Web Tension Handbook - Cleveland Motion Controls

Your Single Source For Web Tension Solutions
ADVANCED WEB PROCESS CONTROL
H
A
N
D
B
O
O
K
ADVANCED WEB PROCESS CONTROL
CONTENTS
Clev
elan
d-Ki
dder ®
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
All CMC Web Tension data sheets and manuals are available on our website.
INTRODUCTION..................................................
How to Size and Select
Load Cells for
We b P ro c e s s P ro d u c t i v i t y
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB TENSION CONTROL..........
• What is Web Tension Control?
• What Requires Web Tension Control?
• Why Worry About Web Tension Control?
• What are Load Cells and Tension Transducers?
• Why are Load Cells Necessary?
• How Do Load Cells Actually Work?
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
6
SELECT THE LOAD CELL FOR YOUR APPLICATION........ 8
• How Do I Determine the Style Needed?
8
Step 1- Determine if you have a wide web, narrow
10
web, or wire and cable application
7550 Hub Parkway
Cleveland, Oh 44125-5794
Call: 1-216-524-8800 or 1-800-321-8072
Fax: (216) 642-2199
Web Tension Division
All Rights Reserved.
Litho USA
3M
12/02
WT-HB
• Be Realistic About Tension Control and Over What Range 27
• Remove Transducers when Transporting the Machine 27
WHAT SHOULD I LOOK FOR IN LOAD CELLS?................ 29
• All Load Cells are Not Created Equal
29
29
• Will the Load Cell Disrupt the Web Path?
• Will the Load Cell Allow for Shaft Misalignment?
• What is the Strength of the Output Signal?
29
30
30
Step 4- Determine space and mounting requirements 14
• How Responsive is the Load Cell?
30
Step 5- Determine environmental restrictions
Step 6- Select the proper load cell style
• Is the Load Cell’s Signal Linear and Repeatable?
• Is the Load Cell Temperature Compensated?
• Will the Load Cell Accommodate Shaft Expansion?
31
31
31
• Will the Load Cell be Reliable and Durable?
32
11
12
14
14
SIZING THE TRANSDUCER FOR THE LOAD REQUIREMENTS 16
• What is the Reason for Sizing?
• What Formulas Are Used For Proper Sizing?
• How Are Sizing Formulas Applied?
© 2002 Cleveland Motion Controls.
20
20
21
22
25
26
27
• Is The Primary Technology Employed Well Accepted?
Step 2- Determine if you have a stationary shaft or
rotating shaft roller
Step 3- Determine the proper tension
WEB TENSION DIVISION
WHAT TECHNIQUES CAN GET THE MOST FROM MY
LOAD CELLS?......................................................
• Orient the Load Cell Properly
• Pay Attention to Roller Weight
• Calculate the Tare Weight and Make it Work For You
• Don’t Ignore The Wrap Angle- Use it to Your Benefit
• Maintain a Fixed Angle of Wrap Throughout the Process
• Be Judicious in Assigning the Safety Factor
16
17
18
SUMMARY..........................................................
32
Your
Single
Source
For
Web
Tension
Solutions
TENSION TRANSDUCERS
(Load Cells)
DIN-RAIL AMPLIFIER
DIN-Rail
Amp
Digital
Analog
0 - 10 VDC
Output
A
D
V
A
N
C
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
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N
T
R
O
L
UNWIND ZONE
INTERMEDIATE ZONE
BRAKE OR
MOTOR DRIVE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
REWIND ZONE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
Strain Gages
PROCESS
Dual Beams
Electrical Connector
MOTOR
TACH
TACH
MOTOR DRIVE
OR CLUTCH
Teflon-Coated
Alignment
Ball Joint
Temperature
Compensation
Network
WEB TENSION SENSING
TRANSDUCERS
Split
Coupling
With over thirty years of proven
WEBPRO
UNWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
A D V A N C E D
MOTOR
CONTROL
W E B
WEBPRO
DRIVE
TENSION
CONTROLLER
P R O C E S S
MOTOR
CONTROL
C O N T R O L
industrial use worldwide, CMC
transducers are used to measure
the tension in a ny material,
any process, any machine, in
fact virtually any application where
MOTOR
Clev
elan
d-Ki
dder ®
Your
Single
accurate web tension is required
to achieve maximum productivity.
Source
For
Dust Seal
Web
Tension
Expansion Pin
Solutions
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
WEBPRO
REWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
Your Single Source For Web Tension Solutions
ADVANCED WEB PROCESS CONTROL
H
A
N
D
B
O
O
K
ADVANCED WEB PROCESS CONTROL
CONTENTS
Clev
elan
d-Ki
dder ®
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
All CMC Web Tension data sheets and manuals are available on our website.
INTRODUCTION..................................................
How to Size and Select
Load Cells for
We b P ro c e s s P ro d u c t i v i t y
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB TENSION CONTROL..........
• What is Web Tension Control?
• What Requires Web Tension Control?
• Why Worry About Web Tension Control?
• What are Load Cells and Tension Transducers?
• Why are Load Cells Necessary?
• How Do Load Cells Actually Work?
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
6
SELECT THE LOAD CELL FOR YOUR APPLICATION........ 8
• How Do I Determine the Style Needed?
8
Step 1- Determine if you have a wide web, narrow
10
web, or wire and cable application
7550 Hub Parkway
Cleveland, Oh 44125-5794
Call: 1-216-524-8800 or 1-800-321-8072
Fax: (216) 642-2199
Web Tension Division
All Rights Reserved.
Litho USA
3M
12/02
WT-HB
• Be Realistic About Tension Control and Over What Range 27
• Remove Transducers when Transporting the Machine 27
WHAT SHOULD I LOOK FOR IN LOAD CELLS?................ 29
• All Load Cells are Not Created Equal
29
29
• Will the Load Cell Disrupt the Web Path?
• Will the Load Cell Allow for Shaft Misalignment?
• What is the Strength of the Output Signal?
29
30
30
Step 4- Determine space and mounting requirements 14
• How Responsive is the Load Cell?
30
Step 5- Determine environmental restrictions
Step 6- Select the proper load cell style
• Is the Load Cell’s Signal Linear and Repeatable?
• Is the Load Cell Temperature Compensated?
• Will the Load Cell Accommodate Shaft Expansion?
31
31
31
• Will the Load Cell be Reliable and Durable?
32
11
12
14
14
SIZING THE TRANSDUCER FOR THE LOAD REQUIREMENTS 16
• What is the Reason for Sizing?
• What Formulas Are Used For Proper Sizing?
• How Are Sizing Formulas Applied?
© 2002 Cleveland Motion Controls.
20
20
21
22
25
26
27
• Is The Primary Technology Employed Well Accepted?
Step 2- Determine if you have a stationary shaft or
rotating shaft roller
Step 3- Determine the proper tension
WEB TENSION DIVISION
WHAT TECHNIQUES CAN GET THE MOST FROM MY
LOAD CELLS?......................................................
• Orient the Load Cell Properly
• Pay Attention to Roller Weight
• Calculate the Tare Weight and Make it Work For You
• Don’t Ignore The Wrap Angle- Use it to Your Benefit
• Maintain a Fixed Angle of Wrap Throughout the Process
• Be Judicious in Assigning the Safety Factor
16
17
18
SUMMARY..........................................................
32
A D V A N C E D
W E B
P R O C E S S
C O N T R O L
HOW TO SIZE AND SELECT LOAD CELLS FOR
WEB PROCESS PRODUCTIVITY
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Many engineers and technicians are not familiar with the practical application
of load cells (tension transducers) for web tension control. This handbook
describes the steps required to size and select load cells for web process
productivity. Through a logical progression of questions and answers, it provides
fundamental background information, explains decision-making factors, and
offers many useful tips and techniques along the way. Of course, when in
doubt, consult with your supplier before purchasing load cells. They are the
best source of application expertise and can make helpful suggestions to
ensure proper configuration and sizing. The information presented in this
handbook however, will enable you to have informed and meaningful
discussions, resulting in the best chance of success for your application.
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB TENSION CONTROL
THE
Q: What is Web Tension Control?
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
Q: What Requires Web Tension Control?
Most processes involved in the production or converting of paper, film,
plastic, foil, textile, wire, and cable require some form of tension control.
It is also necessary on products that require winding onto rolls, printing,
coating, laminating, slitting, and extruding. This handbook only discusses
continuous roll fed material, tension control of sheet fed product is outside the scope.
CONTROL
HANDBOOK
Web tension control refers to the various methods used to measure
and adjust tension in a moving web. In the context of this handbook,
a web is any material continuously pulled from a roll through some
manufacturing process. Tension is the measurable force that stretches or
elongates the web. Web tension control methods range from feeling and
controlling tension by hand to advanced systems that automatically
measure and make adjustments to the process.
1
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
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THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
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S
C
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T
R
O
L
Q: Why Worry About Web Tension Control?
Properly controlling web tension results in higher quality product
and produces greater throughput. For instance, if the tension is not
properly controlled, wrinkles in the material may occur resulting in
defective or wasted product. (Refer to Figure 1A) If a roll of material is
wound without proper tension control, the outer layers may crush the
inner layers leading to starring (Refer to Figure 1B), or the inner layers
may telescope out resulting in ruined product (Refer to Figure 1C).
When printing on a roll of material, improper tension control results in
smeared ink and fuzzy images from poor registration. Applying too
much tension may stretch some materials beyond their elastic limit
rendering them unusable. Proper tension control allows the process
to run at high speeds without sacrificing product quality.
Q: What are Load Cells and Tension Transducers?
The terms "load cell" and "tension transducer" are used interchangeably to describe a sensor that accurately measures the
tension in a moving web. The term "load cell" is commonly used to
describe weigh scale sensors that precisely measure the force or load
due to the weight of an object. The term has carried over to the web
processing industry since similar sensors measure the force produced by
tension in the web. The term "transducer" is defined as a device that
transforms one type of energy into another. Therefore, a "tension transducer"
is a sensor that measures the force resulting from tension in a web and
transforms it into electrical energy.
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
Both terms will be used throughout this handbook.
Q: Why Are Load Cells Necessary?
Figure 1-A
( Wrinkling )
Installing load cells (tension transducers) is the only accurate
way to measure web tension. The measured tension value is
then used to adjust the process to increase productivity.
Figure 1-B
( Starring )
Basic Method:
The operator estimates the web tension by hand and makes
manual adjustments to the process. This approach requires
100% operator intervention.
The operator taps on the web and by "feel" tries to determine the
amount of tension. Appropriate corrective action is taken to change the
tension by manually changing brake torques, dancer loads, gear ratios,
or motor speeds. The operator continues tapping the web and making
adjustments until a satisfactory result is achieved. Because this is a
manual process, adjustments take time, and as a result, much wasted
product is produced.
2
Figure 1-C
( Telescoping )
HANDBOOK
During the manufacturing or converting process, material is generally
pulled off a roll, processed, and rewound. These sections are referred to
as unwind, intermediate, and rewind zones respectively. Knowing the
tension value for each zone plays an important roll in making adjustments
to the process. Each zone may require a unique or specific tension
value. There are several methods used to measure and control tension
in these zones. Some are more sophisticated than others, but once
measured, the tension value is used to increase the line’s productivity.
Without accurate tension values, adjustments will be inconsistent and
may actually reduce throughput or quality. Basic, better, and best tension
measuring and controlling methods follow.
3
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
D
V A
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THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
Q: Why Worry About Web Tension Control?
Properly controlling web tension results in higher quality product
and produces greater throughput. For instance, if the tension is not
properly controlled, wrinkles in the material may occur resulting in
defective or wasted product. (Refer to Figure 1A) If a roll of material is
wound without proper tension control, the outer layers may crush the
inner layers leading to starring (Refer to Figure 1B), or the inner layers
may telescope out resulting in ruined product (Refer to Figure 1C).
When printing on a roll of material, improper tension control results in
smeared ink and fuzzy images from poor registration. Applying too
much tension may stretch some materials beyond their elastic limit
rendering them unusable. Proper tension control allows the process
to run at high speeds without sacrificing product quality.
Q: What are Load Cells and Tension Transducers?
The terms "load cell" and "tension transducer" are used interchangeably to describe a sensor that accurately measures the
tension in a moving web. The term "load cell" is commonly used to
describe weigh scale sensors that precisely measure the force or load
due to the weight of an object. The term has carried over to the web
processing industry since similar sensors measure the force produced by
tension in the web. The term "transducer" is defined as a device that
transforms one type of energy into another. Therefore, a "tension transducer"
is a sensor that measures the force resulting from tension in a web and
transforms it into electrical energy.
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
Both terms will be used throughout this handbook.
Q: Why Are Load Cells Necessary?
Figure 1-A
( Wrinkling )
Installing load cells (tension transducers) is the only accurate
way to measure web tension. The measured tension value is
then used to adjust the process to increase productivity.
Figure 1-B
( Starring )
Basic Method:
The operator estimates the web tension by hand and makes
manual adjustments to the process. This approach requires
100% operator intervention.
The operator taps on the web and by "feel" tries to determine the
amount of tension. Appropriate corrective action is taken to change the
tension by manually changing brake torques, dancer loads, gear ratios,
or motor speeds. The operator continues tapping the web and making
adjustments until a satisfactory result is achieved. Because this is a
manual process, adjustments take time, and as a result, much wasted
product is produced.
2
Figure 1-C
( Telescoping )
HANDBOOK
During the manufacturing or converting process, material is generally
pulled off a roll, processed, and rewound. These sections are referred to
as unwind, intermediate, and rewind zones respectively. Knowing the
tension value for each zone plays an important roll in making adjustments
to the process. Each zone may require a unique or specific tension
value. There are several methods used to measure and control tension
in these zones. Some are more sophisticated than others, but once
measured, the tension value is used to increase the line’s productivity.
Without accurate tension values, adjustments will be inconsistent and
may actually reduce throughput or quality. Basic, better, and best tension
measuring and controlling methods follow.
3
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
D
V A
N
C
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
With this basic method, there is no consistent way of measuring or
altering the tension. Attempts may be made to record the settings of the
motor speeds, brake pressure, or dancer loads, but as brake pads and
other machine parts wear, the settings will produce different tension
levels. Temperature changes and inconsistencies in the material will also
affect tension. Furthermore, different operators have differing opinions
on which tension feels right. Product quality is suspect and inconsistent.
THE
Best Method:
Load cells are used along with controllers and actuators to
automatically measure and adjust web tension. This approach
requires minimum operator intervention. (Refer to Figure 2)
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
TENSION TRANSDUCERS
(Load Cells)
DIN-RAIL AMPLIFIER
DIN-Rail
Amp
Most importantly, this method is an unsafe and unacceptable
working practice.
Since the tension is unknown, so are the limits to which the line speed
may be increased. Trying to run at high line speeds may produce stretch
or break the web. Running at low line speeds may be required in order
to produce acceptable product. This greatly limits throughput.
FUNDAMENTALS
Digital
Analog
0 - 10 VDC
Output
UNWIND ZONE
INTERMEDIATE ZONE
BRAKE OR
MOTOR DRIVE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
REWIND ZONE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
PROCESS
Better Method:
MOTOR
Load cells are used to measure tension and the value is displayed
on an indicator. The operator still manually adjusts the tension.
This requires a great deal of operator intervention.
Since the tension is known, so too are the limits to which the line speed
may be increased before the material stretches or web breaks. The line
speed may be increased but only to the amount that it can be controlled.
Manual intervention by the operator still limits the response
time and how tightly the tension values can be controlled.
Though greatly improved, throughput is not yet maximized.
