51H - A2A Simulations

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Thank you for buying the
Aircraft Factory P-51H “High Performance” Mustang.
- The Aircraft Factory Team
ATTENTION!
Aircraft Factory, including sounds, aircraft, and all content is under strict, and enforceable copyright
law. If you suspect anyone has pirated any part of Aircraft Factory, please contact piracy@
a2asimulations.com
RISKS AND SIDE EFFECTS
ERGONOMIC ADVICE
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5) Make sure the room you play in is well lit.
6) Avoid playing when tired or worn out and take a break (every hour), even if it’s hard …
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EPILEPSY WARNING
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ADITIONAL INFORMATION
Check for the latest information at www.a2asimulations.com
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
In order to play Aircraft Factory you must have an Intel PC compatible computer, which meets the
following requirements:
MS Flight Simulator X.
Windows XP - 7 - 8 Pentium IV or faster
Hard drive space: at least 300 MB, CD ROM drive, 3D Graphics Card, Direct X 9c or higher
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
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Setup
Designers notes
Overview
Visual Effects and Sound
Aircraft Factory P51H Mustang
References
Credits
See the Real Thing
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SYST
To make sure you are getting the most out of your Aircraft Factory
P-51H, please verify that your FSX realism settings are set to the
following;
- Current realism settings: HARD
- Detect crashes and damage: CHECKED
FEAT
URES
- Experience the highest performance P-51 Mustang ever produced
- Built using the Microsoft Flight Simulator SDK for maximum compatibility
- Flight model performs to the pilot’s training manuals
- Includes detailed stall and spin characteristics
- Gorgeously constructed aircraft, inside and out, down to the last rivet
- High resolution, smooth 3D gauge technology
- Droppable external fuel tanks
- Working 3d culminating gun sight (another A2A first)
- Authentically recorded and reproduced Merlin engine sounds
- Designing to be 100% Compatible with A2A Accu-Feel
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Aircraft Factory is our budget line of products. So far only for FSX we created this line with one simple
idea. Great simulated aircraft at a great low price. With realistic modelling they are aimed at the get up
and go flyer whilst keeping the basic checklists and systems in place to keep all flyer’s happy. Ideal for
your first payware for the Microsoft flight simulator series, and a great jump of point to the more systems
intensive aircraft from the Wings of Silver, Wings of Power and ultimately Accu-sim aircraft.
The flight model was very carefully researched and we used the actual P-51H pilot’s training manual
and technical orders to ensure our procedures and performance matched the real thing as closely as
possible.
The P-51H differs from the P-51D primarily in performance. The procedures are identical in many
cases to the P-51D, and aircraft handling is very similar, with the “H” model having greater agility and
a higher roll rate due to its substantially lighter weight and larger ailerons. The fuel capacity is lower on
the “H” model because the fuselage tank was made smaller to reduce the negative impact on weight
and balance from the excess weight being so far aft from the centre of gravity. However, the “H” model
has a range similar to the “D” model because its airframe has slightly less drag, and the aircraft weighs
considerably less than the “D” model. The P-51H was conceived and manufactured during WWII and
would have seen combat had the war not ended in September, 1945. It was developed on a time line
that was roughly concurrent with that of the Focke-Wulf Ta 152, and its performance was similar to the
German aircraft. However, the P-51H, with its top speed of 487 mph at 25,000 feet, was substantially
faster than either the Ta 152C or H models, by at least 15 mph. In addition, the P-51H incorporated
many of the automatic features common to late-war German aircraft. It used a Simmonds control unit
to maintain a constant manifold pressure relative to throttle position, eliminating the need for the pilot to
“chase” the throttle lever to maintain manifold pressure as the aircraft gained altitude. The supercharger
switch from low to high speed was fully automatic, as were many of the controls related to the water
injection and war emergency power.
Perhaps the greatest advantage the P-51H would have had over the Ta 152 is the fact that the Mustang
remained a superlative dog-fighter despite achieving parity of power and speed with the Ta 152.
If anything, the P-51H was a nimbler, better-handling aircraft than the P-51D, and its lighter weight
would have allowed a tighter turning radius at high altitude than the German plane. In a dive or level
flight, the P-51H was as fast or faster than any single-engine, propeller-driven Axis fighter ever built.
The P-51H, although not well-known, was probably the finest piston-engined fighter to emerge from
WWII in every respect and was likely the fastest propeller-driven aircraft in the world at the close of
WWII.
