lecroy waverunner® 6000a series oscilloscopes

LECROY
WAVERUNNER 6000A
®
SERIES
OSCILLOSCOPES
O P E R AT O R ’ S M A N U A L
F E B R U A RY 2007
LeCroy Corporation
700 Chestnut Ridge Road
Chestnut Ridge, NY 10977–6499
Tel: (845) 578 6020, Fax: (845) 578 5985
Internet: www.lecroy.com
© 2007 by LeCroy Corporation. All rights reserved.
LeCroy, ActiveDSO, WaveLink, JitterTrack, WavePro, WaveMaster, WaveSurfer, WaveExpert,
WaveJet, and Waverunner are registered trademarks of LeCroy Corporation. Other product or
brand names are trademarks or requested trademarks of their respective holders. Information in
this publication supersedes all earlier versions. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Manufactured under an ISO 9000
Registered Quality Management System
Visit www.lecroy.com
certificate.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
914871-00 Rev A
to
view
the
This electronic product is subject to
disposal and recycling regulations
that vary by country and region.
Many
countries
prohibit
the
disposal
of
waste
electronic
equipment in standard waste
receptacles.
For more information about proper
disposal and recycling of your
LeCroy product, please visit
www.lecroy.com/recycle.
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................13
How to Use On-line Help................................................................................................................ 13
Type Styles ............................................................................................................................. 13
Instrument Help....................................................................................................................... 13
Windows Help ................................................................................................................................ 14
Returning a Product for Service or Repair ..................................................................................... 14
Technical Support........................................................................................................................... 14
Staying Up-to-Date......................................................................................................................... 14
Windows License Agreement......................................................................................................... 15
End-user License Agreement For LeCroy® X-Stream Software.................................................... 15
Virus Protection .............................................................................................................................. 21
Warranty......................................................................................................................................... 21
Specifications ................................................................................................................................. 22
Vertical System ....................................................................................................................... 22
Horizontal System................................................................................................................... 24
Acquisition System.................................................................................................................. 25
Acquisition Modes................................................................................................................... 25
Acquisition Processing............................................................................................................ 26
Triggering System................................................................................................................... 26
Basic Triggers ......................................................................................................................... 27
SMART Triggers ..................................................................................................................... 27
SMART Triggers with Exclusion Technology ......................................................................... 27
Automatic Setup...................................................................................................................... 27
Probes..................................................................................................................................... 27
Color Waveform Display ......................................................................................................... 28
Analog Persistence Display .................................................................................................... 28
Zoom Expansion Traces......................................................................................................... 28
Rapid Signal Processing......................................................................................................... 28
Internal Waveform Memory .................................................................................................... 28
Setup Storage ......................................................................................................................... 28
Interface .................................................................................................................................. 28
Auxiliary Input ......................................................................................................................... 29
Auxiliary Output....................................................................................................................... 29
Math Tools (standard)............................................................................................................. 29
Measure Tools (standard)....................................................................................................... 30
Pass/Fail Testing .................................................................................................................... 30
Master Analysis Package (XMAP).......................................................................................... 30
Advanced Math Package (XMATH)........................................................................................ 30
Advanced Customization Package (XDEV)............................................................................ 31
Intermediate Math Package (XWAV)...................................................................................... 31
Jitter and Timing Analysis Package (JTA2)............................................................................ 31
Value Analysis Package (XVAP) ............................................................................................ 32
Web Editor (XWEB) ................................................................................................................ 32
Disk Drive Measurement Package (DDM2)............................................................................ 32
Digital Filter Package (DFP2) ................................................................................................. 33
Ethernet (ENET) ..................................................................................................................... 33
PowerMeasure Analyzer (PMA2) ........................................................................................... 33
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USB2....................................................................................................................................... 33
Serial Data Manager ............................................................................................................... 35
General ................................................................................................................................... 35
Warranty and Service ............................................................................................................. 35
Environmental Characteristics ................................................................................................ 35
Temperature ........................................................................................................................... 35
Humidity .................................................................................................................................. 35
Altitude .................................................................................................................................... 35
Random Vibration ................................................................................................................... 36
Shock ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Certifications ................................................................................................................. 36
CE Declaration of Conformity ................................................................................................. 36
China RoHS Compliance........................................................................................................ 38
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................40
Safety Symbols and Terms..................................................................................................... 40
Operating Environment ..................................................................................................................41
Cooling Requirements....................................................................................................................42
AC Power Source...........................................................................................................................42
Power and Ground Connections ....................................................................................................42
On/Standby Switch.........................................................................................................................43
Calibration ......................................................................................................................................43
Cleaning .........................................................................................................................................43
Abnormal Conditions......................................................................................................................44
FRONT PANEL CONTROLS .............................................................................45
Front Panel Buttons and Knobs .....................................................................................................45
Trigger Knobs: ........................................................................................................................ 47
Trigger Buttons: ...................................................................................................................... 47
Horizontal Knobs:.................................................................................................................... 47
Vertical Knobs:........................................................................................................................ 47
Channel Buttons: .................................................................................................................... 47
Wavepilot Control Knobs: ...................................................................................................... 48
Special Features Buttons:...................................................................................................... 48
General Control Buttons: ....................................................................................................... 48
ON-SCREEN TOOLBARS, ICONS, AND DIALOG BOXES ..............................49
Menu Bar Buttons ..........................................................................................................................49
Dialog Boxes ..................................................................................................................................50
Alternate Access Methods..............................................................................................................50
Mouse and Keyboard Operation ....................................................................................................50
Tool Bar Buttons.............................................................................................................................50
Trace Descriptors ...........................................................................................................................51
Trace Annotation ............................................................................................................................53
To Annotate a Waveform ........................................................................................................ 53
To Turn On a Channel Trace Label ................................................................................................54
Screen Layout ................................................................................................................................55
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Menu Bar ................................................................................................................................ 55
Signal Display Grid ................................................................................................................. 55
INSTALLATION ..................................................................................................56
Hardware........................................................................................................................................ 56
External Monitor ............................................................................................................................. 56
Software ......................................................................................................................................... 57
Checking the Scope Status .................................................................................................... 57
Default Settings.............................................................................................................................. 58
WaveMaster and WavePro 7000 Series DSOs...................................................................... 58
DDA, SDA, and WaveRunner DSOs.............................................................................................. 58
Adding a New Option ..................................................................................................................... 58
Restoring Software......................................................................................................................... 59
Restarting the Application....................................................................................................... 59
Restarting the Operating System............................................................................................ 60
Removable Hard Drive................................................................................................................... 60
External Monitor ............................................................................................................................. 61
CONNECTING TO A SIGNAL ............................................................................63
ProBus Interface ............................................................................................................................ 63
Auxiliary Output Signals ................................................................................................................. 63
To Set Up Auxiliary Output ............................................................................................................. 63
SAMPLING MODES ...........................................................................................65
Sampling Modes ............................................................................................................................ 65
To Select a Sampling Mode.................................................................................................... 65
Single-shot sampling mode............................................................................................................ 65
Basic Capture Technique ....................................................................................................... 65
Sequence SAMPLING Mode Working With Segments.................................................................. 66
To Set Up Sequence Mode .................................................................................................... 67
Sequence Display Modes ....................................................................................................... 68
To Display Individual Segments ............................................................................................. 69
To View Time Stamps............................................................................................................. 69
RIS SAMPLING Mode -- For Higher Sample Rates ...................................................................... 70
Roll Mode ....................................................................................................................................... 70
VERTICAL SETTINGS AND CHANNEL CONTROLS .......................................71
Adjusting Sensitivity and Position .................................................................................................. 71
To Adjust Sensitivity................................................................................................................ 71
To Adjust the Waveform's Position......................................................................................... 71
Coupling ......................................................................................................................................... 71
Overload Protection ................................................................................................................ 71
To Set Coupling ...................................................................................................................... 72
Probe Attenuation........................................................................................................................... 72
To Set Probe Attenuation ....................................................................................................... 72
Bandwidth Limit .............................................................................................................................. 72
To Set Bandwidth Limiting ...................................................................................................... 72
Linear and (SinX)/X Interpolation................................................................................................... 72
To Set Up Interpolation........................................................................................................... 73
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Inverting Waveforms ............................................................................................................... 73
QuickZoom .....................................................................................................................................73
To Turn On a Zoom ................................................................................................................ 73
Finding Scale..................................................................................................................................73
To Use Find Scale .................................................................................................................. 73
Variable Gain..................................................................................................................................73
To Enable Variable Gain......................................................................................................... 73
Channel Deskew ............................................................................................................................74
To Set Up Channel Deskew ................................................................................................... 74
TIMEBASE AND ACQUISITION SYSTEM.........................................................75
Timebase Setup and Control .........................................................................................................75
Dual Channel Acquisition ...............................................................................................................75
Combining of Channels........................................................................................................... 75
To Combine Channels ............................................................................................................ 75
Autosetup .......................................................................................................................................76
TRIGGERING .....................................................................................................77
Trigger Setup Considerations ........................................................................................................77
Trigger Modes......................................................................................................................... 77
Trigger Types.......................................................................................................................... 77
Determining Trigger Level, Slope, Source, and Coupling..............................................................78
Trigger Source................................................................................................................................79
Level...............................................................................................................................................79
Holdoff by Time or Events ..............................................................................................................80
Hold Off by Time ..................................................................................................................... 80
Hold Off by Events .................................................................................................................. 80
Simple Triggers ..............................................................................................................................81
Edge Trigger on Simple Signals ............................................................................................. 81
Control Edge Triggering.......................................................................................................... 81
To Set Up an Edge Trigger..................................................................................................... 82
SMART Triggers.............................................................................................................................84
Width Trigger .......................................................................................................................... 84
Glitch Trigger .......................................................................................................................... 85
Interval Trigger........................................................................................................................ 87
Qualified Trigger ..................................................................................................................... 91
State Trigger ........................................................................................................................... 93
Dropout Trigger....................................................................................................................... 95
Logic Trigger ........................................................................................................................... 96
DISPLAY FORMATS..........................................................................................98
Display Setup .................................................................................................................................98
Sequence Mode Display......................................................................................................... 98
Persistence Setup ..........................................................................................................................99
Saturation Level ...................................................................................................................... 99
3-Dimensional Persistence ................................................................................................... 100
Show Last Trace ..........................................................................................................................101
Persistence Time..........................................................................................................................101
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Locking of Traces .........................................................................................................................101
To Set Up Persistence..................................................................................................................102
Screen Saver ...............................................................................................................................103
Moving Traces from Grid to Grid ..................................................................................................103
To Move a Channel or Math Trace ....................................................................................... 103
Zooming Waveforms ....................................................................................................................103
To Zoom a Single Channel ................................................................................................... 104
To Zoom by Touch-and-Drag ............................................................................................... 105
To Zoom Multiple Waveforms Quickly .................................................................................. 106
Multi-Zoom ............................................................................................................................ 106
XY Display....................................................................................................................................108
To Set Up XY Displays ......................................................................................................... 108
SAVE AND RECALL ........................................................................................109
Saving and Recalling Scope Settings ..........................................................................................109
To Save Scope Settings ....................................................................................................... 109
To Recall Scope Settings ..................................................................................................... 109
To Recall Default Settings .................................................................................................... 109
Saving Screen Images ................................................................................................................. 110
Saving and Recalling Waveforms ................................................................................................ 110
Saving Waveforms................................................................................................................ 110
Recalling Waveforms............................................................................................................ 112
Disk Utilities.................................................................................................................................. 112
To Delete a Single File ......................................................................................................... 112
To Delete All Files in a Folder............................................................................................... 113
To Create a Folder................................................................................................................ 113
PRINTING AND FILE MANAGEMENT.............................................................114
Print, Plot, or Copy ....................................................................................................................... 114
Printing ......................................................................................................................................... 114
To Set Up the Printer ............................................................................................................ 114
To Print ................................................................................................................................. 114
Adding Printers and Drivers.................................................................................................. 114
Changing the Default Printer ................................................................................................ 115
Managing Files............................................................................................................................. 115
Hard Disk Partitions .............................................................................................................. 115
100BASE-T ETHERNET CONNECTION..........................................................116
Connecting to a Network.............................................................................................................. 116
Communicating over the Network................................................................................................ 116
Windows Setups ................................................................................................................... 117
Windows Repair Disk............................................................................................................ 117
TRACK VIEWS .................................................................................................118
Creating and Viewing a Trend...................................................................................................... 118
Creating a Track View .................................................................................................................. 119
HISTOGRAMS ..................................................................................................120
Creating and Viewing a Histogram ..............................................................................................120
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To Set Up a Single Parameter Histogram ............................................................................ 120
To View Thumbnail Histograms............................................................................................ 121
Persistence Histogram.......................................................................................................... 121
Persistence Trace Range ..................................................................................................... 122
Persistence Sigma ................................................................................................................ 122
Histogram Parameters .................................................................................................................123
Histogram Theory of Operation....................................................................................................136
DSO Process ........................................................................................................................ 138
Parameter Buffer................................................................................................................... 138
Capture of Parameter Events ............................................................................................... 139
Histogram Parameters (XMAP and JTA2 Options)......................................................................139
Histogram Peaks..........................................................................................................................140
Binning and Measurement Accuracy ...........................................................................................141
WAVEFORM MEASUREMENTS .....................................................................142
Measuring with Cursors ...............................................................................................................142
Cursor Measurement Icons .................................................................................................. 142
Cursors Setup ..............................................................................................................................142
Quick Display ........................................................................................................................ 142
Full Setup.............................................................................................................................. 143
Overview of Parameters...............................................................................................................143
To Turn On Parameters ........................................................................................................ 143
Quick Access to Parameter Setup Dialogs........................................................................... 143
Status Symbols ..................................................................................................................... 144
Using X-Stream Browser to Obtain Status Information ........................................................ 145
Statistics .......................................................................................................................................146
To Apply a Measure Mode............................................................................................................147
Measure Modes ...........................................................................................................................147
Standard Vertical Parameters............................................................................................... 147
Standard Horizontal Parameters .......................................................................................... 147
My Measure .......................................................................................................................... 148
Parameter Math (XMATH or XMAP option required) ...................................................................148
Logarithmic Parameters........................................................................................................ 148
Excluded Parameters............................................................................................................ 148
Parameter Script Parameter Math ........................................................................................ 149
Param Script vs. P Script ...................................................................................................... 150
To Set Up Parameter Math................................................................................................... 150
To Set Up Parameter Script Math......................................................................................... 150
Measure Gate...............................................................................................................................151
To Set Up Measure Gate ...................................................................................................... 152
Help Markers ................................................................................................................................153
To Set Up Help Markers ....................................................................................................... 155
To Turn Off Help Markers ..................................................................................................... 155
To Customize a Parameter...........................................................................................................155
From the Measure Dialog ..................................................................................................... 155
From a Vertical Setup Dialog................................................................................................ 156
From a Math Setup Dialog.................................................................................................... 156
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Parameter Calculations................................................................................................................156
Parameters and How They Work.......................................................................................... 156
Determining Time Parameters.............................................................................................. 159
Determining Differential Time Measurements ...................................................................... 160
Level and Slope .................................................................................................................... 160
List of Parameters ........................................................................................................................161
WAVEFORM MATH..........................................................................................188
Introduction to Math Traces and Functions..................................................................................188
MATH MADE EASY .....................................................................................................................188
To Set Up a Math Function................................................................................................... 188
Resampling To Deskew................................................................................................................189
To Resample......................................................................................................................... 189
Rescaling and Assigning Units.....................................................................................................190
To Set Up Rescaling............................................................................................................. 190
Averaging Waveforms ..................................................................................................................190
Summed vs. Continuous Averaging ..................................................................................... 190
To Set Up Continuous Averaging ......................................................................................... 192
To Set Up Summed Averaging ............................................................................................. 192
Enhanced Resolution ...................................................................................................................192
How the Instrument Enhances Resolution ........................................................................... 193
To Set Up Enhanced Resolution (ERES).....................................................................................195
Waveform Copy............................................................................................................................195
Waveform Sparser........................................................................................................................196
To Set Up Waveform Sparser............................................................................................... 196
Interpolation .................................................................................................................................196
To Set Up Interpolation......................................................................................................... 196
FFT....................................................................................................................198
Why Use FFT? .............................................................................................................................198
Power (Density) Spectrum ...........................................................................................................198
FFT Pitfalls to Avoid .....................................................................................................................199
Picket Fence and Scallop.............................................................................................................199
Leakage........................................................................................................................................199
Choosing a Window .....................................................................................................................199
Improving Dynamic Range...........................................................................................................200
Record Length..............................................................................................................................201
FFT Algorithms .............................................................................................................................201
Glossary .......................................................................................................................................203
FFT Setup ....................................................................................................................................206
To Set Up an FFT ................................................................................................................. 206
ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................207
Pass/Fail Testing ..........................................................................................................................207
Comparing Parameters......................................................................................................... 207
Mask Tests............................................................................................................................ 208
Actions .................................................................................................................................. 208
Setting Up Pass/Fail Testing ........................................................................................................209
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Initial Setup ........................................................................................................................... 209
Comparing a Single Parameter ............................................................................................ 209
Comparing Dual Parameters ................................................................................................ 211
Mask Testing......................................................................................................................... 212
UTILITIES .........................................................................................................213
Status ...........................................................................................................................................213
To Access Status Dialog....................................................................................................... 213
Remote communication ...............................................................................................................213
To Set Up Remote Communication. ..................................................................................... 213
To Configure the Remote Control Assistant Event Log........................................................ 213
Hardcopy ......................................................................................................................................214
Printing.................................................................................................................................. 214
Clipboard............................................................................................................................... 214
File ........................................................................................................................................ 214
E-Mail .................................................................................................................................... 215
Aux Output ...................................................................................................................................215
Date & Time..................................................................................................................................216
To Set Time and Date Manually ........................................................................................... 216
To Set Time and Date from the Internet ............................................................................... 216
To Set Time and Date from Windows................................................................................... 216
Options .........................................................................................................................................217
Preferences ..................................................................................................................................217
Audible Feedback ................................................................................................................. 217
Auto-calibration ..................................................................................................................... 218
Offset Control........................................................................................................................ 218
Delay Control ........................................................................................................................ 218
Trigger Counter..................................................................................................................... 218
Performance Optimization .................................................................................................... 219
E-mail .................................................................................................................................... 219
Acquisition Status .........................................................................................................................220
Service .........................................................................................................................................220
Show Windows Desktop ..............................................................................................................220
Touch Screen Calibration .............................................................................................................220
CUSTOMIZATION ............................................................................................221
Customizing Your Instrument .......................................................................................................221
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 221
Solutions ............................................................................................................................... 221
Examples .............................................................................................................................. 222
What is Excel? ...................................................................................................................... 227
What is Mathcad? ................................................................................................................. 227
What is MATLAB?................................................................................................................. 227
What is VBS?........................................................................................................................ 227
What can you do with a customized instrument? ................................................................. 229
Calling Excel from Your Instrument..............................................................................................230
Calling Excel Directly from the Instrument............................................................................ 230
How to Select a Math Function Call.............................................................................................230
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How to Select a Parameter Function Call ....................................................................................230
The Excel Control Dialog .............................................................................................................230
Entering a File Name ...................................................................................................................231
Organizing Excel sheets ..............................................................................................................231
Setting the Vertical Scale .............................................................................................................233
Trace Descriptors .........................................................................................................................233
Multiple Inputs and Outputs .........................................................................................................233
Examples......................................................................................................................................234
Simple Excel Example 1 ....................................................................................................... 234
Simple Excel Example 2 ....................................................................................................... 238
Examples of Excel Parameter Functions.............................................................................. 241
Examples of Excel Waveform Functions .............................................................................. 241
Exponential Decay Time Constant Excel Parameter (Excel Example 1) ............................. 242
Gated Parameter Using Excel (Excel Example 2)................................................................ 244
How Does this Work? ........................................................................................................... 245
Correlation Excel Waveform Function (Excel Example 3).................................................... 246
Multiple Traces on One Grid (Excel Example 4) .................................................................. 248
Using a Surface Plot (Excel Example 5)............................................................................... 251
Writing VB Scripts ........................................................................................................................252
Types of Scripts in VBS ........................................................................................................ 252
Loading and Saving VBScripts ............................................................................................. 253
The default parameter function script: explanatory notes .................................................... 256
Scripting with VBScript ......................................................................................................... 257
Variable Types ...................................................................................................................... 258
Variable Names ............................................................................................................................258
Arithmetic Operators ....................................................................................................................260
VBS Controls................................................................................................................................261
IF . . . Then . . . Else . . . End If ............................................................................................. 262
Summary of If . . . . Then . . . . Else ...................................................................................... 264
Select Case........................................................................................................................... 265
Summary of Select Case . . . . End Select ........................................................................... 265
Do . . . Loop .......................................................................................................................... 266
While . . . Wend..................................................................................................................... 266
For . . . Next .......................................................................................................................... 267
VBS keywords and functions .......................................................................................................268
Other VBS Words ................................................................................................................. 269
Functions......................................................................................................................................270
Hints and Tips for VBScripting .....................................................................................................271
ERRORS ......................................................................................................................................272
Error Handling ..............................................................................................................................274
Speed of Execution ......................................................................................................................274
Scripting Ideas .............................................................................................................................275
Example Waveform Script............................................................................................................275
Example Parameter Scripts .........................................................................................................276
Debugging Scripts........................................................................................................................276
Horizontal Control Variables.........................................................................................................276
Vertical Control Variables .............................................................................................................276
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List of Variables Available to Scripts ............................................................................................277
Communicating with Excel from a VBScript.................................................................................278
Calling MATLAB from the Instrument...........................................................................................279
Calling MATLAB.................................................................................................................... 279
How to Select a Waveform Function Call.....................................................................................280
The MATLAB Waveform Control Panel........................................................................................280
MATLAB Waveform Function Editor -- Example ..........................................................................282
MATLAB Example Waveform Plot................................................................................................284
How to Select a MATLAB Parameter Call....................................................................................285
The MATLAB Parameter Control Panel .......................................................................................285
The MATLAB Parameter Editor....................................................................................................286
MATLAB Example Parameter Panel ............................................................................................287
Further Examples of MATLAB Waveform Functions....................................................................289
Creating Your Own MATLAB Function .........................................................................................291
CUSTOMDSO...................................................................................................292
Custom DSO ................................................................................................................................292
Introduction – What is CustomDSO?.................................................................................... 292
Invoking CustomDSO ........................................................................................................... 292
CustomDSO Basic Mode...................................................................................................... 293
Editing a CustomDSO Setup File ......................................................................................... 293
Creating a CustomDSO Setup File....................................................................................... 295
CustomDSO PlugIn Mode .................................................................................................... 295
Creating a CustomDSO PlugIn............................................................................................. 295
Properties of the Control and its Objects .............................................................................. 297
Removing a PlugIn................................................................................................................ 301
First Example PlugIn – Exchanging Two Traces on the Grids ............................................. 301
Second Example PlugIn – Log-Log FFT Plot ....................................................................... 304
Control Variables in CustomDSO ......................................................................................... 306
PROCESSING WEB OPTION ..........................................................................307
To Use the Web Editor .................................................................................................................307
Adding Parameters ............................................................................................................... 309
Adding Previews ................................................................................................................... 310
Exiting the Web Editor .......................................................................................................... 310
Viewing the Output................................................................................................................ 310
LABNOTEBOOK..............................................................................................311
Introduction to LabNotebook ................................................................................................. 311
Preferences ................................................................................................................................ 311
Miscellaneous Settings ......................................................................................................... 311
Hardcopy Setup .................................................................................................................... 312
E-mail Setup ......................................................................................................................... 312
Creating a Notebook Entry .....................................................................................................312
Recalling Notebook Entries.....................................................................................................317
Creating a Report .....................................................................................................................318
Previewing a Report.............................................................................................................. 318
Locating a Notebook Entry ................................................................................................... 318
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Creating the Report......................................................................................................................319
Formatting the Report ..................................................................................................................319
Managing Notebook Entry Data.............................................................................................320
Adding Annotations............................................................................................................... 320
Deleting Notebook Entries .................................................................................................... 320
Saving Notebook Entries to a Folder .................................................................................... 321
Managing the Database........................................................................................................ 321
To Start a New Database ..................................................................................................... 322
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INTRODUCTION
How to Use On-line Help
Type Styles
Activators of pop-up text and images appear as green, underlined, italic: Pop-up. To close pop-up
text and images after opening them, touch the pop-up text again.
Links jump you to other topics, URLs, or images. They take you out of the current Help screen.
Link text appears blue and underlined: Link. After making a jump, you can touch the Back icon in
the toolbar at the top of the Help window to return to the Help screen you just left. With each
touch of the Back icon, you return to the preceding Help screen.
Instrument Help
When you press the front panel Help button
(if available), or touch the on-screen Help
, you will be presented with a menu: you can choose either to have information
button
found for you automatically or to search for information yourself.
If you want context-sensitive Help, that is, Help related to what was displayed on the screen when
you requested Help, touch
in the drop-down menu, then touch the on-screen
control (or front panel button or knob) that you need information about. The instrument will
automatically display Help about that control.
If you want information about something not displayed on the screen, touch one of the buttons
inside the drop-down menu to display the on-line Help manual:
Contents displays the Table of Contents.
Index displays an alphabetical listing of keywords.
Search locates every occurrence of the keyword that you enter.
www.LeCroy.com connects you to LeCroy's Web site where you can
find Lab Briefs, Application Notes, and other useful information. This
feature requires that the instrument be connected to the internet through
the Ethernet port on the scope's rear panel. Refer to Remote
Communication for setup instructions.
About opens the Utilities "Status" dialog, which shows software version
and other system information.
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Once opened, the Help window will display its navigation pane: the part of the window that shows
the Table of Contents and Index. When you touch anywhere outside of the Help window, this
navigation pane will disappear to reveal more of your signal. To make it return, touch the Show
icon at the top of the Help window or touch inside the Help information pane.
Windows Help
In addition to instrument Help, you can also access on-line Help for Microsoft® Windows®. This
help is accessible by minimizing the scope application, then touching the Start button in the
Windows task bar at the bottom of the screen and selecting Help.
Returning a Product for Service or Repair
If you need to return a LeCroy product, identify it by its model and serial numbers. Describe the
defect or failure, and give us your name and telephone number.
For factory returns, use a Return Authorization Number (RAN), which you can get from customer
service. Write the number clearly on the outside of the shipping carton.
Return products requiring only maintenance to your local customer service center.
If you need to return your scope for any reason, use the original shipping carton. If this is not
possible, be sure to use a rigid carton. The scope should be packed so that it is surrounded by a
minimum of four inches (10 cm) of shock absorbent material.
Within the warranty period, transportation charges to the factory will be your responsibility.
Products under warranty will be returned to you with transport prepaid by LeCroy. Outside the
warranty period, you will have to provide us with a purchase order number before the work can be
done. You will be billed for parts and labor related to the repair work, as well as for shipping.
You should prepay return shipments. LeCroy cannot accept COD (Cash On Delivery) or Collect
Return shipments. We recommend using air freight.
Technical Support
You can get assistance with installation, calibration, and a full range of software applications from
your customer service center. Visit the LeCroy Web site at http://www.lecroy.com for the center
nearest you.
Staying Up-to-Date
To maintain your instrument’s performance within specifications, have us calibrate it at least once
a year. LeCroy offers state-of-the-art performance by continually refining and improving the
instrument’s capabilities and operation. We frequently update both firmware and software during
service, free of charge during warranty.
You can also install new purchased software options in your scope yourself, without having to
return it to the factory. Simply provide us with your instrument serial number and ID, and the
version number of instrument software installed. We will provide you with a unique option key that
consists of a code to be entered through the Utilities' Options dialog to load the software option.
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Windows License Agreement
LeCroy's agreement with Microsoft prohibits users from running software on LeCroy X-Stream
oscilloscopes that is not relevant to measuring, analyzing, or documenting waveforms.
End-user License Agreement For LeCroy® X-Stream Software
IMPORTANT-READ CAREFULLY: THIS END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (“EULA”) IS A
LEGAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL OR ENTITY LICENSING THE SOFTWARE
PRODUCT (“YOU” OR “YOUR”) AND LECROY CORPORATION (“LECROY”) FOR THE
SOFTWARE PRODUCT(S) ACCOMPANYING THIS EULA, WHICH INCLUDE(S): COMPUTER
PROGRAMS; ANY “ONLINE” OR ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTATION AND PRINTED
MATERIALS PROVIDED BY LECROY HEREWITH (“DOCUMENTATION”); ASSOCIATED
MEDIA; AND ANY UPDATES (AS DEFINED BELOW) (COLLECTIVELY, THE “SOFTWARE
PRODUCT”). BY USING AN INSTRUMENT TOGETHER WITH OR CONTAINING THE
SOFTWARE PRODUCT, OR BY INSTALLING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING THE
SOFTWARE PRODUCT, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE
TERMS OF THIS EULA. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS EULA, DO NOT
INSTALL, COPY, OR OTHERWISE USE THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT; YOU MAY RETURN
THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT TO YOUR PLACE OF PURCHASE FOR A FULL REFUND. IN
ADDITION, BY INSTALLING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING ANY MODIFICATIONS,
ENHANCEMENTS, NEW VERSIONS, BUG FIXES, OR OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE
SOFTWARE PRODUCT THAT LECROY PROVIDES TO YOU SEPARATELY AS PART OF THE
SOFTWARE PRODUCT (“UPDATES”), YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY ANY ADDITIONAL
LICENSE TERMS THAT ACCOMPANY SUCH UPDATES. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO SUCH
ADDITIONAL LICENSE TERMS, YOU MAY NOT INSTALL, COPY, OR OTHERWISE USE
SUCH UPDATES.
THE PARTIES CONFIRM THAT THIS AGREEMENT AND ALL RELATED DOCUMENTATION
ARE AND WILL BE DRAFTED IN ENGLISH. LES PARTIES AUX PRÉSENTÉS CONFIRMENT
LEUR VOLONTÉ QUE CETTE CONVENTION DE MÊME QUE TOUS LES DOCUMENTS Y
COMPRIS TOUT AVIS QUI S’Y RATTACHÉ, SOIENT REDIGÉS EN LANGUE ANGLAISE.
