About this Manual We`ve added this manual to the Agilent

About this Manual
We’ve added this manual to the Agilent website in an effort to help you support
your product. This manual is the best copy we could find; it may be incomplete
or contain dated information. If we find a more recent copy in the future, we will
add it to the Agilent website.
Support for Your Product
Agilent no longer sells or supports this product. Our service centers may be able
to perform calibration if no repair parts are needed, but no other support from
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HP References in this Manual
This manual may contain references to HP or Hewlett-Packard. Please note that
Hewlett-Packard's former test and measurement, semiconductor products and
chemical analysis businesses are now part of Agilent Technologies. We have
made no changes to this manual copy. In other documentation, to reduce
potential confusion, the only change to product numbers and names has been in
the company name prefix: where a product number/name was HP XXXX the
current name/number is now Agilent XXXX. For example, model number
HP8648A is now model number Agilent 8648A.
User's Guide
EMI Receiver Series
HP 8542E/HP 8546A
EMI Receiver
HP 85422E/HP 85462A
Receiver RF Section
ABCDE
HP Part No. 5962-5081
Printed in USA August 1994
Notice
The information contained in this document is subject to change
without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this
material, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and tness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard
shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental
or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing,
performance, or use of this material.
c Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company 1994
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without
prior written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the
copyright laws.
1400 Fountaingrove Parkway, Santa Rosa CA, 95403-1799, USA
Certication
Regulatory Information
Warranty
Hewlett-Packard Company certies that this product met its
published specications at the time of shipment from the factory.
Hewlett-Packard further certies that its calibration measurements
are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institute's calibration facility,
and to the calibration facilities of other International Standards
Organization members.
Regulatory information is located in the EMI Receiver Series Reference
manual at the end of Chapter 1, \Specications and Characteristics."
This Hewlett-Packard instrument product is warranted against defects
in material and workmanship for a period of one year from date of
shipment. During the warranty period, Hewlett-Packard Company
will, at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be
defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a
service facility designated by Hewlett-Packard. Buyer shall prepay
shipping charges to Hewlett-Packard and Hewlett-Packard shall pay
shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer shall
pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to
Hewlett-Packard from another country.
Hewlett-Packard warrants that its software and rmware designated
by Hewlett-Packard for use with an instrument will execute
its programming instructions when properly installed on that
instrument. Hewlett-Packard does not warrant that the operation
of the instrument, or software, or rmware will be uninterrupted or
error-free.
Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from
improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied
software or interfacing, unauthorized modication or misuse,
operation outside of the environmental specications for the
product, or improper site preparation or maintenance.
NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
HEWLETT-PACKARD SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Exclusive Remedies
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER'S SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. HEWLETT-PACKARD SHALL NOT BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT,
TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
iii
Assistance
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance
agreements are available for Hewlett-Packard products. For any
assistance, contact your nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service
Oce.
Compliance
This instrument has been designed and tested in accordance with
IEC Publication 348, Safety Requirements for Electronic Measuring
Apparatus, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The instruction
documentation contains information and warnings which must be
followed by the user to ensure safe operation and to maintain the
instrument in a safe condition.
Safety Notes
The following safety notes are used throughout this manual.
Familiarize yourself with each of the notes and its meaning before
operating this instrument.
iv
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note until
the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if
not correctly performed or adhered to, would result in damage to or
destruction of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign
until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
General Safety Considerations
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualied personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove
covers.
If this instrument is not used as specied, the protection
provided by the equipment may be impaired. This instrument
must be used in a normal condition (in which all means for
protection are intact) only.
For continued protection against re hazard, replace line fuse
only with same type and rating ([F 5A/250V]). The use of other
fuses or material is prohibited.
CAUTION
Before switching on this instrument, make sure that the line voltage
selector switch is set to the voltage of the power supply and the
correct fuse is installed.
Always use the three-prong ac power cord supplied with this
instrument. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not
using this cord may cause instrument damage.
Only clean the instrument cabinet using a damp cloth.x
L
CE
ISM1-A
CSA
The instruction documentation symbol. The product is
marked with this symbol when it is necessary for the
user to refer to the instructions in the documentation.
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the European
Community. (If accompanied by a year, it is when the
design was proven.)
This is a symbol of an Industrial Scientic and Medical
Group 1 Class A product.
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the Canadian
Standards Association.
Manual Conventions
4Front-Panel Key5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Softkey
Screen Text
This represents a key physically located on the
instrument.
This indicates a \softkey," a key whose label is
determined by the rmware of the instrument.
This indicates text displayed on the instrument's
screen.
v
EMI Receiver Series Documentation Description
The following documents are provided with either the HP 8542E/
HP 8546A EMI receiver or the HP 85422E/HP 85462A receiver RF
section.
Installation and Verication provides information for installing
your instrument, verifying instrument operation, and customer
support.
User's Guide describes instrument features and how to make
measurements with your EMI receiver or receiver RF section.
Reference provides specications and characteristics, menu maps,
error messages, and key descriptions.
Programmer's Guide provides information on remote control
instrument conguration, creating programs, and parameters for
each of the programming commands available.
vi
Contents
1. Getting Started
What You'll Learn in This Chapter . . . .
Introducing the EMI Receiver . . . . .
Getting Acquainted with the EMI Receiver
Front-Panel Features . . . . . . . . .
Data Controls . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number/Units Keypad . . . . . . .
Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HOLD Key . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear-Panel Features . . . . . . . . .
Screen Annotation . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver RF Section Annotation . . . .
Menu and Softkey Overview . . . . . .
Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Receiver RF Section Battery Information .
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1-1
1-1
1-3
1-3
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-7
1-7
1-7
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
What You'll Learn in this Chapter . . . . . . . . . .
Improving Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When is Self-Calibration Needed? . . . . . . . . .
Warm-Up Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibrating the EMI Receiver . . . . . . . . . . .
Using CAL FETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying the Receiver's Calibration . . . . . . .
Using CAL ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using CAL STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interrupting calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the AutoCal Function . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Receiver's Clock . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting AutoCal Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing a Partial Calibration . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the Tracking Generator Self-Calibration
Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performing the YIG-Tuned Filter Self-Calibration
Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calibrating the Receiver RF Section as a Standalone
Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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2-1
2-1
2-2
2-2
2-3
2-3
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
2-6
2-7
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2-8
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2-8
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2-9
2. Calibration
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
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Contents-1
3. Making Compliance Measurements
What You'll Learn in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . .
Introducing the SETUP, TEST, and OUTPUT Keys . . . .
Setting Up a Measurement Using the SETUP Key . . . .
Using Standard Congurations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing the Standard Congurations . . . . . . .
Modifying Start and Stop Frequencies . . . . . . .
Modifying Reference Level and Input Attenuation .
Modifying IF and Averaging Bandwidths . . . . . .
Selecting the Active Detector . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Measured Detectors . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Detector Dwell Times . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the Preamplier . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Autoranging . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading User-Dened Congurations from a Disk . . .
Using Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading a Limit Line from the Disk . . . . . . . .
Using Amplitude Correction Factors . . . . . . . . .
Loading an Amplitude Correction Factor File from a
Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating the Windows Display Format . . . . . . .
Making a Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning the Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Marker to Tune the Receiver . . . . . . .
Using the Measure at Marker Function . . . . . . . .
Creating a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conguring a Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conguring and Generating a Report . . . . . . . . .
4. List-Based Measurements
Adding Signals to the List . .
Viewing the Signal List . . .
Sorting the Signal List . . .
Deleting Signals From the List
Marking Signals . . . . . .
Remeasuring Signals . . . .
Saving Signal Lists . . . . .
Recalling Signal Lists . . . .
Graphing Signal Lists . . . .
Saving Signal Lists Graphs .
Contents-2
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3-11
3-12
3-14
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-19
3-19
3-20
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4-3
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-11
4-12
Performing a Stepped Measurement . . . . . .
Selecting a Detector and Setting a Dwell Time
Using the Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Data to the Signal List Table . . . . .
Changing the Frequency Step . . . . . . . .
Restarting and Stopping the Measurement . .
Using Logarithmic and Linear Steps . . . . . .
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5-1
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-5
5-5
5-7
5. Stepped Measurements
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3-1
3-2
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-10
6. Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
What You'll Learn in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude . . . . . . . . .
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals . . . .
Increasing the Frequency Readout Resolution . . . . .
Decreasing the Frequency Span . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peaking Signal Amplitude with Preselector Peak . . . .
Tracking Unstable Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Marker Track Function . . . . . . . . . .
Using Maximum-Hold and Minimum-Hold . . . . . .
Comparing Signals Using Delta Markers . . . . . . . .
Measuring Dierences Between Two Signals . . . . .
Measuring Dierences Between Signals On Screen and
O Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Low-Level Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reducing Input Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reducing IF Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reducing Averaging Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Video Averaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing for Distortion Using the Linearity Check . . . .
Measuring Small Signals in the Presence of a Large
Ambient Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Linearity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demodulating and Listening to an AM or FM Signal . . .
7. Making Other Measurements
What You'll Learn in This Chapter . . . . . . . . . .
Stimulus-Response Measurements . . . . . . . . . .
What Are Stimulus-Response Measurements? . . . .
Using the Receiver With the Internal Tracking
Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stepping Through the Measurement . . . . . . . .
Tracking Generator Unleveled Condition . . . . . .
Measuring Amplitude Modulation with the Fast Fourier
Transform Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring the Sidebands on a Signal . . . . . . . .
Repeating the test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measuring 3 dB and 6 dB Bandwidth . . . . . . . .
Measuring 99% Power Bandwidth . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Percent AM Modulation . . . . . . . . .
Measuring Amplitude and Frequency Dierence . .
Making 3rd Order Measurements . . . . . . . . .
8. Limit Lines
Using Receiver Limit Lines . . . . . . . .
Creating, Editing, or Viewing a Limit Line
Editing an Existing Limit Line . . . . . .
Dening a Limit Margin . . . . . . . . .
Activating Limit-Line Testing . . . . . .
Saving or Recalling Limit-Line Tables . .
Saving a Limit-Line Table . . . . . . .
Recalling a Limit-Line Table . . . . . .
Viewing the Disk Catalog . . . . . . .
Using Signal Analyzer Limit Lines . . . . .
Creating, Editing or Viewing a Limit Line
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6-1
6-2
6-5
6-8
6-10
6-11
6-13
6-13
6-15
6-18
6-18
6-19
6-22
6-22
6-25
6-26
6-27
6-30
6-30
6-33
6-36
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7-1
7-2
7-2
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7-2
7-3
7-7
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7-8
7-8
7-12
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-18
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8-2
8-2
8-6
8-7
8-8
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-10
8-11
8-11
Contents-3
Selecting Limit-Line Parameters . .
Selecting the Amplitude Scale . . .
Selecting the Limit-Line Table Format
Activating Limit-Line Testing . . . .
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8-12
8-13
8-15
8-16
Creating, Editing, or Viewing the Amplitude-Correction
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Activating Amplitude Correction . . . . . . . . . .
Saving or Recalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
9-6
9-7
9. Amplitude Correction Functions
10. Windows
Learn About the Windows Display . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
Using a Floppy Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DOS Filenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIF Filenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Available Operations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering a Prex . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalling a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Data from Internal Memory
Saving a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalling a State . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalling a Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protecting Data from Being Overwritten . . . .
How to Output Data . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conguring a Printer . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conguring and Generating a Report . . . . .
12. Additional Features
What You'll Learn in This Chapter . . . . . .
Signal Analyzer Emulation . . . . . . . . .
Demodulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User-Denable Softkeys . . . . . . . . . . .
Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Template . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Data Using the External Keyboard
Entering Annotation . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Programming Commands . . . .
Entering a Screen Title . . . . . . . . .
Entering a Prex . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents-4
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10-1
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11-1
11-1
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-6
11-9
11-9
11-9
11-10
11-10
11-11
11-12
11-12
11-13
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. 12-1
. 12-1
. 12-2
. 12-2
. 12-5
. 12-5
. 12-6
. 12-6
. 12-7
. 12-7
. 12-8
. 12-9
. 12-9
. 12-10
. 12-10
. 12-11
13. Error Messages
Nonrecoverable System Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
14. Customer Support
If You Have a Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calling HP Sales and Service Oces . . . . . . . . .
Check the Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If Your EMI Receiver Does Not Turn On . . . . . .
If the RF Filter Section Does Not Seem to be Working
If the EMI Receiver Cannot Communicate Via HP-IB
Verication of Proper Operation . . . . . . . . . .
If the RF lter section Does Not Power O . . . . .
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Support Services . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CompuServe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FAX Support Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Returning the EMI Receiver for Service . . . . . . .
Package the EMI receiver for shipment . . . . . .
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14-1
14-1
14-2
14-2
14-2
14-2
14-2
14-2
14-2
14-3
14-3
14-4
14-5
14-5
Index
Contents-5
Figures
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
1-4.
1-5.
1-6.
3-1.
3-2.
3-3.
6-1.
6-2.
6-3.
6-4.
6-5.
6-6.
6-7.
6-8.
6-9.
6-10.
6-11.
6-12.
6-13.
6-14.
6-15.
6-16.
6-17.
6-18.
6-19.
6-20.
6-21.
6-22.
6-23.
6-24.
6-25.
7-1.
7-2.
7-3.
7-4.
7-5.
7-6.
7-7.
7-8.
7-9.
7-10.
7-11.
7-12.
Contents-6
EMI Receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front-Panel Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear-Panel Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMC Screen Annotation, Normal Operating Mode . . .
EMC Screen Annotation Using Windows . . . . . . .
Rear-Panel Battery Information Label . . . . . . . .
Active Detector and Measured Detector Messages . . .
\PREAMP ON" and \AUTORANGE ON" Messages . . . . .
Using the Measure at Marker Function . . . . . . . .
Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude . . . . . . . .
IF Bandwidth for Resolving Small Signals . . . . . .
Signal Resolution with a 30 kHz IF Bandwidth . . . .
Signal Resolution with a 10 kHz IF Bandwidth . . . .
Using the Marker Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
After Zooming In on the Signal . . . . . . . . . . .
Peaking Signal Amplitude Using Preselector Peak . . .
Using Marker Tracking to Track an Unstable Signal . .
Viewing an Unstable Signal Using Max Hold A . . . .
Viewing an Unstable Signal using Max and Min Hold .
Placing a Marker on the CAL OUT Signal . . . . . . .
Using the Marker Delta Function . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency and Amplitude Dierences . . . . . . . .
Using the Delta Meas Function . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-Level Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using 0 dB Attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decreasing IF bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decreasing Averaging Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Video Averaging Function . . . . . . . . .
Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals . . . . . . . . . .
Using Linearity Check to Detect Compression . . . .
Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals . . . . . . . . . .
Generating Third Order Distortion Products . . . . .
Using Linearity Check to Identify Distortion Products .
Receiver/Tracking Generator System Block Diagram .
Transmission Measurement Test Setup . . . . . . . .
Tracking-Generator Output Power Activated . . . . .
Normalized Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Modulation Frequency versus Sweep Time .
Using the FFT Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the 6 dB Points Function . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the 99% Pwr BW Function . . . . . . . . . .
Using the % AM Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Delta Meas Function . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Pk-Pk Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setup for Making 3rd Order Measurements . . . . . .
1-1
1-3
1-7
1-10
1-11
1-14
3-5
3-7
3-17
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
6-9
6-10
6-12
6-14
6-16
6-17
6-18
6-19
6-20
6-21
6-23
6-24
6-25
6-27
6-29
6-31
6-32
6-33
6-34
6-35
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-6
7-10
7-11
7-13
7-14
7-15
7-16
7-17
7-18
7-13. Using 3rd Ord Meas Function . . . . . . . . . . . .
12-1. External Keyboard Template . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-19
12-8
Contents-7
Tables
3-1.
11-1.
11-2.
11-3.
11-4.
HP 8542E/HP 8546A Standard Congurations .
Internal Memory and Floppy Disk Operations . .
Save Functions Using a Floppy Disk . . . . . .
Recall Functions Using a Floppy Disk . . . . .
Summary of Save and Recall Operations, Internal
Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14-1. Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Oces . . .
Contents-8
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3-2
11-3
11-7
11-8
. . . 11-11
. . . 14-6
1
Getting Started
What You'll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter introduces the EMI Receiver, HP 8542E and HP 8546A,
and describes their basic functions. In this chapter you will:
Get acquainted with the front-panel and rear-panel features.
Learn about screen annotation.
Get acquainted with the menus and softkeys.
Learn about the disk drive.
Learn about the receiver battery.
Note
For complete conguration and installation information, refer to the
EMI Receiver Series Installation and Verication Manual.
Introducing the EMI Receiver
Figure 1-1. EMI Receiver
Getting Started
1-1
The EMI Receiver Series is a high-performance test receiver
especially designed for making commercial EMI (Electro-Magnetic
Interference) measurements. It fully conforms to the receiver
standards described in CISPR (Comite International Special
Des
Perturbations Radioelectriques)
Publication 16, C.I.S.P.R. Specication
for Radio Interference Measuring Apparatus and Measurement
Methods. This type of receiver is used for making measurements
Note
1-2
Getting Started
according to various governmental standards, such as FCC (U.S.A.),
EN (Europe), and VCCI (Japan) regulations. The HP 8542E/HP 8546A
tunes from 9 kHz to 6.5 GHz (9 kHz to 2.9 GHz for the HP 8542E),
making it suitable for testing a wide variety of products ranging
from ITE (Information Technology Equipment) and ISM (Industrial,
Scientic, and Medical Equipment), to household appliances and
telecommunications equipment.
The EMI Receiver Series consists of two parts|the receiver RF section
and the RF lter section. The two units are connected together
via several cables on the front and rear panels to form a single
instrument. All control for both units is handled by the receiver RF
section, whether manually from the front panel or automatically
through the interface bus.
For precompliance and diagnostic EMI applications which do not
require a fully compliant CISPR Publication 16 receiver, the receiver
RF section can be used as a stand-alone instrument. The receiver RF
section has the EMI-specic functionality to perform these types of
measurements. The receiver RF section can be upgraded to an EMI
receiver by adding a RF lter section and sending the pair to an
authorized HP service center for calibration verication.
Before using your receiver, please use the EMI Receiver Series
Installation and Verication Manual to ensure proper installation,
including connections between the receiver RF section and RF lter
section, conguration of the receiver, and verication of its operation.
Getting Acquainted with the EMI Receiver
Front-Panel Features
Figure 1-2. Front-Panel Feature Overview
Note
The following section provides a brief description of front-panel
features. Refer to Figure 1-2.
1
4LINE5 turns the instrument on and o. An instrument self-check
is performed every time the instrument is turned on. After
applying power, allow the temperature of the instrument to
stabilize for best measurement results.
The instrument continues to draw power when it is plugged into the
ac power source even if the line power switch is o.
2
3
Disk drive reads from or writes to a 3.5 inch oppy disk in
MS-DOS or LIF format (initialized LIF disk is not 1.44 MByte).
DEMODulation control block includes an 4ON/OFF5 key for
turning the demodulator on and o, a 4SELECT5 key to directly
access the softkey menus that select AM or FM demodulation,
FM gain, dwell time and squelch levels, a volume control knob,
and a headphone jack.
Getting Started
1-3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Softkey labels are displayed on the screen next to the softkeys.
Most of the labeled keys on the front panel of the receiver (also
called front-panel keys) access menus of related softkeys.
Softkeys are the unlabeled keys next to the screen that
activate the functions listed in the softkey menus.
WINDOWS keys including 4CTRL5 to turn on the windows
display mode, 4NEXT5 for switching between windows and
4ZOOM5 for controlling the zone span and center frequency.
4FREQUENCY5, 4SPAN5, and 4AMPLITUDE5 are the three large
dark-gray keys that activate primary receiver functions and
access the menus of related functions.
MEASUREMENT control block includes the three main keys
used to make EMI measurements. The 4SETUP5 key accesses
softkey functions that control the receiver settings to be used in
a measurement, such as frequency range, antenna correction
factors, and limit lines. The 4TEST5 key provides control for
measuring signals and manipulating lists of measured signals.
The 4OUTPUT5 key provides access to the report generator for
graphical and tabular data output.
MARKER functions control the markers, read out frequencies
and amplitudes along the receiver trace, automatically locate
the signals of highest amplitude, and keep a signal at the
marker position in the center of the screen.
MEASUREMENT CONTROL functions access special-function
menus and self-calibration routines.
ANALYSIS CONTROL functions access menus that adjust
the resolution bandwidth, adjust the sweep time, store and
manipulate trace data, and control the instrument display.
CTRL functions aect the state of the entire receiver. The
green 4PRESET5 key resets the receiver to a known state. 4SAVE5
and 4RECALL5 keys save and recall traces, states, limit-line tables,
and amplitude-correction factors to or from a oppy disk or
receiver memory.
4TRACK GEN5 accesses the softkey menus that control the built-in
tracking generator.
4COPY5 prints or plots screen data. Use 4CONFIG5, Plot Config
or Print Config , and COPY DEV PRNT PLT before using
4COPY5. Refer to descriptions for these softkeys in the EMI
Receiver Series Reference manual for more detailed information.
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Note
If you wish to reset the instrument conguration to the state
it was in when it was originally shipped from the factory, use
DEFAULT CONFIG . Refer to the DEFAULT CONFIG softkey description
in the EMI Receiver Series Reference manual for more information.
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1-4
Getting Started
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13
14
15
CAUTION
STATE functions control features that aect the overall
instrument state such as single sweep, instrument mode
(receiver or signal analysis), user menus, FFT measurements,
and instrument conguration.
DATA entries allow you to change the numeric value of an
active function and can be made by using the numeric keypad,
knob, or step keys.
RF INPUT is the signal input for the receiver RF section.
Excessive signal input will damage the receiver input attenuator and
input mixer. Use extreme caution when using the receiver around
high-power RF sources and transmitters. The maximum input power
the receiver can tolerate appears on the front panel and should not be
exceeded.
Excessive dc voltage can also damage the input attenuator. DO NOT
EXCEED the maximum dc voltage specied on the receiver front
panel (underneath the RF INPUT connector).
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
PROBE POWER provides power for high-impedance ac probes
or other accessories (+15 VDC and 012.6 VDC).
RF OUT provides a ltered input signal for the receiver RF
section. Normally, the RF OUTPUT is connected to the receiver
RF section RF INPUT.
INPUT 2 is a signal input for the receiver that sweeps from
20 MHz to 2.9 GHz, from 1 GHz to 6.5 GHz (for an HP 8546A
only), or the full band (in bypass mode).
ALC INPUT provides a connection to the tracking generator
leveling circuitry in the receiver RF section from the RF
lter section. The receiver uses the tracking generator for
performing instrument calibration.
ALC provides a connection to the tracking generator leveling
circuitry in the receiver RF section from the RF lter section.
RF OVERLOAD LED lights up when an RF overload condition
is detected. The LED is turned o when the signal amplitude
is reduced or eliminated. This can be done by adding RF
attenuation or ltering.
300 MHz is the calibration signal input from the receiver RF
section.
300 MHz OUTPUT provides the 300 MHz calibration signal for
the RF lter section.
INPUT 1 is a signal input to the receiver. The frequency range
of INPUT 1 is 9 kHz to 50 MHz.
TRACKING GENERATOR is a signal input for the tracking
generator output of the receiver RF section.
TRACKING GENERATOR OUTPUT provides the built-in
tracking generator output from the receiver RF section.
Getting Started
1-5
27
28
Data Controls
TRACKING GENERATOR OUTPUT provides the built-in
tracking generator output from the EMI receiver.
ERROR LED lights when an improper command is sent to the
RF lter section from the receiver RF section.
Data controls are used to change values for functions such as center
frequency, marker position, and sweep time.
The data controls will change the active function in a manner
prescribed by that function. For example, you can change center
frequency in ne steps with the knob, in discrete steps with the step
keys, or to an exact value with the number/units keypad.
Number/Units Keypad
The number/units keypad allows entry of exact values for many
of the receiver functions. You may include a decimal point in the
number portion. If not, the decimal point is placed at the end of the
number.
Numeric entries must be terminated with a units key. The units keys
change the active function in a manner prescribed by that function.
For example, the units keys for frequency span are 4GHz5, 4MHz5, 4kHz5,
and 4Hz5, whereas the units for reference level are 4+dBV5, 40dBV5,
4mV5, and 4V5.
Note
If an entry from the number/units keypad does not coincide with an
allowed function value (for example, that of a 12 MHz bandwidth),
the receiver defaults to the nearest allowable value.
Knob
The knob allows continuous change of functions such as center
frequency, reference level, and marker position. It also changes the
values of many functions that only change in increments. Clockwise
rotation of the knob increases values. For continuous changes, the
extent of alteration is determined by the size of the measurement
range; the speed at which the knob is turned does not aect the rate
at which the values are changed.
The knob enables you to change the center frequency, start or stop
frequency, or reference level in smooth scrolling action. The smooth
scrolling feature is designed to move the trace display to the latest
function value as the knob is turned. When either center frequency
or reference level is adjusted, the signal will shift right or left or
up or down with the rotation of the knob before a new sweep is
actually taken. An asterisk is placed in the message block (the upper
right-hand corner of the receiver display) to indicate that the data
onscreen does not reect the data at the current setting.
Note
When using the knob to change frequency or amplitude settings,
the trace data is shifted. Therefore, when using MAX HOLD A ,
MAX HOLD B , or MIN HOLD C , moving the center frequency with the
knob will not simulate a drifting signal.
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1-6
Getting Started
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Step Keys
The step keys allow discrete increases or decreases of the active
function value. The step size depends upon the measurement range or
on a preset amount. Each press results in a single step change. For
those parameters with xed values, the next value in a sequence is
selected each time a step key is pressed. Changes are consistant and
can be set for some functions. Out-of-range values or out-of-sequence
values will not occur when using these keys.
HOLD Key
The HOLD key deactivates functions. This key is designated as either
the 4(ENTER)5 key in the data entry area on the receiver front panel
or as a softkey in the 4DISPLAY5 menu. The active function readout is
blanked, indicating no entry will be made inadvertently when using
the knob, step keys, or numeric keypad. Pressing a function key
reenables the data controls.
Rear-Panel Features
Figure 1-3. Rear-Panel Feature Overview
The following section provides a brief description of rear-panel
features. Refer to Figure 1-3.
Getting Started
1-7
1
Note
AUX VIDEO provides detected video output (before
analog-to-digital conversion) proportional to vertical deection
of the trace. Output is from 0 V to 1 V.
Amplitude-correction factors are not applied to the video output
signal.
2
EXT TRIG accepts the positive edge of an external voltage
input to trigger the receiver's internal sweep source.
AUX IF is the 50
, 21.4 MHz IF output signal down-converted
from the RF input of the instrument. Amplitude-correction
factors are not applied to this signal.
GATE TRIGGER INPUT is not available.
10MHz REF OUTPUT provides a 10 MHz, 0 dBm minimum,
time-based reference signal. This output is normally connected
to EXT REF IN.
EXT REF IN accepts an external frequency source to provide
the 10 MHz, 02 dBm to +10 dBm frequency reference used by
the instrument.
GATE OUTPUT is not available.
LO OUTPUT provides the output of the rst LO, which is
proportional to the frequency that the receiver is tuned to. This
output is normally terminated with an attached load.
AUX INTERFACE provides a nine-pin \D" subminiature
connector for control of external devices (for example,
HP 85460A) via the HP 85462A.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
CAUTION
Turn o the receiver before connecting the AUX INTERFACE
connector to a device. Failure to do so may result in loss of
factory-correction constants.
Do not exceed the current limits for the +5 V supply when using
the AUX INTERFACE connector. Exceeding the current limits may
result in loss of factory-correction constants.
Do not use the AUX INTERFACE as a video monitor interface.
Damage to the video monitor will result.
10
11
12
13
1-8
Getting Started
VOLTAGE SELECTOR adapts the receiver RF section to the
power source: 115 V or 230 V.
Power input is the input for the line power source. Make
sure that the line-power source outlet has a protective ground
contact. Refer to the EMI Receiver Series Installation and
Verication Manual for instructions on selecting the correct
setting.
