SITE ANALYZER™
CABLE AND ANTENNA TESTER
FOR WIRELESS SYSTEMS
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
©Copyright 1999, 2002 by Bird Electronic Corporation
Instruction Book Part Number 920-7002A800 Revision K
Site Analyzer is a trademark of Bird Electronic Corporation
Microsoft® and Windows® are registered trademarks
of the Microsoft Corporation
This page is not blank
Safety Precautions
Remove Power
Observe general safety precautions. Do not open the instrument with
the power on.
Safety Earth Ground
An uninterruptible safety earth ground must be supplied from the
main power source to the instrument. Grounding one conductor of a
two conductor power cable is not sufficient protection. Serious injury
or death can occur if this grounding is not properly installed.
Safety Symbols
WARNING
Warning notes call attention to a procedure, which if not correctly
performed, could result in personal injury.
CAUTION
Caution notes call attention to a procedure, which if not correctly
performed, could result in damage to the instrument.
The caution symbol appears on the equipment indicating
there is important information in the instruction manual
regarding that particular area. See page 82 for specific
cautions.
☞
NOTE: Calls attention to supplemental information.
Warning Statements
The following safety warnings appear in the text where there is
danger to operating and maintenance personnel, and are repeated
here for emphasis.
WARNING
The SA-BATPAK is shipped charged. Be careful when removing the
safety cap, 12Vdc @ 2.0 AH/20 hour rate can be present inside the
receptacle. Do not touch the inside of the receptacle. The possibility
of an electric shock exists.
i
Bird Site Analyzer
WARNING
This equipment should not be connected to an antenna or operated
during a storm that has the potential to produce lightning. The
possibility exists for electrical shock.
WARNING
When using the ac adapter, only connect the plug to a properly
grounded receptacle. Serious injury or death can occur if grounding
is not properly installed.
Caution Statements
The following equipment cautions appear in the text and are repeated
here for emphasis.
CAUTION
Harsh or abrasive detergents, and some solvents, can damage the
display unit and information on the labels.
CAUTION
When using a Bird 5011, do not exceed 2 W average or 125 W peak
power for 5 µs. Doing so will render the sensor inoperative.
CAUTION
+22 dBm max. input
Do not apply RF power to Antenna Test Port. Exceeding the
maximum input will damage the Site Analyzer.
Safety Statements
USAGE
ANY USE OF THIS INSTRUMENT IN A MANNER NOT
SPECIFIED BY THE MANUFACTURER MAY IMPAIR
THE INSTRUMENT’S SAFETY PROTECTION.
USO
EL USO DE ESTE INSTRUMENTO DE MANERA NO
ESPECIFICADA POR EL FABRICANTE, PUEDE ANULAR LA
PROTECCIÓN DE SEGURIDAD DEL INSTRUMENTO.
BENUTZUNG
WIRD DAS GERÄT AUF ANDERE WEISE VERWENDET ALS VOM
HERSTELLER BESCHRIEBEN, KANN DIE GERÄTESICHERHEIT
BEEINTRÄCHTIGT WERDEN.
ii
UTILISATION
TOUTE UTILISATION DE CET INSTRUMENT QUI N’EST PAS
EXPLICITEMENT PRÉVUE PAR LE FABRICANT PEUT
ENDOMMAGER LE DISPOSITIF DE PROTECTION DE
L’INSTRUMENT.
IMPIEGO
QUALORA QUESTO STRUMENTO VENISSE UTILIZZATO IN
MODO DIVERSO DA COME SPECIFICATO DAL PRODUTTORE
LA PROZIONE DI SICUREZZA POTREBBE VENIRNE
COMPROMESSA.
SERVICE
SERVICING INSTRUCTIONS ARE FOR USE BY
SERVICE - TRAINED PERSONNEL ONLY. TO AVOID
DANGEROUS ELECTRIC SHOCK, DO NOT PERFORM
ANY SERVICING UNLESS QUALIFIED TO DO SO.
SERVICIO
LAS INSTRUCCIONES DE SERVICIO SON PARA USO
EXCLUSIVO DEL PERSONAL DE SERVICIO CAPACITADO. PARA
EVITAR EL PELIGRO DE DESCARGAS ELÉCTRICAS, NO
REALICE NINGÚN SERVICIO A MENOS QUE ESTÉ
CAPACITADO PARA HACERIO.
WARTUNG
ANWEISUNGEN FÜR DIE WARTUNG DES GERÄTES GELTEN
NUR FÜR GESCHULTES FACHPERSONAL.
ZUR VERMEIDUNG GEFÄHRLICHE, ELEKTRISCHE SCHOCKS,
SIND WARTUNGSARBEITEN AUSSCHLIEßLICH VON
QUALIFIZIERTEM SERVICEPERSONAL DURCHZUFÜHREN.
ENTRENTIEN
L’EMPLOI DES INSTRUCTIONS D’ENTRETIEN DOIT ÊTRE
RÉSERVÉ AU PERSONNEL FORMÉ AUX OPÉRATIONS
D’ENTRETIEN. POUR PRÉVENIR UN CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
DANGEREUX, NE PAS EFFECTUER D’ENTRETIEN SI L’ON N’A
PAS ÉTÉ QUALIFIÉ POUR CE FAIRE.
ASSISTENZA TECNICA
LE ISTRUZIONI RELATIVE ALL’ASSISTENZA SONO PREVISTE
ESCLUSIVAMENTE PER IL PERSONALE OPPORTUNAMENTE
ADDESTRATO. PER EVITARE PERICOLOSE SCOSSE
ELETTRICHE NON EFFETTUARRE ALCUNA RIPARAZIONE A
MENO CHE QUALIFICATI A FARLA.
iii
Bird Site Analyzer
About This Manual
This instruction book covers the Bird Site Analyzer Models SA-2000,
SA-2000A, and SA-2500A.
Changes to This Manual
We have made every effort to ensure this manual is accurate. If you
should discover any errors, or if you have suggestions for improving this
manual, please send your comments to our Solon, Ohio factory. This
manual may be periodically updated. When inquiring about updates to
this manual refer to the part number and revision level on the title page.
Quick Start and Reference Card
The Quick Start and Reference Card contains minimum operational
steps and the order they should be performed. Use this manual for
reference or if further explanation of any step is required.
Site Analyzer Keys
There are two types of keys on the Site Analyzer. The first type is a hard
key with a particular function. The function is indicated on or next to the
key. Hard key names are set in a bold type, e.g., Press the ENTER key.
The second type is a soft key. Each of the soft keys (there are five to the
left of the display), has a corresponding soft key legend which depends
on the function selected. The name will be at the left of the display,
directly to the right of the corresponding key. Soft key names are set in a
bold italic type, e.g. Press the SCALE key. Refer to the figure below.
Soft Key
Soft Key Legend
A magnified soft
key legend is an
instruction to
press the
corresponding
soft key.
Hard Key
iv
Chapter Layout
Introduction — Identifies the parts, functions, and features of the Site
Analyzer as well as optional equipment available.
Getting Started — Provides power up information for the Site
Analyzer.
Calibration — Provides step by step instructions for calibrating the
Site Analyzer, which must be done before using Measure Match or
Fault Location modes.
Measure Match Mode — Lists the steps required to make match
measurements, as well as providing instructions for all functions
available in Measure Match mode.
Fault Location Mode — Lists the steps required to make distance to
fault measurements, as well as providing instructions for all functions
available in Fault Location mode.
Save and Recall — For units with the most recent firmware revision.
Describes how to save, recall, and delete traces and setups in Measure
Match or Fault Location modes.
Old Save and Recall — For firmware older than 1-Nov-2001.
Describes how to save, recall, and delete traces and setups in Measure
Match or Fault Location modes.
Measure Power Mode — Lists the steps required to make power
measurements, as well as providing instructions for all functions
available in Measure Power mode.
Utilities — Describes utilities to set up the Site Analyzer.
Computer Software — Provides installation instructions and lists the
features of the Bird Site Analyzer PC Software.
Maintenance — Lists routine maintenance tasks for the Site
Analyzer, as well as troubleshooting for common problems.
Specifications and parts information are also included.
v
Table of Contents
Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Items Supplied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Items Not Supplied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Site Analyzer Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Antenna Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Transmitter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Component Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Connection Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Display Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Internal Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
External Battery Pack (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Power Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Calibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Calibration Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Calibrating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Measure Match Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Setting the Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Band List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Setting the Scale & Unit of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Auto Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Setting Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Cable Loss Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Limit Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Limit Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Marker Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Measurement Hold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
vi
Fault Location Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Setting the Frequency Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Setting the Cable Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Cable List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Setting the Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Setting Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Setting the Scale & Unit of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Auto Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Setting Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Limit Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Limit Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Marker Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Smooth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Measurement Hold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Save and Recall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Save Trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Trace Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Trace Label Quicktext . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Trace Label Config. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Save Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Recall Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Recall Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Delete Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Delete Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Old Save and Recall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Save Trace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Label and Sort Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Save Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Recall Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Recall Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Delete Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Delete Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Measure Power Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Connecting a Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Setting the Full Scale Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Setting the Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Recall Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Choosing the Displayed Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Setting Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
vii
Calibrating the Bird 5011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Adjust Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Return to Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
FM Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Computer Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Computer Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Charging the Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Battery Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Unit Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Flash ROM Upgrade (SA-2500A Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
EPROM Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Customer Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Optional Equipment Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
viii
Chapter 1
Introduction
The Bird Site Analyzer is a multifunction test
instrument for use in installation and maintenance of
wireless systems.
Antenna systems are tested by using a Site Analyzer
to measure match conditions. Data is graphed at 238
points across a user-specified frequency band or
distance range. Transmitter systems are tested by
using a Site Analyzer and a Bird power sensor to
measure RF power. Data is displayed as power or
match efficiency, depending on the sensor.
Items Supplied
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Site Analyzer
Soft-Sided Carrying Case
PCTool Software
AC Power Adapter
Automobile Cigarette Lighter Adapter
9-Pin Serial Communications Cable
Instruction Manual (Not Shown)
Quick Start and Reference Cards (Not Shown)
1
Bird Site Analyzer
Items Not Supplied
y Calibration Combination
y Bird 5010 Directional Power Sensor
y Bird 5011 Terminating Power Sensor
Site Analyzer Features
General
y Field replaceable Li-ion battery.
y Automatic power down conserves battery life.