4
TACH
MOTOR
MOTOR DRIVE
OR CLUTCH
UNWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
MOTOR
CONTROL
DRIVE
TENSION
CONTROLLER
MOTOR
CONTROL
REWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
Figure 2
( Complete Web Tension Converting System )
Load cells are added to the rollers (or sheaves and pulleys) in the tension
zones. The load cells are connected to a device that displays the tension
value and automatically controls the brakes, dancers, gear ratios, or
motors. The operator enters the desired tension setting (tension set point)
and the appropriate corrective action is done automatically by changing
brake torques, dancer loads, gear ratios, or motor speeds. The controller
may be a standalone device, PLC, or programmable drive. All perform
closed-loop tension control. They continually compare the tension set
point to the actual tension being measured by the load cells and automatically take corrective action to ensure that these values agree.
This method provides a consistent means of measuring and
controlling tension. Tension control is done automatically and
requires minimum operator intervention. Product quality is
at its best and is consistent. Corrective action takes place
immediately. As a result, little wasted product is produced.
HANDBOOK
Load cells are added to the rollers (or sheaves and pulleys) in the tension
zones. The load cells measure the tension and the values are displayed
on tension indicators (meters, or screen displays). The operator takes the
appropriate corrective action to adjust the tension by manually changing
brake torques, dancer loads, gear ratios, or motor speeds. The operator
continues to read the tension values and makes the necessary adjustments
until proper tension is achieved. Manual adjustments are still required,
but the tension values are accurate and can now be documented. This
allows for the line tension to be duplicated on the next run or when
run by a different operator. There is a consistent method of measuring
and displaying tension but no consistent method of controlling it.
Tension control still relies on operator intervention, which takes time to
correct. As a result, much wasted product is still produced. Product
quality is greatly improved but is somewhat inconsistent.
TACH
5
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
D
V A
N
C
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
With this basic method, there is no consistent way of measuring or
altering the tension. Attempts may be made to record the settings of the
motor speeds, brake pressure, or dancer loads, but as brake pads and
other machine parts wear, the settings will produce different tension
levels. Temperature changes and inconsistencies in the material will also
affect tension. Furthermore, different operators have differing opinions
on which tension feels right. Product quality is suspect and inconsistent.
THE
Best Method:
Load cells are used along with controllers and actuators to
automatically measure and adjust web tension. This approach
requires minimum operator intervention. (Refer to Figure 2)
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
TENSION TRANSDUCERS
(Load Cells)
DIN-RAIL AMPLIFIER
DIN-Rail
Amp
Most importantly, this method is an unsafe and unacceptable
working practice.
Since the tension is unknown, so are the limits to which the line speed
may be increased. Trying to run at high line speeds may produce stretch
or break the web. Running at low line speeds may be required in order
to produce acceptable product. This greatly limits throughput.
FUNDAMENTALS
Digital
Analog
0 - 10 VDC
Output
UNWIND ZONE
INTERMEDIATE ZONE
BRAKE OR
MOTOR DRIVE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
REWIND ZONE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
PROCESS
Better Method:
MOTOR
Load cells are used to measure tension and the value is displayed
on an indicator. The operator still manually adjusts the tension.
This requires a great deal of operator intervention.
Since the tension is known, so too are the limits to which the line speed
may be increased before the material stretches or web breaks. The line
speed may be increased but only to the amount that it can be controlled.
Manual intervention by the operator still limits the response
time and how tightly the tension values can be controlled.
Though greatly improved, throughput is not yet maximized.
4
TACH
MOTOR
MOTOR DRIVE
OR CLUTCH
UNWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
MOTOR
CONTROL
DRIVE
TENSION
CONTROLLER
MOTOR
CONTROL
REWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
Figure 2
( Complete Web Tension Converting System )
Load cells are added to the rollers (or sheaves and pulleys) in the tension
zones. The load cells are connected to a device that displays the tension
value and automatically controls the brakes, dancers, gear ratios, or
motors. The operator enters the desired tension setting (tension set point)
and the appropriate corrective action is done automatically by changing
brake torques, dancer loads, gear ratios, or motor speeds. The controller
may be a standalone device, PLC, or programmable drive. All perform
closed-loop tension control. They continually compare the tension set
point to the actual tension being measured by the load cells and automatically take corrective action to ensure that these values agree.
This method provides a consistent means of measuring and
controlling tension. Tension control is done automatically and
requires minimum operator intervention. Product quality is
at its best and is consistent. Corrective action takes place
immediately. As a result, little wasted product is produced.
HANDBOOK
Load cells are added to the rollers (or sheaves and pulleys) in the tension
zones. The load cells measure the tension and the values are displayed
on tension indicators (meters, or screen displays). The operator takes the
appropriate corrective action to adjust the tension by manually changing
brake torques, dancer loads, gear ratios, or motor speeds. The operator
continues to read the tension values and makes the necessary adjustments
until proper tension is achieved. Manual adjustments are still required,
but the tension values are accurate and can now be documented. This
allows for the line tension to be duplicated on the next run or when
run by a different operator. There is a consistent method of measuring
and displaying tension but no consistent method of controlling it.
Tension control still relies on operator intervention, which takes time to
correct. As a result, much wasted product is still produced. Product
quality is greatly improved but is somewhat inconsistent.
TACH
5
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
D
V A
N
C
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
THE
Since the tension is known, so too are the limits to which the line speed
may be increased before the material stretches or web breaks. The line
speed may be increased to the amount that it can be controlled. Highly
responsive automatic closed-loop tension devices tightly control tension
values. Throughput is maximized. Limiting factors are only the response
time of the control loop and actual process limitations.
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
Q: How Do Load Cells Actually Work?
Load cells employ strain gages, LVTDs (Linear Variable Differential
Transformers), or some other means as their primary sensing element. In
all cases, they operate as electromechanical devices. Understanding
how they operate helps to apply them more effectively. Explaining
Cleveland Motion Controls’ (CMC) Cartridge Style Transducer illustrates
the fundamentals of how a strain gage transducer operates.
The transducer is first fastened to the machine frame at one end and
to a roller on the other end. Then, the web is wrapped over the roller.
(Refer to Figure 3) Inside each transducer, strain gages have been
attached to a pair of beams made of spring steel. (Refer to Figure 4)
Referred to as dual beams, they are fixed at one end with the free end
connecting to the roller. As tension is applied to the web, the force is
transferred from the roller directly to the transducer.
Figure 4
( Web Tension Sensing Transducer )
See full-color version on inside cover foldout
The component of force applied perpendicular to the beam deflects
or bends them. (Refer to Figure 5) This bending, typically 0.002 to
0.004 inches, creates a strain or elongation of the molecules in the
beams. The strain gages measure this elongation and generate an
electrical signal exactly proportional to the amount of force applied.
This signal is the web tension value.
(continued page 8)
6
Figure 5
( With Load and Without Load)
HANDBOOK
Figure 3
( Web Tension Indicating System )
7
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
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THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
THE
Since the tension is known, so too are the limits to which the line speed
may be increased before the material stretches or web breaks. The line
speed may be increased to the amount that it can be controlled. Highly
responsive automatic closed-loop tension devices tightly control tension
values. Throughput is maximized. Limiting factors are only the response
time of the control loop and actual process limitations.
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
Q: How Do Load Cells Actually Work?
Load cells employ strain gages, LVTDs (Linear Variable Differential
Transformers), or some other means as their primary sensing element. In
all cases, they operate as electromechanical devices. Understanding
how they operate helps to apply them more effectively. Explaining
Cleveland Motion Controls’ (CMC) Cartridge Style Transducer illustrates
the fundamentals of how a strain gage transducer operates.
The transducer is first fastened to the machine frame at one end and
to a roller on the other end. Then, the web is wrapped over the roller.
(Refer to Figure 3) Inside each transducer, strain gages have been
attached to a pair of beams made of spring steel. (Refer to Figure 4)
Referred to as dual beams, they are fixed at one end with the free end
connecting to the roller. As tension is applied to the web, the force is
transferred from the roller directly to the transducer.
Figure 4
( Web Tension Sensing Transducer )
See full-color version on inside cover foldout
The component of force applied perpendicular to the beam deflects
or bends them. (Refer to Figure 5) This bending, typically 0.002 to
0.004 inches, creates a strain or elongation of the molecules in the
beams. The strain gages measure this elongation and generate an
electrical signal exactly proportional to the amount of force applied.
This signal is the web tension value.
(continued page 8)
6
Figure 5
( With Load and Without Load)
HANDBOOK
Figure 3
( Web Tension Indicating System )
7
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
N
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THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
To accommodate a larger force, the cross sectional area of the beam
can be increased by making it either wider or thicker. The greater the
transducer load rating (Maximum Working Force or MWF), the larger
the beam. A transducer with an MWF rating of 150 lb. has a beam
both wider and thicker than one rated for 25lb. Overload stops are
provided on all CMC Cartridge Style Transducers, which allow them to
accommodate overloads of 150% to 300% of their rating.
SELECTING THE STYLE OF LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR APPLICATION
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
Q: How Do I Determine the Style Needed?
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Selecting a load cell first requires that the proper style be chosen. Some
load cells are designed for wide webs and others for narrow webs.
There are load cell designs for use with stationary (fixed or dead) shaft
rollers and for rotating (live) shaft rollers. (Refer to Figure 7) There are
load cells that are designed for use with commercially available pillow
block bearings. Space limitations may be a factor so slim and low profile
designs may be required. The environment may be wet or contain
harsh chemicals, in which case a sealed and corrosive resistant load cell
is the best solution. (Refer to Figure 6) Finally, different styles of load
cells have different tension ranges.
Cleveland-Kidder® Transducer Styles
Stationary Shaft Rollers
V A
Rotating Shafts
D
Wide Web Applications
A
Many application specific questions need to be asked and answered
before choosing a load cell. The following steps contain these important
questions.
Slim Cell
Transducer (Type SS)
• Negligible displacement
• Completely sealed; corrosion,
of “twin beam” design,
chemical and water resisting
resulting in high level linear
(Stainless Steel 410). Dust
output signal, high
sealed.
frequency response and
• Easily oriented to any web
• Low profile design reduces path by merely rotating the
overall system stability.
• Wide range of maximum
width requirements
load ratings—from 25 lb. • Accommodates shaft
transducer, no remounting
of machine frame.
to 1000 lb.
expansion & shaft
necessary.
• Available with 10 lb. to
misalignment.
• Easily oriented at any
• 500 to 1000% Overload
1000 lb. load ratings.
angle to accommodate • Wide variety of mounting
Ratings.
all web paths.
options––flange mount & • Extends machine’s usable • CE compliant.
tension range (by measuring
pillow block mounting kits.
• Wide operating
low and high tensions).
• CE compliant.
temperature range.
Slim Cell Transducers
(Type RS)
UPB WashdownDuty LC
• For use with pillow
block bearings.
Cantilevered
Transducer CLT
Narrow Web
Applications
(continued page 10)
Cartridge-Style
Transducers
• Available in a variety of • Completely sealed;
load ratings (25 lb. to
Corrosion and chemical
30,000 lb.) and sizes
resisting (Stainless Steel
(6.5 to 17 inches long).
410 or Anodized
Aluminum Alloy 6061).
• Resists liquids and wet
• Provides 500% overload
environments.
• Alternative to UPB–Low
• Compact low profile design protection.
friction bearing design ideal
• Removable mounting
fits into tight places.
for low tension requirements.
plate
for
easy
installation
• CE compliant.
of pillow block bearing. • See additional information
shown for Type SS above.
Cantilevered
Tensi-Master®
CR Transducer
• Wide range of maximum
• Negligible displacement
load ratings – from 0.1 lb.
of “twin beam” design,
to 500 lbs.
resulting in high level linear
output signal, high frequency
• Reduces maintenance costs.
response and overall system
•
Provides
flexibility
of
• For use with cantilevered
stability.
specifying
almost
any
fixed
rollers or pulleys.
• Wide range of maximum • Easily oriented at any angle,
shaft
roller.
• Accommodates almost any
load ratings – from 5 lb. to accommodating all web
customer roller, eliminating • Eliminates need for custom 150 lb. load ratings.
paths.
designed
transducers
for
need & expense of
• Accommodates customer- • CE compliant.
non-standard applications.
integrated roller.
mounted pulley.
• Cylindrical body design and
• CE compliant.
CMC mounting kits enables
it to be oriented to any
web path.
Figure 7
( CMC Transducer Selection Guide )
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
Figure 6
( Environmentally Sealed Load Cells )
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
8
9
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
N
C
THE
FUNDAMENTALS
OF WEB TENSION
CONTROL
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
To accommodate a larger force, the cross sectional area of the beam
can be increased by making it either wider or thicker. The greater the
transducer load rating (Maximum Working Force or MWF), the larger
the beam. A transducer with an MWF rating of 150 lb. has a beam
both wider and thicker than one rated for 25lb. Overload stops are
provided on all CMC Cartridge Style Transducers, which allow them to
accommodate overloads of 150% to 300% of their rating.
SELECTING THE STYLE OF LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR APPLICATION
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
Q: How Do I Determine the Style Needed?
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Selecting a load cell first requires that the proper style be chosen. Some
load cells are designed for wide webs and others for narrow webs.
There are load cell designs for use with stationary (fixed or dead) shaft
rollers and for rotating (live) shaft rollers. (Refer to Figure 7) There are
load cells that are designed for use with commercially available pillow
block bearings. Space limitations may be a factor so slim and low profile
designs may be required. The environment may be wet or contain
harsh chemicals, in which case a sealed and corrosive resistant load cell
is the best solution. (Refer to Figure 6) Finally, different styles of load
cells have different tension ranges.
Cleveland-Kidder® Transducer Styles
Stationary Shaft Rollers
V A
Rotating Shafts
D
Wide Web Applications
A
Many application specific questions need to be asked and answered
before choosing a load cell. The following steps contain these important
questions.
Slim Cell
Transducer (Type SS)
• Negligible displacement
• Completely sealed; corrosion,
of “twin beam” design,
chemical and water resisting
resulting in high level linear
(Stainless Steel 410). Dust
output signal, high
sealed.
frequency response and
• Easily oriented to any web
• Low profile design reduces path by merely rotating the
overall system stability.
• Wide range of maximum
width requirements
load ratings—from 25 lb. • Accommodates shaft
transducer, no remounting
of machine frame.
to 1000 lb.
expansion & shaft
necessary.
• Available with 10 lb. to
misalignment.
• Easily oriented at any
• 500 to 1000% Overload
1000 lb. load ratings.
angle to accommodate • Wide variety of mounting
Ratings.
all web paths.
options––flange mount & • Extends machine’s usable • CE compliant.
tension range (by measuring
pillow block mounting kits.
• Wide operating
low and high tensions).
• CE compliant.
temperature range.
Slim Cell Transducers
(Type RS)
UPB WashdownDuty LC
• For use with pillow
block bearings.
Cantilevered
Transducer CLT
Narrow Web
Applications
(continued page 10)
Cartridge-Style
Transducers
• Available in a variety of • Completely sealed;
load ratings (25 lb. to
Corrosion and chemical
30,000 lb.) and sizes
resisting (Stainless Steel
(6.5 to 17 inches long).
410 or Anodized
Aluminum Alloy 6061).
• Resists liquids and wet
• Provides 500% overload
environments.
• Alternative to UPB–Low
• Compact low profile design protection.
friction bearing design ideal
• Removable mounting
fits into tight places.
for low tension requirements.
plate
for
easy
installation
• CE compliant.
of pillow block bearing. • See additional information
shown for Type SS above.