DISPLAY VIDEO OUT connectors provide access for an
external monitor (B,G, R, and SYNC).
SWEEP RAMP provides a voltage ramp proportional to the
sweep and the receiver span (0 V to 10 V).
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
CAUTION
HIGH SWEEP provides a voltage that indicates when the
receiver is sweeping. This connection can also be grounded to
stop sweeping.
HIGH SWEEP receives sweep control from the receiver RF
section when congured as an EMI receiver.
SWEEP RAMP receives a voltage ramp from the receiver RF
section when congured as an EMI receiver.
ADDRESS switches set the address of the service bus to allow
communication between the RF lter section and an external
computer via the receiver RF section, or the service-bus
connector on the receiver RF section. Specic switch settings
can also be used to initiate internal diagnostic service
procedures. Refer to the EMI Receiver Series Installation and
Verication Manual for detailed information on switch settings.
AUX INTERFACE provides a nine-pin \D" subminiature
connector for control from the receiver RF section.
SERVICE BUS connector is an HP-IB connector that allows an
external computer to communicate with the RF lter section to
perform service and diagnostic tests only.
LINE SERVICE SWITCH turns on and o the operating mode
of the RF lter section. NORMAL mode is selected for EMI
receiver operation; TEST mode is selected when performing
service and diagnostic tests via the SERVICE BUS.
LINE VOLTAGE SELECTOR adapts the RF lter section to the
power source. Refer to the EMI Receiver Series Installation and
Verication Manual for instructions on selecting the correct
setting.
LINE power module is the input for the line power source.
Make sure that the line-power source outlet has a protective
ground contact. The primary line-power fuse is also located in
this module.
Interface connector is an optional interface for either HP-IB
(standard) or RS-232 (Option 023) interface buses that supports
remote instrument operation and direct plotting or printing of
screen data.
EXT KEYBOARD connector is used to connect a VECTRA
C1405A, option ABA keyboard with a DIN-style plug to the
receiver. The keyboard can be used to enter screen titles,
prexes, remote commands, and report annotation.
Turn o the receiver before connecting an external keyboard to the
receiver. Failure to do so may result in loss of factory calibration
data.
Static discharges of greater than 3 kV to metallic portions of the
connector housing on the keyboard during operation may cause the
instrument to reset.
Getting Started
1-9
Screen Annotation
The following two gures indicate the primary annotation areas that
may be displayed when using your receiver. Figure 1-4 shows the
display in normal operating mode. Figure 1-5 shows the display when
using windows.
Figure 1-4. EMC Screen Annotation, Normal Operating Mode
1-10
Getting Started
activates the windows display mode and splits the screen into
two separate displays|the top, overview window and the bottom,
applications window. Only one window is active at a time. The active
window is selected by toggling the 4NEXT5 key (under the WINDOWS
front-panel keys).
4CTRL5
Figure 1-5. EMC Screen Annotation Using Windows
Receiver RF Section Annotation
The instrument preset conditions used in this manual are those of
an HP 8542E or an HP 8546A EMI receiver. When using either an
HP 85422E or an HP 85462A receiver RF section, operators will note
discrepancies in reference level and sweep time when comparing
the illustrations given in this manual to the displays presented on
the instrument screen. These discrepancies are due to hardware
dierences between the two congurations.
Getting Started
1-11
Menu and Softkey Overview
The keys labeled SETUP, FREQUENCY, and MKR are all examples
of front-panel keys. Pressing most front-panel keys access menus of
functions that are displayed along the right side of the display screen.
These menus are called softkey menus.
Softkey menus list functions other than those accessed directly by
the front-panel keys. To activate a function on the softkey menu,
press the unlabeled key immediately to the right of the annotation on
the screen. The unlabeled keys next to the annotation on the display
screen are called softkeys.
Throughout this manual front-panel keys are indicated by a box
around the key label, for example, 4AMPLITUDE5; softkeys are indicated
by shading on the key label, for example, REF LVL . The softkeys
displayed depend on the front-panel key pressed and which menu
level is selected.
If a softkey function's value can be changed, it is called an active
function. The function label of the active function appears on the
display in inverse video. For example, if you press 4AMPLITUDE5 the
softkey menu of related amplitude functions is displayed. Note the
function labeled REF LVL appears in inverse video. The message
\REF LVL" also appears in the active function block on the display,
indicating it is the active amplitude function and can be changed
using any of the data controls.
A softkey with ON and OFF in its label can be used to turn the
softkey's function on or o. To turn the function on, press the
softkey so that ON is underlined. To turn the function o, press the
softkey so that OFF is underlined. An ON or OFF softkey function
will be indicated throughout this manual as: ANTENNA ON OFF ON.
A function with AUTO and MAN in the label can either be
auto-coupled or have its value manually changed. The function's
value can be changed manually by pressing the softkey until
MAN is underlined, and then changing its value with the numeric
keypad, knob, or step keys. To set the function so that it operates
automatically, press the softkey so that AUTO is underlined. An AUTO
or MAN softkey function will be indicated throughout this manual as:
ATTEN AUTO MAN AUTO.
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When some softkeys, such as SCR PWR ON OFF and
SRC ATN MAN AUTO , are pressed the rst time, only the function will
be highlighted. To change the value of the function use the numeric
keys, step keys or knob. When entering a value with the numeric
keys, the entry must be terminated by pressing one of the units keys,
such as 4dB5 or 4dBV5. When adjusting the value using the step keys or
knob the units are entered automatically by the receiver. When you
are nished entering or adjusting the value, press the softkey again to
highlight the on and o or auto and manual functions.
A summary of all front-panel keys and softkeys can be found in
Chapter 3, \Key Dictionary Reference," of the EMI Receiver Series
Reference manual.
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1-12
Getting Started
Disk Drive
Note
The disk drive on the front panel of the receiver RF section is
available for reading from or writing to a 1.44 MByte, 3.5 inch oppy
disk in MS-DOS or LIF format.
Only double-sided disks may be used.
The following tasks may be performed using the disk drive:
Format a disk.
Create a le.
Dierentiate between the dierent types of les when cataloged.
Save and recall instrument setups.
Save and recall lists of signal data, including frequency and peak,
quasi-peak, and average amplitudes.
Save and recall limit lines.
Save and recall amplitude correction factors.
Save and recall instrument traces.
Save bitmap les (images) of display graphics.
Getting Started
1-13
Receiver RF Section Battery Information
The receiver RF section uses a 3.6 V lithium battery to enable the
receiver memory to retain data. The date when the battery was
installed is on a label on the rear panel of the instrument. (See
Figure 1-6.)
The minimum life expectancy of the battery is 8 years at 25 C, or
1 year at 55 C. If you experience problems with the battery or the
recommended time period for battery replacement has elapsed, see
\Returning the EMI Receiver for Service" in the EMI Receiver Series
Installation and Verication manual.
If you wish to replace the battery yourself, you can purchase
the service documentation that provides all necessary test and
maintenance information. The battery is soldered onto the receiver's
processor board. Service documentation may be ordered through your
HP sales and service oce.
After replacing the battery, write the date of battery replacement on
the rear-panel label.
Figure 1-6. Rear-Panel Battery Information Label
1-14
Getting Started
2
Calibration
What You'll Learn in this Chapter
This chapter describes procedures for calibrating the HP 8542E/
HP 8546A EMI receiver and the HP 85422E/HP 85462A receiver RF
section. In this chapter you will:
Calibrate the EMI receiver.
Set the receiver clock.
Set the AutoCal time.
Perform the tracking generator self-calibration.
Perform the YTF self-calibration. (HP 8546A or HP 85462A only.)
Calibrate the receiver RF section.
Improving Accuracy
Data from the self-calibration routine is necessary for receiver
operation. Regularly executing the self-calibration routine ensures the
receiver is using current calibration data. This improves the receiver's
frequency and amplitude accuracy. Press the 4CALIBRATE5 key to view
the Self-Calibration Routine menus. The last softkey on this menu,
More 1 of 3 , provides access to additional self-calibration functions.
The self-calibration routines provide correction factors for internal
circuitry. The application of the correction factors is required to meet
frequency and amplitude specications. When the correction factors
are applied to internal circuitry the message \CORR" (corrected) is
displayed on the left side of the screen.
The EMI receiver calibration consists of two parts.
An receiver RF section frequency and amplitude calibration
An RF lter section amplitude calibration
The receiver RF section frequency and amplitude calibration adjusts
the frequency, sweep time, and span accuracy. It also adjusts
bandwidth, switching between log and linear paths, IF gains, IF
centering, RF attenuation, and the log amplier.
The RF lter section amplitude calibration automatically adjusts
amplitude levels to be within the calibration limits for the EMI
receiver.
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Calibration
2-1
When is Self-Calibration Needed?
The following guidelines are intended to help you decide when to use
the self-calibration features. Your specic measurement needs will
determine your exact requirements.
Perform the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines
whenever the instrument experiences signicant environmental
changes such as temperature (65 C), humidity, shock, or vibration
(which may occur during shipping or transport). This is particularly
important if the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines
were last performed in a dierent environment.
If the environment is relatively stable (for example, a laboratory
environment), calibrate the receiver daily. Be sure to perform
all receiver calibration procedures after operating temperature
conditions are met.
To achieve optimal amplitude accuracy for relative measurements:
Keep the receiver in a stable environment.
Retrieve the stored calibration data from memory before
beginning the rst measurement. Do not retrieve the calibration
data prior to making subsequent measurements. (The amplitude
drift is normally less than the calibration uncertainty.)
Keep the receiver turned on between measurements.
If the input signal for EXT REF IN changes, run the frequency
and amplitude self-calibration routines. Amplitude calibration is
required to improve IF centering.
If accurate self-calibration is temporarily needed in a dierent
environment, calibrate the receiver RF section, but do not store the
calibration data. The temporary correction factors will be used until
the receiver is turned o, or until the calibration data is retrieved
from memory.
For an HP 8546A/HP 85462A only.
If preselector peaking has more than a 2-db eect on the signal
amplitude when using single-band sweep mode above 2.9 GHz,
perform the YTF self-calibration routine and then store the data.
The YTF self-calibration routine improves the preselector default
values.
Warm-Up Time
Note
2-2
Calibration
A one hour warm-up period is necessary after the receiver is turned
on to ensure the receiver meets its specications.
Be sure to perform all receiver calibration procedures after operating
temperature conditions are met.
Calibrating the EMI Receiver
When either the HP 8542E or HP 8546A is turned on, the receiver's
amplitude calibration data for INPUT 1 and INPUT 2 is veried. If
the data is valid, it is downloaded to the RF lter section from the
nonvolatile storage in the receiver RF section. If the data is not valid,
the RF lter section will use its standalone factory calibration data
and display a \Cal Needed" message.
Note
PRESET or IP does not download the receiver's calibration data.
Using CAL FETCH
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To retrieve the receiver's calibration data from internal memory,
press:
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL FETCH
If the data is not valid when the calibration data is retrieved from
memory using the cal fetch function, one or both of the following
messages will be displayed:
INPUT 1: Data Not valid
CAL INPUT 1 required
INPUT 2: Data Not valid
CAL INPUT 2 required
Verifying the Receiver's Calibration
1. To verify the amplitude calibration data, press:
4CAL CHECK5
2. If the data is not valid, the calibration check procedure is stopped
and the message \Cal Needed" is displayed.
3. If the data is valid, the calibration check is completed and the
message \Calibration OK" is displayed.
Note
Only the amplitude accuracy at 300 MHz 62 dB is veried when a
4CAL CHECK5 is executed. To ensure the receiver meets its specications
at all frequencies, a calibration must be performed.
Calibration
2-3
Using CAL ALL
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
To calibrate the receiver, press:
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL ALL
The calibration procedures take approximately 20 minutes to
complete. When the calibration is successfully completed, the internal
adjustment data is stored in volatile RAM and the following message is
displayed.:
CAL ALL : done
INPUT 1 : Passed
INPUT 2 : Passed
Press CAL STORE to save
If the calibration procedure encounters a detectable error that
prevents part of the receiver from meeting all of the specications
at all frequencies, the calibration will be completed and one of the
following messages will be displayed.
CAL ALL : done
INPUT 1 : Failed
INPUT 2 : Passed
CAL ALL : done
INPUT 1 : Passed
INPUT 2 : Failed
CAL ALL : done
INPUT 1 : Failed
INPUT 2 : Failed
If the receiver encounters an error that will not allow the calibration
to be completed, messages such as the following will be displayed:
CAL INPUT 1 : Data Not valid
CAL INPUT 1 required
INPUT CAL FAILED:
300 MHz out of range
INPUT CAL FAILED:
TG INT ALC out of range
INPUT CAL FAILED:
TG EXT ALC out of range
These messages tell you which sections of the receiver have
encountered problems during the calibration procedure.
2-4
Calibration
Using CAL STORE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
When calibration is complete, the message \Press CAL STORE to
save" will be displayed. To prevent the internal adjustment data from
being lost when the receiver is turned o, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
The message \CAL: Stored" will be displayed.
If a problem was encountered while the calibration data was being
saved, one of the following messages will be displayed.
Note
In the following messages, CAL 85422: Stored is displayed if you are
calibrating an HP 8542E.
CAL 85462: Stored
CAL INPUT 1 : Not stored
INPUT 2 : Stored
CAL 85462: Stored
CAL INPUT 1 : Stored
INPUT 2 : Not stored
CAL 85462: Stored
CAL INPUT 1 : Not stored
INPUT 2 : Not stored
If one of these messages is displayed, it means either some of
the calibration data is not valid or some of the data did not store
successfully.
Interrupting calibration
To interrupt the calibration routines, press:
4PRESET5
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL FETCH
The previous correction factors are retrieved.
Calibration
2-5
Using the AutoCal Function
The AutoCal function enables you to select a time at which it would
be convenient to have the calibration performed. If the Autocal
function is ON when the receiver's internal clock reaches the
\AutoCal Time," a calibration will be performed.
Setting the Receiver's Clock
1. To set the clock, press:
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Time Date
Time Date ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SET TIME
Use the numeric keys to enter the time in an HHMMSS format,
then press 4(ENTER)5 to terminate the entry.
2. To set the date, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SET DATE
Use the numeric keys to enter the date in an YYMMDD format,
then press 4(ENTER)5 to terminate the entry.
Setting AutoCal Time
1. To set the time at which you wish to have the automatic calibration
performed, press:
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Cal At Time
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SET TIME
Use the numeric keys to enter the time in an HHMMSS format,
then press 4(ENTER)5 to terminate the entry.
2. To initialize automatic calibration, press:
AUTO CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
2-6
Calibration
When the automatic calibration function is ON, the calibration will be
performed at the set time, even if the receiver is in use.
Performing a Partial Calibration
If only INPUT 1 or INPUT 2 is to be used, the following procedure
may be used to save time.
For the HP 8542E only
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL 85422
It will take approximately 10 minutes to complete the HP 85422E
calibration. When the calibration is complete press the following keys:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
CAL INPUT 1 or CAL INPUT 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
For the HP 8546A only
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL 85462
It will take approximately 10 minutes to complete the HP 85462A
calibration. When the calibration is complete press the following keys:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
CAL INPUT 1 or CAL INPUT 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
When the partial calibration is complete, one of the following
messages will be displayed.
CAL INPUT 1 (or 2): done
INPUT 1 (or 2): Passed
CAL INPUT 1 (or 2): done
INPUT 1 (or 2): Failed
To store the new calibration data, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
Note
In general, it is recommended the CAL ALL procedure be used to
insure the system is calibrated for measurements from either input.
Calibration
2-7
Performing the Tracking Generator Self-Calibration Routine
The following procedure can be used to calibrate the tracking
generator.
1. To calibrate the tracking generator, connect TRACKING
GENERATOR OUTPUT on the RF lter section to INPUT 2 using
an appropriate cable and adapters. (To calibrate the receiver RF
section as a standalone instrument, connect TG to RF IN.)
Note
A low-loss cable should be used for accurate calibration. Use the 50
cable shipped with the receiver.
2. Perform the tracking generator self-calibration routine by pressing
the following keys:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL TRK GEN
If the tracking generator output is not connected to the receiver
input, the message \TG SIGNAL NOT FOUND" is briey displayed.
The tracking generator self-calibration routine lasts approximately
two minutes.
3. To prevent the internal adjustment data from being lost when the
receiver is turned o, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
Performing the YIG-Tuned Filter Self-Calibration Routine
For an HP 8546A/HP 85462A only.
The following procedure can be used to calibrate the YIG-tuned lter.
Note
All connections required for this procedure are internal.
1. To perform the YIG-tuned lter self-calibration routine, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL YTF
The YIG-tuned lter self-calibration routine lasts approximately
two minutes.
2. To prevent the internal adjustment data from being lost when the
receiver is turned o, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 3 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
2-8
Calibration
Calibrating the Receiver RF Section as a Standalone Instrument
The following calibration is to be used only if you are using either the
HP 85422E or the HP 85462A as a standalone instrument.
1. To calibrate the receiver RF section as a standalone instrument,
press:
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL ALL
The frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines take
approximately nine minutes to nish. When the calibration is
successfully completed, the internal adjustment data is stored in
volatile RAM and a message is displayed.
2. To prevent the internal adjustment data from being lost when the
receiver is turned o, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
To perform the frequency and amplitude self-calibration functions
separately, press:
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
CAL FREQ or CAL AMP
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines are used,
the frequency calibration should be performed before the amplitude
calibration, unless the frequency data is known to be accurate.
3. The frequency calibration takes approximately two minutes. It
adjusts the frequency, sweep time, and span accuracy. To start the
frequency self-calibration procedure, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL FREQ
When the frequency calibration is complete, the preset display
returns and \CAL DONE" is displayed.
4. The amplitude calibration takes approximately seven minutes. It
adjusts bandwidth, switching between log and linear paths, IF
gains, IF centering, RF attenuation, and the log amplier. To start
the amplitude self-calibration procedure, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL AMP
When the amplitude calibration is complete, the preset display
returns and \CAL DONE" is displayed.
When the calibration is successfully completed, the internal
adjustment data is stored in volatile RAM and a message is
displayed.
5. To prevent the internal adjustment data from being lost when the
receiver is turned o, press:
4CALIBRATE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL STORE
Calibration
2-9
After the frequency and amplitude self-calibration routines are
complete, the message \CORR" (corrected) appears on the left
side of the screen. This indicates the frequency and amplitude
correction factors are being used. The correction factors can be
turned o using the CORRECT ON OFF function. When OFF is
underlined, most amplitude correction factors and some frequency
correction factors are not used.
6. To calibrate the tracking generator, perform the procedure under
\Performing the Tracking Generator Self-Calibration Routine".
7. If you have an HP 85462A, calibrate the YIG-tuned lter by
performing the procedure under \Performing the YIG-Tuned Filter
Self-Calibration Routine".
This completes the frequency and amplitude calibration procedure for
the receiver RF section.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2-10
Calibration
3
Making Compliance Measurements
What You'll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter describes how to congure the HP 8542E/HP 8546A EMI
receiver to make compliance measurements, view and measure signals
with the desired detectors, store these measurements to the internal
list and create a report. The measurement examples presented in this
chapter are:
Setting Up a Measurement Using the SETUP Key
Using standard congurations
Customizing the standard congurations
Loading user-dened congurations from a disk
Loading a limit line from a disk
Loading an amplitude correction factor le from a disk
Activating the windows display format
Saving a setup to disk
Making a Measurement Using the TEST Key
Tuning the receiver
Using a marker to tune the receiver and mark a signal
Making a measurement, saving the data in the list, and viewing
the list
Creating a Report Using the OUTPUT Key
Conguring a printer or plotter
Dening and producing a report
Note
An EMI receiver is required to make compliance measurements.
Measurements made with only the receiver RF section may not meet
the requirements of some regulatory agencies.
Making Compliance Measurements
3-1
Introducing the SETUP, TEST, and OUTPUT Keys
The functions associated with the 4SETUP5, 4TEST5, and 4OUTPUT5 keys
have been optimized to match the operations found in nearly all
EMI measurements. These functions make it is possible to gather
and output data with a mimimum number of keystrokes. The
centralization of control provides a fast, easy way for you to congure
the receiver, gather data and generate reports. It also provides a base
from which to learn the other powerful measurement and diagnostic
features of the receiver. The examples in this section describe both
the use of these functions and their interactions with other features
of the instrument.
Setting Up a Measurement Using the SETUP Key
To prepare the EMI receiver to make compliance measurements,
the instrument settings must be appropriately congured.
Optional procedures include displaying limit lines, activating
amplitude-correction factors and opening the measurement windows.
The rst level of menus, accessed by pressing the 4SETUP5 key, provide
standard and user-dened congurations. The second and third levels
allow you to modify the standard congurations, and use limit lines
and amplitude correction factors.
Using Standard Congurations
The EMI receiver provides four standard instrument congurations
which simplify the process of preparing the receiver to make
measurements. The congurations are based on standard frequency
ranges and are automatically selected by pressing the appropriate
softkey. The settings unique to each conguration are shown in
Table 3-1.
Table 3-1.
HP 8542E/HP 8546A Standard Congurations
MENU LABEL
IF
Averaging Reference
Start/Stop Frequency Bandwidth Bandwidth Level
9 kHz{150 kHz
150 kHz{30 MHz
30 MHz{300 MHz
200 MHz{1 GHz
3-2
Making Compliance Measurements
200 Hz CISPR
9 kHz CISPR
120 kHz CISPR
120 kHz CISPR
300 Hz
30 kHz
300 kHz
300 kHz
70 dBV
75 dBV
80 dBV
80 dBV
The instrument preset values are:
Peak detector displayed
Peak, quasi-peak and average detectors available (for more
information, refer to \Selecting the Measured Detectors" later in
this chapter)
Preamplier o
RF and IF overload detection on
Autorange o
The settings common to all standard congurations are:
10 dB input attenuation
Marker ON
dBV units
Customizing the Standard Congurations
The standard congurations can be modied to meet specic
requirements. Frequency parameters (start, stop, and center span) are
changed using the menus associated with the FREQUENCY key.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4SETUP5
200 MHz01 GHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Modifying Start and Stop Frequencies
2. To change the start frequency, press:
4FREQUENCY5
START FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 150 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. To change the stop frequency, press:
STOP FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1100 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Modifying Reference Level and Input Attenuation
4. To set the reference level and input attenuation, press:
4AMPLITUDE5
5. To change the reference level, press:
REF LVL : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 90 4dBv5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. To increase the input attenuation, press:
ATTEN AUTO MAN MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Compliance Measurements
3-3
Modifying IF and Averaging Bandwidths
The EMI receiver oers measurment (CISPR) and diagnostic IF
bandwidths as well as post-detection averaging bandwidths. The
receiver defaults to the measurement bandwidth appropriate for the
current center frequency.
7. To select a dierent bandwidth, press:
4BW5
8. Each measurement bandwidth has its own softkey. To select a
specic measurement bandwidth, press the appropriate key. To
change to a diagnostic IF bandwidth, press:
IF BW AUTO MAN MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 100 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9. Bandwidths may be selected by entering the desired value using
the numeric keypad followed by the appropriate terminator, or by
using the step keys or knob. To return the receiver to the default
setting, press:
IF BW AUTO MAN AUTO
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
10. The receiver selects an averaging bandwidth appropriate for the
selected IF bandwidth. To select a dierent averaging bandwidth,
press:
AVG BW AUTO MAN MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 100 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
11. To set the receiver to the default setting, press:
AVG BW AUTO MAN AUTO
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Selecting the Active Detector
The EMI receiver can scan any one of the three available detectors.
The currently active detector is indicated onscreen in the upper
right-hand corner as the \ACTV DET." Refer to Figure 3-1. The default
detector of the receiver is the peak detector. The peak detector
scans the measured spectrum faster than the other built-in detectors
because of its short charge and discharge time constants. To scan with
the built-in quasi-peak or average detectors, press the 4QUASI-PEAK5 or
4AVGERAGE5 detector keys located in the upper portion of the front
panel. When using these detectors, the receiver scans at a much
slower rate due to longer time constants. Scan times are automatically
selected to match the increased charge and discharge times. When
making diagnostic measurements, it is possible to scan these slower
detectors at a faster rate by reducing the sweeptime. The receiver
will indicate this condition by displaying a \MEAS UNCAL" error
message, as shown in Figure 3-1.
Note
3-4
Making Compliance Measurements
When using the receiver RF section by itself, refer to \Receiver RF
Section Annotation" in Chapter 1 of this manual.
Figure 3-1. Active Detector and Measured Detector Messages
Selecting the Measured Detectors
The MEASURE AT MKR softkey can be used to measure any of the
three available detectors. The detectors selected to be measured
are displayed in the upper right-hand corner of the screen labeled
\MEAS DET". Refer to Figure 3-1. The default conguration makes all
three detectors active. Selecting only the detectors you need reduces
measurement time. The dwell time for each detector may be set
independently.
12. To select the detectors to be measured and their dwell times,
press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Inst Setup
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Measure Detector
13. Locate the DETECTOR PK QP AV softkey.
Notice each of the detector labels are underlined. This indicates
they will all be measured.
Press the softkey. Notice some detectors are not underlined,
and the detectors indicated next to MEAS DET onscreen have
changed.
Continue pressing the softkey to observe the dierent possible
combinations of detectors. When you are nished examining the
combinations, make all three detectors active by pressing the
following softkey until all three detectors are underlined.
DETECTOR PK QP AV PK QP AV
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Compliance Measurements
3-5
Measuring Detector Dwell Times
14. To modify the peak detector dwell time, press:
PK DWELL TIME : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Enter the desired dwell time.
The current dwell time is indicated in the active function block.
15. To modify the dwell times for the quasi-peak and average
detectors, press:
QP DWELL TIME : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Enter the desired dwell time.
AV DWELL TIME : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Enter the desired dwell time.
The current dwell time is indicated in the active function block.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
The dwell times are added to the time required to obtain a valid
detector reading, as dictated by the specic charge and discharge time
constants. The total dwell time cannot be set below the required
minimum value.
Controlling the Preamplier
The preamplier can be controlled from both the 4PREAMP5 key
and the PREAMP ON OFF softkey located under the 4SETUP5 key. A
message appears at top of the display to indicate the preamplier is
on. Refer to Figure 3-2.
16. To turn the preamplier on, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PREAMP5
Notice the change in reference level. Press this key again to turn
the preamplier o.
17. The following procedure can also be used to turn the preamplier
on.
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Inst Setup
PREAMP ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
18. To turn the preamplier o, press:
PREAMP ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3-6
Making Compliance Measurements
Figure 3-2. \PREAMP ON" and \AUTORANGE
Controlling Autoranging
ON" Messages
The autoranging feature allows the instrument to automatically
change its sensitivity as needed to remove any RF or IF overloads that
occur during operation. The instrument will perform one autoranging
activity per scan until the instrument is no longer in overload. To
maximize sensitivity when the displayed frequencies are changed,
the autoranging function will remove any corrective actions that
were taken earlier, then autorange for the new conditions. A message
appears at the top of the display when autoranging is on. Refer to
Figure 3-2.
19. To activate autoranging using the front-panel key, press:
4AUTORANGE5
Press this key again to turn autoranging o.
20. The following procedure can also be used to activate autoranging:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Inst Setup
AUTORANG ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Compliance Measurements
3-7
Loading User-Dened Congurations from a Disk
User-dened congurations are useful if you regularly make
measurements using the same setup. They are also useful when you
wish to standardize measurements for multiple operators or locations.
User-dened settings include:
instrument state
windows state
limit lines (including testing status)
amplitude correction factors
The disk drive can be used to store user-dened settings. Refer to
Chapter 11 for more information.
1. To select a user-dened setting from a disk, insert the disk into the
drive and press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL SETUP
The receiver will catalog all setup les resident on the disk. Use
the step keys or knob to highlight the desired le.
2. To load the desired setup, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
Using Limit Lines
3-8
Making Compliance Measurements
Two limit lines with margins can be displayed on the EMI receiver.