Antenna Test
y Rejects on-channel interfering signals to +13 dBm.
y Stores up to 15 calibration profiles.
y Adjustable pass/fail limit line with visual indicator.
2
Introduction
y Stores up to 300 sets of measurement data in raw
format to facilitate conversion between antenna
match and DTF.
y On-screen comparison between current
measurement and stored data – no PC required.
y Pop-up menus contain over 70 cable types and 30
frequency band presets.
y X and Y scales and units are user adjustable.
y Dual measurement markers and one difference
marker.
y Measurement hold to temporarily store a trace.
y Printing capability. The Bird Site Analyzer is
compatible with all printers that use HP PCL
Level 3, including most HP inkjet printers.
Measure
Match Mode
Fault
Location
Mode
y Fast swept measurement.
y Frequency can be set using either Start/Stop or
Center/Span frequencies.
y Measurement units can be either return loss [dB],
cable loss [dB], or VSWR [ratio].
y Transform Algorithm - Fast Fourier Transform
(FFT) with three levels of smoothing.
y Distance units can be either feet or meters.
y Measurement units can be either return loss [dB] or
VSWR [ratio].
Transmitter Test
Measure
Power Mode
y Numerical readout and analog dial.
y Can display either forward power, reflected power,
or match efficiency depending on the sensor.
y Power measurement units can be either Watts or
dBm. Match units can be either VSWR, return loss,
or % match efficiency.
y Compatible with the Bird Directional Power Sensor,
Terminating Power Sensor, VSWR Alarms, and
Broadcast Power Monitors.
3
Bird Site Analyzer
Component Description
9
1
8
2
7
3
4
6
5
4
Introduction
1.
Soft Keys
2.
Mode Keys
Activates the function described directly to the
right of the key.
Mode
Activates the mode menu. This menu allows the
user to select Measure Match, Fault Location,
Measure Power, or Utilities modes.
Config
Activates the configuration menu for the current
mode. This menu provides access to the variable
measurement parameters (e.g. frequency band,
distance, and units).
Calibrate
Activates the calibration menu.
Marker
Activates the marker menu. This menu allows
the user to turn markers is on or off and to move
the active marker.
3.
Numeric Keys
Enter numeric data into the selected item, or as
defined by the function description.
4.
Escape Key
During:
5.
6.
Menu Selection
Backs up one menu level.
Data Entry
Exits data entry without changing the value.
Enter Key
During
List Selection
Selects the highlighted item in the list.
Data Entry
Exits data entry, changing the value.
Cursor Keys
Left Arrow
During:
Data Entry
Deletes previously entered data one character at
a time.
Marker Control
Moves active marker left one point at a time.
All other times
As defined by the function description.
5
Bird Site Analyzer
Right Arrow
During:
Marker Control
Moves active marker right one point at a time.
All other times
As defined by the function description.
Up Arrow
During:
Data Entry
Increases the numeric value.
Marker Control
Moves the marker to the maximum trace value.
While pressing
the contrast key
Increases the display contrast.
All other times
As defined by the function description.
Down Arrow
During:
7.
Data Entry
Decreases the numeric value.
Marker Control
Moves the marker to the minimum trace value.
While pressing
the contrast key
Decreases the display contrast.
All other times
As defined by the function description.
Battery LED
The yellow LED lights when the unit is powered
by an external dc power source. When charging
the internal battery pack, the yellow LED blinks.
Once the battery is fully charged the yellow LED
stops blinking.
The green LED lights whenever the unit is on.
8.
Contrast Key
Hold while pressing the up/down arrow keys to
adjust the contrast of the display.
9.
l/0 (On/Off)
Turns the instrument on and off. The key must be
pressed for at least one-half (½) second.
6
Introduction
Connection Description
DC Input
Antenna
Test Port
Parallel
Printer Port
Computer Port
Remote Power Sensor
CAUTION
+22 dBm max. input
Do not apply RF power to Antenna Test Port. Exceeding the maximum input will damage the Site Analyzer.
Antenna Test Port
Standard N-type female connector. Use a
phase-stable armored cable to connect
the Site Analyzer to the antenna.
Optional Test Port Extension Cables and
adapters are listed in the Accessory
Guide Brochure.
Parallel Printer Port
25-pin (DB25) parallel connector.
Connect the Site Analyzer to a HP-type
inkjet printer. The cable is not included.
Computer/Power Sensor Port
9-pin RS-232 (DB9) serial connector.
9600 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no
parity, and no handshake. Connect the
Site Analyzer to a PC serial port or to
Bird power sensors.
DC Input
Input for external power supplies. Plug
either the ac power supply or the
cigarette lighter adapter into the dc
input. The external supplies operate the
unit and charge the internal battery.
7
Bird Site Analyzer
Display Description
1
Measure
Match
Sample
Display
8
7
Measure Match Mode
000, ABC, 01-JAN-2001 12:01
Save/
Recall
M1
1.70
VSWR
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
M2
Run
1.00
825.00
Print
2
3
4
M1: 835.20 MHz
M2: 831.50 MHz
∆M:
3.70 MHz
5
14
13
Fault Location Mode
Limit
Test On
Run
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
Auto
Scale
1.00
0.0
Meters
Calibration: Full
Print
10
8
1.64
1.20
0.44
6
9
Fault
Location
Sample
Display
841.00
MHz
Calibration: Full
Limit: 1.43
FAIL
11
12
18.2
Introduction
1.
Trace
Graphic display of the measurement.
2.
Calibration Indicator
Indicates the calibration status.
3.
Limit Line Value
Indicates the limit value.
4.
Limit Test Indicator
Displays FAIL if any part of the trace
exceeds the limit value.
5.
Limit Line
A horizontal line that graphically
displays the limit value.
6.
Marker Value
Indicates the position and value of a
trace point.
7.
Marker Cursor
Identifies the trace point displayed in
the marker value.
8.
Recalled Name
Indicates the name of a recalled trace.
9.
Soft Key Description
Describes the function of the soft key to
the left of the description.
10. Indicator Ball
Indicates if the trace is sweeping.
11. Scale
Indicates the minimum and maximum
values displayed on that axis.
12. Units
Indicates the measurement units for
that axis.
13. Battery Gauge
Indicates whether the Site Analyzer is
using the internal battery or an external
power supply, and indicates the amount
of battery life remaining.
14. Mode Indicator
Name of the current mode.
9
Bird Site Analyzer
1
Measure
Power
Sample
Display
Measure Power Mode
2
Sensor Connected
Display
Fwd
3
4
5
Fwd
0.0 Watts
PwrUnit
Watts
600.00
MatchUnit
Rtn Loss
6
7
Refl
0.00 Watts
Match
0.00 Loss(dB)
1.
Sensor Status
Indicates the current status of power
sensor.
2.
Primary Measurement
Identifies the measurement displayed on
the analog dial.
3.
Primary Value
Numeric display of the primary value.
4.
Measurement Scale
Indicates the dial’s full scale.
5.
Dial
Graphic display of the primary
measurement.
6.
Secondary Measurements
Identifies the measurements not
displayed on the dial.
7.
Secondary Value
Numeric display of the secondary values.
10
Chapter 2
Getting Started
Power Supply
Internal
Battery
The Bird Site Analyzer has an internal, rechargeable
lithium-ion battery pack. This will operate the unit for
a minimum of 3 hours of continuous usage. Recharging
time, from a full discharge, is approximately 4 hours.
☞
NOTE: When the unit is received the battery may
not be fully charged. An ac adapter should be used
when operating the unit for the first time.
The battery gauge indicates the approximate battery
life remaining. At ¼ charge the gauge also displays
“LO”. When using an external power source, a power
cord symbol replaces the battery gauge.
Adapters
The Bird Site Analyzer can be operated using an ac
adapter or a 12 V automobile cigarette lighter adapter.
Using these will also charge the internal battery.
WARNING
When using the ac adapter, only connect the plug to
a properly grounded receptacle. Serious injury or
death can occur if not properly grounded.
External
Battery
Pack
(Optional)
The SA-BATPAK is an optional external battery pack.
This will operate the unit for approximately 2 hours.
The liquid acid gel battery will fully charge, from a full
discharge, in about 6-8 hours.
WARNING
The SA-BATPAK is shipped charged. Be careful
when removing the safety cap, 12Vdc @ 2.0 AH/20
hour rate can be present inside the receptacle. Do
not touch the inside of the receptacle. The possibility
of an electric shock exists.
11
Bird Site Analyzer
Electronic
Corporation
SA-BATPAK
CHARGER
15V
2.7A
On
To
SA-BATPAK
CHARGER
Battery
On
15V
2.7A
Electronic
Corporation
2
To
Battery
3
1
4
SA-BATPAK
To charge the external battery pack:
1. Plug the automobile cigarette lighter adapter
into the external battery pack on the side that
says “To Battery”. Refer to the figure above.
2. Plug the other end of the automobile cigarette
lighter adapter into the charger adapter.
3. Plug the ac adapter into the charger adapter.
4. Plug the ac adapter into a properly grounded
outlet. The charger’s “On” LED comes on and
stays on until the charger is disconnected.
To use the external battery pack with a Site Analyzer:
1. Plug the automobile cigarette lighter adapter
into the adapter of the charged external
battery pack.
2. Plug the other end of the automobile cigarette
lighter adapter into the dc input of the Site
Analyzer.
12
Getting Started
Power Up
On first power up or after a failure set the unit to
default parameters. Refer to “Return to Defaults”,
page 93.
Self Test
A self test is run at power up. If the test fails, see
“Troubleshooting” on page 100 for instructions. If the
problem persists, return the unit for service.
The software revision information is displayed during
the self test, as shown below.
