Olympus Polarizing Microscope Instruction Manual BHA

I
OLY MPUS POLARIZING MICROSCOPE
MODELS
B H A -P&B;H.ATTACHMENT
i
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This instruction rnancral has been written for the use of the Olyn~pusPolarizing Microscope
Modcl CHA-P and Polarizirl!j Attach~nent Model 131-I-P. I t is recommended t o r-ead the
manual carefully in order to familiarize yourself fully with the use of Ihe microscope on the
polarizing attachment so lhal you can o b ~ a nthe best performance and ~ffectiveness.
IMPORTANT
Observe the following points carefully:
Operation
1 . Always handle the microscope with the care i t deserves, and avoid abrupt motions.
2. Avoid exposure of the microscope to direct sunlight. dust and vibration.
3. Only use the tension adjustment ring for altering the tension of the coarse adjustment.
Do not twist the two coarse adjustment knobs in the opposite directions sirnultaneously, which might cause damage.
4. Ascertain that the voltage selector switch on the base plate is set t o conform wit11 the
local mains voltage.
5. Disconnect the line cord frorn t h e AC power outlet for fuse replacement.
Maintenance
1 . Lenses must always be kept clean. Fine dust on lens surfaces should b e blown or
wiped o f f by means of an air blower or a clean brush. Carefi~llywipe off oil or fingerprints deposited on the lens surfaces with yaclzs moistened with a small amount of
xylene, alcohol or ether.
2. Do not use organic solutions l o wipe the surfaces of various components. Plastic
parts, especially, should be cleaned with a neutral detergent.
3. Never disassemble the rnicroscope for repair
4. The microscope should be stored in its container immediately aftel- use. l i this is not
possible, i t slioi~ldbe covered with ti vinyl dust cover. I t is best to kcap objectives and
eyepieces in a desiccator, containing cjcsiccants.
5. Disconnect the line cord frorn the AC power soirrce before fuse replacement.
!,
I
t
CONTENTS
. . .
.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
t.
STANDARD EQUIPMENT
it.
NOMENCLATURE
I1 I.
ASSEMBLY
1V.
IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTION OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS
V.
OPERATION
VI.
.
.
.
. .
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
.
.
.
. . . . . . . . . .
1.
Electric System
2,
lnterpupillary Distance and Diopter Adjustments .
3.
Light Path Selection
4.
Centering the Condenser
5.
Centering the Stage .
6.
Centering the Objectives
7.
Use of Iris Diaphragms
8.
Focusing Adjustment
9.
Orthoscopic Observation
10.
Conoscopic Observation
11.
Photomicrography
OPTICAL DATA
.
.
.
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VII. TROUBLESHOOTING.
. . . . .t . . . . . .
.
.
. . . . .
-
1.
STANDARD EQUIPMENT
BHA-651-P BHA-751-P BH-P-1
Model
BH-P-2
I
Microscope stand wrth aux~lrarylens
BHA-F
1
J
Rcvo lving nosepiece
RH-PRE
1
1
l~itermediatepolarizing a~tachmenl
AH-PA
1
1
Quarter wave plate
AH-TPI47
1
1
I
0
0
1
1
1
1
p
p
Sensrt~vetint plate (53OrnpCI)
AH-TP530
1
1
Polarlztng b~neculartube ( 3 0 ~ )
BH-PB130
1
0
1
0
Polari~lnqtr~noculartube (30~1
BH-PTH30
0
1
0
1
Circular rotatable stage
BH-SRP
1
1
1
1
Swing-out condenser
BH-POC
1
1
1
1
Tungsten lamp house
BH-LH
1
1
0
0
30-watt tungsten filament bulbs
LS30
3
3
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
P040X
1
1
1
1
PO1 00X Iollj
1
1
t
1
1
1
1
1
PO4 X
'
POIOX
Objecrrves (strain-free)
K5X (with cross hatrs)
1
-
7
Eyepieces
WFlOX (with cross ha~rs}
1
WF1 OX (with 101100mm micrometer)
1
BIKSX
WFlOX
Photo ~ y e p ~ e cFeK5X
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
- 1
2
Spare fuses
10
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
I
F ~ l t e 45C
r
1
1
Immersion nil
I
-
V~nytdust cover
Optional Accessories:
1
Mechanical stage for polarizing use
Berek cornpensalor
Qhjectivc (srrain-free)
1
I
'
1
,!