1. GRANT OF LICENSE.
1.1 License Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this EULA and payment of all
applicable fees, LeCroy grants to you a nonexclusive, nontransferable license (the “License”) to:
(a) operate the Software Product as provided or installed, in object code form, for your own
internal business purposes, (i) for use in or with an instrument provided or manufactured by
LeCroy (an “Instrument”), (ii) for testing your software product(s) (to be used solely by you) that
are designed to operate in conjunction with an Instrument (“Your Software”), and (iii) make one
copy for archival and back-up purposes; (b) make and use copies of the Documentation; provided
that such copies will be used only in connection with your licensed use of the Software Product,
and such copies may not be republished or distributed (either in hard copy or electronic form) to
any third party; and (c) copy, modify, enhance and prepare derivative works (“Derivatives”) of the
source code version of those portions of the Software Product set forth in and identified in the
Documentation as “Samples” (“Sample Code”) for the sole purposes of designing, developing,
and testing Your Software. If you are an entity, only one designated individual within your
organization, as designated by you, may exercise the License; provided that additional individuals
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
15
WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
within your organization may assist with respect to reproducing and distributing Sample Code as
permitted under Section 1.1(c)(ii). LeCroy reserves all rights not expressly granted to you. No
license is granted hereunder for any use other than that specified herein, and no license is
granted for any use in combination or in connection with other products or services (other than
Instruments and Your Software) without the express prior written consent of LeCroy. The Software
Product is licensed as a single product. Its component parts may not be separated for use by
more than one user. This EULA does not grant you any rights in connection with any trademarks
or service marks of LeCroy. The Software Product is protected by copyright laws and
international copyright treaties, as well as other intellectual property laws and treaties. The
Software Product is licensed, not sold. The terms of this printed, paper EULA supersede the
terms of any on-screen license agreement found within the Software Product.
1.2 Upgrades. If the Software Product is labeled as an “upgrade,” (or other similar designation)
the License will not take effect, and you will have no right to use or access the Software Product
unless you are properly licensed to use a product identified by LeCroy as being eligible for the
upgrade (“Underlying Product”). A Software Product labeled as an “upgrade” replaces and/or
supplements the Underlying Product. You may use the resulting upgraded product only in
accordance with the terms of this EULA. If the Software Product is an upgrade of a component of
a package of software programs that you licensed as a single product, the Software Product may
be used and transferred only as part of that single product package and may not be separated for
use on more than one computer.
1.3. Limitations. Except as specifically permitted in this EULA, you will not directly or indirectly (a)
use any Confidential Information to create any software or documentation that is similar to any of
the Software Product or Documentation; (b) encumber, transfer, rent, lease, time-share or use the
Software Product in any service bureau arrangement; (c) copy (except for archival purposes),
distribute, manufacture, adapt, create derivative works of, translate, localize, port or otherwise
modify the Software Product or the Documentation; (d) permit access to the Software Product by
any party developing, marketing or planning to develop or market any product having functionality
similar to or competitive with the Software Product; (e) publish benchmark results relating to the
Software Product, nor disclose Software Product features, errors or bugs to third parties; or (f)
permit any third party to engage in any of the acts proscribed in clauses (a) through (e). In
jurisdictions in which transfer is permitted, notwithstanding the foregoing prohibition, transfers will
only be effective if you transfer a copy of this EULA, as well as all copies of the Software Product,
whereupon your right to use the Software product will terminate. Except as described in this
Section 1.3, You are not permitted (i) to decompile, disassemble, reverse compile, reverse
assemble, reverse translate or otherwise reverse engineer the Software Product, (ii) to use any
similar means to discover the source code of the Software Product or to discover the trade
secrets in the Software Product, or (iii) to otherwise circumvent any technological measure that
controls access to the Software Product. You may reverse engineer or otherwise circumvent the
technological measures protecting the Software Product for the sole purpose of identifying and
analyzing those elements that are necessary to achieve Interoperability (the “Permitted
Objective”) only if: (A) doing so is necessary to achieve the Permitted Objective and it does not
constitute infringement under Title 17 of the United States Code; (B) such circumvention is
confined to those parts of the Software Product and to such acts as are necessary to achieve the
Permitted Objective; (C) the information to be gained thereby has not already been made readily
available to you or has not been provided by LeCroy within a reasonable time after a written
request by you to LeCroy to provide such information; (D) the information gained is not used for
16
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
any purpose other than the Permitted Objective and is not disclosed to any other person except
as may be necessary to achieve the Permitted Objective; and (E) the information obtained is not
used (1) to create a computer program substantially similar in its expression to the Software
Product including, but not limited to, expressions of the Software Product in other computer
languages, or (2) for any other act restricted by LeCroy’s intellectual property rights in the
Software Product. “Interoperability” will have the same meaning in this EULA as defined in the
Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. §1201(f), the ability of computer programs to
exchange information and of such programs mutually to use the information which has been
exchanged.
1.4 PRERELEASE CODE. Portions of the Software Product may be identified as prerelease code
(“Prerelease Code”). Prerelease Code is not at the level of performance and compatibility of the
final, generally available product offering. The Prerelease Code may not operate correctly and
may be substantially modified prior to first commercial shipment. LeCroy is not obligated to make
this or any later version of the Prerelease Code commercially available. The License with respect
to the Prerelease Code terminates upon availability of a commercial release of the Prerelease
Code from LeCroy.
2. SUPPORT SERVICES.
At LeCroy’s sole discretion, from time to time, LeCroy may provide Updates to the Software
Product. LeCroy shall have no obligation to revise or update the Software Product or to support
any version of the Software Product. At LeCroy’s sole discretion, upon your request, LeCroy may
provide you with support services related to the Software Product (“Support Services”) pursuant
to the LeCroy policies and programs described in the Documentation or otherwise then in effect,
and such Support Services will be subject to LeCroy’s then-current fees therefor, if any. Any
Update or other supplemental software code provided to you pursuant to the Support Services
will be considered part of the Software Product and will be subject to the terms and conditions of
this EULA. LeCroy may use any technical information you provide to LeCroy during LeCroy’s
provision of Support Services, for LeCroy’s business purposes, including for product support and
development. LeCroy will not utilize such technical information in a form that personally identifies
you.
3. PROPRIETARY RIGHTS.
3.1 Right and Title. All right, title and interest in and to the Software Product and Documentation
(including but not limited to any intellectual property or other proprietary rights, images, icons,
photographs, text, and “applets” embodied in or incorporated into the Software Product,
collectively, “Content”), and all Derivatives, and any copies thereof are owned by LeCroy and/or
its licensors or third-party suppliers, and is protected by applicable copyright or other intellectual
property laws and treaties. You will not take any action inconsistent with such title and ownership.
This EULA grants you no rights to use such Content outside of the proper exercise of the license
granted hereunder, and LeCroy will not be responsible or liable therefor.
3.2 Intellectual Property Protection. You may not alter or remove any printed or on-screen
copyright, trade secret, proprietary or other legal notices contained on or in copies of the Software
Product or Documentation.
3.3 Confidentiality. Except for the specific rights granted by this EULA, neither party shall use or
disclose any Confidential Information (as defined below) of the other party without the written
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
consent of the disclosing party. A party receiving Confidential Information from the other shall use
the highest commercially reasonable degree of care to protect the Confidential Information,
including ensuring that its employees and consultants with access to such Confidential
Information have agreed in writing not to disclose the Confidential Information. You shall bear the
responsibility for any breaches of confidentiality by your employees and consultants. Within ten
(10) days after request of the disclosing party, and in the disclosing party's sole discretion, the
receiving party shall either return to the disclosing party originals and copies of any Confidential
Information and all information, records and materials developed therefrom by the receiving party,
or destroy the same, other than such Confidential Information as to which this EULA expressly
provides a continuing right to the receiving party to retain at the time of the request. Either party
may only disclose the general nature, but not the specific financial terms, of this EULA without the
prior consent of the other party; provided either party may provide a copy of this EULA to any
finance provider in conjunction with a financing transaction, if such provider agrees to keep this
EULA confidential. Nothing herein shall prevent a receiving party from disclosing all or part of
the Confidential Information as necessary pursuant to the lawful requirement of a governmental
agency or when disclosure is required by operation of law; provided that prior to any such
disclosure, the receiving party shall use reasonable efforts to (a) promptly notify the disclosing
party in writing of such requirement to disclose, and (b) cooperate fully with the disclosing party in
protecting against any such disclosure or obtaining a protective order. Money damages will not
be an adequate remedy if this Section 4.3 is breached and, therefore, either party shall, in
addition to any other legal or equitable remedies, be entitled to seek an injunction or similar
equitable relief against such breach or threatened breach without the necessity of posting any
bond. As used herein, “Confidential Information” means LeCroy pricing or information concerning
new LeCroy products, trade secrets (including without limitation all internal header information
contained in or created by the Software Product, all benchmark and performance test results and
all Documentation) and other proprietary information of LeCroy; and any business, marketing or
technical information disclosed by LeCroy, or its representatives, or you in relation to this EULA,
and either (i) disclosed in writing and marked as confidential at the time of disclosure or (ii)
disclosed in any other manner such that a reasonable person would understand the nature and
confidentiality of the information. Confidential Information does not include information (A)
already in the possession of the receiving party without an obligation of confidentiality to the
disclosing party, (B) hereafter rightfully furnished to the receiving party by a third party without a
breach of any separate nondisclosure obligation to the disclosing party, (C) publicly known
without breach of this EULA, (d) furnished by the disclosing party to a third party without
restriction on subsequent disclosure, or (e) independently developed by the receiving party
without reference to or reliance on the Confidential Information.
4. TERMINATION.
This EULA will remain in force until termination pursuant to the terms hereof. You may terminate
this EULA at any time. This EULA will also terminate if you breach any of the terms or conditions
of this EULA. You agree that if this EULA terminates for any reason, the License will immediately
terminate and you will destroy all copies of the Software Product (and all Derivatives), installed or
otherwise, the Documentation, and the Confidential Information (and all derivatives of any of the
foregoing) that are in your possession or under your control. The provisions of Sections 1.3, 4, 6,
7, 8, and 9 will survive any termination or expiration hereof.
5. U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS.
18
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
If any Software Product or Documentation is acquired by or on behalf of a unit or agency of the
United States Government (any such unit or agency, the “Government”), the Government agrees
that the Software Product or Documentation is “commercial computer software” or “commercial
computer software documentation” and that, absent a written agreement to the contrary, the
Government’s rights with respect to the Software Product or Documentation are, in the case of
civilian agency use, Restricted Rights, as defined in FAR §52.227.19, and if for Department of
Defense use, limited by the terms of this EULA, pursuant to DFARS §227.7202. The use of the
Software Product or Documentation by the Government constitutes acknowledgment of LeCroy’s
proprietary rights in the Software Product and Documentation. Manufacturer is LeCroy
Corporation, 700 Chestnut Ridge Road, Chestnut Ridge, NY 10977 USA.
6. EXPORT RESTRICTIONS.
You agree that you will not export or re-export the Software Product, any part thereof, or any
process or service that is the direct product of the Software Product (the foregoing collectively
referred to as the “Restricted Components”), to any country, person, entity or end user subject to
U.S. export restrictions. You specifically agree not to export or re-export any of the Restricted
Components (a) to any country to which the U.S. has embargoed or restricted the export of goods
or services, which currently include, but are not necessarily limited to Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya,
North Korea, Sudan and Syria, or to any national of any such country, wherever located, who
intends to transmit or transport the Restricted Components back to such country; (b) to any end
user who you know or have reason to know will utilize the Restricted Components in the design,
development or production of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons; or (c) to any end-user who
has been prohibited from participating in U.S. export transactions by any federal agency of the
U.S. government. You warrant and represent that neither the BXA nor any other U.S. federal
agency has suspended, revoked or denied your export privileges. It is your responsibility to
comply with the latest United States export regulations, and you will defend and indemnify LeCroy
from and against any damages, fines, penalties, assessments, liabilities, costs and expenses
(including reasonable attorneys' fees and court costs) arising out of any claim that the Software
Product, Documentation, or other information or materials provided by LeCroy hereunder were
exported or otherwise accessed, shipped or transported in violation of applicable laws and
regulations.
7. RISK ALLOCATION.
7.1 No Warranty. THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT IS NOT ERROR-FREE AND THE SOFTWARE
PRODUCT AND SUPPORT SERVICES IS/ARE BEING PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. LECROY, FOR ITSELF AND ITS SUPPLIERS, HEREBY
DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ORAL OR WRITTEN,
WITH RESPECT TO THE SOFTWARE PRODUCT OR ANY SUPPORT SERVICES INCLUDING,
WITHOUT LIMITATION, ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF TITLE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT,
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ACCURACY, INTEGRATION,
VALIDITY, EXCLUSIVITY, MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INTERFERENCE WITH ENJOYMENT,
FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND ALL WARRANTIES IMPLIED FROM ANY
COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. YOU ACKNOWLEDGE THAT NO
WARRANTIES HAVE BEEN MADE TO YOU BY OR ON BEHALF OF LECROY OR
OTHERWISE FORM THE BASIS FOR THE BARGAIN BETWEEN THE PARTIES.
7.2. Limitation of Liability. LECROY’S LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES FOR ANY CAUSE
WHATSOEVER, REGARDLESS OF THE FORM OF ANY CLAIM OR ACTION, SHALL NOT
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
19
WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
EXCEED THE GREATER OF THE AMOUNT ACTUALLY PAID BY YOU FOR THE SOFTWARE
PRODUCT OR U.S.$5.00; PROVIDED THAT IF YOU HAVE ENTERED INTO A SUPPORT
SERVICES AGREEMENT WITH LECROY, LECROY’S ENTIRE LIABILITY REGARDING
SUPPORT SERVICES WILL BE GOVERNED BY THE TERMS OF THAT AGREEMENT.
LECROY SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF
DATA, INTERRUPTION OF BUSINESS, NOR FOR INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL,
CONSEQUENTIAL OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER UNDER THIS
EULA OR OTHERWISE ARISING IN ANY WAY IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE
PRODUCT, THE DOCUMENTATION OR THIS EULA. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW
THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO
THE ABOVE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THESE LIMITATIONS
ARE INDEPENDENT FROM ALL OTHER PROVISIONS OF THIS EULA AND SHALL APPLY
NOTWITHSTANDING THE FAILURE OF ANY REMEDY PROVIDED HEREIN.
7.3 Indemnification. You will defend, indemnify and hold harmless LeCroy and its officers,
directors, affiliates, contractors, agents, and employees from, against and in respect of any and
all assessments, damages, deficiencies, judgments, losses, obligations and liabilities (including
costs of collection and reasonable attorneys’ fees, expert witness fees and expenses) imposed
upon or suffered or incurred by them arising from or related to your use of the Software Product.
8. GENERAL PROVISIONS.
8.1 Compliance with Laws. You will comply with all laws, legislation, rules, regulations, and
governmental requirements with respect to the Software Product, and the performance by you of
your obligations hereunder, of any jurisdiction in or from which you directly or indirectly cause the
Software Product to be used or accessed.
8.2 No Agency. Nothing contained in this EULA will be deemed to constitute either party as the
agent or representative of the other party, or both parties as joint venturers or partners for any
purpose.
8.3 Entire Agreement; Waiver; Severability. This EULA constitutes the entire agreement between
the parties with regard to the subject matter hereof. No provision of, right, power or privilege
under this EULA will be deemed to have been waived by any act, delay, omission or
acquiescence by LeCroy, its agents, or employees, but only by an instrument in writing signed by
an authorized officer of LeCroy. No waiver by LeCroy of any breach or default of any provision of
this EULA by you will be effective as to any other breach or default, whether of the same or any
other provision and whether occurring prior to, concurrent with, or subsequent to the date of such
waiver. If any provision of this EULA is declared by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid,
illegal or unenforceable, such provision will be severed from this EULA and all the other
provisions will remain in full force and effect.
8.4 Governing Law; Jurisdiction; Venue. This EULA will be governed by and construed in
accordance with the laws of the State of New York, USA, without regard to its choice of law
provisions. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods will
not apply to this EULA. Exclusive jurisdiction and venue for any litigation arising under this EULA
is in the federal and state courts located in New York, New York, USA and both parties hereby
consent to such jurisdiction and venue for this purpose.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
8.5 Assignment. This EULA and the rights and obligations hereunder, may not be assigned, in
whole or in part by you, except to a successor to the whole of your business, without the prior
written consent of LeCroy. In the case of any permitted assignment or transfer of or under this
EULA, this EULA or the relevant provisions will be binding upon, and inure to the benefit of, the
successors, executors, heirs, representatives, administrators and assigns of the parties hereto.
8.6 Notices. All notices or other communications between LeCroy and you under this EULA will
be in writing and delivered personally, sent by confirmed fax, by confirmed e-mail, by certified
mail, postage prepaid and return receipt requested, or by a nationally recognized express delivery
service. All notices will be in English and will be effective upon receipt.
8.7 Headings. The headings used in this EULA are intended for convenience only and will not be
deemed to supersede or modify any provisions.
8.8 Acknowledgment. Licensee acknowledges that (a) it has read and understands this EULA,
(b) it has had an opportunity to have its legal counsel review this EULA, (c) this EULA has the
same force and effect as a signed agreement, and (d) issuance of this EULA does not constitute
general publication of the Software Product or other Confidential Information.
Virus Protection
Because your scope runs on a Windows-based PC platform, it must be protected from viruses, as
with any PC on a corporate network. It is crucial that the scope be kept up to date with Windows
Critical Updates, and that anti-virus software be installed and continually updated.
Visit http://www.lecroy.com/dsosecurity for more information regarding Windows Service Pack
compatibility with LeCroy operating software, and related matters.
Warranty
The instrument is warranted for normal use and operation, within specifications, for a period of
three years from shipment. LeCroy will either repair or, at our option, replace any product
returned to one of our authorized service centers within this period. However, in order to do this
we must first examine the product and find that it is defective due to workmanship or materials
and not due to misuse, neglect, accident, or abnormal conditions or operation.
LeCroy shall not be responsible for any defect, damage, or failure caused by any of the following:
a) attempted repairs or installations by personnel other than LeCroy representatives, or b)
improper connection to incompatible equipment or c) for any damage or malfunction caused by
the use of non-LeCroy supplies. Furthermore, LeCroy shall not be obligated to service a product
that has been modified or integrated where the modification or integration increases the task
duration or difficulty of servicing the oscilloscope. Spare and replacement parts, and repairs, all
have a 90-day warranty.
The oscilloscope’s firmware has been thoroughly tested and is presumed to be functional.
Nevertheless, it is supplied without warranty of any kind covering detailed performance. Products
not made by LeCroy are covered solely by the warranty of the original equipment manufacturer.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Specifications
Note: Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Vertical System
Bandwidth @ 50 ohms (-3 dB):
WaveRunner 6030A
WaveRunner 6050A
WaveRunner 6051A
WaveRunner 6100A
WaveRunner 6200A
10 mV/div to 1 V/div
350 MHz
5 mV/div to 9.95 m/div
350 MHz
2 mV/div to 4.99 m/div
300 MHz
10 mV/div to 1 V/div
500 MHz
5 mV/div to 9.95 m/div
500 MHz
2 mV/div to 4.99 m/div
350 MHz
10 mV/div to 1 V/div
500 MHz
5 mV/div to 9.95 m/div
500 MHz
2 mV/div to 4.99 m/div
350 MHz
10 mV/div to 1 V/div
1 GHz
5 mV/div to 9.95 m/div
800 MHz
2 mV/div to 4.99 m/div
350 MHz
10 mV/div to 1 V/div
2 GHz
5 mV/div to 9.95 m/div
1 GHz
2 mV/div to 4.99 m/div
350 MHz
Bandwidth @ 1 Mohms (-3 dB) -- typical:
WaveRunner 6030A
5 mV/div to 10 V/div
350 MHz
WaveRunner 6050A
5 mV/div to 10 V/div
500 MHz
WaveRunner 6051A
5 mV/div to 10 V/div
500 MHz
WaveRunner 6100A
5 mV/div to 10 V/div
500 MHz
WaveRunner 6200A
5 mV/div to 10 V/div
500 MHz
Bandwidth @ 1 Mohms (-3 dB) with PP007-WR Probe -- typical:
22
WaveRunner 6030A
2 mV/div to 4.99 mV/div
300 MHz
WaveRunner 6050A
2 mV/div to 4.99 mV/div
350 MHz
WaveRunner 6051A
2 mV/div to 4.99 mV/div
350 MHz
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
WaveRunner 6100A
2 mV/div to 4.99 mV/div
350 MHz
WaveRunner 6200A
2 mV/div to 4.99 mV/div
350 MHz
Input Channels: 4 (model 6051A: 2)
Calculated Rise Time: 10 mV/div to 1 V/div, 50 ohms (input risetime >/= 50 ps):
WaveRunner 6030A
0.35/BW
1 ns
WaveRunner 6050A
0.375/BW
750 ps
WaveRunner 6051A
0.375/BW
750 ps
WaveRunner 6100A
0.4/BW
400 ps
WaveRunner 6200A
0.45/BW
225 ps
Calculated Rise Time: 10 mV/div to 10 V/div, high impedance (0.375/BW):
WaveRunner 6030A
1 ns
WaveRunner 6050A
750 ps
WaveRunner 6051A
750 ps
WaveRunner 6100A
750 ps
WaveRunner 6200A
750 ps
Bandwidth Limiters:
•
Full
•
200 MHz
•
20 MHz
Input Capacitance, using PP007-WR probe: < 9.5 pF (typical)
Input Capacitance of Channel (1/1, 1/10, 1/100): < 20 pF (typical)
Input Impedance: 1 Mohms: ±1.25%; 50 ohms: ±1.50%
Input Coupling: 50 ohms: DC; 1 Mohms: AC, DC, GND
Max Input Voltage (1/1, 1/10): 50 ohms: 5 Vrms; 1 microsecond pulse, 50% duty cycle:
±10 Vpeak
1 Mohms: 250 V max. (peak AC: </= 10 kHz + DC)
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Installation (Overvoltage) Category: CAT I
Channel-to-Channel Isolation: > 40 dB @ < 100 MHz (> 30 dB @ full bandwidth)
Vertical Resolution: 8 bits; up to 11 bits with enhanced resolution (ERES)
Sensitivity: 50 ohms: 2 mV to 1 V/div fully variable; 1 Mohms: 2 mV to 10 V/div fully variable
DC Gain Accuracy: ±1.0% of full scale (typical):
±1.5%
>/= 10 mV/div
±2.5%
5 mV/div
±3.5%
2 mV/div
Offset Range:
±400 mV @ 2.0 to 4.95 mV/div
50 ohms
±1.0 V @ 5 to 100 mV/div
±10 V @ 102 mV to 1 V/div
±400 mV @ 2.0 to 4.95 mV/div
1 Mohms
±1.0 V @ 5 to 100 mV/div
±10 V @ 102 mV to 1 V/div
±100 V @ 1.02 to 10 V/div
Offset Accuracy: Fixed gain setting < 2 V/div: ±(1.5% of offset value + 0.5% of full scale value +
1 mV)
Variable gain and settings >/= 2 V/div: ±(1.5% of offset value + 1.0% of full scale value + 1 mV)
Probing System: BNC or ProBus
Horizontal System
Timebases: Internal timebase common to all input channels; an external clock can be applied at
the auxiliary input
Time/div Range: 200 ps/div to 10 s/div; RIS mode: from 20 ps/div; Roll mode: to 1000 s/div
Math & Zoom Traces: 4 math/zoom traces standard
Clock Accuracy: ≤ 5 ppm at 25 °C (≤ 10 ppm at 5 to 40 °C)
Jitter Noise Floor: 2 ps rms typical @ 100 mV/div
Time Interval Accuracy: Clock Accuracy + Jitter Noise Floor
Sample Rate & Delay Time Accuracy: equal to Clock Accuracy
Trigger & Interpolator Jitter: ≤ 3 ps rms (typical)
Channel-to-Channel Deskew Range: ±9 x time/div setting
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Interpolator Resolution: 1.2 ps
External Sample Clock (2-channel operation only; Ch 2 only in WaveRunner 6051A): DC to
1 GHz; 50 ohm or 1 Mohm, BNC input
Threshold
Impedance
(ohms)
Minimum Vp-p
Minimum Slew Rate
(mV/ns)
TTL
50
3
250
TTL
1M
3
350
ECL
50
0.2
150
ECL
1M
0.2
250
0 Cross
50
0.2
150
0 Cross
1M
0.2
250
Roll Mode: User selectable; available at lower time/div settings
Acquisition System
Single-shot Sample Rate/Ch: 5 GS/s (WaveRunner 6030A: 2.5 GS/s; WaveRunner 6000-I
models: 1 GS/s)
WaveRunner
6030A
WaveRunner
6050A
WaveRunner
6051A
WaveRunner
6100A
WaveRunner
6200A
All Channels
2.5 GS/s
5 GS/s
5 GS/s
5 GS/s
5 GS/s
Interleaved
5 GS/s
--
--
10 GS/s
10 GS/s
2 Channel Max. (WaveRunner 6200A): 10 GS/s
Maximum Acquisition
Points/Ch
Maximum Acquisition
Points/Ch
2 Ch/4 Ch
(WaveRunner 6051A)
1 Ch/2 Ch
Standard
8M/4M
8M/4M
L Memory Option
16M/8M
16M/8M
VL Memory Option
24M/12M
24M/12M
Random Interleaved Sampling (RIS): 200 GS/s (WaveRunner 6000-I models: 1 GS/s)
Trigger Rate: 125,000 waveforms per second
Acquisition Modes
Single-shot: For transient and repetitive signals: 20 ps/div to 10 s/div
Sequence: 10,000 segments max.:
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Memory Option
Segments
Standard
500
L Memory Option
5000
VL Memory Option
10,000
Sequence Time Stamp Resolution: 1 ns
Intersegment Time: 8 µs
Acquisition Processing
Time Resolution (minimum, single-shot): 200 ps (5 GS/s); 100 ps (10 GS/s)
Averaging: Summed averaging to 1 million sweeps; Continuous averaging to 1 million sweeps
Enhanced Resolution (ERES): from 8.5 to 11 bits vertical resolution
Envelope (Extrema): Envelope, floor, roof for up to 1 million sweeps
Interpolation: Linear, (sinx)/x
Triggering System
Modes: Normal, Auto, Single, and Stop
Sources: Any input channel, External, Ext/10, or line; slope and level are unique to each source
(except line)
Coupling Mode: GND, DC 50 ohms, DC 1 Mohms, AC 1 Mohms
Pre-trigger Delay: 0 to 100% of memory size (adjustable in 1% increments or 100 ns)
Post-trigger Delay: 10,000 divisions in real time mode; limited at slower time/div settings
Holdoff by Time or Events: 2 ns to 20 s or from 1 to 1,000,000,000 events
Internal Trigger Range: ±4.1 div from center (typical)
Maximum Trigger Sensitivity with Edge Trigger (Ch1-4 + external):
6030A
6050A
6051A
6100A
6200A
2 div @ < 350 MHz
2 div @ < 500 MHz
2 div @ < 500 MHz
2 div @ < 1 GHz
2 div @ < 2 GHz
1 div @ < 250 MHz
1 div @ < 350 MHz
1 div @ < 350 MHz
1 div @ < 750 MHz
1 div @ < 1.8 GHz
Maximum Trigger Frequency with SMART Trigger (Ch1-4 + external):
6030A
6050A
6051A
6100A
6200A
350 MHz max.
500 MHz max.
500 MHz max.
750 MHz max.
750 MHz max.
@ >/= 10 mV
@ >/= 10 mV
@ >/= 10 mV
@ >/= 10 mV
@ >/= 10 mV
Trigger Level DC Accuracy: ±4% of full scale ±2 mV (typical)
External Trigger Range: EXT/10 ±4 V; EXT ±400 mV
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Basic Triggers
Edge/Slope/Line: Triggers when the signal meets the slope and level condition.
SMART Triggers
State or Edge qualified: Triggers on any input source only if a defined state or edge occurred on
another input source. Delay between sources is selectable by time or events.
Dropout: Triggers if the input signal drops out for longer than a selectable time-out between 2 ns
and 20 s.
Pattern: Logic combination (AND, NAND, OR, NOR) of 5 inputs (4 channels and external trigger
input). Each source can be high, low, or don't care. The High and Low level can be selected
independently. Triggers at start or end of pattern.
SMART Triggers with Exclusion Technology
Glitch: Triggers on positive or negative glitches with widths selectable from 600 ps to 20 s or on
intermittent faults (subject to bandwidth limit of scope).
Signal or Pattern Width: Triggers on positive or negative pulse widths selectable from 600 ps to
20 s or on intermittent faults (subject to bandwidth limit of scope).
Signal or Pattern Interval: Triggers on intervals selectable from 2 ns to 20 s.
Timeout (State/Edge Qualified): Triggers on any source if a given state (or transition edge) has
occurred on another source
Delay between sources is 2 ns to 20 s, or 1 to 99,999,999 events
Exclusion Triggering: Trigger on intermittent faults by specifying the normal width or period.
Automatic Setup
Autosetup: Automatically sets timebase, trigger, and sensitivity to display a wide range of
repetitive signals.
Vertical Find Scale: Automatically sets the vertical sensitivity and offset for the selected
channels to display a waveform with maximum dynamic range.
Probes
Probes: One PP007-WR probe per channel standard; optional passive and active probes are
available.
Caution
To avoid incorrect measurements, ensure that your PP007 probes have the correct model
number (PP007-WR). Do not use probes with model number PP007-WS.
Probe System ProBus: Automatically detects and supports a wide variety of compatible probes
Scale Factors: Automatically or manually selected depending on probe used
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Color Waveform Display
Type: Color 8.4-inch flat panel TFT LCD with high resolution touch screen
Resolution: SVGA; 800 x 600 pixels
Real Time Clock: Date, hours, minutes, and seconds displayed with waveform; accurate to ±50
ppm; SNTP support to synchronize to precision internet clocks
Number of Traces: Maximum of eight traces; simultaneously displays channel, zoom, memory,
and math traces
Grid Styles: Single, Dual, Quad, Octal, XY, Single+XY, Dual+XY
Waveform Display Styles: Sample dots joined or dots only
Analog Persistence Display
Analog and Color-graded Persistence: Variable saturation levels; stores each trace's
persistence data in memory
Persistence Selections: Select analog, color, or 3-D
Trace Selection: Activate Analog Persistence on all or any combination of traces
Persistence Aging Time: From 500 ms to infinity
Sweeps Displayed: All accumulated or all accumulated with last trace highlighted
Zoom Expansion Traces
Display up to 4 Math/Zoom traces
Rapid Signal Processing
Processor: Intel® 2.0 GHz or better with MS Windows® XP Pro Platform
Processing Memory: 256 MB with Standard and M memory options; 512 MB with L and VL
options
Internal Waveform Memory
Waveform: M1, M2, M3, M4 (Store full-length waveforms with 16 bits/data point.) Or save to any
number of files (limited only by data storage media).
Setup Storage
Front Panel and Instrument Status: Save to the internal hard drive or to a USB-connected
peripheral device.