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
Copyright © 1998 - 2002 by Bird Electronic Corporation
System
Information
Have the following system information ready before
you begin using the Site Analyzer:
Frequency Span — ex: 806-960 MHz (Top end of
cellular band)
Cable Type — ex: RG-8
Approximate Cable Length — ex: 300 feet
Transmitter Power — ex: 1 kW
WARNING
This equipment should not be connected to an
antenna or operated during a storm that has the
potential to produce lightning. The possibility exists
for electrical shock.
13
Bird Site Analyzer
14
Chapter 3
Calibration
Calibration Accessories
Calibration Combination including:
y One 50 ohm load
y One Open standard
y One Short standard
Test Cable (optional) – Phase-stable for reliable,
consistent results.
☞
NOTE: If a test cable is used to connect the Site
Analyzer system under test, attach the standards
to the end of the test cable during calibration.
Calibrating
Calibration Mode
Open
1.70
Short
Load
VSWR
Press key
from either
Measure
Match or
Fault
Location
mode
1.00
825.00
MHz
841.00
Calibration: Off
Cal Done
15
Bird Site Analyzer
y Press the CALIBRATE key.
y Attach the open standard.
Press the OPEN key.
Wait for a “beep” and for the trace to scroll before
continuing.
y Attach the short standard.
Press the SHORT key.
Wait for a “beep” and for the trace to scroll before
continuing.
y Attach the load standard.
Press the LOAD key.
Wait for a “beep” and for the trace to scroll before
continuing.
y Press the CAL DONE key. New coefficients are
calculated. The Site Analyzer is now calibrated.
☞
16
NOTE: Now is a good time to save the setup.
Saving after calibration will save the new
calibration coefficients. See “Save Setup”, page 75.
Chapter 4
Measure Match Mode
This measurement verifies and monitors the match
conditions in the antenna system at various
frequencies. The results are shown on an x-y graph.
Frequency is shown on the x-axis while return loss,
cable loss, or VSWR is shown on the y-axis.
Set the frequency and calibrate the Site Analyzer
before taking any readings.
Measure Match Mode
Save/
Recall 99.99
Auto
Scale
Measure
Match
Limit
Test OFF
Fault
Location
Press from
Select Mode
HOLD
VSWR
Press the
Mode key
1.00
780.00
MHz
2500.00
Calibration: OFF
Print
17
Bird Site Analyzer
Setting the Frequency
Frequencies can be set manually or chosen from a list
of presets. If the start, stop, center, or span is
manually changed, the band will become “Custom”.
Freq
Scale
Press to
display the
frequency
settings
18
NOTE: Changing the frequency settings will
automatically turn calibration off. Always set
the frequency before calibrating the unit.
☞
NOTE: If a frequency outside of the Site
Analyzer’s range is entered, the unit’s minimum or
maximum frequency will be set instead.
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
☞
1.00
780.00
Start: 780.00 MHz
Stop: 2500.00 MHz
MHz
2500.00
Center: 1640.00 MHz
Span: 1720.00 MHz
Band List: Custom
Measure Match Mode
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Enter a new
value
Band List
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Scroll to
Start, Stop,
Center, or
Span
1.00
1500.00
Start: 1500.00 MHz
Stop: 2500.00 MHz
MHz
2500.00
Center: 2000.00 MHz
Span: 1000.00 MHz
Band List: Custom
The band list pop-up menu contains frequency band
presets. Using a preset is quick, easy, and sets test
parameters while eliminating a possible source of
operator error.
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scroll to
Band List
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Scale
1.00
780.00
Start: 780.00 MHz
Stop: 2500.00 MHz
MHz
2500.00
Center: 1640.00 MHz
Span: 1720.00 MHz
Band List: Custom
19
Bird Site Analyzer
Measure Match Mode
Freq
Display the
band list
and select a
frequency
band
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
Band
Start
Stop
<Full Band>
IS-553(Rx)
IS-553(Tx)
IS-54(Rx)
IS-54(Tx)
IS-95(Rx)
IS-95(Tx)
IS-95(Rx)
780.00
824300
869.00
824.00
869.00
1850.00
1930.00
824.00
2500.00
849.00
894.00
849.00
894.00
1910.00
1990.00
849.00
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Activate the
selected
band
1.00
824.00
Start:
Stop:
20
824.00 MHz
849.00 MHz
MHz
849.00
Center: 836.50 MHz
Span:
25.00 MHz
Band List: IS-54(Rx)
Measure Match Mode
Setting the Scale & Unit of Measure
The display scale can be set manually or by using Auto
Scale. The display can have units of return loss [dB],
cable loss [dB], or VSWR [ratio].
Freq
Scale
Press to
display the
scale
settings
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
1.00
780.00
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
MHz
2500.00
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scroll to Min
or Max
Limit
Line
Enter a new
value
VSWR
Scale
Cable 10.00
Loss
780.00
Min: 10.00
Max: 99.99
MHz
2500.00
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
21
Bird Site Analyzer
Auto Scale
Auto Scale automatically sets the display scale so that
the entire trace is displayed.
Measure Match Mode
Freq
1.70
Scroll to
Auto Scale
Activate
Auto Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Scale
1.00
780.00
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
MHz
2500.00
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
Auto Scale can also be activated from the main screen.
Measure Match Mode
Save/
Recall
Save/
Recall 99.99
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test OFF
HOLD
VSWR
Auto
Scale
1.00
780.00
Calibration: OFF
Print
22
MHz
2500.00
Measure Match Mode
Setting
Units
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scroll to
Units
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Scale
1.00
780.00
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
MHz
2500.00
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Display the
units list
and select
VSWR,
Cable Loss,
or
Return Loss
1.00
780.00
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
Units
MHz
Auto VSWR
Scale
Loss
Units:Rtn
VSWR
Cable Loss
2500.00
23
Bird Site Analyzer
Measure Match Mode
Freq
0.0
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
Rtn Loss (dB)
Activate the
selected
unit
-60.0
780.00
Min: -60.0 dB
Max: 0.0 dB
24
MHz
Auto Scale
Units: Rtn Loss
2500.00
Measure Match Mode
Cable Loss Measurements
To measure cable loss, the cable being tested should
have an open on the far end.
Measure Match Mode
Cable Loss Mode
Freq
0.0
Scale
Limit
Line
Press to
activate
Cable Loss
Cable
Loss
Cable Loss (dB)
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
-60.0
780.00
MHz
2500.00
Calibration: OFF
Measure Match Mode
Freq
Press to
deactivate
Cable Loss
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
Rtn Loss (dB)
0.0
-60.0
780.00
MHz
2500.00
Calibration: OFF
25
Bird Site Analyzer
Limit Line
The limit line is an option that helps you see a failure.
It appears as a horizontal line at the limit line value.
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Enter a new
value
26
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Press to
display the
limit line
value
1.00
780.00
Limit Line:
MHz
1.43
2500.00
Measure Match Mode
Limit Test
Limit Test compares the trace to the limit line.
Measure Match Mode
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
Toggle
between Off,
Audio, & On
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
HOLD
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
1.00
825.00
Print
MHz
841.00
Calibration: Full
Limit: 1.43
FAIL
Test Off — disables the comparison and the pass/fail
indicator.
Test On — enables the comparison. If all of the trace is
below the limit value, “PASS” is displayed at the
bottom of the screen. If any part of the trace exceeds
the limit value, that portion is displayed in red and
“FAIL” is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
Test Audio — as Test On. In addition, the Site
Analyzer will beep if any part of the trace exceeds the
limit value.
27
Bird Site Analyzer
Marker Adjustment
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
Markers indicate VSWR to 0.01, or Return or Cable
Loss to 0.1 dB. The exact values of M1, M2, and the
delta marker (difference of M1 and M2) are displayed
at the bottom of the screen.
☞
NOTE: If M1 was Active, it becomes ON
(displayed) when M2 becomes Active.
Measure Match Mode
M1
Active
M2
On
∆M
Single
Toggle
between Off
and Single
28
1.70
M1
VSWR
Toggle
between Off,
On, and
Active
M2
1.00
825.00
Calibration: Full
MHz
M1: 838.50 MHz
M2: 834.10 MHz
4.40 MHz
∆M:
841.00
1.40
1.30
0.10
Measure Match Mode
Move
across the
trace
Measure Match Mode
M1
Active
M2
On
∆M
Single
Locate the
lowest point
of the trace
M1
1.70
VSWR
Locate the
highest
point of the
trace
M2
1.00
825.00
Calibration: Full
MHz
M1: 835.20 MHz
M2: 831.50 MHz
∆M:
3.70 MHz
841.00
1.64
1.20
0.44
29
Bird Site Analyzer
Measurement Hold
Measurement Hold stops tracing at the end of the
current measurement and displays the last measurement result. It is active when a lock appears in the
indicator ball.
Measure Match Mode
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
Toggle
between
Run and
Hold
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test Off
Run
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
1.00
825.00
Calibration: Full
Print
30
MHz
841.00
Measure Match Mode
Printing
The Bird Site Analyzer can print the information
displayed on the screen to any HP Deskjet printer that
supports the PCL Level 3 protocol.
Measure Match Mode
Press from
Measure
Match Mode
Prints the
information
on the
screen
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test Off
M1
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
M2
Run
1.00
825.00
Calibration: Full
Print
MHz
M1: 835.20 MHz
M2: 831.50 MHz
∆M:
3.70 MHz
841.00
1.64
1.20
0.44
31
Bird Site Analyzer
32
Chapter 5
Fault Location Mode
This measurement identifies the position of impedance
discontinuities (faults) within the antenna/feeder
system. The measurement results are displayed on an
x-y graph. Distance from the Site Analyzer is shown
on the x-axis, while relative magnitude of the
discontinuity is shown on the y-axis.
Set the frequency span, cable type, and calibrate the
Site Analyzer before taking any readings.
Fault Location Mode
Save/
Recall
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
Press from
Select Mode
Run
1.70
VSWR
Press the
Mode key
1.00
0.0
Meters
18.2
Calibration: Full
Print
33
Bird Site Analyzer
Setting the Frequency Span
The frequency span and relative propagation velocity
determine the maximum distance at which distanceto-fault measurements can be taken. For best results,
use the table below to select the frequency span which
matches the length and either the propagation velocity
or dielectric constant of the cable under test.
