trace amp manual.indd - American Musical Supply

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CONTENTS
Warnings & Cautions.........................................................................................................................................2
Important Safety Instructions.............................................................................................................................3
Introduction........................................................................................................................................................4
Basic Comparison Of Features...........................................................................................................................5
Quick Start..........................................................................................................................................................5
In Depth Guide...................................................................................................................................................7
Front Panel..........................................................................................................................................................7
(1) INPUT socket...................................................................................................................................8
(2) HI/LO switch...................................................................................................................................8
(3) INPUT GAIN rotary control............................................................................................................8
(4) Signal level LEDs............................................................................................................................8
(5) TUNER socket (7 Band)..................................................................................................................9
(6) PRE SHAPE switch.........................................................................................................................9
(7) VALVE switch (12 Band) ................................................................................................................9
(8) DRIVE rotary control (12 Band).....................................................................................................9
(9) BLEND rotary control (12 Band)....................................................................................................9
(10) DI OUT XLR socket (7 Band).....................................................................................................10
(11) PRE/POST switch (7 Band).........................................................................................................10
(12) GRAPHIC EQUALIZER switch & sliders..................................................................................10
(13) COMPRESSOR switch and rotary control (7 Band)...................................................................11
(14) COMPRESSOR switch (12 Band)..............................................................................................12
(15) LOW BAND rotary control (12 Band)........................................................................................12
(16) HIGH BAND rotary control (12 Band).......................................................................................13
(17) SEND socket (7 Band).................................................................................................................14
(18) RETURN socket (7 Band)...........................................................................................................14
(19) LOOP switch (12 Band)..............................................................................................................14
(20) MUTE switch...............................................................................................................................14
(21) OUTPUT LEVEL rotary control..................................................................................................14
(22) Multipurpose red LED above OUTPUT LEVEL.........................................................................15
(23) LINE OUT socket (7 Band).........................................................................................................15
Rear Panel.........................................................................................................................................................16
(24) EXTERNAL CONTROL 8 pin DIN socket(s)............................................................................16
(25) DI EARTH LIFT switch ..............................................................................................................17
(26) SEND-LO PASS, FULL, HI PASS sockets (12 Band)................................................................17
(27) SERIES/PARALLEL switch (12 Band)......................................................................................17
(28) RETURN-LEFT, MONO, RIGHT/MONO sockets (12 Band)...................................................17
(29) LOOP LEVEL rotary control (12 Band).....................................................................................18
(30) TUNER socket (12 Band)............................................................................................................19
(31) BALANCED DI OUTPUTS-LEFT, RIGHT, PRE EQ XLR sockets (12 Band)........................19
(32) OUTPUTS-LEFT & RIGHT sockets (12 Band).........................................................................20
(33) SPEAKER OUTPUT(S)..............................................................................................................20
(34) FRONT PANEL BRIGHTNESS rotary control...........................................................................21
(35) POWER switch............................................................................................................................21
(36) IEC socket and fuse holder...........................................................................................................21
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION.....................................................................................................................22
Power Amplifiers..............................................................................................................................................22
Anti-clipping circuit.........................................................................................................................................22
Combos.............................................................................................................................................................22
Help..................................................................................................................................................................23
Suggested Settings............................................................................................................................................24
7 Band block diagram-Basic signal flow..........................................................................................................25
12 Band block diagram-Basic signal flow........................................................................................................26
Specifications....................................................................................................................................................27
Glossary of terms..............................................................................................................................................29
Trace Elliot • Great Folds Road • Oakley Hay • Corby • Northamptonshire • NN18 9ET • England
Phone +44 (0) 1536 424740 • Fax +44 (0)1536 747222 • www.traceelliot.com
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TRACE ELLIOT AMPLIFICATION
Congratulations on your purchase of a Trace Elliot product. Our experience in design and quality of
manufacturing will ensure that you will be able to rely on this product to deliver the solid professional sound
you deserve, whether in the studio or on stage.
This Trace Elliot range is the latest evolution of a line of products that were always known for their sophisticated
features, high quality construction, use of state of the art technology and reliability. Many of the original ideas
have become industry standards and are included within this range, however, around these are even more
features to inspire musicians to create the music that they want to hear.
The range features two types of preamp simply called 12 Band and 7 Band. This refers to the number of
frequency bands of control within the graphic equalizer. There are several differences between the two preamp
sections which are outlined below. In addition to the preamp, different models have different rear panel
features, different power levels and, in the case of the combos, different speaker configurations.
High quality parts have been used throughout. In keeping with traditional Trace Elliot amplifiers, the INPUT
GAIN and OUTPUT LEVEL controls use parts that have ‘detents’ to give a professional feel.
All the switchable features on these amplifiers are split into two types: pre-set and performance.
➢ Pre-set functions are those which will be set at the start and are unlikely to be changed again during a
performance. These all use latching type switches which means they have an ‘in’ and an ‘out’ setting and will
click when changing settings.
➢ Performance functions are those which it is likely the user will want to switch on or off throughout a
performance. These all use non-latching type switches which ultimately control FETs to switch the particular
function on or off. The switching is extremely quiet and therefore will not be heard during a performance. The
front panel switch does not click when pressed and only needs to be pressed lightly to operate. In all cases the
appropriate LED for that function will be lit/unlit as it is switched. All these functions are also conveniently
footswitchable using the supplied footcontroller.
When a part of the circuitry is switched off then that particular part is completely bypassed, retaining signal
integrity. Also, correct signal phase is maintained from all outputs regardless of which functions are switched
on or off.
Caution: Please look over this guide and read any caution or warning statements found within. Following
these warnings is crucial to your personal safety and the safety of your Trace Elliot product.
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BASIC COMPARISON OF REATURES:
7 Band
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
LED level indication
HI / LO sensitivity switch
TUNER OUT
PRE SHAPE circuit
DI OUTPUT on front
VALVE DRIVE circuit
7 BAND GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
12 BAND GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
COMPRESSOR
DUAL BAND COMPRESSOR
SERIES EFFECTS LOOP
MULTI OPTION EFFECTS LOOP
DI OUTPUTS on rear
MUTE switch
4 function footcontroller
6 function footcontroller
Brightness Control for front panel
12 Band
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
QUICK START:
This section is for people who are either too excited or too impatient to read the whole manual before using
their new Trace Elliot. Please at least read this first section thoroughly and return to the rest of the manual
later, lest you don’t get the full potential out of your new amplifier.
(1) Once you unpack your Trace Elliot, plug the power cord into the socket on the rear panel and connect to a
mains socket supplying the proper AC line voltage for your unit. This is located on the rear of the unit, near
the mains inlet and power switch.
(2) If your unit is an amplifier head (e.g. AH600-7, AH1200-12, etc.) then connect the speaker output to your
speaker cabinet(s). (More information on this is provided in the Owner’s Guide for the cabinet).