Interface
Remote Control: Through Windows Automation or LeCroy remote command set
GPIB Port (optional): Supports IEEE-488.2
Ethernet Port: 10/100Base-T Ethernet interface (RJ-45 connector)
USB Ports: 5 USB ports (one at front of scope) support Windows compatible devices.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
External Monitor Port (standard): 15-pin D-Type SVGA compatible DB-15; connect a second
monitor to use dual monitor display mode
Parallel Port: 1 standard
Serial Port: DB-9 COM1 port (not for remote control of scope)
Auxiliary Input
Signal Types: Select External Trigger or Clock input on front panel.
Auxiliary Output
Signal Types: Select from calibrator signal on front panel or control signals output from rear
panel BNC.
Calibrator Signal: 250 Hz to 1 MHz square wave or DC level; 5 mV to 1.0 V (selectable) into
1 kohms
Control Signals: trigger enabled, trigger out, pass/fail status, or off
Math Tools (standard)
Display up to four math function traces (F1 to F4). The easy-to-use graphical interface simplifies
setup of up to two operations on each function trace. Function traces can be chained together to
perform math-on-math.
absolute value
ln (log base e)
average (summed)
log (base 10)
average (continuous)
MATLAB math
copy
product (X)
derivative
ratio (/)
deskew (resample)
reciprocal
difference ()
rescale (with units)
enhanced resolution (to 11 bits vertical)
roof
envelope
segment
exp (base e)
(sinx)/x
exp (base 10)
square
fft (basic)
square root
floor
sum (+)
histogram of 1,000 events
trend (datalog) of 1,000 events
integral
zoom (identity)
invert (negate)
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Measure Tools (standard)
Display any 8 parameters together with statistics, including their average, high, low, and standard
deviations. Histicons provide a fast, dynamic view of parameters and wave shape characteristics.
amplitude
mean
area
minimum
base
number of points
cycles
overshoot+
delay
overshoot-
delta delay
peak-to-peak
delta time @ level
period
Dtrig time
phase
duration
rise time (10-90%, 20-80%, @ level)
duty cycle
rms
fall time (90-10%, 80-20%, @ level)
std. deviation
first
time @ level
frequency
top
last
width
level @ x
width negative
MATLAB param
x @ minimum
maximum
x @ maximum
Pass/Fail Testing
Test multiple parameters against selectable parameter limits at the same time. Pass or fail
conditions can initiate actions including: document to local or networked files, email the image of
the failure, save waveforms, send a pulse out at the front panel auxiliary BNC output, or (with
GPIB option) send a GPIB SRQ.
Master Analysis Package (XMAP)
This package provides maximum capability and flexibility, and includes all the functionality
present in XMATH, XDEV, and JTA2.
Advanced Math Package (XMATH)
This package provides a comprehensive set of signal WaveShape Analysis tools that provide
insight into the wave shape of complex signals. Additional analysis capability provided by XMAP
includes:
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
•
Parameter math -- add, subtract, multiply, or divide two different parameters.
•
Histograms expanded with 19 histogram parameters and up to 2 billion events.
•
Trend (datalog) of up to 1 million events
•
Track graphs of any measurement parameter.
•
FFT capability added to include: power averaging, power density, real and imaginary
components, frequency domain parameters, and FFT on up to 25 Mpts.
•
Narrow-band power measurements
•
Auto-correlation function
•
Sparse function
•
Cubic and quadratic interpolation function
Advanced Customization Package (XDEV)
This package provides a set of tools to modify the scope and customize it to meet your unique
needs. Additional capability provided by XDEV includes
•
Creation of your own measurement parameter or math function, using third-party
software packages, and display of the result in the scope. Supported third-party software
packages include: VBScript, Excel, MATLAB, Mathcad.
•
CustomDSO -- create your own user interface in a scope dialog box.
•
Add macro keys to run VBScript files.
•
Support of plug-ins
Intermediate Math Package (XWAV)
This package is a value-priced version of XMATH, with the following differences:
•
Histograms can measure up to 1 million events.
•
FFTs of 1 Mpts instead of full acquisition memory capacity
•
No Processing Web feature
•
No parameter math
•
Does not include the following parameters: Nbpw, Nbphase
•
Does not include the following math functions: Phistogram, Ptrace, Correlation, Track,
Sparse, Interpolate
Jitter and Timing Analysis Package (JTA2)
This package provides jitter timing and analysis using JitterTrack (time), Histogram (statistical)
and JitterFFT (frequency) views for common timing parameters, and other useful tools.
•
Jitter and Timing parameters with JitterTrack graphs of:
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Cycle-to-Cycle
Half Period
Skew
N-Cycle
Width
Duty Cycle
N-Cycle with Start selection
Time Interval Error
Duty Cycle Error (Delta Width)
Frequency
Setup
Period
Hold
•
edge@lv parameter (counts edges)
•
Histograms expanded with 19 histogram parameters and up to 2 billion events
•
Trend (datalog) of up to one million events
•
Persistence Histogram; Persistence Trace
Value Analysis Package (XVAP)
This is a value-priced version of LeCroy's premier XMAP package, with the following difference: It
contains XWAV and JTA2, but does not contain XDEV.
Web Editor (XWEB)
The Processing Web provides a graphical way to quickly and easily set up math functions and
parameter measurements. Practically unlimited math-on-math functions can be chained together,
and parameter measurements for any math output waveform anywhere on the web can be
inserted.
Disk Drive Measurement Package (DDM2)
This package provides disk drive parameter measurements and related mathematical functions
for performing disk drive WaveShape Analysis.
•
Disk Drive Parameters:
amplitude symmetry
local time over threshold
auto correlation s/n
local time trough-peak
local base
local time under threshold
local baseline separation
narrow band phase
local maximum
narrow band power
local minimum
non-linear transition shift
local number
overwrite
local peak-peak
pulse width 50
local time between events
pulse width 50-
local time between peaks
pulse width 50+
local time between troughs
resolution
32
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
local time at minimum
track average amplitude
local time at maximum
track average amplitude-
local time peak-trough
track average amplitude+
•
Correlation function
•
Trend (datalog) of up to one million events
•
Histograms expanded with 19 histogram parameters and up to 2 billion events
Digital Filter Package (DFP2)
•
Low-Pass Filter
•
High-Pass Filter
•
Band-pass Filter
•
Band-stop Filter
•
Raised Cosine Filter
•
Raised-root Cosine Filter
•
Gaussian Filter
•
IIR Filters
•
Custom Filters
•
Multirate Filters
Ethernet (ENET)
•
10Base-T
•
100Base-TX
•
1000Base-T
PowerMeasure Analyzer (PMA2)
•
Power Device Analysis
•
Modulation Analysis
•
Line Power Analysis
USB2
Host tests
•
HS signal quality
•
HS packet parameters
•
HS chirp timing
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
•
HS suspend/resume/reset
•
HS disconnect
•
FS downstream signal quality
•
LS downstream signal quality
Device tests
•
HS signal quality
•
HS Far-end for tethered devices
•
HS Near-end for untethered devices
•
HS packet parameters
•
HS chirp timing
•
HS suspend/resume/reset
•
HS Receiver Sensitivity
•
FS upstream signal quality
•
LS upstream signal quality (USB 1.1 devices only)
•
Inrush current.
Hub tests
•
34
HS signal quality (Upstream/Downstream)
o
HS Far-end for tethered hubs
o
HS Near-end for untethered hubs
•
HS packet parameters
•
HS chirp timing
•
HS suspend/resume/reset
•
HS Receiver Sensitivity
•
HS Downstream Repeater
•
HS Upstream Repeater
•
FS signal quality (upstream/downstream)
•
LS signal quality (upstream/downstream)
•
Inrush current.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Serial Data Manager
This option adds key components to the basic scope, including JTA2 with its TIE@lvl parameter.
TIE@lvl is a JTA2 measurement that measures the time interval error of the crossing points of the
signal under test and, with option SDM, also includes a golden PLL clock recovery module that is
used for forming the eye pattern without an external trigger. Standard masks are included with
option SDM. Not all data rates can be tested with all oscilloscopes. The analog bandwidth limits
the upper data rate that can be tested.
General
Auto Calibration: Ensures specified DC and timing accuracy is maintained for 1 year minimum.
Power Requirements: Single phase, 100 to 240 Vrms (±10%) at 50/60 Hz (±5%); or single phase,
100 to 120 Vrms (±10%) at 400 Hz (±5%); Automatic AC voltage selection
Voltage Range:
90 to 264 Vrms
90 to 132 Vrms
Frequency Range:
47 to 63 Hz
380 to 420 Hz
Power Consumption: On State: 400 watts (400 VA) max., WaveRunner model 6051A: 350 W
(350 VA), depending on accessories installed (internal printer, probes, PC port plug-ins, etc.).
Standby State: 12 watts
Physical Dimensions (HWD): 211 mm x 355 mm x 363 mm (8.3 in. x 13.9 in. x 14.3 in.); height
measurement excludes foot pads
Weight: 10 kg (22 lbs.)
Shipping Weight: 13.6 kg (30 lbs.)
Warranty and Service
3-year warranty; calibration recommended yearly
Optional service programs include extended warranty, upgrades, and calibration services.
Environmental Characteristics
Temperature
Operating: 5 to 40 °C
Storage (non-operating): -20 to +60 °C
Humidity
Operating: 5 to 80% RH (noncondensing) up to 30 °C; upper limit derates linearly to 45% RH
(noncondensing) at 40 °C
Storage (non-operating): 5 to 95% RH (noncondensing) as tested per MIL-PRF-28800F
Altitude
Operating: 3048 m (10,000 ft) max. at ≤ 25 °C
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Storage (non-operating): 12,192 m (40,000 ft)
Random Vibration
Operating: 5 Hz to 500 Hz, overall level: 0.31 grms, 15 minutes in each of 3 orthogonal axes
Non-operating: 5 Hz to 500 Hz, overall level: 2.4 grms, 15 minutes in each of 3 orthogonal axes
Shock
Functional Shock: 20 g peak, half sine, 11 ms pulse, 3 shocks (positive and negative) in each of
3 orthogonal axes, 18 shocks total
Certifications
Conforms to EN 61326, EN 61010-1
CE Declaration of Conformity
The oscilloscope meets requirements of EMC Directive 89/336/EEC for Electromagnetic
Compatibility and Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC for Product Safety.
EMC Directive:
EN 61326:1997 +A1:1998
EMC requirements for electrical equipment for measurement,
control, and laboratory use.
Electromagnetic Emissions:
EN 55011:1998 +A1:1999, Radiated and conducted emissions
(Class A)*
EN 61000-3-2:2001 Harmonic Current Emissions (Class A)
EN 61000-3-3:1995 +A1:2001 Voltage Fluctuations and Flickers
(Pst = 1)
* To conform to Radiated Emissions standard, use properly shielded cables on all I/O terminals.
Warning
This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference, in
which case the user may be required to take appropriate measures.
Electromagnetic Immunity:
EN 61000-4-2:1995 +A2:2001* Electrostatic Discharge
(4 kV contact, 8 kV air, 4 kV vertical/horizontal coupling planes)
EN 61000-4-3:2002* RF Radiated Electromagnetic Field
(3 V/m, 80-1000 MHz)
EN 61000-4-4:1995 +A2:2001* Electrical Fast Transient/Burst
(1 kV AC Mains, 0.5 kV I/O signal/control)
EN 61000-4-5:1995 +A1:2001* Surges
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
(1 kV AC Mains, 0.5 kV I/O signal/control)
EN 61000-4-6:1996 +A1:2001* RF Conducted Electromagnetic
Field (1 kV / 0.5 kV common mode / differential mode - AC
Mains)
EN 61000-4-11:1994 +A1:2001* Mains Dips and Interruptions (1
cycle voltage dip, 100% short interruption)
* Meets Performance Criteria "B" limits during the disturbance, product undergoes a temporary
degradation or loss of function of performance which is self recoverable.
Low Voltage Directive:
EN 61010-1:2001
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement,
control, and laboratory use.
The oscilloscope has been qualified to the following EN 61010-1
limits:
Installation Categories II (Mains Supply Connector) & I
(Measuring Terminals)
Pollution Degree 2 (Normally only dry non-conductive pollution
occurs. Occasionally a temporary conductivity caused by
condensation must be expected.)
Protection Class I (Provided with terminal for protective ground)
UL and cUL Certifications:
UL Standard: UL 3111-1
Canadian Standard: CSA-C22.2 No. 1010.1-92
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
China RoHS Compliance
38
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Toxic or Hazardous Substances and Elements
Part Name
Lead
Mercury
Cadmium
Hexavalent
Chromium
(Pb)
(Hg)
(Cd)
(Cr )
6+
Polybrominated
Biphenyls
(PBB)
Polybrominated
Diphenyl Ethers
(PBDE)
PCBAs
X
O
X
X
X
X
Mechanical Hardware
O
O
X
O
O
O
Sheet Metal
O
O
X
O
O
O
Plastic Parts
O
O
O
O
X
X
Cable Assemblies
X
O
X
O
X
X
Display
X
O
X
X
X
X
Power Supply
X
X
X
O
X
X
Fans
X
O
X
O
X
X
Battery for Processor
X
O
X
O
O
O
Power Cord
X
O
X
O
X
X
Ext Power Supply (if present)
X
X
X
O
X
X
Probes (if present)
X
O
X
O
X
X
CD Drive (if present)
X
O
X
O
X
X
Fuse (if present)
X
O
X
O
O
O
Product Case (if present)
O
O
O
O
X
X
Adapters/Modules (if present)
X
O
O
O
O
O
Mouse (if present)
X
O
X
O
X
X
O: Indicates that this toxic or hazardous substance contained in all of the homogeneous materials for this part is below the
limit requirement specified in SJ/T11363-2006.
X: Indicates that this toxic or hazardous substance contained in at least one of the homogenous materials used for this part
is above the limit requirement specified in SJ/T11363-2006.
EFUP (Environmental Friendly Use Period) Use Conditions: Refer to the environmental conditions
stated in the Specifications section of this manual.
EFUP for Battery: 5 Years
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
This section contains information and warnings that must be observed to keep the instrument
operating in a correct and safe condition. You are required to follow generally accepted safety
procedures in addition to the safety precautions specified in this section.
Safety Symbols and Terms
Where the following symbols or terms appear on the instrument’s front or rear panels, or in this
manual, they alert you to important safety considerations.
This symbol is used where caution is required. Refer to the accompanying
information or documents in order to protect against personal injury or damage to
the instrument.
This symbol warns of a potential risk of shock hazard.
This symbol is used to denote the measurement ground connection.
This symbol is used to denote a safety ground connection.
This symbol shows that the switch is a On/Standby switch. When it is pressed, the
DSO’s state toggles between Operating and Standby state. This switch is not a
disconnect device. To completely remove power to the DSO, the power cord must
be unplugged from the AC outlet after the DSO is placed in Standby state.
This symbol is used to denote "Alternating Current."
The CAUTION sign indicates a potential hazard. It calls attention to a procedure,
practice or condition which, if not followed, could possibly cause damage to
CAUTION
equipment. If a CAUTION is indicated, do not proceed until its conditions are fully
understood and met.
The WARNING sign indicates a potential hazard. It calls attention to a procedure,
practice or condition which, if not followed, could possibly cause bodily injury or
WARNING
death. If a WARNING is indicated, do not proceed until its conditions are fully
understood and met.
40
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
CAT I
Installation (Overvoltage) Category rating per EN 61010-1 safety standard and is
applicable for the oscilloscope front panel measuring terminals. CAT I rated
terminals must only be connected to source circuits in which measures are taken to
limit transient voltages to an appropriately low level.
Operating Environment
The instrument is intended for indoor use and
should be operated in a clean, dry environment
with an ambient temperature within the range of
5 °C to 40 °C.
Note: Direct sunlight, radiators, and other heat sources should
be taken into account when assessing the ambient
temperature.
The design of the instrument has been verified to
conform to EN 61010-1 safety standard per the
following limits:
Installation (Overvoltage) Categories II (Mains
Supply Connector) & I (Measuring Terminals)
WARNING
The DSO must not be operated in explosive, dusty,
or wet/damp atmospheres.
CAUTION
Protect the DSO’s display touch screen from
excessive impacts with foreign objects.
Pollution Degree 2
Protection Class I
Note:
Installation (Overvoltage) Category II refers to local distribution
level, which is applicable to equipment connected to the mains
supply (AC power source).
Installation (Overvoltage) Category I refers to signal level, which
is applicable to equipment measuring terminals that are
connected to source circuits in which measures are taken to
limit transient voltages to an appropriately low level.
Pollution Degree 2 refers to an operating environment where
normally only dry non-conductive pollution occurs. Occasionally
a temporary conductivity caused by condensation must be
expected.
CAUTION
Do not exceed the maximum specified front panel
terminal (CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, EXT) voltage
levels. Refer to Specifications for more details.
CAUTION
Do not connect or disconnect probes or test leads
while they are connected to a voltage source.
Protection Class 1 refers to a grounded equipment, in which
protection against electric shock is achieved by Basic Insulation
and by means of a connection to the protective ground
conductor in the building wiring.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Cooling Requirements
The instrument relies on forced air cooling with
internal fans and ventilation openings. Care must
be taken to avoid restricting the airflow around the
CAUTION
apertures (fan holes) at the sides, front, and rear of
Do not block the ventilation holes located on both
the DSO. To ensure adequate ventilation it is
sides and rear of the DSO.
required to leave a 10 cm (4 inch) minimum gap
around the sides, front, and rear of the instrument.
CAUTION
Do not allow any foreign matter to enter the DSO
through the ventilation holes, etc.
AC Power Source
The instrument operates from a single-phase, 100
to 240 Vrms (+/-10%) AC power source at 50/60 Hz
(+/-5%), or single-phase 100 to 120 Vrms (+/-10%)
AC power source at 400 Hz (+/-5%).
No manual voltage selection is required because
the instrument automatically adapts to line voltage.
Note:
The instrument automatically adapts itself to the AC line input
within the following ranges:
Voltage Range:
90 to 264 Vrms
Frequency Range:
90 to 132 Vrms
47 to 63 Hz
380 to 420 Hz
Depending on the accessories installed (internal
printer, front panel probes, PC port plug-ins, etc.),
the instrument can draw up to 400 W (400 VA);
WaveRunner model 6051A: 350 W (350 VA).
Power and Ground Connections
The instrument is provided with a grounded cord
set containing a molded three-terminal polarized
plug and a standard IEC320 (Type C13) connector
for making line voltage and safety ground
connection. The AC inlet ground terminal is
connected directly to the frame of the instrument.
For adequate protection against electrical shock
hazard, the power cord plug must be inserted into
a mating AC outlet containing a safety ground
contact. Use only the power cord specified for this
instrument and certified for the country of use.
42
WARNING
Electrical Shock Hazard!
Any interruption of the protective conductor inside
or outside of the DSO, or disconnection of the
safety ground terminal creates a hazardous
situation.
Intentional interruption is prohibited.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
The DSO should be positioned to allow easy
access to the socket-outlet. To completely remove
power to the DSO, unplug the instrument’s power
CAUTION
cord from the AC outlet after the DSO is placed in
The outer shells of the front panel terminals (CH1,
Standby state.
CH2, CH3, CH4, EXT) are connected to the
In Standby state the DSO is still connected to the instrument’s chassis and therefore to the safety
AC supply. The instrument can only be placed in a ground.
complete Power Off state by physically
disconnecting the power cord from the AC supply.
It is recommended that the power cord be
unplugged from the AC outlet if the DSO is not
being used for an extended period of time.
See On/Standby Switch for more information.
On/Standby Switch
The front panel On/Standby switch controls the operational state of the DSO. This toggle switch is
activated by momentarily pressing and releasing it.
There are two basic DSO states: On or Standby. In the "On" state, the DSO, including its
computer subsystems (CPU, hard drive, etc,) is fully powered and operational. In the "Standby"
state, the DSO, including computer subsystems, is powered off with the exception of some
"housekeeping" circuitry (approximately 12 watts dissipation).
Always use the On/Standby switch to place the DSO in Standby state so that it executes a proper
shutdown process (including a Windows shutdown) to preserve settings before powering itself off.
This can be accomplished by pressing and holding in the On/Standby switch for approximately 5
seconds.
Note: To power off, place the DSO in Standby state, then disconnect the power cord.
Calibration
The recommended calibration interval is one year. Calibration should be performed by qualified
personnel only.
Cleaning
Clean only the exterior of the instrument, using a
damp, soft cloth. Do not use chemicals or abrasive
elements. Under no circumstances allow moisture
WARNING
to penetrate the instrument. To avoid electrical
Electrical Shock Hazard!
shock, unplug the power cord from the AC outlet
before cleaning.
No operator serviceable parts inside. Do not
remove covers.
Refer servicing to qualified personnel.
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Abnormal Conditions
Operate the instrument only as intended by the
manufacturer.
If you suspect the DSO’s protection has been
impaired, disconnect the power cord and secure
the instrument against any unintended operation.
WARNING
Any use of the DSO in a manner not specified by
the manufacturer may impair the instrument’s
The DSO’s protection is likely to be impaired if, for safety protection. The instrument and related
example, the instrument shows visible damage or accessories should not be directly connected to
has been subjected to severe transport stresses. human subjects or used for patient monitoring.
Proper use of the instrument depends on careful
reading of all instructions and labels.
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FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
Front Panel Buttons and Knobs
The control buttons of the instrument's front panel are logically grouped into analog and special
functional areas. Analog functions are included in the Horizontal, Trigger, and Vertical groups of
control buttons and knobs.
Sometimes you may want to change a value without using the numeric keypad. In that case,
simply touch once inside the data entry field in the scope dialog area (the field will be highlighted
in yellow), then use the Adjust group of buttons and single knob to dial in values into the selected
field.
Note: Some of the front panel knobs are also special function push buttons. By pressing the knobs, you can activate
functions such as Find Level, Zero Vertical Offset, and Zero Delay. The Adjust knob functions as a toggle between fine
and coarse adjustment.
By default, the control knob makes coarse adjustments (that is, digits to the left of the decimal
point). Press the Adjust knob
to toggle to Fine and adjust digits to the right of the decimal point. To enter exact values, you can
also display a keypad
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by touching twice inside the data entry field. Then use the keypad to type in the value.
Example Data Entry Field
Note: You can set the granularity (delta) of the coarse adjustment by double-tapping inside the data entry field, then
touching the Advanced checkbox in the pop-up numeric keypad. The keypad presents Coarse delta up/down buttons to
set the delta:
.
In the pop-up keypad, be sure to leave the Fine checkbox unchecked to adjust the coarse delta.
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Trigger Knobs:
Level
Selects the trigger threshold level. Press this knob to quickly set the level to
.
zero. The Level is indicated in the Trigger descriptor label
Trigger
Buttons:
Stop
Prevents the scope from triggering on a signal. If you boot up the instrument
with the trigger in Stop mode, the message "no trace available" will be
displayed. Press Auto to display your trace.
Auto
Triggers the scope after a time-out, even if the trigger conditions are not met.
Normal
Triggers the scope each time a signal is present that meets the conditions set
for the type of trigger selected.
Single
Arms the scope to trigger once (single-shot acquisition) when the input signal
meets the trigger conditions set for the type of trigger selected. If the scope is
already armed, it will force a trigger.
Horizontal
Knobs:
Delay
Horizontally positions the scope trace on the display so you can observe the
signal prior to the trigger time. Delay adjusts the pre- and post-trigger time.
Press this knob to quickly set the delay to zero. The trigger point is positioned in
the middle of the display grid.
Time/Division
Sets the time/division of the scope timebase (acquisition system).
Vertical Knobs:
Offset
Volts/Div
Adjusts the vertical offset of a channel. Press these knobs to quickly set the
offset to zero.
Adjusts the Volts/Division setting (vertical gain) of the channel selected.
Channel
Buttons:
1, 2, 3, 4
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Turns a channel on or off. These buttons activate the dialog that lets you
change the channel's setup conditions including coupling, gain, and offset. They
are used also to select multiple grids, to automatically set the gain (FIND
SCALE), or to automatically display a zoom of the signal. Press twice to toggle
the trace on and off.
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Wavepilot
Control
Knobs:
Position
Adjusts the horizontal position of a zoom trace on the display. The zoom region
is highlighted in color on the source trace.
Zoom
Adjusts the horizontal zoom (magnification factor) of the selected zoom trace.
Position
Zoom
Adjusts the vertical position of the selected zoom trace on the display.
Adjusts the vertical zoom (magnification factor) of the selected zoom trace on
the display.
Special
Features
Buttons:
Auto Setup
Automatically sets the scope's horizontal timebase (acquisition system), vertical
gain and offset, as well as trigger conditions, to display a wide variety of
signals.
Analog
Persist
Provides a three dimensional view of the signal: time, voltage, and a third
dimension related to the frequency of occurrence, as shown by a color-graded
(thermal) or intensity-graded display.
General Control
Buttons:
Print Screen
Prints the displayed screen to a file, a printer, the clipboard, or attaches it as an
e-mail. Select the device and format it in the Utilities Hardcopy dialog.
Touch Screen Activates or deactivates the touch screen.
(toggle switch)
Clear Sweeps
48
Clears data from multiple sweeps (acquisitions) including: persistence trace
displays, averaged traces, parameter statistics, and Histicons. During waveform
readout, cancels readout.
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ON-SCREEN TOOLBARS, ICONS, AND DIALOG BOXES
Menu Bar Buttons
The menu bar buttons at the top of the scope's display are designed for quick setup of common
functions. At the right end of the menu bar is a quick setup button that, when touched, opens the
setup dialog associated with the trace or parameter named beside it. The named trace or
parameter is the one whose setup dialog you last opened:
. This button also
appears as an undo button
after the Autosetup front panel button is pressed. If you want
to perform an Undo operation, it must be the very next operation after you perform the Autosetup
operation.
Many of the menu bar buttons give you access to the same functions as do the front panel
buttons. Refer to this Table of Equivalent Functions.
Display Buttons
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Front Panel Push Buttons
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Dialog Boxes
The dialog area occupies the bottom one-third of the screen. To expand the signal display area,
you can minimize each dialog box by touching the Close tab at the right of the dialog box.
Alternate Access Methods
The instrument often gives you more than one way to access dialogs and menus.
Mouse and Keyboard Operation
In the procedures we focus on touch-screen operation, but if you have a mouse connected to the
instrument, you can also click on objects. Likewise, if you have a keyboard connected, you can
use it instead of the virtual keyboard provided by the instrument.
Tool Bar Buttons
The procedures also focus on the use of the menu bar at the top of the screen to access dialogs
and menus. However, on several dialogs common functions are accessible from a row of buttons
that save you a step or two in accessing their dialogs. For example, at the bottom of the Channel
Setup dialog, these buttons perform the following functions:
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Calls up the Measure menu. You can then select a parameter from this menu
without leaving the Channel Setup dialog. The parameter automatically appears
below the grid.
Creates a zoom trace of the channel trace whose dialog is currently displayed.
Calls up the Math menu. You can then select a math function from this menu
without leaving the Channel Setup dialog. A math trace of the channel whose
dialog is currently open is automatically displayed.
Loads the channel trace into the next available memory location (M1 to M4).
Automatically performs a vertical scaling that fits the waveform into the grid.
Automatically moves the channel trace whose dialog is currently open onto the
next grid. If you have only one grid displayed, a new grid will be created
automatically, and the trace moved.
Another example is these buttons that appear at the bottom of the Measure Px dialogs. Each
button opens a menu from which to choose a math trace (F1 to Fx The number of math traces
available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.) to display
the functions named in the buttons:
,
,
buttons you can remain in the Measure dialog to set up other options.
. By using these
Trace Descriptors
Vertical and horizontal trace descriptors (labels) are displayed below the grid. They provide a
summary of your channel, timebase, and trigger settings. To make adjustments to these settings,
touch the respective label to display the setup dialog for that function.
Channel trace labels show the vertical settings for the trace,
as well as cursor information if cursors are in use. In the title
bar of the label are also included indicators for (SinX)/X
interpolation, waveform inversion (INV), deskew (DSQ),
coupling (DC/GND), bandwidth limiting (BWL), and averaging
(AVG). These indicators have a long and short
form
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.Besides channel traces, math and parameter measurement
labels are also displayed. Labels are displayed only for
traces that are turned on.
The title bar of the TimeBase label shows the trigger delay
setting. Time per division and sampling information is given
below the title bar.
The title bar of the Trigger label shows the trigger mode:
Auto, Normal, or Stopped. Below the title bar is given the
coupling (DC), trigger type (Edge), source (C1), level (0 mV),
and slope (Positive).
Shown below the TimeBase and Trigger labels is setup
information for horizontal cursors, including the time between
cursors and the frequency.
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Trace Annotation
The instrument gives you the ability to add an identifying label, bearing your own text, to a
waveform display:
For each waveform, you can create multiple labels and turn them all on or all off. Also, you can
position them on the waveform by dragging or by specifying an exact horizontal position.
To Annotate a Waveform
1. Touch the waveform you want to annotate, then Set label... in the pop-up menu. A dialog
box opens in which to create the label. If you are creating a label for the first time for this
waveform, Label1 is displayed with default text. If you are modifying an existing label,
under Labels touch the label you want to change.
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Note 1: If the dialog for the trace you want to annotate is currently displayed, you can touch the label button
at the bottom to display the Trace Annotation setup dialog.
Note 2: You may place a label anywhere you want on the waveform. Labels are numbered sequentially according to the
order in which they are added, and not according to their placement on the waveform.
2. If you want to change the label's text, touch inside the Label Text field. A pop-up
keyboard appears for you to enter your text. Touch O.K. on the keyboard when you are
done. Your edited text will automatically appear in the label on the waveform.
3. To place the label precisely, touch inside the Horizontal Pos. field and enter a horizontal
value, using the pop-up numeric keypad.
4. To add another label, touch the Add label button. To delete a label, select the label from
the list, then touch the Remove label button.
5. To make the labels visible, touch the View labels checkbox.
To Turn On a Channel Trace Label
Note: If you want to display each trace on its own grid automatically, enable Autogrid by touching Display in the menu
bar, then Autogrid in the drop-down menu.
1. On the front panel, press a channel select button, such as
label for that input channel and turn on the channel.
54
, to display the trace
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2. To turn on a math function trace, touch Math in the menu bar, then Math Setup... in the
drop-down menu. Touch the On checkbox for the trace you want to activate.
3. You can also quickly create traces (and turn on the trace label) for math functions and
memory traces, without leaving the Vertical Adjust dialog, by touching the icons at the
bottom of the Vertical Adjust dialog:
,
,
,
.
4. Whenever you turn on a channel, math, or memory trace via the menu bar, the dialog at
the bottom of the screen automatically switches to the vertical setup or math setup dialog
for that selection. You can configure your traces from here, including math setups.
5. The channel number appears in the Vertical Adjust tab
of the
"Vertical Adjust" dialog, signifying that all controls and data entry fields are dedicated to
the selected trace.