☞
NOTE: Changing the frequency settings will
automatically turn calibration off. Always set
the frequency before calibrating the unit.
Table 1: Frequency Span vs. Vp
Velocity
Percentage
60%
80%
100%
Dielectric
Constant
2.778
1.562
1
Frequency Distance Resolution Distance Resolution Distance Resolution
Span (MHz)
ft (m)
in (cm)
ft (m)
in (cm)
ft (m)
in (cm)
34
1900
37 (11)
1.9 (4.7)
49 (15)
2.5 (6.3)
62 (19)
3.1 (7.9)
1800
39 (12)
2.0 (5.0)
52 (16)
2.6 (6.7)
65 (20)
3.3 (8.3)
1700
41 (13)
2.1 (5.3)
55 (17)
2.8 (7.1)
69 (21)
3.5 (8.8)
1600
44 (13)
2.2 (5.6)
59 (18)
3.0 (7.5)
73 (22)
3.7 (9.4)
1500
47 (14)
2.4 (6.0)
62 (19)
3.2 (8.0)
78 (24)
3.9 (10.0)
1400
50 (15)
2.5 (6.4)
67 (20)
3.4 (8.6)
84 (26)
4.2 (10.7)
1300
54 (16)
2.7 (6.9)
72 (22)
3.6 (9.2)
90 (27)
4.5 (11.5)
1200
59 (18)
3.0 (7.5)
78 (24)
3.9 (10.0)
98 (30)
4.9 (12.5)
1100
64 (19)
3.2 (8.2)
85 (26)
4.3 (10.9)
106 (32)
5.4 (13.6)
1000
70 (21)
3.5 (9.0)
94 (29)
4.7 (12.0)
117 (36)
5.9 (15.0)
900
78 (24)
3.9 (10.0)
104 (32)
5.3 (13.3)
130 (40)
6.6 (16.7)
800
88 (27)
4.4 (11.2)
117 (36)
5.9 (15.0)
146 (45)
7.4 (18.8)
700
100 (31)
5.1 (12.9)
134 (41)
6.8 (17.1)
167 (51)
8.4 (21.4)
600
117 (36)
5.9 (15.0)
156 (48)
7.9 (20.0)
195 (60)
9.8 (25.0)
500
141 (43)
7.1 (18.0)
187 (57)
9.5 (24.0)
234 (71)
11.8 (30.0)
400
176 (54)
8.9 (22.5)
234 (71)
11.8 (30.0)
293 (89)
14.8 (37.5)
300
234 (71)
11.8 (30.0)
312 (95)
15.8 (40.0)
390 (119)
19.7 (50.0)
200
351 (107)
17.7 (45.0)
469 (143)
23.6 (60.0)
586 (179)
29.5 (75.0)
Fault Location Mode
For example, for a cable with a dielectric constant of
2.778, the velocity percentage is 60%. If the cable is
100 feet long, then the Site Analyzer should be set to a
frequency span of 700 MHz. The resolution of the
graph will be 5 inches.
Measure Match Mode
Save/
Recall 99.99
Auto
Scale
Measure
Match
Limit
Test OFF
Fault
Location
Press from
Select Mode
HOLD
VSWR
Press the
Mode key
1.00
780.00
MHz
2500.00
Calibration: OFF
Print
Measure Match Mode
Freq
Scale
Press to
display the
frequency
settings
Freq
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Press the
Config key
1.00
780.00
Start: 780.00 MHz
Stop: 2500.00 MHz
MHz
2500.00
Center: 1640.00 MHz
Span: 1720.00 MHz
Band List: Custom
35
Bird Site Analyzer
Measure Match Mode
Freq
99.99
Scroll to the
Span value
Limit
Line
Enter the
value from
Table 1
Cable
Loss
VSWR
Scale
1.00
1290.00
MHz
Start: 1290.00 MHz
Stop: 1990.00 MHz
1990.00
Center: 1640.00 MHz
Span: 700.00 MHz
Band List: Custom
Fault Location Mode
Save/
Recall 99.99
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
Press from
Select Mode
HOLD
VSWR
Press the
Mode key
1.00
0.0
Meters
30.5
Calibration: OFF
Print
If you enter a span greater than the current settings
allow, the span will be set to the maximum possible
value. In this case, set the center frequency shown
below for your model and try to set the span again.
36
SA-2000
1403 MHz
SA-2000A
1553 MHz
SA-2500A
1640 MHz
Fault Location Mode
Setting the Cable Type
The cable type can be set manually or chosen from a
list of presets. If the velocity of propagation or loss is
manually changed, the cable will become “Custom”.
☞
NOTE: Changing the cable type or velocity of
propagation will reset the distance scale to the
maximum possible distance. Always set the cable
type before setting the distance scale.
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Scroll to
Velocity of
Propagation
or Loss
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
VSWR
Press to
display the
cable
settings
1.00
0.0
Meters
18.2
Vel. Prop.: 0.8800
Cable List: Custom
Loss: 0.105 dB/m
37
Bird Site Analyzer
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
Cable List
VSWR
Enter a new
value
1.00
0.0
Meters
The cable list pop-up menu contains cable presets.
Using a preset is quick, easy, and sets test parameters
while eliminating a possible source of operator error.
Fault Location Mode
Distance
Scroll to
Cable Type
Scale
Display the
cable list
and select a
cable
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
38
18.2
Vel. Prop.: 0.8800
Cable List: Custom
Loss: 0.262 dB/m
Type
Vp@1Ghz Loss
5062
5088
5092
5128
5228
5328
5438
FSJ1-50A
0.8200
0.8800
0.8200
0.8800
0.8800
0.8800
0.8800
0.8400
0.1447
0.1047
0.1089
0.0745
0.0420
0.0312
0.0259
0.1968
Fault Location Mode
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
VSWR
Activate the
selected
cable
1.00
0.0
17.0
Meters
Vel. Prop.: 0.8200
Cable List:
Loss: 0.1447 dB/m
5062
39
Bird Site Analyzer
Setting the Distance
The maximum possible Stop Distance is determined
by the frequency span. (See Table 1 on page 34)
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Scroll to
Start or Stop
VSWR
Scale
Press to
display the
distance
settings
1.00
0.0
Start:
Stop:
Cbl Type
Meters
0.0 m
18.2 m
18.2
Units: Meters
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
40
VSWR
Enter a new
value
1.00
0.0
Start:
Stop:
Meters
0.0 m
10.0 m
Units: Meters
10.0
Fault Location Mode
Setting
Units
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scroll to
Units
Display the
units list
and select
Meters or
Feet
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
VSWR
Scale
1.00
0.0
Start:
Stop:
Cbl Type
Units
Meters
0.0 m
18.2 m
18.2
Units: Meters
Meters
Feet
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
VSWR
Activate the
selected
unit
1.00
0.0
Start:
Stop:
Feet
0.0 ft
59.9 ft
59.9
Units: Feet
41
Bird Site Analyzer
Setting the Scale & Unit of Measure
The display scale can be set manually or by using Auto
Scale. The display can have units of return loss [dB] or
VSWR [ratio].
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Limit
Line
Press to
display the
scale
settings
Smooth
Low
VSWR
Scale
1.00
0.0
Meters
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
Cbl Type
18.2
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
Fault Location Mode
Distance
1.07
Scroll to Min
or Max
Limit
Line
Enter a new
value
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
42
VSWR
Scale
1.00
0.0
Min:
Max:
Meters
1.00
1.07
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
18.2
Fault Location Mode
Auto Scale
Auto Scale automatically sets the display scale so that
the entire trace is displayed.
Fault Location Mode
Distance
1.07
Scroll to
Auto Scale
Activate
Auto Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
VSWR
Scale
1.00
0.0
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
Cbl Type
Meters
18.2
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
Auto scale can also be activated from the main screen.
Fault Location Mode
Save/
Recall
Save/
Recall
1.70
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
Run
VSWR
Auto
Scale
1.00
0.0
Meters
18.2
Calibration: Full
Print
43
Bird Site Analyzer
Setting
Units
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scroll to
Units
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
VSWR
Scale
1.00
0.0
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
Cbl Type
Meters
18.2
Auto Scale
Units: VSWR
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
44
VSWR
Display the
units list
and select
VSWR or
Return Loss
1.00
0.0
Min: 1.00
Max: 99.99
Units
Meters
MHz
Auto Scale
VSWR
Units: Rtn
VSWR
Loss
18.2
Fault Location Mode
Fault Location Mode
Distance
0.0
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
Low
Cbl Type
Rtn Loss (dB)
Activate the
selected
unit
-60.0
0.0
Min: -60.0 dB
Max: 0.0 dB
Meters
18.2
Auto Scale
Units: Rtn Loss
45
Bird Site Analyzer
Limit Line
The limit line is an option that helps you see a failure.
It appears as a horizontal line at the limit line value.
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Fault Location Mode
Distance
99.99
Scale
Limit
Line
Enter a new
value
Smooth
Low
1.00
0.0
Limit Line:
Cbl Type
46
VSWR
Press to
display the
limit line
value
Meters
1.50
18.2
Fault Location Mode
Limit Test
Limit Test compares the trace to the limit line.
Fault Location Mode
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Toggle
between Off,
Audio, & On
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
HOLD
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
1.00
0.0
Print
Meters
18.2
Calibration: Full
Limit: 1.43
FAIL
Test Off — disables the comparison and the pass/fail
indicator.
Test On — enables the comparison. If all of the trace is
below the limit value, “PASS” is displayed at the
bottom of the screen. If any part of the trace exceeds
the limit value, that portion is displayed in red and
“FAIL” is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
Test Audio — as Test On. In addition, the Site
Analyzer will beep if any part of the trace exceeds the
limit value.
47
Bird Site Analyzer
Marker Adjustment
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Markers indicate VSWR to 0.01, or Return Loss to 0.1
dB. The exact values of M1, M2, and the delta marker
(difference of M1 and M2) are displayed at the bottom
of the screen.