Cantilevered
Tensi-Master®
CR Transducer
• Wide range of maximum
• Negligible displacement
load ratings – from 0.1 lb.
of “twin beam” design,
to 500 lbs.
resulting in high level linear
output signal, high frequency
• Reduces maintenance costs.
response and overall system
•
Provides
flexibility
of
• For use with cantilevered
stability.
specifying
almost
any
fixed
rollers or pulleys.
• Wide range of maximum • Easily oriented at any angle,
shaft
roller.
• Accommodates almost any
load ratings – from 5 lb. to accommodating all web
customer roller, eliminating • Eliminates need for custom 150 lb. load ratings.
paths.
designed
transducers
for
need & expense of
• Accommodates customer- • CE compliant.
non-standard applications.
integrated roller.
mounted pulley.
• Cylindrical body design and
• CE compliant.
CMC mounting kits enables
it to be oriented to any
web path.
Figure 7
( CMC Transducer Selection Guide )
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
Figure 6
( Environmentally Sealed Load Cells )
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
8
9
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
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SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
Step 1 - Determine if you have a wide web, narrow web, or
wire and cable application
Step 2 - Determine if you have a stationary shaft or rotating
shaft roller
Wide Web: Typically a wide web is over 20 inches wide and utilizes a
roller assembly supported on both ends. Some production processes
utilizing a wide web include paper, film, foil, and plastics; printing and
the converting of these products such as coating, slitting, and laminating.
Stationary Shaft Rollers: Rollers are either stationary shaft or rotating
shaft. Stationary shaft rollers have a shaft that run all the way through
the assembly. The outer shell or sleeve is a cylinder that rotates around
the shaft on bearings. The shaft does not rotate but remains stationary.
Stationary shaft rollers are also referred to as fixed or dead shaft rollers.
(Refer to Figure 10)
CMC’s standard product offerings for wide webs are the Cartridge
Style Transducers, Slim Cell Transducer, and UPB Washdown Duty LC.
(Refer to Figure 7)
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Two transducers are required
per roller; one mounted at each
end of the roller assembly.
Narrow Web / Wire and Cable:
Typically a narrow web is less than 20
inches wide and utilizes a cantilevered
roller or pulley supported at one end
by the load cell. Commonly, the outer
sleeve rotates on bearings around
a center shaft that runs the length
of roller assembly. The shaft is held
in place on one end and hangs free
on the other. (Refer to Figure 8)
The amount of deflection of the shaft
due to the overhung tension load limits
the practical length of the cantilevered
roller to about 20 inches.
Figure 10
( Stationary (Dead) Shaft Roller )
Figure 8
( Cantilevered Roller )
CMC's standard product offerings for narrow webs
are the CLT and CR Style Transducers (Refer to
Figure 7). Other styles are available that have been
designed for specific applications.
Only one transducer is required per roller
since it supports a cantilevered roller or pulley.
Figure 9
( Pulley )
10
The Cartridge Style Transducer and Slim Cell Transducers are designed
for wide web rollers with stationary shafts. The Cartridge Style Transducer
is very versatile since it offers a variety of mounting options—flange
mount and pillow mounting kits. The Slim Cell Transducer is a low profile
design and can be mounted inside or outside the machine frame. It is
corrosive, chemical, and water resisting and is designed to handle high
overloads.
Rotating Shaft Rollers: Rotating shaft rollers are designed so that the
shaft is part of the rotating assembly. The outer shell or sleeve is integral
to the shaft, there are no bearings in the assembly, and the shaft
rotates. (Refer to Figure 11)
HANDBOOK
CMC also accommodates fiber optic strands, filaments,
some medical/hygienic products, as well as other
very narrow width products that run over a pulley
or guide roller. (Refer to Figure 9)
Narrow web rollers are cantilevered or pulleys and are generally stationary
shaft. CMC offers two standard styles for this application, the CLT Transducer
and the CR Transducer. The CR Transducer is designed for pulleys or
narrow rollers where the web, ribbon, or wire is always positioned in
the exact center of the roller. The CLT Transducer, on the other hand,
accommodates both pulleys and longer length rollers. The web can be
positioned anywhere along the length of roller face without affecting
the tension measurement.
11
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
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V A
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SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
Step 1 - Determine if you have a wide web, narrow web, or
wire and cable application
Step 2 - Determine if you have a stationary shaft or rotating
shaft roller
Wide Web: Typically a wide web is over 20 inches wide and utilizes a
roller assembly supported on both ends. Some production processes
utilizing a wide web include paper, film, foil, and plastics; printing and
the converting of these products such as coating, slitting, and laminating.
Stationary Shaft Rollers: Rollers are either stationary shaft or rotating
shaft. Stationary shaft rollers have a shaft that run all the way through
the assembly. The outer shell or sleeve is a cylinder that rotates around
the shaft on bearings. The shaft does not rotate but remains stationary.
Stationary shaft rollers are also referred to as fixed or dead shaft rollers.
(Refer to Figure 10)
CMC’s standard product offerings for wide webs are the Cartridge
Style Transducers, Slim Cell Transducer, and UPB Washdown Duty LC.
(Refer to Figure 7)
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Two transducers are required
per roller; one mounted at each
end of the roller assembly.
Narrow Web / Wire and Cable:
Typically a narrow web is less than 20
inches wide and utilizes a cantilevered
roller or pulley supported at one end
by the load cell. Commonly, the outer
sleeve rotates on bearings around
a center shaft that runs the length
of roller assembly. The shaft is held
in place on one end and hangs free
on the other. (Refer to Figure 8)
The amount of deflection of the shaft
due to the overhung tension load limits
the practical length of the cantilevered
roller to about 20 inches.
Figure 10
( Stationary (Dead) Shaft Roller )
Figure 8
( Cantilevered Roller )
CMC's standard product offerings for narrow webs
are the CLT and CR Style Transducers (Refer to
Figure 7). Other styles are available that have been
designed for specific applications.
Only one transducer is required per roller
since it supports a cantilevered roller or pulley.
Figure 9
( Pulley )
10
The Cartridge Style Transducer and Slim Cell Transducers are designed
for wide web rollers with stationary shafts. The Cartridge Style Transducer
is very versatile since it offers a variety of mounting options—flange
mount and pillow mounting kits. The Slim Cell Transducer is a low profile
design and can be mounted inside or outside the machine frame. It is
corrosive, chemical, and water resisting and is designed to handle high
overloads.
Rotating Shaft Rollers: Rotating shaft rollers are designed so that the
shaft is part of the rotating assembly. The outer shell or sleeve is integral
to the shaft, there are no bearings in the assembly, and the shaft
rotates. (Refer to Figure 11)
HANDBOOK
CMC also accommodates fiber optic strands, filaments,
some medical/hygienic products, as well as other
very narrow width products that run over a pulley
or guide roller. (Refer to Figure 9)
Narrow web rollers are cantilevered or pulleys and are generally stationary
shaft. CMC offers two standard styles for this application, the CLT Transducer
and the CR Transducer. The CR Transducer is designed for pulleys or
narrow rollers where the web, ribbon, or wire is always positioned in
the exact center of the roller. The CLT Transducer, on the other hand,
accommodates both pulleys and longer length rollers. The web can be
positioned anywhere along the length of roller face without affecting
the tension measurement.
11
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
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P
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E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SELECTING
To estimate the load requirement for narrow web transducers,
double the running tension value. Ensure that the transducer you
are considering is designed for this load.
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
Later in this handbook, a transducer sizing calculation will be
completed to determine which load rating to actually select.
For now, use this guideline then check later against the actual calculation.
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Tension Data for Typical Converting Materials
The UPB Washdown Duty LC and the Slim Cell Transducer are designed
for wide web rollers with rotating shafts. The UPB Washdown Duty LC
is for use with a pillow bearing which is mounted to its top plate. The
Slim Cell Transducer is a low profile design and includes a low friction,
maintenance free bearing.
Stationary Versus Rotating Shaft Rollers: Many times the application
dictates the type of roller required. For very high speed (rpm) requirements, rotating shaft rollers are generally utilized since they exhibit higher
resonant frequencies than stationary shaft rollers. Large diameter roller
construction (with typically large loads) favors rotating shaft rollers that
are used with under pillow block bearings. Stationary shaft rollers are
used in many applications since they are relatively easy to manufacture
and are readily available.
Step 3 - Determine the proper tension
Many times the process or production engineers have a good idea of
what the running tensions should be. If these are not known, approximate
the tension based on the thickness and type of material. Figure 12 can
be used for approximating tensions. Tensions are given in PLI, which
stands for Pounds per Lineal Inch. To determine the tension in the material,
multiply the PLI by the width of the web. For example, 4 mil thickness
of nylon or cast propylene (non-oriented) requires approximately 1 PLI
of tension (0.25 lb. /in /mil x 4 mil = 1 lb./in). To run a 60 inch wide
web of Propylene a typical tension of 60 lb. is required (1 lb./in x 60
in = 60 lb.).
To estimate the load requirement for wide web transducers, use the
running tension value. Ensure that the transducer you are considering
is designed for this load.
12
Aluminum Foils
Cellophanes
Acetate
Mylar (Polyester)
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Saran
Vinyl
Substrate
Tension (lbs./inch/mil) Paper & Laminations
0.5 to 1.5 (1.0
0.5 to 1.0
0.5
0.5 to 1.0 (.75
0.25 to 0.30
1.0
0.5 to 2.0 (.10
0.5 to 2.0 (.10
average)
Tension PLI
20# / R - 32.54 gm/m2
0.5 to 1.0
40# / R - 65.08 gm/m2
1.0 to 2.0
60# / R - 97.62 gm/m2
1.5 to 3.0
80# / R - 130.1 gm/m2
2.0 to 4.0
Substrate
Approximate Tension
(lbs. /inch)
average)
average)
average)
Approximate Tension
(lbs. /inch)
Mylar, Oriental Propylene and Polyester
0.0005”
0.25
0.001”
0.05
0.002”
1.0
Cellophane
0.00075”
0.5
0.001”
0.75
0.002”
1.0
Nylon & Cast Propylene (non-Oriented)
0.00075”
0.15
0.001”
0.25
0.002”
0.5
Paper
15 lbs./ream (3,000 sq. ft.)
0.5
20 lbs./ream
0.75
30 lbs./ream
1.0
40 lbs./ream
1.5
60 lbs./ream
2.0
80 lbs./ream
2.5
120 lbs./ream
3.5
160 lbs./ream
4.5
200 lbs./ream
5.5
240 lbs./ream
6.5
280 lbs./ream
7.5
Paperboard
8 pt.
3.0
12 pt.
4.0
15 pt.
5.0
20 pt.
7.0
25 pt.
9.0
30 pt.
11.0
35 pt.
13.0
45 pt.
15.0
65 pt.
19.0
Laminations
25 lb. Paper/.0005” PE/.00035” Foil /.001” PE
.001” Cello /.0005” PE /.001” Cello
Note: 1 pt = 0.001”
Figure 11
( Rotating (Live) Shaft Roller )
Note: 1 mil = 0.001”
Material
3.0
1.5
NOTE: When these substrates are coated with polyethylene,
nylon, polypropylene, EVA, EAA and EEA ... add the following
tension values to the values listed above for the substrate only.
Coating Thickness
0.0005” to 0.001
0.0011” to 0.002
Approximate Tension
(lbs. /inch)
0.12
0.25
Copper Wire
AWG
Tension
AWG
8
10
12
14
16
30.0
20.0
12.0
9.0
6.0
20
24
30
36
40
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
Figure 12
Tension
5.0 lb.
4.5 lb.
1.25 lb.
0.25 lb.
0.1 lb.
13
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E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SELECTING
To estimate the load requirement for narrow web transducers,
double the running tension value. Ensure that the transducer you
are considering is designed for this load.
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
Later in this handbook, a transducer sizing calculation will be
completed to determine which load rating to actually select.
For now, use this guideline then check later against the actual calculation.
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Tension Data for Typical Converting Materials
The UPB Washdown Duty LC and the Slim Cell Transducer are designed
for wide web rollers with rotating shafts. The UPB Washdown Duty LC
is for use with a pillow bearing which is mounted to its top plate. The
Slim Cell Transducer is a low profile design and includes a low friction,
maintenance free bearing.
Stationary Versus Rotating Shaft Rollers: Many times the application
dictates the type of roller required. For very high speed (rpm) requirements, rotating shaft rollers are generally utilized since they exhibit higher
resonant frequencies than stationary shaft rollers. Large diameter roller
construction (with typically large loads) favors rotating shaft rollers that
are used with under pillow block bearings. Stationary shaft rollers are
used in many applications since they are relatively easy to manufacture
and are readily available.
Step 3 - Determine the proper tension
Many times the process or production engineers have a good idea of
what the running tensions should be. If these are not known, approximate
the tension based on the thickness and type of material. Figure 12 can
be used for approximating tensions. Tensions are given in PLI, which
stands for Pounds per Lineal Inch. To determine the tension in the material,
multiply the PLI by the width of the web. For example, 4 mil thickness
of nylon or cast propylene (non-oriented) requires approximately 1 PLI
of tension (0.25 lb. /in /mil x 4 mil = 1 lb./in). To run a 60 inch wide
web of Propylene a typical tension of 60 lb. is required (1 lb./in x 60
in = 60 lb.).
To estimate the load requirement for wide web transducers, use the
running tension value. Ensure that the transducer you are considering
is designed for this load.
12
Aluminum Foils
Cellophanes
Acetate
Mylar (Polyester)
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Saran
Vinyl
Substrate
Tension (lbs./inch/mil) Paper & Laminations
0.5 to 1.5 (1.0
0.5 to 1.0
0.5
0.5 to 1.0 (.75
0.25 to 0.30
1.0
0.5 to 2.0 (.10
0.5 to 2.0 (.10
average)
Tension PLI
20# / R - 32.54 gm/m2
0.5 to 1.0
40# / R - 65.08 gm/m2
1.0 to 2.0
60# / R - 97.62 gm/m2
1.5 to 3.0
80# / R - 130.1 gm/m2
2.0 to 4.0
Substrate
Approximate Tension
(lbs. /inch)
average)
average)
average)
Approximate Tension
(lbs. /inch)
Mylar, Oriental Propylene and Polyester
0.0005”
0.25
0.001”
0.05
0.002”
1.0
Cellophane
0.00075”
0.5
0.001”
0.75
0.002”
1.0
Nylon & Cast Propylene (non-Oriented)
0.00075”
0.15
0.001”
0.25
0.002”
0.5
Paper
15 lbs./ream (3,000 sq. ft.)
0.5
20 lbs./ream
0.75
30 lbs./ream
1.0
40 lbs./ream
1.5
60 lbs./ream
2.0
80 lbs./ream
2.5
120 lbs./ream
3.5
160 lbs./ream
4.5
200 lbs./ream
5.5
240 lbs./ream
6.5
280 lbs./ream
7.5
Paperboard
8 pt.
3.0
12 pt.
4.0
15 pt.
5.0
20 pt.
7.0
25 pt.
9.0
30 pt.
11.0
35 pt.
13.0
45 pt.
15.0
65 pt.
19.0
Laminations
25 lb. Paper/.0005” PE/.00035” Foil /.001” PE
.001” Cello /.0005” PE /.001” Cello
Note: 1 pt = 0.001”
Figure 11
( Rotating (Live) Shaft Roller )
Note: 1 mil = 0.001”
Material
3.0
1.5
NOTE: When these substrates are coated with polyethylene,
nylon, polypropylene, EVA, EAA and EEA ... add the following
tension values to the values listed above for the substrate only.