Screen Layout
The instrument's screen is divided into three areas:
•
menu bar
•
signal display area
•
dialog area
Menu Bar
The top of the screen contains a toolbar of commonly used functions. Whenever you touch one of
these buttons, the dialog area at the bottom of the screen switches to show the setup for that
function.
Signal Display Grid
You can set up the signal display area by touching
in the toolbar, then the
tab. The display dialog offers a choice of grid combinations and a means to set
the grid intensity.
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INSTALLATION
Hardware
Instrument Rear Panel
(1) Mouse; (2) Keyboard; (3) USB Port; (4) USB Port; (5) Centronics Port; (6) RS-232-C Port; (7) External VGA
Monitor; (8) Ethernet Port; (9) USB Port; (10) USB Port; (11) Line In; (12) Speakers; (13) Microphone
External Monitor
1. Shut off power to the scope.
2. Connect the external monitor to the VGA port at the rear of the instrument (item 7 in the
diagram).
3. Plug in the monitor's power cord, and apply power to the monitor.
4. Apply power to the scope.
5. After boot-up, touch Display in the menu bar, then Display Setup... in the drop-down
menu.
6. Touch the Monitor tab of the "Display"
dialog:
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7. Touch Enable External Monitor.
8. Touch inside the Brightness field and adjust brightness as necessary.
Software
Checking the Scope Status
To find out the scope's software and hardware configuration, including software version and
installed options, proceed as follows:
.
1. In the menu bar, touch
2. Touch the
tab.
3. You can find information related to hard drive memory, etc. as follows:
4. Minimize the instrument application by touching
drop-down menu.
, then selecting Minimize in the
5. Touch the Start taskbar button and, per usual Windows® operation, open Windows
Explorer.
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Default Settings
WaveMaster and WavePro 7000 Series DSOs
You can reset the scope to default settings by simply pressing the DEFAULT SETUP push button
on the front panel. This feature turns on Channel1 and Channel 2, with no processing
enabled.
Other default settings are as follows:
Vertical
Timebase
Trigger
50 mV/div
50.0 ns/div
DC50 (WaveMaster, DDA, SDA), AC1M (WavePro), C1,
0 mV level
0 V offset
10.0 GS/s
edge trigger
positive edge
0 s delay
Auto trigger mode
DDA, SDA, and WaveRunner DSOs
On your front panel, the DEFAULT SETUP push button does not exist. For these instruments,
therefore, to recall a default setup
1. Press the Save/Recall push button to the left of the Drive Analysis push button.
Note: You can also touch File in the menu bar, then Recall Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the "Recall Setup" tab in the dialog.
3. Then touch the on-screen Recall Default Setup button
.
Adding a New Option
To add a software option you need a key code to enable the option. Call LeCroy Customer
Support to place an order and receive the code.
To add the software option do the following:
1. In the menu bar, touch
2. In the dialog area, touch the
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.
tab.
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3. Touch
.
4. Use the pop-up keyboard to type the key code. Touch O.K. on the keyboard to enter the
information.
5. The name of the feature you just installed is shown below the list of key codes. You can
use the scroll buttons to see the name of the option installed with each key code listed:
The full array of installed software and hardware options is displayed on the left side of
the dialog:
Restoring Software
Restarting the Application
Upon initial power-up, the scope will load the instrument application software automatically. If you
exit the application and want to reload it, touch the shortcut icon on the desktop:
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If you minimize the application, touch the appropriate task bar or desktop button to maximize it:
.
Restarting the Operating System
If you need to restart the Windows® operating system, you will have to reboot the scope by
pressing and holding in the power switch for 10 seconds, then turning the power back on.
Removable Hard Drive
The removable hard drive option replaces the standard internal hard drive with a removable hard
drive that is installed at the rear of the scope, in the slot normally occupied by the CDROM drive.
The kit includes two hard drives, which can be used interchangeably. It also includes a USB
CDROM for loading of new software.
Caution The Removable Hard Drive Is Not Hot-swappable
To avoid damage to the drive or the oscilloscope, shut off power to the oscilloscope
before you insert or remove the hard drive. Ensure that the protective cover is installed
over the drive at all times.
Proper Orientation of Drive
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Protective Cover
External Monitor
If your X-Stream scope's processor runs at greater than 1 GHz, the external monitor must be
configured manually. You can find out your processor's speed by touching Utilities in the menu
bar, then touching the Status tab of the "Utilities" dialog. If the speed is greater than 1 GHz,
proceed as follows:
1. Shut off power to the scope.
2. Connect the external monitor to the VGA port at the rear of the instrument (item 6 in the
diagram).
3. Plug in the monitor's power cord, and apply power to the monitor.
4. Apply power to the scope.
5. After boot-up, touch Display in the menu bar, then Display Setup... in the drop-down
menu.
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6. Touch the Monitor tab of the "Display"
dialog:
7. Touch Enable External Monitor.
8. Touch inside the Brightness field and adjust brightness as necessary.
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CONNECTING TO A SIGNAL
ProBus Interface
LeCroy's ProBus® probe system provides a complete measurement solution from probe tip to
oscilloscope display. ProBus allows you to control transparent gain and offset directly from your
front panel. It is particularly useful for voltage, differential, and current active probes. It uploads
gain and offset correction factors from the ProBus EPROMs and automatically compensates to
achieve fully calibrated measurements.
This intelligent interconnection between your instrument and a wide range of accessories offers
important advantages over standard BNC and probe ring connections. ProBus ensures correct
input coupling by auto-sensing the probe type, thereby eliminating the guesswork and errors that
occur when attenuation or amplification factors are set manually.
Auxiliary Output Signals
In addition to a calibration signal, the following signals can be output through the AUX OUTPUT
connector:
Square Wave
Trigger Out -- can be used to trigger another
scope
DC level -- a reference level
Trigger Enabled -- can be used as a gating
function to trigger another instrument when the
scope is ready
Pass/Fail -- allows you to set a pulse duration
from 1 ms to 500 ms; generates a pulse when
pass/fail testing is active and conditions are met.
Aux Output Off -- turns off the auxiliary output
signal
To Set Up Auxiliary Output
1. In the menu bar, touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Aux Output tab.
3. If you simply want a 1 kHz, 1 V square wave, touch the button so labeled.
4. If you want a specialized output, touch one of the buttons under Use Auxiliary Output
For.
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5. Touch inside the Amplitude data entry field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric
keypad. If you want a TTL level signal, touch the TTL Level checkbox. The Amplitude
field will accordingly become unavailable.
6. If you selected Square Wave, touch inside the Frequency data entry field and enter a
value, using the pop-up keypad. You can set a value from 5.0 Hz to 5 MHz.
7. If you selected Pass/Fail, touch inside the Pulse Duration field and enter a value from 1
ms to 500 ms, using the pop-up numeric keypad.
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SAMPLING MODES
Sampling Modes
Depending on your timebase, you can choose either Single-shot (Real Time)
, or RIS
, Sequence
mode sampling.
To Select a Sampling Mode
1. In the menu bar, touch Timebase, then Horizontal Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. In the "Horizontal" dialog, touch a Sample Mode button.
3. If you chose Sequence Mode, touch the "Smart Memory" tab, then touch inside the Num
Segments data entry field
numeric keypad.
and enter a value using the pop-up
4. If you want to use a timeout condition for Sequence mode, touch the Enable Timeout
checkbox; then touch inside the Timeout data entry field
using the pop-up numeric keypad.
and enter a value
Single-shot sampling mode
Basic Capture Technique
A single-shot acquisition is a series of digitized voltage values sampled on the input signal at a
uniform rate. It is also a series of measured data values associated with a single trigger event.
The acquisition is typically stopped a defined number of samples after this event occurs: a
number determined by the selected trigger delay and measured by the timebase. The waveform's
horizontal position (and waveform display in general) is determined using the trigger event as the
definition of time zero.
You can choose either a pre- or post-trigger delay. Pre-trigger delay is the time from the left-hand
edge of the display grid forward to the trigger event, while post-trigger delay is the time back to
the event. You can sample the waveform in a range starting well before the trigger event up to the
moment the event occurs. This is 100% pre-trigger, and it allows you to see the waveform leading
up to the point at which the trigger condition was met and the trigger occurred. (The instrument
offers up to the maximum record length of points of pre-trigger information.) Post-trigger delay, on
the other hand, allows you to sample the waveform starting at the equivalent of 10,000 divisions
after the event occurred.
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Because each instrument input channel has a dedicated ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter), the
voltage on each is sampled and measured at the same instant. This allows very reliable time
measurements between the channels.
On fast timebase settings, the maximum single-shot sampling rate is used. But for slower
timebases, the sampling rate is decreased and the number of data samples maintained.
The relationship between sample rate, memory, and time can be simply defined as:
and
Sequence SAMPLING Mode Working With Segments
In sequence mode, the complete waveform consists of a number of fixed-size segments acquired
in single-shot mode (see the instrument specifications for the limits). Select the number of
segments to be captured, then select each segment individually and use it for processing with
math and measure tools.
Sequence mode offers a number of unique capabilities. With it, you can limit dead time between
trigger events for consecutive segments. The instrument can capture in fine detail complicated
sequences of events over large time intervals, while ignoring the uninteresting periods between
the events. You can also make time measurements between events on selected segments using
the full precision of the acquisition timebase.
Each individual segment can be zoomed or used as input to math functions.
The instrument uses the sequence timebase setting to determine the capture duration of each
segment: 10 x time/div. Along with this setting, the scope uses the desired number of segments,
maximum segment length, and total available memory to determine the actual number of samples
or segments, and time or points. However, the display of the complete waveform with all its
segments may not entirely fill the screen.
You can also use Sequence mode in remote operation to take full advantage of the instrument's
high data-transfer capability.
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How the instrument captures segments
To Set Up Sequence Mode
1. In the menu bar, touch Timebase, then touch Horizontal Setup... in the drop-down
menu.
2. Touch the Smart Memory tab, then touch the Sequence mode button
.
3. Under Sequence Options, touch inside the Num Segments data entry field and enter
the number of segments you want to display, using the pop-up keypad.
4. Touch inside the Timeout data entry field and enter a timeout value.
Note: The timeout period accounts for instances when a Num Segments miscount occurs for some reason and the
scope waits indefinitely for an unforthcoming segment. During that time, no scope functions are accessible. By means of a
timeout value, however, the acquisition will be completed, the waveform displayed, and control of the scope returned to
the user after the timeout has elapsed.
5. Touch the Enable Timeout checkbox.
6. In the menu bar, touch Display, then Display Setup... in the drop-down menu.
7. At the far right of the "Display" dialog, touch inside the Display mode field, and make a
selection from the pop-up menu.
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8. Touch inside the Num seg displayed field and enter a value from 1 to 80, using the popup numeric keypad.
9. Touch inside the Starting at field and enter a starting segment number, using the pop-up
numeric keypad.
Sequence Display Modes
The instrument gives you a choice of five ways to display your segments:
Adjacent
Waterfall (cascaded)
Mosaic (tiled)
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Overlay
Perspective
The number of segments you choose to display (80 maximum) can be less than the total number
of segments in the waveform. For example, in the pop-up images above, the number of display
segments is 10, but the total number of segments entered in the timebase dialog's Num
Segments field is 100.
To Display Individual Segments
1. Touch Math in the menu bar, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a function tab (F1 to Fx The number of math traces available depends on the
software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.).
3. Touch inside the Operator1 field and select Segment
from the pop-up menu.
4. In the right-hand dialog, touch the Select tab.
5. Touch inside the Select data entry field and use the pop-up numeric keypad to select the
segment you want to display.
Note: In Persistence mode, the segments are automatically overlaid one on top of the other in the display. In nonPersistence mode, they appear separately on the grid.
To View Time Stamps
1. In the menu bar, touch Timebase, then touch Acquisition Status... in the drop-down
menu.
2. Touch the Time tab.
3. Touch one of the channel buttons under Select Waveform.
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4. Touch inside the Select Segment field and enter a segment number, using the pop-up
keypad.
RIS SAMPLING Mode -- For Higher Sample Rates
RIS (Random Interleaved Sampling) is an acquisition technique that allows effective sampling
rates higher than the maximum single-shot sampling rate. It is used on repetitive waveforms with
a stable trigger. The maximum effective sampling rate of 50 GS/s can be achieved with RIS by
making 100 single-shot acquisitions at 500 MS/s. The bins thus acquired are positioned
approximately 20 ps apart. The process of acquiring these bins and satisfying the time constraint
is a random one. The relative time between ADC sampling instants and the event trigger provides
the necessary variation, measured by the timebase to 5 ps resolution.
The instrument requires multiple triggers to complete an acquisition. The number depends on the
sample rate: the higher the sample rate, the more triggers are required. It then interleaves these
segments (see figure) to provide a waveform covering a time interval that is a multiple of the
maximum single-shot sampling rate. However, the real-time interval over which the instrument
collects the waveform data is much longer, and depends on the trigger rate and the amount of
interleaving required. The oscilloscope is capable of acquiring approximately 40,000 RIS
segments per second.
Note: RIS mode is not available when the scope is operating in Fixed Sample Rate mode.
Roll Mode
Roll mode applies only to WavePro 7000 series scopes, and can be selected when the timebase
mode is real time, time per division is > 200 ms/div, and the sampling rate is < 200 kS/s.
Roll mode is not selected automatically when the above criteria are met. You must select Roll
mode manually from the Timebase dialog each time you want to invoke it.
Roll mode displays, in real time, incoming points in single-shot acquisitions that have a sufficiently
low data rate. The oscilloscope rolls the incoming data continuously across the screen until a
trigger event is detected and the acquisition is complete. The parameters or math functions
connected to each channel are updated every time the roll mode buffer is updated, as if new data
is available. This resets statistics on every step of Roll mode that is valid because of new data.
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Note: If the processing time is greater than the acquire time, the data in memory gets overwritten. In this case, the
instrument issues the warning: Channel data is not continuous in ROLL mode!!! and rolling will start over again.
VERTICAL SETTINGS AND CHANNEL CONTROLS
Adjusting Sensitivity and Position
To Adjust Sensitivity
1. Press the appropriate channel push button, for example
to turn on channel 1. Or
touch Vertical in the menu bar, then Channel 1 in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch inside the Trace On checkbox to display the trace.
for the selected channel. Or you can touch
3. Turn the volts per division knob
inside the Volts/Div field and type in a value using the pop-up keypad, or use the
up/down arrows.
4. The voltage that you set is displayed in the trace descriptor label
in the Volts/Div field.
and
To Adjust the Waveform's Position
Turn the vertical offset adjust knob directly above the channel button whose waveform you want
to move vertically. Or you can touch inside the Offset field and type in a value on the pop-up
keypad. To set the vertical offset to zero, touch the Zero Offset button directly below the Offset
field.
Coupling
The choices of coupling are as follows:
•
DC 50 (all instruments)
•
GROUND (all instruments)
•
DC 1 M (WavePro & WaveRunner instruments)
•
AC 1 M (WavePro & WaveRunner instruments)
Overload Protection
The maximum input voltage is 4 V peak. Whenever the voltage exceeds this limit, the coupling
mode automatically switches from DC 50 to GROUND. You will then have to manually reset the
coupling to DC 50 , as described next.
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To Set Coupling
1. In the menu bar, touch the Vertical button, then Channel X Setup... in the drop-down
menu.
2. Touch inside the Coupling field and select a coupling mode from the pop-up menu.
Probe Attenuation
To Set Probe Attenuation
LeCroy's ProBus® system automatically senses probes and sets their attenuation for you. If you
want to set the attenuation manually,
1. In the menu bar, touch Vertical, then select a channel from the drop-down menu.
2. Touch inside the Probe Atten. data entry field
. Touch a divide-by
menu selection or touch Var (variable). If you choose Var, type in a value using the popup numeric keypad.
Bandwidth Limit
Reducing the bandwidth also reduces the signal and system noise, and prevents high frequency
aliasing.
To Set Bandwidth Limiting
1. To set bandwidth limiting
2. In the menu bar, touch Vertical, then select a channel from the drop-down menu.
3. Touch inside the Bandwidth field and select a bandwidth limit value from the pop-up
menu. The options are
•
Full (all X-Stream scopes)
•
4 GHz (WaveMaster 8600A/8500A, DDA-5005A, SDA)
•
3 GHz (WaveMaster 8600A/8500A, DDA-5005A, SDA)
•
1 GHz (WaveMaster DSOs, DDA-5005A, SDA)
•
200 MHz (all X-Stream scopes)
•
20 MHz (all X-Stream scopes)
Linear and (SinX)/X Interpolation
Linear interpolation, which inserts a straight line between sample point, is best used to
reconstruct straight-edged signals such as square waves. (Sinx)/x interpolation, on the other
hand, is suitable for reconstructing curved or irregular waveshapes, especially when the sample
rate is 3 to 5 times the system bandwidth.
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To Set Up Interpolation
1. Touch the button for the channel you want to set up,
for example.
2. In the dialog area, touch inside the Interpolation data entry field under Pre-Processing.
"Pre-Processing" means before Math processing.
3. Touch inside the Interpolation data entry field. A pop-up menu appears offering Linear or
Sinx/x interpolation.
4. Touch the button for the type of interpolation you want.
Inverting Waveforms
Touch the Invert checkbox to invert the waveform for the selected channel.
QuickZoom
QuickZoom automatically displays a zoom of the channel or trace on a new grid.
To Turn On a Zoom
Touch the Zoom button
in the channel dialog.
Finding Scale
You can access the Find Scale button from the channel setup dialog. This feature automatically
calculates peak-to-peak voltage, and chooses an appropriate Volts/Div scale to fully display the
waveform.
To Use Find Scale
1. Touch the trace label for the waveform you desire.
2. Touch the Find Scale icon.
Variable Gain
Variable Gain lets you change the granularity with which the gain is incremented. For example,
when Variable Gain is disabled, the gain will increase or decrease in preset increments of 10 or
100 mV each time you touch the Up/Down buttons.
However, when Variable Gain is enabled, you can increase or decrease the gain in increments
as small as 1 mV, depending on the scale of the waveform.
To Enable Variable Gain
1. Touch the descriptor label for the waveform whose gain you want to vary.
2. Touch the Variable Gain check box.
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Channel Deskew
Unlike the Deskew math function, channel Deskew does no resampling, but instead adjusts the
horizontal offset by the amount that you enter. The valid range is dependent on the current
timebase +/- 9 divisions.
To Set Up Channel Deskew
1. In the menu bar, touch Vertical; from the drop-down menu, select a channel to set up.
2. Touch inside the Deskew data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
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TIMEBASE AND ACQUISITION SYSTEM
Timebase Setup and Control
Set up the timebase by using the front panel Horizontal controls, just as for analog scopes.
For additional timebase setups,
1. Touch Timebase in the menu bar, then Horizontal Setup... in the drop-down menu. The
"Horizontal" dialog appears.
2. Touch inside the Time/Division data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up
numeric keypad, or use the up/down arrows to adjust the value.
3. Touch inside the Delay data entry field and type in a value, using the pop-up keypad.
Touch the Set To Zero button to set the delay to zero.
4. Touch the SMART Memory button or tab and adjust the memory as needed.
Dual Channel Acquisition
Combining of Channels
Channels can be combined to increase sample rate, memory, or both in order to capture and view
a signal in all its detail. When you combine channels, uncombined channels like EXT BNC remain
available for triggering, even though they are not displayed.
Note: While channels can be combined on any WaveRunner 6000 Series model to increase memory, sample rate can
only be increased on 1 GHz and 2 GHz bandwidth models.
In 2-channel operation, channels 2 and 3 are active. In Auto operation, you can use channel 1 or
2, and channel 3 or 4. On the paired channels the maximum sampling rate is doubled and the
record length is greatly increased:
Ch 1 & Ch 3
10 GS/s
Ch 1 & Ch 4
10 GS/s
Ch 2 & Ch 3
10 GS/s
Ch 2 & Ch 4
10 GS/s
As you can see, sampling can be maximized to 10 GS/s for any combination of two channels,
except a combination of channels 1 and 2, or channels 3 and 4, which yield 5 GS/s. The basic
rule is to choose either channel 1 or 2 for your first input, and either channel 3 or 4 for the second
input.
Refer to Acquisition Modes in the specifications for maximum sample rates.
To Combine Channels
1. In the menu bar, touch Timebase; the "Horizontal" setup dialog opens.
2. Under Active Channels, touch 4, 2 or Auto. The maximum sample rate is shown
alongside each button.
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Autosetup
When channels are turned on, Autosetup operates only on those turned-on channels. If no
channels are turned on, all channels are affected. When more than one channel is turned on, the
first channel in numerical order with a signal applied to it is automatically set up for edge
triggering.
You can perform an autosetup of all these functions together by simply pressing
front panel, or by touching Autosetup
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TRIGGERING
Trigger Setup Considerations
Trigger Modes
Auto mode causes the scope to sweep even without a trigger. An internal timer triggers the sweep
so that the display remains, even when the signal does not cause a trigger.
In Normal mode, the scope sweeps only if the input signal reaches the set trigger point.
Otherwise it continues to display the last acquired waveform.
In Single mode, only one sweep occurs each time you press the button.
Stop mode inhibits all sweeps until you select one of the other three modes.
Trigger Types
The triggers available to you are defined as follows:
A simple trigger, Edge trigger is activated by basic waveform features or conditions such
as positive or negative slope, and holdoff.
One of LeCroy's SMART Triggers®, Width trigger allows you to define a positive- or
negative-going pulse width bounded by a voltage level, above or below which a trigger
will occur. Or you can specify a pulse width and voltage range, within or outside of
which a trigger will occur.
Another of the SMART Triggers, Glitch trigger is a simpler form of Width trigger. Use
Glitch trigger when you want to define a fixed pulse-width time or time range only. Glitch
trigger makes no provision for voltage levels or ranges.
While Glitch trigger performs over the width of a pulse, Interval trigger performs over the
width of an interval the signal duration (the period) separating two consecutive edges of
the same polarity: positive to positive or negative to negative. Use interval trigger to
capture intervals that fall short of, or exceed, a given time limit. In addition, you can
define a width range to capture any interval that is itself inside or outside the specified
range an Exclusion trigger by interval.
The Qualify trigger is an edge-qualified SMART Trigger that allows you to use one
signal's positive or negative transition to qualify a second signal, which is the trigger
source. For Qualify trigger, you specify the time or number of events after the transition
when you want the trigger to occur.
The State trigger is a level-qualified SMART Trigger which requires that the qualifying
signal remain above or below a specified voltage level for a trigger to occur. For Sate
trigger, you specify the time or number of events after the signal has gone above or
below the voltage level when you want the trigger to occur.
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Used primarily in single-shot applications, and usually with a pre-trigger delay, Dropout
trigger can detect lost signals. The trigger is generated at the end of the timeout period
following the last trigger source transition. You can select a timeout period from 2 ns to
20 s.
Logic trigger enables triggering on a logical combination (pattern) of five inputs: CH1,
CH2, CH3, CH4, EXT. You have a choice of four Boolean operators (AND, NAND, OR,
NOR), and you can stipulate the high or low voltage logic level for each input
independently.
Determining Trigger Level, Slope, Source, and Coupling
Level defines the source voltage at which the trigger circuit will generate an event: a change in
the input signal that satisfies the trigger conditions. The selected trigger level is associated with
the chosen trigger source.
Trigger level is specified in volts and normally remains unchanged when you change the vertical
gain or offset. The amplitude and range of the trigger level are limited as follows:
•
±5 screen divisions with a channel as the trigger source
•
±400 mV with EXT as the trigger source
•
±4 V with EXT/10 as the trigger source
•
±40 mV with EXT*10 as the trigger source
•
None with LINE as the trigger source (zero crossing is used).
Coupling refers to the type of signal coupling at the input of the trigger circuit. Because of the
instrument's very high bandwidth, there is only one choice of trigger coupling: DC 50 ohms.
However, as a visual check of where ground is, you may switch the channel to ground coupling at
any time while testing.
With DC coupling, all of the signal's frequency components are coupled to the trigger circuit for
high-frequency bursts.
Slope determines the direction of the trigger voltage transition used for generating a particular
trigger event. You can choose a positive or negative slope. Like coupling, the selected slope is
associated with the chosen trigger source.
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Edge trigger works on the selected edge at the chosen level. The slope (positive or negative) is specified in the
Trigger label permanently displayed below-right of the grid.
Trigger Source
The Trigger On source may be one of the following:
•
The acquisition channel signal (CH 1, CH 2, CH 3 or CH 4) conditioned for the overall
voltage gain, coupling, and bandwidth.
•
The line voltage that powers the oscilloscope (LINE). This can be used to provide a
stable display of signals synchronous with the power line. Coupling and level are not
relevant for this selection.
•
The signal applied to the EXT BNC connector (EXT). This can be used to trigger the
oscilloscope within a range of ±400 mV on EXT, ±4 V with EXT/10 as the trigger source.
•
A logic pattern.
Level
Level defines the source voltage at which the trigger circuit will generate an event (a change in
the input signal that satisfies the trigger conditions). The selected trigger level is associated with
the chosen trigger source. Note that the trigger level is specified in volts and normally remains
unchanged when the vertical gain or offset is modified.
•
The Amplitude and Range of the trigger level are limited as follows:
•
±5 screen divisions with a channel as the trigger source
•
±400 mV with EXT as the trigger source
•
±4 V with EXT/10 as the trigger source
•
none with LINE as the trigger source (zero crossing is used)
Note: Once specified, Trigger Level and Coupling are the only parameters that pass unchanged from trigger mode to
trigger mode for each trigger source.
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Holdoff by Time or Events
Holdoff is an additional condition of Edge trigger. It can be expressed either as a period of time or
an event count. Holdoff disables the trigger circuit for a given period of time or number of events
after the last trigger occurred. Events are the number of occasions on which the trigger condition
is met. The trigger will again occur when the holdoff has elapsed and the trigger's other conditions
are met.
Use holdoff to obtain a stable trigger for repetitive, composite waveforms. For example, if the
number or duration of sub-signals is known you can disable them by choosing an appropriate
holdoff value. Qualified triggers operate using conditions similar to holdoff.
Hold Off by Time
Sometimes you can achieve a stable display of complex, repetitive waveforms by placing a
condition on the time between each successive trigger event. This time would otherwise be
limited only by the input signal, the coupling, and the instrument's bandwidth. Select a positive or
negative slope, and a minimum time between triggers. The trigger is generated when the
condition is met after the selected holdoff time, counted from the last trigger. Any time between 2
ns and 20 s can be selected. The delay is initialized and started on each trigger.
Edge Trigger with Holdoff by Time. The bold edges on the trigger source indicate that a positive slope has been
selected. The broken upward-pointing arrows indicate potential triggers, which would occur if other conditions
are met. The bold arrows indicate where the triggers actually occur when the holdoff time has been exceeded.
Hold Off by Events
Select a positive or negative slope and a number of events. An event is the number of times the
trigger condition is met after the last trigger. A trigger is generated when the condition is met after
this number, counted from the last trigger. The count is restarted on each trigger. For example, if
the event number is two, the trigger will occur on the third event. From one to 1,000,000,000
events can be selected.
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Edge Trigger with Holdoff by Events (in this example, two events). The bold edges on the trigger source indicate
that a positive slope has been selected. The broken, upward-pointing arrows indicate potential triggers, while the
bold ones show where triggers actually occur after the holdoff expires.
Simple Triggers
Edge Trigger on Simple Signals
The instrument uses many waveform capture techniques that trigger on features and conditions
that you define. These triggers fall into two major categories:
Edge activated by basic waveform features or conditions such as a positive or negative slope,
and hold-off
SMART Trigger® sophisticated triggers that enable you to use basic or complex conditions for
triggering.
Use Edge Triggers for simple signals, and the SMART Triggers for signals with rare features, like
glitches.
Control Edge Triggering
Horizontal: Turn the Delay knob in the HORIZONTAL control group to adjust the trigger's
horizontal position. Or, touch inside the Delay field in the timebase setup dialog and enter a
value, using the pop-up keypad.
The trigger location is shown by a marker below the grid
.
Post-trigger delay is indicated by a left-pointing arrow below-left of the grid
value is given in the title line of the TimeBase label
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below-right of the grid.
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Vertical: Turn the Level knob
vertical threshold.
in the TRIGGER control group to adjust the trigger's
Turn this knob to adjust the level of the trigger source or the highlighted trace. Level defines the
source voltage at which the trigger will generate an event a change in the input signal that
satisfies the trigger conditions.
Alternatively, in the "Trigger" dialog, you can touch inside the Level field and type in a value,
using the pop-up numeric keypad. To quickly set a level of zero volts, touch the Zero Level button
directly below the Coupling field.
An arrow on the left side of the grid shows the threshold position. This arrow is only visible if the
trigger source is displayed.
To Set Up an Edge Trigger
Channel Setup
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then select Trigger Setup... from the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Edge trigger button
under the Trigger tab.
3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select an input from the pop-up menu:
.
4. Touch inside the Level data entry field
. In the pop-up numeric
to
keypad, enter a value in millivolts or use the up/down buttons
increase or decrease the value in increments of 1 mV. Or, touch one of the preset value
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buttons:
.
Max.
1.000 V
Default
0 mV
Min.
1.000 V
5. Select the holdoff by touching the Time or Events buttons
,
. Using the
pop-up numeric keypad, enter a value and specify the unit of time, or use the up/down
to increase or decrease the time value in increments of 200
buttons
ps. Or, touch one of the preset value buttons:
.
6. The preset Time values are as follows:
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Max.
20.0 s
Default
50.0 ns
Min.
2 ns
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The preset Events values are as follows:
Max.
1,000,000,000 events
Default
1 event
Min.
1 event
7. Choose Positive or Negative slope
.
SMART Triggers
Width Trigger
How Width Trigger Works
Width trigger allows you to define a positive- or negative-going pulse width bounded by a voltage
level, above or below which a trigger will occur. You can specify a pulse width and voltage range,
within or outside of which a trigger will occur.
To Set Up Width Trigger
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Width trigger button
3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger.
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4. Touch inside the Level data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
5. Select positive or negative slope.
6. Touch the LessThan button and enter a pulse-width value in the Upper Limit data entry
field. Or touch the GreaterThan button and enter a pulse-width value in the Lower Limit
data entry field. Or touch the InRange button. Touch the Delta button
to set up a
nominal range, plus or minus a delta value in seconds. Touch inside the Nominal Width
and Delta data entry fields and enter values using the pop-up numeric keypads.
to set up a precise pulse-width range.
Alternatively, touch the Limits button
Touch inside the Lower Limit and Upper Limit data entry fields and enter values using
the pop-up keypads. Or touch the OutOfRange button and perform the same range
setups as for InRange triggering.
Glitch Trigger
How Glitch Trigger Works
Glitch trigger can be used to catch glitches. You can specify a pulse width or a pulse width range.
