low speed screw
(L) firmly against their seats,
open them one turn.
- This enables the mixture to be
made leaner, if necessary, for
operation at high altitudes and
prevents it being enriched
beyond the emission limits
specified by EPA.
Adjusting idle speed
Note: Use a tachometer.
915RA267 VA
Use idle speed screw (LA) to set
engine speed to 1800 rpm.
Fitting limiter caps
Note: Use new caps.
Carburetors
63
7.21
Flow Chart
HD-13A, HD-16, HD-17, HD-18A, HD-21A, HD-22, WY-69, WT-329, WT-330, WT-367, WT-393, WT-489,
WT-492, WJ-69, C1Q-SK7, C3A-S39A
Make preparations
Carry out basic setting
Adjust engine idle speed
Carry out full-load setting
no
Running behavior ok?
yes
Remove both caps
Secure caps
no
Running behavior ok?
yes
Carburetor adjustment completed
64
Carburetors
8.
8.1
Special Servicing Tools and Aids
Special Servicing Tools
No.
Part Name
Part No.
Application
1
Carburetor and crankcase
tester
1106 850 2905
Testing carburetor for leaks
2
- Fuel line
1110 141 8600
3
- Nipple
0000 855 9200
4
Puller
5910 890 4500
Removing caps 1)
5
Screwdriver
or
5910 890 2305
000 890 2300
Installing carb adjusting screws,
adjusting carburetor
Part No.
Application
8.2
Servicing Aids
No.
Part Name
1
White spirit
2
Medium-strength adhesive
(Loctite 242)
1)
Cleaning all components
0786 111 1101
Control valve, sealing plug,
sealing plate, screw for
throttle and choke shutters
only carbs with limiter caps
Carburetors
65