\
1
Model AH-FMP
Modsl AH-CTP
P020X
II.
NOMENCLATURE
Base
1
Ill. ASSEMBLY
Tfic 141ctl1re i ~ c l o w11111~t~atCs
the scq~leritidl ~prncodr~r
1% ol assernbly
T!ie nt~nhrvc~ n d t c r l t ~
the assembly cjrrlnr o l vilrlous colnponenls. Rel~iovedust caps before mounting Lurnpunents.
Take cars lo Ireep all glaqs surfaces cleat), and avalcl si.4 al~4t111g
tlie srrr faces.
0 Eyepiece
Insert the objective 1 0 X inlo
t h e fixed aperture of the nose-
piece.
-"I
@ Qbservat~ontu11e
Clamping screw
Quarter wave plate
Sensitive rint
plate
$1
Objective
Berek
compensator
(TI Mechanical stage
I
0 Nosepiece
@j lntermedrate Dolarizing tube
Attach the tube t o the stand
wrth rhe letters "OLYMPUS"
facing in front of the microscope (or align the r e d dots).
\ k--
Rotatable stage
M~croscopsstand
@ Lamp house
Insert the two pins 01 the
aux~liary lens ~ n t othe bush.
rng5 on the microscoae stand
u n t ~ lthe lens clicks into position. w ~ t hthe convex surface
(with engraving "UPS1DE")
tac~ngupward.
Insert the lamp house and pressing the clamping screw a t the
bottom of the base, rotate he
lamp house until the locating
hole and clamplng screw are
al~sned.
Align~ngred dots, on condenser mount and condenser, Insert
the condenser inro the mount
Prior to mounting the stage.
rack down the condenser
mount all the way. To rernwe
the stage, (*move rhe cbndenser firs[.
,
Electr~cconnection
1 ) Pluq
111 11i(!
t:o~hnr?ct~ng
cord of t h l ~
a r i ~ phocrsc 10 ~ h r~ccptactr:
c
a t tho back of the b d s ~
2 ) Inscr i onc plz~go l the linc cord to the Illis cord socket on rhe llasc and coiincct the orher
or lug to rhe AC [lnwer outlet.
; )
IV. IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTION OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS
L ~ g h pt a t h selector k r ~ o l )
/
Pull out the selector k n o b all
the way for photomicrography.
A n a l y i c l - scaic
Tension adjustment ring
A r r o w mark ~ n d i c a t e sIncrease
in coarse adjustment tension.
Voltmeter
\
SIlcIinq c o n t ~ ~ lever
ol
For c o n t ~ n u o u s l yvariable light
intensity.
\
L ~ i vc o l ~ selector
~ g ~ switch
Mer.lianical tube length adjust-
Clarnping screw for
mechanical stage
45'
ngraved letters " I N " for insertion of Bertrand lens into
the light path; "OUT" for
removal of the Bertrand lens
f r o m the light path.
click stop lever
Clamping screw for stage
uated.
Filter m o u n t
Polarizer scale
Reading to
5'.
Field iris diaphragm ring
Polarirer rotation ring
Rheostat trimmer screw
screwdriver until the v o l t m e t e r indicates I V ,
with the s l i d ~ n g control lever positioned
closest to vou (low voltage).
Larnp house clamping screw
Nosepiece clamping
Automatic
the cap of the fuse holder, and
replace the defective fuse w i t h
a replacement fuse.
(Disconnect B E F O R E
REPLACEMENT.)
Model BHA-P
Summary of Putting the Microscope in Operation
A.
Match the line voltage selector switch to local mains voltage (see page 6).
B.
Switch o n the light source.
C.
Rotate the trimmer screw until the voltmeter indicates 1V (page 9)
D.
Place a specirnen slide on the mechanical stage.
E.
Remove the Bertrand lens and analyzer from the ligh! path.
F.
Coarse focc~swith the 10X objective.
G.
Make interpirpillary and diopter adjustments (page 10)
H.
Center the condenser (page 10)
I.
Center the stage (page 12).
J.
Center objectives other than 10X (page 12)
K.
Swing in the desired objective.
L.
Set the condenser, analyzer and Bertrand lens correctly according to your microscopic
purpose (pages 13 and 14).
M.
Adjust illumination system.
N.
Adjust light intensity.