These limit lines can be used to visually determine whether displayed
signals meet the appropriate limits. Margins are set relative to each
of the limit lines, and are useful when taking into account any
uncertainties that can exist in the entire measurement system.
If you wish to provide a margin of safety when testing to a limit,
you may set a margin below the required limit. When the limit-test
function is activated, the EMI receiver automatically indicates
onscreen whether or not a displayed signal passes or fails a displayed
limit line or margin. When limit testing is activated, the receiver
automatically tests to either the limit line or the margin, whichever
is lowest. Failures are indicated both onscreen and over the HP-IB
bus. When performing limit testing with two limit lines and their
associated margins, the receiver automatically tests to the lowest of
the four.
Note
When using the limit-test function, it is important to keep track of
which detector output is being tested against which limit line. The
peak detector is the default detector, however, most commercial limit
lines indicate acceptable quasi-peak or average detector output levels.
When viewing the peak detector output, it is possible to trigger a
limit failure when testing against a quasi-peak limit line. This type
of failure only indicates the need to remeasure the signal with the
quasi-peak detector. It is quite possible for the peak value of an
impulsive signal to exceed a quasi-peak limit, while the quasi-peak
value of that same signal remains below the limit.
Refer to Chapter 8 for more information on entering and editing
custom limit lines.
Loading a Limit Line from the Disk
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
200 MHz-1 GHz
4AUTORANGE5
2. Access the limit-line menu by pressing:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
3. Insert the Limit Lines and Antenna Factor Library Disk into the
disk drive. Load the EN55022 Class A Radiated, 10 m limit le
from the disk by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL LIMIT
Highlight EN022A10.LIM using the step keys or knob.
4. To load the le, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
The receiver will automatically turn the limit lines on after it has
nished loading the le.
5. Enter a 03 dB margin limit relative to limit line 1 by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 1
MARGIN 1 ON OFF ON : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The dotted margin line is displayed below the limit line. It can also
be adjusted using the knob.
6. Turn limit testing on by pressing:
LMT TEST ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Compliance Measurements
3-9
7. Test the functionality of limit-line testing using the internal
calibrator signal by pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message \FAIL MARGIN 1" is displayed because the calibrator
signal exceeds the margin line.
8. Turn the margin o by pressing:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 1
MARGIN 1 ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message \FAIL LIMIT 1" is displayed because the calibrator
signal now exceeds the limit line.
9. Turn the internal calibrator signal o by pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message \PASS LIMIT" is displayed because no onscreen signals
exceed the limit line.
Using Amplitude Correction Factors
Note
3-10
The EMI receiver can correct the displayed data to take into account
the eects of any transducers used when making measurements. The
corrections are made real-time, as the data is displayed onscreen. The
EMI receiver allows three types of amplitude-correction factors to be
applied to the input signals.
Antenna Factors Conversion factors relating eld strength to
measured voltage.
Cable Factors
Conversion factors to correct for cable insertion
loss.
Other Factors
Correction factors to account for the eects of any
other two-port device placed between the antenna
and the receiver.
A total of 80 correction frequencies can be specied. They can be
distributed among the three categories in any combination. A matrix
of correction frequencies and amplitudes is entered for each category
desired. The receiver automatically sums the matrices and applies the
net correction factor to the displayed data.
The amplitude-correction factor applied to the lowest selected
frequency is also applied to all frequencies below the lowest selected
frequency. The amplitude-correction factor applied to the highest
selected frequency is also applied to all frequencies above the highest
selected frequency. Refer to Chapter 9 for more detailed information.
Making Compliance Measurements
Loading an Amplitude Correction Factor File from a Disk
Matrices can be loaded from a disk or entered from the front panel.
The following procedure describes how to load an antenna factor
matrix from the Limit Line and Antenna Factor Library Disk.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4SETUP5
200 MHz01 GHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Access the correction factors menu by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Correctn Factors
3. Insert the Limit Lines and Antenna Factor Library Disk into the
disk drive.
4. Load the HP 11966D periodic antenna 200 MHz|1 GHz le from
the disk by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Antenna Factors
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL ANTENNA
5. Highlight \LOG_PERD.ANT" using the step keys or knob.
6. To load the le, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
The receiver will automatically activate the correction factors after
the le has been loaded. The noise oor will rise accordingly.
Note
Amplitude-correction factors are turned o when VIEW CAL is turned
on.
Making Compliance Measurements
3-11
Activating the Windows Display Format
The windows display format can be used to provide a simultaneous
display of both the entire frequency range of interest and a detailed
subset of that range. This display format helps you keep track of all
the signals in the entire spectrum while making measurements on a
specic signal. When the windows display format is rst activated,
the initial trace is transferred into the upper overview window and
a frequency span that is one-tenth the width of the current trace is
actively scanned in the lower applications window. The span of the
applications window is centered around either the center frequency
of the overview window or the marker frequency that was active in
the initial trace. All limit line and amplitude correction information
that was active in the initial trace is automatically transferred to both
the overview and applications window.
When using the windows display format, the information detailing the
state of each window is simplied. Use the 4ZOOM5 key to expand the
active display to full screen. A complete description of the window
state is provided when in this full screen mode. Press the 4ZOOM5 key
again to return to the windows display mode.
1. Before activating the windows display format, set the receiver to a
known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4SETUP5
200 MHz01 GHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4AUTORANGE5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PEAK SEARCH5
2. To activate the windows display format, press:
4CTRL5
Notice the initial trace has been moved to the overview window,
and a ten percent span of that trace, centered around the marker,
has been moved into the applications window.
3. To activate the overview window, press:
4NEXT5
The outline of the overview window is now highlighted, showing it
to be the active window.
4. Activate the lower applications window again by pressing:
4NEXT5
The outline of the lower applications window is now highlighted.
By repeatedly pressing this softkey, the active trace control toggles
between the upper overview window and the lower applications
window.
3-12
Making Compliance Measurements
5. To activate the zoom function, press:
4ZOOM5
Complete annotation of the active window state is provided when
in the full-screen mode.
Press the 4ZOOM5 key again to return to the windows display mode.
6. To turn the windows mode o, press:
4CTRL5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
WINDOWS OFF
Making Compliance Measurements
3-13
Making a Measurement
The main functions necessary for making compliance measurements
are located under the 4TEST5 key. These functions allow you to tune
the receiver, change the display of a signal by turning the scan on
and o, point to the signal of interest with the marker, make a
measurement of that signal, and enter that measurement into a data
list.
Tuning the Receiver
1. To access the measurement softkeys, press:
4TEST5
2. To tune to a new center frequency, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
TUNE SLO FAST
and either,
enter the desired value using the numeric keypad
use the step keys
rotate the knob to the desired center frequency
When entering a value with the numeric keys, the entry must be
terminated by pressing one of the units keys, such as 4MHz5 or 4GHz5.
When adjusting the value using the step keys or knob the units are
entered automatically by the receiver.
When the knob is used to enter the frequency two tuning rates are
available, slow and fast.
3. To change the rate at which the receiver tunes when using the
knob, press:
TUNE SLO FAST FAST
The slow rate is the default rate. It is calculated by the receiver
and is based on the scan width and the IF bandwidth. The fast rate
is eight times greater than the slow rate.
You may toggle between the two rates by repeatedly pressing the
TUNE SLO FAST softkey. The selected speed will be retained until
it is changed, or an instrument preset is performed.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
3-14
The frequency of the receiver can also be changed by using the
CENTER, START, and STOP functions. These functions are accessed
by pressing the 4FREQUENCY5 key. The SPAN function, accessed by
pressing the 4SPAN5 key, or the default user-softkey, can also be used
to change the frequency of the receiver.
Making Compliance Measurements
Using the Marker to Tune the Receiver
The marker function has two modes of operation. In tune mode,
the receiver retunes the center frequency while maintaining the
current span when the marker is moved to either edge of the display.
This is the default mode. In span mode, the receiver will not retune
the receiver when the marker is moved to either the start or stop
frequency of the current span.
1. To see how the tune and span modes work, set the receiver to a
known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. To use the internal calibrator as the test signal, press:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Use the marker to point to the 300 MHz calibrator signal by
pressing:
4TEST5
MARKER TUNE SPN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 MHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Turn the windows display mode on by pressing:
4CTRL5
The 300 MHz calibrator signal is displayed in the center of the
lower window. The frequency span is 80 MHz.
5. Select the marker tune mode by pressing:
4TEST5
MARKER TUNE SPN TUNE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Rotate the knob clockwise until the marker reaches the right side
of the window. As you continue to rotate the knob the receiver
changes frequencies. The zone marker is also moving in the upper
overview window indicating the frequency range being displayed.
7. Continue rotating the knob until the 600 MHz calibrator signal is
located in the center of the display.
8. Press the up-arrow (4*5) step key. The marker moves to the right
edge of the display.
9. Press the up-arrow (4*5) step key, again. The receiver retunes and
the marker moves to the left edge of the display.
10. Continue pressing the up-arrow (4*5) step key until the 900 MHz
calibrator signal is displayed on the screen.
11. To change the marker mode to span, press:
MARKER TUNE SPN SPN
Note that when the knob is rotated counter-clockwise the
receiver does not retune when the marker reaches the edge of the
display.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Compliance Measurements
3-15
Using the Measure at Marker Function
The measure-at-marker function uses a built-in algorithm to
simplify the process of taking data. Measurements are made by
placing the marker on the signal of interest and then selecting the
measure-at-marker function. The algorithm:
1. locates the signal of interest
2. turns the scan o at that signal
3. optimizes the measurement dynamic range
4. measures all detectors currently selected
5. displays the results in the onscreen marker box
The marker box remains on the screen until the marker position or
receiver tuning is changed. The measure-at-marker results can be
saved to the internal list by pressing ADD TO LIST . The contents of
the internal list can be viewed and remeasured, as desired. Refer to
Chapter 5 for more information.
The dwell time used for each detector can be adjusted using the dwell
time function. Refer to the \Customizing Standard Settings" section
earlier in this chapter for more information.
The following example shows how to:
use the measure-at-marker function
use the marker box
store signals in the list
view signals in the list
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PRESET5
2. Turn on the internal calibrator signal to use as a test signal by
pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Activate the marker by pressing:
4TEST5
MARKER TUNE SPN TUNE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Rotate the knob until the marker is on the peak of the 300 MHz
calibrator signal.
5. Measure the signal at the marker by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEASURE AT MKR
The measured detector values are displayed on the screen in the
marker box. Refer to Figure 3-3.
6. Save the measurement to the list by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
3-16
Making Compliance Measurements
Figure 3-3. Using the Measure at Marker Function
7. Rotate the knob until the marker is on the peak of the 600 MHz
calibrator signal, and then press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEASURE AT MKR
8. When the receiver displays the measured values, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
9. Rotate the knob until the marker is on the peak of the 900 MHz
calibrator signal, and then press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEASURE AT MKR
10. When the receiver displays the measured values, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
11. Change the displayed span by pressing:
4SPAN5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4MHz5
12. View the signals entered into the list by pressing:
4TEST5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
SIG LIST ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Use the step keys to step through the list. The receiver highlights
the selection and automatically tunes to the indicated frequency.
Refer to Chapter 5 for more information.
Making Compliance Measurements
3-17
Note
3-18
Making Compliance Measurements
The measure-at-marker function uses an algorithm to sequentially
reduce the frequency span until the peak of the signal of interest
is displayed. After each span reduction, the marker moves to the
largest signal present on the display. The receiver indicates which
signal it measured by leaving the marker at that signal. If you
are measuring a small signal in the presence of a large signal the
algorithm may measure the larger signal. If this situation occurs,
reduce the span until the larger signal is one major frequency
division away from the smaller signal.
If using the Measure at Marker function to measure a pulsed signal
with a repetition frequency of less than 5 Hz, set the sweep time
to greater than or equal to the inverse of the pulse repetition
frequency. (For example, to measure a 1 Hz CISPR pulse, set the
sweep time to 1 second or greater prior to using the Measure at
Marker function.)
Strong adjacent signals can aect measurement accuracy. The
measure-at-marker algorithm detects when these signals may
be interfering with the measurement and displays the message,
\Strong adjacent signal" in the lower left-hand corner of the
display. The eects of strong signals can be reduced by increasing
the input attenuation, or, when making diagnostic measurments, by
reducing the IF bandwidth.
Creating a Report
Note
Conguring a Printer
Data collected in the internal list can be printed in a report. The
report can consist of any of the following elements:
the user comments (annotations)
a tabular list of the data
a graph of the data in the list on either a linear or logarithmic
frequency axis with the limit lines that are currently displayed
a listing of the instrument setup parameters, including limit-line and
amplitude-correction les
Only the graph can be sent to a plotter.
The instrument supports a variety of printers. The receiver must
be congured correctly to operate with a specic printer type.
Conguration options include:
printer type
HP-IB address of the printer
number of plots per page
color or monochrome output
The conguration information is used when printing with either the
4COPY5 key or the OUTPUT REPORT softkey (located on the 4OUTPUT5
key menu).
The following procedure congures the receiver to print to an
HP ThinkJet printer.
1. Access the printer conguration menu by pressing:
4CONFIG5
2. To use a ThinkJet printer, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Print Config
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Printer Type
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
THINKJET
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Config Done
Note
The default printer is the HP DeskJet 550C.
3. Set the HP-IB address of the printer. Enter the last two numbers
of the address assigned to the printer. For example, if the printer
address is 701, enter 01 by pressing:
PRINTER ADDRESS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 01
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Conrm the entry by pressing:
4ENTER5
Making Compliance Measurements
3-19
Conguring and Generating a Report
Use the list that was created in the \Using the Measure at Marker
Function" section earlier in this chapter for this procedure.
1. Access the report denition menu by pressing:
4OUTPUT5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Define Report
2. Verify that all report denitions are set to on (default mode), by
selecting the following softkey settings:
ANNOTATN ON OFF ON
LOG ON OFF ON
LIN ON OFF ON
LIST ON OFF ON
SETTINGS ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. To modify the list, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Define List
The display of the data in the list can be tailored to meet your
needs. You can:
Select which of the measured detectors to print to the list.
Display the dierences between a data point and the limit lines,
for any of the detectors.
Elect to indicate which of the list entries have been \marked,"
(refer to Chapter 4 for more information).
Print the current correction factors used.
4. To modify which detector values are printed to the screen, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SHOW DET PK QP AV
The detectors that will be displayed are underlined (defaults are
PK and QP). Press the softkey repeatedly to view the detector
combinations available.
5. When limit lines are active, the numerical dierence between a
specic detector reading and limit line 1 can be included in your
report by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SHOW 11 PK QP AV
The detectors that will be displayed are underlined. Press the
softkey repeatedly to view the detector combinations available.
6. To include the numerical dierence between a specic detector
reading and limit line 2 in the report, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SHOW 12 PK QP AV
The detectors that are currently detected are underlined. Press
the softkey repeatedly to view the detector combinations
available.
3-20
Making Compliance Measurements
7. To include the total current correction factor used for the data
point displayed in the report, press:
SHOW COR ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. To include the \mark" in the report, press:
SHOW MRK ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When the maximum number of columns exceeds the maximum
number of characters available across a page in portrait orientation,
the receiver will print the data in landscape orientation. The Thinkjet
printer does not support landscape orientation, and the maximum
number of columns that can be printed in portrait mode on this
printer is nine.
9. To return to the top level OUTPUT menu,press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
10. To add user notes to the report, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT ANNOTATN
Annotation is entered with a keyboard. The maximum number
of ASCII characters allowed in the annotation is 1024, For more
information on connecting and using the keyboard, refer to
Chapter 12.
11. To clear any existing annotation, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CLEAR ANNOTATN
12. When you nish entering notes, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EXIT EDIT
13. Verify the printer is connected to the receiver, then output the
report by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OUTPUT REPORT
14. To halt the operation at any time during the output cycle, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ABORT
The receiver will nish any graphs currently in process before
aborting the output cycle.
Making Compliance Measurements
3-21
4
List-Based Measurements
Radiated emissions measurements revolve around signal lists. The
key output of the testing process is a list of the highest amplitude
signals from the equipment under test. It is this list of signals which
regulatory agencies of the world are interested in. The list-based
measurement feature includes the following features:
Add signals to the list.
View the signal list table at any time.
Sort the signal list.
Delete signals from the list.
Mark signals on the list.
Remeasure signals on the list.
Save the tabular list to disk and recall it.
Graph the signal list on a logarithmic or linear scale.
Save the signal list graph to disk.
When viewing the signal list table, both list and trace information
are viewed at the same time. The signal list is displayed in the upper
half of the display screen; the lower half of the display screen is the
active window with a live trace. Furthermore, as each signal in the
list is selected, the frequency of the signal is used to tune the active
window. If the frequency is already on-screen, just the marker is
moved, otherwise the tune frequency is changed.
For the purpose of this measurement example, the 300 MHz calibrator
signal and its harmonics will be used to build a signal list.
Note
Before performing this measurement example, make sure that the
signal list is empty by pressing the following keys:
4TEST5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
EDIT LIST (If table is empty, go to step 1.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Delete Signals
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DELETE ALL SIGS
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DELETE ALL SIGS
List-Based Measurements
4-1
1. Preset the instrument to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Activate the 300 MHz calibrator signal and its harmonics by
pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When using the receiver RF section by itself, refer to \Receiver RF
Section Annotation" in Chapter 1 of this manual.
300 MHz Calibrator Signal
3. Set the receiver stop frequency to 2.9 GHz in order to view
additional harmonic signals by pressing:
4FREQUENCY5
STOP FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.9 4GHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4-2
List-Based Measurements
300 MHz Calibrator Signal with Harmonics
4. Place a marker on the 300 MHz calibrator signal by pressing:
4PEAK SEARCH5
Adding Signals to the List
5. Measure the peak, quasi-peak, and average detectors for this
signal peak by pressing:
4TEST5
MEASURE AT MKR (wait for results to be displayed)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
List-Based Measurements
4-3
Peak, Quasi-Peak, and Average Detectors Measurement Results
6. After the measurement is complete, the results are displayed in
the marker display area, and the signal can now be added to a
signal list by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
7. Step to the rst harmonic signal, take a measurement, and add
this result to the signal list by using the following sequence:
4*5 (positions marker on rst harmonic signal)
MEASURE AT MKR (wait for results to be displayed)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
4-4
List-Based Measurements
Note
Signal Added to Signal List
You may need to press the 4*5 (step up) key more than once to place
the marker on the peak of the signal.
8. Repeat step 7 for the remaining harmonic signals until all signals
have been measured and added to the signal list.
Viewing the Signal List
9. Display the signal list that was created by the 300 MHz calibrator
signal and its harmonics measured above by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
SIG LIST ON OFF ON (displays the signal list)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
List-Based Measurements
4-5
Signal List of 300 MHz Calibrator Signal and Harmonics
Sorting the Signal List
10. Sort the signal list by peak amplitude by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIST
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Sort Signals
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SORT BY PK AMP
Signal List Sorted by Peak Amplitude
11. Resort the signal list by frequency by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SORT BY FREQ
4-6
List-Based Measurements
Deleting Signals From the List
12. Delete the last harmonic signal from the signal list by using the
following key sequence:
Previous Menu (returns to the editing menu)
Delete Signals (enters delete signals menu)
SELECT FRM LIST : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 4ENTER5
DELETE SIGNAL , DELETE SIGNAL
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
After pressing DELETE SIGNAL once, the message
\If you are sure, press key again to delete signal." will appear.
Pressing DELETE SIGNAL a second time deletes the data.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Last Harmonic Signal Deleted
13. Notice that after the signal has been deleted, the marker and
signal number are decreased by one. In order to add the last
harmonic signal back to the signal list, use the following key
sequence:
4TEST5
MARKER TUNE SPN TUNE (activates marker)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
* (positions marker on last harmonic signal)
4 5
MEASURE AT MKR (wait for results)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
List-Based Measurements
4-7
Last Harmonic Signal Remeasured and Added to List
Marking Signals
14. Mark the 2nd harmonic signal for deletion by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIST
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Signal Marking
Enter signal number 2 and press 4ENTER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARK SIGNAL
Signal Marking
4-8
List-Based Measurements
Notice that signal 2 in the list is highlighted and marked with an
asterisk.
15. Enter each of the 4th, 6th, and 8th harmonic signal numbers and
mark them by using the following sequence:
Enter signal number, press 4ENTER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARK SIGNAL
16. Delete the marked signals by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Delete Signals
DELETE MARKED , DELETE MARKED
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Marked Signals Deleted and List Reordered
Notice that remaining signals are renumbered sequentially.
Remeasuring Signals
17. Remeasure the remaining signals on the list by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Re-measure
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
REMEAS ALL SIGS
List-Based Measurements
4-9
Remaining Signals in List Remeasured
Saving Signal Lists
CAUTION
When saving internal data and signal lists are displayed, disk warning
messages do not appear. Therefore it is recommended that you verify
that a le has been saved before clearing the data from your display.
For example, before saving signal list data, make sure that your
disk is not write protected. To verify that the le was saved, press
RECALL LIST to catalog signal lists that have been saved to the disk,
then check that the correct le was saved by inspecting the le name,
date, and time stamp.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
18. To save the current signal list, press:
4TEST5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Save/Rcl List
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE LIST
Enter register number 5 and press 4ENTER5
Note
Recalling Signal Lists
Signal lists and associated annotation can only be saved to a disk.
Refer to Chapter 11 for more information of saving and recalling.
Refer to \Entering Data Using the External Keyboard" in Chapter 12
for information on the annotation editor.
19. To recall the previously saved signal list from the disk, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL LIST
A catalog of the disk lls the screen.
4-10
List-Based Measurements
20. Select the lename corresponding to register number 5 using the
knob or step keys, then press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
The signals in the le will be added to the end of the current
signal list which remains unchanged. Any annotation for the
signal list created using an external keyboard is also loaded from
the le; any existing annotation is replaced.
Graphing Signal Lists
21. To show a linear graphical representation of the signals in the
signal list, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE LIN GRAPH
Signals Plotted on Linear Frequency Scale
List-Based Measurements
4-11
22. To show a logarithmic graphical representation of the signals in
the signal list, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE LOG GRAPH
Signals Plotted on Log Frequency Scale
Saving Signal Lists Graphs
Signal list graphs can only be saved to a disk.
Note
23. To save the displayed log signal list graph to a oppy disk:
Enter the register number 8 and press 4ENTER5
The saving process takes several minutes. The le on disk is a
Windows bitmap (.BMP) accepted by most Windows applications
which read graphic images.
Note
4-12
List-Based Measurements
The \Register #" message is not saved to the .BMP le.
5
Stepped Measurements
Stepped measurements allow the receiver to step across the frequency
band in predened frequency steps. When making the measurement,
the receiver steps to a given frequency in a xed-tuned fashion. You
can:
Dene the frequency step as either linear or logarithmic.
Specify the step size for each type of step.
Specify which detector(s) to measure.
Specify the dwell time for each detector.
Performing a Stepped Measurement
1. Preset the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Display the 300 MHz calibrator signal and its harmonics by
pressing:
4INPUT5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
VIEW CAL ON OFF
ON
3. To perform a stepped measurement with a center frequency of
300 MHz and a span of 3 MHz, press:
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQUENCY : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
4AMPLITUDE5
4 5
+ (moves the signal trace to the top of the display)
4TEST5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEAS STEPPED
Note
To ensure all signals are captured and their amplitudes accurately
displayed, the linear step size should be no more than one-half of a
bandwidth.
Stepped Measurements
5-1
When the receiver completes the stepped measurement, three
traces are displayed as shown below.
Note
When using the receiver RF section by itself, refer to \Receiver RF
Section Annotation" in Chapter 1 of this manual.
Stepped Measurement Display
The traces are displayed as follows:
Yellow
Peak detector amplitude
Blue
Quasi-peak detector amplitude
Magenta
Average detector amplitude
4. When the measurements are complete, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EXIT MEASURE
Note
5-2
Stepped Measurements
When EXIT MEASURE is pressed, the measurement is stopped and all
data is lost. Be sure to save the data by adding it to the signal list
table prior to pressing EXIT MEASURE.
Selecting a Detector and Setting a Dwell Time
At each frequency step, you can select a detector and a dwell time for
the detector.
1. To select the peak and quasi-peak detector and set a dwell time of
two seconds, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Inst Setup
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Measure Detector
DETECTOR PK QP AV PK
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DETECTOR PK QP AV PK QP
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
QP DWELL TIME : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4sec5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. To view an onscreen display of the signal list and make a stepped
measurement, press:
4TEST5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
SIG LIST ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MEAS STEPPED
When the measurement is completed, the marker is positioned
at the left edge of the screen. The marker box displays the
information on the selected detectors.
Stepped Measurement Using Two Detectors
Stepped Measurements
5-3
Using the Marker
The marker can be used to read the frequency and amplitude of two
detectors, for example, peak and quasi-peak. When the measurement
is complete the marker function is the active function. Use the
keypad, step keys or knob to move the marker along the trace. The
frequency and amplitude values of the two traces at the marker are
displayed in the marker box.
5-4
Stepped Measurements
Adding Data to the Signal List Table
The results of the stepped measurement can be added to the signal list
table. See Chapter 4 for more information on the signal list table.
If you wish to add the results of the stepped measurement to the
signal list table, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ADD TO LIST
Data Added to the Signal List Table
The new data now appears in the signal list.
Changing the Frequency Step
The default step size is equal to one IF bandwidth. To change the
default step size, press:
FREQ STEP : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0.5 4(ENTER)5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Restarting and Stopping the Measurement
To start and stop a stepped measurement:
1. Start the measurement by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RESTART
2. When the measurement reaches 300.2 MHz, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP
Stepped Measurements
5-5
Note
Stepped Measurement Stopped at 300.2 MHz
If the measurement is stopped before the trace is completed, the
marker may be used only on the portion of the trace recorded before
the measurement was stopped.
3. Use the knob to move the marker along the trace. Observe the
portion of the trace over which the marker is active.
4. To select a continuous step mode, press:
MEAS SNG CONT CONT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. To restart the measurement, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RESTART
Note
The MEAS SNG CONT function is always active. Executing the
function during a measurement will not corrupt the measurement.
6. When the measurements are complete, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EXIT MEASURE
Note
5-6
Stepped Measurements
When EXIT MEASURE is pressed the measurement is stopped and all
data is lost. Be sure to save the data by adding it to the signal list
table prior to pressing EXIT MEASURE.
Using Logarithmic and Linear Steps
During conducted measurements, (for example, CISPR bands A and B),
the emissions are usually broadband in nature and you may wish to
use the logarithmic frequency step function. This function can be
used whenever a logarithmic display, spanning several decades, would
be more informative than a linear display. The following gures show
the two display options.
Note
Using a Logarithmic Step Size
When using a logarithmic step size, the frequency step is specied as a
percentage of frequency. The default step size equals three percent.
Using a Linear Step Size
Stepped Measurements
5-7
6
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
What You'll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter demonstrates how to make diagnostic measurements
using the EMI receiver and the receiver RF section. Each
measurement focuses on dierent functions. The measurement
procedures covered in this chapter are:
Resolving signals of equal amplitude using the IF bandwidth
function.
Resolving small signals hidden by large signals using the IF
bandwidth function.
Increasing the frequency readout resolution using the marker
counter.
Decreasing the frequency span using the marker track function.
Peaking signal amplitude using the preselector peak function.
Tracking unstable signals using marker track and the maximum hold
and minimum hold functions.
Comparing signals using delta markers.
Measuring low-level signals using attenuation, averaging bandwidth,
and video averaging.
Identifying distortion products using the RF attenuator and traces.
Measuring signals near band boundaries using harmonic lock.
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-1
Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
In responding to a continuous-wave signal, a scanning receiver traces
out the shape of its intermediate frequency (IF) lter. As we change
the lter bandwidth, we change the width of the displayed response.
If a wide lter is used and two equal-amplitude input signals are close
enough in frequency, then the two signals appear as one. Thus, signal
resolution is determined by the IF lters inside the receiver.