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COCKP
COCKPIT - LOW
PANELS
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NAVIG
RADIO PANEL (SHIFT +2)
The Aircraft Factory North American P-51H Mustang is equipped with several panels which can be
very helpful during the flight. Those are:
1) Radio Panel (accessible by pressing “shift + 2” keys)
The Radio Panel installed in the P-51H is a default FS radio stack which consists of (from the top):
radio which allows you to change and swap COMM and NAV frequencies; Distance Measuring
Equipment (DME); autopilot and transponder. The panel has also NAV/GPS switch which allows the
plane to follow the GPS data.
Note: to achieve a desirable heading when you are in HDG autopilot mode, you have to operate the
Heading Hold Selector on your Compass (below the Airspeed gauge).
2) Default FS GPS (accessible by pressing “shift + 3 keys)
3) Trim Panel (accessible by pressing “shift + 4” keys)
The Trim Panel allows you to set a desired trim for the ailerons, rudder and elevator. Their settings
can be changed by pressing left mouse button or by mouse wheel when hovering a cursor over a
selected trim.
The Trim Panel has also a flap lever at the bottom which allows you lower or raise the flaps in your
plane.
TRIM PANEL (SHIFT +4)
LIVERIES
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TECHNICAL SPE
CIFICATIONS
The following abbreviated procedures were condensed from the P-51 Pilot Training Manual. It’s worth
noting that the P-51D manual begins with a cautionary tale, several pages long, comparing the aircraft
to a wild stallion. It was -- and is -- that kind of aeroplane. Throughout the manual, the prospective
pilot is warned repeatedly about the high-performance nature of the Mustang, and its propensity to
turn on the unwary. It also, however, strongly emphasizes the fact that the P-51 is a superb aircraft
in the right hands, asserting that it was the finest aircraft of its kind anywhere in the world. That
argument continues to this day, but there is little doubt that, among the piston powered aircraft of
the 20th century, the North American P-51 Mustang has emerged as an icon, and is by far the most
widely recognized piston fighter ever produced.
General Information
Empty Weight: 6,585 lbs (P-51D 7,266 lbs)
Wingspan: 37.00 feet
Wing Area: 235.00 square feet
Normal Takeoff Weight: 9,374 lbs.
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 11,500 lbs.
Top Speed, altitude: 487 mph TAS @ 25,000 feet MSL (P-51D 437 mph)
Top Speed, Sea Level: 401 mph TAS (P-51D 367 mph)
Initial climb: 4,000 fpm with WEP
Stalling Speed, clean (9,000 lbs.): 114 mph IAS
Stalling Speed, landing (9,000): 100 mph IAS
Power plant: Packard Merlin V-1650-9, 1380 HP for takeoff, 2,218 HP War Emergency
Armament: Six .50 calibre machine guns; two bombs up to 1000 lbs each; ten rockets
Weights an
d
Loading
The Aircraft Factory P-51H flight model is set up with a high level of realism, which extends to aircraft
loading and fuel supply. In the Fuel and Payloads menu, you will see three fuel tanks and six station
loads. The first two station loads are the pilot and weight of the engine oil, which is stored in a tank
mounted on the aircraft firewall. When full, this tank weighed 94 pounds, which is reflected in the
default weight of this station load. The normal pilot weight was considered to be 200 pounds for this
aircraft, also reflected in the station loading. The remaining four station loads reflect the guns and
ammunition, handled separately for each wing. Thus, the plane can be set up for flight with the normal
gun and ammo weight present in the wings, without ammo but just with the gun weight, or without
guns and ammo for acrobatic trim. The manual states that the presence of the gun and ammunition
weight has a negligible effect on aircraft handling, but this weight will affect the rate of climb and fuel
consumption as well as takeoff distance, albeit marginally. Set up your Aircraft Factory Mustang to
suit your mission and proceed to the Cockpit Check. The default loadings for weight are normal for
this aircraft, so no action needs to be taken here unless you plan a special mission.
Cockpit Che
ck - Fuel Sup
ply
The first thing you will want to consider is whether or not to fly with the aft fuselage tank filled. When
full, this tank had an adverse affect on the aircraft’s handling. Only normal, conservative manoeuvres
were allowed with this tank full, as it moves the aircraft’s centre of gravity well aft. Unless you are
planning a long-range ferry mission, it is recommended this tank be set to empty or nearly empty.