0.
Fine focus.
P.
Adjust aperture iris diaphragm and field iris diaphragm (page 12).
(
Adjustment of illumination system
Intermediate
polarizing attachment
Microscopic
Objective
Orthoscopic
observation
4 X to 100X
OUT
Conoscopic
observation
2 0 X to 100X
IN
r
I
Conder~ser
top lens
Highllow magnification selector lever
OUT
L
IN
H
For biological use o l the Moclel BHA-P, however, remove the analyzer, Bertrand lens and
sensitive tint plates, and place the high/low magnification selector lever into the "L" position lor 4 X and lox, aricl the "H" positior? for 2 0 X . 4 0 X and 100X object~ves.
*
Cut o f f this page at dotted line and put ~t o n the wall near the microscope for use as a reminder o f
microscopic procedure.
V.
OPERATION
1. Electric System
1) Adjustment of Light Intensity
The rninimum voltage required for the light source can be adjusted w i t h the rheostat
trimmer screw at the bottorri of the microscope base in accordance w i t h the line voltage
and frequency. A silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is provided lor output voltage
control. The SCR has the following advantages over conventional rheostat cor-itrols.
@ Extremely fine adjustment of light intensity can be easily achieved
@ Flickering of the bulb filament is elirninated and light intensity is stabilized.
@ Increased life expectancy o f the bulb.
2) Adjustment of Minimum Line Voltage
@ Ascertain
that the voltage selector switch is set to conform w i t h the local mains
voltage. (This switch can be turned w i t h a coin, and can be set to the following
voltages: 100V-110V-I20V or 220V-240V.)
(3 Ascertain
that the sliding control lever is positioned closest to you ( l o w voltage), and
then activate the main switch. The pilot lan-ip lights up.
@ If the bulb is dimnily lit, and the voltmeter indicates about I V , the secondary voltage
is correct, and you have only t o push the sliding control lever forward in order to
obtain optimum light intensity.
@
I f the bulb does not light or lights up brightly immediately after switching on, rotate
the rheostat trimmer screw gradually w ~ t ha coin, until the voltmeter indicates
about 1V.
3) Light Source
The standard light source incorporates a 30W pre-centered tungsten filament bulb,
provided with a socket for positive contact, eliminating the problems of defective
contact and over-heating.
When used at the rated voltage 6V. the aver-age lrfe of the tungsten bulb LS30 is longer
than 200 hours. This is,.however, greatly reduced, if the bulb is used at higher voltage; for
instance, the bulb life is reduced to 1/50 at 8V. Therefore, it is advisable t o avoid
prolonged use at readings over 6V ( i n the red rorie).
I f the light source should be used at high voltage constantly, i t is reconirnended to usea
high intensity halogen bulb.
*
Do not switch the tungsten bulb on &ith the sliding control lever at high intensity position (away from the user). I t reduces bulb life.
2. lnterpupillary Distance and Diopter Adjustments
1 ) Insert the eyepiece v ~ i t hcross hairs of your choice into
tile right eyepiece tube, align~ngthe positioning slot @
and position~ngpi11@ . (Fig. 1 )
* When the eyepiece positioning pin is inserted into the
lower slot on the tube, the cross lines in the eyepiece
coincide with the vibration direction of polarizer and
analyzer at 0 settings. When inserted into the other
slot, the cross lines are at 45O to the direction of
vibration.
2) Looking through the iight eyepiece (with cross hairs)
with your right eye, rotate the d ~ o p t e radjustment ring
@ until the cross hairs are sharpty focused. (Fig. 2)
3) Looking through the both eyepieces with both eyes,
adjust the interpupillary distance, sliding the knurled
dovetail slides @ of the right and left eyepiece tubes,
cintil perfect binocular vis~onis obtained.
Fig. 2
4) Memorize your interpupillary distance setting by means of the scale @
5) Rotate the tube length adjustment ring @ on the right eyepiece tube to match your
interpupillary distance setting which you obtained from the scale
6)Look at the image through the right eyepiece with your right eyepiece v ~ i t hyour right
eye and focc~son the specimen with the coarse and fine adjustment knobs.
7) Look at the image through the left eyepiece w i t h yocrr left eye and rotate the tube length
adjustment ring @) to focus on the specimen without using the coarse and fine adjustment knobs.
