IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch

IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch
Application Guide
for Networking OS 7.8
IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch
Application Guide
for Networking OS 7.8
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the general information in the Safety information
and Environmental Notices and User Guide documents on the IBM Documentation CD and the Warranty Information
document that comes with the product.
First Edition (June 2014)
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2014
US Government Users Restricted Rights – Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract
with IBM Corp.
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . .
Who Should Use This Guide .
What You’ll Find in This Guide
Additional References. . . .
Typographic Conventions . .
How to Get Help . . . . . .
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Part 1:. Getting Started. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Chapter 1. Switch Administration . . . . . . . . .
Administration Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chassis Management Module . . . . . . . . . .
Industry Standard Command Line Interface. . . . .
Browser-Based Interface . . . . . . . . . . . .
Establishing a Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Chassis Management Module . . . . . .
Factory-Default vs. CMM-Assigned IP Addresses.
Using Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Secure Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Web Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring HTTP Access to the BBI. . . . . .
Configuring HTTPS Access to the BBI . . . . .
BBI Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Simple Network Management Protocol . . . .
BOOTP/DHCP Client IP Address Services. . . . . . .
Host Name Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSLOG Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch Login Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Secure FTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boot Strict Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acceptable Cipher Suites . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Strict Mode . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 2. Initial Setup . . . . . . .
Information Needed for Setup. . . . .
Default Setup Options. . . . . . . .
Stopping and Restarting Setup Manually
Setup Part 1: Basic System Configuration
Setup Part 2: Port Configuration . . . .
Setup Part 3: VLANs . . . . . . . .
Setup Part 4: IP Configuration . . . .
IP Interfaces . . . . . . . . . .
Default Gateways . . . . . . . .
IP Routing. . . . . . . . . . .
Setup Part 5: Final Steps . . . . . .
Optional Setup for Telnet Support . . .
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Chapter 3. Service Location Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Active DA Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
SLP Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Chapter 4. System License Keys
Obtaining Activation Keys . . . .
Installing Activation Keys . . . .
Transferring Activation Keys . . .
Trial Keys . . . . . . . . . .
Flexible Port Mapping . . . . .
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Part 2:. Securing the Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Chapter 5. Securing Administration . . . . . . . .
Changing the Switch Passwords . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Default Administrator Password . . .
Changing the Default User Password . . . . . . .
Secure Shell and Secure Copy . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SSH/SCP Features on the Switch . . .
Configuring the SCP Administrator Password. . . .
Using SSH and SCP Client Commands . . . . . .
SSH and SCP Encryption of Management Messages
Generating RSA Host Key for SSH Access . . . .
SSH/SCP Integration with RADIUS Authentication . .
SSH/SCP Integration with TACACS+ Authentication .
End User Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations for Configuring End User Accounts .
Strong Passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Access Control Menu . . . . . . . . . . .
Listing Current Users . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logging In to an End User Account. . . . . . . .
Protected Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 6. Authentication & Authorization Protocols . . .
RADIUS Authentication and Authorization. . . . . . . . .
How RADIUS Authentication Works . . . . . . . . .
Configuring RADIUS on the Switch . . . . . . . . . .
RADIUS Authentication Features in IBM Networking OS .
Switch User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RADIUS Attributes for IBM Networking OS User Privileges
TACACS+ Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How TACACS+ Authentication Works. . . . . . . . .
TACACS+ Authentication Features in IBM Networking OS
Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command Authorization and Logging . . . . . . . . .
TACACS+ Password Change . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring TACACS+ Authentication on the Switch . . .
LDAP Authentication and Authorization. . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 7. 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control . . . . . . . . 89
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
EAPoL Authentication Process .
EAPoL Message Exchange . .
EAPoL Port States . . . . . .
Guest VLAN . . . . . . . .
Supported RADIUS Attributes .
EAPoL Configuration Guidelines
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Chapter 8. Access Control Lists .
Summary of Packet Classifiers . .
Summary of ACL Actions . . . .
Assigning Individual ACLs to a Port
ACL Order of Precedence . . . .
ACL Groups . . . . . . . . .
Assigning ACL Groups to a Port . .
ACL Metering and Re-Marking . .
ACL Port Mirroring . . . . . . .
Viewing ACL Statistics . . . . .
ACL Configuration Examples . . .
VLAN Maps. . . . . . . . . .
Management ACLs . . . . . . .
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Part 3:. Switch Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Chapter 9. VLANs . . . . . . . . . . .
VLANs Overview. . . . . . . . . . . .
VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers . . . .
VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode . . . . . . .
Ingress VLAN Tagging . . . . . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations
Protocol-Based VLANs . . . . . . . . .
Port-Based vs. Protocol-Based VLANs .
PVLAN Priority Levels . . . . . . . .
PVLAN Tagging . . . . . . . . . .
PVLAN Configuration Guidelines . . . .
Configuring PVLAN . . . . . . . . .
Private VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private VLAN Ports . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . .
Configuration Example . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 10. Ports and Trunking . . . .
Configuring Port Modes . . . . . . . .
Configuring QSFP+ Ports . . . . . . .
Trunking Overview . . . . . . . . . .
Static Trunks . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before Configuring Static Trunks . . .
Static Trunk Group Configuration Rules
Configuring a Static Port Trunk . . .
Configurable Trunk Hash Algorithm . . .
Link Aggregation Control Protocol . . . .
Configuring LACP. . . . . . . . .
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Contents
7
8
Chapter 11. Spanning Tree Protocols . . . . . .
Spanning Tree Protocol Modes . . . . . . . . . .
Global STP Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PVSRT Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bridge Protocol Data Units . . . . . . . . . .
Bridge Protocol Data Units Overview . . . .
Determining the Path for Forwarding BPDUs .
Simple STP Configuration . . . . . . . . . .
Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Groups . . . . . . .
Using Multiple STGs to Eliminate False Loops.
VLAN and STG Assignment . . . . . . . .
Manually Assigning STGs. . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Creating VLANs . . . . . . .
Rules for VLAN Tagged Ports . . . . . . .
Adding and Removing Ports from STGs . . .
Switch-Centric Configuration . . . . . . .
Configuring Multiple STGs . . . . . . . . . .
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . . .
Port States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSTP Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . .
RSTP Configuration Example . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . .
MSTP Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common Internal Spanning Tree . . . . . . .
MSTP Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . .
MSTP Configuration Examples . . . . . . . .
Port Type and Link Type . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edge/Portfast Port . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Link Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 12. Virtual Link Aggregation Groups . . .
VLAG Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAG Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAGs versus Port Trunks . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring VLAGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic VLAG Configuration . . . . . . . . . .
VLAG Configuration - VLANs Mapped to MSTI
Configuring Health Check . . . . . . . . .
VLAGs with VRRP . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring VLAGs in Multiple Layers. . . . . .
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Chapter 13. Quality of Service .
QoS Overview . . . . . . . .
Using ACL Filters . . . . . . .
Summary of ACL Actions . .
ACL Metering and Re-Marking
Metering . . . . . . .
Re-Marking . . . . . .
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
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Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS . . . . . .
Differentiated Services Concepts . . . . . .
Per-Hop Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . .
QoS Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSCP Re-Marking and Mapping . . . . . .
DSCP Re-Marking Overview . . . . . .
DSCP Re-Marking Configuration Example
Using 802.1p Priorities to Provide QoS . . . . .
Queuing and Scheduling . . . . . . . . . .
Packet Drop Logging . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Part 4:. Advanced Switching Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Chapter 14. Stacking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacking Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacking Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacking Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stack Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Master Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splitting and Merging One Stack . . . . . . . .
Merging Independent Stacks . . . . . . . . . .
Backup Switch Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stack Member Identification . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Best Configuration Practices . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacking VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Each Switch in a Stack . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Management IP Interface . . . . . . .
Additional Master Configuration . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Stack Connections . . . . . . . . . .
Binding Members to the Stack . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a Stack Backup Switch . . . . . . . .
Managing a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Upgrading Software in an Existing Stack . . . . . . . .
New Hybrid Stack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting a EN4093/EN4093R Stack to a Hybrid Stack
New Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing or Removing Stacked Switches . . . . . . . .
Removing a Switch from the Stack . . . . . . . . .
Installing the New Switch or Healing the Topology . . .
Binding the New Switch to the Stack . . . . . . . .
ISCLI Stacking Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 15. Virtualization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Chapter 16. Virtual NICs . . . . . .
vNIC IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vNIC IDs on the Switch . . . . .
vNIC Interface Names on the Server
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Contents
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vNIC Uplink Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vNIC Bandwidth Metering . . . . . . . . . . . .
vNIC Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vNIC Teaming Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vNIC Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . . .
vNICs for iSCSI on Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter .
vNICs for FCoE Using the Emulex VFA . . . . .
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Chapter 17. VMready . . . . . . . . . .
VE Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VM Group Types . . . . . . . . . . . .
Local VM Groups . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distributed VM Groups . . . . . . . . . .
VM Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initializing a Distributed VM Group . . . .
Assigning Members . . . . . . . . . .
Synchronizing the Configuration . . . . .
Removing Member VEs . . . . . . . .
VMcheck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Distributed Switch . . . . . . . . .
Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating to vDS . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtualization Management Servers . . . . .
Assigning a vCenter . . . . . . . . .
vCenter Scans . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting the vCenter . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Profiles . . . . . . . . . .
VMware Operational Commands . . . .
Pre-Provisioning VEs . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VM Policy Bandwidth Control. . . . . . . .
VM Policy Bandwidth Control Commands .
Bandwidth Policies vs. Bandwidth Shaping.
VMready Information Displays . . . . . . .
VMready Configuration Example . . . . . .
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Chapter 18. FCoE and CEE . . . . . . .
Fibre Channel over Ethernet . . . . . . .
The FCoE Topology . . . . . . . .
FCoE Requirements . . . . . . . .
Converged Enhanced Ethernet . . . . . .
Turning CEE On or Off . . . . . . .
Effects on Link Layer Discovery Protocol
Effects on 802.1p Quality of Service . .
Effects on Flow Control . . . . . . .
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FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping . . . . . .
Global FIP Snooping Settings . . . . . . . .
FIP Snooping for Specific Ports . . . . . . .
Port FCF and ENode Detection . . . . . . .
FCoE Connection Timeout . . . . . . . . .
FCoE ACL Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimized FCoE Traffic Flow . . . . . . . .
FCoE VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing FIP Snooping Information . . . . . .
Operational Commands . . . . . . . . . .
FIP Snooping Configuration . . . . . . . . .
Priority-Based Flow Control . . . . . . . . . .
Global vs. Port-by-Port PFC Configuration . . .
PFC Configuration Example. . . . . . . . .
Enhanced Transmission Selection . . . . . . . .
802.1p Priority Values . . . . . . . . . . .
Priority Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PGID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Priority Values to a Priority Group .
Deleting a Priority Group . . . . . . . .
Allocating Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring ETS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange . . . .
DCBX Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring DCBX . . . . . . . . . . . .
FCoE Example Configuration . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 19. Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet vs. Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported Switch Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Implementing Fibre Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E_Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fibre Channel VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Traffic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full Fabric Zoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zonesets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Active Zoneset. . . . . . . . . .
Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S)
Fibre Channel Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1: NPV Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2: Full Fabric FC/FCoE Switch . . . . . . .
Fibre Channel Standard Protocols Supported . . . . . .
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Contents
11
12
Chapter 20. Edge Virtual Bridging .
EVB Operations Overview . . . . .
VSIDB Synchronization . . . .
VLAN Behavior . . . . . . .
Manual Reflective Relay . . . .
EVB Configuration . . . . . . . .
Configuring EVB in Stacking Mode .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . .
Unsupported features . . . . . .
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301
301
302
302
303
303
305
305
306
Chapter 21. Static Multicast ARP
Configuring Static Multicast ARP .
Configuration Example . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . .
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307
307
308
308
Chapter 22. Unified Fabric Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UFP Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Ports Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vPort-S-Tag Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vPort-VLAN Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UFP vPort Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UFP Bandwidth Provisioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UFP Strict Bandwidth Provisioning Mode . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using UFP with Other CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch Features
Layer 2 Failover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Increased VLAN Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Private VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VMReady. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
802.1Qbg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UFP Configuration Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1: Access Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2: Trunk Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3: Auto-VLAN Mode with VMready . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 4: Auto-VLAN Mode with Edge Virtual Bridging . . . . . .
Example 5: Tunnel Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 6: FCoE Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 7: Private VLAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 8: Layer 2 Failover Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . .
Updating from IBM Networking OS 7.7 or Prior . . . . . . . .
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318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
Chapter 23. Switch Partition . . .
SPAR Processing Modes . . . . .
Local Domain Processing . . .
Pass-Through Domain Processing
Unsupported Features . . . . . .
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . .
SPAR VLAN Management. . . . .
Example Configurations. . . . . .
Pass Through Configuration . .
Local Domain Configuration . .
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330
330
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333
333
333
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
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Part 5:. IP Routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Chapter 24. Basic IP Routing . . . . . . . . . .
IP Routing Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing Between IP Subnets . . . . . . . . . . .
Subnet Routing Example . . . . . . . . . . .
Using VLANs to Segregate Broadcast Domains . .
BOOTP Relay Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration . . . . . . .
Domain-Specific BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . . . . . . . .
DHCP Relay Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DHCP Relay Agent Configuration . . . . . . .
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Chapter 25. Internet Protocol Version 6 .
IPv6 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . .
IPv6 Address Format . . . . . . . . .
IPv6 Address Types . . . . . . . . .
IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration . . . . .
IPv6 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . .
Neighbor Discovery . . . . . . . . .
Supported Applications . . . . . . . .
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . .
IPv6 Configuration Examples . . . . . .
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Chapter 26. Using IPsec with IPv6 . . . . . . .
IPsec Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using IPsec with the CN4093 . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up Authentication . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an IKEv2 Proposal . . . . . . .
Importing an IKEv2 Digital Certificate . . .
Generating an IKEv2 Digital Certificate . . .
Enabling IKEv2 Preshared Key Authentication
Setting Up a Key Policy . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Manual Key Policy . . . . . . . . .
Using a Dynamic Key Policy . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 27. Routing Information Protocol .
Distance Vector Protocol . . . . . . . .
Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing Updates . . . . . . . . . . . .
RIPv1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RIPv2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RIPv2 in RIPv1 Compatibility Mode . . . .
RIP Features . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RIP Configuration Example . . . . . . .
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Contents
13
14
Chapter 28. Internet Group Management Protocol
IGMP Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IGMPv3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP Snooping Configuration Example . . . .
Static Multicast Router . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . .
Configure IGMP Relay . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP Querier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional IGMP Features . . . . . . . . . . .
FastLeave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IGMP Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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375
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377
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380
381
382
383
383
383
Chapter 29. Multicast Listener Discovery .
MLD Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How MLD Works . . . . . . . . . . .
MLD Querier . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Mrouters . . . . . . . . .
MLD Capacity and Default Values . . . . .
Configuring MLD . . . . . . . . . . .
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385
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Chapter 30. Border Gateway Protocol . . . . . .
Internal Routing Versus External Routing . . . . . .
Forming BGP Peer Routers . . . . . . . . . . .
What is a Route Map? . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incoming and Outgoing Route Maps . . . . . .
Precedence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Overview . . . . . . . . . . .
Aggregating Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redistributing Routes. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BGP Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Route Paths in BGP . . . . . . . . . .
BGP Failover Configuration . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example
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Chapter 31. OSPF. . . . . . . .
OSPFv2 Overview . . . . . . . .
Types of OSPF Areas . . . . .
Types of OSPF Routing Devices.
Neighbors and Adjacencies. . .
The Link-State Database. . . .
The Shortest Path First Tree . .
Internal Versus External Routing.
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403
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407
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OSPFv2 Implementation in IBM Networking OS . . . . .
Configurable Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning the Area Index . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Area ID to Assign the OSPF Area Number
Attaching an Area to a Network . . . . . . . . .
Interface Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electing the Designated Router and Backup . . . . .
Summarizing Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Router ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Plain Text OSPF Passwords . . . . .
Configuring MD5 Authentication . . . . . . . .
Host Routes for Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . .
Loopback Interfaces in OSPF . . . . . . . . . . .
OSPF Features Not Supported in This Release . . . .
OSPFv2 Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1: Simple OSPF Domain . . . . . . . . .
Example 2: Virtual Links . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3: Summarizing Routes . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying OSPF Configuration . . . . . . . . . . .
OSPFv3 Implementation in IBM Networking OS . . . . .
OSPFv3 Differences from OSPFv2 . . . . . . . . .
OSPFv3 Requires IPv6 Interfaces . . . . . . . .
OSPFv3 Uses Independent Command Paths . . .
OSPFv3 Identifies Neighbors by Router ID . . . .
Other Internal Improvements . . . . . . . . . .
OSPFv3 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OSPFv3 Configuration Example . . . . . . . . . .
Neighbor Configuration Example . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 32. Protocol Independent Multicast . .
PIM Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported PIM Modes and Features . . . . . .
Basic PIM Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Globally Enabling or Disabling the PIM Feature
Defining a PIM Network Component . . . .
Defining an IP Interface for PIM Use . . . .
PIM Neighbor Filters. . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Sparse Mode Settings . . . . . . .
Specifying the Rendezvous Point. . . . . .
Influencing the Designated Router Selection .
Specifying a Bootstrap Router . . . . . . .
Using PIM with Other Features . . . . . . . .
PIM Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . .
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Part 6:. High Availability Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Chapter 33. Basic Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Trunking for Link Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Contents
15
Hot Links . . . . . . . .
Forward Delay . . . . .
Preemption . . . . . .
FDB Update. . . . . .
Configuration Guidelines .
Configuring Hot Links . .
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Chapter 34. Layer 2 Failover .
Auto Monitoring Trunk Links . .
VLAN Monitor . . . . . .
Auto Monitor Configurations
Setting the Failover Limit . . .
Manually Monitoring Port Links .
L2 Failover with Other Features.
LACP . . . . . . . . .
Spanning Tree Protocol . .
Configuration Guidelines . . .
Auto Monitor Guidelines . .
Manual Monitor Guidelines .
Configuring Layer 2 Failover . .
Auto Monitor Example . . .
Manual Monitor Example. .
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Chapter 35. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
VRRP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VRRP Components . . . . . . . . . . . .
VRRP Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the Master VRRP Router . . . . . .
Failover Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Active-Active Redundancy . . . . . . . . .
Hot-Standby Redundancy . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Router Group . . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Networking OS Extensions to VRRP . . . . .
Virtual Router Deployment Considerations . . . .
High Availability Configurations . . . . . . . . .
Active-Active Configuration . . . . . . . . .
Hot-Standby Configuration . . . . . . . . .
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Part 7:. Network Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Chapter 36. Link Layer Discovery Protocol
LLDP Overview . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling or Disabling LLDP . . . . . . .
Global LLDP Setting . . . . . . . .
Transmit and Receive Control . . . . .
LLDP Transmit Features . . . . . . . .
Scheduled Interval . . . . . . . . .
Minimum Interval . . . . . . . . . .
Time-to-Live for Transmitted Information
Trap Notifications . . . . . . . . .
Changing the LLDP Transmit State. . .
Types of Information Transmitted . . .
16
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
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LLDP Receive Features . . . . . . . .
Types of Information Received. . . .
Viewing Remote Device Information .
Time-to-Live for Received Information .
LLDP Example Configuration . . . . . .
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Chapter 37. Simple Network Management Protocol
SNMP Version 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SNMP Version 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SNMP Trap Hosts . . . . . . . . .
SNMP MIBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch Images and Configuration Files . . . . . .
Loading a New Switch Image . . . . . . . .
Loading a Saved Switch Configuration . . . .
Saving the Switch Configuration . . . . . . .
Saving a Switch Dump . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 8:. Monitoring
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Chapter 38. Remote Monitoring
RMON Overview . . . . . . .
RMON Group 1–Statistics . . .
RMON Group 2–History . . . .
History MIB Objects . . . .
Configuring RMON History .
RMON Group 3–Alarms . . . .
Alarm MIB Objects . . . .
Configuring RMON Alarms .
RMON Group 9–Events . . . .
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Chapter 39. sFLOW . . . .
sFlow Statistical Counters . .
sFlow Network Sampling . .
sFlow Example Configuration .
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Chapter 40. Port Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Port Mirroring Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Part 9:. Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Appendix A. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
Appendix B. Getting help and technical assistance .
Before you call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the documentation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting help and information on the World Wide Web .
Software service and support . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware service and support . . . . . . . . . .
IBM Taiwan product service . . . . . . . . . . .
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Appendix C. Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 520
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Contents
17
Important Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Particulate contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic emission notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) statement . . . .
Industry Canada Class A emission compliance statement . . . .
Avis de conformité à la réglementation d'Industrie Canada . . .
Australia and New Zealand Class A statement . . . . . . . .
European Union EMC Directive conformance statement . . . .
Germany Class A statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Japan VCCI Class A statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Korea Communications Commission (KCC) statement . . . . .
Russia Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Class A statement . .
People’s Republic of China Class A electronic emission statement
Taiwan Class A compliance statement . . . . . . . . . . .
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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
18
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Preface
The IBM Networking OS 7.8 Application Guide describes how to configure and use
the IBM Networking OS 7.8 software on the IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb
Converged Scalable Switch (referred to as CN4093 throughout this document).
For documentation about installing the switch physically, see the Installation Guide
for your CN4093.
Who Should Use This Guide
This guide is intended for network installers and system administrators engaged in
configuring and maintaining a network. The administrator should be familiar with
Ethernet concepts, IP addressing, Spanning Tree Protocol, and SNMP configuration
parameters.
What You’ll Find in This Guide
This guide will help you plan, implement, and administer IBM Networking OS
software. Where possible, each section provides feature overviews, usage
examples, and configuration instructions. The following material is included:
Part 1: Getting Started
This material is intended to help those new to IBM Networking OS products with the
basics of switch management. This part includes the following chapters:
• Chapter 1, “Switch Administration,” describes how to access the CN4093 in
order to configure the switch and view switch information and statistics. This
chapter discusses a variety of manual administration interfaces, including local
management via the switch console, and remote administration via Telnet, a web
browser, or via SNMP.
• Chapter 2, “Initial Setup,” describes how to use the built-in Setup utility to
perform first-time configuration of the switch.
• Chapter 3, “Service Location Protocol,” describes the Service Location Protocol
(SLP) that allows the switch to provide dynamic directory services.
• Chapter 4, “System License Keys,” describes how to manage Features on
Demand (FoD) licenses and how to allocate bandwidth between physical ports
within the installed licenses’ limitations.
Part 2: Securing the Switch
•
•
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 5, “Securing Administration,” describes methods for changing the
default switch passwords, using Secure Shell and Secure Copy for
administration connections, configuring end-user access control, and placing the
switch in protected mode.
Chapter 6, “Authentication & Authorization Protocols,” describes different secure
administration for remote administrators. This includes using Remote
Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS), as well as TACACS+ and LDAP.
Chapter 7, “802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control,” describes how to
authenticate devices attached to a LAN port that has point-to-point connection
characteristics. This feature prevents access to ports that fail authentication and
authorization and provides security to ports of the CN4093 that connect to blade
servers.
19
•
Chapter 8, “Access Control Lists,” describes how to use filters to permit or deny
specific types of traffic, based on a variety of source, destination, and packet
attributes.
Part 3: Switch Basics
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 9, “VLANs,” describes how to configure Virtual Local Area Networks
(VLANs) for creating separate network segments, including how to use VLAN
tagging for devices that use multiple VLANs. This chapter also describes
Protocol-based VLANs, and Private VLANs.
Chapter 10, “Ports and Trunking,” describes how to group multiple physical ports
together to aggregate the bandwidth between large-scale network devices.
Chapter 11, “Spanning Tree Protocols,” discusses how Spanning Tree Protocol
(STP) configures the network so that the switch selects the most efficient path
when multiple paths exist. Also includes the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
(RSTP), Per-VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree Plus (PVRST+), and Multiple Spanning
Tree Protocol (MSTP) extensions to STP.
Chapter 12, “Virtual Link Aggregation Groups,” describes using Virtual Link
Aggregation Groups (VLAG) to form trunks spanning multiple VLAG-capable
aggregator switches.
Chapter 13, “Quality of Service,” discusses Quality of Service (QoS) features,
including IP filtering using Access Control Lists (ACLs), Differentiated Services,
and IEEE 802.1p priority values.
Part 4: Advanced Switching Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
20
Chapter 14, “Stacking,” describes how to implement the stacking feature in the
IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch.
Chapter 15, “Virtualization,” provides an overview of allocating resources based
on the logical needs of the data center, rather than on the strict, physical nature
of components.
Chapter 16, “Virtual NICs,” discusses using virtual NIC (vNIC) technology to
divide NICs into multiple logical, independent instances.
Chapter 17, “VMready,” discusses virtual machine (VM) support on the CN4093.
Chapter 18, “FCoE and CEE,” discusses using various Converged Enhanced
Ethernet (CEE) features such as Priority-based Flow Control (PFC), Enhanced
Transmission Selection (ETS), and FIP Snooping for solutions such as Fibre
Channel over Ethernet (FCoE).
Chapter 19, “Fibre Channel,” describes how to configure the CN4093 for use
with Fibre Channel networks.
Chapter 20, “Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB),” discusses the IEEE 802.1Qbg—a
standards-based protocol that defines how virtual Ethernet bridges exchange
configuration information. EVB bridges the gap between physical and virtual
network resources, thus simplifying network management.
Chapter 21, “Static Multicast ARP,” discusses the configuration of a static ARP
entry with multicast MAC address for Microsoft’s Network Load Balancing (NLB)
feature to function efficiently.
Chapter 22, “Unified Fabric Port,” describes how UFP logically subdivides a
high-speed physical link connecting to a server NIC or to a Converged Network
Adapter (CNA). UFP provides a switch fabric component to control the NIC.
Chapter 23, “Switch Partition,” describes the creation of multiple partitions within
a switch to form a virtual switching context with respect to data plane partition of
a switch.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Part 5: IP Routing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 24, “Basic IP Routing,” describes how to configure the CN4093 for IP
routing using IP subnets, BOOTP, and DHCP Relay.
Chapter 25, “Internet Protocol Version 6,” describes how to configure the
CN4093 for IPv6 host management.
Chapter 26, “Using IPsec with IPv6,” describes how to configure Internet
Protocol Security (IPsec) for securing IP communications by authenticating and
encrypting IP packets, with emphasis on Internet Key Exchange version 2, and
authentication/confidentiality for OSPFv3.
Chapter 27, “Routing Information Protocol,” describes how the IBM Networking
OS software implements standard Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for
exchanging TCP/IP route information with other routers.
Chapter 28, “Internet Group Management Protocol,” describes how the IBM
Networking OS software implements IGMP Snooping or IGMP Relay to conserve
bandwidth in a multicast-switching environment.
Chapter 29, “Multicast Listener Discovery,” describes how Multicast Listener
Discovery (MLD) is used with IPv6 to support host users requests for multicast
data for a multicast group.
Chapter 30, “Border Gateway Protocol,” describes Border Gateway Protocol
(BGP) concepts and features supported in IBM Networking OS.
Chapter 31, “OSPF,” describes key Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) concepts
and their implemented in IBM Networking OS, and provides examples of how to
configure your switch for OSPF support.
Chapter 32, “Protocol Independent Multicast,” describes how multicast routing
can be efficiently accomplished using the Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM)
feature.
Part 6: High Availability Fundamentals
•
•
•
Chapter 33, “Basic Redundancy,” describes how the CN4093 supports
redundancy through trunking and Hotlinks.
Chapter 34, “Layer 2 Failover,” describes how the CN4093 supports
high-availability network topologies using Layer 2 Failover.
Chapter 35, “Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol,” describes how the CN4093
supports high-availability network topologies using Virtual Router Redundancy
Protocol (VRRP).
Part 7: Network Management
•
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 36, “Link Layer Discovery Protocol,” describes how Link Layer
Discovery Protocol helps neighboring network devices learn about each others’
ports and capabilities.
Chapter 37, “Simple Network Management Protocol,” describes how to configure
the switch for management through an SNMP client.
Preface
21
Part 8: Monitoring
•
•
•
Chapter 38, “Remote Monitoring,” describes how to configure the RMON agent
on the switch, so that the switch can exchange network monitoring data.
Chapter 39, “sFLOW, described how to use the embedded sFlow agent for
sampling network traffic and providing continuous monitoring information to a
central sFlow analyzer.
Chapter 40, “Port Mirroring,” discusses tools how copy selected port traffic to a
monitor port for network analysis.
Part 9: Appendices
•
•
•
Appendix A, “Glossary,” describes common terms and concepts used throughout
this guide.
Appendix B, “Getting help and technical assistance,” describes how to get help.
Appendix C, “Notices,” provides trademark and other compliance information.
Additional References
Additional information about installing and configuring the CN4093 is available in
the following guides:
• IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch Installation
Guide
• IBM Networking OS Menu-Based CLI Command Reference
• IBM Networking OS ISCLI Command Reference
• IBM Networking OS Browser-Based Interface Quick Guide
22
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Typographic Conventions
The following table describes the typographic styles used in this book.
Table 1. Typographic Conventions
Typeface or
Symbol
Meaning
Example
ABC123
This type is used for names of
commands, files, and directories
used within the text.
View the readme.txt file.
It also depicts on-screen computer Main#
output and prompts.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
ABC123
This bold type appears in
command examples. It shows text
that must be typed in exactly as
shown.
Main# sys
<ABC123>
This italicized type appears in
command examples as a
parameter placeholder. Replace
the indicated text with the
appropriate real name or value
when using the command. Do not
type the brackets.
To establish a Telnet session,
enter:
host# telnet <IP address>
This also shows book titles,
special terms, or words to be
emphasized.
Read your User’s Guide
thoroughly.
[ ]
Command items shown inside
brackets are optional and can be
used or excluded as the situation
demands. Do not type the
brackets.
host# ls [-a]
|
The vertical bar ( | ) is used in
command examples to separate
choices where multiple options
exist. Select only one of the listed
options. Do not type the vertical
bar.
host# set left|right
AaBbCc123
This block type depicts menus,
buttons, and other controls that
appear in Web browsers and other
graphical interfaces.
Click the Save button.
Preface
23
How to Get Help
If you need help, service, or technical assistance, visit our website at the following
address:
You also can visit our web site at the following address:
http://www.ibm.com/support
Click the Support tab.
The warranty card received with your product provides details for contacting a
customer support representative. If you are unable to locate this information, please
contact your reseller. Before you call, prepare the following information:
• Serial number of the switch unit
• Software release version number
• Brief description of the problem and the steps you have already taken
• Technical support dump information (# show tech-support)
24
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Part 1: Getting Started
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
25
26
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 1. Switch Administration
Your CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch is ready to perform basic switching
functions right out of the box. Some of the more advanced features, however,
require some administrative configuration before they can be used effectively.
The extensive IBM Networking OS switching software included in the CN4093
provides a variety of options for accessing the switch to perform configuration, and
to view switch information and statistics.
This chapter discusses the various methods that can be used to administer the
switch.
Administration Interfaces
The switch software provides a variety of user-interfaces for administration. These
interfaces vary in character and in the methods used to access them: some are
text-based, and some are graphical; some are available by default, and some
require configuration; some can be accessed by local connection to the switch, and
others are accessed remotely using various client applications. For example,
administration can be performed using any of the following:
• The Flex System chassis management module tools for general chassis
management
• A built-in, text-based command-line interface and menu system for access via
serial-port connection or an optional Telnet or SSH session
• The built-in Browser-Based Interface (BBI) available using a standard
web-browser
• SNMP support for access through network management software such as IBM
Director.
The specific interface chosen for an administrative session depends on user
preferences, as well as the switch configuration and the available client tools.
In all cases, administration requires that the switch hardware is properly installed
and turned on. (see the IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable
Switch Installation Guide).
Chassis Management Module
The CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch is an integral subsystem within the
overall IBM Flex System. The Flex System chassis also includes a chassis
management module (CMM) as the central element for overall chassis
management and control. Using the tools available through the CMM, the
administrator can configure many of the CN4093 features and can also access
other CN4093 administration interfaces.
For more information, see “Using the Chassis Management Module” on page 29.
Industry Standard Command Line Interface
The Industry Standard Command Line Interface (ISCLI) provides a simple, direct
method for switch administration. Using a basic terminal, you can issue commands
that allow you to view detailed information and statistics about the switch, and to
perform any necessary configuration and switch software maintenance.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
27
You can establish a connection to the ISCLI in any of the following ways:
• Serial connection via the serial port on the CN4093 (this option is always available)
• Telnet connection over the network
• SSH connection over the network
Browser-Based Interface
The Browser-based Interface (BBI) provides access to the common configuration,
management and operation features of the CN4093 through your Web browser.
For more information, refer to the IBM Networking OS BBI Quick Guide.
28
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Establishing a Connection
The factory default settings permit initial switch administration through only the
built-in serial port. All other forms of access require additional switch configuration
before they can be used.
Remote access using the network requires the accessing terminal to have a valid,
routable connection to the switch interface. The client IP address may be configured
manually, or an IPv4 address can be provided automatically through the switch
using a service such as DHCP or BOOTP relay (see “BOOTP/DHCP Client IP
Address Services” on page 36), or an IPv6 address can be obtained using IPv6
stateless address configuration.
Note: Throughout this manual, IP address is used in places where either an IPv4
or IPv6 address is allowed. IPv4 addresses are entered in dotted-decimal
notation (for example, 10.10.10.1), while IPv6 addresses are entered in
hexadecimal notation (for example, 2001:db8:85a3::8a2e:370:7334). In
places where only one type of address is allowed, IPv4 address or IPv6
address is specified.
Using the Chassis Management Module
The CN4093 is an integral subsystem within the overall IBM Flex System. The Flex
System chassis includes a chassis management module (CMM) as the central
element for overall chassis management and control.
The CN4093 uses port 66 (MGT1) to communicate with the chassis management
module(s). Even when the CN4093 is in a factory default configuration, you can use
the 1Gb Ethernet port on each CMM to configure and manage the CN4093.
For more information about using the chassis management module, see the IBM
Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch Installation Guide.
Factory-Default vs. CMM-Assigned IP Addresses
Each CN4093 must be assigned its own Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address,
which is used for communication with an SNMP network manager or other
transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) applications (for example,
BOOTP or TFTP). The factory-default IPv4 address is 10.90.90.x, where x is based
on the number of the bay into which the CN4093 is installed. For additional
information, see the Installation Guide. The chassis management module assigns
an IPv4 address of 192.168.70.1xx, where xx is also based on the number of the
bay into which each CN4093 is installed, as shown in the following table:
Table 2. CN4093 IPv4 addresses, by switch-module bay numbers
Bay Number
Factory-Default IPv4 Address
IPv4 Address Assigned by CMM
Bay 1
10.90.90.91
192.168.70.120
Bay 2
10.90.90.92
192.168.70.121
Bay 3
10.90.90.93
192.168.70.122
Bay 4
10.90.90.94
192.168.70.123
Note: CN4093s installed in Bay 1 and Bay 2 connect to server NICs 1 and 2,
respectively.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
29
Using Telnet
A Telnet connection offers the convenience of accessing the switch from a
workstation connected to the network. Telnet access provides the same options for
user and administrator access as those available through the console port.
By default, Telnet access is disabled. Use the following commands (available on the
console only) to enable or disable Telnet access:
CN 4093(config)# [no] access telnet enable
Once the switch is configured with an IP address and gateway, you can use Telnet
to access switch administration from any workstation connected to the management
network.
To establish a Telnet connection with the switch, run the Telnet program on your
workstation and issue the following Telnet command:
telnet <switch IPv4 or IPv6 address>
You will then be prompted to enter a password as explained “Switch Login Levels”
on page 38.
Two attempts are allowed to log in to the switch. After the second unsuccessful
attempt, the Telnet client is disconnected via TCP session closure.
Using Secure Shell
Although a remote network administrator can manage the configuration of a
CN4093 via Telnet, this method does not provide a secure connection. The Secure
Shell (SSH) protocol enables you to securely log into another device over a network
to execute commands remotely. As a secure alternative to using Telnet to manage
switch configuration, SSH ensures that all data sent over the network is encrypted
and secure.
The switch can do only one session of key/cipher generation at a time. Thus, a
SSH/SCP client will not be able to login if the switch is doing key generation at that
time. Similarly, the system will fail to do the key generation if a SSH/SCP client is
logging in at that time.
The supported SSH encryption and authentication methods are listed below.
•
•
•
•
30
Server Host Authentication: Client RSA-authenticates the switch when starting
each connection
Key Exchange: ecdh-sha2-nistp521, ecdh-sha2-nistp384, ecdh-sha2-nistp256,
ecdh-sha2-nistp224, ecdh-sha2-nistp192, rsa2048-sha256, rsa1024-sha1,
diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256, diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,
diffie-hellman-group14-sha1, diffie-hellman-group1-sha1
Encryption: aes128-ctr, aes128-cbc, rijndael128-cbc, blowfish-cbc,3des-cbc,
arcfour256, arcfour128, arcfour
MAC: hmac-sha1, hmac-sha1-96, hmac-md5, hmac-md5-96
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
•
User Authentication: Local password authentication, RADIUS, TACACS+
The following SSH clients have been tested:
•
•
•
OpenSSH_5.1p1 Debian-3ubuntu1
SecureCRT 5.0 (Van Dyke Technologies, Inc.)
Putty beta 0.60
Note: The IBM Networking OS implementation of SSH supports version 2.0 and
supports SSH client version 2.0.
Using SSH to Access the Switch
By default, the SSH feature is enabled. For information about enabling and using
SSH for switch access, see “Secure Shell and Secure Copy” on page 66.
Once the IP parameters are configured and the SSH service is enabled, you can
access the command line interface using an SSH connection.
To establish an SSH connection with the switch, run the SSH program on your
workstation by issuing the SSH command, followed by the switch IPv4 or IPv6
address:
# ssh <switch IP address>
You will then be prompted to enter a password as explained “Switch Login Levels”
on page 38.
Using a Web Browser
The switch provides a Browser-Based Interface (BBI) for accessing the common
configuration, management and operation features of the CN4093 through your
Web browser.
You can access the BBI directly from an open Web browser window. Enter the URL
using the IP address of the switch interface (for example, http://<IPv4 or IPv6
address>).
When you first access the switch, you must enter the default username and
password: USERID; PASSW0RD (with a zero). You are required to change the
password after first login.
Configuring HTTP Access to the BBI
By default, BBI access via HTTP is disabled on the switch.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
31
To enable or disable HTTP access to the switch BBI, use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# access http enable
(Enable HTTP access)
-orCN 4093(config)# no access http enable
(Disable HTTP access)
The default HTTP web server port to access the BBI is port 80. However, you can
change the default Web server port with the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access http port <TCP port number>
To access the BBI from a workstation, open a Web browser window and type in the
URL using the IP address of the switch interface (for example, http://<IPv4 or
IPv6 address>).
Configuring HTTPS Access to the BBI
The BBI can also be accessed via a secure HTTPS connection.
1. Enable HTTPS.
By default, BBI access via HTTPS is enabled on the switch. To disable or
re-enable BBI access via HTTPS, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# no access https enable
(Disable HTTPS access)
-orCN 4093(config)# access https enable
(Enable HTTPS access)
2. Set the HTTPS server port number (optional).
The default HTTPS web server port to access the BBI is port 443. However, you
can change the default Web server port with the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access https port <x>
3. Generate the HTTPS certificate.
Accessing the BBI via HTTPS requires that you generate a certificate to be used
during the key exchange. A default certificate is created the first time HTTPS is
enabled, but you can create a new certificate defining the information you want
to be used in the various fields.
CN 4093(config)# access https generate-certificate
Country Name (2 letter code) []: <country code>
State or Province Name (full name) []: <state>
Locality Name (eg, city) []: <city>
Organization Name (eg, company) []: <company>
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: <org. unit>
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []: <name>
Email (eg, email address) []: <email address>
Confirm generating certificate? [y/n]: y
Generating certificate. Please wait (approx 30 seconds)
restarting SSL agent
32
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
4. Save the HTTPS certificate.
The certificate is valid only until the switch is rebooted. To save the certificate so
that it is retained beyond reboot or power cycles, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access https save-certificate
When a client (such as a web browser) connects to the switch, the client is asked to
accept the certificate and verify that the fields match what is expected. Once BBI
access is granted to the client, the BBI can be used as described in the IBM
Networking OS BBI Quick Guide.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
33
BBI Summary
The BBI is organized at a high level as follows:
Context buttons—These buttons allow you to select the type of action you wish to
perform. The Configuration button provides access to the configuration elements for
the entire switch. The Statistics button provides access to the switch statistics and
state information. The Dashboard button allows you to display the settings and
operating status of a variety of switch features.
Navigation Window—This window provides a menu list of switch features and
functions:
•
•
System—this folder provides access to the configuration elements for the entire
switch.
Switch Ports—Configure each of the physical ports on the switch.
•
Port-Based Port Mirroring—Configure port mirroring behavior.
•
Layer 2—Configure Layer 2 features for the switch.
•
RMON Menu—Configure Remote Monitoring features for the switch.
•
Layer 3—Configure Layer 3 features for the switch.
•
QoS—Configure Quality of Service features for the switch.
•
Access Control—Configure Access Control Lists to filter IP packets.
•
Virtualization – Configure VMready for virtual machine (VM) support.
For information on using the BBI, refer to the IBM Networking OS BBI Quick Guide.
34
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Using Simple Network Management Protocol
IBM Networking OS provides Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
version 1, version 2, and version 3 support for access through any network
management software, such as IBM Director.
To access the SNMP agent on the CN4093, the read and write community strings
on the SNMP manager should be configured to match those on the switch.
The read and write community strings on the switch can be changed using the
following commands:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server read-community <1-32 characters>
-andCN 4093(config)# snmp-server write-community <1-32 characters>
The SNMP manager should be able to reach any one of the IP interfaces on the
switch.
For the SNMP manager to receive the SNMPv1 traps sent out by the SNMP agent
on the switch, configure the trap host on the switch with the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server trap-source <trap source IP interface>
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server host <IPv4 address> <trap host community string>
For more information on SNMP usage and configuration, see “Simple Network
Management Protocol” on page 481.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
35
BOOTP/DHCP Client IP Address Services
For remote switch administration, the client terminal device must have a valid IP
address on the same network as a switch interface. The IP address on the client
device may be configured manually, or obtained automatically using IPv6 stateless
address configuration, or an IPv4 address may obtained automatically via BOOTP
or DHCP relay as discussed below.
The CN4093 can function as a relay agent for Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) or
DHCP. This allows clients to be assigned an IPv4 address for a finite lease period,
reassigning freed addresses later to other clients.
Acting as a relay agent, the switch can forward a client’s IPv4 address request to up
to four BOOTP/DHCP servers. In addition to the four global BOOTP/DHCP servers,
up to four domain-specific BOOTP/DHCP servers can be configured for each of up
to 10 VLANs.
When a switch receives a BOOTP/DHCP request from a client seeking an IPv4
address, the switch acts as a proxy for the client. The request is forwarded as a
UDP Unicast MAC layer message to the BOOTP/DHCP servers configured for the
client’s VLAN, or to the global BOOTP/DHCP servers if no domain-specific
BOOTP/DHCP servers are configured for the client’s VLAN. The servers respond to
the switch with a Unicast reply that contains the IPv4 default gateway and the IPv4
address for the client. The switch then forwards this reply back to the client.
DHCP is described in RFC 2131, and the DHCP relay agent supported on the
CN4093 is described in RFC 1542. DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol. The
client sends messages to the server on port 67 and the server sends messages to
the client on port 68.
BOOTP and DHCP relay are collectively configured using the BOOTP commands
and menus on the CN4093.
Host Name Configuration
The CN4093 supports DHCP host name configuration as described in RFC 2132,
option 12. DHCP host name configuration is enabled by default.
Host name can be manually configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# hostname <name>
If the host name is manually configured, the switch does not replace it with the host
name received from the DHCP server.
After the host name is configured on the switch, if DHCP or DHCP host name
configuration is disabled, the switch retains the host name.
The switch prompt displays the host name.
Host name configuration can be enabled/disabled using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] system dhcp hostname
36
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
SYSLOG Server
During switch startup, if the switch fails to get the configuration file, a message can
be recorded in the SYSLOG server.
The CN4093 supports requesting of a SYSLOG server IP address from the DHCP
server as described in RFC 2132, option 7. DHCP SYSLOG server request option is
enabled by default.
Manually configured SYSLOG server takes priority over DHCP SYSLOG server.
Up to two SYSLOG server addresses received from the DHCP server can be used.
The SYSLOG server can be learnt over a management port or a data port.
Use the CN 4093# show logging command to view the SYSLOG server
address.
DHCP SYSLOG server address option can be enabled/disabled using the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] system dhcp syslog
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
37
Switch Login Levels
To enable better switch management and user accountability, three levels or classes
of user access have been implemented on the CN4093. Levels of access to CLI,
Web management functions, and screens increase as needed to perform various
switch management tasks. Conceptually, access classes are defined as follows:
•
User interaction with the switch is completely passive—nothing can be changed
on the CN4093. Users may display information that has no security or privacy
implications, such as switch statistics and current operational state information.
•
Operators can only effect temporary changes on the CN4093. These changes
will be lost when the switch is rebooted/reset. Operators have access to the
switch management features used for daily switch operations. Because any
changes an operator makes are undone by a reset of the switch, operators
cannot severely impact switch operation.
•
Administrators are the only ones that may make permanent changes to the
switch configuration—changes that are persistent across a reboot/reset of the
switch. Administrators can access switch functions to configure and troubleshoot
problems on the CN4093. Because administrators can also make temporary
(operator-level) changes as well, they must be aware of the interactions between
temporary and permanent changes.
Access to switch functions is controlled through the use of unique user names and
passwords. Once you are connected to the switch via console, remote Telnet, or
SSH, you are prompted to enter a password. The default user names/password for
each access level are listed in the following table.
Note: It is recommended that you change default switch passwords after initial
configuration and as regularly as required under your network security
policies. For more information, see “Changing the Switch Passwords” on
page 65.
Table 3. User Access Levels - Default Settings
38
User
Account
Password Description and Tasks Performed
user
user
The User has no direct responsibility for
switch management. He or she can view all
switch status information and statistics, but
cannot make any configuration changes to
the switch.
Disabled
oper
oper
The Operator manages all functions of the
switch. The Operator can reset ports, except
the management ports.
Disabled
admin
admin
The superuser Administrator has complete
access to all menus, information, and
configuration commands on the CN4093,
including the ability to change both the user
and administrator passwords.
Enabled
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Status
Note: Access to each user level (except admin account) can be disabled by setting
the password to an empty value. To disable admin account, use the
command:
CN 4093(config)# no access user administrator-enable.
Admin account can be disabled only if there is at least one user account
enabled and configured with administrator privilege.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
39
Secure FTP
IBM Networking OS supports Secure FTP (SFTP) to the switch. SFTP uses Secure
Shell (SSH) to transfer files. SFTP encrypts both commands and data, and prevents
passwords and sensitive information from being transmitted openly over the
network.
All file transfer commands include SFTP support along with FTP and TFTP support.
SFTP is available through the menu-based CLI, ISCLI, BBI, and SNMP.
The following examples illustrate SFTP support for ISCLI commands:
CN 4093# copy sftp {image1|image2|boot-image} [mgt-port|data-port]
(Copy software image from SFTP server to the switch)
CN 4093# copy sftp {ca-cert|host-cert|host-key} [mgt-port|data-port]
(Copy HTTPS certificate or host key from SFTP server to the switch)
40
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Boot Strict Mode
The implementations specified in this section are compliant with National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication (SP) 800-131A.
The CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch can operate in two boot modes:
• Compatibility mode (default): This is the default switch boot mode. This mode
may use algorithms and key lengths that may not be allowed/acceptable by NIST
SP 800-131A specification. This mode is useful in maintaining compatibility with
previous releases and in environments that have lesser data security
requirements.
• Strict mode: Encryption algorithms, protocols, and key lengths in strict mode are
compliant with NIST SP 800-131A specification.
When in boot strict mode, the switch uses Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport
Layer Security (TLS) 1.2 protocols to ensure confidentiality of the data to and from
the switch.
By default, HTTP, Telnet, and SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 are disabled on the CN4093..
Before enabling strict mode, ensure the following:
• The software version on all connected switches is IBM Networking OS 7.8.
• The supported protocol versions and cryptographic cipher suites between
clients and servers are compatible. For example: if using SSH to connect to the
switch, ensure that the SSH client supports SSHv2 and a strong cipher suite
that is compliant with the NIST standard.
• Compliant Web server certificate is installed on the switch, if using BBI.
• A new self-signed certificate is generated for the switch
(CN 4093(config)# access https generate-certificate). The
new certificate is generated using 2048-bit RSA key and SHA-256 digest.
• Protocols that are not NIST SP 800-131A compliant must be disabled or not
used.
• Only SSHv2 or higher is used.
• The current configuration, if any, is saved in a location external to the switch.
When the switch reboots, both the startup and running configuration are lost.
• Only protocols/algorithms compliant with NIST SP 800-131A specification are
used/enabled on the switch. Please see the NIST SP 800-131A publication for
details. The following table lists the acceptable protocols and algorithms:
Table 4. Acceptable Protocols and Algorithms
Protocol/Function Strict Mode Algorithm
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Compatibility Mode Algorithm
BGP
Acceptable
BGP does not comply with NIST SP
800-131A specification. When in strict
mode, BGP is disabled. However, it can
be enabled, if required.
Certificate
Generation
RSA-2048
SHA-256
RSA 2048
SHA 256
Certificate
Acceptance
RSA 2048 or higher
SHA 224 or higher
RSA
SHA, SHA2
HTTPS
TLS 1.2 only
See “Acceptable Cipher Suites” on
page 44;
TLS 1.0, 1.1, 1.2
See “Acceptable Cipher Suites” on
page 44;
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
41
Table 4. Acceptable Protocols and Algorithms
Protocol/Function Strict Mode Algorithm
Compatibility Mode Algorithm
IKE
Key Exchange DH Group 24
Encryption 3DES, AES-128-CBC
DH group 1, 2, 5, 14, 24
3DES, AES-128-CBC
Integrity HMAC-SHA1
HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-MD5
AH HMAC-SHA1
HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-MD5
IPSec
ESP 3DES, AES-128-CBC, HMAC-SHA1 3DES, AES-128-CBC,
HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-MD5
LDAP
LDAP does not comply with NIST SP Acceptable
800-131A specification. When in strict
mode, LDAP is disabled. However, it
can be enabled, if required.
OSPF
OSPF does not comply with NIST SP Acceptable
800-131A specification. When in strict
mode, OSPF is disabled. However, it
can be enabled, if required.
RADIUS
RADIUS does not comply with NIST Acceptable
SP 800-131A specification. When in
strict mode, RADIUS is disabled. However, it can be enabled, if required.
Random Number
Generator
NIST SP 800-90A AES CTR DRBG
Secure NTP
Secure NTP does not comply with
Acceptable
NIST SP 800-131A specification.
When in strict mode, secure NTP is disabled. However, it can be enabled, if
required.
SLP
SHA-256 or higher
RSA/DSA 2048 or higher
SNMP
SNMPv3 only
AES-128-CFB-128/SHA1
Note: Following algorithms are acceptable if you choose to support old
SNMPv3 factory default users:
AES-128-CFB/SHA1
DES/MD5
AES-128-CFB-128/SHA1
42
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
NIST SP 800-90A AES CTR DRBG
SNMPv1, SNMPv2, SNMPv3
DES/MD5,
AES-128-CFB-128/SHA1
Table 4. Acceptable Protocols and Algorithms
Protocol/Function Strict Mode Algorithm
Compatibility Mode Algorithm
SSH/SFTP
Host Key SSH-RSA
Key Exchange ECDH-SHA2-NISTP521
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP384
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP256
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP224
RSA2048-SHA256
DIFFIE-HELLMAN-GROUP-EXCHANGE-SHA256
DIFFIE-HELLMAN-GROUP-EXCHANGE-SHA1
Encryption AES128-CTR
AES128-CBC
3DES-CBC
MAC HMAC-SHA1
HMAC-SHA1-96
TACACS+
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
SSH-RSA
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP521
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP384
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP256
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP224
ECDH-SHA2-NISTP192
RSA2048-SHA256
RSA1024-SHA1
DIFFIE-HELLMAN-GROUP-EXCHANGE-SHA
256
DIFFIE-HELLMAN-GROUP-EXCHANGE-SHA
1
DIFFIE-HELLMAN-GROUP14-SHA1
DIFFIE-HELLMAN-GROUP1-SHA1
AES128-CTR
AES128-CBC
RIJNDAEL128-CBC
BLOWFISH-CBC
3DES-CBC
ARCFOUR256
ARCFOUR128
ARCFOUR
HMAC-SHA1
HMAC-SHA1-96
HMAC-MD5
HMAC-MD5-96
TACACS+ does not comply with NIST Acceptable
SP 800-131A specification. When in
strict mode, TACACS+ is disabled.
However, it can be enabled, if required.
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
43
Acceptable Cipher Suites
The following cipher suites are acceptable (listed in the order of preference) when
the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch is in compatibility mode:
Table 5. List of Acceptable Cipher Suites in Compatibility Mode
Cipher ID
MAC
Cipher Name
0xC027
Key
Authentication Encryption
Exchange
ECDHE
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA256
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0xC013
ECDHE
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA1
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0xC012
ECDHE
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
0xC011
ECDHE
RSA
RC4
SHA1
SSL_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
0x002F
RSA
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA1
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x003C
RSA
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA256
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0x0005
RSA
RSA
RC4
SHA1
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
0x000A
RSA
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
0x0033
DHE
RSA
AES-128_CBC
SHA1
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x0067
DHE
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA256
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0x0016
DHE
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
The following cipher suites are acceptable (listed in the order of preference) when
the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch is in strict mode:
Table 6. List of Acceptable Cipher Suites in Strict Mode
Cipher ID
44
MAC
Cipher Name
0xC027
Key
Authentication Encryption
Exchange
ECDHE
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA256
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0xC013
ECDHE
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA1
TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0xC012
ECDHE
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
0x0033
DHE
RSA
AES-128_CBC
SHA1
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x0067
DHE
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA256
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0x0016
DHE
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
0x002F
RSA
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA1
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
0x003C
RSA
RSA
AES_128_CBC
SHA256
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256
0x000A
RSA
RSA
3DES
SHA1
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Configuring Strict Mode
To change the switch mode to boot strict mode, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] boot strict enable
When strict mode is enabled, you will see the following message:
Warning, security strict mode limits the cryptographic algorithms used by secure
protocols on this switch. Please see the documentation for full details, and
verify that peer devices support acceptable algorithms before enabling this
mode. The mode change will take effect after reloading the switch and the
configuration will be wiped during the reload. System will enter security strict
mode with default factory configuration at next boot up.
Do you want SNMPV3 support old default users in strict mode (y/n)?
For SNMPv3 default users, see “SNMP Version 3” on page 482.
When strict mode is disabled, the following message is displayed:
Warning, disabling security strict mode. The mode change will take effect after
reloading the switch.
You must reboot the switch for the boot strict mode enable/disable to take effect.
Limitations
In IBM Networking OS 7.8, consider the following limitation/restrictions if you need
to operate the switch in boot strict mode:
• Power ITEs and High-Availability features do not comply with NIST SP 800-131A
specification.
• The CN4093 will not discover Platform agents/Common agents that are not in
strict mode.
• Web browsers that do not use TLS 1.2 cannot be used.
• Limited functions of the switch managing Windows will be available.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 1: Switch Administration
45
46
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 2. Initial Setup
To help with the initial process of configuring your switch, the IBM Networking OS
software includes a Setup utility. The Setup utility prompts you step-by-step to enter
all the necessary information for basic configuration of the switch.
Setup can be activated manually from the command line interface any time after
login: CN 4093(config)# setup
Information Needed for Setup
Setup requests the following information:
• Basic system information
– Date & time
– Whether to use Spanning Tree Group or not
•
Optional configuration for each port
– Speed, duplex, flow control, and negotiation mode (as appropriate)
– Whether to use VLAN tagging or not (as appropriate)
•
Optional configuration for each VLAN
– Name of VLAN
– Which ports are included in the VLAN
•
Optional configuration of IP parameters
– IP address/mask and VLAN for each IP interface
– IP addresses for default gateway
– Whether IP forwarding is enabled or not
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
47
Default Setup Options
The Setup prompt appears automatically whenever you login as the system
administrator under the factory default settings.
1. Connect to the switch.
After connecting, the login prompt will appear as shown here.
Enter login username:
Enter login password:
2. Enter USERID as the default administrator and PASSW0RD (with a zero) as the
default password.
3. Enter the following command at the prompt:
CN 4093(config)# setup
Stopping and Restarting Setup Manually
Stopping Setup
To abort the Setup utility, press <Ctrl-C> during any Setup question. When you abort
Setup, the system will prompt:
Would you like to run from top again? [y/n]
Enter n to abort Setup, or y to restart the Setup program at the beginning.
Restarting Setup
You can restart the Setup utility manually at any time by entering the following
command at the administrator prompt:
CN 4093(config)# setup
Setup Part 1: Basic System Configuration
When Setup is started, the system prompts:
"Set Up" will walk you through the configuration of
System Date and Time, Spanning Tree, Port Speed/Mode,
VLANs, and IP interfaces. [type Ctrl-C to abort "Set Up"]
1. Enter y if you will be configuring VLANs. Otherwise enter n.
If you decide not to configure VLANs during this session, you can configure them
later using the configuration menus, or by restarting the Setup facility. For more
information on configuring VLANs, see the IBM Networking OS Application
Guide.
Next, the Setup utility prompts you to input basic system information.
48
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
2. Enter the year of the current date at the prompt:
System Date:
Enter year [2012]:
Enter the four-digits that represent the year. To keep the current year, press
<Enter>.
3. Enter the month of the current system date at the prompt:
System Date:
Enter month [1]:
Enter the month as a number from 1 to 12. To keep the current month, press
<Enter>.
4. Enter the day of the current date at the prompt:
Enter day [3]:
Enter the date as a number from 1 to 31. To keep the current day, press <Enter>.
The system displays the date and time settings:
System clock set to 18:55:36 Wed Jan 28, 2012.
5. Enter the hour of the current system time at the prompt:
System Time:
Enter hour in 24-hour format [18]:
Enter the hour as a number from 00 to 23. To keep the current hour, press
<Enter>.
6. Enter the minute of the current time at the prompt:
Enter minutes [55]:
Enter the minute as a number from 00 to 59. To keep the current minute, press
<Enter>.
7. Enter the seconds of the current time at the prompt:
Enter seconds [37]:
Enter the seconds as a number from 00 to 59. To keep the current second, press
<Enter>. The system then displays the date and time settings:
System clock set to 8:55:36 Wed Jan 28, 2012.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 2: Initial Setup
49
8. Turn BOOTP on or off at the prompt:
BootP Option:
Current BOOTP: disabled
Enter new BOOTP [d/e]:
Enter e to enable BOOTP, or enter d to disable BOOTP.
9. Turn Spanning Tree Protocol on or off at the prompt:
Spanning Tree:
Current Spanning Tree Group 1 setting: ON
Turn Spanning Tree Group 1 OFF? [y/n]
Enter y to turn off Spanning Tree, or enter n to leave Spanning Tree on.
Setup Part 2: Port Configuration
Note: When configuring port options for your switch, some prompts and options
may be different.
1. Select whether you will configure VLANs and VLAN tagging for ports:
Port Config:
Will you configure VLANs and VLAN tagging for ports? [y/n]
If you wish to change settings for VLANs, enter y, or enter n to skip VLAN
configuration.
Note: The sample screens that appear in this document might differ slightly from
the screens displayed by your system. Screen content varies based on the
type of chassis unit that you are using and the firmware versions and options
that are installed.
2. Select the port to configure, or skip port configuration at the prompt:
If you wish to change settings for individual ports, enter the number of the port
you wish to configure. To skip port configuration, press <Enter> without
specifying any port and go to “Setup Part 3: VLANs” on page 51.
3. Configure Gigabit Ethernet port flow parameters.
The system prompts:
Gig Link Configuration:
Port Flow Control:
Current Port EXT1 flow control setting:
both
Enter new value ["rx"/"tx"/"both"/"none"]:
Enter rx to enable receive flow control, tx for transmit flow control, both to
enable both, or none to turn flow control off for the port. To keep the current
setting, press <Enter>.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
4. Configure Gigabit Ethernet port autonegotiation mode.
If you selected a port that has a Gigabit Ethernet connector, the system prompts:
Port Auto Negotiation:
Current Port EXT1 autonegotiation:
Enter new value ["on"/"off"]:
on
Enter on to enable port autonegotiation, off to disable it, or press <Enter> to
keep the current setting.
5. If configuring VLANs, enable or disable VLAN tagging for the port.
If you have selected to configure VLANs back in Part 1, the system prompts:
Port VLAN tagging config (tagged port can be a member of multiple VLANs)
Current VLAN tag support:
disabled
Enter new VLAN tag support [d/e]:
Enter d to disable VLAN tagging for the port or enter e to enable VLAN tagging
for the port. To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
6. The system prompts you to configure the next port:
Enter port (INTA1-B14, EXT1-24):
When you are through configuring ports, press <Enter> without specifying any
port. Otherwise, repeat the steps in this section.
Setup Part 3: VLANs
If you chose to skip VLANs configuration back in Part 2, skip to “Setup Part 4: IP
Configuration” on page 52.
1. Select the VLAN to configure, or skip VLAN configuration at the prompt:
VLAN Config:
Enter VLAN number from 2 to 4094, NULL at end:
If you wish to change settings for individual VLANs, enter the number of the
VLAN you wish to configure. To skip VLAN configuration, press <Enter> without
typing a VLAN number and go to “Setup Part 4: IP Configuration” on page 52.
2. Enter the new VLAN name at the prompt:
Current VLAN name: VLAN 2
Enter new VLAN name:
Entering a new VLAN name is optional. To use the pending new VLAN name,
press <Enter>.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 2: Initial Setup
51
3. Enter the VLAN port numbers:
Define Ports in VLAN:
Current VLAN 2: empty
Enter ports one per line, NULL at end:
Enter each port, by port number, and confirm placement of the port into this
VLAN. When you are finished adding ports to this VLAN, press <Enter> without
specifying any port.
4. Configure Spanning Tree Group membership for the VLAN:
Spanning Tree Group membership:
Enter new STG index [1-128](802.1d)/[1](RSTP)/[0-32](MSTP):
5. The system prompts you to configure the next VLAN:
VLAN Config:
Enter VLAN number from 2 to 4094, NULL at end:
Repeat the steps in this section until all VLANs have been configured. When all
VLANs have been configured, press <Enter> without specifying any VLAN.
Setup Part 4: IP Configuration
The system prompts for IPv4 parameters.
Although the switch supports both IPv4 and IPv6 networks, the Setup utility permits
only IPv4 configuration. For IPv6 configuration, see “Internet Protocol Version 6” on
page 347.
IP Interfaces
IP interfaces are used for defining the networks to which the switch belongs.
Up to 128 IP interfaces can be configured on the CN4093 10Gb Converged
Scalable Switch (CN4093). The IP address assigned to each IP interface provides
the switch with an IP presence on your network. No two IP interfaces can be on the
same IP network. The interfaces can be used for connecting to the switch for remote
configuration, and for routing between subnets and VLANs (if used).
Note: Interfaces125-128 is reserved for IPv4 switch management.
1. Select the IP interface to configure, or skip interface configuration at the
prompt:
IP Config:
IP interfaces:
Enter interface number: (1-128)
If you wish to configure individual IP interfaces, enter the number of the IP
interface you wish to configure. To skip IP interface configuration, press <Enter>
without typing an interface number and go to “Default Gateways” on page 53.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
2. For the specified IP interface, enter the IP address in IPv4 dotted decimal
notation:
Current IP address:
Enter new IP address:
0.0.0.0
To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
3. At the prompt, enter the IPv4 subnet mask in dotted decimal notation:
Current subnet mask:
Enter new subnet mask:
0.0.0.0
To keep the current setting, press <Enter>.
4. If configuring VLANs, specify a VLAN for the interface.
This prompt appears if you selected to configure VLANs back in Part 1:
Current VLAN:
1
Enter new VLAN [1-4094]:
Enter the number for the VLAN to which the interface belongs, or press <Enter>
without specifying a VLAN number to accept the current setting.
5. At the prompt, enter y to enable the IP interface, or n to leave it disabled:
Enable IP interface? [y/n]
6. The system prompts you to configure another interface:
Enter interface number: (1-128)
Repeat the steps in this section until all IP interfaces have been configured. When
all interfaces have been configured, press <Enter> without specifying any interface
number.
Default Gateways
1. At the prompt, select an IP default gateway for configuration, or skip default
gateway configuration:
IP default gateways:
Enter default gateway number: (1-3, 4)
Enter the number for the IP default gateway to be configured. To skip default
gateway configuration, press <Enter> without typing a gateway number and go
to “IP Routing” on page 54.
2. At the prompt, enter the IPv4 address for the selected default gateway:
Current IP address:
Enter new IP address:
0.0.0.0
Enter the IPv4 address in dotted decimal notation, or press <Enter> without
specifying an address to accept the current setting.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 2: Initial Setup
53
3. At the prompt, enter y to enable the default gateway, or n to leave it disabled:
Enable default gateway? [y/n]
4. The system prompts you to configure another default gateway:
Enter default gateway number: (1-4)
Repeat the steps in this section until all default gateways have been configured.
When all default gateways have been configured, press <Enter> without
specifying any number.
IP Routing
When IP interfaces are configured for the various IP subnets attached to your
switch, IP routing between them can be performed entirely within the switch. This
eliminates the need to send inter-subnet communication to an external router
device. Routing on more complex networks, where subnets may not have a direct
presence on the CN4093, can be accomplished through configuring static routes or
by letting the switch learn routes dynamically.
This part of the Setup program prompts you to configure the various routing
parameters.
At the prompt, enable or disable forwarding for IP Routing:
Enable IP forwarding? [y/n]
Enter y to enable IP forwarding. To disable IP forwarding, enter n. To keep the
current setting, press <Enter>.
Setup Part 5: Final Steps
1. When prompted, decide whether to restart Setup or continue:
Would you like to run from top again? [y/n]
Enter y to restart the Setup utility from the beginning, or n to continue.
2. When prompted, decide whether you wish to review the configuration changes:
Review the changes made? [y/n]
Enter y to review the changes made during this session of the Setup utility. Enter
n to continue without reviewing the changes. We recommend that you review the
changes.
3. Next, decide whether to apply the changes at the prompt:
Apply the changes? [y/n]
Enter y to apply the changes, or n to continue without applying. Changes are
normally applied.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
4. At the prompt, decide whether to make the changes permanent:
Save changes to flash? [y/n]
Enter y to save the changes to flash. Enter n to continue without saving the
changes. Changes are normally saved at this point.
5. If you do not apply or save the changes, the system prompts whether to abort
them:
Abort all changes? [y/n]
Enter y to discard the changes. Enter n to return to the “Apply the
changes?” prompt.
Note: After initial configuration is complete, it is recommended that you change the
default passwords as shown in “Changing the Switch Passwords” on
page 65.
Optional Setup for Telnet Support
Note: This step is optional. Perform this procedure only if you are planning on
connecting to the CN4093 through a remote Telnet connection.
1. Telnet is enabled by default. To change the setting, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# no access telnet
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 2: Initial Setup
55
56
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 3. Service Location Protocol
Service Location Protocol (SLP) allows the switch to provide dynamic directory
services that helps users find servers by attributes rather than by name or address.
SLP eliminates the need for a user to know the name of a network host supporting
a service. SLP allows the user to bind a service description to the network address
of the service.
Service Location Protocol is described in RFC 2608.
Note: SLP is not supported on the internal management port (MGT).
SLP defines specialized components called agents that perform tasks and support
services as follows:
• User Agent (UA) supports service query functions. It requests service information
for user applications. The User Agent retrieves service information from the
Service Agent or Directory Agents. A Host On-Demand client is an example of a
User Agent.
• Service Agent (SA) provides service registration and service advertisement.
Note: In this release, SA supports UA/DA on Linux with SLPv2 support.
• Directory Agent (DA) collects service information from Service Agents to provide
a repository of service information in order to centralize it for efficient access by
User Agents. There can only be one Directory Agent present per given host.
The Directory Agent acts as an intermediate tier in the SLP architecture, placed
between the User Agents and the Service Agents, so they communicate only with
the Directory Agent instead of with each other. This eliminates a large portion of the
multicast request or reply traffic on the network, and it protects the Service Agents
from being overwhelmed by too many service requests.
Services are described by the configuration of attributes associated with a type of
service. A User Agent can select an appropriate service by specifying the attributes
that it needs in a service request message. When service replies are returned, they
contain a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) pointing to the service desired, and
other information, such as server load, needed by the User Agent.
Active DA Discovery
When a Service Agent or User Agent initializes, it can perform Active Directory
Agent Discovery using a multicast service request and specifies the special,
reserved service type (service:directory-agent). Active DA Discovery is
achieved through the same mechanism as any other discovery using SLP.
The Directory Agent replies with unicast service replies, which provides the URLs
and attributes of the requested service.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 3: Service Location Protocol
57
SLP Configuration
Use the following ISCLI commands to configure SLP for the switch:
Table 7. SLP ISCLI Commands
Command Syntax and Usage
[no] ip slp enable
Enables or disables SLP on the switch.
Command mode: Global configuration
[no] ip slp active-da-discovery enable
Enables or disables Active DA Discovery.
Command mode: Global configuration
ip slp active-da-discovery start-wait-time <1-10>
Configures the wait time before starting Active DA Discovery, in seconds.
The default value is 3 seconds.
Command mode: Global configuration
clear ip slp directory-agents
Clears all Directory Agents learned by the switch.
Command mode: Global configuration
show ip slp information
Displays SLP information.
Command mode: All
show ip slp directory-agents
Displays Directory Agents learned by the switch.
Command mode: All
show ip slp user-agents
Displays User Agents information.
Command mode: All
show ip slp counters
Displays SLP statistics.
Command mode: All
clear ip slp counters
Clears all Directory Agents learned by the switch.
Command mode: Global configuration
58
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 4. System License Keys
License keys determine the number of available ports on the CN4093. Each switch
comes with basic license that provides the use of a limited number of physical ports.
On top of the basic license, optional upgrade licenses can be installed to expand the
number of available ports.
Obtaining Activation Keys
The upgrade licenses can be acquired using the IBM System x Features on
Demand (FoD) website:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/x/fod/
You can also use the website to review and manage licenses, and to obtain
additional help. if required.
Note: An IBM ID and password are required to log into the FoD website. If you do
not yet have an IBM ID, you can register at the website.
Activation keys are provided as files that must be uploaded to the CN4093. To
acquire an activation key, use the FoD website to purchase an Authorization Code.
You will need to provide the unique ID (UID) of the specific CN4093 where the key
will be installed. The UID is the last 12 characters of the CN4093 serial number. This
serial number is located on the Part Number (PN) label and is also displayed during
successful login to the device.
When available, download the activation key file from the FoD site.
Installing Activation Keys
Once FoD activation key files have been acquired, they must be installed on the
CN4093. The example below depicts use of the CN4093 Command Line Interface
(CLI), but other device interfaces (such as SNMP) may also be used.
The CN4093 must be reset to activate any newly installed licenses.
To install activation keys, complete the following steps:
1. Log in to the CN4093.
2. At the CLI prompt, enter the following commands:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093> enable
4093# configure terminal
4093(config)# software-key
4093(config)# enakey addr <server IP address> keyfile <key filename>
3. Follow the prompts to enter the appropriate parameters, including the file
transfer protocol and server parameters.
Note: Repeat the enakey command for any additional keys being installed.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
59
4. Once the key file has been uploaded to the CN4093, reset the device to
activate any newly installed licenses.:
CN 4093(config)# reload
The system prompts you to confirm your request. Once confirmed, the system
will reboot with the new licenses.
Transferring Activation Keys
Licenses keys are based on the unique CN4093 device serial number and are
non-transferable.
In the event that the CN4093 must be replaced, a new activation key must be
acquired and installed. When the replacement is handled through IBM Service and
Support, your original license will be transferred to the serial number of the
replacement unit and you will be provided a new license key.
Trial Keys
Trial keys are license keys used for evaluation purposes, upgrading the number of
available ports for limited time. They are managed and obtained like regular license
keys, from the IBM System x Features on Demand (FoD) website:
http://www.ibm.com/systems/x/fod/
Trial keys expire after a predefined number of days. 10 days before the expiration
date, the switch will begin to issue the following syslog messages:
The software demo license for Upgrade1 will expire in 10 days. The switch will
automatically reset to the factory configuration after the license expires. Please
backup your configuration or enter a valid license key so the configuration will not
be lost.
When the trial license expires, all features enabled by the key are disabled,
configuration files (active and backup) are deleted and the switch resets to the
factory configuration. To prevent this, either install a regular upgrade license to
overwrite the trial key, or manually remove the trial key and reset the switch.
Once a trial key is installed, it cannot be reused.
Flexible Port Mapping
Flexible Port Mapping allows administrators to manually enable or disable specific
switch ports within the limitations of the installed licenses’ bandwidth.
For instance, the FlexSystem may include two compute nodes and a single QSFP+
uplink, while the current license has the INTA1 – INTA14 and EXT1 – EXT10
Ethernet ports enabled by default.
To make best use of the available resources, the administrator decides to activate
internal ports INTB1, INTC1, INTB2 and INTC2 to provide redundant connections
for the two compute nodes and to enable the high speed QSFP+ EXT3 port for the
uplink.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
The total bandwidth required for this operation amounts to 80 Gbps (40 Gbps for
the four additional 10 Gbps internal ports and 40 Gbps for the additional external
QSFP+ port). The administrator decides to allocate this bandwidth by deactivating
6 internal and 2 external 10 Gbps ports.
To implement the above scenario, follow these steps:
1. Deactivate the ports required to clear the 80 Gbps required bandwidth:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
boot
boot
boot
boot
boot
boot
boot
boot
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
INTA9
INTA10
INTA11
INTA12
INTA13
INTA14
EXT9
EXT10
2. Activate the required ports:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
boot
boot
boot
boot
boot
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
port-map
INTB1
INTC1
INTB2
INTC2
EXT3
3. A reboot is required for the changes to take effect.
CN 4093(config)# reload
Flexible Port Mapping is disabled if all available licenses are installed (all physical
ports are available).
Removing a license key reverts the port mapping to the default settings for the
remaining licensing level. To manually revert the port mapping to the default settings
use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# default boot port-map
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Part 2: Securing the Switch
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Chapter 5. Securing Administration
This chapter discusses different methods of securing local and remote
administration on the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093):
• “Changing the Switch Passwords” on page 65
• “Secure Shell and Secure Copy” on page 66
• “End User Access Control” on page 71
• “Protected Mode” on page 74
Changing the Switch Passwords
It is recommended that you change the administrator and user passwords after
initial configuration and as regularly as required under your network security
policies.
To change the administrator password, you must login using the administrator
password.
Note: If you forget your administrator password, call your technical support
representative for help using the password fix-up mode.
Changing the Default Administrator Password
The administrator has complete access to all menus, information, and configuration
commands, including the ability to change both the user and administrator
passwords.
The default administrator account is USERID. The default password for the
administrator account is PASSW0RD (with a zero). To change the administrator
password, use the following procedure:
1. Connect to the switch and log in as the administrator.
2. Use the following command to change the administrator password:
CN 4093(config)# access user administrator-password <password>
Changing the Default User Password
The user login has limited control of the switch. Through a user account, you can
view switch information and statistics, but you can’t make configuration changes.
The default password for the user account is user. This password can be changed
from the user account. The administrator can change all passwords, as shown in the
following procedure.
1. Connect to the switch and log in as the administrator.
2. Use the following command to change the user password:
CN 4093(config)# access user user-password <password>
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
65
Secure Shell and Secure Copy
Because using Telnet does not provide a secure connection for managing a
CN4093, Secure Shell (SSH) and Secure Copy (SCP) features have been included
for CN4093 management. SSH and SCP use secure tunnels to encrypt and secure
messages between a remote administrator and the switch.
SSH is a protocol that enables remote administrators to log securely into the
CN4093 over a network to execute management commands.
SCP is typically used to copy files securely from one machine to another. SCP uses
SSH for encryption of data on the network. On a CN4093, SCP is used to download
and upload the switch configuration via secure channels.
Although SSH and SCP are disabled by default, enabling and using these features
provides the following benefits:
• Identifying the administrator using Name/Password
• Authentication of remote administrators
• Authorization of remote administrators
• Determining the permitted actions and customizing service for individual
administrators
• Encryption of management messages
• Encrypting messages between the remote administrator and switch
• Secure copy support
The IBM Networking OS implementation of SSH supports both versions 1.5 and 2.0
and supports SSH clients version 1.5 - 2.x. The following SSH clients have been
tested:
• SSH 1.2.23 and SSH 1.2.27 for Linux (freeware)
• SecureCRT 3.0.2 and SecureCRT 3.0.3 for Windows NT (Van Dyke
Technologies, Inc.)
• F-Secure SSH 1.1 for Windows (Data Fellows)
• Putty SSH
• Cygwin OpenSSH
• Mac X OpenSSH
• Solaris 8 OpenSSH
• AxeSSH SSHPro
• SSH Communications Vandyke SSH A
• F-Secure
Configuring SSH/SCP Features on the Switch
SSH and SCP are disabled by default. To change the setting, using the following
procedures.
Note: To use SCP, you must first enable SSH.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
To Enable or Disable the SSH Feature
Begin a Telnet session from the console port and enter the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# ssh enable
(Turn SSH on)
CN 4093(config)# no ssh enable
(Turn SSH off)
To Enable or Disable SCP
Enter the following command to enable or disable SCP:
CN 4093(config)# [no] ssh scp-enable
Configuring the SCP Administrator Password
To configure the SCP-only administrator password, enter the following command
(the default password is admin):
CN 4093(config)# [no] ssh scp-password
Changing SCP-only Administrator password; validation required...
Enter current administrator password: <password>
Enter new SCP-only administrator password: <new password>
Re-enter new SCP-only administrator password: <new password>
New SCP-only administrator password accepted.
Using SSH and SCP Client Commands
This section shows the format for using some common client commands.
To Log In to the Switch from the Client
Syntax:
>> ssh [-4|-6] <switch IP address>
-or>> ssh [-4|-6] <login name>@<switch IP address>
Note: The -4 option (the default) specifies that an IPv4 switch address will be
used. The -6 option specifies IPv6.
Example:
>> ssh scpadmin@205.178.15.157
To Copy the Switch Configuration File to the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [-4|-6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getcfg <local filename>
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Chapter 5: Securing Administration
67
Example:
>> scp scpadmin@205.178.15.157:getcfg ad4.cfg
To Load a Switch Configuration File from the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [-4|-6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putcfg
Example:
>> scp ad4.cfg scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putcfg
To Apply and Save the Configuration
When loading a configuration file to the switch, the apply and save commands are
still required, in order for the configuration commands to take effect. The apply and
save commands may be entered manually on the switch, or by using SCP
commands.
Syntax:
>> scp [-4|-6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putcfg_apply
>> scp [-4|-6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putcfg_apply_save
Example:
>> scp ad4.cfg scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putcfg_apply
>> scp ad4.cfg scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putcfg_apply_save
•
•
•
•
The CLI diff command is automatically executed at the end of putcfg to notify
the remote client of the difference between the new and the current
configurations.
putcfg_apply runs the apply command after the putcfg is done.
putcfg_apply_save saves the new configuration to the flash after
putcfg_apply is done.
The putcfg_apply and putcfg_apply_save commands are provided
because extra apply and save commands are usually required after a putcfg;
however, an SCP session is not in an interactive mode.
To Copy the Switch Image and Boot Files to the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [-4|-6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getimg1 <local filename>
>> scp [-4|-6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getimg2 <local filename>
>> scp [-4|-6] <username>@<switch IP address>:getboot <local filename>
Example:
>> scp scpadmin@205.178.15.157:getimg1 6.1.0_os.img
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To Load Switch Configuration Files from the SCP Host
Syntax:
>> scp [-4|-6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putimg1
>> scp [-4|-6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putimg2
>> scp [-4|-6] <local filename> <username>@<switch IP address>:putboot
Example:
>> scp 6.1.0_os.img scpadmin@205.178.15.157:putimg1
SSH and SCP Encryption of Management Messages
The following encryption and authentication methods are supported for SSH and
SCP:
•
Server Host Authentication: Client RSA authenticates the switch at the
beginning of every connection
•
Key Exchange:
RSA
•
Encryption:
3DES-CBC, DES
•
User Authentication:
Local password authentication, RADIUS
Generating RSA Host Key for SSH Access
To support the SSH server feature, an RSA host key is required. The host key is
2048 bits and is used to identify the CN4093.
When the SSH server is first enabled and applied, the switch automatically
generates the RSA host key and stores it in FLASH memory.
To configure RSA host key, first connect to the CN4093 through the console port
(commands are not available via external Telnet connection), and enter the
following command to generate it manually.
CN 4093(config)# ssh generate-host-key
(Generates the host key)
When the switch reboots, it will retrieve the host key from the FLASH memory.
Note: The switch will perform only one session of key/cipher generation at a time.
Thus, an SSH/SCP client will not be able to log in if the switch is performing
key generation at that time. Also, key generation will fail if an SSH/SCP client
is logging in at that time.
SSH/SCP Integration with RADIUS Authentication
SSH/SCP is integrated with RADIUS authentication. After the RADIUS server is
enabled on the switch, all subsequent SSH authentication requests will be
redirected to the specified RADIUS servers for authentication. The redirection is
transparent to the SSH clients.
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Chapter 5: Securing Administration
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SSH/SCP Integration with TACACS+ Authentication
SSH/SCP is integrated with TACACS+ authentication. After the TACACS+ server is
enabled on the switch, all subsequent SSH authentication requests will be
redirected to the specified TACACS+ servers for authentication. The redirection is
transparent to the SSH clients.
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End User Access Control
IBM Networking OS allows an administrator to define end user accounts that permit
end users to perform operation tasks via the switch CLI commands. Once end user
accounts are configured and enabled, the switch requires username/password
authentication.
For example, an administrator can assign a user, who can then log into the switch
and perform operational commands (effective only until the next switch reboot).
Considerations for Configuring End User Accounts
•
•
•
•
A maximum of 20 user IDs are supported on the switch.
IBM Networking OS supports end user support for Console, Telnet, BBI, and
SSHv1/v2 access to the switch.
If RADIUS authentication is used, the user password on the Radius server will
override the user password on the CN4093. Also note that the password change
command modifies only the user switch password on the switch and has no
effect on the user password on the Radius server. Radius authentication and
user password cannot be used concurrently to access the switch.
Passwords can be up to 128 characters in length for TACACS, RADIUS, Telnet,
SSH, Console, and Web access.
Strong Passwords
The administrator can require use of Strong Passwords for users to access the
CN4093. Strong Passwords enhance security because they make password
guessing more difficult.
The following rules apply when Strong Passwords are enabled:
• Minimum length: 8 characters; maximum length: 64 characters
• Must contain at least one uppercase alphabet
• Must contain at least one lowercase alphabet
• Must contain at least one number
• Must contain at least one special character:
Supported special characters: ! “ # % & ‘ ( ) ; < = >> ? [\] * + , - . / : ^ _ { | } ~
•
•
Cannot be same as the username
No consecutive four characters can be the same as in the old password
When strong password is enabled, users can still access the switch using the old
password but will be advised to change to a strong password while attempting to log
in.
Strong password requirement can be enabled using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access user strong-password enable
The administrator can choose the number of days allowed before each password
expires. When a strong password expires, the user is allowed to log in one last time
(last time) to change the password. A warning provides advance notice for users to
change the password.
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Chapter 5: Securing Administration
71
User Access Control Menu
The end-user access control commands allow you to configure end-user accounts.
Setting Up User IDs
Up to 20 user IDs can be configured in the User ID menu.
CN 4093(config)# access user 1 name <1-8 characters>
CN 4093(config)# access user 1 password
Changing user1 password; validation required:
Enter current admin password: <current administrator password>
Enter new user1 password: <new user password>
Re-enter new user1 password: <new user password>
New user1 password accepted.
Defining a User’s Access Level
The end user is by default assigned to the user access level (also known as class of
service, or CoS). CoS for all user accounts have global access to all resources
except for User CoS, which has access to view only resources that the user owns.
For more information, see Table 8 on page 80.
To change the user’s level, enter the class of service cos command:
CN 4093(config)# access user 1 level {user|operator|administrator}
Validating a User’s Configuration
CN 4093# show access user uid 1
Enabling or Disabling a User
An end user account must be enabled before the switch recognizes and permits
login under the account. Once enabled, the switch requires any user to enter both
username and password.
CN 4093(config)# [no] access user 1 enable
Locking Accounts
To protect the switch from unauthorized access, the account lockout feature can be
enabled. By default, account lockout is disabled. To enable this feature, ensure the
strong password feature is enabled (See “Strong Passwords” on page 71). Then
use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access user strong-password lockout
After multiple failed login attempts, the switch locks the user account if lockout has
been enabled on the switch.
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Re-enabling Locked Accounts
The administrator can re-enable a locked account by reloading the switch or by
using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access user strong-password clear local user lockout username
<user name>
However, the above command cannot be used to re-enable an account disabled by
the administrator.