Pulse smaller than selected pulse width: Set a maximum pulse width. This glitch trigger is
generated on the selected edge (positive or negative) when the pulse width is less than or equal
to the set width.
The timing for the width is initialized and restarted on the opposite slope to that selected. You can
set widths from 600 ps to 20 s.
Note: If the glitch's width is narrower than the signal's width, set the trigger to a narrower width than that of the signal. The
signal's width, as determined by the instrument trigger comparator, depends on the DC trigger level. If that level were to
be set at the middle of a sine wave, for example, the width could then be considered as the half period. But if the level
were higher, the signal's width would be considered to be less than the half period.
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Glitch Trigger: In this example triggering on a pulse width less than or equal to the width selected. The broken
upward-pointing arrow indicates a potential trigger, while the bold one shows where the actual trigger occurs.
To Set Up Glitch Trigger
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Glitch trigger button
.
3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger.
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4. Touch inside the Level data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
5. Select positive or negative slope.
6. Define the width of the glitch you are looking for. You can trigger on any glitch less than a
chosen pulse-width (Upper Limit); or you can trigger on a chosen range (InRange).
Touch the LessThan button; the Upper Limit data entry field alone is displayed. Touch
the InRange button; the Upper Limit and Lower Limit fields are displayed.
7. Touch inside the limit field or fields and enter a time value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
Interval Trigger
How Interval Triggers Work
While Glitch trigger performs over the width of a pulse, Interval trigger performs over the width of
an interval, with the signal duration (period) separating two consecutive edges of the same
polarity: positive to positive or negative to negative. Use Interval trigger to capture intervals that
fall short of, or exceed, a given time limit. In addition, you can define a width range to capture any
interval that is itself inside or outside the specified range: an exclusion trigger by interval.
Interval Less Than: For this Interval Trigger, generated on a time interval smaller than the one
that you set, choose a maximum interval between two like edges of the same slope (positive, for
example).
The trigger is generated on the second (positive) edge if it occurs within the set interval. The
instrument initializes and restarts the timing for the interval whenever the selected edge occurs.
You can set an interval from 2 ns to 20 s.
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Interval Trigger that triggers when the interval width is smaller than the selected interval. The broken, upwardpointing arrow indicates a potential trigger, while the bold one shows where the actual trigger occurs on the
positive edge within the selected interval.
Interval Greater Than: For this Interval Trigger, generated on an interval larger than the one that
you set, select a minimum interval between two edges of the same slope. The instrument
generates the trigger on the second edge if it occurs after the set interval. The timing for the
interval is initialized and restarted whenever the selected edge occurs. You can set an interval
from 2 ns to 20 s.
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Interval Trigger that triggers when the interval width is larger than the set interval. The broken upward-pointing
arrow indicates a potential trigger, while the bold one shows where the actual trigger occurs on the positive
edge after the selected interval.
Interval In Range: This Interval Trigger is generated whenever an interval between two edges of
the same slope falls within a selected range. The instrument initializes and restarts the timing for
the interval whenever the selected edge occurs. You can set an interval from 2 ns to 20 s.
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Interval Trigger that triggers when the interval falls within the selected range:
t1 = range's lower time limit; t2 = range's upper limit. The broken upward-pointing arrow indicates a potential
trigger, while the bold one indicates where the actual trigger occurs on the positive edge within the selected
range.
To Set Up Interval Trigger
In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
1. Touch the Interval trigger button
2. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger.
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3. Touch inside the Level data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
4. Select positive or negative slope.
5. Touch the LessThan button and enter a pulse-width value in the Upper Limit data entry
field.
Or touch the GreaterThan button and enter a value in the Lower Limit data entry field.
Or touch the InRange button.
6. Touch the Delta button
to set up a nominal range, plus or minus a delta value in
seconds. Touch inside the Nominal Width and Delta data entry fields and enter values
using the pop-up numeric keypads.
to set up a precise range. Touch inside the Lower Limit
Touch the Limits button
and Upper Limit data entry fields and enter values using the pop-up numeric keypads.
Or touch the OutOfRange button and perform the same Delta or Limits setup as for
InRange triggering.
Qualified Trigger
How Qualified Triggers Work
Use a signals transition above or below a given level (its validation) as an enabling (qualifying)
condition for a second signal that is the trigger source. These are Qualified triggers. For Edge
Qualified triggers (the default) the transition is sufficient and no additional requirement is placed
on the first signal. For State Qualified triggers the amplitude of the first signal must remain in the
desired state until the trigger occurs. A qualified trigger can occur immediately after the validation,
or following a predetermined time delay or number of potential trigger events. The time delay or
trigger count is restarted with every validation.
Within Time creates a time window within which a trigger can occur.
Wait Time determines a delay from the start of the desired pattern. After the delay
(timeout) and while the pattern is present, a trigger can occur. The timing for the delay is restarted
when the selected pattern begins.
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Events determines a minimum number of events of the trigger source. An event is
generated when a trigger source meets its trigger conditions. On the selected event of the trigger
source and while the pattern is present, a trigger can occur. The count is initialized and started
whenever the selected pattern begins, and continues while the pattern remains. When the
selected count is reached, the trigger occurs.
Edge Qualified and Wait: Trigger after timeout. The broken upward-pointing arrows indicate potential triggers,
while the bold ones show where the actual triggers occur.
Qualified First Trigger
Qualified First trigger is intended to be used exclusively in Sequence Mode to speed up the
trigger rate. With Qualified First trigger, a single valid trigger is sufficient to acquire a full
sequence. Other than in Sequence Mode, Qualified First is identical to the Qualified triggers.
In data storage applications, the index pulse can be defined as the qualifier signal and the servo
gate signal as the trigger source.
To Set Up an Edge Qualified Trigger
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Qualify trigger button
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3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger.
4. Select Positive or Negative slope.
5. Touch inside the After data entry field and select the qualifying signal source from the
pop-up menu. If you select an input channel or external source, touch inside the has
gone data entry field and select a logic level: Above or Below. Then touch inside the
Level field and set a voltage level using the pop-up numeric keypad. If you select Pattern
from the pop-up menu, touch the Pattern tab and choose a logic gate. Then touch inside
the State field for each channel input you want to use in the pattern and select a logic
condition: High or Low. Select Don't Care for unused inputs. For the inputs to be used,
touch inside each Level field and enter a voltage threshold using the pop-up numeric
keypad. Then touch the Trigger tab again.
6. If you want to set a holdoff in time or events, touch one of the Qualify by: buttons:
,
,
.
7. Touch inside the field below the Qualify by: buttons and enter a value using the numeric
keypad.
8. To set up a Qualified First trigger, touch the Qualify first segment only checkbox if you
are in Sequence mode.
State Trigger
State trigger is another Qualified trigger; however, instead of using the edges of the qualifying
inputs, State trigger uses the logic state of the inputs to qualify the trigger. Therefore, the pattern
must become true and remain true (for a period of time or number of events that you specify) to
qualify the trigger.
See also How Qualified Triggers Work.
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State Qualified and Wait: Trigger after timeout. The broken upward-pointing arrows indicate potential triggers,
while the bold arrows show where the actual triggers occur.
To Set Up a State Qualified Trigger
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the State trigger button
3. Touch inside the Trigger On data entry field and select a source on which to trigger.
4. Select Positive or Negative slope.
5. Touch inside the has gone data entry field and select the qualifying signal source from
the pop-up menu. If you select an input channel or external source, touch inside the has
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gone data entry field and select a logic level: Above or Below. Then touch inside the
Level field and set a voltage level using the pop-up numeric keypad. If you want to set a
holdoff in time or events, touch one of the holdoff buttons:
,
,
.
6. Touch inside the field below the holdoff buttons and set a value using the numeric
keypad.
Dropout Trigger
Used primarily in single-shot applications, and usually with a pre-trigger delay, Dropout trigger
can detect lost signals. The trigger is generated at the end of the timeout period following the last
trigger source transition. You can set a timeout period from 2 ns to 20 s.
How Dropout Trigger Works
Dropout Trigger: occurs when the timeout has expired. The bold upward-pointing arrows show where the trigger
occurs.
To Set Up Dropout Trigger
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Dropout trigger button
.
3. Select Positive or Negative slope.
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4. Touch inside the Trigger after timeout data entry field and enter a time window using the
pop-up numeric keypad.
Logic Trigger
How Logic Trigger Works
Logic Trigger enables triggering on a logical combination of up to five inputs: CH 1, CH 2, CH 3,
CH 4, and EXT. The combination of inputs is referred to as a pattern. There are four logic gates
available: AND, NAND, OR, NOR.
A trigger state is either high or low: high when a trigger source is greater than the trigger level
(threshold) and low when less than it. For example, an AND pattern could be defined as true
when the trigger state for CH 1 is high, CH 2 is low, and EXT is irrelevant (X or don't care). If any
one of these conditions is not met, the pattern state is considered false. You can set holdoff limits
from 2 ns to 20 s or from 1 to 1,000,000,000 events.
Logic Applications
Logic Trigger can be used in digital design for the testing of complex logic inputs or data transmission buses.
To Set Up Logic Trigger
1. In the menu bar, touch Trigger, then Trigger Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Logic trigger button
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3. Touch the Pattern tab.
4. For each input you want to include in the logic pattern, touch inside the State data entry
field and select a logic state: Low or High. Select Don't Care for all other inputs.
5. Touch inside the Level data entry field for each input included in the pattern and enter a
voltage level threshold using the pop-up numeric keypad.
6. Touch the Trigger tab.
7. If you want to hold off the trigger (either in time or events) when the pattern becomes
true, touch one of the holdoff buttons
,
.
8. Touch inside the holdoff data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
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DISPLAY FORMATS
Display Setup
1. In the menu bar, touch Display; then touch Display Setup in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch one of the Grid combination buttons. Autogrid automatically adds or deletes grids
as you select more or fewer waveforms to display.
3. Touch inside the grid Intensity data entry field
0 to 100 using the pop-up keypad.
and enter a value from
4. Touch the Grid on top checkbox if you want to superimpose the grid over the waveform.
Depending on the grid intensity, some of your waveform may be hidden from view when
the grid is placed on top. To undo, simply uncheck Grid on top.
5. Touch the Axis labels checkbox to permanently display the values of the top and bottom
grid lines (calculated from volts/div) and the extreme left and right grid lines (calculated
from the timebase).
6. Choose a line style for your trace: solid Line
or Points
.
Sequence Mode Display
1. To a set up Sequence Mode display, you must first have selected Sequence trigger
mode in the Timebase "Horizontal" dialog. You must also have entered a Num Segments
value.
2. In the menu bar, touch Display; then touch Display Setup in the drop-down menu.
3. Touch inside the Display Mode field and select a display mode from the pop-up menu.
4. Touch inside the Num seg displayed field and enter a value, using the pop-up keypad.
The maximum number of segments that can be displayed is 80.
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5. Touch inside the Starting at field and enter a value.
Note: The maximum value that you can enter for Starting at depends on the Num Segments value you entered in the
"Timebase" dialog. It also depends on the Num seg displayed value you entered here in the "Display" dialog. For
example, if you had entered a value of 500 in Num Segments, and a value of 10 in Num seg displayed, the maximum
value you can enter as a starting segment is 491so that 10 segments can be seen.
Persistence Setup
The analog Persistence feature helps you display your waveform and reveal its idiosyncrasies or
anomalies for a repetitive signal. Use Persistence to accumulate on-screen points from many
acquisitions to see your signal change over time. The instrument persistence modes show the
most frequent signal path "three-dimensionally" in intensities of the same color, or graded in a
spectrum of colors.
You can show persistence for up to eight inputs for any channel, math function, or memory
location (M1 to M4).
Saturation Level
The Persistence display is generated by repeated sampling of the amplitudes of events over time,
and the accumulation of the sampled data into "3-dimensional" display maps. These maps create
an analog-style display. User-definable persistence duration can be used to view how the maps
evolve proportionally over time. Statistical integrity is preserved because the duration (decay) is
proportional to the persistence population for each amplitude or time combination in the data. In
addition, the instrument gives you post-acquisition saturation control for a more detailed display.
When you select
mode from the Persistence dialog (with All Locked selected), each
channel is assigned a single color. As a persistence data map develops, different intensities of
that color are assigned to the range between a minimum and a maximum population. The
maximum population automatically gets the highest intensity, the minimum population gets the
lowest intensity, and intermediate populations get intensities in between these extremes.
The information in the lower populations (for example, down at the noise level) could be of
greater interest to you than the rest. The Analog persistence view highlights the distribution of
data so that you can examine it in detail.
You can select a saturation level as a percentage of the maximum population. All populations
above the saturation population are then assigned the highest color intensity: that is, they are
saturated. At the same time, all populations below the saturation level are assigned the remaining
intensities. Data populations are dynamically updated as data from new acquisitions is
accumulated.
Color mode persistence, selected by touching
, works on the same principle as the
Analog persistence feature, but instead uses the entire color spectrum to map signal intensity:
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violet for minimum population, red for maximum population. A saturation level of 100% spreads
the intensity variation across the entire distribution; at lower saturation levels the intensity will
saturate (become the brightest color) at the percentage value specified. Lowering this percentage
causes the pixels to be saturated at a lower population, and makes visible those rarely hit pixels
not seen at higher percentages.
3-Dimensional Persistence
By selecting 3d
, you can create a topographical view of your waveform from a selection
of shadings, textures, and hues. The advantage of the topographical view is that areas of highest
and lowest intensity are shown as peaks and valleys, in addition to color or brightness. The shape
of the peaks (pointed or flat) can reveal further information about the frequency of occurrences in
your waveform.
The instrument also gives you the ability to turn the X and Y axes of the waveform through 180°
of rotation from -90° to +90°.
Here is an example of a 3-dimensional view of a
square wave using the solid view of color-graded
persistence. Saturation is set at 50%, with red areas
indicating highest intensity. The X-axis has been
rotated 60%; the Y-axis has been rotated 15%.
Here is a monochrome (analog) view of the same
waveform. The lightest areas indicate highest
intensity, corresponding to the red areas in the solid
view.
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Here is a shaded (projected light) view of the same
waveform. This view emphasizes the shape of the
pulses.
Here is a wire frame view of the same waveform in
which lines of equal intensity are used to construct
the persistence map.
Show Last Trace
For most applications, you may not want to show the last trace because it will be superimposed
on top of your persistence display. In those cases turn off Show Last Trace by touching the
checkbox. However, if you are doing mask testing and want to see where the last trace is falling,
turn Show Last Trace on.
Persistence Time
You can control the duration of persistence by setting a time limit, in seconds, after which
persistence data will be erased: 0.5 s, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, or infinity.
Locking of Traces
The instrument gives you the choice of constraining all input channels to the same mode,
saturation level, persistence time, and last trace display, or setting these for each input channel
individually. Choose
up input channels individually.
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to constrain input channels. Choose
to set
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To Set Up Persistence
1. In the menu bar touch Display, then touch Persistence Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Persistence On checkbox. If Per Trace is selected, touch the Reset All button
to return all input channel setups to their default settings.
3. Touch the All Locked button
if you want to set the same mode,
saturation level, persistence time, and last trace display for all input channels. Touch the
Per Trace button
to set these for each input channel individually.
.
4. If you selected All Locked, touch one of the mode buttons
5. Then touch the Show last trace checkbox if you want the last trace displayed.
6. Touch inside the Saturation data entry field and enter a whole number integer, using the
pop-up numeric keypad.
7. Touch inside the Persistence time data entry field and make a selection from the pop-up
menu.
8. If you selected Per Trace, for each input channel touch its tab, then make selections of
mode, saturation level, persistence time, and last trace display in the same way as for All
Locked.
9. To create a 3-dimensional view, touch the 3d button
. Then
10. Touch inside the Saturation data entry field and enter a whole number integer, using the
pop-up numeric keypad.
11. Touch inside the Persistence time data entry field and make a selection from the pop-up
menu.
12. Under "3D settings," touch inside the Quality field and select an image quality from the
pop-up menu: wire frame, solid, or shaded.
13. For each axis, touch inside the data entry field and enter a value from -90° to +90°.
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14. To turn off persistence for an individual channel, touch the left-most persistence mode
button
. To turn off persistence for all channels, press the
front panel Analog Persist button
off.
. This button toggles Analog Persistence on and
Screen Saver
The Windows screen saver is activated in the same way as for any PC.
1. Minimize the instrument display by touching File in the menu bar, then Minimize in the
drop-down menu.
2. Touch Start down in the task bar.
3. Touch Settings in the pop-up menu.
4. Touch Control Panel.
5. Touch Display.
6. Touch the Screen Saver tab.
Moving Traces from Grid to Grid
You can move traces from grid to grid at the touch of a button.
To Move a Channel or Math Trace
1. Touch the descriptor label for the waveform that you want to move.
Example Trace Label
2. Touch the Next Grid button
.
Note: If you have more than one waveform displayed on only one grid, a second grid will open automatically when you
select Next Grid.
Zooming Waveforms
The Zoom button
appears as a standard button at the bottom of the channel "Cx
Vertical Adjust" setup dialog if you want to create a math function zoom trace of your input
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waveform. On the other hand, you can zoom a memory or math function non-zoom trace directly
without having to create a separate zoom trace. For such traces, a zoom control mini-dialog is
provided at the right of each math trace "Fx" setup dialog:
The front panel "QuickZoom" button
channel.
creates multiple zooms, one for each displayed input
At any time, you can also zoom a portion of a waveform by touching and dragging a rectangle
around any part of the input waveform. The zoom trace will size itself to fit the full width of the
grid. The degree of magnification, therefore, will depend on the size of the rectangle that you
create.
When you zoom a waveform, an approximation of the zoomed area will appear in a thumbnail
icon in the "Zoom" dialog:
. The "Zoom" dialog appears alongside the math setup
dialog when Zoom is the math or memory function selected.
To Zoom a Single Channel
1. In the menu bar, touch Vertical; then touch a channel number in the drop-down menu.
Alternatively, you can just touch the channel trace label
displayed channel.
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2. Touch
at the bottom of the "Cx Vertical Adjust dialog." A zoom math trace
(one of F5 to Fx The number of math traces available depends on the software options
loaded on your scope. See specifications.) will be created of the selected channel.
3. To vary the degree of zoom, touch the newly created Fx trace label. The setup dialog for
the math function opens, and the zoom control dialog appears at lower-right. It shows the
current horizontal and vertical zoom factors.
4. If you want to increase or decrease your horizontal or vertical zoom in small increments,
touch the Var. checkbox to enable variable zooming. Now with each touch of the zoom
control buttons
, the degree of magnification will change by a small
increment. To zoom in or out in large standard increments with each touch of the zoom
control buttons, leave the Var. checkbox unchecked. To set exact horizontal or vertical
zoom factors, touch inside the Horizontal Scale/div data entry field and enter a time-perdiv value, using the pop-up numeric keypad. Then touch inside the Vertical Scale/div
field and enter a voltage value.
5. To reset the zoom to x1 magnification, touch Reset Zoom in the dialog or press the front
panel zoom button
.
To Zoom by Touch-and-Drag
1. Touch and drag a rectangle around any part of an input channel waveform, math trace, or
memory trace. If you have more than one trace displayed, a pop-up "Rectangle Zoom
Wizard" will appear.
2. If more than one trace is displayed, touch the "Source" tab and select a trace to act on.
3. Touch the "Action" tab and select Create a New Zoom Trace. You will be offered the
choice of creating a new zoom trace or modifying the current trace.
4. Touch the Zoom tab and select a math function trace to display the zoom.
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5. Turn the front panel Wavepilot position knobs to adjust the vertical and horizontal position
of the zoom:
6. Turn the front panel Zoom knobs to control the boundaries of the zoom.
To Zoom Multiple Waveforms Quickly
on the front panel. Math function traces F5 to F8 will be used
Press the QuickZoom button
to create a zoom of each displayed input channel waveform. Each zoom will be displayed in its
own grid.
To Turn Off Zoom
1. Touch the math function trace label for the zoom you want to turn off.
2. Touch the Trace On checkbox to delete the check mark and disable the zoom trace.
Multi-Zoom
The Multi-zoom feature creates time-locked zoom traces for only the waveforms that you choose
to include. The zooms are of the same X-axis section of each waveform. Thus, as you scroll
through a waveform, all included zooms scroll in unison.
To Set Up Multi-zoom
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Verify that the math function selected for each Fx position you want to include is zoom. If
you need to change the math function for any Fx position, simply touch the Fx button and
select Zoom from the Select Math Operator menu.
3. Touch the On checkbox to display each zoom you want to include in the multi-zoom.
4. Touch the Multi-Zoom Setup button
opens:
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. The Multi-Zoom dialog
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5. Touch the Multi-zoom On checkbox to enable Multi-zoom. Then touch the Include
checkbox for each zoom trace you want to include in the time-locked multi-zoom:
Here the user has chosen to include only F2 and F3 in the Multi-zoom, even though F4 is
also a zoom function and is also displayed. Thus, the scrolling feature will not affect zoom
F4.
6. Use the Auto-Scroll buttons at the right of the Multi-Zoom dialog to control the zoomed
section of your waveforms:
To Turn Off Multi-Zoom
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Multi-Zoom On checkbox
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to turn off Multi-zoom.
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XY Display
Use XY displays to measure the phase shift between otherwise identical signals. You can display
either voltage on both axes or frequency on both axes. The traces must have the same X-axis.
The shape of the resulting pattern reveals information about phase difference and frequency
ratio.
To Set Up XY Displays
1. In the menu bar, touch Display; then touch Display Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Choose an XY display by touching one of the XY display mode buttons
. You have the choice of showing the two waveforms on just the
XY grid, or you can also show the input waveforms on a single or dual grid.
and select your
3. Touch inside the Input X and Input Y data entry fields
input sources from the pop-up menus. The inputs can be any combination of channels,
math functions, and memory locations.
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SAVE AND RECALL
Saving and Recalling Scope Settings
You can save or recall scope settings to or from hard disk, floppy disk, or LAN location.
To Save Scope Settings
1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Save Setup... in the drop-down menu. Or, press
the Save/Recall front panel button, then touch the "Save Setup" tab.
2. To Save To File, touch inside the Save Instrument Settings data entry field and use the
pop-up keyboard to enter the path to the destination folder. Or touch Browse to navigate
to the destination folder. Then touch
below the data entry field. To save to
folder Internal Setups on the scope's hard drive, touch inside a SetupX data entry field
alongside the data
and use the pop-up keyboard to enter a file name. Touch
entry field. The file is deposited in D:\Internal Setups, and the current date is displayed
above the field.
To Recall Scope Settings
1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Recall Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. To Recall From File, touch inside the Recall panels from file data entry field and use
the pop-up keyboard to enter the path to the source folder. Or touch Browse to navigate
to the source folder. Then touch
Setups on the scope's hard drive, touch
. To recall settings from folder D:\ Internal
alongside the file you want to recall.
To Recall Default Settings
1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Recall Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the button under Recall Default Setup
.
The default settings are as follows:
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Vertical
Timebase
Trigger
50 mV/div
50.0 ns/div
DC50 or AC1M (model
dependent), C1, 0 mV trigger
level
0 V offset
5.0 or 10.0 GS/s
(model dependent)
edge trigger
0 s delay
Auto trigger mode
positive edge
Saving Screen Images
You can send images to a hard copy printer or to storage media. Both types of output are done
from the same dialog.
1. In the menu bar, touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Hardcopy tab.
3. Touch the File button.
4. Touch inside the File Format field and select a file type.
5. Under Colors, touch the Use Print Colors checkbox if you want your waveforms to print
in color with a white background. A white background saves printer toner.
6. Touch inside the Directory field and type in the path to the directory where you want the
image stored, using the pop-up keyboard. Or you can touch the browse button and
navigate there.
7. Touch inside the File Name field and type in a name for your image, using the pop-up
keyboard.
8. Under Include On Print, touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not want to
include the dialog area in the image.
9. Touch the Print Now button.
Saving and Recalling Waveforms
Saving Waveforms
1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Save Waveform... in the drop-down menu.
2. In the "Save Waveform" dialog, touch the Save To
or
button.
3. Touch inside the Source field and select a source from the pop-up menu. The source can
be any trace; for example, a channel (C1-C4), math function (F1-F4), or a waveform
stored in memory (M1-M4).
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4. Touch inside the Trace Title data entry field if you want to change the default name of
your waveforms. Use the pop-up keyboard to type in the new name.
Note: You can change the name but not the sequence number.
CAUTION
If you use a name that ends in a number instead of a letter, the instrument may truncate
the number. This is because, by design, the first waveform is automatically numbered 0,
the second 1, etc. For example, if you want to use waveform name "XYZ32" but it is not
preceded by waveforms XYZ0 through XYZ31, the waveform will be renumbered with the
next available number in the sequence.
If you need to use a number in your waveform's name, it is recommended that you append
an alpha character at the end of the number : "XYZ32a" for example.
1. If you are saving to file, touch the Data Format field and select a format type from the
pop-up menu:
.
If you select ASCII or Excel, also touch the SubFormat field and select either Time Data
or Time & Ampl. Then touch the Delimiter field and select a delimiter character from the
pop-up menu: comma, space, semicolon, or tab.
2. Touch the Browse button for the Save file in directory field and browse to the location
where you want the file saved. The file name is assigned automatically and is shown
below the field.
3. Touch
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Auto Save
You can also enable Auto Save from this dialog by touching one of the Auto Save buttons
: Wrap (old files overwritten) or Fill (no files
overwritten).
CAUTION
If you select Fill, you can quickly use up all disk space on your hard disk.
Recalling Waveforms
1. In the menu bar, touch File; then touch Recall Waveform... in the drop-down menu.
2. In the "Recall Waveform" dialog, touch the Recall From
or
button.
3. If you selected Memory, touch inside the Source field and select a memory location: M1
to M4.
4. If you selected File, touch inside the Destination field and select a memory location in
which to store the file.
a.
Touch inside the Show only files field and select an area to limit the search to:
channels, math functions, or memory.
b.
Touch inside the Recall files from directory data entry field and enter the path,
using the pop-up keyboard. Or touch the Browse button to navigate to the file.
c.
Touch inside the Next file will be recalled from data entry field and enter the
path, using the pop-up keyboard. Or touch the Browse button to navigate to the
file.
d.
Touch
.
Disk Utilities
Use the Disk Utilities dialog to delete files or create folders.
To Delete a Single File
1. Touch File in the menu bar, then Disk Utilities... in the drop-down menu.
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2. Touch the Delete button
in the "Disk Utilities" dialog.
3. Touch inside the Current folder data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter
the path to the folder that contains the file you want to delete. Or touch the Browse
button and navigate to the folder.
4. Touch inside the File to be deleted data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter
the name of the file. Or touch the Browse button and navigate to the file.
5. Once you have located the file, touch the Delete File button.
To Delete All Files in a Folder
1. Touch File in the menu bar, then Disk Utilities... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Delete button
in the "Disk Utilities" dialog.
3. Touch inside the Current folder data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter
the path to the folder that contains the file you want to delete. Or touch the Browse
button and navigate to the folder.
4. Once you have located the folder, touch the Empty Folder button.
To Create a Folder
1. Touch File in the menu bar, then Disk Utilities... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Create button
in the "Disk Utilities" dialog.
3. Touch inside the Current folder data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter
the path to the directory you want to create the folder in, and the name of the folder.
4. Touch the Create Folder button.
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PRINTING AND FILE MANAGEMENT
Print, Plot, or Copy
The instrument gives you the ability to output files to a printer or plotter, to print to file, or to e-mail
your files. Any Windows 2000 supported printer is supported by your instrument.
Printing
To Set Up the Printer
1. In the menu bar, touch File, then Print Setup... in the drop-down menu. The Utilities
Hardcopy dialog opens.
2. In the dialog area, touch the Printer icon
.
3. Under Colors, touch the Use Print Colors checkbox if you want the traces printed on a
white background. A white background saves printer toner. (You can change the printer
colors in the Preference dialog;)
4. Touch inside the Select Printer field. From the touch pad pop-up choose the printer you
want to print to. Touch the Properties button to see your printer setup.
5. Touch the icon for the layout Orientation you want: portrait or landscape.
6. Touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not need to print the dialog area and you
only want to show the waveforms and grids.
To Print
1. You can print in one of three ways:
2. Press the printer button on the front panel:
3. In the menu bar, touch File, then Print in the drop-down menu.
4. Touch the Print Now button in the "Hardcopy" dialog
Adding Printers and Drivers
Note: If you want to add a printer driver, the driver must first be loaded on the scope.
1. In the menu bar, touch File, then Print Setup... in the drop-down menu. The Utilities
Hardcopy dialog opens.
2. In the dialog area, touch the Printer icon
.
3. Touch the Add Printer button. An MS Windows® window with which to add a printer will
open.
4. Touch the Properties button to change printer properties such as number of copies.
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Changing the Default Printer
1. If you want to change the default printer, minimize the instrument application by touching
File in the menu bar, then Minimize in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Start button in the task bar at the bottom of the screen.
3. Select Settings, then Printers.
4. Touch the printer you want to set as the default printer, then touch File, Set as Default
Printer.
Managing Files
Use the instrument's utilities to create waveform files on floppy disk, internal hard drive or network
drives. You can copy files from your hard drive to floppy disk. You also can give your files custom
names and create directories for them.
Hard Disk Partitions
The instrument's hard disk is partitioned into drive C: and drive D:. Drive C: contains the Windows
operating system and the instrument application software. Drive D: is intended for data files.
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100BASE-T ETHERNET CONNECTION
Connecting to a Network
Use the Ethernet connector (item 8 in the rear panel diagram) to connect the instrument to a
network.
Communicating over the Network
The instrument uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) as its addressing protocol.
Therefore, there is no factory set IP address.
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Windows Setups
If the instrument is to reside within a domain on your LAN, your IS administrator will have to
connect the DSO.
Guidelines for Working in Windows
Although the instrument has an open architecture, avoid modifying the Windows operating
system, since this may cause problems for the instrument's user interface. Please follow these
recommendations:
•
Do not load any version of Windows not provided by LeCroy. If you load any Windows
2000 service packs from Microsoft, please be advised that LeCroy cannot guarantee
trouble-free operation afterwards.
•
Avoid modifying Control Panel settings.
•
Do not change the color resolution (24 bit) or screen size (800 x 600 pixel) settings.
•
After you load third-party software applications, if your scope does not work properly try
reloading the instrument software from the CD shipped with the scope.
•
Do not modify or remove any system fonts; doing so may affect the readability of the
dialogs.
•
Do not change any display properties like Background, Appearance, Effects, or Settings.
Functionality of the scope or screen saver may be affected.
•
Do not make any changes to the Windows folder.
•
Do not make any changes to the BIOS settings.
•
Do not make any changes to the Windows power management system.