3. Light Path Selection
The trinoc~.llar tcrbe is provided w i t h a light path selector knob t o direct the light to the
observation tube or to the phototube.
Application
Knob position
Amount o f light
Pushed in all the way.
100% into binocc~lartub:!
Observation
Pulled out all the way.
20% into binocular tube
Photomicrography
80% into phototube
,
))!{
4. Condenser Centration
1) B r ~ n gthe objective 10X into the light path.
*
I f a specimen i s placed on the circular rotatable stage
without a mechanical stage it is recommended t o hold
the peripheries of the specimen with the stage clips
provided to the circular stage.
Swing in the condenser top lens, and b r ~ n gthe specimen
into focus.
Stop down the field iris diaphrag~nw ~ t l knurled
i
ring
a.
A slightly blurred image of the field diaphragm can now
be seen in the eyepiece. (Fig. 3 )
Flg. 3
4) Move the condenser up and down to locus on the image of the field diaphragm.
*
I f the specimen slide is too thick, i t is sometimes impossible to obtain a sharply-focused
image.
5) While widening the diameter of the field progressively, i i s e the condenser centering
screws (3) to bring the diaphragm iniage Into the center of view. (Fig. 3 )
6) Push the analyzer @ into the light path, and make sure
that both polarizer and analyzer are set at position "0"
to attain the "Crossed filter" position. Then loosen the
clamping screw (2) o f the condenser. (Fig, 4)
7 ) Remove the speclmen o ~ of~ the
t
light path so that a
transparent area comes into the light path. Keeping the
.
polarizer at the "0" position, rotate the polarirer rotation ring @ until the optimum extinction is obtained, :&-++I /--:,
then clamp the ring. (Fig. 4 )
..
,
,
,--
Fig.
4
j,i
5. Centering the Stage
I ) Looking througlk l l i c eyeplece ancl objective 10X, cleter~ninesolme particular p o i n t , as
y o u like, In the specimen irnage and coincidii thrs point w i t h thc center of the cross
hairs o f the eyepiece.
>--
2) Rotating the stage, coincide the center of
1
1
1
1
1
the rotation o i the specimen's p o i n t g ~ i t h
the center of the cross hairs by means o f
t w o centering screws [I? provided o n tlie
stage. (Fig. 51
*
I--
---
Repeat this procedure u n t i l the centration is secured.
6. Centering the Objectives
This centration i s necessary t o all the PO objectives except
the pre-centered objective POlOX.
1 ) Connect a centering knob 9t o each centering screw of
the circular rotatable stage. (Fig. 6 )
21 By means of these t w o centering screws, coincide the
centers o f the cross hairs and the rotation o f the
specimen.
3) A f t e r complete centration, remove the centering knobs.
Fig. 6
7. Use o f Iris Diaphragms
1 ) Aperture iris diaphragm
Adjust the opening of the aperture iris diaphragm
according to the various conditions scrch as the numerical aperture o f the objective, irnage contrast, depth of
focus, and flatness o f field. Generally i t is often preferable t o stop do\nln the aperture iris diaphragm to the 70%
or 80% o f the N . A . o f the objective.
A f t e r the eyepiece is removed f r o m the observation
tube, if necessary, look through the observation tube
and check the opening of the aperture diaphragm at the
objective pupil.
-
2) Field iris diaphragm
The field [!-isdiaphl-agm controls the diarnetel- of tlie ray bcrndle ~ n l p i n g i n go n the specilneri s ~ ~ r f a cand
e thus increases irriage definition.
Generally, i t is prefel-able t o slightly increase the diameter o f the field iris diaphragm u n t i l
!
i t is just outside the field of view.
8. Focusing Adjcistment
1 ) Tension adjustment of coarse adjustment ltnobs
A tension adjustment ring
IS provided nc!xt to the
riqlit hand coarse adjustment knob. With this clevice the
terisior) o f the coarse adjustment is freely adjustable lo^.
eittier- heavy o i liclti t movement rfependincl or1 opcrator
01-eference.
Iiowever, d o n o t loosen thc: tension adjustrnent rlny too
rnoch, because the stage clrops, or the fine adjustrncnt
knobs sl111eas~ly.
*
Fig. 7
Be careful n o t t o rotate the right and left coarse adjustm e n t knobs in the opposite directions sim~iltaneously.