(3) Turn the OUTPUT LEVEL control to the “0” position.
(4) Connect the footcontroller (included) to the EXTERNAL CONTROL socket on the rear panel using the
eight-pin DIN cable (included).
(5) Plug your instrument into the INPUT on the front panel using a high quality shielded instrument cable and
turn the INPUT GAIN control to the “0” position.
(6) Flip the power switch on the rear to the “ON” position to turn the unit on.
(7) Set your instrument to your normal settings and while striking a string hard turn up the INPUT GAIN
gradually. While doing this observe the level indication LEDs above the control. When the red LED starts to
be lit, turn the INPUT GAIN control back one or two clicks so that it only lights up very occasionally.
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(8) Now gradually turn up the OUTPUT LEVEL control. Do this slowly to avoid any sudden level changes
that could damage your hearing; these are loud amps! Set this at the desired playing volume.
(9) You will notice that the unit will have defaulted to a setting of everything off except the PRE SHAPE
circuit. This is so that whenever the unit is turned on it will power up with a good basic tone.
(10) Make music! Feel free to turn on and off the other features on the unit, either by the footcontroller or
the front panel, and make adjustments to the other controls to get an idea of the flexibility of the unit. While
making adjustments keep an eye on the level indication LEDs; some extreme settings of the Graphic Equalizer
will increase the signal level into clip, if this happens simply re-adjust the INPUT GAIN control as mentioned
above.
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IN DEPTH GUIDE
Well done! The very fact that you are reading this section means that you are serious about getting the most
out of your Trace Elliot amplifier. Although fundamentally easy to use, this guide will hopefully explain
the features of your amplifier in a way that will unlock all sorts of sonic potential that may have otherwise
remained hidden.
This operating guide covers the features of all the contemporary 12 Band and 7 Band range of amplifiers. If a
feature is only applicable to particular units then these are shown in brackets next to the heading. Therefore,
if (12 Band) is shown, this section applies to all 12 Band products and not to any 7 Band products.
Where a specific model is shown in brackets, e.g. (AH1200-12), then this applies only to that product. The
feature being explained is shown in upper case, the type of control is shown in lower case. If there are any
terms you do not fully understand then please refer to the glossary at the back of this manual.
FRONT PANEL
There are two different front panels used for the range. Aesthetically they are very similar, however closer
inspection shows there are several differences. The 7 BAND has all its primary features on the front, with very
little on the rear, whereas the 12 BAND has many of its features moved to the rear to make space for other
features on the front. Basically the operation is very simple. The signal flow runs from left to right through
the functions on the front panel. The status of each function is clearly shown by the corresponding controls
and LEDs, which also match the LEDs on the footcontroller.
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(1) INPUT socket
This is to connect the 1/4” jack lead from your instrument. Alternatively, if any effect units are being used
before the amplifier then the output from the last unit is connected here. When the INPUT is not in use the
amplifier is automatically muted to prevent any unwanted noise.
Experience has shown us that not all 1/4” jack plugs are made equal, therefore, we recommend the use of only
high quality 1/4” jack leads for best sonic performance and reliable connection.
(2) HI / LO switch
This switch has two functions; to set the sensitivity and the impedance of the INPUT stage. In the out
position it is set HI for high sensitivity and high impedance (1MΩ). The in position is the LO setting for lower
sensitivity and lower impedance (100KΩ).
The difference in sensitivity is 10dB. Actual sensitivity is dependent on the setting of the INPUT GAIN
control.
Generally, this switch should be set to HI for passive instruments, which are usually high impedance and have
lower outputs, and LO for active instruments (those with batteries built in), which are low impedance and
often have higher outputs. However, either can be used as long as the INPUT GAIN is set correctly.
(3) INPUT GAIN rotary control
This is to set the gain of the input stage of the amplifier. The setting of this control is the single most important
on the whole unit, hence why the control knob has a red cap.
(4) Signal level LEDs
The level indication LEDs are included to help the user set the INPUT GAIN control. The circuitry monitors
several strategic points throughout the preamp to determine if clipping (distortion) is occurring.
The 7 Band units have 3 LEDs; green, yellow and red. Green will be lit for very low signal levels, yellow
will also come on when higher levels are present, and the red will be lit when the level is clipping or close to
clipping.
The 12 Band units have 5 LEDs. An extra green LED shows low to medium signal levels and the additional
red LED is a peak indicator that remains lit for a few seconds, even if the signal has dropped in level. This is
to show where clipping is occurring momentarily and might otherwise be missed.
Ideally, the INPUT GAIN control should be set as high as possible with the red LED(s) only lighting very
occasionally when playing the instrument at its hardest.
The basic procedure is as follows:1) Set the OUTPUT LEVEL to 0. Connect your instrument to the INPUT.
2) Set the HI / LO switch as appropriate for the particular bass being used.
3) Set the Volume control on the instrument to maximum.
4) Play the instrument as hard as it would be played during the performance.
5) While playing gradually turn up the INPUT GAIN.
6) The LEDs will begin to light up starting from the left.
7) Continue to turn up the INPUT GAIN until the (first) red LED is momentarily lit on the hardest strokes, then
back off slightly one or two clicks on the control.
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If an active bass is being used with the HI / LO switch set to LO and the INPUT GAIN control is turned
fully clockwise without the red LED lighting at all, then switch to HI and follow the same procedure. This is
because not all active basses have high enough outputs to require the LO setting to be used.
While making adjustments to the rest of the controls keep an eye on the level indication LEDs. Some extreme
settings of the graphic equalizer will increase the signal level into clip. If this happens simply readjust the
INPUT GAIN control as mentioned above.
(5) TUNER socket (7 Band)
This is an output for connecting to a tuner. It is a buffered version of the input signal. Simply connect a 1/4”
jack lead from this to a tuner and you will be able to tune up easily at any time without degradation to the tone.
The signal from this socket is present all at times regardless of any other settings including MUTE.
(6) PRE SHAPE switch
This activates the circuit for the classic Trace Elliot ‘Mid Pre-Shape’ that all users of previous Trace Elliot
graphic style amplifiers will recognise immediately. As it is our ‘signature sound’, these amplifiers are designed
to default to this setting when initially turned on. When this is activated the yellow LED is lit.
The actual effect of this circuit is to boost the low and high frequencies (55Hz and 2kHz to 5kHz respectively)
and to cut the mid frequencies (centred around 400Hz), giving an instant, clearly defined, punchy sound. It
can be switched on and off using the front panel switch and also from the footcontroller. Both have a yellow
LED to show its status.
(7) VALVE switch (12 Band)
This switches the VALVE circuit on or off.
(8) DRIVE rotary control (12 Band)
This sets the signal level that is sent into the VALVE circuit.