To re-enable all locked accounts, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access user strong-password clear local user lockout all
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Chapter 5: Securing Administration
73
Listing Current Users
The show access user command displays defined user accounts and whether or
not each user is currently logged into the switch.
CN 4093# show access user
Usernames:
user
- Enabled - offline
oper
- Disabled - offline
admin
- Always Enabled - online 1 session
Current User ID table:
1: name USERID , ena, cos admin
2: name jane
, ena, cos user
3: name john
, ena, cos user
, password valid, offline
, password valid, online
, password valid, online
Logging In to an End User Account
Once an end user account is configured and enabled, the user can login to the
switch, using the username/password combination. The level of switch access is
determined by the Class of Service established for the end user account.
Protected Mode
Protected Mode settings allow the switch administrator to block the management
module from making configuration changes that affect switch operation. The switch
retains control over those functions.
The following management module functions are disabled when Protected Mode is
turned on:
• External Ports: Enabled/Disabled
• External management over all ports: Enabled/Disabled
• Restore Factory Defaults
• New Static IP Configuration
In this release, configuration of the functions listed above are restricted to the local
switch when you turn Protected Mode on. In future releases, individual control over
each function may be added.
Note: Before you turn Protected Mode on, make sure that external management
(Telnet) access to one of the switch’s IP interfaces is enabled.
Use the following command to turn Protected Mode on:
CN 4093(config)# protected-mode enable
If you lose access to the switch through the external ports, use the console port to
connect directly to the switch, and configure an IP interface with Telnet access.
Stacking Mode
When the switch is in stacking mode, Protected Mode is automatically enabled for
three of the four Protected Mode functions, and the following module functions are
disabled:
• External Ports (Enabled)
• External management over all ports (Enabled)
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
•
Restore Factory Defaults
Stack members and stack Master can get their IP addresses from the advanced
management module (AMM). Stack can be managed using external ports or using
the AMM management port.
If required, the functionality of new static IP configuration can also be disabled by
turning off Protected Mode (CN 4093(config)# no protected-mode) and
turning it back on (CN 4093(config)# protected-mode enable).
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 6. Authentication & Authorization Protocols
Secure switch management is needed for environments that perform significant
management functions across the Internet. The following are some of the functions
for secured IPv4 management and device access:
• “RADIUS Authentication and Authorization” on page 78
• “TACACS+ Authentication” on page 82
• “LDAP Authentication and Authorization” on page 87
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not support IPv6 for RADIUS, TACACS+ or
LDAP.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
77
RADIUS Authentication and Authorization
IBM Networking OS supports the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-in User
Service) method to authenticate and authorize remote administrators for managing
the switch. This method is based on a client/server model. The Remote Access
Server (RAS)—the switch—is a client to the back-end database server. A remote
user (the remote administrator) interacts only with the RAS, not the back-end server
and database.
RADIUS authentication consists of the following components:
• A protocol with a frame format that utilizes UDP over IP (based on RFC 2138
and 2866)
• A centralized server that stores all the user authorization information
• A client, in this case, the switch
The CN4093—acting as the RADIUS client—communicates to the RADIUS server
to authenticate and authorize a remote administrator using the protocol definitions
specified in RFC 2138 and 2866. Transactions between the client and the RADIUS
server are authenticated using a shared key that is not sent over the network. In
addition, the remote administrator passwords are sent encrypted between the
RADIUS client (the switch) and the back-end RADIUS server.
How RADIUS Authentication Works
1. Remote administrator connects to the switch and provides user name and
password.
2. Using Authentication/Authorization protocol, the switch sends request to
authentication server.
3. Authentication server checks the request against the user ID database.
4. Using RADIUS protocol, the authentication server instructs the switch to grant
or deny administrative access.
Configuring RADIUS on the Switch
Use the following procedure to configure Radius authentication on your CN4093.
1. Turn RADIUS authentication on, then configure the Primary and Secondary
RADIUS servers.
CN 4093(config)# radius-server primary-host 10.10.1.1
CN 4093(config)# radius-server secondary-host 10.10.1.2
2. Configure the RADIUS secret.
CN 4093(config)# radius-server primary-host 10.10.1.1 key <1-32 character secret>
CN 4093(config)# radius-server secondary-host 10.10.1.2 key <1-32 character secret>
CN 4093(config)# radius-server enable
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Statement 21:
CAUTION
If you configure the RADIUS secret using any method other than through
the console port, the secret may be transmitted over the network as clear
text.
3. If desired, you may change the default UDP port number used to listen to
RADIUS.
The well-known port for RADIUS is 1645.
CN 4093(config)# radius-server port <UDP port number>
4. Configure the number retry attempts for contacting the RADIUS server, and the
timeout period.
CN 4093(config)# radius-server retransmit 3
CN 4093(config)# radius-server timeout 5
RADIUS Authentication Features in IBM Networking OS
IBM Networking OS supports the following RADIUS authentication features:
• Supports RADIUS client on the switch, based on the protocol definitions in RFC
2138 and RFC 2866.
• Allows a RADIUS secret password of up to 32 characters.
• Supports secondary authentication server so that when the primary
authentication server is unreachable, the switch can send client authentication
requests to the secondary authentication server. Use the following command to
show the currently active RADIUS authentication server:
CN 4093# show radius-server
•
Supports user-configurable RADIUS server retry and time-out values:
– Time-out value = 1-10 seconds
– Retries = 1-3
The switch will time out if it does not receive a response from the RADIUS server
within 1-10 seconds. The switch automatically retries connecting to the RADIUS
server 1-3 times before it declares the server down.
•
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Supports user-configurable RADIUS application port. The default is UDP port
1645. UDP port 1812, based on RFC 2138, is also supported.
Allows network administrator to define privileges for one or more specific users to
access the switch at the RADIUS user database.
Chapter 6: Authentication & Authorization Protocols
79
Switch User Accounts
The user accounts listed in Table 8 can be defined in the RADIUS server dictionary
file.
Table 8. User Access Levels
User Account
Description and Tasks Performed
Password
User
The User has no direct responsibility for switch
management. He/she can view all switch status
information and statistics but cannot make any
configuration changes to the switch.
user
Operator
In addition to User capabilities, the Operator has
limited switch management access, including the
ability to make temporary, operational configuration
changes to some switch features, and to reset
switch ports (other than management ports).
oper
Administrator
The super-user Administrator has complete access
to all menus, information, and configuration
commands on the switch, including the ability to
change both the user and administrator passwords.
PASSW0RD
(USERID)
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RADIUS Attributes for IBM Networking OS User Privileges
When the user logs in, the switch authenticates his/her level of access by sending
the RADIUS access request, that is, the client authentication request, to the
RADIUS authentication server.
If the remote user is successfully authenticated by the authentication server, the
switch will verify the privileges of the remote user and authorize the appropriate
access. The administrator has two options: to allow backdoor access via Telnet,
SSH, HTTP, or HTTPS; to allow secure backdoor access via Telnet, SSH, or BBI.
Backdoor and secure backdoor provides access to the switch when the RADIUS
servers cannot be reached.
The default CN4093 setting for backdoor and secure backdoor access is
disabled. Backdoor and secure backdoor access is always enabled on the
console port.
Irrespective of backdoor/secure backdoor being enabled or not, you can always
access the switch via the console port by using noradius as radius username. You
can then enter the username and password configured on the switch. If you are
trying to connect via SSH/Telnet/HTTP/HTTPS (not console port), there are two
possibilities:
• Backdoor is enabled: The switch acts like it is connecting via console.
• Secure backdoor is enabled: You must enter the username: noradius. The switch
checks if RADIUS server is reachable. If it is reachable, then you must
authenticate via remote authentication server. Only if RADIUS server is not
reachable, you will be prompted for local user/password to be authenticated
against these local credentials.
All user privileges, other than those assigned to the Administrator, have to be
defined in the RADIUS dictionary. RADIUS attribute 6 which is built into all RADIUS
servers defines the administrator. The file name of the dictionary is RADIUS
vendor-dependent. The following RADIUS attributes are defined for IBM Networking
OS user privileges levels:
Table 9. IBM Networking OS-proprietary Attributes for RADIUS
User Name/Access
User-Service-Type
Value
User
Vendor-supplied
255
Operator
Vendor-supplied
252
Administrator
(USERID)
Vendor-supplied
6
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 6: Authentication & Authorization Protocols
81
TACACS+ Authentication
IBM Networking OS supports authentication, authorization, and accounting with
networks using the Cisco Systems TACACS+ protocol. The CN4093 functions as
the Network Access Server (NAS) by interacting with the remote client and initiating
authentication and authorization sessions with the TACACS+ access server. The
remote user is defined as someone requiring management access to the CN4093
either through a data or management port.
TACACS+ offers the following advantages over RADIUS:
• TACACS+ uses TCP-based connection-oriented transport; whereas RADIUS is
UDP-based. TCP offers a connection-oriented transport, while UDP offers
best-effort delivery. RADIUS requires additional programmable variables such as
re-transmit attempts and time-outs to compensate for best-effort transport, but it
lacks the level of built-in support that a TCP transport offers.
• TACACS+ offers full packet encryption whereas RADIUS offers password-only
encryption in authentication requests.
• TACACS+ separates authentication, authorization and accounting.
How TACACS+ Authentication Works
TACACS+ works much in the same way as RADIUS authentication as described on
page 78.
1. Remote administrator connects to the switch and provides user name and
password.
2. Using Authentication/Authorization protocol, the switch sends request to
authentication server.
3. Authentication server checks the request against the user ID database.
4. Using TACACS+ protocol, the authentication server instructs the switch to
grant or deny administrative access.
During a session, if additional authorization checking is needed, the switch checks
with a TACACS+ server to determine if the user is granted permission to use a
particular command.
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TACACS+ Authentication Features in IBM Networking OS
Authentication is the action of determining the identity of a user, and is generally
done when the user first attempts to log in to a device or gain access to its services.
IBM Networking OS supports ASCII inbound login to the device. PAP, CHAP and
ARAP login methods, TACACS+ change password requests, and one-time
password authentication are not supported.
Authorization
Authorization is the action of determining a user’s privileges on the device, and
usually takes place after authentication.
The default mapping between TACACS+ authorization levels and IBM Networking
OS management access levels is shown in Table 10. The authorization levels listed
in this table must be defined on the TACACS+ server.
Table 10. Default TACACS+ Authorization Levels
IBM Networking OS User
Access Level
TACACS+ Level
user
0
oper
3
admin (USERID)
6
Alternate mapping between TACACS+ authorization levels and IBM Networking OS
management access levels is shown in Table 11. Use the following command to use
the alternate TACACS+ authorization levels:
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server privilege-mapping
Table 11. Alternate TACACS+ Authorization Levels
IBM Networking OS User
Access Level
TACACS+ Level
user
0–1
oper
6–8
admin (USERID)
14–15
You can customize the mapping between TACACS+ privilege levels and CN4093
management access levels. Use the following command to manually map each
TACACS+ privilege level (0-15) to a corresponding CN4093 management access
level: CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server user-mapping
If the remote user is successfully authenticated by the authentication server, the
switch verifies the privileges of the remote user and authorizes the appropriate
access. The administrator has an option to allow backdoor access via Telnet
(CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server backdoor). The default value for Telnet
access is disabled. The administrator also can enable secure backdoor
(CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server secure-backdoor), to allow access if
both the primary and the secondary TACACS+ servers fail to respond.
Note: To obtain the TACACS+ backdoor password for your switch, contact your
Service and Support line.
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Chapter 6: Authentication & Authorization Protocols
83
Accounting
Accounting is the action of recording a user's activities on the device for the
purposes of billing and/or security. It follows the authentication and authorization
actions. If the authentication and authorization is not performed via TACACS+, there
are no TACACS+ accounting messages sent out.
You can use TACACS+ to record and track software login access, configuration
changes, and interactive commands.
The CN4093 supports the following TACACS+ accounting attributes:
• protocol (console/telnet/ssh/http)
• start_time
• stop_time
• elapsed_time
• disc-cause
Note: When using the Browser-Based Interface, the TACACS+ Accounting Stop
records are sent only if the Quit button on the browser is clicked.
Command Authorization and Logging
When TACACS+ Command Authorization is enabled
(CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server command-authorization), IBM
Networking OS configuration commands are sent to the TACACS+ server for
authorization. When TACACS+ Command Logging is enabled
(CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server command-logging), IBM Networking
OS configuration commands are logged on the TACACS+ server.
The following examples illustrate the format of IBM Networking OS commands sent
to the TACACS+ server:
authorization request, cmd=cfgtree, cmd-arg=/cfg/l3/if
accounting request, cmd=/cfg/l3/if, cmd-arg=1
authorization request, cmd=cfgtree, cmd-arg=/cfg/l3/if/ena
accounting request, cmd=/cfg/l3/if/ena
authorization request, cmd=cfgtree, cmd-arg=/cfg/l3/if/addr
accounting request, cmd=/cfg/l3/if/addr, cmd-arg=10.90.90.91
authorization request, cmd=apply
accounting request, cmd=apply
The following rules apply to TACACS+ command authorization and logging:
• Only commands from a Console, Telnet, or SSH connection are sent for authorization and logging. SNMP, BBI, or file-copy commands (for example, TFTP or
sync) are not sent.
• Only leaf-level commands are sent for authorization and logging. For example,
CN 4093(config)# is not sent, but
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server command-logging is sent.
• The full path of each command is sent for authorization and logging. For
example: CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server command-logging
• Command arguments are not sent for authorization.
• Only executed commands are logged.
• Invalid commands are checked by IBM Networking OS, and are not sent for
authorization or logging.
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•
•
Authorization is performed on each leaf-level command separately. If the user
issues multiple commands at once, each command is sent separately as a full
path.
Only the following global commands are sent for authorization and logging:
diff
ping
revert
telnet
traceroute
TACACS+ Password Change
IBM Networking OS supports TACACS+ password change. When enabled, users
can change their passwords after successful TACACS+ authorization. Use the
following command to enable or disable this feature:
CN 4093(config)# [no] tacacs-server password-change
Use the following commands to change the password for the primary and secondary
TACACS+ servers:
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server chpassp
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server chpasss
(Change primary TACACS+ password)
(Change secondary TACACS+ password)
Configuring TACACS+ Authentication on the Switch
1. Configure the IPv4 addresses of the Primary and Secondary TACACS+
servers, and enable TACACS authentication.
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server primary-host 10.10.1.1 (Enter primary server IPv4 address)
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server primary-host mgt-port
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server secondary-host 10.10.1.1
(Enter secondary server IPv4 address)
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server secondary-host data-port
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server enable
2. Configure the TACACS+ secret and second secret.
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server primary-host 10.10.1.1 key <1-32 character secret>
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server secondary-host 10.10.1.2 key <1-32 character secret>
Statement 21:
CAUTION
If you configure the TACACS+ secret using any method other than a direct
console connection, the secret may be transmitted over the network as
clear text.
3. If desired, you may change the default TCP port number used to listen to
TACACS+. The well-known port for TACACS+ is 49.
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server port <TCP port number>
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 6: Authentication & Authorization Protocols
85
4. Configure the number of retry attempts, and the timeout period.
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server retransmit 3
CN 4093(config)# tacacs-server timeout 5
5. Configure custom privilege-level mapping (optional).
CN
CN
CN
CN
86
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
tacacs-server
tacacs-server
tacacs-server
tacacs-server
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
user-mapping
user-mapping
user-mapping
user-mapping
2
3
4
5
user
user
user
oper
LDAP Authentication and Authorization
IBM Networking OS supports the LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
method to authenticate and authorize remote administrators to manage the switch.
LDAP is based on a client/server model. The switch acts as a client to the LDAP
server. A remote user (the remote administrator) interacts only with the switch, not
the back-end server and database.
LDAP authentication consists of the following components:
• A protocol with a frame format that utilizes TCP over IP
• A centralized server that stores all the user authorization information
• A client, in this case, the switch
Each entry in the LDAP server is referenced by its Distinguished Name (DN). The
DN consists of the user-account name concatenated with the LDAP domain name.
If the user-account name is John, the following is an example DN:
uid=John,ou=people,dc=domain,dc=com
Configuring the LDAP Server
CN4093 user groups and user accounts must reside within the same domain. On
the LDAP server, configure the domain to include CN4093 user groups and user
accounts, as follows:
• User Accounts:
Use the uid attribute to define each individual user account.
•
User Groups:
Use the members attribute in the groupOfNames object class to create the user
groups. The first word of the common name for each user group must be equal
to the user group names defined in the CN4093, as follows:
– admin (USERID)
– oper
– user
Configuring LDAP Authentication on the Switch
1. Turn LDAP authentication on, then configure the Primary and Secondary LDAP
servers.
CN 4093(config)# ldap-server primary-host 10.10.1.1 (Enter primary server IPv4 address)
CN 4093(config)# ldap-server primary-host 10.10.1.2 (Enter secondary server IPv4 address)
2. Configure the domain name.
CN 4093(config)# ldap-server domain <ou=people,dc=my-domain,dc=com>
3. If desired, you may change the default TCP port number used to listen to LDAP.
The well-known port for LDAP is 389.
CN 4093(config)# ldap-server port <1-65000>
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 6: Authentication & Authorization Protocols
87
4. Configure the number of retry attempts for contacting the LDAP server, and the
timeout period.
CN 4093(config)# ldap-server retransmit 3
CN 4093(config)# ldap-server timeout 10
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
(server retries)
(Enter the timeout period in seconds)
Chapter 7. 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control
Port-Based Network Access control provides a means of authenticating and
authorizing devices attached to a LAN port that has point-to-point connection
characteristics. It prevents access to ports that fail authentication and authorization.
This feature provides security to ports of the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable
Switch (CN4093) that connect to blade servers.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
• “Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN” on page 90
• “EAPoL Authentication Process” on page 91
• “EAPoL Port States” on page 93
• “Guest VLAN” on page 93
• “Supported RADIUS Attributes” on page 94
• “EAPoL Configuration Guidelines” on page 96
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
89
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN
IBM Networking OS can provide user-level security for its ports using the IEEE
802.1X protocol, which is a more secure alternative to other methods of port-based
network access control. Any device attached to an 802.1X-enabled port that fails
authentication is prevented access to the network and denied services offered
through that port.
The 802.1X standard describes port-based network access control using Extensible
Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPoL). EAPoL provides a means of
authenticating and authorizing devices attached to a LAN port that has
point-to-point connection characteristics and of preventing access to that port in
cases of authentication and authorization failures.
EAPoL is a client-server protocol that has the following components:
• Supplicant or Client
The Supplicant is a device that requests network access and provides the
required credentials (user name and password) to the Authenticator and the
Authenticator Server.
• Authenticator
The Authenticator enforces authentication and controls access to the network.
The Authenticator grants network access based on the information provided by
the Supplicant and the response from the Authentication Server. The
Authenticator acts as an intermediary between the Supplicant and the
Authentication Server: requesting identity information from the client, forwarding
that information to the Authentication Server for validation, relaying the server’s
responses to the client, and authorizing network access based on the results of
the authentication exchange. The CN4093 acts as an Authenticator.
• Authentication Server
The Authentication Server validates the credentials provided by the Supplicant to
determine if the Authenticator should grant access to the network. The
Authentication Server may be co-located with the Authenticator. The CN4093
relies on external RADIUS servers for authentication.
Upon a successful authentication of the client by the server, the 802.1X-controlled
port transitions from unauthorized to authorized state, and the client is allowed full
access to services through the port. When the client sends an EAP-Logoff message
to the authenticator, the port will transition from authorized to unauthorized state.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
EAPoL Authentication Process
The clients and authenticators communicate using Extensible Authentication
Protocol (EAP), which was originally designed to run over PPP, and for which the
IEEE 802.1X Standard has defined an encapsulation method over Ethernet frames,
called EAP over LAN (EAPOL). Figure 1 shows a typical message exchange
initiated by the client.
Figure 1. Authenticating a Port Using EAPoL
RADIUS
Server
802.1x Client
EAPOL
Ethernet
IBM Switch
Authenticator
(RADIUS Client)
RADIUS-EAP
UDP/IP
Port Unauthorized
EAPOL-Start
EAP-Request (Credentials)
EAP-Response (Credentials)
Radius-Access-Request
Radius-Access-Challenge
EAP-Request (Credentials)
EAP-Response (Credentials)
Radius-Access-Request
Radius-Access-Accept
EAP-Success
Port Authorized
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 7: 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control
91
EAPoL Message Exchange
During authentication, EAPOL messages are exchanged between the client and the
CN4093 authenticator, while RADIUS-EAP messages are exchanged between the
CN4093 authenticator and the RADIUS server.
Authentication is initiated by one of the following methods:
• The CN4093 authenticator sends an EAP-Request/Identity packet to the client
• The client sends an EAPOL-Start frame to the CN4093 authenticator, which
responds with an EAP-Request/Identity frame.
The client confirms its identity by sending an EAP-Response/Identity frame to the
CN4093 authenticator, which forwards the frame encapsulated in a RADIUS packet
to the server.
The RADIUS authentication server chooses an EAP-supported authentication
algorithm to verify the client’s identity, and sends an EAP-Request packet to the
client via the CN4093 authenticator. The client then replies to the RADIUS server
with an EAP-Response containing its credentials.
Upon a successful authentication of the client by the server, the 802.1X-controlled
port transitions from unauthorized to authorized state, and the client is allowed full
access to services through the controlled port. When the client later sends an
EAPOL-Logoff message to the CN4093 authenticator, the port transitions from
authorized to unauthorized state.
If a client that does not support 802.1X connects to an 802.1X-controlled port, the
CN4093 authenticator requests the client's identity when it detects a change in the
operational state of the port. The client does not respond to the request, and the port
remains in the unauthorized state.
Note: When an 802.1X-enabled client connects to a port that is not
802.1X-controlled, the client initiates the authentication process by sending
an EAPOL-Start frame. When no response is received, the client retransmits
the request for a fixed number of times. If no response is received, the client
assumes the port is in authorized state, and begins sending frames, even if
the port is unauthorized.
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EAPoL Port States
The state of the port determines whether the client is granted access to the network,
as follows:
• Unauthorized
While in this state the port discards all ingress and egress traffic except EAP
packets.
• Authorized
When the client is successfully authenticated, the port transitions to the
authorized state allowing all traffic to and from the client to flow normally.
• Force Unauthorized
You can configure this state that denies all access to the port.
• Force Authorized
You can configure this state that allows full access to the port.
Guest VLAN
The guest VLAN provides limited access to unauthenticated ports. The guest VLAN
can be configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config)#
dot1x guest-vlan ?
Client ports that have not received an EAPOL response are placed into the Guest
VLAN, if one is configured on the switch. Once the port is authenticated, it is moved
from the Guest VLAN to its configured VLAN.
When Guest VLAN enabled, the following considerations apply while a port is in the
unauthenticated state:
• The port is placed in the guest VLAN.
• The Port VLAN ID (PVID) is changed to the Guest VLAN ID.
• Port tagging is disabled on the port.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 7: 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control
93
Supported RADIUS Attributes
The 802.1X Authenticator relies on external RADIUS servers for authentication with
EAP. Table 12lists the RADIUS attributes that are supported as part of
RADIUS-EAP authentication based on the guidelines specified in Annex D of the
802.1X standard and RFC 3580.
Table 12. Support for RADIUS Attributes
94
# Attribute
Attribute Value
A-R
A-A
A-C
A-R
1 User-Name
The value of the Type-Data field
from the supplicant’s
EAP-Response/Identity
message. If the Identity is
unknown (i.e. Type-Data field is
zero bytes in length), this
attribute will have the same
value as the Calling-Station-Id.
1
0-1
0
0
4 NAS-IP-Address
IPv4 address of the
authenticator used for Radius
communication.
1
0
0
0
5 NAS-Port
Port number of the authenticator
port to which the supplicant is
attached.
1
0
0
0
0-1
0-1
0-1
0
24 State
Server-specific value. This is
sent unmodified back to the
server in an Access-Request
that is in response to an
Access-Challenge.
30 Called-Station-ID
The MAC address of the
authenticator encoded as an
ASCII string in canonical format,
such as 000D5622E3 9F.
1
0
0
0
31 Calling-Station-ID The MAC address of the
supplicant encoded as an ASCII
string in canonical format, such
as 00034B436206.
1
0
0
0
64 Tunnel-Type
Only VLAN (type 13) is currently
supported (for 802.1X RADIUS
VLAN assignment). The
attribute must be untagged (the
Tag field must be 0).
0
0-1
0
0
65 Tunnel-MediumType
Only 802 (type 6) is currently
supported (for 802.1X RADIUS
VLAN assignment). The
attribute must be untagged (the
Tag field must be 0).
0
0-1
0
0
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Table 12. Support for RADIUS Attributes (continued)
# Attribute
Attribute Value
A-R
A-A
A-C
A-R
81 Tunnel-PrivateGroup-ID
VLAN ID (1-4094). When
802.1X RADIUS VLAN
assignment is enabled on a port,
if the RADIUS server includes
the tunnel attributes defined in
RFC 2868 in the Access-Accept
packet, the switch will
automatically place the
authenticated port in the
specified VLAN. Reserved
VLANs (such as for
management) may not be
specified. The attribute must be
untagged (the Tag field must
be 0).
0
0-1
0
0
79 EAP-Message
Encapsulated EAP packets from
the supplicant to the
authentication server (Radius)
and vice-versa. The
authenticator relays the
decoded packet to both devices.
1+
1+
1+
1+
80 MessageAuthenticator
Always present whenever an
EAP-Message attribute is also
included. Used to
integrity-protect a packet.
1
1
1
1
87 NAS-Port-ID
Name assigned to the
authenticator port, e.g.
Server1_Port3
1
0
0
0
Legend: RADIUS Packet Types: A-R (Access-Request), A-A (Access-Accept),
A-C (Access-Challenge), A-R (Access-Reject)
RADIUS Attribute Support:
• 0
This attribute MUST NOT be present in a packet.
• 0+
Zero or more instances of this attribute MAY be present in a packet.
• 0-1 Zero or one instance of this attribute MAY be present in a packet.
• 1
Exactly one instance of this attribute MUST be present in a packet.
• 1+
One or more of these attributes MUST be present.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 7: 802.1X Port-Based Network Access Control
95
EAPoL Configuration Guidelines
When configuring EAPoL, consider the following guidelines:
• The 802.1X port-based authentication is currently supported only in
point-to-point configurations, that is, with a single supplicant connected to an
802.1X-enabled switch port.
• When 802.1X is enabled, a port has to be in the authorized state before any
other Layer 2 feature can be operationally enabled. For example, the STG state
of a port is operationally disabled while the port is in the unauthorized state.
• The 802.1X supplicant capability is not supported. Therefore, none of its ports
can successfully connect to an 802.1X-enabled port of another device, such as
another switch, that acts as an authenticator, unless access control on the
remote port is disabled or is configured in forced-authorized mode. For example,
if a CN4093 is connected to another CN4093, and if 802.1X is enabled on both
switches, the two connected ports must be configured in force-authorized mode.
• Unsupported 802.1X attributes include Service-Type, Session-Timeout, and
Termination-Action.
• RADIUS accounting service for 802.1X-authenticated devices or users is not
currently supported.
• Configuration changes performed using SNMP and the standard 802.1X MIB will
take effect immediately.
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Chapter 8. Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACLs) are filters that permit or deny traffic for security
purposes. They can also be used with QoS to classify and segment traffic in order to
provide different levels of service to different traffic types. Each filter defines the
conditions that must match for inclusion in the filter, and also the actions that are
performed when a match is made.
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports the following ACLs:
•
IPv4 ACLs
Up to 256 ACLs are supported for networks that use IPv4 addressing. IPv4 ACLs
are configured using the following CLI menu:
CN 4093(config)# access-control list <IPv4 ACL number>
•
IPv6 ACLs
Up to 128 ACLs are supported for networks that use IPv6 addressing. IPv6 ACLs
are configured using the following CLI menu:
CN 4093(config)# access-control list6 <IPv6 ACL number>
•
Management ACLs
Up to 128 MACLs are supported. ACLs for the different types of management
protocols (Telnet, HTTPS, etc.) provide greater granularity for securing
management traffic.
Management ACLs are configured using the following CLI menu:
CN 4093(config)# access-control macl <MACL number>
•
VLAN Maps (VMaps)
Up to 128 VLAN Maps are supported for attaching filters to VLANs rather than
ports. See “VLAN Maps” on page 106 for details.
CN 4093(config)# access-control vmap <vmap number>
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
97
Summary of Packet Classifiers
ACLs allow you to classify packets according to a variety of content in the packet
header (such as the source address, destination address, source port number,
destination port number, and others). Once classified, packet flows can be identified
for more processing.
Regular ACLs, and VMaps allow you to classify packets based on the following
packet attributes:
• Ethernet header options (for regular ACLs and VMaps only)
– Source MAC address
– Destination MAC address
– VLAN number and mask
– Ethernet type (ARP, IPv4, MPLS, RARP, etc.)
– Ethernet Priority (the IEEE 802.1p Priority)
•
IPv4 header options (for regular ACLs and VMaps only)
– Source IPv4 address and subnet mask
– Destination IPv4 address and subnet mask
– Type of Service value
– IP protocol number or name as shown in Table 13:
Table 13. Well-Known Protocol Types
98
Number
Protocol Name
1
2
6
17
89
112
icmp
igmp
tcp
udp
ospf
vrrp
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
•
TCP/UDP header options (for all ACLs)
– TCP/UDP application source port as shown in Table 14.
Table 14. Well-Known Application Ports
TCP/UDP
Port Application
20
21
22
23
25
37
42
43
53
69
70
ftp-data
ftp
ssh
telnet
smtp
time
name
whois
domain
tftp
gopher
TCP/UDP
Port Application
79
80
109
110
111
119
123
143
144
161
162
finger
http
pop2
pop3
sunrpc
nntp
ntp
imap
news
snmp
snmptrap
TCP/UDP
Port Application
179
194
220
389
443
520
554
1645/1812
1813
1985
bgp
irc
imap3
ldap
https
rip
rtsp
Radius
Radius
Accounting
hsrp
– TCP/UDP application destination port and mask as shown in Table 14.
– TCP/UDP flag value as shown in Table 15.
Table 15. Well-Known TCP flag values
•
Flag
Value
URG
ACK
PSH
RST
SYN
FIN
0x0020
0x0010
0x0008
0x0004
0x0002
0x0001
Packet format (for regular ACLs and VMaps only)
– Ethernet format (eth2, SNAP, LLC)
– Ethernet tagging format
– IP format (IPv4)
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Egress port packets (for all ACLs)
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
99
Summary of ACL Actions
Once classified using ACLs, the identified packet flows can be processed differently.
For each ACL, an action can be assigned. The action determines how the switch
treats packets that match the classifiers assigned to the ACL. CN4093 ACL actions
include the following:
• Pass or Drop the packet
• Re-mark the packet with a new DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)
• Re-mark the 802.1p field
• Set the COS queue
Assigning Individual ACLs to a Port
Once you configure an ACL, you must assign the ACL to the appropriate ports.
Each port can accept multiple ACLs, and each ACL can be applied for multiple
ports. ACLs can be assigned individually, or in groups.
To assign an individual ACL to a port, use the following IP interface commands:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port>
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control list <IPv4 ACL number>
CN 4093(config-ip)# access-control list6 <IPv6 ACL number>
When multiple ACLs are assigned to a port, higher-priority ACLs are considered
first, and their action takes precedence over lower-priority ACLs. ACL order of
precedence is discussed in the next section.
To create and assign ACLs in groups, see “ACL Groups” on page 101.
ACL Order of Precedence
When multiple ACLs are assigned to a port, they are evaluated in numeric
sequence, based on the ACL number. Lower-numbered ACLs take precedence
over higher-numbered ACLs. For example, ACL 1 (if assigned to the port) is
evaluated first and has top priority.
If multiple ACLs match the port traffic, only the action of the one with the lowest ACL
number is applied. The others are ignored.
The ACL number is the sole factor in determining ACL order of precedence. The
order in which ACLs are applied to a port does not affect the order of precedence,
nor does the ACL Group number (see “ACL Groups” on page 101), the order in
which an ACL is assigned to an ACL Group, or the order in which the ACL Group is
assigned to a port.
If no assigned ACL matches the port traffic, no ACL action is applied.
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ACL Groups
To assist in organizing multiple ACLs and assigning them to ports, you can place
ACLs into ACL Groups, thereby defining complex traffic profiles. ACLs and ACL
Groups can then be assigned on a per-port basis. Any specific ACL can be assigned
to multiple ACL Groups, and any ACL or ACL Group can be assigned to multiple
ports. If, as part of multiple ACL Groups, a specific ACL is assigned to a port multiple
times, only one instance is used. The redundant entries are ignored.
•
Individual ACLs
The CN4093 supports up to 256 ACLs. Each ACL defines one filter rule for
matching traffic criteria. Each filter rule can also include an action (permit or deny
the packet). For example:
ACL 1:
VLAN = 1
SIP = 10.10.10.1 (255.255.255.0)
Action = permit
•
Access Control List Groups
An Access Control List Group (ACL Group) is a collection of ACLs. For example:
ACL Group 1
ACL 1:
VLAN = 1
SIP = 10.10.10.1 (255.255.255.0)
Action = permit
ACL 2:
VLAN = 2
SIP = 10.10.10.2 (255.255.255.0)
Action = deny
ACL 3:
Priority = 7
DIP = 10.10.10.3 (255.255.255.0)
Action = permit
ACL Groups organize ACLs into traffic profiles that can be more easily assigned
to ports. The CN4093 supports up to 256 ACL Groups.
Note: ACL Groups are used for convenience in assigning multiple ACLs to ports.
ACL Groups have no effect on the order in which ACLs are applied (see
“ACL Order of Precedence” on page 100). All ACLs assigned to the port
(whether individually assigned or part of an ACL Group) are considered as
individual ACLs for the purposes of determining their order of precedence.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
101
Assigning ACL Groups to a Port
To assign an ACL Group to a port, use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port number>
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control group <ACL group number>
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
ACL Metering and Re-Marking
You can define a profile for the aggregate traffic flowing through the switch by
configuring a QoS meter (if desired) and assigning ACLs to ports.
Note: When you add ACLs to a port, make sure they are ordered correctly in terms
of precedence (see “ACL Order of Precedence” on page 100).
Actions taken by an ACL are called In-Profile actions. You can configure additional
In-Profile and Out-of-Profile actions on a port. Data traffic can be metered, and
re-marked to ensure that the traffic flow provides certain levels of service in terms of
bandwidth for different types of network traffic.
Metering
QoS metering provides different levels of service to data streams through
user-configurable parameters. A meter is used to measure the traffic stream against
a traffic profile which you create. Thus, creating meters yields In-Profile and
Out-of-Profile traffic for each ACL, as follows:
• In-Profile–If there is no meter configured or if the packet conforms to the meter,
the packet is classified as In-Profile.
• Out-of-Profile–If a meter is configured and the packet does not conform to the
meter (exceeds the committed rate or maximum burst rate of the meter), the
packet is classified as Out-of-Profile.
Using meters, you set a Committed Rate in Kbps (1000 bits per second in each
Kbps). All traffic within this Committed Rate is In-Profile. Additionally, you can set a
Maximum Burst Size that specifies an allowed data burst larger than the Committed
Rate for a brief period. These parameters define the In-Profile traffic.
Meters keep the sorted packets within certain parameters. You can configure a
meter on an ACL, and perform actions on metered traffic, such as packet
re-marking.
Re-Marking
Re-marking allows for the treatment of packets to be reset based on new network
specifications or desired levels of service. You can configure the ACL to re-mark a
packet as follows:
• Change the DSCP value of a packet, used to specify the service level that traffic
should receive.
• Change the 802.1p priority of a packet.
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ACL Port Mirroring
For regular ACLs and VMaps, packets that match an ACL on a specific port can be
mirrored to another switch port for network diagnosis and monitoring.
The source port for the mirrored packets cannot be a portchannel, but may be a
member of a portchannel.
The destination port to which packets are mirrored must be a physical port.
If the ACL or VMap has an action (permit, drop, etc.) assigned, it cannot be used to
mirror packets for that ACL.
Use the following commands to add mirroring to an ACL:
• For regular ACLs:
CN 4093(config)# access-control list <ACL number> mirror port <destination port>
The ACL must be also assigned to it target ports as usual (see “Assigning
Individual ACLs to a Port” on page 100, or “Assigning ACL Groups to a Port” on
page 102).
•
For VMaps (see “VLAN Maps” on page 106):
CN 4093(config)# access-control vmap <VMap number> mirror port <monitor destination port>
Viewing ACL Statistics
ACL statistics display how many packets have “hit” (matched) each ACL. Use ACL
statistics to check filter performance or to debug the ACL filter configuration.
You must enable statistics for each ACL that you wish to monitor:
CN 4093(config)# access-control list <ACL number> statistics
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
103
ACL Configuration Examples
ACL Example 1
Use this configuration to block traffic to a specific host. All traffic that ingresses on
port EXT1 is denied if it is destined for the host at IP address 100.10.1.1
1. Configure an Access Control List.
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 1 ipv4 destination-ip-address 100.10.1.1
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 1 action deny
2. Add ACL 1 to port EXT1.
CN 4093(config)# interface port EXT1
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control list 1
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
ACL Example 2
Use this configuration to block traffic from a network destined for a specific host
address. All traffic that ingresses in port EXT2 with source IP from class
100.10.1.0/24 and destination IP 200.20.2.2 is denied.
1. Configure an Access Control List.
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 2 ipv4 source-ip-address 100.10.1.0
255.255.255.0
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 2 ipv4 destination-ip-address 200.20.2.2
255.255.255.255
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 2 action deny
2. Add ACL 2 to port EXT2.
CN 4093(config)# interface port EXT2
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control list 2
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
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ACL Example 3
This configuration blocks traffic from a network that is destined for a specific egress
port. All traffic that ingresses port EXT1 from the network 100.10.1.0/24 and is
destined for port 3 is denied.
1. Configure an Access Control List.
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 4 ipv4 source-ip-address 100.10.1.0
255.255.255.0
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 4 egress-port 3
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 4 action deny
2. Add ACL 4 to port EXT1.
CN 4093(config)# interface port EXT1
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control list 4
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
105
VLAN Maps
A VLAN map (VMAP) is an ACL that can be assigned to a VLAN or VM group rather
than to a switch port as with regular ACLs. This is particularly useful in a virtualized
environment where traffic filtering and metering policies must follow virtual
machines (VMs) as they migrate between hypervisors.
VMAPs are configured using the following ISCLI command path:
CN 4093(config)# access-control vmap <VMAP ID (1-128)>
action
egress-port
ethernet
ipv4
meter
mirror
packet-format
re-mark
statistics
tcp-udp
Set filter action
Set to filter for packets egressing this port
Ethernet header options
IP version 4 header options
ACL metering configuration
Mirror options
Set to filter specific packet format types
ACL re-mark configuration
Enable access control list statistics
TCP and UDP filtering options
The CN4093 supports up to 128 VMAPs.
Individual VMAP filters are configured in the same fashion as regular ACLs, except
that VLANs cannot be specified as a filtering criteria (unnecessary, since the VMAP
are assigned to a specific VLAN or associated with a VM group VLAN).
Once a VMAP filter is created, it can be assigned or removed using the following
configuration commands:
•
For a regular VLAN:
CN 4093(config)# vlan <VLAN ID>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] vmap <VMap ID> [intports|extports]
•
For a VM group (see “VM Group Types” on page 240):
CN 4093(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <ID> vmap <VMap ID> [intports|extports]
Note: Each VMAP can be assigned to only one VLAN or VM group. However, each
VLAN or VM group may have multiple VMAPs assigned to it.
When the optional intports or extports parameter is specified, the action to
add or remove the vMAP is applies for either the internal downlink ports or external
uplink ports only. If omitted, the operation will be applied to all ports in the
associated VLAN or VM group.
Note: VMAPs have a lower priority than port-based ACLs. If both an ACL and a
VMAP match a particular packet, both filter actions will be applied as long as
there is no conflict. In the event of a conflict, the port ACL will take priority,
though switch statistics will count matches for both the ACL and VMAP.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
VMap Example
In this example, EtherType 2 traffic from VLAN 3 server ports is mirrored to a
network monitor on port 4.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)# access-control vmap 21 packet-format ethernet ethernet-type2
4093(config)# access-control vmap 21 mirror port 4
4093(config)# access-control vmap 21 action permit
4093(config)# vlan 3
4093(config-vlan)# vmap 21 intports
Chapter 8: Access Control Lists
107
Management ACLs
Management ACLs (MACLs) filter inbound traffic i.e. traffic toward the CPU. MACLs
are applied switch-wide. Traffic can be filtered based on the following:
• IPv4 source address
• IPv4 destination address
• IPv4 protocols
• TCP/UDP destination or source port
Lower MACL numbers have higher priority. Up to 128 MACLs can be configured.
Following is an example MACL configuration based on a destination IP address and
a TCP-UDP destination port:
CN 4093(config)#
255.255.255.0
CN 4093(config)#
CN 4093(config)#
CN 4093(config)#
CN 4093(config)#
access-control macl 1 ipv4 destination-ip-address 1.1.1.1
access-control
access-control
access-control
access-control
macl
macl
macl
macl
1
1
1
1
tcp-udp destination-port 111 0xffff
statistics
action permit
enable
Use the following command to view the MACL configuration:
CN 4093(config)# show access-control macl 1
MACL 1 profile : Enabled
IPv4
- DST IP
: 1.1.1.1/255.255.255.0
TCP/UDP
- DST Port
: 111/0xffff
Action
: Permit
Statistics
: Enabled
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Part 3: Switch Basics
This section discusses basic switching functions:
• VLANs
• Port Trunking
• Spanning Tree Protocols (Spanning Tree Groups, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol,
and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol)
• Quality of Service
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
109
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 9. VLANs
This chapter describes network design and topology considerations for using Virtual
Local Area Networks (VLANs). VLANs are commonly used to split up groups of
network users into manageable broadcast domains, to create logical segmentation
of workgroups, and to enforce security policies among logical segments. The
following topics are discussed in this chapter:
• “VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers” on page 113
• “VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode” on page 116
• “VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations” on page 121
• “Protocol-Based VLANs” on page 124
• “Private VLANs” on page 127
Note: Basic VLANs can be configured during initial switch configuration (see
“Using the Setup Utility” in the IBM Networking OS 7.8 Command
Reference). More comprehensive VLAN configuration can be done from the
Command Line Interface (see “VLAN Configuration” as well as “Port
Configuration” in the IBM Networking OS 7.8 Command Reference).
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
111
VLANs Overview
Setting up virtual LANs (VLANs) is a way to segment networks to increase network
flexibility without changing the physical network topology. With network
segmentation, each switch port connects to a segment that is a single broadcast
domain. When a switch port is configured to be a member of a VLAN, it is added to
a group of ports (workgroup) that belong to one broadcast domain.
Ports are grouped into broadcast domains by assigning them to the same VLAN.
Frames received in one VLAN can only be forwarded within that VLAN, and
multicast, broadcast, and unknown unicast frames are flooded only to ports in the
same VLAN.
The CN4093 automatically supports jumbo frames. This default cannot be manually
configured or disabled.
The CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) supports jumbo frames
with a Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of 9,216 bytes. Within each frame, 18
bytes are reserved for the Ethernet header and CRC trailer. The remaining space in
the frame (up to 9,198 bytes) comprise the packet, which includes the payload of up
to 9,000 bytes and any additional overhead, such as 802.1q or VLAN tags. Jumbo
frame support is automatic: it is enabled by default, requires no manual
configuration, and cannot be manually disabled.
Note: Jumbo frames are not supported for traffic sent to switch management
interfaces.
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VLANs and Port VLAN ID Numbers
VLAN Numbers
IBM Networking OS supports up to 4095 VLANs per switch. Even though the
maximum number of VLANs supported at any given time is 4095, each can be
identified with any number between 1 and 4094. VLAN 1 is the default VLAN for the
external ports and the internal blade ports.
VLAN 4095 is reserved for use by the management network, which includes the
management ports. This configuration allows Serial over LAN (SoL) management—
a feature available on certain server blades. Management functions can also be
assigned to other VLANs (using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# vlan <x>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# management
Use the following command to view VLAN information:
VLAN
---1
200
300
4095
Name
-------------------------------Default VLAN
VLAN 200
VLAN 300
Mgmt VLAN
Status
-----ena
dis
dis
ena
MGT
Ports
--- ------------------------dis INTA1-EXT22
dis empty
dis empty
ena EXTM MGT1
Note: The sample screens that appear in this document might differ slightly from
the screens displayed by your system. Screen content varies based on the
type of blade chassis unit that you are using and the firmware versions and
options that are installed.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 9: VLANs
113
PVID/Native VLAN Numbers
Each port in the switch has a configurable default VLAN number, known as its PVID.
By default, the PVID for all non-management ports is set to 1, which correlates to
the default VLAN ID. The PVID for each port can be configured to any VLAN
number between 1 and 4094.
Use the following CLI commands to view PVIDs:
• Port information:
CN 4093# show interface information
(or)
CN 4093# show interface trunk
Alias
Port Tag
Type
RMON Lrn Fld PVID
Trk
NVLAN
------- ---- --- ---------- ---- --- --- ----------------------------INTA1
1
n Internal
d
e
e 4094
INTA2
2
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA3
3
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA4
4
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA5
5
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA6
6
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA7
7
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA8
8
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA9
9
n Internal
d
e
e
1
.
.
.
INTC13 41
n Internal
d
e
e
1
INTC14 42
n Internal
d
e
e
1
EXT1
43
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT2
44
n External
d
d
d
1
EXT3
45
n External
d
d
d
1
EXT4
46
n External
d
e
d
1
EXT5
47
n External
d
d
d
1
EXT6
48
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT7
49
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT8
50
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT9
51
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT10
52
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT11
53
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT12
54
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT13
55
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT14
56
n External
d
e
e
1
EXT15
57
n External
d
d
d
1
EXT19
61
n External
d
e
e
1
EXTM
65
n Mgmt
d
e
e 4095
MGT1
66
y Mgmt
d
e
e 4095
DESCRIPTION
VLAN(s)
-------------INTA1
INTA2
INTA3
INTA4
INTA5
INTA6
INTA7
INTA8
INTA9
4094
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
INTC13
INTC14
EXT1
EXT2
EXT3
EXT4
EXT5
EXT6
EXT7
EXT8
EXT9
EXT10
EXT11
EXT12
EXT13
EXT14
EXT15
EXT19
EXTM
MGT1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4095
4095
* = PVID/Native-VLAN is tagged.
# = PVID is ingress tagged.
Trk = Trunk mode
NVLAN = Native-VLAN
Note: The sample output that appears in this document might differ slightly from
that displayed by your system. Output varies based on the type of blade
chassis unit that you are using and the firmware versions and options that
are installed.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
•
Port Configuration:
Access Mode Port
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port number>
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan <VLAN ID>
For Trunk Mode Port
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port number>
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan <VLAN ID>
Each port on the switch can belong to one or more VLANs, and each VLAN can
have any number of switch ports in its membership. Any port that belongs to multiple
VLANs, however, must have VLAN tagging enabled (see “VLAN Tagging/Trunk
Mode” on page 116).
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 9: VLANs
115
VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode
IBM Networking OS software supports 802.1Q VLAN tagging, providing
standards-based VLAN support for Ethernet systems.
Tagging places the VLAN identifier in the frame header of a packet, allowing each
port to belong to multiple VLANs. When you add a port to multiple VLANs, you also
must enable tagging on that port.
Since tagging fundamentally changes the format of frames transmitted on a tagged
port, you must carefully plan network designs to prevent tagged frames from being
transmitted to devices that do not support 802.1Q VLAN tags, or devices where
tagging is not enabled.
Important terms used with the 802.1Q tagging feature are:
• VLAN identifier (VID)—the 12-bit portion of the VLAN tag in the frame header
that identifies an explicit VLAN.
• Port VLAN identifier (PVID)—a classification mechanism that associates a port
with a specific VLAN. For example, a port with a PVID of 3 (PVID =3) assigns all
untagged frames received on this port to VLAN 3. Any untagged frames received
by the switch are classified with the PVID of the receiving port.
• Tagged frame—a frame that carries VLAN tagging information in the header.
This VLAN tagging information is a 32-bit field (VLAN tag) in the frame header
that identifies the frame as belonging to a specific VLAN. Untagged frames are
marked (tagged) with this classification as they leave the switch through a port
that is configured as a tagged port.
• Untagged frame— a frame that does not carry any VLAN tagging information in
the frame header.
• Untagged member—a port that has been configured as an untagged member of
a specific VLAN. When an untagged frame exits the switch through an untagged
member port, the frame header remains unchanged. When a tagged frame exits
the switch through an untagged member port, the tag is stripped and the tagged
frame is changed to an untagged frame.
• Tagged member—a port that has been configured as a tagged member of a
specific VLAN. When an untagged frame exits the switch through a tagged
member port, the frame header is modified to include the 32-bit tag associated
with the PVID. When a tagged frame exits the switch through a tagged member
port, the frame header remains unchanged (original VID remains).
Note: If a 802.1Q tagged frame is received by a port that has VLAN-tagging
disabled, then the frame is dropped at the ingress port.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Figure 2. Default VLAN settings
802.1Q Switch
VLAN 1
Port 1
Port 2
Port 3
Port 4
Port 5
Port 6
Port 7
...
PVID = 1
DA
CRC
SA
Incoming
untagged
packet
Data
Outgoing
untagged packet
(unchanged)
CRC
Data
SA
DA
Key
By default:
All ports are assigned PVID = 1
All external ports are untagged members of VLAN 1
All internal server ports are untagged members of VLAN 1
BS45010A
Note: The port numbers specified in these illustrations may not directly correspond
to the physical port configuration of your switch model.
When a VLAN is configured, ports are added as members of the VLAN, and the
ports are defined as either tagged or untagged (see Figure 3 through Figure 6).
The default configuration settings for CN4093s have all ports set as untagged
members of VLAN 1 with all ports configured as PVID = 1. In the default
configuration example shown in Figure 2, all incoming packets are assigned to
VLAN 1 by the default port VLAN identifier (PVID =1).
Figure 3 through Figure 6 illustrate generic examples of VLAN tagging. In Figure 3,
untagged incoming packets are assigned directly to VLAN 2 (PVID = 2). Port 5 is
configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2, and port 7 is configured as an untagged
member of VLAN 2.
Note: The port assignments in the following figures are general examples and are
not meant to match any specific CN4093.
Figure 3. Port-based VLAN assignment
Data
SA
Before
DA
Port 2
Port 3
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Port 7
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 5
CRC
Port 1
Port 4
PVID = 2
Untagged packet
Port 8
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 9: VLANs
117
As shown in Figure 4, the untagged packet is marked (tagged) as it leaves the
switch through port 5, which is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2. The
untagged packet remains unchanged as it leaves the switch through port 7, which is
configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
Figure 4. 802.1Q tagging (after port-based VLAN assignment)
Port 4
Port 1
Port 2
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Untagged memeber
of VLAN 2
Port 7
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 3
Port 8
Port 5
PVID = 2
CRC*
Data
Tag
SA
DA
(*Recalculated)
8100
Priority
CFI
VID = 2
16 bits
3 bits
1 bits
12 bits
CRC
Data
After
Outgoing
untagged packet
(unchanged)
SA
Key
DA
Priority
CFI
VID
- User_priority
- Canonical format indicator
- VLAN identifier
In Figure 5, tagged incoming packets are assigned directly to VLAN 2 because of
the tag assignment in the packet. Port 5 is configured as a tagged member of VLAN
2, and port 7 is configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
Figure 5. 802.1Q tag assignment
Data
Tag
SA
DA
Port 4
CRC
Before
Port 2
Port 3
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Port 7
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 5
Port 1
PVID = 2
Tagged packet
Port 8
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
As shown in Figure 6, the tagged packet remains unchanged as it leaves the switch
through port 5, which is configured as a tagged member of VLAN 2. However, the
tagged packet is stripped (untagged) as it leaves the switch through port 7, which is
configured as an untagged member of VLAN 2.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Figure 6. 802.1Q tagging (after 802.1Q tag assignment)
Port 4
Port 1
Port 2
802.1Q Switch
Port 6
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 7
CRC*
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
Port 3
Port 5
PVID = 2
CRC
Data
Tag
SA
DA
Port 8
(*Recalculated)
8100
Priority
CFI
VID = 2
16 bits
3 bits
1 bit
12 bits
Data
SA
DA
Outgoing
untagged packet
changed
(tag removed)
After
Key
Priority
CFI
VID
- User_priority
- Canonical format indicator
- VLAN identifier
Note: Set the configuration to factory default
(CN 4093(config)# boot configuration-block factory) to
reset all non-management ports to VLAN 1.
Ingress VLAN Tagging
Tagging can be enabled on an ingress port. When a packet is received on an
ingress port, and if ingress tagging is enabled on the port, a VLAN tag with the port
PVID is inserted into the packet as the outer VLAN tag. Depending on the egress
port setting (tagged or untagged), the outer tag of the packet is retained or removed
when it leaves the egress port.
Ingress VLAN tagging is used to tunnel packets through a public domain without
altering the original 802.1Q status.
When ingress tagging is enabled on a port, all packets, whether untagged or tagged,
will be tagged again. As shown in Figure 7, when tagging is enabled on the egress
port, the outer tag of the packet is retained when it leaves the egress port. If tagging
is disabled on the egress port, the outer tag of the packet is removed when it leaves
the egress port.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 9: VLANs
119
Figure 7. 802.1Q tagging (after ingress tagging assignment)
Untagged packet received on ingress port
802.1Q Switch
CRC
Data
SA
DA
Port 4
PVID = 2
Untagged packet
CRC*
Port 2
Data
Port 3
Tag
SA
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
DA
Port 5
Port 1
CRC*
Data
Tag
SA
DA
After
Before
Port 6
Port 7
Port 8
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
CRC
Data
SA
DA
Tagged packet received on ingress port
802.1Q Switch
Data Tag 1
SA
DA
Port 2
Port 3
CRC* Data Tag 1 Tag 2 SA
Tagged member
of VLAN 2
DA
Port 5
CRC*
Port 1
Port 4
PVID = 2
Tagged packet
CRC*
Data Tag 1 Tag 2 SA DA
After
Before
Port 6
Port 7
Port 8
Untagged member
of VLAN 2
CRC*
Data Tag 1
SA
DA
By default, ingress tagging is disabled. To enable ingress tagging on a port, use the
following commands:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <number>
CN 4093(config-if)# tagpvid-ingress
Limitations
Ingress tagging cannot be configured with the following features/configurations:
• vNIC ports
• VMready ports
• UFP ports
• Management ports
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VLAN Topologies and Design Considerations
•
•
•
•
By default, the IBM Networking OS software is configured so that tagging is disabled on all external ports and on all internal ports.
By default, the IBM Networking OS software is configured so that all internal
ports are members of VLAN 1.
By default, the IBM Networking OS software is configured so that the management port is a member of the default management VLAN 4095.
Multiple management VLANs can be configured on the switch, in addition to the
default VLAN 4095, using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# vlan <x>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# management
•
When using Spanning Tree, STG 2-128 may contain only one VLAN unless
Multiple Spanning-Tree Protocol (MSTP) mode is used. With MSTP mode,
STG 1 to 32 can include multiple VLANs.
VLAN Configuration Rules
VLANs operate according to specific configuration rules. When creating VLANs,
consider the following rules that determine how the configured VLAN reacts in any
network topology:
•
•
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
All ports involved in trunking and port mirroring must have the same VLAN configuration. If a port is on a trunk with a mirroring port, the VLAN configuration
cannot be changed. For more information trunk groups, see “Configuring a
Static Port Trunk” on page 137.
All ports that are involved in port mirroring must have memberships in the same
VLANs. If a port is configured for port mirroring, the port’s VLAN membership
cannot be changed. For more information on configuring port mirroring, see
“Port Mirroring” on page 509.
Management VLANs must contain the management port, and can include one
or more internal ports (INTx). External ports (EXTx) cannot be members of any
management VLAN.
Chapter 9: VLANs
121
Example: Multiple VLANs with Tagging Adapters
Figure 8. Multiple VLANs with VLAN-Tagged Gigabit Adapters
Server #1
Server #2
VLAN #3
VLAN #1, 2, 3
GbE
Switch Module
Shared Media
Gigabit/Tagged
adapter
PC #1
VLAN #2
PC #2
VLAN #2
PC #3
VLAN #1
PC #4
VLAN #3
PC #5
VLAN #1 & #2
The features of this VLAN are described in the following table:
122
Component
Description
Switch
This switch is configured for three VLANs that represent three
different IP subnets. Two servers and five clients are attached to
the switch.
Server #1
This server is a member of VLAN 3 and has presence in only one IP
subnet. The associated internal switch port is only a member of
VLAN 3, so tagging is disabled.
Server #2
This high-use server needs to be accessed from all VLANs and IP
subnets. The server has a VLAN-tagging adapter installed with
VLAN tagging turned on. The adapter is attached to one of the
internal switch ports, that is a member of VLANs 1, 2, and 3, and
has tagging enabled. Because of the VLAN tagging capabilities of
both the adapter and the switch, the server is able to communicate
on all three IP subnets in this network. Broadcast separation
between all three VLANs and subnets, however, is maintained.
PCs #1 and
#2
These PCs are attached to a shared media hub that is then
connected to the switch. They belong to VLAN 2 and are logically in
the same IP subnet as Server 2 and PC 5. The associated external
switch port has tagging disabled.
PC #3
A member of VLAN 1, this PC can only communicate with Server 2
and PC 5. The associated external switch port has tagging
disabled.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Component
Description
PC #4
A member of VLAN 3, this PC can only communicate with Server 1
and Server 2. The associated external switch port has tagging
disabled.
PC #5
A member of both VLAN 1 and VLAN 2, this PC has a
VLAN-tagging Gigabit Ethernet adapter installed. It can
communicate with Server 2 and PC 3 via VLAN 1, and to Server 2,
PC 1 and PC 2 via VLAN 2. The associated external switch port is a
member of VLAN 1 and VLAN 2, and has tagging enabled.
Note: VLAN tagging is required only on ports that are connected to other CN4093s
or on ports that connect to tag-capable end-stations, such as servers with
VLAN-tagging adapters.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 9: VLANs
123
Protocol-Based VLANs
Protocol-based VLANs (PVLANs) allow you to segment network traffic according to
the network protocols in use. Traffic for supported network protocols can be
confined to a particular port-based VLAN. You can give different priority levels to
traffic generated by different network protocols.
With PVLAN, the switch classifies incoming packets by Ethernet protocol of the
packets, not by the configuration of the ingress port. When an untagged or
priority-tagged frame arrives at an ingress port, the protocol information carried in
the frame is used to determine a VLAN to which the frame belongs. If a frame’s
protocol is not recognized as a pre-defined PVLAN type, the ingress port’s PVID is
assigned to the frame. When a tagged frame arrives, the VLAN ID in the frame’s tag
is used.
Each VLAN can contain up to eight different PVLANs. You can configure separate
PVLANs on different VLANs, with each PVLAN segmenting traffic for the same
protocol type. For example, you can configure PVLAN 1 on VLAN 2 to segment IPv4
traffic, and PVLAN 8 on VLAN 100 to segment IPv4 traffic.
To define a PVLAN on a VLAN, configure a PVLAN number (1-8) and specify the
frame type and the Ethernet type of the PVLAN protocol. You must assign at least
one port to the PVLAN before it can function. Define the PVLAN frame type and
Ethernet type as follows:
• Frame type—consists of one of the following values:
– Ether2 (Ethernet II)
– SNAP (Subnetwork Access Protocol)
– LLC (Logical Link Control)
•
Ethernet type—consists of a 4-digit (16 bit) hex value that defines the Ethernet
type. You can use common Ethernet protocol values, or define your own values.
Following are examples of common Ethernet protocol values:
– IPv4 = 0800
– IPv6 = 86dd
– ARP = 0806
Port-Based vs. Protocol-Based VLANs
Each VLAN supports both port-based and protocol-based association, as follows:
• The default VLAN configuration is port-based. All data ports are members of
VLAN 1, with no PVLAN association.
• When you add ports to a PVLAN, the ports become members of both the
port-based VLAN and the PVLAN. For example, if you add port EXT1 to PVLAN
1 on VLAN 2, the port also becomes a member of VLAN 2.
• When you delete a PVLAN, it’s member ports remain members of the port-based
VLAN. For example, if you delete PVLAN 1 from VLAN 2, port EXT1 remains a
member of VLAN 2.
• When you delete a port from a VLAN, the port is deleted from all corresponding
PVLANs.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
PVLAN Priority Levels
You can assign each PVLAN a priority value of 0-7, used for Quality of Service
(QoS). PVLAN priority takes precedence over a port’s configured priority level. If no
priority level is configured for the PVLAN (priority = 0), each port’s priority is used (if
configured).
All member ports of a PVLAN have the same PVLAN priority level.
PVLAN Tagging
When PVLAN tagging is enabled, the switch tags frames that match the PVLAN
protocol. For more information about tagging, see “VLAN Tagging/Trunk Mode” on
page 116.
Untagged ports must have PVLAN tagging disabled. Tagged ports can have PVLAN
tagging either enabled or disabled.
PVLAN tagging has higher precedence than port-based tagging. If a port is tag
enabled, and the port is a member of a PVLAN, the PVLAN tags egress frames that
match the PVLAN protocol.
Use the tag-pvlan command (vlan <x> protocol-vlan <x> tag-pvlan <x>) to
define the complete list of tag-enabled ports in the PVLAN. Note that all ports not
included in the PVLAN tag list will have PVLAN tagging disabled.
PVLAN Configuration Guidelines
Consider the following guidelines when you configure protocol-based VLANs:
• Each port can support up to 16 VLAN protocols.
• The CN4093 can support up to 16 protocols simultaneously.
• Each PVLAN must have at least one port assigned before it can be activated.
• The same port within a port-based VLAN can belong to multiple PVLANs.
• An untagged port can be a member of multiple PVLANs.
• A port cannot be a member of different VLANs with the same protocol
association.
Configuring PVLAN
Follow this procedure to configure a Protocol-based VLAN (PVLAN).
1. Configure VLAN tagging/trunk mode for ports.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1,2
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
2. Create a VLAN and define the protocol type(s) supported by the VLAN.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 2
CN 4093(config-vlan)# protocol-vlan 1 frame-type ether2 0800
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 9: VLANs
125
3. Configure the priority value for the protocol.
CN 4093(config-vlan)# protocol-vlan 1 priority 2
4. Add member ports for this PVLAN.
CN 4093(config-vlan)# protocol-vlan 1 member 1,2
Note: If VLAN tagging is turned on and the port being added to the VLAN has a
different default VLAN (PVID/Native VLAN), you will be asked to confirm
changing the PVID to the current VLAN.
5. Enable the PVLAN.
CN 4093(config-vlan)# protocol-vlan 1 enable
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
6. Verify PVLAN operation. .
CN 4093(config)# show vlan
VLAN
---1
2
Name
-------------------------------Default VLAN
VLAN 2
Primary Secondary Type
------- --------- ----------------------------------PVLAN
----2
PVLAN
----none
126
Protocol
-------1
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
MGT
Ports
--- ------------------------dis INTA2-EXT15 EXT19
dis INTA1 INTA2
Ports
---------------------
FrameType EtherType
-------------------Ether2
0800
PVLAN-Tagged Ports
--------------------------none
Status
-----ena
ena
Priority
-------2
vPorts
Status
Ports
------ ----------------enabled
INTA1 INTA2
Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide Layer 2 isolation between the ports within the same
broadcast domain. Private VLANs can control traffic within a VLAN domain, and
provide port-based security for host servers.
IBM Networking OS supports Private VLAN configuration as described in RFC
5517.
Use Private VLANs to partition a VLAN domain into sub-domains. Each sub-domain
is comprised of one primary VLAN and one secondary VLAN, as follows:
• Primary VLAN—carries unidirectional traffic downstream from promiscuous
ports. Each Private VLAN has only one primary VLAN. All ports in the Private
VLAN are members of the primary VLAN.
• Secondary VLAN—Secondary VLANs are internal to a private VLAN domain,
and are defined as follows:
– Isolated VLAN—carries unidirectional traffic upstream from the host servers
toward ports in the primary VLAN and the gateway. Each Private VLAN can
contain only one Isolated VLAN.
– Community VLAN—carries upstream traffic from ports in the community
VLAN to other ports in the same community, and to ports in the primary
VLAN and the gateway. Each Private VLAN can contain multiple community
VLANs.
After you define the primary VLAN and one or more secondary VLANs, you map the
secondary VLAN(s) to the primary VLAN.
Private VLAN Ports
Private VLAN ports are defined as follows:
• Promiscuous—A promiscuous port is an external port that belongs to the primary
VLAN. The promiscuous port can communicate with all the interfaces, including
ports in the secondary VLANs (Isolated VLAN and Community VLANs). Each
promiscuous port can belong to only one Private VLAN.
• Isolated—An isolated port is a host port that belongs to an isolated VLAN. Each
isolated port has complete layer 2 separation from other ports within the same
private VLAN (including other isolated ports), except for the promiscuous ports.
– Traffic sent to an isolated port is blocked by the Private VLAN, except the
traffic from promiscuous ports.
– Traffic received from an isolated port is forwarded only to promiscuous ports.
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Community—A community port is a host port that belongs to a community VLAN.
Community ports can communicate with other ports in the same community
VLAN, and with promiscuous ports. These interfaces are isolated at layer 2 from
all other interfaces in other communities and from isolated ports within the
Private VLAN.
Chapter 9: VLANs
127
Configuration Guidelines
The following guidelines apply when configuring Private VLANs:
• Management VLANs cannot be Private VLANs. Management ports cannot be
members of a Private VLAN.
• The default VLAN 1 cannot be a Private VLAN.
• IGMP Snooping must be disabled on Private VLANs.
• All VLANs that comprise the Private VLAN must belong to the same Spanning
Tree Group.
Configuration Example
Follow this procedure to configure a Private VLAN.
1. Select a VLAN and define the Private VLAN type as primary.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 700
CN 4093(config-vlan)# private-vlan primary
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
2. Configure a promiscuous port for VLAN 700.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1
4093(config-if)# switchport mode private-vlan
4093(config-if)# switchport private-vlan mapping 700
4093(config-if)# exit
3. Configure two secondary VLANs: isolated VLAN and community VLAN.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
701
private-vlan isolated
exit
702
private-vlan community
exit
4. Map secondary VLANs to primary VLAN.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
700-702
stg 1
exit
700
private-vlan association 701,702
exit
5. Configure host ports for secondary VLANs.
128
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode private-vlan
4093(config-if)# switchport private-vlan host-association 700 701
4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 3
4093(config-if)# switchport mode private-vlan
4093(config-if)# switchport private-vlan host-association 700 702
4093(config-if)# exit
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
6. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show vlan private-vlan
Primary
------700
700
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Secondary
Type
Ports
--------- --------------- --------------------------------701
isolated
1 2
702
community
1 3
Chapter 9: VLANs
129
130
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 10. Ports and Trunking
Trunk groups can provide super-bandwidth, multi-link connections between the
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) and other trunk-capable
devices. A trunk group is a group of ports that act together, combining their
bandwidth to create a single, larger virtual link. This chapter provides configuration
background and examples for trunking multiple ports together:
• “Configuring Port Modes” on page 132
• “Configuring QSFP+ Ports” on page 134
• “Trunking Overview” on page 135
• “Static Trunks” on page 136
• “Configurable Trunk Hash Algorithm” on page 139
• “Link Aggregation Control Protocol” on page 141
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
131
Configuring Port Modes
The switch allows you to set the port mode. Select the port mode that fits your
network configuration.
Switch port modes are available based on the installation license.
The following port modes are available:
• Base Port mode:
– Fourteen 10Gb internal (1 port x 14 blade servers)
– Eight 10Gb external
•
Upgrade 1 Port mode:
– Twenty Eight 10Gb internal (2 ports x 14 blade servers)
– Eight 10Gb external
– Two 40Gb external
•
Upgrade 2 Port mode:
– Forty Two 10Gb internal (3 ports x 14 Blade servers)
– Fourteen 10Gb external
– Two 40Gb external
Base Port mode is the default. To upgrade the port mode, you must obtain a
software license key.
The following command sequence is an example of how to upgrade the port mode
(e.g. switch SN Y010CM2CN058):
CN 4093# software-key
Enter hostname or IP address of SFTP/TFTP server: 9.44.143.105
Enter name of file on SFTP/TFTP server:
ibm_fod_0019_Y010CM2CN058_anyos_noarch.key
Enter username for SFTP server or hit return for TFTP server:
Enter the port to use for downloading the file
["data"|"extm"|"mgt"]: mgt
Starting download key file...
Key file download complete (502 bytes)
Software feature 'Upgrade1' will be Active upon next reboot.
NOTICE mgmt: Software feature 'Upgrade1' will be Active upon next
reboot.
A Reboot is required for the new settings to take effect.
Note: Upgrade 1 and Upgrade 2 can be independently installed in any order. You
can choose to install any one upgrade or both.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
After you enter the license key, you must reset the switch (CN 4093# reload) for the
change to take affect. Use the following command to verify the port configuration:
CN 4093(config)# show interface information
Alias
Port Tag
Trk
------- ---- --INTA1
1
n
INTA2
2
n
INTA3
3
n
INTA4
4
n
INTA5
5
n
INTA6
6
n
INTA7
7
n
INTA8
8
n
INTA9
9
n
.
.
EXT1
43
n
EXT2
44
n
EXT3
45
n
EXT4
46
n
EXT5
47
n
EXT6
48
n
EXT7
49
n
EXT8
50
n
EXT9
51
n
EXT10
52
n
EXT11
53
n
EXT12
54
n
EXT13
55
n
EXT14
56
n
EXT15
57
n
EXT16
58
n
EXT17
59
n
EXT18
60
n
EXT19
61
n
EXT20
62
n
EXT21
63
n
EXT22
64
n
EXTM
65
n
MGT1
66
y
Type
RMON Lrn Fld PVID
DESCRIPTION
VLAN(s)
NVLAN
---------- ---- --- --- --------------------------------------------------Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA1
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA2
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA3
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA4
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA5
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA6
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA7
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA8
1
Internal
d
e
e
1
INTA9
1
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
External
Mgmt
Mgmt
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4095
4095
EXT1
EXT2
EXT3
EXT4
EXT5
EXT6
EXT7
EXT8
EXT9
EXT10
EXT11
EXT12
EXT13
EXT14
EXT15
EXT16
EXT17
EXT18
EXT19
EXT20
EXT21
EXT22
EXTM
MGT1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4095
4095
* = PVID/Native-VLAN is tagged.
# = PVID is ingress tagged.
Trk = Trunk mode
NVLAN = Native-VLAN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 10: Ports and Trunking
133
Configuring QSFP+ Ports
QSFP+ ports support both 10GbE and 40GbE, as shown in Table 16.
Table 16. QSFP+ Port Numbering
Physical Port Number
40GbE mode
10GbE mode
Port EXT15
Port EXT15
Ports EXT15-EXT18
Port EXT19
Port EXT19
Ports EXT19-EXT22
QSFP+ ports are available only when Upgrade 1 is installed (see “Configuring Port
Modes” on page 132).
The following procedure allows you to change the QSFP+ port mode.
1. Display the current port mode for the QSFP+ ports.
CN 4093# show boot qsfp-port-modes
QSFP ports booted configuration:
Port EXT15, EXT16, EXT17, EXT18 - 10G Mode
Port EXT19, EXT20, EXT21, EXT22 - 10G Mode
QSFP ports saved configuration:
Port EXT15, EXT16, EXT17, EXT18 - 10G Mode
Port EXT19, EXT20, EXT21, EXT22 - 10G Mode
2. Change the port mode to 40GbE. Select the physical port number.
CN 4093(config)# boot qsfp-40Gports ext15
3. Verify the change.
CN 4093# show boot qsfp-port-modes
QSFP ports booted configuration:
Port EXT15, EXT16, EXT17, EXT18 - 10G Mode
Port EXT19, EXT20, EXT21, EXT22 - 10G Mode
QSFP ports saved configuration:
Port EXT15 - 40G Mode
Port EXT19, EXT20, EXT21, EXT22 - 10G Mode
4. Reset the switch.
CN 4093(config)# reload
Remove the configured port from QSFP+ mode to reset the ports to 10GbE mode.
CN 4093(config)# no boot qsfp-40Gports ext15
134
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Trunking Overview
When using port trunk groups between two switches, as shown in Figure 9, you can
create a virtual link between them, operating with combined throughput levels that
depends on how many physical ports are included.
Two trunk types are available: static trunk groups (portchannel), and dynamic LACP
trunk groups. Up to 64 trunks of each type are supported, either static, LACP or
mixed, depending of the number and type of available ports. Each trunk can include
up to 32 member ports .
Figure 9. Port Trunk Group
Switch 1
Switch 2
Aggregate
Port Trunk
Trunk groups are also useful for connecting a CN4093 to third-party devices that
support link aggregation, such as Cisco routers and switches with EtherChannel
technology (not ISL trunking technology) and Sun's Quad Fast Ethernet Adapter.
Trunk Group technology is compatible with these devices when they are configured
manually.
Trunk traffic is statistically distributed among the ports in a trunk group, based on a
variety of configurable options.
Also, since each trunk group is comprised of multiple physical links, the trunk group
is inherently fault tolerant. As long as one connection between the switches is
available, the trunk remains active and statistical load balancing is maintained
whenever a port in a trunk group is lost or returned to service.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 10: Ports and Trunking
135
Static Trunks
Before Configuring Static Trunks
When you create and enable a static trunk, the trunk members (switch ports) take
on certain settings necessary for correct operation of the trunking feature.
Before you configure your trunk, you must consider these settings, along with
specific configuration rules, as follows:
• Read the configuration rules provided in the section, “Static Trunk Group
Configuration Rules” on page 136.”
• Determine which switch ports are to become trunk members (the specific ports
making up the trunk).
• Ensure that the chosen switch ports are set to enabled.
• Ensure all member ports in a trunk have the same VLAN configuration.
• Consider how the existing Spanning Tree will react to the new trunk
configuration. See “Spanning Tree Protocols” on page 145 for configuration
guidelines.
• Consider how existing VLANs will be affected by the addition of a trunk.
Static Trunk Group Configuration Rules
The trunking feature operates according to specific configuration rules. When
creating trunks, consider the following rules that determine how a trunk group reacts
in any network topology:
• All trunks must originate from one network entity (a single device, or multiple
devices acting in a stack) and lead to one destination entity. For example, you
cannot combine links from two different servers into one trunk group.
• Any physical switch port can belong to only one trunk group.
• Depending on port availability, the switch supports up to 16 ports in each trunk
group.
• Internal ports (INTx) and external ports (EXTx) cannot become members of the
same trunk group.
• Trunking from third-party devices must comply with Cisco® EtherChannel®
technology.
• All trunk member ports must be assigned to the same VLAN configuration before
the trunk can be enabled.
• If you change the VLAN settings of any trunk member, you cannot apply the
change until you change the VLAN settings of all trunk members.
• When an active port is configured in a trunk, the port becomes a trunk member
when you enable the trunk. The Spanning Tree parameters for the port then
change to reflect the new trunk settings.
• All trunk members must be in the same Spanning Tree Group (STG) and can
belong to only one Spanning Tree Group (STG). However if all ports are tagged,
then all trunk ports can belong to multiple STGs.
• If you change the Spanning Tree participation of any trunk member to enabled
or disabled, the Spanning Tree participation of all members of that trunk
should be changed similarly.
• When a trunk is enabled, the trunk Spanning Tree participation setting takes
precedence over that of any trunk member.
136
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
•
•
•
You cannot configure a trunk member as a monitor port in a port-mirroring
configuration.
Trunks cannot be monitored by a monitor port; however, trunk members can be
monitored.
All ports in static trunks must have the same link configuration (speed, duplex,
flow control).
Configuring a Static Port Trunk
In the example below, three ports are trunked between two switches.
Figure 10. Port Trunk Group Configuration Example
Application Switch
Application Switch Trunk 3: Ports 2, 12, and 22
Aggregate
Port Trunk
IBM Blade Trunk 1: Ports EXT1, EXT2, and EXT3
Switch
IBM Blade Chassis
Prior to configuring each switch in the above example, you must connect to the
appropriate switch’s Command Line Interface (CLI) as the administrator.
Note: For details about accessing and using any of the menu commands
described in this example, see the IBM Networking OS Command
Reference.
1. Connect the switch ports that will be members in the trunk group.
2. Configure the trunk using these steps on the CN4093:
a. Define a trunk group.
CN 4093(config)# portchannel 1 port ext1,ext2,ext3
(Add port s to trunk group 1)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel 1 enable
(Enable trunk group 1)
b. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show portchannel information
Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make
appropriate changes.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 10: Ports and Trunking
137
3. Repeat the process on the other switch.
CN 4093(config)# portchannel 3 port 2,12,22
CN 4093(config)# portchannel 3 enable
Trunk group 1 (on the CN4093) is now connected to trunk group 3 on the Application
Switch.
Note: In this example, a CN4093 and an application switch are used. If a
third-party device supporting link aggregation is used (such as Cisco routers
and switches with EtherChannel technology or Sun's Quad Fast Ethernet
Adapter), trunk groups on the third-party device should be configured
manually. Connection problems could arise when using automatic trunk
group negotiation on the third-party device.
4. Examine the trunking information on each switch.
CN 4093# show portchannel information
(View trunking information)
Information about each port in each configured trunk group is displayed. Make
sure that trunk groups consist of the expected ports and that each port is in the
expected state.
138
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Configurable Trunk Hash Algorithm
Traffic in a trunk group is statistically distributed among member ports using a hash
process where various address and attribute bits from each transmitted frame are
recombined to specify the particular trunk port the frame will use.
The switch can be configured to use a variety of hashing options. To achieve the
most even traffic distribution, select options that exhibit a wide range of values for
your particular network. Avoid hashing on information that is not usually present in
the expected traffic, or which does not vary.
The CN4093 supports the following hashing options, which can be used in any
combination:
• For Layer 2 traffic, one of the following combinations may be applied:
– Source MAC address (smac)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l2thash l2-source-mac-address
– Destination MAC address (dmac)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l2thash l2-destination-mac-address
– Both source and destination MAC address (enabled by default)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l2thash l2-source-destination-mac
Note: At least one Layer 2 option must always be enabled; The smac and dmac
options may not both be disabled at the same time.
•
For Layer 3 IPv4/IPv6 traffic, one of the following are permitted:
– Source IP address (sip)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3-source-ip-address
– Destination IP address (dip)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3-destination-ip-address
– Both source and destination IP address (enabled by default)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3-source-destination-ip
If Layer 2 hashing is preferred for Layer 3 traffic, disable the Layer 3 sip and
dip hashing options and enable the useL2 option:
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l3thash l3-use-l2-hash
Layer 3 traffic will then use Layer 2 options for hashing.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 10: Ports and Trunking
139
•
Ingress port number (disabled by default)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash ingress
•
Layer 4 port information (disabled by default)
CN 4093(config)# portchannel thash l4port
When enabled, Layer 4 port information (TCP, UPD, etc.) is added to the hash if
available. The L4port option is ignored when Layer 4 information is not
included in the packet (such as for Layer 2 packets), or when the useL2 option is
enabled.
Note: For MPLS packets, Layer 4 port information is excluded from the hash
calculation. Instead, other IP fields are used, along with the first two MPLS
labels.
The CN4093 supports the following FCoE hashing options:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
140
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
portchannel
portchannel
portchannel
portchannel
portchannel
portchannel
thash
thash
thash
thash
thash
thash
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
fcoe
fcoe
fcoe
fcoe
fcoe
fcoe
cntag-id
destination-id
fabric-id
originator-id
responder-id
source-id
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
LACP Overview
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is an IEEE 802.3ad standard for grouping
several physical ports into one logical port (known as a dynamic trunk group or Link
Aggregation group) with any device that supports the standard. Please refer to IEEE
802.3ad-2002 for a full description of the standard.
IEEE 802.3ad allows standard Ethernet links to form a single Layer 2 link using the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). Link aggregation is a method of grouping
physical link segments of the same media type and speed in full duplex, and treating
them as if they were part of a single, logical link segment. If a link in a LACP trunk
group fails, traffic is reassigned dynamically to the remaining link or links of the
dynamic trunk group.
The CN4093 supports up to 64 LACP trunks, each with up to 16 ports.
Note: LACP implementation in IBM Networking OS does not support the Churn
machine, an option used to detect if the port is operable within a bounded
time period between the actor and the partner. Only the Marker Responder is
implemented, and there is no marker protocol generator.
A port’s Link Aggregation Identifier (LAG ID) determines how the port can be
aggregated. The Link Aggregation ID (LAG ID) is constructed mainly from the
system ID and the port’s admin key, as follows:
• System ID: an integer value based on the switch’s MAC address and the system
priority assigned in the CLI.
• Admin key: a port’s admin key is an integer value (1 - 65535) that you can
configure in the CLI. Each CN4093 port that participates in the same LACP trunk
group must have the same admin key value. The admin key is local significant,
which means the partner switch does not need to use the same admin key value.
For example, consider two switches, an Actor (the CN4093) and a Partner (another
switch), as shown in Table 17.
Table 17. Actor vs. Partner LACP configuration
Actor Switch
Partner Switch 1
Port 38 (admin key = 100)
Port 1 (admin key = 50)
Port 39 (admin key = 100)
Port 2 (admin key = 50)
Port 40 (admin key = 100)
Port 3 (admin key = 70)
In the configuration shown in Table 17, Actor switch ports 38 and 39 aggregate to
form an LACP trunk group with Partner switch ports 1 and 2. Only ports with the
same LAG ID are aggregated in the trunk group. Actor switch port 40 is not
aggregated in the trunk group because it has a different LAG ID. Switch ports
configured with the same admin key on the Actor switch but have a different LAG ID
(due to Partner switch admin key configuration or due to partner switch MAC
address being different) can be aggregated in another trunk group. i.e. Actor switch
port 40 can be aggregated in another trunk group with ports that have the same
LAG ID as port 40.
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To avoid the Actor switch ports (with the same admin key) from aggregating in
another trunk group, you can configure a trunk ID. Ports with the same admin key
(although with different LAG IDs) compete to get aggregated in a trunk group. The
LAG ID for the trunk group is decided based on the first port that is aggregated in the
group. Ports with this LAG ID get aggregated and the other ports are placed in
suspended mode. As per the configuration shown in Table 17, if port 38 gets
aggregated first, then the LAG ID of port 38 would be the LAG ID of the trunk. Port
40 would be placed in suspended mode. When in suspended mode, a port transmits
only LACP data units (LACPDUs) and discards all other traffic.
A port may also be placed in suspended mode for the following reasons:
• When LACP is configured on the port but it stops receiving LACPDUs from the
partner switch.
• When the port has a different LAG ID because of the partner switch MAC being
different. For example: when a switch is connected to two partners.
Trunk ID can be configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# portchannel <65-128> lacp key <adminkey of the LAG> suspend-individual
LACP provides for the controlled addition and removal of physical links for the link
aggregation.
Each port in the CN4093 can have one of the following LACP modes.
• off (default)
The user can configure this port in to a regular static trunk group.
•
active
The port is capable of forming an LACP trunk. This port sends LACPDU packets
to partner system ports.
•
passive
The port is capable of forming an LACP trunk. This port only responds to the
LACPDU packets sent from an LACP active port.
Each active LACP port transmits LACP data units (LACPDUs), while each passive
LACP port listens for LACPDUs. During LACP negotiation, the admin key is
exchanged. The LACP trunk group is enabled as long as the information matches at
both ends of the link. If the admin key value changes for a port at either end of the
link, that port’s association with the LACP trunk group is lost.
If an LACP group member port is connected to a port that is in LACP off mode, the
LACP port will not be able to converge. The link remains up, but the port is set to
discarding state.
When the system is initialized, all ports by default are in LACP off mode and are
assigned unique admin keys. To make a group of ports aggregatable, you assign
them all the same admin key. You must set the port’s LACP mode to active to
activate LACP negotiation. You can set other port’s LACP mode to passive, to
reduce the amount of LACPDU traffic at the initial trunk-forming stage.
Use the following command to check whether the ports are trunked.
CN 4093 # show lacp information
Static trunks are listed as trunks 1 though 64. Dynamic trunks are listed as 65
through 128.
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Configuring LACP
Use the following procedure to configure LACP for ports 7, 8, and 9 to participate in
a single link aggregation.
1. Configure port parameters. All ports that participate in the LACP trunk group
must have the same settings, including VLAN membership.
2. Select the port range and define the admin key. Only ports with the same admin
key can form an LACP trunk group.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 7-9
CN 4093(config-if)# lacp key 100
3. Set the LACP mode.
CN 4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
4. Restrict port participation to a single link aggregation with trunk ID 65:
CN 4093(config-if)# portchannel 65 lacp key 100 suspend-individual
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Chapter 11. Spanning Tree Protocols
When multiple paths exist between two points on a network, Spanning Tree Protocol
(STP), or one of its enhanced variants, can prevent broadcast loops and ensure that
the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) uses only the most
efficient network path.