For maximum exibility, the receiver allows you to select from the
CISPR 200 Hz, 9 kHz and 120 khz 6 dB measurement IF bandwidths,
or from the 30 Hz to 3 MHz 3 dB diagnostic IF bandwidth in a 1, 3,
10 sequence, plus 5 MHz. The 1 MHz5 MHz. The 1 MHz bandwidth
maybe a 6 dB bandwidth. The bandwidths tell us how close together
equal amplitude signals can be and still be distinguished from each
other. The IFBW function selects the IF lter setting.
Generally, to resolve two signals of equal amplitude, the IF bandwidth
must be less than or equal to the frequency separation of the
two signals. If the bandwidth is equal to the separation, a dip of
approximately 3 dB is seen between the peaks of the two equal
signals, and it is clear that more than one signal is present. See
Figure 6-2.
In order to keep the receiver calibrated, sweep time is automatically
set to a value that is inversely proportional to the square of the IF
bandwidth. So, if the IF bandwidth is reduced by a factor of 10,
the sweep time is increased by a factor of 100 when sweep time
and bandwidth settings are coupled. (Sweep time is proportional to
1/BW2 .) For fastest measurement times, use the widest IF bandwidth
that still permits discrimination of all desired signals.
6-2
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
In this example you will resolve two signals of equal amplitude with a
frequency separation of 100 kHz.
1. Obtain two signals with a 100 kHz separation by connecting two
signal sources to the receiver input as shown in Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-1. Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals
2. Set the frequencies of the two sources to be 100 kHz apart, for
example, 300 MHz and 300.1 MHz. The amplitude of both signals
should be approximately 87 dBV (020 dBm).
3. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
4AMPLITUDE5
REF LVL : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 82 4+dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
A single signal peak is visible.
4. Since the IF bandwidth must be less than or equal to the frequency
separation of the two signals, an IF bandwidth of 30 kHz or less
must be used to resolve the two input signals. Change the IF
bandwidth to 10 kHz by pressing:
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-3
The display should be similar to that shown in Figure 6-2. To
resolve the signals further, use the knob or step keys to reduce the
IF bandwidth.
Figure 6-2. Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude
As the IF bandwidth is decreased, resolution of the individual signals
is improved and the sweep time is increased. For fastest measurement
times, use the widest possible resolution bandwidth.
Since the IF bandwidth has been changed from the coupled value,
a "#" mark appears next to \IF BW" in the lower-left corner of the
screen, indicating that the IF bandwidth is uncoupled.
6-4
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large Signals
When attempting to resolve signals that are not equal in amplitude,
you must consider the shape of the IF lter as well as its 3 dB or 6 dB
bandwidth. The shape of the measurement lters is dened by CISPR
16. The shape of the diagnostic lter is dened by the shape factor,
which is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth.
(Generally, the IF lters in this receiver have shape factors of 15:1 or
less.) If a small signal is too close to a larger signal, the smaller signal
can be hidden by the skirt of the larger signal. To view the smaller
signal, you must select an IF bandwidth such that k is less than a. See
Figure 6-3.
Figure 6-3. IF Bandwidth for Resolving Small Signals
The separation between the two signals must be greater than half the
lter width of the larger signal at the amplitude level of the smaller
signal.
The following example resolves two input signals with a frequency
separation of 100 kHz and an amplitude dierence of 50 dB.
1. Obtain two signals with a 100 kHz separation by connecting the
equipment as shown in the previous section, \Resolving Signals of
Equal Amplitude".
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-5
3. Set the IF bandwidth to 30 kHz by pressing:
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 kHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Set one source to a frequency of 300 MHz and an amplitude of
87 dBV (020 dBm).
5. Set the second source to a frequency of 300.1 MHz and an
amplitude of 37 dBV (070 dBm).
6. Set the 300 MHz signal to the reference level by pressing:
4PEAK SEARCH5
4MKR
5
!
!
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER
REF LVL
If a 30 kHz lter is used, the 60 dB bandwidth will be 450 kHz.
Since the half-bandwidth (225 kHz) is wider than the frequency
separation, the signals will not be resolved. See Figure 6-4.
(To determine resolution capability for intermediate values of
amplitude level dierences, consider the lter skirts between the
3 dB and 60 dB points to be approximately straight. In this case,
we simply used the 60 dB value.)
Figure 6-4. Signal Resolution with a 30 kHz IF Bandwidth
6-6
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
7. To resolve the two signals reduce the IF bandwidth by pressing:
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
If a 10 kHz lter with a typical shape factor of 15:1 is used,
the lter will have a bandwidth of 150 kHz at the 60 dB point.
The half-bandwidth (75 kHz) is narrower than the frequency
separation, so the input signals will be resolved.
Figure 6-5. Signal Resolution with a 10 kHz IF Bandwidth
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-7
Increasing the Frequency Readout Resolution
The marker counter increases the resolution and accuracy of
frequency readout. When using the marker count function, if the
bandwidth to span ratio is too small (less than 0.01), the Reduce Span
message appears on the display. If Widen RES BW is displayed, it
indicates that the resolution bandwidth is too narrow. If there is
another, larger signal (even o the display), the count will be for the
larger signal.
The following example increases the resolution and accuracy of the
frequency readout on the signal of interest.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
2. Place a marker on the signal of interest by pressing:
4PEAK SEARCH5
4MKR
5
!
3. Turn the marker counter on by pressing:
4MARKER FUNCTION5
MK COUNT ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message COUNTER will be displayed as well as the frequency
and amplitude of the marker.
6-8
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
4. Increase the counter resolution by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
CNT RES AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The marker counter readout is displayed in the upper-right corner
of the screen. The resolution can be set from 1 Hz to 100 kHz.
Figure 6-6. Using the Marker Counter
5. The marker counter remains on until turned o. Turn o the
marker counter by pressing:
4MARKER FUNCTION5
MK COUNT ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
or
4MKR5
MKR 1 ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-9
Decreasing the Frequency Span
Using the marker track function, you can quickly decrease the span
while keeping the signal at center frequency.
This example examines a carrier signal in a 200 kHz span.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
STOP : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 700 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PEAK SEARCH5
2. Move the signal to the center of the screen by pressing:
4MARKER FUNCTION5
MK TRACK ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Because the marker track function automatically maintains the
signal at the center of the screen, you can reduce the span quickly
for a closer look. If the signal drifts o of the screen as you
decrease the span, use a wider frequency span.
3. Decrease the span by pressing:
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4MHz5
The span decreases in steps as automatic zoom is completed. See
Figure 6-7. You can also use the knob or step keys to decrease the
span.
Figure 6-7. After Zooming In on the Signal
4. Turn o the marker track function by pressing:
4MARKER FUNCTION5
MK TRACK ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6-10
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Peaking Signal Amplitude with Preselector Peak
For an HP 8546A/HP 85462A only.
Note
PRESEL PEAK works only above 2.9 GHz.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The preselector peak function automatically adjusts the input lter
tracking above 2.9 GHz to peak the signal at the active marker. Using
preselector peak prior to measuring a signal yields the most accurate
amplitude reading at the specied frequency. To maximize the peak
response of the high frequency input lter and adjust the tracking,
tune the marker to a signal and press:
4AMPLITUDE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
PRESEL PEAK
Note
PRESEL PEAK maximizes the peak response of the signal of interest,
but may degrade the frequency response at other frequencies. Use
PRESEL DEFAULT or 4PRESET5 to clear preselector-peak values before
measuring a signal at another frequency.
PRESEL DEFAULT provides the best atness for a full single-band and
for viewing several signals simultaneously.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INPUT 2 1-6.5G
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
START : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.0 4GHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3.5 4GHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PREAMP5
OFF (Toggles on and o.)
4PEAK SEARCH5
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-11
2. Peak the amplitude response by pressing:
4AMPLITUDE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Presel Peak
The message peaking is displayed while the routine is working.
Figure 6-8. Peaking Signal Amplitude Using Preselector Peak
6-12
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Tracking Unstable Signals
The marker track function is useful for tracking unstable signals that
drift with time. The maximum hold and minimum hold functions are
useful for displaying modulated signals which appear unstable, but
have an envelope that contains the information-bearing portion of
the signal. MK TRACK ON OFF may be used to track these unstable
signals. Use 4PEAK SEARCH5 to place a marker on the highest signal on
the display. Pressing MK TRACK ON OFF ON will
bring that signal to the center frequency of the graticule and adjust
the center frequency every sweep to bring the selected signal back to
the center. SPAN ZOOM is a quick way to perform the 4PEAK SEARCH5,
4MARKER FUNCTION5, MK TRACK ON OFF , 4SPAN5 key sequence.
Note the primary function of the marker track function is to track
unstable signals, not to track a signal as the center frequency of the
receiver is changed. If you choose to use the marker track function
when changing center frequency, check to ensure the signal found by
the tracking function is the correct signal.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Using the Marker Track Function
In this example you will use the marker track function to keep a
drifting signal in the center of the display and monitor its change.
This example requires a modulated signal. An acceptable signal can
be easily found by connecting an antenna to the receiver input and
tuning to the FM broadcast band (88 to 108 MHz).
1. Connect an antenna to the receiver input.
2. Set the analyzer to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 104.9 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 4MHz5.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 kHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
Use a dierent signal frequency if no FM signal is available at
104.9 MHz in your area.
3. Adjust the reference level so the signal is within two divisions of
the top of the display by pressing:
4AMPLITUDE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
REF LVL
Adjust the reference level so the signal is within two divisions of
the top of the display.
4. Turn autoranging on by pressing:
4AUTORANGE5
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-13
5. Set the span by pressing:
4SPAN5
SPAN ZOOM : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Notice the signal has remained in the center of the display.
Note
If the signal you selected drifts too quickly for the receiver to keep up
with, increase the span.
6. The signal frequency drift can be read from the screen if both the
marker track and marker delta functions are active. Press:
4MKR5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER 1
4MARKER FUNCTION5
MK TRACK ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The marker readout indicates the change in frequency and
amplitude as the signal drifts. (See Figure 6-9.)
Figure 6-9. Using Marker Tracking to Track an Unstable Signal
The receiver can measure the short-term and long-term stability
of a source. The maximum amplitude level and the frequency
drift of an input signal trace can be displayed and held by using
the maximum-hold function. The minimum amplitude level can be
displayed by using minimum hold (available for trace C only).
You can use the maximum-hold and minimum-hold functions if,
for example, you want to determine how much of the frequency
spectrum an FM signal occupies.
6-14
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Using Maximum-Hold and Minimum-Hold
In this example you will use the maximum-hold and minimum-hold
functions to monitor the envelope of an FM signal.
1. Connect an antenna to the receiver input.
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 100 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4AUTORANGE5
4BW5
ON (Toggles on and o.)
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Determine the signal peak by pressing:
4PEAK SEARCH5
Adjust the reference level (under 4Amplitude5) so the signal is within
two divisions of the top of the display.
4. Adjust the span by pressing:
4SPAN5
SPAN ZOOM : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Notice the signal has remained in the center of the display.
5. Turn o the marker track function by pressing:
4MARKER FUNCTION5
MK TRACK ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-15
6. Measure the excursion of the signal by pressing:
4TRACE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MAX HOLD A
As the signal varies, maximum hold maintains the maximum
responses of the input signal, as shown in Figure 6-10.
Figure 6-10. Viewing an Unstable Signal Using Max Hold A
Annotation on the left side of the screen indicates the trace mode.
For example, MA SB SC indicates trace A is in maximum-hold
mode, trace B and trace C are in store-blank mode.
7. Select trace B by pressing:
4TRACE5
TRACE A B C B
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. Place trace B in clear-write mode by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CLEAR WRITE B
Trace B displays the current measurement results as it sweeps.
Trace A remains in maximum-hold mode, showing the frequency
shift of the signal.
9. Select trace C by pressing:
TRACE A B C C
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6-16
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
10. Display the minimum amplitude of the signal by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MIN HOLD C
Figure 6-11. Viewing an Unstable Signal using Max and Min Hold
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-17
Comparing Signals Using Delta Markers
Using the receiver, you can easily compare frequency and amplitude
dierences between signals, such as radio or television signal spectra.
The delta marker function lets you compare two signals when both
appear on the screen at one time or when only one appears on the
screen.
Measuring Dierences Between Two Signals
In this example you will measure the dierences between two signals
on the same display screen.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The calibrator signal and its harmonics appear on the display.
2. Place a marker at the highest peak on the display by pressing:
4PEAK SEARCH5
Figure 6-12. Placing a Marker on the CAL OUT Signal
3. Activate a second marker at the position of the rst marker by
pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER 1
4. Move the second marker to another signal peak using:
NEXT PK RIGHT , NEXT PK LEFT , the step keys, or the knob.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6-18
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. The amplitude and frequency dierence between the markers is
displayed in the active function block and in the Marker Box. See
Figure 6-13.
Figure 6-13. Using the Marker Delta Function
Measuring Dierences Between Signals On Screen and O Screen
In this example you will measure the frequency and amplitude
dierence between two signals that do not appear on the screen at
the same time. (This technique is useful for harmonic distortion tests
when narrow span and narrow bandwidth are necessary to measure
the low-level harmonics.)
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
2. Place a marker on the peak by pressing:
4PEAK SEARCH5
3. Identify the position of the rst marker by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER 1
4. Set the center frequency by pressing:
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 600 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The rst marker remains on the screen at the amplitude of the rst
signal peak.
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-19
Note
Changing the reference level changes the marker delta amplitude
readout.
The annotation in the upper-right corner of the screen indicates
the amplitude and frequency dierence between the two markers.
See Figure 6-14.
Figure 6-14. Frequency and Amplitude Dierences
Turn the markers o by pressing:
4MKR5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER ALL OFF
6-20
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
5. The DELTA MEAS softkey can also be used to nd and display
the frequency and amplitude dierence between the two
highest-amplitude signals. To use this function, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DELTA MEAS
The frequency and amplitude dierences are displayed in the
upper-left corner of the display. The softkeys under 4PEAK SEARCH5
also appear on the screen.
Figure 6-15. Using the Delta Meas Function
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-21
Measuring Low-Level Signals
Receiver sensitivity is the ability to measure low-level signals. It is
limited by the noise generated inside the receiver. The receiver input
attenuator and bandwidth settings aect the sensitivity by changing
the signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuator aects the level of a signal
passing through the instrument, whereas the bandwidth aects the
level of internal noise without aecting the signal. In the rst two
examples in this section, the attenuator and bandwidth settings are
adjusted to view low-level signals.
If, after adjusting the attenuation and IF bandwidth, a signal
is still near the noise, visibility can be improved by using the
averaging-bandwidth and video-averaging functions, as demonstrated
in the following examples.
Reducing Input Attenuation
If a signal is very close to the noise oor, reducing input attenuation
brings the signal out of the noise. In this example, reducing the
attenuation to 0 dB maximizes signal power in the receiver.
Note
The total power of all input signals at the receiver input must not
exceed the maximum power level for the receiver.
1. Connect an antenna to the receiver input, then press:
4PRESET5
2. Reduce the frequency range to view a low-level signal of interest.
For example, to reduce the frequency span to 20 MHz press:
4FREQUENCY5
START FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 88 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 108 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Place a marker on the low-level signal of interest by pressing:
4MKR5
Use the knob to position the marker at the signal's peak.
4. Place the signal at center frequency by pressing:
4MKR
!5
!
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER
6-22
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
CF
5. Reduce the span to 1 MHz by pressing:
4SPAN5
Use the step-down key (4+5) to reduce the span. See Figure 6-16.
Figure 6-16. Low-Level Signal
6. Press:
4AMPLITUDE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ATTEN AUTO MAN
Press the step-up key (4*5) twice to select 30 dB attenuation.
Increasing the attenuation moves the noise oor closer to the
signal.
A \#" mark appears next to the ATT annotation at the side of the
display, indicating the attenuation is no longer coupled to other
receiver settings.
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-23
7. To see the signal more clearly, press:
0 4dB5
Zero attenuation makes the signal more visible. (To protect the
input mixer, 0 dB RF attenuation can be selected only with the
data keys.)
Note
Figure 6-17. Using 0 dB Attenuation
The RF overload indicator may appear on screen if your ambient
environment contains a large signal which falls within the bandwidth
of the front-end lter section. If this occurs, increase the input
attenuation as needed to turn o the indicator after you have
completed this example.
Before connecting other signals to the receiver input, increase the RF
attenuation to protect the input mixer, press:
ATTEN AUTO MAN AUTO
or
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4AUTO COUPLE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
AUTO ALL
6-24
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Reducing IF Bandwidth
In this example the IF bandwidth will be reduced to view low-level
signals.
1. As in the previous example, connect an antenna to the receiver
input. Set the receiver to view a low-level signal.
2. Press:
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The low-level signal appears more clearly because the noise level is
reduced. Refer to Figure 6-18.
Figure 6-18. Decreasing IF bandwidth
A \#" mark appears next to the RES BW annotation at the lower-left
corner of the screen, indicating the resolution bandwidth is
uncoupled.
As the IF bandwidth is reduced, the sweep time is increased to
maintain receiver calibration.
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-25
Reducing Averaging Bandwidth
In this example you will use the averaging lter control to observe
low-level narrow-band signals close to the noise oor. The averaging
lter is a post-detection low-pass lter that smooths the displayed
trace. When signal responses near the noise level of the receiver are
visually masked by the noise, the averaging lter can be narrowed to
smooth this noise and improve the visibility of the signal. (Reducing
averaging bandwidth requires a slower sweep time to keep the
receiver calibrated.)
Using the averaging-bandwidth function, measure the amplitude of a
low-level signal.
1. As in the previous examples, connect an antenna to the receiver
input. Set the receiver to view a low-level signal.
2. Reduce the IF bandwidth by pressing:
4BW5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
IF BW AUTO MAN
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4kHz5
3. Reduce the averaging bandwidth by pressing:
AVG BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 100 4Hz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
This improves the display of the signal by smoothing the noise,
allowing better measurement of the signal amplitude.
A \#" mark appears next to the AVG BW annotation at the bottom of
the screen, indicating that the averaging bandwidth is not coupled
to the IF bandwidth.
6-26
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Instrument preset conditions couple the averaging bandwidth
to the IF bandwidth so that the averaging bandwidth is equal
to or wider than the IF bandwidth. If the averaging bandwidth
is uncoupled when averaging bandwidth is the active function,
pressing AVG BW AUTO MAN AUTO recouples the averaging
bandwidth. Refer to Figure 6-19.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
Narrow averaging bandwidths mask pulse noise levels.
Figure 6-19. Decreasing Averaging Bandwidth
Using Video Averaging
In this example a signal level very close to the noise oor will be
made more visible using video averaging.
Video averaging is a digital process in which each trace point is
averaged with the previous trace-point average. Selecting video
averaging changes the detection mode from peak to sample. The
result is a sudden drop in the displayed noise level. The sample mode
displays the instantaneous value of the signal at the end of the time
or frequency interval represented by each display point, rather than
the value of the peak during the interval. Sample mode is not used to
measure signal amplitudes accurately because it may not nd the true
peak of the signal.
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-27
Note
The time required to construct a full trace that is averaged to
the desired degree is approximately the same when using either
the averaging-bandwidth or the video-averaging technique. The
averaging-bandwidth technique completes the averaging as a slow
sweep is taken, whereas the video-averaging technique takes many
sweeps to complete the average. Characteristics of the signal being
measured, such as drift and duty cycle, determine which technique is
appropriate.
Video averaging improves the display of low-level signals in wide
bandwidths by averaging the signal and the noise. As the receiver
takes sweeps, you can watch video averaging smooth the trace.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Connect an antenna to Input 2 of the receiver and position a
low-level signal on the screen.
3. Initiate the video averaging routine by pressing:
4TRACE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
VID AVG ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
As the averaging routine smooths the trace, low-level signals
become more visible. VID AVG 100 appears in the active function
block.
The number represents the number of samples (or sweeps) taken to
complete the averaging routine.
4. Set the number of samples by pressing:
VID AVG ON OFF ON : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 25 4(ENTER)5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Turn video averaging o and on again by pressing:
VID AVG ON OFF OFF
VID AVG ON OFF ON
The number of samples equals the number of sweeps in the
averaging routine.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6-28
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
During averaging, the current sample appears at the left side of
the graticule. Changes in active functions settings, such as the
center frequency or reference level, will restart the sampling. The
sampling will also restart if video averaging is turned o and then
on again.
Once the set number of sweeps has been completed, the receiver
continues to provide a running average based on this set number.
Figure 6-20. Using the Video Averaging Function
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-29
Testing for Distortion Using the Linearity Check
The linearity check function can be used to test for compression of
low-level signals or for the presence of internally-generated distortion
due to high-level input signals. This function simplies the process of
determining if the displayed signals are suitable for measurement.
Additional input attenuation is switched in while you monitor the
value of the marker located on the signal in question. This feature
complements the RF overload function, which indicates when an
overload might be present. It allows you to decide if the signal
causing the overload is aecting the measurement of another signal.
Measuring Small Signals in the Presence of a Large Ambient Signal
Receiver overload due to large signals is one problem encountered
when making measurements on an open site. When scanning over
a frequency range which contains both a large ambient signal and
a low-level DUT emission, the large signal may trigger the receiver
overload indicator when the receiver sensitivity is set to view the
small signal. While the receiver is in overload as it scans through
the large signal, it may not be in overload as it scans through the
small signal. The presence or absence of the overload depends on the
frequency spacing between the two signals relative to the receiver
input lter bandwidth. If the receiver is not in overload as it scans
through the small signal, the measured value of that signal will be
correct even though the receiver display indicates an overload has
occurred. The Linearity Check function can be used to determine if
the receiver is in overload under these conditions.
1. Connect two signal generators to the input of the receiver as
shown in Figure 6-21. Set one signal to 300 Mhz, 92 dBV
(015 dBm) and the other to 305 MHz, 27 dBV (080 dBm).
Increase the amplitude of the 305 MHz signal if it is masked by the
noise level of the 300 MHz source.
6-30
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Figure 6-21. Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 305 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4AMPLITUDE5
ATTEN AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note the IF OVERLOAD message on the display due to the 300 MHz
signal.
3. To view and mark the 305 MHz signal, press:
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 4MHz5
4PEAK SEARCH5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER 1
Note the uctuations in the delta marker amplitude displayed
in the active function area. When the signal is near the noise
oor, the noise contributions will cause uctuation in the marker
value. This could be interpreted as overload induced error when
LINEARITY CHECK is activated. To reduce the uctuation,
decrease the averaging bandwidth by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4BW5
AVG BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note the absolute level of the marker delta readout and the
reduced range of the uctuation.
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-31
4. Activate linearity check by pressing:
4LINEARITY CHECK5
If the delta marker amplitude and uctuation changes by more
than 1 dB, the receiver is in compression. In this example, the
delta marker readings remain the same and a valid measurement
can be made because the 305 MHz signal is not being aected by
the 300 MHz signal.
Figure 6-22. Using Linearity Check to Detect Compression
6-32
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Using Linearity Check
Note
The Linearity Check function can be used to determine if a signal
displayed in the presence of a high level ambient is an actual emission
or an internally generated distortion product. When the Linearity
Check function is activated, the level of the distortion product will
change but the level of an actual input signal will not.
1. Connect two signal generators to the input of the receiver as
shown in Figure 6-23. Set one signal to 300 Mhz, 92 dBV
(015 dBm) and the other to 305 MHz, 57 dBV (050 dBm).
Increase the amplitude of the 305 MHz signal if it is masked by the
noise level of the 300 MHz source.
These levels were intentionally chosen to overdrive the receiver and
generate third order distortion products.
Figure 6-23. Set-Up for Obtaining Two Signals
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-33
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4AMPLITUDE5
ATTEN AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4PREAMP5
ON (Toggles on and o.)
Figure 6-24. Generating Third Order Distortion Products
Note the IF OVERLOAD message.
3. Use the knob to place the marker on the 295 MHz signal. Center
the signal on the display and decrease the span by pressing:
!5
MKR !
4MKR
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
CF
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 4MHz5
4. Reduce the noise induced uctuations by pressing:
4BW5
AVG BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Observe the marker delta amplitude as you press:
4PEAK SEARCH5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER 1
6. Active the Linearity Check function by pressing:
4LINEARITY CHECK5
Observe the drop in the measured signal.
6-34
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
Figure 6-25.
Using Linearity Check to Identify Distortion Products
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
6-35
Demodulating and Listening to an AM or FM Signal
The functions available in the Demod section allow you to demodulate
and hear signal information displayed on the spectrum analyzer.
Simply place a marker on a signal of interest, activate AM or FM
demodulation, and then listen.
1. Connect an antenna to Input 2 of the receiver.
2. Select a frequency range on the receiver, such as the range for
FM radio broadcasts. For example, the frequency range for FM
broadcasts in the United States is 88 MHz to 108 MHz. Press:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
START FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 88 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 108 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Place a marker on the signal of interest by using 4PEAK SEARCH5 to
place a marker on the highest-amplitude signal, or by pressing:
4MKR5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER NORMAL
Use the step keys or knob to moving the marker to a signal of
interest.
4. Turn demodulation on by pressing:
4ON/OFF5 (Located in the DEMOD area of the front-panel.)
4SELECT5
DEMOD AM FM FM
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Use the front-panel volume control to control the speaker's
volume.
5. The signal at the marker is demodulated for the duration of the
dwell time. Use the step keys, knob, or data keys to change the
dwell time. To change the dwell time to two seconds, press:
4SELECT5
DWELL TIME , 4*5, 4*5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. The peak search functions can be used to move the marker to
other signals of interest. Press 4PEAK SEARCH5 to access NEXT PEAK ,
NEXT PK RIGHT , or NEXT PK LEFT .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7. The signal at the marker can be continuously demodulated when
the frequency scan is turned o by pressing:
4TEST5
FREQ SCAN ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. The FM sensitivity can be varied to better demodulate wideband
or narrowband FM signals by adjusting the FM Gain located under
4Select5. The default value is 100 kHz per volt.
6-36
Making EMI Diagnostic Measurements
7
Making Other Measurements
What You'll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter demonstrates receiver measurement techniques with
examples of typical applications. Each application focuses on dierent
features. The procedures covered in this chapter are listed below.
Stimulus-response measurements
Measuring amplitude modulation using FFT
3 dB and 6 dB bandwidth measurements
99% power bandwidth measurements
Percent AM modulation measurements
Amplitude and frequency dierence measurements
3rd order measurements
Making Other Measurements
7-1
Stimulus-Response Measurements
What Are Stimulus-Response Measurements?
Stimulus-response measurements require a source to stimulate a
device under test (DUT), a receiver to analyze the frequency-response
characteristics of the DUT, and, for return-loss measurements, a
directional coupler. Characterization of a DUT can be made in terms
of its transmission or reection parameters. Examples of transmission
measurements include atness and insertion loss. An example of a
reection measurement is return loss.
A receiver combined with a tracking generator forms a stimulusresponse measurement system. Using the tracking generator as the
swept source operation is analogous to a single-channel scalar network
analyzer. A narrow-band system has a wide dynamic measurement
range, but the tracking generator's output frequency must be made
to precisely track the receiver's input frequency. This wide dynamic
range will be illustrated in the following example. Figure 7-1 shows
the block diagram of a receiver and tracking generator system.
Figure 7-1. Receiver/Tracking Generator System Block Diagram
Using the Receiver With the Internal Tracking Generator
The procedure below describes how to use the built-in tracking
generator system of the receiver to measure the rejection of a
low-pass lter which is a type of transmission measurement.
Illustrated in this example are the functions in the tracking-generator
menu, such as adjusting the tracking-generator output power, source
calibration, and normalization.
7-2
Making Other Measurements
Stepping Through the Measurement
There are four basic steps in performing a stimulus-response
measurement, whether it be a transmission or reection
measurement: set up the receiver settings, calibrate, normalize, and
measure.
1. If necessary, perform the self-calibration routine for the tracking
generator described in \Performing the Tracking Generator
Self-Calibration Routine" in Chapter 2.
2. To measure the rejection of a bandpass lter, connect the
equipment as shown in Figure 7-2. This example uses a bandpass
lter with a center frequency of 321.4 MHz as the DUT.