Coating Thickness
0.0005” to 0.001
0.0011” to 0.002
Approximate Tension
(lbs. /inch)
0.12
0.25
Copper Wire
AWG
Tension
AWG
8
10
12
14
16
30.0
20.0
12.0
9.0
6.0
20
24
30
36
40
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
Figure 12
Tension
5.0 lb.
4.5 lb.
1.25 lb.
0.25 lb.
0.1 lb.
13
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
D
V A
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SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SELECTING
Step 4 - Determine space and mounting requirements
THE STYLE OF
Determine which of the load cells you are considering will fit your space
and mounting requirements. If you are utilizing a pillow block bearing
the UPB Washdown Duty LC is the proper selection. The Slim Cell
Transducer is a low profile transducer for tight spaces. The Cartridge
Style Transducer offers a variety of mounting options–stud mount,
bearing replacement, flange mount, and PB mount. (Refer to Figure 13)
Check the roller shaft diameters that the load cell can accommodate. A
split bushing, which the manufacturer can supply, may be required to
accommodate smaller shaft diameters. You may need to turn down the
ends of the roller shaft if it is larger than the load cell can accept.
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Type S
Stud Mounting
Step 5 - Determine environmental restrictions
Wet environments may require a corrosive and water resisting design.
Chemical environments may require a stainless steel design. Ensure that
the transducer you are considering meets these requirements. The Slim
Cell Transducer and UPB Washdown Duty LC can be used in these
environments. In what temperature ranges will the load cell operate?
Is the transducer specified for this temperature? All CMC load cells are
temperature compensated so that the output does not change by more
than 0.02% per deg F from 0 deg to 200 deg F. Other temperature
ranges can be accommodated. Does the application require operation
in a special atmosphere or vacuum? Special versions of CMC transducers
are available for use in high temperature, special atmosphere, and
vacuum environments.
Type FL
Flange Mounting
Step 6 - Select the proper load cell style
Type BR
Bearing Replacement Mounting
Make sure to consult with your supplier. They will be able to recommend
the best style load cell for your application and will give you tips on how
to get the most out of it. They’ll recommend how it should be mounted
and oriented to get the best performance. This will be useful in determining
the parameters required to size the load cell to the proper load rating,
which is the next step.
Type PB
Pillow Block Mounting
Figure 13
( Cartridge Style Transducer Mounting Configurations )
14
HANDBOOK
After determining the above requirements, you are in position to select
your load cell. Review the load cell’s data sheet, selection guide, and
any other available information. (Refer to Figure 22 for a detailed
selection guide for CMC load cells)
15
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
D
V A
N
C
SELECTING
THE STYLE OF
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SELECTING
Step 4 - Determine space and mounting requirements
THE STYLE OF
Determine which of the load cells you are considering will fit your space
and mounting requirements. If you are utilizing a pillow block bearing
the UPB Washdown Duty LC is the proper selection. The Slim Cell
Transducer is a low profile transducer for tight spaces. The Cartridge
Style Transducer offers a variety of mounting options–stud mount,
bearing replacement, flange mount, and PB mount. (Refer to Figure 13)
Check the roller shaft diameters that the load cell can accommodate. A
split bushing, which the manufacturer can supply, may be required to
accommodate smaller shaft diameters. You may need to turn down the
ends of the roller shaft if it is larger than the load cell can accept.
LOAD CELL
FOR YOUR
APPLICATION
Type S
Stud Mounting
Step 5 - Determine environmental restrictions
Wet environments may require a corrosive and water resisting design.
Chemical environments may require a stainless steel design. Ensure that
the transducer you are considering meets these requirements. The Slim
Cell Transducer and UPB Washdown Duty LC can be used in these
environments. In what temperature ranges will the load cell operate?
Is the transducer specified for this temperature? All CMC load cells are
temperature compensated so that the output does not change by more
than 0.02% per deg F from 0 deg to 200 deg F. Other temperature
ranges can be accommodated. Does the application require operation
in a special atmosphere or vacuum? Special versions of CMC transducers
are available for use in high temperature, special atmosphere, and
vacuum environments.
Type FL
Flange Mounting
Step 6 - Select the proper load cell style
Type BR
Bearing Replacement Mounting
Make sure to consult with your supplier. They will be able to recommend
the best style load cell for your application and will give you tips on how
to get the most out of it. They’ll recommend how it should be mounted
and oriented to get the best performance. This will be useful in determining
the parameters required to size the load cell to the proper load rating,
which is the next step.
Type PB
Pillow Block Mounting
Figure 13
( Cartridge Style Transducer Mounting Configurations )
14
HANDBOOK
After determining the above requirements, you are in position to select
your load cell. Review the load cell’s data sheet, selection guide, and
any other available information. (Refer to Figure 22 for a detailed
selection guide for CMC load cells)
15
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
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SIZING THE
TRANSDUCER
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SIZING THE TRANSDUCER FOR
THE LOAD REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE LOAD
Q: What is the Reason for Sizing?
REQUIREMENTS
Load cells (tension transducers) are electromechanical devices that have
inherent design limitations. This restricts the tension (force) range over
which they can operate. If the force is too high, the electromechanical
elements will be overstressed and fail. If the force is too low, the signal
output is too low to measure. Because of these restrictions, each style of
load cell is offered with a choice of force ratings—referred to as the
Maximum Working Force (MWF) rating.
The goal is to select an MWF rating that will meet the tension range
requirement without overstressing the electromechanical elements. This
is referred to as sizing the transducer.
Q: What Formulas Are Used For Proper Sizing?
SIZING THE
The sizing formulas are different for different styles of transducers.
Figure 14 shows the formulas, orientation diagrams, and the parameters
required for sizing each style of transducer. The force exerted on the
transducer depends upon the value and orientation of the wrap angle
as well as the actual tension in the material. The key is to get the values
for the minimum and maximum tension, the weight of the roller, and a
sketch of the web path. From there, a supplier can determine the wrap
angle, other appropriate angles, and perform the calculations.
TRANSDUCER
FOR THE LOAD
REQUIREMENTS
Values for each parameter are inserted into the formula to determine
the Maximum Working Force (MWF) required for the application. Select
a transducer whose load rating (MWF) meets or exceeds the calculated
MWF.
DEFINITION
CANTILEVERED (CLT) SIZING CALCULATION
MWF* = 2T x K x sin (A/2) +_ W x sin (B)**
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally between 1.4 and 2)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Cantilevered Roller
Tension Range is the ratio of the maximum
running tension divided by the minimum running tension.
Example: What is the tension range with a max
running tension of 80 lbs and a min of 10 lbs?
Answer:
80/10 = 8:1
If the required tension range is small, 8:1 or less, this becomes less critical
so the transducer can be sized for a larger load and still produce a
significant signal at the low-tension requirement. If the required tension
range is large, 20:1 or 30:1, the MWF rating must be as small as possible.
The load cell’s rating must closely match the maximum tension requirement to have enough range left to provide a significant measurement
at the low end. The range over which load cells can operate depends
upon its design and how it is applied.
The formulas for calculating MWF are derived from the design of the
transducers themselves. These formulas are referred to as sizing formulas.
Inserting values for various parameters in the formulas produce the
MWF required by a specific application. Make sure your supplier reviews
these calculations.
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
UPB SIZING CALCULATION
2KT sin A– [HsinB + LcosB] +_ W[LcosC - HsinC] **
2
MWF*= ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
2L
[
]
SIZE
L (in.)
D (in.)
UPB1
UPB2
UPB3
2.5
4.5
6.5
0.98
1.25
2.10
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
(used to select the proper force rating
of the transducer)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally 1.4 for most applications)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Roller
C = Mounting Angle (degrees)
H = Bearing Height + D
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
16
Figure 14
17
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
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SIZING THE
TRANSDUCER
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SIZING THE TRANSDUCER FOR
THE LOAD REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE LOAD
Q: What is the Reason for Sizing?
REQUIREMENTS
Load cells (tension transducers) are electromechanical devices that have
inherent design limitations. This restricts the tension (force) range over
which they can operate. If the force is too high, the electromechanical
elements will be overstressed and fail. If the force is too low, the signal
output is too low to measure. Because of these restrictions, each style of
load cell is offered with a choice of force ratings—referred to as the
Maximum Working Force (MWF) rating.
The goal is to select an MWF rating that will meet the tension range
requirement without overstressing the electromechanical elements. This
is referred to as sizing the transducer.
Q: What Formulas Are Used For Proper Sizing?
SIZING THE
The sizing formulas are different for different styles of transducers.
Figure 14 shows the formulas, orientation diagrams, and the parameters
required for sizing each style of transducer. The force exerted on the
transducer depends upon the value and orientation of the wrap angle
as well as the actual tension in the material. The key is to get the values
for the minimum and maximum tension, the weight of the roller, and a
sketch of the web path. From there, a supplier can determine the wrap
angle, other appropriate angles, and perform the calculations.
TRANSDUCER
FOR THE LOAD
REQUIREMENTS
Values for each parameter are inserted into the formula to determine
the Maximum Working Force (MWF) required for the application. Select
a transducer whose load rating (MWF) meets or exceeds the calculated
MWF.
DEFINITION
CANTILEVERED (CLT) SIZING CALCULATION
MWF* = 2T x K x sin (A/2) +_ W x sin (B)**
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally between 1.4 and 2)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Cantilevered Roller
Tension Range is the ratio of the maximum
running tension divided by the minimum running tension.
Example: What is the tension range with a max
running tension of 80 lbs and a min of 10 lbs?
Answer:
80/10 = 8:1
If the required tension range is small, 8:1 or less, this becomes less critical
so the transducer can be sized for a larger load and still produce a
significant signal at the low-tension requirement. If the required tension
range is large, 20:1 or 30:1, the MWF rating must be as small as possible.
The load cell’s rating must closely match the maximum tension requirement to have enough range left to provide a significant measurement
at the low end. The range over which load cells can operate depends
upon its design and how it is applied.
The formulas for calculating MWF are derived from the design of the
transducers themselves. These formulas are referred to as sizing formulas.
Inserting values for various parameters in the formulas produce the
MWF required by a specific application. Make sure your supplier reviews
these calculations.
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
UPB SIZING CALCULATION
2KT sin A– [HsinB + LcosB] +_ W[LcosC - HsinC] **
2
MWF*= ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
2L
[
]
SIZE
L (in.)
D (in.)
UPB1
UPB2
UPB3
2.5
4.5
6.5
0.98
1.25
2.10
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
(used to select the proper force rating
of the transducer)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally 1.4 for most applications)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Roller
C = Mounting Angle (degrees)
H = Bearing Height + D
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
16
Figure 14
17
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
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D
W
E
B
P
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O
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E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SLIM CELL SIZING CALCULATION
MWF* = T x K x sin (A/2) +_ (W/2) x sin (B)**
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally 1.5 for most applications)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Roller
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
CARTRIDGE-STYLE SIZING CALCULATION
2T x K x sin (A/2) +_ W x sin (B)**
MWF* = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
2
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
(used to select the proper force rating of
the transducer)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally between 1.4 and 2.0)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Roller
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
SIZING THE
TRANSDUCER
FOR THE LOAD
REQUIREMENTS
Figure 14 - Continued
Q: How Are Sizing Formulas Applied?
Figure 15 discusses how the sizing formula was utilized on an application
for RR Donnelley and Sons. It also explains how to determine the wrap
angle and angle of tension force. The initial calculation indicated that
the roller weight was too heavy to take full advantage of the load cell’s
capability. The existing roller was replaced with a composite roller that
weighed much less.
HOW TO SELECT THE
RIGHT TRANSDUCERS
For RR Donnelley & Sons, two CMC SC
Transducers are used on each tension roller, one
on each side. The web is wrapped around the
tension roller. The Transducers measure the force
that is exerted on the roller by the tension in the
moving web. The maximum working force (MWF)
exerted on the transducers is then calculated
from the following equation.
MWF = 2T x K x sin (A/2) +
_ W sin (B)
2
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally 1.4 to 2.0)
A = Wrap Angle
B = Angle of Tension Force
W = Weight of Roller (lbs)
According to Don Strenio, sensors and
controls product manager for Cleveland Motion
Controls, the user needs to proceed as follows
in order to determine the parameters used in the
equation:
First, make a sketch that shows where the
web enters and exits as it wraps around the
roller. (Refer to the diagram below). The point
where the web touches the roller as it enters and
exits the wrap is referred to as the tangent.
Draw a radius from the center of the circle and
perpendicular to each tangent at entry and exit.
These lines define angle A, which is the Wrap Angle.
To determine angle B, draw a line that bisects
angle A. The angle that this line makes with the
horizontal is angle B—the Angle of Tension Force.
If angle B is below the horizontal, use positive (+)
in the calculation, if angle B is above the horizontal,
use negative (-) in the calculation.
Determine the Maximum Tension T, and the
minimum tension that is required for your process.
If this is not known, consult your transducer supplier.
The supplier should have charts that indicate typical
tensions for various materials.
Weigh the roller or calculate the roller weight
to determine W. K is a safety factor that is used
to account for tension transient overloads (a
value of 1.4 to 2.0 is typical, depending on the
application.).
Insert those values into the equation to
determine the maximum working force (MWF)
that is exerted on each transducer. Select a transducer rating that exceeds the MWF.
The calculation should be performed using
the minimum tension. The resulting value indicates
what the force output will be at the lowest tension.
If it is a very small percentage of the transducer
rating (typically less than 1/20 or 1/30 the rating),
you may need to increase the wrap angle, re-orient
the web wrap, or reduce the roller weight to
achieve a usable measurement at low tension.
Strenio adds, "To select and size the right
transducer for the application requires careful
attention to detail. You need to totally understand
the application and then calculate a basic equation
for each transducer. The equation is only the first
step. In fact, you should never order a transducer
without consulting the supplier first. The success
of the application often depends on the extent
to which the user and supplier work together in
addressing the application. Once the supplier
receives your information, you need to rely on
the supplier’s application experience to perform
the calculations, evaluate the requirement, and if
necessary, recommend machine design changes
or alternate methods."
During the process, it was found that the
main draw rollers (which are extremely important
for maintaining steady tension on the entire web)
were too heavy to take full advantage of the
load cell’s capabilities. The output signal would not
be great enough to achieve optimal performance.
Based on Strenio’s recommendation, Donnelley
replaced the existing roller with a composite
roller, which weighed much less. By making this
change, Donnelley realized a significant improvement in load-cell resolution, which resulted in a
significant improvement in the overall performance
of the closed-looped system.
Figure 15
18
19
w w w. C M C c o n t ro l s . c o m
A
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D
W
E
B
P
R
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S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
SLIM CELL SIZING CALCULATION
MWF* = T x K x sin (A/2) +_ (W/2) x sin (B)**
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally 1.5 for most applications)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Roller
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
CARTRIDGE-STYLE SIZING CALCULATION
2T x K x sin (A/2) +_ W x sin (B)**
MWF* = –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
2
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs.)
(used to select the proper force rating of
the transducer)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally between 1.4 and 2.0)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs.)
A = Wrap Angle (degrees)
B = Angle of Tension Force (degrees)
W = Weight of Roller
* The MWF calculation defines the force on each individual load cell.
** If Angle B is below horizontal use + in calculation. If Angle B is above
horizontal use – in calculation.
SIZING THE
TRANSDUCER
FOR THE LOAD
REQUIREMENTS
Figure 14 - Continued
Q: How Are Sizing Formulas Applied?