This chapter covers the following topics:
• “Spanning Tree Protocol Modes” on page 145
• “Global STP Control” on page 146
• “PVSRT Mode” on page 146
• “Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 158
• “Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 159
• “Port Type and Link Type” on page 163
Spanning Tree Protocol Modes
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports the following STP modes:
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
IEEE 802.1D (2004) RSTP allows devices to detect and eliminate logical loops
in a bridged or switched network. When multiple paths exist, STP configures the
network so that only the most efficient path is used. If that path fails, STP
automatically configures the best alternative active path on the network in order
to sustain network operations. RSTP is an enhanced version of IEEE 802.1D
(1998) STP, providing more rapid convergence of the Spanning Tree network
path states on STG 1.
See “Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 158 for details.
•
Per-VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST+)
PVRST mode is based on RSTP to provide rapid Spanning Tree convergence,
but supports instances of Spanning Tree, allowing one STG per VLAN. PVRST
mode is compatible with Cisco R-PVST/R-PVST+ mode.
PVRST is the default Spanning Tree mode on the CN4093. See “PVSRT Mode”
on page 146 for details.
•
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
IEEE 802.1Q (2003) MSTP provides both rapid convergence and load balancing
in a VLAN environment. MSTP allows multiple STGs, with multiple VLANs in
each.
See “Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol” on page 159 for details.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
145
Global STP Control
By default, the Spanning Tree feature is globally enabled on the switch, and is set
for PVRST mode. Spanning Tree (and thus any currently configured STP mode) can
be globally disabled or re-enabled using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode disable
(Globally disable Spanning Tree)
Spanning Tree can be re-enabled by specifying the STP mode:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode {pvrst|rstp|mst}
PVSRT Mode
Note: Per-VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST) is enabled by default on the
CN4093.
Using STP, network devices detect and eliminate logical loops in a bridged or
switched network. When multiple paths exist, Spanning Tree configures the network
so that a switch uses only the most efficient path. If that path fails, Spanning Tree
automatically sets up another active path on the network to sustain network
operations.
IBM Networking OS PVRST mode is based on IEEE 802.1w RSTP. Like RSTP,
PVRST mode provides rapid Spanning Tree convergence. However, PVRST mode
is enhanced for multiple instances of Spanning Tree. In PVRST mode, each VLAN
may be automatically or manually assigned to one of 127 available STGs, with each
STG acting as an independent, simultaneous instance of STP. PVRST uses IEEE
802.1Q tagging to differentiate STP BPDUs and is compatible with Cisco
R-PVST/R-PVST+ modes.
The relationship between ports, trunk groups, VLANs, and Spanning Trees is shown
in Table 18.
Table 18. Ports, Trunk Groups, and VLANs
146
Switch Element
Belongs To
Port
Trunk group,
or one or more VLANs
Trunk group
One or more VLANs
VLAN (non-default)
•
•
•
PVRST: One VLAN per STG
RSTP: All VLANs are in STG 1
MSTP: Multiple VLANs per STG
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Port States
The port state controls the forwarding and learning processes of Spanning Tree. In
PVRST, the port state has been consolidated to the following: discarding,
learning, and forwarding.
Due to the sequence involved in these STP states, considerable delays may occur
while paths are being resolved. To mitigate delays, ports defined as edge ports
(“Port Type and Link Type” on page 163) may bypass the discarding and
learning states, and enter directly into the forwarding state.
Bridge Protocol Data Units
Bridge Protocol Data Units Overview
To create a Spanning Tree, the switch generates a configuration Bridge Protocol
Data Unit (BPDU), which it then forwards out of its ports. All switches in the Layer 2
network participating in the Spanning Tree gather information about other switches
in the network through an exchange of BPDUs.
A bridge sends BPDU packets at a configurable regular interval (2 seconds by
default). The BPDU is used to establish a path, much like a hello packet in IP
routing. BPDUs contain information about the transmitting bridge and its ports,
including bridge MAC addresses, bridge priority, port priority, and path cost. If the
ports are tagged, each port sends out a special BPDU containing the tagged
information.
The generic action of a switch on receiving a BPDU is to compare the received
BPDU to its own BPDU that it will transmit. If the priority of the received BPDU is
better than its own priority, it will replace its BPDU with the received BPDU. Then,
the switch adds its own bridge ID number and increments the path cost of the
BPDU. The switch uses this information to block any necessary ports.
Note: If STP is globally disabled, BPDUs from external devices will transit the
switch transparently. If STP is globally enabled, for ports where STP is
turned off, inbound BPDUs will instead be discarded.
Determining the Path for Forwarding BPDUs
When determining which port to use for forwarding and which port to block, the
CN4093 uses information in the BPDU, including each bridge ID. A technique based
on the “lowest root cost” is then computed to determine the most efficient path for
forwarding.
Bridge Priority
The bridge priority parameter controls which bridge on the network is the STG root
bridge. To make one switch become the root bridge, configure the bridge priority
lower than all other switches and bridges on your network. The lower the value, the
higher the bridge priority. Use the following command to configure the bridge
priority:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree stp
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
<x> bridge priority <0-65535>
Chapter 11: Spanning Tree Protocols
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Port Priority
The port priority helps determine which bridge port becomes the root port or the
designated port. The case for the root port is when two switches are connected
using a minimum of two links with the same path-cost. The case for the designated
port is in a network topology that has multiple bridge ports with the same path-cost
connected to a single segment, the port with the lowest port priority becomes the
designated port for the segment.
Use the following commands to configure the port priority:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <x>
CN 4093(config-if)# spanning-tree stp <STG> priority <port priority>
where priority value is a number from 0 to 240, in increments of 16 (such as 0, 16,
32, and so on). If the specified priority value is not evenly divisible by 16, the value
will be automatically rounded down to the nearest valid increment whenever
manually changed in the configuration.
Root Guard
The root guard feature provides a way to enforce the root bridge placement in the
network. It keeps a new device from becoming root and thereby forcing STP
re-convergence. If a root-guard enabled port detects a root device, that port will be
placed in a blocked state.
You can configure the root guard at the port level using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port number>
CN 4093(config-if)# spanning-tree guard root
The default state is none (disabled).
Loop Guard
In general, STP resolves redundant network topologies into loop-free topologies.
The loop guard feature performs additional checking to detect loops that might not
be found using Spanning Tree. STP loop guard ensures that a non-designated port
does not become a designated port.
To globally enable loop guard, enter the following command:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree loopguard
Note: The global loop guard command will be effective on a port only if the
port-level loop guard command is set to default as shown below:
CN 4093(config-if)# spanning-tree guard loop none
To enable loop guard at the port level, enter the following command:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port number>
CN 4093(config-if)# spanning-tree guard loop
The default state is “none”, i.e. disabled.
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Port Path Cost
The port path cost assigns lower values to high-bandwidth ports, such as 10 Gigabit
Ethernet, to encourage their use. The cost of a port also depends on whether the
port operates at full-duplex (lower cost) or half-duplex (higher cost). For example, if
a 100-Mbps (Fast Ethernet) link has a “cost” of 10 in half-duplex mode, it will have a
cost of 5 in full-duplex mode. The objective is to use the fastest links so that the
route with the lowest cost is chosen. A value of 0 (the default) indicates that the
default cost will be computed for an auto-negotiated link or trunk speed.
Use the following command to modify the port path cost:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port number>
CN 4093(config-if)# spanning-tree stp <STG> path-cost <path cost value>
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
The port path cost can be a value from 1 to 200000000. Specify 0 for automatic path
cost.
Simple STP Configuration
Figure 11 depicts a simple topology using a switch-to-switch link between two
switches (via either external ports or internal Inter-Switch Links).
Figure 11. Spanning Tree Blocking a Switch-to-Switch Link
Enterprise
Routing
Switches
Switch 1
Switch 2
x
STP
Blocks Link
Server
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Server
Server
Server
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To prevent a network loop among the switches, STP must block one of the links
between them. In this case, it is desired that STP block the link between the blade
switches, and not one of the CN4093 uplinks or the Enterprise switch trunk.
During operation, if one CN4093 experiences an uplink failure, STP will activate the
switch-to-switch link so that server traffic on the affected CN4093 may pass through
to the active uplink on the other CN4093, as shown in Figure 12.
Figure 12. Spanning Tree Restoring the Switch-to-Switch Link
Enterprise
Routing
Switches
Uplink
Failure
Switch 1
Switch 2
STP
Restores Link
Server
Server
Server
Server
In this example, port 10 on each switch is used for the switch-to-switch link. To
ensure that the CN4093 switch-to-switch link is blocked during normal operation,
the port path cost is set to a higher value than other paths in the network. To
configure the port path cost on the switch-to-switch links in this example, use the
following commands on each switch.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 10
CN 4093(config-if)# spanning-tree stp 1 path-cost 60000
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
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Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Groups
PVRST mode supports a maximum of 128 STGs, with each STG acting as an
independent, simultaneous instance of STP.
Multiple STGs provide multiple data paths which can be used for load-balancing and
redundancy. To enable load balancing between two CN4093s using multiple STGs,
configure each path with a different VLAN and then assign each VLAN to a separate
STG. Since each STG is independent, they each send their own IEEE 802.1Q
tagged Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs).
Each STG behaves as a bridge group and forms a loop-free topology. The default
STG 1 may contain multiple VLANs (typically until they can be assigned to another
STG). STGs 2-128 may contain only one VLAN each.
Using Multiple STGs to Eliminate False Loops
Figure 13 shows a simple example of why multiple STGs are needed. In the figure,
two ports on a CN4093 are connected to two ports on an application switch. Each of
the links is configured for a different VLAN, preventing a network loop. However, in
the first network, since a single instance of Spanning Tree is running on all the ports
of the CN4093, a physical loop is assumed to exist, and one of the VLANs is
blocked, impacting connectivity even though no actual loop exists.
Figure 13. Using Multiple Instances of Spanning Tree Group
False x
Loop
Switch 2
VLAN 30
VLAN 1
Switch 1
STG 1
VLAN 1
is active
STG 2
VLAN 30
is active
Application Switch
Application Switch
With a single Spanning Tree,
one link becomes blocked.
Using multiple STGs,
both links may be active.
In the second network, the problem of improper link blocking is resolved when the
VLANs are placed into different Spanning Tree Groups (STGs). Since each STG
has its own independent instance of Spanning Tree, each STG is responsible only
for the loops within its own VLAN. This eliminates the false loop, and allows both
VLANs to forward packets between the switches at the same time.
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VLAN and STG Assignment
In PVRST mode, up to 128 STGs are supported. Ports cannot be added directly to
an STG. Instead, ports must be added as members of a VLAN, and the VLAN must
then be assigned to the STG.
STG 1 is the default STG. Although VLANs can be added to or deleted from default
STG 1, the STG itself cannot be deleted from the system. By default, STG 1 is
enabled and includes VLAN 1, which by default includes all switch ports (except for
management VLANs and management ports).
STG 128 is reserved for switch management. By default, STG 128 is disabled, but
includes management VLAN 4095 and the management ports.
By default, all other STGs (STG 2 through 127) are enabled, though they initially
include no member VLANs. VLANs must be assigned to STGs. By default, this is
done automatically using VLAN Automatic STG Assignment (VASA), though it can
also be done manually (see “Manually Assigning STGs” on page 153).
When VASA is enabled (as by default), each time a new VLAN is configured, the
switch will automatically assign that new VLAN to its own STG. Conversely, when a
VLAN is deleted, if its STG is not associated with any other VLAN, the STG is
returned to the available pool.
The specific STG number to which the VLAN is assigned is based on the VLAN
number itself. For low VLAN numbers (1 through 127), the switch will attempt to
assign the VLAN to its matching STG number. For higher numbered VLANs, the
STG assignment is based on a simple modulus calculation; the attempted STG
number will “wrap around,” starting back at the top of STG list each time the end of
the list is reached. However, if the attempted STG is already in use, the switch will
select the next available STG. If an empty STG is not available when creating a new
VLAN, the VLAN is automatically assigned to default STG 1.
If ports are tagged, each tagged port sends out a special BPDU containing the
tagged information. Also, when a tagged port belongs to more than one STG, the
egress BPDUs are tagged to distinguish the BPDUs of one STG from those of
another STG.
VASA is enabled by default, but can be disabled or re-enabled using the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] spanning-tree stg-auto
If VASA is disabled, when you create a new VLAN, that VLAN automatically belongs
to default STG 1. To place the VLAN in a different STG, assign it manually.
VASA applies only to PVRST mode and is ignored in RSTP and MSTP modes.
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Manually Assigning STGs
The administrator may manually assign VLANs to specific STGs, whether or not
VASA is enabled.
1. If no VLANs exist (other than default VLAN 1), see “Guidelines for Creating
VLANs” on page 153 for information about creating VLANs and assigning ports
to them.
2. Assign the VLAN to an STG using one of the following methods:
– From the global configuration mode:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree stp <STG number> vlan <VLAN>
– Or from within the VLAN configuration mode:
CN 4093(config)# vlan <VLAN number>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# stg <STG number>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
When a VLAN is assigned to a new STG, the VLAN is automatically removed from
its prior STG.
Note: For proper operation with switches that use Cisco PVST+, it is
recommended that you create a separate STG for each VLAN.
Guidelines for Creating VLANs
•
•
•
•
When you create a new VLAN, if VASA is enabled (the default), that VLAN is
automatically assigned its own STG. If VASA is disabled, the VLAN automatically
belongs to STG 1, the default STG. To place the VLAN in a different STG, see
“Manually Assigning STGs” on page 153. The VLAN is automatically removed
from its old STG before being placed into the new STG.
Each VLANs must be contained within a single STG; a VLAN cannot span
multiple STGs. By confining VLANs within a single STG, you avoid problems with
Spanning Tree blocking ports and causing a loss of connectivity within the VLAN.
When a VLAN spans multiple switches, it is recommended that the VLAN remain
within the same STG (be assigned the same STG ID) across all the switches.
If ports are tagged, all trunked ports can belong to multiple STGs.
A port cannot be directly added to an STG. The port must first be added to a
VLAN, and that VLAN added to the desired STG.
Rules for VLAN Tagged Ports
•
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Tagged ports can belong to more than one STG, but untagged ports can belong
to only one STG.
When a tagged port belongs to more than one STG, the egress BPDUs are
tagged to distinguish the BPDUs of one STG from those of another STG.
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Adding and Removing Ports from STGs
•
When you add a port to a VLAN that belongs to an STG, the port is also added to
that STG. However, if the port you are adding is an untagged port and is already
a member of another STG, that port will be removed from its current STG and
added to the new STG. An untagged port cannot belong to more that one STG.
For example: Assume that VLAN 1 belongs to STG 1, and that port 1 is
untagged and does not belong to any STG. When you add port 1 to VLAN 1, port
1 will automatically become part of STG 1.
However, if port 5 is untagged and is a member of VLAN 3 in STG 2, then adding
port 5 to VLAN 1 in STG 1 will not automatically add the port to STG 1. Instead,
the switch will prompt you to decide whether to change the PVID from 3 to 1:
"Port 5 is an UNTAGGED/Access Mode port and its current PVID/Native VLAN is 3.
Confirm changing PVID/Native VLAn from 3 to 1 [y/n]:" y
•
When you remove a port from VLAN that belongs to an STG, that port will also be
removed from the STG. However, if that port belongs to another VLAN in the
same STG, the port remains in the STG.
As an example, assume that port 2 belongs to only VLAN 2, and that VLAN 2
belongs to STG 2. When you remove port 2 from VLAN 2, the port is moved to
default VLAN 1 and is removed from STG 2.
However, if port 2 belongs to both VLAN 1 and VLAN 2, and both VLANs belong
to STG 2, removing port 2 from VLAN 2 does not remove port 2 from STG 2,
because the port is still a member of VLAN 1, which is still a member of STG 2.
•
An STG cannot be deleted, only disabled. If you disable the STG while it still
contains VLAN members, Spanning Tree will be off on all ports belonging to that
VLAN.
The relationship between port, trunk groups, VLANs, and Spanning Trees is shown
in Table 18 on page 146.
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Switch-Centric Configuration
PVRST is switch-centric: STGs are enforced only on the switch where they are
configured. The STG ID is not transmitted in the Spanning Tree BPDU. Each
Spanning Tree decision is based entirely on the configuration of the particular
switch.
For example, in Figure 14, though VLAN 2 is shared by the Switch A and Switch B,
each switch is responsible for the proper configuration of its own ports, VLANs, and
STGs. Switch A identifies its own port 17 as part of VLAN 2 on STG 2, and the
Switch B identifies its own port 8 as part of VLAN 2 on STG 2.
Figure 14. Implementing Multiple Spanning Tree Groups
Chassis
Switch A
Application
Switch B
17
18
STG 3
VLAN 3
8
STG 2
8
VLAN 2
2
1
STG 1
VLAN 1
2
1
1
Application
Switch C
8
Application
Switch D
The VLAN participation for each Spanning Tree Group in Figure 14 on page 155 is
as follows:
•
VLAN 1 Participation
Assuming Switch B to be the root bridge, Switch B transmits the BPDU for VLAN
1 on ports 1 and 2. Switch C receives the BPDU on port 2, and Switch D receives
the BPDU on port 1. Because there is a network loop between the switches in
VLAN 1, either Switch D will block port 8 or Switch C will block port 1, depending
on the information provided in the BPDU.
•
VLAN 2 Participation
Switch B, the root bridge, generates a BPDU for STG 2 from port 8. Switch A
receives this BPDU on port 17, which is assigned to VLAN 2, STG 2. Because
switch B has no additional ports participating in STG 2, this BPDU is not
forwarded to any additional ports and Switch B remains the designated root.
•
VLAN 3 Participation
For VLAN 3, Switch A or Switch C may be the root bridge. If Switch A is the root
bridge for VLAN 3, STG 3, then Switch A transmits the BPDU from port 18.
Switch C receives this BPDU on port 8 and is identified as participating in
VLAN 3, STG 3. Since Switch C has no additional ports participating in STG 3,
this BPDU is not forwarded to any additional ports and Switch A remains the
designated root.
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Configuring Multiple STGs
This configuration shows how to configure the three instances of STGs on the
switches A, B, C, and D illustrated in Figure 14 on page 155.
Because VASA is enabled by default, each new VLAN is automatically assigned its
own STG. However, for this configuration example, some VLANs are explicitly
reassigned to other STGs.
1. Set the Spanning Tree mode on each switch to PVRST.
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode pvrst
Note: PVRST is the default mode on the CN4093. This step is not required
unless the STP mode has been previously changed, and is shown here
merely as an example of manual configuration.
2. Configure the following on Switch A:
3. Enable VLAN 2 and VLAN 3.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
2
exit
3
exit
If VASA is disabled, enter the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree stp 2 vlan 2
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree stp 3 vlan 3
Add port 17 to VLAN 2, port 18 to VLAN 3.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 17
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2
4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 18
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 3
4093(config-if)# exit
VLAN 2 and VLAN 3 are removed from STG 1.
Note: In PVRST mode, each instance of STG is enabled by default.
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4. Configure the following on Switch B:
Add port 8 to VLAN 2. Ports 1 and 2 are by default in VLAN 1 assigned to STG 1.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 2
4093(config-vlan)# stg 2
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 8
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2
4093(config-if)# exit
If VASA is disabled, enter the following command:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree stp 2 vlan 2
VLAN 2 is automatically removed from STG 1. By default VLAN 1 remains in
STG 1.
5. Configure the following on application switch C:
Add port 8 to VLAN 3. Ports 1 and 2 are by default in VLAN 1 assigned to STG 1.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 3
4093(config-vlan)# stg 3
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 8
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 3
4093(config-if)# exit
If VASA is disabled, enter the following command:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree stp 3 vlan 3
VLAN 3 is automatically removed from STG 1. By default VLAN 1 remains in
STG 1.
Switch D does not require any special configuration for multiple Spanning Trees.
Switch D uses default STG 1 only.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP provides rapid convergence of the Spanning Tree and provides the fast
re-configuration critical for networks carrying delay-sensitive traffic such as voice
and video. RSTP significantly reduces the time to reconfigure the active topology of
the network when changes occur to the physical topology or its configuration
parameters. RSTP reduces the bridged-LAN topology to a single Spanning Tree.
RSTP was originally defined in IEEE 802.1w (2001) and was later incorporated into
IEEE 802.1D (2004), superseding the original STP standard.
RSTP parameters apply only to Spanning Tree Group (STG) 1. The PVRST mode
STGs 2-128 are not used when the switch is placed in RSTP mode.
RSTP is compatible with devices that run IEEE 802.1D (1998) Spanning Tree
Protocol. If the switch detects IEEE 802.1D (1998) BPDUs, it responds with IEEE
802.1D (1998)-compatible data units. RSTP is not compatible with Per-VLAN Rapid
Spanning Tree (PVRST) protocol.
Note: In RSTP mode, Spanning Tree for the management ports is turned off by
default.
Port States
RSTP port state controls are the same as for PVRST: discarding, learning,
and forwarding.
Due to the sequence involved in these STP states, considerable delays may occur
while paths are being resolved. To mitigate delays, ports defined as edge ports
(“Port Type and Link Type” on page 163) may bypass the discarding and
learning states, and enter directly into the forwarding state.
RSTP Configuration Guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring RSTP. When RSTP is
turned on, the following occurs:
• STP parameters apply only to STG 1.
• Only STG 1 is available. All other STGs are turned off.
• All VLANs, including management VLANs, are moved to STG 1.
RSTP Configuration Example
This section provides steps to configure RSTP.
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch.
2. Set the Spanning Tree mode to Rapid Spanning Tree.
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode rstp
3. Configure RSTP parameters.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge priority 8192
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge hello-time 5
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge forward-delay 20
spanning-tree stp 1 bridge maximum-age 30
no spanning-tree stp 1 enable
4. Configure port parameters:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
158
4093(config)# interface port 3
4093(config-if)# spanning-tree stp 1 priority 240
4093(config-if)# spanning-tree stp 1 path-cost 500
4093(config-if)# no spanning-tree stp 1 enable
4093(config-if)# exit
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) extends Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
(RSTP), allowing multiple Spanning Tree Groups (STGs) which may each include
multiple VLANs. MSTP was originally defined in IEEE 802.1s (2002) and was later
included in IEEE 802.1Q (2003).
In MSTP mode, the CN4093 supports up to 32 instances of Spanning Tree,
corresponding to STGs 1-32, with each STG acting as an independent,
simultaneous instance of STP.
MSTP allows frames assigned to different VLANs to follow separate paths, with
each path based on an independent Spanning Tree instance. This approach
provides multiple forwarding paths for data traffic, thereby enabling load-balancing,
and reducing the number of Spanning Tree instances required to support a large
number of VLANs.
Due to Spanning Tree’s sequence of discarding, learning, and forwarding, lengthy
delays may occur while paths are being resolved. Ports defined as edge ports (“Port
Type and Link Type” on page 163) bypass the Discarding and Learning states, and
enter directly into the Forwarding state.
Note: In MSTP mode, Spanning Tree for the management ports is turned off by
default.
MSTP Region
A group of interconnected bridges that share the same attributes is called an MST
region. Each bridge within the region must share the following attributes:
• Alphanumeric name
• Revision number
• VLAN-to STG mapping scheme
MSTP provides rapid re-configuration, scalability and control due to the support of
regions, and multiple Spanning-Tree instances support within each region.
Common Internal Spanning Tree
The Common Internal Spanning Tree (CIST) provides a common form of Spanning
Tree Protocol, with one Spanning-Tree instance that can be used throughout the
MSTP region. CIST allows the switch to interoperate with legacy equipment,
including devices that run IEEE 802.1D (1998) STP.
CIST allows the MSTP region to act as a virtual bridge to other bridges outside of
the region, and provides a single Spanning-Tree instance to interact with them.
CIST port configuration includes Hello time, Edge port enable/disable, and Link
Type. These parameters do not affect Spanning Tree Groups 1–32. They apply only
when the CIST is used.
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MSTP Configuration Guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring Multiple Spanning
Tree Groups:
• When MSTP is turned on, the switch automatically moves management VLAN
4095 to the CIST. When MSTP is turned off, the switch moves VLAN 4095 from
the CIST to Spanning Tree Group 128.
• When you enable MSTP, you must configure the Region Name. A default version
number of 0 is configured automatically.
• Each bridge in the region must have the same name, version number, and VLAN
mapping.
MSTP Configuration Examples
Example 1
This section provides steps to configure MSTP on the CN4093.
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch.
2. Configure Multiple Spanning Tree region parameters and set the mode to
MSTP.
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config-mst)# name <name>
4093(config-mst)# revision <0-65535>
4093(config-mst)# exit
4093(config)# spanning-tree mode mst
(Enter MST configuration mode)
(Define the Region name)
(Set mode to Multiple Spanning Trees)
3. Map VLANs to MSTP instances:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
(Enter MST configuration mode)
CN 4093(config-mst)# instance <instance ID> vlan <vlan number or range>
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MSTP Configuration Example 2
This configuration shows how to configure MSTP Groups on the switch, as shown in
Figure 15.
Figure 15. Implementing Multiple Spanning Tree Groups
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Enterprise
Routing Switch
MSTP Group 1
Root
MSTP Group 2
Root
Passing VLAN 1
Blocking VLAN 2
Server 1
VLAN 1
Server 2
VLAN 1
Blocking VLAN 1
Passing VLAN 2
Server 3
VLAN 2
Server 4
VLAN 2
This example shows how multiple Spanning Trees can provide redundancy without
wasting any uplink ports. In this example, the server ports are split between two
separate VLANs. Both VLANs belong to two different MSTP groups. The Spanning
Tree priority values are configured so that each routing switch is the root for a
different MSTP instance. All of the uplinks are active, with each uplink port backing
up the other.
1. Configure port membership and define the STGs for VLAN 1. Enable tagging
on uplink ports that share VLANs. Port 19 and port 20 connect to the Enterprise
Routing switches.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 19,20
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
2. Configure MSTP: Spanning Tree mode, region name, and version.
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
CN 4093(config-mst)# name MyRegion
CN 4093(config-mst)# revision 100
CN 4093(config-mst)# exit
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode mst
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
(Define the Region name)
(Define the Revision level)
(Set mode to Multiple Spanning Trees)
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161
3. Map VLANs to MSTP instances:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
CN 4093(config-mst)# instance 1 vlan 1
CN 4093(config-mst)# instance 2 vlan 2
4. Add server ports 1 and 2 to VLAN 1. Add uplink ports 19 and port 20 to VLAN 1.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1,2,19,20
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
5. Configure port membership and define the STGs for VLAN 2. Add server
ports 3, 4, and 5 to VLAN 2. Assign VLAN 2 to STG 2.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 3,4,5
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 2
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
Note: Each STG is enabled by default.
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Port Type and Link Type
Edge/Portfast Port
A port that does not connect to a bridge is called an edge port. Since edge ports are
assumed to be connected to non-STP devices (such as directly to hosts or servers),
they are placed in the forwarding state as soon as the link is up. Internal ports (INTx)
should be configured as edge ports.
Edge ports send BPDUs to upstream STP devices like normal STP ports, but should
not receive BPDUs. If a port with edge enabled does receive a BPDU, it
immediately begins working as a normal (non-edge) port, and participates fully in
Spanning Tree.
Use the following commands to define or clear a port as an edge port:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port>
CN 4093(config-if)# [no] spanning-tree portfast
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
Link Type
The link type determines how the port behaves in regard to Rapid Spanning Tree.
Use the following commands to define the link type for the port:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port>
CN 4093(config-if)# [no] spanning-tree link-type <type>
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
where type corresponds to the duplex mode of the port, as follows:
•
p2p
A full-duplex link to another device (point-to-point)
•
shared
A half-duplex link is a shared segment and can contain more
than one device.
•
auto
The switch dynamically configures the link type.
Note: Any STP port in full-duplex mode can be manually configured as a shared
port when connected to a non-STP-aware shared device (such as a typical
Layer 2 switch) used to interconnect multiple STP-aware devices.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Chapter 12. Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
VLAG Overview
In many data center environments, downstream servers or switches connect to
upstream devices which consolidate traffic. For example, see Figure 16.
Figure 16. Typical Data Center Switching Layers with STP vs. VLAG
ISL
Aggregation
Layer
STP blocks
implicit loops
VLAGs
VLAG
Peers
Links remain
active
Access
Layer
Servers
As shown in the example, a switch in the access layer may be connected to more
than one switch in the aggregation layer to provide for network redundancy.
Typically, Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, PVRST, or MSTP—see “Spanning Tree
Protocols” on page 145) is used to prevent broadcast loops, blocking redundant
uplink paths. This has the unwanted consequence of reducing the available
bandwidth between the layers by as much as 50%. In addition, STP may be slow to
resolve topology changes that occur during a link failure, and can result in
considerable MAC address flooding.
Using Virtual Link Aggregation Groups (VLAGs), the redundant uplinks remain
active, utilizing all available bandwidth.
Two switches are paired into VLAG peers, and act as a single virtual entity for the
purpose of establishing a multi-port trunk. Ports from both peers can be grouped
into a VLAG and connected to the same LAG-capable target device. From the
perspective of the target device, the ports connected to the VLAG peers appear to
be a single trunk connecting to a single logical device. The target device uses the
configured Tier ID to identify the VLAG peers as this single logical device. It is
important that you use a unique Tier ID for each VLAG pair you configure. The
VLAG-capable switches synchronize their logical view of the access layer port
structure and internally prevent implicit loops. The VLAG topology also responds
more quickly to link failure and does not result in unnecessary MAC flooding.
VLAGs are also useful in multi-layer environments for both uplink and downlink
redundancy to any regular LAG-capable device. For example:
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
165
Figure 17. VLAG Application with Multiple Layers
Layer 2/3 Border
LACP-capable
Routers
Trunk
Trunk
VLAG 5
VLAG 6
ISL
Layer 2 Region
with multiple levels
VLAG
Peers C
Trunk
VLAG 3
VLAG 3
VLAG 4
ISL
VLAG
Peers A
ISL
VLAG
Peers B
VLAG 1
Trunk
VLAG 2
LACP-capable
Switch
Trunk
Servers
LACP-capable
Server
Wherever ports from both peered switches are trunked to another device, the
trunked ports must be configured as a VLAG. For example, VLAGs 1 and 3 must be
configured for both VLAG Peer A switches. VLAGs 2 and 4 must be configured for
both VLAG Peer B switches.VLAGs 3, 5, and 6 must be configured on both VLAG
Peer C switches. Other devices connecting to the VLAG peers are configured using
regular static or dynamic trunks.
Note: Do not configure a VLAG for connecting only one switch in the peer set to
another device or peer set. For instance, in VLAG Peer C, a regular trunk is
employed for the downlink connection to VLAG Peer B because only one of
the VLAG Peer C switches is involved.
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
In addition, when used with VRRP, VLAGs can provide seamless active-active
failover for network links. For example
Figure 18. VLAG Application with VRRP:
VLAG
Peers
ISL
VRRP
Master
Server
VLAG
VRRP
Backup
Active
Traffic Flows
Note: VLAG is not compatible with UFP vPorts on the same ports.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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VLAG Capacities
Servers or switches that connect to the VLAG peers using a multi-port VLAG are
considered VLAG clients. VLAG clients are not required to be VLAG-capable. The
ports participating in the VLAG are configured as regular port trunks on the VLAG
client end.
On the VLAG peers, the VLAGs are configured similarly to regular port trunks, using
many of the same features and rules. See “Ports and Trunking” on page 131 for
general information concerning all port trunks.
Each VLAG begins as a regular port trunk on each VLAG-peer switch. The VLAG
may be either a static trunk group (portchannel) or dynamic LACP trunk group, and
consumes one slot from the overall port trunk capacity pool. The trunk type must
match that used on VLAG client devices. Additional configuration is then required to
implement the VLAG on both VLAG peer switches.
You may configure up to 64 trunk groups on the switch, with all types (regular or
VLAG, static or LACP) sharing the same pool.
The maximum number of configurable VLAG instances is as follows:
• With STP off: Maximum of 31 VLAG instances
• With STP on:
– PVRST/MSTP with one VLAG instance per VLAN/STG: Maximum of 31
VLAG instances
– PVRST/MSTP with one VLAG instance belonging to multiple
VLANs/STGs: Maximum of 20 VLAG instances
For the maximum number of member ports for each trunk type, please refer to
“Ports and Trunking” on page 131.
VLAGs versus Port Trunks
Though similar to regular port trunks in many regards, VLAGs differ from regular
port trunks in a number of important ways:
• A VLAG can consist of multiple ports on two VLAG peers, which are connected to
one logical client device such as a server, switch, or another VLAG device.
• The participating ports on the client device are configured as a regular port trunk.
• The VLAG peers must be the same model, and run the same software version.
• VLAG peers require a dedicated inter-switch link (ISL) for synchronization. The
ports used to create the ISL must have the following properties:
– ISL ports must have VLAN tagging turned on.
– ISL ports must be configured for all VLAG VLANs.
– ISL ports must be placed into a regular port trunk group (dynamic or static).
– A minimum of two ports on each switch are recommended for ISL use.
•
•
•
•
168
Dynamic routing protocols, such as OSPF, cannot terminate on VLAGs.
Routing over VLAGs is not supported. However, IP forwarding between subnets
served by VLAGs can be accomplished using VRRP.
VLAGs are configured using additional commands.
It is recommended that end-devices connected to VLAG switches use NICs with
dual-homing. This increases traffic efficiency, reduces ISL load, and provides
faster link failover.
IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Configuring VLAGs
When configuring VLAG or making changes to your VLAG configuration, consider
the following VLAG behavior:
• When adding a static Mrouter on VLAG links, ensure that you also add it on the
ISL link to avoid VLAG link failure. If the VLAG link fails, traffic cannot be
recovered through the ISL. Also, make sure you add the same static entry on the
peer VLAG switch for VLAG ports.
• When you enable VLAG on the switch, if a MSTP region mismatch is detected
with the VLAG peer, the ISL will shut down. In such a scenario, correct the region
on the VLAG peer and manually enable the ISL.
• If you have enabled VLAG on the switch, and you need to change the STP mode,
ensure that you first disable VLAG and then change the STP mode.
• When VLAG is enabled, you may see two root ports on the secondary VLAG
switch. One of these will be the actual root port for the secondary VLAG switch
and the other will be a root port synced with the primary VLAG switch.
• The LACP key used must be unique for each VLAG in the entire topology.
• The STG to VLAN mapping on both VLAG peers must be identical.
The following parameters must be identically configured on the VLAG ports of both
the VLAG peers:
• VLANs
• Native VLAN tagging
• Native VLAN/PVID
• STP mode
• BPDU Guard setting
• STP port setting
• MAC aging timers
• Static MAC entries
• ACL configuration parameters
• QoS configuration parameters
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Basic VLAG Configuration
Figure 19 shows an example configuration where two VLAG peers are used for
aggregating traffic from downstream devices.
Figure 19. Basic VLAGs
ISL
VLAG Peer 1
1
2
Mgmt IP: 10.10.10.1/24
8
9
VLAG Peer 2
2
3
LACP 200
VLAN 4094
Mgmt IP: 10.10.10.2/24
7
8
VLAG 1
LACP 1000
VLAN 100
Client Switch
VLAG 2
LACP 2000
VLAN 100
Client Switch
In this example, each client switch is connected to both VLAG peers. On each client
switch, the ports connecting to the VLAG peers are configured as a dynamic LACP
port trunk. The VLAG peer switches share a dedicated ISL for synchronizing VLAG
information. On the individual VLAG peers, each port leading to a specific client
switch (and part of the client switch’s port trunk) is configured as a VLAG.
In the following example configuration, only the configuration for VLAG 1 on VLAG
Peer 1 is shown. VLAG Peer 2 and all other VLAGs are configured in a similar
fashion.
Configure the ISL
The ISL connecting the VLAG peers is shared by all their VLAGs. The ISL needs to
be configured only once on each VLAG peer.
1. Configure STP if required. Use PVRST or MSTP mode only:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode pvrst
2. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1-2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 200
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# vlag isl adminkey 200
Note: In this case, a dynamic trunk group is shown. A static trunk (portchannel)
could be configured instead.
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
3. Configure VLAG Tier ID. This is used to identify the VLAG switch in a multi-tier
environment.
CN 4093(config)# vlag tier-id 10
4. Configure the ISL for the VLAG peer.
Make sure you configure the VLAG peer (VLAG Peer 2) using the same ISL
trunk type (dynamic or static), the same VLAN for vLAG ports and vLAG ISL
ports, and the same STP mode and tier ID used on VLAG Peer 1.
Configure the VLAG
1. Configure the VLAN for VLAG 1. Make sure members include the ISL and
VLAG 1 ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 100
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 1-2,8
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 100
4093(config-if)# exit
Note: In MSTP mode, VLANs are automatically mapped to CIST.
2. Place the VLAG 1 port(s) in a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 8
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1000
4093(config-if)# exit
3. Assign the trunk to the VLAG:
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
4. Continue by configuring all required VLAGs on VLAG Peer 1, and then repeat
the configuration for VLAG Peer 2.
For each corresponding VLAG on the peer, the port trunk type (dynamic or
static), the port’s VLAN, and STP mode and ID must be the same as on VLAG
Peer 1.
5. Enable VLAG globally.
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
6. Verify the completed configuration:
CN 4093(config)# show vlag information
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VLAG Configuration - VLANs Mapped to MSTI
Follow the steps below to configure VLAG in environments where the VLANs are
mapped to Multiple Spanning Tree Instance (MSTI).
Configure the ISL
The ISL connecting the VLAG peers is shared by all their VLAGs. The ISL needs to
be configured only once on each VLAG peer. Ensure you have the same region
name, revision and VLAN-to-STG mapping on both VLAG switches.
1. Configure STP:
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode mst
2. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1-2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 200
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# vlag isl adminkey 200
Note: In this case, a dynamic trunk group is shown. A static trunk (portchannel)
could be configured instead.
3. Configure VLAG Tier ID and enable VLAG globally. This is used to identify the
VLAG switch in a multi-tier environment.
CN 4093(config)# vlag tier-id 10
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
4. Configure the ISL for the VLAG peer.
Make sure you configure the VLAG peer (VLAG Peer 2) using the same ISL
trunk type (dynamic or static), the same VLAN for vLAG ports and vLAG ISL
ports, and the same STP mode and tier ID used on VLAG Peer 1.
Configure the VLAG
1. Configure the VLAN for VLAG 1.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 100
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
Note: The VLAN is automatically mapped to CIST.
2. Shutdown ISL ports and VLAG ports. This ensures that traffic passes through
to other switches.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1-2,8
CN 4093(config-if)# shutdown
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3. Map the VLAN to an MSTI.
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
CN 4093(config-mst)# instance 1 valn 100
4. Disable VLAG.
CN 4093(config)# no vlag enable
5. Add VLAG ports to the VLAN.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1-2,8
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
6. Enable VLAG.
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
7. Place the VLAG 1 port(s) in a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 8
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1000
4093(config-if)# exit
8. Assign the trunk to the VLAG:
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
9. Continue by configuring all required VLAGs on VLAG Peer 1, and then follow
the steps below for configuring VLAG Peer 2.
10. Configure the VLAN for VLAG 2.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 100
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
Note: The VLAN is automatically mapped to CIST.
11. Map the VLAN to an MSTI.
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
CN 4093(config-mst)# instance 1 valn 100
Note: At this point, traffic may be momentarily disrupted due to STP
recalculation.
12. Disable VLAG.
CN 4093(config)# no vlag enable
Note: At this point, traffic may be momentarily disrupted due to STP
recalculation.
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13. Add VLAG ports to the VLAN.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1-2,8
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
14. Enable VLAG.
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
Note: At this point, traffic may be momentarily disrupted due to STP
recalculation.
On VLAG Peer 1:
15. Enable ISL ports and VLAG ports:
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1-2,8
CN 4093(config-if)# no shutdown
On VLAG Peer2:
16. Place the VLAG 2 port(s) in a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 8
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1000
4093(config-if)# exit
17. Assign the trunk to the VLAG:
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
18. Verify the completed configuration:
CN 4093# show vlag information
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Configuring Health Check
We strongly recommend that you configure the CN4093 to perform a secondary
check of the health status of its VLAG peer. Although the operational status of the
VLAG peer is primarily determined via the ISL connection, configuring a separate
health check provides an alternate means to check peer status in case the ISL links
fail.
Note: Configuring the VLAG health check over a VLAN carried on the ISL or on an
aggregation configured to use VLAG may impact the accuracy of the health
check status and is not recommended. Use an independent link/path
between the VLAG switch pair to carry the VLAG health check traffic.
Note: IP interface 128 is reserved for control and assignment by the CMM and can
not be used as part of the VLAG health check. There are several options
available for this health check path on the CN4093:
• Use IP interface 127, which is assigned to use the external management
RJ45 port on the rear of the CN4093, and connect the EXTM RJ45 ports
on the VLAG pair to a common L2 upstream network (or back to back if
unused for other purposes).
• Use IP interfaces in the range 1 – 124 and link them to a VLAN that is
carried between the VLAG pair over an EXT port dedicated for this
purpose.
• Use an IP interface in the range 1 – 124 and link it to a VLAN that is
carried across an upstream L2 network to connect the pair together. Do
NOT use a VLAN that is carried on links that are assigned to a VLAG
aggregation.
1. Configure a management interface for the switch using the EXTM RJ45
interface on the rear of the CN4093
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 127
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Note: Configure a similar interface on VLAG Peer 2. For example, use IP address
10.10.10.2.
2. Specify the IPv4 or IPv6 address of the VLAG Peer:
CN 4093(config)# vlag hlthchk peer-ip 10.10.10.2
Note: For VLAG Peer 2, the management interface would be configured as
10.10.10.2, and the health check would be configured for 10.10.10.1,
pointing back to VLAG Peer 1.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 12: Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
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VLAGs with VRRP
Note: In a multi-layer environment, configure VRRP separately for each layer. We
recommend that you configure VRRP only on the tier with uplinks. See
“Configuring VLAGs in Multiple Layers” on page 181.
VRRP (see “Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol” on page 453) can be used in
conjunction with VLAGs and LACP-capable devices to provide seamless
redundancy.
Figure 20. Active-Active Configuration using VRRP and VLAGs
VRRP Master
Server 1
VLAG Peer 1
Layer 3
Router
VLAG 1
VIR: 10.0.1.100
1
10.0.1.1
10
11
2
Internet
4
5
4
5
VLAG 2
12
Server 2
ISL
10.0.1.2
10
1
11
VLAG 3
12
Server 3
2
Layer 3
Router
VRRP Backup
10.0.1.3
VLAG Peer 2
VIR: 10.0.1.100
Network 10.0.1.0/24
Task 1: Configure VLAG Peer 1
Note: Before enabling VLAG, you must configure the VLAG tier ID and ISL
portchannel.
1. Configure VLAG tier ID and enable VLAG globally.
CN 4093(config)# vlag tier-id 10
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
2. Configure appropriate routing.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
Although OSPF is used in this example, static routing could also be deployed.
For more information, see “OSPF” on page 403 or “Basic IP Routing” on
page 337.
3. Configure a server-facing interface.
CN
CN
CN
CN
176
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.0.1.10 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 100
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
4. Turn on VRRP and configure the Virtual Interface Router.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router vrrp
4093(config-vrrp)# enable
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
1
1
1
1
virtual-router-id 1
interface 3
address 10.0.1.100
enable
5. Set the priority of Virtual Router 1 to 101, so that it becomes the Master.
CN 4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router 1 priority 101
CN 4093(config-vrrp)# exit
6. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 4-5
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 2000
4093(config-if)# exit
Note: In this case, a dynamic trunk group is shown. A static trunk (portchannel)
could be configured instead.
7. Configure the upstream ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 10
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 2
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 20
4093(config-if)# exit
8. Configure the server ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 10
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 11
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 12
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
9. Configure ISL ports to allow all vLAG ports' VLANs
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)# interface port 4-5
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 100
4093(config-if)# exit
Chapter 12: Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
177
10. Configure Internet-facing interfaces.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 172.1.1.10 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 10
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 172.1.3.10 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 20
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
11. Place the VLAG port(s) in their port trunk groups.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 10
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1000
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 11
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1100
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 12
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1200
4093(config-if)# exit
12. Assign the trunks to the VLAGs:
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1100 enable
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1200 enable
13. Verify the completed configuration:
CN 4093(config)# show vlaginformation
Task 2: Configure VLAG Peer 2
The VLAG peer (VLAG Peer 2) must be configured using the same ISL trunk type
(dynamic or static), the same VLAN for vLAG ports and vLAG ISL ports, and the
same STP mode and Tier ID used on VLAG Switch 1.
For each corresponding VLAG on the peer, the port trunk type (dynamic or static),
VLAN, and STP mode and ID must be the same as on VLAG Switch 1.
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
1. Configure VLAG tier ID and enable VLAG globally.
CN 4093(config)# vlag tier-id 10
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
2. Configure appropriate routing.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
Although OSPF is used in this example, static routing could also be deployed.
3. Configure a server-facing interface.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.0.1.11 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 100
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4. Turn on VRRP and configure the Virtual Interface Router.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router vrrp
4093(config-vrrp)# enable
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
1
1
1
1
virtual-router-id 1
interface 3
address 10.0.1.100
enable
5. Configure the ISL ports and place them into a port trunk group:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 4-5
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 2000
4093(config-if)# exit
6. Configure the upstream ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 30
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 2
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 40
4093(config-if)# exit
7. Configure the server ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)# interface port 10
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 11
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 12
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
4093(config-if)# exit
Chapter 12: Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
179
8. Configure ISL ports to allow all vLAG ports' VLANs
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 4-5
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 100
4093(config-if)# exit
9. Configure Internet-facing interfaces.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 172.1.2.11 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 30
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 172.1.4.12 255.255.255.0
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 40
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
10. Place the VLAG port(s) in their port trunk groups.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 10
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1000
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 11
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1100
4093(config-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 12
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# lacp key 1200
4093(config-if)# exit
11. Assign the trunks to the VLAGs:
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1000 enable
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1100 enable
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 1200 enable
12. Verify the completed configuration:
CN 4093(config)# show vlaginformation
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Configuring VLAGs in Multiple Layers
Figure 21. VLAG in Multiple Layers
Layer 2/3 Border
LACP-capable
Routers
Trunk
Trunk
VLAG 5
VLAG 6
ISL
Layer 2 Region
with multiple levels
Switch A
VLAG
Peers A
Switch B
VLAG
Peers C
VLAG 3
Trunk
VLAG 3
VLAG 4
ISL
ISL
Switch C
Switch D
Switch E
VLAG 1
Switch F
VLAG
Peers B
VLAG 2
Trunk
Switch G
Trunk
LACP-capable
Switch
LACP-capable
Server
Servers
Figure 21 shows an example of VLAG being used in a multi-layer environment.
Following are the configuration steps for the topology.
Task 1: Configure Layer 2/3 border switches.
Configure ports on border switch as follows:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1,2
4093(config-if)# lacp key 100
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# exit
Repeat the above steps for the second border switch.
Task 2: Configure switches in the Layer 2 region.
Consider the following:
• ISL ports on switches A and B - ports 1, 2
• Ports connecting to Layer 2/3 - ports 5, 6
• Ports on switches A and B connecting to switches C and D: ports 10, 11
• Ports on switch B connecting to switch E: ports 15, 16
• Ports on switch B connecting to switch F: ports 17, 18
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 12: Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
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1. Configure VLAG tier ID and enable VLAG globally.
CN 4093(config)# vlag tier-id 10
CN 4093(config)# vlag enable
2. Configure ISL ports on Switch A.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 1,2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# lacp key 200
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# exit
CN 4093(config)# vlag isl adminkey 200
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
3. Configure port on Switch A connecting to Layer 2/3 router 1.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 10
VLAN number 10 with name “VLAN 10” created
VLAN 10 was assigned to STG 10
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1,2,5
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 10
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 5
4093(config-if)# lacp key 400
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# exit
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 400 enable
Repeat the above steps on Switch B for ports connecting to Layer 2/3 router 1.
4.
Configure port on Switch A connecting to Layer 2/3 router 2.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 20
VLAN number 20 with name “VLAN 20” created
VLAN 20 was assigned to STG 20
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1,2,6
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 20
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port 6
4093(config-if)# lacp key 500
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# exit
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 500 enable
Repeat the above steps on Switch B for ports connecting to Layer 2/3 router 2.
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
5. Configure ports on Switch A connecting to downstream VLAG switches C and
D.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 20
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 10,11
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 20
4093(config-if)# lacp key 600
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# exit
CN 4093(config)# vlag adminkey 600 enable
Repeat the above steps on Switch B for ports connecting to downstream VLAG
switch C and D.
6. Configure ports on Switch B connecting to downstream switches E and F.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 30
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 15-18
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 30
4093(config-if)# lacp key 700
4093(config-if)# lacp mode active
4093(config-if)# exit
7. Configure ISL between switches C and D, and between E and F as shown in
Step 1.
8. Configure the Switch G as shown in Step 2.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 12: Virtual Link Aggregation Groups
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IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 13. Quality of Service
Quality of Service (QoS) features allow you to allocate network resources to
mission-critical applications at the expense of applications that are less sensitive to
such factors as time delays or network congestion. You can configure your network
to prioritize specific types of traffic, ensuring that each type receives the appropriate
QoS level.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
• “QoS Overview” on page 185
• “Using ACL Filters” on page 187
• “Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS” on page 189
• “Using 802.1p Priorities to Provide QoS” on page 194
• “Queuing and Scheduling” on page 195
• “Packet Drop Logging” on page 196
QoS Overview
QoS helps you allocate guaranteed bandwidth to critical applications, and limit
bandwidth for less critical applications. Applications such as video and voice must
have a certain amount of bandwidth to work correctly; using QoS, you can provide
that bandwidth when necessary. Also, you can put a high priority on applications
that are sensitive to timing out or those that cannot tolerate delay, assigning that
traffic to a high-priority queue.
By assigning QoS levels to traffic flows on your network, you can ensure that
network resources are allocated where they are needed most. QoS features allow
you to prioritize network traffic, thereby providing better service for selected
applications.
Figure 22 on page 185 shows the basic QoS model used by the CN4093 10Gb
Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093).
Figure 22. QoS Model
Ingress
Ports
Classify
Packets
ACL
Filter
Meter
Traffic
ACL
Meter
Perform
Actions
Drop/Pass/
Re-Mark
Queue and
Schedule
Egress
COS
Queue
The CN4093 uses the Differentiated Services (DiffServ) architecture to provide QoS
functions. DiffServ is described in IETF RFC 2474 and RFC 2475.
With DiffServ, you can establish policies for directing traffic. A policy is a
traffic-controlling mechanism that monitors the characteristics of the traffic (for
example, its source, destination, and protocol) and performs a controlling action on
the traffic when certain characteristics are matched.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
185
The CN4093 can classify traffic by reading the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) or IEEE
802.1p priority value, or by using filters to match specific criteria. When network
traffic attributes match those specified in a traffic pattern, the policy instructs the
CN4093 to perform specified actions on each packet that passes through it. The
packets are assigned to different Class of Service (COS) queues and scheduled for
transmission.
The basic CN4093 QoS model works as follows:
• Classify traffic:
– Read DSCP
– Read 802.1p Priority
– Match ACL filter parameters
•
Meter traffic:
– Define bandwidth and burst parameters
– Select actions to perform on in-profile and out-of-profile traffic
•
Perform actions:
– Drop packets
– Pass packets
– Mark DSCP or 802.1p Priority
– Set COS queue (with or without re-marking)
•
Queue and schedule traffic:
– Place packets in one of the available COS queues
– Schedule transmission based on the COS queue weight
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Using ACL Filters
Access Control Lists (ACLs) are filters that allow you to classify and segment traffic,
so you can provide different levels of service to different traffic types. Each filter
defines conditions that packets must match for inclusion in a particular service class,
and also the actions that are performed for matching traffic.
The CN4093 allows you to classify packets based on various parameters. For
example:
• Ethernet—source MAC, destination MAC, VLAN number/mask, Ethernet type,
priority
• IPv4—source IP address/mask, destination address/mask, type of service, IP
protocol number
• IPv6—source IP address/prefix, destination address/prefix, next header, flow
label, traffic class
• TCP/UPD—source port, destination port, TCP flag
• Packet format—Ethernet format, tagging format, IPv4, IPv6
• Egress port
For ACL details, see “Access Control Lists” on page 97.
Summary of ACL Actions
Actions determine how the traffic is treated. The CN4093 QoS actions include the
following:
• Pass or Drop the packet
• Re-mark the packet with a new DiffServ Code Point (DSCP)
• Re-mark the 802.1p field
• Set the COS queue
ACL Metering and Re-Marking
You can define a profile for the aggregate traffic flowing through the CN4093 by
configuring a QoS meter (if desired) and assigning ACL Groups to ports. When you
add ACL Groups to a port, make sure they are ordered correctly in terms of
precedence.
Actions taken by an ACL are called In-Profile actions. You can configure additional
In-Profile and Out-of-Profile actions on a port. Data traffic can be metered, and
re-marked to ensure that the traffic flow provides certain levels of service in terms of
bandwidth for different types of network traffic.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 13: Quality of Service
187
Metering
QoS metering provides different levels of service to data streams through
user-configurable parameters. A meter is used to measure the traffic stream against
a traffic profile which you create. Thus, creating meters yields In-Profile and
Out-of-Profile traffic for each ACL, as follows:
• In-Profile–If there is no meter configured or if the packet conforms to the meter,
the packet is classified as In-Profile.
• Out-of-Profile–If a meter is configured and the packet does not conform to the
meter (exceeds the committed rate or maximum burst rate of the meter), the
packet is classified as Out-of-Profile.
Note: Metering is not supported for IPv6 ACLs. All traffic matching an IPv6 ACL is
considered in-profile for re-marking purposes.
Using meters, you set a Committed Rate in Kbps (1000 bits per second in each
Kbps). All traffic within this Committed Rate is In-Profile. Additionally, you can set a
Maximum Burst Size that specifies an allowed data burst larger than the Committed
Rate for a brief period. These parameters define the In-Profile traffic.
Meters keep the sorted packets within certain parameters. You can configure a
meter on an ACL, and perform actions on metered traffic, such as packet
re-marking.
Re-Marking
Re-marking allows for the treatment of packets to be reset based on new network
specifications or desired levels of service. You can configure the ACL to re-mark a
packet as follows:
• Change the DSCP value of a packet, used to specify the service level traffic
should receive.
• Change the 802.1p priority of a packet.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Using DSCP Values to Provide QoS
The six most significant bits in the TOS byte of the IP header are defined as DiffServ
Code Points (DSCP). Packets are marked with a certain value depending on the
type of treatment the packet must receive in the network device. DSCP is a measure
of the Quality of Service (QoS) level of the packet.
Differentiated Services Concepts
To differentiate between traffic flows, packets can be classified by their DSCP value.
The Differentiated Services (DS) field in the IP header is an octet, and the first six
bits, called the DS Code Point (DSCP), can provide QoS functions. Each packet
carries its own QoS state in the DSCP. There are 64 possible DSCP values (0-63).
Figure 23. Layer 3 IPv4 Packet
Version
Length
ID
Length
ToS
Offset
TTL
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
unused
7
1
6
5
4
3
2
FCS
Proto
SIP
DIP
Data
0
The CN4093 can perform the following actions to the DSCP:
• Read the DSCP value of ingress packets
• Re-mark the DSCP value to a new value
• Map the DSCP value to an 802.1p priority
Once the DSCP value is marked, the CN4093 can use it to direct traffic prioritization.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 13: Quality of Service
189
Per-Hop Behavior
The DSCP value determines the Per Hop Behavior (PHB) of each packet. The PHB
is the forwarding treatment given to packets at each hop. QoS policies are built by
applying a set of rules to packets, based on the DSCP value, as they hop through
the network.
The CN4093 default settings are based on the following standard PHBs, as defined
in the IEEE standards:
• Expedited Forwarding (EF)—This PHB has the highest egress priority and
lowest drop precedence level. EF traffic is forwarded ahead of all other traffic.
EF PHB is described in RFC 2598.
• Assured Forwarding (AF)—This PHB contains four service levels, each with a
different drop precedence, as shown below. Routers use drop precedence to
determine which packets to discard last when the network becomes congested.
AF PHB is described in RFC 2597.
Drop
Precedence
•
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Low
AF11 (DSCP
10)
AF21 (DSCP
18)
AF31 (DSCP
26)
AF41 (DSCP
34)
Medium
AF12 (DSCP
12)
AF22 (DSCP
20)
AF32 (DSCP
28)
AF42 (DSCP
36)
High
AF13 (DSCP
14)
AF23 (DSCP
22)
AF33 (DSCP
30)
AF43 (DSCP
38)
Class Selector (CS)—This PHB has eight priority classes, with CS7 representing the highest priority, and CS0 representing the lowest priority, as shown
below. CS PHB is described in RFC 2474.
Priority
Class Selector
DSCP
Highest
CS7
56
CS6
48
CS5
40
CS4
32
CS3
24
CS2
16
CS1
8
CS0
0
Lowest
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QoS Levels
Table 19 shows the default service levels provided by the CN4093, listed from
highest to lowest importance:
Table 19. Default QoS Service Levels
Service Level
Default PHB
802.1p Priority
Critical
CS7
7
Network Control
CS6
6
Premium
EF, CS5
5
Platinum
AF41, AF42, AF43, CS4
4
Gold
AF31, AF32, AF33, CS3
3
Silver
AF21, AF22, AF23, CS2
2
Bronze
AF11, AF12, AF13, CS1
1
Standard
DF, CS0
0
DSCP Re-Marking and Mapping
DSCP Re-Marking Overview
The CN4093 can re-mark the DSCP value of ingress packets to a new value, and
set the 802.1p priority value, based on the DSCP value. You can view the settings
by using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# show qos dscp
Current DSCP Remarking Configuration: OFF
DSCP
-------0
1
...
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
New DSCP
-------0
1
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
New 802.1p Prio
--------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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191
Use the following command to turn on DSCP re-marking globally:
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp re-marking
Then you must enable DSCP re-marking on any port that you wish to perform this
function.
Note: If an ACL meter is configured for DSCP re-marking, the meter function takes
precedence over QoS re-marking.
DSCP Re-Marking Configuration Example
Example 1
The following example includes the basic steps for re-marking DSCP value and
mapping DSCP value to 802.1p.
1. Turn DSCP re-marking on globally, and define the DSCP-DSCP-802.1p
mapping. You can use the default mapping.
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp re-marking
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp dscp-mapping <DSCP value (0-63)> <new value>
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp dot1p-mapping <DSCP value (0-63)> <802.1p value>
2. Enable DSCP re-marking on a port.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1
CN 4093(config-if)# qos dscp re-marking
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
Example 2
The following example assigns strict priority to VoIP traffic and a lower priority to all
other traffic.
1. Create an ACL to re-mark DSCP value and COS queue for all VoIP packets.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
access-control
access-control
access-control
access-control
access-control
access-control
list
list
list
list
list
list
2
2
2
2
2
2
tcp-udp source-port 5060 0xffff
meter committed-rate 10000000
meter enable
re-mark in-profile dscp 56
re-mark dot1p 7
action permit
2. Create an ACL to set a low priority to all other traffic.
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 3 action set-priority 1
CN 4093(config)# access-control list 3 action permit
3. Apply the ACLs to a port and enable DSCP marking.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 5
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control list 2
CN 4093(config-if)# access-control list 3 ethernet source-mac-address
00:00:00:00:00:00 00:00:00:00:00:00
CN 4093(config-if)# dscp-marking
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
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4. Enable DSCP re-marking globally.
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp re-marking
5. Assign the DSCP re-mark value.
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp dscp-mapping 40 9
CN 4093(config)# qos dscp dscp-mapping 46 9
6. Assign strict priority to VoIP COS queue.
CN 4093(config)# qos transmit-queue weight-cos 7 0
7. Map priority value to COS queue for non-VoIP traffic.
CN 4093(config)# qos transmit-queue mapping 1 1
8. Assign weight to the non-VoIP COS queue.
CN 4093(config)# qos transmit-queue weight-cos 1 2
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Using 802.1p Priorities to Provide QoS
802.1p Overview
IBM Networking OS provides Quality of Service functions based on the priority bits
in a packet’s VLAN header. (The priority bits are defined by the 802.1p standard
within the IEEE 802.1q VLAN header.) The 802.1p bits, if present in the packet,
specify the priority that should be given to packets during forwarding. Packets with a
numerically higher (non-zero) priority are given forwarding preference over packets
with lower priority bit value.
The IEEE 802.1p standard uses eight levels of priority (0-7). Priority 7 is assigned to
highest priority network traffic, such as OSPF or RIP routing table updates, priorities
5-6 are assigned to delay-sensitive applications such as voice and video, and lower
priorities are assigned to standard applications. A value of 0 (zero) indicates a “best
effort” traffic prioritization, and this is the default when traffic priority has not been
configured on your network. The CN4093 can filter packets based on the 802.1p
values, and it can assign or overwrite the 802.1p value in the packet.
Figure 24. Layer 2 802.1q/802.1p VLAN Tagged Packet
DMAC SMAC
SFD
Preamble
Priority
7
6
Tag
FCS
E Type Data
VLAN Identifier (VID)
5
4
3
2
1
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Ingress packets receive a priority value, as follows:
• Tagged packets—CN4093 reads the 802.1p priority in the VLAN tag.
• Untagged packets—CN4093 tags the packet and assigns an 802.1p priority,
based on the port’s default priority.
Egress packets are placed in a COS queue based on the priority value, and
scheduled for transmission based on the scheduling weight of the COS queue.
To configure a port’s default 802.1p priority value, use the following commands.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1
CN 4093(config-if)# dot1p <802.1p value (0-7)>
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
See “Queuing and Scheduling” on page 195 for details on scheduling weights.
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Queuing and Scheduling
The CN4093 can be configured to have either 2 or 8 output Class of Service (COS)
queues per port, into which each packet is placed. Each packet’s 802.1p priority
determines its COS queue, except when an ACL action sets the COS queue of the
packet.
You can configure the following attributes for COS queues:
• Map 802.1p priority value to a COS queue
• Define the scheduling weight of each COS queue
You can map 802.1p priority value to a COS queue, as follows:
CN 4093(config)# qos transmit-queue mapping <802.1p priority value (0-7)> <COS queue (0-7)>
To set the COS queue scheduling weight, use the following command.
CN 4093(config)# qos transmit-queue weight-cos <COSq number> <COSq weight (0-15)>
The scheduling weight can be set from 0 to 15. Weight values from 1 to 15 set the
queue to use weighted round-robin (WRR) scheduling, which distributes larger
numbers of packets to queues with the highest weight values. For distribution
purposes, each packet is counted the same, regardless of the packet’s size.
A scheduling weight of 0 (zero) indicates strict priority. Traffic in strict priority queue
has precedence over other all queues. If more than one queue is assigned a weight
of 0, the strict queue with highest queue number will be served first. Once all traffic
in strict queues is delivered, any remaining bandwidth will be allocated to the WRR
queues, divided according to their weight values.
Note: Use caution when assigning strict scheduling to queues. Heavy traffic in
queues assigned with a weight of 0 can starve lower priority queues.
For a scheduling method that uses a weighted deficit round-robin (WDRR)
algorithm, distributing packets with an awareness of packet size, see “Enhanced
Transmission Selection” on page 302.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Packet Drop Logging
Packet drop logging allows you to monitor network deficiencies by generating
syslog messages for packet drops in the CPU queues. By default, the switch will
generate such messages once every 30 minutes, specifying the type of traffic,
queue data rate and queue number on which the drops occurred, such as:
Apr 19 11:27:35 172.31.37.200 NOTICE Protocol control discards: ARP Broadcast
packets are received at rate higher than 200pps, hence are discarded on queue 5.
To enable or disable packet drop logging, use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] logging pdrop enable
You can adjust the logging interval between 0 and 30 minutes using the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# logging pdrop interval <0-30>
Setting the logging interval to 0 will log packet drops immediately (with up to 1
second delay), and will ignore further drops on the same queue during the next 2
minutes.
Setting the logging interval to a greater value (1 – 30 minutes), regularly displays
packet drop information at the designated time intervals. Once the packet drops
stop, or if new packet drops are encountered only within 2 minutes after a syslog
message, the switch does not display any more messages.
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Part 4: Advanced Switching Features
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
197
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 14. Stacking
This chapter describes how to implement the stacking feature in the IBM Flex
System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch. The following concepts
are covered:
• “Stacking Overview” on page 200
• “Stack Membership” on page 202
• “Configuring a Stack” on page 206
• “Managing a Stack” on page 212
• “Replacing or Removing Stacked Switches” on page 216
• “Replacing or Removing Stacked Switches” on page 216
• “ISCLI Stacking Commands” on page 218
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
199
Stacking Overview
A hybrid stack is a group of up to eight switches: up to two CN4093 10Gb
Converged Scalable and six EN4093/EN4093R 10Gb Scalable Switches. A stack
can also be formed with just two CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switches.
A stack has the following properties, regardless of the number of switches included:
• The network views the stack as a single entity.
• The stack can be accessed and managed as a whole using: the serial console on
the master switch, the IPV4 external and internal management interfaces on the
master switch, the IPV6 internal management interface on the master switch
(controlled by CMM), or any of the data IP interfaces. A floating IP address is
also available in case of master node failure (see “Configuring a Management IP
Interface” on page 208).
• Once the stacking links have been established (see the next section), the
number of ports available in a stack equals the total number of remaining ports of
all the switches that are part of the stack.
Stacking Requirements
Before IBM Networking OS switches can form a stack, they must meet the following
requirements:
• Switches in a hybrid stack must be of the model CN4093 10Gb Converged
Scalable Switch or EN4093/EN4093R 10Gb Scalable Switch.
• In a hybrid stack, the EN4093/EN4093R switches cannot act as Backup
switches. You must use only the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable switches as
the Master switch and Backup switch.
• In a hybrid stack, only two CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable switches can be
grouped with the EN4093/EN4093R switches.
• Each switch must be installed with N/OS, version 7.8. Please see “Upgrading
Software in a Stack” on page 216.
• The recommended stacking topology is a bidirectional ring (see Figure 25 on
page 208). To achieve this, two 10Gb or two 40 Gb Ethernet ports on each switch
must be reserved for stacking.
• Stack with only CN4093 switches supports stack trunk links that can be
configured as follows:
– Stack of two units: Maximum of eight 10Gb ports or two 40 Gb ports.
Note: IBM Omni ports cannot be used as stack trunk links.
Note: You cannot combine 10Gb ports with 40Gb ports in the stack trunks.
•
200
Note: An LACP port cannot be a stack trunk member. If you need to use the port
in the stack trunk, you must first set the LACP port mode to off
(CN 4093(config-if)# lacp mode off).
The cables used for connecting the switches in a stack carry low-level,
inter-switch communications as well as cross-stack data traffic critical to shared
switching functions. Always maintain the stability of stack links to avoid internal
stack reconfiguration.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Stacking Limitations
The CN4093 with N/OS 7.8 can operate in one of two modes:
• Default mode, which is the regular stand-alone (or non-stacked) mode.
• Stacking mode, in which multiple physical switches aggregate functions as a
single switching device.
When in stacking mode, the following stand-alone features are not supported:
• ACL Logging
• BCM rate control
• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
• Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE)
• Edge Control Protocol (ECP)
• Flexible Port Mapping
• IGMPv3
• IGMP Querier
• IGMP Relay
• Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2)
• IP Security (IPsec)
• IP version 6 (IPv6)
• Loop Guard
• Loopback Interfaces
• MAC address notification
• Network Configuration (NETCONF) Protocol
• Operation, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM)
• OSPF and OSPFv3
• Port flood blocking
• Private VLANs
• Protocol-based VLANs
• RIP
• Root Guard
• Router IDs
• Route maps
• sFlow port monitoring
• Static MAC address adding
• Static Multicast Routes
• Switch Partition (SPAR)
• Uni-Directional Link Detection (UDLD)
• Unified Fabric Port (UFP)
• Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
• Virtual Link Aggregation Groups (VLAG)
Note: In stacking mode, switch menus and command for unsupported features
may be unavailable, or may have no effect on switch operation.
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Stack Membership
A stack contains up to 8 switches, interconnected by a stack trunk in a local ring
topology (see Figure 25 on page 208). With this topology, only a single stack link or
trunk failure is allowed.
An operational stack must contain one Master and one or more Members, as
follows:
• Master
One switch controls the operation of the stack and is called the Master. The
Master provides a single point to manage the stack. A stack must have one and
only one Master. The firmware image, configuration information, and run-time
data are maintained by the Master and pushed to each switch in the stack as
necessary.
•
Member
Member switches provide additional port capacity to the stack. Members receive
configuration changes, run-time information, and software updates from the
Master.
•
Backup
One member switch can be designated as a Backup to the Master. The Backup
takes over control of the stack if the Master fails. Configuration information and
run-time data are synchronized with the Master.
The Master Switch
An operational stack can have only one active Master at any given time. In a normal
stack configuration, one switch is configured as a Master and all others are
configured as Members.
When adding new switches to an existing stack, the administrator must explicitly
configure each new switch for its intended role as a Master (only when replacing a
previous Master) or as a Member. All stack configuration procedures in this chapter
depict proper role specification.
However, although uncommon, there are scenarios in which a stack may
temporarily have more than one Master switch. If this occurs, one Master switch will
automatically be chosen as the active Master for the entire stack. The selection
process is designed to promote stable, predictable stack operation and minimize
stack reboots and other disruptions.
Splitting and Merging One Stack
If stack links or Member switches fail and one member is isolated from the Master
switch, the Member will reset. If the isolation persists after reset, the Member switch
disables data links and stops processing network traffic. Only management and
stacking links are up, waiting for a master. Members which still have access to a
Master or Backup (or both), despite other link or Member failures, will continue to
operate as part of their active stack.
If multiple stack links or stack Member switches fail, thereby separating the Master
and Backup into separate sub-stacks, the Backup automatically becomes an active
Master for the partial stack in which it resides. Later, if the topology failures are
corrected, the partial stacks will merge, and the two active Masters will come into
contact.
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In this scenario, if both the (original) Master and the Backup (acting as Master) are
in operation when the merger occurs, the original Master will reassert its role as
active Master for the entire stack. If any configuration elements were changed and
applied on the Backup during the time it acted as Master (and forwarded to its
connected Members), the Backup and its affected Members will reboot and will be
reconfigured by the returning Master before resuming their regular roles.
Note: When the Backup becomes a Master, if NTP is enabled from the CMM,
configuration changes are applied by the CMM to the Backup switch (acting
as Master). In the event of a subsequent merger, the aforementioned reboot
and reconfiguration of the Backup and its affected Members will occur.
However, if the original Master switch is disrupted (powered down or in the process
of rebooting) when it is reconnected with the active stack, the Backup (acting as
Master) will retain its acting Master status to avoid disruption to the functioning
stack. The deferring Master will temporarily assume a role as Backup.
If both the Master and Backup are rebooted, the switches will assume their originally
configured roles.
If, while the stack is still split, the Backup (acting as Master) is explicitly reconfigured
to become a regular Master, then when the split stacks are finally merged, the
Master with the lowest MAC address will become the new active Master for the
entire stack.
Merging Independent Stacks
If switches from different stacks are linked together in a stack topology without first
reconfiguring their roles as recommended, it is possible to have more than one
switch in the stack configured as a Master.
Since up to 16 units can be attached to a stack, a merge between two 8 unit stacks
can be performed. The user will then have to choose which units will remain in the
final stack and which will be eliminated, since only 8 of them can forward networking
traffic, the rest having the data links disabled.
Note: Do not merge hybrid stacks if the total number of CN4093 switches exceeds
two units.
Although all switches which are configured for stacking and joined by stacking links
are recognized as potential stack participants by any operational Master switches,
they are not brought into operation within the stack until explicitly assigned (or
“bound”) to a specific Master switch.
Consider two independent stacks, Stack A and Stack B, which are merged into one
stacking topology. The stacks will behave independently until the switches in
Stack B are bound to Master A (or vice versa). In this example, once the Stack B
switches are bound to Master A, Master A will automatically reconfigure them to
operate as Stack A Members, regardless of their original status within Stack B.
However, for purposes of future Backup selection, reconfigured Masters retain their
identity as configured Masters, even though they otherwise act as Members. In case
the configured Master goes down and the Backup takes over as the new Master,
these reconfigured Masters become the new Backup. When the original configured
Master of the stack boots up again, it acts as a Member. This is one way to have
multiple backups in a stack.
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Backup Switch Selection
An operational stack can have one optional Backup at any given time. Only the
Backup specified in the active Master’s configuration is eligible to take over current
stack control when the Master is rebooted or fails. The Master automatically
synchronizes configuration settings with the specified Backup to facilitate the
transfer of control functions.
The Backup retains its status until one of the following occurs:
• The Backup setting is deleted or changed using the following commands from
the active Master:
CN 4093(config)# no stack backup
-orCN 4093(config)# stack backup <csnum 1-8>
•
•
A new Master assumes operation as active Master in the stack, and uses its own
configured Backup settings.
The active Master is rebooted with the boot configuration set to factory defaults
(clearing the Backup setting).
Master Failover
The Master switch controls the operation of the stack and pushes configuration
information to the other switches in the stack. If the active Master fails, then the
designated Backup (if one is defined in the Master’s configuration) becomes the
new acting Master and the stack continues to operate normally.
Master Recovery
If the prior Master recovers in a functioning stack where the Backup has assumed
stack control, the prior Master does not reassert itself as the stack Master. Instead,
the prior Master will assume a role as a secondary Backup to avoid further stack
disruption.
Upon stack reboot, the Master and Backup will resume their regular roles.
No Backup
If a Backup is not configured on the active Master, or the specified Backup is not
operating, then if the active Master fails, the stack will reboot without an active
Master.
When a group of stacked switches are rebooted without an active Master present,
the switches are considered to be isolated. All isolated switches in the stack are
placed in a WAITING state until a Master appears. During this WAITING period, all
the network ports of these Member switches are placed into operator-disabled state.
Without the Master, a stack cannot respond correctly to networking events.
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Stack Member Identification
Each switch in the stack has two numeric identifiers, as follows:
• Attached Switch Number (asnum)
An asnum is automatically assigned by the Master switch, based on each
Member switch’s physical connection in relation to the Master. The asnum is
mainly used as an internal ID by the Master switch and is not user-configurable.
•
Configured Switch Number (csnum):
The csnum is the logical switch ID assigned by the stack administrator. The
csnum is used in most stacking-related configuration commands and switch
information output. It is also used as a port prefix to distinguish the relationship
between the ports on different switches in the stack.
It is recommended to use csnum 1 for identifying the Master switch. By default,
csnum 1 is assigned to the Master. If csnum 1 is not available, the lowest available
csnum is assigned to the Master.
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205
Configuring a Stack
Note: When stacking mode is enabled on the switch, the configuration is reset to
factory default and the port numbering changes.
Note: When a switch mode is changed from stand-alone to stack or from stack to
stand-alone, the active and backup configuration will be erased. We
recommended that you save the configuration to an external device before
changing the switch mode.
Configuration Overview
This section provides procedures for creating a stack of switches. The high-level
procedure is as follows:
• Choose one Master switch for the entire stack.
• Set all stack switches to stacking mode.
• Configure the same stacking VLAN for all switches in the stack.
• Configure the desired stacking interlinks.
• Bind Member switches to the Master.
• Assign a Backup switch.
These tasks are covered in detail in the following sections.
Best Configuration Practices
The following are guidelines for building an effective switch stack:
• Always connect the stack switches in a complete ring topology (see Figure 25 on
page 208).
• Avoid disrupting the stack connections unnecessarily while the stack is in
operation.
• For enhanced redundancy when creating port trunks, include ports from different
stack members in the trunks.
• Avoid altering the stack csnum definitions unnecessarily while the stack is in
operation.
• In stacking mode, the highest QoS priority queue is reserved for internal stacking
requirements. Therefore, only seven priority queues will be available for regular
QoS use.
• Configure only as many QoS levels as necessary. This allows the best use of
packet buffers.
• Before configuring the stack:
– Identify the VLAN to be used as the stacking VLAN.
– Save the current configuration to an external device. The port numbering will
change once stacking is enabled. Use the saved configuration to reassign
ports/interfaces as per the new port numbering scheme. Once a stack is
configured, port numbers are displayed using the csnum to identify the
switch, followed by the switch port number. For example:
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Stacking VLANs
VLAN 4090 is the default VLAN reserved for internal traffic on stacking ports.
Note: Do not use VLAN 4090 for any purpose other than internal stacking traffic.
Configuring Each Switch in a Stack
To configure each switch for stacking, connect to the internal management IP
interface for each switch (assigned by the management system) and use the ISCLI
to perform the following steps.
Note: IPv6 is not supported in stacking mode with the exception of the internal
management interface 126. IP interfaces must use IPv4 addressing for
proper stack configuration.
1. On each switch, enable stacking:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack enable
2. On each switch, set the stacking membership mode.
By default, each switch is set to Member mode. However, one switch must be set
to Master mode. Use the following command only on the designated Master
switch:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack mode master
Note: If any Member switches are incorrectly set to Master mode, use the mode
member option to set them back to Member mode.
3. On each switch, configure the stacking VLAN (or use the default setting).
Although any VLAN (except VLAN 1) may be defined for stack traffic, it is highly
recommended that the default, VLAN 4090 as shown in the following example,
be used for stacking.
CN 4093(config)# boot stack vlan 4090
4. On each switch, designate the stacking links.
If using the 2 x 40Gb ports as stacking links, first convert the 40Gb ports from
their default 4x10Gb mode of operation to 40Gb mode. See: “Configuring
QSFP+ Ports” on page 134.
Use the following command to specify the links to be used in the stacking trunk:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack higig-trunk <list of port names or aliases>
Note: Ports configured as Server ports for use with VMready cannot be
designated as stacking links.
5. On each switch, perform a reboot:
CN 4093(config)# reload
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6. Physically connect the stack trunks.
To create the recommended topology, attach the two designated stacking links in a
bidirectional ring. As shown in Figure 25, connect each switch in turn to the next,
starting with the Master switch. To complete the ring, connect the last Member
switch back to the Master.
Figure 25. Example of Stacking Connections
Master
Switch
Switches
connected in
bidirectional
ring topology
Member
Switch
Member
Switch
Member
Switch
Note: The stacking feature is designed such that the stacking links in a ring
topology do not result in broadcast loops. The stacking ring is thus valid (no
stacking links are blocked), even when Spanning Tree protocol is enabled.
Once the stack trunks are connected, the switches will perform low-level stacking
configuration.
Note: Although stack link failover/failback is accomplished on a sub-second basis,
to maintain the best stacking operation and avoid traffic disruption, it is
recommended not to disrupt stack links after the stack is formed.
Configuring a Management IP Interface
Each switch in a stack can be configured with the external management IP interface
(127). The switch’s MAC address must be associated with the management IP
interface. This interface can be used for connecting to and managing the switch
externally. Follow the steps below:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip 127
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# mac <switch MAC address> ip address <IPv4 address> <subnet mask> enable
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway 3 mac <switch MAC address> address <gateway IPv4 address> enable
To provide continuous Management IP reachability in the event of a Master node
failover, an additional floating Management IP address can be set up on the
management interface. The floating Management IP address will be used by the
backup switch when taking over management from the failed master node. To
configure the floating Management IP address, use the following command:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# floating ip address <IPv4 address> <subnet mask>
Note: The Management IP and floating Management IP addresses on the master
switch, as well as the Management IP address on the backup switch, must
be in the same subnet.
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Note: In case of a stack split, the floating IP cannot be used anymore due to
duplicate IP address issue.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 14: Stacking
209
Additional Master Configuration
Once the stack links are connected, access a management IP interface of the
Master switch and complete the configuration.
Viewing Stack Connections
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To view information about the switches in a stack, execute the following command:
CN 4093(config)# show stack switch
Stack name: STK
Local switch:
csnum
MAC
UUID
Bay Number
Switch Type
Chassis Type
Switch Mode (cfg)
Priority
Stack MAC
-
2
74:99:75:21:8c:00
98c587636548429aba5010f8c62d4e27
3
14 (CN4093)
6 (Flex Enterprise)
Member (backup)
245
74:99:75:21:8d:1f
Master switch:
csnum
MAC
UUID
Bay Number
-
2
74:99:75:21:8c:00
98c587636548429aba5010f8c62d4e27
3
Backup switch:
csnum
MAC
UUID
Bay Number
-
1
74:99:75:21:8d:00
534c8ca1605846299148305adc9a1f6d
4
Configured Switches:
----------------------------------------------------------------------csnum
UUID
Bay
MAC
asnum
----------------------------------------------------------------------C1
534c8ca1605846299148305adc9a1f6d 4 74:99:75:21:8d:00
A5
C2
98c587636548429aba5010f8c62d4e27 3 74:99:75:21:8c:00
A1
C3
534c8ca1605846299148305adc9a1f6d 1 00:00:00:00:00:00
C4
25b884f3c75341e7a0a6417d8602180b 4 08:17:f4:84:34:00
A2
C5
98c587636548429aba5010f8c62d4e27 4 34:40:b5:73:8a:00
A3
C6
534c8ca1605846299148305adc9a1f6d 3 74:99:75:1c:68:00
A4
C7
25b884f3c75341e7a0a6417d8602180b 3 00:00:00:00:00:00
Attached Switches in Stack:
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------asnum
UUID
Bay
MAC
csnum State
Type
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------A1 98c587636548429aba5010f8c62d4e27 3 74:99:75:21:8c:00 C2 IN_STACK
CN4093
A2 25b884f3c75341e7a0a6417d8602180b 4 08:17:f4:84:34:00 C4 IN_STACK
EN4093R
A3 98c587636548429aba5010f8c62d4e27 4 34:40:b5:73:8a:00 C5 IN_STACK
EN4093R
A4 534c8ca1605846299148305adc9a1f6d 3 74:99:75:1c:68:00 C6 IN_STACK
EN4093R
A5 534c8ca1605846299148305adc9a1f6d 4 74:99:75:21:8d:00 C1 IN_STACK
CN4093
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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211
Binding Members to the Stack
You can bind Member switches to a stack csnum using either their asnum or
chassis UUID and bay number :
CN 4093(config)# stack switch-number <csnum> universal-unic-id <chassis UUID>
CN 4093(config)# stack switch-number <csnum> bay <bay number (1-4)>
-orCN 4093(config)# stack switch-number <csnum> bind <asnum (1-16)>
To remove a Member switch, execute the following command:
CN 4093(config)# no stack switch-number <csnum>
Assigning a Stack Backup Switch
To define a Member switch as a Backup (optional) which will assume the Master
role if the Master switch fails, execute the following command:
CN 4093(config)# stack backup <csnum>
Managing a Stack
The stack is managed primarily through the Master switch. The Master switch
pushes configuration changes and run-time information to the Member switches.
Use ISCLI, the Browser-Based Interface (BBI) or SNMP to access the Master, as
follows:
• Use a management IP address assigned to the Master.
• On any switch in the stack, connect to any port that is not part of an active trunk
and is a member of a VLAN. To access the stack, use the IP address of any IP
interface that is member of the VLAN.
Rebooting Stacked Switches using the ISCLI
The administrator can reboot individual switches in the stack, or the entire stack
using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# reload
CN 4093(config)# reload master
CN 4093(config)# reload switch <csnum list>
(Reboot all switches in the stack)
(Reboot only the stack Master)
(Reboot only the listed switches)
Note: If no backup switch is present in the stack, the reload master command
will reboot all switches.
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Rebooting Stacked Switches using the BBI
The Configure > System > Config/Image Control window allows the
administrator to perform a reboot of individual switches in the stack, or the entire
stack. The following table describes the stacking Reboot buttons.
Table 20. Stacking Boot Management buttons
Field
Description
Reboot Stack
Performs a software reboot/reset of all switches in the stack.
The software image specified in the Image To Boot drop-down
list becomes the active image.
Reboot Master
Performs a software reboot/reset of the Master switch. The
software image specified in the Image To Boot drop-down list
becomes the active image.
Reboot
Switches
Performs a reboot/reset on selected switches in the stack.
Select one or more switches in the drop-down list, and click
Reboot Switches. The software image specified in the Image To
Boot drop-down list becomes the active image.
The Update Image/Cfg section of the window applies to the Master. When a new
software image or configuration file is loaded, the file first loads onto the Master, and
the Master pushes the file to all other switches in the stack, placing it in the same
software or configuration bank as that on the Master. For example, if the new image
is loaded into image 1 on the Master switch, the Master will push the same firmware
to image 1 on each Member switch.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 14: Stacking
213
Upgrading Software in an Existing Stack
Stacked switches are upgraded together. The Master controls the upgrade process.
Use the following procedure to perform a software upgrade for a stacked system.
1. Load new software on the Master.
The Master pushes the new software image to all Members in the stack, as
follows:
– If the new software is loaded into image 1, the Master pushes the software
into image 1 on all Members.
– If loaded into image 2, the Master pushes the software into image 2 on all
Members.
The software push can take several minutes to complete.