Figure 7-2. Transmission Measurement Test Setup
3. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 321.4 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 4MHz5
4AMPLITUDE5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 102 4+dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Activate the tracking generator and turn the power on by
pressing:
4TRK GEN5
SRC PWR ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAUTION
Note
Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the
maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.
To reduce ripples caused by source return loss, use 10 dB or greater
tracking generator output attenuation. Tracking generator output
attenuation is normally a function of the source power selected.
However, the output attenuation may be controlled by using
SRC ATN AUTO MAN .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Other Measurements
7-3
Figure 7-3. Tracking-Generator Output Power Activated
5. Put the sweep time of the receiver into stimulus-response
auto-coupled mode by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
SWP CPLG SR SA SR
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Auto-coupled sweep times are usually much faster for
swept-response measurements than for receiver measurements.
Note
In the stimulus-response mode, the Q (reactance versus resistance) of
the DUT can determine the fastest rate at which the receiver can be
swept. To determine whether the receiver is sweeping too fast, slow
the sweep time and note whether there is a frequency or amplitude
shift of the trace. Continue to slow the sweep time until there is no
longer a frequency or amplitude shift.
6. Decrease the resolution bandwidth to increase sensitivity, and
narrow the averaging bandwidth to smooth the noise by pressing:
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
AVG BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
7-4
Making Other Measurements
7. To make a transmission measurement accurately, the frequency
response of the test system must be known. To measure the
frequency response of the test system, connect the cable (but
not the DUT) from the tracking generator output to the receiver
input.
To store the frequency response of the test system in trace B,
press:
4TRACE5
TRACE A B C B
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CLEAR WRITE B
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
BLANK B
8. To normalize, reconnect the DUT to the receiver and press:
4TRACE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NORMLIZE ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Activate the display line by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NORMLIZE POSITION
The display line marks the normalized reference position, or the
position where 0 dB insertion loss (transmission measurements)
or 0 dB return loss (reection measurements) will normally
reside. Using the knob results in a change in the position of the
normalized trace, within the range of the graticule. Set the level
so it is one graticule below the top of the display.
Normalization eliminates the frequency response error of the test
system. When normalization is on, trace math is being performed
on the active trace. The trace math performed is trace A minus
trace B plus the display line, with the result placed into trace A.
Remember that trace A contained the measurement trace, trace
B contained the stored calibration trace, and DL (display line)
represents the normalized reference position. Note that the units
of the reference level, dB, reect this relative measurement.
Making Other Measurements
7-5
9. Measure the insertion loss of the lter at a given frequency (for
example, 321.4 MHz) by pressing:
4MKR5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 321.4 MHz
The marker readout displays the rejection of the lter at
321.4 MHz (refer to Figure 7-4).
Figure 7-4. Normalized Trace
10. Measure the rejection of the lter relative to the passband by
pressing:
4MKR5
MKR 1 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The Marker 1 amplitude readout displays the rejection at a
30 MHz frequency oset.
7-6
Making Other Measurements
Tracking Generator Unleveled Condition
When using the tracking generator, the message TG UNLVL may
appear. The TG UNLVL message indicates that the tracking generator
source power ( SRC PWR ON OFF ) could not be maintained at the
user-selected level during some portion of the sweep. If the unleveled
condition exists at the beginning of the sweep, the message will
be displayed immediately. If the unleveled condition occurs after
the sweep begins, the message will be displayed after the sweep is
completed. A momentary unleveled condition may not be detected
when the sweep time is small. The message will be cleared after a
sweep is completed with no unleveled conditions.
The unleveled condition may be caused by any of the following:
Start frequency is too low or the stop frequency is too high. The
unleveled condition is likely to occur if the true frequency range
exceeds the tracking generator frequency specication (especially
the low frequency specication). The true frequency range being
swept may be signicantly dierent than the start or stop frequency
annotations indicate, depending on other receiver settings,
especially the span (see Chapter 1 of the Reference Guide for your
instrument). For better frequency accuracy, use a narrower span.
Tracking peak may be required (use TRACKING PEAK ).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Source attenuation may be set incorrectly (select
SRC ATN MAN AUTO (AUTO) for optimum setting).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The source power may be set too high or too low, use
SRC PWR ON OFF to reset it.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The source power sweep may be set too high, resulting in an
unleveled condition at the end of the sweep. Use PWR SWP ON OFF
to decrease the amplitude.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Other Measurements
7-7
Measuring Amplitude Modulation with the Fast Fourier Transform
Function
The fast Fourier transform (FFT) function of the receiver allows
measurements of amplitude modulation (AM). The FFT function
transforms demodulated AM data from the time domain (zero span) to
the frequency domain. The FFT function calculates the magnitude of
each frequency block of time-domain samples of the input signal. It
is commonly used to measure AM at rates that cannot be measured
in the normal frequency domain. The FFT is a post-detection fast
Fourier transform function and cannot be used to resolve continuous
wave or carrier signals.
The FFT function requires a specic receiver conguration. An AM
signal is demodulated in the time domain by widening the resolution
bandwidth to include the signal sidebands within the passband of the
receiver. Then the scan is turned o so the tuning is centered on the
AM carrier.
When 4MEAS/USER5, FFT MEAS is pressed, the function sets
sample-detection mode and takes a sweep to obtain a sample of the
input signal. Then the receiver executes a series of computations on
the time data to produce the frequency-domain results.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
After the FFT function is used, the markers are still in FFT mode for
use in evaluating data. Turn o the markers before attempting to use
the markers in the normal fashion.
Measuring the Sidebands on a Signal
1. Connect a signal generator to the receiver input on the front
panel. Adjust the signal generator to produce an AM signal at
300 MHz. (For example, set the modulation rate to 60 Hz with a
30% modulation level.)
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Set the IF bandwidth to 3 kHz by pressing:
4BW5
IF BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The IF bandwidth should be about 10 times greater than the
highest modulation frequency of interest. (In this example, the
fourth harmonic of 60 Hz is 240 Hz.)
7-8
Making Other Measurements
4. Set the averaging bandwidth to 1 kHz by pressing:
AVG BW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The averaging bandwidth should be about twice that of the
highest modulation frequency of interest. If the averaging
bandwidth is too large, \alias" signals may appear in the FFT
when signals greater than the highest modulation frequency of
interest are present.
5. Change the amplitude scale to linear by pressing:
4AMPLITUDE5
SCALE LOG LIN LIN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6. Change the reference level to place the signal peak within the top
two divisions of the display by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
REF LVL
Use the step keys or knob to adjust the signal. The signal must be
below the reference level.
7. Turn frequency scan o by pressing:
4TEST5
FREQ SCAN ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. Refer to Figure 7-5, which shows maximum modulation frequency
(fm) in Hertz versus sweep time (Ts ) in seconds. Set the sweep
time less than Ts (man) for the maximum modulation frequency
(fm) including the harmonics of the signal. The upper curve
relates the sweep time to the maximum modulation frequency
that can be observed (that is, the modulation frequency
represented by the right edge of the graticule). The lower curve
represents the modulation frequency one division from the left
side of the graticule.
Making Other Measurements
7-9
Figure 7-5.
Maximum Modulation Frequency versus Sweep Time
Set the sweep time so it falls in the shaded area between the
two lines. Refer to Figure 7-5. Set it closer to the bottom line
to avoid the eects of alaising. Note the upper line (marked fm
AT 10th DIVISION) represents sampling at exactly the Nyquist
rate. Some aliasing may be seen when a value for sweep time is
close to the upper line. (Frequencies greater than the maximum
modulation frequency for a specic sweep time will not be
displayed accurately.)
For example, set the sweep time according to the gure (for a
right edge graticule limit of 250 Hz, select 800 ms) by pressing:
4SWEEP5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 800 4ms5
9. To save the current receiver settings in instrument state 2, press:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE INTERNAL
!
INTRNL : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4ENTER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STATE
If you wish to repeat the measurement retrieve the receiver
settings by pressing:
4RECALL5
!
STATE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4ENTER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INTRNL
Note
If you want to prevent the receiver from taking a sweep before
executing the FFT function, place trace A in the view mode.
10. To perform a fast Fourier transform, press:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
FFT MEAS
7-10
Making Other Measurements
When the transform is complete the frequency-domain data is
displayed.
11. A marker is placed on the carrier at the 0 Hz reference (at the left
edge of the display). To determine the frequency and amplitude
dierence from the carrier, press:
4MKR5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
MARKER DELTA
Use the knob to move the marker to the modulation.
Figure 7-6. Using the FFT Function
The results of the FFT function are displayed on the receiver
screen. The carrier is displayed at the left edge of the screen.
The modulation sidebands and any distortion is displayed along
the horizontal axis. The left edge of the graticule represents
0 Hz relative to the carrier. The right edge of the graticule
represents the maximum FFT frequency calculated. In Figure 7-6
the maximum FFT frequency is 200 divided by the sweep time
(250 Hz). The amplitude relationships between the carrier,
sidebands, and distortion components are the same as they would
be if displayed using swept-tuned operation in log mode at 10 dB
per division.
Note
The annotation describes the settings before the FFT (linear mode,
center frequency 300 MHz, span 0 Hz), and the marker annotation
describes the settings after the FFT (log mode, signal at 60 Hz,
maximum frequency is 250 Hz).
12. Turn o the markers by pressing:
4MKR5
MARKER 1 ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Making Other Measurements
7-11
Note
If the markers are not turned o after using the FFT function they
will not work correctly when used with other settings.
Repeating the test
13. To repeat the test, clear the screen data by pressing:
4TRACE5
CLEAR WRITE A .
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
14. Recall the instrument state by pressing:
4RECALL5
!
STATE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4(ENTER)5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INTRNL
15. Continue the measurement from list item 10.
7-12
Making Other Measurements
Measuring 3 dB and 6 dB Bandwidth
The EMI receiver allows you to measure the 3 dB or 6 dB bandwidth
of a lter by pressing a single button. A delta marker measurement
is performed on the largest on screen signal and the bandwidth is
displayed in the active function area.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Perform a 3 dB bandwidth measurement by pressing:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3 dB POINTS
3. Perform a 6 dB bandwidth measurement by pressing:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
6 dB POINTS
The value is displayed in the active function block.
Figure 7-7. Using the 6 dB Points Function
Making Other Measurements
7-13
Measuring 99% Power Bandwidth
The EMI receiver allows you to measure the power bandwidth of
a signal by pressing a single button. The results is displayed in the
active function area.
1. Tune the receiver so only the signal of interest is displayed.
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
3. Measure the 99% power bandwidth by pressing:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
99% PWR BW
The value is given in the active function block.
Figure 7-8. Using the 99% Pwr BW Function
7-14
Making Other Measurements
Measuring Percent AM Modulation
Percent amplitude measurement can be measured quickly and easily
by pressing a single key.
1. Connect a source capable of amplitude modulation to the receiver.
Tune the source to 300 MHz and 80 dBV (027 dBm). Set the
modulation frequency to 10 kHz with a 30% modulation level.
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 100 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4BW5
IFBW AUTO MAN : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4kHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note the corner signal and the sidebands.
3. Measure the percent amplitude modulation by pressing:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
% AM
Note
The percent of amplitude modulation is displayed in the active
function block.
The IF bandwidth must be set so the sidebands are displayed and the
maximum amplitude excursion between displayed signals must be
greater than the value set under Peak Excursion (default 6 dB). The
sidebands are assumed to be entirely from amplitude modulation. At
least one sideband must be displayed; if not, the measurement stops
and 0% AM is displayed in the active area.
Figure 7-9. Using the % AM Function
Making Other Measurements
7-15
Measuring Amplitude and Frequency Dierence
Amplitude and frequency dierence measurements between two
signals can be made using the one-button Delta Meas and Pk-Pk
functions. The Delta Meas function compares the two largest on
screen signals and displays the dierence in the active function area.
The Pk-Pk function compares the largest and smallest on screen signal
(or noise) and displays the dierence in the active function area.
A single measurement is made each time a button is pressed. The
markers may be turned o after a measurement is made by pressing:
4MKR5
MARKER 1 ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
STOP : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 700 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. Measure the dierence between the two highest peaks by pressing:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DELTA MEAS
The value is displayed in the active function block.
Figure 7-10. Using the Delta Meas Function
7-16
Making Other Measurements
3. To measure the dierence between the highest peak and the noise
oor, press:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
PK-PK MEAS
The value is displayed in the active function block.
Figure 7-11. Using the Pk-Pk Function
Making Other Measurements
7-17
Making 3rd Order Measurements
Two-tone, third order intermodulation distortion is a common problem
in many electronic systems. When two signals are present in a system,
they can mix with any generated second harmonics and create third
order intermodulation distortion products. Third order product
frequency and amplitude dierences can be easily measured using the
one-button 3rd Ord Meas function.
Figure 7-12. Setup for Making 3rd Order Measurements
1. Connect two sources to the receiver through an amplier with
the appropriate frequency range. Refer to Figure 7-12. Set one
source to 300 MHz and 80 dBV (027 dBm) and the other source to
301 MHz and 80 dBV (027 dBm).
CAUTION
You may need to vary the source powers and/or frequencies,
depending on the available test amplier. Use sucient input
attenuation or suciently small signals to prevent damage to the
input of the receiver.
2. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
4SPAN5 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Adjust the receiver so at least one of the fundamental signals and a
third-order product is displayed.
7-18
Making Other Measurements
4. Measure the amplitude and frequency dierences by pressing:
4MEAS/USER5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3rd ORD MEAS
The value is displayed in the active function block.
Figure 7-13. Using 3rd Ord Meas Function
Making Other Measurements
7-19
8
Limit Lines
Note
Limit lines provide an easy way to compare trace data to a set of
amplitude and frequency parameters while the receiver is sweeping
the measurement range.
Two limit lines with margins can be displayed on the EMI receiver.
These limit lines can be used to visually determine whether displayed
signals meet the appropriate limits. Margins are set relative to each
of the limit lines, and are useful when taking into account any
uncertainties that can exist in the entire measurement system.
If you wish to provide a margin of safety when testing to a limit,
you may set a margin below the required limit. When the limit-test
function is activated the EMI receiver automatically indicates
onscreen whether or not a displayed signal passes or fails a displayed
limit line or margin.
When limit testing is activated, the receiver automatically tests to
either the limit-line or the margin, whichever is lowest. Failures are
indicated both onscreen and over the HP-IB bus. When performing
limit testing with two limit lines and their associated margins, the
receiver automatically tests to the lowest of the four.
Limit lines are constructed from a table of frequency and amplitude
coordinate pairs. Limit-line segments are created by connecting
these points. Everything except the segment length is dened by the
entry for its beginning point. There are several ways of entering
the frequency/amplitude pairs. These are described in the following
section.
Limit lines can be created and edited from the front panel or remotely
via HP-IB. Limit lines in a trace format can only be created using
remote commands or a down-loadable program. Refer to the LIMIHI
and LIMILO commands in the EMI Receiver Series Programmer's
Guide for more information.
This chapter contains procedures for creating, editing, viewing,
saving, and recalling a limit line. Procedures are included for both
receiver and signal analyzer modes.
Limit Lines
8-1
Using Receiver Limit Lines
Creating, Editing, or Viewing a Limit Line
This example shows how to create and activate an upper limit line for
the 300 MHz OUTPUT signal.
1. Set the instrument to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Select EMI receiver mode by pressing:
4MODE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EMI RECEIVER
3. Display the 300 MHz calibrator signal and its harmonics by
pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Set the center frequency and span by pressing:
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
(to disable the active function area)
5. To access the limit-line menus, press:
4(ENTER)5
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
8-2
Limit Lines
Note
Limit line structure in receiver mode is dierent then signal analysis
mode and are not interchangeable. When an attempt is made to use
a limit line that was created in signal-analysis mode, the message, SA
Limits not allowed in RCVR mode. will be displayed.
6. To remove the limit lines, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 1
DELETE LIMIT , DELETE LIMIT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 2
DELETE LIMIT , DELETE LIMIT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
After pressing DELETE LIMITS once, the message
\If you are sure, press key again to purge data"
will appear. Pressing DELETE LIMITS a second time purges the
limit-line table. The 4PRESET5 key turns limit-line testing o (if it is
on), but does not clear an existing limit-line table.
Note
You can create limit lines using either logarithmic or linear frequency
and amplitude scales. The choice depends upon the limit line that you
want to create.
7. To select the linear frequency and logarithmic amplitude scales,
press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 1
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIMIT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select Type
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select Axis
FREQ SCL LOG LIN LIN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
AMPL SCL LOG LIN LOG
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu , Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
When the frequency is entered, amplitude selection automatically
becomes the active function. When the amplitude is entered, the type
selection automatically becomes the active function. When the type
is entered, frequency selection automatically becomes the active
function. This speeds up data entry when you want to enter several
coordinates.
Limit Lines
8-3
8. To enter the rst coordinate, press:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 75 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 47 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
POINT
Note
The segment type determines how the coordinate point of the
current line segment is connected to the coordinate point of the
next line segment. The segment type determines whether the line
segment is horizontal, sloped, or a single point.
To specify the segment type, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIMIT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select Type
SLOPE , FLAT , or POINT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
The coordinates for the second point must be entered before the
rst limit-line segment is displayed.
When entering coordinates, the frequency, amplitude and type elds
will be listed with asterisks (***) until new values are entered. The
new coordinate will be listed last until the frequency, amplitude,
and type selections have been entered. Once a frequency,
amplitude, and type selection have been entered, the coordinate
will be sorted into the limit-line table according to its frequency.
9. To enter the second coordinate, press:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 100 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 47 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
FLAT
10. Set remaining limit-line coordinates of 250 MHz with a slope of
47 dBV/m, 400 MHz with a slope of 87 dBV/m, and 500 MHz
with a slope of 97 dBV/m, by pressing:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 250 4MHz5
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 47 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 400 MHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 87 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 MHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 97 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
8-4
Limit Lines
Note
A total of thirty points can be specied for each limit line. The
onscreen indicator displays the number of remaining memory
locations.
11. When all coordinates are entered, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
12. To turn limit testing on, press:
Limit 1 ON OFF ON
LMT TEST ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When using the receiver RF section by itself, refer to \Receiver RF
Section Annotation" in Chapter 1 of this manual.
Completed Limit-Line
The message \FAIL LIMIT 1" is displayed because the calibration
signal exceeds the limit line.
13. Turn the 300 MHz calibrator signal o by pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message \PASS LIMIT" is displayed because no signal exceeds
the limit line.
14. Turn the 300 MHz calibrator signal on by pressing:
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
8-5
Editing an Existing Limit Line
1. If you wish to add or modify segments in an existing table, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 1
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIMIT
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 250 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 57 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 400 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 57 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
Editing an Existing Limit-Line Table
2. To change the amplitude of segment number six from 57 dBV/m to
102 dBV/m, select the segment to be edited by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT SEGMENT
3. Use the step keys, number keys, or the knob to select row number
six. Enter the new value by pressing:
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 102 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. To delete segment number six, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
8-6
Limit Lines
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT SEGMENT
5. Use the step keys, number keys, or the knob to select segment
number six and then, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DELETE SEGMENT
6. When you nish editing the limit-line table, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
Dening a Limit Margin
To set a 03 dB limit-line margin, press:
MARGIN 1 ON OFF ON : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
Signal Failing the Limit Line Margin
If the margin is displayed, limit-line testing is applied to the
margin not the actual limit line. The limit and margin displays are
independent. Limit-line testing must have either, or both, limit or
margin displays ON.
In linear amplitude displays, limit margins cannot be displayed for
limit lines positioned more than 12 dB above the current reference
level.
Limit Lines
8-7
Activating Limit-Line Testing
When you are done editing, on o functions of the limit test become
available.
To turn limit-line testing on, press:
LMT TEST ON OFF ON
The receiver can perform limit-line testing only if a limit is displayed.
When limit-line testing is activated, the receiver automatically tests
to either the limit-line or the margin, whichever is lowest. Failures
are indicated both onscreen and over the HP-IB bus. When limit-line
testing using two limit lines and their associated margins the receiver
automatically tests to either the limit-lines or the margins, whichever
of the four is lowest.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Saving or Recalling Limit-Line Tables
Saving a Limit-Line Table
1. Insert a formatted, blank disk in the oppy drive.
2. To save the current limit-line table, press:
4SAVE5
3. To enter a prex, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Prefix
4. To clear an existing prex, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
YZ_# Spc Clear
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Clear
5. Enter the prex \DEMO" by pressing:
ABCDEF , D
ABCDEF , E
MNOPQR , M
MNOPQR , O
The message \PREFIX=DEMO" is displayed on the screen.
6. To save the current limit-line table to disk, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Save Disk
!
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LIMITS
8-8
Limit Lines
DISK
Note
7. The register number is the active function. Enter register number
one by pressing:
1 4(ENTER)5
The message \Saving to :DEMO1.LIM" (\lDEMO_1" if using LIF
format) is displayed. The limit-line data has now been saved to
disk.
The SAVE LIMITS function, located under the 4SETUP5 key, can also
be used to save limit-line data. It is accessed by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE LIMITS
The desired mass storage device and the prex cannot be changed.
They must be preset to the desired state before using this function.
Only the register number can be entered.
Recalling a Limit-Line Table
1. To recall limit-line tables from the disk, press:
4RECALL5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Recall Disk
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL LIMITS
2. Use the step keys or knob to scroll through the displayed menu.
When the desired le is highlighted, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
Note
When a limit line is saved, the following information is stored:
Limit 1 data, including the limit-line and margin information
Limit 2 data, including the limit-line and margin information
LIMIT 1 ON OFF status
LIMIT 2 ON OFF status
MARGIN 1 ON OFF status
MARGIN 2 ON OFF status
LIMIT TEST 1 ON OFF status
LIMIT TEST 2 ON OFF status
Limit Lines
8-9
Viewing the Disk Catalog
If you wish to see a list of the les on a disk you may use the catalog
disk function.
1. Insert a disk into the oppy drive.
2. To view the catalog of limit-line les on the disk, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CATALOG DISK
Note the name of the desired le. (If using a DOS disk, the name
will be \prefix register number.LIM". If using a LIF disk,
the name will be \lprefix_register number".) The limit-line
information you saved earlier will be displayed as, \DEMO1.LIM"
(or \lDEMO_1" if using LIF format). Refer to Chapter 11 for more
information on saving and recalling, and outputting data.
3. When you are nished viewing the catalog, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EXIT CATALOG
8-10
Limit Lines
Using Signal Analyzer Limit Lines
Creating, Editing or Viewing a Limit Line
This example shows how to create an upper limit line for the 300 MHz
OUTPUT signal and activate testing.
1. Set the instrument to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Verify the mode selected is signal analysis by pressing:
4MODE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SIGNAL ANALYSIS
3. Display the 300 MHz calibrator signal and its harmonics by
pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Set the center frequency and span by pressing:
4FREQUENCY5
CENTER FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 MHz
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 MHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SPAN5
(to disable the active function area)
5. To access the limit-line menus, press:
4(ENTER)5
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Edit Limit
Limit Lines
8-11
Selecting Limit-Line Parameters
1. The limits, frequency or time, function requires the limit-line
parameters be entered as either frequency or time. Though
coordinates of frequency and amplitude are used most often,
limit-line data can also be entered in terms of time and amplitude.
Frequency is the default selection. If TIME is selected START TIME
will replace START FREQ in the edit limit menus.
Clear existing limits and select frequency by pressing:
LIMITS FRQ TIME , TIME (Clears existing limits.)
LIMITS FRQ TIME FRQ
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
2. To edit or create an upper limit line, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT UPPER
Note
Limit line structure in signal analysis mode is dierent then receiver
mode and are not interchangeable. When an attempt is made to use a
limit line that was created in signal-analysis mode, the message, RCVR
Limits not allowed in SA mode. will be displayed.
3. To remove this limit line, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
PURGE LIMITS , PURGE LIMITS
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT UPPER
After pressing PURGE LIMITS once, the message
\If you are sure, press key again to purge data"
will appear. Pressing PURGE LIMITS a second time purges the
limit-line table. 4PRESET5 turns limit-line testing o (if it is on), but
does not clear an existing limit-line table.
4. To remove the error message, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4(ENTER)5
Note
The table defaults to xed parameters. The middle of the table
displayed onscreen should be labeled Limits=FIXED. If it is labeled
Limits=RELATIVE, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
LIMITS FIX REL FIX
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The limits, xed or relative, function determines whether or not
the limit line is set relative to the receiver's center frequency and
reference-level settings.
When time parameters are used, the relative format only aects the
amplitude part of the coordinate pairs. The time parameters are
always xed, beginning at the left edge of the graticule.
8-12
Limit Lines
Selecting the Amplitude Scale
To select the amplitude scale, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select Type
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Select Axis
FREQ SCL LOG LIN LIN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
AMPL SCL LOG LIN LOG
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu , Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
When entering coordinates frequency, amplitude, and type elds will
be listed with asterisks (***) until new values are entered. The new
coordinate will be listed last until the frequency, amplitude, and type
selections have been entered. Once a frequency, amplitude, and type
selection have been entered, the coordinate will be sorted into the
limit-line table according to its frequency.
Set the beginning or the rst limit-line segment to 50 MHz, with an
amplitude of 47 dBV/m by pressing:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 50 4MHz5
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 47 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
FLAT
Note
The coordinates for the second point must be entered before the rst
limit-line segment will be displayed.
Set the beginning of the second limit-line segment to 250 MHz with
a slope of 47 dBV/m by pressing:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 250 MHz
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 47 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
Note
Table entries can be edited if you make a mistake. To edit an existing
segment, select the segment. Select the frequency, or amplitude of
the column to be edited.
Set the third limit-line segment to 400 MHz with an amplitude of 92
dBV/m by pressing:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 400 MHz
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 92 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
Limit Lines
8-13
Set the fourth limit-line segment to 600 MHz with an amplitude of
92 dBV/m by pressing:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 600 MHz
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 92 4dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SLOPE
Note
Segments can be dened even if they are out of the display range.
After all the segments have been entered, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
To turn limit testing on, press:
LMT TEST ON OFF ON
The message \FAIL UPPER" is displayed because the calibration
signal exceeds the limit line.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When on, the limit-test function tests to the dened limits, even if
they are not displayed.
Signal Exceeding the Limit Line
Turn o the 300 MHz calibrator signal by pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message \PASS LIMIT" is displayed because no signal exceeds
the limit line.
8-14
Limit Lines
Selecting the Limit-Line Table Format
You can use any of the following keys to create or edit a limit-line
table:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Edit Upper
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Edit Lower
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Edit Up/Low
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Edit Mid/Delt
Each of the edit softkeys represents a dierent kind of limit-line table
format. The choice depends on whether you want only an upper limit
line, only a lower limit line, or both an upper and a lower limit line. If
both an upper and a lower limit line are desired, the characteristics
of the desired limit lines will determine whether you select the
Edit Up/Low or Edit Mid/Delt function.
The four limit-line table formats are described below:
Edit Upper
Accesses the upper limit-line table format. One
amplitude component (representing an upper
limit-line segment) is specied for each frequency
(or time) component.
Accesses the lower limit-line table. One amplitude
Edit Lower
component (representing a lower limit-line
segment) is specied for each frequency (or time)
component.
Accesses the upper/lower limit-line table format.
Edit Up/Low
Two amplitude components (one each for the upper
and lower limit-line segments) can be specied for
each frequency or time component.
Edit Mid/Delt Accesses the mid/delta limit-line table format.
Two amplitude components (one representing a
mid-amplitude value, one representing a deviation
or delta (positive and negative values) from either
side of this value) is specied for frequency
component. If no deviation is entered, the
deviation defaults to zero.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When editing a limit line table you may use a format dierent than
the one used when creating it.
Frequency or amplitude values that are not within the receiver's
maximum range will be modied.
Limit Lines
8-15
Activating Limit-Line Testing
When EDIT DONE is pressed the LMT TEST ON OFF and
LMT DISP Y N AUTO functions become available.