☞
NOTE: If M1 was Active, it becomes ON
(displayed) when M2 becomes Active.
Fault Location Mode
M1
Active
M2
On
∆M
Single
Toggle
between Off
and Single
48
1.70
M1
VSWR
Toggle
between Off,
On, and
Active
M2
1.00
0.0
Calibration: Full
18.2
Meters
M1:
M2:
∆M:
15.3 m
10.2 m
5.1 m
1.40
1.30
0.10
Fault Location Mode
Move
across the
trace
Fault Location Mode
M1
Active
M2
On
∆M
Single
Locate the
lowest point
of the trace
M1
1.70
VSWR
Locate the
highest
point of the
trace
M2
1.00
0.0
Calibration: Full
18.2
Meters
M1:
M2:
∆M:
13.1 m
8.4 m
4.7 m
1.32
1.20
0.12
49
Bird Site Analyzer
Smooth
Smooth is an option that will digitally average the
displayed trace. Three levels of smooth are available.
Fault Location Mode
Distance
1.70
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
None
VSWR
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
1.00
0.0
Meters
10.0
Calibration: Full
Cbl Type
Fault Location Mode
Distance
1.70
Scale
Limit
Line
Smooth
High
VSWR
Toggle
between
None, Low,
Medium,
and High
1.00
0.0
Calibration: Full
Cbl Type
50
Meters
10.0
Fault Location Mode
Measurement Hold
Measurement Hold stops tracing at the end of the
current measurement and displays the last measurement result. It is active when a lock appears in the
indicator ball.
Fault Location Mode
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Toggle
between
Run and
Hold
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test Off
Run
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
1.00
0.0
Meters
18.2
Calibration: Full
Print
51
Bird Site Analyzer
Printing
The Bird Site Analyzer can print the information
displayed on the screen to any HP Deskjet printer that
supports the PCL Level 3 protocol.
Fault Location Mode
Press from
Fault
Location
Mode
Prints the
information
on the
screen
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test Off
M1
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
M2
Run
1.00
0.0
Calibration: Full
Print
52
18.2
Meters
M1:
M2:
∆M:
13.1 m
8.4 m
4.7 m
1.32
1.20
0.12
Chapter 6
Save and Recall
This chapter applies to Bird Site Analyzers with
firmware from 1-Nov-2001 or later. If you have an
older firmware version, see “Old Save and Recall” on
page 71.
Traces and setups can be stored in nonvolatile
memory, along with descriptive labels and a time-date
stamp.
Save and Recall
Save
Reg
Press from
Measure
Match or
Fault
Location
Mode
Recall
Description
001 015 ALPHA RX02
Date
05-OCT-2001 11:26
Label
Delete
1 of 1:
Setup
53
Bird Site Analyzer
Save Trace
Save and Recall
Save
Reg
Press from
Save and
Recall
The trace is
saved
Recall
Description
001 015 ALPHA RX02
000
Label
Delete
2 of 2:
Setup
54
Date
05-OCT-2001 11:26
05-OCT-2001 11:26
Save and Recall
Trace Label
Save and Recall
Delete
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Label
menu is
displayed
M
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
N
O
Space
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
55
Bird Site Analyzer
Entering
Numbers
If the numeric shortcuts are off, press a number key
once to enter a number. If the numeric shortcuts are
on, press the key twice.
Save and Recall
Delete
Enter
numbers
using the
number pad.
016
M
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
N
O
Space
Entering
Letters
Scroll to a
column
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
Delete is always the first softkey. The characters in
the highlighted column can be entered using the other
softkeys.
Save and Recall
Delete
016 B
A
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
B
Press to
enter a
letter,
symbol, or
space
C
:
56
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
)
QuickText
Save and Recall
Changing
Labels
The label
should be
RX01,
not TX01
Save and Recall
Delete
016 BETA TX01
V
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
W
X
*
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
Scroll to the
text to be
changed
Save and Recall
OR
Delete
016 BETA RX01
P
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
Q
R
Press to
replace the
character
under the
cursor
Space
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
57
Bird Site Analyzer
Deleting
Labels
Scroll to the
text to be
deleted
Save and Recall
Delete
016 TX01
V
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
W
Press to
delete the
character to
the left of
the cursor
X
*
58
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
)
QuickText
Save and Recall
Saving
Labels
A complete
label
Save and Recall
Delete
016 BETA TX01
V
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
W
X
*
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
Save and Recall
Save
Save the
label
Reg
Recall
Description
001 015 ALPHA RX02
000 016 BETA TX01
Date
05-OCT-2001 11:26
05-OCT-2001 11:26
Label
Delete
2 of 2:
Setup
59
Bird Site Analyzer
Trace Label Quicktext
Store commonly used label elements in the Quicktext
to speed label entry.
Save and Recall
Select
From Trace
Label, scroll
past the
rightmost
column to
activate
Quicktext
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
Delete
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
View
Quicktext
If a Quicktext entry is more than 15 characters long,
the complete entry will not be shown in the QuickText
column.
Save and Recall
Select
016 BETA
Press to
view the full
Quicktext
entry
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S [Enter]
V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
016 BETA
Delete
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
60
QuickText
)
Save and Recall
Create
Quicktext
Enter text
into the
label, then
activate
Quicktext
Save and Recall
Select
016 BETA
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
Delete
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
Save and Recall
Select
016 BETA
Press to
store the
label
contents in
QuickText
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
016 BETA
Delete
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
61
Bird Site Analyzer
Use
Quicktext
Save and Recall
Select
Scroll to a
Quicktext
entry
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
B E H K N Q T W
.
QuickText
RX
TX
BETA
ZALPHA
,
Delete
C F
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
Save and Recall
Select
TX
Press to
insert the
Quicktext at
the cursor
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
B E H K N Q T W
Delete
C F
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
62
.
QuickText
RX
TX
BETA
ZALPHA
,
)
Save and Recall
Delete
Quicktext
Save and Recall
Select
Scroll to a
Quicktext
entry
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
B E H K N Q T W
.
QuickText
RX
TX
BETA
ZALPHA
,
Delete
C F
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
-
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
Save and Recall
Select
Press to
delete the
Quicktext
entry
Add to
Qtext
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
QuickText
RX
BETA
ALPHA
Delete
View
QText
I L O R U X /
: @ #
[Space]
_ *
(
)
Shortcuts off. See config/help for details.
63
Bird Site Analyzer
Trace Label Config
Label Help
Label Help provides instructions for labelling traces.
Save and Recall
Help
Press from
Trace Label
016 BETA TX01
Disable
Shortcuts
Use LEFT or RIGHT arrows to select column or
A D G J M P S V Y .
Use NUMBER keys to select column
Use SOFTKEYS to enter letters
Press NUMBER keys TWICE to enter digits
Use
DOWN
B UPEor H
K arrows
N Qto move
T Wcursor
Z ,
Use ENTER or ESC to exit.
C F
Press to
display the
help screen
: @ #
1
Done
Label
Shortcuts
[Enter]
I L O R U X /
2
3
[Space]
4
5
6
-
_ *
(
)
7
9
0
8
QuickText
Shortcuts on. See config/help for details.
Enabling shortcuts allow you to select a column by
pressing the key corresponding to the column number.
When shortcuts are enabled, press the number key
once to move the column, and twice to enter a number.
Save and Recall
Press from
Trace Label
Help
Disable
Shortcuts
Toggle
between
Enable and
Disable
A D G J M P S V Y
.
B E H K N Q T W Z
,
C F
-
: @ #
1
Done
64
I L O R U X /
2
3
[Space]
4
5
6
_ *
(
)
7
9
0
8
Shortcuts on. See config/help for details.
QuickText
Save and Recall
Save Setup
Saving the setup will save the following:
Calibration Coeff.
Limit Line
Scale Min
Scale Max
Start Frequency
Stop Frequency
Start Distance
Stop Distance
Center Frequency
Span Frequency
Units
Save and Recall
Save
Press from
Save and
Recall
Recall
Setup
Frequency
Temp
00
824-849
32
Date
05-OCT-2001 09:01a
The Setup
menu is
displayed
Delete
Traces
Save and Recall
Save
Press to
save the
current
setup
Recall
Setup
Frequency
Temp
00
01
824-849
780-2500
32
25
Date
05-OCT-2001 09:01a
23-OCT-2001 11:26a
Delete
Traces
65
Bird Site Analyzer
Recall Trace
When a trace is recalled it is displayed along with the
trace currently being measured. The frequency range
will be changed to the recalled trace’s settings. To
remove a recalled trace from the display, press the
ESCAPE key from the Save and Recall screen.
☞
NOTE: Calibration is automatically turned off if
the recalled trace has a different frequency range.
Save and Recall
Save
From Save
and Recall,
scroll to the
trace to be
recalled
Reg
Recall
Description
Date
001 015 ALPHA RX02
000 016 BETA TX01
05-OCT-2001 11:26
05-OCT-2001 11:26
Label
Delete
2 of 2:
Setup
Measure Match Mode
000, 016 BETA TX0..., 05-OCT-2001 11:26
OR
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
The trace is
recalled
Hold
1.70
VSWR
Save/
Recall
1.00
825.00
Calibration: Full
Print
66
MHz
841.00
Save and Recall
Recall Setup
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Setup
menu is
displayed
Scroll to the
setup to be
recalled
Save and Recall
Save
Recall
Setup
Frequency
Temp
00
01
824-849
780-2500
32
25
Date
05-OCT-2001 09:01a
23-OCT-2001 11:26a
Delete
Traces
Measure Match Mode
OR
Auto
Scale
Limit
Test On
The setup is
recalled
Hold
VSWR
Save/
Recall 99.99
1.00
780.00
MHz
2500.00
Calibration: Full
Print
67
Bird Site Analyzer
Delete Trace
Save and Recall
Save
From Save
and Recall,
scroll to the
trace to be
deleted
Reg
Recall
Description
001 015 ALPHA RX02
000 016 BETA TX01
Date
05-OCT-2001 11:26
05-OCT-2001 11:26
Label
Delete
2 of 2:
Setup
Save and Recall
Save
Reg
Press to
delete the
trace. Press
again when
asked “Are
You Sure?”