2. Verify that the software push is complete. Use either the BBI or the ISCLI:
– From the BBI, go to Dashboard > Stacking > Push Status and view the
Image Push Status Information, or
– From the ISCLI, use following command to verify the software push:
CN 4093(config)# show stack push-status
Image 1 transfer status info:
Switch 00:16:60:f9:33:00:
last receive successful
Switch 00:17:ef:c3:fb:00:
not received - file not sent or transfer in progress
Image 2 transfer status info:
Switch 00:16:60:f9:33:00:
last receive successful
Switch 00:17:ef:c3:fb:00:
last receive successful
Boot image transfer status info:
Switch 00:16:60:f9:33:00:
last receive successful
Switch 00:17:ef:c3:fb:00:
last receive successful
Config file transfer status info:
Switch 00:16:60:f9:33:00:
last receive successful
Switch 00:17:ef:c3:fb:00:
last receive successful
3. Reboot all switches in the stack. Use either the ISCLI or the BBI.
– From the BBI, select Configure > System > Config/Image Control. Click
Reboot Stack.
– From the CLI, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# reload
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4. Once the switches in the stack have rebooted, verify that all of them are using
the same version of firmware. Use either the ISCLI or the BBI.
– From the BBI, open Dashboard > Stacking > Stack Switches and view the
Switch Firmware Versions Information from the Attached Switches in Stack.
– From the CLI, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# show stack version
Switch Firmware Versions:
-----------------------------------------------------------asnum csnum
MAC
S/W
Version
Serial #
----- ----- ----------------- ------ ------- ---------A1
C1
00:00:00:00:01:00 image1 7.8.1.0 CH49000000
A2
C2
00:11:00:af:ce:00 image1 7.8.1.0 CH49000001
A3
00:22:00:ad:43:00 image1 7.8.1.0 CH49000002
New Hybrid Stack
Use the following procedure to install software on switches that will be used to form
a hybrid stack (two CN4093 and up to six EN4093/EN4093R switches):
1. Install N/OS version 7.8 on each switch and reload the switch.
2. Configure the switches to form a stack. See “Configuring a Stack” on page 206.
3. Reload the switches to establish the stack.
Converting a EN4093/EN4093R Stack to a Hybrid Stack
Use the following procedure to install software on a stack of EN4093/EN4093R
switches that will be combined with CN4093 switches to form a hybrid stack (up to
two CN4093 and up to six EN4093/EN4093R switches):
1. Install N/OS version 7.8 on the Master EN4093/EN4093R switch.
2. Install N/OS version 7.8 on each CN4093 switch.
3. Reload the switches.
4. Configure stacking on the CN4093 switch(es). The CN4093 must be configured
as the Master of the hybrid stack. Reload the switch(es) to establish the stack.
New Stack
Use the following procedure to install software on two CN4093 switches that will be
used to form a stack:
1. Install N/OS version 7.8 on each CN4093 switch and reload the switch.
2. Configure the switches to form a stack. See “Configuring a Stack” on page 206.
3. Reload the switches to establish the stack.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 14: Stacking
215
Replacing or Removing Stacked Switches
Stack switches may be replaced or removed while the stack is in operation.
However, the following conditions must be met to avoid unnecessary disruption:
• If removing an active Master switch, make sure that a valid Backup exists in the
stack.
• It is best to replace only one switch at a time.
• If replacing or removing multiple switches in a ring topology, when one switch has
been properly disconnected (see the procedures that follow), any adjacent
switch can also be removed.
• Removing any two, non-adjacent switches in a ring topology will divide the ring
and disrupt the stack.
Use the following procedures to replace a stack switch.
Removing a Switch from the Stack
1. Make sure the stack is configured in a ring topology.
Note: When an open-ended daisy-chain topology is in effect (either by design or
as the result of any failure of one of the stacking links in a ring topology),
removing a stack switch from the interior of the chain can divide the chain
and cause serious disruption to the stack operation.
2. If removing a Master switch, make sure that a Backup switch exists in the
stack, then turn off the Master switch.
This will force the Backup switch to assume Master operations for the stack.
3. Remove the stack link cables from the old switch only.
4. Disconnect all network cables from the old switch only.
5. Remove the old switch.
Installing the New Switch or Healing the Topology
If using a ring topology, but not installing a new switch for the one removed, close
the ring by connecting the open stack links together, essentially bypassing the
removed switch.
Otherwise, if replacing the removed switch with a new unit, use the following
procedure:
1. Make sure the new switch meets the stacking requirements on page 200.
2. Place the new switch in its determined place according to the CN4093 10Gb
Converged Scalable Switch Installation Guide.
3. Connect to the ISCLI of the new switch (not the stack interface)
4. Enable stacking:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack enable
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5. Set the stacking mode.
By default, each switch is set to Member mode. However, if the incoming switch
has been used in another stacking configuration, it may be necessary to ensure
the proper mode is set.
– If replacing a Member or Backup switch:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack mode member
– If replacing a Master switch:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack mode master
6. Configure the stacking VLAN on the new switch, or use the default setting.
Although any VLAN may be defined for stack traffic, it is highly recommended
that the default, VLAN 4090, be used for stacking, as shown in the following
command.
CN 4093(config)# boot stack vlan 4090
7. Designate the stacking links.
Use the following command to specify the links to be used in the stacking trunk:
CN 4093(config)# boot stack higig-trunk <list of external port s>
8. Attach the required stack link cables to the designated stack links on the new
switch.
9. Attach the desired network cables to the new switch.
10. Reboot the new switch:
CN 4093(config)# reload
When the new switch boots, it will join the existing stack. Wait for this process to
complete.
Binding the New Switch to the Stack
1. Log in to the stack interface.
Note: If replacing the Master switch, be sure to log in to the stack interface
(hosted temporarily on the Backup switch) rather than logging in directly to
the newly installed Master.
2. From the stack interface, assign the csnum for the new switch.
You can bind Member switches to a stack csnum using either the new switch’s
asnum or UUID :
CN 4093(config)# stack switch-number <csnum> universal-unic-id <uuid> bay <Slot ID>
-orCN 4093(config)# stack switch-number <csnum> bind <asnum>
Note: If replacing the Master switch, the Master will not assume control from the
Backup unless the Backup is rebooted or fails.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 14: Stacking
217
ISCLI Stacking Commands
Stacking-related ISCLI commands are listed here. For details on specific
commands, see the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch ISCLI Reference.
• [no] boot stack enable
• boot stack higig-trunk <port list>
• boot stack mode master|member
• boot stack push-image boot-image|image1|image2 <asnum>
• boot stack vlan <VLAN>
• default boot stack <asnum>|master|backup|all
• [no] logging log stacking
• no stack backup
• no stack name
• no stack switch-number <csnum>
• show boot stack <asnum>|master|backup|all
• show stack attached-switches
• show stack backup
• show stack dynamic
• show stack link
• show stack name
• show stack path-map [<csnum>]
• show stack push-status
• show stack switch
• show stack switch-number [<csnum>]
• show stack version
• stack backup <csnum>
• stack name <word>
• stack switch-number <csnum> bind <asnum>
• stack switch-number <csnum> universal-unic-id <uuid> bay <Slot ID>
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Chapter 15. Virtualization
Virtualization allows resources to be allocated in a fluid manner based on the logical
needs of the data center, rather than on the strict, physical nature of components.
The following virtualization features are included in IBM Networking OS 7.8 on the
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093):
• Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)
VLANs are commonly used to split groups of networks into manageable
broadcast domains, create logical segmentation of workgroups, and to enforce
security policies among logical network segments.
For details on this feature, see “VLANs” on page 111.
•
Port trunking
A port trunk pools multiple physical switch ports into a single, high-bandwidth
logical link to other devices. In addition to aggregating capacity, trunks provides
link redundancy.
For details on this feature, see “Ports and Trunking” on page 131.
•
Virtual Network Interface Card (vNIC) support
Some NICs, such as the Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter for IBM BladeCenter,
can virtualize NIC resources, presenting multiple virtual NICs to the server’s OS
or hypervisor. Each vNIC appears as a regular, independent NIC with some
portion of the physical NIC’s overall bandwidth. N/OS 7.8 supports up to four
vNICs over each internal switch port.
For details on this feature, see “Virtual NICs” on page 221.
•
Virtual Link Aggregation (VLAGs)
With VLAGs, two switches can act as a single logical device for the purpose of
establishing port trunking. Active trunk links from one device can lead to both
VLAG peer switches, providing enhanced redundancy, including active-active
VRRP configuration.
For details on this feature, see “Virtual Link Aggregation Groups” on page 165
•
VMready
The switch’s VMready software makes it virtualization aware. Servers that run
hypervisor software with multiple instances of one or more operating systems
can present each as an independent virtual machine (VM). With VMready, the
switch automatically discovers virtual machines (VMs) connected to switch.
For details on this feature, see “VMready” on page 239.
•
Unified Fabric Port (UFP)
An architecture that logically subdivides a high-speed physical link connecting to
a server NIC or to a Converged Network Adapter (CNA). UFP provides a switch
fabric component to control the NIC.
For details on this feature, see “Unified Fabric Port” on page 309.
IBM Networking OS virtualization features provide a highly-flexible framework for
allocating and managing switch resources.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
219
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Chapter 16. Virtual NICs
A Network Interface Controller (NIC) is a component within a blade server that
allows the server to be connected to a network. The NIC provides the physical point
of connection, as well as internal software for encoding and decoding network
packets.
Virtualizing the NIC helps to resolve issues caused by limited NIC slot availability. By
virtualizing a 10Gbps NIC, its resources can be divided into multiple logical
instances known as virtual NICs (vNICs). Each vNIC appears as a regular,
independent NIC to the server operating system or a hypervisor, with each vNIC
using some portion of the physical NIC’s overall bandwidth.
Figure 26. Virtualizing the NIC for Multiple Virtual Pipes on Each Link
Blade Server 1
NIC
VNIC
Physical
NIC Ports
Internal
Switch Ports
VNIC
VNIC
OS or
Hypervisor VNIC
IBM
Switch 1
INTA1
10 Gbps Link with
Multiple Virtual Pipes
IBM
Switch 2
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
INTA1
VNIC
A CN4093 with IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports the Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter
(VFA) 2-port 10Gb LOM and Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter (Fabric Mezz) for IBM
Flex System to provide the following vNIC features:
• Up to four vNICs are supported on each internal switch port.
• Each vNIC can accommodate one of the following traffic types: regular Ethernet,
iSCSI, or Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE).
• vNICs with traffic of the same type can be grouped together, along with regular
internal ports, external uplink ports, and trunk groups, to define vNIC groups for
enforcing communication boundaries.
• In the case of a failure on the external uplink ports associated with a vNIC group,
the switch can signal affected vNICs for failover while permitting other vNICs to
continue operation.
• Each vNIC can be allocated a symmetric percentage of the 10Gbps bandwidth
on the link (from NIC to switch, and from switch to NIC).
• The CN4093 can be used as the single point of vNIC configuration.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
221
The following restriction applies to vNICs:
• vNICs are not supported simultaneously with VM groups (see “VMready” on
page 239) on the same switch ports.
By default, vNICs are disabled. The administrator can enable vNICs and configure
vNIC features on the switch using the standard management options such as the
IBM Networking OS CLI, the ISCLI, and the Browser-based Interface (BBI).
To enable the vNIC feature on the switch, use the following command on the vNIC
Configuration Menu:
CN 4093(config)# vnic enable
Note: The Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter for IBM Flex System can also operate in
Physical NIC (PNIC) mode, in which case vNIC features are non-applicable.
vNIC IDs
vNIC IDs on the Switch
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports up to four vNICs attached to each internal switch
port. Each vNIC is provided its own independent virtual pipe on the port.
On stand-alone (non-stacked) switches, each vNIC is identified by port and vNIC
number:
<port number or alias>.<vNIC pipe number (1-4)>
For example:
INTA1.1, INTA1.2, INTA1.3, and INTA1.4 represent the vNICs on port INTA1.
INTA2.1, INTA2.2, INTA2.3, and INTA2.4 represent the vNICs on port INTA2,
etc.
These vNIC IDs are used when adding vNICs to vNIC groups, and are shown in
some configuration and information displays.
Whenever switches are stacked, the switch csnum ID is also required:
<switch csnum>:<port number or alias>.<vNIC pipe number (1-4)>
For example:
2:INTA2.3 refers to port INTA2, vNIC 3, switch number 2.
Note: The configuration examples in this chapter depict stand-alone (non-stacked)
port and vNIC designations.
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vNIC Interface Names on the Server
When running in virtualization mode, the Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter presents
eight vNICs to the OS or hypervisor (four for each of the two physical NIC ports).
Each vNIC is identified in the OS or hypervisor with a different PCIe function number
(0-7). PCIe function numbers correlate to vNIC IDs on the switch as follows:
For Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter 2-port 10Gb LOM:
Table 21. vNIC ID Correlation
PCIe
Function ID
NIC Port
Switch Slot
vNIC
Pipe
vNIC ID
0
0
Bay 1
1
INTAx.1
2
0
Bay 1
2
INTAx.2
4
0
Bay 1
3
INTAx.3
6
0
Bay 1
4
INTAx.4
1
1
Bay 2
1
INTAx.1
3
1
Bay 2
2
INTAx.2
5
1
Bay 2
3
INTAx.3
7
1
Bay 2
4
INTAx.4
For Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter (Fabric Mezz), when replacing the LOM card:
Table 22. vNIC ID Correlation
PCIe
Function ID
NIC Port
Switch Slot
vNIC
Pipe
vNIC ID
First ASIC
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
0
1
Bay 1
1
INTAx.1
2
1
Bay 1
2
INTAx.2
4
1
Bay 1
3
INTAx.3
6
1
Bay 1
4
INTAx.4
1
2
Bay 2
1
INTAx.1
3
2
Bay 2
2
INTAx.2
5
2
Bay 2
3
INTAx.3
7
2
Bay 2
4
INTAx.4
Chapter 16: Virtual NICs
223
Table 23. vNIC ID Correlation
PCIe
Function ID
NIC Port
Switch Slot
vNIC
Pipe
vNIC ID
Second ASIC
0
3
Bay 1
1
INTBx.1
2
3
Bay 1
2
INTBx.2
4
3
Bay 1
3
INTBx.3
6
3
Bay 1
4
INTBx.4
1
4
Bay 2
1
INTBx.1
3
4
Bay 2
2
INTBx.2
5
4
Bay 2
3
INTBx.3
7
4
Bay 2
4
INTBx.4
For Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter (Fabric Mezz), when adding it with the LOM
Card:
Table 24. vNIC ID Correlation
PCIe
Function ID
NIC Port
Switch Slot
vNIC
Pipe
vNIC ID
First ASIC
0
1
Bay 3
1
INTAx.1
2
1
Bay 3
2
INTAx.2
4
1
Bay 3
3
INTAx.3
6
1
Bay 3
4
INTAx.4
1
2
Bay 4
1
INTAx.1
3
2
Bay 4
2
INTAx.2
5
2
Bay 4
3
INTAx.3
7
2
Bay 4
4
INTAx.4
Switch Slot
vNIC
Pipe
vNIC ID
Table 25. vNIC ID Correlation
PCIe
Function ID
NIC Port
Second ASIC
224
0
3
Bay 3
1
INTBx.1
2
3
Bay 3
2
INTBx.2
4
3
Bay 3
3
INTBx.3
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Table 25. vNIC ID Correlation
PCIe
Function ID
NIC Port
Switch Slot
vNIC
Pipe
vNIC ID
6
3
Bay 3
4
INTBx.4
1
4
Bay 4
1
INTBx.1
3
4
Bay 4
2
INTBx.2
5
4
Bay 4
3
INTBx.3
7
4
Bay 4
4
INTBx.4
In this, the x in the vNIC ID represents the internal switch port and its corresponding
server node of the vNIC pipe. Each physical NIC port is connected to a different
switch bay in the blade chassis.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 16: Virtual NICs
225
vNIC Uplink Modes
The switch supports two modes for configuring the vNIC uplinks: dedicated mode
and shared mode. The default is the dedicated mode. To enable the shared mode,
enter the following command:
CN 4093(config)# vnic uplink-share
In the dedicated mode, only one vNIC group is assigned to an uplink port. This port
can be a regular port or a trunk port. The NIC places an outer tag on the vNIC group
packets. This outer tag contains the vNIC group VLAN. The uplink NIC strips off the
outer tag before sending out the packet. For details, see “vNIC Groups in Dedicated
Mode” on page 230.
In the shared mode, multiple vNIC groups can be assigned to an uplink port. This
port can be a regular port or a trunk port. The vNIC groups share the uplink. You
may assign a few vNIC groups to share an uplink and the other vNIC groups to have
a single uplink each. In either case, the switch still operates in shared mode. As in
the dedicated mode, the NIC places an outer tag on the vNIC group packets. This
outer tag contains the vNIC group VLAN. The uplink NIC does not strip off the outer
tag. The vNIC group tag defines the regular VLAN for the packet.This behavior is
particularly useful in cases where the downstream server does not set any tag.
Effectively, each vNIC group is a VLAN, which you can assign by configuring the
VLAN to the vNIC group. You must enable the tag configuration on the uplink port.
For details, see “vNIC Groups in Shared Mode” on page 230.
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The table below compares the configurations of the two modes.
Table 26. Comparison: Dedicated Mode vs. Shared Mode
Configuration
Area
Port
Dedicated Mode
Shared Mode
“tagpvid” must be disabled.
“tagpvid” is user configurable.
“pvid” = vNIC group VLAN.
“pvid” is user configurable.
“tag” is user configurable.
“tag” must be enabled.
Port can be added only to the vNIC group
VLAN.
Port can be added to multiple VLANs in addition to the vNIC group VLANs that are automatically configured.
Inserts vNIC group VLAN in the outer tag
of ingress packets.
Inserts regular VLAN in the outer tag. VLAN
tags are passed to and received from the uplink
switch similar to vNIC ports.
To handle untagged packets, configure the
pvid/native VLAN of the uplink port to one of
the vNIC group VLANs, and disable “tagpvid”.
VLAN
STP
Failover
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Add the port to a vNIC group VLAN and
delete it from any other VLAN when the
vNIC group VLAN is enabled.
Add the port to all vNIC group VLANs that
are sharing the port. Do not remove it from
any other VLAN.
Delete the port from the vNIC group
VLAN and add it back to the default
VLAN 1 when the vNIC group is disabled/deleted or when the vNIC feature is
globally disabled.
Remove the port from a vNIC group VLAN
when the vNIC group is disabled/deleted.
When the vNIC feature is globally disabled or
the port is not added in any vNIC group,
remove the port from all vNIC group VLANs
and add it back to default VLAN 1 if no
non-vNIC VLAN exists on the port.
Do not add a port or trunk to multiple
vNIC groups that are enabled.
Can add a port or trunk to multiple vNIC
groups that are enabled.
Do not configure additional VLANs on
the uplink ports.
Can configure additional VLANs on the
uplink ports.
An uplink port can only be in one STG.
An uplink port can be in multiple STGs.
When you add a port to a vNIC group,
STP is automatically disabled.
When you add a port to a vNIC group, STP is
automatically disabled.
When you remove a port from a vNIC
group, STP is automatically reset to factory default.
When you remove a port from a vNIC group,
STP is automatically reset to factory default.
An uplink up/event can trigger the
failover state change only of one vNIC
group.
An uplink up/event can trigger the failover
state change of multiple vNIC groups.
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227
vNIC Bandwidth Metering
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports bandwidth metering for vNIC traffic. By default,
each of the four vNICs on any given port is allowed an equal share (25%) of NIC
capacity when enabled. However, you may configure the percentage of available
switch port bandwidth permitted to each vNIC.
vNIC bandwidth can be configured as a value from 1 to 100, with each unit
representing 1% (or 100Mbps) of the 10Gbps link. By default, each vNICs enabled
on a port is assigned 25 units (equal to 25% of the link, or 2.5Gbps). When traffic
from the switch to the vNIC reaches its assigned bandwidth limit, the switch will drop
packets egressing to the affected vNIC.
Note: Bandwidth metering drops excess packets when configured limits are
reached. Consider using the ETS feature in applications where packet loss
is not desirable (see “Enhanced Transmission Selection” on page 302).
To change the bandwidth allocation, use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# vnic port <port alias or number> index <vNIC number (1-4)>
CN 4093(vnic-config)# bandwidth <allocated percentage>
Note: vNICs that are disabled are automatically allocated a bandwidth value of 0.
A combined maximum of 100 units can be allocated among vNIC pipes enabled for
any specific port (bandwidth values for disabled pipes are not counted). If more than
100 units are assigned to enabled pipes, an error will be reported when attempting
to apply the configuration.
The bandwidth metering configuration is automatically synchronized between the
switch and vNICs for regular Ethernet and iSCSI traffic. Once configured on the
switch, there is no need to manually configure vNIC bandwidth metering limits on
the NIC.
Note: FCoE vNIC does not use egress metering. ETS and PFC must be enabled to
ensure lossless transmission for FCoE traffic. ETS does traffic shaping. You
can configure a minimum bandwidth for each traffic class. For example, 40%
for FCoE priority 3, 60% for the Ethernet traffic. FCoE traffic gets 40%
minimum guaranteed bandwidth. If the Ethernet traffic only consumes 30%
bandwidth, then FCoE traffic can use 70%. If there is no other Ethernet
traffic, then FCoE traffic can use 100%. The FCoE vNIC can use up to 100%
of the bandwidth, with a minimum guaranteed bandwidth of 40%.
vNIC Groups
vNICs can be grouped together, along with internal and external switch ports and
trunks, into vNIC groups. Each vNIC group is essentially a separate virtual network
within the switch. Elements within a vNIC group have a common logical function and
can communicate with each other, while elements in different vNIC groups are
separated.
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports up to 32 independent vNIC groups. To enforce
group boundaries, each vNIC group is assigned its own unique VLAN.
The VLAN configured for the vNIC group will be automatically assigned to member
vNICs, ports, and trunks and should not be manually configured for those elements.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Note: Once a VLAN is assigned to a vNIC group, that VLAN is used only for vNIC
purposes and is no longer available for other configuration. Likewise, any
VLAN configured for regular purposes cannot be configured as a vNIC group
VLAN.
The vNIC group rules are as follows:
• vNIC groups may have one or more vNIC members. However, any given vNIC
can be a member of only one vNIC group.
• All vNICs on a given port must belong to different vNIC groups.
• Each vNIC group may contain traffic of one type only (either regular Ethernet,
iSCSI, or FCoE). Traffic of different types may not be mixed within any vNIC
group.
• External ports that are part of a trunk may not be individually added to a vNIC
group. Only one individual external port, one static trunk, or one dynamic trunk
(consisting of multiple external ports) may be added to any given vNIC group.
• In dedicated mode, for any internal ports, external port, or port trunk group
connected to regular (non-vNIC) devices:
– These elements can be placed in only one vNIC group (they cannot be
members of multiple vNIC groups).
– Once added to a vNIC group, the PVID for the element is automatically set to
use the vNIC group VLAN number, and PVID tagging on the element is
automatically disabled.
•
•
By default, STP is disabled on any external port added to a vNIC group. STP can
be re-enabled on the port if desired.
Because regular, inner VLAN IDs are ignored by the switch for traffic in vNIC
groups, following rules and restrictions apply:
– The inner VLAN tag may specify any VLAN ID in the full, supported range
(1 to 4095) and may even duplicate outer vNIC group VLAN IDs. However, in
the shared mode, inner VLAN tag and the vNIC group VLAN ID should be
the same.
– Per-VLAN IGMP snooping is not supported in vNIC groups.
– The inner VLAN tag is not processed in any way in vNIC groups: The inner
tag cannot be stripped or added on port egress, is not used to restrict
multicast traffic, is not matched against ACL filters, and does not influence
Layer 3 switching.
– For vNIC ports on the switch, because the outer vNIC group VLAN is
transparent to the OS/hypervisor and upstream devices, VLAN tagging
should be configured as normally required (on or off) for the those devices,
ignoring any outer tag.
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Virtual machines (VMs) and other VEs associated with vNICs are automatically
detected by the switch when VMready is enabled (see “VMready” on page 239).
However, vNIC groups are isolated from other switch elements. VEs in vNIC
groups cannot be assigned to VM groups.
Chapter 16: Virtual NICs
229
vNIC Groups in Dedicated Mode
The vNIC group VLAN ID is placed on all vNIC group packets as an “outer” tag. As
shown in Figure 27, the outer vNIC group VLAN ID is placed on the packet in
addition to any regular VLAN tag assigned by the network, server, or hypervisor.
The outer vNIC group VLAN is used only between the CN4093 and the NIC.
Figure 27. Outer and Inner VLAN Tags
Ports with
vNICs
vNIC-Capable Server
OS/Hypervisor
Regular
VLAN ID
NIC
Ports without
vNICs
IBM Switch
NIC attached outer
vNIC group VLAN ID
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch strips
outer tag
Outer tag sets vNIC;
NIC strips outer tag
Switching uses outer tag; Switch adds outer
Ignores regular VLAN
vNIC group VLAN ID
Outbound
Packet
Inbound
Packet
Within the CN4093, all Layer 2 switching for packets within a vNIC group is based
on the outer vNIC group VLAN. The CN4093 does not consider the regular, inner
VLAN ID (if any) for any VLAN-specific operation.
The outer vNIC group VLAN is removed by the NIC before the packet reaches the
server OS or hypervisor, or by the switch before the packet egresses any internal
port or external uplink port which does not need it for vNIC processing.
vNIC Groups in Shared Mode
The vNIC group VLAN ID is placed on all vNIC group packets as an “outer” tag. As
shown in Figure 28, the outer vNIC group VLAN ID is placed on the packet in
addition to any regular VLAN tag assigned by the network, server, or hypervisor.
Figure 28. Outer and Inner VLAN Tags
vNIC-Capable Server
OS/Hypervisor
Regular
VLAN ID
NIC
Ports with
vNICs
IBM Switch
NIC attached outer
vNIC group VLAN ID
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch does not
strip outer tag
Outer tag sets vNIC;
NIC strips outer tag
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch retains
outer tag
Ports without
vNICs
Outbound
Packet
Inbound
Packet
Within the CN4093, all Layer 2 switching for packets within a vNIC group is based
on the outer vNIC group VLAN. The CN4093 does not consider the regular, inner
VLAN ID (if any) for any VLAN-specific operation.
The outer vNIC group VLAN is not removed by the switch before the packet
egresses any internal port or external uplink port. For untagged packets sent by the
server, the uplink NIC uses this outer tag to switch the packet to destined VLAN.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
The shared mode is useful is cases where the multiple vNIC groups need to share
an uplink port. The vNIC group tag defines the user VLAN. Following is an use case:
An ESX server is presented with eight vNICs (four from bay 7 and four from bay 9)
used with four virtual switches of the ESX host and with no tagged port groups. A
pair of odd/even vNICs is placed within each virtual switch. On the CN4093, four
vNIC groups are created and the desired VLAN for each vNIC group is configured.
For example, if vNIC group 1 on the CN4093 has four interfaces: 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1.
vNIC group 1 is configured with VLAN 10. Packets coming from any VM connecting
with the virtual switch that VMNIC 2 and 3 (vNIC 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, and 4.1 on bay 7 and
bay 9) will be assigned with VLAN 10. These packets go out the uplink with VLAN
10 tag. The upstream switch sends these packets to the desired destination on
VLAN 10.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 16: Virtual NICs
231
vNIC Teaming Failover
For NIC failover in a non-virtualized environment, when a service group’s external
uplink ports fail or are disconnected, the switch disables the affected group’s internal
ports, causing the server to failover to the backup NIC and switch.
However, in a virtualized environment, disabling the affected internal ports would
disrupt all vNIC pipes on those ports, not just those that have lost their external
uplinks (see Figure 29).
Figure 29. Regular Failover in a Virtualized Environment
Primary
IBM Switch
X
EXT1
EXT2
VNIC
Group 1
VNIC
Group 2
Virtual
Pipes
X
INTA1
X
INTA2
IBM
Servers
NIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC vSwitch
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
NIC
EXT1 link failure automatically
disables associated internal ports,
prompting failover on all VMs
Hypervisor
VNIC vSwitch
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VM 1
VM 2
VM 3
VM 4
Hypervisor
To Backup
Switch
To avoid disrupting vNICs that have not lost their external uplinks, N/OS 7.8 and the
Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter for IBM Flex System provide vNIC-aware failover.
In the dedicated mode, when a vNIC group’s external uplink ports fail, the switch
cooperates with the affected NIC to prompt failover only on the appropriate vNICs.
This allows the vNICs that are not affected by the failure to continue without
disruption (see Figure 30 on page 233).
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Figure 30. vNIC Failover Solution
Primary
IBM Switch
X
EXT1
VNIC
Group 1
Virtual
Pipes
IBM
Servers
NIC
X
INTA1
Hypervisor
VNIC vSwitch
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VM 1
VM 2
VNIC vSwitch
VNIC
EXT2
VNIC
Group 2
X VNIC
VNIC
INTA2
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
NIC
VM 3
VM 4
Hypervisor
Upon EXT1 link failure, the switch
To Backup
informs the server hypervisor
for failover on affected VNICs only
Switch
By default, vNIC Teaming Failover is disabled on each vNIC group, but can be
enabled or disabled independently for each vNIC group using the following
commands:
CN 4093(config)# vnic vnicgroup <group number>
CN 4093(vnic-group-config)# failover
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 16: Virtual NICs
233
vNIC Configuration Example
Consider the following example configuration of vNICs for regular Ethernet traffic:
Figure 31. Multiple vNIC Groups
IBM Switch 1
IBM Servers
.1
.2
.3
INTA1 .4
EXT1
60%
40%
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
To Switch 2
VNIC Group 1
VLAN 1000
EXT2
.1
.2
.3
INTA2 .4
25%
25%
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
To Switch 2
.1
.2
.3
INTA3 .4
EXT3
VNIC Group 2
VLAN 1774
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
25%
To Switch 2
EXT4
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
VNIC
OS or
Hypervisor
OS or
Hypervisor
OS or
Hypervisor
OS or
Hypervisor
INTA4
To Switch 2
EXT5
OS or
Hypervisor
INTA5
To Switch 2
Figure 31 has the following vNIC network characteristics:
• vNIC group 1 has an outer tag for VLAN 1000. The group is comprised of vNIC
pipes INTA1.1 and INTA2.1, internal port INTA4 (a non-vNIC port), and external
uplink port EXT1.
• vNIC group 2 has an outer tag for VLAN 1774. The group is comprised of vNIC
pipes INTA1.2, INTA2.2 and INTA3.2, internal port INTA5, and an external uplink
trunk of ports EXT3 and EXT4.
• vNIC failover is enabled for both vNIC groups.
• vNIC bandwidth on port INTA1 is set to 60% for vNIC 1 and 40% for vNIC 2.
• Other enabled vNICs (INTA2.1, INTA2.2, and INTA3.2) are permitted the default
bandwidth of 25% (2.5Gbsp) on their respective ports.
• All remaining vNICs are disabled (by default) and are automatically allocated 0
bandwidth.
1. Configure the external trunk to be used with vNIC group 2.
CN 4093(config)# portchannel 1 port EXT3,EXT4 enable
2. Enable the vNIC feature on the switch.
CN 4093(config)# vnic enable
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
3. Configure the virtual pipes for the vNICs attached to each internal port:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(vnic-config)#
port INTA1 index 1
enable
bandwidth 60
exit
port INTA1 index 2
enable
bandwidth 40
exit
(Select vNIC 1 on the port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
(Allow 60% egress bandwidth)
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic-config)#
4093(vnic-config)#
port INTA2 index 1
enable
exit
port INTA2 index 2
enable
exit
(Select vNIC 1 on the port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
(Select vNIC 2 on the port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
(Allow 40% egress bandwidth)
(Select vNIC 2 on the port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
As a configuration shortcut, vNICs do not have to be explicitly enabled in this
step. When a vNIC is added to the vNIC group (in the next step), the switch will
prompt you to confirm automatically enabling the vNIC if it is not yet enabled
(shown for INT3.2).
Note: vNICs are not supported simultaneously on the same switch ports as
VMready.
4. Add ports, trunks, and virtual pipes to their vNIC groups.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vnic vnicgroup 1
4093(vnic-group-config)# vlan 1000
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA1.1
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA2.1
4093(vnic-group-config)# port INTA4
4093(vnic-group-config)# port EXT1
4093(vnic-group-config)# failover
4093(vnic-group-config)# enable
4093(vnic-group-config)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vnic vnicgroup 2
4093(vnic-group-config)# vlan 1774
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA1.2
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA2.2
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA3.2
(Select vNIC group)
(Specify the VLAN)
(Add vNIC pipes to the group)
(Add non-vNIC port to the group)
(Add uplink port to the group
(Enable vNIC failover for the group)
(Enable the vNIC group)
vNIC 3.2 is not enabled.
Confirm enabling vNIC3.2 [y/n]: y
CN 4093(vnic-group-config)# port INTA5
CN 4093(vnic-group-config)# trunk 1
CN 4093(vnic-group-config)# failover
CN 4093(vnic-group-config)# enable
CN 4093(vnic-group-config)# exit
Once VLAN 1000 and 1774 are configured for vNIC groups, they will not be
available for regular configuration.
Note: vNICs are not supported simultaneously on the same switch ports as
VMready.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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235
vNICs for iSCSI on Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter
The N/OS vNIC feature works with standard network applications like iSCSI as
previously described. However, the Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapter for IBM Flex
System expects iSCSI traffic to occur only on a single vNIC pipe. When using the
Emulex Adapter 2, only vNIC pipe 2 may participate in iSCSI.
To configure the switch for this solution, iSCSI traffic should be placed in its own
vNIC group, comprised of the external uplink port leading to the iSCSI target, and
the related <port>.2 vNIC pipes connected to the participating servers. For
example:
1. Enable the vNIC feature on the switch.
CN 4093 # vnic enable
2. Configure the virtual pipes for the iSCSI vNICs attached to each internal port:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic_config)#
4093(vnic_config)#
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic_config)#
4093(vnic_config)#
4093(config)# vnic
4093(vnic_config)#
4093(vnic_config)#
port INTA1 index 2
enable
exit
port INTA2 index 2
enable
exit
port INTA3 index 2
enable
exit
(Select vNIC 2 on the server port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
(Select vNIC 2 on the server port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
(Select vNIC 2 on the server port)
(Enable the vNIC pipe)
Note: vNICs are not supported simultaneously on the same switch ports as
VMready.
3. Add ports and virtual pipes to a vNIC group.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
236
4093(config)# vnic vnicgroup 1
4093(vnic-group-config)# vlan 1000
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA1.2
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA2.2
4093(vnic-group-config)# member INTA3.2
4093(vnic-group-config)# port EXT1
4093(vnic-group-config)# enable
4093(vnic-group-config)# exit
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
(Select vNIC group)
(Specify the VLAN)
(Add iSCSI vNIC pipes to the group)
(Add the uplink port to the group)
(Enable the vNIC group)
vNICs for FCoE Using the Emulex VFA
Similar to the iSCSI application, when using the Emulex VFA for IBM chassis
systems, FCoE traffic is expected to occur only on vNIC pipe 2. In this case, the
additional vNIC configuration for FCoE support is minimal.
Consider an example where the Fibre Channel network is connected to an FCoE
Forwarder (FCF) bridge via bridge port EXT4, and to an ENode on port INT1.
1. The following steps are required as part of the regular FCoE configuration (see
“FIP Snooping Configuration” on page 297):
a. Disable the FIP Snooping automatic VLAN creation.
b. Disable FIP Snooping on all external ports not used for FCoE. FIP snooping
should be enabled only on ports connected to an FCF or ENode.
c. Turn on CEE and FIP Snooping.
d. Manually configure the FCoE ports and VLAN: enable VLAN tagging on all
FCoE ports, and place FCoE ports into a supported VLAN.
When CEE is turned on and the regular FCoE configuration is complete, FCoE
traffic will be automatically assigned to PFC priority 3, and be initially allocated
50% of port bandwidth via ETS.
The following steps are specific to vNIC configuration.
2. On the NIC, ensure that FCoE traffic occurs on vNIC pipe 2 only. Refer to your
Emulex VFA documentation for details.
3. On the switch, enable the vNIC feature.
CN 4093 # vnic enable
4. (Optional) For additional security, set the desired operation mode for FCoE
ports:
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port INT1 fcf-mode off
(Select ENode port; Set as ENode connection)
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port EXT4 fcf-mode on
(Select FCF port; Set as FCF connection)
No additional configuration for vNIC pipes or vNIC groups is required for FCoE.
However, for other networks connected to the switch, appropriate vNIC pipes
and vNIC groups should be configured as normal, if desired.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Chapter 17. VMready
Virtualization is used to allocate server resources based on logical needs, rather
than on strict physical structure. With appropriate hardware and software support,
servers can be virtualized to host multiple instances of operating systems, known as
virtual machines (VMs). Each VM has its own presence on the network and runs its
own service applications.
Software known as a hypervisor manages the various virtual entities (VEs) that
reside on the host server: VMs, virtual switches, and so on. Depending on the
virtualization solution, a virtualization management server may be used to configure
and manage multiple hypervisors across the network. With some solutions, VMs
can even migrate between host hypervisors, moving to different physical hosts while
maintaining their virtual identity and services.
The IBM Networking OS 7.8 VMready feature supports up to4096 VEs in a
virtualized data center environment. The switch automatically discovers the VEs
attached to switch ports, and distinguishes between regular VMs, Service Console
Interfaces, and Kernel/Management Interfaces in a VMware® environment.
VEs may be placed into VM groups on the switch to define communication
boundaries: VEs in the same VM group may communicate with each other, while
VEs in different groups may not. VM groups also allow for configuring group-level
settings such as virtualization policies and ACLs.
The administrator can also pre-provision VEs by adding their MAC addresses (or
their IPv4 address or VM name in a VMware environment) to a VM group. When a
VE with a pre-provisioned MAC address becomes connected to the switch, the
switch will automatically apply the appropriate group membership configuration.
The CN4093 with VMready also detects the migration of VEs across different
hypervisors. As VEs move, the CN4093 NMotion™ feature automatically moves the
appropriate network configuration as well. NMotion gives the switch the ability to
maintain assigned group membership and associated policies, even when a VE
moves to a different port on the switch.
VMready also works with VMware Virtual Center (vCenter) management software.
Connecting with a vCenter allows the CN4093 to collect information about more
distant VEs, synchronize switch and VE configuration, and extend migration
properties.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
239
VE Capacity
When VMready is enabled, the switch will automatically discover VEs that reside in
hypervisors directly connected on the switch ports. IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports
up to 4096 VEs. Once this limit is reached, the switch will reject additional VEs.
Note: In rare situations, the switch may reject new VEs prior to reaching the
supported limit. This can occur when the internal hash corresponding to the
new VE is already in use. If this occurs, change the MAC address of the VE
and retry the operation. The MAC address can usually be changed from the
virtualization management server console (such as the VMware Virtual
Center).
VM Group Types
VEs, as well as internal ports, external ports, static trunks and LACP trunks, can be
placed into VM groups on the switch to define virtual communication boundaries.
Elements in a given VM group are permitted to communicate with each other, while
those in different groups are not. The elements within a VM group automatically
share certain group-level settings.
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports up to 4096 VM groups. There are two different
types:
• Local VM groups are maintained locally on the switch. Their configuration is not
synchronized with hypervisors.
• Distributed VM groups are automatically synchronized with a virtualization management server (see “Assigning a vCenter” on page 249).
Each VM group type is covered in detail in the following sections.
Local VM Groups
The configuration for local VM groups is maintained on the switch (locally) and is not
directly synchronized with hypervisors. Local VM groups may include only local
elements: local switch ports and trunks, and only those VEs connected to one of the
switch ports or pre-provisioned on the switch.
Local VM groups support limited VE migration: as VMs and other VEs move to
different hypervisors connected to different ports on the switch, the configuration of
their group identity and features moves with them. However, VE migration to and
from more distant hypervisors (those not connected to the CN4093, may require
manual configuration when using local VM groups).
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Configuring a Local VM Group
Local VM groups are configured in the VM Group command path:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmgroup <VM group number>
Use the following ISCLI configuration commands to assign group properties and
membership :
cpu
(Enable sending unregistered IPMC to CPU)
flood
(Enable flooding unregistered IPMC)
key <LACP trunk key>
optflood
port <port alias or number>
(Add LACP trunk to group)
(Enable optimized flooding)
(Add port member to group)
portchannel <trunk group number>
(Add static trunk to group)
profile <profile name>
(Not used for local groups)
stg <Spanning Tree group>
(Add STG to group)
tag
(Set VLAN tagging on ports)
validate <advanced|basic>
(Validate mode for the group)
vlan <VLAN number>
(Specify the group VLAN)
vm <MAC>|<index>|<UUID>|<IPv4 address>|<name> (Add VM member to group)
vmap <VMAP number> [intports|extports]
(Specify VMAP number)
vport <Virtual port>
(Add a virtual port to the group)
The following rules apply to the local VM group configuration commands:
• cpu: Enable sending unregistered IPMC to CPU.
• flood: Enable flooding unregistered IPMC.
•
key: Add LACP trunks to the group.
•
optflood: Enable optimized flooding to allow sending unregistered IPMC to the
Mrouter ports without having any packet loss during the learning period; This
option is disabled by default; When optflood is enabled, the flood and cpu
settings are ignored.
•
port: Add switch server ports or switch uplink ports to the group. Note that VM
groups and vNICs (see “Virtual NICs” on page 221) are not supported
simultaneously on the same port.
•
portchannel: Add static port trunks to the group.
•
profile: The profile options are not applicable to local VM groups. Only
distributed VM groups may use VM profiles (see “VM Profiles” on page 243).
•
stg: The group may be assigned to a Spanning-Tree group for broadcast loop
control (see“Spanning Tree Protocols” on page 145).
•
tag: Enable VLAN tagging for the VM group. If the VM group contains ports
which also exist in other VM groups, enable tagging in both VM groups.
•
validate: Set validate mode for the group.
•
vlan: Each VM group must have a unique VLAN number. This is required for
local VM groups. If one is not explicitly configured, the switch will automatically
assign the next unconfigured VLAN when a VE or port is added to the VM group.
•
vmap: Each VM group may optionally be assigned a VLAN-based ACL (see
“VLAN Maps” on page 251).
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•
vm: Add VMs.
VMs and other VEs are primarily specified by MAC address. They can also be
specified by UUID or by the index number as shown in various VMready
information output (see “VMready Information Displays” on page 254).
•
vport: Add a virtual port.
Add a virtual port to the group.
Distributed VM Groups
Distributed VM groups allow configuration profiles to be synchronized between the
CN4093 and associated hypervisors and VEs. This allows VE configuration to be
centralized, and provides for more reliable VE migration across hypervisors.
Using distributed VM groups requires a virtualization management server. The
management server acts as a central point of access to configure and maintain
multiple hypervisors and their VEs (VMs, virtual switches, and so on).
The CN4093 must connect to a virtualization management server before distributed
VM groups can be used. The switch uses this connection to collect configuration
information about associated VEs, and can also automatically push configuration
profiles to the virtualization management server, which in turn configures the
hypervisors and VEs. See “Virtualization Management Servers” on page 249 for
more information.
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VM Profiles
VM profiles are required for configuring distributed VM groups. They are not used
with local VM groups. A VM profile defines the VLAN and virtual switch bandwidth
shaping characteristics for the distributed VM group. The switch distributes these
settings to the virtualization management server, which in turn distributes them to
the appropriate hypervisors for VE members associated with the group.
Creating VM profiles is a two part process. First, the VM profile is created as shown
in the following command on the switch:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile <profile name>
Next, the profile must be edited and configured using the following configuration
commands:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile edit <profile name> ?
eshaping <average bandwidth> <burst size> <peak>
shaping <average bandwidth> <burst size> <peak>
vlan <VLAN number>
For virtual switch bandwidth shaping parameters, average and peak bandwidth are
specified in kilobits per second (a value of 1000 represents 1 Mbps). Burst size is
specified in kilobytes (a value of 1000 represents 1 MB).
Note: The bandwidth shaping parameters in the VM profile are used by the
hypervisor virtual switch software. To set bandwidth policies for individual
VEs, see “VM Policy Bandwidth Control” on page 253.
Once configured, the VM profile may be assigned to a distributed VM group as
shown in the following section.
Initializing a Distributed VM Group
Note: A VM profile is required before a distributed VM group may be configured.
See “VM Profiles” on page 243 for details.
Once a VM profile is available, a distributed VM group may be initialized using the
following configuration command:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmgroup <VM group number> profile <VM profile name>
Only one VM profile can be assigned to a given distributed VM group. To change the
VM profile, the old one must first be removed.
CN 4093(config)# no virt vmgroup <VM group number> profile
Note: The VM profile can be added only to an empty VM group (one that has no
VLAN, VMs, or port members). Any VM group number currently configured
for a local VM group (see “Local VM Groups” on page 240) cannot be
converted and must be deleted before it can be used for a distributed VM
group.
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Assigning Members
VMs, ports, and trunks may be added to the distributed VM group only after the VM
profile is assigned. Group members are added, pre-provisioned, or removed from
distributed VM groups in the same manner as with local VM groups (“Local VM
Groups” on page 240), with the following exceptions:
• VMs: VMs and other VEs are not required to be local. Any VE known by the
virtualization management server can be part of a distributed VM group.
• The VM group vlan option (see page 241) cannot be used with distributed VM
groups. For distributed VM groups, the VLAN is assigned in the VM profile.
Synchronizing the Configuration
When the configuration for a distributed VM group is modified, the switch updates
the assigned virtualization management server. The management server then
distributes changes to the appropriate hypervisors.
For VM membership changes, hypervisors modify their internal virtual switch port
groups, adding or removing internal port memberships to enforce the boundaries
defined by the distributed VM groups. Virtual switch port groups created in this
fashion can be identified in the virtual management server by the name of the VM
profile, formatted as follows:
IBM_<VM profile name>
(or)
IBM_<VM profile name>_<index number> (for vDS profiles)
Using the VM Group command path
(CN 4093(config)# virt vmgroup <x> vm) to add a server host interface to
a distributed VM group does not create a new port group on the virtual switch or
move the host. Instead, because the host interface already has its own virtual switch
port group on the hypervisor, the VM profile settings are applied to its existing port
group.
Note: When applying the distributed VM group configuration, the virtualization
management server and associated hypervisors must take appropriate
actions. If a hypervisor is unable to make requested changes, an error
message will be displayed on the switch. Be sure to evaluate all error
message and take the appropriate actions to be sure the expected changes
are properly applied.
Removing Member VEs
Removing a VE from a distributed VM group on the switch will have the following
effects on the hypervisor:
• The VE will be moved to the IBM_Default (to the IBM_Default_<index
number> in case of vDS) port group in VLAN 0 (zero).
• Traffic shaping will be disabled for the VE.
• All other properties will be reset to default values inherited from the virtual switch.
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VMcheck
The CN4093 primarily identifies virtual machines by their MAC addresses. An
untrusted server or a VM could identify itself by a trusted MAC address leading to
MAC spoofing attacks. Sometimes, MAC addresses get transferred to another VM,
or they get duplicated.
The VMcheck solution addresses these security concerns by validating the MAC
addresses assigned to VMs. The switch periodically sends hello messages on
server ports. These messages include the switch identifier and port number. The
hypervisor listens to these messages on physical NICs and stores the information,
which can be retrieved using the VMware Infrastructure Application Programming
Interface (VI API). This information is used to validate VM MAC addresses. Two
modes of validation are available: Basic and Advanced.
Use the following command to select the validation mode or to disable validation:
CN 4093(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <VM group number> validate {basic|advanced}
Basic Validation
This mode provides port-based validation by identifying the port used by a
hypervisor. It is suitable for environments in which MAC reassignment or duplication
cannot occur.
The switch, using the hello message information, identifies a hypervisor port. If the
hypervisor port is found in the hello message information, it is deemed to be a
trusted port. Basic validation should be enabled when:
• A VM is added to a VM group, and the MAC address of the VM interface is in the
Layer 2 table of the switch.
• A VM interface that belongs to a VM group experiences a “source miss” i.e. is not
able to learn new MAC address.
• A trusted port goes down. Port validation must be performed to ensure that the
port does not get connected to an untrusted source when it comes back up.
Use the following command to set the action to be performed if the switch is unable
to validate the VM MAC address:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmcheck action basic {log|link}
log - generates a log
link - disables the port
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Advanced Validation
This mode provides VM-based validation by mapping a switch port to a VM MAC
address. It is suitable for environments in which spoofing, MAC reassignment, or
MAC duplication is possible.
When the switch receives frames from a VM, it first validates the VM interface based
on the VM MAC address, VM Universally Unique Identifier (UUID), Switch port, and
Switch ID available in the hello message information. Only if all the four parameters
are matched, the VM MAC address is considered valid.
In advanced validation mode, if the VM MAC address validation fails, an ACL can be
created to drop the traffic received from the VM MAC address on the switch port.
Use the following command to specify the number of ACLs to be used for dropping
traffic:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmcheck acls max <1-256>
Use the following command to set the action to be performed if the switch is unable
to validate the VM MAC address:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmcheck action advanced {log|link|acl}
Following are the other VMcheck commands:
Table 27. VMcheck Commands
246
Command
Description
CN 4093(config)# virt vmware hello {ena|
hport <port number>|haddr|htimer}
Hello messages setting:
enable/add port/advertise
this IP address in the hello
messages instead of the
default management IP
address/set the timer to
send the hello messages
CN 4093(config)# no virt vmware hello
{enable|hport <port number>}
Disable hello
messages/remove port
CN 4093(config)# [no] virt vmcheck
trust <port number or range>
Mark a port as trusted; Use
the no form of the command
to mark port as untrusted
CN 4093# no virt vmcheck acl [mac-address
[<port number>]|port]
Delete ACL(s): all ACLs/an
ACL by MAC address
((optional) and port number)
/all ACLs installed on a
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Virtual Distributed Switch
A virtual Distributed Switch (vDS) allows the hypervisor’s NIC to be attached to the
vDS instead of its own virtual switch. The vDS connects to the vCenter and spans
across multiple hypervisors in a datacenter. The administrator can manage virtual
machine networking for the entire data center from a single interface. The vDS
enables centralized provisioning and administration of virtual machine networking in
the data center using the VMware vCenter server.
When a member is added to a distributed VM group, a distributed port group is
created on the vDS. The member is then added to the distributed port group.
Distributed port groups on a vDS are available to all hypervisors that are connected
to the vDS. Members of a single distributed port group can communicate with each
other.
Note: vDS works with ESX 4.0 or higher versions.
To add a vDS, use the command:
CN 4093# virt vmware dvswitch add <datacenter name> <dvSwitch name> [<dvSwitch-version>]
Prerequisites
Before adding a vDS on the CN4093, ensure the following:
• VMware vCenter is fully installed and configured and includes a “bladevm”
administration account and a valid SSL certificate.
• A virtual distributed switch instance has been created on the vCenter. The vDS
version must be higher or the same as the hypervisor version on the hosts.
• At least two hypervisors are configured.
Guidelines
Before migrating VMs to a vDS, consider the following:
• At any one time, a VM NIC can be associated with only one virtual switch: to the
hypervisor’s virtual switch, or to the vDS.
• Management connection to the server must be ensured during the migration.
The connection is via the Service Console or the Kernel/Management Interface.
• The vDS configuration and migration can be viewed in vCenter at the following
locations:
– vDS: Home> Inventory > Networking
– vDS Hosts: Home > Inventory > Networking > vDS > Hosts
Note: These changes will not be displayed in the running configuration on the
CN4093.
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Migrating to vDS
You can migrate VMs to the vDS using vCenter. The migration may also be
accomplished using the operational commands on the CN4093 available in the
following CLI menus:
For VMware vDS operations:
CN 4093# virt vmware dvswitch ?
add
Add a dvSwitch to a DataCenter
addhost
Add a host to a dvSwitch
adduplnk
Add a physical NIC to dvSwitch uplink ports
del
Remove a dvSwitch from a DataCenter
remhost
Remove a host from a dvSwitch
remuplnk
Remove a physical NIC from dvSwitch uplink ports
For VMware distributed port group operations:
CN 4093# virt vmware dpg ?
add
Add a port group to a dvSwitch
del
Delete a port group from a dvSwitch
update
Update a port group on a dvSwitch
vmac
Change a VM NIC's port group
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Virtualization Management Servers
The CN4093 can connect with a virtualization management server to collect
configuration information about associated VEs. The switch can also automatically
push VM group configuration profiles to the virtualization management server, which
in turn configures the hypervisors and VEs, providing enhanced VE mobility.
One virtual management server must be assigned on the switch before distributed
VM groups may be used. IBM Networking OS 7.8 currently supports only the
VMware Virtual Center (vCenter).
Assigning a vCenter
Assigning a vCenter to the switch requires the following:
• The vCenter must have a valid IPv4 address which is accessible to the switch
(IPv6 addressing is not supported for the vCenter).
• A user account must be configured on the vCenter to provide access for the
switch. The account must have (at a minimum) the following vCenter user privileges:
– Network
– Host Network > Configuration
– Virtual Machine > Modify Device Settings
Once vCenter requirements are met, the following configuration command can be
used on the CN4093 to associate the vCenter with the switch:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmware vcspec <vCenter IPv4 address> <username> [noauth]
This command specifies the IPv4 address and account username that the switch
will use for vCenter access. Once entered, the administrator will be prompted to
enter the password for the specified vCenter account.
The noauth option causes to the switch to ignores SSL certificate authentication.
This is required when no authoritative SSL certificate is installed on the vCenter.
Note: By default, the vCenter includes only a self-signed SSL certificate. If using
the default certificate, the noauth option is required.
Once the vCenter configuration has been applied on the switch, the CN4093 will
connect to the vCenter to collect VE information.
vCenter Scans
Once the vCenter is assigned, the switch will periodically scan the vCenter to collect
basic information about all the VEs in the datacenter, and more detailed information
about the local VEs that the switch has discovered attached to its own ports.
The switch completes a vCenter scan approximately every two minutes. Any major
changes made through the vCenter may take up to two minutes to be reflected on
the switch. However, you can force an immediate scan of the vCenter by using one
of the following ISCLI privileged EXEC commands:
CN 4093# virt vmware scan
(Scan the vCenter)
-orCN 4093# show virt vm -v -r
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Deleting the vCenter
To detach the vCenter from the switch, use the following configuration command:
CN 4093(config)# no virt vmware vcspec
Note: Without a valid vCenter assigned on the switch, any VE configuration
changes must be manually synchronized.
Deleting the assigned vCenter prevents synchronizing the configuration between
the CN4093 and VEs. VEs already operating in distributed VM groups will continue
to function as configured, but any changes made to any VM profile or distributed VM
group on the switch will affect only switch operation; changes on the switch will not
be reflected in the vCenter or on the VEs. Likewise, any changes made to VE
configuration on the vCenter will no longer be reflected on the switch.
Exporting Profiles
VM profiles for discovered VEs in distributed VM groups are automatically
synchronized with the virtual management server and the appropriate hypervisors.
However, VM profiles can also be manually exported to specific hosts before
individual VEs are defined on them.
By exporting VM profiles to a specific host, IBM port groups will be available to the
host’s internal virtual switches so that new VMs may be configured to use them.
VM migration requires that the target hypervisor includes all the virtual switch port
groups to which the VM connects on the source hypervisor. The VM profile export
feature can be used to distribute the associated port groups to all the potential hosts
for a given VM.
A VM profile can be exported to a host using the following ISCLI privileged EXEC
command:
CN 4093# virt vmware export <VM profile name> <host list> <virtual switch name>
The host list can include one or more target hosts, specified by host name, IPv4
address, or UUID, with each list item separated by a space. If the virtual switch
name is omitted, the administrator will be prompted to select one from a list or to
enter a new virtual switch name.
Once executed, the requisite port group will be created on the specified virtual
switch. If the specified virtual switch does not exist on the target host, it will be
created with default properties, but with no uplink connection to a physical NIC (the
administrator must assign uplinks using VMware management tools.
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VMware Operational Commands
The CN4093 may be used as a central point of configuration for VMware virtual
switches and port groups using the VMware operational menu, available with the
following ISCLI privileged EXEC commands:
CN 4093# virt vmware ?
dpg
Distributed port group operations
dvswitch
VMWare dvSwitch operations
export
Create or update a vm profile on one host
pg
Add a port group to a host
scan
Perform a VM Agent scan operation now
updpg
Update a port group on a host
vmacpg
Change a vnic's port group
vsw
Add a vswitch to a host
Pre-Provisioning VEs
VEs may be manually added to VM groups in advance of being detected on the
switch ports. By pre-provisioning the MAC address of VEs that are not yet active,
the switch will be able to later recognize the VE when it becomes active on a switch
port, and immediately assign the proper VM group properties without further
configuration.
Undiscovered VEs are added to or removed from VM groups using the following
configuration commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <VM group number> vm <VE MAC address>
For the pre-provisioning of undiscovered VEs, a MAC address is required. Other
identifying properties, such as IPv4 address or VM name permitted for known VEs,
cannot be used for pre-provisioning.
VLAN Maps
A VLAN map (VMAP) is a type of Access Control List (ACL) that is applied to a
VLAN or VM group rather than to a switch port as with regular ACLs (see “Access
Control Lists” on page 97). In a virtualized environment, VMAPs allow you to create
traffic filtering and metering policies that are associated with a VM group VLAN,
allowing filters to follow VMs as they migrate between hypervisors.
VMAPs are configured using the following ISCLI configuration command path:
CN 4093(config)#
action
egress-port
ethernet
ipv4
meter
packet-format
re-mark
statistics
tcp-udp
access-control vmap <VMAP ID> ?
Set filter action
Set to filter for packets egressing this port
Ethernet header options
IP version 4 header options
ACL metering configuration
Set to filter specific packet format types
ACL re-mark configuration
Enable access control list statistics
TCP and UDP filtering options
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports up to 128 VMAPs. Individual VMAP filters are
configured in the same fashion as regular ACLs, except that VLANs cannot be
specified as a filtering criteria (unnecessary, since VMAPs are assigned to a specific
VLAN or associated with a VM group VLAN).
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Once a VMAP filter is created, it can be assigned or removed using the following
commands:
• For regular VLANs, use config-vlan mode:
CN 4093(config)# vlan <VLAN ID>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] vmap <VMAP ID> [intports| extports]
•
For a VM group, use the global configuration mode:
CN 4093(config)# [no] virt vmgroup <ID> vmap <VMAP ID> [intports|extports]
Note: Each VMAP can be assigned to only one VLAN or VM group. However, each
VLAN or VM group may have multiple VMAPs assigned to it.
The optional intports or extports parameter can be specified to apply the
action (to add or remove the VMAP) for either the internal ports or external ports
only. If omitted, the operation will be applied to all ports in the associated VLAN or
VM group.
Note: VMAPs have a lower priority than port-based ACLs. If both an ACL and a
VMAP match a particular packet, both filter actions will be applied as long as
there is no conflict. In the event of a conflict, the port ACL will take priority,
though switch statistics will count matches for both the ACL and VMAP.
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VM Policy Bandwidth Control
In a virtualized environment where VEs can migrate between hypervisors and thus
move among different ports on the switch, traffic bandwidth policies must be
attached to VEs, rather than to a specific switch port.
VM Policy Bandwidth Control allows the administrator to specify the amount of data
the switch will permit to flow to or from a particular VE, without defining a
complicated matrix of ACLs or VMAPs for all port combinations where a VE may
appear.
VM Policy Bandwidth Control Commands
VM Policy Bandwidth Control can be configured using the following configuration
commands:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmpolicy vmbwidth <VM MAC>|<index>|<UUID>| <IPv4 address>|<name> ?
txrate <committed rate> <burst> [<ACL number>] (Set the VM to switch transmit rate)
rxrate <committed rate> <burst> [<ACL number>]
bwctrl
(Set the VM to switch receive rate)
(Enable bandwidth control)
Bandwidth allocation can be defined either for transmit (TX) traffic or receive (RX)
traffic. Because bandwidth allocation is specified from the perspective of the VE, the
switch command for TX Rate Control (txrate) sets the data rate to be sent from
the VM to the switch, and the RX Rate Control (rxrate) sets the data rate to be
received by the VM from the switch.
The committed rate is specified in multiples of 64 kbps, from 64 to 40,000,000. The
maximum burst rate is specified as 32, 64, 128, 256, 1024, 2048, or 4096 kb. If both
the committed rate and burst are set to 0, bandwidth control in that direction (TX or
RX) will be disabled.
When txrate is specified, the switch automatically selects an available ACL for
internal use with bandwidth control. Optionally, if automatic ACL selection is not
desired, a specific ACL may be selected. If there are no unassigned ACLs available,
txrate cannot be configured.
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Bandwidth Policies vs. Bandwidth Shaping
VM Profile Bandwidth Shaping differs from VM Policy Bandwidth Control.
VM Profile Bandwidth Shaping (see “VM Profiles” on page 243) is configured per
VM group and is enforced on the server by a virtual switch in the hypervisor.
Shaping is unidirectional and limits traffic transmitted from the virtual switch to the
CN4093. Shaping is performed prior to transmit VM Policy Bandwidth Control. If the
egress traffic for a virtual switch port group exceeds shaping parameters, the traffic
is dropped by the virtual switch in the hypervisor. Shaping uses server CPU
resources, but prevents extra traffic from consuming bandwidth between the server
and the CN4093.
VM Policy Bandwidth Control is configured per VE, and can be set independently for
transmit and receive traffic. Bandwidth policies are enforced by the CN4093. VE
traffic that exceeds configured levels is dropped by the switch upon ingress (for
txrate) or before egress (for rxrate). Setting txrate uses ACL resources on
the switch.
Bandwidth shaping and bandwidth policies can be used separately or in concert.
VMready Information Displays
The CN4093 can be used to display a variety of VMready information.
Note: Some displays depict information collected from scans of a VMware vCenter
and may not be available without a valid vCenter. If a vCenter is assigned
(see “Assigning a vCenter” on page 249), scan information might not be
available for up to two minutes after the switch boots or when VMready is
first enabled. Also, any major changes made through the vCenter may take
up to two minutes to be reflected on the switch unless you force an
immediate vCenter scan (see “vCenter Scans” on page 249.
Local VE Information
A concise list of local VEs and pre-provisioned VEs is available with the following
ISCLI privileged EXEC command:
CN 4093# show virt vm
IP Address
---------------*172.16.46.50
*172.16.46.10
+172.16.46.51
+172.16.46.11
172.16.46.25
172.16.46.15
172.16.46.35
172.16.46.45
VMAC Address
----------------00:50:56:4e:62:00
00:50:56:4f:f2:00
00:50:56:72:ec:00
00:50:56:7c:1c:00
00:50:56:9c:00:00
00:50:56:9c:21:00
00:50:56:9c:29:00
00:50:56:9c:47:00
Index Port
VM Group (Profile) Check status
----- ------- ------------------ -----------4
3
2
4
1
3
3
4
5
4
0
4
6
3
7
3
Number of entries: 8
* indicates VMware ESX Service Console Interface
+ indicates VMware ESX/ESXi VMKernel or Management Interface
Note: The Index numbers shown in the VE information displays can be used to
specify a particular VE in configuration commands.
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If a vCenter is available, more verbose information can be obtained using the
following ISCLI privileged EXEC command:
CN 4093# show virt vm -v
Index
----0
+1
*2
+3
*4
5
6
7
MAC Address,
IP Address
-----------00:50:56:9c:21:2f
172.16.46.15
Name (VM or Host),
@Host (VMs only)
-----------------atom
@172.16.46.10
Port,
VLAN
----4
500
00:50:56:72:ec:86
172.16.46.51
172.16.46.50
00:50:56:4f:f2:85
172.16.46.10
172.16.46.10
00:50:56:7c:1c:ca
172.16.46.11
172.16.46.10
00:50:56:4e:62:f5
172.16.46.50
172.16.46.50
00:50:56:9c:00:c8
172.16.46.25
quark
@172.16.46.10
0
00:50:56:9c:29:29
172.16.46.35
particle
@172.16.46.50
0
00:50:56:9c:47:fd
172.16.46.45
nucleus
@172.16.46.50
0
Group
Vswitch,
Port Group
----- ---------vSwitch0
Eng_A
3
vSwitch0
VMkernel
4
vSwitch0
Mgmt
4
vSwitch0
VMkernel
3
vSwitch0
Mgmt
4
vSwitch0
Corp
3
vSwitch0
VM Network
3
vSwitch0
Finance
0
0
0
0
-12 of 12 entries printed
* indicates VMware ESX Service Console Interface
+ indicates VMware ESX/ESXi VMkernel or Management Interface
To view additional detail regarding any specific VE, see “vCenter VE Details” on
page 257).
vCenter Hypervisor Hosts
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays the
name and UUID of all VMware hosts, providing an essential overview of the data
center:
CN 4093# show virt vmware hosts
UUID
Name(s), IP Address
--------------------------------------------------------------00a42681-d0e5-5910-a0bf-bd23bd3f7800 172.16.41.30
002e063c-153c-dd11-8b32-a78dd1909a00 172.16.46.10
00f1fe30-143c-dd11-84f2-a8ba2cd7ae00 172.16.44.50
0018938e-143c-dd11-9f7a-d8defa4b8300 172.16.46.20
...
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Using the following command, the administrator can view more detailed vCenter
host information, including a list of virtual switches and their port groups, as well as
details for all associated VEs:
CN 4093# show virt vmware showhost {<UUID>|<IPv4 address>|<host name>}
Vswitches available on the host:
vSwitch0
Port Groups and their Vswitches on the host:
IBM_Default
VM Network
Service Console
VMkernel
vSwitch0
vSwitch0
vSwitch0
vSwitch0
---------------------------------------------------------------------MAC Address
00:50:56:9c:21:2f
Port
4
Type
Virtual Machine
VM vCenter Name
halibut
VM OS hostname
localhost.localdomain
VM IP Address
172.16.46.15
VM UUID
001c41f3-ccd8-94bb-1b94-6b94b03b9200
Current VM Host
172.16.46.10
Vswitch
vSwitch0
Port Group
IBM_Default
VLAN ID
0
...
vCenter VEs
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays a
list of all known VEs:
CN 4093# show virt vmware vms
UUID
Name(s), IP Address
---------------------------------------------------------------------001cdf1d-863a-fa5e-58c0-d197ed3e3300 30vm1
001c1fba-5483-863f-de04-4953b5caa700 VM90
001c0441-c9ed-184c-7030-d6a6bc9b4d00 VM91
001cc06e-393b-a36b-2da9-c71098d9a700 vm_new
001c6384-f764-983c-83e3-e94fc78f2c00 sturgeon
001c7434-6bf9-52bd-c48c-a410da0c2300 VM70
001cad78-8a3c-9cbe-35f6-59ca5f392500 VM60
001cf762-a577-f42a-c6ea-090216c11800 30VM6
001c41f3-ccd8-94bb-1b94-6b94b03b9200 halibut, localhost.localdomain,
172.16.46.15
001cf17b-5581-ea80-c22c-3236b89ee900 30vm5
001c4312-a145-bf44-7edd-49b7a2fc3800 vm3
001caf40-a40a-de6f-7b44-9c496f123b00 30VM7
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vCenter VE Details
If a vCenter is available, the following ISCLI privileged EXEC command displays
detailed information about a specific VE:
CN 4093# show virt vmware showvm {<VM UUID>|<VM IPv4 address>|<VM name>}
---------------------------------------------------------------------MAC Address
00:50:56:9c:21:2f
Port
4
Type
Virtual Machine
VM vCenter Name
halibut
VM OS hostname
localhost.localdomain
VM IP Address
172.16.46.15
VM UUID
001c41f3-ccd8-94bb-1b94-6b94b03b9200
Current VM Host
172.16.46.10
Vswitch
vSwitch0
Port Group
IBM_Default
VLAN ID
0
VMready Configuration Example
This example has the following characteristics:
• A VMware vCenter is fully installed and configured prior to VMready configuration and includes a “bladevm” administration account and a valid SSL certificate.
• The distributed VM group model is used.
• The VM profile named “Finance” is configured for VLAN 30, and specifies
NIC-to-switch bandwidth shaping for 1Mbps average bandwidth, 2MB bursts,
and 3Mbps maximum bandwidth.
• The VM group includes four discovered VMs on internal switch ports INT1A and
INT2A, and one static trunk (previously configured) that includes external ports
EXT2 and EXT2.
1. Enable the VMready feature.
CN 4093(config)# virt enable
2. Specify the VMware vCenter IPv4 address.
CN 4093(config)# virt vmware vmware vcspec 172.16.100.1 bladevm
When prompted, enter the user password that the switch must use for access to
the vCenter.
3. Create the VM profile.
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile Finance
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile edit Finance vlan 30
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile edit Finance shaping 1000 2000 3000
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4. Define the VM group.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
virt
virt
virt
virt
virt
virt
vmgroup
vmgroup
vmgroup
vmgroup
vmgroup
vmgroup
1
1
1
1
1
1
profile Finance
vm arctic
vm monster
vm sierra
vm 00:50:56:4f:f2:00
portchannel 1
When VMs are added, the internal server ports on which they appear are
automatically added to the VM group. In this example, there is no need to
manually add ports EXT1 and EXT2.
5. If necessary, enable VLAN tagging for the VM group:
CN 4093(config)# virt vmgroup 1 tag
Note: If the VM group contains ports which also exist in other VM groups, tagging
should be enabled in both VM groups. In this example configuration, no ports
exist in more than VM group.
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Chapter 18. FCoE and CEE
This chapter provides conceptual background and configuration examples for using
Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) features of the CN4093 10Gb Converged
Scalable Switch, with an emphasis on Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)
solutions. The following topics are addressed in this chapter:
• “Fibre Channel over Ethernet” on page 260
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) allows Fibre Channel traffic to be
transported over Ethernet links. This provides an evolutionary approach toward
network consolidation, allowing Fibre Channel equipment and tools to be
retained, while leveraging cheap, ubiquitous Ethernet networks for growth.
– “FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping” on page 265
Using FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) snooping, the CN4093 examines the
FIP frames exchanged between ENodes and FCFs. This information is used
to dynamically determine the ACLs required to block certain types of
undesired or unvalidated traffic on FCoE links.
•
“Converged Enhanced Ethernet” on page 262
Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) refers to a set of IEEE standards
developed primarily to enable FCoE, requiring enhancing the existing Ethernet
standards to make them lossless on a per-priority traffic basis, and providing a
mechanism to carry converged (LAN/SAN/IPC) traffic on a single physical link.
CEE features can also be utilized in traditional LAN (non-FCoE) networks to
provide lossless guarantees on a per-priority basis, and to provide efficient
bandwidth allocation.
– “Priority-Based Flow Control” on page 270
Priority-Based Flow Control (PFC) extends 802.3x standard flow control to
allow the switch to pause traffic based on the 802.1p priority value in each
packet’s VLAN tag. PFC is vital for FCoE environments, where SAN traffic
must remain lossless and must be paused during congestion, while LAN
traffic on the same links is delivered with “best effort” characteristics.
– “Enhanced Transmission Selection” on page 274
Enhanced Transmission Selection (ETS) provides a method for allocating
link bandwidth based on the 802.1p priority value in each packet’s VLAN tag.
Using ETS, different types of traffic (such as LAN, SAN, and management)
that are sensitive to different handling criteria can be configured either for
specific bandwidth characteristics, low-latency, or best-effort transmission,
despite sharing converged links as in an FCoE environment.
– “Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange” on page 280
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange Protocol (DCBX) allows
neighboring network devices to exchange information about their
capabilities. This is used between CEE-capable devices for the purpose of
discovering their peers, negotiating peer configurations, and detecting
misconfigurations.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
259
Fibre Channel over Ethernet
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is an effort to converge two of the different
physical networks in today’s data centers. It allows Fibre Channel traffic (such as
that commonly used in Storage Area Networks, or SANs) to be transported without
loss over 10Gb Ethernet links (typically used for high-speed Local Area Networks,
or LANs). This provides an evolutionary approach toward network consolidation,
allowing Fibre Channel equipment and tools to be retained, while leveraging cheap,
ubiquitous Ethernet networks for growth.
With server virtualization, servers capable of hosting both Fibre Channel and
Ethernet applications will provide advantages in server efficiency, particularly as
FCoE-enabled network adapters provide consolidated SAN and LAN traffic
capabilities.
The IBM Flex System Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch with IBM
Networking OS 7.8 software is compliant with the INCITS T11.3, FC-BB-5 FCoE
specification, supporting up to 2048 FCoE connections.
Note: Up to 2048 FCoE login sessions are supported. However, to achieve this,
you need eight IBM Omni ports (belonging to a single VLAN) connected to
the FCF bridge.
The FCoE Topology
In an end-to-end Fibre Channel network, switches and end devices generally
establish trusted, point-to-point links. Fibre Channel switches validate end devices,
enforce zoning configurations and device addressing, and prevent certain types of
errors and attacks on the network.
In a converged multi-hop FCoE network where Fibre Channel devices are bridged
to Ethernet devices, the direct point-to-point QoS capabilities normally provided by
the Fibre Channel fabric may be lost in the transition between the different network
types. The CN4093 provides a solution to overcome this.
Figure 32. A Mixed Fibre Channel and FCoE Network
FCoE
802.1p Priority & Usage
3 FCoE Applications
CNA
802.1p Priority & Usage
CNA
0-2 LAN
4 Business-Critical LAN
Servers
INTA1
FCF
EXT22
Fibre
Channel
Switch
INTA2
EXT1
Ethernet
LAN
IBM Chassis
In Figure 32 on page 260, the FCoE network is connected to the Fibre Channel
network through an FCoE Forwarder (FCF). The FCF acts as a Fibre Channel
gateway to and from the multi-hop FCoE network. A full-fabric FC/FCoE switch or a
Fibre Channel Node Port Virtualized (NPV) switch may perform the FCF function.
Although it may be possible to use an external FCF device, this chapter focuses on
using the built-in Fibre Channel features of the CN4093 itself.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
For the FCoE portion of the network, the internal FCF is connected to a blade server
(running Fibre Channel applications) through an FCoE-enabled Converged Network
Adapter (CNA) known in Fibre Channel as an Ethernet Node (ENode).
Note: The figure also shows a non-FCoE LAN server connected to the CN4093
using a CNA. This allows the LAN server to take advantage of some CEE
features that are useful even outside of an FCoE environment.
In order to block undesired or unvalidated traffic on FCoE links that exists outside
the regular Fibre Channel topology, Ethernet ports used in FCoE are configured with
Access Control Lists (ACLs) that are narrowly tailored to permit expected FCoE
traffic to and from confirmed FCFs and ENodes, and deny all other FCoE or FIP
traffic. This ensures that all FCoE traffic to an from the ENode passes through the
FCF.
Because manual ACL configuration is an administratively complex task, the CN4093
can automatically and dynamically configure the ACLs required for use with FCoE.
Using FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) snooping (see “FCoE Initialization Protocol
Snooping” on page 265), the CN4093 examines the FIP frames normally exchanged
between the FCF and ENodes to determine information about connected FCoE
devices. This information is used to automatically determine the appropriate ACLs
required to block certain types of undesired or unvalidated FCoE traffic.
Automatic FCoE-related ACLs are independent from ACLs used for typical Ethernet
purposes.
FCoE Requirements
The following are required for implementing FCoE using the IBM Flex System
Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) with N/OS 7.8
software:
• The CN4093 must be connected to the Fibre Channel network using the
switch’s built-in Fibre Channel features (see “Fibre Channel” on page 287), or
an external FCF device such as another CN4093 switch or a Cisco Nexus 5000
Series Switch.
• For each CN4093 internal port participating in FCoE, the connected blade
server must use the supported FCoE CNA. Emulex Virtual Fabric Adapters
(VFAs) for IBM Flex System, which includes vNIC support, is currently a supported.
• For each CN4093 internal port participating in FCoE, the connected blade
server must include the appropriate FCoE licenses installed, as obtained using
the IBM website Features on Demand (FoD) service. Contact your sales representative for more information on obtaining server feature licenses.
• CEE must be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 262). When CEE
is on, the DCBX, PFC, and ETS features are enabled and configured with
default FCoE settings. These features may be reconfigured, but must remain
enabled in order for FCoE to function.
• FIP snooping must be turned on (see “FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping” on
page 265). When FIP snooping is turned on, the feature is enabled on all ports
by default. The administrator can disable FIP snooping on individual ports that
do not require FCoE, but FIP snooping must remain enabled on all FCoE ports
in order for FCoE to function.
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Converged Enhanced Ethernet
Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE) refers to a set of IEEE standards designed to
allow different physical networks with different data handling requirements to be
converged together, simplifying management, increasing efficiency and utilization,
and leveraging legacy investments without sacrificing evolutionary growth.
CEE standards were developed primarily to enable Fibre Channel traffic to be
carried over Ethernet networks. This required enhancing the existing Ethernet
standards to make them lossless on a per-priority traffic basis, and to provide a
mechanism to carry converged (LAN/SAN/IPC) traffic on a single physical link.
Although CEE standards were designed with FCoE in mind, they are not limited to
FCoE installations. CEE features can be utilized in traditional LAN (non-FCoE)
networks to provide lossless guarantees on a per-priority basis, and to provide
efficient bandwidth allocation based on application needs.
Turning CEE On or Off
By default on the CN4093, CEE is turned off. To turn CEE on or off, use the following
ISCLI configuration mode commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee enable
CAUTION:
Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x
standard flow control settings on the CN4093. Read the following material
carefully to determine whether you will need to take action to reconfigure
expected settings.
It is recommended that you backup your configuration prior to turning CEE on.
Viewing the file will allow you to manually re-create the equivalent configuration
once CEE is turned on, and will also allow you to recover your prior configuration if
you need to turn CEE off.
Effects on Link Layer Discovery Protocol
When CEE is turned on, Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is automatically
turned on and enabled for receiving and transmitting DCBX information. LLDP
cannot be turned off while CEE is turned on.
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Effects on 802.1p Quality of Service
While CEE is off (the default), the CN4093 allows 802.1p priority values to be used
for Quality of Service (QoS) configuration (see “Quality of Service” on page 185).
802.1p QoS default settings are shown in Table 28 on page 263, but can be
changed by the administrator.
When CEE is turned on, 802.1p QoS is replaced by ETS (see “Enhanced
Transmission Selection” on page 274). As a result, while CEE is turned on, the
802.1p QoS configuration commands are no longer available on the switch (the
menu is restored when CEE is turned off).
In addition, when CEE is turned on, prior 802.1p QoS settings are replaced with new
defaults designed for use with ETS priority groups (PGIDs) as shown in Table 28:
Table 28. CEE Effects on 802.1p Defaults
802.1p QoS Configuration
With CEE Off (default)
Priority
COSq
Weight
ETS Configuration
With CEE On
Priority
COSq
PGID
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
0
0
2
2
3
2
0
0
3
3
4
3
1
1
4
4
5
4
2
2
5
5
7
5
2
2
6
6
15
6
2
2
7
7
0
7
2
2
When CEE is on, the default ETS configuration also allocates a portion of link
bandwidth to each PGID as shown in Table 29:
Table 29. Default ETS Bandwidth Allocation
PGID
Typical Use
Bandwidth
0
LAN
10%
1
SAN
50%
2
Latency-sensitive LAN
40%
If the prior, non-CEE configuration used 802.1p priority values for different
purposes, or does not expect bandwidth allocation as shown in Table 29 on
page 263, when CEE is turned on, the administrator should reconfigure ETS
settings as appropriate.
Each time CEE is turned on or off, the appropriate ETS or 802.1p QoS default
settings shown in Table 28 on page 263 are restored, and any manual settings
made to prior ETS or 802.1p QoS configurations are cleared.
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It is recommended that a configuration backup be made prior to turning CEE on or
off. Viewing the configuration file will allow the administrator to manually re-create the
equivalent configuration under the new CEE mode, and will also allow for the
recovery of the prior configuration if necessary.
Effects on Flow Control
When CEE is off (the default), 802.3x standard flow control is enabled on all switch
ports by default.
When CEE is turned on, standard flow control is disabled on all ports, and in its
place, PFC (see “Priority-Based Flow Control” on page 270) is enabled on all ports
for 802.1p priority value 3. This default is chosen because priority value 3 is
commonly used to identify FCoE traffic in a CEE environment and must be
guaranteed lossless behavior. PFC is disabled for all other priority values.
Each time CEE is turned off, the prior 802.3x standard flow control settings will be
restored (including any previous changes from the defaults). Conversely, each time
CEE is turned on, the previously configured PFC settings are restored.
It is recommend that a configuration backup be made prior to turning CEE on or off.
Viewing the configuration file will allow the administrator to manually re-create the
equivalent configuration under the new CEE mode, and will also allow for the
recovery of the prior configuration if necessary.
When CEE is on, PFC can be enabled only on priority value 3 and one other priority.
If flow control is required on additional priorities on any given port, consider using
standard flow control on that port, so that regardless of which priority traffic
becomes congested, a flow control frame is generated.
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FCoE Initialization Protocol Snooping
FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) snooping is an FCoE feature. In order to enforce
point-to-point links for FCoE traffic outside the regular Fibre Channel topology,
Ethernet ports used in FCoE can be automatically and dynamically configured with
Access Control Lists (ACLs).
Using FIP snooping, the CN4093 examines the FIP frames normally exchanged
between the FCF and ENodes to determine information about connected FCoE
devices. This information is used to create narrowly tailored ACLs that permit
expected FCoE traffic to and from confirmed Fibre Channel nodes, and deny all
other undesirable FCoE or FIP traffic.
Global FIP Snooping Settings
By default, the FIP snooping feature is turned off for the CN4093. The following
commands are used to turn the feature on or off:
CN 4093(config)# [no] fcoe fips enable
Note: FIP snooping requires CEE to be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
When FIP snooping is on, port participation may be configured on a port-by-port
basis (see below).
When FIP snooping is off, all FCoE-related ACLs generated by the feature are
removed from all switch ports.
FIP Snooping for Specific Ports
When FIP snooping is globally turned on (see above), ports may be individually
configured for participation in FIP snooping and automatic ACL generation. By
default, FIP snooping is enabled for each port. To change the setting for any specific
port, use the following CLI commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] fcoe fips port <port number, alias, list, or range> enable
When FIP snooping is enabled on a port, FCoE-related ACLs will be automatically
configured.
When FIP snooping is disabled on a port, all FCoE-related ACLs on the port are
removed, and the switch will enforce no FCoE-related rules for traffic on the port.
Note: FIP Snooping and IPv6 ACLs are not support simultaneously on the same
ports. To use FIP snooping, remove IPv6 ACLs from the port.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 18: FCoE and CEE
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Port FCF and ENode Detection
When FIP snooping is enabled on a port, the port is placed in FCF auto-detect mode
by default. In this mode, the port assumes connection to an ENode unless FIP
packets show the port is connected to an external FCF.
Ports can also be specifically configured as to whether automatic FCF detection
should be used, or whether the port is connected to an external FCF or ENode:
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port <port alias, number, list, or range> fcf-mode {auto|on|off}
When FCF mode is on, the port is assumed to be connected to a trusted external
FCF, and only ACLs appropriate to FCFs will be installed on the port. When off, the
port is assumed to be connected to an ENode, and only ACLs appropriate to
ENodes will be installed. When the mode is changed (either through manual
configuration or as a result of automatic detection), the appropriate ACLs are
automatically added, removed, or changed to reflect the new FCF or ENode
connection.
FCoE Connection Timeout
FCoE-related ACLs and VLANs are added, changed, and removed as FCoE device
connection and disconnection are discovered. In addition, the administrator can
enable or disable automatic removal of ACLs and VLANs for FCFs and other FCoE
connections that timeout (fail or are disconnected) without FIP notification.
By default, automatic removal of ACLs upon timeout is enabled. To change this
function, use the following CLI command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] fcoe fips timeout-acl
FCoE ACL Rules
When FIP Snooping is enabled on a port, the switch automatically installs the
appropriate ACLs to enforce the following rules for FCoE traffic:
• Ensure that FIP frames from ENodes may only be addressed to FCFs.
• Flag important FIP packets for switch processing.
• Ensure no end device uses an FCF MAC address as its source.
• Each FCoE port is assumed to be connected to an ENode and include
ENode-specific ACLs installed, until the port is either detected or configured to
be connected to an external FCF.
• Ports that are configured to have FIP snooping disabled will not have any FIP or
FCoE related ACLs installed.
• Prevent transmission of all FCoE frames from an ENode prior to its successful
completion of login (FLOGI) to the FCF.
• After successful completion of FLOGI, ensure that the ENode uses only those
FCoE source addresses assigned to it by the FCF.
• After successful completion of FLOGI, ensure that all ENode FCoE source
addresses originate from or are destined to the appropriate ENode port.
• After successful completion of each FLOGI, ensure that FCoE frames may only
be addressed to the FCFs that accept them.
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Initially, a basic set of FCoE-related ACLs will be installed on all ports where FIP
snooping is enabled. As the switch encounters FIP frames and learns about FCFs
and ENodes that are attached or disconnect, ACLs are dynamically installed or
expanded to provide appropriate security.
When an FCoE connection logs out, or times out (if ACL timeout is enabled), the
related ACLs will be automatically removed.
FCoE-related ACLs are independent of manually configured ACLs used for regular
Ethernet purposes. FCoE ACLs generally have a higher priority over standard
ACLs.
Optimized FCoE Traffic Flow
To optimize the FCoE traffic flow, ACL entries are installed by default. Only FCoE to
FCoE traffic is optimized. Traffic to and from Fibre Channel nodes is not optimized.