2) Pre-focusing lever
This levci. 3) is locked after coarse focirs has been
accomplished. I t prevents further ~ i p w a r dtravel o f the
stage by nienns of the coarse adjustrnent knobs, and
autoniatically provides a liiniting stop if the stage is
lowered and then raised agaln. (Fig. 8)
F I ~8.
9. Orthoscopic Observation
1 ) Swing o u t tile top eris of the condensel
In principle, polarizided light enters the light path, parallel t o the optical axis, t o enable
observalion of the optical characler~st~cs
o f the specirnen. However, this method w i l l
darken the field o f view and lower the resolving power o f the objective extremely. Therefore, swing out the top lens o f the condenser, using only the lower aperture of the lower
condenser lens.
2) Insert the a n a l y ~ e ri n t o the light path, and attain the crossed filter position w i t h analyzer
,
p o l a r i ~ e rv i b r a ~ iIn is in the north-south
and polari7er at 0 setting. A t this p o s ~ t o r i the
direction, and the analyzer vibration i n the east-west d ~ r e c t i o n .T o open the filter position, p u l l out the analyrer rotation screw.
3) Rotatc the stage u n t i l the extinction o f the image is
a t t a n e d , and n)ove tlic 45' click stop lever $ toward
the operator. (Fig, 9)
Frorn this position, i t is easy to rotate the stage i n
45' Increments w i t h o u t having to ircfer t o the angular
scale, and the stage clicks at the c l l a ~ o n a lposition, at
\vliicii position. the retardation angle i s measured. T o
relcase the 45O c l ~ c kstops, push back the 45"click slop
I
lever.
Fig. 9
4 ) Insel-t the quarter \Nave pltite or sensitive tint plate into tlie slot in :he intcrmccliato
l)oIarr?in(j l u l ~ e ,
*
A Berek compensator i s optionally available t o measure the birefringence o f a specimen.
Sensit~vetint plate
Quarter wave
plate
Berek
compensator
10. Conoscopic Observation
1 ) Swing in the top lens of the condenser, and illornrnate the specimen w i t h no need to
immerse between the condenser and specimen slicle,
2) Bring the specimen into foccrs, rotate the Bertrand lens tcrrrent ring into the IN position.
3 ) Focus on the interference
20X ro 100X.
( I ~ L I ~ formed
C
at the back focal plane of the objective frorn
The pinhole cap provided may be ~ ~ s eind place of the eyepiece to directly view the
interference figure mentioned above. In this case, the Bertrdncl lens is disengaged.
11. Photomicrography
1 ) Photomicrographic equipment
Photomicrography i ~ i t hthe h4odel BHA-P requires photomicrographic equipment such as
the photomicrograpliic system camera, exposure meter, photo eyepiece, etc. Read the
lnsiruction manuals for each equipment, and follow the steps below:
a I t i s recommended to use a low power photo eyepiece F K 2 . 5 X .
@ Photor~iicrographicmagnification
1s same as witl-1 the standard optrcal tube length,
although the optical tube length for- this use is prolonged because of the intermediate
polariilng tube.
0. )I
VII. OPTICAL DATA
Objective
P04X
POlOX
PO20X
P040X
N.A.
0.1 0
0.25
0.40
0.65
1.30
W.D. i m m l
18.77
6.78
1.58
0.6 1
0.1 1
8.1 3
4.33
0.84
0.52
0.26
(Spring
loaded)
(Spring
loaded)
500X
Magnification
-
Focal length (mrn)
28.45
Resolving power ( P )
3.4
--
K5X
[
21
reb: : r
WFlOX
1181
-
)
16.08
'
1.3
-
A
POlOOX
1.81
.-
Total magnification
20X
50X
1OOX
200X
Focal depth ( I*)
300.0
48.0
15.56
4.99
)ecW(mm)-
5.25
2.1
1.05
0.53
f otal magnification
40X
1OOX
200X
400X
1,OOOX
0.66
0.18
,
Focal depth ( U
172.5
27.60
9.19
3.03
Field o f view ( m m )
4.5
1.8
0.9
0.45
1.05
-
0.21
Immersion objective. Resolving power i s obtained when the objective i s used at the full
aperture diaphragm.
The eyepieces K5X and WFlOX incorporate a sliding eye shield. This eye shield can be
pulled out to prevent glare and loss o f contrast caused b y arnbient light hitting the eye lens.