Note: for “Auto Start”, this tank must have enough fuel in it to get the plane started, as the simulator
will NOT select either wing tank automatically. To get around this, start with five gallons of fuel in the
centre tank if you plan on using the “Auto Start” feature to start your aircraft.
CHECK, CHECK,...
heck
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Pre-
Cockpit Chec
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1. Parking Brake - Set
2. Fuel Selector - Set to fuselage tank if fuel is present; use fullest wing tank if fuselage tank is empty.
3. Elevator Trim - 2 degrees nose-heavy
4. Rudder Trim - 7 degrees nose-right
5. Aileron Trim - Neutral
6. Flaps - Up for takeoff
7. Carburetor Air - Normal
8. Propeller Control - FULL FORWARD
9. Tail wheel - unlocked for taxi
10. Flight Instruments - Checked and Set
11. Engine Instruments - Checked
12. Switches - Checked
Engine Starting
1. Cockpit Check - COMPLETE
2. Set or hold your parking brakes.
3. Turn the battery and generator switches to ON.
4. Put fuel selector on LEFT MAIN TANK (or FUSELAGE TANK if so equipped) and turn fuel shut-off
valve ON.
5. Put the booster pump on EMERGENCY.
6. Turn the magneto switch on BOTH.
7. Set mixture control to RICH.*
8. Confirm fuel pressure is at least 10 psi.*
9. Use the primer - three to four shots for a cold engine.
10. Engage starter switch until the engine starts.
11. Check engine instruments to confirm oil pressure rises to at least 50 psi within 30 seconds.
12. Idle at 1200-1300 RPM until the oil temperature reaches 40 degrees C.
13. Check the suction gauge to see if it is working.
14. Check all instruments for proper function.
15. After warmup, idle at 1000 RPM or slightly less.
(The following procedure was taken directly from the P-51 manual except for those noted with an
asterisk.)
1. See that the trim tabs are properly set.
2. Check the mags at 2300 RPM. 100 RPM drop maximum.
3. Check the propeller control.
4. Turn the booster pump to emergency
5. Check the coolant/oil shutter position (open for takeoff).
Takeoff
This section was taken directly from the manual except for the notations in parentheses.
After you have pulled out and lined up on the runway, make sure the steerable tail wheel is locked
and the stick well back. Then advance the throttle gradually, and smoothly, up to the desired manifold
pressure. Don’t hoist the tail up by pushing forward on the stick until you have sufficient airspeed to
give you effective rudder control (at least 60 mph IAS).
This is important to watch in the takeoff, since the P-51, like all single-engine planes, has a tendency
to turn left because of torque. If you horse the tail off the ground too quickly with the elevators, better
be ready to use the right rudder promptly.
Keep the air plane in a three-point attitude until you have plenty of airspeed. In a normal takeoff, the
rudder trim tab is sufficient to make torque almost unnoticeable.
After Takeoff
1. Raise the landing gear.
2. Throttle back to normal climbing power.
3. Adjust the prop to climbing RPM.
4. Re-trim the ship as required for climbing.
5. Turn the booster pump to the normal position.
6. Check over all your instruments.
Landing
Climb Contr
ol
A normal, brisk climb is made at 165 mph IAS with a manifold pressure of 46” and the propeller set to
2700 RPM. A climb to 25,000 feet can be accomplished in about 15 minutes and will cover about 49
nautical miles. Allow the climbing speed to fall off gradually above 15,000 feet until you are climbing at
155 mph IAS at 25,000 feet. A climb to 25,000 feet will use about 25 gallons of fuel in this flight model
if the mixture is set to automatic. For maximum performance, climb at 61” and 3,000 RPM at 165 mph.
1. Check tanks and select the fullest tank for landing.
2. Put the fuel booster on normal.
3. Check the mixture control and set to RICH.
4. Set the prop to about 2700 RPM.
Cruise Control Schedule
(Clean Configuration, No Wing Racks, 9,000 lbs.)
5. Check the traffic pattern and obtain clearance to land.
6. Slow down to a sensible speed before peeling off.
Set your Mustang up for optimum cruising, depending on your mission, using the following table, for
aircraft weights of 8,000 to 9,600 lbs. These two settings are just two possible examples taken from the
manual. Your Aircraft Factory P-51H matches the fuel economy and range of the real aircraft per the
manual, and you can use the manual to set up a variety of cruise settings. Use the “Range” information
below, in miles per gallon, to calculate your range based on the amount of fuel you have on board. All
figures are for the mixture control set to automatic.