Windows Repair Disk
Before you install any hardware or software on your instrument, LeCroy strongly recommends
that you create an Emergency Repair Disk. During a system rebuild, the repair process relies on
information that is saved in the systemroot\repair folder. You must not change or delete this folder.
You only need a blank 1.44 MB floppy disk to create an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD).
To create an Emergency Repair Disk
1. In the task bar at the bottom of the screen, touch Start, Programs, Accessories,
System Tools, Backup.
2. In the "Tools" menu, touch Emergency Repair Disk.
3. Follow the instructions displayed on the screen.
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TRACK VIEWS
Creating and Viewing a Trend
1. In the menu bar, touch Measure, then Measure Setup in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch one of parameter tabs P1 through Px.
3. Touch inside the Source1 data entry field and select an input waveform from the pop-up
menu.
4. Touch inside the Measure data entry field and select a parameter from the pop-up menu.
5. Touch the Trend button
at the bottom of the dialog; then, from the Math
selection for Trend menu, select a math function location (F1 to Fx The number of math
traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See
specifications.) to store the Trend display. The Trend will be displayed along with the
trace label
selected.
Example Trend Trace Label for the math function you
6. Touch the newly displayed Trend math function trace label if you want to change any
settings in the Trend dialog:
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Creating a Track View
1. This feature is available in the XMAP option.
2. In the menu bar, touch Measure, then Measure Setup in the drop-down menu.
3. Touch one of parameter tabs P1 through Px.
4. Touch inside the Source1 data entry field and select an input waveform from the pop-up
menu.
5. Touch inside the Measure data entry field and select a parameter from the pop-up menu.
at the bottom of the dialog; then, from the Math
6. Touch the Track button
selection for Track menu, select a math function location (F1 to Fx The number of math
traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See
specifications.) to store the Track display. The Track will be displayed along with the trace
label
Example Track Trace Label for the math function you selected.
7. Touch the newly displayed Track math function trace label if you want to change any
settings in the Track dialog:
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HISTOGRAMS
Creating and Viewing a Histogram
Note: The number of sweeps comprising the histogram will be displayed in the bottom line of the trace descriptor label:
To Set Up a Single Parameter Histogram
From Measure Dialog
1. In the menu bar, touch Measure, then Measure Setup.
2. Touch the My Measure button.
3. Touch one of tabs P1 through Px.
4. Touch inside the Source1 field and select an input waveform from the pop-up menu.
5. Touch inside the Measure field and select a parameter from the pop-up menu.
6. Touch the Histogram button at the bottom of the dialog.
7. Touch a math trace in which to place the resulting histogram, then close the pop-up
menu.
8. Touch the math trace label for the math trace you just created.
9. In the dialog to the right, touch the Histogram tab.
10. Under "Buffer," touch inside the #Values data entry field and enter a value.
11. Under "Scaling," touch inside the #Bins data entry field and enter a value from 20 to
2000.
12. Touch the Find Center and Width button to center the histogram. Or touch inside the
Center, then the Width, data entry fields and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
From Math Dialog
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup.
2. Touch one of function tabs F1 through Fx The number of math traces available depends
on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications..
3. Touch the Graph button
.
4. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source from the pop-up menu.
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5. Touch inside the Measurement field and select a parameter from the pop-up menu.
6. Touch inside the Graph with field and select Histogram from the pop-up menu.
7. In the dialog to the right, touch the Histogram tab.
8. Under "Buffer," touch inside the #Values data entry field and enter a value from 20 to
1000.
9. Under "Scaling," touch inside the #Bins data entry field and enter a value from 20 to
2000.
10. Touch the Find Center and Width button to center the histogram. Or touch inside the
Center, then the Width, data entry fields and enter a value using the pop-up numeric
keypad.
11. Touch inside the Vertical Scale field and select Linear or Linear Constant Max from the
pop-up menu:
.
To View Thumbnail Histograms
Histicons are miniature histograms of parameter measurements that appear below the grid.
These thumbnail histograms let you see at a glance the statistical distribution of each parameter.
1. In the menu bar, touch Measure, then one of the Measure Mode buttons: Std Vertical,
Std Horizontal, or My Measure.
2. Touch the Histicons checkbox to display thumbnail histograms below the selected
parameters.
Note: For measurements set up in My Measure, you can quickly display an enlarged histogram of a thumbnail histogram
by touching the Histicon you want to enlarge. The enlarged histogram will appear superimposed on the trace it describes.
This does not apply to "Std Vertical" or "Std Horizontal" measurements.
Persistence Histogram
You can create a histogram of a persistence display also by cutting a horizontal or vertical slice
through the waveform. You also decide the width of the slice and its horizontal or vertical
placement on the waveform.
This math operation is different than the "Histogram" math operation and is not affected by
Center and Width settings made there.
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To Set Up Persistence Histograms
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup.
2. Touch one of function tabs F1 through Fx The number of math traces available depends
on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications..
3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source from the pop-up menu.
4. Touch inside the Operator1 field and select Phistogram
Operator menu.
from the Select Math
5. Touch the "Phistogram" tab, then touch inside the Slice Direction field and select
Horizontal or Vertical slice from the pop-up menu.
6. Touch inside the Slice Center field and enter a value, using the pop-up keypad.
7. Touch inside the Slice Width field and enter a value, using the pop-up keypad.
Note: You can use the front panel Adjust knobs to move the Slice Center line and the Slice Width boundary lines.
Persistence Trace Range
This math operation has a field where you can enter the percent of the persistence trace
population to use in creating a new waveform.
Persistence Sigma
This math operation has a field where you can enter a scale, measured in standard deviations, by
which to create a new waveform.
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Histogram Parameters
fwhm
Full Width at Half Maximum
Definition: Determines the width of the largest area peak, measured between bins on
either side of the highest bin in the peak that have a population of half the
highest's population. If several peaks have an area equal to the maximum
population, the leftmost peak is used in the computation.
Description: First, the highest population peak is identified and the height of its highest bin
(population) determined (for a discussion on how peaks are determined see the
pks parameter Description:). Next, the populations of bins to the right and left
are found, until a bin on each side is found to have a population of less than
50% of that of the highest bin's. A line is calculated on each side, from the
center point of the first bin below the 50% population to that of the adjacent bin,
towards the highest bin. The intersection points of these lines with the 50%
height value is then determined. The length of a line connecting the intersection
points is the value for fwhm.
Example:
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fwxx
Full Width at xx% Maximum
Definition: Determines the width of the largest area peak, measured between bins on
either side of the highest bin in the peak that have a population of xx% of the
highest's population. If several peaks have an area equal to the maximum
population, the leftmost peak is used in the computation.
Description: First, the highest population peak is identified and the height of its highest bin
(population) determined (see the pks description). Next, the bin populations to
the right and left are found until a bin on each side is found to have a population
of less than xx% of that of the highest bin. A line is calculated on each side,
from the center point of the first bin below the 50% population to that of the
adjacent bin, towards the highest bin. The intersection points of these lines with
the xx% height value is then determined. The length of a line connecting the
intersection points is the value for fwxx.
Example: fwxx with threshold set to 35%:
hist ampl
Histogram Amplitude
Definition: The difference in value of the two most populated peaks in a histogram. This
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parameter is useful for waveforms with two primary parameter values, such as
TTL voltages, where hampl would indicate the difference between the binary `1'
and `0' voltage values.
Description: The values at the center (line dividing the population of peak in half) of the two
highest peaks are determined (see pks parameter description:). The value of the
leftmost of the two peaks is the histogram base (see hbase). While that of the
rightmost is the histogram top (see htop). The parameter is then calculated as:
hampl = htop hbase
Example:
In this histogram, hampl is 152 mV 150 mV = 2 mV.
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hbase
Histogram Base
Definition: The value of the leftmost of the two most populated peaks in a histogram. This
parameter is primarily useful for waveforms with two primary parameter values
such as TTL voltages where hbase would indicate the binary `0' voltage value.
Description: The two highest histogram peaks are determined. If several peaks are of equal
height the leftmost peak among these is used (see pks). Then the leftmost of the
two identified peaks is selected. This peak's center value (the line that divides
the population of the peak in half) is the hbase.
Example:
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hist rms
Histogram Root Mean Square
Definition: The rms value of the values in a histogram.
Description: The center value of each populated bin is squared and multiplied by the
population (height) of the bin. All results are summed and the total is divided by
the population of all the bins. The square root of the result is returned as hrms.
Example: Using the histogram shown here, the value for hrms is:
hrms =
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hist top
Histogram Top
Definition: The value of the rightmost of the two most populated peaks in a histogram. This
parameter is useful for waveforms with two primary parameter values, such as
TTL voltages, where htop would indicate the binary `1' voltage value.
Description: The two highest histogram peaks are determined. The rightmost of the two
identified peaks is then selected. The center of that peak is htop (center is the
horizontal point where the population to the left is equal to the area to the right).
Example:
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maxp
Maximum Population
Definition: The count (vertical value) of the highest population bin in a histogram.
Description: Each bin between the parameter cursors is examined for its count. The highest
count is returned as maxp.
Example:
Here, maxp is 14.
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mode
Mode
Definition: The value of the highest population bin in a histogram.
Description: Each bin between the parameter cursors is examined for its population count.
The leftmost bin with the highest count found is selected. Its center value is
returned as mode.
Example:
Here, mode is 150 mV.
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pctl
Percentile
Definition: Computes the horizontal data value that separates the data in a histogram such
that the population on the left is a specified percentage `xx' of the total
population. When the threshold is set to 50%, pctl is the same as hmedian.
Description: The total population of the histogram is determined. Scanning from left to right,
the population of each bin is summed until a bin that causes the sum to equal or
exceed `xx'% of the population value is encountered. A ratio of the number of
counts needed for `xx'% population/total bin population is then determined for
the bin. The horizontal value of the bin at that ratio point of its range is found,
and returned as pctl.
Example: The total population of a histogram is 100. The histogram range is divided into
20 bins and `xx' is set to 25%. The population sum at the sixth bin from the left is
22. The population of the seventh is 9 and its sub-range is 6.1 to 6.4 V. The ratio
of counts needed for 25% population to total bin population is:
3 counts needed / 9 counts = 1/3.
The value for pctl is:
6.1 volts + .33 * (6.4 6.1) volts = 6.2 volts.
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pks
Peaks
Definition: The number of peaks in a histogram.
Description: The instrument analyzes histogram data to identify peaks from background noise
and histogram binning artifacts such as small gaps.
Peak identification is a 3-step process:
1. The mean height of the histogram is calculated for all populated bins. A
threshold (T1) is calculated from this mean, where:
T1= mean + 2 sqrt (mean).
2. A second threshold is determined based on all populated bins under T1 in
height, where:
T2 = mean + 2 * sigma,
and where sigma is the standard deviation of all populated bins under T1.
3. Once T2 is defined, the histogram distribution is scanned from left to right. Any
bin that crosses above T2 signifies the existence of a peak. Scanning
continues to the right until one bin or more crosses below T2. However, if the
bins cross below T2 for less than a hundredth of the histogram range, they are
ignored, and scanning continues in search of peaks that cross under T2 for
more than a hundredth of the histogram range. Scanning goes on over the
remainder of the range to identify additional peaks. Additional peaks within a
fiftieth of the range of the populated part of a bin from a previous peak are
ignored.
NOTE: If the number of bins is set too high, a histogram may have many small gaps. This increases
sigma and, thereby, T2. In extreme cases, it can prevent determination of a peak, even if one
appears to be present to the eye.
Example: Here the two peaks have been identified. The peak with the highest population is
peak #1.
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range
Range
Definition: Computes the difference between the value of the rightmost and that of the
leftmost populated bin.
Description: The rightmost and leftmost populated bins are identified. The difference in value
between the two is returned as the range.
Example:
In this example, range is 2 mV.
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totp
Total Population
Definition: Calculates the total population of a histogram between the parameter cursors.
Description: The count for all populated bins between the parameter cursors is summed.
Example:
The total population of this histogram is 9.
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xapk
X Coordinate of xxth Peak
th
Definition: Returns the value of the xx peak that is the largest by area in a histogram.
Description: First the peaks in a histogram are determined and ranked in order of total area
(for a discussion on how peaks are identified see the description for the pks
parameter). The center of the nth ranked peak (the point where the area to the
left is equal to the area to the right), where n is selected by you, is then returned
as xapk.
Example: The rightmost peak is the largest, and is thus ranked first in area (1). The
leftmost peak, although higher, is ranked second in area (2). The lowest peak is
also the smallest in area (3).
Histogram Theory of Operation
An understanding of statistical variations in parameter values is needed for many waveform
parameter measurements. Knowledge of the average, minimum, maximum, and standard
deviation of the parameter may often be enough, but in many cases you may need a more
detailed understanding of the distribution of a parameter's values.
Histograms allow you to see how a parameter's values are distributed over many measurements.
They do this by dividing a range of parameter values into sub-ranges called bins. A count of the
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number of parameter values (events) that fall within ranges of the bin itself is maintained for each
bin.
While such a value range can be infinite, for practical purposes it need only be defined as large
enough to include any realistically possible parameter value. For example, in measuring TTL
high-voltage values a range of ±50 V is unnecessarily large, whereas one of 4 V ±2.5 V is more
reasonable. It is the 5 V range that is then subdivided into bins. And if the number of bins used
were 50, each would have a range of 5 V/50 bins or 0.1 V/bin. Events falling into the first bin
would then be between 1.5 V and 1.6 V. While the next bin would capture all events between 1.6
V and 1.7 V, and so on.
After a process of several thousand events, the bar graph of the count for each bin (its histogram)
provides a good understanding of the distribution of values. Histograms generally use the 'x' axis
to show a bin's sub-range value, and the 'Y' axis for the count of parameter values within each
bin. The leftmost bin with a non-zero count shows the lowest parameter value measurements.
The vertically highest bin shows the greatest number of events falling within its sub-range.
The number of events in a bin, peak or a histogram is referred to as its population. The following
figure shows a histogram's highest population bin as the one with a sub-range of 4.3 to 4.4 V
(which is to be expected of a TTL signal).
The lowest-value bin with events is that with a sub-range of 3.0 to 3.1 V. As TTL high voltages
need to be greater than 2.5 V, the lowest bin is within the allowable tolerance. However, because
of its proximity to this tolerance and the degree of the bin's separation from all other values,
additional investigation may be required.
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DSO Process
The instrument generates histograms of the parameter values of input waveforms. But first, you
must define the following:
• The parameter to be histogrammed
•
The trace on which the histogram is to be displayed
•
The maximum number of parameter measurement values to be used in creating the
histogram
•
The measurement range of the histogram
•
The number of bins to be used
Some of these are pre-defined but can be changed. Once they are defined, the oscilloscope is
ready to make the histogram. The sequence for acquiring histogram data is as follows:
•
Trigger
•
Waveform acquisition
•
Parameter calculations
•
Histogram update
•
Trigger re-arm
If you set the timebase for non-segmented mode, a single acquisition occurs prior to parameter
calculations. However, in Sequence mode an acquisition for each segment occurs prior to
parameter calculations. If the source of histogram data is a memory, saving new data to memory
effectively acts as a trigger and acquisition. Because updating the screen can take much
processing time, it occurs only once a second, minimizing trigger dead time. Under remote control
the display can be turned off to maximize measurement speed.
Parameter Buffer
The oscilloscope maintains a circular parameter buffer of the last 20,000 measurements made,
including values that fall outside the set histogram range. If the maximum number of events to be
used for the histogram is a number `N' less than 20,000, the histogram will be continuously
updated with the last `N' events as new acquisitions occur. If the maximum number is greater
than 20,000, the histogram will be updated until the number of events is equal to `N.' Then, if the
number of bins or the histogram range is modified, the scope will use the parameter buffer values
to redraw the histogram with either the last `N' or 20,000 values acquired -- whichever is the
lesser. The parameter buffer thereby allows histograms to be redisplayed, using an acquired set
of values and settings that produce a distribution shape with the most useful information.
In many cases the optimal range is not readily apparent. So the scope has a powerful range
finding function. If required it will examine the values in the parameter buffer to calculate an
optimal range and redisplay the histogram using it. The instrument will also give a running count
of the number of parameter values that fall within, below, or above the range. If any values fall
below or above the range, the range finder can then recalculate to include these parameter
values, as long as they are still within the buffer.
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Capture of Parameter Events
The number of events captured per waveform acquisition or display sweep depends on the
parameter type. Acquisitions are initiated by the occurrence of a trigger event. Sweeps are
equivalent to the waveform captured and displayed on an input channel (1, 2, or 3 or 4). For nonsegmented waveforms an acquisition is identical to a sweep. Whereas for segmented waveforms
an acquisition occurs for each segment and a sweep is equivalent to acquisitions for all
segments. Only the section of a waveform between the parameter cursors is used in the
calculation of parameter values and corresponding histogram events.
The following table provides a summary of the number of histogram events captured per
acquisition or sweep for each parameter, and for a waveform section between the parameter
cursors.
Parameters
Number of Events Captured
duty, freq, period, width, time@lev, f@level, f80- All events in the acquisition
20%, fall, r@level, r20-80%, rise
ampl, area, base, cmean, cmedian, crms, csdev, One event per acquisition
cycles, delay, maximum, mean, minimum, nbph,
nbpw, over+, over-, pkpk, npts, rms, sdev, dly
Histogram Parameters (XMAP and JTA2 Options)
Once a histogram is defined and generated, measurements can be performed on the histogram
itself. Typical of these are the histogram's
•
average value, standard deviation
•
most common value (parameter value of highest count bin)
•
leftmost bin position (representing the lowest measured waveform parameter value)
•
rightmost bin (representing the highest measured waveform parameter value)
Histogram parameters are provided to enable these measurements. Available through selecting
"Statistics" from the "Category" menu, they are calculated for the selected section between the
parameter cursors:
fwhm -- full width (of largest peak) at half the maximum bin
fwxx -- full width (of largest peak) at xx% the maximum bin
hist ampl -- histogram amplitude between two largest peaks
hist base -- histogram base or leftmost of two largest peaks
hist max -- value of the highest (right-most) populated bin in a histogram
hist mean -- average or mean value of data in the histogram
hist median -- value of the x-axis of a histogram that divides the population into two equal halves
hist min -- value of the lowest (left-most) populated bin in a histogram
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hist rms -- rms value of data in histogram
hist sdev -- standard deviation of values in a histogram
hist top -- histogram top or rightmost of two largest peaks
max populate -- population of most populated bin in histogram
mode -- data value of most populated bin in histogram
percentile -- data value in histogram for which specified `x'% of population is smaller
peaks -- number of peaks in histogram
pop @ x -- population of bin for specified horizontal coordinate
range -- difference between highest and lowest data values
total pop -- total population in histogram
x at peak -- x-axis position of specified largest peak
Histogram Peaks
Because the shape of histogram distributions is particularly interesting, additional parameter
measurements are available for analyzing these distributions. They are generally centered
around one of several peak value bins, known, with its associated bins, as a histogram peak.
Example: In the following figure, a histogram of the voltage value of a five-volt amplitude square
wave is centered around two peak value bins: 0 V and 5 V. The adjacent bins signify variation due
to noise. The graph of the centered bins shows both as peaks.
Determining such peaks is very useful because they indicate dominant values of a signal.
However, signal noise and the use of a high number of bins relative to the number of parameter
values acquired, can give a jagged and spiky histogram, making meaningful peaks hard to
distinguish. The scope analyzes histogram data to identify peaks from background noise and
histogram definition artifacts such as small gaps, which are due to very narrow bins.
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Binning and Measurement Accuracy
Histogram bins represent a sub-range of waveform parameter values, or events. The events
represented by a bin may have a value anywhere within its sub-range. However, parameter
measurements of the histogram itself, such as average, assume that all events in a bin have a
single value. The scope uses the center value of each bin's sub-range in all its calculations. The
greater the number of bins used to subdivide a histogram's range, the less the potential deviation
between actual event values and those values assumed in histogram parameter calculations.
Nevertheless, using more bins may require that you perform a greater number of waveform
parameter measurements, in order to populate the bins sufficiently for the identification of a
characteristic histogram distribution.
In addition, very fine grained binning will result in gaps between populated bins that may make it
difficult to determine peaks.
The oscilloscope's 20,000-parameter buffer is very effective for determining the optimal number
of bins to be used. An optimal bin number is one where the change in parameter values is
insignificant, and the histogram distribution does not have a jagged appearance. With this buffer,
a histogram can be dynamically redisplayed as the number of bins is modified by the user. In
addition, depending on the number of bins selected, the change in waveform parameter values
can be seen.
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WAVEFORM MEASUREMENTS
Measuring with Cursors
Cursors are important tools that aid you in measuring signal values. Cursors are markers — lines,
cross-hairs, or arrows — that you can move around the grid or the waveform itself. Use cursors to
make fast, accurate measurements and to eliminate guesswork. There are two basic types:
Horiz(ontal) (generally Time or Frequency) cursors are markers that you move horizontally along
the waveform. Place them at a desired location along the time axis to read the signal’s amplitude
at the selected time.
Vert(ical) (Voltage) cursors are lines that you move vertically on the grid to measure the
amplitude of a signal.
Cursor Measurement Icons
The Readout icons depict what is being measured for each measurement mode.
Each cursor locates a point on the waveform. The cursor values can be read in the
descriptor label for the trace. Use the Position data entry fields at the right side of
the dialog to place the cursors precisely.
This is the difference in Y values. The value can be read in the descriptor label for
the trace.
This gives the slope between cursors.
If there are non-time-domain waveforms displayed, there will also be a menu offering choices of
x-axis units: s or Hz, for example.
Cursors Setup
Quick Display
At any time, you can change the display of cursor types (or turn them off) without invoking the
"Cursors Setup" dialog as follows:
In the menu bar, touch Cursors, then Off, Abs Horizontal, Rel Horizontal, Abs Vertical, or Rel
Vertical.
The cursors displayed will assume the positions previously set up. If you want to change their
position or measurement mode, in the menu bar touch Cursors, then Cursors Setup in the dropdown menu.
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Full Setup
1. In the menu bar, touch Cursors, then Cursors Setup. The "Standard Cursors" dialog
opens.
2. In the dialog area, touch the Cursors On check box to display them.
3. Touch one of the Horizontal or Vertical mode buttons: Relative or Absolute.
4. If you chose a Relative mode, also touch a readout parameter button: Y position, delta Y,
or slope.
5. If you chose a Relative mode, touch inside the Position 1 and Position 2 data entry
fields and type in a value for each cursor. You can also use the Cursors knobs on the
front panel to place the cursors. If you chose an Absolute mode, do the same for your
single cursor.
6. If you chose a Relative mode and you would like both cursors to move in unison as you
adjust the position, touch the Track check box to enable tracking.
Overview of Parameters
Parameters are measurement tools that determine a wide range of waveform properties. Use
them to automatically calculate many attributes of your waveform, like rise-time, rms voltage, and
peak-to-peak voltage, for example.
There are parameter modes for the amplitude and time domains, custom parameter groups, and
parameters for pass and fail testing. You can make common measurements on one or more
waveforms.
To Turn On Parameters
1. Touch Measure in the menu bar, then Measure Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch inside the On checkbox for each parameter you want to display.
Quick Access to Parameter Setup Dialogs
You can quickly gain access to a parameter setup dialog by touching the parameter list box below
the grid. For example, touching within P1 below the grid
displays the setup dialog for P1:
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Touching the row titles
displays the top Measure dialog.
Status Symbols
Below each parameter appears a symbol that indicates the status of the parameter, as follows:
A green check mark means that the scope is returning a valid value.
A crossed-out pulse means that the scope is unable to determine top and base; however,
the measurement could still be valid.
A downward pointing arrow indicates an underflow condition.
An upward pointing arrow indicates an overflow condition.
An upward-and-downward pointing arrow indicates an underflow and overflow condition.
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Using X-Stream Browser to Obtain Status Information
Example:
Here is a case of an overflow condition, in which the amplitude of the waveform cannot be
determined:
1. Minimize the scope display by selecting File Minimize.
2. Touch the X-Stream Browser desktop icon
to open the browser.
3. Touch the left scope icon ("Connect to a local X-Stream DSO device") in the X-Stream
Browser toolbar:
4. Select Measure Parameter in error (P1) Out Result
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5. Read the status information in line StatusDescription.
Statistics
By touching the Statistics On checkbox in the "Measure" dialog, you can display statistics for
standard vertical or horizontal parameters, or for custom parameters. The statistics that are
displayed are as follows:
value (last)
mean
min.
max.
sdev
num
The values displayed in the num row is the number of measurements computed. For any
parameter that computes on an entire waveform (like edge@level, mean, minimum, maximum,
etc.) the value displayed represents the number of sweeps.
For any parameter that computes on every event, the value displayed is equal to the number of
events per acquired waveform. If x waveforms were acquired, the value represents x times the
number of cycles per waveform. Also, the "value" is equal to the measurement of the last cycle on
the last acquisition.
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To Apply a Measure Mode
1. In the menu bar, touch Measure, then Measure Setup.
2. Choose a Measure Mode from the dialog. The parameters are displayed below the grid.
Measure Modes
The selections for Measure Mode allow you to quickly apply parameters for standard vertical and
standard horizontal setups, and custom setups.
Standard Vertical Parameters
These are the default Standard Vertical Parameters:
Vertical
mean
sdev
max.
min.
ampl
pkpk
top
base
Standard Horizontal Parameters
These are the default Standard Horizontal Parameters:
Horizontal
freq
period
width
rise
fall
delay
duty
npoints
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My Measure
You can choose to customize up to eight parameters by touching My Measure.
Parameter Math (XMATH or XMAP option required)
The instrument gives you the ability to perform arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction,
multiplication, division) on the results of two parameter measurements. Alternatively, you can
apply math to a single parameter (for example, invert). By customizing parameters in this way,
you can effectively extend the range of parameter measurements based on your particular needs.
Logarithmic Parameters
The parameter math feature prevents multiplication and division of parameters that return
logarithmic values. These parameters are as follows:
•
auto-correlation signal-to-noise ratio (ACSN)
•
narrow-band power (NBPW)
•
media signal-to-noise ratio (MSNR)
•
residual signal-to-noise ratio (RSNR)
•
top-to-base ratio when the units are in dB (TBR)
Excluded Parameters
Parameters that are already the result of parameter math operations are excluded. If they are
included in a remote control setup command, an error message is generated and the setup
canceled.
Excluded parameters are as follows:
•
delta clock-to-data near (DC2D)
•
delta clock-to-data next (DC2DPOS)
•
delta clock-to-data previous (DC2DNEG)
•
delta delay (DDLY)
•
delta time at level (DTLEV)
•
phase (PHASE)
•
resolution (RES)
•
mTnTmT shift (BEES)
•
mTnTmT shift sigma (BEESS)
•
mTnTmT shift sigma – list (BEESS)
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Parameter Script Parameter Math
In addition to the arithmetic operations, the Parameter Math feature allows you to use VBScript or
JavaScript to write your own script for one or two measurements and produce a result that suits
your needs. Code entry is done in the Script Editor window directly on the instrument. You can
also import an existing script.
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Param Script vs. P Script
Param Script is a VBScript or JavaScript that operates on one or two waveforms and outputs a
parameter measurement, as shown in the figure below. P Script, on the other hand, is another
VBScript or JavaScript that takes as input one or two parameters and performs a math operation
on them to produce another parameter output.
The inputs to Param Script can also be math (F1-Fx) or memory (M1-Mx) traces. The inputs to P
Script can be the results of any parameter measurement, not necessarily Param Script.
To Set Up Parameter Math
1. Touch Measure in the menu bar, then Measure Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the My Measure button in the "Measure" dialog.
3. Touch the Px tab for the parameter to which you want to apply parameter math.
4. In the "Px" dialog, touch the math on parameters button
expand to two fields.
. The Source field will
5. Touch inside the Source1 and Source2 fields and select the parameters you want to
apply math to (P1 to Px). If you are applying math to a single parameter (for example,
invert), just touch inside the Source1 field and select a parameter (P1 to Px).
6. Touch inside the Math Operator field and select a math operation from the Select
Measurement menu. If you select an operation that requires two input parameters, the
Source field will expand to two fields.
To Set Up Parameter Script Math
1. Touch Measure in the menu bar, then Measure Setup... in the drop-down menu.
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2. Touch the My Measure button in the "Measure" dialog.
3. Touch the Px tab for the parameter to which you want to apply parameter math.
4. In the "Px" dialog, touch the math on parameters button
expand to two fields.
. The Source field will
5. Touch inside the Source1 and Source2 fields and select the parameters you want to
apply math to (P1 to Px). If you are applying math to a single parameter (for example,
invert), just touch inside the Source1 field and select a parameter (P1 to Px).
6. Touch inside the Math Operator field and select
Measurement menu.
P Script from the Select
7. In the "Script Math" dialog, touch inside the Script Language field and select either
VBScript or JScript from the pop-up menu.
8. Touch the Edit Code button; the Script Editor window opens. You can enter code in this
window or call up an existing script from a file storage location. If you create your script in
this window, you can then export it and save it to file.
Measure Gate
Using Measure Gate, you can narrow the span of the waveform on which to perform parameter
measurements, allowing you to focus on the area of greatest interest. You have the option of
dragging the gate posts horizontally along the waveform, or specifying a position down to
hundredths of a division. The default starting positions of the gate posts are 0 div and 10 div,
which coincide with the left and right ends of the grid. The gate, therefore, initially encloses the
entire waveform.
Note: If you have Grid On Top enabled, you will not see the gate posts in their default position at each end of the grid. But
if you touch either end of the grid, a drag cursor
now drag it.
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will appear, indicating that you have control of the post and can
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In this example, you can see that the Measure Gate includes only five rising edges. Therefore,
parameter calculations for rise time are performed only on the five pulses bounded by the gate
posts. The position of the gate posts is shown in the Start and Stop fields in the accompanying
dialog.
To Set Up Measure Gate
1. In the menu bar, touch Measure Setup...
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
2. Touch the Px tab for the parameter you want to gate. A mini-dialog to the right of the main
setup dialog opens.
Note: If you already have the parameter of interest set up, you can simply touch the parameter
Example Parameter Readout directly below the grid.
3. Touch inside the Start data entry field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric
keypad. Or, you can simply touch the leftmost grid line and drag the gate post to the right.
4. Touch inside the Stop data entry field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric
keypad. Or, you can simply touch the rightmost grid line and drag the gate post to the left.
Help Markers
Help Markers clarify parameter measurements by displaying movable cursors and a visual
representation of what is being measured. For the "at level" parameters, Help Markers make it
easier to see where your waveform intersects the chosen level. This feature also displays the
hysteresis band that you have set about that level.
You also have the option, by means of an Always On checkbox, to leave the Help Markers
displayed after you have closed the Help Markers setup dialog.
You have a choice of Simple or Detailed views of the markers:
•
The Simple selection produces cursors and Measure Gate gate posts. The gate posts
are independently placeable for each parameter.