0 W.D. (Working distance):
The distance between the specimen orcover- glass and the nearest point of the objective.
0 N.A. (Numerical aperture):
The n ~ ~ m e r i c aaperture
l
represents a perforrnance number whlch cocrld he compared to
the relative aperture (f-number) of a camera lens. N.A. values can be usecl for directly
comparing the resolving powers of all types of objectives. The larger N.A..the higher the
resolving power.
0 Resolving power:
The abllily of a lens to register small details. The resolving power of a lens
its ability to separate two points.
IS
measured by
0 Focal depth:
The disrance between the upper and lower limits o f sharpness in the image formed by an
optical system.
0 Field number:
t
A number that repl-esents the diameter in
lnln
of the image of the field diapliragnl that is
formed bv the lens ~ r front
i
o f it.
0 Field of view diameter:
9
the actual s i x of the field of view in mnl.
V I II. TROUBLESHOOTING
I
Troubles
I 1. Optical System
'
I
I
Causes
i - I
(a) With
the
illuminator
switched on, the field of
view cannot be seen.
(b)The field of view is cut off
or illuminated irregularly.
Place the lever in correct position.
The condenser is lowered exces-
Raise the condenser t o the upper
Analyzer and polarizer are in the
"crossed filter" position ("0:O").
Sei them at the position "0:90" or
"90:O".
The light path selector lever is stopped midway.
Push the lever all the way.
The highllow magnification selector
lever is not correctly positioned.
Place the lever all the way.
The nosepiece is not click stopped.
The nosepiece is not correctly attached to the stand.
1
-
Correct the lens position.
Slightly rotate the nosepiece until
clicks into position.
Insert the sliding dovetail mount
lnto the stand all the way, until i t
stops, then lock.
The condenser is not correctly
mounted on the ring mount.
Re-insert the condenser all the way.
The sensitive tint plate is stopped
midway.
Push the plate all the way until it
clicks.
In case of orthoscopic observation,
the condenser top lens stays in the
light path or stops midway.
Swing i t out of the light path.
The field iris diaphragm i s stopped
down excessive1y.
Open the diaphragm fully.
The lamp is not correctly attached.
Re-insert the lamp correctly.
Dust or d i r t on the glass surface at
the light exit o n the base.
Clean off the dust o r dirt.
Dust on condeqser top lens.
Dirty specimens.
I
I
The highllow magnification selector
lever is not correctly positioned.
The auxiliary lens is not correctly
attached.
(c) Dust or dirt is visible in
the field of view.
Remedies
Dust on eyepiece.
I
Troubles
(cl )Excessive irnage contrast.
(e) Pesolution problems:
1 fiage is not sharp.
0 lrscrfficient contrast.
lrnage details lack definitron.
0
D
Remedies
Causes
The condenser
sivel y.
IS
lowered exces-
Raise the condenser.
The aperture irls diaphragm is stoppet1 down excessive1y .
Operi tile diaphragm.
The auxiliary lens is not mounted.
Mount the auxiliary lens.
The high/low magnification selector
lever is not correctly positioned.
Place the lever in correct position.
The nosepiece i s not correctly attached.
Insert the sliding dovetail mount all
the way, until i t stops, then lock.
The objective is not correctly positioned in the light path.
Slightly rotate the nosepiece until
it clicks into position.
Dirt on objective front lens.
Clean the objective.
The immersion objective is used
without immersion oil.
Apply immersion oil.
Birbbles in the immersion oil.
Remove bubbles.
The Olympcrs designted oil
used.
IS
not
Use the designated oil.
Dirty specimen.
Clean.
Dirt on condenser lens.
( f ) The field of view is partiall y out of focus.
(g) The image goes out of
focus cccentr~cally.
The specirnen is not properly illuminated.
Adjust the illumination.
The nosepiece is not correctly attached.
Insert the sliding dovetail mount
into the stand a l l the way, then
lock.
The objective IS not correctly positioned in the light path.
Slightly rotate the nosepiece until
it clicks into position.
The specimen is not correctly positioned on the stage.
Place the specirnen on the stage and
secure i t with the specimen clips.
The nosepiece is not correctly attached.
Insert the sliding dovetail mount all
the way, until i t stops, then lock.
The objective i s not correctly positioned in the light path.
Slightly rotate the nosepiece until
it clicks i n l o posilion.