(9) BLEND rotary control (12 Band)
This controls the mix between the normal sound and the sound from the valve.
The VALVE section uses both halves of an ECC83/12AX7 thermionic valve and is configured to be in parallel
with the normal signal.
Low settings of the DRIVE control will remain basically clean but with valve warmth added due to the
harmonics generated by the valve. Higher settings will drive the valve harder and will result in overdrive
sounds being created.
The BLEND control can then be used to literally blend together the two parallel signals to achieve the desired
effect. With the BLEND control fully anti-clockwise only the normal signal will be present; turning clockwise
will reduce the normal signal and increase the valve sound until, with the control fully clockwise, only the
valve sound is present. This means that in all positions, other than maximum and minimum, the sound of the
valve is blended together with the normal, clean signal which prevents the bottom end losing definition.
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By using the two controls a wide range of valve sounds can be dialled in, from vintage warmth to heavy
overdrive. Bear in mind this is not simulation, this is a real valve doing a real job. We recommend experimenting
with both the PRE SHAPE and GRAPHIC EQ in various settings while the VALVE circuit is switched on.
With PRE SHAPE selected and a low to medium amount of DRIVE, the sound takes on the character of a
vintage valve bass amp due to ‘shaping’ the signal before the valve. With higher DRIVE settings the tone
often benefits from some sound ‘sculpting’ by the GRAPHIC, a little boost in the high mids helps the attack.
Also the COMPRESSOR can be used to further shape the tone. The HIGH BAND is of particular use when
lots of overdrive is being produced due to the extra high frequency content in the sound.
Basically, this is a very versatile circuit that can produce various valve tones, from demurely subtle to wantonly
filthy! Experiment and enjoy.
Once a particular sound is found, the user can switch to the normal, clean sound and back again by pressing
the associated switch on the front panel or by using the footcontroller, both of which have a red LED to show
its status.
Please note: to drive the valve hardest the INPUT GAIN control needs to be set correctly as described above.
(10) DI OUT XLR socket (7 Band)
This is a low impedance balanced output for connecting direct to a stage box or mixer for live or studio use.
It gives the engineer a strong, clean signal without any overspill from other instruments. The XLR socket is
wired as normal: pin 1 = Ground, pin 2 = Signal +, pin 3 = Signal –
(An ‘Earth Lift’ switch is featured on the rear panel - see below).
(11) PRE/POST switch (7 Band)
This switches the signal that appears at the DI OUT from PRE with the switch out, to POST with the switch
in.
PRE is before any EQ is applied, therefore a higher level, buffered, version of the input signal. POST is after
the EQ, COMPRESSOR and effects loop, but before the OUTPUT LEVEL control. Therefore, any sound
shaping that is applied within the amplifier will be heard on the DI signal as well. Different applications will
determine different settings. If in doubt choose POST as this will be basically the same sound that will be
heard from the cabinet / combo speakers.
Both settings should have similar general output levels. Neither will be affected by adjustments to the OUTPUT
LEVEL, so turning up on stage will not overload the mixing desk once it is set. In either setting the output will
be muted if the MUTE function is used.
(12) GRAPHIC EQUALIZER switch & sliders
When switched on the GRAPHIC EQUALIZER will be inserted into the signal chain. The green LED above
the sliders shows its status. It can be switched on and off using the front panel switch and also from the
footcontroller.
The graphic equalizer is the centre piece, both functionally and quite literally, of a traditional Trace Elliot
amplifier, so much so that the actual name for each part of the range is derived from the number of frequency
bands within each one, i.e. 7 Band and 12 Band. Both types are very powerful tools for controlling the tone
of your instrument. The design of a Trace Elliot graphic equalizer is very different from a standard sound
reinforcement EQ. 15dB of cut or boost is available for each band, but instead of being spread mathematically
over the frequency range they have been set at carefully selected frequencies of particular use for bass guitar.
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Therefore, there is more control in the lower frequencies. Another difference is that each slider controls a
much wider frequency range than normally found. These design differences are in common with traditional
Trace Elliot amplifiers and are part of the sound.
With the controls all set at 0dB (their mid ‘click’ position), no change is made to the signal. Moving a slider up
will progressively increase, or ‘boost’, the frequencies centred around the frequency marked above the slider.
Moving a slider down will progressively decrease, or ‘cut’, the frequencies.
Due to the flexibility and massive cut and boost available, it is important to know how to get the best from the
circuit.
➢ Do not boost or cut all frequency bands. This will have the same effect as increasing or decreasing the
overall volume level without affecting the tonal characteristic of the sound.
➢ Do not use excessive bottom (30Hz to 40Hz) boost on the graphic unless your speakers can handle it.
Very few speaker systems are capable of handling frequencies as low as 30Hz and 40Hz with any degree of
efficiency. Boosting at 30Hz, for instance, will not add to the perceived amount of bottom end in the sound,
it will only make your speakers flap to no useful effect. In fact, boosting at 100Hz or 180Hz will have the
apparent effect of adding far more bottom end than boosting at 30Hz, 40Hz or even 60Hz. The 30Hz slider has
been provided on the 12 Band to allow precise tailoring at very low frequencies. This slider should be used to
cut (not boost) the 30Hz to a level that allows the speaker system to work at its maximum efficiency.
➢ Do not use excessive top (10Hz to 15kHz) boost, this will add mostly hiss to the sound as there is very little
signal output at this frequency from a bass.
➢ Try to keep the graphic sliders balanced around 0dB and in a smooth flowing curve from one slider to the
next, and remember that after adjusting the graphic you may need to re-set the INPUT GAIN.
The fundamental frequency range of a regular, 4-string bass guitar is from 41.2Hz (bottom E string) to around
392Hz (two octaves up on the G string) - not a very wide range. Obviously a lot of harmonics are produced
when playing and these can extend up to 5kHz and more.
The attack portion of the note also produces other high frequencies when the string is first struck. This attack
can be emphasised by boosting the top end. However, because of the fairly small range of frequencies from
a bass, by top end we mean between 2.5kHz and 5kHz. You will find that by boosting at 5kHz the attack
will be emphasised, whereas boosting at 1.3kHz and 2.6kHz will bring out the harmonics in the note. Above
this frequency range you will find it is better not to boost the signal as this will mainly emphasise any hiss
present.
If the VALVE circuit on a 12 Band unit is used at quite high DRIVE settings, you will find the GRAPHIC EQ
extremely useful in shaping the overall tone due to having far more precise control than a simple bass, middle,
treble arrangement found on many other amplifiers.
(13) COMPRESSOR switch and rotary control (7 Band)
Pressing this switch will add the COMPRESSOR to the signal chain. The blue LED above the switch shows
its status. It can also be switched on and off using the supplied footcontroller. The rotary control adjusts the
amount of compression applied to the signal; the further clockwise the control is set, the more the dynamic
range will be squeezed.