Figure 15 discusses how the sizing formula was utilized on an application
for RR Donnelley and Sons. It also explains how to determine the wrap
angle and angle of tension force. The initial calculation indicated that
the roller weight was too heavy to take full advantage of the load cell’s
capability. The existing roller was replaced with a composite roller that
weighed much less.
HOW TO SELECT THE
RIGHT TRANSDUCERS
For RR Donnelley & Sons, two CMC SC
Transducers are used on each tension roller, one
on each side. The web is wrapped around the
tension roller. The Transducers measure the force
that is exerted on the roller by the tension in the
moving web. The maximum working force (MWF)
exerted on the transducers is then calculated
from the following equation.
MWF = 2T x K x sin (A/2) +
_ W sin (B)
2
MWF = Maximum Working Force (lbs)
T = Maximum Total Tension (lbs)
K = Transient Tension Overload Factor
(normally 1.4 to 2.0)
A = Wrap Angle
B = Angle of Tension Force
W = Weight of Roller (lbs)
According to Don Strenio, sensors and
controls product manager for Cleveland Motion
Controls, the user needs to proceed as follows
in order to determine the parameters used in the
equation:
First, make a sketch that shows where the
web enters and exits as it wraps around the
roller. (Refer to the diagram below). The point
where the web touches the roller as it enters and
exits the wrap is referred to as the tangent.
Draw a radius from the center of the circle and
perpendicular to each tangent at entry and exit.
These lines define angle A, which is the Wrap Angle.
To determine angle B, draw a line that bisects
angle A. The angle that this line makes with the
horizontal is angle B—the Angle of Tension Force.
If angle B is below the horizontal, use positive (+)
in the calculation, if angle B is above the horizontal,
use negative (-) in the calculation.
Determine the Maximum Tension T, and the
minimum tension that is required for your process.
If this is not known, consult your transducer supplier.
The supplier should have charts that indicate typical
tensions for various materials.
Weigh the roller or calculate the roller weight
to determine W. K is a safety factor that is used
to account for tension transient overloads (a
value of 1.4 to 2.0 is typical, depending on the
application.).
Insert those values into the equation to
determine the maximum working force (MWF)
that is exerted on each transducer. Select a transducer rating that exceeds the MWF.
The calculation should be performed using
the minimum tension. The resulting value indicates
what the force output will be at the lowest tension.
If it is a very small percentage of the transducer
rating (typically less than 1/20 or 1/30 the rating),
you may need to increase the wrap angle, re-orient
the web wrap, or reduce the roller weight to
achieve a usable measurement at low tension.
Strenio adds, "To select and size the right
transducer for the application requires careful
attention to detail. You need to totally understand
the application and then calculate a basic equation
for each transducer. The equation is only the first
step. In fact, you should never order a transducer
without consulting the supplier first. The success
of the application often depends on the extent
to which the user and supplier work together in
addressing the application. Once the supplier
receives your information, you need to rely on
the supplier’s application experience to perform
the calculations, evaluate the requirement, and if
necessary, recommend machine design changes
or alternate methods."
During the process, it was found that the
main draw rollers (which are extremely important
for maintaining steady tension on the entire web)
were too heavy to take full advantage of the
load cell’s capabilities. The output signal would not
be great enough to achieve optimal performance.
Based on Strenio’s recommendation, Donnelley
replaced the existing roller with a composite
roller, which weighed much less. By making this
change, Donnelley realized a significant improvement in load-cell resolution, which resulted in a
significant improvement in the overall performance
of the closed-looped system.
Figure 15
18
19
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TECHNIQUES
E
D
W
E
B
P
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S
S
C
O
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T
R
O
L
WHAT TECHNIQUES CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD CELLS?
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
Note: These examples and explanations utilize cartridge style transducers.
The formulas for other styles may be different so the specifics may change,
but the principles for application are the same.
A lower output signal results if the transducer is not installed so that the
arrow is aligned with the bisector of the wrap angle. Generally, "eyeballing"
is sufficient to achieve proper alignment. The resultant signal output is a
function of the sin of the included angle between the direction of the
force and the surface of the beam. Being 5 degrees off in alignment
results in less than a 1% drop in signal strength from the maximum.
Being 15 degrees off results in only a 4% drop and 30 degrees results
in 13% drop.
WHAT
TECHNIQUES
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
Orient the Load Cell Properly
A= WRAP
Load cells require that they be oriented properly. This is because the
force exerted on the roller due to the tension in the material must bend
the transducer beam in order produce a measurement. Refer to "How
Do Load Cells Actually Work?"
The force due to the tension in the material always points along
the bisector of the angle of wrap (wrap angle). The bisector is the
line that splits the angle in half, also referred to as the Angle of Tension
Force. If the bisector of the wrap angle is vertical and the material is
pulling down on the roller, the force points straight down. If the bisector
of the wrap angle is vertical and the material is pulling up on the roller,
the force points straight up. Pulling horizontally on the roller is often
used to negate the effect of the roller weight on the transducer—this
will be discussed later. (Refer to Figure 16)
ANGLE
A/2
W
A/2
W
EB
EB
LABEL
ARROW
LOAD
Figure 17
( Transducer Mounting Orientation )
Pay Attention to Roller Weight
20
There is an arrow on the coupling face of CMC’s Cartridge Style
Transducer. Installation instructions require that the transducer
body be rotated so that the arrow is in line with the bisector of
the wrap angle. (Refer to Figure 17) When oriented in this manner
the force is always perpendicular (at right angles) to the beam. Maximum
bending (deflection) of the beam occurs when the force is exerted at a
right angle to the beam surface. The larger the deflection the greater
the output signal (measurement). When the transducer is oriented in
this manner, the output signal is always at its strongest (maximum) for a
given force. This means that for a given tension and wrap angle no
other orientation will yield as strong a measurement.
The force of gravity bends (deflects) the transducer beam the most
when it is perpendicular to it. The greater the deflection, the greater the
output signal. When the transducer is oriented in this manner the
output signal due to gravity is always at it’s strongest (maximum) for
a given mass. In this situation the tare weight is the weight of the roller.
For the Cartridge Style Transducer this occurs when it is oriented so
that the arrow on the coupling face is pointing vertically up or down.
HANDBOOK
Figure 16
( Pulling Orientation )
The load cell not only measures the force due to the tension in
the material but also due to the mass of the roller. The force
measured by the transducer due to the mass of the roller is known as
the tare weight. The tare weight is a function of the roller mass and the
orientation of the transducer with respect to the gravitational force.
Gravity always pulls a mass toward the earth so the force due to gravity
(weight) is always pointing vertically downward.
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CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
Note: These examples and explanations utilize cartridge style transducers.
The formulas for other styles may be different so the specifics may change,
but the principles for application are the same.
A lower output signal results if the transducer is not installed so that the
arrow is aligned with the bisector of the wrap angle. Generally, "eyeballing"
is sufficient to achieve proper alignment. The resultant signal output is a
function of the sin of the included angle between the direction of the
force and the surface of the beam. Being 5 degrees off in alignment
results in less than a 1% drop in signal strength from the maximum.
Being 15 degrees off results in only a 4% drop and 30 degrees results
in 13% drop.
WHAT
TECHNIQUES
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
Orient the Load Cell Properly
A= WRAP
Load cells require that they be oriented properly. This is because the
force exerted on the roller due to the tension in the material must bend
the transducer beam in order produce a measurement. Refer to "How
Do Load Cells Actually Work?"
The force due to the tension in the material always points along
the bisector of the angle of wrap (wrap angle). The bisector is the
line that splits the angle in half, also referred to as the Angle of Tension
Force. If the bisector of the wrap angle is vertical and the material is
pulling down on the roller, the force points straight down. If the bisector
of the wrap angle is vertical and the material is pulling up on the roller,
the force points straight up. Pulling horizontally on the roller is often
used to negate the effect of the roller weight on the transducer—this
will be discussed later. (Refer to Figure 16)
ANGLE
A/2
W
A/2
W
EB
EB
LABEL
ARROW
LOAD
Figure 17
( Transducer Mounting Orientation )
Pay Attention to Roller Weight
20
There is an arrow on the coupling face of CMC’s Cartridge Style
Transducer. Installation instructions require that the transducer
body be rotated so that the arrow is in line with the bisector of
the wrap angle. (Refer to Figure 17) When oriented in this manner
the force is always perpendicular (at right angles) to the beam. Maximum
bending (deflection) of the beam occurs when the force is exerted at a
right angle to the beam surface. The larger the deflection the greater
the output signal (measurement). When the transducer is oriented in
this manner, the output signal is always at its strongest (maximum) for a
given force. This means that for a given tension and wrap angle no
other orientation will yield as strong a measurement.
The force of gravity bends (deflects) the transducer beam the most
when it is perpendicular to it. The greater the deflection, the greater the
output signal. When the transducer is oriented in this manner the
output signal due to gravity is always at it’s strongest (maximum) for
a given mass. In this situation the tare weight is the weight of the roller.
For the Cartridge Style Transducer this occurs when it is oriented so
that the arrow on the coupling face is pointing vertically up or down.
HANDBOOK
Figure 16
( Pulling Orientation )
The load cell not only measures the force due to the tension in
the material but also due to the mass of the roller. The force
measured by the transducer due to the mass of the roller is known as
the tare weight. The tare weight is a function of the roller mass and the
orientation of the transducer with respect to the gravitational force.
Gravity always pulls a mass toward the earth so the force due to gravity
(weight) is always pointing vertically downward.
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The tare weight adds or subtracts to the output signal produced by the
tension force. As part of the calibration procedure the tare weight is
zeroed out so that only the signal due to tension is measured. This is
accomplished by various means in the electronic amplifiers or controllers,
either automatically or by adjusting a potentiometer.
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
If the output signal due to the tare weight is too great, less of the
total transducer output signal can be utilized for measuring the
tension force. This is especially important to consider when the roll weight
is large when compared to the required tension.
As a rule of thumb the tare weight should be no greater than 2/3 of
the transducer load rating (MWF). This leaves enough signal to measure
the tension load. There are exceptions to this if the tension range is
small (2:1, 4:1). For a large tension range (20:1, 30:1) the tare weight
must be reduced to zero or used to extend the transducer range by
working in the opposite direction of the load.
If the tare weight is too large, either the roller weight must be reduced or
the web path changed so that the transducer can be oriented differently.
Constructing the roller from aluminum or composite material will reduce
the roller weight.
Calculate the Tare Weight and Make it Work For You
Pull up on the roll to extend the range of the transducer (Refer
to Figure 16). When B is 90 degrees, the force is either pulling straight
up or straight down on the roller. The sin of 90 degrees is 1. Inserting B
= 90 degrees into the equation yields a tare weight of +/- W/2. This is
half the weight of the roller. The weight of the roller, W, is divided by 2
since there are two transducers supporting this roller.
When the tension pulls down on the roller the tare weight W/2 acts in
the same direction as the tension force and is positive. It adds to the
tension force to increase the total load on the transducer.
22
By pulling up on the transducer, the roller weight can work for you.
When the tension pulls up on the roller the tare weight W/2 acts in the
Example:
The maximum tension in the material is 50 lb. and the roller
weight is 60 lb. The wrap angle is 180 degrees. Select the
Cartridge Style Transducer. Calculate the MWF for different
orientations. Ignore the safety factor, K, by making K=1.
WHAT
TECHNIQUES
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
If the force is pulling straight down, a Maximum Working Force
(MWF) of 80 lb. per transducer is calculated. 50 lb. is the force due
to the tension and 30 lb. is the tare weight. The tare weight is in the
same direction as the tension force, so it is added. The closest transducer
rating that meets or exceeds the MWF is 100 lb.
If the web path is changed so the force is pulling straight up, a
Maximum Working Force (MWF) of 20 lb. per transducer is
calculated. 50 lb. is the force due to the tension and 30 lb. is the tare
weight. The tare weight is in the opposite direction of the tension
force, so it is subtracted. The closest transducer rating that meets or
exceeds the MWF is 25 lb. Pulling up on the roll allows a lower MWF rating to be selected which results in a higher transducer output and
more sensitivity. However, the 25 lb. MWF transducer is not acceptable because the tare weight of 30 lb. exceeds the transducer rating
of 25 lb. Never choose a load cell rating that is less than the tare
weight it supports, otherwise overloading may damage it. A 50 lb. MWF
rating is the next available size so it is selected.
By pulling up instead of down on the roll the transducer size has been
reduced from 100 lb. to 50 lb. The sensitivity has increased twofold and
we have increased the ability to measure lower tensions thus increasing
the range of tensions that we are able to measure. A transducer with a
lower MWF force rating is more sensitive to lighter loads than one with a
higher MWF rating. For the greatest possible tension range choose
the transducer with the lowest possible force (MWF) rating.
If the force is pulling up, the beam moves downward from its neutral
position when the 30 lb. roll weight is applied and then moves upward
past its neutral position when the 50 lb. tension force is applied. (Refer
to Figure 18) The strain gages are bipolar and give a signal (the signal
can be offset or zeroed with the electronics) if the beam is deflected
down or up. The transducer can operate at up to + 50 lb. or –50 lb. By
pulling against the roll weight we can extend the effective measuring
range of the transducer up to double its rating in some situations.
The recommended orientation for most applications is a 180-degree
wrap angle pulling straight up on the roller. This gets maximum utilization from the transducer. (Refer to Figure 16) Following this rule is
generally a good idea. However, many times its is not possible to
achieve this orientation or wrap angle.
HANDBOOK
The tare weight calculation is part of the sizing formula. Refer to the sizing
formula and orientation diagram for the Cartridge Style Transducer in
Figure 14. The term in the equation +/- W sin (B) /2 is the gravitational
force exerted on the transducer beam due to the roller mass and is
referred to as the tare weight. There is an arrow on the coupling face of
the cartridge transducer. During installation the transducer is rotated so
that the arrow is in line with the bisector of the wrap angle. This bisector
is the line from which the Angle B (Angle of Tension Force) is determined.
The other side of angle B is the horizontal line. W is the roller weight.
For any orientation Angle B can always be referenced from the horizontal,
so B is between 0 and 90 degrees.
opposite direction of the tension force and is negative. It subtracts from
the tension force to decrease the total load on the transducer.
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The tare weight adds or subtracts to the output signal produced by the
tension force. As part of the calibration procedure the tare weight is
zeroed out so that only the signal due to tension is measured. This is
accomplished by various means in the electronic amplifiers or controllers,
either automatically or by adjusting a potentiometer.
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
If the output signal due to the tare weight is too great, less of the
total transducer output signal can be utilized for measuring the
tension force. This is especially important to consider when the roll weight
is large when compared to the required tension.
As a rule of thumb the tare weight should be no greater than 2/3 of
the transducer load rating (MWF). This leaves enough signal to measure
the tension load. There are exceptions to this if the tension range is
small (2:1, 4:1). For a large tension range (20:1, 30:1) the tare weight
must be reduced to zero or used to extend the transducer range by
working in the opposite direction of the load.
If the tare weight is too large, either the roller weight must be reduced or
the web path changed so that the transducer can be oriented differently.
Constructing the roller from aluminum or composite material will reduce
the roller weight.
Calculate the Tare Weight and Make it Work For You
Pull up on the roll to extend the range of the transducer (Refer
to Figure 16). When B is 90 degrees, the force is either pulling straight
up or straight down on the roller. The sin of 90 degrees is 1. Inserting B
= 90 degrees into the equation yields a tare weight of +/- W/2. This is
half the weight of the roller. The weight of the roller, W, is divided by 2
since there are two transducers supporting this roller.