If required, you can disable optimized traffic flow. However, you must first disable
FIP snooping. Use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# no fcoe fips enable
CN 4093(config)# no fcoe optimized-forwarding enable
To re-enable optimized traffic flow, use the following command sequence:
CN 4093(config)# no fcoe fips enable
CN 4093(config)# fcoe optimized-forwarding enable
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips enable
Optimized traffic flow is enabled for a single switch FCF as well as a stack. In a
stack, one or more members may have optimized flow entries installed based on the
configuration. You can view the installed optimized ACLs on the respective
switches.
Note: Optimized ACL entries cannot be installed on ports 53-64, even when the
ports are in FCoE mode.
The following commands provide optimized traffic flow information:
• To check current state:
CN 4093# show fcoe optimized-forwarding status
•
To view list of optimized ACLs:
CN 4093# show fcoe optimized-acls vlan <VLAN ID>
FCoE VLANs
Before the switch applies FIP Snooping, all switch ports connected to ENodes and
all external ports connected to FCFs must be members of VLAN 1. This allows the
ENodes and the FCFs to exchange initial FIP VLAN request and notification
packets. Once FIP Snooping is applied, FCoE packets are exchanged using one
configured FCoE VLAN for each attached FCF.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Each ENode port must have VLAN tagging enabled, and must belong to the same
VLAN as the external FCF to which it will connect. In topologies where a single
external FCF is connected to the switch, all ENode and FCF ports belong to the
same VLAN (typically VLAN 1002). When multiple FCFs are connected to the
switch, each FCF must be assigned a unique VLAN, and each ENode must be
assigned to the VLAN for only one particular FCF.
The administrator must ensure that the VLAN configured for each FCF and its
ENodes is supported by the participating FCF and ENode CNAs.
Note: The FCoE MAC Address Prefix (FC-Map) value is used to identify traffic on a
FCoE VLAN. The valid FC-Map values are from 0xefcf00 to 0x0efcff and are
configured automatically for each FCoE vlan. If you need to manually
configure the FC-MAP, use values in the range 0xefcf00 to 0x0efcf4. The
other FC-Map values are reserved.
Viewing FIP Snooping Information
ACLs automatically generated under FIP snooping are independent of regular,
manually configure ACLs, and are not listed with regular ACLs in switch information
and statistics output. Instead, FCoE ACLs are shown using the following CLI
commands:
CN 4093# show fcoe fips information
(Show all FIP-related information)
CN 4093# show fcoe fips port <ports> information
(Show FIP info for a selected port)
For example:
CN 4093# show fcoe fips port ext4 information
FIP Snooping on port ext4:
This port has been detected to be an FCF port.
FIPS ACLs configured on this port:
Ethertype 0x8914, action permit.
dmac 00:00:18:01:00:XX, Ethertype 0x8914, action permit.
For each ACL, the required traffic criteria are listed, along with the action taken
(permit or deny) for matching traffic. ACLs are listed in order of precedence and
evaluated in the order shown.
The administrator can also view other FCoE information:
CN 4093# show fcoe fips fcf
(Show all detected FCFs)
CN 4093# show fcoe fips fcoe
(Show all FCoE connections)
Operational Commands
The administrator may use the operational commands to delete FIP-related entries
from the switch.
To delete a specific FCF entry and all associated ACLs from the switch, use the
following command:
CN 4093# no fcoe fips fcf <FCF MAC address> [<VLAN number>]
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FIP Snooping Configuration
In this example, as shown in Figure 32 on page 260, port INTA1 is connected to an
ENode, and EXT22 is connected to the Fibre Channel network via an internal FCF
(see“Fibre Channel” on page 287). FIP snooping can be configured on these ports
using the following CLI commands:
1. Enable VLAN tagging on FCoE ports:
CN 4093(config)# interface port INTA1, EXT22
(Select FCoE port)
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
(Enable VLAN tagging)
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
(Exit port configuration mode)
2. Place FCoE ports into a VLAN supported by the FCF and CNAs (typically
VLAN 1002):
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 1002
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port INTA1, EXT22
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,1002
4093(config-if)# exit
Note: Placing ports into the FCoE VLAN (Step 2) after tagging is enabled
(Step 1) helps to ensure that their port VLAN ID (PVID) is not accidentally
changed. FCoE ports must use PVID 1 in order to exchange FIP VLAN
request and notification packets with the FCF.
3. Turn CEE on.
CN 4093(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x
standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
4. Turn global FIP snooping on:
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips enable
5. Disable FIP snooping on all non-FCoE external ports:
CN 4093(config)# no fcoe fips port INTA2-EXT21 enable
6. Enable FIP snooping on FCoE ports, and set the desired FCF mode:
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port INTA1 enable
(Enable FIPS on FCoE ports)
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port INTA1 fcf-mode off
(Set as ENode connection)
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port EXT22 fcf-mode on
(Set as FCF connection)
Note: By default, FIP snooping is enabled on all ports and the FCF mode set for
automatic detection. The configuration in this step is unnecessary if default
settings have not been changed, and is shown merely as a manual
configuration example.
7. Save the configuration.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Priority-Based Flow Control
Priority-based Flow Control (PFC) is defined in IEEE 802.1Qbb. PFC extends the
IEEE 802.3x standard flow control mechanism. Under standard flow control, when a
port becomes busy, the switch manages congestion by pausing all the traffic on the
port, regardless of the traffic type. PFC provides more granular flow control, allowing
the switch to pause specified types of traffic on the port, while other traffic on the
port continues.
PFC pauses traffic based on 802.1p priority values in the VLAN tag. The
administrator can assign different priority values to different types of traffic and then
enable PFC for up to two specific priority values: priority value 3, and one other. The
configuration can be applied on a port-by-port basis, or globally for all ports on the
switch. Then, when traffic congestion occurs on a port (caused when ingress traffic
exceeds internal buffer thresholds), only traffic with priority values where PFC is
enabled is paused. Traffic with priority values where PFC is disabled proceeds
without interruption but may be subject to loss if port ingress buffers become full.
Although PFC is useful for a variety of applications, it is required for FCoE
implementation where storage (SAN) and networking (LAN) traffic are converged on
the same Ethernet links. Typical LAN traffic tolerates Ethernet packet loss that can
occur from congestion or other factors, but SAN traffic must be lossless and
requires flow control.
For FCoE, standard flow control would pause both SAN and LAN traffic during
congestion. While this approach would limit SAN traffic loss, it could degrade the
performance of some LAN applications that expect to handle congestion by
dropping traffic. PFC resolves these FCoE flow control issues. Different types of
SAN and LAN traffic can be assigned different IEEE 802.1p priority values. PFC can
then be enabled for priority values that represent SAN and LAN traffic that must be
paused during congestion, and disabled for priority values that represent LAN traffic
that is more loss-tolerant.
PFC requires CEE to be turned on (“Turning CEE On or Off” on page 262). When
CEE is turned on, PFC is enabled on priority value 3 by default. Optionally, the
administrator can also enable PFC on one other priority value, providing lossless
handling for another traffic type, such as for a business-critical LAN application.
Note: For any given port, only one flow control method can be implemented at any
given time: either PFC or standard IEEE 802.3x flow control.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Global vs. Port-by-Port PFC Configuration
PFC requires CEE to be turned on (“Turning CEE On or Off” on page 262). When
CEE is turned on, standard flow control is disabled on all ports, and PFC is enabled
on all ports for 802.1p priority value 3. This default is chosen because priority value
3 is commonly used to identify FCoE traffic in a CEE environment and must be
guaranteed lossless behavior. PFC is disabled for all other priority values by default,
but can be enabled for one additional priority value.
The administrator can also configure PFC on a port-by-port basis. The method used
will typically depend on the following:
• Port-by-port PFC configuration is desirable in most mixed environments where
some CN4093 ports are connected to CEE-capable (FCoE) switches, gateways,
and Converged Network Adapters (CNAs), and other CN4093 ports are
connected to non-CEE Layer 2/Layer 3 switches, routers and Network Interface
Cards (NICs).
• Global PFC configuration is preferable in networks that implement end-to-end
CEE devices. For example, if all ports are involved with FCoE and can use the
same SAN and LAN priority value configuration with the same PFC settings,
global configuration is easy and efficient.
• Global PFC configuration can also be used in some mixed environments where
traffic with PFC-enabled priority values occurs only on ports connected to CEE
devices, and not on any ports connected to non-CEE devices. In such cases,
PFC can be configured globally on specific priority values even though not all
ports make use them.
• PFC is not restricted to CEE and FCoE networks. In any LAN where traffic is
separated into different priorities, PFC can be enabled on priority values for
loss-sensitive traffic. If all ports have the same priority definitions and utilize the
same PFC strategy, PFC can be globally configured.
Note: When using global PFC configuration in conjunction with the ETS feature
(see “Enhanced Transmission Selection” on page 274), ensure that only
pause-tolerant traffic (such as lossless FCoE traffic) is assigned priority
values where PFC is enabled. Pausing other types of traffic can have
adverse effects on LAN applications that expect uninterrupted traffic flow
and tolerate dropping packets during congestion. Use PFC globally only if all
priority values assigned for lossless traffic on one or more ports does not
carry loss-tolerant traffic on other ports.
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PFC Configuration Example
Note: DCBX may be configured to permit sharing or learning PFC configuration
with or from external devices. This example assumes that PFC configuration
is being performed manually. See “Data Center Bridging Capability
Exchange” on page 280 for more information on DCBX.
This example is consistent with the network shown in Figure 32 on page 260. In this
example, the following topology is used.
Table 30. Port-Based PFC Configuration
Switch
Port
EXT1
802.1p
Priority
Usage
PFC
Setting
0-2
LAN
Disabled
3
(not used)
Enabled
4
Business-critical LAN
Enabled
others
(not used)
Disabled
EXT22
3
Fiber Channel network
Enabled
INTA1
3
FCoE
Enabled
others
(not used)
Disabled
0-2
LAN
Disabled
3
(not used)
Enabled
4
Business-critical LAN
Enabled
others
(not used)
Disabled
INTA2
In this example, PFC is to facilitate lossless traffic handling for FCoE (priority
value 3) and a business-critical LAN application (priority value 4).
Assuming that CEE is off (the CN4093 default), the example topology shown in
Table 30 on page 272 can be configured using the following commands:
1. Turn CEE on.
CN 4093(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x
standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
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2. Enable PFC for the FCoE traffic.
Note: PFC is enabled on priority 3 by default. If using the defaults, the manual
configuration commands shown in this step are not necessary.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA1
INTA1
EXT22
EXT22
pfc
pfc
pfc
pfc
priority
priority
priority
priority
3
3
3
3
enable
description "FCoE"
enable
description "FCoE"
(FCoE priority)
(Optional)
(FCoE priority)
(Optional)
3. Enable PFC for the business-critical LAN application:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA2 pfc priority 4 enable
(LAN priority)
INTA2 pfc priority 4 description "Critical LAN"
EXT1 pfc priority 4 enable
( LAN priority)
EXT1 pfc priority 4 description "Critical LAN"
4. Save the configuration.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 18: FCoE and CEE
273
Enhanced Transmission Selection
Enhanced Transmission Selection (ETS) is defined in IEEE 802.1Qaz. ETS
provides a method for allocating port bandwidth based on 802.1p priority values in
the VLAN tag. Using ETS, different amounts of link bandwidth can specified for
different traffic types (such as for LAN, SAN, and management).
ETS is an essential component in a CEE environment that carries different types of
traffic, each of which is sensitive to different handling criteria, such as Storage Area
Networks (SANs) that are sensitive to packet loss, and LAN applications that may
be latency-sensitive. In a single converged link, such as when implementing FCoE,
ETS allows SAN and LAN traffic to coexist without imposing contrary handling
requirements upon each other.
The ETS feature requires CEE to be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
802.1p Priority Values
Under the 802.1p standard, there are eight available priority values, with values
numbered 0 through 7, which can be placed in the priority field of the 802.1Q VLAN
tag:
16 bits
3 bits
Tag Protocol ID (0x8100)
1
12 bits
Priority C
FI
0
VLAN ID
15 16
32
Servers and other network devices may be configured to assign different priority
values to packets belonging to different traffic types (such as SAN and LAN).
ETS uses the assigned 802.1p priority values to identify different traffic types. The
various priority values are assigned to priority groups (PGID), and each priority
group is assigned a portion of available link bandwidth.
Priority values within in any specific ETS priority group are expected to have similar
traffic handling requirements with respect to latency and loss.
802.1p priority values may be assigned by the administrator for a variety of
purposes. However, when CEE is turned on, the CN4093 sets the initial default
values for ETS configuration as follows:
Figure 33. Default ETS Priority Groups
Typical Traffic Type
802.1p
Bandwidth
PGID
Priority
Allocation
LAN
LAN
LAN
SAN
Latency-Sensitive LAN
Latency-Sensitive LAN
Latency-Sensitive LAN
Latency-Sensitive LAN
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
10%
1
50%
2
40%
In the assignment model shown in Figure 33 on page 274, priorities values 0
through 2 are assigned for regular Ethernet traffic, which has “best effort” transport
characteristics.
Priority 3 is typically used to identify FCoE (SAN) traffic.
Priorities 4-7 are typically used for latency sensitive traffic and other important
business applications. For example, priority 4 and 5 are often used for video and
voice applications such as IPTV, Video on Demand (VoD), and Voice over IP (VoIP).
Priority 6 and 7 are often used for traffic characterized with a “must get there”
requirement, with priority 7 used for network control which is requires guaranteed
delivery to support configuration and maintenance of the network infrastructure.
Note: The default assignment of 802.1p priority values on the CN4093 changes
depending on whether CEE is on or off. See “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262 for details.
Priority Groups
For ETS use, each 801.2p priority value is assigned to a priority group which can
then be allocated a specific portion of available link bandwidth. To configure a
priority group, the following is required:
• CEE must be turned on (“Turning CEE On or Off” on page 262) for the ETS
feature to function.
• A priority group must be assigned a priority group ID (PGID), one or more 802.1p
priority values, and allocated link bandwidth greater than 0%.
PGID
Each priority group is identified with number (0 through 7, and 15) known as the
PGID.
PGID 0 through 7 may each be assigned a portion of the switch’s available
bandwidth.
PGID 8 through 14 are reserved as per the 802.1Qaz ETS standard.
PGID 15 is a strict priority group. It is generally used for critical traffic, such as
network management. Any traffic with priority values assigned to PGID 15 is
permitted as much bandwidth as required, up to the maximum available on the
switch. After serving PGID 15, any remaining link bandwidth is shared among the
other groups, divided according to the configured bandwidth allocation settings.
All 802.1p priority values assigned to a particular PGID should have similar traffic
handling requirements. For example, PFC-enabled traffic should not be grouped
with non-PFC traffic. Also, traffic of the same general type should be assigned to the
same PGID. Splitting one type of traffic into multiple 802.1p priorities, and then
assigning those priorities to different PGIDs may result in unexpected network
behavior.
Each 802.1p priority value may be assigned to only one PGID. However, each PGID
may include multiple priority values. Up to eight PGIDs may be configured at any
given time.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Assigning Priority Values to a Priority Group
Each priority group may be configured from its corresponding ETS Priority Group,
available using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid <group number (0-7, or 15)> priority
<priority list>
where priority list is one or more 802.1p priority values (with each separated by a
comma). For example, to assign priority values 0 through 2:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid <group number (0-7, or 15)> priority
0,1,2
Note: Within any specific PGID, the PFC settings (see “Priority-Based Flow
Control” on page 270) should be the same (enabled or disabled) for all
priority values within the group. PFC can be enabled only on priority value 3
and one other priority. If the PFC setting is inconsistent within a PGID, a
warning message is reported when attempting to apply the configuration.
When assigning priority values to a PGID, the specified priority value will be
automatically removed from its old group and assigned to the new group when the
configuration is applied.
Each priority value must be assigned to a PGID. Priority values may not be deleted
or unassigned. To remove a priority value from a PGID, it must be moved to another
PGID.
For PGIDs 0 through 7, bandwidth allocation can also be configured through the
ETS Priority Group menu. See for “Allocating Bandwidth” on page 277 for details.
Deleting a Priority Group
A priority group is automatically deleted when it contains no associated priority
values, and its bandwidth allocation is set to 0%.
Note: The total bandwidth allocated to PGID 0 through 7 must equal exactly 100%.
Reducing the bandwidth allocation of any group will require increasing the
allocation to one or more of the other groups (see “Allocating Bandwidth” on
page 277).
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Allocating Bandwidth
Allocated Bandwidth for PGID 0 Through 7
The administrator may allocate a portion of the switch’s available bandwidth to
PGIDs 0 through 7. Available bandwidth is defined as the amount of link bandwidth
that remains after priorities within PGID 15 are serviced (see “Unlimited Bandwidth
for PGID 15” on page 277), and assuming that all PGIDs are fully subscribed. If any
PGID does not fully consume its allocated bandwidth, the unused portion is made
available to the other priority groups.
Priority group bandwidth allocation can be configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid <priority group number> bandwidth
<bandwidth allocation> pgid <priority group number> bandwidth <bandwidth allocation>
where bandwidth allocation represents the percentage of link bandwidth, specified as
a number between 0 and 100, in 1% increments.
The following bandwidth allocation rules apply:
• Bandwidth allocation must be 0% for any PGID that has no assigned 802.1p priority values.
• Any PGID assigned one or more priority values must have a bandwidth allocation
greater than 0%.
• Total bandwidth allocation for groups 0 through 7 must equal exactly 100%.
Increasing or reducing the bandwidth allocation of any PGID also requires
adjusting the allocation of other PGIDs to compensate.
If these conditions are not met, the switch will report an error when applying the
configuration.
To achieve a balanced bandwidth allocation among the various priority groups,
packets are scheduled according to a weighted deficit round-robin (WDRR)
algorithm. WDRR is aware of packet sizes, which can vary significantly in a CEE
environment, making WDRR more suitable than a regular weighted round-robin
(WRR) method, which selects groups based only on packet counts.
Note: Actual bandwidth used by any specific PGID may vary from configured
values by up to 10% of the available bandwidth in accordance with 802.1Qaz
ETS standard. For example, a setting of 10% may be served anywhere from
0% to 20% of the available bandwidth at any given time.
Unlimited Bandwidth for PGID 15
PGID 15 is permitted unlimited bandwidth and is generally intended for critical traffic
(such as switch management). Traffic in this group is given highest priority and is
served before the traffic in any other priority group.
If PGID 15 has low traffic levels, most of the switch’s bandwidth will be available to
serve priority groups 0 through 7. However, if PGID 15 consumes a larger part of the
switch’s total bandwidth, the amount available to the other groups is reduced.
Note: Consider traffic load when assigning priority values to PGID 15. Heavy traffic
in this group may restrict the bandwidth available to other groups.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Configuring ETS
Consider an example consistent with that used for port-based PFC configuration (on
page 272):
Table 31. ETS Configuration
Priority
Usage
PGID
Bandwidth
0
10%
20%
0
LAN (best effort delivery)
1
LAN (best effort delivery)
2
LAN (best effort delivery)
3
SAN (Fibre Channel over Ethernet, with PFC)
1
4
Business Critical LAN (lossless Ethernet, with
PFC)
2
5
Latency-sensitive LAN
6
Latency-sensitive LAN
7
Network Management (strict)
30%
3
40%
15
unlimited
The example shown in Table 31 is only slightly different than the default
configuration shown in Figure 33 on page 274. In this example, latency-sensitive
LAN traffic (802.1p priority 5 through 6) are moved from priority group 2 to priority
group 3. This leaves Business Critical LAN traffic (802.1p priority 4) in priority group
2 by itself. Also, a new group for network management traffic has been assigned.
Finally, the bandwidth allocation for priority groups 1, 2, and 3 are revised.
Note: DCBX may be configured to permit sharing or learning PFC configuration
with or from external devices. This example assumes that PFC configuration
is being performed manually. See “Data Center Bridging Capability
Exchange” on page 280 for more information on DCBX.
This example can be configured using the following commands:
1. Turn CEE on.
CN 4093(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x
standard flow control settings (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on page 262).
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
2. Configure each allocated priority group with a description (optional), list of
802.1p priority values, and bandwidth allocation:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 0 priority 0,1,2
(Select a group for regular LAN, and
set for 802.1p priorities 0, 1, and 2)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 0 description "Regular LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 1 priority 3
(Select a group for SAN traffic, and
set for 802.1p priority 3)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 1 description "SAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 2 priority 4
(Select a group for latency traffic,
and set for 802.1p priority 4)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 2 description "Biz-Critical
LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 3 description
"Latency-Sensitive LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 3 priority 5,6 pgid 0
bandwidth 10 pgid 1 bandwidth 20 pgid 2 bandwidth 30 pgid 3 bandwidth 40
(Configure link bandwidth restriction)
3. Configure the strict priority group with a description (optional) and a list of
802.1p priority values:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 15 priority 7
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 15 description
"Network Management"
Note: Priority group 15 is permitted unlimited bandwidth. As such, the commands
for priority group 15 do not include bandwidth allocation.
4. Save the configuration.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 18: FCoE and CEE
279
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange (DCBX) protocol is a vital element of
CEE. DCBX allows peer CEE devices to exchange information about their
advanced capabilities. Using DCBX, neighboring network devices discover their
peers, negotiate peer configurations, and detect misconfigurations.
DCBX provides two main functions on the CN4093:
• Peer information exchange
The switch uses DCBX to exchange information with connected CEE devices.
For normal operation of any FCoE implementation on the CN4093, DCBX must
remain enabled on all ports participating in FCoE.
•
Peer configuration negotiation
DCBX also allows CEE devices to negotiate with each other for the purpose of
automatically configuring advanced CEE features such as PFC, ETS, and (for
some CNAs) FIP. The administrator can determine which CEE feature settings
on the switch are communicated to and matched by CEE neighbors, and also
which CEE feature settings on the switch may be configured by neighbor
requirements.
The DCBX feature requires CEE to be turned on (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
DCBX Settings
When CEE is turned on, DCBX is enabled for peer information exchange on all
ports. For configuration negotiation, the following default settings are configured:
• Application Protocol: FCoE and FIP snooping is set for traffic with 802.1p
priority 3
• PFC: Enabled on 802.1p priority 3
• ETS
– Priority group 0 includes priority values 0 through 2, with bandwidth
allocation of 10%
– Priority group 1 includes priority value 3, with bandwidth allocation of 50%
– Priority group 2 includes priority values 4 through 7, with bandwidth
allocation of 40%
Enabling and Disabling DCBX
When CEE is turned on, DCBX can be enabled and disabled on a per-port basis,
using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx enable
When DCBX is enabled on a port, Link Layer Detection Protocol (LLDP) is used to
exchange DCBX parameters between CEE peers. Also, the interval for LLDP
transmission time is set to one second for the first five initial LLDP transmissions,
after which it is returned to the administratively configured value. The minimum
delay between consecutive LLDP frames is also set to one second as a DCBX
default.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Peer Configuration Negotiation
CEE peer configuration negotiation can be set on a per-port basis for a number of
CEE features. For each supported feature, the administrator can configure two
independent flags:
• The advertise flag
When this flag is set for a particular feature, the switch settings will be transmit to
the remote CEE peer. If the peer is capable of the feature, and willing to accept
the CN4093 settings, it will be automatically reconfigured to match the switch.
•
The willing flag
Set this flag when required by the remote CEE peer for a particular feature as
part of DCBX signaling and support. Although some devices may also expect
this flag to indicate that the switch will accept overrides on feature settings, the
CN4093 retains its configured settings. As a result, the administrator should
configure the feature settings on the switch to match those expected by the
remote CEE peer.
These flags are available for the following CEE features:
• Application Protocol
DCBX exchanges information regarding FCoE and FIP snooping, including the
802.1p priority value used for FCoE traffic. The advertise flag is set or reset
using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx app_proto advertise
The willing flag is set or reset using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx app_proto willing
•
PFC
DCBX exchanges information regarding whether PFC is enabled or disabled on
the port. The advertise flag is set or reset using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx pfc advertise
The willing flag is set or reset using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx pfc willing
•
ETS
DCBX exchanges information regarding ETS priority groups, including their
802.1p priority members and bandwidth allocation percentages. The
advertise flag is set or reset using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx ets advertise
The willing flag is set or reset using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] cee port <port alias or number> dcbx ets willing
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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281
Configuring DCBX
Consider an example consistent Figure 32 on page 260 and used with the previous
FCoE examples in this chapter:
• FCoE is used on port INTA1.
• CEE features are also used with LANs on ports INTA2 and EXT1.
• All other ports are disabled or are connected to non-CEE devices.
In this example, the CN4093 acts as the central point for CEE configuration.
FCoE-related ports will be configured for advertising CEE capabilities, but not to
accept external configuration. Other LAN ports that use CEE features will also be
configured to advertise feature settings to remote peers, but not to accept external
configuration. DCBX will be disabled on all non-CEE ports.
This example can be configured using the following commands:
1. Turn CEE on.
CN 4093(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x
standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
2. Enable desired DCBX configuration negotiation on FCoE ports:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA1
INTA1
INTA1
INTA1
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
enable
app_proto advertise
ets advertise
pfc advertise
3. Enable desired DCBX advertisements on other CEE ports:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA2
INTA2
INTA2
INTA2
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
EXT1
EXT1
EXT1
EXT1
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
enable
app_proto advertise
ets advertise
pfc advertise
enable
app_proto advertise
ets advertise
pfc advertise
4. Disable DCBX for each non-CEE port as appropriate:
CN 4093(config)# no cee port INTA3-INTC14,EXT2-EXT22 dcbx enable
5. Save the configuration.
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FCoE Example Configuration
The following example collects the various components from previous sections of
this chapter.
Figure 34. A Mixed Fibre Channel and FCoE Network
FCoE
802.1p Priority & Usage
CNA
INTA1
802.1p Priority & Usage
CNA
0-2 LAN
4 Business-Critical LAN
INTA2
3 FCoE Applications
FCF
Fibre
Channel
EXT22
Switch
Servers
Ethernet
LAN
EXT1
IBM Chassis
In Figure 34 on page 283, a Fibre Channel network is connected to the CN4093 on
port EXT22. The FCoE-enabled CN4093 is internally connected to a blade server
(ENode) through an FCoE-enabled CNA on port INTA1. An internal FCF bridges the
networks.
1. Enable VLAN tagging on FCoE ports:
CN 4093(config)# interface port INTA1
(Select FCoE ports)
CN 4093(config-if)# tagging
(Enable VLAN tagging)
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
(Exit port configuration mode)
2. Place FCoE ports into a VLAN supported by the FCF and CNAs (typically
VLAN 1002):
CN 4093(config)# vlan 1002
(Select a VLAN)
CN 4093(config-vlan)# member INTA1
(Add FCoE ports to the VLAN)
CN 4093(config-vlan)# enable
(Enable the VLAN)
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
(Exit VLAN configuration mode)
Note: Placing ports into the VLAN (Step 2) after tagging is enabled helps to
ensure that their port VLAN ID (PVID) is not accidentally changed.
3. Turn CEE on.
CN 4093(config)# cee enable
Note: Turning CEE on will automatically change some 802.1p QoS and 802.3x
standard flow control settings and menus (see “Turning CEE On or Off” on
page 262).
4. Turn global FIP snooping on:
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips enable
5. Disable FIP snooping on all non-FCoE external ports:
CN 4093(config)# no fcoe fips port INTA2-EXT22 enable
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6. Enable FIP snooping on FCoE ports, and set the desired FCF mode:
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port INTA1 enable
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips port INTA1 fcf-mode off
(Set as ENode connection)
Note: By default, FIP snooping is enabled on all ports and the FCF mode set for
automatic detection. The configuration in this step is unnecessary if default
settings have not been changed, and is shown merely as a manual
configuration example.
7. Enable PFC for the FCoE traffic.
Note: PFC is enabled on priority 3 by default. If using the defaults, the manual
configuration commands shown in this step are not necessary.
CN 4093(config)# cee port INTA1 pfc priority 3 enable
CN 4093(config)# cee port INTA1 pfc priority 3 description "FCoE"
(FCoE priority)
(Optional)
8. Enable PFC for the business-critical LAN application:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA2 pfc priority 4 enable
(LAN priority)
INTA2 pfc priority 4 description "Critical LAN"
EXT1 pfc priority 4 enable
(LAN priority)
EXT1 pfc priority 4 description "Critical LAN"
9. Configure each allocated priority group with a description (optional), list of
802.1p priority values, and bandwidth allocation:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 0 priority 0,1,2
(Select a group for regular LAN, and
set for 802.1p priorities 0, 1, and 2)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 0 description "Regular LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 1 priority 3
(Select a group for SAN traffic, and
set for 802.1p priority 3)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 1 description "SAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 2 priority 4
(Select a group for latency traffic,
and set for 802.1p priority 4)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 2 description "Critical LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 3 description
"Latency-Sensitive LAN"
(Set a group description—optional)
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 3 priority 5,6 pgid 0
bandwidth 10 pgid 1 bandwidth 20 pgid 2 bandwidth 30 pgid 3 bandwidth 40
(Configure link bandwidth restriction)
10. Configure the strict priority group with a description (optional) and a list of
802.1p priority values:
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 15 priority 7
CN 4093(config)# cee global ets priority-group pgid 15 description
"Network Management"
Note: Priority group 15 is permitted unlimited bandwidth. As such, the commands
for priority group 15 do not include bandwidth allocation.
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11. Enable desired DCBX configuration negotiation on FCoE ports:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA1
INTA1
INTA1
INTA1
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
enable
app_proto advertise
ets advertise
pfc advertise
12. Enable desired DCBX advertisements on other CEE ports:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
INTA2
INTA2
INTA2
INTA2
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
cee
cee
cee
cee
port
port
port
port
EXT1
EXT1
EXT1
EXT1
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
dcbx
enable
app_proto advertise
ets advertise
pfc advertise
enable
app_proto advertise
ets advertise
pfc advertise
13. Disable DCBX for each non-CEE port as appropriate:
CN 4093(config)# no cee port INTA3-INTC14,EXT2-EXT22 dcbx enable
14. Configure the Fibre Channel network:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# system port ext21-ext22 type fc
4093(config)# vlan 1002
4093(config-vlan)# npv enable
4093(config-vlan)# member EXT22
4093(config-vlan)# npv traffic-map external-interface EXT22
4093(config-vlan)# exit
Note: The Fibre Channel network is configured as an NPV gateway as described
in “Fibre Channel” on page 287. Although VLAN properties for Fibre
Channel and FCoE can be configured together, the additional Fibre
Channel elements for this configuraiton are included at the end of this
example in order to focus on the FCoE steps.
15. Save the configuration.
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Chapter 19. Fibre Channel
This chapter describes how to configure the CN4093 for use with Fibre Channel
networks.
Ethernet vs. Fibre Channel
As a converged switch, the CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch provides
simultaneous support of Ethernet and Fibre Channel networks.
Ethernet is ubiquitous in modern networks. It is generally quick, easy, and
inexpensive to implement. Ethernet is also flexible and dynamic by nature. Devices
join and leave a well-designed Ethernet network with little impact beyond their
individual function. Because flux is the norm, Ethernet is classified as a "best effort"
delivery protocol. This means that some loss of packets is acceptable, and that with
multiple routes often available, packets in a stream may arrive at their destination
out of sequence. Ethernet devices are expected to re-request and resend lost
packets, and reassemble data in the proper order at the destination.
The Fibre Channel protocol adheres to a very different philosophy. Fibre Channel is
most popular in storage networks end-to-end stability, reliability, and security are
emphasized in favor over low cost and dynamic scalability. In Fibre Channel
networks, the connecting ports must be fully authorized to communicate with their
well-defined neighbors. Bandwidth for properly connected devices is tuned to avoid
loss due to congestion. Also, routes for traffic are converged in advance, ensuring
that only one route is used by any given traffic stream so that packets arrive in their
expected sequence.
Ethernet and Fibre Channel networks are coming into contact with each other more
frequently in modern networks. In some cases, legacy Fibre Channel devices are
connected via Ethernet networks using Converged Enhanced Ethernet (CEE), a
collection of recent Ethernet features designed to satisfy Fibre Channel delivery
expectations. Although not the focus of this chapter, the CN4093 supports CEE and
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE). For details, see “FCoE and CEE” on
page 259.
Another approach is to use converged switches such as the CN4093 to support
direct connection to both Ethernet and Fibre Channel networks. This allows a “best
of both worlds” approach, using ubiquitous Ethernet networks for regular traffic, and
full connection to Fibre Channel networks for lossless applications and the legacy
architecture of established Storage Area Networks.
Supported Switch Roles
The CN4093 can be used in the following Fibre Channel applications:
• Node Port Virtualized gateway, linking multiple FCoE nodes to an upstream full
fabric switch.
• FC-BB-5 compliant full fabric FC/FCoE switch.
These functions are independent of each other, and can coexist or be used in
combination on the switch.
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FCoE Gateway
The CN4093 acts as a bridge between FCoE traffic and the Fibre Channel network.
The switch performs Ethernet encapsulation for traffic heading to Ethernet ports,
and performs decapsulation for traffic to Fibre Channel ports.
FCoE features are covered in “FCoE and CEE” on page 259. These features can be
used independently or in conjunction with NPV gateway and full fabric switch
features.
NPV Gateway
As a Node Port Virtualized (NPV) gateway, the CN4093 can act as a Fibre Channel
collector, connecting numerous Fibre Channel end-point devices (known as nodes)
for uplink to a Fibre Channel full fabric switch, performing stateless FC/FCoE
encapsulation and decapsulation.
This helps resolve a typical problem in Fibre Channel networks where port density is
low on Director Class SAN switches, or considered too valuable to relegate to
individual nodes. As an NPV gateway, the CN4093 acts as a proxy to the upstream
full fabric switch on behalf of the connected nodes.
The CN4093 supports standard Node Port Identifier Virtualization (NPIV) behavior.
The NPV gateway allows concurrent logins from multiple node ports (and multiple
server connections) to be forwarded upstream to the full-fabric switch.
The upstream switch provides full fabric services such as zoning enforcement, and
makes all switching decisions.
The gateway switch appears as a Fibre Channel end node to the full fabric switch,
and acts as proxy for the full fabric switch to its connected node devices.
When multiple uplink ports are available between the NPV gateway and the
upstream switch, nodes are not ensured to be assigned the same uplink whenever
they request a session.
Full-Fabric FC/FCoE Switch
As a full fabric FC/FCoE switch, the CN4093 authenticates connecting neighbors,
provides Fibre Channel IDs, enforces port security among zones, and informs
neighboring devices of network changes.
When acting as a full-fabric switch, the CN4093 can be connected to NPV gateways
or directly to Fibre Channel nodes. In full-fabric mode, the CN4093 cannot be
connected directly to another full fabric switch.
Limitations
In IBM Networking OS 7.8, CN4093 does not support the following Fibre Channel
port types:
• FL ports connecting storage fabric loop devices.
• Fibre Channel ports connected to NP-F devices in NPV gateway mode.
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Implementing Fibre Channel
This section describes the basic elements of Fibre Channel configuration. For
examples combining these elements, see “Fibre Channel Configuration” on
page 297
Note: Use only the ISCLI or BBI to configure Fibre Channel. IBM N/OS CLI is not
supported. After configuring Fibre Channel, save any subsequent
configurations only in ISCLI or BBI. If IBM N/OS CLI is used to save any
switch configuration, the Fibre Channel configuration will be lost.
Note: If you need to change the Fibre Channel configuration mode from BBI to
ISCLI, first save the configuration using the save button on the BBI. Do not
use two configuration modes at the same time.
Port Modes
The CN4093 has the following types of network port:
• Ethernet Ports (Internal)
INTA1-INTA14 (ports 1-14), INTB1-INTB14 (15-28), INTC1-INTC14 (29-42)
These standard 10Gb SFP+ Ethernet ports connect internally to servers in the
system chassis.
•
Ethernet Ports (External
EXT1-EXT2 (ports 43-44)
These standard 10Gb SFP+ Ethernet ports provide external connectors.
•
High-Capacity Ethernet Ports (External)
EXT3-EXT10 (ports 45-52)
These 40Gb QSFP+ Ethernet ports can be configured as either two 40Gb
Ethernet ports (EXT3 and EXT7), or as four 10Gb Ethernet ports (EXT3-EXT6,
EXT7-EXT10).
•
IBM Omni Ports (External)
EXT11-EXT22 (ports 53-64)
These 10Gb SFP+ hybrid ports can be configured to operate either in Ethernet
mode (the default) or in Fibre Channel mode for direct connection to Fibre
Channel devices.
All Ethernet ports (including the IBM Omni Ports by default) can carry any Ethernet
data traffic, including Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) traffic.
When configured to operate in Fibre Channel mode, IBM Omni Ports can be used
as Fibre Channel downlinks (connected to Fibre Channel servers or storage
devices) or as uplinks (connected to the data center SAN network).
The IBM Omni Port mode (Ethernet or Fibre Channel) can be changed only for pairs
of ports. The following port pairs share the same mode: .
Paired ports need not be connected to the same device and can even be used in
different VLANs. The only required mutual attribute is the network type (Ethernet or
Fibre Channel).
Fibre Channel configuration requires that at least one pair of IBM Omni Ports be set
to Fibre Channel mode.
The mode for IBM Omni Port pairs or ranges can be configured using the following
privileged configuration command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] system port <low port>-<high port> type fc
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Note: VLAN tagging is automatically enabled on any port placed in Fibre Channel
mode.
E_Ports
E_ports (expansion ports) connect two full fabric switches to form an inter-switch
link (ISL). Up to four Fibre Channel ISLs can be established between two full fabric
switches.
Only Fibre Channel port types can be configured as E-ports. These ports must be
members of a Fibre Channel VLAN. Use the following commands to configure
E_ports:
CN 4093(config)# system port <port range> type fc
CN 4093(config)# interface fc <port range>
CN 4093(config-if)# type e
In a stack of switches, ports on the Master or Backup switches can be configured as
E-ports.
If different zones were configured on the switches being connected using E_ports,
the zones merge to establish a consistent zoning policy across the fabric. The zones
on the two switches must belong to any one zoneset.
Note: Zones are added in the merged zoneset only if the zoneset on the individual
switch was active.
E-ports cannot be used to form stack trunk links.
Limitations
•
•
•
•
IBM Networking OS supports ISL distance up to 3 kms.
E_ports can be configured only on IBM System Networking IBM Flex System
Fabric CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch and IBM Flex System Fabric
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch. E_ports cannot interoperate with the
switches from other vendors.
A maximum of eight switches are supported in a Fibre Channel fabric.
A maximum of four E_ports can be configured on a switch.
Fibre Channel VLANs
On the CN4093, each Fibre Channel network connected to the switch must be
assigned its own VLAN. For each VLAN used with Fibre Channel, following
properties must be defined:
• VLAN number
• Switch role (NPV mode or full fabric mode)
• Port membership
• Fibre Channel ports roles (as uplink ports or node connections)
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The following commands are used to define a typical VLAN:
• Set or delete a VLAN
CN 4093(config)# [no] vlan <VLAN number>
FCoE networks typically use VLAN 1002. If using a different VLAN for FCoE, be
sure that any connected servers and FCoE bridge will support your selection.
This command initiates VLAN configuration mode. All VLAN-related Fibre
Channel configuration is performed in this mode.
•
Enable or disable the VLAN
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] enable
•
Exit VLAN configuration mode
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
Switching Mode
The switch’s role in the Fibre Channel network can be defined on a per-VLAN basis.
The administrator can specify one of the following modes:
• NPV mode to uplink one or more nodes to a full fabric switch
• Full fabric mode
The CN4093 supports up to 12 Fibre Channel VLANs at any given time. Only one
mode can be active on any specific VLAN at a given time, and only one VLAN can
operate in full fabric mode.
From within VLAN configuration mode, the following commands are used to specify
the Fibre Channel mode:
• To enable or disable NPV mode:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] npv enable
•
To enable or disable full fabric mode:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] fcf enable
Note: When either NPV or full fabric mode are enabled, VLAN tagging is
automatically enabled on the VLAN.
Port Membership
As with typical VLAN configuration, each VLAN used with a Fibre Channel network
must include a description of its port members. VLANs used in Fibre Channel
networks follow typical VLAN configuration rules (see “VLANs” on page 111), with
the following additions:
• A ports may belong to only one Fibre Channel VLAN.
• VLAN tagging is automatically enabled for VLANs where NPV mode or full fabric
mode is enabled.
• At least one Fibre Channel port must be included in each Fibre Channel VLAN.
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From within VLAN configuration mode, the following command is used to add or
remove port members:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] member <port number, alias, list, or range>
For example:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] member inta5,intb5,intc5,ext11-ext12
Note: When using port aliases to specify a small range of internal ports, the aliases
are converted to regular port numbers before applying the range. For
example, specifying inta5-intc5 (mixing A and C aliases) would result in
a broad range than includes all ports between 5 (INTA5) and 33 (INTC5),
and not just the lesser group of INTA5, INTB5, and INTC5.
Port Traffic Mapping
Within each VLAN used with Fibre Channel, the physical ports may be used in the
following roles:
• NPV External Interfaces
All NPV gateways on the CN4093 must connect to a full fabric switch. The NPV
external interface map specifies which Fibre Channel port or ports (IBM Omni
Ports set to Fibre Channel mode) are used for this purpose within each Fibre
Channel VLAN. At least one Fibre Channel port is required, though two are
typically used in order to provide redundancy. The following VLAN configuration
command is used to define or remove the uplink:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# [no] npv traffic-map external-interface <ports>
•
Fibre Channel over Ethernet node
Traffic from Ethernet ports which are properly configured to use CEE and FCoE
(see “FCoE and CEE” on page 259) is permitted with no additional configuration.
•
Ethernet
Traffic on regular (non-FCoE) Ethernet ports will be blocked on Fibre Channel
VLANs.
Full Fabric Zoning
The CN4093 supports Fibre Channel zones and zonesets for VLANs operating in
full fabric mode. In NPV gateway mode, zoning is controlled by the upstream full
fabric switch and is not configurable in the NPV gateway VLAN.
Zoning allows logical grouping of ports and storage devices within a storage area
network. Zoning defines access control between groups of servers and storage
devices.
A SAN typically is divided into zones and zonesets, as described in the following
sections.
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Zones
A zone is a logical grouping of end nodes that are permitted to interact with each
other. Zones can be grouped into a zonesets, which can be activated or deactivated
as a single entity. A zone provides security by restricting access to only those
devices that reside within the zone. Zoning also confines change notification floods
within each zone.
Each zone contains one or more servers and one or more storage devices. Ports
and devices in a zone are called zone members. A zone contains one or more zone
members. A device can belong to one or more zones. End nodes that are members
of a zone can communicate with each other, but they are isolated from nodes in
other zones of which they are not a member.
If no zone is configured for the device, it resides in the default zone. You can
configure the default zone to permit or deny its member devices to communicate
with each other.
You can specify zone members based on any of the following criteria:
• pWWN: The port World Wide Number is a unique ID represting a particular end
node. The pWWN is a 64-bit hexadecimal value (for example,
20:34:00:80:e5:23:f4:55)
• FC ID: The Fibre Channel identifier (FC ID) specifies the unique fabric domain ID
of a device that connects to a node port on the switch. The FC ID is assigned by
the full-fabric switch during the connection sequence and can change if the
device logs out of the Fibre Channel fabric and returns. The FC ID is a 24-bit
hexadecimal value (for example, 0xab00c1), but can also be specified in
hexadecimal dotted notation (for example, ab.00.c1) generally representing
<domain or device>.<area>.<link>
• FC alias: The Fibre Channel alias specifies the device that connects to a node
port on the switch. The FC alias is a 1-64 character text value (for example,
StorageOne).
Note: When you create an FC alias using SNMP, a default pWWN of value
10:00:00:00:00:00:00:00 is automatically assigned to the FC alias.
You must change this default pWWN value. Not doing so will result in
a conflict of pWWN IDs the next time you try to create an FC alias.
Note: The CN4093 uses hard zoning, which is enforced in the switch hardware,
based on the pWWNs of the Fibre Channel initiators and targets.
The CN4093 supports up the 64 zones per zoneset, each with up to 20 member
devices. However, when an FC alias is used, only 10 devices can be members of a
zone.
Zonesets
Zonesets provide a mechanism for conveniently grouping zones. Each zoneset can
contain one or more zones. A zone can belong to one or more zonesets.
Only one zoneset can be activated at a given time. If you deactivate the active
zoneset, no zonesets are active until you activate another zoneset. If you activate
one zoneset while another zoneset is active, the currently active zoneset is
deactivated.
When you activate a zoneset, the new zoneset access policies are applied.
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Up to four zonesets can be configurated on the switch at any given time, though
only one can be active.
Defining Zoning
Define the following general properties for Fibre Channel zones and zonesets:
1. If desired, create (or remove) aliases for Fibre Channel devices:
CN 4093(config)# [no] fcalias <device alias name> wwn <port World Wide Name>
Repeat for each alias as necessary.
2. For each desired zone:
a. Name (or remove) the zone.
CN 4093(config)# [no] zone name <zone name>
b. Add (or remove) one or more members to the zone using either pWWNs, FC
IDs, or FC Aliases
CN 4093(config-zone)# [no] member pwwn <port World Wide Name>
CN 4093(config-zone)# [no] member fcid <Fibre Channel ID>
CN 4093(config-zone)# [no] member fcalias <device alias name>
Repeat as necessary for each member device.
c. Exit from zone configuration:
CN 4093(config-zone)# exit
3. For each desired zoneset:
a. Name (or remove) the zoneset.
CN 4093(config)# [no] zoneset name <zoneset name>
b. Add (or remove) one or more member zones to the zoneset:
CN 4093(config-zoneset)# [no] member <zone name>
Repeat as necessary for each member zone.
c. Exit from zoneset configuration:
CN 4093(config-zone)# exit
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Changing the Active Zoneset
Fibre Channel is intended to operate with minimal disruption. To prevent the various
synchronization events that would result if each stage of a live zoning configuration
was applied, the cumulative configuration changes for zones and zoneset are held
in reserve until explicitly activated by the administrator.
When activated, the new zoneset will be synchronized throughout the Fibre
Channel fabric for each modified zone. Fibre Channel traffic will be temporarily
disrupted in modified zones as changes to the fabric are recognized by the
connected devices. Until activation, the previously established zoneset will remain
in effect.
The basic zoneset commands are as follows:
• Activate or deactivate a zoneset:
CN 4093(config)# [no] zoneset activate name <zoneset name>
•
View the settings for the active zoneset:
CN 4093# show zoneset active
•
View the settings for the pending configuration changes:
CN 4093# show zoneset
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Storage Management Initiative Specification (SMI-S)
IBM Networking OS provides a programming interface using the SMI-S to ease
interoperability in a multivendor SAN environment. In this release, only limited
support is provided. The CN4093 switch must be operating in full fabric mode.
An embedded SMI-S agent runs on the CN4093 and includes standard profiles as
specified in the SMI-S. These profiles include:
• Fabric Profile
• Indication Profile
• Server Profile
• Switch Profile
Configuration capabilities of switch, fabric, or ports is not supported. Zoning control
can be implemented and includes the following functions:
• Session control (start, commit, and rollback)
• Zoning updates
• Create and destroy zone set, zone, and zone alias
• Add/Remove zone to zone set, zone alias, or port WWN to zone and port WWN
to zone alias
• Activate and deactivate zoneset
The IBM Director (includes Tivoli Storage Productivity Center (TPC)) is used to
configure and administer the fibre channel fabric. Connection with the SMI-S agent
can be established via IPv4 or IPv6 management interface using HTTP/HTTPS.
Use the following link:
http://<Management IP address>:5988
(OR)
https://<Management IP address>:5989
The namespace for the SMI-S agent is root/interop.
You will need to authenticate using the login and password configured for the switch.
Restrictions
The current implementation of SMI-S does not support the following:
• NPIV mode
• Switch port zoming
• Zone configuration on the switch that uses FC IDs instead of port WWNs.
Note: The CLI commands may be available, but the zone configuration will not be
applied.
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Fibre Channel Configuration
Configuration Guidelines
In IBM Networking OS 7.8, consider the following when configuring Fibre Channel
on the CN4093:
• Up to 12 Fibre Channel networks (on separate VLANs) are supported.
• Only one Fibre Channel VLAN can operate in full fabric mode at any given time.
All others can operate as NPV gateways.
• Only IBM Omni Ports (EXT11-EXT22) can be placed in Fibre Channel mode. All
other ports operate in Ethernet mode, which may participate in Fibre Channel
networks as FCoE nodes.
• At least one IBM Omni Port is required to operate in Fibre Channel mode in each
Fibre Channel VLAN.
• Zones and zonesets apply only to a VLAN in full fabric mode. Up to 4 zonesets
may be configured, but only 1 can be active at any given time. The CN4093
supports up the 64 zones per zoneset, each with up to 20 member devices.
However, when an FC alias is used, only 10 devices can be members of a zone.
• In a stack setup, the full fabric mode or NPV gateway mode is bound to a single
switch, as determined by the external FC ports in the VLAN. All FC ports
belonging to a Fibre Channel VLAN must be part of the same switch. Both full
fabric mode and NPV mode can be configured on the Master as well as the
Backup switch. For details on configuring a stack, see Chapter 14, “Stacking”.
Example 1: NPV Gateway
In this example, the CN4093 operates as an NPV gateway:
Figure 35. Using the CN4093 as an NPV Gateway
Storage Area
Network
Full Fabric
Switch
INTA1
EXT11
IBM
INTA2
Converged
Switch
INTA3
FCoE
EXT12
FCoE
INTA4
FCoE
FCoE
IBM Chassis
The switch connects to FCoE node ports to an external Fibre Channel full fabric
switch. Because multiple nodes will share the CN4093 uplinks, the network must be
configured as an NPV gateway.
Note: Up to 12 Fibre Channel VLANs can be configured on the switch at any given
time, any or all of which can be configured as NPV gateways.
1. Specify which IBM Omni Ports are directly connected to Fibre Channel devices:
CN 4093(config)# system port ext11-ext12 type fc
Note: On the CN4093, FC devices can be connected only to IBM Omni Ports. IBM
Omni Ports connected to FCoE devices are considered part of the Ethernet
network and should be left to operate in Ethernet mode.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 19: Fibre Channel
297
2. Enable tagging/trunk mode for internal ports participating in FCoE:
CN 4093(config)# interface port inta1-inta4
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
3. Specify a VLAN for this Fibre Channel network:
CN 4093(config)# vlan 1002
4. Enable NPV mode on the VLAN:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# npv enable
5. Specify all member ports for the VLAN:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# member inta1-inta4, ext11-ext12
6. Specify which external ports are connected to the upstream Fibre Channel full
fabric switch:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# npv traffic-map external-interface ext11-ext12
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
Note: Although this example depicts two Fibre Channel ports connected to the
upstream device, this is done for the sake of network redundancy. Only one
Fibre Channel port is actually required.
7. Remove unused ports—ports that are not part of the uplink to the Fibre
Channel fabric—from the NPV VLAN.
Example 2: Full Fabric FC/FCoE Switch
Consider the following Fibre Channel network:
Figure 36. Using the CN4093 as a Full Fabric FC/FCoE Switch
Fibre Channel
Storage
Fibre Channel
Server
Zone1/2
Zone1
INTA5
EXT13
IBM
INTA6
Converged
Switch
INTA7
FCoE
Zone1
FCoE
Zone1
FCoE
Zone2
EXT14
FCoE
Zone2
INTA8
IBM Chassis
In this example network, the CN4093 acts as the full fabric switch for the Fibre
Channel network in two zones.
Note: Although up to 12 Fibre Channel VLANs can be configured on the switch at
any given time, only one can operate in full fabric mode. The rest may be
configured as NPV gateways. For instance, the full fabric configuration in
this example can be used simultaneously with up to 11 NPV gateways
configured as shown in the NPV example on page 298.
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1. Specify which IBM Omni Ports will be used for Fibre Channel devices:
CN 4093(config)# system port ext13-ext14 type fc
Note: On the CN4093, Fibre Channel devices can be connected only to IBM Omni
Ports. IBM Omni Ports connected to FCoE devices are considered part of
the Ethernet network and should be left to operate in Ethernet mode.
2. Enable tagging/trunk mode for internal ports participating in FCoE:
CN 4093(config)# interface port inta5-inta8
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
3. Specify a VLAN for the this Fibre Channel network:
CN 4093(config)# vlan 200
4. Specify all member ports for the VLAN:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# member inta5-inta8, ext13-ext14
Note: At least one Fibre Channel port must be included.
5. Enable full fabric mode on the VLAN:
CN 4093(config-vlan)# fcf enable
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
6. Define Fibre Channel zones:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)# zone name Zone1
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:23:b1:55
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:27:f4:56
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:31:13
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:31:14
4093(config-zone)# exit
4093(config)# zone name Zone2
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:43:57
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:18:b3:58
4093(config-zone)# member pwwn 20:34:00:80:e5:28:31:13
4093(config-zone)# exit
4093(config)# zoneset name City1
4093(config-zoneset)# member Zone1
4093(config-zoneset)# member Zone2
4093(config-zoneset)# exit
4093(config)# zoneset activate name City1
Chapter 19: Fibre Channel
299
Fibre Channel Standard Protocols Supported
Following table lists the standard FC protocols supported on the CN4093 10Gb
Converged Scalable Switch.
Table 32. FC Protocols Supported
Protocol
Fibre Channel FCoE · T11 FCoE Initialization Protocol (FIP) (FC-BB-5)
Fibre Channel forwarding (FCF)
Port Types Fibre Channel:
F, NP, VF
E (N/OS 7.8 onwards)
Sixteen Buffer credits supported:
Fabric Device Management Interface (FDMI)
NPIV
NPV Gateway
Fabric Shortest Path First (FSPF)
Port security
Fibre Channel ping, debugging
Fibre Channel Standards · FC-PH, Revision 4.3 (ANSI/INCITS 230-1994)
FC-PH, Amendment 1 (ANSI/INCITS 230-1994/AM1 1996)
FC-PH, Amendment 2 (ANSI/INCITS 230-1994/AM2-1999)
FC-PH-2, Revision 7.4 (ANSI/INCITS 297-1997)
FC-PH-3, Revision 9.4 (ANSI/INCITS 303-1998)
FC-PI, Revision 13 (ANSI/INCITS 352-2002)
FC-PI-2, Revision 10 (ANSI/INCITS 404-2006)
FC-PI-4, Revision 7.0
FC-FS, Revision 1.9 (ANSI/INCITS 373-2003)
FC-FS-2, Revision 0.91
FC_FS_3 Revision 1.11
FC-LS, Revision 1.2
FC-SW-2, Revision 5.3 (ANSI/INCITS 355-2001)
FC-SW-3, Revision 6.6 (ANSI/INCITS 384-2004)
FC-SW-5, Revision 8.5 (ANSI/INCITS 461-2010)
FC-GS-3, Revision 7.01 (ANSI/INCITS 348-2001)
FC-GS-4, Revision 7.91 (ANSI/INCITS 387-2004)
FC-GS-6 Revision 9.4 (ANSI/INCITS 463-2010)
FC-BB-5, Revision 2.0 for FCoE
FCP, Revision 12 (ANSI/INCITS 269-1996)
FCP-2, Revision 8 (ANSI/INCITS 350-2003)
FCP-3, Revision 4 (ANSI/INCITS 416-2006)
FC-MI, Revision 1.92 (INCITS TR-30-2002, except for FL-ports and Class 2)
FC-MI-2, Revision 2.6 (INCITS TR-39-2005)
FC-SP, Revision 1.6
FC-DA, Revision 3.1 (INCITS TR-36-2004)
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Chapter 20. Edge Virtual Bridging
The 802.1Qbg/Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB) is an emerging IEEE standard for
allowing networks to become virtual machine (VM)-aware. EVB bridges the gap
between physical and virtual network resources. The IEEE 802.1Qbg simplifies
network management by providing a standards-based protocol that defines how
virtual Ethernet bridges exchange configuration information. In EVB environments,
virtual NIC (vNIC) configuration information is available to EVB devices. This
information is generally not available to an 802.1Q bridge.
IBM Networking OS EVB features are compliant with the IEEE 802.1Qbg Authors
Group Draft 0.2. For a list of documents on this feature, see:
http://www.ieee802.org/1/pages/802.1bg.html.
IBM Networking OS implementation of EVB supports the following protocols:
• Virtual Ethernet Bridging (VEB) and Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator (VEPA):
VEB and VEPA are mechanisms for switching between VMs on the same
hypervisor. VEB enables switching with the server, either in the software
(vSwitch), or in the hardware (using single root I/O virtualization capable NICs).
VEPA requires the edge switch to support “Reflective Relay”— an operation
where the switch forwards a frame back to the port on which it arrived if the
destination MAC address is on the same port.
• Edge Control Protocol (ECP): ECP is a transport protocol that operates between
two peers over an IEEE 802 LAN. ECP provides reliable, in-order delivery of ULP
(Upper Layer Protocol) PDUs (Protocol Data Units).
• Virtual Station Interface (VSI) Discovery and Configuration Protocol (VDP): VDP
allows hypervisors to advertise VSIs to the physical network. This protocol also
allows centralized configuration of network policies that will persist with the VM,
independent of its location.
• EVB Type-Length-Value (TLV): EVB TLV is a component of Link Layer Discovery
protocol (LLDP)-based TLV used to discover and configure VEPA, ECP, and
VDP.
EVB Operations Overview
The N/OS includes a pre-standards VSI Type Database (VSIDB) implemented
through the System Networking Switch Center (SNSC), the IBM Flex System
Manager (FSM), or the IBM System Networking Distributed Switch 5000V. The
VSIDB is the central repository for defining sets of network policies that apply to VM
network ports. You can configure only one VSIDB.
Note: This document does not include the VSIDB configuration details. Please see
the SNSC, FSM, or IBM System Networking Distributed Switch 5000V guide
for details on how to configure VSIDB.
The VSIDB operates in the following sequence:
1. Define VSI types in the VSIDB. The VSIDB exports the database when the
CN4093 sends a request.
2. Create a VM. Specify VSI type for each VM interface. See the SNSC, FSM, or
IBM System Networking Distributed Switch 5000V guide for details on how to
specify the VSI type.
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Chapter 20: Edge Virtual Bridging
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The hypervisor sends a VSI ASSOCIATE, which contains the VSI type ID, to the
switch port after the VM is started. The switch updates its configuration based on the
requested VSI type. The switch configures the per-VM bandwidth using the
VMpolicy.
The IBM Networking OS supports the following policies for VMs:
• ACLs
• Bandwidth metering
VSIDB Synchronization
The switch periodically checks for VSIDB changes based on the configured interval.
You can configure this interval using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# virt evb vsidb <number>
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# update-interval <time in seconds>
To disable periodic updates, configure the interval value as 0.
If the switch finds that the VSIDB has changed, it updates the local VSIDB cache.
When the cache is successfully updated, it sends a syslog message.
After updating the local VSIDB cache, the switch disassociates any VM whose type
ID or VLAN no longer exists in the updated cache.
The switch updates the local VSIDB cache when any of the following takes place:
• When, at the configured refresh interval, the switch finds that the VSIDB
configuration has changed since the last poll.
• When a VM sends an ASSOCIATE message, but the VSI type does not exist in
the local VSIDB cache.
• When a VM sends an ASSOCIATE message, and the VSI type exists but the VSI
type’s VLAN ID does not exist in the local VSIDB cache.
• When you update the VSIDB using the following command:
CN 4093# virt evb update vsidb <number>
• When the management port link status changes from down to up.
VLAN Behavior
When a VM gets associated, the corresponding VLAN is dynamically created on the
switch port if the VLAN does not already exist.
VLANs that are dynamically created will be automatically removed from the switch
port when there are no VMs using that VLAN on the port.
Dynamic VLAN information will not be displayed in the running configuration.
However, the VLAN, port, and STP commands display the dynamic VLAN
information with a “*”.
If you configure any Layer 2/Layer 3 features on dynamically created VLANs, the
VLAN information is displayed in the running configuration.
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Deleting a VLAN
If you delete a VLAN that has a VM associated with it, you will see a warning
message similar to the following:
Warning: Vlan 10 is used by VM and can’t be removed.
The VMs will not get disassociated.If a VM is associated with a port, and you
remove this port from a VLAN, you will see a warning message similar to the
following:
Warning: Port INTB1 in Vlan 10 is used by VM and can’t be removed.
The VMs will not get disassociated.
Manual Reflective Relay
Reflective Relay (RR) is an operation where the switch forwards a frame back to the
port on which it arrived if the destination MAC address is on the same port. When an
EVB profile is configured on a port, RR is automatically enabled on the port after
capability exchange with the peer, using the IEEE802.1QBG protocol. This is the
usual mode of operation.
When the switch interoperates with devices that do not support IEEE 802.1QBG
protocols, RR can be manually configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config-if)# reflective-relay force
Manual RR and EVB profile cannot be configured on a port at the same time.
Note: If a port is a member of an isolated VLAN, the manual reflective relay will not
work. See “Private VLANs” on page 127 for more information on isolated
VLANs.
EVB Configuration
This section includes the steps to configure EVB based on the following values:
• Profile number: 1
• Port number: 1
• Retry interval: 8000 milliseconds
• VSI Database:
– Manager IP: 172.31.37.187
– Port: 80
Note: VSI Database can be accessed via HTTP or HTTPS. The manager IP can
be configured with an IPv4 or IPv6 address.
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1. Create an EVB profile.
CN 4093(config)# virt evb profile 1
(Enter number from 1-16)
2. Enable Reflective Relay.
CN 4093(conf-evbprof)# reflective-relay
3. Enable VSI discovery.
CN 4093(conf-evbprof)# vsi-discovery
CN 4093(conf-evbprof)# exit
4. Add EVB profile to port.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1
CN 4093(config-if)# evb profile 1
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
(Enter EVB profile ID)
5. Configure ECP retransmission interval.
CN 4093(config)# ecp retransmit-interval 8000
(Enter retransmission interval in milliseconds (100-9000)
6. Set VSI database information.
CN 4093(config)# virt evb vsidb 1
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# protocol {http|https} (Select VSI database protocol; default is HTTP)
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# host 172.31.37.187 [data-port|extm-port|mgt-port]
(Set VSI database Manager IP)
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# port 80
(Set VSI database Manager port)
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# filepath “vsidb”
(Set VSI database document path)
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# filename “all.xml”
(Set VSI database file name)
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# update-interval 30
(Set update interval in seconds)
CN 4093(conf-vsidb)# exit
Note: When you connect to a SNSC VSIDB, the port/docpath configuration is as
follows:
HTTP:
• Port: 40080
• Docpath: snsc/rest/vsitypes
HTTPS:
• Port: 40443
• Docpath: snsc/rest/vsitypes
When you connect to a 5000v VSIDB, the port/docpath configuration is as
follows:
• Port: 80
• Docpath: vsitypes
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Configuring EVB in Stacking Mode
This section is applicable only to CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch.
A stack is a group of up to [eight] CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch
switches with IBM Networking OS that work together as a unified system. The
switches in a stack are interconnected by a stack trunk in a local ring topology.
An operational stack must contain one Master and one or more Members, as
follows:
• Master
One switch controls the operation of the stack and is called the Master. The
Master provides a single point to manage the stack. A stack must have one and
only one Master. The firmware image, configuration information, and run-time
data are maintained by the Master and pushed to each switch in the stack as
necessary.
•
Member
Member switches provide additional port capacity to the stack. Members receive
configuration changes, run-time information, and software updates from the
Master.
•
Backup
One member switch can be designated as a Backup to the Master. The Backup
takes over control of the stack if the Master fails. Configuration information and
run-time data are synchronized with the Master.
For details on implementing the stacking feature, see “Stacking” on page 199.
EVB can be configured on any port in the stack. Use the Master to configure EVB on
a port in the stack. The port numbers in a stack use the following format:
<switch number>:<port number>
Configure VSIDB on a data or management port that resides on the Master.
The Master process the EVB-related information for all the switch ports in a stack.
The Master performs the VSIDB synchronization (See “VSIDB Synchronization” on
page 302). The Master synchronizes all EVB changes with the Backup.
If the Master fails, the Backup takes over control of the stack. The VSI associations
on the Master ports are lost. All other VSI associations remain unchanged.
Limitations
•
•
If both ACL and egress bandwidth metering are enabled, traffic will first be
matched with the ACL and will not be limited by bandwidth metering.
ACLs based on a source MAC or VLAN must match the source MAC and VLAN
of the VM. If not, the policy will be ignored and you will see the following warning
message:
"vm: VSI Type ID 100 Associated mac 00:50:56:b6:c0:ff on port 6,
ignore 1 mismatched ACL"
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 20: Edge Virtual Bridging
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Unsupported features
The following features are not supported on ports configured with EVB:
• LAG/VLAG
• vNIC
• VMready
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Chapter 21. Static Multicast ARP
The Microsoft Windows operating system includes the Network Load Balancing
(NLB) technology that helps to balance incoming IP traffic among multi-node
clusters. In multicast mode, NLB uses a shared multicast MAC address with a
unicast IP address. Since the address resolution protocol (ARP) can map an IP
address to only one MAC address, port, and VLAN, the packet reaches only one of
the servers (the one attached to the port on which the ARP was learnt).
To avoid the ARP resolution, you must create a static ARP entry with multicast MAC
address. You must also specify the list of ports through which the multicast packet
must be sent out from the gateway or Layer 2/Layer 3 node.
With these configurations, a packet with a unicast IPv4 destination address and
multicast MAC address can be sent out as per the multicast MAC address
configuration. NLB maps the unicast IP address and multicast MAC address as
follows:
Cluster multicast MAC address: 03-BF-W-X-Y-Z; where W.X.Y.Z is the
cluster unicast IP address.
You must configure the static multicast ARP entry only at the Layer 2/Layer 3 or
Router node, and not at the Layer 2-only node.
IBM Networking OS supports a maximum of 20 static multicast ARP entries.
Note: If you use the ACL profile or IPMC-OPT profile, an ACL entry is consumed
for each Static Multicast ARP entry that you configure. Hence, you can
configure a maximum of 256 ACL and multicast MAC entries together.The
ACL entries have a higher priority. In the default profile, the number of static
multicast ARP entries that you configure does not affect the total number of
ACL entries.
Configuring Static Multicast ARP
To configure multicast MAC ARP, you must perform the following steps:
• Configure the static multicast forwarding database (FDB) entry: Since there is no
port list specified for static multicast ARP, and the associated MAC address is
multicast, you must specify a static multicast FDB entry for the cluster MAC
address to limit the multicast domain. If there is no static multicast FDB entry
defined for the cluster MAC address, traffic will not be forwarded. Use the
following command:
CN 4093(config)# mac-address-table multicast <cluster MAC address> <port(s)>
•
Configure the static multicast ARP entry: Multicast ARP static entries should be
configured without specifying the list of ports to be used. Use the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# ip arp <destination unicast IP address> <destination multicast MAC
address> vlan <cluster VLAN number>
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 21: Static Multicast ARP
307
Configuration Example
Consider the following example:
• Cluster unicast IP address: 10.10.10.42
• Cluster multicast MAC address: 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A
• Cluster VLAN: 42
• List of individual or port trunks to which traffic should be forwarded: 54 and 56
Following are the steps to configure the static multicast ARP based on the given
example:
1. Configure the static multicast FDB entry.
CN 4093(config)# mac-address-table multicast 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A 42
54,56
2. Configure the static multicast ARP entry:
CN 4093(config)# ip arp 10.10.10.42 03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A vlan 42
You can verify the configuration using the following commands:
• Verify static multicast FDB entry:
CN 4093(config)# show mac-address-table multicast address
03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A
Multicast Address
----------------03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A
•
VLAN
---42
Port(s)
--------54 56
Verify static multicast ARP entry:
CN 4093(config)# show ip arp
Current ARP configuration:
rearp 5
Current static ARP:
ip
mac
port vlan
--------------- ----------------- ----- ---10.10.10.42
03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A
42
---------------------------------------------Total number of arp entries : 2
IP address
Flags
MAC address
VLAN
--------------- ----- ----------------- ---10.10.10.1
P
fc:cf:62:9d:74:00
42
10.10.10.42
P
03:bf:0A:0A:0A:2A
42
Limitations
•
•
•
308
Age Port
--- ---0
You must configure the ARP only in the Layer 2/Layer 3 node or the router node
but not in the Layer 2-only node. IBM Networking OS cannot validate if the node
is Layer 2-only.
The packet is always forwarded to all the ports as specified in the Multicast MAC
address configuration. If VLAN membership changes for the ports, you must
update this static multicast MAC entry. If not, the ports, whose membership has
changed, will report discards.
ACLs take precedence over static multicast ARP. If an ACL is configured to
match and permit ingress of unicast traffic, the traffic will be forwarded based on
the ACL rule, and the static multicast ARP will be ignored.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 22. Unified Fabric Port
Unified Fabric Port (UFP) is a cost-effective way to allocate, share and dynamically
control network bandwidth between a server and a switch. UFP lets you create
multiple virtual connections. The UFP protocol is a link-level protocol that runs a
separate instance for each physical communication link established between a
server NIC and a switch port. Virtualizing the ports allows you to separate or
aggregate port traffic by applying the network policies defined on the switch.
Virtualization lessens bottlenecks and provides higher bandwidth while
consolidating equipment use.
UFP provides a switch fabric component to control NICs. The server operating
system (OS) or hypervisor recognizes each subdivided link (channel) as an
independent physical NIC. Each channel has a unique identity and profile that
defines its properties and functionality. The server communicates with the switch
over the channel as defined in the channel profile. The channels share the
high-speed physical link bandwidth.
For each channel, the vNIC on the server side communicates with virtual port on the
switch side. Any 10 Gbps internal server port can be configured as an UFP port.
Figure 37. UFP vPorts
Blade Server
NIC
VNIC
Physical
NIC Port
Internal
Switch Port
vPort
VNIC
OS or
Hypervisor VNIC
vPort
VNIC
vPort
IBM
Switch
vPort
The UFP protocol has the following operation categories:
• Channel Initialization: The server NIC and the switch port negotiate the number
of channels and establish channel identifiers. Each UFP channel has a data
component and a control component. The two components have the same UFP
channel ID.
• Channel Control: For an established channel, the switch can modify channel
properties by sending a control message on the UFP channel. While the channel
ID is the same for the control and data components, the destination MAC
address of the control message frame is a well-known address.
• Discovery Capability: UFP can discover other ports that are UFP enabled. Once
you enable UFP, you can check the information statistics for established
channels.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 22: Unified Fabric Port
309
UFP Limitations
The following limitations apply when configuring UFP:
• FCoE must be configured only on vPort 2 of the physical NIC.
• UFP port in FCoE mode cannot operate with FIP auto-VLAN feature.
• VLANs that have member vPorts configured in trunk-, access-, or auto-modes
cannot have member vPorts configured in tunnel mode or FCoE.
• vPorts on a physical port must be members of separate VLANs.
• VLANs 4002-4005 are reserved for outer tagging.
• VLAN translation is not applied on egress ports that have UFP enabled but no
vPorts configured in trunk-, access-, or auto-modes.
• UFP bandwidth is guaranteed lossless only for unicast traffic.
• VMready is supported only on a vPort which is configure in auto-VLAN mode.
When a vPort is in auto-VLAN mode, it can support up to 32 VMGroups.
• EVB is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto-VLAN mode.
• VMready and EVB cannot be configured on the same physical port.
• UFP vPorts can support up to 256 VLANs.
• When CEE is turned on, FCoE vPort must be used for lossless priority traffic. For
loss-tolerant priority traffic, a non-FCoE UFP vPort must be used. The lossless
property of FCoE vPort is not guaranteed, if lossless and loss-tolerant traffic are
combined.
• When the vPort is enabled and the channel link state is up, the system does not
support changing vPort VLAN type from private/non-private to
non-private/private.
• When integrating with private VLANs, UFP is not supported in stacking mode.
• A maximum of four vPorts can be configured for each physical switch port.
• UFP and vNIC cannot be configured enabled at the same time on a switch.
• VMReady Local Group configuration is not supported by UFP.
• UFP vPorts cannot be aggregated to form a VLAG client
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Virtual Ports Modes
A single physical switch port is configured with virtual ports (vPorts). Each UFP
channel connects the server NIC with a switch vPort. Properties that are defined for
a vPort, such as native VLAN and bandwidth, are applied to the traffic that belongs
to the vPort.
Note: A maximum of four vPorts can be configured for each physical switch port.
vPort-S-Tag Mapping
A vPort can also be identified with an S-tag (service tag or outer tag). When a vPort
is initialized, the switch communicates the UFP channel ID of the vPort to the server
NIC. When the server NIC or switch transmit frames, they add this S-tag to indicate
the vPort or vNIC to which the packet is being transmitted. No VLAN mapping is
required. Such packets can be single tagged or double tagged (with S-tag).
vPort-VLAN Mapping
In local domain data path type, the switch and server identify the vPort and vNIC by
the port and VLAN tag in the incoming and outgoing packets. Because no two
vPorts carry traffic for the same VLAN, the port-and-VLAN combination must be
uniquely mapped to a vPort.
UFP vPort Mode
The UFP mode is configured based on the type of switching domain (single VLAN or
multiple VLANs) where the vPort is connected.
• Use local domain data path types for trunk or access mode.
• Use pass-through domain data path types for tunnel mode. In tunnel mode, a
vPort can belong to only one VLAN.
Use the following command to configure UFP vPort mode:
CN 4093(config)# ufp port <num> vport <num>
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode {access|trunk|auto|tunnel|fcoe}
Default mode is ‘tunnel’
Tunnel Mode
In tunnel mode, a vPort can belong to only one VLAN. An outer tag with the vPort’s
VLAN ID is inserted in packets that egress the vPort. The inner VLAN tag remains
unchanged. The switch processes packets based on the outer tag. When all the
ports or vPorts that belong to a particular VLAN are placed in tunnel mode, they
belong to one pass-through domain.
Use tunnel mode to send all VM data traffic to an upstream switch, for Layer 2 or
Layer 3 processing, in one domain. In such cases, the UFP port or vPort must be in
tunnel mode and the upstream switch port must be in 802.1Q trunk mode.
Note: Two vPorts on a physical port cannot be members of the same VLAN.
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Figure 38. Packet pass-through in Tunnel Mode
vNICs
Server
OS/Hypervisor
Regular
VLAN ID
vPorts
Ports without
vNICs
IBM Switch
NIC
NIC attaches UFP
Channel VLAN ID
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch strips
outer tag
Outer tag sets vNIC;
NIC strips outer tag
Switching uses outer tag;
Ignores regular VLAN
Switch adds outer
Channel VLAN ID
Outbound
Packet
Inbound
Packet
802.1Q Trunk Mode
In trunk mode, a vPort can carry packets that have inner tags that belong to up to
256 VLANs. A maximum of 2048 VLANs for all UFP vPorts can be configured on the
switch in stand-alone mode. Each VLAN in the inner tag requires a VLAN translation
entry.
Note: Two vPorts operating in trunk mode on the same physical port cannot carry
the same set of VLANs in the inner tag.
Figure 39. Packet passing through in Trunk Mode
vNIC
Server
OS/Hypervisor
Regular
VLAN IDs
vPort
IBM Switch
NIC
NIC attaches UFP
Channel VLAN ID
VLAN
Translation
VLAN
Classification
Ports without
vNICs
Switch strips
outer tag
Outbound
Packet
Access Mode
In access mode, a vPort carries packets with inner tags that belong to one VLAN.
The vPort is associated with the VLAN defined by the command:
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan <2-4094>
Note: VLANs 4002-4005 are reserved for outer tagging.
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FCoE Mode
FCoE traffic is carried by a vPort. The server-side endpoint of this virtual port will be
represented through a FC vHBA. Setting a virtual port in FCoE mode will enable
Priority-based Flow Control (PFC) on the physical port.
A vPort configured in FCoE mode can only be attached to a Fibre Channel (FC)
VLAN. Only vPort 2 on a physical port can be configured in FCoE mode. A vPort in
FCoE mode operates as a local domain data path type with packets being single
tagged.
Auto-VLAN Mode
When a vPort is configured in auto-VLAN mode, the vPort participates in VM
discovery using VMready or 802.1Qbg. VLANs are dynamically provisioned based
on VMready discovery or 802.1Qbg VM association.
When a vPort operates in auto-VLAN mode, it supports 32 VM groups. In the case
of 802.1Qbg, when a vPort operates in auto-VLAN mode, the maximum number of
VLANs in the inner tag are 256. The vPort cannot be configured in Virtual Ethernet
Port Aggregator (VEPA) mode.
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UFP Bandwidth Provisioning
UFP provides one mode of bandwidth provisioning for vPort: Strict Bandwidth
Provisioning Mode.
UFP Strict Bandwidth Provisioning Mode
Strict bandwidth provisioning mode configures the switch and NIC apply
bidirectional bandwidth control on the vPort as per the defined configuration. By
default, a bandwidth of 2.5 Gbps per vPort is guaranteed. If other vPorts are idle, the
bandwidth of a vPort can be up to 10 Gbps. A minimum bandwidth of 1 Gbps is
provisioned, which can be raised by 100 Mbps increments. The sum of the minimum
bandwidth guaranteed for all vPorts together cannot exceed the capacity of the
physical link. A vPort can also be configured with a maximum bandwidth.
This mode works with the port scheduler to avoid unintended packet drops due to
policing through EFP metering block. If flow control is enabled, the switch provides a
no-drop packet forwarding behavior, which improves end-to-end TCP-throughput
performance.
Note: If a vPort is configured with low upper limit, it might lead to head-of-line
congestion on the egress port.
By default, uplink ports have a separate traffic class for storage traffic with
guaranteed bandwidth. The rest of the bandwidth is shared equally among other
traffic.
Use the following command to configure strict bandwidth provisioning:
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# qos bandwidth {max|min} <10-100>
min - Set minimum guaranteed bandwidth
max - Set maximum allowed bandwidth
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Using UFP with Other CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch
Features
UFP works with other CN4093 features, as described with limitations and details.
Layer 2 Failover
UFP failover can be configured with auto-monitoring or manual monitoring. In
auto-monitoring, a vPort is automatically associated with a Failover trigger if it has
any VLAN in common with the monitor ports.
Layer 2 failover is not supported on UFP ports in auto mode.
For more information on failover, see “Layer 2 Failover” on page 447.
For an example configuration, see “Example 8: Layer 2 Failover Configuration” on
page 324.
Increased VLAN Limits
Configured with UFP and VLANs, a vPort can support maximum 256 VLANs. A UFP
port supports 256 VLANs.
For more information on VLAN configuration, see “VLANs” on page 111.
Private VLANs
UFP with private VLANs is supported under the following limitations:
• Available only in standalone mode, not available in stacking
• vPorts from the same physical port cannot belong to the same private VLAN
domain
• A vPort can belong to only one secondary VLAN from the same private VLAN
domain
• vPorts cannot be configured with a primary VLAN as a default VLAN, only with
secondary VLANs
• UFP ports cannot have switchport mode private-vlan enabled on them
• Private VLAN is supported only on vPorts configured with trunk or access mode
• UFP cannot be configured on promiscuous ports
For more information on private VLANs, see “Private VLANs” on page 127.
VMReady
Configuring with UFP and VMReady, the CN4093 can support up to 32 VMGroups
with UFP vPorts in auto-mode.
VMReady is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto-VLAN mode.
For more information on VMReady, see “VMready” on page 239.
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802.1Qbg
Configured with Edge Virtual Bridging (EVB), UFP supports up to 256 VLANs on a
vPort.
EVB is supported only on a vPort which is configured in auto-VLAN mode.
For more information on EVB, see “Edge Virtual Bridging” on page 301.
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UFP Configuration Examples
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in access mode.
Example 1: Access Mode
1. Turn on UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp enable
2. Configure internal port as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA1
3. Configure virtual port.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 vport 1
4. Configure vPort access mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode access
5. Configure vPort default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 100
6. Ensure tagging is disabled on vPort.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# no network default-tag
7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
8. Configure PVID/Native VLAN for external port 1.
CN 4093(config)# interface port EXT1
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport mode access
CN 4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 100
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Example 2: Trunk Mode
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in trunk mode.
1. Turn on UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp enable
2. Configure internal port 1 as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA1
3. Configure virtual port.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 vport 1
4. Configure vPort trunk mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode trunk
5. Configure vPort default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 100
6. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
7. Configure internal port 2 as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA2 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA2
8. Configure virtual port.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA2 vport 3
9. Configure vPort trunk mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode trunk
10. Configure vPort default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 100
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11. Ensure tagging is disabled on vPort.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# no network default-tag
12. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
13. Enable tagging/trunk mode on external port 1.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port EXT1
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan 100
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 200,300
4093(config-if)# exit
14. Configure VLAN 200 parameters.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
200
vmember INTA1.3
vmember INTA2.3
exit
15. Configure VLAN 300 parameters.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
300
vmember INTA1.3
vmember INTA2.3
exit
Example 3: Auto-VLAN Mode with VMready
1. Turn on UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp enable
2. Configure internal port 1 as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA1
3. Configure a vPort.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 vport 1
4. Configure the vPort’s default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 20
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5. Set the vPort to auto mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode auto
Note: The VLAN is dynamically added by 802.1Qbg.
6. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
7. Enable virtual machine groups.
CN 4093(config)# virt enable
8. Configure the VMware settings.
CN 4093(config)# virt vmware vcspec 10.100.14.195 Administrator noauth
7cee7fa528e02aa036b6b6e6eb508952cdaed2acb702182cf62208fa72dec13fb19d6fec2fac6598d19b
8f45acff3f6a1e237ae3c984709f874f61aecd2ede7a
9. Create a distributed VMGroup.
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile "vlan_30"
CN 4093(config)# virt vmprofile edit "vlan_30" vlan 30
CN 4093(config)# virt vmgroup 1 profile "vlan_30"
10. Verify the virtual machine settings.
CN 4093(config)# show virt vm
11. Add the virtual machine associated with the vPort to the VMGroup.
CN 4093(config)# virt vmgroup 1 vm 1
12. Verify the VMGroup associations.
CN 4093(config)# show virt vm
Example 4: Auto-VLAN Mode with Edge Virtual Bridging
1. Turn on UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp enable
2. Configure internal port 1 as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA1
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3. Configure a vPort.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 vport 1
4. Configure the vPort’s default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 20
5. Set the vPort to auto mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode auto
Note: The VLAN is dynamically added by 802.1Qbg.
6. Configure the EVG profile for the vPort.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# evb profile 1
7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
8. Configure the Edge Virtual Bridging profile.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# virt evb profile 1
4093(conf-evbprof)# reflective-relay
4093(conf-evbprof)# vsi-discovery
4093(conf-evbprof)# exit
9. Configure the Edge Virtual Bridging database.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# virt evb vsidb 1
4093(conf-vsidb)# host 10.100.48.20
4093(conf-vsidb)# filepath vsitypes
4093(conf-vsidb)# exit
Note: VLANs in the database are dynamically added by 802.1Qbg..
Example 5: Tunnel Mode
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in tunnel mode.
1. Turn on UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp enable
2. Configure internal port as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA1
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3. Configure virtual port.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 vport 1
4. Configure vPort tunnel mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode tunnel
5. Configure vPort default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 4000
6. Ensure tagging is disabled on vPort.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# no network default-tag
7. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
8. Configure tagging on external port 1.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port EXT1
4093(config-if)# tagpvid-ingress
4093(config-if)# no vlan dot1q tag native
4093(config-if)# switchport access vlan 4000
4093(config-if)# exit
Example 6: FCoE Mode
Following is an example configuration of UFP vPorts in FCoE mode.
1. Enable CEE.
CN 4093(config)# cee enable
2. Enable FIPs.
CN 4093(config)# fcoe fips enable
3. Turn on UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp enable
4. Configure internal port as UFP.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 enable
Warning: "Tagging/Trunk-mode" is enabled on UFP port INTA1
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5. Configure virtual port.
CN 4093(config)# ufp port INTA1 vport 2
6. Configure vPort FCoE mode.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network mode fcoe
7. Configure vPort default VLAN.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# network default-vlan 1102
8. Ensure tagging is disabled on vPort.
CN 4093(config_ufp_vport)# no network default-tag
9. Specify QoS parameters for the vPort.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
4093(config_ufp_vport)#
(in percentage)
(in percentage)
qos bandwidth min 25
qos bandwidth max 100
enable
exit
10. Enable tagging/trunk mode on external port.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface port EXT1
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan 1
4093(config-if)# exit
Example 7: Private VLAN Configuration
Follow this procedure to configure a Private VLAN.
1. Select a VLAN and define the Private VLAN type as primary.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 700
CN 4093(config-vlan)# private-vlan primary
CN 4093(config-vlan)# exit
2. Configure a promiscuous port for VLAN 700.
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)# interface port 1
4093(config-if)# switchport mode private-vlan
4093(config-if)# switchport private-vlan mapping 700
4093(config-if)# exit
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3. Configure two secondary VLANs: isolated VLAN and community VLAN.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
701
private-vlan isolated
exit
702
private-vlan community
exit
4. Map secondary VLANs to primary VLAN.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
700-702
stg 1
exit
700
private-vlan association 701,702
exit
5. Set up vPorts on ports 1 and 2.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
701
vmember INTA1.1
exit
702
vmember INTA2.1
exit
6. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show vlan private-vlan
Example 8: Layer 2 Failover Configuration
While configuring a failover trigger, you cannot use the member command for a
physical port that has vPorts configured. Instead, you must use the vmember
command to add the vPorts as members of a failover trigger. The following example
includes the commands to configure a failover trigger using a physical port
INTA8 (UFP not enabled) and vPorts INTA9.1, INTA9.2, INTA9.3, and INTA9.4
configured on UFP-enabled physical port INTA9.