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The compressor in the 7 Band series uses studio quality, dedicated dynamics controller integrated circuits and
has been specifically designed for bass guitar due to the common problems often experienced when using a
normal, single band compressor in this application.
With a standard compressor, the transition from non-compressed to compressed, i.e. crossing the threshold,
can often be abrupt and unnatural sounding, especially at high ratio settings. Also, the normal pre-set attack
and release times always have to be a compromise between having it work fast enough to catch rapidly
changing signal levels (i.e. transients such as slapping techniques) or too fast which can cause low frequency
distortion.
To tackle these issues, the compressor on the 7 Band range has been designed as a soft-knee compressor with
programme dependant adaptive attack and release times.
➢ Soft-knee means that, above the threshold, compression is applied gradually, with the ratio increasing as the
input level goes up. The result is a smoother sounding compression than the normal hard-knee type.
➢ Adaptive attack and release means that these settings are automatically and constantly adjusted by the
circuitry depending on what is being played. It will adjust to be slow to prevent distortion at low frequencies
and then readjust to be fast to catch transients. It enables a bass player to switch between various playing
styles such as finger style, slapping or plectrum, and the compressor will self-adjust its attack and release times
accordingly.
The simple single control makes setting the desired amount of compression easy as it is effectively controlling
the threshold, ratio and make-up gain simultaneously. This is considerably less complicated than setting up
a studio compressor from scratch as most of the hard work has been done by our engineers and incorporated
into the circuitry.
The circuit has been tuned so there should be little nominal signal level difference when switching the
COMPRESSOR on and off, however this is dependant on the correct setting of the INPUT GAIN control. If
you find that the level increases too much when switching the COMPRESSOR on, then slightly turn up the
INPUT GAIN. The opposite applies if the compressed sound is too low.
Compression is good for generally controlling the dynamic range and preventing distortion, and also as an
effect. It sounds great for slapping techniques, for making harmonics more prominent, and for fattening up
grooves or smoothing out notes in a run.
Please be aware that due to the nature of any compression circuit that then adds make-up gain to bring the
nominal level up, dialling in high levels of compression will increase high frequency hiss between notes.
This is not hiss added by the compressor circuit, but hiss that is already present in the signal and then being
amplified. However, as this is only really noticeable when not actually playing, if high levels of compression
are desired it is possible to prevent the noise from being heard too much by using the footcontroller to turn off
the compression or muting the signal when nothing is being played.
(14) COMPRESSOR switch (12 Band)
Pressing the switch will add the dual band COMPRESSOR to the signal chain. The blue LED above the
switch shows its status. It can also be switched on and off using the supplied footcontroller.
(15) LOW BAND rotary control (12 Band)
This adjusts the amount of compression applied to the low frequencies in the signal; the further clockwise the
control is set, the more the dynamic range of the low end will be squeezed.
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(16) HIGH BAND rotary control (12 Band)
This adjusts the amount of compression applied to the high frequencies in the signal; the further clockwise the
control is set, the more the dynamic range of the high end will be squeezed.
The compressor section of the 12 Band series uses two separate studio quality, dedicated dynamics controller
integrated circuits, and has been specifically designed for bass guitar due to the common problems often
experienced when using a normal, single band, compressor in this application.
With a standard compressor, the transition from non-compressed to compressed, i.e. crossing the threshold,
can often be abrupt and unnatural sounding, especially at high ratio settings. Also the normal pre-set attack
and release times always have to be a compromise between having it work fast enough to catch rapidly
changing signal levels (i.e. transients such as slapping techniques) or too fast which can cause low frequency
distortion.
To tackle these issues, the compressor on the 12 Band range has been designed as a dual band, soft-knee
compressor, with different attack and release times pre-set for each of the high or low bands, and separate
controls for the user to set the amount of compression applied to each band.
Dual band means that the signal is split into the high and low frequencies, each of which then goes through
separate compression circuits before being reconstructed.
The amount of compression of each band can be set by adjusting the LOW BAND and HIGH BAND controls.
This is similar to the sophisticated type of compression that is used for mastering whole tracks to prevent
unwanted pumping and breathing effects.
Soft-knee means that, above the threshold, compression is applied gradually, with the ratio increasing as the
input level goes up. The result is a smoother sounding compression than the normal hard-knee type.
Different attack and release times are pre-set for each band so that the low band works slow enough to prevent
distortion at low frequencies and the high band works fast enough to catch transients.
The simple single control for each band makes setting the desired amount of compression easy as it is effectively
controlling the threshold, ratio and make-up gain simultaneously.
This is considerably less complicated than setting up a studio compressor from scratch as most of the hard
work has been done by our engineers and incorporated into the circuitry.
The circuit has been tuned so there should be little nominal signal level difference when switching the
COMPRESSOR on and off, however, this is dependent on the correct setting of the INPUT GAIN control. If
you find that the level increases too much when switching the COMPRESSOR on then slightly turn up the
INPUT GAIN. The opposite applies if the compressed sound is too low.
In this application a dual band compressor has several uses. If used solely for controlling the dynamic range,
it enables the bass player to switch between various playing styles, such as finger style, slapping or plectrum.
The circuit will compress as directed without distortion to the bottom end, or transients taking hold of the
whole signal level and causing pumping, which is very obtrusive on bass guitar.
Applying compression to just the low band will fatten up the bottom end without losing the attack characteristics.
It is a less processed sound than full range compression and works well in controlling the low frequencies,
allowing higher volumes without stressing power amps or speakers. It can also help to add definition to notes
within a run without loss of the attack dynamics.
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Compression applied to the high band will directly effect the attack portion of the note and should be used
carefully. However, even extreme settings can produce some interesting effects for both slapping and fretless
techniques and will help to make harmonics jump out in the mix.
If the VALVE drive circuit is being used at high settings then the high band compressor can be used to control
and smooth out the overdrive produced resulting in quite a processed, produced sound.
Experimentation with many different settings of the compressor will help to get the most out of it.
Please be aware that due to the nature of any compression circuit that then adds make-up gain to bring the
nominal level up, dialling in high levels of compression will increase high frequency hiss between notes.
This is not added by the compressor circuit, but is hiss that is already present in the signal and is then being
amplified. However, as this is only really noticeable when not actually playing, if high levels of compression
are desired it is possible to prevent the noise from being heard too much by using the footcontroller to turn off
the compression or mute the signal when nothing is being played.
(17) SEND socket (7 Band)
This is a 1/4” jack socket for connecting to the input of effects units.
(18) RETURN socket (7 Band)
This is a 1/4” jack socket for connecting to the output of effects units.
The effects loop on the 7 Band range is an easy to use, unity gain, series effects loop. The user can simply
connect effects units between the SEND and RETURN sockets and the effect will be applied to the whole signal.
The normal bypass on each effect unit can still be used to turn the effect on and off during a performance.