Recall
Description
001 015 ALPHA RX02
Label
Delete
1 of 1:
Setup
68
Date
05-OCT-2001 11:26
Save and Recall
Delete Setup
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Setup
menu is
displayed
Scroll to the
setup to be
deleted
Save and Recall
Save
Recall
Setup
Frequency
Temp
00
01
824-849
780-2500
32
25
Date
05-OCT-2001 09:01a
23-OCT-2001 11:26a
Delete
Traces
Save and Recall
Save
Press to
delete the
setup. Press
again when
asked “Are
You Sure?”
Recall
Setup
Frequency
Temp
00
824-849
32
Date
05-OCT-2001 09:01a
Delete
Traces
69
Bird Site Analyzer
70
Chapter 7
Old Save and Recall
This chapter applies to Bird Site Analyzers with
firmware from before 1-Nov-2001. If you have a more
recent firmware version, see “Save and Recall” on
page 53.
Measurement data is stored in non-volatile memory.
Data labeling allows descriptive naming of
measurement data. The time-date stamp is automatic.
Save Trace
Press from
Measure
Match or
Fault
Location
Mode
The trace is
saved
71
Bird Site Analyzer
Label and Sort Trace
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Label
menu is
displayed
Press to
display the
Site setting
Enter site
number
72
Old Save and Recall
Toggle
between
[Blank], Alpha,
Beta, and
Gamma
Toggle
between
[Blank],
Transmit, and
Receive.
Also displays
the antenna
number
Enter
antenna
number
Traces are automatically sorted in the order of Site,
Sector, Antenna, and Date (with unlabeled traces at
the top of the list) when the Done key is pressed. To
sort them in the Label menu, press the Sort key.
73
Bird Site Analyzer
Press to sort
traces
Press to
complete trace
labeling
74
Old Save and Recall
Save Setup
Five setups can be stored in the unit. Saving the setup
will save the following:
Calibration Coefficients
Stop Frequency
Mode
Maximum
Cable Type
Dielectric
Center Frequency
Scale Units
Smoothing
Start Frequency
Span Frequency
Minimum
Limit Test Settings
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Setup
menu is
displayed
The setup is
saved
75
Bird Site Analyzer
Recall Trace
When a trace is recalled it is displayed along with the
trace currently being measured. The frequency range
will be changed to the recalled trace’s settings. To
remove a recalled trace from the display, press the
ESCAPE key from the Save and Recall screen.
☞
From Save
and Recall,
scroll to the
trace to be
recalled
OR
The trace is
recalled
76
NOTE: Calibration will automatically be turned
off if the recalled trace was saved with a different
frequency range.
Old Save and Recall
Recall Setup
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Setup
menu is
displayed
Scroll to the
setup to be
recalled
or
The setup is
recalled
77
Bird Site Analyzer
Delete Trace
From Save
and Recall,
scroll to the
trace to be
deleted
Press to
delete the
trace. Press
again when
asked “Are
You Sure?”
78
Old Save and Recall
Delete Setup
Press from
Save and
Recall
The Setup
menu is
displayed
Scroll to the
setup to be
deleted
Press to
delete the
setup. Press
again when
asked “Are
You Sure?”
79
Bird Site Analyzer
80
Chapter 8
Measure Power Mode
This measurement verifies and monitors the condition
of the transmitter system. Up to three measurement
values can be simultaneously displayed, depending on
the sensor. One measurement is also displayed on an
analog dial.
For best results with element-based sensors, connect
the sensor and enter the power rating of the forward
element before taking any readings.
Measure Power Mode
Waiting for Sensor...
Press the
Mode key
PwrUnit
Watts
Warning:
Do not apply power to the RF test port.
An external sensor is required to
measure RF power.
Press from
Select Mode
CAUTION
When using a Bird 5011, do not exceed 2 W average
or 125 W peak power for 5 µs. Doing so will render
the sensor inoperative.
81
Bird Site Analyzer
Connecting a Sensor
CAUTION
+22 dBm max. input
Do not apply RF power to Antenna Test Port. Exceeding the maximum input will damage the Site Analyzer.
The antenna test port is only used for testing
unpowered systems. For power measurement, an
external power sensor connected to the Remote Power
Sensor Port must be used.
Connect the Bird Site Analyzer to power sensors using
the built-in serial port, labeled “Remote Power Sensor”
(see “Connection Description” on page 7). A 9 pin serial
cable should be used. When a sensor is properly
connected to the Site Analyzer, the sensor status
message will change from “Waiting for Sensor” to
“Sensor Connected” and the warning message will be
replaced by the main display.
A sensor is
properly
connected
Measure Power Mode
Sensor Connected
Display
Fwd
Fwd
0.0 Watts
PwrUnit
Watts
600.00
MatchUnit
Rtn Loss
82
Refl
0.00 Watts
Match
0.00 Loss(dB)
Measure Power Mode
Setting the Full Scale Power
The Bird Site Analyzer will automatically set the full
scale power for sensors that do not use elements. For
element-based sensors, enter the power listed on the
forward element. The reflected element’s power rating
should be 10% of the forward element’s.
Press from
Measure
Power Mode
Measure Power Mode
Configuration Screen
Scroll to Full
Scale
Recall
Setups
Fwd
0.000 KWatts
1.20
Enter the
forward
element
power
Offset
FullScale
0.00 dB
1000.00 Watts
83
Bird Site Analyzer
Setting the Offset
To read unattenuated power when using a coupler or
attenuator, enter (in dB) the attenuation or coupling
factor. To convert percentages to dB, use the equation:
Attenuation(dB) = 10 x Log10 [Attenuation(%) / 100]
Press from
Measure
Power Mode
Measure Power Mode
Configuration Screen
Recall
Setups
Fwd
0.00 KWatts
24.00
Scroll to
Offset
16.00 dB
Offset
Enter the
new value
FullScale
500.00 Watts
Measure Power Mode
Sensor Connected
Esc
The offset is
displayed at
the bottom
of the main
display
Display
Fwd
Fwd
0.00 KWatts
PwrUnit
KWatts
24.00
MatchUnit
Rtn Loss
84
Refl
0.00 Watts
Match
0.00 Loss(dB)
Offset 16.00 dB
Measure Power Mode
Recall Setups
Power measurement setups can be created using the
Bird Site Analyzer PCTool Software, then stored in
the Site Analyzer’s nonvolatile memory. These setups
store both the offset and full scale power.
Press from
Measure
Power Mode
Measure Power Mode
Select Power Setup
Recall
Press to
display the
Power
Setup menu
Name
Offset
Setup1
Dflt1
Dflt2
Dflt3
Dflt4
Dflt5
Dflt6
Dflt7
16.00 1000.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
0.00 500.00 W
Scale
Measure Power Mode
Configuration Screen
Scroll to the
setup to be
recalled
Recall
Setups
Fwd
0.00 KWatts
50.00
The setup is
recalled
Offset
FullScale
16.00 dB
1000.00 Watts
85
Bird Site Analyzer
Choosing the Displayed Measurement
The primary display shows one value on the large
numerical display and the dial. Other measurements
are displayed numerically below the dial.
☞
NOTE: When using a terminating power sensor,
only forward power can be measured. Reflected
power and match will not be displayed.
Measure Power Mode
Sensor Connected
Display
Match
Toggle
between
Fwd, Refl,
and Match
86
Match
0.00 Loss (dB)
PwrUnit
Watts
0.00
MatchUnit
Rtn Loss
Fwd
0.0 Watts
Refl
0.00 Watts
Measure Power Mode
Setting Units
Toggle
between
Watts and
dBm
Measure Power Mode
Sensor Connected
Display
Fwd
Fwd
-30.00 dBm
PwrUnit
dBm
Toggle
between
VSWR,
Return
Loss, and
Match
Efficiency
58.00
MatchUnit
VSWR
Refl
Match
-30.00 dBm
2.00 VSWR
87
Bird Site Analyzer
Calibrating the Bird 5011
CAUTION
When using a Bird 5011, do not exceed 2 W average
or 125 W peak power for 5 µs. Doing so will render
the sensor inoperative.
The Bird 5011 is a highly accurate terminating power
sensor. Over time, the sensor’s “zero value” (reading
with no applied RF power) can drift, making all
readings inaccurate by this value. For example, if the
zero value is –2 µW, measuring a 5 mW signal will
give a reading of 4.998 mW, a 0.04% error. Measuring
a 50 µW signal will give a reading of 48 µW, a 4%
error. To keep this drift from causing a significant
error, rezero the sensor as necessary.
☞
NOTE: For best results, make sure the sensor has
been connected to the Site Analyzer and the SA
turned on for at least 5 minutes. Do not apply RF
power to the sensor during calibration.
Measure Power Mode
Configuration Screen
Press from
Measure
Power Mode
Recall
Setups
Fwd
0.00 mWatts
Calibrate
5011
This will take about 45
seconds to complete. Do
you wish to continue?
12.00
[Enter/Esc]
Press to
begin the
calibration
88
Offset
0.00 dB
FullScale
0.01 Watts
Measure Power Mode
Measure Power Mode
Configuration Screen
Press to the
warning
Recall
Setups
Fwd
0.00 mWatts
Calibrate
5011
WARNING
Do not disconnect sensor
until cal is complete.
Wait for
calibration
to finish
12.00
Offset
0.00 dB
FullScale
0.01 Watts
Measure Power Mode
Configuration Screen
Recall
Setups
Fwd
Calibrate
5011
0.00 mWatts
12.00
Offset
0.00 dB
FullScale
0.01 Watts
89
Bird Site Analyzer
90
Chapter 9
Utilities
These utilities adjust the Bird Site Analyzer’s date
and time, return the unit to default settings, or check
the printer status.