See “Example 1: Access Mode” on page 317 for steps to configure a vPort in access
mode. Follow the steps below for configuring the failover trigger:
1. Enable failover globally:
CN 4093(config)# failover enable
2. Configure trigger 1 and add monitor and control ports:
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon monitor member EXT1
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon control member INTA8
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon control vmember
INTA9.1,INTA9.2,INTA9.3,INTA9.4
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Note: If you try to add a physical port (that has vPorts configured) as a member
of a trigger, you may see the following error message when you enable the
trigger:
CN4093(config)#failover trigger 1 ena
Failover Error: trigger 1 physical port INTA9 has
virtual ports.
3. Enable failover trigger:
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 enable
Updating from IBM Networking OS 7.7 or Prior
Beginning with N/OS 7.8, physical ports that have UFP enabled cannot be members
of a failover trigger; only the vPorts can be members of a failover trigger. In a
previous configuration (N/OS 7.7 or prior), If you had UFP-enabled ports as
members of a failover trigger, the trigger will not work as expected after you update
the switch software version to N/OS 7.8 or later.You may also experience other
issues, such as not being able to shutdown or restart the UFP-enabled ports.
To overcome this issue, do the following:
1. Disable the trigger
(CN 4093(config)# no failover trigger x enable).
2. Reconfigure the trigger using the appropriate commands. For the UFP-enabled
port, add the vPorts as members of the failover trigger
(CN 4093(config)# failover trigger x mmon control vmember
<vPorts list separated by comma>). See Step 2 on page 324 for an example.
3. Enable the trigger
(CN 4093(config)# failover trigger x enable).
OR
1. Remove the UFP-enabled port from the trigger
(CN 4093(config)# no failover trigger x mmon control
member <UFP-enabled port number>).
2. Add the vPorts as members of the failover trigger
(CN 4093(config)# failover trigger x mmon control vmember
<vPorts list separated by comma>).
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Chapter 23. Switch Partition
Switch Partition (SPAR) enables consolidation of multiple network partitions within
an embedded switch. SPARs divide the data plane of a physical switch into
independent switching domains. Switch partitions are isolated from each other.
Traffic originating in one SPAR stays local to that SPAR. Within a partitioned switch,
traffic from one SPAR is never delivered to another SPAR. Traffic from one SPAR
can, however, be delivered to another SPAR by traversing an upstream link and
switch.
Each individual SPAR requires exactly one uplink, which can be a port, a port
channel, or an LACP group. Limiting SPAR connectivity to one external uplink
prevents the creation of loops.
SPAR operates as a Layer 2 broadcast network. Hosts on the same VLAN, attached
to a SPAR, can communicate with each other and with the upstream switch. Hosts
on the same VLAN, but attached to different SPARs, communicate via the upstream
switch.
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SPAR Processing Modes
SPAR operates in two processing modes. The default mode is pass-through
domain.
• Local Domain: In local-domain processing mode, VLAN classification and
assignment is based on the user-defined VLAN.
• Pass-through Domain: In pass-through domain processing mode, VLAN
classification and assignment is based on the outer tag, which contains the
unique domain VLAN ID of the SPAR. The inner tag with the user-defined VLAN
remains unchanged.
Local Domain Processing
Each SPAR on a switch has a unique VLAN ID, which separates data between
SPARs. If multiple networks share the uplink, the upstream switch port must be
configured as a 802.1Q trunk port so it can process multiple VLAN traffic from a
SPAR. The SPAR domain uses a single uplink port or LAG shared among all the
VLANs. For link redundancy or greater bandwidth, the uplinks can be grouped as
static or LACP LAG.
If a VLAN is defined on multiple SPARs, the egress port mask is used to prevent
communication between the SPARs in the same local domain VLAN. Since port
membership of each SPAR is unique, the egress port mask ensures that different
SPAR ports in the same local domain VLAN do not communicate with each other.
In local domain processing, all SPAR ports must have the following settings:
• Tagging/Trunk mode must be enabled.
• Ingress VLAN tagging is disabled on all SPAR ports.
• PVID/Native VLAN is based on any VLAN defined in SPAR.
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Pass-Through Domain Processing
Pass-through domain processing is the default operating mode for SPAR when
performing L2 switching based on an outer tag.
In pass-through processing mode, each SPAR is identified by its unique VLAN
domain ID. Packets are classified based on the SPAR domain ID (outer tag). SPAR
ports must be configured in tunnel mode.
SPAR provides single or multiple VLAN connectivity through a single uplink port or
LAG (static or LACP). VLAN definition within the SPAR domain is not required.
Pass-through domain operates in Q-In-Q mode. Inside SPAR, different user-defined
VLAN traffic is classified into single S-VLAN (service VLAN) associated with the
SPAR.
Although the uplink can be shared by multiple networks using the pass-through
domain, SPAR will not be server-VLAN aware. Hence, multiple VLAN traffic will be
mixed together in a single broadcast domain, that is, broadcast traffic on different
VLANs from the upstream network will reach all servers attached to the SPAR
pass-through domain. The servers drop the packets if they do not belong to the
desired VLAN. The pass-through implementation uses ingress VLAN tagging, that
is, tagpvid-ingress is enabled on all SPAR ports.
In pass-through domain processing mode, all SPAR ports must have the following
settings:
• PVID/Native VLAN tagging is disabled.
• Ingress VLAN tagging is enabled on all SPAR ports.
• PVID/Native VLAN is based on the SPAR DVLAN.
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Unsupported Features
The following features are not supported when SPAR is configured:
• 802.1x
• Edge Virtual Bridging
• Hotlinks
• IGMP
• Layer 3 Configuration
• Management VLAN
• Private VLAN
• Protocol VLAN
• sFlow
• Stacking
• STP, RSTP, MRSTP, PVST
• UFP
• vLAG
• VMAP
• VMready
• VNIC
Limitations
The following limitations apply:
• UFP and SPAR cannot be configured together.
• Trunks must first be configured for SPAR before they can be used. Static or Link
Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) trunks created on the global switch cannot
reference any SPAR ports. Use the commands in the following menus to define
trunks in the SPAR context:
CN 4093(config)# spar <num>
CN 4093(config-spar)# uplink ?
adminkey
port
PortChannel
Set lacp trunk for uplink
Set external port for uplink
Set portchannel for uplink
CN 4093(config)# portchannel ?
<1-64>
<65-128>
thash
330
PortChannel group
LACP PortChannel group
Port Channel hash configuration
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
•
ACLs defined on the global switch can be used for SPAR ports. However, the
following restrictions apply:
– An ACL cannot be shared across SPAR ports if:
• An exit port
(CN 4093(config)# access-control list <number>
egress-port port <number>) is used as a filtering criteria and the
exit port does not belong to the same SPAR as the port on which the ACL
is applied.
• A monitor port is used as a filtering criteria, and the monitor port does not
belong to the same SPAR as the mirrored port and is not defined on the
global switch.
– The above ACL restrictions apply to all ACLs defined in an ACL group.
•
Port mirroring can be configured on SPAR ports with the following restrictions:
– The monitor port must belong to the same SPAR as the mirrored port, or
must be defined on the global switch.
•
Layer 2 failover features can be configured on SPAR ports. However, the Layer 2
failover Auto Monitor (AMON) option is not supported. Only the Layer 2 failover
Manual Monitor (MMON) option can be used when all ports defined within the
trigger belong to the same SPAR.
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SPAR VLAN Management
SPAR VLANs use the same 1024 VLAN space available for other
applications/features on the switch. The VLAN ID can be in the range of 2 - 4094.
VLAN 1 and the management VLAN 4095 are reserved for the global switch
context.
A VLAN assigned to a SPAR cannot be used for any other switch application.
Similarly, VLAN used by any other switch application cannot be assigned to a
SPAR.
SPAR member ports cannot be members of any other VLAN.
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Example Configurations
The following are examples of SPAR pass through and local domain configurations.
Pass Through Configuration
This example describes configuration of SPAR 1 in pass-through mode with internal
server ports INTA5 through INTA10, with a single port, EXT1.
1. Create SPAR 1.
CN 4093(config)# spar 1
Each SPAR is identified with a number that ranges 1 though 8.
2. Add a single uplink port to SPAR 1.
CN 4093(config-spar)# uplink port EXT1
3. Set the mode of the SPAR to passthrough
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain mode passthrough
4. Configure SPAR VLAN to 4081.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain default vlan 4081
5. Add ports INTA5 through INTA10 to SPAR 1.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain default member INTA5-INTA10
6. Enable SPAR 1.
CN 4093(config-spar)# enable
Local Domain Configuration
This example demonstrates how to create a SPAR in local-domain mode consisting
of internal server ports INTA11-INTA14 and a single uplink port, EXT 2.
1. Create SPAR 2.
CN 4093(config)# spar 2
2. Add uplink port EXT 2 to SPAR 2.
CN 4093(config-spar)# uplink port EXT2
3. Set the SPAR to local domain mode.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain mode local
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4. Configure SPAR VLAN to 4082.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain default vlan 4082
5. Add server ports INTA11 through INTA14.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain default member INTA11-INTA14
6. Configure the VLANs for SPAR 2.
Each SPAR has a set of local domains numbered 1 through 32, each of which
identifies an allowed VLAN.
The following steps create three local domains: VLAN, 10, 20, and 30
7. Create local domain 1, assign VLAN 10, and specify the SPAR ports that are
members of the that VLAN.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 1 vlan 10
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 1 member INTA11-INTA14
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 1 enable
8. Create local domain 2, assign VLAN 20, and specify the SPAR ports that are
members of the that VLAN.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 2 vlan 20
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 2 member INTA11-INTA14
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 2 enable
9. Create local domain 3, assign VLAN 30, and specify the SPAR ports that are
members of the that VLAN.
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 3 vlan 30
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 3 member INTA11-INTA14
CN 4093(config-spar)# domain local 3 enable
10. Enable SPAR 2.
CN 4093(config-spar)# enable
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Part 5: IP Routing
This section discusses Layer 3 switching functions. In addition to switching traffic at
near line rates, the application switch can perform multi-protocol routing. This
section discusses basic routing and advanced routing protocols:
• Basic Routing
• Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
• Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
• Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
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Chapter 24. Basic IP Routing
This chapter provides configuration background and examples for using the CN4093
10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) to perform IP routing functions. The
following topics are addressed in this chapter:
• “IP Routing Benefits” on page 337
• “Routing Between IP Subnets” on page 337
• “Subnet Routing Example” on page 339
• “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol” on page 345
IP Routing Benefits
The CN4093 uses a combination of configurable IP switch interfaces and IP routing
options. The switch IP routing capabilities provide the following benefits:
• Connects the server IP subnets to the rest of the backbone network.
• Provides the ability to route IP traffic between multiple Virtual Local Area
Networks (VLANs) configured on the switch.
Routing Between IP Subnets
The physical layout of most corporate networks has evolved over time. Classic
hub/router topologies have given way to faster switched topologies, particularly now
that switches are increasingly intelligent. The CN4093 is intelligent and fast enough
to perform routing functions on par with wire-speed Layer 2 switching.
The combination of faster routing and switching in a single device provides another
service—it allows you to build versatile topologies that account for legacy
configurations.
Consider an example in which a corporate campus has migrated from a
router-centric topology to a faster, more powerful, switch-based topology. As is often
the case, the legacy of network growth and redesign has left the system with a mix
of illogically distributed subnets.
This is a situation that switching alone cannot cure. Instead, the router is flooded
with cross-subnet communication. This compromises efficiency in two ways:
• Routers can be slower than switches. The cross-subnet side trip from the switch
to the router and back again adds two hops for the data, slowing throughput
considerably.
• Traffic to the router increases, increasing congestion.
Even if every end-station could be moved to better logical subnets (a daunting task),
competition for access to common server pools on different subnets still burdens the
routers.
This problem is solved by using CN4093s with built-in IP routing capabilities.
Cross-subnet LAN traffic can now be routed within the switches with wire speed
Layer 2 switching performance. This not only eases the load on the router but saves
the network administrators from reconfiguring each and every end-station with new
IP addresses.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
337
Take a closer look at the CN4093 in the following configuration example:
Figure 40. Switch-Based Routing Topology
Second Floor
10/100 Client Subnet
131.15.15.2-254
First Floor
10/100 Client Subnet
100.20.10.2-254
10 Gbps
Primary Default
Router: 205.21.17.1
IF#2
IF#3
Server Subnet:
206.30.15.2-254
IF#4
10 Gbps
IF#1
Secondary Default
Router: 205.21.17.2
The CN4093 connects the Gigabit Ethernet and Fast Ethernet trunks from various
switched subnets throughout one building. Common servers are placed on another
subnet attached to the switch. A primary and backup router are attached to the
switch on yet another subnet.
Without Layer 3 IP routing on the switch, cross-subnet communication is relayed to
the default gateway (in this case, the router) for the next level of routing intelligence.
The router fills in the necessary address information and sends the data back to the
switch, which then relays the packet to the proper destination subnet using Layer 2
switching.
With Layer 3 IP routing in place on the CN4093, routing between different IP
subnets can be accomplished entirely within the switch. This leaves the routers free
to handle inbound and outbound traffic for this group of subnets.
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Subnet Routing Example
Prior to configuring, you must be connected to the switch Command Line Interface
(CLI) as the administrator.
Note: For details about accessing and using any of the menu commands
described in this example, see the IBM Networking OS Command
Reference.
1. Assign an IP address (or document the existing one) for each router and client
workstation.
In the example topology in Figure 40 on page 338, the following IP addresses
are used:
Table 33. Subnet Routing Example: IP Address Assignments
Subnet
Devices
IP Addresses
1
Primary and Secondary Default
Routers
205.21.17.1 and
205.21.17.2
2
First Floor Client Workstations
100.20.10.2-254
3
Second Floor Client Workstations
131.15.15.2-254
4
Common Servers
206.30.15.2-254
2. Assign an IP interface for each subnet attached to the switch.
Since there are four IP subnets connected to the switch, four IP interfaces are
needed:
Table 34. Subnet Routing Example: IP Interface Assignments
Interface
Devices
IP Interface Address
IF 1
Primary and Secondary Default Routers
205.21.17.3
IF 2
First Floor Client Workstations
100.20.10.1
IF 3
Second Floor Client Workstations
131.15.15.1
IF 4
Common Servers
206.30.15.1
IP interfaces are configured using the following commands:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 4
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
(Select IP interface 1)
205.21.17.3 255.255.255.0 enable
(Select IP interface 2)
100.20.10.1 255.255.255.0 enable
(Select IP interface 3)
131.15.15.1 255.255.255.0 enable
(Select IP interface 4)
206.30.15.1 255.255.255.0 enable
3. Set each server and workstation’s default gateway to the appropriate switch IP
interface (the one in the same subnet as the server or workstation).
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4. Configure the default gateways to the routers’ addresses.
Configuring the default gateways allows the switch to send outbound traffic to
the routers:
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway 1 address 205.21.17.1 enable
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway 2 address 205.21.17.2 enable
5. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show interface ip
Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make the
appropriate changes.
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Using VLANs to Segregate Broadcast Domains
In the previous example, devices that share a common IP network are all in the
same broadcast domain. If you want to limit the broadcasts on your network, you
could use VLANs to create distinct broadcast domains. For example, as shown in
the following procedure, you could create one VLAN for the client trunks, one for the
routers, and one for the servers.
In this example, you are adding to the previous configuration.
1. Determine which switch ports and IP interfaces belong to which VLANs.
The following table adds port and VLAN information:
Table 35. Subnet Routing Example: Optional VLAN Ports
VLAN
Devices
1
2
3
IP Interface
Switch Port
VLAN #
First Floor Client Workstations 2
EXT1
1
Second Floor Client
Workstations
3
EXT2
1
Primary Default Router
1
EXT3
2
Secondary Default Router
1
EXT4
2
Common Servers 1
4
INT5A
3
Common Servers 2
4
INT6A
3
2. Add the switch ports to their respective VLANs.
The VLANs shown in Table 35 are configured as follows:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 1
4093(config-vlan)# exit
(Add ports to VLAN 1)
4093(config)# interface port ext1,ext2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 1
4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 2
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port ext3,ext4
(Add ports to VLAN 2)
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2
4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 3
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port inet5a,int6a
(Add ports to VLAN 3)
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 3
4093(config-if)# exit
Each time you add a port to a VLAN, you may get the following prompt:
Port 4 is an untagged port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]?
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Enter y to set the default Port VLAN ID (PVID) for the port.
3. Add each IP interface to the appropriate VLAN.
Now that the ports are separated into three VLANs, the IP interface for each
subnet must be placed in the appropriate VLAN. From Table 35, the settings are
made as follows:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 2
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 1
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 1
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 3
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
1
(Select IP interface 1)
(Add VLAN 2)
2
(Select IP interface 2)
(Add VLAN 1)
3
(Select IP interface 3)
(Add VLAN 1)
4
(Select IP interface 4)
(Add VLAN 3)
4. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show vlan
CN 4093(config)# show interface information
CN 4093(config)# show interface ip
Examine the resulting information. If any settings are incorrect, make the
appropriate changes.
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BOOTP Relay Agent
The CN4093 can function as a Bootstrap Protocol relay agent, enabling the switch
to forward a client request for an IP address up to two BOOTP servers with IP
addresses that have been configured on the switch.
When a switch receives a BOOTP request from a BOOTP client requesting an IP
address, the switch acts as a proxy for the client. The request is then forwarded as
a UDP Unicast MAC layer message to two BOOTP servers whose IP addresses are
configured on the switch. The servers respond to the switch with a Unicast reply that
contains the default gateway and IP address for the client. The switch then forwards
this reply back to the client.
Figure 41 shows a basic BOOTP network example.
Figure 41. BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration
Boston
Raleigh
20.1.1.1
BOOT Client
asks for IP from
BOOTP server
10.1.1.2
BladeCenter acts as
BOOTP Relay Agent
BOOTP Server
The use of two servers provide failover redundancy. The client request is forwarded
to both BOOTP servers configured on the switch. However, no health checking is
supported.
BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration
To enable the CN4093 to be the BOOTP forwarder, you need to configure the
BOOTP server IP addresses on the switch, and enable BOOTP relay on the
interface(s) on which the BOOTP requests are received.
Generally, you should configure the command on the switch IP interface that is
closest to the client, so that the BOOTP server knows from which IP subnet the
newly allocated IP address should come.
Use the following commands to configure the switch as a BOOTP relay agent:
CN 4093(config)# ip bootp-relay enable
CN 4093(config)# ip bootp-relay server <1-5> address <IPv4 address>
Use the following command to enable the Relay functionality on an IP interface:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# relay
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
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Domain-Specific BOOTP Relay Agent Configuration
Use the following commands to configure up to four domain-specific BOOTP relay
agents for each of up to 10 VLANs:
CN 4093(config)# ip bootp-relay bcast-domain <1-10> vlan <VLAN number>
CN 4093(config)# ip bootp-relay bcast-domain <1-10> server <1-5> address <IPv4 address>
CN 4093(config)# ip bootp-relay bcast-domain <1-10> enable
As with global relay agent servers, domain-specific BOOTP/DHCP functionality may
be assigned on a per-interface basis.
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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a transport protocol that provides a
framework for automatically assigning IP addresses and configuration information to
other IP hosts or clients in a large TCP/IP network. Without DHCP, the IP address
must be entered manually for each network device. DHCP allows a network
administrator to distribute IP addresses from a central point and automatically send
a new IP address when a device is connected to a different place in the network.
DHCP is an extension of another network IP management protocol, Bootstrap
Protocol (BOOTP), with an additional capability of being able to dynamically allocate
reusable network addresses and configuration parameters for client operation.
Built on the client/server model, DHCP allows hosts or clients on an IP network to
obtain their configurations from a DHCP server, thereby reducing network
administration. The most significant configuration the client receives from the server
is its required IP address; (other optional parameters include the “generic” file name
to be booted, the address of the default gateway, and so forth).
DHCP relay agent eliminates the need to have DHCP/BOOTP servers on every
subnet. It allows the administrator to reduce the number of DHCP servers deployed
on the network and to centralize them. Without the DHCP relay agent, there must be
at least one DHCP server deployed at each subnet that has hosts needing to
perform the DHCP request.
DHCP Relay Agent
DHCP is described in RFC 2131, and the DHCP relay agent supported on CN4093s
is described in RFC 1542. DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol. The client
sends messages to the server on port 67 and the server sends messages to the
client on port 68.
DHCP defines the methods through which clients can be assigned an IP address for
a finite lease period and allowing reassignment of the IP address to another client
later. Additionally, DHCP provides the mechanism for a client to gather other IP
configuration parameters it needs to operate in the TCP/IP network.
In the DHCP environment, the CN4093 acts as a relay agent. The DHCP relay
feature enables the switch to forward a client request for an IP address to two
BOOTP servers with IP addresses that have been configured on the switch.
When a switch receives a UDP broadcast on port 67 from a DHCP client requesting
an IP address, the switch acts as a proxy for the client, replacing the client source IP
(SIP) and destination IP (DIP) addresses. The request is then forwarded as a UDP
Unicast MAC layer message to two BOOTP servers whose IP addresses are
configured on the switch. The servers respond as a UDP Unicast message back to
the switch, with the default gateway and IP address for the client. The destination IP
address in the server response represents the interface address on the switch that
received the client request. This interface address tells the switch on which VLAN to
send the server response to the client.
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DHCP Relay Agent Configuration
To enable the CN4093 to be the BOOTP forwarder, you need to configure the
DHCP/BOOTP server IP addresses on the switch. Generally, you should configure
the switch IP interface on the client side to match the client’s subnet, and configure
VLANs to separate client and server subnets. The DHCP server knows from which
IP subnet the newly allocated IP address should come.
The following figure shows a basic DHCP network example:
Figure 42. DHCP Relay Agent Configuration
Boston
GbESM
20.1.1.1
DHCP Client
DHCP
Server
In CN4093 implementation, there is no need for primary or secondary servers. The
client request is forwarded to the BOOTP servers configured on the switch. The use
of two servers provide failover redundancy. However, no health checking is
supported.
Use the following commands to configure the switch as a DHCP relay agent:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
ip bootp-relay server
ip bootp-relay server
ip bootp-relay server
ip bootp-relay server
ip bootp-relay server
ip bootp-relay enable
show ip bootp-relay
1
2
3
4
5
<IP address>
<IP address>
<IP address>
<IP address>
<IP address>
Additionally, DHCP Relay functionality can be assigned on a per interface basis.
Use the following command to enable the Relay functionality:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# relay
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Chapter 25. Internet Protocol Version 6
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer protocol intended to expand the
network address space. IPv6 is a robust and expandable protocol that meets the
need for increased physical address space. The switch supports the following RFCs
for IPv6-related features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RFC 1981
RFC 2404
RFC 2410
RFC 2451
RFC 2460
RFC 2461
RFC 2462
RFC 2474
RFC 2526
RFC 2711
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RFC 2740
RFC 3289
RFC 3306
RFC 3307
RFC 3411
RFC 3412
RFC 3413
RFC 3414
RFC 3484
RFC 3602
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RFC 3810
RFC 3879
RFC 4007
RFC 4213
RFC 4291
RFC 4293
RFC 4293
RFC 4301
RFC 4302
RFC 4303
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RFC 4306
RFC 4307
RFC 4443
RFC 4552
RFC 4718
RFC 4835
RFC 4861
RFC 4862
RFC 5095
RFC 5114
This chapter describes the basic configuration of IPv6 addresses and how to
manage the switch via IPv6 host management.
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347
IPv6 Limitations
The following IPv6 features are not supported in this release.
• Dynamic Host Control Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
• Border Gateway Protocol for IPv6 (BGP)
• Routing Information Protocol for IPv6 (RIPng)
Most other IBM Networking OS 7.8 features permit IP addresses to be configured
using either IPv4 or IPv6 address formats. However, the following switch features
support IPv4 only:
• Default switch management IP address
• Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) and DHCP
• RADIUS, TACACS+ and LDAP
• VMware Virtual Center (vCenter) for VMready
• Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
• Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
• Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
• Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
• sFLOW
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IPv6 Address Format
The IPv6 address is 128 bits (16 bytes) long and is represented as a sequence of
eight 16-bit hex values, separated by colons.
Each IPv6 address has two parts:
• Subnet prefix representing the network to which the interface is connected
• Local identifier, either derived from the MAC address or user-configured
The preferred hexadecimal format is as follows:
xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx
Example IPv6 address:
FEDC:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5412
Some addresses can contain long sequences of zeros. A single contiguous
sequence of zeros can be compressed to :: (two colons). For example, consider the
following IPv6 address:
FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FA:4CA2
The address can be compressed as follows:
FE80::2AA:FF:FA:4CA2
Unlike IPv4, a subnet mask is not used for IPv6 addresses. IPv6 uses the subnet
prefix as the network identifier. The prefix is the part of the address that indicates the
bits that have fixed values or are the bits of the subnet prefix. An IPv6 prefix is
written in address/prefix-length notation. For example, in the following address, 64
is the network prefix:
21DA:D300:0000:2F3C::/64
IPv6 addresses can be either user-configured or automatically configured.
Automatically configured addresses always have a 64-bit subnet prefix and a 64-bit
interface identifier. In most implementations, the interface identifier is derived from
the switch's MAC address, using a method called EUI-64.
Most IBM Networking OS 7.8 features permit IP addresses to be configured using
either IPv4 or IPv6 address formats. Throughout this manual, IP address is used in
places where either an IPv4 or IPv6 address is allowed. In places where only one
type of address is allowed, the type (IPv4 or IPv6 is specified).
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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349
IPv6 Address Types
IPv6 supports three types of addresses: unicast (one-to-one), multicast
(one-to-many), and anycast (one-to-nearest). Multicast addresses replace the use
of broadcast addresses.
Unicast Address
Unicast is a communication between a single host and a single receiver. Packets
sent to a unicast address are delivered to the interface identified by that address.
IPv6 defines the following types of unicast address:
• Global Unicast address: An address that can be reached and identified globally.
Global Unicast addresses use the high-order bit range up to FF00, therefore all
non-multicast and non-link-local addresses are considered to be global unicast.
A manually configured IPv6 address must be fully specified. Autoconfigured IPv6
addresses are comprised of a prefix combined with the 64-bit EUI. RFC 4291
defines the IPv6 addressing architecture.
The interface ID must be unique within the same subnet.
•
Link-local unicast address: An address used to communicate with a neighbor on
the same link. Link-local addresses use the format FE80::EUI
Link-local addresses are designed to be used for addressing on a single link for
purposes such as automatic address configuration, neighbor discovery, or when
no routers are present.
Routers must not forward any packets with link-local source or destination
addresses to other links.
Multicast
Multicast is communication between a single host and multiple receivers. Packets
are sent to all interfaces identified by that address. An interface may belong to any
number of multicast groups.
A multicast address (FF00 - FFFF) is an identifier for a group interface. The
multicast address most often encountered is a solicited-node multicast address
using prefix FF02::1:FF00:0000/104 with the low-order 24 bits of the unicast or
anycast address.
The following well-known multicast addresses are pre-defined. The group IDs
defined in this section are defined for explicit scope values, as follows:
FF00:::::::0 through FF0F:::::::0
Anycast
Packets sent to an anycast address or list of addresses are delivered to the nearest
interface identified by that address. Anycast is a communication between a single
sender and a list of addresses.
Anycast addresses are allocated from the unicast address space, using any of the
defined unicast address formats. Thus, anycast addresses are syntactically
indistinguishable from unicast addresses. When a unicast address is assigned to
more than one interface, thus turning it into an anycast address, the nodes to which
the address is assigned must be explicitly configured to know that it is an anycast
address.
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IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration
IPv6 supports the following types of address autoconfiguration:
• Stateful address configuration
Address configuration is based on the use of a stateful address configuration
protocol, such as DHCPv6, to obtain addresses and other configuration options.
•
Stateless address configuration
Address configuration is based on the receipt of Router Advertisement
messages that contain one or more Prefix Information options.
IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports stateless address configuration.
Stateless address configuration allows hosts on a link to configure themselves with
link-local addresses and with addresses derived from prefixes advertised by local
routers. Even if no router is present, hosts on the same link can configure
themselves with link-local addresses and communicate without manual
configuration.
IPv6 Interfaces
Each IPv6 interface supports multiple IPv6 addresses. You can manually configure
up to two IPv6 addresses for each interface, or you can allow the switch to use
stateless autoconfiguration. By default, the switch automatically configures the IPv6
address of its management interface.
You can manually configure two IPv6 addresses for each interface, as follows:
• Initial IPv6 address is a global unicast or anycast address .
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 address <IPv6 address>
Note that you cannot configure both addresses as anycast. If you configure an
anycast address on the interface you must also configure a global unicast
address on that interface.
•
Second IPv6 address can be a unicast or anycast address .
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 secaddr6 <IPv6 address>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
You cannot configure an IPv4 address on an IPv6 management interface. Each
interface can be configured with only one address type: either IPv4 or IPv6, but not
both. When changing between IPv4 and IPv6 address formats, the prior address
settings for the interface are discarded.
Each IPv6 interface can belong to only one VLAN. Each VLAN can support only one
IPv6 interface. Each VLAN can support multiple IPv4 interfaces.
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Interface 125/126 is reserved for IPv6 host support. This interface is included in
management VLAN 4095. Use the following commands to configure the IPv6
gateway:
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway6 1 address <IPv6 address>
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway6 1 enable
IPv6 gateway 1 is reserved for IPv6 data interfaces. IPv6 gateway 3 and 4 are the
default IPv6 management gateways.
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Neighbor Discovery
Neighbor Discovery Overview
The switch uses Neighbor Discovery protocol (ND) to gather information about other
router and host nodes, including the IPv6 addresses. Host nodes use ND to
configure their interfaces and perform health detection. ND allows each node to
determine the link-layer addresses of neighboring nodes, and to keep track of each
neighbor’s information. A neighboring node is a host or a router that is linked directly
to the switch. The switch supports Neighbor Discovery as described in RFC 4861.
Neighbor Discover messages allow network nodes to exchange information, as
follows:
• Neighbor Solicitations allow a node to discover information about other nodes.
• Neighbor Advertisements are sent in response to Neighbor Solicitations. The
Neighbor Advertisement contains information required by nodes to determine the
link-layer address of the sender, and the sender’s role on the network.
• IPv6 hosts use Router Solicitations to discover IPv6 routers. When a router
receives a Router Solicitation, it responds immediately to the host.
• Routers uses Router Advertisements to announce its presence on the network,
and to provide its address prefix to neighbor devices. IPv6 hosts listen for Router
Advertisements, and uses the information to build a list of default routers. Each
host uses this information to perform autoconfiguration of IPv6 addresses.
• Redirect messages are sent by IPv6 routers to inform hosts of a better first-hop
address for a specific destination. Redirect messages are only sent by routers for
unicast traffic, are only unicast to originating hosts, and are only processed by
hosts.
ND configuration for various advertisements, flags, and interval settings is
performed on a per-interface basis using the following command path:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# [no] ipv6 nd ?
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
To add or remove entries in the static neighbor cache, use the following command
path:
CN 4093(config)# [no] ip neighbors ?
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Host vs. Router
Each IPv6 interface can be configured as a router node or a host node, as follows:
• A router node’s IP address is configured manually. Router nodes can send
Router Advertisements.
• A host node’s IP address is autoconfigured. Host nodes listen for Router
Advertisements that convey information about devices on the network.
Note: When IP forwarding is turned on, all IPv6 interfaces configured on the switch
can forward packets.
You can configure each IPv6 interface as either a host node or a router node. You
can manually assign an IPv6 address to an interface in host mode, or the interface
can be assigned an IPv6 address by an upstream router, using information from
router advertisements to perform stateless auto-configuration.
To set an interface to host mode, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip6host
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
By default, host mode is enabled on the management interface, and disabled on
data interfaces.
The CN4093 supports up to 1156 IPv6 routes.
Supported Applications
The following applications have been enhanced to provide IPv6 support.
• Ping
The ping command supports IPv6 addresses. Use the following format to ping
an IPv6 address:
ping <host name>|<IPv6 address> [-n <tries (0-4294967295)>]
[-w <msec delay (0-4294967295)>] [-l <length (0/32-65500/2080)>]
[-s <IP source>] [-v <TOS (0-255)>] [-f] [-t]
To ping a link-local address (begins with FE80), provide an interface index, as
follows:
ping <IPv6 address>%<Interface index> [-n <tries (0-4294967295)>]
[-w <msec delay (0-4294967295)>] [-l <length (0/32-65500/2080)>]
[-s <IP source>] [-v <TOS (0-255)>] [-f] [-t]
•
Traceroute
The traceroute command supports IPv6 addresses (but not link-local
addresses).
Use the following format to perform a traceroute to an IPv6 address:
traceroute <host name>| <IPv6 address> [<max-hops (1-32)>
[<msec delay (1-4294967295)>]]
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•
Telnet server
The telnet command supports IPv6 addresses, but not link-local addresses.
Use the following format to Telnet into an IPv6 interface on the switch:
telnet <host name>| <IPv6 address> [<port>]
•
Telnet client
The telnet command supports IPv6 addresses, but not link-local addresses.
Use the following format to Telnet to an IPv6 address:
telnet <host name>| <IPv6 address> [<port>]
•
HTTP/HTTPS
The HTTP/HTTPS servers support both IPv4 and IPv6 connections.
•
SSH
Secure Shell (SSH) connections over IPv6 are supported, but not link-local
addresses. The following syntax is required from the client:
ssh -u <IPv6 address>
Example:
ssh -u 2001:2:3:4:0:0:0:142
•
TFTP
The TFTP commands support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Link-local
addresses are not supported.
•
FTP
The FTP commands support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Link-local
addresses are not supported.
•
DNS client
DNS commands support both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. Link-local addresses
are not supported. Use the following command to specify the type of DNS query
to be sent first:
CN 4093(config)# ip dns ipv6 request-version {ipv4|ipv6}
If you set the request version to v4, the DNS application sends an A query first,
to resolve the hostname with an IPv4 address. If no A record is found for that
hostname (no IPv4 address for that hostname) an AAAA query is sent to resolve
the hostname with a IPv6 address.
If you set the request version to v6, the DNS application sends an AAAA query
first, to resolve the hostname with an IPv6 address. If no AAAA record is found
for that hostname (no IPv6 address for that hostname) an A query is sent to
resolve the hostname with an IPv4 address.
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Configuration Guidelines
When you configure an interface for IPv6, consider the following guidelines:
• Support for subnet router anycast addresses is not available.
• Interface 125/126 are reserved for IPv6 management.
• A single interface can accept either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, but not both IPv4
and IPv6 addresses.
• A single interface can accept multiple IPv6 addresses.
• A single interface can accept only one IPv4 address.
• If you change the IPv6 address of a configured interface to an IPv4 address, all
IPv6 settings are deleted.
• A single VLAN can support only one IPv6 interface.
• Health checks are not supported for IPv6 gateways.
• IPv6 interfaces support Path MTU Discovery. The CPU’s MTU is fixed at 1500
bytes.
• Support for jumbo frames (1,500 to 9,216 byte MTUs) is limited. Any jumbo
frames intended for the CPU must be fragmented by the remote node. The
switch can re-assemble fragmented packets up to 9k. It can also fragment and
transmit jumbo packets received from higher layers.
IPv6 Configuration Examples
This section provides steps to configure IPv6 on the switch.
IPv6 Example 1
The following example uses IPv6 host mode to autoconfigure an IPv6 address for
the interface. By default, the interface is assigned to VLAN 1.
1. Enable IPv6 host mode on an interface.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip6host
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
2. Configure the IPv6 default gateway.
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway6 1 address 2001:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5412
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway6 1 enable
3. Verify the interface address.
CN 4093(config)# show interface ip 2
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IPv6 Example 2
Use the following example to manually configure IPv6 on an interface.
1. Assign an IPv6 address and prefix length to the interface.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 address 2001:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5214
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 prefixlen 64
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 seccaddr6 2003::1 32
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 2
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
The secondary IPv6 address is compressed, and the prefix length is 32.
2. Configure the IPv6 default gateway.
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway6 1 address 2001:BA98:7654:BA98:FEDC:1234:ABCD:5412
CN 4093(config)# ip gateway6 1 enable
3. Configure Router advertisements for the interface (optional)
CN 4093(config)# interface ip 3
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# no ipv6 nd suppress-ra
4. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# show layer3
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Chapter 26. Using IPsec with IPv6
Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol
(IP) communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a
communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual
authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of
cryptographic keys to be used during the session.
Since IPsec was implemented in conjunction with IPv6, all implementations of IPv6
must contain IPsec. To support the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST) recommendations for IPv6 implementations, IBM Networking OS IPv6
feature compliance has been extended to include the following IETF RFCs, with an
emphasis on IP Security (IPsec) and Internet Key Exchange version 2, and
authentication/confidentiality for OSPFv3:
• RFC 4301 for IPv6 security
• RFC 4302 for the IPv6 Authentication Header
• RFCs 2404, 2410, 2451, 3602, and 4303 for IPv6 Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), including NULL encryption, CBC-mode 3DES and AES ciphers,
and HMAC-SHA-1-96.
• RFCs 4306, 4307, 4718, and 4835 for IKEv2 and cryptography
• RFC 4552 for OSPFv3 IPv6 authentication
• RFC 5114 for Diffie-Hellman groups
Note: This implementation of IPsec supports DH groups 1, 2, 5, 14, and 24.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
• “IPsec Protocols” on page 360
• “Using IPsec with the CN4093” on page 361
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IPsec Protocols
The IBM Networking OS implementation of IPsec supports the following protocols:
•
Authentication Header (AH)
AHs provide connectionless integrity outand data origin authentication for IP
packets, and provide protection against replay attacks. In IPv6, the AH protects
the AH itself, the Destination Options extension header after the AH, and the IP
payload. It also protects the fixed IPv6 header and all extension headers before
the AH, except for the mutable fields DSCP, ECN, Flow Label, and Hop Limit. AH
is defined in RFC 4302.
•
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
ESPs provide confidentiality, data origin authentication, integrity, an anti-replay
service (a form of partial sequence integrity), and some traffic flow confidentiality.
ESPs may be applied alone or in combination with an AH. ESP is defined in RFC
4303.
•
Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2)
IKEv2 is used for mutual authentication between two network elements. An IKE
establishes a security association (SA) that includes shared secret information to
efficiently establish SAs for ESPs and AHs, and a set of cryptographic algorithms
to be used by the SAs to protect the associated traffic. IKEv2 is defined in RFC
4306.
Using IKEv2 as the foundation, IPsec supports ESP for encryption and/or
authentication, and/or AH for authentication of the remote partner.
Both ESP and AH rely on security associations. A security association (SA) is the
bundle of algorithms and parameters (such as keys) that encrypt and authenticate a
particular flow in one direction.
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Using IPsec with the CN4093
IPsec supports the fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets that occurs when
data goes to and comes from an external device. The IBM Flex System Fabric
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch acts as an end node that processes any
fragmentation and reassembly of packets but does not forward the IPsec traffic. The
IKEv2 key must be authenticated before you can use IPsec.
The security protocol for the session key is either ESP or AH. Outgoing packets are
labeled with the SA SPI (Security Parameter Index), which the remote device will
use in its verification and decryption process.
Every outgoing IPv6 packet is checked against the IPsec policies in force. For each
outbound packet, after the packet is encrypted, the software compares the packet
size with the MTU size that it either obtains from the default minimum maximum
transmission unit (MTU) size (1500) or from path MTU discovery. If the packet size
is larger than the MTU size, the receiver drops the packet and sends a message
containing the MTU size to the sender. The sender then fragments the packet into
smaller pieces and retransmits them using the correct MTU size.
The maximum traffic load for each IPSec packet is limited to the following:
• IKEv2 SAs: 5
• IPsec SAs: 10 (5 SAs in each direction)
• SPDs: 20 (10 policies in each direction)
IPsec is implemented as a software cryptography engine designed for handling
control traffic, such as network management. IPsec is not designed for handling
data traffic, such as a VPN.
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Setting up Authentication
Before you can use IPsec, you need to have key policy authentication in place.
There are two types of key policy authentication:
• Preshared key (default)
The parties agree on a shared, secret key that is used for authentication in an
IPsec policy. During security negotiation, information is encrypted before
transmission by using a session key created by using a Diffie-Hellman
calculation and the shared, secret key. Information is decrypted on the receiving
end using the same key. One IPsec peer authenticates the other peer's packet
by decryption and verification of the hash inside the packet (the hash inside the
packet is a hash of the preshared key). If authentication fails, the packet is
discarded.
•
Digital certificate (using RSA algorithms)
The peer being validated must hold a digital certificate signed by a trusted
Certificate Authority and the private key for that digital certificate. The side
performing the authentication only needs a copy of the trusted certificate
authorities digital certificate. During IKEv2 authentication, the side being
validated sends a copy of the digital certificate and a hash value signed using the
private key. The certificate can be either generated or imported.
Note: During the IKEv2 negotiation phase, the digital certificate takes precedence
over the preshared key.
Creating an IKEv2 Proposal
With IKEv2, a single policy can have multiple encryption and authentication types,
as well as multiple integrity algorithms.
To create an IKEv2 proposal:
1. Enter IKEv2 proposal mode.
CN 4093(config)# ikev2 proposal
2. Set the DES encryption algorithm.
CN 4093(config-ikev2-prop)# encryption 3des|aes-cbc|des
(default: 3des)
3. Set the authentication integrity algorithm type.
CN 4093(config-ikev2-prop)# integrity md5|sha1
(default: sha1)
4. Set the Diffie-Hellman group.
CN 4093(config-ikev2-prop)# group 1|2|5|14|24
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(default: 2)
Importing an IKEv2 Digital Certificate
To import an IKEv2 digital certificate for authentication:
1. Import the CA certificate file.
CN 4093(config)# copy tftp ca-cert address <hostname or IPv4 address>
Source file name: <path and filename of CA certificate file>
Port type ["DATA"/"MGT"]: >
Confirm download operation [y/n]: y
2. Import the host key file.
CN 4093(config)# copy tftp host-key address <hostname or IPv4 address>
Source file name: <path and filename of host private key file>
Port type ["DATA"/"MGT"]: >
Confirm download operation [y/n]: y
3. Import the host certificate file.
CN 4093(config)# copy tftp host-cert address <hostname or IPv4 address>
Source file name: <path and filename of host certificate file>
Port type ["DATA"/"MGT"]: >
Confirm download operation [y/n]: y
Note: When prompted for the port to use for download the file, if you used a
management port to connect the switch to the server, enter mgt, otherwise
enter data.
Generating an IKEv2 Digital Certificate
To create an IKEv2 digital certificate for authentication:
1. Create an HTTPS certificate defining the information you want to be used in the
various fields.
CN 4093(config)# access https generate-certificate
Country Name (2 letter code) []: <country code>
State or Province Name (full name) []: <state>
Locality Name (eg, city) []: <city>
Organization Name (eg, company) []: <company>
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []: <org. unit>
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []: <name>
Email (eg, email address) []: <email address>
Confirm generat‘eywing certificate? [y/n]: y
Generating certificate. Please wait (approx 30 seconds)
restarting SSL agent
2. Save the HTTPS certificate.
The certificate is valid only until the switch is rebooted. To save the certificate so
that it is retained beyond reboot or power cycles, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# access https save-certificate
3. Enable IKEv2 RSA-signature authentication:
CN 4093(config)# access https enable
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Enabling IKEv2 Preshared Key Authentication
To set up IKEv2 preshared key authentication:
1. Enter the local preshared key.
CN 4093(config)# ikev2 preshare-key local <preshared key, a string of 1-256 chars>
2. If asymmetric authentication is supported, enter the remote key:
CN 4093(config)# ikev2 preshare-key remote <preshared key> <IPv6 host>
where the following parameters are used:
– preshared key
A string of 1-256 characters
– IPv6 host
An IPv6-format host, such as “3000::1”
3. Set up the IKEv2 identification type by entering one of the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# ikev2 identity local address (use an IPv6 address)
CN 4093(config)# ikev2 identity local email <email address>
CN 4093(config)# ikev2 identity local fqdn <domain name>
To disable IKEv2 RSA-signature authentication method and enable preshared
key authentication, enter:
CN 4093(config)# no access https
Setting Up a Key Policy
When configuring IPsec, you must define a key policy. This key policy can be either
manual or dynamic. Either way, configuring a policy involves the following steps:
• Create a transform set—This defines which encryption and authentication algorithms are used.
• Create a traffic selector—This describes the packets to which the policy applies.
• Establish an IPsec policy.
• Apply the policy.
1. To define which encryption and authentication algorithms are used, create a
transform set:
CN 4093(config)# ipsec transform-set <transform ID> <encryption method>
<integrity algorithm> <AH authentication algorithm>
where the following parameters are used:
– transform ID
A number from 1-10
– encryption method
One of the following: esp-des | esp-3des |
esp-aes-cbc | esp-null
– integrity algorithm
One of the following: esp-sha1 | esp-md5 |
none
– AH authentication algorithm
One of the following: ah-sha1 | ah-md5 | none
2. Decide whether to use tunnel or transport mode. The default mode is transport.
CN 4093(config)# ipsec transform-set tunnel|transport
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3. To describe the packets to which this policy applies, create a traffic selector
using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# ipsec traffic-selector <traffic selector number>
permit|deny any|icmp <type|any> |tcp > <source IP address|any> <destination IP
address|any> [<prefix length>]
where the following parameters are used:
– traffic selector number
an integer from 1-10
– permit|deny
whether or not to permit IPsec encryption of traffic
that meets the criteria specified in this command
– proto/any
apply the selector to any type of traffic
– proto/icmp type|any
only apply the selector only to ICMP traffic of the
specified type (an integer from 1-255) or to any
ICMP traffic
– proto/tcp
only apply the selector to TCP traffic
– source IP address|any
the source IP address in IPv6 format or “any”
source
– destination IP address|any the destination IP address in IPv6 format or “any”
destination
– prefix length
(Optional) the length of the destination IPv6 prefix;
an integer from 1-128
Permitted traffic that matches the policy in force is encrypted, while denied traffic
that matches the policy in force is dropped. Traffic that does not match the policy
bypasses IPsec and passes through clear (unencrypted).
4. Choose whether to use a manual or a dynamic policy.
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Using a Manual Key Policy
A manual policy involves configuring policy and manual SA entries for local and
remote peers.
To configure a manual key policy, you need:
• The IP address of the peer in IPv6 format (for example, “3000::1”).
• Inbound/Outbound session keys for the security protocols.
You can then assign the policy to an interface. The peer represents the other end of
the security association. The security protocol for the session key can be either ESP
or AH.
To create and configure a manual policy:
1. Enter a manual policy to configure.
CN 4093(config)# ipsec manual-policy <policy number>
2. Configure the policy.
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#peer <peer’s IPv6 address>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#traffic-selector <IPsec traffic selector>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#transform-set <IPsec transform set>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#in-ah auth-key <inbound AH IPsec key>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#in-ah auth-spi <inbound AH IPsec SPI>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#in-esp cipher-key <inbound ESP cipher key>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#in-esp auth-spi <inbound ESP SPI>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#in-esp auth-key <inbound ESP authenticator key>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#out-ah auth-key <outbound AH IPsec key>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#out-ah auth-spi <outbound AH IPsec SPI>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#out-esp cipher-key <outbound ESP cipher key>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#out-esp auth-spi <outbound ESP SPI>
CN 4093(config-ipsec-manual)#out-esp auth-key <outbound ESP authenticator
key>
where the following parameters are used:
– peer’s IPv6 address
The IPv6 address of the peer (for example,
3000::1)
– IPsec traffic-selector
A number from1-10
– IPsec of transform-set
A number from1-10
– inbound AH IPsec key
The inbound AH key code, in hexadecimal
– inbound AH IPsec SPI
A number from 256-4294967295
– inbound ESP cipher key
The inbound ESP key code, in hexadecimal
– inbound ESP SPI
A number from 256-4294967295
– inbound ESP authenticator key The inbound ESP authenticator key code, in
hexadecimal
– outbound AH IPsec key
The outbound AH key code, in hexadecimal
– outbound AH IPsec SPI
A number from 256-4294967295
– outbound ESP cipher key
The outbound ESP key code, in hexadecimal
– outbound ESP SPI
A number from 256-4294967295
– outbound ESP authenticator key The outbound ESP authenticator key code, in
hexadecimal
Note: When configuring a manual policy ESP, the ESP authenticator key is
optional.
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3. After you configure the IPSec policy, you need to apply it to the interface to
enforce the security policies on that interface and save it to keep it in place after
a reboot. To accomplish this, enter:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config-ip)# interface ip <IP interface number, 1-128>
4093(config-ip-if)# address <IPv6 address>
4093(config-ip-if)# ipsec manual-policy <policy index, 1-10>
4093(config-ip-if)# enable (enable the IP interface)
4093# write (save the current configuration)
Using a Dynamic Key Policy
When you use a dynamic key policy, the first packet triggers IKE and sets the IPsec
SA and IKEv2 SA. The initial packet negotiation also determines the lifetime of the
algorithm, or how long it stays in effect. When the key expires, a new key is
automatically created. This helps prevent break-ins.
To configure a dynamic key policy:
1. Choose a dynamic policy to configure.
CN 4093(config)# ipsec dynamic-policy <policy number>
2. Configure the policy.
CN
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CN
CN
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4093(config-ipsec-dynamic)#
4093(config-ipsec-dynamic)#
4093(config-ipsec-dynamic)#
4093(config-ipsec-dynamic)#
4093(config-ipsec-dynamic)#
peer <peer’s IPv6 address>
traffic-selector <index of traffic selector>
transform-set <index of transform set>
sa-lifetime <SA lifetime, in seconds>
pfs enable|disable
where the following parameters are used:
– peer’s IPv6 address
The IPv6 address of the peer (for example,
3000::1)
– index of traffic-selector
A number from1-10
– index of transform-set
A number from1-10
– SA lifetime, in seconds
The length of time the SA is to remain in effect; an
integer from120-86400
– pfs enable|disable Whether to enable or disable the perfect forward
security feature. The default is disable.
Note: In a dynamic policy, the AH and ESP keys are created by IKEv2.
3. After you configure the IPSec policy, you need to apply it to the interface to
enforce the security policies on that interface and save it to keep it in place after
a reboot. To accomplish this, enter:
CN
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CN
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config-ip)# interface ip <IP interface number, 1-128>
4093(config-ip-if)# address <IPv6 address>
4093(config-ip-if)# ipsec dynamic-policy <policy index, 1-10>
4093(config-ip-if)# enable (enable the IP interface)
4093# write (save the current configuration)
Chapter 26: Using IPsec with IPv6
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Chapter 27. Routing Information Protocol
In a routed environment, routers communicate with one another to keep track of
available routes. Routers can learn about available routes dynamically using the
Routing Information Protocol (RIP). IBM Networking OS software supports RIP
version 1 (RIPv1) and RIP version 2 (RIPv2) for exchanging TCP/IPv4 route
information with other routers.
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not support IPv6 for RIP.
Distance Vector Protocol
RIP is known as a distance vector protocol. The vector is the network number
and next hop, and the distance is the cost associated with the network number.
RIP identifies network reachability based on metric, and metric is defined as hop
count. One hop is considered to be the distance from one switch to the next, which
typically is 1.
When a switch receives a routing update that contains a new or changed destination
network entry, the switch adds 1 to the metric value indicated in the update and
enters the network in the routing table. The IPv4 address of the sender is used as
the next hop.
Stability
RIP includes a number of other stability features that are common to many routing
protocols. For example, RIP implements the split horizon and hold-down
mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.
RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by limiting the number of
hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. The maximum number of
hops in a path is 15. The network destination network is considered unreachable if
increasing the metric value by 1 causes the metric to be 16 (that is infinity). This
limits the maximum diameter of a RIP network to less than 16 hops.
RIP is often used in stub networks and in small autonomous systems that do not
have many redundant paths.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
369
Routing Updates
RIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network
topology changes. Each router “advertises” routing information by sending a routing
information update every 30 seconds. If a router doesn’t receive an update from
another router for 180 seconds, those routes provided by that router are declared
invalid. The routes are removed from the routing table, but they remain in the RIP
routes table. After another 120 seconds without receiving an update for those
routes, the routes are removed from regular updates.
When a router receives a routing update that includes changes to an entry, it
updates its routing table to reflect the new route. The metric value for the path is
increased by 1, and the sender is indicated as the next hop. RIP routers maintain
only the best route (the route with the lowest metric value) to a destination.
For more information see The Configuration Menu, Routing Information Protocol
Configuration in the IBM Networking OS Command Reference.
RIPv1
RIP version 1 uses broadcast User Datagram Protocol (UDP) data packets for the
regular routing updates. The main disadvantage is that the routing updates do not
carry subnet mask information. Hence, the router cannot determine whether the
route is a subnet route or a host route. It is of limited usage after the introduction of
RIPv2. For more information about RIPv1 and RIPv2, refer to RFC 1058 and
RFC 2453.
RIPv2
RIPv2 is the most popular and preferred configuration for most networks. RIPv2
expands the amount of useful information carried in RIP messages and provides a
measure of security. For a detailed explanation of RIPv2, refer to RFC 1723 and
RFC 2453.
RIPv2 improves efficiency by using multicast UDP (address 224.0.0.9) data packets
for regular routing updates. Subnet mask information is provided in the routing
updates. A security option is added for authenticating routing updates, by using a
shared password. IBM Networking OS supports using clear password for RIPv2.
RIPv2 in RIPv1 Compatibility Mode
IBM Networking OS allows you to configure RIPv2 in RIPv1compatibility mode, for
using both RIPv2 and RIPv1 routers within a network. In this mode, the regular
routing updates use broadcast UDP data packet to allow RIPv1 routers to receive
those packets. With RIPv1 routers as recipients, the routing updates have to carry
natural or host mask. Hence, it is not a recommended configuration for most
network topologies.
Note: When using both RIPv1 and RIPv2 within a network, use a single subnet
mask throughout the network.
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RIP Features
IBM Networking OS provides the following features to support RIPv1 and RIPv2:
Poison Reverse
Simple split horizon in RIP omits routes learned from one neighbor in updates sent
to that neighbor. That is the most common configuration used in RIP, with the Poison
Reverse feature disabled. Split horizon with poisoned reverse enabled includes
such routes in updates, but sets their metrics to 16. The disadvantage of using this
feature is the increase of size in the routing updates.
Triggered Updates
Triggered updates are an attempt to speed up convergence. When Triggered
Updates is enabled, whenever a router changes the metric for a route, it sends
update messages almost immediately, without waiting for the regular update
interval. It is recommended to enable Triggered Updates.
Multicast
RIPv2 messages use IPv4 multicast address (224.0.0.9) for periodic updates.
Multicast RIPv2 updates are not processed by RIPv1 routers. IGMP is not needed
since these are inter-router messages which are not forwarded.
To configure RIPv2 in RIPv1 compatibility mode, set multicast to disable, and set
version to both.
Default Route
The RIP router can listen and supply a default route, usually represented as
IPv4 0.0.0.0 in the routing table. When a router does not have an explicit route to a
destination network in its routing table, it uses the default route to forward those
packets.
Metric
The metric field contains a configurable value between 1 and 15 (inclusive) which
specifies the current metric for the interface. The metric value typically indicates the
total number of hops to the destination. The metric value of 16 represents an
unreachable destination.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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371
Authentication
RIPv2 authentication uses plain text password for authentication. If configured using
Authentication password, then it is necessary to enter an authentication key value.
The following method is used to authenticate a RIP message:
• If the router is not configured to authenticate RIPv2 messages, then RIPv1 and
unauthenticated RIPv2 messages are accepted; authenticated RIPv2 messages
are discarded.
• If the router is configured to authenticate RIPv2 messages, then RIPv1 and
RIPv2 messages which pass authentication testing are accepted;
unauthenticated and failed authentication RIPv2 messages are discarded.
For maximum security, RIPv1 messages are ignored when authentication is
enabled (/cfg/l3/rip/if <x>/auth/password); otherwise, the routing information
from authenticated messages is propagated by RIPv1 routers in an unauthenticated
manner.
RIP Configuration Example
Note: An interface RIP disabled uses all the default values of the RIP, no matter
how the RIP parameters are configured for that interface. RIP sends out RIP
regular updates to include an UP interface, but not a DOWN interface.
1. Add VLANs for routing interfaces.
CN
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CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 2
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 2
4093(config-if)# exit
Port 2 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 2 [y/n]: y
CN
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4093(config)# vlan 3
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port 3
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 3
4093(config-if)# exit
Port 3 is an UNTAGGED port and its current PVID is 1.
Confirm changing PVID from 1 to 3 [y/n]: y
2. Add IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses to VLANs.
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372
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 102.1.1.1
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 2
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 103.1.1.1
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 3
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
3. Turn on RIP globally and enable RIP for each interface.
CN
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4093(config)# router rip
4093(config-router-rip)# enable
4093(config-router-rip)# exit
4093# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip rip enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip rip enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Use the following command to check the current valid routes in the routing table of
the switch:
CN 4093# show ip route
For those RIP learnt routes within the garbage collection period, that are routes
phasing out of the routing table with metric 16, use the following command:
CN 4093# show ip rip routes
Locally configured static routes do not appear in the RIP Routes table.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 28. Internet Group Management Protocol
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is used by IPv4 Multicast routers to
learn about the existence of host group members on their directly attached subnet
(see RFC 2236). The IPv4 Multicast routers get this information by broadcasting
IGMP Membership Queries and listening for IPv4 hosts reporting their host group
memberships. This process is used to set up a client/server relationship between an
IPv4 Multicast source that provides the data streams and the clients that want to
receive the data.
The CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) can perform IGMP
Snooping, or act as an IGMP Relay (proxy) device.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
• “IGMP Snooping” on page 376
• “IGMP Querier” on page 382
• “Additional IGMP Features” on page 383
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
375
IGMP Snooping
IGMP Snooping allows the switch to forward multicast traffic only to those ports that
request it. IGMP Snooping prevents multicast traffic from being flooded to all ports.
The switch learns which server hosts are interested in receiving multicast traffic, and
forwards it only to ports connected to those servers.
IGMP Snooping conserves bandwidth. With IGMP Snooping, the switch learns
which ports are interested in receiving multicast data, and forwards multicast data
only to those ports. In this way, other ports are not burdened with unwanted
multicast traffic.
The switch can sense IGMP Membership Reports from attached clients and act as a
proxy to set up a dedicated path between the requesting host and a local IPv4
Multicast router. After the pathway is established, the switch blocks the IPv4
Multicast stream from flowing through any port that does not connect to a host
member, thus conserving bandwidth.
The client-server path is set up as follows:
• An IPv4 Multicast Router (Mrouter) sends Membership Queries to the switch,
which forwards them to all ports in a given VLAN.
• Hosts that want to receive the multicast data stream send Membership Reports
to the switch, which sends a proxy Membership Report to the Mrouter.
• The switch sets up a path between the Mrouter and the host, and blocks all other
ports from receiving the multicast.
• Periodically, the Mrouter sends Membership Queries to ensure that the host
wants to continue receiving the multicast. If a host fails to respond with a
Membership Report, the Mrouter stops sending the multicast to that path.
• The host can send an IGMP Leave packet to the switch, which responds with an
IGMP Groups Specific Query in order to check if there are other clients that want
to receive the multicast traffic for the group referenced in the Leave packet. If an
IGMP Report is not received, the group is deleted from the port and the multicast
path is terminated. The switch then sends a Proxy Leave packet to the Mrouter in
order to update it. If the FastLeave option is enabled on a VLAN, the multicast
path is terminated immediately and the Leave packet is directly forwarded to the
Mrouter.
IGMP Groups
The CN4093 supports a maximum of 3072 IGMP entries, on a maximum of 1024
(1022 in stacking mode) VLANs. One IGMP entry is allocated for each unique join
request, based on the VLAN and IGMP group address only (regardless of the port).
If multiple ports join the same IGMP group using the same VLAN, only a single
IGMP entry is used.
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IGMPv3
IGMPv3 includes new membership report messages to extend IGMP functionality.
The CN4093 provides snooping capability for all types of IGMP version 3 (IGMPv3)
Membership Reports, as described in RFC 3376.
IGMPv3 supports Source-Specific Multicast (SSM). SSM identifies session traffic by
both source and group addresses. The CN4093 uses source filtering, which allows
hosts to report interest in receiving multicast packets only from specific source
addresses, or from all but specific source addresses.
The CN4093 supports the following IGMPv3 filter modes:
• INCLUDE mode: The host requests membership to a multicast group and
provides a list of IPv4 addresses from which it wants to receive traffic.
• EXCLUDE mode: The host requests membership to a multicast group and
provides a list of IPv4 addresses from which it does not want to receive traffic.
This indicates that the host wants to receive traffic only from sources that are not
part of the Exclude list. To disable snooping on EXCLUDE mode reports, use the
following command:
CN 4093(config)# no ip igmp snoop igmpv3 exclude
By default, the CN4093 snoops the first eight sources listed in the IGMPv3 Group
Record. Use the following command to change the number of snooping sources:
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 sources <1-64>
IGMPv3 Snooping is compatible with IGMPv1 and IGMPv2 Snooping. You can
disable snooping on version 1 and version 2 reports, using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# no ip igmp snoop igmpv3 v1v2
IGMP Snooping Configuration Example
This section provides steps to configure IGMP Snooping on the CN4093, using the
Command-Line Interface (CLI).
1. Configure port and VLAN membership on the switch.
2. Add VLANs to IGMP Snooping and enable IGMP Snooping.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp snoop vlan 1
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp snoop enable
3. Enable IGMPv3 Snooping (optional).
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp snoop igmpv3 enable
4. Enable IGMP.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp enable
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
(Turn on IGMP)
Chapter 28: Internet Group Management Protocol
377
5. View dynamic IGMP information.
To display information about IGMP Groups:
CN 4093# show ip igmp groups
Total entries: 5 Total IGMP groups: 2
Note: The <Total IGMP groups> number is computed as
the number of unique (Group, Vlan) entries!
Note: Local groups (224.0.0.x) are not snooped/relayed
Source
Group
VLAN
Port
Version
-------------- --------------- ------- ------ -------10.1.1.1
232.1.1.1
2
4
V3
10.1.1.5
232.1.1.1
2
4
V3
*
232.1.1.1
2
4
V3
10.10.10.43
235.0.0.1
9
1
V3
*
235.0.0.1
9
1
V3
and will not appear.
Mode Expires Fwd
----- ------- --INC
4:16
Yes
INC
4:16
Yes
INC
No
EXC
2:26
No
EXC
Yes
To display information about Mrouters learned by the switch:
CN 4093# show ip igmp mrouter
Total entries: 3 Total number of dynamic mrouters: 2
Total number of installed static mrouters : 1
SrcIP
VLAN
Port
Version Expires
MRT
QRV QQIC
-------------------- ------- ------- --------- -------- ------- ---- ---10.1.1.1
2
EXT18
V3
4:09
128
2
125
10.1.1.5
2
EXT19
V2
4:09
125
*
9
EXT10
V2
static
-
Note: If IGMP Snooping v1/v2 is enabled and IGMPv3 Snooping is disabled, the
output of IGMPv3 reports and queries show some items as IGMPv3 (V3),
though they retain v2 behavior. For example, the Source IPv4 address is
not relevant for v2 entries.
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Static Multicast Router
A static multicast router (Mrouter) can be configured for a particular port on a
particular VLAN. A static Mrouter does not have to be learned through IGMP
Snooping.
A total of 128 static Mrouters can be configured on the CN4093. Both internal and
external ports can accept a static Mrouter.
Note: When static Mrouters are used, the switch will continue learning dynamic
Mrouters via IGMP snooping. However, dynamic Mrouters may not replace
static Mrouters. If a dynamic Mrouter has the same port and VLAN
combination as a static Mrouter, the dynamic Mrouter will not be learned.
Following is an example of configuring a static multicast router:
1. For each Mrouter, configure a port, VLAN, and IGMP version of the multicast
router.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp mrouter EXT5 1 2
2. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show ip igmp mrouter
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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IGMP Relay
The CN4093 can act as an IGMP Relay (or IGMP Proxy) device that relays IGMP
multicast messages and traffic between an Mrouter and end stations. IGMP Relay
allows the CN4093 to participate in network multicasts with no configuration of the
various multicast routing protocols, so you can deploy it in the network with minimal
effort.
To an IGMP host connected to the CN4093, IGMP Relay appears to be an IGMP
multicast router (Mrouter). IGMP Relay sends Membership Queries to hosts, which
respond by sending an IGMP response message. A host can also send an
unsolicited Join message to the IGMP Relay.
To a multicast router, IGMP Relay appears as a host. The Mrouter sends IGMP host
queries to IGMP Relay, and IGMP Relay responds by forwarding IGMP host reports
and unsolicited join messages from its attached hosts.
IGMP Relay also forwards multicast traffic between the Mrouter and end stations,
similar to IGMP Snooping.
You can configure up to two Mrouters to use with IGMP Relay. One Mrouter acts as
the primary Mrouter, and one is the backup Mrouter. The EN4093 uses ICMP health
checks to determine if the primary and backup mrouters are reachable.
Configuration Guidelines
Consider the following guidelines when you configure IGMP Relay:
• IGMP Relay is supported in stand-alone (non-stacking) mode only.
• IGMP Relay and IGMP Snooping/Querier are mutually exclusive—if you enable
IGMP Relay, you must turn off IGMP Snooping/Querier.
• Add the upstream VLANs to the IGMP Relay list, using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp relay vlan
•
<VLAN number>
If IGMP hosts reside on different VLANs, you must:
– Disable IGMP flooding.
CN 4093(config)# vlan <vlan id>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# no flood
– Enable CPU forwarding to ensure that multicast data is forwarded across the
VLANs.
CN 4093(config)# vlan <vlan id>
CN 4093(config-vlan)# cpu
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Configure IGMP Relay
Use the following procedure to configure IGMP Relay.
1. Configure IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses, and assign VLANs.
CN
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CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 2
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.2.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 3
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
2. Turn IGMP on.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp enable
3. Configure the upstream Mrouters with IPv4 addresses.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
ip
ip
ip
ip
igmp
igmp
igmp
igmp
relay
relay
relay
relay
mrouter
mrouter
mrouter
mrouter
1
1
2
2
address 100.0.1.2
enable
address 100.0.2.4
enable
4. Add VLANs to the downstream network and enable IGMP Relay
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp relay vlan 2
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp relay vlan 3
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp relay enable
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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IGMP Querier
IGMP Querier allows the switch to perform the multicast router (Mrouter) role and
provide Mrouter discovery when the network or virtual LAN (VLAN) does not have a
router.
When the IGMP Querier feature is enabled on a VLAN, the switch participates in the
Querier election process and has the possibility to be elected as Querier for the
VLAN. The IGMP querier periodically broadcasts IGMP Queries and listens for
hosts to respond with IGMP Reports indicating their IGMP group memberships. If
multiple Mrouters exist on a given network, the Mrouters elect one as the querier,
which performs all periodic membership queries. The election process can be
based on IPv4 address or MAC address.
Note: When IGMP Querier is enabled on a VLAN, the switch performs the role of
IGMP querier only if it meets the IGMP querier election criteria.
Follow this procedure to configure IGMP Querier.
1. Enable IGMP and configure the source IPv4 address for IGMP Querier on a
VLAN.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp enable
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp querier enable
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp querier vlan 2 source-ip 10.10.10.1
2. Enable IGMP Querier on the VLAN.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp querier vlan 2 enable
3. Configure the querier election type and define the address.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp querier vlan 2 election-type ipv4
4. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093# show ip igmp querier vlan 2
Current VLAN 2 IGMP querier settings: ON
querier type: ipv4
max response time: 100
querier interval: 125
Querier robustness: 2
source IP: 10.10.10.15
startup count: 2
startup query interval: 31
version: v3
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Additional IGMP Features
The following topics are discussed in this section:
• “FastLeave” on page 383
• “IGMP Filtering” on page 383
FastLeave
In normal IGMP operation, when the switch receives an IGMPv2 leave message, it
sends a Group-Specific Query to determine if any other devices in the same group
(and on the same port) are still interested in the specified multicast group traffic. The
switch removes the affiliated port from that particular group, if it does not receive an
IGMP Membership Report within the query-response-interval.
With FastLeave enabled on the VLAN, a port can be removed immediately from the
port list of the group entry when the IGMP Leave message is received, unless a
multicast router was learned on the port.
Enable FastLeave only on VLANs that have only one host connected to each
physical port.
IGMP Filtering
With IGMP Filtering, you can allow or deny a port to learn certain IGMP/IPMC groups. This allows you to restrict users from receiving certain multicast traffic.
If access to a multicast group is denied, IGMP Membership Reports from the port
are dropped, and the port is not allowed to receive IPv4 multicast traffic from that
group. If access to the multicast group is allowed, Membership Reports from the
port are forwarded for normal processing.
To configure IGMP Filtering, you must globally enable IGMP filtering, define an
IGMP filter, assign the filter to a port, and enable IGMP Filtering on the port. To
define an IGMP filter, you must configure a range of IPv4 multicast groups, choose
whether the filter will allow or deny multicast traffic for groups within the range, and
enable the filter.
Configuring the Range
Each IGMP Filter allows you to set a start and end point that defines the range of
IPv4 addresses upon which the filter takes action. Each IPv4 address in the range
must be between 224.0.0.0 and 239.255.255.255.
Configuring the Action
Each IGMP filter can allow or deny IPv4 multicasts to the range of IPv4 addresses
configured. If you configure the filter to deny IPv4 multicasts, then IGMP
Membership Reports from multicast groups within the range are dropped. You can
configure a secondary filter to allow IPv4 multicasts to a small range of addresses
within a larger range that a primary filter is configured to deny. The two filters work
together to allow IPv4 multicasts to a small subset of addresses within the larger
range of addresses.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 28: Internet Group Management Protocol
383
Note: Lower-numbered filters take precedence over higher-number filters. For
example, the action defined for IGMP Filter 1 supersedes the action defined
for IGMP Filter 2.
Configure IGMP Filtering
1. Enable IGMP filtering on the switch.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp filtering
2. Define an IGMP filter with IPv4 information.
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp profile 1 range 224.0.0.0 226.0.0.0
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp profile 1 action deny
CN 4093(config)# ip igmp profile 1 enable
3. Assign the IGMP filter to a port.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 3
CN 4093(config-if)# ip igmp profile 1
CN 4093(config-if)# ip igmp filtering
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Chapter 29. Multicast Listener Discovery
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is an IPv6 protocol that a host uses to request
multicast data for a multicast group. An IPv6 router uses MLD to discover the
presence of multicast listeners (nodes that want to receive multicast packets) on its
directly attached links, and to discover specifically the multicast addresses that are
of interest to those neighboring nodes.
MLD version 1 is derived from Internet Group Management Protocol version 2
(IGMPv2) and MLDv2 is derived from IGMPv3. MLD uses ICMPv6 (IP Protocol 58)
message types. See RFC 2710 and RFC 3810 for details.
MLDv2 protocol, when compared to MLDv1, adds support for source filtering—the
ability for a node to report interest in listening to packets only from specific source
addresses, or from all but specific source addresses, sent to a particular multicast
address. MLDv2 is interoperable with MLDv1. See RFC 3569 for details on
Source-Specific Multicast (SSM).
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
• “MLD Terms” on page 386
• “How MLD Works” on page 387
• “MLD Capacity and Default Values” on page 389
• “Configuring MLD” on page 390
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
385
MLD Terms
Following are the commonly used MLD terms:
• Multicast traffic: Flow of data from one source to multiple destinations.
• Group: A multicast stream to which a host can join.
• Multicast Router (Mrouter): A router configured to make routing decisions for
multicast traffic. The router identifies the type of packet received (unicast or
multicast) and forwards the packet to the intended destination.
• Querier: An Mrouter that sends periodic query messages. Only one Mrouter on
the subnet can be elected as the Querier.
• Multicast Listener Query: Messages sent by the Querier. There are three types of
queries:
– General Query: Sent periodically to learn multicast address listeners from an
attached link. CN4093 uses these queries to build and refresh the Multicast
Address Listener state. General Queries are sent to the link-scope all-nodes
multicast address (FF02::1), with a multicast address field of 0, and a
maximum response delay of query response interval.
– Multicast Address Specific Query: Sent to learn if a specific multicast
address has any listeners on an attached link. The multicast address field is
set to the IPv6 multicast address.
– Multicast Address and Source Specific Query: Sent to learn if, for a specified
multicast address, there are nodes still listening to a specific set of sources.
Supported only in MLDv2.
•
Note: Multicast Address Specific Queries and Multicast Address and Source
Specific Queries are sent only in response to State Change Reports,
and never in response to Current State Reports.
Multicast Listener Report: Sent by a host when it joins a multicast group, or in
response to a Multicast Listener Query sent by the Querier. Hosts use these
reports to indicate their current multicast listening state, or changes in the
multicast listening state of their interfaces. These reports are of two types:
– Current State Report: Contains the current Multicast Address Listening State
of the host.
– State Change Report: If the listening state of a host changes, the host
immediately reports these changes through a State Change Report
message. These reports contain either Filter Mode Change records and/or
Source List Change records. State Change Reports are retransmitted
several times to ensure all Mrouters receive it.
•
386
Multicast Listener Done: Sent by a host when it wants to leave a multicast group.
This message is sent to the link-scope all-routers IPv6 destination address of
FF02::2. When an Mrouter receives a Multicast Listener Done message from the
last member of the multicast address on a link, it stops forwarding traffic to this
multicast address.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
How MLD Works
The software uses the information obtained through MLD to maintain a list of
multicast group memberships for each interface and forwards the multicast traffic
only to interested listeners.
Without MLD, the switch forwards IPv6 multicast traffic through all ports, increasing
network load. Following is an overview of operations when MLD is configured on
CN4093:
• The switch acts as an Mrouter when MLDv1/v2 is configured and enabled on
each of its directly attached links. If the switch has multiple interfaces connected
to the same link, it operates the protocol on any one of the interfaces.
• If there are multiple Mrouters on the subnet, the Mrouter with the numerically
lowest IPv6 address is elected as the Querier.
• The Querier sends general queries at short intervals to learn multicast address
listener information from an attached link.
• Hosts respond to these queries by reporting their per-interface Multicast Address
Listening state, through Current State Report messages sent to a specific
multicast address that all MLD routers on the link listen to.
• If the listening state of a host changes, the host immediately reports these
changes through a State Change Report message.
• The Querier sends a Multicast Address Specific Query to verify if hosts are
listening to a specified multicast address or not. Similarly, if MLDv2 is configured,
the Querier sends a Multicast Address and Source Specific Query to verify, for a
specified multicast address, if hosts are listening to a specific set of sources, or
not. MLDv2 listener report messages consists of Multicast Address Records:
– INCLUDE: to receive packets from source specified in the MLDv2 message
– EXCLUDE: to receive packets from all sources except the ones specified in
the MLDv2 message
•
A host can send a State Change Report to indicate its desire to stop listening to
a particular multicast address (or source in MLDv2). The Querier then sends a
multicast address specific query to verify if there are other listeners of the
multicast address. If there aren’t any, the Mrouter deletes the multicast address
from its Multicast Address Listener state and stops sending multicast traffic.
Similarly in MLDv2, the Mrouter sends a Multicast Address and Source Specific
Query to verify if, for a specified multicast address, there are hosts still listening
to a specific set of sources.
CN4093 supports MLD versions 1 and 2.
Note: MLDv2 operates in version 1 compatibility mode when, in a specific network,
not all hosts are configured with MLDv2.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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387
How Flooding Impacts MLD
When flood option is disabled, the unknown multicast traffic is discarded if no
Mrouters are learned on the switch. You can set the flooding behavior by configuring
the flood and cpu options. You can optimize the flooding to ensure that unknown
IP multicast (IPMC) data packets are not dropped during the learning phase.
The flooding options include:
• flood: Enable hardware flooding in VLAN for the unregistered IPMC; This
option is enabled by default.
• cpu: Enable sending unregistered IPMC to the Mrouter ports. However, during
the learning period, there will be some packet loss. The cpu option is enabled by
default. You must ensure that the flood and optflood options are disabled.
• optflood: Enable optimized flooding to allow sending the unregistered IPMC to
the Mrouter ports without having any packet loss during the learning period; This
option is disabled by default; When optflood is enabled, the flood and cpu
settings are ignored.
The flooding parameters must be configured per VLAN. Enter the following
command to set the flood or cpu options:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
4093(config-vlan)#
<vlan number>
[no] flood
[no] cpu
[no] optflood
MLD Querier
An Mrouter acts as a Querier and periodically (at short query intervals) sends query
messages in the subnet. If there are multiple Mrouters in the subnet, only one can
be the Querier. All Mrouters on the subnet listen to the messages sent by the
multicast address listeners, and maintain the same multicast listening information
state.
All MLDv2 queries are sent with the FE80::/64 link-local source address prefix.
Querier Election
Only one Mrouter can be the Querier per subnet. All other Mrouters will be
non-Queriers. MLD versions 1 and 2 elect the Mrouter with the numerically lowest
IPv6 address as the Querier.
If the switch is configured as an Mrouter on a subnet, it also acts as a Querier by
default and sends multiple general queries. If the switch receives a general query
from another Querier with a numerically lower IPv6 address, it sets the other querier
present timer to the other querier present timeout, and changes its state to
non-Querier. When the other querier present timer expires, it regains the Querier
state and starts sending general queries.
Note: When MLD Querier is enabled on a VLAN, the switch performs the role of an
MLD Querier only if it meets the MLD Querier election criteria.
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Dynamic Mrouters
The switch learns Mrouters on the ingress VLANs of the MLD-enabled interface. All
report or done messages are forwarded to these Mrouters. By default, the option of
dynamically learning Mrouters is disabled. To enable it, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld dmrtr enable
MLD Capacity and Default Values
Table 36 lists the maximum and minimum values of the CN4093 variables.
Table 36. CN4093 Capacity Table
Variable
Maximum Value
IPv6 Multicast Entries
256
IPv6 Interfaces for MLD
8
Table 37 lists the default settings for MLD features and variables.
Table 37. MLD Timers and Default Values
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Field
Default Value
Robustness Variable (RV)
2
Query Interval (QI)
125 seconds
Query Response Interval (QRI)
10 seconds
Multicast Address Listeners Interval
(MALI)
260 seconds [derived: RV*QI+QRI]
Other Querier Present Interval [OQPT]
255 seconds [derived: RV*QI + ½ QRI]
Start up Query Interval [SQI]
31.25 seconds [derived: ¼ * QI]
Startup Query Count [SQC]
2 [derived: RV]
Last Listener Query Interval [LLQI]
1 second
Last Listener Query Count [LLQC]
2 [derived: RV]
Last Listener Query Time [LLQT]
2 seconds [derived: LLQI * LLQT]
Older Version Querier Present Timeout:
[OVQPT]
260 seconds [derived: RV*QI+ QRI]
Older Version Host Present Interval
[OVHPT]
260 seconds [derived: RV* QI+QRI]
Chapter 29: Multicast Listener Discovery
389
Configuring MLD
Following are the steps to enable MLD and configure the interface parameters:
1. Turn on MLD globally.
CN 4093(config)# ipv6 mld
CN 4093(config-router-mld)# enable
CN 4093(config-router-mld)# exit
2. Create an IPv6 interface.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 address 2002:1:0:0:0:0:0:3
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 prefixlen 64
3. Enable MLD on the IPv6 interface.
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld enable
4. Configure the MLD parameters on the interface: version, robustness, query
response interval, MLD query interval, and last listener query interval.
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld version <1-2>(MLD version)
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld robust <1-10>(Robustness)
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld qri <1-256>
(In seconds)
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld qintrval <1-608>(In seconds)
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 mld llistnr <1-32>(In seconds)
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Chapter 30. Border Gateway Protocol
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an Internet protocol that enables routers on an
IPv4 network to share and advertise routing information with each other about the
segments of the IPv4 address space they can access within their network and with
routers on external networks. BGP allows you to decide what is the “best” route for
a packet to take from your network to a destination on another network rather than
simply setting a default route from your border router(s) to your upstream
provider(s). BGP is defined in RFC 1771.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switches (CN4093s) can advertise their IP
interfaces and IPv4 addresses using BGP and take BGP feeds from as many as
BGP router peers. This allows more resilience and flexibility in balancing traffic from
the Internet.
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not support IPv6 for BGP.
The following topics are discussed in this section:
• “Internal Routing Versus External Routing” on page 391
• “Forming BGP Peer Routers” on page 392
• “What is a Route Map?” on page 393
• “Aggregating Routes” on page 395
• “Redistributing Routes” on page 396
• “BGP Attributes” on page 396
• “Selecting Route Paths in BGP” on page 398
• “BGP Failover Configuration” on page 399
• “Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example” on page 401
Internal Routing Versus External Routing
To ensure effective processing of network traffic, every router on your network
needs to know how to send a packet (directly or indirectly) to any other
location/destination in your network. This is referred to as internal routing and can
be done with static routes or using active, internal dynamic routing protocols, such
as RIP, RIPv2, and OSPF.
Static routes should have a higher degree of precedence than dynamic routing
protocols. If the destination route is not in the route cache, then the packets are
forwarded to the default gateway which may be incorrect if a dynamic routing
protocol is enabled.
It is also useful to tell routers outside your network (upstream providers or peers)
about the routes you can access in your network. External networks (those outside
your own) that are under the same administrative control are referred to as
autonomous systems (AS). Sharing of routing information between autonomous
systems is known as external routing.
External BGP (eBGP) is used to exchange routes between different autonomous
systems whereas internal BGP (iBGP) is used to exchange routes within the same
autonomous system. An iBGP is a type of internal routing protocol you can use to do
active routing inside your network. It also carries AS path information, which is
important when you are an ISP or doing BGP transit.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
391
The iBGP peers have to maintain reciprocal sessions to every other iBGP router in
the same AS (in a full-mesh manner) in order to propagate route information
throughout the AS. If the iBGP session shown between the two routers in AS 20 was
not present (as indicated in Figure 43), the top router would not learn the route to AS
50, and the bottom router would not learn the route to AS 11, even though the two
AS 20 routers are connected via the Flex System and the Application Switch.
Figure 43. iBGP and eBGP
AS 11
AS 20
ISP A
iBGP
eBGP
Internet
AS 50
ISP B
Application
Switch
Typically, an AS has one or more border routers—peer routers that exchange routes
with other ASs—and an internal routing scheme that enables routers in that AS to
reach every other router and destination within that AS. When you advertise routes
to border routers on other autonomous systems, you are effectively committing to
carry data to the IPv4 space represented in the route being advertised. For
example, if you advertise 192.204.4.0/24, you are declaring that if another router
sends you data destined for any address in 192.204.4.0/24, you know how to carry
that data to its destination.
Forming BGP Peer Routers
Two BGP routers become peers or neighbors once you establish a TCP connection
between them. For each new route, if a peer is interested in that route (for example,
if a peer would like to receive your static routes and the new route is static), an
update message is sent to that peer containing the new route. For each route
removed from the route table, if the route has already been sent to a peer, an update
message containing the route to withdraw is sent to that peer.
For each Internet host, you must be able to send a packet to that host, and that host
has to have a path back to you. This means that whoever provides Internet
connectivity to that host must have a path to you. Ultimately, this means that they must
“hear a route” which covers the section of the IPv4 space you are using; otherwise,
you will not have connectivity to the host in question.
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What is a Route Map?
A route map is used to control and modify routing information. Route maps define
conditions for redistributing routes from one routing protocol to another or controlling
routing information when injecting it in and out of BGP. For example, a route map is
used to set a preference value for a specific route from a peer router and another
preference value for all other routes learned via the same peer router. For example,
the following commands are used to define a route map:
CN 4093(config)# route-map <map number>
CN 4093(config-route-map)# ?
(Select a route map)
(List available commands)
A route map allows you to match attributes, such as metric, network address, and
AS number. It also allows users to overwrite the local preference metric and to
append the AS number in the AS route. See “BGP Failover Configuration” on
page 399.
IBM Networking OS allows you to configure 32 route maps. Each route map can
have up to eight access lists. Each access list consists of a network filter. A network
filter defines an IPv4 address and subnet mask of the network that you want to
include in the filter. Figure 44 illustrates the relationship between route maps,
access lists and network filters.
Figure 44. Distributing Network Filters in Access Lists and Route Maps
Route Maps
Network Filter
(rmap)
(nwf)
Access Lists
(alist)
Route Map 1
Route Map 2
----------------------------Route Map 32
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
1
-------
1
8
8
1
------8
9
16
1
-------
249
8
256
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Incoming and Outgoing Route Maps
You can have two types of route maps: incoming and outgoing. A BGP peer router
can be configured to support up to eight route maps in the incoming route map list
and outgoing route map list.
If a route map is not configured in the incoming route map list, the router imports all
BGP updates. If a route map is configured in the incoming route map list, the router
ignores all unmatched incoming updates. If you set the action to deny, you must add
another route map to permit all unmatched updates.