The nominal level has been set to -10dBV to be able to drive most commonly used effects units. If the
effects units have their own level controls, please ensure these are set correctly to prevent distortion occurring
anywhere in the overall system.
(19) LOOP switch (12 Band)
Pressing the switch adds the EFFECTS LOOPS in to the signal chain. Its status is shown by the orange LED
and it can also be controlled by the footcontroller.
All the connections for EFFECTS LOOPS are on the rear panel. See below for a full description.
(20) MUTE switch
Pressing this switch will mute all outputs, (speaker, line and DI) except for the TUNER output. Its status is
shown by the red LED above the OUTPUT LEVEL control which will flash when MUTE is selected. It can
also be operated using the footcontroller.
The MUTE function is useful for preventing unwanted noise between songs, when changing instruments or, if
a tuner is connected to the TUNER output, for tuning up silently without needing to make adjustments to any
other controls. The signal level indicators remain active when in mute so it is possible to change basses and
set up the INPUT LEVEL silently without turning the OUTPUT LEVEL to zero and therefore risk forgetting
the setting.
(21) OUTPUT LEVEL rotary control
This sets the signal level sent to the power output stage and the LINE OUT(s). It should be set at “0” when
switching on the amplifier and turned up to the desired playing volume slowly to avoid any sudden level
changes that could damage your hearing.
14
The actual power level produced from the amplifier will be dependent on the input signal and the settings of
the other controls.
Once set for a performance it can be left alone and the MUTE function can be used to turn the signal off
between songs or sets.
We also recommend turning the OUTPUT LEVEL control to ‘0’ at the end of a session, before switching
off.
(22) Multi-purpose red LED above OUTPUT LEVEL
This LED has several functions. Firstly, it will flash on and off if the MUTE function is selected. It will also
light momentarily if maximum output from the power stage is reached.
It also functions as a general protection warning light, illuminating if any of the following conditions occur:
power amp over-temperature protection, short-circuit protection, over-current protection. If this LED remains
lit please refer to the HELP section at the back of this manual.
(23) LINE OUT socket (7 Band)
This is an unbalanced jack output that can be used to send the output of the preamp section to another piece of
equipment, such as a power amplifier, mixing desk or recording device.
The actual level is dependent on the setting on the OUTPUT LEVEL control, which means that if it is used
to expand the system with extra power amps and speakers, then the overall volume can still be set by a single
control.
15
REAR PANEL
7 BAND
12 BAND
N.B. Within the 7 Band and 12 Band ranges the rear panels may vary slightly from those shown above.
(24) EXTERNAL CONTROL 8 pin DIN socket(s) – BFC-4 (7Band), BFC-6 (12 Band)
The socket(s) are for connecting to the footcontroller supplied with the unit. It should be connected before
the unit is switched on. Please ensure that the lead is inserted firmly and securely into the sockets on both the
amplifier and the footcontroller.
7 Band units are supplied with a 4-function footcontroller (BFC-4) that enables the user to control PRESHAPE, GRAPHIC, COMPRESSOR and MUTE.
The 12 Band units are supplied with a 6-function footcontroller (BFC-6) that enables the user to control PRESHAPE, VALVE, GRAPHIC, COMPRESSOR, LOOP and MUTE.
The LEDs on both footcontrollers all correspond in colour and function to those on the front panel.
If a footcontroller is disconnected from the amplifier while it is on and then reconnected, it may display
different settings to the front panel.
16
To re-synchronize the switching simply turn the unit off for 5 seconds and then back on. Both the amplifier
and footcontroller will power up in the normal default state of PRE-SHAPE on, all other functions off.
The 12 Band units have been designed with two EXTERNAL CONTROL sockets. These make it possible to
use two footcontrollers, either of which can control the amplifier. This is useful if performing on a large stage
where each footcontroller can be placed in a different location for the performer’s convenience. Alternatively,
one of the controllers could be placed on stage as normal and the other placed at the side of the stage to enable
a technician to control the musician’s amplifier if necessary. Again, this is useful on particularly large stages.
Another use for both sockets is if two amplifiers are being used. In this scenario the two amplifiers can be
controlled by one footcontroller by connecting the spare EXTERNAL CONTROL socket on the first unit to
one of the sockets on the second.
(25) DI EARTH LIFT switch
Pressing this switch in will disconnect the earth/ground connection from pin 1 on the DI output XLR
socket(s).
Usually this should be left in the out position however there may be certain situations when connecting from
the DI socket(s) to another device that a hum is produced due to an earth/ground loop. If this happens then
pressing the EARTH LIFT switch in should eliminate the problem.
EFFECTS LOOPS (12 Band)
(26) SEND – LO PASS, FULL, HI PASS sockets (12 Band)
These are all SEND outputs within the EFFECTS LOOPS section and are active at all times.
The FULL SEND will output the full frequency range of the signal. The LO PASS SEND will output only the
low frequencies and the HI PASS SEND will output only the high frequencies. The filters have been designed
so that when the LO PASS and HI PASS signals are reconstructed they will be identical in both frequency
response and phase.
(27) SERIES / PARALLEL switch (12 Band)
This configures the effects loops to be either SERIES, with the switch in where the whole signal passes
through the effects loop, out of the sends and back in the returns, or PARALLEL with the switch out, where
the signal is split, one part going through the effects loop and the other, dry, signal being unprocessed and
mixed in with the effected signal. The PARALLEL setting ensures that a part of the overall signal remains
pure and unaffected.
If the PARALLEL setting is chosen it is recommended that the dry signal in the effects unit is turned to
minimum if accessible.
(28) RETURN – LEFT, MONO, RIGHT/MONO sockets (12 Band)
These are all RETURN inputs within the EFFECTS LOOPS section.
➢ The MONO socket will route the signal through both channels of the rest of the preamp.
➢ The LEFT socket will route the signal to the left channel.
➢ The RIGHT/MONO socket will route the signal to the right channel if the LEFT socket is also in use, or it
will route the signal through both channels, i.e. in mono, if the LEFT socket is not used.
17
(29) LOOP LEVEL rotary control (12 Band)
This sets the overall level of the signal while the LOOP is on. Therefore, if the LOOP is not selected this has
no effect, but when the LOOP is selected this is a very important control for balancing the levels.
The control has been calibrated so that if a simple loop is set up, SERIES, FULL RANGE, MONO, then with
the control at the 12 o’clock setting there will be unity gain when switching the LOOP on and off. Turning
the control anti-clockwise will reduce the level when LOOP is selected, clockwise will increase the level. If
the LOOP is selected and the LOOP LEVEL is at “0” then there will be no output. A wide range of level is
available due to the many permutations of effects configuration. If in any doubt, set this to the 12 o’clock
setting and then adjust either way to balance the level with the dry signal.