Utility Mode
System
Press the
Mode key
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
Printer
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
FM Mod
Press from
Select Mode
Rtn To
Defaults
91
Bird Site Analyzer
Adjust Date and Time
Utility Mode
System
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
Press to
display the
system
settings
Printer
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
FM Mod
Current Date / Time:
12 - DEC - 2001 12:05 p
Rtn To
Defaults
Utility Mode
System
Scroll
through the
date & time
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
Printer
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
FM Mod
Change the
date or time
92
Current Date / Time:
12 - FEB - 2002 12:05 p
Rtn To
Defaults
Utilities
Return to Defaults
All settings will be returned to the factory presets.
Saved traces and setups will not be affected. This
function should be used after a unit failure and on first
power up.
Utility Mode
System
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
Press to
return all
settings to
factory
presets
Printer
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
FM Mod
Return to defaults executed.
Rtn To
Defaults
93
Bird Site Analyzer
FM Modulation
The Bird Site Analyzer uses FM modulation to
improve its immunity to interfering signals. Under
certain circumstances, such as while making cable loss
or other high reflection measurements with long
cables, FM modulation may reduce signal quality. In
that case, the modulation should be turned off.
y FM modulation is on by default, and will be turned
back on whenever the unit is reset to defaults.
y FM modulation is automatically turned off while
the unit is in Cable Loss Mode and returned to its
previous state on exiting Cable Loss Mode.
y Saving a setup saves the status of the modulation.
Utility Mode
FM Mod
System
Rtn To
Defaults
Toggle
between ON
and OFF
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
Printer
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
FM Mod
FM Modulation ON
Rtn To
Defaults
94
Utilities
Printer
The Bird Site Analyzer is compatible all printers that
use HP PCL Level 3, including most HP printers.
When a printer error occurs, this screen will display
an error message describing the printer problem.
Utility Mode
System
Model SA-2500A, 780 - 2500 MHz
Press to
display the
printer
status
Printer
SN: 00000000
8 Feb 2002
FM Mod
Printer: Generic HP Ink Jet Printer
Status: OK
Rtn To
Defaults
95
Bird Site Analyzer
96
Chapter 10
Computer Software
The Bird Site Analyzer Software is designed to help
you use the Site Analyzer more effectively. The
software enables use of a PC for archiving and
analyzing measurement data.
Features
y Multiple Document Interface - allows any number
of trace documents to be open simultaneously.
y Intelligent drag-and-drop automatically converts
traces to a common scale for precise and reliable
comparisons.
y Documents can be viewed in the frequency or
distance domains, or as a Smith chart.
y Data values can be read off the status bar as the
mouse is moved along the trace.
y Compatible with other cable and antenna testers
including the Bird AT Series.
☞ NOTE: The Bird Site Analyzer and PCTool
software are no longer compatible with trace data
from the Anritsu Site Master.
y Automatic cursor calibration maintains accurate
readouts of trace data even if the x-axis changes.
y Supports long file names for easy identification.
Computer Requirements
To install and run the software, your computer system
must meet the following requirements:
y Windows 95 or later
y 486 or better microprocessor running enhanced
mode (66 MHz or better recommended)
y 1 MB of free memory
y Hard disk with 3 MB of free space
y 1.44 MB Floppy Drive
☞
NOTE: For more instructions refer to the help files
included with the software.
97
Bird Site Analyzer
98
Chapter 11
Maintenance
Cleaning
CAUTION
Harsh or abrasive detergents, and some solvents,
can damage the display unit and labels.
Only clean the Site Analyzer with a soft cloth
dampened with mild detergent and water. Do not use
any other type of cleaning solution.
Charging the Battery
The internal battery pack is charged while the Site
Analyzer is connected to the ac adapter or the
automobile cigarette lighter adapter. Recharging time,
from a full discharge, is approximately 4 hours.
99
Bird Site Analyzer
Troubleshooting
Any service procedure not covered in this manual
should be referred to an authorized service facility.
Locate the problem, review the possible causes, and
perform the action listed. If the problem is not
corrected, give us a call or return the unit for service.
Problem
Possible Cause
Unit will not power up Battery pack drained
Possible Correction
Charge the battery pack.
Battery pack unable to
keep a charge
Replace the battery pack.
AC adapter is not
securely connected or is
damaged
Securely connect the ac
adapter to the unit.
Replace the ac adapter.
No power supplied at the Restore power to the wall
wall receptacle.
receptacle.
Self test fails
Error condition
Turn the unit off and then
back on. If the problem
persists, return the unit
for service.
Date and time appear, Internal error
hiding the display
Press Mode, Utility, and
then Escape.
Fault Location trace
appears incorrect
Scale too large
Press Auto Scale to make
the scale is small enough.
Incorrect cable loss or
velocity of propagation
Check the cable loss and
Vp settings.
Erratic antenna test
measurements
Bad calibration combo
Use a different calibration
combo.
Soft Key One beeps
when pressed without
actually performing
any function.
Context switching
operations taking place
Wait for screen changes to
complete before.
100
Maintenance
Problem
Possible Cause
Possible Correction
Keys do not respond
Unit is “Locked Up”
Turn the unit off and then
back on.
Perform a full system
initialization. Disconnect
the AC adapter, hold down
the Contrast key and turn
the unit off. Turn the unit
back on.
Limit line not drawing
Turn the limit line off and
then back on.
Recalled fault location No fault location
trace is invalid.
measurement made
since last full system
initialization (holding
down the Contrast key
while turning the unit
Off).
Change to Measure Match
Mode and then back to
Fault Location Mode.
Unit beeps and turns
off.
Turn the unit back on and
continue.
Limit line disappears
in Fault Location
Mode. The limit value
is valid, the test is
performed and
reported, the failing
portion of the trace is
drawn in red.
Internal error
Unit is unable to print. Printer error
“Error” is displayed
after pressing PRINT.
Check the error condition
in Utility Mode (Mode,
Utility, Printer). Correct
the error.
101
Bird Site Analyzer
Battery Replacement
y Lay the Site Analyzer, display side down, on a clean
surface.
y Remove the four screws and the battery cover. Refer
to the figure below.
☞
NOTE: Check the direction of the notch in the
Battery Cover. It is important to replace the cover
the same way it was removed.
y Disconnect and remove the old battery pack from
the battery compartment.
☞
NOTE: Do not tear the protective label covering
the EPROM and Reset access. Hold the wires
coming from the unit while disconnecting the
battery.
y Install the new battery. Make sure the wires are
firmly connected.
y Place the battery in the battery compartment. Make
sure the battery is flat in the compartment, and will
not damage any wires when the cover is installed.
y Replace the battery cover and the screws.
102
Maintenance
Unit Reset
y Lay the Site Analyzer, display side down, on a clean
surface.
y Remove the battery. Follow the instructions in
“Battery Replacement”, page 102.
y Remove the label covering the Reset and EPROM
access. Refer to the figure on the previous page.
y Press the Reset button with a nonconductive
instrument.
y Place a new label over the Reset and EPROM access
area.
y Replace the battery and battery cover. Follow the
directions in “Battery Replacement”, page 102.
103
Bird Site Analyzer
Flash ROM Upgrade (SA-2500A Only)
The SA-2500A uses flash-programmable ROM. It is
not necessary to replace the EPROM to upgrade the
firmware.
☞
NOTE: The update process will erase the memory
of the Site Analyzer, including all saved traces and
setups. Use the PC software to save all traces to a
PC before updating the flash ROM.
y Install the FlashLoader program on a PC.
y Turn off the Site Analyzer and disconnect the
external power supply.
y Connect the PC to the Site Analyzer’s serial port
with the supplied serial cable.
y Run the FlashLoader and click the Begin button.
The status will change to “Waiting to Connect”.
y Connect the Site Analyzer to the power supply. The
green LED on the SA will turn on and the Flash
Updater will display “Connected.”
y Select the data file (e.g. 04May2001.sre) and click
“Open”.
y Select “Yes” to accept the warning and update the
flash, or “No” if you do not want to proceed.
y The update process takes 3 to 5 minutes. After this
the Site Analyzer will beep several times, the green
power LED will turn off and the amber charging
LED will start blinking.
104
Maintenance
EPROM Replacement
The EPROM should not need to be replaced by the
user. If the EPROM does ever need to be replaced, it
should only be replaced by qualified service personnel.
☞
NOTE: The Model SA-2500A uses flashprogrammable ROM. It is not necessary to replace
the EPROM to upgrade the firmware.
y Make sure the power is turned off and the ac
adapter is removed from the unit.
y Lay the Site Analyzer, display side down, on a clean
surface.
y Remove the battery. Follow the instructions in
“Battery Replacement”, page 102.
y Remove the label covering the Reset and EPROM
access. Refer to the figure below.
y Move the battery wires away from the EPROM.
y Remove the EPROM with an EPROM removal tool.
y Insert the new EPROM in the socket, keeping it in
the same orientation as the old one.
y Put the battery wires back in place.
y Place a new label over the Reset and EPROM access.
y Replace the battery and battery cover. Follow the
directions in “Battery Replacement”, page 102.
105
Bird Site Analyzer
Customer Service
If you need to return the unit for any reason, contact
the Bird Service Center for a return authorization. All
instruments returned must be shipped prepaid and to
the attention of Bird Service Center.
Service
Facility
Sales
Facilities
Bird Service Center
30303 Aurora Road
Cleveland (Solon), Ohio 44139-2794
Phone: (440) 519-2298
Fax: (440) 519-2326
E-mail: bsc@bird-technologies.com
For the location of the Sales Office nearest you, give us
a call or visit our Web site at:
http://www.bird-electronic.com
Parts List
Part Name
Part Number
Site Analyzer - Complete
106
806-2000 MHz
SA-2000
806-2300 MHz
SA-2000A
780-2500 MHz
SA-2500A
AC adapter (15 Vdc output)
5A2436
Automobile cigarette lighter
adapter
5A2238-2
Soft Carrying case
7002A850
9-pin Serial interface cable
5A2264-9MF-10
PC interface software kit
7002A844
Instruction manual
920-7002A800
Internal Battery Pack
5A2431
Maintenance
Specifications
Frequency Characteristics
Frequency Range:
Model SA-2000
Model SA-2000A
Model SA-2500A
806 MHz to 2000 MHz
806 MHz to 2300 MHz
780 MHz to 2500 MHz
Frequency Resolution:
50 kHz
Frequency Accuracy:
± 150 kHz (75 ppm)
Number of Points:
238
Measurement Range and Resolution
Range
Resolution
Return Loss:
0.0 to –60.0 dB
0.1 dB
VSWR:
1.00 to 99.99
0.01
Measurement Uncertainty (after 1 display refresh)
Return Loss:
Determined graphically from composite of
42 dB directivity, 1.2 source VSWR, and
instrumentation error. Refer to the figure
on page 110.