Route maps in an outgoing route map list behave similar to route maps in an
incoming route map list. If a route map is not configured in the outgoing route map
list, all routes are advertised or permitted. If a route map in the outgoing route map
list is set to permit, matched routes are advertised and unmatched routes are
ignored.
Precedence
You can set a priority to a route map by specifying a precedence value with the
following commands:
CN 4093(config)# route-map <map number>
CN 4093(config-route-map)# precedence <1-255>
CN 4093(config-route-map)# exit
(Select a route map)
(Specify a precedence)
The smaller the value the higher the precedence. If two route maps have the same
precedence value, the smaller number has higher precedence.
Configuration Overview
To configure route maps, you need to do the following:
1. Define network filter.
CN 4093(config)# ip match-address 1 <IPv4 address> <IPv4 subnet mask>
CN 4093(config)# ip match-address 1 enable
Enter a filter number from 1 to 256. Specify the IPv4 address and subnet mask of
the network that you want to match. Enable the network filter. You can distribute
up to 256 network filters among 32 route maps each containing eight access
lists.
2. (Optional) Define the criteria for the access list and enable it.
Specify the access list and associate the network filter number configured in
Step 1.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
394
4093(config)# route-map
4093(config-route-map)#
4093(config-route-map)#
4093(config-route-map)#
4093(config-route-map)#
1
access-list
access-list
access-list
access-list
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1
1
1
1
match-address 1
metric <metric value>
action deny
enable
Steps 2 and 3 are optional, depending on the criteria that you want to match. In
Step 2, the network filter number is used to match the subnets defined in the
network filter. In Step 3, the autonomous system number is used to match the
subnets. Or, you can use both (Step 2 and Step 3) criteria: access list (network
filter) and access path (AS filter) to configure the route maps.
3. (Optional) Configure the attributes in the AS filter menu.
CN 4093(config-route-map)# as-path-list 1 as 1
CN 4093(config-route-map)# as-path-list 1 action deny
CN 4093(config-route-map)# as-path-list 1 enable
4. Set up the BGP attributes.
If you want to overwrite the attributes that the peer router is sending, then define
the following BGP attributes:
– Specify up to three AS numbers that you want to prepend to a matched route
and the local preference for the matched route.
– Specify the metric [Multi Exit Discriminator (MED)] for the matched route.
CN 4093(config-route-map)# as-path-preference <AS number> [<AS number>] [<AS number>]
CN 4093(config-route-map)# local-preference <local preference value>
CN 4093(config-route-map)# metric <metric value>
5. Enable the route map.
CN 4093(config-route-map)# enable
CN 4093(config-route-map)# exit
6. Turn BGP on.
CN 4093(config)# router bgp
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# enable
7. Assign the route map to a peer router.
Select the peer router and then add the route map to the incoming route map list,
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 1 route-map in <1-32>
or to the outgoing route map list.
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 1 route-map out <1-32>
8. Exit Router BGP mode.
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# exit
Aggregating Routes
Aggregation is the process of combining several different routes in such a way that
a single route can be advertised, which minimizes the size of the routing table. You
can configure aggregate routes in BGP either by redistributing an aggregate route
into BGP or by creating an aggregate entry in the BGP routing table.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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To define an aggregate route in the BGP routing table, use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# router bgp
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# aggregate-address <1-16> <IPv4 address> <mask>
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# aggregate-address <1-16> enable
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# exit
An example of creating a BGP aggregate route is shown in “Default Redistribution
and Route Aggregation Example” on page 401.
Redistributing Routes
In addition to running multiple routing protocols simultaneously, IBM Networking OS
software can redistribute information from one routing protocol to another. For
example, you can instruct the switch to use BGP to re-advertise static routes. This
applies to all of the IP-based routing protocols.
You can also conditionally control the redistribution of routes between routing
domains by defining a method known as route maps between the two domains. For
more information on route maps, see “What is a Route Map?” on page 393.
Redistributing routes is another way of providing policy control over whether to
export OSPF routes, fixed routes, and static routes. For an example configuration,
see “Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example” on page 401.
Default routes can be configured using the following methods:
• Import
• Originate—The router sends a default route to peers if it does not have any
default routes in its routing table.
• Redistribute—Default routes are either configured through the default gateway
or learned via other protocols and redistributed to peer routers. If the default
routes are from the default gateway, enable the static routes because default
routes from the default gateway are static routes. Similarly, if the routes are
learned from another routing protocol, make sure you enable that protocol for
redistribution.
• None
BGP Attributes
The following two BGP attributes are discussed in this section: Local preference and
metric (Multi-Exit Discriminator).
Local Preference Attribute
When there are multiple paths to the same destination, the local preference attribute
indicates the preferred path. The path with the higher preference is preferred (the
default value of the local preference attribute is 100). Unlike the weight attribute,
which is only relevant to the local router, the local preference attribute is part of the
routing update and is exchanged among routers in the same AS.
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The local preference attribute can be set in one of two ways:
• Using the BGP default local preference method, affecting the outbound direction
only.
CN 4093(config)# router bgp
CN 4093(config_router_bgp)# local-preference
CN 4093(config_router_bgp)# exit
•
Using the route map local preference method, which affects both inbound and
outbound directions.
CN 4093(config)# route-map 1
CN 4093(config_route_map)# local-preference
CN 4093(config_router_map)# exit
Metric (Multi-Exit Discriminator) Attribute
This attribute is a hint to external neighbors about the preferred path into an AS
when there are multiple entry points. A lower metric value is preferred over a higher
metric value. The default value of the metric attribute is 0.
Unlike local preference, the metric attribute is exchanged between ASs; however, a
metric attribute that comes into an AS does not leave the AS.
When an update enters the AS with a certain metric value, that value is used for
decision making within the AS. When BGP sends that update to another AS, the
metric is reset to 0.
Unless otherwise specified, the router compares metric attributes for paths from
external neighbors that are in the same AS.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Selecting Route Paths in BGP
BGP selects only one path as the best path. It does not rely on metric attributes to
determine the best path. When the same network is learned via more than one BGP
peer, BGP uses its policy for selecting the best route to that network. The BGP
implementation on the CN4093 uses the following criteria to select a path when the
same route is received from multiple peers.
1. Local fixed and static routes are preferred over learned routes.
2. With iBGP peers, routes with higher local preference values are selected.
3. In the case of multiple routes of equal preference, the route with lower AS path
weight is selected.
AS path weight = 128 x AS path length (number of autonomous systems
traversed).
4. In the case of equal weight and routes learned from peers that reside in the
same AS, the lower metric is selected.
Note: A route with a metric is preferred over a route without a metric.
5. The lower cost to the next hop of routes is selected.
6. In the case of equal cost, the eBGP route is preferred over iBGP.
7. If all routes have same route type (eBGP or iBGP), the route with the lower
router ID is selected.
When the path is selected, BGP puts the selected path in its routing table and
propagates the path to its neighbors.
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BGP Failover Configuration
Use the following example to create redundant default gateways for a CN4093 at a
Web Host/ISP site, eliminating the possibility, should one gateway go down, that
requests will be forwarded to an upstream router unknown to the switch.
As shown in Figure 45, the switch is connected to ISP 1 and ISP 2. The customer
negotiates with both ISPs to allow the switch to use their peer routers as default
gateways. The ISP peer routers will then need to announce themselves as default
gateways to the CN4093.
Figure 45. BGP Failover Configuration Example
Peer 1 Router
(Primary)
IP:200.200.200.2
ISP 1
ISP 2
AS 100
AS 200
Default gateway,
with routes having
shorter AS PATH
GbE Switch Module
announces routes with
metric of “3”
Peer 2 Router
(Secondary)
IP:210.210.210.2
Metric = AS path
length (metric of ‘3’) = local
AS repeated 3 times
IP: 200.200.200.1
IP: 210.210.210.1
Server
1 enter
BladeC
IP: 200.200.200.10
Server 2
IP: 200.200.200.11
On the CN4093, one peer router (the secondary one) is configured with a longer AS
path than the other, so that the peer with the shorter AS path will be seen by the
switch as the primary default gateway. ISP 2, the secondary peer, is configured with
a metric of “3,” thereby appearing to the switch to be three router hops away.
1. Define the VLANs.
For simplicity, both default gateways are configured in the same VLAN in this
example. The gateways could be in the same VLAN or different VLANs.
CN 4093(config)# vlan 1
2. Define the IP interfaces with IPv4 addresses.
The switch will need an IP interface for each default gateway to which it will be
connected. Each interface must be placed in the appropriate VLAN. These
interfaces will be used as the primary and secondary default gateways for the
switch.
CN 4093(config)# interface ip 1 address 200.200.200.1 255.255.255.0 enable
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
CN 4093(config)# interface ip 2 address 210.210.210.1 255.255.255.0 enable
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
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3. Enable IP forwarding.
IP forwarding is turned on by default and is used for VLAN-to-VLAN (non-BGP)
routing. Make sure IP forwarding is on if the default gateways are on different
subnets or if the switch is connected to different subnets and those subnets need
to communicate through the switch (which they almost always do).
(Enable IP forwarding)
CN 4093(config)# ip routing
Note: To help eliminate the possibility for a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, the
forwarding of directed broadcasts is disabled by default.
4. Configure BGP peer router 1 and 2.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
400
4093(config)# router bgp
4093(config-router-bgp)#
4093(config-router-bgp)#
4093(config-router-bgp)#
4093(config-router-bgp)#
neighbor
neighbor
neighbor
neighbor
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1
1
2
2
remote-address 200.200.200.2
remote-as 100
remote-address 210.210.210.2
remote-as 200
Default Redistribution and Route Aggregation Example
This example shows you how to configure the switch to redistribute information from
one routing protocol to another and create an aggregate route entry in the BGP
routing table to minimize the size of the routing table.
As illustrated in Figure 46, you have two peer routers: an internal and an external
peer router. Configure the CN4093 to redistribute the default routes from AS 200 to
AS 135. At the same time, configure for route aggregation to allow you to condense
the number of routes traversing from AS 135 to AS 200.
Figure 46. Route Aggregation and Default Route Redistribution
Aggregate routes 135.0.0.0/8
traversing from
AS 135 to AS 200
AS 135
AS 200
Internal peer router 1
10.1.1.4
20.20.20.135
135.110.0.0/16
135.120.0.0/16
External peer router 2
20.20.20.2
GbE
Switch Module
10.1.1.135
0.0.0.0/0
Default routes towards
internal peer router
1. Configure the IP interface.
2. Configure the AS number (AS 135) and router ID number (10.1.1.135).
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router bgp
4093(config-router-bgp)# as 135
4093(config-router-bgp)# exit
4093(config)# ip router-id 10.1.1.135
3. Configure internal peer router 1 and external peer router 2.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router bgp
4093(config-router-bgp)#
4093(config-router-bgp)#
4093(config-router-bgp)#
4093(config-router-bgp)#
neighbor
neighbor
neighbor
neighbor
1
1
2
2
remote-address 10.1.1.4
remote-as 135
remote-address 20.20.20.2
remote-as 200
4. Configure redistribution for peer router 1.
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 1 redistribute default-action redistribute
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 1 redistribute fixed
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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401
5. Configure peer router 1 to import default routes from peer router 2
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 2 redistribute default-action import
6. Configure external peer router 2 to export the default routes:
CN 4093(config)# router bgp
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 2 redistribute default-action originate
Or if the default route is learned via BGP or other protocol:
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# neighbor 2 redistribute default-action redistribute
7. Configure aggregation policy control.
Configure the routes that you want aggregated.
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# aggregate-address 1 135.0.0.0 255.0.0.0
CN 4093(config-router-bgp)# aggregate-address 1 enable
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Chapter 31. OSPF
IBM Networking OS supports the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol.
The IBM Networking OS implementation conforms to the OSPF version 2
specifications detailed in Internet RFC 1583, and OSPF version 3 specifications in
RFC 5340. The following sections discuss OSPF support for the CN4093 10Gb
Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093):
• “OSPFv2 Overview” on page 404. This section provides information on OSPFv2
concepts, such as types of OSPF areas, types of routing devices, neighbors,
adjacencies, link state database, authentication, and internal versus external
routing.
• “OSPFv2 Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 408. This section
describes how OSPFv2 is implemented in IBM Networking OS, such as
configuration parameters, electing the designated router, summarizing routes,
defining route maps and so forth.
• “OSPFv2 Configuration Examples” on page 418. This section provides
step-by-step instructions on configuring differentOSPFv2 examples:
– Creating a simple OSPF domain
– Creating virtual links
– Summarizing routes
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
“OSPFv3 Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 425. This section
describes differences and additional features found in OSPFv3.
403
OSPFv2 Overview
OSPF is designed for routing traffic within a single IP domain called an Autonomous
System (AS). The AS can be divided into smaller logical units known as areas.
All routing devices maintain link information in their own Link State Database
(LSDB). The LSDB for all routing devices within an area is identical but is not
exchanged between different areas. Only routing updates are exchanged between
areas, thereby significantly reducing the overhead for maintaining routing
information on a large, dynamic network.
The following sections describe key OSPF concepts.
Types of OSPF Areas
An AS can be broken into logical units known as areas. In any AS with multiple
areas, one area must be designated as area 0, known as the backbone. The
backbone acts as the central OSPF area. All other areas in the AS must be
connected to the backbone. Areas inject summary routing information into the
backbone, which then distributes it to other areas as needed.
As shown in Figure 47, OSPF defines the following types of areas:
• Stub Area—an area that is connected to only one other area. External route
information is not distributed into stub areas.
• Not-So-Stubby-Area (NSSA)—similar to a stub area with additional capabilities.
Routes originating from within the NSSA can be propagated to adjacent transit
and backbone areas. External routes from outside the AS can be advertised
within the NSSA but can be configured to not be distributed into other areas.
• Transit Area—an area that carries data traffic which neither originates nor
terminates in the area itself.
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Figure 47. OSPF Area Types
Backbone
Area 0
(Also a Transit Area)
ABR
ABR
ABR
Internal LSA
Routes
Stub Area
Not-So-Stubby Area
(NSSA)
Transit Area
Virtual
Link
No External Routes
from Backbone
ABR
External LSA
Routes
ASBR
Non-OSPF Area
RIP/BGP AS
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
ABR = Area Border Router
ASBR = Autonomous System
Boundary Router
Stub Area, NSSA,
or Transit Area
Connected to Backbone
via Virtual Link
Chapter 31: OSPF
405
Types of OSPF Routing Devices
As shown in Figure 48, OSPF uses the following types of routing devices:
• Internal Router (IR)—a router that has all of its interfaces within the same area.
IRs maintain LSDBs identical to those of other routing devices within the local
area.
• Area Border Router (ABR)—a router that has interfaces in multiple areas. ABRs
maintain one LSDB for each connected area and disseminate routing information
between areas.
• Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR)—a router that acts as a gateway
between the OSPF domain and non-OSPF domains, such as RIP, BGP, and
static routes.
Figure 48. OSPF Domain and an Autonomous System
OSPF Autonomous System
Backbone
Area 0
BGP
External
Routes
Area 3
Inter-Area Routes
(Summary Routes)
ASBR
ABR
RIP
ABR
ASBR
Area 1
ABR
Internal
Router
Area 2
Neighbors and Adjacencies
In areas with two or more routing devices, neighbors and adjacencies are formed.
Neighbors are routing devices that maintain information about each others’ health.
To establish neighbor relationships, routing devices periodically send hello packets
on each of their interfaces. All routing devices that share a common network
segment, appear in the same area, and have the same health parameters (hello
and dead intervals) and authentication parameters respond to each other’s hello
packets and become neighbors. Neighbors continue to send periodic hello packets
to advertise their health to neighbors. In turn, they listen to hello packets to
determine the health of their neighbors and to establish contact with new neighbors.
The hello process is used for electing one of the neighbors as the area’s Designated
Router (DR) and one as the area’s Backup Designated Router (BDR). The DR is
adjacent to all other neighbors and acts as the central contact for database
exchanges. Each neighbor sends its database information to the DR, which relays
the information to the other neighbors.
The BDR is adjacent to all other neighbors (including the DR). Each neighbor sends
its database information to the BDR just as with the DR, but the BDR merely stores
this data and does not distribute it. If the DR fails, the BDR will take over the task of
distributing database information to the other neighbors.
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The Link-State Database
OSPF is a link-state routing protocol. A link represents an interface (or routable
path) from the routing device. By establishing an adjacency with the DR, each
routing device in an OSPF area maintains an identical Link-State Database (LSDB)
describing the network topology for its area.
Each routing device transmits a Link-State Advertisement (LSA) on each of its active
interfaces. LSAs are entered into the LSDB of each routing device. OSPF uses
flooding to distribute LSAs between routing devices. Interfaces may also be
passive. Passive interfaces send LSAs to active interfaces, but do not receive LSAs,
hello packets, or any other OSPF protocol information from active interfaces.
Passive interfaces behave as stub networks, allowing OSPF routing devices to be
aware of devices that do otherwise participate in OSPF (either because they do not
support it, or because the administrator chooses to restrict OSPF traffic exchange or
transit).
When LSAs result in changes to the routing device’s LSDB, the routing device
forwards the changes to the adjacent neighbors (the DR and BDR) for distribution to
the other neighbors.
OSPF routing updates occur only when changes occur, instead of periodically. For
each new route, if an adjacency is interested in that route (for example, if configured
to receive static routes and the new route is indeed static), an update message
containing the new route is sent to the adjacency. For each route removed from the
route table, if the route has already been sent to an adjacency, an update message
containing the route to withdraw is sent.
The Shortest Path First Tree
The routing devices use a link-state algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm) to calculate the
shortest path to all known destinations, based on the cumulative cost required to
reach the destination.
The cost of an individual interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required
to send packets across it. The cost is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the
interface. A lower cost indicates a higher bandwidth.
Internal Versus External Routing
To ensure effective processing of network traffic, every routing device on your
network needs to know how to send a packet (directly or indirectly) to any other
location/destination in your network. This is referred to as internal routing and can
be done with static routes or using active internal routing protocols, such as OSPF,
RIP, or RIPv2.
It is also useful to tell routers outside your network (upstream providers or peers)
about the routes you have access to in your network. Sharing of routing information
between autonomous systems is known as external routing.
Typically, an AS will have one or more border routers (peer routers that exchange
routes with other OSPF networks) as well as an internal routing system enabling
every router in that AS to reach every other router and destination within that AS.
When a routing device advertises routes to boundary routers on other autonomous
systems, it is effectively committing to carry data to the IP space represented in the
route being advertised. For example, if the routing device advertises
192.204.4.0/24, it is declaring that if another router sends data destined for any
address in the 192.204.4.0/24 range, it will carry that data to its destination.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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OSPFv2 Implementation in IBM Networking OS
IBM Networking OS supports a single instance of OSPF and up to 2K routes on the
network. The following sections describe OSPF implementation in IBM Networking
OS:
• “Configurable Parameters” on page 408
• “Defining Areas” on page 408
• “Interface Cost” on page 410
• “Electing the Designated Router and Backup” on page 410
• “Summarizing Routes” on page 411
• “Default Routes” on page 411
• “Virtual Links” on page 413
• “Router ID” on page 414
• “Authentication” on page 414
Configurable Parameters
In IBM Networking OS, OSPF parameters can be configured through the Command
Line Interfaces (CLI/ISCLI), Browser-Based Interface (BBI), or through SNMP. For
more information, see “Switch Administration” on page 27.”
The CLI supports the following parameters: interface output cost, interface priority,
dead and hello intervals, retransmission interval, and interface transmit delay.
In addition to the above parameters, you can also specify the following:
• Shortest Path First (SPF) interval—Time interval between successive
calculations of the shortest path tree using the Dijkstra’s algorithm.
• Stub area metric—A stub area can be configured to send a numeric metric value
such that all routes received via that stub area carry the configured metric to
potentially influence routing decisions.
• Default routes—Default routes with weight metrics can be manually injected into
transit areas. This helps establish a preferred route when multiple routing
devices exist between two areas. It also helps route traffic to external networks.
• Passive—When enabled, the interface sends LSAs to upstream devices, but
does not otherwise participate in OSPF protocol exchanges.
• Point-to-Point—For LANs that have only two OSPF routing agents (the CN4093
and one other device), this option allows the switch to significantly reduce the
amount of routing information it must carry and manage.
Defining Areas
If you are configuring multiple areas in your OSPF domain, one of the areas must be
designated as area 0, known as the backbone. The backbone is the central OSPF
area and is usually physically connected to all other areas. The areas inject routing
information into the backbone which, in turn, disseminates the information into other
areas.
Since the backbone connects the areas in your network, it must be a contiguous
area. If the backbone is partitioned (possibly as a result of joining separate OSPF
networks), parts of the AS will be unreachable, and you will need to configure virtual
links to reconnect the partitioned areas (see “Virtual Links” on page 413).
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Up to three OSPF areas can be connected to the CN4093 with IBM Networking OS
software. To configure an area, the OSPF number must be defined and then
attached to a network interface on the switch. The full process is explained in the
following sections.
An OSPF area is defined by assigning two pieces of information: an area index and
an area ID. The commands to define and enable an OSPF area are as follows:
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
<area index> area-id <n.n.n.n>
<area index> enable
Note: The aindex option above is an arbitrary index used only on the switch and
does not represent the actual OSPF area number. The actual OSPF area
number is defined in the areaid portion of the command as explained in the
following sections.
Assigning the Area Index
The aindex <area index> option is actually just an arbitrary index (0-2) used only by
the CN4093. This index does not necessarily represent the OSPF area number,
though for configuration simplicity, it should where possible.
For example, both of the following sets of commands define OSPF area 0 (the
backbone) and area 1 because that information is held in the area ID portion of the
command. However, the first set of commands is easier to maintain because the
arbitrary area indexes agree with the area IDs:
• Area index and area ID agree
•
area 0 area-id 0.0.0.0
(Use index 0 to set area 0 in ID octet
format)
area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
(Use index 1 to set area 1 in ID octet
format)
Area index set to an arbitrary value
area 1 area-id 0.0.0.0
(Use index 1 to set area 0 in ID octet
format)
area 2 area-id 0.0.0.1
(Use index 2 to set area 1 in ID octet
format)
Using the Area ID to Assign the OSPF Area Number
The OSPF area number is defined in the areaid <IP address> option. The octet
format is used to be compatible with two different systems of notation used by other
OSPF network vendors. There are two valid ways to designate an area ID:
•
Single Number
Most common OSPF vendors express the area ID number as a single number.
For example, the Cisco IOS-based router command “network 1.1.1.0
0.0.0.255 area 1” defines the area number simply as “area 1.”
•
Multi-octet (IP address): Placing the area number in the last octet (0.0.0.n)
Some OSPF vendors express the area ID number in multi-octet format. For
example, “area 0.0.0.2” represents OSPF area 2 and can be specified
directly on the CN4093 as “area-id 0.0.0.2”.
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On the CN4093, using the last octet in the area ID, “area 1” is equivalent to
“area-id 0.0.0.1”.
Note: Although both types of area ID formats are supported, be sure that the area
IDs are in the same format throughout an area.
Attaching an Area to a Network
Once an OSPF area has been defined, it must be associated with a network. To
attach the area to a network, you must assign the OSPF area index to an IP
interface that participates in the area. The commands are as follows:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip
<interface number>
<area index>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
For example, the following commands could be used to configure IPv4 interface 14
for a presence on the IPv4 10.10.10.1/24 network, to define OSPF area 1, and to
attach the area to the network:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 enable
4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 14
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3
Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 425).
Interface Cost
The OSPF link-state algorithm (Dijkstra’s algorithm) places each routing device at
the root of a tree and determines the cumulative cost required to reach each
destination. Usually, the cost is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the
interface. Low cost indicates high bandwidth. You can manually enter the cost for
the output route with the following command:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf cost <cost value (1-65535)>
Electing the Designated Router and Backup
In any area with more than two routing devices, a Designated Router (DR) is elected
as the central contact for database exchanges among neighbors, and a Backup
Designated Router (BDR) is elected in case the DR fails.
DR and BDR elections are made through the hello process. The election can be
influenced by assigning a priority value to the OSPF interfaces on the CN4093. The
command is as follows:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf priority <priority value (0-255)>
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A priority value of 255 is the highest, and 1 is the lowest. A priority value of 0
specifies that the interface cannot be used as a DR or BDR. In case of a tie, the
routing device with the highest router ID wins. Interfaces configured as passive do
not participate in the DR or BDR election process:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf passive-interface
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Summarizing Routes
Route summarization condenses routing information. Without summarization, each
routing device in an OSPF network would retain a route to every subnet in the
network. With summarization, routing devices can reduce some sets of routes to a
single advertisement, reducing both the load on the routing device and the
perceived complexity of the network. The importance of route summarization
increases with network size.
Summary routes can be defined for up to 16 IP address ranges using the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area-range <range number> address <IP address> <mask>
where <range number> is a number 1 to 16, <IPv4 address> is the base IP address
for the range, and <subnet mask> is the IPv4 address mask for the range. For a
detailed configuration example, see “Example 3: Summarizing Routes” on
page 422.
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3
Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 425).
Default Routes
When an OSPF routing device encounters traffic for a destination address it does
not recognize, it forwards that traffic along the default route. Typically, the default
route leads upstream toward the backbone until it reaches the intended area or an
external router.
Each CN4093 acting as an ABR automatically inserts a default route into each
attached area. In simple OSPF stub areas or NSSAs with only one ABR leading
upstream (see Area 1 in Figure 49), any traffic for IP address destinations outside
the area is forwarded to the switch’s IP interface, and then into the connected transit
area (usually the backbone). Since this is automatic, no further configuration is
required for such areas.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Figure 49. Injecting Default Routes
Stub Area
Area 1
Metric:
900
Backbone
Area 0
IR
IF 1
Default
route
Stub Area
Area 2
Metric:
201
Priority default route
ABR
IF 2
IR
Priority
default route
Metric:
10
ASBR to
external networks
If the switch is in a transit area and has a configured default gateway, it can inject a
default route into rest of the OSPF domain. Use the following command to configure
the switch to inject OSPF default routes:
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# default-information <metric value> <metric type (1 or 2)>
In the command above, <metric value> sets the priority for choosing this switch for
default route. The value none sets no default and 1 sets the highest priority for
default route. Metric type determines the method for influencing routing decisions
for external routes.
When the switch is configured to inject a default route, an AS-external LSA with link
state ID 0.0.0.0 is propagated throughout the OSPF routing domain. This LSA is
sent with the configured metric value and metric type.
The OSPF default route configuration can be removed with the command:
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# no default-information
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Virtual Links
Usually, all areas in an OSPF AS are physically connected to the backbone. In some
cases where this is not possible, you can use a virtual link. Virtual links are created
to connect one area to the backbone through another non-backbone area (see
Figure 47 on page 405).
The area which contains a virtual link must be a transit area and have full routing
information. Virtual links cannot be configured inside a stub area or NSSA. The area
type must be defined as transit using the following command:
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area <area index> type transit
The virtual link must be configured on the routing devices at each endpoint of the
virtual link, though they may traverse multiple routing devices. To configure a CN4093
as one endpoint of a virtual link, use the following command:
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link <link number> neighbor-router <router ID>
where <link number> is a value between 1 and 3, <area index> is the OSPF area
index of the transit area, and <router ID> is the IP address of the virtual neighbor
(nbr), the routing device at the target endpoint. Another router ID is needed when
configuring a virtual link in the other direction. To provide the CN4093 with a router
ID, see the following section, Router ID.
For a detailed configuration example on Virtual Links, see “Example 2: Virtual Links”
on page 419.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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413
Router ID
Routing devices in OSPF areas are identified by a router ID, expressed in IP
address format. The router ID is not required to be part of any IP interface range or
in any OSPF area, and may even use the CN4093 loopback interface (see
“Loopback Interfaces in OSPF” on page 417).
The router ID can be configured in one of the following two ways:
•
Dynamically (the default)—OSPF protocol configures the router ID as the
lowest IP loopback interface IP address, if available, or else the lowest IP interface IP address, if available. Once dynamically configured, the router ID does
not normally undergo further updates.
Statically—Use the following command to manually configure the router ID:
•
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# ip router-id <IPv4 address>
To change the router ID from static to dynamic, set the router ID to 0.0.0.0, save the
configuration, and reboot the CN4093. To view the router ID, enter:
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# show ip ospf
Authentication
OSPF protocol exchanges can be authenticated so that only trusted routing devices
can participate. This ensures less processing on routing devices that are not
listening to OSPF packets.
OSPF allows packet authentication and uses IP multicast when sending and
receiving packets. Routers participate in routing domains based on pre-defined
passwords. IBM Networking OS supports simple password (type 1 plain text
passwords) and MD5 cryptographic authentication. This type of authentication
allows a password to be configured per area.
We strongly recommend that you implement MD5 cryptographic authentication as a
best practice.
Figure shows authentication configured for area 0 with the password test. Simple
authentication is also configured for the virtual link between area 2 and area 0. Area
1 is not configured for OSPF authentication.
Figure 50. OSPF Authentication
Area 0
Area 1
Simple authentication
key=test
Application
Switch 2
IF 1
IF 2
ABR
IF 4
Application
Switch 5
Application
Switch 1
IF 3
Virtual link
IF 5
key=blade
Area 2
ASBR to
external networks
Switch 4
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Switch 3
Configuring Plain Text OSPF Passwords
To configure plain text OSPF passwords as shown in Figure use the following
commands:
1. Enable OSPF authentication for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 authentication-type password
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
2. Configure a simple text password up to eight characters for each OSPF IP
interface in Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf key test
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf key test
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf key test
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
3. Enable OSPF authentication for Area 2 on switch 4.
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 2 authentication-type password
4. Configure a simple text password up to eight characters for the virtual link
between Area 2 and Area 0 on switches 2 and 4.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 key IBM
Configuring MD5 Authentication
Use the following commands to configure MD5 authentication on the switches
shown in Figure :
1. Enable OSPF MD5 authentication for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 authentication-type md5
2. Configure MD5 key ID for Area 0 on switches 1, 2, and 3.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# message-digest-key 1 md5-key test
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
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3. Assign MD5 key ID to OSPF interfaces on switches 1, 2, and 3.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf message-digest-key 1
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf message-digest-key 1
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf message-digest-key 1
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4. Enable OSPF MD5 authentication for Area 2 on switch 4.
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 authentication-type md5
5. Configure MD5 key for the virtual link between Area 2 and Area 0 on switch 2
and switch 4.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# message-digest-key 2 md5-key test
6. Assign MD5 key ID to OSPF virtual link on switches 2 and 4.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 message-digest-key 2
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# exit
Host Routes for Load Balancing
IBM Networking OS implementation of OSPF includes host routes. Host routes are
used for advertising network device IP addresses to external networks,
accomplishing the following goals:
• ABR Load Sharing
As a form of load balancing, host routes can be used for dividing OSPF traffic
among multiple ABRs. To accomplish this, each switch provides identical
services but advertises a host route for a different IP address to the external
network. If each IP address serves a different and equal portion of the external
world, incoming traffic from the upstream router should be split evenly among
ABRs.
•
ABR Failover
Complementing ABR load sharing, identical host routes can be configured on
each ABR. These host routes can be given different costs so that a different ABR
is selected as the preferred route for each server and the others are available as
backups for failover purposes.
•
Equal Cost Multipath (ECMP)
With equal cost multipath, a router potentially has several available next hops
towards any given destination. ECMP allows separate routes to be calculated for
each IP Type of Service. All paths of equal cost to a given destination are
calculated, and the next hops for all equal-cost paths are inserted into the routing
table.
If redundant routes via multiple routing processes (such as OSPF, RIP, BGP, or
static routes) exist on your network, the switch defaults to the OSPF-derived route.
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Loopback Interfaces in OSPF
Because loopback interfaces are always available on the switch, loopback
interfaces may present an advantage when used as the router ID.
If dynamic router ID selection is used (see “Router ID” on page 414), loopback
interfaces can be used to force router ID selection. If a loopback interface is
configured, its IP address is automatically selected as the router ID, even if other IP
interfaces have lower IP addresses. If more than one loopback interface is
configured, the lowest loopback interface IP address is selected.
Loopback interfaces can be advertised into the OSPF domain by specifying an
OSPF host route with the loopback interface IP address.
To enable OSPF on an existing loopback interface:
CN 4093(config)# interface loopback <1-5>
CN 4093(config-ip-loopback)# ip ospf area <area ID> enable
CN 4093(config-ip-loopback)# exit
OSPF Features Not Supported in This Release
The following OSPF features are not supported in this release:
• Summarizing external routes
• Filtering OSPF routes
• Using OSPF to forward multicast routes
• Configuring OSPF on non-broadcast multi-access networks (such as frame relay,
X.25, or ATM)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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OSPFv2 Configuration Examples
A summary of the basic steps for configuring OSPF on the CN4093 is listed here.
Detailed instructions for each of the steps is covered in the following sections:
1. Configure IP interfaces.
One IP interface is required for each desired network (range of IP addresses)
being assigned to an OSPF area on the switch.
2. (Optional) Configure the router ID.
The router ID is required only when configuring virtual links on the switch.
3. Enable OSPF on the switch.
4. Define the OSPF areas.
5. Configure OSPF interface parameters.
IP interfaces are used for attaching networks to the various areas.
6. (Optional) Configure route summarization between OSPF areas.
7. (Optional) Configure virtual links.
8. (Optional) Configure host routes.
Example 1: Simple OSPF Domain
In this example, two OSPF areas are defined—one area is the backbone and the
other is a stub area. A stub area does not allow advertisements of external routes,
thus reducing the size of the database. Instead, a default summary route of IP
address 0.0.0.0 is automatically inserted into the stub area. Any traffic for IP
address destinations outside the stub area will be forwarded to the stub area’s IP
interface, and then into the backbone.
Figure 51. A Simple OSPF Domain
Backbone
Area 0
Stub Area
Area 1
(0.0.0.0)
(0.0.0.1)
IF 1
10.10.7.1
Network
10.10.7.0/24
IF 2
10.10.12.1
Network
10.10.12.0/24
Follow this procedure to configure OSPF support as shown in Figure 51:
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed:
– Interface 1 for the backbone network on 10.10.7.0/24
– Interface 2 for the stub area network on 10.10.12.0/24
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.7.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.12.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3
Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 425).
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2. Enable OSPF.
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
3. Define the backbone.
The backbone is always configured as a transit area using areaid 0.0.0.0.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 area-id 0.0.0.0
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 type transit
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 enable
4. Define the stub area.
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4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
area 1 type stub
area 1 enable
exit
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 0
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
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4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Example 2: Virtual Links
In the example shown in Figure 52, area 2 is not physically connected to the
backbone as is usually required. Instead, area 2 will be connected to the backbone
via a virtual link through area 1. The virtual link must be configured at each endpoint.
Figure 52. Configuring a Virtual Link
Backbone
Area 0
(0.0.0.0)
Transit Area
Application
Switch 1
IF 1
10.10.7.1
10.10.7.0/24
Network
Area 1
(0.0.0.1)
Stub Area
Switch 2
BladeCenter
IF 2
IF 1
10.10.12.1
10.10.12.2
Virtual Link 1
Router ID:
10.10.10.1
10.10.12.0/24
Network
Area 2
(0.0.0.2)
IF 1
10.10.24.1
Router ID:
10.10.14.1
10.10.24.0/24
Network
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3
Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 425).
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Configuring OSPF for a Virtual Link on Switch #1
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to the switch.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed:
– Interface 1 for the backbone network on 10.10.7.0/24
– Interface 2 for the transit area network on 10.10.12.0/24
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.7.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.12.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
2. Configure the router ID.
A router ID is required when configuring virtual links. Later, when configuring the
other end of the virtual link on Switch 2, the router ID specified here will be used
as the target virtual neighbor (nbr) address.
CN 4093(config)# ip router-id 10.10.10.1
3. Enable OSPF.
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
4. Define the backbone.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 area-id 0.0.0.0
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 type transit
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 enable
5. Define the transit area.
The area that contains the virtual link must be configured as a transit area.
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4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
area 1 type transit
area 1 enable
exit
6. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 0
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
7. Attach the network interface to the transit area.
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420
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
8. Configure the virtual link.
The nbr router ID configured in this step must be the same as the router ID that
will be configured for Switch #2 in Step 2 on page 421.
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4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 area 1
4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 neighbor-router 10.10.14.1
4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 enable
Configuring OSPF for a Virtual Link on Switch #2
1. Configure IP interfaces on each network that will be attached to OSPF areas.
In this example, two IP interfaces are needed:
– Interface 1 for the transit area network on 10.10.12.0/24
– Interface 2 for the stub area network on 10.10.24.0/24
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.12.2 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.24.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
2. Configure the router ID.
A router ID is required when configuring virtual links. This router ID should be the
same one specified as the target virtual neighbor (nbr) on switch 1 in Step 8 on
page 421.
CN 4093(config)# ip router-id 10.10.14.1
3. Enable OSPF.
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
4. Define the backbone.
This version of IBM Networking OS requires that a backbone index be
configured on the non-backbone end of the virtual link as follows:
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 area-id 0.0.0.0
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 enable
5. Define the transit area.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 type transit
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 1 enable
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6. Define the stub area.
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4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area 2 area-id 0.0.0.2
area 2 type stub
area 2 enable
exit
7. Attach the network interface to the transmit area:
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
8. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
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4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
9. Configure the virtual link.
The nbr router ID configured in this step must be the same as the router ID that
was configured for switch #1 in Step 2 on page 420.
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4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 area 1
4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 neighbor-router 10.10.10.1
4093(config-router-ospf)# area-virtual-link 1 enable
Other Virtual Link Options
•
•
You can use redundant paths by configuring multiple virtual links.
Only the endpoints of the virtual link are configured. The virtual link path may
traverse multiple routers in an area as long as there is a routable path between
the endpoints.
Example 3: Summarizing Routes
By default, ABRs advertise all the network addresses from one area into another
area. Route summarization can be used for consolidating advertised addresses and
reducing the perceived complexity of the network.
If the network IP addresses in an area are assigned to a contiguous subnet range,
you can configure the ABR to advertise a single summary route that includes all the
individual IP addresses within the area.
The following example shows one summary route from area 1 (stub area)
injected into area 0 (the backbone). The summary route consists of all IP addresses
from 36.128.192.0 through 36.128.254.255 except for the routes in the range
36.128.200.0 through 36.128.200.255.
Note: OSPFv2 supports IPv4 only. IPv6 is supported in OSPFv3 (see “OSPFv3
Implementation in IBM Networking OS” on page 425).
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Figure 53. Summarizing Routes
Backbone
Stub Area
Area 0
(0.0.0.0)
Area 1
(0.0.0.1)
IF 1
10.10.7.1
Summary Route
IF 2
36.128.192.1
36.128.192.x to
36.128.254.x
ABR
10.10.7.0/24
Network
36.128.192.0/18
Network
Note: You can specify a range of addresses to prevent advertising by using the
hide option. In this example, routes in the range 36.128.200.0 through
36.128.200.255 are kept private.
Follow this procedure to configure OSPF support as shown in Figure 53:
1. Configure IP interfaces for each network which will be attached to OSPF areas.
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.7.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 36.128.192.1 255.255.255.0 enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
2. Enable OSPF.
CN 4093(config)# router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# enable
3. Define the backbone.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 area-id 0.0.0.0
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 type transit
CN 4093(config-router-ospf)# area 0 enable
4. Define the stub area.
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4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
area 1 type stub
area 1 enable
exit
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
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4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 0
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
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7. Configure route summarization by specifying the starting address and mask of
the range of addresses to be summarized.
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4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area-range 1 address 36.128.192.0 255.255.192.0
area-range 1 area 1
area-range 1 enable
exit
8. Use the hide command to prevent a range of addresses from advertising to the
backbone.
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4093(config)# router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area-range 2 address 36.128.200.0 255.255.255.0
area-range 2 area 1
area-range 2 hide
exit
Verifying OSPF Configuration
Use the following commands to verify the OSPF configuration on your switch:
• show ip ospf
• show ip ospf neighbor
• show ip ospf database database-summary
• show ip ospf routes
Refer to the IBM Networking OS Command Reference for information on the
preceding commands.
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OSPFv3 Implementation in IBM Networking OS
OSPF version 3 is based on OSPF version 2, but has been modified to support IPv6
addressing. In most other ways, OSPFv3 is similar to OSPFv2: They both have the
same packet types and interfaces, and both use the same mechanisms for neighbor
discovery, adjacency formation, LSA flooding, aging, and so on. The administrator
should be familiar with the OSPFv2 concepts covered in the preceding sections of
this chapter before implementing the OSPFv3 differences as described in the
following sections.
Although OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 are very similar, they represent independent
features on the CN4093. They are configured separately, and both can run in
parallel on the switch with no relation to one another, serving different IPv6 and IPv4
traffic, respectively.
OSPFv3 Differences from OSPFv2
Note: When OSPFv3 is enabled, the OSPF backbone area (0.0.0.0) is created by
default and is always active.
OSPFv3 Requires IPv6 Interfaces
OSPFv3 is designed to support IPv6 addresses. This requires IPv6 interfaces to be
configured on the switch and assigned to OSPF areas, in much the same way IPv4
interfaces are assigned to areas in OSPFv2. This is the primary configuration
difference between OSPFv3 and OSPFv2.
See “Internet Protocol Version 6” on page 347 for configuring IPv6 interfaces.
OSPFv3 Uses Independent Command Paths
Though OSPFv3 and OSPFv2 are very similar, they are configured independently.
OSPFv3 command paths are located as follows:
• In the ISCLI
CN 4093(config)# ipv6 router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# ?
(OSPFv3 router config mode)
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf ?
(Configure OSPFv3)
(OSPFv3 interface config)
CN 4093# show ipv6 ospf ?
(Show OSPFv3 information)
OSPFv3 Identifies Neighbors by Router ID
Where OSPFv2 uses a mix of IPv4 interface addresses and Router IDs to identify
neighbors, depending on their type, OSPFv3 configuration consistently uses a
Router ID to identify all neighbors.
Although Router IDs are written in dotted decimal notation, and may even be based
on IPv4 addresses from an original OSPFv2 network configuration, it is important to
realize that Router IDs are not IP addresses in OSPFv3, and can be assigned
independently of IP address space. However, maintaining Router IDs consistent
with any legacy OSPFv2 IPv4 addressing allows for easier implementation of both
protocols.
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Other Internal Improvements
OSPFv3 has numerous improvements that increase the protocol efficiency in
addition to supporting IPv6 addressing. These improvements change some of the
behaviors in the OSPFv3 network and may affect topology consideration, but have
little direct impact on configuration. For example:
• Addressing fields have been removed from Router and Network LSAs.
• Flexible treatment of unknown LSA types to make integration of OSPFv3 easier.
• Interface network type can be specified using the command:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf network
{broadcast|non-broadcast|point-to-multipoint|point-to-point}
•
For an interface network type that is not broadcast or NBMA, link LSA
suppression can be enabled so link LSA is not originated for the interface. Use
the command: CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf linklsasuppress
OSPFv3 Limitations
IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not currently support the following OSPFv3 features:
• Multiple instances of OSPFv3 on one IPv6 link.
• Authentication of OSPFv3 packets via IPv6 Security (IPsec) for virtual links.
OSPFv3 Configuration Example
The following example depicts the OSPFv3 equivalent configuration of “Example 3:
Summarizing Routes” on page 422 for OSPFv2.
In this example, one summary route from area 1 (stub area) is injected into area 0
(the backbone). The summary route consists of all IP addresses for the 36.:0/32
portion of the 36::0/56 network except for the routes in the 36::0/8 range.
Figure 54. Summarizing Routes
Backbone
Stub Area
Area 0
(0.0.0.0)
Area 1
(0.0.0.1)
IF 3
10::1
Summary Route
IF 4
36::1
ABR
10::0/56
Network
36::0/32
(- 36::0/8)
36::0/56
Network
Note: You can specify a range of addresses to prevent advertising by using the
hide option. In this example, routes in the 36::0/8 range are kept private.
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Use the following procedure to configure OSPFv3 support as shown in Figure 53:
1. Configure IPv6 interfaces for each link which will be attached to OSPFv3 areas.
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4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 address 10:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 prefixlen 56
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 4
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 36:0:0:0:0:0:1
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 prefixlen 56
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
This is equivalent to configuring the IP address and netmask for IPv4 interfaces.
2. Enable OSPFv3.
CN 4093(config)# ipv6 router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# enable
This is equivalent to the OSPFv2 enable option in the router ospf command
path.
3. Define the backbone.
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# area 0 area-id 0.0.0.0
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# area 0 type transit
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# area 0 enable
This is identical to OSPFv2 configuration.
4. Define the stub area.
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4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
area 1 area-id 0.0.0.1
area 1 type stub
area 1 enable
exit
This is identical to OSPFv2 configuration.
5. Attach the network interface to the backbone.
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4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf area 0
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
The ipv6 command path is used instead of the OSPFv2 ip command path
6. Attach the network interface to the stub area.
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4093(config)# interface ip 4
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf area 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
The ipv6 command path is used instead of the OSPFv2 ip command path
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7. Configure route summarization by specifying the starting address and prefix
length of the range of addresses to be summarized.
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4093(config)# ipv6 router ospf
4093(config-router-ospf3)# area-range 1 address 36:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 32
4093(config-router-ospf3)# area-range 1 area 0
4093(config-router-ospf3)# area-range 1 enable
This differs from OSPFv2 only in that the OSPFv3 command path is used, and
the address and prefix are specified in IPv6 format.
8. Use the hide command to prevent a range of addresses from advertising to the
backbone.
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4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
4093(config-router-ospf)#
area-range 2 address 36:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 8
area-range 2 area 0
area-range 2 hide
exit
This differs from OSPFv2 only in that the OSPFv3 command path is used, and
the address and prefix are specified in IPv6 format.
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Neighbor Configuration Example
When using NBMA or point to multipoint interfaces, you must manually configure
neighbors. Following example includes the steps for neighbor configuration.
1. Configure IPv6 interface parameters:
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4093(config# interface ip 10
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 address 10:0:0:0:0:0:0:12 64
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 10
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf area 0
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf retransmit-interval 5
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf transmit-delay 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf priority 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf hello-interval 10
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf dead-interval 40
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf network point-to-multipoint
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf poll-interval 120
4093(config-ip-if)# ipv6 ospf enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
2. Enable OSPFv3:
CN 4093(config# ipv6 router ospf
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# router-id 12.12.12.12
CN 4093(config-router-ospf3)# enable
3. Define the backbone.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
area
area
area
area
area
area
area
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
area-id 0.0.0.0
stability-interval 40
default-metric 1
default-metric type 1
translation-role candidate
type transit
enable
4. Configure neighbor entry:
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
4093(config-router-ospf3)#
neighbor
neighbor
neighbor
neighbor
1
1
1
1
address fe80:0:0:0:dceb:ff:fe00:9
interface 10
priority 1
enable
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Chapter 32. Protocol Independent Multicast
IBM Networking OS supports Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) in Sparse Mode
(PIM-SM) and Dense Mode (PIM-DM).
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not support IPv6 for PIM.
The following sections discuss PIM support for the CN4093 10Gb Converged
Scalable Switch:
• “PIM Overview” on page 431
• “Supported PIM Modes and Features” on page 432
• “Basic PIM Settings” on page 432
• “Additional Sparse Mode Settings” on page 435
• “Using PIM with Other Features” on page 436
• “PIM Configuration Examples” on page 437
PIM Overview
PIM is designed for efficiently routing multicast traffic across one or more IPv4
domains. This has benefits for application such as IP television, collaboration,
education, and software delivery, where a single source must deliver content (a
multicast) to a group of receivers that span both wide-area and inter-domain
networks.
Instead of sending a separate copy of content to each receiver, a multicast derives
efficiency by sending only a single copy of content toward its intended receivers.
This single copy only becomes duplicated when it reaches the target domain that
includes multiple receivers, or when it reaches a necessary bifurcation point leading
to different receiver domains.
PIM is used by multicast source stations, client receivers, and intermediary routers
and switches, to build and maintain efficient multicast routing trees. PIM is protocol
independent; It collects routing information using the existing unicast routing
functions underlying the IPv4 network, but does not rely on any particular unicast
protocol. For PIM to function, a Layer 3 routing protocol (such as BGP, OSPF, RIP,
or static routes) must first be configured on the switch.
PIM-SM is a reverse-path routing mechanism. Client receiver stations advertise
their willingness to join a multicast group. The local routing and switching devices
collect multicast routing information and forward the request toward the station that
will provide the multicast content. When the join requests reach the sending station,
the multicast data is sent toward the receivers, flowing in the opposite direction of
the original join requests.
Some routing and switching devices perform special PIM-SM functions. Within each
receiver domain, one router is elected as the Designated Router (DR) for handling
multicasts for the domain. DRs forward information to a similar device, the
Rendezvous Point (RP), which holds the root tree for the particular multicast group.
Receiver join requests as well as sender multicast content initially converge at the
RP, which generates and distributes multicast routing data for the DRs along the
delivery path. As the multicast content flows, DRs use the routing tree information
obtained from the RP to optimize the paths both to and from send and receive
stations, bypassing the RP for the remainder of content transactions if a more
efficient route is available.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
431
DRs continue to share routing information with the RP, modifying the multicast
routing tree when new receivers join, or pruning the tree when all the receivers in
any particular domain are no longer part of the multicast group.
Supported PIM Modes and Features
For each interface attached to a PIM network component, PIM can be configured to
operate either in PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) or PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM).
• PIM-SM is used in networks where multicast senders and receivers comprise a
relatively small (sparse) portion of the overall network. PIM-SM uses a more
complex process than PIM-DM for collecting and optimizing multicast routes, but
minimizes impact on other IP services and is more commonly used.
• PIM-DM is used where multicast devices are a relatively large (dense) portion of
the network, with very frequent (or constant) multicast traffic. PIM-DM requires
less configuration on the switch than PIM-SM, but uses broadcasts that can
consume more bandwidth in establishing and optimizing routes.
The following PIM modes and features are not currently supported in IBM
Networking OS 7.8:
• Hybrid Sparse-Dense Mode (PIM-SM/DM). Sparse Mode and Dense Mode may
be configured on separate IP interfaces on the switch, but are not currently supported simultaneously on the same IP interface.
• PIM Source-Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM)
• Anycast RP
• PIM RP filters
• Only configuration via the switch ISCLI is supported. PIM configuration is currently not available using the menu-based CLI, the BBI, or via SNMP.
Basic PIM Settings
To use PIM the following is required:
• The PIM feature must be enabled globally on the switch.
• PIM network components and PIM modes must be defined.
• IP interfaces must be configured for each PIM component.
• PIM neighbor filters may be defined (optional).
• If PIM-SM is used, define additional parameters:
– Rendezvous Point
– Designated Router preferences (optional)
– Bootstrap Router preferences (optional)
Each of these tasks is covered in the following sections.
Note: PIM can be configured through the ISCLI only. PIM configuration and
information are not available using the menu-based CLI, the BBI, or via
SNMP.
Globally Enabling or Disabling the PIM Feature
By default, PIM is disabled on the switch. PIM can be globally enabled or disabled
using the following ISCLI commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] ip pim enable
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Defining a PIM Network Component
The CN4093 can be attached to a maximum of two independent PIM network
components. Each component represents a different PIM network, and can be
defined for either PIM-SM or PIM-DM operation. Basic PIM component
configuration is performed using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# ip pim component <1-2>
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# mode {sparse|dense}
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# exit
The sparse option will place the component in Sparse Mode (PIM-SM). The dense
option will place the component in Dense Mode (PIM-DM). By default, PIM
component 1 is configured for Sparse Mode. PIM component 2 is unconfigured by
default.
Note: A component using PIM-SM must also be configured with a dynamic or static
Rendezvous Point (see “Specifying the Rendezvous Point” on page 435).
Defining an IP Interface for PIM Use
Each network attached to an IP interface on the switch may be assigned one of the
available PIM components. The same PIM component can be assigned to multiple
IP interfaces. The interfaces may belong to the same VLAN, but each interface can
belong to only one VLAN.
To define an IP interface for use with PIM, first configured the interface with an IPv4
address and VLAN as follows:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address <IPv4 address> <IPv4 mask>
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan <VLAN number>
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
Note: The PIM feature currently supports only one VLAN for each IP interface.
Configurations where different interfaces on different VLANs share IP
addresses are not supported.
Next, PIM must be enabled on the interface, and the PIM network component ID
must be specified:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim enable
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim component-id <1-2>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
By default, PIM component 1 is automatically assigned when PIM is enabled on the
IP interface.
Note: While PIM is enabled on the interface, the interface VLAN cannot be
changed. To change the VLAN, first disable PIM on the interface.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 32: Protocol Independent Multicast
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PIM Neighbor Filters
The CN4093 accepts connection to up to 24 PIM interfaces. By default, the switch
accepts all PIM neighbors attached to the PIM-enabled interfaces, up to the
maximum number (72 neighbors). Once the maximum is reached, the switch will
deny further PIM neighbors.
To ensure that only the appropriate PIM neighbors are accepted by the switch, the
administrator can use PIM neighbor filters to specify which PIM neighbors may be
accepted or denied on a per-interface basis.
To turn PIM neighbor filtering on or off for a particular IP interface, use the following
commands:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# [no] ip pim neighbor-filter
When filtering is enabled, all PIM neighbor requests on the specified IP interface will
be denied by default. To allow a specific PIM neighbor, use the following command:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim neighbor-addr <neighbor IPv4 address> allow
To remove a PIM neighbor from the accepted list, use the following command.
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim neighbor-addr <neighbor IPv4 address> deny
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
You can view configured PIM neighbor filters globally or for a specific IP interface
using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# show ip pim neighbor-filters
CN 4093(config)# show ip pim interface <Interface number> neighbor-filters
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Additional Sparse Mode Settings
Specifying the Rendezvous Point
Using PIM-SM, at least one PIM-capable router must be a candidate for use as a
Rendezvous Point (RP) for any given multicast group. If desired, the CN4093 can
act as an RP candidate. To assign a configured switch IP interface as a candidate,
use the following procedure.
1. Select the PIM component that will represent the RP candidate:
CN 4093(config)# ip pim component <1-2>
2. Configure the IPv4 address of the switch interface which will be advertised as a
candidate RP for the specified multicast group:
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# rp-candidate rp-address <group address> <group address
mask> <candidate IPv4 address>
The switch interface will participate in the election of the RP that occurs on the
Bootstrap Router, or BSR (see “Specifying a Bootstrap Router” on page 436).
Alternately, if no election is desired, the switch can provide a static RP, specified
using the following command:
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# rp-static rp-address <group address> <group address mask>
<static RP IPv4 address>
3. If using dynamic RP candidates, configure the amount of time that the elected
interface will remain the RP for the group before a re-election is performed:
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# rp-candidate holdtime <0-255>
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# exit
Influencing the Designated Router Selection
Using PIM-SM, All PIM-enabled IP interfaces are considered as potential Designate
Routers (DR) for their domain. By default, the interface with the highest IP address
on the domain is selected. However, if an interface is configured with a DR priority
value, it overrides the IP address selection process. If more than one interface on a
domain is configured with a DR priority, the one with the highest number is selected.
Use the following commands to configure the DR priority value (Interface IP mode):
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim dr-priority <value (0-4294967294)>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Note: A value of 0 (zero) specifies that the CN4093 will not act as the DR. This
setting requires the CN4093 to be connected to a peer that has a DR priority
setting of 1 or higher in order to ensure that a DR will be present in the
network.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 32: Protocol Independent Multicast
435
Specifying a Bootstrap Router
Using PIM-SM, a Bootstrap Router (BSR) is a PIM-capable router that hosts the
election of the RP from available candidate routers. For each PIM-enabled IP
interface, the administrator can set the preference level for which the local interface
becomes the BSR:
CN 4093(config)# interface ip <Interface number>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim cbsr-preference <0 to 255>
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
A value of 255 highly prefers the local interface as a BSR. A value of -1 indicates
that the PIM CBSR preference is not configured on the local interface.
Using PIM with Other Features
PIM with ACLs or VMAPs
If using ACLs or VMAPs, be sure to permit traffic for local hosts and routers.
PIM with IGMP
If using IGMP (see “Internet Group Management Protocol” on page 375):
• IGMP static joins can be configured with a PIM-SM or PIM-DM multicast group
IPv4 address. Using the ISCLI:
CN 4093(config)# ip mroute <multicast group IPv4 address> <VLAN> <port>
•
•
436
IGMP Query is disabled by default. If IGMP Querier is needed with PIM, be sure
to enable the IGMP Query feature globally, as well as on each VLAN where it is
needed.
If the switch is connected to multicast receivers and/or hosts, be sure to enable
IGMP snooping globally, as well as on each VLAN where PIM receivers are
attached.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
PIM Configuration Examples
Example 1: PIM-SM with Dynamic RP
This example configures PIM Sparse Mode for one IP interface, with the switch
acting as a candidate for dynamic Rendezvous Point (RP) selection.
1. Globally enable the PIM feature:
CN 4093(config)# ip pim enable
2. Configure a PIM network component with dynamic RP settings, and set it for
PIM Sparse Mode:
CN 4093(config)# ip pim component 1
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# mode sparse
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# rp-candidate rp-address 225.1.0.0 255.255.0.0
10.10.1.1
EN 2092(config-ip-pim-comp)# rp-candidate holdtime 100
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# exit
Where 225.1.0.0 is the multicast group base IP address, 255.255.0.0 is the
multicast group address mask, and 10.10.1.1 is the switch RP candidate
address.
Note: Because, Sparse Mode is set by default for PIM component 1, the mode
command is needed only if the mode has been previously changed.
3. Define an IP interface for use with PIM:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 111
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.255
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 11
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
The IP interface represents the PIM network being connected to the switch. The
IPv4 addresses in the defined range must not be included in another IP interface
on the switch under a different VLAN.
4. Enable PIM on the IP interface and assign the PIM component:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim enable
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim component-id 1
Note: Because, PIM component 1 is assigned to the interface by default, the
component-id command is needed only if the setting has been previously
changed.
5. Set the Bootstrap Router (BSR) preference:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim cbsr-preference 135
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 32: Protocol Independent Multicast
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Example 2: PIM-SM with Static RP
The following commands can be used to modify the prior example configuration to
use a static RP:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# ip pim static-rp enable
4093(config)# ip pim component 1
4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# rp-static rp-address 225.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.10.1.1
4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# exit
Where 225.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 is the multicast group base address and mask, and
10.10.1.1 is the static RP address.
Note: The same static RP address should be configured for all switches in the
group.
Example 3: PIM-DM
This example configures PIM Dense Mode (PIM-DM) on one IP interface. PIM-DM
can be configured independently, or it can be combined with the prior PIM-SM
examples (which are configured on a different PIM component) as shown in
Figure 55.
Note: In the following example, since the receivers and sources are connected in
different areas, the border router must be configured for the IPMC traffic to
be forwarded. IBM Networking OS supports only partial configuration of PIM
border router.
Figure 55. Network with both PIM-DM and PIM-SM Components
PIM-SM
PIM-DM
Multicast
225.1.0.0/16
Multicast
239.1.0.0/16
PIM Enabled
IBM Switch
IP Interface 11
IP Interface 22
IP 10.10.1.1
VLAN 101
Component 1
IP 10.10.1.2
VLAN 102
Component 2
Media
Servers
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
1. Configure the PIM-SM component as shown in the prior examples, or if using
PIM-DM independently, enable the PIM feature.
CN 4093(config)# ip pim enable
2. Configure a PIM component and set the PIM mode:
CN 4093(config)# ip pim component 2
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# mode dense
CN 4093(config-ip-pim-comp)# exit
3. Define an IP interface for use with PIM:
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 22
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.10.1.2 255.255.255.255
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 102
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4. Enable PIM on the IP interface and assign the PIM component:
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim enable
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim component-id 2
CN 4093(config-ip-if)# exit
5. (Optional) Configure PIM border router if the IPMC traffic is flowing between
PIM domains:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# ip pim pmbr enable
4093(config)# interface ip 22
4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim border-bit
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 11
4093(config-ip-if)# ip pim border-bit
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
Note: For PIM Dense Mode, the DR, RP, and BSR settings do not apply.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Part 6: High Availability
Fundamentals
Internet traffic consists of myriad services and applications which use the Internet
Protocol (IP) for data delivery. However, IP is not optimized for all the various
applications. High Availability goes beyond IP and makes intelligent switching
decisions to provide redundant network configurations.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 33. Basic Redundancy
IBM Networking OS 7.8 includes various features for providing basic link or device
redundancy:
• “Trunking for Link Redundancy” on page 443
• “Hot Links” on page 444
Trunking for Link Redundancy
Multiple switch ports can be combined together to form robust, high-bandwidth
trunks to other devices. Since trunks are comprised of multiple physical links, the
trunk group is inherently fault tolerant. As long as one connection between the
switches is available, the trunk remains active.
In Figure 56, four ports are trunked together between the switch and the enterprise
routing device. Connectivity is maintained as long as one of the links remain active.
The links to the server are also trunked, allowing the secondary NIC to take over in
the event that the primary NIC link fails.
Figure 56. Trunking Ports for Link Redundancy
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Server
NIC 1
Internet
Trunk
Trunk
NIC 2
For more information on trunking, see “Ports and Trunking” on page 131.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
443
Hot Links
Hot Links provides basic link redundancy with fast recovery.
Hot Links consists of up to 25 triggers in stand-alone mode and up to 200 triggers in
stacking mode. A trigger consists of a pair of layer 2 interfaces, each containing an
individual port, trunk, or LACP adminkey. One interface is the Master, and the other
is a Backup. While the Master interface is set to the active state and forwards traffic,
the Backup interface is set to the standby state and blocks traffic until the Master
interface fails. If the Master interface fails, the Backup interface is set to active and
forwards traffic. Once the Master interface is restored, it is set to active and forwards
traffic, while the Backup interface is set to standby. If preemption is disabled, the
Master interface transitions to the standby state and blocks traffic until the Backup
interface fails.
You may select a physical port, static trunk, or an LACP adminkey as a Hot Link
interface. Only external uplink ports can be members of a Hot Links trigger interface.
Forward Delay
The Forward Delay timer allows Hot Links to monitor the Master and Backup
interfaces for link stability before selecting one interface to transition to the active
state. Before the transition occurs, the interface must maintain a stable link for the
duration of the Forward Delay interval.
For example, if you set the Forward delay timer to 10 seconds
(CN 4093(config)#hotlinks trigger <x> forward-delay 10), the
switch will select an interface to become active only if a link remained stable for the
duration of the Forward Delay period. If the link is unstable, the Forward Delay
period starts again.
Preemption
You can configure the Master interface to resume the active state whenever it
becomes available. With Hot Links preemption enabled, the Master interface
transitions to the active state immediately upon recovery. The Backup interface
immediately transitions to the standby state. If Forward Delay is enabled, the
transition occurs when an interface has maintained link stability for the duration of
the Forward Delay period.
FDB Update
Use the FDB update option to notify other devices on the network about updates to
the Forwarding Database (FDB). When you enable FDB update, the switch sends
multicasts of addresses in the forwarding database (FDB) over the active interface,
so that other devices on the network can learn the new path. The Hot Links FBD
update option uses the station update rate to determine the rate at which to send
FDB packets.
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Configuration Guidelines
The following configuration guidelines apply to Hot links:
• Only external ports can be configured as Hot Links.
• When Hot Links is turned on, STP should be disabled on hotlinks interfaces.
• A port that is a member of the Master interface cannot be a member of the
Backup interface. A port that is a member of one Hot Links trigger cannot be a
member of another Hot Links trigger.
• An individual port that is configured as a Hot Link interface cannot be a member
of a trunk.
Configuring Hot Links
Use the following commands to configure Hot Links.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
CN 4093(config)# hotlinks trigger 1 enable
(Enable Hot Links Trigger 1)
CN 4093(config)# hotlinks trigger 1 master port 38
(Add port to Master interface)
CN 4093(config)# hotlinks trigger 1 backup port 39
(Add port to Backup interface)
CN 4093(config)# hotlinks enable
(Turn on Hot Links)
Chapter 33: Basic Redundancy
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 34. Layer 2 Failover
The primary application for Layer 2 Failover is to support Network Adapter Teaming.
With Network Adapter Teaming, all the NICs on each server share the same IP
address, and are configured into a team. One NIC is the primary link, and the other
is a standby link.For more details, refer to the documentation for your Ethernet
adapter.
Note: Only two links per server blade can be used for Layer 2 Trunk Failover (one
primary and one backup). Network Adapter Teaming allows only one backup
NIC for each server blade.
Auto Monitoring Trunk Links
Layer 2 Failover can be enabled on any trunk group in the CN4093, including LACP
trunks. Trunks can be added to failover trigger groups. Then, if some specified
number of trigger links fail, the switch disables all the internal ports in the switch
(unless VLAN Monitor is turned on). When the internal ports are disabled, it causes
the NIC team on the affected server blades to failover from the primary to the
backup NIC. This process is called a failover event.
When the appropriate number of links in a trigger group return to service, the switch
enables the internal ports. This causes the NIC team on the affected server blades
to fail back to the primary switch (unless Auto-Fallback is disabled on the NIC team).
The backup switch processes traffic until the primary switch’s internal links come up,
which can take up to five seconds.
VLAN Monitor
The VLAN Monitor allows Layer 2 Failover to discern different VLANs. With VLAN
Monitor turned on:
• If enough links in a trigger fail (see “Setting the Failover Limit” on page 449), the
switch disables all internal ports that reside in the same VLAN membership as
the trunk(s) in the trigger.
• When enough links in the trigger return to service, the switch enables the internal
ports that reside in the same VLAN membership as the trunk(s) in the trigger.
If you turn off the VLAN Monitor (CN 4093# no failover vlan), only one
failover trigger is allowed. When a link failure occurs on the trigger, the switch
disables all internal server-blade ports.
Auto Monitor Configurations
Figure 57 is a simple example of Layer 2 Failover. One CN4093 is the primary, and
the other is used as a backup. In this example, all external ports on the primary
switch belong to a single trunk group, with Layer 2 Failover enabled, and Failover
Limit set to 2. If two or fewer links in trigger 1 remain active, the switch temporarily
disables all internal server-blade ports that reside in VLAN 1. This action causes a
failover event on Server 1 and Server 2.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
447
Figure 57. Basic Layer 2 Failover
Trigger 1
Primary Switch
Server 1
Server 2
Internet
Server 3
Trigger 1
Server 4
Backup Switch
Enterprise
Routing Switch
VLAN 1:
VLAN 2:
VLAN Monitor = On
Figure 58 shows a configuration with two trunks, each in a different Failover Trigger.
Switch 1 is the primary switch for Server 1 and Server 2. Switch 2 is the primary
switch for Server 3 and Server 4. VLAN Monitor is turned on. STP is turned off.
If all links go down in trigger 1, Switch 1 disables all internal ports that reside in
VLAN 1. If all links in trigger 2 go down, Switch 1 disables all internal ports that
reside in VLAN 2.
Figure 58. Two trunks, each in a different Failover Trigger
Trigger 1
Switch 1
Server 1
Trigger 2
Server 2
Internet
Server 3
Trigger 1
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Trigger 2
Switch 2
Server 4
VLAN 1:
VLAN 2:
VLAN Monitor = On
Figure 59 shows a configuration with two trunks. VLAN Monitor is turned off, so only
one Failover Trigger is configured on each switch. Switch 1 is the primary switch for
Server 1 and Server 2. Switch 2 is the primary switch for Server 3 and Server 4. STP
is turned off.
If all links in trigger 1 go down, switch 1 disables all internal links to server blades.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Figure 59. Two trunks, one Failover Trigger
Trigger 1
Switch 1
Server 1
Server 2
Internet
Server 3
Trigger 1
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Switch 2
Server 4
VLAN 1:
VLAN 2:
VLAN Monitor = Off
Setting the Failover Limit
The failover limit lets you specify the minimum number of operational links required
within each trigger before the trigger initiates a failover event. For example, if the
limit is two, a failover event occurs when the number of operational links in the
trigger is two or fewer. When you set the limit to zero, the switch triggers a failover
event only when no links in the trigger are operational.
Manually Monitoring Port Links
The Manual Monitor allows you to configure a set of ports and/or trunks to monitor
for link failures (a monitor list), and another set of ports and/or trunks to disable
when the trigger limit is reached (a control list). When the switch detects a link
failure on the monitor list, it automatically disables the items in control list. When
server ports are disabled, the corresponding server’s network adapter can detect
the disabled link, and trigger a network-adapter failover to another port or trunk on
the switch, or another switch in the chassis.
The switch automatically enables the control list items when the monitor list items
return to service.
Monitor Port State
A monitor port is considered operational as long as the following conditions are true:
• The port must be in the Link Up state.
• If STP is enabled, the port must be in the Forwarding state.
• If the port is part of an LACP trunk, the port must be in the Aggregated state.
If any of the above conditions is false, the monitor port is considered to have failed.
Control Port State
A control port is considered Operational if the monitor trigger is up. As long as the
trigger is up, the port is considered operational from a teaming perspective, even if
the port itself is actually in the Down state, Blocking state (if STP is enabled on the
port), or Not Aggregated state (if part of an LACP trunk).
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 34: Layer 2 Failover
449
A control port is considered to have failed only if the monitor trigger is in the Down
state.
To view the state of any port, use one of the following commands:
CN 4093# show interface link
CN 4093# show interface port <x> spanning-tree stp <x>
CN 4093# show lacp information
(View port link status)
(View port administrative status)
(View port LACP status)
L2 Failover with Other Features
L2 Failover works together with Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) and with
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), as described in the next sections.
LACP
Link Aggregation Control Protocol allows the switch to form dynamic trunks. You can
use the admin key to add up to 64 LACP trunks to a failover trigger using automatic
monitoring. When you add an admin key to a trigger, any LACP trunk with that
admin key becomes a member of the trigger.
Spanning Tree Protocol
If Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is enabled on the ports in a failover trigger, the
switch monitors the port STP state rather than the link state. A port failure results
when STP is not in a Forwarding state (such as Learning, Discarding, or No Link).
The switch automatically disables the appropriate internal ports, based on the VLAN
monitor.
When the switch determines that ports in the trigger are in STP Forwarding state,
then it automatically enables the appropriate internal ports, based on the VLAN
monitor. The switch fails back to normal operation.
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Configuration Guidelines
This section provides important information about configuring Layer 2 Failover.
Note: Auto Monitor and Manual Monitor are mutually exclusive. They cannot both
be configured on the switch.
Auto Monitor Guidelines
•
•
•
•
Any specific failover trigger may monitor static trunks only or LACP trunks only,
but not both.
All external ports in all static or LACP trunks added to any specific failover trigger
must belong to the same VLAN.
A maximum of two LACP keys can be added per trigger.
When VLAN Monitor is on, the following additional guidelines apply:
– All external ports in all static or LACP trunks added to a specific failover
trigger must belong to the same VLAN and have the same PVID.
– Different triggers are not permitted to operate on the same VLAN.
– Different triggers are not permitted to operate on the same internal port.
– For each portchannel in a specific failover trigger, that is a memeber in
multiple VLANs/STGs, the trigger considers it down only if it is
down/blocking in all STGs.
Manual Monitor Guidelines
•
•
•
•
•
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
A Manual Monitor can monitor only external ports.
Any specific failover trigger can monitor external ports only, static trunks only, or
LACP trunks only. The different types cannot be combined in the same trigger.
A maximum of two LACP keys can be added per trigger.
Management ports, FC ports, and stacking ports cannot be monitored.
Control ports for different triggers must not overlap. Monitor ports may overlap.
Chapter 34: Layer 2 Failover
451
Configuring Layer 2 Failover
Auto Monitor Example
The following procedure pertains to the configuration shown in Figure 57.
1. Configure Network Adapter Teaming on the servers.
2. Define a trunk group on the CN4093.
CN 4093(config)# portchannel 1 port EXT1,EXT2,EXT3 enable
3. Configure Failover parameters.
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 enable
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 limit <0-1024>
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 amon portchannel 1
4. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show failover trigger 1 information
Manual Monitor Example
Use the following procedure to configure a Layer 2 Failover Manual Monitor.
1. Configure Network Adapter Teaming on the servers.
2. Specify the links to monitor.
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon monitor member EXT4,EXT5,EXT6
3. Specify the links to disable when the failover limit is reached.
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 mmon control member INT13,INT14
4. Configure general Layer 2 Failover parameters.
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 enable
CN 4093(config)# failover trigger 1 limit <0-1024>
5. Enable failover globally.
CN 4093(config)# failover enable
6. Verify the configuration.
CN 4093(config)# show failover trigger 1 information
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Chapter 35. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
The CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) supports IPv4
high-availability network topologies through an enhanced implementation of the
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP).
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not support IPv6 for VRRP.
The following topics are discussed in this chapter:
• “VRRP Overview” on page 453. This section discusses VRRP operation and IBM
Networking OS redundancy configurations.
• “Failover Methods” on page 456. This section describes the three modes of high
availability.
• “IBM Networking OS Extensions to VRRP” on page 459. This section describes
VRRP enhancements implemented in IBM Networking OS.
• “Virtual Router Deployment Considerations” on page 460. This section describes
issues to consider when deploying virtual routers.
• “High Availability Configurations” on page 461. This section discusses the more
useful and easily deployed redundant configurations.
– “Active-Active Configuration” on page 461
– “Hot-Standby Configuration” on page 465
VRRP Overview
In a high-availability network topology, no device can create a single point-of-failure
for the network or force a single point-of-failure to any other part of the network. This
means that your network will remain in service despite the failure of any single
device. To achieve this usually requires redundancy for all vital network
components.
VRRP enables redundant router configurations within a LAN, providing alternate
router paths for a host to eliminate single points-of-failure within a network. Each
participating VRRP-capable routing device is configured with the same virtual router
IPv4 address and ID number. One of the virtual routers is elected as the master,
based on a number of priority criteria, and assumes control of the shared virtual
router IPv4 address. If the master fails, one of the backup virtual routers will take
control of the virtual router IPv4 address and actively process traffic addressed to it.
With VRRP, Virtual Interface Routers (VIR) allow two VRRP routers to share an IP
interface across the routers. VIRs provide a single Destination IPv4 (DIP) address
for upstream routers to reach various servers, and provide a virtual default Gateway
for the server blades.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
453
VRRP Components
Each physical router running VRRP is known as a VRRP router.
Virtual Router
Two or more VRRP routers can be configured to form a virtual router (RFC 2338).
Each VRRP router may participate in one or more virtual routers. Each virtual router
consists of a user-configured virtual router identifier (VRID) and an IPv4 address.
Virtual Router MAC Address
The VRID is used to build the virtual router MAC Address. The five highest-order
octets of the virtual router MAC Address are the standard MAC prefix
(00-00-5E-00-01) defined in RFC 2338. The VRID is used to form the lowest-order
octet.
Owners and Renters
Only one of the VRRP routers in a virtual router may be configured as the IPv4
address owner. This router has the virtual router’s IPv4 address as its real interface
address. This router responds to packets addressed to the virtual router’s IPv4
address for ICMP pings, TCP connections, and so on.
There is no requirement for any VRRP router to be the IPv4 address owner. Most
VRRP installations choose not to implement an IPv4 address owner. For the
purposes of this chapter, VRRP routers that are not the IPv4 address owner are
called renters.
Master and Backup Virtual Router
Within each virtual router, one VRRP router is selected to be the virtual router
master. See “Selecting the Master VRRP Router” on page 455 for an explanation of
the selection process.
Note: If the IPv4 address owner is available, it will always become the virtual router
master.
The virtual router master forwards packets sent to the virtual router. It also responds
to Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) requests sent to the virtual router's IPv4
address. Finally, the virtual router master sends out periodic advertisements to let
other VRRP routers know it is alive and its priority.
Within a virtual router, the VRRP routers not selected to be the master are known as
virtual router backups. Should the virtual router master fail, one of the virtual router
backups becomes the master and assumes its responsibilities.
Virtual Interface Router
At Layer 3, a Virtual Interface Router (VIR) allows two VRRP routers to share an IP
interface across the routers. VIRs provide a single Destination IPv4 (DIP) address
for upstream routers to reach various destination networks, and provide a virtual
default Gateway.
Note: Every VIR must be assigned to an IP interface, and every IP interface must
be assigned to a VLAN. If no port in a VLAN has link up, the IP interface of
that VLAN is down, and if the IP interface of a VIR is down, that VIR goes
into INIT state.
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VRRP Operation
Only the virtual router master responds to ARP requests. Therefore, the upstream
routers only forward packets destined to the master. The master also responds to
ICMP ping requests. The backup does not forward any traffic, nor does it respond to
ARP requests.
If the master is not available, the backup becomes the master and takes over
responsibility for packet forwarding and responding to ARP requests.
Selecting the Master VRRP Router
Each VRRP router is configured with a priority between 1–254. A bidding process
determines which VRRP router is or becomes the master—the VRRP router with
the highest priority.
The master periodically sends advertisements to an IPv4 multicast address. As long
as the backups receive these advertisements, they remain in the backup state. If a
backup does not receive an advertisement for three advertisement intervals, it
initiates a bidding process to determine which VRRP router has the highest priority
and takes over as master. In addition to the three advertisement intervals, a
manually set holdoff time can further delay the backups from assuming the master
status.
If, at any time, a backup determines that it has higher priority than the current
master does, it can preempt the master and become the master itself, unless
configured not to do so. In preemption, the backup assumes the role of master and
begins to send its own advertisements. The current master sees that the backup
has higher priority and will stop functioning as the master.
A backup router can stop receiving advertisements for one of two reasons—the
master can be down, or all communications links between the master and the
backup can be down. If the master has failed, it is clearly desirable for the backup
(or one of the backups, if there is more than one) to become the master.
Note: If the master is healthy but communication between the master and the
backup has failed, there will then be two masters within the virtual router. To
prevent this from happening, configure redundant links to be used between
the switches that form a virtual router.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
455
Failover Methods
With service availability becoming a major concern on the Internet, service
providers are increasingly deploying Internet traffic control devices, such as
application switches, in redundant configurations. Traditionally, these configurations
have been hot-standby configurations, where one switch is active and the other is in
a standby mode. A non-VRRP hot-standby configuration is shown in the figure
below:
Figure 60. A Non-VRRP, Hot-Standby Configuration
Intranet Clients
Primary Switch
IP: 200.200.200.100
A
Internet
Servers
B
NFS Server
Client Switches
Secondary Switch
IP: 200.200.200.101
While hot-standby configurations increase site availability by removing single
points-of-failure, service providers increasingly view them as an inefficient use of
network resources because one functional application switch sits by idly until a
failure calls it into action. Service providers now demand that vendors' equipment
support redundant configurations where all devices can process traffic when they
are healthy, increasing site throughput and decreasing user response times when
no device has failed.
IBM Networking OS high availability configurations are based on VRRP. The
implementation of VRRP includes proprietary extensions.
The IBM Networking OS implementation of VRRP supports the following modes of
high availability:
• Active-Active—based on proprietary IBM Networking OS extensions to VRRP
• Hot-Standby—supports Network Adapter Teaming on your server blades
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Active-Active Redundancy
In an active-active configuration, shown in Figure 61, two switches provide
redundancy for each other, with both active at the same time. Each switch
processes traffic on a different subnet. When a failure occurs, the remaining switch
can process traffic on all subnets.
For a configuration example, see “High Availability Configurations” on page 461.
Figure 61. Active-Active Redundancy
Active (subnet A and C)
Switch 1
Servers
Internet
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Switch 2
Active (subnet B and D)
Hot-Standby Redundancy
The primary application for VRRP-based hot-standby is to support Server Load
Balancing when you have configured Network Adapter Teaming on your server
blades. With Network Adapter Teaming, the NICs on each server share the same
IPv4 address, and are configured into a team. One NIC is the primary link, and the
others are backup links. For more details, refer to the relevant network adapter
documentation.
The hot-standby model is shown in Figure 62.
Figure 62. Hot-Standby Redundancy
Active
10.10.10.1
Clients
Switch 1
Interswitch
Link
Enterprise
Routing Switch
Servers
Switch 2
10.10.10.2
Standby
Backup Link
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
457
Virtual Router Group
The virtual router group ties all virtual routers on the switch together as a single
entity. By definition, hot-standby requires that all virtual routers failover as a group,
and not individually. As members of a group, all virtual routers on the switch (and
therefore the switch itself), are in either a master or standby state.
The virtual router group cannot be used for active-active configurations or any other
configuration that require shared interfaces.
A VRRP group has the following characteristics:
• When enabled, all virtual routers behave as one entity, and all group settings
override any individual virtual router settings.
• All individual virtual routers, once the VRRP group is enabled, assume the
group’s tracking and priority.
• When one member of a VRRP group fails, the priority of the group decreases,
and the state of the entire switch changes from Master to Standby.
Each VRRP advertisement can include up to 128 addresses. All virtual routers are
advertised within the same packet, conserving processing and buffering resources.
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IBM Networking OS Extensions to VRRP
This section describes VRRP enhancements that are implemented in IBM
Networking OS.
IBM Networking OS supports a tracking function that dynamically modifies the
priority of a VRRP router, based on its current state. The objective of tracking is to
have, whenever possible, the master bidding processes for various virtual routers in
a LAN converge on the same switch. Tracking ensures that the selected switch is
the one that offers optimal network performance. For tracking to have any effect on
virtual router operation, preemption must be enabled.
IBM Networking OS can track the attributes listed in Table 38 :
Table 38. VRRP Tracking Parameters
Parameter
Description
Number of IP interfaces on the switch
that are active (“up”)
Helps elect the virtual routers with the
most available routes as the master. (An IP
interface is considered active when there
is at least one active port on the same
VLAN.) This parameter influences the
VRRP router's priority in virtual interface
routers.
tracking-priority-increment
interfaces
Number of active ports on the same
VLAN
tracking-priority-increment
ports
Helps elect the virtual routers with the
most available ports as the master. This
parameter influences the VRRP router's
priority in virtual interface routers.
Note: In a hot-standby configuration, only
external ports are tracked.
Number of virtual routers in master
mode on the switch
tracking-priority-increment
virtual-routers
Useful for ensuring that traffic for any
particular client/server pair is handled by
the same switch, increasing routing
efficiency. This parameter influences the
VRRP router's priority in virtual interface
routers.
Each tracked parameter has a user-configurable weight associated with it. As the
count associated with each tracked item increases (or decreases), so does the
VRRP router's priority, subject to the weighting associated with each tracked item. If
the priority level of a standby is greater than that of the current master, then the
standby can assume the role of the master.
See “Configuring the Switch for Tracking” on page 460 for an example on how to
configure the switch for tracking VRRP priority.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
459
Virtual Router Deployment Considerations
Assigning VRRP Virtual Router ID
During the software upgrade process, VRRP virtual router IDs will be automatically
assigned if failover is enabled on the switch. When configuring virtual routers at any
point after upgrade, virtual router ID numbers must be assigned. The virtual router
ID may be configured as any number between 1 and 255. Use the following
commands to configure the virtual router ID:
CN 4093(config)# router vrrp
CN 4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router 1 virtual-router-id <1-255>
Configuring the Switch for Tracking
Tracking configuration largely depends on user preferences and network
environment. Consider the configuration shown in Figure 61 on page 457. Assume
the following behavior on the network:
• Switch 1 is the master router upon initialization.
• If switch 1 is the master and it has one fewer active servers than switch 2, then
switch 1 remains the master.
This behavior is preferred because running one server down is less disruptive
than bringing a new master online and severing all active connections in the
process.
•
•
•
If switch 1 is the master and it has two or more active servers fewer than
switch 2, then switch 2 becomes the master.
If switch 2 is the master, it remains the master even if servers are restored on
switch 1 such that it has one fewer or an equal number of servers.
If switch 2 is the master and it has one active server fewer than switch 1, then
switch 1 becomes the master.
The user can implement this behavior by configuring the switch for tracking as
follows:
1. Set the priority for switch 1 to 101.
2. Leave the priority for switch 2 at the default value of 100.
3. On both switches, enable tracking based on ports (ports), interfaces (ifs), or
virtual routers (vr). You can choose any combination of tracking parameters,
based on your network configuration.
Note: There is no shortcut to setting tracking parameters. The goals must first be
set and the outcomes of various configurations and scenarios analyzed to
find settings that meet the goals.
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High Availability Configurations
CN4093s offer flexibility in implementing redundant configurations. This section
discusses the more useful and easily deployed configurations:
• “Active-Active Configuration” on page 461
• “Hot-Standby Configuration” on page 465
Active-Active Configuration
Figure 63 shows an example configuration where two CN4093s are used as VRRP
routers in an active-active configuration. In this configuration, both switches respond
to packets.
Figure 63. Active-Active High-Availability Configuration
L2 Switch
1
2
VIR 1: 192.168.1.200 (Master)
VIR 2: 192.168.2.200 (Backup)
Server 1
NIC 1: 10.0.1.1/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.1/24
4
Switch 1
Server 2
NIC 1: 10.0.1.2/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.2/24
Internet
Server 3
NIC 1: 10.0.1.3/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.3/24
4
1
Enterprise
Routing Switch
2
L2 Switch
Switch 2
Server 4
NIC 1: 10.0.1.4/24
NIC 2: 10.0.2.4/24
VIR 1: 192.168.1.200 (Backup)
VIR 2: 192.168.2.200 (Master)
Although this example shows only two switches, there is no limit on the number of
switches used in a redundant configuration. It is possible to implement an
active-active configuration across all the VRRP-capable switches in a LAN.