To turn limit-line testing on, press:
LMT TEST ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
If LMT DISP Y N AUTO N, the limit line is not displayed. If
LMT DISP Y N AUTO Y, the limit line is displayed.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Pressing LMT DISP Y N AUTO AUTO sets the limit line display to
match the limit-line test function. When AUTO is selected, the limit
lines are only displayed when LMT TEST ON OFF ON is selected.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
For information on selecting segment types and saving or recalling
limit-line tables, refer to the appropriate sections earlier in this
chapter.
8-16
Limit Lines
9
Amplitude Correction Functions
The EMI receiver allows three types of amplitude-correction factors to
be applied to the input signals.
Antenna Factors Conversion factors relating eld strength to
measured voltage.
Cable Factors
Conversion factors to correct for cable insertion
loss.
Other Factors
Correction factors to account for the eects of any
other two-port device placed between the antenna
and the receiver.
Creating, Editing, or Viewing the Amplitude-Correction Tables
In this example, an antenna amplitude-correction factor will be
created.
1. Preset the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4SETUP5
200 MHz01 GHz
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4FREQUENCY5
START FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STOP FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1 4GHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
The EMI receiver must be calibrated in order to use amplitude
correction. If \CORR" is not displayed on the screen, you should
perform a calibration. Refer to \Calibrating the EMI Receiver" in
Chapter 2 for more information.
2. To create, edit, or view the amplitude-correction factors for
antennas, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Correctn Factors
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Antenna Factors
Note
Creating, editing, and viewing the antenna, cable and other
amplitude-correction tables follow identical procedures. If you wish to
create a cable or other amplitude-correction table, select Cable Factors
or Other Factors instead of Antenna Factors.
Amplitude Correction Functions
9-1
To delete any existing antenna amplitude-correction factors, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT ANTENNA
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
DELETE FACTORS , DELETE FACTORS
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
(Press only once if the table is empty.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 2
Note
After pressing the DELETE FACTORS softkey once, the message
\If you are sure, press key again to delete factors"
will appear. Pressing the DELETE FACTORS softkey a second time
deletes the antenna amplitude-correction factors.
When the frequency is entered, amplitude selection automatically
becomes the active function. When the amplitude is entered,
the correction point is incremented, and the frequency selection
automatically becomes the active function. This speeds up data
entry when you want to enter several coordinates.
3. To select an antenna amplitude-correction factor of 0 dB at
300 MHz, press:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 300 4MHz5
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Continue to add correction factors of 20 dB at 400 MHz and 0 dB
at 5 GHz by using the following key sequence:
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 400 4MHz5
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 20 4dB5
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 4GHz5
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9-2
Amplitude Correction Functions
Note
A total of 80 correction points can be specied for each data
set. They can be distributed among the three categories in any
combination, however, the data sets can contain no more than a total
of 80 unique frequency values.
When antenna, cable, and other points are specied at the same
frequency, the data is stored as one point. For example, if you
specify:
an antenna point at 300 MHz, 19 dB
a cable point at 300 MHz, 03 dB
an other point at 300 MHz, 010 dB
then:
19 dB + (03 dB) + (010 dB) = 6 dB
and the nal correction factor of 6 dB is stored in a single memory
location. In this case, it would be possible for the total number of
actual points to exceed eighty. The onscreen indicator displays the
number of remaining memory locations.
The amplitude-correction factor applied to the lowest selected
frequency is also applied to all frequencies below the lowest selected
frequency. The amplitude-correction factor applied to the highest
selected frequency is also applied to all frequencies above the highest
selected frequency.
5. To convert the amplitude values to antenna eld-strength units,
press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Antenna Units
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
V/m
The receiver will now display amplitude units as V/m antenna
eld-strength units.
Amplitude Correction Functions
9-3
6. To select a correction based on a logarithmic frequency scale,
press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
FREQ SCL LOG LIN LOG
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
Note
Note
When using the HP 85422E/HP 85462A receiver RF section by itself,
refer to \Receiver RF Section Annotation" in Chapter 1 of this
manual.
Conversion Factors Dened with a Log Frequency Scale
Logarithmic frequency scale corrections are linearly interpolated
between correction points with respect to the logarithm of the
frequency. These correction points become straight lines on a
log-frequency scale. The interpolation is computed as:
y 0y
y(f ) = i+1 i log(f 0 fi ) + yi
fi+1 0 fi
Linear frequency scale corrections are interpolated along straight
lines, connecting adjacent points on a linear-frequency scale. The
interpolation is computed as:
y 0y
y(f ) = i+1 i (f 0 fi ) + yi
fi+1 0 fi
9-4
Amplitude Correction Functions
7. To select a correction based on a linear frequency scale, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT ANTENNA
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
FREQ SCL LOG LIN LIN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
Conversion Factors Dened with a Linear Frequency Scale
8. To add an additional frequency coordinate at 500 MHz and 0 dB,
press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT ANTENNA
SELECT FREQ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 500 4MHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 0 4dB5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Amplitude Correction Functions
9-5
Note
When entering coordinates, the frequency and amplitude elds will
be listed with asterisks (***) until new values are entered. The new
coordinate will be listed last until both the frequency and amplitude
values have been entered. Once a frequency and an amplitude
value have been entered, the coordinate will be sorted into the
amplitude-correction table according to its frequency.
9. To edit the third row of antenna amplitude-correction factors,
press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SELECT POINT
Use the arrow keys or the knob to select point three.
10. To change the amplitude coordinate to 018 dB, press:
SELECT AMPLITUD : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 18 40dBV5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
11. To prevent the amplitude-correction information from being lost
when the receiver is turned o, press:
SAVE ANTENNA 2 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4(ENTER)5
The message \Saving to CURRENT PREFIX2.ANT" (\nCURRENT
PREFIX_2" if using LIF format) is displayed. When the message
disappears, the antenna amplitude-correction data has been saved
on disk.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Activating Amplitude Correction
To turn amplitude corrections on, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Correctn Factors
CORRECTN ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When amplitude correction is turned o, all of the three possible
correction factors (antenna, cable and other) are disabled. When
amplitude-correction factors are turned on, only the correction factors
you turned on will be enabled. For example, if you have selected:
ANTENNA ON OFF ON
CABLE ON OFF ON
OTHER ON OFF OFF
then all amplitude-correction factors will be disabled when the
amplitude correction is turned o. When amplitude correction is
turned on, only the antenna and cable amplitude-correction factors
will be enabled.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
9-6
Amplitude Correction Functions
Saving or Recalling
1. To save or recall the amplitude-correction factors, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Correctn Factors
Antenna Factors , Cable Factors , or Other Factors
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE ANTENNA or RECALL ANTENNA
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
or
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
or
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SAVE CABLE or RECALL CABLE
SAVE OTHER or RECALL OTHER
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
The SAVE softkeys save the current amplitude-correction factors to a
disk. The amplitude-correction factors can only be saved to a disk.
2. To save the correction factors, press:
SAVE ANTENNA , SAVE CABLE , or SAVE OTHER
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. To save the information, press:
A register number 4(ENTER)5
The message \Saving to DEMOx.ANT" (\nDEMO_x" if using LIF
format) is displayed. When the message disappears, the data has
been saved to a disk.
4. To recall amplitude-correction factors from the disk, press:
RECALL ANTENNA , RECALL CABLE , or RECALL OTHER
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
5. Use the step keys to highlight the desired le, and then press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
Amplitude Correction Functions
9-7
10
Windows
Learn About the Windows Display
Windows display mode splits the instrument display into two
frequency or time displays.
When windows is rst turned on, the top (overview) window contains
an inactive copy of the normal display. The lower (applications)
window is active and displays a subset of the frequency span of the
overview window. The span of the applications window is indicated
on the overview window by a pair of vertical lines called zone
markers. The zone markers indicate the portion of the overview
window that is displayed in the applications window. To look at
dierent portions of the overview window move the zone markers
using the zone center and zone span softkeys.
The instrument state of the active window can be changed without
aecting the state of the inactive window. The state of the active
window will be used as the state of the instrument for sweeping and
updating trace data.
For the purpose of this example, use the windows display mode to
view the 300 MHz calibrator signal.
1. Preset the instrument to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Activate the 300 MHz calibrator signal and its harmonics by
pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Windows
10-1
3. To view additional harmonic signals set the receiver stop
frequency to 2.9 GHz by pressing:
4FREQUENCY5
Stop Freq : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.9 4GHz5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When using the receiver RF section by itself, refer to \Receiver RF
Section Annotation" in Chapter 1 of this manual.
300 MHz Calibrator Signal with Harmonics
4. Activate the windows function by pressing:
4CTRL5
The active window is outlined with a bold line.
10-2
Windows
Windows Display Mode On
5. Move the zone markers to the rst signal to the right of the
current zone by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ZONE PK RIGHT
The zone is centered around the new signal.
Zone Markers Moved to the Right of the Current Span
Windows
10-3
6. Move the zone markers to the rst signal to the left of the zone by
pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ZONE PK LEFT
The zone is centered around the new signal.
7. Increase the zone span to include three signals by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ZONE SPAN
* * *
4 5 4 5 4 5
Zone Span Increased to Include Three Signals
8. View a full-sized display of the applications window by pressing:
4ZOOM5
10-4
Windows
Full-Sized Display of the Applications Window
9. View and activate a full-sized display of the overview window by
pressing:
4NEXT5
The applications window is now active.
Full-Sized Display of the Overview Window
Windows
10-5
10. Return to the windows display mode by pressing:
4ZOOM5
11. Return to normal display mode of operation by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
WINDOWS OFF
Windows Display Mode O
12. To turn on the windows format again with the current display as
the new overview window, press:
4CTRL5
Note
10-6
Windows
A new applications window will be generated based on the zone in
the overview window.
Markers can be used in both windows, but they must be turned on in
each window. The current limit lines are common to both windows.
11
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
This chapter describes how to format a oppy disk, save and recall
instrument setups, signal lists, states, traces, display images, limit-line
tables, and amplitude-correction factors using both oppy disks and
the internal instrument memory.
A oppy disk provides additional memory for saving instrument
setup, signal lists, traces, display images, limit-lines tables, and
amplitude-correction factors. The data is easily retrievable, (with
the exception of display images), without the need for an external
controller to transfer data.
The process of saving and recalling data from the oppy disk is similar
to saving and recalling data from the internal memory. There are
some important dierences. For example, data is stored in internal
memory as an item; on the oppy disk, data is stored as a DOS le or
a logical interchange le (LIF).
Using a Floppy Disk
Formatting the Disk
Note
Use a 3.5 inch double-sided oppy disk. If this is a new oppy disk,
it must be formatted before use. The disk can be formatted on a
computer or on the EMI receiver, using the following procedure.
Before formatting your oppy disk, make sure that the disk does not
contain any valuable data by pressing the following keys to catalog
the disk.
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Disk Config
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CATALOG DISK
Existing data on the oppy disk will be displayed if the disk has been
formatted. If the disk has not been formatted the following message
will be displayed:
Cannot read disk drive. Please verify drive door is
closed and that disk is formatted and error free.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-1
Insert the disk with its arrow facing the disk-insertion slot and format
the disk by pressing:
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Disk Config
FORMAT DOS DISK or FORMAT LIF DISK
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The message, If you are sure, press key again to purge data
appears on the screen. Continue by pressing:
FORMAT DOS DISK or FORMAT LIF DISK
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Filenames
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
A lename consists of a:
prex (optional)
register number (required)
le type descriptor (automatically supplied)
DOS Filenames
A DOS lename is dened as:
prefix + register #.file type descriptor
for example \PREFIX3.SIG"
The lename, excluding the extension, cannot exceed eight
characters. The le type descriptor is a three letter extension such as,
\SIG" for a signal list.
LIF Filenames
A LIF lename is dened as:
file type descriptor + prefix_register number
for example, \tPREFIX_3"
The lename cannot exceed eight characters. The le type descriptor
is a single character preceeding the prex such as, \t", for a trace.
Available Operations
11-2
Table 11-1 lists the save and recall operations available using internal
memory or the oppy disk.
Refer to Table 11-4 at the end of this section for a summary of
functions that can be saved to, and recalled from, internal memory.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
Table 11-1. Internal Memory and Floppy Disk Operations
Mass
Storage
Device
Data Stored
Stored with a
As Prex?
Internal Memory Item
No
Restriction
on Register
Number
Types of Data
That Can
Be Stored1
1 to 8 for states,
0 to MAX REG #
for traces and
limit lines
States
Traces
Limit-line tables
Catalog
Functions
Available
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
CATALOG ALL
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
CATALOG REGISTER
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
CATALOG VARIABLS
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
CATALOG PREFIX
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
DELETE FILE
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE 2
Floppy Disk
File
Yes
Prex + register # Setups
Lists
8 character
State
Trace
Limit-line tables
Antenna correction
Cable correction
Other correction
Display images
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
CATALOG DISK
! DISK
! DISK
LIST ! DISK
ANTENNA ! DISK
CABLE ! DISK
OTHER ! DISK
DISPLAY ! DISK
Trace ! Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
SETUP
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LIMITS
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
DELETE FILE
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
1
Species types of data that can be stored by using normal front-panel operation.
2
When cataloging internal memory, LOAD FILE is available for CATALOG REGISTER only.
Entering a Prex
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Disk data can be stored and recalled using a prex. A prex allows
you to give a custom name to your le. The prex can be from one to
seven characters long. The longer the prex, the shorter the register
number must be. The total length of the prex and register number
cannot exceed eight characters. The prex can be any character;
however, the underscore must not be the rst character of the prex.
1. Enter the prex \TEST", by using the following key sequences:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Prefix
STUVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , E
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STUVWX , S
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STUVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-3
or
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Prefix
STUVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , E
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STUVWX , S
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STUVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNN
If you make a mistake, press 4BK SP5 to erase the incorrect character.
2. To change a prex, clear the existing prex and then enter a new
prex. Clear an existing prex by pressing:
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Prefix
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
YZ_# Spc Clr
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Clear
or
Use the backspace key to erase the existing prex.
Saving a Trace
3. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Enter a screen title by pressing:
4DISPLAY5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Title
STUVWX , S
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , A
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STUVWX , V
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , E
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
YZ_# Spc Clr
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Space
STUVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , E
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STUVWX , S
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
STEVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
11-4
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
NNNNN
5. Enter the prex \TRACE", by using the following key sequences:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Prefix
STUVWX , T
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
MNOPQR , R
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , A
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , C
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNN
ABCDEF , E
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNN
If you do not specify a prex, the trace will be saved with the le
name \(register #).TRC". The \TRC" extension means the le
contains trace data. For LIF les the trace will be saved with the
lename \t_(register #)".
6. Save the trace to disk by pressing:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Save Disk
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
!
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Trace
Disk
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
TRACE A
Note
7. REGISTER # and PREFIX= are displayed on the screen. Use the
numeric keypad to enter register number 5 by pressing:
5 4(ENTER)5
The message \Saving to:FILENAME" is displayed. The trace data
has now been saved to the disk.
If the PROTECT ON OFF is ON you cannot overwrite an existing le. If
you try and save data using a lename that already exists on the disk
the new data will not be saved. Each lename must be unique. To
turn write-protection o, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Disk Config
PROTECT ON OFF OFF
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-5
Recalling a Trace
Recall the trace by pressing:
4RECALL5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Recall Disk
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
RECALL TRACE
Use the step keys or knob to highlight \TRACE5.TRC",
and then press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LOAD FILE
The recalled trace data is displayed as trace B.
Reset the display by pressing:
4SPAN5
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 4MHz5
The current trace, trace A, is displayed in yellow. The recalled
trace data, trace B, is displayed in blue.
Note
Recalled trace data includes the instrument state.
The following items can be saved and recalled:
Setup
List
Limits
Antenna
Cable
Other
Display
Trace
Save
Recall
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
Table 11-2 and Table 11-3 list the operations, their lenames, register
ranges and key sequences for saving and recalling data with the EMI
receiver and receiver RF section.
11-6
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
Table 11-2. Save Functions Using a Floppy Disk
Operation
Screen
Title
Available?
File Name
DOS
[LIF]
Register Range
Key Sequence
save setup
Yes
(current prex)(register #).ALL Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[e (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
SETUP ! DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
save list
No
(current prex)(register #).SIG
[g (current prex) (register #)]
save limits
No
(current prex)(register #).LIM Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[l (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LIMITS ! DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
save antenna
No
(current prex)(register #).ANT Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[n (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
ANTENNA ! DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
save cable
No
(current prex)(register #).CBL Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[c (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LIST ! DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
!
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
CABLE
save other
No
DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
(current prex)(register #).OTH Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[o (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
!
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
OTHER
DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
save display
image
Yes1
(current prex)(register #).BMP Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[i (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
DISPLAY ! DISK (register #) 4(ENTER)5
save trace
Yes
(current prex)(register #).TRC Prex + register # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[t (current prex) (register #)] 8 characters
Save Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Trace ! Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
TRACE A , TRACE B ,
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
TRACE C , or LIMIT LINES
(register #) 4(ENTER)5
1
The screen title is part of the display image, but is an image only. It is not recalled as a title.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-7
Table 11-3. Recall Functions Using a Floppy Disk
Operation
Screen
Title
Available?
File Name
DOS
[LIF]
Key Sequence
recall setup
yes
(desired lename).ALL 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[e (desired lename)]
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL SETUP
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
recall list
no
(desired lename).SIG
[g (desired lename)]
4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL LIST
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
recall limits
No
(desired lename).LIM 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[l (desired lename)]
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL LIMITS
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
recall antenna
no
(desired lename).ANT 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[n (desired lename)]
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL ANTENNA
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
recall cable
no
(desired lename).CBL 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[c (desired lename)]
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL CABLE
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
11-8
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
recall other
no
(desired lename).OTH 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[o (desired lename)]
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL OTHER
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
recall trace
yes
(desired lename).TRC 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
[t (desired lename)]
Recall Disk
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
More 1 of 2
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
RECALL TRACE
Highlight
desired lename.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LOAD FILE
Saving and Recalling Data from Internal Memory
This section explains how to save and recall state, trace, and limit line
data to and from internal memory. The Save menu can be used to
store up to eight states, several traces and limit-line tables in internal
memory.
Saving state data saves the instrument settings, but not the trace
data. Saving trace data saves the trace data and the state data.
Limit-line data are stored in trace registers, but state and trace data
are not recalled with the limit-line data. States, traces, and limit-line
tables are saved in internal memory even if the instrument is turned
o or 4PRESET5 is pressed.
Refer to Table 11-4 for a summary of saving and recalling data to and
from internal memory.
Saving a State
1. Preset the instrument to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Activate the 300 MHz calibrator signal by pressing:
4INPUT5
VIEW CAL ON OFF (ON)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Save this instrument state by pressing:
4SAVE5
4. Select internal memory as the mass storage device by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Save Internal
5. Save data in register 5 by pressing:
!
INTRNL : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
STATE
The message \State saved" is displayed.
Recalling a State
1. Clear the 300 MHz calibrator signal from the display by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Recall the 300 MHz calibrator signal from internal memory by
pressing:
4RECALL5
Recall Internal (to select internal)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
!
STATE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INTERNAL
The state is recalled and displayed.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-9
Note
Register 9 is a special register which can aid in recovering from
inadvertent loss of line power (power failure). Pressing:
4RECALL5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Recall Internal
!
STATE : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 9 4(ENTER)5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INTERNAL
places the instrument in the state that existed just prior to the loss
of power. The POWER ON LAST function can be set to do this
automatically.
Saving a Trace
Saving trace data is very similar to saving state data. Saving trace
data saves both the trace data and the state data.
1. Set the receiver to a known state by pressing:
4PRESET5
2. Set up the trace data to be stored and press:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Save Internal
!
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Trace
Internal
TRACE A : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 4(ENTER)5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
REGISTER # and MAX REG # = are displayed on the screen. The
Number after MAX REG # = indicates the maximum register number
that can be entered for trace storage in internal memory.
Recalling a Trace
1. Recall data from a trace by pressing:
4RECALL5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Recall Internal
!
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Internal
Trace
TRACE A : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 4(ENTER)5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The recalled trace is placed in the view mode and the instrument
state changed to the state that was recalled.
11-10
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
Protecting Data from Being Overwritten
Protect all the state, trace, and limit line data from being overwritten
by pressing:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Save Internal
SAV LOCK ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Table 11-4 summarizes the functions when saving and recalling data to
and from internal memory.
Table 11-4.
Summary of Save and Recall Operations, Internal Memory
Operation
save state
Screen
Title
Available?
No
Register
Range
1 to 81
Key Sequence
4SAVE5
! Internal
STATE ! INTRNL (register number) 4(ENTER)5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Save
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
recall state
No
1 to 81
4RECALL5
!
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Recall
Internal
!
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
INTERNAL
save trace
Yes
STATE (register number) 4(ENTER)5
0 to MAX REG # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Save ! Internal
!
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Trace
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Intrnl
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
TRACE A , TRACE B , or TRACE C
(register number) 4(ENTER)5
recall trace
Yes
0 to MAX REG # 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Recall ! Internal
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Internal ! Trace
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
TRACE A , TRACE B , or TRACE C (register number) 4(ENTER)5
save limit-line
table
Yes2
0 to MAX REG # 4SAVE5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Save ! Internal
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Trace ! Intrnl
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LIMIT LINES (register number) 4(ENTER)5
recall limit-line
table
No
0 to MAX REG # 4RECALL5
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Recall ! Internal
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Internal ! Trace
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
LIMIT LINES (register number) 4(ENTER)5
1
Registers 1 through 8 are available for the user to save a state. State register 0 contains the current state of
the instrument, register 9 contains the previous state of the instrument.
2
The screen title is displayed when cataloging the trace registers with CATALOG REGISTER . The screen title is
not recalled with the limit-line tables.
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-11
How to Output Data
Note
Conguring a Printer
Data collected in the signal list can be printed or plotted in a report.
The report can consist of any of the following elements:
the user comments (annotations)
a tabular list of the data
a plot of the data in the list, on either a linear or logarithmic
frequency axis with the limit lines that are currently displayed.
a listing of the instrument setup parameters, including limit-line and
amplitude-correction les
The report may be congured using any, or all, of the elements listed
above. The graph can also be saved to a disk.
Only the graph can be sent to a plotter.
The HP 8542E/HP 8546A supports a variety of printers. The receiver
must be congured correctly to operate with a specic printer type.
Conguration options include:
printer type
HP-IB address of the printer
number of plots per page
color or monochrome output
The conguration information is used when printing with either the
4COPY5 key or the OUTPUT REPORTS softkey (located on the 4OUTPUT5
key menu).
The following procedure congures the reciever to print to an
HP ThinkJet printer.
1. Access the printer conguration menu by pressing:
4CONFIG5
2. Congure the receiver for the type of printer you wish to use. For
example, to use an HP ThinkJet printer, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Print Config
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Printer Type
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
THINKJET
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Config Done
Note
11-12
The default printer is the HP DeskJet 550C.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
3. Set the HP-IB address of the printer. Enter the last two numbers
of the address assigned to the printer. For example, if the printer
address is 701, enter 01 by pressing:
PRINTER ADDRESS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 01
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Conrm the entry by pressing:
4(ENTER)5
Conguring and Generating a Report
Use a list similar to the one created in the \Using the Measure at
Marker Function" in Chapter 3 for this procedure.
1. Access the report denition menu by pressing:
4OUTPUT5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Define Report
2. Verify that all report denitions are set to on (default mode), by
selecting the following softkey settings:
ANNOTATN ON OFF ON
LOG ON OFF ON
LIN ON OFF ON
LIST ON OFF ON
SETTINGS ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
The ANNOTATN ON OFF function in the Display menu does not turn
user annotation on and o. It is used to turn on and o onscreen
annotation such as the instrument settings, marker box, title line,
softkeys, and so forth.
3. To modify the list, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Define List
The display of the data in the list can be tailored to meet your
needs. You can:
Select which of the measured detectors to print to the list.
Display the dierences between a data point and the limit lines,
for any of the detectors.
Elect to indicate which of the list entries have been \marked,"
(for more information, see Chapter 4).
Print the current correction factors used.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-13
4. To modify which detector values are printed to the screen, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SHOW DET PK QP AV
The detectors that will be displayed are underlined (defaults
are PK,QP). Press the softkey repeatedly to view the detector
combinations available.
5. To display the numerical dierence between a specic detector
reading and limit line 1, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SHOW 11 PK QP AV
The detectors that will be displayed are underlined. Press the
softkey repeatedly to view the detector combinations available.
6. To display the numerical dierence between a specic detector
reading and limit line 2, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SHOW 12 PK QP AV
The detectors that are currently detected are underlined. Press
the softkey repeatedly to view the detector combinations
available.
7. To display the total current correction factor used for the data
point displayed, press:
SHOW COR ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
8. To display the \mark" in the report, press:
SHOW MRK ON OFF ON
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When the maximum number of columns exceeds the maximum
number of characters available across a page in portrait orientation,
the receiver will print the data in landscape orientation. The Thinkjet
printer does not support landscape orientation, and the maximum
number of columns that can be printed in portrait mode on this
printer is nine.
9. To return to the top level OUTPUT menu,press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Previous Menu
10. To add user notes to the report, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT ANNOTATN
Annotation is entered using the HP 1405A, option ABA external
keyboard. The maximum number of ASCII characters allowed in
the annotation is 1024. For more information on connecting and
using the keyboard, see Chapter 12.
11-14
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11. To clear any existing annotation, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CLEAR ANNOTATN
12. When you nish entering notes, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EXIT EDIT
13. Verify the printer is connected to the receiver, then output the
report by pressing:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
OUTPUT REPORT
14. To halt the operation at any time during the output cycle, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ABORT
The receiver will nish any graphs currently in process before
aborting the output cycle.
Saving, Recalling, and Outputting Data
11-15
12
Additional Features
What You'll Learn in This Chapter
This chapter describes additional capabilities of the receiver, including
the:
Signal analyzer emulation
Demodulator
Tracking generator
You will also learn:
How to use, program, and reset the user-denable softkeys
How to install and use an external keyboard
How to enter annotation, programming command and screen titles
Signal Analyzer Emulation
The HP 8542E/HP 8546A EMI receiver can be congured to emulate
signal analyzer operation. When in signal analysis mode:
The HP 85420E/HP 85460A RF lter section is bypassed.
IF bandwidths are coupled to span. (In receiver mode, the IF
bandwidth is selected based on center frequency.)
Limit lines operate dierently. Refer to Chapter 8 for more
information.
To select signal analyzer mode, press:
4MODE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SIGNAL ANALYSIS
Additional Features
12-1
Demodulator
The Demodulator control block, located below the display, includes:
4ON/OFF5
Turns the demodulator on and o.
4SELECT5
Directly accesses the softkey menus that include
AM and FM demodulation, FM gain, dwell time,
and squelch level.
VOLUME
Adjusts the audio level of the internal speaker.
PHONEJACK
Provides an audio output for using headphones.
The following list describes each of the menu selections on the
Demodulator menu.
DEMOD ON OFF
Turns the demodulator on and o (default is o).
Selects the demodulator mode (default is AM).
DEMOD AM FM
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SPEAKER ON OFF
Sets the level of signal required to activate the
audio amplier.
Changes the sensitivity of the FM discriminator.
The sensitivity can be modied to attain
sucient audio output for a specic voltage
setting when demodulating narrowband and
broadband FM signals.
Sets the length of time the demodulator is on at
the marker when scanning a frequency range
greater than 0 Hz.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SQUELCH
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
FM GAIN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DWELL TIME
Tracking Generator
Turns the internal speaker on and o.
The tracking generator is a frequency source that automatically tracks
the receiver's tuned input frequency. This source is useful when
characterizing two-port devices, such as lters, ampliers, and cables.
To access the tracking generator menus, press:
4TRACK GEN5
When SCR POWER ON OFF is rst pressed, the current setting of the
output power level is indicated in the active function block, however
power is not turned on. To activate the tracking generator, press
SCR POWER ON OFF a second time or change the output power level
using the numeric keypad, step keys, or knob. (A terminator key is
required when using the keypad.)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
12-2
Additional Features
The PWR SWP ON OFF and SRC ATN MAN AUTO functions operate the
same way as the SCR PWR ON OFF function.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The following list describes each of the menu selections on the
Tracking Generator menu.