The EFFECTS LOOPS section is a highly sophisticated design with multiple sends, returns and other controls
that allow myriad combinations of connection to external devices and, therefore, all sorts of sonic potential.
The nominal level has been set to -10dBV to be able to work with most commonly used effects units. If
the effects units have their own level controls please make sure these are set correctly to prevent distortion
occurring anywhere in the overall system.
Effects themselves aren’t to everyone’s taste, but that doesn’t mean this feature won’t be useful. These features
have been designed for use as anything from a simple boost function to a means to connect to multiple different
external devices.
Here are some suggested uses/configurations, some using effects and others not:➢ Volume Boost: simply set the LOOP for PARALLEL setting and turn up the LOOP LEVEL. Switching the LOOP in will give up to 6dB of boost. Useful for solos.
➢ Simple Full Range Series Loop: connect FULL SEND to input of effects unit, MONO RETURN to output
of effects unit, switch to SERIES with LOOP LEVEL at 12 o’clock.
Switching the LOOP in will route the signal through the effects unit at unity gain.
➢Stereo Loop with Chorus on high frequencies: connect HI PASS SEND to input of Chorus unit, connect
LEFT and RIGHT RETURNS to outputs of Chorus unit. Set dry signal on Chorus unit to minimum. Switch to
PARALLEL and set LOOP LEVEL to 12 o’clock. Switching LOOP on will apply stereo Chorus to the upper
frequencies while keeping the low end mono and clear. Similar set up can be used for Flanging, Phasing,
etc.
➢Improved Octaver triggering: connect LO PASS SEND to input of Octaver, connect MONO RETURN to
output of Octaver. Set dry signal on Octaver to minimum. Switch to PARALLEL with LOOP LEVEL at 12
o’clock. Switching LOOP on will add the Octaver effect as expected but as the signal being sent to it has far
less harmonics the Octaver will be able to produce a clearer more stable tone.
➢ Stereo Chorus on high frequencies, Octaver on low: connect both pedals as per the last two configurations.
Switching LOOP on will add both effects in parallel therefore enabling both to work without interfering the
other.
18
➢ Overdrive/Distortion just on high frequencies: connect HI PASS SEND to input of Overdrive/Distortion
unit, connect MONO RETURN to output of Overdrive/Distortion unit. Switch to PARALLEL, LOOP
LEVEL to 12 o’clock. Set effect as desired. Switching LOOP on will apply Overdrive/Distortion to the upper
frequencies while keeping the low end clear.
➢ Envelope Filters: try using an envelope filter triggered from the HI PASS SEND, try again triggered from
the LO PASS SEND, this will produce different results. Got two envelope filters? Try triggering one from
HI PASS, the other from LO PASS, bring their outputs back into LEFT and RIGHT and set one to filter up the
other to filter down, weird enough? Now switch on the VALVE drive circuit to really give them something to
get their teeth into!
➢ Inserting external audio source: connect outputs of external unit (synth, CD, sequencer, drum machine,
etc.) into LEFT and RIGHT RETURN. Set to PARALLEL with the LOOP LEVEL at 12 o’clock. Switching
the LOOP on will mix the external audio source with the bass signal. Use the output level on the external
source to balance the two.
➢ Effects Loop as a crossover (requires unit with two power amplifiers): connect patch leads from HI
SEND to RIGHT RETURN and LO SEND to LEFT RETURN. Set to SERIES with LOOP LEVEL at 12
o’clock. With LOOP selected all left outputs will produce the low frequencies, all right outputs the high
frequencies.
➢ Triggering of external devices such as synth: connect the LO PASS SEND to input of device to be
triggered. Signal will be present at all times and will have high frequency content removed therefore making
it easier for the external device to determine the fundamental frequency.
These are just a few ways in which the EFFECTS LOOPS connections can be used. The configurations are
only limited by the equipment that is available and your imagination.
Stereo/Mono?
The 12 Band preamp is stereo from the EFFECTS LOOPS through to the LINE OUTS. Units with two output
stages (e.g. AH1200-12) remain stereo through to the speaker outputs. Units with one output stage (e.g.
1215, 1210) have the two channels mixed into mono at the final preamp stage. Therefore although the signal
from the speaker output will be mono, the DI and LINE OUTs retain stereo separation for recording or sound
reinforcement purposes.
(30) TUNER socket (12 Band)
This is an output for connecting to a tuner. The signal here is a buffered version of the input signal before
any processing has been applied. Simply connect a 1/4” jack lead from this socket to a tuner and you will
be able to tune up easily any time without any degradation to the tone. (As the actual level is determined by
the INPUT GAIN, if you wish to tune up silently use the MUTE function, which mutes all outputs except
TUNER, rather than adjusting the INPUT GAIN.)
(31) BALANCED DI OUTPUTS – LEFT, RIGHT, PRE EQ XLR sockets (12 Band)
These are separate low impedance balanced outputs for connecting direct to a stage box or mixer for live or
studio use. This gives the engineer a strong, clean signal without any overspill from other instruments. The
XLR socket is wired as normal: pin 1 = Ground, pin 2 = Signal +, pin 3 = Signal –
The PRE EQ output is taken before any EQ is applied, therefore a higher level, buffered, version of the input
signal. The LEFT and RIGHT outputs are taken after the PRE SHAPE, VALVE, GRAPHIC, COMPRESSOR
and EFFECTS LOOPS, but before the OUTPUT LEVEL control.
19
Therefore, any sound shaping that is applied within the amplifier will be heard on the DI signal as well. Both
settings should have similar general signal levels.
Neither will be affected by adjustments to the OUTPUT LEVEL control so turning up on stage will not
overload the mixing desk once it is set. All outputs will be muted if the MUTE function is used.
Different applications will determine which output(s) to use. For a pure bass sound at all times the PRE EQ
should be used. Alternatively, if all the internal processing is required then the LEFT and/or RIGHT should
be used. If in doubt choose these as the sound will be basically the same as the sound heard from the cabinet/
combo speakers. If you are not using any stereo effects then it will only be necessary to use either LEFT or
RIGHT as both will produce the same signal.
There may also be some occasions when it is desirable to use all outputs. This is particularly useful when
recording as it allows both the dry and processed signals to be recorded at the same time on to separate
channels. These can then be switched between or even mixed together at later stages of the recording session.
As they are fundamentally the same performance they will track seamlessly in pitch and phrasing.
(32) OUTPUTS – LEFT & RIGHT sockets (12 Band)
These are unbalanced 1/4” jack outputs that can be used to send the output of the preamp section to another
piece of equipment, such as a power amplifier, mixing desk or recording device. The actual level is dependant
on the setting on the OUTPUT LEVEL control which means that if these sockets are used to expand the
system with extra power amps and speakers, then the overall volume can still be set by a single control.