•
The Detailed selection produces cursors, Measure Gate gate posts, a label identifying
the parameter being measured, and a level indicator and hysteresis band for "at level"
parameters (not part of Standard Horizontal or Standard Vertical parameters).
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Standard Horizontal Parameter Help Markers
Standard Vertical Parameter Help Markers
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To Set Up Help Markers
1. In the menu bar, touch Measure Setup...
2. Select a Measure Mode: Std Vertical, Std Horizontal, or My Measure.
3. Touch the Show All button to display Help Markers for every parameter being measured
on the displayed waveform (C2 in the examples above).
4. Touch inside the Help Markers field and select Simple The Simple selection produces
cursors and Measure Gate gate posts. The gate posts are independently placeable for
each parameter. or Detailed The Detailed selection produces cursors, Measure Gate
gate posts, a label identifying the parameter being measured, and a level indicator and
hysteresis band for "at level" parameters..
Note: The choice of Simple or Detailed is applied to all parameters at the same time. That is, if you choose Simple
markers for one parameter, all parameters will be displayed in this mode.
5. Touch the Always On checkbox if you want to continuously display Help Markers for this
parameter.
To Turn Off Help Markers
1. Touch the Clear All button to turn off Help Markers for all parameters.
2. To turn off Help Markers for individual parameters, touch the Px tab for the parameter in
question. Then uncheck the Always On checkbox. When you close this dialog, the Help
Markers for this parameter will no longer be displayed.
To Customize a Parameter
From the Measure Dialog
1. Touch the My Measure button in the "Measure" dialog. The dialog presents you with a
panel of eight preset parameters.
2. For each parameter, touch the On check box to enable the parameter listed.
3. If you want to change the parameter listed, or a measurement characteristic, touch the
parameter button (P1 for example) alongside the check box. A pop-up menu of
parameters categorized by type appears. To display parameter icons only, touch the icon
button
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at the bottom of the menu. To display the icons in list form, along with
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
an explanation of each parameter, touch the list button
buttons to scroll through the list of icons.
. Use the Up/Down
4. When you make a selection from the parameter icon menu, the setup dialogs for that
parameter appear. You can then change the waveform source and other conditions of the
parameter.
5. If you are setting up an "@level" parameter, make selections for Level type (percent or
absolute), Slope (positive, negative, both), and Hysteresis level.
6. Touch the Gate tab, and set the position of the gate posts.
From a Vertical Setup Dialog
1. In the "Cx Vertical Adjust" dialog, touch the Measure button
.
2. Select a parameter from the pop-up menu. (The Actions for trace source defaults to the
channel or trace whose dialog is open. If a parameter, it goes into the next "available"
parameter, or the last one if all are used.)
3. Select another parameter or touch Close.
From a Math Setup Dialog
1. In the "Fx" dialog, touch the Measure button
.
2. Select a parameter from the pop-up menu. (The Actions for trace source defaults to the
channel or trace whose dialog is open. If a parameter, it goes into the next "available"
parameter, or the last one if all are used.)
3. Select another parameter or touch Close.
Parameter Calculations
Parameters and How They Work
Determining Top and Base Lines
Proper determination of the top and base reference lines is fundamental for ensuring correct
parameter calculations. The analysis begins by computing a histogram of the waveform data over
the time interval spanned by the left and right time cursors. For example, the histogram of a
waveform transitioning in two states will contain two peaks (see Figure 1). The analysis will
attempt to identify the two clusters that contain the largest data density. Then the most probable
state (centroids) associated with these two clusters will be computed to determine the top and
base reference levels: the top line corresponds to the top and the base line to the bottom
centroid.
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Figure 1
Determining Rise and Fall Times
Once top and base are estimated, calculation of the rise and fall times is easily done (see Figure
1). The 90% and 10% threshold levels are automatically determined by the DDA-5005, using the
amplitude (ampl) parameter.
Threshold levels for rise or fall time can also be selected using absolute or relative settings
(r@level, f@level). If absolute settings are chosen, the rise or fall time is measured as the time
interval separating the two crossing points on a rising or falling edge. But when relative settings
are chosen, the vertical interval spanned between the base and top lines is subdivided into a
percentile scale (base = 0 %, top = 100 %) to determine the vertical position of the crossing
points.
The time interval separating the points on the rising or falling edges is then estimated to yield the
rise or fall time. These results are averaged over the number of transition edges that occur within
the observation window.
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Rising Edge Duration
Falling Edge Duration
Where Mr is the number of leading edges found, Mf the number of trailing edges
found,
the time when rising edge i crosses the x% level,
when falling edge i crosses the x% level.
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and the time
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Determining Time Parameters
Time parameter measurements such as width, period and delay are carried out with respect to
the mesial reference level (see Figure 2), located halfway (50%) between the top and base
reference lines.
Time-parameter estimation depends on the number of cycles included within the observation
window. If the number of cycles is not an integer, parameter measurements such as rms or mean
will be biased. However, only the last value is actually displayed, the mean being available when
statistics are enabled. To avoid these bias effects, the instrument uses cyclic parameters,
including crms and cmean, that restrict the calculation to an integer number of cycles.
Figure 2
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Determining Differential Time Measurements
The DDA-5005 enables accurate differential time measurements between two traces: for
example, propagation, setup and hold delays (see Figure 3).
Parameters such as Delta c2d± require the transition polarity of the clock and data signals to be
specified.
Figure 3
Moreover, a hysteresis range may be specified to ignore any spurious transition that does not
exceed the boundaries of the hysteresis interval. In Figure 3, Delta c2d- (1, 2) measures the time
interval separating the rising edge of the clock (trigger) from the first negative transition of the
data signal. Similarly, Delta c2d+ (1, 2) measures the time interval between the trigger and the
next transition of the data signal.
Level and Slope
For several time based measurements, you can choose positive, negative, or both slopes to
begin parameter measurements. For two-input parameters, such as Dtime@level, you can
specify the slope for each input, as well as the level and type (percent or absolute).
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List of Parameters
The following table describes the instrument parameters. Availability of some parameters
depends on the options installed. See the comments in the "Notes" column of the table.
Parameter
Description
Definition
Notes
100BT Fall
Fall time between 2 levels (upperbase, base-lower) of a 3-level
signal (100BT)
Available with ENET
option.
100BT Rise
Rise time between 2 levels (Lowerbase, base-upper) of a 3-level
signal (100BT)
Available with ENET
option.
100BT TIE
Difference between the measured
and ideal times at level between
base and upper orlower levels of
100BT signal.
Available with ENET
option.
100BT Tj
Total jitter from a TIE at level
between base and upper or lower
levels of 100BTsignal.
Available with ENET
option.
ACSN
Auto-correlation Signal-to-Noise
provides a signal-to-noise ratio for
periodic waveforms.
Available with DDM2
option.
AltNCycle
Alternate N-Cycle Plot. Timing of
the transitions in the data
waveform is measured for each
transition and plotted as a function
of the number of unit intervals over
which the timing is measured. The
N-cycle plot displays the mean or
standard deviation of the edge
placement in the waveform relative
to each other (data to data) or to a
reference clock (clock to data).
Available with ASDA
option.
Amplitude
Measures the difference between top - base
upper and lower levels in two-level
signals. Differs from pkpk in that
noise, overshoot, undershoot, and
ringing do not affect the
measurement.
On signals not having
two major levels (such
as triangle or saw-tooth
waves), returns same
value as pkpk.
Ampl asym
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Amplitude asymmetry between
taa+ and taa-
Standard in DDA5005A.
Standard parameter.
1 |(taa+ - taa-)|/(taa+ - taa-) Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
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Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Area
Integral of data: Computes area of Sum from first to last of data Standard parameter..
waveform between cursors relative multiplied by horizontal time
to zero level. Values greater than between points
zero contribute positively to the
area; values less than zero
negatively.
Avg Power
Average power of the waveform
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA100G
scopes.
Base
Lower of two most probable states Value of most probable
(higher is top). Measures lower
lower state
level in two-level signals. Differs
from min in that noise, overshoot,
undershoot, and ringing do not
affect measurement.
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
returns same value as
min.
Standard parameter.
Bit Rate
One over duration of one UI
measured on an eye
Available with SDA
option.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
CMACp
PCI Express V TX-CM-ACp and V
RX-CM-Acp
Cycles
Determines number of cycles of a
periodic waveform lying between
cursors. First cycle begins at first
transition after the left cursor.
Transition may be positive- or
negative-going.
cyclic
Cyclic mean: Computes the
Average of data values of an Choose this parameter
average of waveform data.
integral number of periods by selecting Mean from
Contrary to mean, computes
the parameter table,
average over an integral number of
then touching the
Cyclic checkbox.
cycles, eliminating bias caused by
fractional intervals.
Standard parameter.
Mean
162
Available with PCIE
option.
Number of cycles of periodic Standard parameter.
waveform
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
cyclic
Median
Cyclic median: Computes average Data value for which 50% of
of base and top values over an
values are above and 50%
integral number of cycles, contrary below
to median, eliminating bias caused
by fractional intervals.
Choose this parameter
by selecting Median
from the parameter
table, then touching the
Cyclic checkbox.
Standard parameter.
cyclic
RMS
Cyclic root mean square:
Computes square root of sum of
squares of data values divided by
number of points. Contrary to rms,
calculation is performed over an
integral number of cycles,
eliminating bias caused by
fractional intervals.
Where: vi denotes
measured sample
values, and N = number
of data points within the
periods found.
Choose this parameter
by selecting RMS from
the parameter table,
then touching the
Cyclic checkbox.
Standard parameter.
cyclic
Std dev
Cyclic standard deviation: Standard
deviation of data values from mean
value over integral number of
periods. Contrary to sdev,
calculation is performed over an
integral number of cycles,
eliminating bias caused by
fractional intervals.
Where: vi denotes
measured sample
values, and N = number
of data points within the
periods found.
Choose this parameter
by selecting Std dev
from the parameter
table, then touching the
Cyclic checkbox.
Standard parameter.
DCD
Amount of jitter due to duty cycle
distortion
Available with SDA and
ENET options.
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
DDj
Amount of data dependent jitter in
a signal
Available with SDA
option.
Delay
Time from trigger to transition:
Time between trigger and
Measures time between trigger and first 50% crossing after left
first 50% crossing after left cursor. cursor
Can measure propagation delay
between two signals by triggering
on one and determining delay of
other.
Standard parameter.
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Delta delay
delay: Computes time between
50% level of two sources.
Time between midpoint
transition of two sources
Standard parameter.
Dj Effective
Amount of deterministic jitter
(estimated) in a signal
Available with SDA
option.
DOV
Differential Output Voltage of a
100Base-T signal
Available with ENET
option.
Dperiod@level
Adjacent cycle deviation (cycle-tocycle jitter) of each cycle in a
waveform
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2 and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA100G
scopes.
Droop FG
1000Base-T test mode 1 droop
from F to G
Available with ENET
option.
Droop HJ
1000Base-T test mode 1 droop
from H to J
Available with ENET
option.
Dtime@level
t at level: Computes transition
between selected levels or
sources.
Dtrig Time
Time from last trigger to this trigger
Duration
For single sweep waveforms, dur is
0; for sequence waveforms: time
from first to last segment's trigger;
for single segments of sequence
waveforms: time from previous
segment's to current segment's
trigger; for waveforms produced by
a history function: time from first to
last accumulated waveform's
trigger.
164
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
This measurement gives the levels from noise in
time of the source 2 edge
data.
minus the time of the source
1 edge.
Standard parameter.
Time between transition
levels of two sources, or
from trigger to transition
level of a single source
Standard in
WaveRunner 6000A,
WavePro 7000A,
WaveMaster, and
sampling scopes.
Time from first to last
acquisition: for average,
histogram or sequence
waveforms
Standard parameter.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Duty@level
Percent of period for which data
are above or below a specified
level.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2 and
XMAP options.
Duty cycle
Duty cycle: Width as percentage of width/period
period.
Standard parameter.
Dwidth@level
Difference of adjacent width above
or below a specified level.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2 and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA100G
scopes.
Edge@level
Number of edges in waveform.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2,
USB2, SDA, and XMAP
options.
Standard in SDA100G
and WavePro 7000A
scopes.
Ext Ratio
Ratio of the power levels of an eye
diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
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Excel
Performs measurements in Excel
by transferring one or two
waveforms and reading the
resulting parameter value.
Available with XMAP
and XDEV options.
Standard on DDA5005A scope.
Excel must be loaded
on the instrument.
Eye AC RMS
Root mean square of data within
one UI
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Amplitude
Difference of the levels of an eye
diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye BER
Bit Error Rate estimated from an
eye diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Bit Rate
One over duration of one UI
measured on an eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Bit Time
Duration of one UI measured on an
eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Crossing
Level of the crossing in an eye
diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye CrossN
Time of first crossing 50% level
with negative edge of an eye
relative to trigger or eye reference
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye CrossP
Time of first crossing 50% level
with positive edge of an eye
relative to trigger or eye reference
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Cyc Area
The area under the mean
persistence trace under first UI
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Delay
Time of first crossing of an eye
relative to trigger or eye reference
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Delt Dly
Delay of crossing times between
two eyes
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye FallTime
Fall time of the mean of
persistence data
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
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Eye Height
Size of the vertical opening of an
eye diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Mean
Mean level of an eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Open Fac
Eye opening factor measured
within the eye aperture
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye OverN
Negative overshoot measured on
an eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye OverP
Positive overshoot measured on an
eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Pk Noise
Peak-to-peak noise of a level of an
eye diagram
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye PkPk Jit
Peak-to-peak jitter measured on
eye persistence
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Pulse Wid
The width of the eye measured at
mid level
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Q Factor
Q factor measured within the eye
aperture
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye RiseTime
Rise time of the mean of
persistence data
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye RMS Jit
Root mean square jitter of an eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye SD Noise
The standard deviation of data on
one eye level
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye SgToNoise
Signal to noise of an eye diagram
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye SupRatio
Suppression ratio of an eye
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Eye Width
Size of the horizontal opening of an
eye diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
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Fall time
Fall time: Duration of falling edge
from 90-10%.
Time at upper threshold
minus
Time at lower threshold
averaged over each falling
edge
Threshold arguments specify two
vertical values on each edge used
to compute fall time. Formulas for
upper and lower values:
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
top and base can
default to maximum and
minimum, giving,
however, less
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
lower = lower thresh. x amp/100 +
base
upper = upper thresh. x amp/100 +
base
Fall 80-20%
Fall 80-20%: Duration of pulse
Average duration of falling
waveform's falling transition from
80-20% transition
80% to 20%, averaged for all falling
transitions between the cursors.
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
top and base can
default to maximum and
minimum, giving,
however, less
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
Fall@level
Transition time for % or
Fall at level: Duration of pulse
waveform's falling edges between absolute levels of all falling
edges.
user-specified transition levels. See
Enhanced version sets
also Rise@level.
measurement calculations to
use one of the following:
Base & Top (% or absolute)
Peak-Peak (%)
0V-Min (%)
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
top and base can
default to maximum and
minimum, giving,
however, less
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
Enhanced parameter
available with EMC
option.
First
168
Indicates value of horizontal axis at Horizontal axis value at left
left cursor.
cursor
Indicates location of left
cursor. Cursors are
interchangeable: for
example, the left cursor
may be moved to the
right of the right cursor
and first will give the
location of the cursor
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
formerly on the right,
now on left.
Standard parameter.
Frequency
Frequency: Period of cyclic signal 1/period
measured as time between every
other pair of 50% crossings.
Starting with first transition after left
cursor, the period is measured for
each transition pair. Values then
averaged and reciprocal used to
give frequency.
Standard parameter.
Freq@level
Frequency at a specific level and
slope for every cycle in waveform.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2 and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA100G
and WavePro 7000A
scopes.
FWHM
Measures the width of the largest
area histogram peak at half of the
population of the highest peak.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
FWxx
Measures the width of the largest
area histogram peak at xx% of the
population of the highest peak.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Half period
Half period of a waveform.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
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Available with JTA2,
SDA, and XMAP
options.
Standard in SDA100G
scopes.
Hist ampl
Difference in value between the
two most populated peaks in a
histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist base
Value of the left-most of the two
most populated histogram peaks.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist maximum
Value of the highest (right-most)
populated bin in a histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist Max Pop
Peak with maximum population in a
histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist mean
Average or mean value of data in
the histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Hist median
Value of the "X" axis of a histogram
that divides the population into two
equal halves.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist minimum
Value of the lowest (left-most)
populated bin in a histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Hist Mode
Position of the highest histogram
peak.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist Pop@X
Hist Range
Population at bin for specified
horizontal coordinate. You can
place the cursor at any bin and use
either Absolute, Reference, or
Difference cursor shape.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, SDM, XMATH,
XWAV, CAN02, SDA,
and XMAP options.
Calculates range (max - min) of a
histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, ENET, XMATH,
XWAV, CAN02, SDA,
and XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
sampling scopes.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
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Hist rms
Root mean square of the values in
a histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
sampling scopes
Hist sdev
Standard deviation of values in a
histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist top
Value of the right-most of the two
most populated histogram peaks.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Hist X@peak
The value of the nth highest
histogram peak.
Applies only to
histograms.
Available with JTA2,
XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, DDM2, SDA,
and XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Hold time
Time from the clock edge to the
data edge. You can set levels,
slope, and hysteresis
independently for Hold Clock and
Hold Data. See also Setup
parameter.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2,
ENET, USB2, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA100G
scopes.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Hparam Script
Visual Basic (or Java) script which
produces a measurement from one
or two input
Available with XMAP,
ASDA, and XDEV
options.
histogram results
Standard in DDA5005A.
Jitter Filter
Jitter in the specified frequency
band. Generates a time sequence
of jitter measurements that are
filtered by the selected band-pass
filter.
Available with ASDA
option.
Last
Time from trigger to last (rightmost) Time from trigger to last
cursor.
cursor
Indicates location of
right cursor. Cursors
are interchangeable: for
example, the right
cursor may be moved to
the left of the left cursor
and first will give the
location of the cursor
formerly on the left, now
on right.
Standard parameter.
Level@X
Gives the vertical value at the
specified x position. If the x position
is between two points, it gives the
interpolated value. When the
Nearest point checkbox is
checked, it gives the vertical value
of the nearest data point.
Standard parameter.
Local base
Value of the baseline for a local
feature.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local bsep
Local baseline separation, between
rising and falling slopes.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Local max
Maximum value of a local feature.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local min
Minimum value of a local feature.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local number
Number of local features
(peak/trough pairs).
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local pkpk
Vertical difference between the
peak and trough of a local feature
(lmax lmin).
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local tbe
Time between events (between
local peak and next trough or local
trough and next peak).
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Local tbp
Time between a local feature peak
and the next local peak.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local tbt
Time between a local feature
trough and the next local trough.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local tmax
Time of the maximum value of a
local feature.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local tmin
Time of the minimum value of a
local feature.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local tot
Time a local feature spends over a
user specified percentage of its
peak-to-trough amplitude.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Local tpt
Time between local feature peak
and trough.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local ttp
Time between local feature trough
and the next local peak.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Local tut
Time a local feature spends under
a user specified percentage of its
peak-to-trough amplitude.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Mathcad
Produces a parameter using a
user-specified Mathcad function.
Available with XMAP
and XDEV option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Mathcad 2001i or later
must be loaded on the
instrument.
MATLAB
Produces a parameter using a
user-specified MATLAB function.
Available with XMAP
and XDEV option.
Standard in DDA5005A, WaveRunner
6000A, WaveMaster,
WavePro 7000A, and
sampling scopes
MATLAB must be
loaded on the
instrument.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Maximum
Measures highest point in
waveform. Unlike top, does not
assume waveform has two levels.
Highest value in waveform
between cursors
Gives similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
contributions from more
than one acquisition.
Computes horizontal
axis location of
rightmost non-zero bin
of histogram -- not to be
confused with maxp.
Standard parameter.
Mean
Average of data for time domain
waveform. Computed as centroid
of distribution for a histogram.
Average of data
Gives similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
contributions from more
than one acquisition.
Standard parameter.
Median
The average of base and top
values.
Average of Base and Top.
Standard parameter.
Minimum
Measures the lowest point in a
waveform. Unlike base, does not
assume waveform has two levels.
Lowest value in waveform
between cursors
Gives similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
contributions from more
than one acquisition.
Standard parameter.
Nb phase
Provides a measurement of the
phase at a specific frequency of a
waveform (narrow band).
Available with DDM2,
XMATH, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA-5005A
and SDA100G scopes.
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Nb Power
Provides a measurement of the
power at a specific frequency of a
waveform (narrow band).
Available with DDM2,
XMATH, PMA2, SDA,
and XMAP options.
Standard in DDA-5005A
and SDA100G scopes.
N-cycle jitter
Peak-to-peak jitter between edges Compares the expected
spaced n UI apart.
time to the actual time of
leading edges n bits apart.
Available in SDA
analyzers.
NLTS
Provides a measurement of the
nonlinear transition shift for a prml
signal.
Available with DDM2
option.
Num Points
Number of points in the waveform
between the cursors.
Standard parameter.
One Level
One level of an eye diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in DDA5005AA.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Overshoot-
Overshoot negative: Amount of
(base - min.)/ampl x 100
overshoot following a falling edge,
as percentage of amplitude.
Waveform must contain
at least one falling
edge. On signals not
having two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
may not give
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
Overshoot+
Overshoot positive: Amount of
overshoot following a rising edge
specified as percentage of
amplitude.
Overwrite
Ratio of residual-to-original power
of a low frequency waveform
overwritten by a higher frequency.
178
(max. - top)/ampl x 100
Waveform must contain
at least one rising edge.
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
may not give
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Param Script
Visual Basic or Java script that
produces a measurement from one
or two input waveforms.
Available with XMAP,
XDEV, and ASDA
options.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Peak Mag
Peak mag away from a baseline.
Note: the measure gate must
include more of the baseline than
any other single level.
Available with ENET
option.
Peaks
Number of peaks in a histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
Peak to peak
Peak-to-peak: Difference between maximum - minimum
highest and lowest points in
waveform. Unlike ampl, does not
assume the waveform has two
levels.
Gives a similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of the
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
contributions from more
than one acquisition.
Standard parameter.
Percentile
Horizontal data value that divides a
histogram so the population to the
left is xx% of the total.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Per DCD
Amount of jitter due to duty cycle
distortion
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Per Duty Cyc
Duty cycle measured on a
persistence
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Period
Period of a cyclic signal measured
Standard parameter.
as time between every other pair of
50% crossings. Starting with first
transition after left cursor, period is
measured for each transition pair,
with values averaged to give final Where: Mr is the number of
result.
leading edges found, Mf the
number of trailing edges
the time when
found,
rising edge i crosses the x%
level, and
the time when
falling edge i crosses the x%
level.
Period@level
Period at a specified level and
slope for every cycle in waveform.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2,
AORM, ENET, SDA,
and XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G, and
WavePro 7000A
scopes.
Per Pulse Sym
Symmetry of RZ pulse around eye
aperture center
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist Area
Area under mean persistence trace
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist Max
Highest vertical value of input
persistence
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist Mean
Average of persistence data
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist Mid
Mid level between Maximum and
Minimum data
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist Min
Lowest vertical value of input
persistence
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist PkPk
Difference between maximum and
minimum data values
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
Persist RMS
Root mean square of persistence
data
Standard in SDA and
WaveExpert scopes.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Phase
Phase difference between signal
analyzed and signal used as
reference. You can set the output
type to percent, degrees, or
radians. After setting up the
reference, touch the More tab for
signal setups.
Phase difference between
signal and reference
Standard parameter.
Pj
Periodic component of jitter
Available with SDA
option.
Power Factor
Ratio of real to apparent power
Available with PMA2
option.
PW50
Average pulse width at the 50%
point between the local baseline
and the local peak or trough.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
PW50-
Average pulse width at the 50%
point between the local baseline
and the local trough.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
PW50+
Average pulse width at the 50%
point between the local baseline
and the local peak.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Real Power
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Mean of the product of voltage and
current waveform (or mean of the
instantaneous power)
Available with PMA2
option.
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Resolution
Ratio of taa for a high and low
frequency waveform
taa (HF)/mean taa (LF)*100 Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available in DDM2.
Standard in DDA5005A.
Ring
Ringback (high or low)
Available with SDA
parameter.
Rj Effective
Amount of random jitter (estimated)
in a signal
Available with SDA
parameter.
Rise
Rise time: Duration of rising edge
from 10-90%.
Time at lower threshold
minus
Time at upper threshold
averaged over each rising
edge
Threshold arguments specify two
vertical values on each edge used
to compute rise time.
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
top and base can
default to maximum and
minimum, giving,
however, less
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
Formulas for upper and lower
values:
lower = lower thresh. x amp/100 +
base
upper = upper thresh. x amp/100 +
base
Rise 20-80%
Rise 20% to 80%: Duration of
Average duration of rising
pulse waveform's rising transition 20-80% transition
from 20% to 80%, averaged for all
rising transitions between the
cursors.
On signals not having
two major levels
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
top and base can
default to maximum and
minimum, giving,
however, less
predictable results.
Standard parameter.
Rise@level
182
Rise at level: Duration of pulse
waveform's rising edges between
transition levels.
Slew rate for % or absolute On signals not having
levels of rising or falling
two major levels
edges.
(triangle or saw-tooth
waves, for example),
Enhanced version sets
measurement calculations to top and base can
default to maximum and
use one of the following:
minimum, giving,
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Base & Top (% or absolute) however, less
predictable results.
Peak-Peak (%)
Standard parameter.
0V-Max (%)
Enhanced parameter
available with EMC
option.
Gives similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
Where: vi denotes measured contributions from more
sample values, and N =
than one acquisition.
number of data points within
Standard parameter.
the periods found up to
maximum of 100 periods.
RMS
Root Mean Square of data
between the cursors -- about same
as sdev for a zero-mean waveform.
SAS
Signal Amplitude Symmetry of a
100Base-T signal
Available with ENET
option.
SD2Skew
Calculates the time skew between
2 serial data lanes
Available with SDA and
PCIE options.
Setup
Time from the data edge to the
clock edge.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2 and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA and
SDA100G scopes.
Skew
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Time of clock1 edge minus time of
nearest clock2 edge.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data. Hysteresis on a
measurement (if set to
500 mdiv) requires that
the signal must
transition one way 1/2
division (total swing)
across the threshold for
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
the measurement to be
valid.
Available with JTA2 and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA100G
and WaveSurfer
scopes.
Slew Rate
Slew rate or local dV/dt in a
transition zone
Available in SDA and
JTA2 options.
Standard in SDA100G
scopes.
SSC Diff
Calculates difference between
average SSC frequencies.
Available with PCIE
option.
SSC Frequency Frequency of Spread Spectrum
Clock signal.
Available with PCIE
option.
SSC Ratio
Calculates the ratio between the
maximum and minimum SSC
frequencies.
Available with PCIE
option.
SSC Track
Tracks Spread Spectrum Clock.
Filtered track of frequency at level.
Available with ASDA
option.
Std dev
Standard deviation of the data
between the cursors -- about the
same as rms for a zero-mean
waveform.
Gives similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
contributions from more
than one acquisition.
Where: vi denotes
measured sample
values, and N = number
of data points within the
periods found up to
maximum of 100
periods.
Standard parameter.
TAA
Average peak-to-trough amplitude
for all local features.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
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WR6A-OM-E Rev G
Standard in DDA5005A.
TAA-
Average local baseline-to-trough
amplitude for all local features.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
TAA+
Average local baseline-to-peak
amplitude for all local features.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with DDM2
option.
Standard in DDA5005A.
TIE@level
Difference between the measured Cutoff Freq = (1/1.667e3) x
times of crossing a given slope and Clock Freq
level and the ideal expected time.
For Slope you can choose positive,
negative, or both. For output units
you can choose time or unit interval
(UI). A unit interval equals one
clock period.
The Virtual Clock setup gives you a
choice of Standard (1.544 MHz) or
Custom reference clocks.
You can also use a mathematically
derived Golden PLL to filter low
frequency jitter. The cutoff
frequency is user selectable.
Time@edge
Measures time at each edge on
each digital line
Time@level
Time at level: Time from trigger
(t=0) to crossing at a specified
level.
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Available with JTA2,
ENET, SDA, and XMAP
options.
Standard in SDA100G,
WavePro 7000A,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes.
Available with MS-32
option.
Time from trigger to crossing Reference levels and
level
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
used to discriminate
levels from noise in
data.
Standard parameter.
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
Top
Higher of two most probable states, Value of most probable
the lower being base; it is
higher state
characteristic of rectangular
waveforms and represents the
higher most probable state
determined from the statistical
distribution of data point values in
the waveform.
Gives similar result
when applied to time
domain waveform or
histogram of data of
same waveform. But
with histograms, result
may include
contributions from more
than one acquisition.
Standard parameter.
Total Jitter
Total jitter at a given bit error rate
Available with ENET
and SDA options.
Total Pop
Total population of a histogram.
Available with DDM2,
JTA2, XMATH, XWAV,
CAN02, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in DDA5005A, SDA100G,
WaveExpert, and
sampling scopes
tUpS
Upsamples a time parameter by nX
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
TxCmD
PCI Express: V TX-CM-DC-LINEDELTA
Available with PCIE
option.
Absolute delta of DC common
mode voltage between D+ and DTxFall
Fall2080 and ParamRescale, to get
UI
Available with PCIE
option.
TxRise
Rise2080 and ParamRescale, to
get UI
Available with PCIE
option.
Vcross
Voltage at which two signals cross.
That is, voltage of either signal at
the time when difference is zero.
Available with SDA and
PCIE options.
Vdiff
Used for V TX-DIFFp-p and V RXDIFFp-p for PCI-Express
Available with PCIE
option.
VTxDeRatio
Ratio between transition and deemphasized bits
Available with PCIE
option.
Width
Width of cyclic signal determined Width of first positive or
by examining 50% crossings in
negative pulse averaged for
data input. If first transition after left all similar pulses
cursor is a rising edge, waveform is
considered to consist of positive
pulses and width the time between
Similar to fwhm, though,
unlike width, that
parameter applies only
to histograms.
186
Standard parameter.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
adjacent rising and falling edges.
Conversely, if falling edge, pulses
are considered negative and width
the time between adjacent falling
and rising edges. For both cases,
widths of all waveform pulses are
averaged for the final result.
Width@level
Width measured at a specific level. Time between two
transitions of opposite slope
at a specified level. (Slope
specified for 1st transition.)
Reference levels and
edge-transition polarity
can be selected.
Hysteresis argument
Enhanced version sets
used to discriminate
measurement calculations to levels from noise in
use one of the following:
data.