When the tension pulls down on the roller the tare weight W/2 acts in
the same direction as the tension force and is positive. It adds to the
tension force to increase the total load on the transducer.
22
By pulling up on the transducer, the roller weight can work for you.
When the tension pulls up on the roller the tare weight W/2 acts in the
Example:
The maximum tension in the material is 50 lb. and the roller
weight is 60 lb. The wrap angle is 180 degrees. Select the
Cartridge Style Transducer. Calculate the MWF for different
orientations. Ignore the safety factor, K, by making K=1.
WHAT
TECHNIQUES
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
If the force is pulling straight down, a Maximum Working Force
(MWF) of 80 lb. per transducer is calculated. 50 lb. is the force due
to the tension and 30 lb. is the tare weight. The tare weight is in the
same direction as the tension force, so it is added. The closest transducer
rating that meets or exceeds the MWF is 100 lb.
If the web path is changed so the force is pulling straight up, a
Maximum Working Force (MWF) of 20 lb. per transducer is
calculated. 50 lb. is the force due to the tension and 30 lb. is the tare
weight. The tare weight is in the opposite direction of the tension
force, so it is subtracted. The closest transducer rating that meets or
exceeds the MWF is 25 lb. Pulling up on the roll allows a lower MWF rating to be selected which results in a higher transducer output and
more sensitivity. However, the 25 lb. MWF transducer is not acceptable because the tare weight of 30 lb. exceeds the transducer rating
of 25 lb. Never choose a load cell rating that is less than the tare
weight it supports, otherwise overloading may damage it. A 50 lb. MWF
rating is the next available size so it is selected.
By pulling up instead of down on the roll the transducer size has been
reduced from 100 lb. to 50 lb. The sensitivity has increased twofold and
we have increased the ability to measure lower tensions thus increasing
the range of tensions that we are able to measure. A transducer with a
lower MWF force rating is more sensitive to lighter loads than one with a
higher MWF rating. For the greatest possible tension range choose
the transducer with the lowest possible force (MWF) rating.
If the force is pulling up, the beam moves downward from its neutral
position when the 30 lb. roll weight is applied and then moves upward
past its neutral position when the 50 lb. tension force is applied. (Refer
to Figure 18) The strain gages are bipolar and give a signal (the signal
can be offset or zeroed with the electronics) if the beam is deflected
down or up. The transducer can operate at up to + 50 lb. or –50 lb. By
pulling against the roll weight we can extend the effective measuring
range of the transducer up to double its rating in some situations.
The recommended orientation for most applications is a 180-degree
wrap angle pulling straight up on the roller. This gets maximum utilization from the transducer. (Refer to Figure 16) Following this rule is
generally a good idea. However, many times its is not possible to
achieve this orientation or wrap angle.
HANDBOOK
The tare weight calculation is part of the sizing formula. Refer to the sizing
formula and orientation diagram for the Cartridge Style Transducer in
Figure 14. The term in the equation +/- W sin (B) /2 is the gravitational
force exerted on the transducer beam due to the roller mass and is
referred to as the tare weight. There is an arrow on the coupling face of
the cartridge transducer. During installation the transducer is rotated so
that the arrow is in line with the bisector of the wrap angle. This bisector
is the line from which the Angle B (Angle of Tension Force) is determined.
The other side of angle B is the horizontal line. W is the roller weight.
For any orientation Angle B can always be referenced from the horizontal,
so B is between 0 and 90 degrees.
opposite direction of the tension force and is negative. It subtracts from
the tension force to decrease the total load on the transducer.
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Figure 18-A
( Neutral Position )
When B is 0 degrees the force is pulling horizontally on the roller.
(Refer to Figure 16) The sin of 0 degrees is 0. Inserting B = 0 degrees
into the equation yields a tare weight of 0. Pulling horizontally against
the roller negates the effect of the roller weight.
WHAT
Example:
The maximum tension in the material is 5 lb. and the roller
weight is 25 lb. The wrap angle is 180 degrees. Select the
Cartridge Style Transducer. Calculate the MWF when the material is pulling horizontally against the roller. Ignore the safety factor, K, by making K=1.
FROM MY LOAD
TECHNIQUES
CAN GET THE MOST
CELLS?
A Maximum Working Force (MWF) of 5 lb. is calculated. 5 lb. is the force
due to the tension and 0 lb. is the tare weight. The closest transducer
rating that meets or exceeds the MWF is 25 lb. The output signal will
only be that due to the tension force. Only 20% (5 lb.) of the available
transducer output signal (good to 25 lb.) is being utilized for the maximum
tension measurement, but there is no output due to the roller weight.
This means that everything being measured is actual tension signal. This
technique improves the ability to recognize a small signal when the roll
weight is appreciably larger than the tension.
Even though the tare weight is zero, the transducer will be
subjected to the weight of the roller while it is being installed and
rotated into position. As a general rule, the transducer MWF
rating should not be less that the weight it might support.
Otherwise, you could damage it by overloading or be unable to
zero out the roller weight in the electronics.
Figure 18-B
( 30 LB Roller Weight Only )
Don’t Ignore The Wrap Angle—Use it to Your Benefit
Figure 18-C
( 30 LB Roller Weight and 50 LB Tension Force )
24
The tension, T, pulls in opposite directions away from the roller, and this
puts double the load or 2T on the roller. The portion of tension that is
transmitted to the roller and the transducer is dependent upon the
amount of wrap around the roller. The amount of wrap is referred
to as the wrap angle. This angle is determined by drawing a line
from the center of the roller perpendicular to where the web first
touches the roller as it enters and another where it last touches as it
exits. The angle in between is defined as A, the wrap angle.
HANDBOOK
The force due to the tension and wrap angle is part of the sizing formula.
Refer to the sizing formula and orientation diagram for the Cartridge
Style Transducer in Figure 14. The term in the equation 2T x sin (A/2)/2
is the force exerted by the tension in the material as it wraps around the
roller. (The term is divided by 2 since there are two transducers supporting
this roller which divides the total load. Ignore the safety factor, K, by
making K=1.
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Figure 18-A
( Neutral Position )
When B is 0 degrees the force is pulling horizontally on the roller.
(Refer to Figure 16) The sin of 0 degrees is 0. Inserting B = 0 degrees
into the equation yields a tare weight of 0. Pulling horizontally against
the roller negates the effect of the roller weight.
WHAT
Example:
The maximum tension in the material is 5 lb. and the roller
weight is 25 lb. The wrap angle is 180 degrees. Select the
Cartridge Style Transducer. Calculate the MWF when the material is pulling horizontally against the roller. Ignore the safety factor, K, by making K=1.
FROM MY LOAD
TECHNIQUES
CAN GET THE MOST
CELLS?
A Maximum Working Force (MWF) of 5 lb. is calculated. 5 lb. is the force
due to the tension and 0 lb. is the tare weight. The closest transducer
rating that meets or exceeds the MWF is 25 lb. The output signal will
only be that due to the tension force. Only 20% (5 lb.) of the available
transducer output signal (good to 25 lb.) is being utilized for the maximum
tension measurement, but there is no output due to the roller weight.
This means that everything being measured is actual tension signal. This
technique improves the ability to recognize a small signal when the roll
weight is appreciably larger than the tension.
Even though the tare weight is zero, the transducer will be
subjected to the weight of the roller while it is being installed and
rotated into position. As a general rule, the transducer MWF
rating should not be less that the weight it might support.
Otherwise, you could damage it by overloading or be unable to
zero out the roller weight in the electronics.
Figure 18-B
( 30 LB Roller Weight Only )
Don’t Ignore The Wrap Angle—Use it to Your Benefit
Figure 18-C
( 30 LB Roller Weight and 50 LB Tension Force )
24
The tension, T, pulls in opposite directions away from the roller, and this
puts double the load or 2T on the roller. The portion of tension that is
transmitted to the roller and the transducer is dependent upon the
amount of wrap around the roller. The amount of wrap is referred
to as the wrap angle. This angle is determined by drawing a line
from the center of the roller perpendicular to where the web first
touches the roller as it enters and another where it last touches as it
exits. The angle in between is defined as A, the wrap angle.
HANDBOOK
The force due to the tension and wrap angle is part of the sizing formula.
Refer to the sizing formula and orientation diagram for the Cartridge
Style Transducer in Figure 14. The term in the equation 2T x sin (A/2)/2
is the force exerted by the tension in the material as it wraps around the
roller. (The term is divided by 2 since there are two transducers supporting
this roller which divides the total load. Ignore the safety factor, K, by
making K=1.
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The portion of tension through the wrap angle is sin (A/2). The maximum
value for the sin is 1 and this occurs when the angle A is 180 degrees
(sin (180/2) = sin (90) =1). The largest amount of tension is transmitted to the roller when the wrap angle is 180 degrees. When A
is 0 degrees there is no wrap around the roller and the tension force is zero.
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
For typical applications, and especially for low tension, it is
desirable to make the wrap angle as large as possible. This produces
the greatest tension force giving more signal output resulting in a better
measurement.
Many machine designers use a minimum of 30 degrees of wrap as a
rule of thumb. A wrap angle of 30 degrees transmits 25% of the line
tension to the transducer. This is still a significant value so they know
the signal will be manageable. In most cases, this also gives enough
wrap to ensure that the material stays in contact with the roller surface.
With light material, running at low tension and at high speeds, air may
draft under the material causing it to rise and lose contact with the
roller surface. Transducers are applied at much lower angles of wrap,
but the application requires scrutiny to ensure proper performance.
For some applications it is desirable to slightly decrease the wrap angle
in order to use a smaller transducer (smaller MWF rating). This is generally
considered when large tension ranges are required. In this case, we
want to use the entire transducer output signal in order to get maximum
resolution.
Maintain a Fixed Angle of Wrap Throughout the Process
If the angle of wrap varies, the tension force on the transducer changes.
This results in inaccurate measurements. Only use transducers on a roller
where the wrap angle is fixed. (Refer to Figure 19)
Be Judicious in Assigning the Safety Factor
The K factor is assigned to ensure that the MWF rating of the transducer
is high enough to protect it from transient overloads. Overload conditions
may damage the transducers. Some transducers are rated for higher
overloads than others. The recommend overload rating to use for the
Cartridge Style Transducer is 150% of the MWF. A K of 1.4 to 2 is typically
used for these transducers, which extends the overload protection to
210% and 300% effectively. It is not always necessary to assign a K
value greater that 1; it depends upon the application and the transducer
overload rating. Overload limits for the UPB Washdown Duty LC are
500% and the Slim Cell Transducer are as high as 1000%.
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
Be Realistic About Tension Control and Over What Range
HANDBOOK
How well tension can be controlled and over what range depends
upon many factors other than how well the load cells perform their
measurements. Some of these factors are the mechanical design of the
machine, mechanical wear of the components, line speed, and the system
response (mechanical and electrical). All systems have natural resonant
frequencies that limit their ability to be controlled and to respond to
corrective changes. (Refer to Figure 20) System engineers explain that
attempting to control tension above a 20:1 or 30:1 range and achieve
acceptable tolerances is extremely difficult. Some system integrators
won’t accept jobs specifying a tension range over 10:1. Although the
load cell signal output is linear all the way down to zero, CMC doesn’t
recommend exceeding a 20:1 or 30:1 tension range from an individual
load cell. These applications require special attention. Steps can be taken
to extend the measuring range such as routing the web over an idler
roller to change the wrap angle. (Refer to Figure 21) Most applications
require much less range than this—4:1, 8:1.
Exceedingly high shock overloads occur while transporting machinery.
Remove the transducers BEFORE transporting machinery or they will
become damaged. Pack each one in its own container.
Figure 19
( Where to Mount Tension Transducers )
TECHNIQUES
The amount of conservatism that is placed on the maximum
tension value and the method in which the machine is controlled
needs to be taken into consideration when assigning the K value.
Making the K value too large may oversize (too large of a MWF) the
transducer limiting the low end of the effective tension range. Of course,
undersizing (too small of a MWF) can lead to damaged transducers.
When a large tension range is required (20:1, 30:1), oversizing the
transducer limits its low-end performance. When a small tension range
is required (2:1, 4:1), oversizing the transducers gives it extra protection.
Remove Transducers when Transporting the Machine
26
WHAT
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The portion of tension through the wrap angle is sin (A/2). The maximum
value for the sin is 1 and this occurs when the angle A is 180 degrees
(sin (180/2) = sin (90) =1). The largest amount of tension is transmitted to the roller when the wrap angle is 180 degrees. When A
is 0 degrees there is no wrap around the roller and the tension force is zero.
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
For typical applications, and especially for low tension, it is
desirable to make the wrap angle as large as possible. This produces
the greatest tension force giving more signal output resulting in a better
measurement.
Many machine designers use a minimum of 30 degrees of wrap as a
rule of thumb. A wrap angle of 30 degrees transmits 25% of the line
tension to the transducer. This is still a significant value so they know
the signal will be manageable. In most cases, this also gives enough
wrap to ensure that the material stays in contact with the roller surface.
With light material, running at low tension and at high speeds, air may
draft under the material causing it to rise and lose contact with the
roller surface. Transducers are applied at much lower angles of wrap,
but the application requires scrutiny to ensure proper performance.
For some applications it is desirable to slightly decrease the wrap angle
in order to use a smaller transducer (smaller MWF rating). This is generally
considered when large tension ranges are required. In this case, we
want to use the entire transducer output signal in order to get maximum
resolution.
Maintain a Fixed Angle of Wrap Throughout the Process
If the angle of wrap varies, the tension force on the transducer changes.
This results in inaccurate measurements. Only use transducers on a roller
where the wrap angle is fixed. (Refer to Figure 19)
Be Judicious in Assigning the Safety Factor
The K factor is assigned to ensure that the MWF rating of the transducer
is high enough to protect it from transient overloads. Overload conditions
may damage the transducers. Some transducers are rated for higher
overloads than others. The recommend overload rating to use for the
Cartridge Style Transducer is 150% of the MWF. A K of 1.4 to 2 is typically
used for these transducers, which extends the overload protection to
210% and 300% effectively. It is not always necessary to assign a K
value greater that 1; it depends upon the application and the transducer
overload rating. Overload limits for the UPB Washdown Duty LC are
500% and the Slim Cell Transducer are as high as 1000%.
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
CELLS?
Be Realistic About Tension Control and Over What Range
HANDBOOK
How well tension can be controlled and over what range depends
upon many factors other than how well the load cells perform their
measurements. Some of these factors are the mechanical design of the
machine, mechanical wear of the components, line speed, and the system
response (mechanical and electrical). All systems have natural resonant
frequencies that limit their ability to be controlled and to respond to
corrective changes. (Refer to Figure 20) System engineers explain that
attempting to control tension above a 20:1 or 30:1 range and achieve
acceptable tolerances is extremely difficult. Some system integrators
won’t accept jobs specifying a tension range over 10:1. Although the
load cell signal output is linear all the way down to zero, CMC doesn’t
recommend exceeding a 20:1 or 30:1 tension range from an individual
load cell. These applications require special attention. Steps can be taken
to extend the measuring range such as routing the web over an idler
roller to change the wrap angle. (Refer to Figure 21) Most applications
require much less range than this—4:1, 8:1.
Exceedingly high shock overloads occur while transporting machinery.
Remove the transducers BEFORE transporting machinery or they will
become damaged. Pack each one in its own container.
Figure 19
( Where to Mount Tension Transducers )
TECHNIQUES
The amount of conservatism that is placed on the maximum
tension value and the method in which the machine is controlled
needs to be taken into consideration when assigning the K value.