(33) SPEAKER OUTPUT(S)
All units feature Neutrik© Combination Speakon© and 1/4” jack sockets and most feature an additional 1/4”
jack socket depending on the specific model. (The 715 combo only has the Combination Speakon© socket so
that the internal speaker must be disconnected to be able to connect to an extension cabinet). Units with two
power stages (e.g. AH1200-12) have separate speaker outputs for the LEFT and RIGHT channels.
These sockets are for connecting to speaker cabinets. Connections should be made before mains power is
applied to the unit.
When connecting to a speaker cabinet we recommend that the Speakon© socket is used in preference to the
1/4” jack as it provides a far superior connection. 1/4” jack sockets have been added merely for the user’s
convenience when it is absolutely necessary to use them. Please ensure that if a jack lead is used that it is
definitely a speaker cable rather than in instrument cable; the two are very different and should not be mixed
for either application. If two extension cabinets are used with 1/4” jack leads we recommend that each cabinet
is connected back to the amplifier separately instead of using the LINK socket on the cabinet. This will halve
the current that each lead carries and provide a better connection.
Trace Elliot amplifiers are designed to deliver their rated RMS output power into 4 ohm speaker loads.
Therefore each amplifier can drive 1x 4 ohm cabinet or 2x 8 ohm cabinets (in parallel).
Driving a single 8 ohm load will deliver between 50% and 60% of the rated power. Never connect your
amplifier to a speaker load lower than the rated 4 ohms. This will result in over heating of the amplifier and it
shutting down into protect mode.
Please refer to the specification sheet for your cabinet for more information on its use.
20
(34) FRONT PANEL BRIGHTNESS rotary control
This literally controls the brightness of the back lighting on the front panel. Fully anti-clockwise will turn it
completely off. This does not affect the brightness of the small status LEDs.
The back lighting is produced by state of the art, high powered LEDs positioned behind the Perspex (plexiglass) part of the front panel and gives the familiar green glow of Trace Elliot amplifiers on stage. LEDs have
been used as they do not produce any electronic noise or hum that could be detrimental to the sound.
The control has been included to enable users to set the BRIGHTNESS to their taste and also to turn the back
lighting off completely in situations where it would be undesirable.
(35) POWER switch
Once the whole system has been set up, set this to the ON or “1” position to apply mains power. The switch
will be illuminated green when the unit is on. Switch to the OFF or “0” position at the end of normal use
before any of the system is disconnected.
(36) IEC socket and fuse holder
This is to connect the supplied IEC mains power cord. The mains voltage that the specific unit is built to
accept is marked on the rear panel. Before applying mains power please ensure that it is the correct voltage.
For your safety we recommend that you use the mains cord provided. Other mains cords may contain lower
value fuses that could blow at high volume and shut down the amplifier thereby spoiling a performance.
The fuse tray within the IEC socket contains the mains fuse. If replaced it must be with the same type and
rating as marked on the rear panel. Failure to do so may render the unit unsafe and invalidate the warranty. If
the fuse repeatedly blows then consult your authorised Trace Elliot dealer, or a qualified service engineer.
21
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
POWER AMPLIFIERS
The power amplifier sections within these Trace Elliot products are high efficiency advanced designs. They
are designed to withstand rigorous use and include protection for over-temperature, over-current and shortcircuits.
Although designed to run comparatively cool, the high power versions do contain fans. These blow cool air
from the outside across critical components and back out through the vents. Therefore, the vents on the front
and rear or sides of these units should not be obscured. Please bear this in mind if you intend to rack-mount
or flight-case your amplifier.
ANTI-CLIPPING CIRCUIT
To prevent prolonged power amplifier clipping which, apart from sounding highly offensive, is the easiest
way to destroy speakers, the power amp sections are immediately preceded with a two-stage circuit to control
the signal level from the preamp. The rear panel of each amplifier will show two RMS power ratings, one
for transients and the other for steady-state signals. The circuit is inactive until the power level reaches the
lower rating. At this point the first stage of signal amplitude control is applied. This works like a fairly slow
compressor that is relatively unobtrusive and will gently control the signal level to keep it from clipping the
power stage. To catch transients, a second stage is applied at the higher power level. Between the two stages
the signal level is controlled to keep clipping to a minimum without the circuit being too audible in affecting
dynamics. The 12 Band products incorporate a valve as part of this circuit.
COMBOS
Various combinations of preamp, power amp and speaker configurations are available within the range. The
particular combination of your unit will be marked on the front panel.
All the amplifier sections are designed to deliver their full rated power into 4 ohms. Therefore a combo fitted
with a 4 ohm internal speaker will deliver the full power into its own enclosure. Although capable of driving
extension cabinets, the connections on the rear mean that the user has to disconnect the internal speaker before
connecting to an extension cabinet.
Combos fitted with an 8 ohm internal speaker will deliver approximately 50% – 60% of the rated power into
their own enclosure. Connecting to an 8 ohm extension cabinet will bring the overall impedance down to
4 ohms and will therefore deliver 100% of the rated power. The connections on the rear of these combos
allow an extension cabinet to be connected while keeping the internal speaker connected. This arrangement
is ideal for using the combo on its own at rehearsals, recording sessions and smaller gigs, then connecting an
extension cabinet, such as a 1518 or 1028H, to give more power when required at larger gigs.
Combos fitted with switchable high frequency horn attenuation (e.g. 715X, 1215, 1210) benefit from the user
being able to set the horn on full, half or disconnected. The setting will depend on playing and music styles,
preamp settings and personal choice.
On 12 Band units, when using the VALVE drive at high DRIVE settings it is advisable to experiment with the
setting of the horn attenuation. Generally for more traditional warm or overdriven bass tones the horn should
be set low or off.
22
HELP
If you experience problems with your Trace Elliot unit please check the following before contacting an
authorised Trace Elliot dealer, distributor or service centre.
Symptom
Check
Unit does not power up
IEC mains cord is correctly connected.
Fuse in IEC inlet is OK.
Fuse in IEC mains cord is OK.
Unit powers up but no sound
All connecting leads.
Signal level LEDs do not light
Instrument leads and battery if applicable.
Signal level LEDs light but no sound
OUTPUT LEVEL is turned above ‘1’.
Is MUTE or LOOP selected? If so,
turn off.
Leads in Effects Loop (7 Band).
No signal when LOOP selected (12 Band)
LOOP LEVEL is turned up.
Is it set SERIES? Set to PARALLEL.
Connecting leads in LOOP.
External devices used in LOOP.
Unwanted distorted signal
Is INPUT GAIN set correctly? Reset.
Is GRAPHIC set too extreme?
Is battery in instrument OK?
General purpose protection LED on
Check Speaker wiring.
Is it overheating?
Ensure vents are clear.