Turns the source power on and o and sets
SCR POWER ON OFF
the source power level (default is 97 dBV).
Use the numeric keys, step keys or knob to set
the desired source power level.
Aligns the tracking generator output
TRACKING PEAK
frequency to the tuned frequency of the
receiver. The alignment is most critical when
using narrow IF bandwidths (30 kHz). This
operation should be performed the rst time
the tracking generator is used with narrow IF
bandwidths each day or when changing the IF
bandwidths.
MAN TRK ADJUST
Enables manual alignment of the tracking
generator output frequency to the tuned
frequency of the receiver. The alignment
is most critical when using narrow IF
bandwidths (30 kHz). Use the numeric keys,
step keys or knob to adjust the alignment.
Varies the output power of the tracking
PWR SWP ON OFF
generator over the span (default is o (0 dB),
maximum is 15 dB). This feature is useful
when measuring the compression of an
amplier. The source power sweep amplitude
deviation can be adjusted using the numeric
keys, step keys, or knob.
The built-in attenuator is used to optimize
SRC ATN MAN AUTO
the power level of the tracking generator
output. In the automatic (default) mode the
attenuator is auto-coupled to the output. In
the manual mode the power level can be
adjusted using the numeric keys, step keys, or
knob (maximum is 56 dB).
Accesses the second Tracking Generator menu
More 1 of 2
level.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Additional Features
12-3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SCR PWR STP SIZE
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SCR PWR OFFSET
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
ALC INT EXT
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
SWP CPLG SR RECV
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 2
12-4
Additional Features
Sets the step size value for the step keys
(default is 10 dB).
Osets the value of the displayed source
power level (default is 0 dB). This function
can be used to account for the gain or loss of
a DUT.
The tracking generator is leveled internally
(default). When done manually an external
signal can be connected to the ALC INPUT.
Changes sweep time (default is \no delay") in
stimulus-response mode to account for the
response time of a DUT. This is useful when
testing devices such as lters.
Accesses the rst Tracking Generator menu
level.
User-Denable Softkeys
Defaults
The top two softkeys on the EMI receiver are user-denable. The two
user-denable keys remain the same, regardless of the menu selected.
Their default denitions are:
Last Hrd Key Menu
Toggles between the lowest level accessed
on the last two hard key menus selected.
Assigns the span function to the
SPAN
user-denable key.
1. To demonstrate the functionality of the LAST HRD KEY MENU
key, perform the following procedure. Press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Inst Setup
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Measure Detector
4TEST5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIST
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Sort Signals
2. To jump back to the lowest level of the Setup menu you accessed,
(Measure Detector), press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
LAST HRD KEY MENU
Pressing the LAST HRD KEY MENU key again jumps back to the
lowest level of the Test menu you accessed, (Sort Signals).
Additional Features
12-5
Programming
1. To dene a user-denable softkey, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 2 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
DEFINE USER KEY
The message \User Key Define" appears on the display.
2. To dene the EDIT LIMIT key as the user dened key, press:
4SETUP5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit Lines
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Limit 1
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT LIMIT
USER DEF KEY 1 (the LAST HRD KEY MENU key)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
or
NNNNNNNNNNNNNN
USER DEF KEY 2 (the SPAN key)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
The user-denable softkey you selected is now labeled EDIT LIMIT.
Note
Resetting
The user-denable softkeys are not aected by:
pressing instrument preset
switching line power on/o
recalling a setup from a disk
To reset a user-denable softkey to the default setting, press:
4CONFIG5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 3
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Dispose User Mem
DISPOSE USER KEY , DISPOSE USER KEY
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
After pressing DISPOSE USER KEY once, the message
\If you are sure, press key again to purge data."
will appear. Pressing DISPOSE USER KEY a second time deletes the
user-dened memory and resets the user-dened softkeys to their
default states.
This function resets both of the user-dened softkeys.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
12-6
Additional Features
External Keyboard
Installation
CAUTION
To install the external keyboard, (HP 1405A option ABA):
1. Use the LINE switch to turn o power to the receiver.
Turn o the receiver before connecting an external keyboard to the
receiver. Failure to do so may result in loss of factory calibration
data.
Static discharges of greater than 3 kV to metallic portions of the
connector housing on the keyboard during operation may cause the
instrument to reset.
Plug the keyboard into the EXT KEYBOARD input located on the
rear panel of the EMI receiver.
Use the LINE switch to turn on power to the EMI receiver.
The external keyboard is now ready to be used.
Additional Features
12-7
Using the Template
The External Keyboard Template (HP part number 85462-80010),
displays the functions available when using the external keyboard.
The external keyboard has two modes of operation:
Annotation Editor
This mode is used to enter or edit
annotation.
Keyboard Entry
This mode is used to enter or edit the
command line, title line, or prex.
Figure 12-1. External Keyboard Template
This section provides a brief description of the template features.
Refer to Figure 12-1.
1
EDITOR (4Esc5) is used to select the keyboard entry destination
you wish to edit,including the command line, the title, and the
prex.
2
The onscreen softkeys can be accessed by pressing the
appropriate function key, (4F15 through 4F85).
3
SETUP, (4F95), duplicates the front-panel 4SETUP5 key.
4
TEST, (4F105), duplicates the front-panel 4TEST5 key.
5
OUTPUT, (4F115), duplicates the front-panel 4OUTPUT5 key.
6
Recall Current Title ! Keyboard Entry Line, (4F125, moves the
currently displayed title to the keyboard entry line so it can be
edited.
7
The function of the 4Print Screen5 key is determined by the
current operating mode. In keyboard entry mode it duplicates
the front-panel 4COPY5 key. In editor mode it prints the
annotation.
8
The Exit ! EDITOR/Exit ! Keyboard Entry, (4Pause5), toggles
between the two operating modes.
12-8
Additional Features
Entering Data Using the External Keyboard
Entering Annotation
The external keyboard can be used to enter explanatory text.
Annotation can be:
displayed on the receiver screen to provide additonal information
printed separately, or as part of a report
stored with the signal list and recalled for future reference
1. Select the Annotation Editor by pressing:
Exit ! EDITOR , (4Pause5), on the external keyboard.
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Note
When the Annotation Editor is selected using the external keyboard,
annotation is automatically turned on.
Annotation editing can also be turned on from the front panel by
pressing:
4OUTPUT5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT ANNOTATN
2. To clear any existing annotation:
On the front panel, press: 4OUTPUT5
On the external keyboard, press:
EDIT ANNOTATN (4F75)
CLEAR ANNOTATN , (4F35)
EXIT EDIT (4F85)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
3. Use the external keyboard to enter the following message:
This is an annotation editor. It can be used to
record information about the measurement.
Note
The Home, End, Insert, Delete, and arrow keys are available. The
backspace, (4 5), key can also be used.
4. To print the annotation, press:
Print Annotation , (4Print Screen5)
For information on saving a signal list and its annotation, see
Chapter 4, List-Based Measurements.
5. When you are nished with the annotation, press
Exit -> Keyboard Entry (4Pause5).
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Additional Features
12-9
Entering Programming Commands
Remote programming commands can be entered using the external
keyboard. See EMI Receiver Series Programmer's Guide for a
complete list of the remote programming commands.
1. Select the Command function by pressing:
EDITOR , (4Esc5), until the on-screen message,
\Keyboard Entry -> Command" ashes on the screen.
2. Set the center frequency to 300 MHz and the span to 2 MHz by
using the external keyboard to enter:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CF300MZ; 4Enter5
SP2MZ; 4Enter5
Note
When editing the keyboard entry line the down-arrow key, (4+5), can
be used to recall previously entered lines.
Entering a Screen Title
1. Select the Title function by pressing:
EDITOR , (4Esc5), until the on-screen message Keyboard Entry !
Title ashes on the screen.
2. Use the external keyboard to enter:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
This is a title.
When you are nished entering the prex, press 4Enter5. The new
title will move from the Keyboard Entry line to the Title line.
3. To edit an existing Title line move the current title to the Keboard
Enty line by pressing:
Recall Current Title ! Keyboard Entry Line , (4F125)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
4. Use the external keyboard to change the title to read:
This Is a New Title
When you are nished entering the title, press 4Enter5. The title will
move from the Keyboard Entry line to the Title line.
12-10
Additional Features
Entering a Prex
1. Select the Prex function by pressing:
EDITOR , (4Esc5), until the on-screen message Keyboard Entry !
Prefix ashes on the screen.
2. Use the external keyboard to enter:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
JOY
When you are nished entering the prex, press 4Enter5.
To view the new prex, press:
4SAVE5
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Change Prefix
The message \Prefix = JOY" is displayed in the active function
area of the screen.
3. When you are nished viewing the prex, press:
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
More 1 of 2
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
EDIT DONE
Additional Features
12-11
13
Error Messages
The instrument can generate various messages that appear on its
screen during operation to indicate a problem.
There are three types of messages: hardware error messages (H),
user-created error messages (U), and informational messages (M).
Hardware error messages indicate the instrument hardware is
probably broken.
User-created error messages appear when the instrument is used
incorrectly. They are usually generated during remote operation
(entering programming commands using either a controller or the
external keyboard).
Informational messages provide information indicating the progress
of the instrument within a specic procedure.
The messages are listed in alphabetical order on the following pages;
each message is dened, and its type is indicated by an (H), (U), or
(M).
LOCK OFF
Indicates slow YTO tuning. This message may appear if the
instrument is using default correction factors. If this message
appears constantly, perform the self-calibration routine to try to
eliminate this message. LOCK OFF appears briey during the
self-calibration routine, during instrument preset, or when the
frequency value is changed; this is normal and does not indicate a
problem. (U) and (H)
ADC-2V FAIL
Indicates a hardware failure. (H)
ADC-GND FAIL
Indicates a hardware failure. (H)
ADC-TIME FAIL
Indicates a hardware failure. (H) and (U)
Bad device type in msus
An attempt has been made to read a disk that is neither LIF nor
DOS format or a communication failure between the main processor
and the oppy disk subsystem. If the disk in use is LIF or DOS
format, try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds, then
turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact your
HP representative. (U) (H)
Bad mass storage parameter
May be reported if an attempt is made to read a disk that is neither
Error Messages
13-1
LIF nor DOS format. Attempt a catalog operation on the disk or try
a dierent disk. (U)
Bad mass storage volume label
May be reported if an attempt is made to read a disk that is neither
LIF nor DOS format. Attempt a catalog operation on the disk or try
a dierent disk. (U)
Bad mass storage volume spec
May be generated if the user removes media while it is being
accessed or if a read or write operation is attempted on
unformatted media. Try the operation again or try the operation on
media you are sure has been appropriately formatted.
Cal harmonic >= 5.7 GHz NOT found For an HP 8546A/
HP 85462A only.
Indicates that the CAL YTF routine cannot nd a harmonic of
the 300 MHz calibration signal. If this happens, perform the
CAL FREQ and CAL AMP routines, and then perform the CAL YTF
routine again. For the HP 8546A, press CAL ALL then perform the
CAL YTF routine again.(U) and (H)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL: MAIN COIL SENSE FAIL
The instrument could not set up span sensitivity of the main coil. If
this message appears, press 4FREQUENCY5, CENTER FREQ , 037, 4Hz5,
4CALIBRATE 5, More 1 of 3 , More 2 of 3 , DEFAULT CAL DATA ,
and perform the self-calibration routine again. (H)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL: NBW 200 Hz notch amp failed
Indicates that the 200 Hz IF bandwidth is not the correct shape for
the calibration routine. (H)
CAL: NBW 200 Hz notch failed
Indicates that the 200 Hz IF bandwidth is not the correct shape for
the calibration routine. (H)
CAL: NBW 200 Hz width failed
Indicates that the 200 Hz IF bandwidth is not the correct bandwidth
for the calibration routine. (H)
CAL: NBW gain failed
Indicates that one of the IF bandwidths is not the correct amplitude
for the calibration routine. (H)
CAL: NBW width failed
Indicates that one of the IF bandwidths is not the correct width for
the calibration routine. (H)
CAL: PASSCODE NEEDED
Indicates that the function cannot be accessed without the pass
code. For the DEFAULT CAL DATA function, the pass code is
setting the center frequency of the instrument to 037 Hz. (M)
CAL: RES BW AMPL FAIL
The relative insertion loss of the IF bandwidth is incorrect. This
message also sets SRQ 110. (H)
CAL SIGNAL NOT FOUND
Indicates the calibration signal cannot be found. Check that
13-2
Error Messages
the instrument input connectors are connected properly. If the
calibration signal is connected properly but cannot be found, press
4FREQUENCY5, CENTER FREQ , 037, 4Hz5, 4CALIBRATE5, More 1 of 3 ,
More 2 of 3 , DEFAULT CAL DATA . If the calibration signal still
cannot be found, press 4FREQUENCY5, CENTER FREQ , 037, 4Hz5 and
perform the CAL FREQ and CAL AMP (receiver RF section) or
CAL ALL (EMI receiver) self-calibration routines. This message also
sets SRQ 110. (U) and (H)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL: SPAN SENS FAIL
The self-calibration span sensitivity routine failed. This message
also sets SRQ 110. (H)
CAL: USING DEFAULT DATA
Indicates that the calibration data is corrupt and the default
correction factors are being used. Interruption of the
self-calibration routines or an error can cause this problem. (M)
CAL YTF FAILED For an HP 8546A/HP 85462A only.
Indicates that the CAL YTF routine could not be successfully
completed. Perform the self-calibration routines, then perform the
CAL YTF routine again. (U) and (H)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
CAL: ZERO FAIL
The instrument could not set up the tuning sensitivity of the main
coil. If this message appears, press 4FREQUENCY5, CENTER FREQ ,
037, 4Hz5, 4CALIBRATE5, More 1 of 3 , More 2 of 3 ,
DEFAULT CAL DATA , and perform the self-calibration routines
again. (H)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Cannot engage phase lock with current CAL FREQ data
Indicates that the CAL FREQ routine needs to be performed before
phase locking can be turned on. (U)
Cannot BYPASS Input 1
An attempt was made to execute the BYPASS command while the
signal path is routed through INPUT 1 of the RF lter section. Only
INPUT 2 of the RF lter section can be bypassed.
Checkread error
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
COMMAND ERROR:
The specied programming command is not recognized by the
instrument. (U)
Conguration Error
This error indicates a serious problem in the ability of the
instrument to use the oppy disk drive. Try presetting
the instrument. If the condition persists, contact your HP
representative. (H)
Error Messages
13-3
CONF TEST FAIL
Indicates that the condence test failed. Perform the
self-calibration routines, and then perform the condence test
again. This message also sets SRQ 110. (H) and (U)
Directory not empty
Reported if an attempt is made to purge a non-empty directory.
Ensure that all les in any directory have been purged or moved
before attempting to purge the directory. (U)
Directory overow
Reported if the disk directory runs out of room. Change the media.
(M)
Drive not found or bad address
An attempt has been made to read a disk that is neither LIF
nor DOS format or a communications failure between the main
processor and the oppy disk subsystem. If the disk in use is LIF
or DOS format, try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds,
then turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact
your HP representative. (U) (H)
Duplicate le name
Reported if the le system tries to write data to a le that already
exists, but did not exist previously. May be due to changing media
just before an operation attempts to create a new le. (U)
Duplicate le name, PROTECT is on
Reported if the user attempts to overwrite a previously existing le
with PROTECT status set to ON (the default state). Use a dierent
le name, purge the le, or turn o the PROTECT feature. (U)
End of le or buer found
Reported if an attempt is made to read or write beyond the current
le or directory is made. Also reported if an attempt is made to add
les to a directory that is already full. Try using a new disk. (U)
End of rec found, random mode
Reported if an attempt is made to read or write beyond the current
record being accessed. Try the operation again. (U)
FAIL:
An error was discovered during the power-up check. The 4-digit by
10-digit code indicates the type of error. (H)
File name is undened
May be reported if the user changes media immediately before a
read operation is attempted on a le of a specic name. Ensure that
the le exists on the disk by using the catalog feature. (U)
File not currently assigned
May be generated if the user removes media while it is being
accessed. Try the operation again. (U)
File open on target device
May be due to conicting le operations invoked simultaneously
from the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port. Attempt the
operation again. (U)
13-4
Error Messages
File type incompatible
Indicates that the selected le is not a display image le. The le
name for a display image le is always preceded by an \i." (U)
FREQ UNCAL
The FREQ UNCAL message appearing constantly, indicates a
YTO-tuning error. Perform the CAL FREQ (receiver RF section) or
CAL ALL (EMI receiver) routines. (U) and (H)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Function not available in current Mode
Indicates that the function that you have selected can only be used
with the instrument mode. You can use the 4MODE5 key to select the
instrument mode. (U)
HFS disc may be corrupt
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
Improper destination type
Reported if an attempt is made to append data to a le and the le
cannot be extended. Try the operation using another disk. (U)
Improper le name
Reported if a le or directory name is specied that in some manner
does not conform to le name conventions: too many characters,
illegal character in le name, and so on.
Improper le type
Reported in the event that an operation appropriate for a data le
is attempted on a directory. Check the contents of the disk using
the catalog function. (U)
Improper value or out of range
Indicates an internal error in computing the amount of data to read
from the disk or an invalid parameter. This may indicate corrupt
media; try a new disk. If the condition persists, contact your HP
representative. (H)
Incorrect unit code in msus
An attempt has been made to read a disk that is neither LIF
nor DOS format or a communications failure between the main
processor and the oppy disk subsystem. If the disk in use is LIF
or DOS format, try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds,
then turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact
your HP representative. (U) (H)
Incorrect volume code in msvs
An attempt has been made to read a disk that is neither LIF
nor DOS format or a communications failure between the main
processor and the oppy disk subsystem. If the disk in use is LIF
or DOS format, try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds,
then turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact
your HP representative. (U) (H)
Insucient Memory
Indicates a temporary memory overow condition. Attempt to free
Error Messages
13-5
memory that may have been temporarily allocated by performing
the following steps:
1. If there is a disk catalog on the display, exit the catalog.
2. Execute the dispose softkeys under Dispose User Mem in the
4CONFIG5 menu. (U)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INTEGER overow
Indicates a computation error during disk access. This may indicate
corrupt media; try a new disk. If the condition persists, contact
your HP representative. (H)
Internal error
Indicates a failure of the oppy disk controller or a failure in
communications between the main processor and the oppy disk
controller. Try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds, then
turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact your
HP representative. (H)
INTERNAL LOCKED
The internal trace and state registers of the instrument have
been locked. To unlock the trace or state registers, press 4SAVE5,
Save Internal , SAV LOCK ON OFF so that OFF is underlined. (U)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
INVALID AMPCOR: FREQ
For the AMPCOR command, the frequency data must be entered in
increasing order. See the description for the AMPCOR programming
command for more information. (U)
INVALID ENTER FORMAT
The enter format is not valid. See the appropriate programming
command description to determine the correct format. (U)
INVALID <le name> NOT FOUND
Indicates that the specied le could not be loaded into internal
memory or purged from memory because the le name cannot be
found. (U)
INVALID FILENAME
Indicates the specied le name is invalid. A le name is invalid if
there is no le name specied, if the rst letter of the le name
is not alphabetic, or if the specied le type does not match the
type of le. See the description SAVRCLW or STOR programming
commands for more information. (U)
INVALID FILE: NO ROOM
Indicates that there is insucient space available on the oppy disk
to store the data. (U)
INVALID HP-IB ADRS/OPERATION
An HP-IB operation was aborted due to an incorrect address or
invalid operation. Check that there is only one controller (the EMI
receiver) connected to the printer or plotter. (U)
INVALID HP-IB OPERATION REN TRUE
The HP-IB operation is not allowed. (This is usually caused by
trying to print or plot when a controller is on the interface bus with
the instrument.) To use the instrument print or plot functions, you
must disconnect any other controllers on the HP-IB. If you are
using programming commands to print or plot, you can use an HP
13-6
Error Messages
BASIC command instead of disconnecting the controller. See the
description for the PRINT command for more information. (U)
INVALID ITEM:
Indicates an invalid parameter has been used in a programming
command. (U)
INVALID KEYLBL:
Indicates that the specied key label contains too many characters.
A key label is limited to 8 printable characters per label line. (U)
INVALID KEYNAME:
The specied key name is not allowed. (The key name may have
conicted with a instrument programming command.) To avoid this
problem, use an underscore as the second character in the key
name, or avoid beginning the key name with the following pairs of
letters: LB, OA, OL, TA, TB, TR, MA, MF, TS, OT, and DR. (U)
INVALID OUTPUT FORMAT
The output format is not valid. See the appropriate programming
command description to determine the correct format. (U)
INVALID RANGE: Stop < Start
Indicates that the rst trace element specied for a range of trace
elements is larger that ending trace element. When specifying
a trace range the starting element must be less than the ending
element. For example, TRA[2,300] is legal but TRA[300,2] is not.
(U)
INVALID REGISTER NUMBER
The specied trace register number is invalid. (U)
INVALID RS-232 ADRS/OPERATION
An RS-232 operation was aborted due to an invalid operation. (U)
INVALID SAVE REG
Data has not been saved in the specied state or trace register, or
the data is corrupt. (U)
INVALID SCRMOVE
Indicates the instrument may have a hardware failure. (H)
INVALID START INDEX
Indicates that the rst trace element specied for a range of trace
elements is not within the trace range of the specied trace. (U)
INVALID STOP INDEX
Indicates that the ending trace element specied for a range of
trace elements is not within the trace range of the specied trace.
(U)
INVALID TRACE:
The specied trace is invalid. (U)
INVALID VALUE PARAMETER:
The specied value parameter is invalid. (U)
INVALID WINDOW TYPE:
The specied window is invalid. See the description for the
TWNDOW programming command. (U)
Error Messages
13-7
LOST SIGNAL
This message indicates that an internal hardware connection
problem exists. (H)
LO UNLVL
Indicates that the local oscillator in the EMI receiver distribution
amplier is not functioning properly. (H)
Marker Count Reduce SPAN
Indicates the IF bandwidth to span ratio is too small to use the
marker count function. Check the span and IF bandwidth settings.
(U)
Marker Count Widen RES BW
Indicates that the current IF bandwidth setting is too narrow to use
with the marker counter function. The marker counter function
can be in narrow IF bandwidths (bandwidths that are less than
1 kHz) with the following procedure:
1. Place the marker on the desired signal.
2. Increase the IF bandwidth to 1 kHz and verify the marker is on
the signal peak.
3. If the marker in on the signal peak, the marker count function
can be used in either the 1 kHz IF bandwidth or the original
narrow IF bandwidth setting. If the marker is not on the signal
peak, it should be moved to the signal peak and the marker
counter function should not be used with a IF bandwidth setting
of less than 1 kHz. (U)
Mass storage hardware failure
Indicates a failure of the oppy disk controller or a failure in
communications between the main processor and the oppy disk
controller. Try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds, then
turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact your
HP representative. (H)
Mass storage medium overow
Reported when a disk has no more room available to write data.
Try a new disk. (U)
Mass storage system error
Indicates a failure of the oppy disk controller or a failure in
communications between the main processor and the oppy disk
controller. Try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds, then
turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact your
HP representative.
Mass storage volume not present
An attempt has been made to read a disk that is neither LIF
nor DOS format or a communications failure between the main
processor and the oppy disk subsystem. If the disk in use is LIF
or DOS format, try turning the instrument o, wait a few seconds,
then turn the instrument on again. If the condition persists, contact
your HP representative. (U) (H)
MEAS UNCAL
The measurement is uncalibrated. Check the sweep time, span, and
bandwidth settings, or press 4AUTO COUPLE5, AUTO ALL . (U)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
13-8
Error Messages
Medium changed or not in drive
Reported if disk is removed during disk access cycle. Try the
operation without removing the disk. (U)
Medium uninitialized
Indicates that a le operation has been attempted on an
uninitialized disk, or on a disk that is neither LIF nor DOS format.
Be sure that any disk on which le operations are attempted is
properly formatted. The format softkeys, in the 4CONFIG5 menu, may
be used to format a disk, but any information on the disk will be
erased during the formatting process. (U)
No points dened
Indicates the specied limit line or amplitude correction function
cannot be performed because no limit line segments or amplitude
correction factors have been dened. (U)
Operation failed on some les
Reported if, during a purge operation on a le specier that
contains wildcards, the number of les actually purged does
not match the original number of les found that match the le
specier. Check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
Operation not allowed on open le
May be due to conicting le operations invoked simultaneously
from the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port. Attempt the
operation again. (U)
OVEN COLD
Indicates that the EMI receiver has been powered up for less than
5 minutes. (The actual temperature of the precision frequency oven
is not measured.) (M)
PARAMETER ERROR:
The specied parameter is not recognized by the instrument. See
the appropriate programming command description to determine
the correct parameters. (U)
PASSCODE NEEDED
Indicates that the function cannot be accessed without the pass
code. (U)
Permission denied
Indicates that a le write-operation was attempted on either a
read-only le or on a directory. Check the disk using the catalog
function and try the operation on an appropriate le again. (U)
Possibly corrupt le
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
POS-PK FAIL
Indicates the positive-peak detector has failed. (H)
RCVR Limits not allowed in SA mode
This error is encountered when an attempt is made to enable
limit-line display, limit-margin display, or limit testing of limits
Error Messages
13-9
dened in Receiver mode when the instrument is operating in
Signal Analysis mode. To correct the problem, either purge the
limits or switch to Receiver mode. (U)
Read data error
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
Record address error
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
Record not found
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
REF UNLOCK
Indicates that the frequency reference is not locked to the external
reference input. Check that the 10 MHz REF OUTPUT connector is
connected to the EXT REF IN connector, or, when using an external
reference, that an external 10 MHz reference source of sucient
amplitude is connected to the EXT REF IN connector. (U) and (H)
Require 1 signal > PEAK EXCURSION above THRESHOLD
Indicates that the N dB PTS routine cannot locate a signal that is
high enough to measure. The signal must be greater than the peak
excursion above the threshold level to measure. (U)
Require 3 signals > PEAK EXCURSION above THRESHOLD
Indicates that the % AM routine cannot locate three signals that are
high enough to measure. The signals must be greater than the peak
excursion above the threshold level to measure. (U)
Require 4 signals > PEAK EXCURSION above THRESHOLD
Indicates that the TOI routine cannot locate four signals that are
high enough to measure. The signals must be greater than the peak
excursion above the threshold level to measure. (U)
Required option not installed
Some instrument functions require that an option be installed in the
instrument. See the description for the function in the User's Guide
for more information about which option is required. (U)
RF Filter Section Absent
This message is displayed if the bypass command is executed when
the RF lter section is not connected to, or is not communicating
with, the receiver RF section. (U) and (H)
RFFS Error: COMMAND
The RF lter section has received a command that it does not
recognize. Assure that there is no cable connected to the RF lter
13-10
Error Messages
section Service Bus interface. If the condition persists, and there is
no cable connected to the RF lter section Service Bus interface,
contact your HP representative. (U)
RFFS Error: HARDWARE
The RF lter section has experienced a hardware failure. If the
condition persists after presetting the instrument or cycling power,
contact your HP representative. (H)
RFFS Error: TIMEOUT
Communication failure between the receiver RF section and the
RF lter section. Check power to the RF lter section and check
that the AUX interface cable is properly connected between both
instruments. (U) (H)
RFFS Service Bus Active
This message appears in the active function area of the receiver RF
section display when an external controller communicates with the
RF lter section via the RF lter section Service Bus interface. (H)
RF PRESEL ERROR For an HP 8546A/HP 85462A only.
Indicates that the preselector peak routine cannot be performed.
(H)
RF PRESEL TIMEOUT For an HP 8546A/HP 85462A only.
Indicates that the preselector peak routine cannot be performed.