Making the K value too large may oversize (too large of a MWF) the
transducer limiting the low end of the effective tension range. Of course,
undersizing (too small of a MWF) can lead to damaged transducers.
When a large tension range is required (20:1, 30:1), oversizing the
transducer limits its low-end performance. When a small tension range
is required (2:1, 4:1), oversizing the transducers gives it extra protection.
Remove Transducers when Transporting the Machine
26
WHAT
27
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WHAT SHOULD I LOOK FOR IN A LOAD CELLS?
BANDWIDTH AND RESPONSE
Two quantities – bandwidth and response – Response time indicates the time (usually
quantify a system’s capability to react to expressed in seconds or milliseconds) for the output to reach the speed or position commanded
command changes.
by a small input change (usually 10% or less of the
Bandwidth for any system is the maximum maximum). For slightly underdampened systems,
frequency at which a system can be excited and and most servo systems fall into this category, the
still remain stable. The value of this bandwidth is response time is approximately three times the
reciprocal of the bandwidth when expressed
less than the natural frequency of a system. For
example, in a mechanical system, the natural in rad/s.
frequency of a mass attached to a spring is
For example, the servo with a 100 Hz (628 rad/s)
expressed by: w = √K/m, where w = natural
frequency in radians/second, K = spring bandwidth has a response time of 3(1/628) =
0.005s (5ms). Thus, the servo will reach the full
stiffness in Newtons/meter, and m= the
inertial mass in kilograms. If this type of system value of a small input change in 5 ms.
is excited at its natural frequency, the system will
Typically, for small input changes, ac brushless
oscillate uncontrollably and become unstable.
servo drives have a bandwidth of 100 Hz and
Electrical systems operate in a similar manner. For response times of 0.005s. By comparison, standard
industrial adjustable speed drives have bandwidths
a servo system, the bandwidth is the frequency
of small signal change (10% or less) that can be of 3 Hz and response times of 0.16s.
applied to the input and the output will drop to
For systems where a large change (more than 10%)
0.707 (-3dB) of the input. Servo bandwidth is
expressed in Hertz (cycles per second) and radians is required, the system response must usually be
per second. To convert from Hz to rad/s, multiply added to the acceleration time, because load
the Hz value by 2π. For example, a hypothetical inertia, maximum accelerating current, and other
factors must be considered.
servo system has a bandwidth of 100 Hz. This
can also be expressed as 628 rad/s.
WHAT
Figure 20
( Bandwidth and Response )
WHAT SHOULD
I LOOK FOR IN A
All Load Cells are Not Created Equal
LOAD CELL?
Many times users regard load cells as generic because they don’t have
the knowledge to distinguish one from the other. As a result, their load
cells may be under performing yet they are unaware of the problem. The
following questions should be considered when comparing load cells.
CMC’s Cleveland-Kidder transducers will be used as the standard for
comparison. This is because they have been used worldwide for over
40 years in a variety of applications and are known for their high
performance and reliability.
Q: Is the Primary Technology Employed Well Accepted?
Load cells are offered with the primary sensing element as strain gages,
LVDT’s, magnetoelastic effect, or others. One could argue over the merits
of each, but further investigation reveals that claims made by some are
unfounded. CMC utilizes strain gages as the primary measuring element.
They are extremely linear in their response, reliable, and are a well-proven
technology. Strain gages are the primary technology used world
wide in load cell applications. They are also utilized in all kinds of highly
accurate applications including weigh scales, Formula One and NASCAR
racing, and aerospace and defense.
Q: Will the Load Cell Disrupt the Web Path?
TECHNIQUES
SENSING
ROLLER
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
WEB
PATH A
(More Sensitive)
IDILER
ROLLER
SENSING
ROLLER
WEB
PATH B
(Less Sensitive)
Figure 21
( Method to Double the Tension Range of a Sensing Roll )
28
HANDBOOK
CELLS?
A primary consideration in tension sensing is that the path of the moving
web be disrupted as little as possible as the measurement is being
taken. This means that the deflection of the load cell must be minimal.
The more deflection the more likely the web path will be disturbed and
not track properly. CMC load cells exhibit very little deflection at
the rated tension load, typically only between .002 to .004 inches.
In addition, their twin beam design (Refer to Figure 4) ensures that
any beam deflection is perpendicular to the web path to prevent
steering to one side. Brands from some manufacturers typically allow
as much as .10 inches deflection at full load. Also, load cells using
strain gages have significantly less deflection than those using LVDTs.
29
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WHAT SHOULD I LOOK FOR IN A LOAD CELLS?
BANDWIDTH AND RESPONSE
Two quantities – bandwidth and response – Response time indicates the time (usually
quantify a system’s capability to react to expressed in seconds or milliseconds) for the output to reach the speed or position commanded
command changes.
by a small input change (usually 10% or less of the
Bandwidth for any system is the maximum maximum). For slightly underdampened systems,
frequency at which a system can be excited and and most servo systems fall into this category, the
still remain stable. The value of this bandwidth is response time is approximately three times the
reciprocal of the bandwidth when expressed
less than the natural frequency of a system. For
example, in a mechanical system, the natural in rad/s.
frequency of a mass attached to a spring is
For example, the servo with a 100 Hz (628 rad/s)
expressed by: w = √K/m, where w = natural
frequency in radians/second, K = spring bandwidth has a response time of 3(1/628) =
0.005s (5ms). Thus, the servo will reach the full
stiffness in Newtons/meter, and m= the
inertial mass in kilograms. If this type of system value of a small input change in 5 ms.
is excited at its natural frequency, the system will
Typically, for small input changes, ac brushless
oscillate uncontrollably and become unstable.
servo drives have a bandwidth of 100 Hz and
Electrical systems operate in a similar manner. For response times of 0.005s. By comparison, standard
industrial adjustable speed drives have bandwidths
a servo system, the bandwidth is the frequency
of small signal change (10% or less) that can be of 3 Hz and response times of 0.16s.
applied to the input and the output will drop to
For systems where a large change (more than 10%)
0.707 (-3dB) of the input. Servo bandwidth is
expressed in Hertz (cycles per second) and radians is required, the system response must usually be
per second. To convert from Hz to rad/s, multiply added to the acceleration time, because load
the Hz value by 2π. For example, a hypothetical inertia, maximum accelerating current, and other
factors must be considered.
servo system has a bandwidth of 100 Hz. This
can also be expressed as 628 rad/s.
WHAT
Figure 20
( Bandwidth and Response )
WHAT SHOULD
I LOOK FOR IN A
All Load Cells are Not Created Equal
LOAD CELL?
Many times users regard load cells as generic because they don’t have
the knowledge to distinguish one from the other. As a result, their load
cells may be under performing yet they are unaware of the problem. The
following questions should be considered when comparing load cells.
CMC’s Cleveland-Kidder transducers will be used as the standard for
comparison. This is because they have been used worldwide for over
40 years in a variety of applications and are known for their high
performance and reliability.
Q: Is the Primary Technology Employed Well Accepted?
Load cells are offered with the primary sensing element as strain gages,
LVDT’s, magnetoelastic effect, or others. One could argue over the merits
of each, but further investigation reveals that claims made by some are
unfounded. CMC utilizes strain gages as the primary measuring element.
They are extremely linear in their response, reliable, and are a well-proven
technology. Strain gages are the primary technology used world
wide in load cell applications. They are also utilized in all kinds of highly
accurate applications including weigh scales, Formula One and NASCAR
racing, and aerospace and defense.
Q: Will the Load Cell Disrupt the Web Path?
TECHNIQUES
SENSING
ROLLER
CAN GET THE MOST
FROM MY LOAD
WEB
PATH A
(More Sensitive)
IDILER
ROLLER
SENSING
ROLLER
WEB
PATH B
(Less Sensitive)
Figure 21
( Method to Double the Tension Range of a Sensing Roll )
28
HANDBOOK
CELLS?
A primary consideration in tension sensing is that the path of the moving
web be disrupted as little as possible as the measurement is being
taken. This means that the deflection of the load cell must be minimal.
The more deflection the more likely the web path will be disturbed and
not track properly. CMC load cells exhibit very little deflection at
the rated tension load, typically only between .002 to .004 inches.
In addition, their twin beam design (Refer to Figure 4) ensures that
any beam deflection is perpendicular to the web path to prevent
steering to one side. Brands from some manufacturers typically allow
as much as .10 inches deflection at full load. Also, load cells using
strain gages have significantly less deflection than those using LVDTs.
29
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I LOOK FOR IN A
LOAD CELL?
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S
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L
Q: Will the Load Cell Allow for Shaft Misalignment?
In a perfect world, all rollers in the web line would be perfectly aligned
from end to end and with respect to their neighbors. Even with the
best attempts to ensure alignment, misalignment occurs. In the case
where the roller is mounted to a pillow block bearing, the bearing chosen
must be one that is designed to accommodate shaft misalignment. When
the load cell is coupled to the roller shaft, the load cell must be able to
accommodate the shaft misalignment. CMC load cells are designed to
accommodate up to +/-1 degree of misalignment from one end
of the roller shaft to the other. This is achieved by using an alignment
bearing of aircraft grade quality that is Teflon coated (Refer to Figure 4).
The Teflon coating eliminates the possibility of fretting corrosion. Fretting
corrosion occurs when two metal surfaces are repeated knocked together
due to vibration. This corrodes the metal over time, weakening it, and
creating a rust-like condition.
Q: Is the Load Cell’s Signal Linear and Repeatable?
Look for a combined non-linearity and hysteresis of +/- 0.5 % maximum
of rated output, and repeatability of +/- 0.2% maximum of rate output.
Manufacturers provide specifications for these ratings. They are not consistent
on how they present their ratings so take this into account. CMC is
conservative in their ratings and provides them as maximum tolerance
limits—performance is typically much better.
WHAT SHOULD
I LOOK FOR IN A
LOAD CELL?
All systems have natural resonant frequencies that limit their ability to be
controlled and to respond to corrective changes. Beware of this when
evaluating load cell specifications. Actual design limitations of the machine
and system response (mechanical and electrical) limit how well tension
can be controlled. These are typically the limiting factors of performance,
not the load cells.
Q: Is the Load Cell Temperature Compensated?
Not all manufacturers offer load cells that accommodate for shaft misalignment. In these cases, binding may occur and the load cell measures
this stress as a force that interferes with the true tension measurement.
Some designs use a diaphragm to accommodate for misalignment.
Over time, diaphragms weaken due to repeated bending, eventually
crack, and break.
Look for a sensitivity change (in the output signal) due to temperature of
less than 0.02% per degree Fahrenheit. CMC incorporates a temperature
compensation network (Refer to Figure 4) in their load cells in order
to achieve this result. It is important that temperature changes have
minimal effect on the output signal. Not all brands compensate
for temperature changes.
Q: What Is the Strength of the Output Signal?
Q: Will the Load Cell Accommodate Shaft Expansion?
The signal output of the load cell must be large enough for it to operate
over a large tension range—typically 20:1 to 30:1. CMC utilizes semiconductor strain gages that have a very high gage factor (100) and
provide high signal output at small deflections. CMC load cells typically
provide a 100MV to 250MV output at rated load. Load cells from
some manufacturers provide as little as 21MV at rated load.
The load cell must respond quickly to tension changes. This is especially
true when it is being utilized in closed-loop applications. CMC load
cells are designed to have a high natural frequency; they respond
quickly to changing tension in the web. CMC electronics such as
amplifiers, indicators, and controllers are also designed to accommodate
this rapid response. Brands from other manufacturers have high inertia,
which limits their response capability. The supplier should be able to
calculate the response of their load cell in your application. Stay away
from designs that require movement of substantial mass; they will yield
a sluggish response.
30
In the case where the roller is mounted to a pillow block bearing, the
bearing that is chosen must be one that is designed to accommodate shaft
expansion. When the load cell is coupled to the roller shaft, the load cell
must be able to accommodate the shaft expansion due to temperature
changes. CMC load cells are designed to accommodate 0.10 inches
of shaft expansion per transducer (Refer to Figure 4). Where two
load cells are utilized, shaft expansion of 0.20 inches can be accommodated.
Many manufactures require that one end of the roller shaft be tightened
to a transducer coupling and the other end be free to float in the transducer
coupling. While this may relieve the stress due to shaft expansion it
requires special mounting procedures and the use of "feeler gages" to
set the appropriate gaps. Insuring that the gap is even may require the
use of shims. Having to adhere to these requirements places much
responsibility on the expertise and judgment of the installer. This can
lead to improper installation or inconsistencies especially if the transducers
are removed and then reinstalled (for roller maintenance—replacing
bearings in the rollers) by someone other than the initial installer.
HANDBOOK
Q: How Responsive is the Load Cell?
The roller shaft grows or expands in length as the temperature increases.
This creates a stress on the mounting components. If not properly
relieved, the load cell measures this stress as a force that interferes with
the true tension measurement.
31
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I LOOK FOR IN A
LOAD CELL?
E
D
W
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R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
Q: Will the Load Cell Allow for Shaft Misalignment?
In a perfect world, all rollers in the web line would be perfectly aligned
from end to end and with respect to their neighbors. Even with the
best attempts to ensure alignment, misalignment occurs. In the case
where the roller is mounted to a pillow block bearing, the bearing chosen
must be one that is designed to accommodate shaft misalignment. When
the load cell is coupled to the roller shaft, the load cell must be able to
accommodate the shaft misalignment. CMC load cells are designed to
accommodate up to +/-1 degree of misalignment from one end
of the roller shaft to the other. This is achieved by using an alignment
bearing of aircraft grade quality that is Teflon coated (Refer to Figure 4).
The Teflon coating eliminates the possibility of fretting corrosion. Fretting
corrosion occurs when two metal surfaces are repeated knocked together
due to vibration. This corrodes the metal over time, weakening it, and
creating a rust-like condition.
Q: Is the Load Cell’s Signal Linear and Repeatable?
Look for a combined non-linearity and hysteresis of +/- 0.5 % maximum
of rated output, and repeatability of +/- 0.2% maximum of rate output.
Manufacturers provide specifications for these ratings. They are not consistent
on how they present their ratings so take this into account. CMC is
conservative in their ratings and provides them as maximum tolerance
limits—performance is typically much better.
WHAT SHOULD
I LOOK FOR IN A
LOAD CELL?
All systems have natural resonant frequencies that limit their ability to be
controlled and to respond to corrective changes. Beware of this when
evaluating load cell specifications. Actual design limitations of the machine
and system response (mechanical and electrical) limit how well tension
can be controlled. These are typically the limiting factors of performance,
not the load cells.
Q: Is the Load Cell Temperature Compensated?
Not all manufacturers offer load cells that accommodate for shaft misalignment. In these cases, binding may occur and the load cell measures
this stress as a force that interferes with the true tension measurement.
Some designs use a diaphragm to accommodate for misalignment.
Over time, diaphragms weaken due to repeated bending, eventually
crack, and break.
Look for a sensitivity change (in the output signal) due to temperature of
less than 0.02% per degree Fahrenheit. CMC incorporates a temperature
compensation network (Refer to Figure 4) in their load cells in order
to achieve this result. It is important that temperature changes have
minimal effect on the output signal. Not all brands compensate
for temperature changes.
Q: What Is the Strength of the Output Signal?
Q: Will the Load Cell Accommodate Shaft Expansion?