VSWR:
Calculated from Return Loss
Test Port
Connectors:
Impedance:
N, Female normally supplied
50 Ohms
Directivity
42 dB, after calibration
Measurement Speed
Better than 1 sweep per 4 seconds, test
port open, y-axis set to full scale
Immunity to Interfering
Signals
≥ 13 dB interferer at desired
measurement frequency.
Maximum Input Signal
(Damage Level)
≥ 22 dBm
Output Power
< 0 dBm
107
Bird Site Analyzer
Distance to Fault (DTF) Measurement
Mode
Internal
Resolution [R]
X-Axis:
8
3 ×10
R ≡ -----------------------------2 × ε r × ∆F
Where R=Resolution (meters),
εr=Dielectric Constant*, ∆F= frequency
bandwidth
Y-Axis:
0.1 dB, 0.01 VSWR
Range
X-Axis:
Y-Axis:
238 x R
0 to –60 dB
Accuracy
X-Axis:
Y-Axis:
Vp Range
± 2% of full-scale range with Vp = 1
Same as for Return Loss Measurements
0.20 to 1.00, or 1.00 to 99 percent (new specs)
Power Measure Mode
Function:
Displays power from Bird power sensors,
VSWR alarm and BPM
(specifications determined by sensor)
General
Data Storage
300 traces in fundamental data format
stored in non-volatile memory. Traces
may be recalled and displayed in any of
the display formats.
PC/Remote Power Sensor Interface Port
Connector:
Protocol:
108
Female DB-9, compatible with PC serial
port.
Serial RS-232, 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 1
stop bit, no parity, and no handshake.
Maintenance
Printer Interface Port
Connector:
Compatibility:
Female DB-25, compatible with PC
parallel port.
HP Deskjet printers with PCL Level 3
protocol
Power Requirements
Internal:
External DC:
External AC:
Lithium-ion rechargeable battery
3 hours minimum operating time
9 to 16 Vdc
90 to 264 Vac @ 45 to 66 Hz
Physical Specifications
Dimensions:
Weight:
10.44” x 8.38” x 3.28” (265 x 212 x 83 mm)
< 5 lbs. (2.3 Kg)
Environmental Specifications
Operating Temp:
Storage Temp:
Humidity:
Altitude:
–10° to 50°C (14° to 122°F)
–40° to 80°C (–40° to 176°F)
95% maximum (non-condensing)
up to 15,000 feet (4,572 m)
International Standards
EMC:
Conforms to: EN 63126-1:1997
Safety:
Conforms to: EN 61010-1:1993, with
Amendment A2:1995
Calibration
Calibration Cycle:
User Defined
Recommended
Calibration Interval:
12 months
*Dielectric Constant - The dielectric constant of the antenna cable
determines the propagation velocity of the cable, which together with the
frequency range of the match data, determines the maximum distance for
which the calculation can be done without aliasing errors.
109
110
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
0
-5
-15
Measured Return Loss (dB)
-10
Site Antenna Tester
Measurement Uncertainty
-20
-25
Bird Site Analyzer
Measurement Uncertainty (Return Loss after one refresh)
Uncertainty (dB)
Maintenance
Optional Equipment Available
Precision Open/Short/Load Combination:
Connector Type
Part Number
Male N
CAL-MN-B
Female N
CAL-FN-B
Male 7/16 DIN
CAL-ME-B
Female 7/16 DIN
CAL-FE-B
Armored (phase stable) Test Cables:
Connector Types
Length
Part Number
Male N to Male N
1.5 meter
TC-MNMN-1.5
Male N to Male N
3.0 meter
TC-MNMN-3.0
Male N to Male N
5.0 meter
TC-MNMN-5.0
Male N to Female N
1.5 meter
TC-MNFN-1.5
Male N to Female N
3.0 meter
TC-MNFN-3.0
Male N to Female N
5.0 meter
TC-MNFN-5.0
Male N to Female 7/16 DIN
1.5 meter
TC-MNFE-1.5
Male N to Female 7/16 DIN
3.0 meter
TC-MNFE-3.0
Male N to Female 7/16 DIN
5.0 meter
TC-MNFE-5.0
Precision Adapters:
Connector Types
Part Number
Male N to Male 7/16 DIN
PA-MNME
Female N to Male 7/16 DIN
PA-FNME
Male N to Female 7/16 DIN
PA-MNFE
Female N to Female 7/16 DIN
PA-FNFE
Female N to Female N
4240-500-1
Female N to Male N, Right Angle
4240-500-3
Female N to Female SMA
4240-500-4
Female N to Male SMA
4240-500-5
111
Bird Site Analyzer
Hard Transit
Case
External
Battery
Pack
P/N: 7002C870
Holds Site Analyzer, standard accessories, calibration
combo, armored cable assembly, and adapters.
P/N: SA–BATPAK
Includes ac adapter and dc power cord.
Directional
Power
Sensor
P/N: 5010
Sensor for Thruline power measurement. Requires two
DPM elements.
DPM
Elements
Refer to DPM Element Guide, P/N 871-DPM-019-901,
for a complete list of Bird DPM elements.
Terminating
Power
Sensor
P/N: 5011
Sensor for terminating power measurement.
Terminating Power Sensor Accessories:
Description
Part Number
Female N to Male N Attenuators (RF power range using TPS)
30 dB (10 mW – 10 W)
8353A030–10
40 db (100 mW – 50 W)
8353A040–50
DC Block
5011A035–1
General Purpose Test Cable
Male N to Female N, 1.5 m
TC-MNFN-1.5-G
Calibration Data
5011–CALDATA
Recommended for attenuators, test cables, dc block, and
right angle adapter
112
Limited Warranty
All products manufactured by Seller are warranted to be free from
defects in material and workmanship for a period of two (2) years,
unless otherwise specified, from date of shipment and to conform to
applicable specifications, drawings, blueprints and/or samples. Seller’s
sole obligation under these warranties shall be to issue credit, repair
or replace any item or part thereof which is proved to be other than as
warranted; no allowance shall be made for any labor charges of Buyer
for replacement of parts, adjustment or repairs, or any other work,
unless such charges are authorized in advance by Seller.
If Seller’s products are claimed to be defective in material or workmanship or not to conform to specifications, drawings, blueprints and/
or samples, Seller shall, upon prompt notice thereof, either examine
the products where they are located or issue shipping instructions for
return to Seller (transportation-charges prepaid by Buyer). In the
event any of our products are proved to be other than as warranted,
transportation costs (cheapest way) to and from Seller’s plant, will be
borne by Seller and reimbursement or credit will be made for amounts
so expended by Buyer. Every such claim for breach of these warranties
shall be deemed to be waived by Buyer unless made in writing within
ten (10) days from the date of discovery of the defect.
The above warranties shall not extend to any products or parts thereof
which have been subjected to any misuse or neglect, damaged by
accident, rendered defective by reason of improper installation or by
the performance of repairs or alterations outside of our plant, and
shall not apply to any goods or parts thereof furnished by Buyer or
acquired from others at Buyer’s request and/or to Buyer’s
specifications. Routine (regularly required) calibration is not covered
under this limited warranty. In addition, Seller’s warranties do not
extend to the failure of tubes, transistors, fuses and batteries, or to
other equipment and parts manufactured by others except to the
extent of the original manufacturer’s warranty to Seller.
The obligations under the foregoing warranties are limited to the
precise terms thereof. These warranties provide exclusive remedies,
expressly in lieu of all other remedies including claims for special or
consequential damages. SELLER NEITHER MAKES NOR
ASSUMES ANY OTHER WARRANTY WHATSOEVER, WHETHER
EXPRESS, STATUTORY, OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, AND NO
PERSON IS AUTHORIZED TO ASSUME FOR SELLER ANY
OBLIGATION OR LIABILITY NOT STRICTLY IN ACCORDANCE
WITH THE FOREGOING.
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Manufacturer:
Bird Electronic Corporation
30303 Aurora Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44139-2794
Products:
Site Analyzer
Models:
SA-2500A
The undersigned hereby declares, on behalf of Bird Electronic Corporation of
Cleveland, Ohio, that the above-referenced products, to which this declaration
relates, are in conformance with the provisions of the following standards.
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
European Standard EN 55011,1998 - Conducted & Radiated Emissions
European Standard EN 61000-3-2,1995 - Harmonic Emissions
European Standard EN 61000-4-2,1995 - ESD Immunity
European Standard EN 61000-4-3,1995 - Radiated RF & EMF Immunity
European Standard EN 61000-4-4,1995 - Fast Transient & Burst Immunity
European Standard EN 61000-4-5,1995 - Surge Immunity
European Standard EN 61000-4-6,1995 - Conducted Immunity
European Standard EN 61000-4-11,1995 - Voltage Dips & Interruptions
These standards are in accordance with EMC Directive (89/336/EEC). Electrical
equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use, EN 61326-1, 1997.
y
European Standard EN 61010-1:1993 - Part 1: General Requirements
Including Amendment 2, 1995.
This standard is in accordance with Low Voltage Directive (73/23/EEC), 1973
Including Amendment (93/68/EEC), 1993
The technical documentation file required by this directive is maintained at the
corporate headquarters of Bird Electronic Corporation, 30303 Aurora Road,
Cleveland, Ohio 44139
Bob Gardiner
Director of Quality
Bird Electronic Corporation
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