(H)
SA Limits not allowed in RCVR mode
This error is encountered when an attempt is made to enable
limit-line display, limit-margin display, or limit testing of limits
dened in Signal Analysis mode when the instrument is operating in
Receiver mode. To correct the problem, either delete the limits or
switch to Signal Analysis mode. (U)
SAMPLE FAIL
Indicates the sample detector has failed. (H)
SIGNAL CLIPPED
Indicates that the current FFT measurement sweep resulted in a
trace that is above the top graticule line on the display. If this
happens, the input trace (trace A) has been \clipped," and the FFT
data is not valid. (U)
Signal not found
Indicates the PEAK ZOOM routine did not nd a valid signal. (U)
Signals do not t expected % AM pattern
Indicates that the % AM routine cannot perform the percent
AM measurement because the onscreen signals do not have the
characteristics of a carrier with two sidebands. (U)
Signals do not t expected TOI pattern
Indicates that the TOI routine cannot perform the third-order
intermodulation measurement because the onscreen signals do not
have the characteristics of two signals and two distortion products.
(U)
SMPLR UNLCK
Indicates that the sampling oscillator circuitry is not functioning
Error Messages
13-11
properly. If this message appears, check that the external frequency
reference is correctly connected to the EXT REF INPUT. (U) and (H)
SOFTKEY OVFL
Softkey nesting exceeds the maximum number of levels. (U)
SRQ
The specied service request is active. (M)
STEP GAIN/ATTN FAIL
Indicates the step gain has failed. (H)
TABLE FULL
Indicates the upper or lower table of limit lines contains the
maximum number of entries allowed. Additional entries to the
table are ignored. (U)
TG SIGNAL NOT FOUND
Indicates the tracking generator output signal cannot be found. For
the receiver RF section, check that the TRACKING GENERATOR
OUTPUT is connected to the RF INPUT connector with an
appropriate cable. For the EMI receiver, check that the cable
between the TRACKING GENERATOR OUTPUT and TRACKING
GENERATOR is properly connected. (U)
TG UNLVL
This message can indicate the following: that the source power
is set higher or lower than the instrument can provide, that the
frequency span extends beyond the specied frequency range of
the tracking generator, or that the calibration data for the tracking
generator is incorrect. (U)
Too many open les
This error may be due to conicting disk operations invoked from
the front-panel keys and the remote I/O port, or it may indicate
that the disk is corrupt. After pressing the \HOLD" key, 4(ENTER)5,
on the front panel, retry the operation. If the operation fails again,
check the disk using the catalog function. (U)
Too many signal with valid N dB points
Indicates the N dB PTS function has located two or more signals
that have amplitudes within the specied dB from the signal peak.
If this happens, you should decrease the span of the instrument so
that only the signal that you want to measure is displayed. (U)
Trace A is not available
Indicates that trace A is in the store-blank mode and cannot be
used for limit-line testing. Use CLEAR WRITE A or VIEW A to
change trace A from the store-blank mode to the clear write mode,
and then turn on limit-line testing. (U)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
Unable to replace le
Reported if an attempt is made to append data to a le and the le
cannot be extended. Try the operation using another disk. (U)
USING DEFAULTS self cal needed
Indicates that the current correction factors are the default
correction factors and that the self-calibration routines need to be
performed. For either an HP 8546A or an HP 85462A, also perform
the CAL YTF self-calibration routine. (U)
NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
13-12
Error Messages
VID-BW FAIL
Indicates the averaging bandwidths have failed. (H)
Wildcard matches > 1 item
An attempt was made to use the wildcard matching character on
an operation that requires a specic le name. For example, an
attempt to load from a le name that contains a wildcard character.
Try the operation using a specic le name. (U)
Wildcards not allowed
An attempt was made to use the wildcard matching character on
an operation that requires a specic le name. For example, an
attempt to load from a le name that contains a wildcard character.
Try the operation using a specic le name. (U)
Write protected
Indicates that a write operation was attempted on a disk that is
write protected. Move the write-protect tab on the oppy disk to
the unprotected position, reinsert the disk in the disk drive and
attempt the operation again. (U)
Error Messages
13-13
Nonrecoverable System Errors
Certain situations can create error conditions from which the main
processor cannot recover. In the event that the processor detects a
nonrecoverable error, the instrument will be initialized, the display
will be blanked, and special error messages will be written to the
display.
The following is a sample nonrecoverable system error message
display.
System Error 4, HP 8546A, SN 4
13:18:20 DEC 13, 1993, Rev: 931210
SR: 0000
PC: 00FFB370
D0: 00000000
A0: 00FFB238
D1: 00000000
A1: 00FF803E
D2: 00FFB238
A2: 00FF803C
D3: 00FF803E
A3: 00FFB2FE
D4: 00008E7D
A4: 00FFB2F4
D5: 00FF80E8
A5: 00FC6948
D6: 00FFB39A
A6: FFFFFFFE
D7: 00FFB392
A7: 00FF6F1E
WARNING: Cong Settings Defaulted
Press COPY to print error report and
advise your local HP representative
Press PRESET to resume operation
00FF6F1E:
00FF6F22:
00FF6F26:
00FF6F2A:
00FF6F2E:
00FF6F32:
00FF6F36:
00FF6F3A:
00FF6F3E:
00FF6F42:
00FF6F46:
00FF6F4A:
00FF6F4E:
00FF6F52:
00FF6F56:
00FF6F5A:
00009300
00000000
00000000
00FF803E
000031B1
0004065E
0004EDE8
00FF8000
00FF88AE
00FF87E0
00FFB03C
000C9AEA
00FF8890
040800FF
000900FF
B23A0000
When a nonrecoverable error message is displayed, the instrument
will only respond to the front-panel COPY and PRESET keys. If you
have a printer congured and connected to the instrument, and if
no remote controller is currently connected to the I/O port through
which the printer is connected, you can generate a hardcopy of the
diagnostic part of the error message by pressing the front-panel COPY
key.
In order to resume instrument operation following a nonrecoverable
system error, press the front-panel PRESET key. The instrument will
resume operation from its preset state.
Among the conditions which can contribute to the occurrence of a
nonrecoverable system error are:
Hardware failure of the main processor
Hardware failure of system memory available to the main processor
Errors in the primary system control program
Attempted execution of unsupported system commands
Nonrecoverable system errors may occur when attempting to load an
improper le type into the machine. For example, loading a le with
an incorrect format into a limit line or amplitude correction table may
generate this error.
13-14
Error Messages
If nonrecoverable system errors occur regularly, contact your HP
representative.
Error Messages
13-15
14
Customer Support
Your EMI receiver is built to provide dependable service. It is unlikely
that you will experience a problem. However, Hewlett-Packard's
worldwide sales and service organization is ready to provide the
support you need.
If You Have a Problem
Before calling Hewlett-Packard or returning the EMI receiver for
service, please make the checks listed in \Check the Basics." If
you still have a problem, please read the warranty printed at the
front of this manual. If your EMI receiver is covered by a separate
maintenance agreement, please be familiar with its terms.
Hewlett-Packard oers several maintenance plans to service your EMI
receiver after warranty expiration. Call your HP Sales and Service
Oce for full details.
If you want to service the EMI receiver yourself after warranty
expiration, contact your HP Sales and Service Oce to obtain the
most current test and maintenance information.
Calling HP Sales and Service Oces
Sales and service oces are located around the world to provide
complete support for your EMI receiver. To obtain servicing
information or to order replacement parts, contact the nearest
Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service oce listed in Table 14-1. In any
correspondence or telephone conversations, refer to the EMI receiver
by its model number and full serial number. With this information,
the HP representative can quickly determine whether your unit is still
within its warranty period.
Customer Support
14-1
Check the Basics
In general, a problem can be caused by a hardware failure, a software
error, or a user error. Often problems may be solved by repeating
what was being done when the problem occurred. A few minutes
spent in performing these simple checks may eliminate time spent
waiting for instrument repair.
If Your EMI Receiver Does Not Turn On
Check that the EMI receiver is plugged into the proper ac power
source.
Check that the line socket has power.
Check that the rear-panel voltage selector switchs are set correctly.
Check that the line fuses are good.
Check that the EMI receiver is turned on.
If the RF Filter Section Does Not Seem to be Working
Check the ac power to the EMI receiver as described above.
Verify that the rear-panel auxiliary interface cable is properly
connected.
Verify that the rear-panel sweep ramp and high sweep cables are
properly connected.
If the EMI Receiver Cannot Communicate Via HP-IB
Verify that the proper HP-IB address has been set.
Verify that there are no equipment address conicts.
Check that the other equipment and cables are connected properly
and operating correctly.
Verify that the HP-IB cable is connected to the receiver RF section
and not the RF lter section.
Verication of Proper Operation
Check that the test being performed and the expected results are
within the specications and capabilities of the EMI receiver.
Check operation by performing the operation verication
procedures in Chapter 2 of this manual. Record all results in the
operation verication test record.
If the RF lter section Does Not Power O
Verify that the service power switch on the RF lter section is set
to normal mode.
Error Messages
14-2
Customer Support
Check the EMI receiver display for error messages. Refer to
Chapter 13 of this manual.
Additional Support Services
CompuServe
CompuServe, the worldwide electronic information utility, provides
technical information and support for EMC instrumentation and
communication with other EMI users.
With a CompuServe account and a modem-equipped computer, simply
type GO HPSYS and select the EMC system section to get information
on documentation, application notes, product notes, service notes,
software, rmware revision listings, data sheets, and more.
If you are not a member of CompuServe and would like to join,
call CompuServe and take advantage of the Free Introductory
Membership. The membership includes the following:
An introductory usage credit to CompuServe
A private User ID and Password
A complimentary subscription to CompuServe's monthly computing
publication, CompuServe Magazine
To take advantage of the CompuServe Free Introductory Membership
oer, call one of the telephone numbers below and ask for
Representative Number 999.
Country
Argentina
Australia
Canada
Chile
Germany
Hong Kong
Israel
Japan
Korea
New Zealand
South Africa
Switzerland
Taiwan
United Kingdom
United States
Venezuela
Elsewhere
Toll-Free
|
008-023-158
|
|
0130 86 4643
|
|
0120-22-1200
080-022-7400
0800-441-082
|
155 31 79
|
0800 289458
800-848-8990
|
|
Direct
(+54) 01-372-7883
(+61) 2-410-4555
(+1) 614-457-8650
(+56) 2-696-8807
(+49) (+89) 66 55 0-222
(+852) 867-0102
(+972) 3-290466
(+81) 3-5471-5806
(+82) 2-569-5400
|
(+27) 12-841-2530
|
(+886) 2-515-7035
(+44) (+272) 255111
(+1) 614-457-8650
(+58) 2-793-2984
(+1) 614-457-8650
Customer Support
14-3
FAX Support Line
Note
A fax sheet is provided at the end of this chapter as a method in
which to directly contact the HP EMC support team in the event
of a problem. The fax cover sheet provides EMC support team
with information about your company, the product, and a detailed
description about the problem.
All items on the fax cover sheet must be completed in order to
expedite your response. Any incomplete item may delay your
response.
Simply copy the fax cover sheet, ll out the requested information,
include any additional information sheets, and fax the sheet(s) to
HP EMC Support at (707) 577-4200. Depending on the complexity of
the problem, you should receive a response back within a few days.
14-4
Customer Support
Returning the EMI Receiver for Service
Note
Use the information in this section if it is necessary to return the EMI
receiver to Hewlett-Packard.
If you are returning an EMI receiver, you must return both the
receiver RF section and RF lter section to the service center for
repair and calibration. Also, you must package the units individually
to avoid damage.
Package the EMI receiver for shipment
Use the following steps to package the EMI receiver for shipment to
Hewlett-Packard for service:
1. Fill in a service tag (available at the end of this chapter) and attach
it to the instrument. Please be as specic as possible about the
nature of the problem. Send a copy of any or all of the following
information:
Any error messages that appeared on the EMI receiver display.
A completed operation verication test record located at the end
of Chapter 2 in this manual.
Any other specic data on the performance of the EMI receiver.
CAUTION
Damage to the EMI receiver can result from using packaging materials
other than those specied. Never use styrene pellets in any shape as
packaging materials. They do not adequately cushion the instrument
or prevent it from shifting in the carton. Styrene pellets cause
equipment damage by generating static electricity and by lodging in
the fan.
2. Use the original packaging materials or strong shipping containers
that are made of double-walled, corrugated cardboard with 159 kg
(350 lb) bursting strength. The cartons must be both large enough
and strong enough and allow at least 3 to 4 inches on all sides of
the instrument for packing material.
3. Protect the front panel with cardboard.
4. Surround the instrument with at least 3 to 4 inches of packing
material, or enough to prevent the instrument from moving in
the carton. If packing foam is not available, the best alternative
is SD-240 Air CapTM from Sealed Air Corporation (Commerce, CA
90001). Air Cap looks like a plastic sheet covered with 1-1/4 inch
air-lled bubbles. Use the pink Air Cap to reduce static electricity.
Wrap the instrument several times in the material to both protect
the instrument and prevent it from moving in the carton.
5. Seal the shipping container securely with strong nylon adhesive
tape.
6. Mark the shipping container \FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE" to
ensure careful handling.
7. Retain copies of all shipping papers.
Customer Support
14-5
Table 14-1. Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Oces
US FIELD OPERATIONS
Customer Information
California, Northern
California, Southern
Hewlett-Packard Company
19320 Pruneridge Avenue
Cupertino, CA 95014, USA
(800) 752-0900
Hewlett-Packard Co.
Hewlett-Packard Co.
301 E. Evelynjgw421 South Manhattan Ave.
Mountain View, CA 94041
Fullerton, CA 92631
(415) 694-2000
(714) 999-6700
Colorado
Georgia
New Jersey
Texas
Hewlett-Packard Co.
24 Inverness Place, East
Englewood, CO 80112
(303) 649-5000
120 W. Century Road
Paramus, NJ 07653
(201)599-5000
Hewlett-Packard Co.
2000 South Park Place
Atlanta, GA 30339
(404) 955-1500
Illinois
Hewlett-Packard Co.
5201 Tollview Drive
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
(708) 255-9800
930 E. Campbell Rd.
Richardson, TX 75081
(214) 231-6101
EUROPEAN FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Hewlett-Packard S.A.
150, Route du Nant-d'Avril
1217 Meyrin 2/Geneva
Switzerland
(41 22) 780.8111
Great Britain
France
Hewlett-Packard France
1 Avenue Du Canada
Zone D'Activite De Courtaboeuf
F-91947 Les Ulis Cedex
France
(33 1) 69 82 60 60
Germany
Hewlett-Packard GmbH
Berner Strasse 117
6000 Frankfurt 56
West Germany
(49 69) 500006-0
Hewlett-Packard Ltd
Eskdale Road, Winnersh Triangle
Wokingham, Berkshire RF11 5DZ
England
(44 734) 696622
INTERCON FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Hewlett-Packard Company
3495 Deer Creek Rd.
Palo Alto, California 94304-1316
(415) 857-5027
China
China Hewlett-Packard Co.
38 Bei San Huan X1 Road
Shuang Yu Shu
Hai Dian District
Beijing, China
(86 1) 256-6888
Taiwan
Hewlett-Packard Taiwan
8th Floor, H-P Building
337 Fu Hsing North Road
Taipei, Taiwan
(886 2) 712-0404
14-6
Customer Support
Australia
Hewlett-Packard Australia Ltd.
31-41 Joseph Street
Blackburn, Victoria 3130
(61 3) 895-2895
Japan
Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard Ltd.
1-27-15 Yabe, Sagamihara
Kanagawa 229, Japan
(81 427) 59-1311
Canada
Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Ltd.
17500 South Service Road
Trans-Canada Highway
Kirkland, Quebec H9J 2X8
Canada
(514) 697-4232
Singapore
Hewlett-Packard Singapore (Pte.) Ltd
1150 Depot Road
Singapore 0410
(65) 273-7388
Customer Support
14-7
Index
1
10MHz REF OUTPUT connector, 1-8
3
300 MHz connectors, 1-5
A
accuracy, 2-2
activating
amplitude correction, 9-6
overview mode, 10-5
receiver limit-line testing, 8-8
signal analyzer limit-line testing, 8-16
windows display mode, 10-2
adding
data to signal list, 4-3, 5-5
ADDRESS switches, 1-9
ALC connector, 1-5
amplitude and frequency dierence, measuring, 7-16
amplitude correction
activating, 9-6
saving and recalling, 9-7
tables, creating, 9-1
tables, editing, 9-6
AMPLITUDE front-panel key, 1-4
amplitude modulation, measuring with the FFT function, 7-8
analysis control functions, 1-4
annotation, screen, 1-10
autocal, 2-6
autoranging, 3-7
AUX IF connector, 1-8
AUX INTERFACE connector
receiver RF section, 1-8
RF lter section, 1-9
AUX VIDEO connector, 1-7
average bandwidth
reducing, 6-26
average bandwidth, modifying, 3-4
Index-1
Index-2
B
bandwidth
measuring 3 dB and 6 dB, 7-13
measuring 99% power, 7-14
bandwidths, modifying, 3-4
battery, 1-14
C
CAL FETCH messages, 2-3
calibration, 2-3
messages, 2-4{5
partial, 2-7
receiver RF section, 2-9
tracking generator, 2-8
YIG-tuned lter, 2-8
changing the frequency step, 5-5
clock, 2-6
CNT RES AUTO MAN, 6-8
comparing signals, 6-18
compliance measurements
autoranging, using, 3-7
bandwidths, modifying, 3-4
conguring a printer, 3-19, 11-12
creating a report, 3-19
customizing standard congurations, 3-3
detector, selection, 3-4
dwell time, modifying, 3-6
frequencies, modifying, 3-3
generating a report, 3-20, 11-13
loading amplitude correction factors from disk, 3-11
loading congurations from disk, 3-8
making, 3-14
measure at marker, 3-5
preamplier, controlling, 3-6
receiver tuning, 3-14
receiver tuning using marker, 3-15
reference level, modifying, 3-3
setting up, 3-2
standard congurations, 3-2
using limit lines, 3-8
using measure at marker, 3-16
CompuServe, 14-3
conguring a printer, 3-19, 11-12
control functions, 1-4
controlling the preamplier, 3-6
COPY front-panel key, 1-4
creating
amplitude correction tables, 9-1
receiver limit lines, 8-2
reports, 3-19, 11-12
signal analyzer limit lines, 8-11
signal lists, 4-2
CTRL windows key, 1-4
customizing standard congurations, 3-3
D
damage from excessive signal input, 1-5
data
controls, 1-6{7
entry using external keyboard, 12-9
keys, 1-5
output, 11-12
protection, 11-11
deactivate function, 1-7
dening a receiver limit margin, 8-7
deleting, limit lines in receiver mode, 8-2
deleting signals from signal list, 4-7
delta marker, 6-18
DELTA MEAS softkey, 6-20
demodulating an AM or FM signal, 6-36
demodulation controls, 1-3
demodulator, 12-2
detectors, 3-4, 5-3
diagnostic measurements, 6-1
resolving signals of equal amplitude, 6-2
resolving small signals hidden by large signals, 6-5
disk
catalog, viewing, 8-10
drive, 1-3
formatting, 1-13, 11-1
loading amplitude correction factors from disk, 3-11
loading limit lines, 3-9
loading user-dened congurations, 3-8
tasks, 1-13
DISPLAY VIDEO OUT connectors, 1-8
distortion, testing, 6-30
DOS lenames, 11-2
dwell times, 3-6, 5-3
modifying, 3-6
E
editing
amplitude correction tables, 9-6
receiver limit lines, 8-2, 8-6
signal analyzer limit lines, 8-11, 8-13
EMI measurement control, 1-4
emulation, signal analyzer, 12-1
entering a prex, 11-3
ERROR LED, 1-6
error messages, 13-1
errors, non recoverable, 13-14
excessive signal input, 1-5
external keyboard, 12-7
EXT KEYBOARD connector, 1-9
EXT REF IN connector, 1-8
EXT TRIG connector, 1-8
Index-3
F
factory-correction constants, 1-8
fast Fourier transform function, 7-8
measuring sidebands, 7-8
fatal errors, 13-14
FAX
form, 14-7
support, 14-4
features
front panel, 1-3
rear panel, 1-7
lenames, 11-2
formatting a disk, 1-13, 11-1
frequency
changing the step, 5-5
decreasing the span, 6-10
modifying, 3-3
FREQUENCY front-panel key, 1-4
front-panel
connectors, 1-5
features, 1-3
key conventions, 1-12
keys, 1-3
G
GATE connectors, 1-8
generating a report, 3-20, 11-13
graphing signal lists, 4-11
H
hardware error messages, 13-1
HIGH SWEEP connector
receiver RF section, 1-8
RF lter section, 1-9
HOLD key, 1-7
I
Index-4
IF bandwidth
function, 6-2
modifying, 3-4
reducing, 6-25
impulse noise
measurement, 6-27
increase frequency readout resolution, 6-8
informational messages, 13-1
input attenuation
modifying, 3-3
reducing, 6-22
input attenuator damage, 1-5
INPUT connectors, 1-5
instrument preset, 1-4
interface connector, 1-9
intermodulation distortion, measuring, 7-18
introduction, EMI receiver, 1-1
K
keyboard
connector, external, 1-9
entering data, 12-9
external, 12-7
template, 12-8
key conventions, 1-12
knob, 1-6
L
label, softkey, 1-3
LED
ERROR, 1-6
RF OVERLOAD, 1-5
LIF lenames, 11-2
limit lines
activating signal analyzer, 8-16
deleting in receiver mode, 8-2
purging in signal analysis mode, 8-12
recalling, 8-9
receiver, 8-2
receiver, activating testing, 8-8
receiver, saving, 8-8
signal analyzer, 8-11
signal analyzer, editing, 8-13
signal analyzer, format, 8-15
limit margin,receiver, 8-7
line
power input, 1-9
service switch, 1-9
switch, 1-3
voltage selector, 1-9
linearity check, using, 6-30, 6-33
linear step, 5-7
listening to an AM of FM signal, 6-36
loading
amplitude correction factors from disk, 3-11
user-dened congurations from disk, 3-8
logarithmic step, 5-7
LO OUTPUT connector, 1-8
low-level signals
reducing attenuation, 6-22
reducing averaging bandwidth, 6-26
reducing IF bandwidth, 6-25
video averaging, 6-27
M
marker, 5-4
counter, 6-8
delta, 6-18
functions, 1-4
tracking, 6-10
marking signals, 4-8
MAX HOLD A, 6-16
maximum hold, 6-15
Measure at Marker, 3-5, 3-16
measurement
Index-5
control, 1-4
restarting, 5-5
stopping, 5-5
measuring
3 dB and 6 dB bandwidth, 7-13
99% power bandwidth, 7-14
amplitude and frequency dierence, 7-16
low-level signals, 6-22
percent AM modulation, 7-15
third order products, 7-18
menu and softkey overview, 1-12
messages
CAL FETCH, 2-3
calibration, 2-4{5
TG UNLVL, 7-7
MIN HOLD C, 6-16
minimum hold, 6-15
MK COUNT ON OFF, 6-8
MK TRACK ON OFF, 6-13
modifying standard congurations, 3-3
moving zone markers, 10-3
Index-6
N
NEXT windows key, 1-4
non recoverable errors, 13-14
normalization, 7-5
O
on/o switch, 1-3
output, data, 11-12
OUTPUT front-panel key, 1-4, 3-2
overview mode, activating, 10-5
overview of menu and softkeys, 1-12
overwrite protection, 11-11
P
package receiver, 14-5
packing material, 14-5
partial calibration, 2-7
peaking signal amplitude, 6-11
percent AM modulation
measuring, 7-15
PHONES connector, 1-3
PK-PK MEAS, 7-16
power bandwidth, measuring, 7-14
power input, receiver RF section, 1-8
preamplier, 3-6
prex
editing, 11-4
entering, 11-3
PRESEL DEFAULT, 6-11
preselector peak, 6-11
PRESET front-panel key, 1-4
printer, conguring, 3-19, 11-12
PROBE POWER connector, 1-5
problems, how to solve, 14-2
procedures, calibration, 2-3
purging, limit lines in signal analysis mode, 8-12
R
rear-panel
battery information label, 1-14
connectors, 1-7
features, 1-7
RECALL front-panel key, 1-4
recalling
amplitude correction, 9-7
limit-line table, 8-9
signal lists, 4-10
state, internal, 11-9
trace, 11-6
trace, internal, 11-10
receiver, clock, 2-6
receiver RF section
stand alone calibration, 2-9
receiver RF section rear-panel connectors, 1-7, 1-9
reference level, modifying, 3-3
remeasuring signals, 4-9
report
conguring, 11-13
creating, 11-12
generating, 11-13
reports
conguring, 3-20
creating, 3-19
generating, 3-20
resolving signals, 6-5
RF
INPUT connector, 1-5
OUT connector, 1-5
OVERLOAD LED, 1-5
RPG knob, 1-6
S
sales and service oces, 14-6
SAVE front-panel key, 1-4
saving
amplitude correction, 9-7
receiver limit-line table, 8-8
signal lists, 4-10
state, internal, 11-9
trace, 11-4
trace, internal, 11-10
screen annotation, 1-10
SELECT demodulation key, 1-3
selecting detectors, 3-4, 5-3
self-calibration, 2-3
partial, 2-7
receiver RF section, 2-9
requirements, 2-2
tracking generator, 2-8
YIG-tuned lter, 2-8
sensitivity, receiver, 6-22
Index-7
service bus
address, 1-9
connector, 1-9
service, returning for, 14-5
SETUP front-panel key, 1-4, 3-2
sidebands, measuring, 7-8
signal
comparison, 6-18
dierence on and o screen, 6-19
dierences, 6-18
separation, 6-5
tracking, 6-10
signal analyzer
limit line format , 8-15
limit lines, activating, 8-16
limit lines, creating, 8-11
limit lines, editing, 8-13
signal analyzer emulation, 12-1
signal list
adding signals, 4-3
creating, 4-2
deleting signals, 4-7
graphing, 4-11
marking, 4-8
remeasuring, 4-9
saving and recalling, 4-10
sorting, 4-6
table, 5-5
viewing, 4-5
small signals, measuring in presence of large ambient, 6-30
softkey
conventions, 1-12
descriptions, 1-4
label, 1-3
user-denable, 12-5
sorting signal lists, 4-6
SPAN front-panel key, 1-4
SPAN ZOOM, 6-13
SRC PWR ON OFF softkey, 7-3
standard congurations, 3-2
customizing, 3-3
start and stop frequency, modifying, 3-3
state functions, 1-4
step
frequency, 5-5
linear, 5-7
logarithmic, 5-7
step keys, 1-7
stepped measurements, 5-1
stimulus-response measurements, 7-2
stimulus-response mode, 7-4
support, FAX, 14-4
SWEEP RAMP connector
receiver RF section, 1-8
RF lter section, 1-9
Index-8
sweep time, 6-2
T
tables
amplitude correction, activating, 9-6
amplitude correction, creating, 9-1
amplitude correction, editing, 9-6
amplitude correction, saving and recalling, 9-7
limit line, format of signal analyzer, 8-15
limit line, recalling, 8-9
receiver limit line, saving, 8-8
TEST front-panel key, 1-4, 3-2
TG UNLVL message, 7-7
third order measurements, 7-18
TRACK GEN front-panel key, 1-4, 7-3
tracking generator, 12-2
calibration, 2-8
connector, 1-5
normalization, 7-5
stimulus-response, 7-2
unleveled condition, 7-7
tracking unstable signals, 6-13
troubleshooting, 14-2
U
unleveled condition, tracking generator, 7-7
user-created error messages, 13-1
user-denable softkeys, 12-5
V
video averaging, 6-27
viewing
disk catalog, 8-10
receiver limit lines, 8-2
signal analyzer limit lines, 8-11
signal list, 4-5
VOLTAGE SELECTOR, 1-8
VOLUME control, 1-3
W
warm-up time, 2-2
windows display mode, 1-10
activating, 3-12, 10-2
activating overview mode, 10-5
moving zone markers, 10-3
turning o, 10-6
windows keys, 1-4
write protection, 11-11
Y
YIG-tuned lter self-calibration, 2-8
Z
ZERO SPAN, 6-11
zone markers, 10-3
ZOOM windows key, 1-4
Index-9
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