The condenser i s out of center.
Cenler the condenser.
The auxiliary lens is not correctly
rnoc~n
tecl.
Mocrnt the lens correctly.
The higti/low rnagnlfication selector
lever is stopped midway.
Place the lever in correct position.
Troubles
-
-- ----
Remedies
Causes
--.
!h)Wlien
objectives
are
changed, they are not parfocal.
The mechanical tube length is not
correctly adjusted.
Adjiist with the tube length adjustment rings on the observation tube.
( i ) Light intensity does no1
increase although the voltage is raised.
The condenser is not correctly centered.
Center the condenser.
The condenser i s lowered excessively.
Raise the condenser.
The observation tube and condenser are not correctly mounted.
R e - m o ~ l nthem
t
correctly.
The condenser top lens is not in
the light path.
Swing it in.
The analyzer is out of the light
path.
Push it in.
The rheostat trimmer screw is not
matched to the mains voltage.
The mains voltage is too high (or
too l o w ) .
Adjust the trimmer screw to m a t c h . - B
the mains voltage.
Adjust the mains voltage w i t h a
variable voltage transformer.
The rheostat trimmer screw is not
correctly adjusted.
Adjust the trimmer screw until the
voltmeter indicates 1V.
The voltage selector switch is not
matched to the mains voltage.
Adjust the mains voltage selector
switch to the mains voltage.
The mains voltage is too l o w or too
high.
Adjust the mains voltage w i t h a
variable voltage transformer.
The mains voltage is unstable.
Use a variable voltage transformer.
The filament of the bulb is likely
to bi.rrn out.
Replace the bulb.
Loose electrical con1~ection.
Secure the connection.
(1) The condenser does not
come to the correct position for optimum extinction.
( k ) N o conoscopic image can
be seen.
(I) The crossed filter position
is not atte~ned.
I
2. Electric System
la)The illuminator is
bright (or too dark).
too
(b)Output voltage for the illuminator cannot be regulated.
(c) The light flickers and the
intensity is unstable.
(d)Fuse burns out too often.
The fuse
IS
not a standard fuse.
The voltage selector switch is not
matched to the mains voltage.
(e)The pilot I;~mp l~glitsb ~ ~The
t bulb I S burned out.
the bull2 docs not.
Loose electrical connection.
Use a standard fuse.
Match the swilch to the mains
voltage.
Replace the b1.115,
Secure the connection.
Troubles
( f ) Reduced bulb life.
Causes
Remedies
The voltage selector switch is not . Match the selector switch to the
mains voltage.
matched to the mains voltage.
The bulb is not a standard bulb.
Use a standard bulb.
Mains voltage is too high.
Use the tungsten bulb under 6V as
well as possible, or use a high
intensity bulb, such as a halogen
bulb.
Tension adjustment ring is tightened too much.
Loosen the tension adjustment ring
properly.
The user is trying to raise the stage
passing over the upper focusing
limit imposed by the engaged prefocusing lever.
Unlock the pre-focusing lever.
(b)The stage drops and the
specimen goes out of focus.
The tension adjustment ring is too
loose.
Tighten the ring properly.
(c) The stage cannot be raised
t o the upper limit.
Automatic pre-focusing lever is engaged in lower than focusing position.
Unlock the pre-focusing lever.
(d)The stage cannot be lowered to the lower limit of
the working range.
The condenser mount is lowered
too much.
Raise the condenser mount.
(e)The objective front lens
hits against the specimen,
The specimen is mounted on the
stage upside down.
Reverse the specimen.
lnterpupillary distance is not correctly adjusted.
Correct the interpupillary distance
Diopter adjustment is incomplete.
Complete the diopter adjustment.
Right and left eyepieces are not
matched.
Use a pair of matched eyepieces.
The user is unaccustomed with a
binocular vision.
Prior to looking at the image of the
specimen, try to look the entire
field of view, or look at a far away
object before resuming microscopic
observation.
( a ) The image easily goes out
of focus when you touch
the stage.
The stage is not correctly clamped.
Clamp the stage securely.
(b)The specimen stops midway on the east-west traverse.
The specimen is not correctly positioned on the stage.
Adjust the specimen position.
3. Focusing
(a) Coarse adjustment is too
tight.
4. Observation Tube
(a) l ncomplete binocular vision.
5. Stage
-B
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