The signal output of the load cell must be large enough for it to operate
over a large tension range—typically 20:1 to 30:1. CMC utilizes semiconductor strain gages that have a very high gage factor (100) and
provide high signal output at small deflections. CMC load cells typically
provide a 100MV to 250MV output at rated load. Load cells from
some manufacturers provide as little as 21MV at rated load.
The load cell must respond quickly to tension changes. This is especially
true when it is being utilized in closed-loop applications. CMC load
cells are designed to have a high natural frequency; they respond
quickly to changing tension in the web. CMC electronics such as
amplifiers, indicators, and controllers are also designed to accommodate
this rapid response. Brands from other manufacturers have high inertia,
which limits their response capability. The supplier should be able to
calculate the response of their load cell in your application. Stay away
from designs that require movement of substantial mass; they will yield
a sluggish response.
30
In the case where the roller is mounted to a pillow block bearing, the
bearing that is chosen must be one that is designed to accommodate shaft
expansion. When the load cell is coupled to the roller shaft, the load cell
must be able to accommodate the shaft expansion due to temperature
changes. CMC load cells are designed to accommodate 0.10 inches
of shaft expansion per transducer (Refer to Figure 4). Where two
load cells are utilized, shaft expansion of 0.20 inches can be accommodated.
Many manufactures require that one end of the roller shaft be tightened
to a transducer coupling and the other end be free to float in the transducer
coupling. While this may relieve the stress due to shaft expansion it
requires special mounting procedures and the use of "feeler gages" to
set the appropriate gaps. Insuring that the gap is even may require the
use of shims. Having to adhere to these requirements places much
responsibility on the expertise and judgment of the installer. This can
lead to improper installation or inconsistencies especially if the transducers
are removed and then reinstalled (for roller maintenance—replacing
bearings in the rollers) by someone other than the initial installer.
HANDBOOK
Q: How Responsive is the Load Cell?
The roller shaft grows or expands in length as the temperature increases.
This creates a stress on the mounting components. If not properly
relieved, the load cell measures this stress as a force that interferes with
the true tension measurement.
31
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WHAT SHOULD
I LOOK FOR IN A
LOAD CELL?
E
D
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Q: Will the Load Cell be Reliable and Durable?
NOTES
Look at the construction of the load cell. Is it open or sealed? Dust
entering into the sensing elements can shorten the operating life. Is
the body cast, machined, or is it made from sheet metal. Sheet metal
designs are not nearly as rugged. Does the design require moving parts,
mechanical springs, or offsets? These wear over time and present
calibration problems. How reputable is the load cell manufacturer?
How long has the manufacturer been in business? Who have the best
companies been using? A good reputation is generally derived from
producing a reliable product.
CMC constructs their transducers from cast or machined bodies and
seals them against dust. Water resisting designs are also available. Most
CMC load cells have NO moving parts and require NO maintenance. It
is not uncommon for the Cleveland Kidder load cells to last 20 years or
longer. All CMC transducers are designed to meet high performance
standards. CMC has been manufacturing tension transducers for
over 40 years. The longevity and outstanding reputation of the
Cleveland- Kidder brand attest to the superiority of their product.
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
The more you know about selecting and sizing load cells the better your
chance for success in your web tension application. It is important to
understand why and how load cells are to be applied in your control scheme.
Select the style that best fits your requirements. Use the appropriate techniques
to get the most out of your load cell. Size the transducer to determine the
designed to meet your performance requirements and will be both reliable
and durable. Doing all of this will give years of outstanding, reliable performance
from your load cell.
32
HANDBOOK
load rating that best meets your tension range. Ensure that it has been
33
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I LOOK FOR IN A
LOAD CELL?
E
D
W
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B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
Q: Will the Load Cell be Reliable and Durable?
NOTES
Look at the construction of the load cell. Is it open or sealed? Dust
entering into the sensing elements can shorten the operating life. Is
the body cast, machined, or is it made from sheet metal. Sheet metal
designs are not nearly as rugged. Does the design require moving parts,
mechanical springs, or offsets? These wear over time and present
calibration problems. How reputable is the load cell manufacturer?
How long has the manufacturer been in business? Who have the best
companies been using? A good reputation is generally derived from
producing a reliable product.
CMC constructs their transducers from cast or machined bodies and
seals them against dust. Water resisting designs are also available. Most
CMC load cells have NO moving parts and require NO maintenance. It
is not uncommon for the Cleveland Kidder load cells to last 20 years or
longer. All CMC transducers are designed to meet high performance
standards. CMC has been manufacturing tension transducers for
over 40 years. The longevity and outstanding reputation of the
Cleveland- Kidder brand attest to the superiority of their product.
SUMMARY
SUMMARY
The more you know about selecting and sizing load cells the better your
chance for success in your web tension application. It is important to
understand why and how load cells are to be applied in your control scheme.
Select the style that best fits your requirements. Use the appropriate techniques
to get the most out of your load cell. Size the transducer to determine the
designed to meet your performance requirements and will be both reliable
and durable. Doing all of this will give years of outstanding, reliable performance
from your load cell.
32
HANDBOOK
load rating that best meets your tension range. Ensure that it has been
33
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Cleveland-Kidder ® Tension Transducer (Load Cell) Selection Guide
Load Cell
Style
Web Width
Used for
Wide
Webs
(Over
20 in.)
CartridgeStyle
Slim-Cell
UPB
Washdown
Duty
Tension Roller
Shaft
* Load Ratings
**Mounting
Used for For use For use Min. Load Max. Load Typical
Inside
Narrow
with
with
Rating
Rating Overload Machine
Webs
Stationary Rotating Offered
Offered
Rating
Frame
(Under
( Dead )
( Live)
(LB.)
(LB.)
( %)
(Stud or
20 in.)
Shafts
Shafts
Flange
Mount)
•
•
•
•
•
25
•
•
10
25
1,000
1,000
30,000
150 300%
500 1,000%
Outside
Machine
Frame
•
•
Special Environments
Above
Machine
Frame
( Pillow
Block
Mount)
WashdownDuty,
Corrosive
and
Chemical
Resisting
For use in
Vacuums
(Modified)
For use in
High
Temperatures
(Modified)
•
•
•
•
500%
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key Considerations
Why would I Select this
Transducer over the Others?
Typical Applications
Industry Standard,
Variety of Mounting Styles,
Flexographic Presses,
Extruder Lines, Laminators
Good Value
and Coaters
Slim Profile-Advanced Design, State of the Art Equipment
For use where Mounting
for Printing , Flexible Packaging,
Space is Tight - Reduces
Converting, Coating/Laminating
Machine Frame Width,
where wide tension ranges
Outside Frame Mounting
and high performance are
Available,Light Tensions,
required. Very good for
Extended Tension Range,
plastic and aluminum films,
Retrofits, Special Environments
foils, and laminates
Paper Mills,Steel Mills,Textiles,
Tire Cord Machines,
Dryer Drums, Paperboard,
Machine Retrofits
***
Label Presses, Very good for
use on equipment producing
multi-laminate materials
used in Hygienic & Medical
Products, Light Wire and
Heavy Cable
**
Wire and Cable, Ribbon,
Textiles
*
•
•
0.1
500
150 300%
•
•
Cantilevered
CR
•
•
5
150
150 300%
•
•
For use with Cantilevered
Pulleys, Good Value
34
**
For use with Pillow Block
Cantilevered
CLT
Standard Features for all Transducers:
– Typical Tension Range- 20/1 to 30/1 ( Based on Proper Load Cell Sizing )
– Temperature Range -0-200 degrees F
– Load Cells can be oriented to measure the tension force in any direction
– UL certified for Intrinsically Safe applications
– CE label
*
Bearing, Low Height Profile,
High Tensions, High Temp.,
Special Environments
For use with Cantilevered
Rollers-Unique design
eliminates affects of shifting
cantilevered load, Pulleys,
Both Extremely Light Tensions
and High Tensions
Figure 22
Price
Comparison
*Low End
** Mid Range
***High End
* Transducers are offered in variety of load ratings. They must be properly sized for the tension load.
Refer to the appropriate transducer data sheet for sizing formulas and available load ratings.
Figure 22
** Mounting kits are required for some mounting configurations. Refer to the appropriate
transducer data sheet.
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Cleveland-Kidder ® Tension Transducer (Load Cell) Selection Guide
Load Cell
Style
Web Width
Used for
Wide
Webs
(Over
20 in.)
CartridgeStyle
Slim-Cell
UPB
Washdown
Duty
Tension Roller
Shaft
* Load Ratings
**Mounting
Used for For use For use Min. Load Max. Load Typical
Inside
Narrow
with
with
Rating
Rating Overload Machine
Webs
Stationary Rotating Offered
Offered
Rating
Frame
(Under
( Dead )
( Live)
(LB.)
(LB.)
( %)
(Stud or
20 in.)
Shafts
Shafts
Flange
Mount)
•
•
•
•
•
25
•
•
10
25
1,000
1,000
30,000
150 300%
500 1,000%
Outside
Machine
Frame
•
•
Special Environments
Above
Machine
Frame
( Pillow
Block
Mount)
WashdownDuty,
Corrosive
and
Chemical
Resisting
For use in
Vacuums
(Modified)
For use in
High
Temperatures
(Modified)
•
•
•
•
500%
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key Considerations
Why would I Select this
Transducer over the Others?
Typical Applications
Industry Standard,
Variety of Mounting Styles,
Flexographic Presses,
Extruder Lines, Laminators
Good Value
and Coaters
Slim Profile-Advanced Design, State of the Art Equipment
For use where Mounting
for Printing , Flexible Packaging,
Space is Tight - Reduces
Converting, Coating/Laminating
Machine Frame Width,
where wide tension ranges
Outside Frame Mounting
and high performance are
Available,Light Tensions,
required. Very good for
Extended Tension Range,
plastic and aluminum films,
Retrofits, Special Environments
foils, and laminates
Paper Mills,Steel Mills,Textiles,
Tire Cord Machines,
Dryer Drums, Paperboard,
Machine Retrofits
***
Label Presses, Very good for
use on equipment producing
multi-laminate materials
used in Hygienic & Medical
Products, Light Wire and
Heavy Cable
**
Wire and Cable, Ribbon,
Textiles
*
•
•
0.1
500
150 300%
•
•
Cantilevered
CR
•
•
5
150
150 300%
•
•
For use with Cantilevered
Pulleys, Good Value
34
**
For use with Pillow Block
Cantilevered
CLT
Standard Features for all Transducers:
– Typical Tension Range- 20/1 to 30/1 ( Based on Proper Load Cell Sizing )
– Temperature Range -0-200 degrees F
– Load Cells can be oriented to measure the tension force in any direction
– UL certified for Intrinsically Safe applications
– CE label
*
Bearing, Low Height Profile,
High Tensions, High Temp.,
Special Environments
For use with Cantilevered
Rollers-Unique design
eliminates affects of shifting
cantilevered load, Pulleys,
Both Extremely Light Tensions
and High Tensions
Figure 22
Price
Comparison
*Low End
** Mid Range
***High End
* Transducers are offered in variety of load ratings. They must be properly sized for the tension load.
Refer to the appropriate transducer data sheet for sizing formulas and available load ratings.
Figure 22
** Mounting kits are required for some mounting configurations. Refer to the appropriate
transducer data sheet.
35
A
36
D
V A
N
C
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
Your
Single
Source
For
Web
Tension
Solutions
TENSION TRANSDUCERS
(Load Cells)
DIN-RAIL AMPLIFIER
DIN-Rail
Amp
Digital
Analog
0 - 10 VDC
Output
A
D
V
A
N
C
E
D
W
E
B
P
R
O
C
E
S
S
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
UNWIND ZONE
INTERMEDIATE ZONE
BRAKE OR
MOTOR DRIVE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
REWIND ZONE
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
TENSION
TRANSDUCER
(Load Cell)
Strain Gages
PROCESS
Dual Beams
Electrical Connector
MOTOR
TACH
TACH
MOTOR DRIVE
OR CLUTCH
Teflon-Coated
Alignment
Ball Joint
Temperature
Compensation
Network
WEB TENSION SENSING
TRANSDUCERS
Split
Coupling
With over thirty years of proven
WEBPRO
UNWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
A D V A N C E D
MOTOR
CONTROL
W E B
WEBPRO
DRIVE
TENSION
CONTROLLER
P R O C E S S
MOTOR
CONTROL
C O N T R O L
industrial use worldwide, CMC
transducers are used to measure
the tension in a ny material,
any process, any machine, in
fact virtually any application where
MOTOR
Clev
elan
d-Ki
dder ®
Your
Single
accurate web tension is required
to achieve maximum productivity.
Source
For
Dust Seal
Web
Tension
Expansion Pin
Solutions
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
WEBPRO
REWIND
TENSION
CONTROLLER
Your Single Source For Web Tension Solutions
ADVANCED WEB PROCESS CONTROL
H
A
N
D
B
O
O
K
ADVANCED WEB PROCESS CONTROL
CONTENTS
Clev
elan
d-Ki
dder ®
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
w w w . C M C c o n t r o l s . c o m
All CMC Web Tension data sheets and manuals are available on our website.
INTRODUCTION..................................................
How to Size and Select
Load Cells for
We b P ro c e s s P ro d u c t i v i t y
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB TENSION CONTROL..........
• What is Web Tension Control?
• What Requires Web Tension Control?
• Why Worry About Web Tension Control?
• What are Load Cells and Tension Transducers?
• Why are Load Cells Necessary?
• How Do Load Cells Actually Work?
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
6
SELECT THE LOAD CELL FOR YOUR APPLICATION........ 8
• How Do I Determine the Style Needed?
8
Step 1- Determine if you have a wide web, narrow
10
web, or wire and cable application
7550 Hub Parkway
Cleveland, Oh 44125-5794
Call: 1-216-524-8800 or 1-800-321-8072
Fax: (216) 642-2199
Web Tension Division
All Rights Reserved.
Litho USA
3M
12/02
WT-HB
• Be Realistic About Tension Control and Over What Range 27
• Remove Transducers when Transporting the Machine 27
WHAT SHOULD I LOOK FOR IN LOAD CELLS?................ 29
• All Load Cells are Not Created Equal
29
29
• Will the Load Cell Disrupt the Web Path?
• Will the Load Cell Allow for Shaft Misalignment?
• What is the Strength of the Output Signal?
29
30
30
Step 4- Determine space and mounting requirements 14
• How Responsive is the Load Cell?
30
Step 5- Determine environmental restrictions
Step 6- Select the proper load cell style
• Is the Load Cell’s Signal Linear and Repeatable?
• Is the Load Cell Temperature Compensated?
• Will the Load Cell Accommodate Shaft Expansion?
31
31
31
• Will the Load Cell be Reliable and Durable?
32
11
12
14
14
SIZING THE TRANSDUCER FOR THE LOAD REQUIREMENTS 16
• What is the Reason for Sizing?
• What Formulas Are Used For Proper Sizing?
• How Are Sizing Formulas Applied?
© 2002 Cleveland Motion Controls.
20
20
21
22
25
26
27
• Is The Primary Technology Employed Well Accepted?
Step 2- Determine if you have a stationary shaft or
rotating shaft roller
Step 3- Determine the proper tension
WEB TENSION DIVISION
WHAT TECHNIQUES CAN GET THE MOST FROM MY
LOAD CELLS?......................................................
• Orient the Load Cell Properly
• Pay Attention to Roller Weight
• Calculate the Tare Weight and Make it Work For You
• Don’t Ignore The Wrap Angle- Use it to Your Benefit
• Maintain a Fixed Angle of Wrap Throughout the Process
• Be Judicious in Assigning the Safety Factor
16
17
18
SUMMARY..........................................................
32
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