Each VRRP-capable switch in an active-active configuration is autonomous.
Switches in a virtual router need not be identically configured.
In the scenario illustrated in Figure 63, traffic destined for IPv4 address 10.0.1.1 is
forwarded through the Layer 2 switch at the top of the drawing, and ingresses
CN4093 1 on port EXT1. Return traffic uses default gateway 1 (192.168.1.1).
If the link between CN4093 1 and the Layer 2 switch fails, CN4093 2 becomes the
Master because it has a higher priority. Traffic is forwarded to CN4093 2, which
forwards it to CN4093 1 through port EXT4. Return traffic uses default gateway 2
(192.168.2.1), and is forwarded through the Layer 2 switch at the bottom of the
drawing.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
461
To implement the active-active example, perform the following switch configuration.
Task 1: Configure CN4093 1
1. Configure client and server interfaces.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 10
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 20
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 4
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
192.168.2.101 255.255.255.0
10.0.1.100 255.255.255.0
10.0.2.101 255.255.255.0
2. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to a Layer 3
router.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
ip
ip
ip
ip
gateway
gateway
gateway
gateway
1
1
2
2
address 192.168.1.1
enable
address 192.168.2.1
enable
3. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface Routers.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router vrrp
4093(config-vrrp)# enable
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
virtual-router-id 1
interface 1
address 192.168.1.200
enable
virtual-router-id 2
interface 2
address 192.168.2.200
enable
4. Enable tracking on ports. Set the priority of Virtual Router 1 to 101, so that it
becomes the Master.
CN
CN
CN
CN
462
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
virtual-router 1 track ports
virtual-router 1 priority 101
virtual-router 2 track ports
exit
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
5. Configure ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 10
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port EXT1
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 10
4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 20
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port EXT2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 20
4093(config-if)# exit
6. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally..
CN 4093(config)# no spanning-tree stp 1
Task 2: Configure CN4093 2
1. Configure client and server interfaces.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 10
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# vlan 20
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 3
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 4
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
192.168.1.101 255.255.255.0
192.168.2.100 255.255.255.0
10.0.1.101 255.255.255.0
10.0.2.100 255.255.255.0
2. Configure the default gateways. Each default gateway points to a Layer 3
router.
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
ip
ip
ip
ip
gateway
gateway
gateway
gateway
1
1
2
2
address 192.168.2.1
enable
address 192.168.1.1
enable
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
463
3. Turn on VRRP and configure two Virtual Interface Routers.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router vrrp
4093(config-vrrp)# enable
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
virtual-router-id 1
interface 1
address 192.168.1.200
enable
virtual-router-id 2
interface 2
address 192.168.2.200
enable
4. Enable tracking on ports. Set the priority of Virtual Router 2 to 101, so that it
becomes the Master.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
virtual-router 1 track ports
virtual-router 2 track ports
virtual-router 2 priority 101
exit
5. Configure ports.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 10
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port EXT1
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 10
4093(config-if)# exit
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# vlan 20
4093(config-vlan)# exit
4093(config)# interface port EXT2
4093(config-if)# switchport mode trunk
4093(config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan add 20
4093(config-if)# exit
6. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally.
CN 4093(config)# no spanning-tree stp 1
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Hot-Standby Configuration
The primary application for VRRP-based hot-standby is to support Network Adapter
Teaming on your server blades. With Network Adapter Teaming, the NICs on each
server share the same IPv4 address, and are configured into a team. One NIC is the
primary link, and the others are backup links. For more details, refer to the NetXen
10 Gb Ethernet Adapter documentation.
A hot-standby configuration allows all processes to failover to a standby switch if
any type of failure should occur. All Virtual Interface Routers (VIRs) are bundled into
one Virtual Router group, and then they failover together. When there is a failure
that causes the VRRP Master to failover to the Standby, then the original primary
switch temporarily disables the internal server links, which, in turn, causes the NIC
teams to failover as well.
Note: When using hot-standby redundancy, peer switches should have an equal
number of connected ports.
If hot-standby is implemented in a looped environment, the hot-standby feature
automatically disables the hot-standby ports on the VRRP Standby. If the Master
switch should failover to the Standby switch, it would change the hot-standby ports
from disabled to forwarding, without relying on Spanning Tree or manual
intervention. Therefore, Spanning Tree must be disabled.
Figure 64 illustrates a common hot-standby implementation on a single blade
server. Notice that the blade server NICs are configured into a team that shares the
same IPv4 address across both NICs. Because only one link can be active at a time,
the hot-standby feature controls the NIC failover by having the Standby switch
disable its internal ports (holding down the server links).
Figure 64. Hot-Standby Configuration
IF 1: 174.14.20.110
IF 2: 10.1.1.110
VIR 1: 174.14.20.100
VIR 2: 10.1.1.100
NIC 1 IP = 10.0.1.1
Active
Switch 1
Server 1
Internet
Hot Standby
Switch 2
NIC 1 IP = 10.0.1.2
Enterprise
Routing Switch
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Server 2
IF 1: 174.14.20.111
IF 2: 10.1.1.111
VIR 1: 174.14.20.100
VIR 2: 10.1.1.100
= Active Links
= Standby Links
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
465
Task 1: Configure CN4093 1
1. On CN4093 1, configure the interfaces for clients (174.14.20.110) and servers
(10.1.1.110).
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 174.14.20.110
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.1.1.110
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
(Define IPv4 address for interface 1)
(Define IPv4 address for interface 2)
2. Configure Virtual Interface Routers.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router vrrp
4093(config-vrrp)# enable
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
virtual-router-id 1
interface 1
address 174.14.20.100
enable
virtual-router-id 2
interface 2
address 10.1.1.100
enable
3. Enable VRRP Hot Standby.
CN 4093(config-vrrp)# hot-standby
(Enable Hot Standby)
4. Configure VRRP Group parameters. Set the VRRP priority to 101, so that this
switch is the Master.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
group
group
group
group
group
enable
virtual-router-id 1
interface 1
priority 101
track ports
5. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally..
CN 4093(config)# no spanning-tree stp 1
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
(Enable Virtual Router Group)
(Set Virtual Router ID for Group)
(Set interface for Group)
(Set VRRP priority to 101)
(Enable tracking on ports)
Task 2: Configure CN4093 2
1. On CN4093 2, configure the interfaces for clients (174.14.20.111) and servers
(10.1.1.111).
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# interface ip 1
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 174.14.20.111
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
4093(config)# interface ip 2
4093(config-ip-if)# ip address 10.1.1.111
4093(config-ip-if)# enable
4093(config-ip-if)# exit
(Define IPv4 address for interface 1)
(Define IPv4 address for interface 2)
2. Configure Virtual Interface Routers.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)# router vrrp
4093(config-vrrp)# enable
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
4093(config-vrrp)# virtual-router
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
virtual-router-id 1
interface 1
address 174.14.20.100
enable
virtual-router-id 2
interface 2
address 10.1.1.100
enable
3. Enable VRRP Hot Standby.
CN 4093(config-vrrp)# hot-standby
4. Configure VRRP Group parameters. Use the default VRRP priority of 100, so
that this switch is the Standby.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
4093(config-vrrp)#
group
group
group
group
enable
virtual-router-id 1
interface 1
track ports
(Enable Virtual Router Group)
(Set Virtual Router ID for Group)
(Set interface for Group)
(Enable tracking on ports)
5. Turn off Spanning Tree Protocol globally. .
CN 4093(config)# spanning-tree mode disable
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 35: Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
467
468
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Part 7: Network Management
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
469
470
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 36. Link Layer Discovery Protocol
The IBM Networking OS software support Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP).
This chapter discusses the use and configuration of LLDP on the switch:
• “LLDP Overview” on page 471
• “Enabling or Disabling LLDP” on page 472
• “LLDP Transmit Features” on page 473
• “LLDP Receive Features” on page 477
• “LLDP Example Configuration” on page 480
LLDP Overview
Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP) is an IEEE 802.1AB-2005 standard for
discovering and managing network devices. LLDP uses Layer 2 (the data link layer),
and allows network management applications to extend their awareness of the
network by discovering devices that are direct neighbors of already known devices.
With LLDP, the CN4093 can advertise the presence of its ports, their major
capabilities, and their current status to other LLDP stations in the same LAN. LLDP
transmissions occur on ports at regular intervals or whenever there is a relevant
change to their status. The switch can also receive LLDP information advertised
from adjacent LLDP-capable network devices.
In addition to discovery of network resources, and notification of network changes,
LLDP can help administrators quickly recognize a variety of common network
configuration problems, such as unintended VLAN exclusions or mis-matched port
aggregation membership.
The LLDP transmit function and receive function can be independently configured
on a per-port basis. The administrator can allow any given port to transmit only,
receive only, or both transmit and receive LLDP information.
The LLDP information to be distributed by the CN4093 ports, and that which has
been collected from other LLDP stations, is stored in the switch’s Management
Information Base (MIB). Network Management Systems (NMS) can use Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) to access this MIB information.
LLDP-related MIB information is read-only.
Changes, either to the local switch LLDP information or to the remotely received
LLDP information, are flagged within the MIB for convenient tracking by
SNMP-based management systems.
For LLDP to provide expected benefits, all network devices that support LLDP
should be consistent in their LLDP configuration.
LLDP - Stacking Mode
In stacking mode, LLDP can be configured only on the ports that are not used to
create the stack. The LLDP configuration menus on the stacking ports are disabled.
When configuring LLDP on a port, use the correct port syntax. See example of port
syntax on page 206.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
471
Enabling or Disabling LLDP
Global LLDP Setting
By default, LLDP is enabled on the CN4093. To turn LLDP off or on, use the
following command:
CN 4093(config)# [no] lldp enable
(Turn LLDP on or off globally)
Transmit and Receive Control
The CN4093 can also be configured to transmit or receive LLDP information on a
port-by-port basis. By default, when LLDP is globally enabled on the switch,
CN4093 ports transmit and receive LLDP information (see the tx_rx option below).
To change the LLDP transmit and receive state, the following commands are
available:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <x>
CN 4093(config-if)# lldp admin-status tx_rx
CN 4093(config-if)# lldp admin-status tx_only
CN 4093(config-if)# lldp admin-status rx_only
CN 4093(config-if)# no lldp admin-status
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
(Select a switch port)
(Transmit and receive LLDP)
(Only transmit LLDP)
(Only receive LLDP)
(Do not participate in LLDP)
(Exit port mode)
To view the LLDP transmit and receive status, use the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# show lldp port
CN 4093(config)# show interface port <n> lldp
472
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
(status of all ports)
(status of selected port)
LLDP Transmit Features
Numerous LLDP transmit options are available, including scheduled and minimum
transmit interval, expiration on remote systems, SNMP trap notification, and the
types of information permitted to be shared.
Note: In stacking mode, only the stack Master transmits LLDP information for all
the ports in a stack. The stack MAC address is used as the source address
in the LLDP packets.
Scheduled Interval
The CN4093 can be configured to transmit LLDP information to neighboring devices
once each 5 to 32768 seconds. The scheduled interval is global; the same interval
value applies to all LLDP transmit-enabled ports. However, to help balance LLDP
transmissions and keep them from being sent simultaneously on all ports, each port
maintains its own interval clock, based on its own initialization or reset time. This
allows switch-wide LLDP transmissions to be spread out over time, though
individual ports comply with the configured interval.
The global transmit interval can be configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# lldp refresh-interval <interval>
where interval is the number of seconds between LLDP transmissions. The range is
5 to 32768. The default is 30 seconds.
Minimum Interval
In addition to sending LLDP information at scheduled intervals, LLDP information is
also sent when the CN4093 detects relevant changes to its configuration or status
(such as when ports are enabled or disabled). To prevent the CN4093 from sending
multiple LLDP packets in rapid succession when port status is in flux, a transmit
delay timer can be configured.
The transmit delay timer represents the minimum time permitted between
successive LLDP transmissions on a port. Any interval-driven or change-driven
updates will be consolidated until the configured transmit delay expires.
The minimum transmit interval can be configured using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# lldp transmission-delay <interval>
where interval is the minimum number of seconds permitted between successive
LLDP transmissions on any port. The range is 1 to one-quarter of the scheduled
transmit interval (lldp refresh-interval <value>), up to 8192. The default is 2
seconds.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 36: Link Layer Discovery Protocol
473
Time-to-Live for Transmitted Information
The transmitted LLDP information is held by remote systems for a limited time. A
time-to-live parameter allows the switch to determine how long the transmitted data
should be held before it expires. The hold time is configured as a multiple of the
configured transmission interval.
CN 4093(config)# lldp holdtime-multiplier <multiplier>
where multiplier is a value between 2 and 10. The default value is 4, meaning that
remote systems will hold the port’s LLDP information for 4 x the 30-second
msgtxint value, or 120 seconds, before removing it from their MIB.
Trap Notifications
If SNMP is enabled on the CN4093 (see “Using Simple Network Management
Protocol” on page 35), each port can be configured to send SNMP trap notifications
whenever LLDP transmissions are sent. By default, trap notification is disabled for
each port. The trap notification state can be changed using the following
commands:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <x>
CN 4093(config-if)# [no] lldp trap-notification
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
In addition to sending LLDP information at scheduled intervals, LLDP information is
also sent when the CN4093 detects relevant changes to its configuration or status
(such as when ports are enabled or disabled). To prevent the CN4093 from sending
multiple trap notifications in rapid succession when port status is in flux, a global trap
delay timer can be configured.
The trap delay timer represents the minimum time permitted between successive
trap notifications on any port. Any interval-driven or change-driven trap notices from
the port will be consolidated until the configured trap delay expires.
The minimum trap notification interval can be configured using the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# lldp trap-notification-interval <interval>
where interval is the minimum number of seconds permitted between successive
LLDP transmissions on any port. The range is 1 to 3600. The default is 5 seconds.
If SNMP trap notification is enabled, the notification messages can also appear in
the system log. This is enabled by default. To change whether the SNMP trap
notifications for LLDP events appear in the system log, use the following
commands:
CN 4093(config)# [no] logging log lldp
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Changing the LLDP Transmit State
When the port is disabled, or when LLDP transmit is turned off for the port using the
admstat command’s rx_only or disabled options (see “Transmit and Receive
Control” on page 472), a final LLDP packet is transmitted with a time-to-live value of
0. Neighbors that receive this packet will remove the LLDP information associated
with the CN4093 port from their MIB.
In addition, if LLDP is fully disabled on a port (using admstat disabled) and later
re-enabled, the CN4093 will temporarily delay resuming LLDP transmissions on the
port in order to allow the port LLDP information to stabilize. The reinitialization delay
interval can be globally configured for all ports using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# lldp reinit-delay <interval>
where interval is the number of seconds to wait before resuming LLDP
transmissions. The range is between 1 and 10. The default is 2 seconds.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 36: Link Layer Discovery Protocol
475
Types of Information Transmitted
When LLDP transmission is permitted on the port (see “Enabling or Disabling LLDP”
on page 472), the port advertises the following required information in
type/length/value (TLV) format:
• Chassis ID
• Port ID
• LLDP Time-to-Live
LLDP transmissions can also be configured to enable or disable inclusion of
optional information, using the following command:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <x>
CN 4093(config-if)# [no] lldp tlv <type>
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
where type is an LLDP information option from Table 39:
Table 39. LLDP Optional Information Types
476
Type
Description
Default
portdesc
Port Description
Enabled
sysname
System Name
Enabled
sysdescr
System Description
Enabled
syscap
System Capabilities
Enabled
mgmtaddr
Management Address
Enabled
portvid
IEEE 802.1 Port VLAN ID
Disabled
portprot
IEEE 802.1 Port and Protocol VLAN ID
Disabled
vlanname
IEEE 802.1 VLAN Name
Disabled
protid
IEEE 802.1 Protocol Identity
Disabled
macphy
IEEE 802.3 MAC/PHY
Configuration/Status, including the
auto-negotiation, duplex, and speed
status of the port.
Disabled
powermdi
IEEE 802.3 Power via MDI, indicating the
capabilities and status of devices that
require or provide power over twisted-pair
copper links.
Disabled
linkaggr
IEEE 802.3 Link Aggregation status for
the port.
Disabled
framesz
IEEE 802.3 Maximum Frame Size for the
port.
Disabled
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Table 39. LLDP Optional Information Types (continued)
Type
Description
Default
dcbx
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange Enabled
Protocol (DCBX) for the port.
all
Select all optional LLDP information for
inclusion or exclusion.
Disabled
LLDP Receive Features
Types of Information Received
When the LLDP receive option is enabled on a port (see “Enabling or Disabling
LLDP” on page 472), the port may receive the following information from
LLDP-capable remote systems:
• Chassis Information
• Port Information
• LLDP Time-to-Live
• Port Description
• System Name
• System Description
• System Capabilities Supported/Enabled
• Remote Management Address
The CN4093 stores the collected LLDP information in the MIB. Each remote
LLDP-capable device is responsible for transmitting regular LLDP updates. If the
received updates contain LLDP information changes (to port state, configuration,
LLDP MIB structures, deletion), the switch will set a change flag within the MIB for
convenient notification to SNMP-based management systems.
Note: In stacking mode, both the Master and the Backup receive LLDP information
for all the ports in a stack and update the LLDP table. The Master and
Backup switches synchronize the LLDP tables.
Viewing Remote Device Information
LLDP information collected from neighboring systems can be viewed in numerous
ways:
• Using a centrally-connected LLDP analysis server
• Using an SNMP agent to examine the CN4093 MIB
• Using the CN4093 Browser-Based Interface (BBI)
• Using CLI or isCLI commands on the CN4093
Using the isCLI the following command displays remote LLDP information:
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-device [<index number>]
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 36: Link Layer Discovery Protocol
477
To view a summary of remote information, omit the Index number parameter. For
example:
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-device
LLDP Remote Devices Information
Legend(possible values in DMAC column) :
NB - Nearest Bridge - 01-80-C2-00-00-0E
NnTB - Nearest non-TPMR Bridge - 01-80-C2-00-00-03
NCB - Nearest Customer Bridge - 01-80-C2-00-00-00
Total number of current entries: 1
LocalPort |Index |Remote Chassis ID |Remote Port |Remote System Name|DMAC
----------|------|------------------|------------|------------------|---EXT3
| 1
|00 18 b1 33 1d 00 |
23
|
C12
| NB
To view detailed information for a remote device, specify the Index number as found
in the summary. For example, in keeping with the sample summary, to list details for
the first remote device (with an Index value of 1), use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-device 1
Local Port Alias: EXT3
Remote Device Index
: 1
Remote Device TTL
: 99
Remote Device RxChanges : false
Chassis Type
: Mac Address
Chassis Id
: 00-18-b1-33-1d-00
Port Type
: Locally Assigned
Port Id
: 23
Port Description
: EXT7
System Name
:
System Description : IBM Flex System Fabric EN4093R 10Gb Virtual Fabric
Scalable Switch, IBM Networking OS: version 7.8, boot image: version 6.9.1.14
System Capabilities Supported : bridge, router
System Capabilities Enabled
: bridge, router
Remote Management Address:
Subtype
Address
Interface Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
:
:
:
:
:
IPv4
10.100.120.181
ifIndex
128
Note: Received LLDP information can change very quickly. When using show
commands, it is possible that flags for some expected events may be too
short-lived to be observed in the output.
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
To view detailed information of all remote devices, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-device detail
Local Port Alias: EXT22
Remote Device Index
: 1
Remote Device TTL
: 94
Remote Device RxChanges : false
Chassis Type
: Mac Address
Chassis Id
: 74-99-75-74-c5-00
Port Type
: Locally Assigned
Port Id
: 42
Port Description
: 42
System
System
IBM Networking
System
System
Name
: GFC
Description : IBM Networking Operating System RackSwitch G8264CS,
OS: version 7.8.0.43, Boot image: version 7.8.0.43
Capabilities Supported : bridge, router
Capabilities Enabled
: bridge, router
Remote Management Address:
Subtype
Address
Interface Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
Local Port Alias: EXT24
Remote Device Index
Remote Device TTL
Remote Device RxChanges
Chassis Type
Chassis Id
Port Type
Port Id
Port Description
System
System
IBM Networking
System
System
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
IPv4
11.1.58.5
ifIndex
58
2
108
false
Mac Address
74-99-75-1c-71-00
Locally Assigned
56
EXT14
Name
: CFC
Description : IBM Flex System Fabric EN4093 10Gb Scalable Switch,
OS: version 7.8.0.48, Boot image: version 7.8.0.48
Capabilities Supported : bridge, router
Capabilities Enabled
: bridge, router
Remote Management Address:
Subtype
Address
Interface Subtype
Interface Number
Object Identifier
:
:
:
:
:
IPv4
11.1.78.7
ifIndex
78
Time-to-Live for Received Information
Each remote device LLDP packet includes an expiration time. If the switch port does
not receive an LLDP update from the remote device before the time-to-live clock
expires, the switch will consider the remote information to be invalid, and will
remove all associated information from the MIB.
Remote devices can also intentionally set their LLDP time-to-live to 0, indicating to
the switch that the LLDP information is invalid and should be immediately removed.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 36: Link Layer Discovery Protocol
479
LLDP Example Configuration
1. Turn LLDP on globally.
CN 4093(config)# lldp enable
2. Set the global LLDP timer features.
(Transmit each 30 seconds)
(No more often than 2 sec.)
CN 4093(config)# lldp holdtime-multiplier 4
(Remote hold 4 intervals)
CN 4093(config)# lldp reinit-delay 2
(Wait 2 sec. after reinit.)
CN 4093(config)# lldp trap-notification-interval 5
(Minimum 5 sec. between)
CN 4093(config)# lldp refresh-interval 30
CN 4093(config)# lldp transmission-delay 2
3. Set LLDP options for each port.
(Select a switch port)
(Transmit and receive LLDP)
CN 4093(config-if)# lldp trap-notification (Enable SNMP trap notifications)
CN 4093(config-if)# lldp tlv all
(Transmit all optional information)
CN 4093(config)# interface port <n>
CN 4093(config-if)# lldp admin-status tx_rx
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
4. Enable syslog reporting.
CN 4093(config)# logging log lldp
5. Verify the configuration settings:
CN 4093(config)# show lldp
6. View remote device information as needed.
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-device
or
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-device <index number>
or
CN 4093(config)# show lldp remote-devices detail
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CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Chapter 37. Simple Network Management Protocol
IBM Networking OS provides Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
version 1, version 2, and version 3 support for access through any network
management software, such as IBM Director.
SNMP Version 1
To access the SNMP agent on the CN4093, the read and write community strings
on the SNMP manager should be configured to match those on the switch.
SNMPv1 and SNMPv2 have no default read and write communities. The read and
write community strings on the switch can be configured using the following
commands:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server read-community <1-32 characters>
-andCN 4093(config)# snmp-server write-community <1-32 characters>
The SNMP manager should be able to reach the management interface or any one
of the IP interfaces on the switch.
For the SNMP manager to receive the SNMPv1 traps sent out by the SNMP agent
on the switch, configure the trap host on the switch with the following command:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server trap-source <trap source IP interface>
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server host <IPv4 address> <trap host community string>
Note: You can use a loopback interface to set the source IP address for SNMP
traps. Use the following command to apply a configured loopback interface:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server trap-source loopback <1-5>
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
481
SNMP Version 3
SNMP version 3 (SNMPv3) is an enhanced version of the Simple Network
Management Protocol, approved by the Internet Engineering Steering Group in
March, 2002. SNMPv3 contains additional security and authentication features that
provide data origin authentication, data integrity checks, timeliness indicators and
encryption to protect against threats such as masquerade, modification of
information, message stream modification and disclosure.
SNMPv3 allows clients to query the MIBs securely.
SNMPv3 configuration is managed using the following command path:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server ?
For more information on SNMP MIBs and the commands used to configure SNMP
on the switch, see the IBM Networking OS 7.8 Command Reference.
Default Configuration
IBM Networking OS has four SNMPv3 users by default. All the four users have
access to all the MIBs supported by the switch:
•
•
•
•
User 1 name is adminmd5 (password adminmd5). Authentication used is MD5.
Privacy protocol used is DES.
User 2 name is adminsha (password adminsha). Authentication used is SHA.
Privacy protocol used is DES.
User 3 name is mmv3_mgr (password mmv3_mgr). Authentication used is MD5.
Privacy protocol used is DES. User 3 with the default password is used for
EHCM level 1 access. For EHCM level 2 and level 3 access, the CMM generates a random password. EHCM level 2 uses MD5 authentication and DES privacy protocol. EHCM level 3 uses SHA authentication and AES-128 privacy
protocol
User 4 name is adminshaaes (password Edpq132x!#9Zpx432w). Authentication used is SHA. Privacy protocol used is AES-128.
In boot strict mode (See “Boot Strict Mode” on page 41), IBM Networking OS has
two SNMPv3 users:
• User 1 name is mmv3_mgr (password mmv3_mgr). Authentication used is SHA.
Privacy protocol used is AES-128.
• User 2 name is adminshaaes (password Edpq132x!#9Zpx432w). Authentication used is SHA. Privacy protocol used is AES-128.
Up to 16 SNMP users can be configured on the switch. To modify an SNMP user,
enter the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user <1-16> name <1-32 characters>
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Users can be configured to use the authentication/privacy options. The CN4093
support two authentication algorithms: MD5 and SHA, as specified in the following
command:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user <1-16> authentication-protocol {md5|sha}
authentication-password
-orCN 4093(config)# snmp-server user <1-16> authentication-protocol none
User Configuration Example
1. To configure a user with name “admin,” authentication type MD5, and
authentication password of “admin,” privacy option DES with privacy password
of “admin,” use the following ISCLI commands.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 5 name admin
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 5 authentication-protocol md5
authentication-password
Changing authentication password; validation required:
Enter current admin password:
<admin. password>
Enter new authentication password:
<auth. password>
Re-enter new authentication password:
New authentication password accepted.
<auth. password>
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 5 privacy-protocol des privacy-password
Changing privacy password; validation required:
<admin. password>
Enter current admin password:
Enter new privacy password:
<privacy password>
Re-enter new privacy password:
New privacy password accepted.
<privacy password>
2. Configure a user access group, along with the views the group may access.
Use the access table to configure the group’s access level.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
access
access
access
access
access
5
5
5
5
5
name admingrp
level authpriv
read-view iso
write-view iso
notify-view iso
Because the read view, write view, and notify view are all set to “iso,” the user
type has access to all private and public MIBs.
3. Assign the user to the user group. Use the group table to link the user to a
particular access group.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 5 user-name admin
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 5 group-name admingrp
If you want to allow user access only to certain MIBs, see “View-Based
Configuration,” next.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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View-Based Configurations
•
Switch User equivalent
To configure an SNMP user equivalent to the switch “user” login, use the
following configuration:
(Configure the user)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 4 name usr
(Configure access group 3)
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
access
access
access
access
3
3
3
3
name usrgrp
read-view usr
write-view usr
notify-view usr
(Assign user to access group 3)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 3 user-name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 3 group-name usrgrp
(Create views for user)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 6 name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 6 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.1.2
(Agent information)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 7 name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 7 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.1.3
(L2 statistics)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 8 name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 8 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.2.2
(L2 information)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 9 name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 9 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.2.3
(L3 statistics)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 10 name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 10 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.2.3
(L3 information)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 11 name usr
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 11 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.3.3
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•
Switch Oper equivalent
(Configure the user)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 5 name usr
(Configure access group 3)
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
access
access
access
access
4
4
4
4
name opergrp
read-view oper
write-view oper
notify-view oper
(Assign oper to access group 4)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 4 user-name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 4 group-name opergrp
(Create views for oper)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 20 name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 20 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.1.2
(Agent information)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 21 name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 21 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.1.3
(L2 statistics)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 22 name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 22 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.2.2
(L2 information)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 23 name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 23 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.2.3
(L3 statistics)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 24 name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 24 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.2.3
(L3 information)
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 25 name oper
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server view 25 tree 1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.3.3
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Configuring SNMP Trap Hosts
SNMPv1 Trap Host
1. Configure a user with no authentication and password.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 10 name v1trap
2. Configure an access group and group table entries for the user. Use the
following menu to specify which traps can be received by the user:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server access <user number>
In the following example the user will receive the traps sent by the switch.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server access 10
name v1trap
security snmpv1
notify-view iso
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 10
security snmpv1
user-name v1trap
group-name v1trap
(Access group to view SNMPv1 traps)
(Assign user to the access group)
3. Configure an entry in the notify table.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server notify 10 name v1trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server notify 10 tag v1trap
4. Specify the IPv4 address and other trap parameters in the targetAddr and
targetParam tables. Use the following commands to specify the user name
associated with the targetParam table:
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
target-address 10
target-address 10
target-address 10
target-parameters
target-parameters
target-parameters
name v1trap address 10.70.70.190
parameters-name v1param
taglist v1param
10 name v1param
10 user-name v1only
10 message snmpv1
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports only IPv4 addresses for SNMP trap hosts.
5. Use the community table to specify which community string is used in the trap.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server community 10
index v1trap
name public
user-name v1trap
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(Define the community string)
SNMPv2 Trap Host Configuration
The SNMPv2 trap host configuration is similar to the SNMPv1 trap host
configuration. Wherever you specify the model, use snmpv2 instead of snmpv1.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 10 name v2trap
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
snmp-server
group 10 security snmpv2
group 10 user-name v2trap
group 10 group-name v2trap
access 10 name v2trap
access 10 security snmpv2
access 10 notify-view iso
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server notify 10 name v2trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server notify 10 tag v2trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
address 100.10.2.1
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
v2param
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server
target-address 10 name v2trap
target-address 10 taglist v2trap
target-address 10 parameters-name
target-parameters
target-parameters
target-parameters
target-parameters
10
10
10
10
name v2param
message snmpv2c
user-name v2trap
security snmpv2
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server community 10 index v2trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server community 10 user-name v2trap
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 supports only IPv4 addresses for SNMPv1 and
SNMP v2 trap hosts.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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487
SNMPv3 Trap Host Configuration
To configure a user for SNMPv3 traps, you can choose to send the traps with both
privacy and authentication, with authentication only, or without privacy or
authentication.
This is configured in the access table using the following commands:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server access <1-32> level
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-parameters <1-16>
Configure the user in the user table accordingly.
It is not necessary to configure the community table for SNMPv3 traps because the
community string is not used by SNMPv3.
The following example shows how to configure a SNMPv3 user v3trap with
authentication only:
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 11 name v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server user 11 authentication-protocol md5
authentication-password
Changing authentication password; validation required:
Enter current admin password:
<admin. password>
Enter new authentication password:
<auth. password>
Re-enter new authentication password:
<auth. password>
New authentication password accepted.
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server access 11 notify-view iso
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server access 11 level authnopriv
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 11 user-name v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server group 11 tag v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server notify 11 name v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server notify 11 tag v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-address 11 name v3trap address 47.81.25.66
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-address 11 taglist v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-address 11 parameters-name v3param
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-parameters 11 name v3param
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-parameters 11 user-name v3trap
CN 4093(config)# snmp-server target-parameters 11 level authNoPriv
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SNMP MIBs
The IBM Networking OS SNMP agent supports SNMP version 3. Security is
provided through SNMP community strings. The default community strings are
“public” for SNMP GET operation and “private” for SNMP SET operation. The
community string can be modified only through the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Detailed SNMP MIBs and trap definitions of the IBM Networking OS SNMP agent
are contained in the following IBM Networking OS enterprise MIB document:
GbScSE-10G-L2L3.mib
The IBM Networking OS SNMP agent supports the following standard MIBs:
• dot1x.mib
• ieee8021ab.mib
• ieee8023ad.mib
• lldpxdcbx.mib
• rfc1213.mib
• rfc1215.mib
• rfc1493.mib
• rfc1573.mib
• rfc1643.mib
• rfc1657.mib
• rfc1757.mib
• rfc1850.mib
• rfc1907.mib
• rfc2037.mib
• rfc2233.mib
• rfc2465.mib
• rfc2571.mib
• rfc2572.mib
• rfc2573.mib
• rfc2574.mib
• rfc2575.mib
• rfc2576.mib
• rfc3176.mib
The following Fibre Channel/FCoE MIBs are supported:
• ibm-nos-fc-fcoe.mib
• fc_fe_exp.mib
• fcmgmt.mib
• stack_rfc2837.mib
The IBM Networking OS SNMP agent supports the following generic traps as
defined in RFC 1215:
• ColdStart
• WarmStart
• LinkDown
• LinkUp
• AuthenticationFailure
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 37: Simple Network Management Protocol
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The SNMP agent also supports two Spanning Tree traps as defined in RFC 1493:
• NewRoot
• TopologyChange
The following are the enterprise SNMP traps supported in IBM Networking OS:
Table 40. IBM Networking OS-Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps
490
Trap Name
Description
altSwLoginFailure
Signifies that someone failed to
enter a valid username/password
combination.
altSwTrapDisplayString
specifies whether the login attempt
was from CONSOLE or TELNET. In
case of TELNET login it also
specifies the IP address of the host
from which the attempt was made.
altSwValidLogin
Signifies that a user login has
occurred.
altSwApplyComplete
Signifies that new configuration has
been applied.
altSwSaveComplete
Signifies that new configuration has
been saved.
altSwFwDownloadSucess
Signifies that firmware has been
downloaded to
[image1|image2|boot image].
altSwFwDownloadFailure
Signifies that firmware downloaded
failed to [image1|image2|boot
image].
altSwValidLogout
Signifies that a user logout has
occurred.
altSwDefAdminDisable
Signifies that the default admin
account has been disabled.
altSwAcntStrngPswdNotMet
Signifies that the configured
password does not match strong
password complexity.
altSwAcntLocked
Signifies that account has been
locked.
altSwAcntUnlocked
Signifies that account has been
unlocked.
altSwSNMPBlockIPTrap
Signifies that SNMP requests are
blocked; trap includes the blocked
IP address.
altSwStgNewRoot
Signifies that the bridge has
become the new root of the STG.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Table 40. IBM Networking OS-Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Trap Name
Description
altSwCistNewRoot
Signifies that the bridge has
become the new root of the CIST.
altSwStgTopologyChanged
Signifies that there was a STG
topology change.
altSwCistTopologyChanged
Signifies that there was a CIST
topology change.
altSwHotlinksMasterUp
Signifies that the Master interface is
active.
altSwHotlinksMasterDn
Signifies that the Master interface is
not active.
altSwHotlinksBackupUp
Signifies that the Backup interface is
active.
altSwHotlinksBackupDn
Signifies that the Backup interface is
not active.
altSwHotlinksNone
Signifies that there are no active
interfaces.
altSwStgBlockingState
Signifies port state has changed to
blocking state.
altSwTeamingCtrlUp
Signifies that the teaming is up.
altSwTeamingCtrlDown
Signifies that the teaming control is
down.
altSwTeamingCtrlDownTearDownBlk
ed
Signifies that the teaming control is
down but teardown is blocked.
altSwTeamingCtrlError
Signifies error, action is undefined.
altSwLACPPortBlocked
Signifies that LACP is operationally
down on a port, and traffic is
blocked on the port.
altSwLACPPortUnblocked
Signifies that LACP is operationally
up on a port, and traffic is no longer
blocked on the port.
altSwLFDPortErrdisabled
Signifies that a port is error-disabled
due to excessive link flaps.
altSwVlagInstanceUp
Signifies that VLAG instance is up
identified in the trap message.
altSwVlagInstanceRemoteUp
Signifies that VLAG is down but
instance on the remote instance is
up.
altSwVlagInstanceLocalUp
Signifies that VLAG is down but
local instance is up.
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Table 40. IBM Networking OS-Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
492
Trap Name
Description
altSwVlagInstanceDown
Signifies that VLAG instance is
down identified in the trap message.
altSwVlagIslUp
Signifies that connection between
VLAG switches is up.
altSwVlagIslDown
Signifies that connection between
VLAG switches is down.
altSwDefGwUp
Signifies that the default gateway is
alive. ipCurCfgGwIndex is the index
of the Gateway in
ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for
ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to
ipGatewayTableMax.
ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address
of the default gateway.
altSwDefGwDown
Signifies that the default gateway is
down. ipCurCfgGwIndex is the
index of the Gateway in
ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for
ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to
ipGatewayTableMax.
ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address
of the default gateway.
altSwDefGwInService
Signifies that the default gateway is
up and in service. ipCurCfgGwIndex
is the index of the Gateway in
ipCurCfgGwTable. The range for
ipCurCfgGwIndex is from 1 to
ipGatewayTableMax.
ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address
of the default gateway.
altSwDefGwNotInService
Signifies that the default gateway is
alive but not in service.
ipCurCfgGwIndex is the index of the
Gateway in ipCurCfgGwTable. The
range for ipCurCfgGwIndex is from
1 to ipGatewayTableMax.
ipCurCfgGwAddr is the IP address
of the default gateway.
altSwVrrpNewMaster
Indicates that the sending agent has
transitioned to “Master” state.
vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrIndx is the VRRP
virtual router table index referenced
in vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrTable. The
range is from 1 to
vrrpVirtRtrTableMaxSize.
vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrAddr is the VRRP
virtual router IP address.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Table 40. IBM Networking OS-Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Trap Name
Description
altSwVrrpNewBackup
Indicates that the sending agent has
transitioned to “Backup” state.
vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrIndx is the VRRP
virtual router table index referenced
in vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrTable. The
range is from 1 to
vrrpVirtRtrTableMaxSize.
vrrpCurCfgVirtRtrAddr is the VRRP
virtual router IP address.
altSwVrrpAuthFailure
Signifies that a packet has been
received from a router whose
authentication key or authentication
type conflicts with this router's
authentication key or authentication
type. Implementation of this trap is
optional. vrrpCurCfgIfIndx is the
VRRP interface index. This is
equivalent to ifIndex in RFC 1213
mib. The range is from 1 to
vrrpIfTableMaxSize.
vrrpCurCfgIfPasswd is the
password for authentication. It is a
DisplayString of 0 to 7 characters.
altSwNtpNotServer
Signifies that the primary or
secondary NTP server cannot be
reached.
altSwNTPUpdateClock
Signifies that the system clock is
updated with NTP server.
altSwECMPGatewayUp
Signifies that the ECMP gateway is
up.
altSwECMPGatewayDown
Signifies that the ECMP gateway is
down.
altSwOspfRouteUpdated
Signifies that an OSPF route update
message was received.
altSwTempExceedThreshold
Signifies that the switch
temperature has exceeded
maximum safety limits.
altSwTempReturnThreshold
Signifies that the switch
temperature has returned to under
maximum safety limits.
altSwStackSwitchAttached
Signifies that a new switch has
attached to the stack.
altSwStackSwitchDettached
Signifies that a new switch has
detached from the stack.
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Table 40. IBM Networking OS-Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
494
Trap Name
Description
altSwStackBackupPresent
Signifies that a new backup has
been set.
altSwStackBackupGone
Signifies that the backup switch has
been made unavailable.
altSwStackMasterAfterInit
Signifies that the switch has
become master after init.
altSwStackMasterFromBackup
Signifies that the switch has
become master from backup.
altSwStackDuplicateJoinAttempt
Signifies that a new switch with
duplicate UUID/bay has tried to join
the stack.
altSwStackLinkUp
Signifies that a stack link has
become up.
altSwStackLinkDown
Signifies that a stack link has
become down.
altSwStackXferError
Signifies that a transfer between the
master and a member has
terminated with error.
altSwStackXferSuccess
Signifies that a transfer between the
master and a member has
terminated with no errors.
altSwStackSwitchTypeMismatch
Signifies that a new switch of
different type has attempted to join
the stack.
altSwStackImageSlotMismatch
Signifies that the slot of the boot
image of a newly attached switch
does not match that of the master.
altSwStackImageVersMismatch
Signifies that the version of the boot
image of a newly attached switch
does not match that of the master.
altSwStackBootCfgMismatch
Signifies that the booted config of a
newly attached switch does not
match that of the master.
altSwStackNvramMasterJoin
Signifies that a switch which was
configured as a master in NVRAM
has attached to the stack.
altSwStackForceDetach
Signifies that the master has sent a
FORCE DETACH message to a
member.
altVMGroupVMotion
Signifies that a virtual machine has
moved from a port to another.
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Table 40. IBM Networking OS-Supported Enterprise SNMP Traps (continued)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Trap Name
Description
altVMGroupVMOnline
Signifies that an advance
provisioned virtual machine has
came online.
altVMGroupVMVlanChange
Signifies that a virtual machine has
entered a VLAN, or changed the
VLAN.
vmCheckSpoofedvm
Signifies that a spoofed VM MAC
was found.
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Switch Images and Configuration Files
This section describes how to use MIB calls to work with switch images and
configuration files. You can use a standard SNMP tool to perform the actions, using
the MIBs listed in Table 41. .
Table 41. lists the MIBS used to perform operations associated with the Switch
Image and Configuration files.
Table 41. MIBs for Switch Image and Configuration Files
MIB Name
MIB OID
agTransferServer
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.1.0
agTransferImage
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.2.0
agTransferImageFileName
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.3.0
agTransferCfgFileName
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.4.0
agTransferDumpFileName
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.5.0
agTransferAction
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.6.0
agTransferLastActionStatus
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.7.0
agTransferUserName
1.3.6.1.4.1872.2.5.1.1.7.9.0
agTransferPassword
1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.1.1.7.10.0
agTransferTSDumpFileName
1.3.6.1.4.1.1872.2.5.1.1.7.11.0
The following SNMP actions can be performed using the MIBs listed in Table 41. .
• Load a new Switch image (boot or running) from a FTP/TFTP server
• Load a previously saved switch configuration from a FTP/TFTP server
• Save the switch configuration to a FTP/TFTP server
• Save a switch dump to a FTP/TFTP server
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Loading a New Switch Image
To load a new switch image with the name “MyNewImage-1.img” into image2,
follow the steps below. This example shows an FTP/TFTP server at IPv4 address
192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported.
1. Set the FTP/TFTP server address where the switch image resides:
Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the area where the new image will be loaded:
Set agTransferImage.0 "image2"
3. Set the name of the image:
Set agTransferImageFileName.0 "MyNewImage-1.img"
4. If you are using an FTP server, enter a username:
Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
5. If you are using an FTP server, enter a password:
Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
6. Initiate the transfer. To transfer a switch image, enter 2 (gtimg):
Set agTransferAction.0 "2"
Loading a Saved Switch Configuration
To load a saved switch configuration with the name “MyRunningConfig.cfg” into the
switch, follow the steps below. This example shows a TFTP server at IPv4 address
192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported.
1. Set the FTP/TFTP server address where the switch Configuration File resides:
Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the name of the configuration file:
Set agTransferCfgFileName.0 "MyRunningConfig.cfg"
3. If you are using an FTP server, enter a username:
Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
4. If you are using an FTP server, enter a password:
Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
5. Initiate the transfer. To restore a running configuration, enter 3:
Set agTransferAction.0 "3"
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Saving the Switch Configuration
To save the switch configuration to a FTP/TFTP server follow the steps below. This
example shows a FTP/TFTP server at IPv4 address 192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is
also supported.
1. Set the FTP/TFTP server address where the configuration file is saved:
Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the name of the configuration file:
Set agTransferCfgFileName.0 "MyRunningConfig.cfg"
3. If you are using an FTP server, enter a username:
Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
4. If you are using an FTP server, enter a password:
Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
5. Initiate the transfer. To save a running configuration file, enter 4:
Set agTransferAction.0 "4"
Saving a Switch Dump
To save a switch dump to a FTP/TFTP server, follow the steps below. This example
shows an FTP/TFTP server at 192.168.10.10, though IPv6 is also supported.
1. Set the FTP/TFTP server address where the configuration will be saved:
Set agTransferServer.0 "192.168.10.10"
2. Set the name of dump file:
Set agTransferDumpFileName.0 "MyDumpFile.dmp"
3. If you are using an FTP server, enter a username:
Set agTransferUserName.0 "MyName"
4. If you are using an FTP server, enter a password:
Set agTransferPassword.0 "MyPassword"
5. Initiate the transfer. To save a dump file, enter 5:
Set agTransferAction.0 "5"
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Part 8: Monitoring
The ability to monitor traffic passing through the CN4093 can be invaluable for
troubleshooting some types of networking problems. This sections cover the
following monitoring features:
• Remote Monitoring (RMON)
• sFLOW
• Port Mirroring
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Chapter 38. Remote Monitoring
Remote Monitoring (RMON) allows network devices to exchange network
monitoring data.
RMON performs the following major functions:
• Gathers cumulative statistics for Ethernet interfaces
• Tracks a history of statistics for Ethernet interfaces
• Creates and triggers alarms for user-defined events
RMON Overview
The RMON MIB provides an interface between the RMON agent on the switch and
an RMON management application. The RMON MIB is described in RFC 1757.
The RMON standard defines objects that are suitable for the management of
Ethernet networks. The RMON agent continuously collects statistics and proactively
monitors switch performance. RMON allows you to monitor traffic flowing through
the switch.
The switch supports the following RMON Groups, as described in RFC 1757:
• RMON Group 1–Statistics
• RMON Group 2–History
• RMON Group 3–Alarms
• RMON Group 9–Events
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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RMON Group 1–Statistics
The switch supports collection of Ethernet statistics as outlined in the RMON
statistics MIB, in reference to etherStatsTable. RMON statistics are sampled
every second, and new data overwrites any old data on a given port.
Note: RMON port statistics must be enabled for the port before you can view
RMON statistics.
To configure RMON Statistics:
1. Enable RMON on each port where you wish to collect RMON statistics.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 23
CN 4093(config-if)# rmon
2. View RMON statistics for the port.
CN 4093(config-if)# show interface port 23 rmon-counters
-----------------------------------------------------------------RMON statistics for port 23:
etherStatsDropEvents:
NA
etherStatsOctets:
7305626
etherStatsPkts:
48686
etherStatsBroadcastPkts:
4380
etherStatsMulticastPkts:
6612
etherStatsCRCAlignErrors:
22
etherStatsUndersizePkts:
0
etherStatsOversizePkts:
0
etherStatsFragments:
2
etherStatsJabbers:
0
etherStatsCollisions:
0
etherStatsPkts64Octets:
27445
etherStatsPkts65to127Octets:
12253
etherStatsPkts128to255Octets:
1046
etherStatsPkts256to511Octets:
619
etherStatsPkts512to1023Octets:
7283
etherStatsPkts1024to1518Octets:
38
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RMON Group 2–History
The RMON History Group allows you to sample and archive Ethernet statistics for a
specific interface during a specific time interval.
Note: RMON port statistics must be enabled for the port before an RMON history
group can monitor the port.
Data is stored in buckets, which store data gathered during discreet sampling
intervals. At each configured interval, the history instance takes a sample of the
current Ethernet statistics, and places them into a bucket. History data buckets
reside in dynamic memory. When the switch is re-booted, the buckets are emptied.
Requested buckets are the number of buckets, or data slots, requested by the user
for each History Group. Granted buckets are the number of buckets granted by the
system, based on the amount of system memory available. The system grants a
maximum of 50 buckets.
Use an SNMP browser to view History samples.
History MIB Objects
The type of data that can be sampled must be of an ifIndex object type, as
described in RFC1213 and RFC1573. The most common data type for the history
sample is as follows:
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.<x>
-mgmt.interfaces.ifTable.ifIndex.interface
The last digit (x) represents the interface on which to monitor, which corresponds to
the switch port number. History sampling is done per port, by utilizing the interface
number to specify the port number.
Configuring RMON History
This example configuration creates an RMON History Group to monitor port 1. It
takes a data sample every two minutes, and places the data into one of the 30
requested buckets. After 30 samples are gathered, the new samples overwrite the
previous samples, beginning with the first bucket.
1. Enable RMON on each port where you wish to collect RMON History.
CN 4093(config)# interface port 1
CN 4093(config-if)# rmon
CN 4093(config-if)# exit
2. Configure the RMON History parameters.
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
history
history
history
history
1
1
1
1
interface-oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.<x>
requested-buckets 30
polling-interval 120
owner "rmon port 1 history"
where <x> is the number of the port to monitor. For example, the full OID for port
1 would be: 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Chapter 38: Remote Monitoring
503
3. View RMON history for the port.
CN 4093(config)# show rmon history
RMON History group configuration:
Index
----1
IFOID
----------------------1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1
Interval
-------120
Rbnum
----30
Gbnum
----30
Index
----1
Owner
---------------------------------------------rmon port 1 history
RMON Group 3–Alarms
The RMON Alarm Group allows you to define a set of thresholds used to determine
network performance. When a configured threshold is crossed, an alarm is
generated. For example, you can configure the switch to issue an alarm if more than
1,000 CRC errors occur during a 10-minute time interval.
Each Alarm index consists of a variable to monitor, a sampling time interval, and
parameters for rising and falling thresholds. The Alarm group can be used to track
rising or falling values for a MIB object. The object must be a counter, gauge,
integer, or time interval.
Use one of the following commands to correlate an Alarm index to an Event index:
CN 4093(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> rising-crossing-index <event number>
CN 4093(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> falling-crossing-index <event number>
Alarm MIB Objects
The most common data types used for alarm monitoring are ifStats: errors,
drops, bad CRCs, and so on. These MIB Object Identifiers (OIDs) correlate to the
ones tracked by the History group. An example of an ICMP stat is as follows:
1.3.6.1.2.1.5.1.<x> - mgmt.icmp.icmpInMsgs
where x represents the interface on which to monitor, which corresponds to the
switch interface number or port number, as follows:
• 1 through 128 = Switch interface number
• 129 = Switch port 1
• 130 = Switch port 2
• 131 = Switch port 3, and so on.
This value represents the alarm's MIB OID, as a string. Note that for non-tables, you
must supply a .0 to specify an end node.
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Configuring RMON Alarms
Alarm Example 1
This example configuration creates an RMON alarm that checks ifInOctets on
port 20 once every hour. If the statistic exceeds two billion, an alarm is generated
that triggers event index 6.
1. Configure the RMON Alarm parameters to track the number of packets received
on a port.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
1
1
1
1
1
1
oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.129
alarm-type rising
rising-crossing-index 100
interval 3600
rising-limit 2000000000
owner "Alarm for ifInOctets"
Alarm Example 2
This example configuration creates an RMON alarm that checks icmpInEchos on
the switch once every minute. If the statistic exceeds 200 within a 60 second
interval, an alarm is generated that triggers event index 5.
Configure the RMON Alarm parameters to track ICMP messages.
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
CN
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
4093(config)#
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
rmon
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
alarm
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
oid 1.3.6.1.2.1.5.8.0
alarm-type rising
rising-crossing-index 110
interval-time 60
rising-limit 200
sample delta
owner "Alarm for icmpInEchos"
Chapter 38: Remote Monitoring
505
RMON Group 9–Events
The RMON Event Group allows you to define events that are triggered by alarms.
An event can be a log message, an SNMP trap message, or both.
When an alarm is generated, it triggers a corresponding event notification. Use the
following commands to correlate an Event index to an alarm:
CN 4093(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> rising-crossing-index <event number>
CN 4093(config)# rmon alarm <alarm number> falling-crossing-index <event number>
RMON events use SNMP and system logs to send notifications. Therefore, an
SNMP trap host must be configured for trap event notification to work properly.
RMON uses a syslog host to send syslog messages. Therefore, an existing syslog
host must be configured for event log notification to work properly. Each log event
generates a system log message of type RMON that corresponds to the event.
For example, to configure the RMON event parameters.
CN 4093(config)# rmon event 110 type log
CN 4093(config)# rmon event 110 description "SYSLOG_this_alarm"
CN 4093(config)# rmon event 110 owner "log icmpInEchos alarm"
This configuration creates an RMON event that sends a syslog message each time
it is triggered by an alarm.
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Chapter 39. sFLOW
The CN4093 supports sFlow technology for monitoring traffic in data networks. The
switch includes an embedded sFlow agent which can be configured to sample
network traffic and provide continuous monitoring information of IPv4 traffic to a
central sFlow analyzer.
The switch is responsible only for forwarding sFlow information. A separate sFlow
analyzer is required elsewhere on the network in order to interpret sFlow data.
Note: IBM Networking OS 7.8 does not support IPv6 for sFLOW.
sFlow Statistical Counters
The CN4093 can be configured to send network statistics to an sFlow analyzer at
regular intervals. For each port, a polling interval of 5 to 60 seconds can be
configured, or 0 (the default) to disable this feature.
When polling is enabled, at the end of each configured polling interval, the CN4093
reports general port statistics and port Ethernet statistics.
sFlow Network Sampling
In addition to statistical counters, the CN4093 can be configured to collect periodic
samples of the traffic data received on each port. For each sample, 128 bytes are
copied, UDP-encapsulated, and sent to the configured sFlow analyzer.
For each port, the sFlow sampling rate can be configured to occur once each 256 to
65536 packets, or 0 to disable (the default). A sampling rate of 256 means that one
sample will be taken for approximately every 256 packets received on the port. The
sampling rate is statistical, however. It is possible to have slightly more or fewer
samples sent to the analyzer for any specific group of packets (especially under low
traffic conditions). The actual sample rate becomes most accurate over time, and
under higher traffic flow.
sFlow sampling has the following restrictions:
• Sample Rate—The fastest sFlow sample rate is 1 out of every 256 packets.
• ACLs—sFlow sampling is performed before ACLs are processed. For ports
configured both with sFlow sampling and one or more ACLs, sampling will occur
regardless of the action of the ACL.
• Port Mirroring—sFlow sampling will not occur on mirrored traffic. If sFlow
sampling is enabled on a port that is configured as a port monitor, the mirrored
traffic will not be sampled.
Note: Although sFlow sampling is not generally a CPU-intensive operation,
configuring fast sampling rates (such as once every 256 packets) on ports
under heavy traffic loads can cause switch CPU utilization to reach
maximum. Use larger rate values for ports that experience heavy traffic.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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sFlow Example Configuration
1. Specify the location of the sFlow analyzer (the server and optional port to which
the sFlow information will be sent):
CN 4093(config)# sflow server <IPv4 address>
CN 4093(config)# sflow port <service port>
CN 4093(config)# sflow enable
(sFlow server address)
(Set the optional service port)
(Enable sFlow features)
By default, the switch uses established sFlow service port 6343.
To disable sFlow features across all ports, use the following command:
CN 4093(config)# no sflow enable
2. On a per-port basis, define the statistics polling rate:
CN 4093(config)# interface port <port>
CN 4093(config-if)# sflow polling <polling rate>
(Statistics polling rate)
Specify a polling rate between 5 and 60 seconds, or 0 to disable. By default,
polling is 0 (disabled) for each port.
3. On a per-port basis, define the data sampling rate:
CN 4093(config-if)# sflow sampling <sampling rate>
(Data sampling rate)
Specify a sampling rate between 256 and 65536 packets, or 0 to disable. By
default, the sampling rate is 0 (disabled) for each port.
4. Save the configuration.
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Chapter 40. Port Mirroring
The IBM Networking OS port mirroring feature allows you to mirror (copy) the
packets of a target port, and forward them to a monitoring port. Port mirroring
functions for all layer 2 and layer 3 traffic on a port. This feature can be used as a
troubleshooting tool or to enhance the security of your network. For example, an
IDS server or other traffic sniffer device or analyzer can be connected to the
monitoring port in order to detect intruders attacking the network.
The CN4093 supports a “many to one” mirroring model. As shown in Figure 65,
selected traffic for ports EXT1 and EXT2 is being monitored by port EXT3. In the
example, both ingress traffic and egress traffic on port EXT2 are copied and
forwarded to the monitor. However, port EXT1 mirroring is configured so that only
ingress traffic is copied and forwarded to the monitor. A device attached to port
EXT3 can analyze the resulting mirrored traffic.
Figure 65. Mirroring Ports
Mirrored Ports
Monitor Port
Ingress
Both
Traffic
Connected to
sniffer device
38
39
40
41
Specified traffic is copied
and forwarded to Monitor Port
In stand-alone (non-stacking) mode, the CN4093 supports two monitor ports with
two-way mirroring, or four monitor ports with one-way mirroring. In stacking mode,
one monitor port with two-way mirroring, or two monitor ports with one-way mirroring
is supported. Each monitor port can receive mirrored traffic from any number of
target ports.
IBM Networking OS does not support “one to many” or “many to many” mirroring
models where traffic from a specific port traffic is copied to multiple monitor ports.
For example, port EXT1 traffic cannot be monitored by both port EXT3 and EXT4 at
the same time, nor can port EXT2 ingress traffic be monitored by a different port
than its egress traffic.
Ingress and egress traffic is duplicated and sent to the monitor port after processing.
Note: The CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch (CN4093) cannot mirror
LACPDU packets. Also, traffic on management VLANs is not mirrored to the
external ports.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Port Mirroring Behavior
This section describes the composition of monitored packets in the CN4093, based
on the configuration of the ports.
• Packets mirrored at port egress are mirrored prior to VLAN tag processing and
may have a different PVID than packets that egress the port toward their actual
network destination.
• Packets mirrored at port ingress are not modified.
Configuring Port Mirroring
The following procedure may be used to configure port mirroring for the example
shown in Figure 65 on page 509:
1. Specify the monitoring port, the mirroring port(s), and the port-mirror direction.
CN 4093(config)# port-mirroring monitor-port EXT3 mirroring-port EXT1 in
CN 4093(config)# port-mirroring monitor-port EXT3 mirroring-port EXT2 both
2. Enable port mirroring.
CN 4093(config)# port-mirroring enable
3. View the current configuration.
CN 4093# show port-mirroring
Port mirroring is enabled
Monitoring Ports
Mirrored Ports
INTA1
none
INTA2
none
INTA3
none
INTA4
none
...
EXT1
none
EXT2
none
EXT3
EXT1, in
EXT2, both
EXT4
none
...
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(Display the current settings)
Part 9: Appendices
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
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Appendix A. Glossary
DIP
The destination IP address of a frame.
Dport
The destination port (application socket: for example,
http-80/https-443/DNS-53)
HBA
Host Bus Adapter. An adapter or card that interfaces with device drivers in the
host operating system and the storage target in a Storage Area Network (SAN).
It is equivalent to a Network Interface Controller (NIC) from a Local Area
Network (LAN).
NAT
Network Address Translation. Any time an IP address is changed from one
source IP or destination IP address to another address, network address
translation can be said to have taken place. In general, half NAT is when the
destination IP or source IP address is changed from one address to another.
Full NAT is when both addresses are changed from one address to another. No
NAT is when neither source nor destination IP addresses are translated.
Preemption
In VRRP, preemption will cause a Virtual Router that has a lower priority to go
into backup should a peer Virtual Router start advertising with a higher priority.
Priority
In VRRP, the value given to a Virtual Router to determine its ranking with its
peer(s). Minimum value is 1 and maximum value is 254. Default is 100. A
higher number will win out for master designation.
Proto (Protocol)
The protocol of a frame. Can be any value represented by a 8-bit value in the IP
header adherent to the IP specification (for example, TCP, UDP, OSPF, ICMP,
and so on.)
SIP
The source IP address of a frame.
SPort
The source port (application socket: for example,
HTTP-80/HTTPS-443/DNS-53).
Tracking
In VRRP, a method to increase the priority of a virtual router and thus master
designation (with preemption enabled). Tracking can be very valuable in an
active/active configuration.
You can track the following:
• Active IP interfaces on the Web switch (increments priority by 2 for each)
• Active ports on the same VLAN (increments priority by 2 for each)
• Number of virtual routers in master mode on the switch
VIR
Virtual Interface Router. A VRRP address is an IP interface address shared
between two or more virtual routers.
Virtual Router
A shared address between two devices utilizing VRRP, as defined in RFC
2338. One virtual router is associated with an IP interface. This is one of the IP
interfaces that the switch is assigned. All IP interfaces on the CN4093s must be
in a VLAN. If there is more than one VLAN defined on the Web switch, then the
VRRP broadcasts will only be sent out on the VLAN of which the associated IP
interface is a member.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
513
VRID
Virtual Router Identifier. In VRRP, a numeric ID is used by each virtual router to
create its MAC address and identify its peer for which it is sharing this VRRP
address. The VRRP MAC address as defined in the RFC is
00-00-5E-00-01-<VRID>.
If you have a VRRP address that two switches are sharing, then the VRID
number needs to be identical on both switches so each virtual router on each
switch knows with whom to share.
VRRP
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. A protocol that acts very similarly to
Cisco's proprietary HSRP address sharing protocol. The reason for both of
these protocols is so devices have a next hop or default gateway that is always
available. Two or more devices sharing an IP interface are either advertising or
listening for advertisements. These advertisements are sent via a broadcast
message to an address such as 224.0.0.18.
With VRRP, one switch is considered the master and the other the backup. The
master is always advertising via the broadcasts. The backup switch is always
listening for the broadcasts. Should the master stop advertising, the backup will
take over ownership of the VRRP IP and MAC addresses as defined by the
specification. The switch announces this change in ownership to the devices
around it by way of a Gratuitous ARP, and advertisements. If the backup switch
didn't do the Gratuitous ARP the Layer 2 devices attached to the switch would
not know that the MAC address had moved in the network. For a more detailed
description, refer to RFC 2338.
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Appendix B. Getting help and technical assistance
If you need help, service, or technical assistance or just want more information
about IBM products, you will find a wide variety of sources available from IBM to
assist you. This section contains information about where to go for additional
information about IBM and IBM products, what to do if you experience a problem
with your system, and whom to call for service, if it is necessary.
Before you call
Before you call, make sure that you have taken these steps to try to solve the
problem yourself:
• Check all cables to make sure that they are connected.
• Check the power switches to make sure that the system and any optional
devices are turned on.
• Use the troubleshooting information in your system documentation, and use the
diagnostic tools that come with your system. Information about diagnostic tools is
in the Problem Determination and Service Guide on the IBM Documentation CD
that comes with your system.
• Go to the IBM support website at http://www.ibm.com/support/ to check for technical information, hints, tips, and new device drivers or to submit a request for
information.
You can solve many problems without outside assistance by following the
troubleshooting procedures that IBM provides in the online help or in the
documentation that is provided with your IBM product. The documentation that
comes with IBM systems also describes the diagnostic tests that you can perform.
Most systems, operating systems, and programs come with documentation that
contains troubleshooting procedures and explanations of error messages and error
codes. If you suspect a software problem, see the documentation for the operating
system or program.
Using the documentation
Information about your IBM system and pre-installed software, if any, or optional
device is available in the documentation that comes with the product. That
documentation can include printed documents, online documents, ReadMe files,
and Help files. See the troubleshooting information in your system documentation
for instructions for using the diagnostic programs. The troubleshooting information
or the diagnostic programs might tell you that you need additional or updated device
drivers or other software. IBM maintains pages on the World Wide Web where you
can get the latest technical information and download device drivers and updates.
To access these pages, go to http://www.ibm.com/support/ and follow the
instructions. Also, some documents are available through the IBM Publications
Center at http://www.ibm.com/shop/publications/order/.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
515
Getting help and information on the World Wide Web
On the World Wide Web, the IBM website has up-to-date information about IBM
systems, optional devices, services, and support. The address for IBM System x®
and xSeries® information is http://www.ibm.com/systems/x/. The address for IBM
Flex System information is http://www.ibm.com/systems/bladecenter/. The address
for IBM IntelliStation® information is http://www.ibm.com/intellistation/.
You can find service information for IBM systems and optional devices at
http://www.ibm.com/support/.
Software service and support
Through IBM Support Line, you can get telephone assistance, for a fee, with usage,
configuration, and software problems with System x and x Series servers, Flex
System products, IntelliStation workstations, and appliances. For information about
which products are supported by Support Line in your country or region, see
http://www.ibm.com/services/sl/products/.
For more information about Support Line and other IBM services, see
http://www.ibm.com/services/, or see http://www.ibm.com/planetwide/ for support
telephone numbers. In the U.S. and Canada, call 1-800-IBM-SERV
(1-800-426-7378).
Hardware service and support
You can receive hardware service through your IBM reseller or IBM Services. To
locate a reseller authorized by IBM to provide warranty service, go to
http://www.ibm.com/partnerworld/ and click Find Business Partners on the right
side of the page. For IBM support telephone numbers, see
http://www.ibm.com/planetwide/. In the U.S. and Canada, call
1-800-IBM-SERV (1-800-426-7378).
In the U.S. and Canada, hardware service and support is available 24 hours a day,
7 days a week. In the U.K., these services are available Monday through Friday,
from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.
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IBM Taiwan product service
IBM Taiwan product service contact information:
IBM Taiwan Corporation
3F, No 7, Song Ren Rd.
Taipei, Taiwan
Telephone: 0800-016-888
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Appendix B: Getting help and technical assistance
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Appendix C. Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in
other countries. Consult your local IBM representative for information on the
products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM
product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM
product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product,
program, or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be
used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the
operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.
IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter
described in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any
license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to:
IBM Director of Licensing
IBM Corporation
North Castle Drive
Armonk, NY 10504-1785
U.S.A.
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS
PUBLICATION “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or
implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to
you.
This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors.
Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be
incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may make improvements and/or
changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any
time without notice.
Any references in this information to non-IBM websites are provided for
convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those
websites. The materials at those websites are not part of the materials for this IBM
product, and use of those websites is at your own risk.
IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes
appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
519
Trademarks
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of
International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries,
or both. If these and other IBM trademarked terms are marked on their first
occurrence in this information with a trademark symbol (® or ™), these symbols
indicate U.S. registered or common law trademarks owned by IBM at the time this
information was published. Such trademarks may also be registered or common law
trademarks in other countries. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the
web at “Copyright and trademark information” at
http://www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml.
Adobe and PostScript are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe
Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries.
Cell Broadband Engine is a trademark of Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc., in the
United States, other countries, or both and is used under license therefrom.
Intel, Intel Xeon, Itanium, and Pentium are trademarks or registered trademarks of
Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries.
Java and all Java-based trademarks are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc., in
the United States, other countries, or both.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other
countries, or both.
Microsoft, Windows, and Windows NT are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in
the United States, other countries, or both.
UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other
countries.
Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of
others.
520
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Important Notes
Processor speed indicates the internal clock speed of the microprocessor; other
factors also affect application performance.
CD or DVD drive speed is the variable read rate. Actual speeds vary and are often
less than the possible maximum.
When referring to processor storage, real and virtual storage, or channel volume,
KB stands for 1024 bytes, MB stands for 1 048 576 bytes, and GB stands for
1 073 741 824 bytes.
When referring to hard disk drive capacity or communications volume, MB stands
for 1 000 000 bytes, and GB stands for 1 000 000 000 bytes. Total user-accessible
capacity can vary depending on operating environments.
Maximum internal hard disk drive capacities assume the replacement of any
standard hard disk drives and population of all hard disk drive bays with the largest
currently supported drives that are available from IBM.
Maximum memory might require replacement of the standard memory with an
optional memory module.
IBM makes no representation or warranties regarding non-IBM products and
services that are ServerProven, including but not limited to the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. These products are offered and
warranted solely by third parties.
IBM makes no representations or warranties with respect to non-IBM products.
Support (if any) for the non-IBM products is provided by the third party, not IBM.
Some software might differ from its retail version (if available) and might not include
user manuals or all program functionality.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Appendix C: Notices
521
Particulate contamination
Attention: Airborne particulates (including metal flakes or particles) and reactive
gases acting alone or in combination with other environmental factors such as
humidity or temperature might pose a risk to the device that is described in this
document. Risks that are posed by the presence of excessive particulate levels or
concentrations of harmful gases include damage that might cause the device to
malfunction or cease functioning altogether. This specification sets forth limits for
particulates and gases that are intended to avoid such damage. The limits must not
be viewed or used as definitive limits, because numerous other factors, such as
temperature or moisture content of the air, can influence the impact of particulates
or environmental corrosives and gaseous contaminant transfer. In the absence of
specific limits that are set forth in this document, you must implement practices that
maintain particulate and gas levels that are consistent with the protection of human
health and safety. If IBM determines that the levels of particulates or gases in your
environment have caused damage to the device, IBM may condition provision of
repair or replacement of devices or parts on implementation of appropriate remedial
measures to mitigate such environmental contamination. Implementation of such
remedial measures is a customer responsibility.
Contaminant
Limits
Particulate
• The room air must be continuously filtered with 40% atmospheric dust spot
efficiency (MERV 9) according to ASHRAE Standard 52.21.
• Air that enters a data center must be filtered to 99.97% efficiency or greater,
using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that meet MIL-STD-282.
• The deliquescent relative humidity of the particulate contamination must be
more than 60%2.
• The room must be free of conductive contamination such as zinc whiskers.
Gaseous
• Copper: Class G1 as per ANSI/ISA 71.04-19853
• Silver: Corrosion rate of less than 300 Å in 30 days
1 ASHRAE 52.2-2008 - Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal
Efficiency by Particle Size. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
2 The deliquescent relative humidity of particulate contamination is the relative humidity at which
the dust absorbs enough water to become wet and promote ionic conduction.
3 ANSI/ISA-71.04-1985. Environmental conditions for process measurement and control systems:
Airborne contaminants. Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina,
U.S.A.
522
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Documentation format
The publications for this product are in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF)
and should be compliant with accessibility standards. If you experience difficulties
when you use the PDF files and want to request a web-based format or accessible
PDF document for a publication, direct your mail to the following address:
Information Development
IBM Corporation
205/A0153039 E. Cornwallis Road
P.O. Box 12195
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2195
U.S.A.
In the request, be sure to include the publication part number and title.
When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or
distribute the information in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any
obligation to you.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Appendix C: Notices
523
Electronic emission notices
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) statement
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a
Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are
designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the
equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment generates,
uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause
harmful interference, in which case the user will be required to correct the
interference at his own expense.
Properly shielded and grounded cables and connectors must be used in order to
meet FCC emission limits. IBM is not responsible for any radio or television
interference caused by using other than recommended cables and connectors or by
unauthorized changes or modifications to this equipment. Unauthorized changes or
modifications could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2)
this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
Industry Canada Class A emission compliance statement
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Avis de conformité à la réglementation d'Industrie Canada
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du
Canada.
Australia and New Zealand Class A statement
Attention: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may
cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate
measures.
European Union EMC Directive conformance statement
This product is in conformity with the protection requirements of EU Council
Directive 2004/108/EC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States
relating to electromagnetic compatibility. IBM cannot accept responsibility for any
failure to satisfy the protection requirements resulting from a nonrecommended
modification of the product, including the fitting of non-IBM option cards.
Attention: This is an EN 55022 Class A product. In a domestic environment this
product may cause radio interference in which case the user may be required to
take adequate measures.
524
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Responsible manufacturer:
International Business Machines Corp.
New Orchard Road
Armonk, New York 10504
914-499-1900
European Community contact:
IBM Technical Regulations, Department M456
IBM-Allee 1, 71137 Ehningen, Germany
Telephone: +49 7032 15-2937
E-mail: tjahn@de.ibm.com
Germany Class A statement
Deutschsprachiger EU Hinweis:
Hinweis für Geräte der Klasse A EU-Richtlinie zur Elektromagnetischen
Verträglichkeit
Dieses Produkt entspricht den Schutzanforderungen der EU-Richtlinie
2004/108/EG zur Angleichung der Rechtsvorschriften über die elektromagnetische
Verträglichkeit in den EU-Mitgliedsstaaten und hält die Grenzwerte der EN 55022
Klasse A ein.
Um dieses sicherzustellen, sind die Geräte wie in den Handbüchern beschrieben zu
installieren und zu betreiben. Des Weiteren dürfen auch nur von der IBM
empfohlene Kabel angeschlossen werden. IBM übernimmt keine Verantwortung für
die Einhaltung der Schutzanforderungen, wenn das Produkt ohne Zustimmung der
IBM verändert bzw. wenn Erweiterungskomponenten von Fremdherstellern ohne
Empfehlung der IBM gesteckt/eingebaut werden.
EN 55022 Klasse A Geräte müssen mit folgendem Warnhinweis versehen werden:
“Warnung: Dieses ist eine Einrichtung der Klasse A. Diese Einrichtung kann im
Wohnbereich Funk-Störungen verursachen; in diesem Fall kann vom Betreiber
verlangt werden, angemessene Maßnahmen zu ergreifen und dafür aufzukommen.”
Deutschland: Einhaltung des Gesetzes über die elektromagnetische
Verträglichkeit von Geräten
Dieses Produkt entspricht dem “Gesetz über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit
von Geräten (EMVG)”. Dies ist die Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 2004/108/EG in
der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
Zulassungsbescheinigung laut dem Deutschen Gesetz über die
elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten (EMVG) (bzw. der EMC EG
Richtlinie 2004/108/EG) für Geräte der Klasse A
Dieses Gerät ist berechtigt, in Übereinstimmung mit dem Deutschen EMVG das
EG-Konformitätszeichen - CE - zu führen.
Verantwortlich für die Einhaltung der EMV Vorschriften ist der Hersteller:
International Business Machines Corp.
New Orchard Road
Armonk, New York 10504
914-499-1900
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Appendix C: Notices
525
Der verantwortliche Ansprechpartner des Herstellers in der EU ist:
IBM Deutschland
Technical Regulations, Department M456
IBM-Allee 1, 71137 Ehningen, Germany
Telephone: +49 7032 15-2937
E-mail: tjahn@de.ibm.com
Generelle Informationen:
Das Gerät erfüllt die Schutzanforderungen nach EN 55024 und EN 55022
Klasse A.
Japan VCCI Class A statement
This is a Class A product based on the standard of the Voluntary Control Council for
Interference (VCCI). If this equipment is used in a domestic environment, radio
interference may occur, in which case the user may be required to take corrective
actions.
Korea Communications Commission (KCC) statement
Please note that this equipment has obtained EMC registration for commercial use.
In the event that it has been mistakenly sold or purchased, please exchange it for
equipment certified for home use.
Russia Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Class A statement
People’s Republic of China Class A electronic emission statement
526
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Taiwan Class A compliance statement
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
Appendix C: Notices
527
528
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
Index
Symbols
[ ] 23
Numerics
40GbE ports 134
802.1p QoS 263
802.1Q VLAN tagging 116, 274
802.1Qaz ETS 274
802.1Qbb PFC 270
802.1Qbg 301
802.3x flow control 264, 270
A
Access Control Lists. See ACLs.
accessible documentation 523
accessing the switch
Browser-based Interface 28, 31
LDAP 87
RADIUS authentication 78
security 77
ACLs 97, 187
FCoE 266
FIP snooping 261, 265
active-active redundancy 457
administrator account 38, 80
advertise flag (DCBX) 281
aggregating routes 395
example 401
AH 360
anycast address, IPv6 350
application ports 99
assistance, getting 515
authenticating, in OSPF 414
Authentication Header (AH) 360
autoconfiguration
link 51
autoconfiguration, IPv6 351
auto-negotiation
setup 51
autonomous systems (AS) 407
B
bandwidth allocation 263, 277
BBI 27
BBI. See Browser-Based Interface
Bootstrap Router, PIM 436
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 391
attributes 396
failover configuration 399
route aggregation 395
route maps 393
selecting route paths 398
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
bridge module 237
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) 147
broadcast domains 111, 341
Browser-Based Interface 27, 408
BSR, PIM 436
C
CEE 259, 262
802.1p QoS 263
bandwidth allocation 263
DCBX 259, 262, 280
ETS 259, 263, 274
FCoE 261, 262
LLDP 262
on/off 262
PFC 259, 264, 270
priority groups 275
Cisco EtherChannel 136
CIST 159
Class A electronic emission notice 524
Class of Service queue 195
CNA 261
command conventions 23
Command Line Interface 408
Command-Line Interface (CLI) 47
Community VLAN 127
component, PIM 433
configuration rules
CEE 262
FCoE 261
port mirroring 136
spanning tree 136
Trunking 136
VLANs 136
configuring
BGP failover 399
DCBX 282
ETS 278
FIP snooping 269
IP routing 339
OSPF 418
PFC 272
port trunking 137
spanning tree groups 156, 161
contamination, particulate and gaseous 522
Converged Enhanced Ethernet. See CEE.
Converged Network Adapter. See CNA.
D
Data Center Bridging Capability Exchange. See DCBX.
date
setup 49
DCBX 259, 262, 280
default gateway 338
configuration example 340
default password 38, 80
Index
529
default route, OSPF 411
Dense Mode, PIM 432, 433, 438
Designated Router, PIM 431, 435
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) 189
digital certificate 362
generating 363
importing 363
documentation format 523
DR, PIM 431, 435
E
EAPoL 90
ECP 301
Edge Control Protocol. See ECP
Edge Virtual Bridging, See EVB.
electronic emission Class A notice 524
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) 360
End user access control, configuring 71
Enhanced Transmission Selection. See ETS.
ENodes 261, 265
ESP 360
EtherChannel 135
as used with port trunking 136
Ethernet Nodes (FCoE). See ENodes.
ETS 259, 263, 274
bandwidth allocation 263, 277
configuring 278
DCBX 281
PGID 263, 275
priority groups 275
priority values 276
EVB 301
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN 90
external routing 391, 407
F
factory default configuration 48
failover 447
overview 456
FC-BB-5 260
FCC Class A notice 524
FCF 237, 260, 261, 265
detection mode 266
FCoE 259, 260
bridge module 237
CEE 261, 262
CNA 261
ENodes 261
FCF 237, 260, 261
FIP snooping 259, 261, 265
FLOGI 266
point-to-point links 260
requirements 261
SAN 260, 262
topology 260
VLANs 267
530
FCoE Forwarder. See FCF.
FCoE Initialization Protocol snooping. See FIP snooping.
Fibre Channel over Ethernet. See FCoE.
Final Steps 54
FIP snooping 259, 261, 265
ACL rules 266
ENode mode 266
FCF mode 266
timeout 266
first-time configuration 47 to ??
FLOGI 266
flow control 264, 270
setup 50
frame size 112
frame tagging. See VLANs tagging.
G
gaseous contamination 522
gateway. See default gateway.
getting help 515
H
hardware service and support 516
help, getting 515
high-availability 453
host routes, OSPF 416
Hot Links 444
hot-standby redundancy 457
hypervisor 221
I
IBM Director 481
IBM DirectorSNMP
IBM Director 35
IBM support line 516
ICMP 98
IEEE standards
802.1D 145
802.1Qaz 274
802.1Qbb 270
802.1s 159
802.1x 90
802.3x 270
IGMP 98, 375
PIM 436
Querier 382, 388
IGMP Relay 380
IGMP Snooping 376
IGMPv3 377
IKEv2 360
digital certificate 362, 363
preshared key 362, 364
IKEv2 proposal 362
INCITS T11.3 260
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
incoming route maps 394
internal routing 391, 407
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) 375
Internet Key Exchange Version 2 (IKEv2) 360
Internet Protocol Security
See also IPsec 359
IP address 52, 53
IP interface 52, 53
IP address routing example 339
IP configuration via setup 52
IP interfaces 52, 53
IP interfaces, example configuration 339, 342
IP routing 52
cross-subnet example 337
default gateway configuration 340
IP interface configuration 339, 342
IP subnets 337
subnet configuration example 339
switch-based topology 338
IP subnet mask 53
IP subnets 338
routing 337, 338
VLANs 111
IPSec
maximum traffic load 361
IPsec 359
key policy 364
IPv6 addressing 347, 349
ISL Trunking 135
Isolated VLAN 127
multiple spanning tree groups 151
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol 159
N
Neighbor Discovery, IPv6 353
network component, PIM 433
Network Load Balancing, See NLB,
network management 27, 35, 481
NLB 307
notes, important 521
notices 519
notices, electronic emission 524
notices, FCC Class A 524
O
jumbo frames 112
OSPF
area types 404
authentication 414
configuration examples 418 to ??
default route 411
external routes 417
filtering criteria 98
host routes 416
link state database 407
neighbors 406
overview 404
redistributing routes 396
route maps 393, 394
route summarization 411
router ID 414
virtual link 413
outgoing route maps 394
L
P
LACP 141
Layer 2 Failover 447
LDAP authentication 87
Link Aggregation Control Protocol 141
LLDP 262, 280
logical segment. See IP subnets.
lossless Ethernet 260, 262
LSAs 407
packet size 112
particulate contamination 522
password
administrator account 38, 80
default 38, 80
user account 38, 80
passwords 38
payload size 112
Per Hop Behavior (PHB) 190
PFC 259, 264, 270
DCBX 281
PGID 263, 275
J
M
management module 27, 29
manual style conventions 23
Maximum Transmission Unit 112
meter 102, 188
mirroring ports 509
modes, PIM 432
monitoring ports 509
MSTP 159
MTU 112
multi-links between switches using port trunking 131
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
: Index
531
PIM 431 to 439
Bootstrap Router (BSR) 436
component 433
Dense Mode 432, 433, 438
Designated Router (DR) 431, 435
examples 437 to 439
IGMP 436
modes 432, 433
overview 431
Rendezvous Point (RP) 431, 435
Sparse Mode 431, 432, 433
PIM-DM 432, 433, 438
PIM-SM 431, 432, 433
port flow control. See flow control.
port mirroring 509
configuration rules 136
port modes 134
port trunking
configuration example 137
EtherChannel 135
ports
configuration 50
for services 99
monitoring 509
physical. See switch ports.
preshared key 362
enabling 364
priority groups 275
priority value (802.1p) 194, 264, 274
Priority-based Flow Control. See PFC.
Private VLANs 127
promiscuous port 127
Protocol Independant Multicast (see PIM) 431 to 439
protocol types 98
PVID (port VLAN ID) 114
PVLAN 124
Q
Q-In-Q 329
QSFP+ 134
Querier (IGMP) 382, 388
R
RADIUS
authentication 78
port 1812 and 1645 99
port 1813 99
SSH/SCP 69
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) 158
receive flow control 50
redistributing routes 396, 401
redundancy
active-active 457
hot-standby 457
re-mark 102, 188
Rendezvous Point, PIM 431, 435
532
restarting switch setup 48
RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
advertisements 370
distance vector protocol 369
hop count 369
TCP/IP route information 21, 369
version 1 369
route aggregation 395, 401
route maps 393
configuring 394
incoming and outgoing 394
route paths in BGP 398
Router ID, OSPF 414
routers 337, 340
border 407
peer 407
port trunking 135
switch-based routing topology 338
routes, advertising 407
routing 391
internal and external 407
Routing Information Protocol. See RIP
RP candidate, PIM 431, 435
RSA keys 69
RSTP 158
rx flow control 50
S
SA 360
SAN 260, 262
security
LDAP authentication 87
port mirroring 509
RADIUS authentication 78
VLANs 111
security association (SA) 360
See EVB.
segmentation. See IP subnets.
segments. See IP subnets.
service and support 516
service ports 99
setup facility 47
IP configuration 52
IP subnet mask 53
port auto-negotiation mode 51
port configuration 50
port flow control 50
restarting 48
Spanning-Tree Protocol 50
starting 48
stopping 48
system date 49
system time 49
VLAN name 51
VLAN tagging 51
VLANs 51
SNMP 27, 35, 408, 481
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
SNMP Agent 481
software service and support 516
Source-Specific Multicast 377
Spanning Tree Prootocl
configuration rules 136
Spanning-Tree Protocol
multiple instances 151
setup (on/off) 50
Sparse Mode, PIM 431, 432, 433
SSH/SCP
configuring 66
RSA host and server keys 69
stacking 200, 305
starting switch setup 48
Static ARP 307
stopping switch setup 48
Storage Area Network. See SAN.
subnet mask 53
subnets 52
summarizing routes 411
support line 516
support web site 516
switch failover 456
switch ports VLANs membership 115
T
TACACS+ 82
tagging. See VLANs tagging.
TCP 98
technical assistance 515
technical terms
port VLAN identifier (PVID) 116
tagged frame 116
tagged member 116
untagged frame 116
untagged member 116
VLAN identifier (VID) 116
telephone assistance 516
telephone numbers 517
Telnet support
optional setup for Telnet support 55
text conventions 23
time
setup 49
trademarks 520
transmit flow control 50
Trunking configuration rules 136
tx flow control 50
typographic conventions 23
U
UDP 98
user account 38, 80
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2014
V
VDP 301
vDS. See virtual Distributed Switch
VEB 301
VEPA 301
virtual Distributed Switch 247
Virtual Ethernet Bridging, See VEB.
Virtual Ethernet Port Aggregator, See VEPA.
virtual interface router (VIR) 454
virtual link, OSPF 413
Virtual Local Area Networks. See VLANs.
virtual NICs 221
virtual router group 458
virtual router ID numbering 460
Virtual Station Interface, See VSI.
VLAN tagging
setup 51
VLANs 52
broadcast domains 111, 341
configuration rules 136
default PVID 114
example showing multiple VLANs 122
FCoE 267
ID numbers 113
interface 53
IP interface configuration 342
multiple spanning trees 146
multiple VLANs 116
name setup 51
port members 115
PVID 114
routing 341
security 111
setup 51
Spanning-Tree Protocol 146
tagging 51, 115 to 123
topologies 121
vNICs 221
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)
active-active redundancy 457
hot-standby redundancy 457
overview 453
virtual interface router 454
virtual router ID numbering 460
vrid 454
VSI 301
VSI Database, See VSIDB.
VSI Discovery and Configuration Protocol, See VDP.
VSIDB 301
W
website, publication ordering 515
website, support 516
website, telephone support numbers 516
willing flag (DCBX) 281
: Index
533
534
CN4093 10Gb Converged Scalable Switch: Application Guide
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Printed in USA
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