NOTE: These figures are slightly higher than those listed in the P-51H manual. This is because the
cleanest configuration specified in the manual is with wing racks installed. On a very clean aerodynamic
design such as the P-51H, the wing racks create noticeable drag and thus will reduce the range as
compared to a perfectly clean aircraft.
Altitude
Pilot’s IAS
10,000
20,000
220
224
Manifold
Pressure
33
33
RPM
TAS MPH
GPH
1600
1950
253
300
46
53
Specific
Range
5.5 mpg
5.9 mpg
7. Slow down to 170 mph before lowering your landing gear. When the landing gear comes down, the aeroplane gets quite nose-heavy. However, you can easily adjust the trim tabs to take care of this.
Don’t forget that the gear takes 10-15 seconds to go down.
8. The normal speed in the traffic pattern with wheels down is 150 mph IAS.
9. Do not lower full flaps before 165 mph IAS. Remember, it takes about 15 seconds to go from the
full up position to the full down position. Allow plenty of time for this operation to make sure your flaps
are down when you need them.
10. After your flaps are down and you roll out of the turn onto the landing (approach) leg, your speed
should be about 115-120 mph IAS. Don’t keep so much power on that you’ll be making a power
approach. However, keep enough power on to keep your engine clean (about 20-25 inches of Hg on
final at a descent rate of 500 fpm at 120 mph IAS at 9,000 lbs. aircraft wt.)
11. Just before getting to the runway, break your glide, make a smooth round out, and approach the
runway in a 3-point attitude.
12. Hold the plane off in the 3-point attitude just barely above the runway until you lose flying speed
and the plane sets down. The P-51 doesn’t mush but stalls rather suddenly when you lose flying
speed. So have your plane close to the runway at this point.
tude
Critical Alti
Engine Limitations and Char
acteristics
The Packard Merlin V-1650-9 used in this P-51H was an extremely potent engine and an excellent
performer at high altitudes. The two-stage supercharger did a good job of maintaining power up to
high altitudes and its operation was normally automatic. The maximum allowable manifold pressure
for this aircraft is 80”, which is considered “War Emergency Power” or “Combat Power”. This setting
was to be used for only five minutes at a time. The normal maximum power for takeoff is 61” at 3000
RPM.
WEP
In the real aircraft, there was a gate that stopped throttle travel, limiting power to just 61”. To increase
power beyond this rating, the pilot simply pushed the throttle lever past the gate to the desired setting.
The P-51H had both “dry” and “wet” WEP ratings. The “dry” rating was identical to the P-51D, which
is 67”. The “wet” rating is a full 80” of manifold pressure, producing over 2,200 HP at altitudes below
10,200 feet. In the real aircraft, a Simmonds control unit limited the maximum manifold pressure to 67”
unless the water injection switch was turned on. If the water injection was turned on, a micro switch
in the throttle quadrant was enabled and the maximum manifold pressure allowed by the Simmonds
control unit was increased to 80”. If the water injection switch was turned off, or the water tanks were
empty, the maximum manifold pressure allowed by the control unit was 67” regardless of the throttle
position. In this flight model, there is no War Emergency Power switch. The maximum “wet” manifold
pressure is available by using the throttle control only. Adjust the manifold pressure using the throttle
control as indicated by the chart below for various flight conditions.
The critical altitude for this engine is 32,000 feet. This is the altitude where the engine can still produce
the full 67” of manifold pressure for “dry” combat power at full throttle. Above this altitude, the manifold
pressure and engine power will begin to fall off.
The War Emergency Power rating of 80” will begin to fall off above 25,000 feet.
ENGINE
CONTROL
TAKEOFF
MAXIMUM
TAKEOFF
NORMAL
DRY WAR EMERGENCY WET WAR EMERGENCY
MP
RPM
TIME LIMIT
61”
3000
15
MINUTES
FULL
45”
3000
UNLIMITED
67”
3000
5 MINUTES
80”
3000
7 MINTUES
SET BY
PILOT
WEP ON SET BY PILOT
FULL WEP ENABLED
THROTTLE
POSITION
ENGINE
CONTROL
MAXIMUM
CONTINUOUS
MAXIMUM
CRUISE
NORMAL CRUISE
MP
RPM
TIME LIMIT
THROTTLE
POSITION
46”
2700
UNLIMITED
SET BY PILOT
36”
2400
UNLIMITED
SET BY PILOT
30”
2250
UNLIMITED
SET BY PILOT
Flight Charact
er
istics
From the P-51 Manual:
“The P-51 is one of the sweetest-flying fighter planes ever built. It is very light on all controls and stable
at all normal loadings. Although light on the controls, it is not so sensitive that you would call it jerky.