23
24
25
26
SPECIFICATIONS
Specifications
7 Band
12 Band
INPUT sensitivity
HI
LO
77.5mV RMS (-20dBu)
245mV RMS (-10dBu)
INPUT impedance
HI
LO
1MΩ
100kΩ
PRE SHAPE Frequency Response
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
COMPRESSOR
+6dB @ 50 Hz. - 12dB @ 400Hz. +6dB @ 5kHz
Slope = 6dB/octave
+/- 15dB at 7 frequencies
Single band, soft knee, with adaptive
attack and release times
+/- 15dB at 12 frequencies
Dual band, soft knee, with specifically
set attack and release times per band.
EFFECTS SEND(S)
Load impedance
Nominal Output Level
1KΩ or greater
-10dBV, 0.3VRMS
EFFECTS RETURN(S)
Impedance
Nominal input level
100kΩ
-10dBV, 0.3VRMS
TUNER OUT level
Instrument level via buffer
Nominal -10dBV, 0.3VRMS
LINE OUT(S)
Load Impedance
Level with OUTPUT LEVEL on 5
1KΩ or greater
0dBu, 0.775VRMS
DI OUTPUT(S)
Load impedance
Nominal Output Level
600Ω or greater
0dBu, 0.775VRMS
EXTERNAL CONTROL
VALVES
4 function footcontroller
6 function footcontroller
n/a
2 x ECC83/12AX7 Double Triode
DC filament supply
HUM & NOISE
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
POWER AMPLIFIER
Protection
Minimum Load
Power Output at 8 Ω
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
ACCESSORIES
Greater than 80dB below rated power
+/-3dB, 20Hz-25kHz
Current limit protection, thermal protection, anti-clip protection
4Ω, for full rated ouput power
Approx 60% of rated power
Local nominal mains voltage (230/120/100) +/- 10%
IEC lead, protective cover, footcontroller, owners manual
27
COMBO ENCLOSURE SPECIFICATIONS
715
715x
1215
1210
Combo Enclousure Specifications:Transducer Complement:
Maximum Output Power
Internal Speaker Power Handling:
Nominal Impedance:
Frequency Response:
Sound Pressure Level 1W, 1m
Cabinet Tuning Frequency:
Crossover Frequency (internal passive):
Controls:
Enclosure Materials & Finish
1 x 15’’ + Horn 1 x 15’’ + Horn 1 x 15’’ + Horn 2 x 10’’ + Horn
450W
600W
600W
600W
300WRMS
500WRMS
500WRMS
400WRMS
4Ω
8Ω
8Ω
8Ω
40Hz – 15kHz 35Hz – 15kHz 35Hz – 15kHz 35Hz - 15kHz
99dB
100dB
100dB
100dB
42Hz
42Hz
42Hz
40Hz
n/a
5kHz
5kHz
5kHz
Horn switch
Horn switch
Horn switch
90% Poplar Ply, 10% MDF, Black vinyl covering, metal hardware
Individual Woofer Spec:Power rating
Sensitivity
Voice coil diameter
Magnet Weight
300W
98dB
2 ½’’ (64mm)
1.4kg / 50oz
500W
500W
200W
100dB
100dB
97dB
3’’ (76mm)
3’’ (76mm)
2’’ (51mm)
2.2kg / 77oz
2.2kg / 77oz
1.2kg / 42oz
Kevlar® impregnated paper
Phenolic horn loaded dome tweeter
Cone material
Horn Type
Ceramic Tweeter
DIMENSIONS & WEIGHTS
Dimensions & Weights
Width
mm
Height
Depth
Weight
inches
mm
inches
mm
inches
kg
lbs
715
491
19.3
623
24.5
335
13.2
28
62
715x
615
24.2
623
24.5
335
13.2
36
79
1215
615
24.2
623
24.5
335
13.2
38
83
1210
615
24.2
623
24.5
335
13.2
40
87
AH600-7
491
19.3
158
6.2
335
13.2
15
33
AH600-12
491
19.3
158
6.2
335
13.2
17
37
AH1200-12
491
19.3
158
6.2
435
17.1
22
48
28
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
active
With regard to a musical instrument, one that has some kind of on-board preamp, usually easily determined by it having a battery inside.
adaptive attack
& release
The attack and release times automatically adjust, i.e. ‘adapt’, to the
frequencies and transients of the audio signal.
attack
With regard to compressors, the time it takes to react to an audio signal once it has exceeded the Threshold.
buffered
A buffer circuit is one which electronically isolates one part of the circuit from another and produces a low impedance version of the input signal. Simple but very useful.
DI
Direct Inject. Direct cable connection between an amplifier and stage box/mixer/PA.
dry
A signal that is unprocessed, i.e. no effects have been applied.
dual band compressor Effectively two separate compressors, one that works on the high frequencies
and one that works on low.
EQ
Equalizer or Equalization. Device that can modify the frequency response of an audio signal.
FET
Field Effect Transistor. A type of transistor that can be configured to be used as a very quiet switch for audio signals.
hard-knee
Compression that is applied with a fixed ratio once that signal level exceeds the threshold. Can sound abrupt and unnatural.
impedance
With regard to the input of an amplifier, the load it presents to the input signal. Alternatively, the load a speaker presents to the output of a power amplifier.
LED
Light Emitting Diode. A small electronic light used for level indication and function status.
make-up gain
Gain added after a compressor to bring the nominal level up to approximately the same as before the compressor.
mastering
The final part of the recording process where, amongst other things, multi-
band compression is used to optimize clarity, punch and dynamic range.
parallel
Either when a signal is split and routed down two separate paths before being re-combined, or when speakers are connected + to + and - to -. Opposite of series.
29
passive
With regard to a musical instrument, one that does not have any form of on-
board preamp, usually easily determined by it not having a battery inside.
pumping and breathing
When a compressor is set to extreme settings and noticeable shifts in volume are caused by transients as the compressor can’t keep up.
ratio
Ratio between change in normal signal (in dB) and change in compressed signal (in dB). 10:1 means for 10dB increase of the normal signal there will be 1dB of increase in the compressed signal.
release
The time it takes for a compressor to stop applying compression after a signal has decayed to be less than the Threshold.
sensitivity
With regard to the input of an amplifier, the level of input signal required to achieve maximum signal swing within the unit. High sensitivity means even small signals will reach full swing, low sensitivity means larger signals are accepted before clip.
series Either when the whole signal is routed though a device or part of a circuit, or when speakers are connected + to -. Opposite of parallel.
soft-knee
Compression that is applied gradually with an increasing ratio after exceeding the threshold. Often smoother sounding.
thermionic valve
A century old electronic device superseded by modern technology in nearly every area of electronics, notably not audio, where many of us still love the little glowy things. Usually contained within an air tight glass tube, hence also called ‘vacuum tube’.
threshold The signal level above which compression is applied.
unity gain
Gain of one, i.e. the signal is neither amplified nor attenuated and remains the same level.
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