Light, steady pressures are all you need to execute any routine manoeuvre. At various speeds in level
flight or in climbing or diving, the control pressures you have to hold are slight and can be taken care of
by slight adjustments on the trim tabs. However, the trim tab controls are sensitive; use them carefully.”
ns
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From the P-51H Manual:
The stall in this aeroplane is comparatively gentle. With idling power, stall warning is given by very slight
air plane buffeting 2 to 3 mph above stall speed, followed by nose-down pitching at stall. There is mild
longitudinal oscillation until the stick pressure is relieved. If further back-pressure is applied, the air
plane will roll off on either right or left wing. This rolling condition is more severe with flaps down.
Spins
The aeroplane does not have any spin tendency at the stall, and it is necessary to force the aeroplane
into the spin. In general, spins in this airplane are uncomfortable because of heavy oscillations and
rolling. These motions are not regular, but occur erratically during the spin. Normally, the air plane goes
over to a slightly inverted position in the first half-turn of the spin. Recovery is made by applying rudder
against the spin and returning the stick to neutral.
Power-on Spins
Power-on spins are not recommended. If a power-on spin is encountered inadvertently, close throttle
completely and apply control for recovery. Large losses in altitude should be anticipated if power-on
spins and recoveries are attempted.
Permissible Acrobatics - All acrobatics are permissible, with the exception of snap rolls and power-on
spins.
BIG THA
NKS TOO
,...
Invaluable assistance was provided by the following people:
- Steve McDevitt, Collings Foundation B-17G captain, airshow/warbird/airline pilot
- Ed Knitter Head mechanic for “Wings of Eagles” B17G “Fuddy Duddy”
- Lt. Fred Blechman, U.S. Navy Corsair pilot and author of “Bent Wings”
- Joe Worsley, Bombardier/Navigator, B-29. 22 missions with the 462nd (Hellbird) Bombardment
Group, (VHB), 20th Air Force,.CBI-Western Pacific Theater,(3 Battle Stars, 3 Distinguished Unit
Citations,) DFC, Air Medal(2BOLC), Purple Heart, WWII VM, )
- Chuck McClure, U.S. Army Air Force B-29 Aircraft Commander
- Col. Ernie Bankey, U.S. Army Air Force P-51D/P-38 pilot/Ace-in-a-Day
- Harry Goldman, U.S. Army Air Force B-26 pilot/First Pathfinder Division
- Gene Koscinski, U.S. Army Air Force B-24 Bombardier
- Bud Lindahl, U.S. Army Air Force B-24 Navigator/Bombardier
- Judge Donald H. Foster, U.S. Army Air Force Instructor and Ferry Pilot
- Gordon Rapp Certified instructor / T-6 owner
- Roy Test, U.S. Army Air Force B-17G co-pilot (32 missions)
- George Muennich, Luftwaffe pilot (He 111, Do 217, Ju 52, Fw 190, He 177)
- Lt. Clyde B. East, U.S. Army Air Force F-6C/D Mustang pilot/Ace (13 victories)
- Michael Karatsonyi, Luftwaffe Me 109 G pilot
- Mike Dornheim, Aeronautical Engineer and aviation journalist
SPECIAL
THANKY
OU
A special thankyou to the Chanute Air museum for full access to the restoration of the P-51H Mustang
‘HEATWAVE’ as well as a very warm welcome from all museum staff and curator Mark Hanson
shown below with Capt Jake from A2A Simulations and A2A Comanche being welcomed as we
landed at the Museum.
Remember to support your museums and let history be kept alive!
http://www.aeromuseum.org
S
T
I
CRED
The creators of Microsoft FSX
Microsoft.
Production
Scott Gentile
Virtual Cockpit, panels, and gauges
Robert Rogalski
External modeling
Marcelo Da Silva
Flight dynamics
SimDynamics Research
Visual and sound Effects
Scott Gentile
Quality Control
The Aircraft Factory BetaTeam
Manual
Lewis Bloomfield
Scott Gentile
Lukasz Kubacki
SimDynamics Research
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