Base & Top (% or absolute) Available with JTA2,
Peak-Peak (%)
0V-Max (%)
0V-Min (%)
USB2, EMC, SDA, and
XMAP options.
Standard in SDA100G
and WavePro 7000A
scopes.
Enhanced parameter
available with EMC
option.
WidthN
Width measured at the 50% level
and negative slope.
Standard parameter.
X@max
Determines the horizontal axis
location of the maximum value
between the cursors.
Restricted to time and
frequency waveforms
only.
X@min
Determines the horizontal axis
location of the minimum value
between the cursors.
Restricted to time and
frequency waveforms
only.
Zero Level
Zero level of an eye diagram
Available with SDA and
SDM options.
Standard in SDA,
SDA100G, and
WaveExpert scopes.
WR6A-OM-E Rev G
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WaveRunner 6000A Series Operator's Manual
WAVEFORM MATH
Introduction to Math Traces and Functions
With the instrument’s math tools you can perform mathematical functions on a waveform
displayed on any channel, or recalled from any of the four reference memories M1 to M4. You can
also set up traces F1 to Fx The number of math functions that can be performed at the same time
depends on the software options loaded on your scope. to do math on parameter measurements
P1 to Px The number of parameters that can be measured at the same time depends on the
software options loaded on your scope..
For example: you could set up Trace F1 as the difference between Channels 1 and 2, Trace F2
as the average of F1, and Trace F3 as the integral of F2. You could then display the integral of
the averaged difference between Channels 1 and 2. Any trace and function can be chained to
another trace and function. For example, you could make Trace F1 an average of Channel 1,
Trace F2 an FFT of F1, and Trace F3 a zoom of F2.
Note: Math traces F5-F8 are available only if you have loaded software option package XMATH or XMAP on WaveMaster
or WavePro scopes, but are standard on Disk Drive Analyzers and Serial Data Analyzers.
MATH MADE EASY
With the instrument's math tools you can perform mathematical functions on a waveform
displayed on any channel C1 to C4, or recalled from any of the four reference memories M1 to
M4. To do computations in sequence, you can also use math functions F1 to Fx as a source input
waveform. Or you can use Parameters P1 through Px
For example: you could set up F1 as the difference between Channels 1 and 2, F2 as the
average of F1, and F3 as the integral of F2. You could then display the integral of the averaged
difference between Channels 1 and 2. Any trace and function can be chained to another trace
and function. For example, you could make F1 an average of Channel 1, F2 an FFT of F1, and
F3 a zoom of F2.
Refer to the Specifications to find out which math tools are available in each optional package.
To Set Up a Math Function
Math Setup
This setup mode allows you to quickly apply frequently used math functions.
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math setup...
2. If there are math functions already assigned to F1 through Fx The number of math traces
available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.,
touch the checkbox for the function you want to enable.
3. To assign a new math function to a trace, touch the Fx button for that trace, for example
. The math function menu appears.
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4. Touch a menu selection; your new function is automatically assigned, with the same
setups as were in place for the last function in that Fx position.
5. If you want to change other setup items, like the source waveform, touch the appropriate
Fx tab, for example
. The setup dialog for that Fx position appears.
6. Touch the Single function button
if you want to perform just one math function
on the trace, or touch the Dual function button
to perform math on math.
7. Touch the Graph button, then touch inside the Graph with field to select a graph mode.
The Graph modes are as follows:
Histogram of the values of a parameter
Track of the values of a parameter
Trend of the values of a parameter
Resampling To Deskew
Deskew whenever you need to compensate for different lengths of cables, probes, or anything
else that might cause timing mismatches between signals. Resample a signal on one channel
and adjust it in time relative to a signal on another channel.
To Resample
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a math function trace tab F1 through Fx The number of math traces available
depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications..
3. Touch the single function button.
4. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source: channel, math trace, memory
location.
5. Touch inside the Operator1 field and select Deskew from the Functions category.
6. In the dialog on the right, touch the Deskew tab.
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7. Touch inside the Delay by data entry field and type in a time value, using the pop-up
keypad.
Rescaling and Assigning Units
This feature allows you to apply a multiplication factor (a) and additive constant (b) to your
waveform: aX + b. You can do it in the unit of your choice, depending on the type of application.`
To Set Up Rescaling
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a math function trace tab F1 through Fx The number of math traces available
depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications..
3. Touch the single function button.
4. Touch inside the Source1 data entry field and select a source: channel, math trace,
memory location.
5. Touch inside the Operator1 data entry field and select Rescale from the Functions
category.
6. In the dialog on the right, touch the Rescale tab.
7. Touch inside the First multiply by checkbox and enter a value for a, the multiplication
factor.
8. Touch inside the then add: data entry field and enter a value for b, the additive constant.
9. Touch inside the Override units checkbox to disregard the source waveform's units,
using the pop-up keyboard.
Averaging Waveforms
Summed vs. Continuous Averaging
For Summed averaging, you specify the number of acquisitions to be averaged. The averaged
data is updated at regular intervals and presented on the screen.
On the other hand, Continuous averaging (the system default) helps to eliminate the effects of
noise by continuously acquiring new data and adding the new waveforms into the averaging
buffer. You determine the importance of new data vs. old data by assigning a weighting factor.
Continuous averaging allows you to make adjustments to a system under test and to see the
results immediately.
Note: Continuous Averaging is accessible from the channel "Vertical Adjust" dialog under "Pre-Processing," and from the
math function menu.
Summed Averaging
Summed Averaging is the repeated addition, with equal weight, of successive source waveform
records. If a stable trigger is available, the resulting average has a random noise component
lower than that of a single-shot record. Whenever the maximum number of sweeps is reached,
the averaging process stops.
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An even larger number of records can be accumulated simply by changing the number in the
dialog. However, the other parameters must be left unchanged or a new averaging calculation will
be started. You can pause the averaging by changing the trigger mode from NORM/AUTO to
STOP. The instrument resumes averaging when you change the trigger mode back to
NORM/AUTO.
You can reset the accumulated average by pushing the CLEAR SWEEPS button or by changing
an acquisition parameter such as input gain, offset, coupling, trigger condition, timebase, or
bandwidth limit. The number of current averaged waveforms of the function, or its zoom, is shown
in the acquisition status dialog. When summed averaging is performed, the display is updated at
a reduced rate to increase the averaging speed (points and events per second).
Continuous Averaging
Continuous Averaging, the default setting, is the repeated addition, with unequal weight, of
successive source waveforms. It is particularly useful for reducing noise on signals that drift very
slowly in time or amplitude. The most recently acquired waveform has more weight than all the
previously acquired ones: the continuous average is dominated by the statistical fluctuations of
the most recently acquired waveform. The weight of ‘old’ waveforms in the continuous average
gradually tends to zero (following an exponential rule) at a rate that decreases as the weight
increases.
The formula for continuous averaging is
new average = (new data + weight * old average)/(weight + 1)
This is also the formula used to compute summed averaging. But by setting a "sweeps" value,
you establish a fixed weight that is assigned to the old average once the number of "sweeps" is
reached. For example, for a sweeps (weight) value of 4:
1st sweep (no old average yet): new average = (new data +0 * old average)/(0 + 1) =
new data only
2nd sweep: new average = (new data + 1*old average)/(1 + 1) = 1/2 new data +1/2 old
average
3rd sweep: new average = (new data + 2 * old average)/(2 + 1) = 1/3 new data + 2/3 old
average
4th sweep: new average = (new data + 3 * old average)/(3 + 1) = 1/4 new data + 3/4 old
average
5th sweep: new average = (new data + 4 * old average)/(4 + 1) = 1/5 new data + 4/5 old
average
6th sweep: new average = (new data + 4 * old average)/(4 + 1) = 1/5 new data + 4/5 old
average
7th sweep: new average = (new data + 4 * old average)/(4 + 1) = 1/5 new data + 4/5 old
average
In this way, for sweeps > 4 the importance of the old average begins to decrease exponentially.
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Note: The number of sweeps used to compute the average will be displayed in the bottom line of the trace descriptor
label:
To Set Up Continuous Averaging
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Select a function tab from F1 through Fx The number of math traces available depends
on the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications..
3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source waveform from the pop-up menu.
4. Touch inside the Operator1 field and select Average from the Select Math Operator
menu.
5. Touch the Average tab in the dialog to the right of the "Fx" dialog, touch the Continuous
button.
6. Touch inside the Sweeps data entry field and enter a value using the pop-up keypad.
The valid range is 1 to 1,000,000 sweeps.
To Set Up Summed Averaging
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Select a function tab from F1 through Fx The number of math traces available depends
on the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications..
3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source waveform from the pop-up menu.
4. Touch inside the Operator1 field and select Average from the Select Math Operator
menu.
5. Touch the Average tab in the dialog to the right of the "Fx" dialog, then touch the
Summed button.
6. Touch inside the Sweeps data entry field and type in a value using the pop-up keypad.
The valid range is 1 to 1,000,000 sweeps.
Enhanced Resolution
ERES (Enhanced Resolution) filtering increases vertical resolution, allowing you to distinguish
closely spaced voltage levels. The functioning of the instrument's ERES is similar to smoothing
the signal with a simple, moving-average filter. However, it is more efficient concerning bandwidth
and pass-band filtering. Use ERES on single-shot waveforms, or where the data record is slowly
repetitive (when you cannot use averaging). Use it to reduce noise when your signal is noticeably
noisy, but you do not need to perform noise measurements. Also use it when you perform highprecision voltage measurements: zooming with high vertical gain, for example.
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How the Instrument Enhances Resolution
The instrument's enhanced resolution feature improves vertical resolution by a fixed amount for
each filter. This real increase in resolution occurs whether or not the signal is noisy, or your signal
is single-shot or repetitive. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement you gain is dependent on
the form of the noise in the original signal. The enhanced resolution filtering decreases the
bandwidth of the signal, filtering out some of the noise.
The instrument's constant phase FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters provide fast computation,
excellent step response in 0.5 bit steps, and minimum bandwidth reduction for resolution
improvements of between 0.5 and 3 bits. Each step corresponds to a bandwidth reduction factor
of two, allowing easy control of the bandwidth resolution trade-off. The parameters of the six
filters are given in the following table.
Resolution
-3 dB Bandwidth
Filter Length
increased by
(× Nyquist)
(Samples)
0.5
0.5
2
1.0
0.241
5
1.5
0.121
10
2.0
0.058
24
2.5
0.029
51
3.0
0.016
117
With low-pass filters, the actual SNR increase obtained in any particular situation depends on the
power spectral density of the noise on the signal.
The improvement in SNR corresponds to the improvement in resolution if the noise in the signal
is white -- evenly distributed across the frequency spectrum.
If the noise power is biased towards high frequencies, the SNR improvement will be better than
the resolution improvement.
The opposite may be true if the noise is mostly at lower frequencies. SNR improvement due to
the removal of coherent noise signals -- feed-through of clock signals, for example -- is
determined by the fall of the dominant frequency components of the signal in the pass band. This
is easily ascertained using spectral analysis. The filters have a precisely constant zero-phase
response. This has two benefits. First, the filters do not distort the relative position of different
events in the waveform, even if the events' frequency content is different. Second, because the
waveforms are stored, the delay normally associated with filtering (between the input and output
waveforms) can be exactly compensated during the computation of the filtered waveform.
The filters have been given exact unity gain at low frequency. Enhanced resolution should
therefore not cause overflow if the source data is not overflowed. If part of the source trace were
to overflow, filtering would be allowed, but the results in the vicinity of the overflowed data -- the
filter impulse response length -- would be incorrect. This is because in some circumstances an
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overflow may be a spike of only one or two samples, and the energy in this spike may not be
enough to significantly affect the results. It would then be undesirable to disallow the whole trace.
The following examples illustrate how you might use the instrument's enhanced resolution
function.
In low-pass filtering: The spectrum of a square signal
before (left top) and after (left bottom) enhanced
resolution processing. The result clearly illustrates how
the filter rejects high-frequency components from the
signal. The higher the bit enhancement, the lower the
resulting bandwidth.
To increase vertical resolution: In the example at left,
the lower ("inner") trace has been significantly enhanced
by a three-bit enhanced resolution function.
To reduce noise: The example at left shows enhanced
resolution of a noisy signal. The original trace (left top)
has been processed by a 2-bit enhanced resolution filter.
The result (left bottom) shows a "smooth" trace, where
most of the noise has been eliminated.
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Note: Enhanced resolution can only improve the resolution of a trace; it cannot improve the accuracy or linearity of the
original quantization. The pass-band will cause signal attenuation for signals near the cut-off frequency. The highest
frequencies passed may be slightly attenuated. Perform the filtering on finite record lengths. Data will be lost at the start
and end of the waveform: the trace will be slightly shorter after filtering. The number of samples lost is exactly equal to the
length of the impulse response of the filter used: between 2 and 117 samples. Normally this loss (just 0.2 % of a 50,000
point trace) is not noticed. However, you might filter a record so short there would be no data output. In that case,
however, the instrument would not allow you to use the ERES feature.
To Set Up Enhanced Resolution (ERES)
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a function tab F1 through Fx The number of math traces available depends on the
software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications..
3. Touch inside the Operator1 data entry field.
4. Select ERES from the All Functions or Filter group of Math functions.
5. Touch the Trace On checkbox.
6. Touch the "ERES" tab in the right-hand dialog, then touch inside the bits field and make
an "Enhance by" selection from the pop-up menu:
.
Waveform Copy
The Copy math function
makes a copy of your present waveform in its unprocessed
state. While processing may continue on the original waveform, the copy enables faster
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throughput in some cases by preserving the original data. That is, no calculations need to be
undone on the copy before additional math can be calculated.
This benefit of faster throughput, however, comes at the expense of memory usage.
Waveform Sparser
The Sparse math function
allows you to thin out an incoming waveform by skipping
points at regular intervals, and by starting acquisition at a particular "offset" (point). The Sparsing
factor specifies the number of sample points to reduce the input waveform by. A sparsing factor
of 4, for example, tells the scope to retain only one out of every 4 samples. A Sparsing offset of
3, on the other hand, tells the scope to begin on the third sample, then skip the number of
samples specified by the sparsing factor (4). In this way, the sample rate is effectively reduced.
For the sparsing factor (interval), you can set a value from 1 to 1,000,000 points. For the sparsing
offset you can set a value from 0 to 999,999.
Note: The maximum sparsing offset that can be entered for any sparsing factor equals Sparsing Factor 1.
To Set Up Waveform Sparser
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the tab for the function (F1 to Fx The number of math traces available depends on
the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.) you want to assign the
Sparse operation to.
3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select an input waveform.
4. Touch inside the Operator1 field and select Sparse from the Select Math Operator
menu.
5. Touch inside the Sparsing factor field and enter a value, using the pop-up keypad.
6. Touch inside the Sparsing offset field and enter a value, using the pop-up keypad.
Interpolation
Linear interpolation, which inserts a straight line between sample point, is best used to
reconstruct straight-edged signals such as square waves. (Sinx)/x interpolation, on the other
hand, is suitable for reconstructing curved or irregular waveshapes, especially when the sampling
rate is 3 to 5 times the system bandwidth. The instrument also gives you a choice of Cubic
interpolation.
For each method, you can select a factor from 2 to 50 points by which to interpolate (upsample).
To Set Up Interpolation
1. In the menu bar, touch Math, then Math setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the tab for the function (F1 to Fx The number of math traces available depends on
the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications.) you want to assign the
Interpolate operation to.
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3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select an input waveform.
4. Touch inside the Operator1 field, then touch the Filter button in the Select Math
Operator menu.
5. Select Interpolate from the Filter submenu.
6. Touch the "Interpolate" tab in the mini setup dialog to the right of the main dialog.
7. Touch inside the Algorithm field and select an interpolation type.
8. Touch inside the Upsample by Upsampling is the factor by which sampling is increased.
field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric keypad, if you want to enter a specific
value. Otherwise, use the Up/Down buttons to increment the displayed value in a 1-2-5
sequence.
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FFT
Why Use FFT?
For a large class of signals, you can gain greater insight by looking at spectral representation
rather than time description. Signals encountered in the frequency response of amplifiers,
oscillator phase noise and those in mechanical vibration analysis, for example, are easier to
observe in the frequency domain.
If sampling is done at a rate fast enough to faithfully approximate the original waveform (usually
five times the highest frequency component in the signal), the resulting discrete data series will
uniquely describe the analog signal. This is of particular value when dealing with transient signals
because, unlike FFT, conventional swept spectrum analyzers cannot handle them.
Spectral analysis theory assumes that the signal for transformation is of infinite duration. Since no
physical signal can meet this condition, a useful assumption for reconciling theory and practice is
to view the signal as consisting of an infinite series of replicas of itself. These replicas are
multiplied by a rectangular window (the display grid) that is zero outside of the observation grid.
An FFT operation on an N-point time domain signal can be compared to passing the signal
through a comb filter consisting of a bank of N/2 filters. All the filters have the same shape and
width and are centered at N/2 discrete frequencies. Each filter collects the signal energy that falls
into the immediate neighborhood of its center frequency. Thus it can be said that there are N/2
frequency bins. The distance in Hz between the center frequencies of two neighboring bins is
always the same: Delta f.
Power (Density) Spectrum
Because of the linear scale used to show magnitudes, lower amplitude components are often
hidden by larger components. In addition to the functions offering magnitude and phase
representations, the FFT option offers power density and power spectrum density functions.
These latter functions are even better suited for characterizing spectra. The power spectrum (V2)
is the square of the magnitude spectrum (0 dBm corresponds to voltage equivalent to 1 mW into
50 ohms.) This is the representation of choice for signals containing isolated peaks — periodic
signals, for instance.
The power density spectrum (V2/Hz) is the power spectrum divided by the equivalent noise
bandwidth of the filter associated with the FFT calculation. This is best employed for
characterizing broadband signals such as noise.
Memory for FFT
The amount of acquisition memory available will determine the maximum range (Nyquist
frequency) over which signal components can be observed. Consider the problem of determining
the length of the observation window and the size of the acquisition buffer if a Nyquist rate of 500
MHz and a resolution of 10 kHz are required. To obtain a resolution of 10 kHz, the acquisition
time must be at least:
T = 1/Delta f = 1/10 kHz = 100 ms
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For a digital oscilloscope with a memory of 100 kB, the highest frequency that can be analyzed is:
Delta f x N/2 = 10 kHz x 100 kB/2 = 500 MHz
FFT Pitfalls to Avoid
Take care to ensure that signals are correctly acquired: improper waveform positioning within the
observation window produces a distorted spectrum. The most common distortions can be traced
to insufficient sampling, edge discontinuities, windowing or the "picket fence" effect.
Because the FFT acts like a bank of band-pass filters centered at multiples of the frequency
resolution, components that are not exact multiples of that frequency will fall within two
consecutive filters. This results in an attenuation of the true amplitude of these components.
Picket Fence and Scallop
The highest point in the spectrum can be 3.92 dB lower when the source frequency is halfway
between two discrete frequencies. This variation in spectrum magnitude is the picket fence effect.
The corresponding attenuation loss is referred to as scallop loss. LeCroy scopes automatically
correct for the scallop effect, ensuring that the magnitude of the spectra lines correspond to their
true values in the time domain.
If a signal contains a frequency component above Nyquist, the spectrum will be aliased, meaning
that the frequencies will be folded back and spurious. Spotting aliased frequencies is often
difficult, as the aliases may ride on top of real harmonics. A simple way of checking is to modify
the sample rate and observe whether the frequency distribution changes.
Leakage
FFT assumes that the signal contained within the time grid is replicated endlessly outside the
observation window. Therefore if the signal contains discontinuities at its edges, pseudofrequencies will appear in the spectral domain, distorting the real spectrum. When the start and
end phase of the signal differ, the signal frequency falls within two frequency cells, broadening the
spectrum.
The broadening of the base, stretching out in many neighboring bins, is termed leakage. Cures
for this are to ensure that an integral number of periods is contained within the display grid or that
no discontinuities appear at the edges. Another is to use a window function to smooth the edges
of the signal.
Choosing a Window
The choice of a spectral window is dictated by the signal’s characteristics. Weighting functions
control the filter response shape, and affect noise bandwidth as well as side lobe levels. Ideally,
the main lobe should be as narrow and flat as possible to effectively discriminate all spectral
components, while all side lobes should be infinitely attenuated. The window type defines the
bandwidth and shape of the equivalent filter to be used in the FFT processing.
In the same way as one would choose a particular camera lens for taking a picture, some
experimenting is generally necessary to determine which window is most suitable. However, the
following general guidelines should help.
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Rectangular windows provide the highest frequency resolution and are thus useful for estimating
the type of harmonics present in the signal. Because the rectangular window decays as a (sinx)/x
function in the spectral domain, slight attenuation will be induced. Alternative functions with less
attenuation (Flat Top and Blackman-Harris) provide maximum amplitude at the expense of
frequency resolution. Whereas, Hamming and Von Hann are good for general purpose use with
continuous waveforms.
Window Type
Applications and Limitations
Rectangular
These are normally used when the signal is transient (completely contained
in the time-domain window) or known to have a fundamental frequency
component that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency of the
window. Signals other than these types will show varying amounts of spectral
leakage and scallop loss, which can be corrected by selecting another type of
window.
Hanning (Von
Hann)
These reduce leakage and improve amplitude accuracy. However, frequency
resolution is also reduced.
Hamming
These reduce leakage and improve amplitude accuracy. However, frequency
resolution is also reduced.
Flat Top
This window provides excellent amplitude accuracy with moderate reduction
of leakage, but with reduced frequency resolution.
Blackman–Harris It reduces the leakage to a minimum, but with reduced frequency resolution.
FFT Window Filter Parameters
Window Type
Highest Side
Lobe
Scallop Loss
ENBW
Coherent Gain
(dB)
(bins)
(dB)
(dB)
Rectangular
-13
3.92
1.0
0.0
von Hann
-32
1.42
1.5
-6.02
Hamming
-43
1.78
1.37
-5.35
Flat Top
-44
0.01
2.96
-11.05
Blackman-Harris
-67
1.13
1.71
-7.53
Improving Dynamic Range
Enhanced resolution uses a low-pass filtering technique that can potentially provide for three
additional bits (18 dB) if the signal noise is uniformly distributed (white). Low-pass filtering should
be considered when high frequency components are irrelevant. A distinct advantage of this
technique is that it works for both repetitive and transient signals. The SNR increase is
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conditioned by the cut-off frequency of the ERES low-pass filter and the noise shape (frequency
distribution).
LeCroy digital oscilloscopes employ FIR digital filters so that a constant phase shift is maintained.
The phase information is therefore not distorted by the filtering action.
Record Length
Because of its versatility, FFT analysis has become a popular analysis tool. However, some care
must be taken with it. In most instances, incorrect positioning of the signal within the display grid
will significantly alter the spectrum. Effects such as leakage and aliasing that distort the spectrum
must be understood if meaningful conclusions are to be arrived at when using FFT.
An effective way to reduce these effects is to maximize the acquisition record length. Record
length directly conditions the effective sampling rate of the scope and therefore determines the
frequency resolution and span at which spectral analysis can be carried out.
FFT Algorithms
A summary of the algorithms used in the oscilloscope's FFT computation is given here in a few
steps:
1. The data are multiplied by the selected window function.
2. FFT is computed, using a fast implementation of the DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform):
where: xk is a complex array whose real part is the modified source time domain
waveform, and whose imaginary part is 0; Xn is the resulting complex frequencydomain waveform;
; and N is the number of points in xk and Xn.
The generalized FFT algorithm, as implemented here, works on N, which need not be a
power of 2.
3. The resulting complex vector Xn is divided by the coherent gain of the window function, in
order to compensate for the loss of the signal energy due to windowing. This
compensation provides accurate amplitude values for isolated spectrum peaks.
4. The real part of Xn is symmetric around the Nyquist frequency, that is
Rn = RN-n
while the imaginary part is asymmetric, that is
In = –IN-n
The energy of the signal at a frequency n is distributed equally between the first and the
second halves of the spectrum; the energy at frequency 0 is completely contained in
the 0 term.
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The first half of the spectrum (Re, Im), from 0 to the Nyquist frequency is kept for further
processing and doubled in amplitude:
R'n = 2 x Rn_0 n < N/2
I'n = 2 x In__0 n < N/2
5. The resultant waveform is computed for the spectrum type selected.
If "Magnitude" is selected, the magnitude of the complex vector is computed as:
Steps 1 to 5 lead to the following result:
An AC sine wave of amplitude 1.0 V with an integral number of periods Np in the time window,
transformed with the rectangular window, results in a fundamental peak of 1.0 V magnitude in the
spectrum at frequency Np x Delta f. However, a DC component of 1.0 V, transformed with the
rectangular window, results in a peak of 2.0 V magnitude at 0 Hz.
The waveforms for the other available spectrum types are computed as follows:
Phase: angle = arctan (In/Rn)_Mn > Mmin
angle = 0
Mn ≤ Mmin
Where Mmin is the minimum magnitude, fixed at about 0.001 of the full scale at any gain setting,
below which the angle is not well defined.
The dBm Power Spectrum:
where Mref = 0.316 V (that is, 0 dBm is defined as a sine wave of 0.316 V peak or 0.224 V rms,
giving 1.0 mW into 50 ohms).
The dBm Power Spectrum is the same as dBm Magnitude, as suggested in the above formula.
dBm Power Density:
where ENBW is the equivalent noise bandwidth of the filter corresponding to the selected window,
and Delta f is the current frequency resolution (bin width).
6. The FFT Power Average takes the complex frequency-domain data R'n and I'n for each
spectrum generated in Step 5, and computes the square of the magnitude:
Mn2 = R'n2 + I'n2,
then sums Mn2 and counts the accumulated spectra. The total is normalized by the
number of spectra and converted to the selected result type using the same formulas
as are used for the Fourier Transform.
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Glossary
This section defines the terms frequently used in FFT spectrum analysis and relates them to the
oscilloscope.
Aliasing If the input signal to a sampling acquisition system contains components whose
frequency is greater than the Nyquist frequency (half the sampling frequency), there will be less
than two samples per signal period. The result is that the contribution of these components to the
sampled waveform is indistinguishable from that of components below the Nyquist frequency.
This is aliasing.
The timebase and transform size should be selected so that the resulting Nyquist frequency is
higher than the highest significant component in the time-domain record.
Coherent Gain The normalized coherent gain of a filter corresponding to each window function is
1.0 (0 dB) for a rectangular window and less than 1.0 for other windows. It defines the loss of
signal energy due to the multiplication by the window function. This loss is compensated for in the
oscilloscope. The following table lists the values for the implemented windows.
Window Type
Window Frequency Domain Parameters
Highest Side
Scallop Loss
ENBW
Lobe
(dB)
(bins)
(dB)
Coherent Gain
(dB)
Rectangular
–13
3.92
1.0
0.0
Hanning (Von
Hann)
–32
1.42
1.5
– 6.02
Hamming
–43
1.78
1.37
–5.35
Flattop
–44
0.01
2.96
–11.05
Blackman–
Harris
–67
1.13
1.71
–7.53
ENBW Equivalent Noise BandWidth (ENBW) is the bandwidth of a rectangular filter (same gain at
the center frequency), equivalent to a filter associated with each frequency bin, which would
collect the same power from a white noise signal. In the table on the previous page, the ENBW is
listed for each window function implemented, given in bins.
Filters Computing an N-point FFT is equivalent to passing the time-domain input signal through
N/2 filters and plotting their outputs against the frequency. The spacing of filters is Delta f = 1/T,
while the bandwidth depends on the window function used (see Frequency Bins).
Frequency Bins The FFT algorithm takes a discrete source waveform, defined over N points,
and computes N complex Fourier coefficients, which are interpreted as harmonic components of
the input signal.
For a real source waveform (imaginary part equals 0), there are only N/2 independent harmonic
components.
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An FFT corresponds to analyzing the input signal with a bank of N/2 filters, all having the same
shape and width, and centered at N/2 discrete frequencies. Each filter collects the signal energy
that falls into the immediate neighborhood of its center frequency. Thus it can be said that there
are N/2 "frequency bins."
The distance in hertz between the center frequencies of two neighboring bins is always:
Delta f = 1/T
where T is the duration of the time-domain record in seconds.
The width of the main lobe of the filter centered at each bin depends on the window function
used. The rectangular window has a nominal width at 1.0 bin. Other windows have wider main
lobes (see table).
Frequency Range The range of frequencies computed and displayed is 0 Hz (displayed at the
left-hand edge of the screen) to the Nyquist frequency (at the rightmost edge of the trace).
Frequency Resolution In a simple sense, the frequency resolution is equal to the bin width
Delta f. That is, if the input signal changes its frequency by Delta f, the corresponding spectrum
peak will be displaced by Df. For smaller changes of frequency, only the shape of the peak will
change.
However, the effective frequency resolution (that is, the ability to resolve two signals whose
frequencies are almost the same) is further limited by the use of window functions. The ENBW
value of all windows other than the rectangular is greater than Delta f and the bin width. The table
of Window Frequency-Domain Parameters lists the ENBW values for the implemented windows.
Leakage In the power spectrum of a sine wave with an integral number of periods in the
(rectangular) time window (that is, the source frequency equals one of the bin frequencies), the
spectrum contains a sharp component whose value accurately reflects the source waveform's
amplitude. For intermediate input frequencies this spectral component has a lower and broader
peak.
The broadening of the base of the peak, stretching out into many neighboring bins, is termed
leakage. It is due to the relatively high side lobes of the filter associated with each frequency bin.
The filter side lobes and the resulting leakage are reduced when one of the available window
functions is applied. The best reduction is provided by the Blackman-Harris and Flattop windows.
However, this reduction is offset by a broadening of the main lobe of the filter.
Number of Points The FFT is computed over the number of points (Transform Size) whose
upper bounds are the source number of points, and by the maximum number of points selected in
the menu. The FFT generates spectra of N/2 output points.
Nyquist Frequency The Nyquist frequency is equal to one half of the effective sampling
frequency (after the decimation): Delta f x N/2.
Picket Fence Effect If a sine wave has a whole number of periods in the time domain record, the
power spectrum obtained with a rectangular window will have a sharp peak, corresponding
exactly to the frequency and amplitude of the sine wave. Otherwise the spectrum peak with a
rectangular window will be lower and broader.
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The highest point in the power spectrum can be 3.92 dB lower (1.57 times) when the source
frequency is halfway between two discrete bin frequencies. This variation of the spectrum
magnitude is called the picket fence effect (the loss is called the scallop loss).
All window functions compensate for this loss to some extent, but the best compensation is
obtained with the Flattop window.
Power Spectrum The power spectrum (V2) is the square of the magnitude spectrum.
The power spectrum is displayed on the dBm scale, with 0 dBm corresponding to:
Vref2 = (0.316 Vpeak)2,
where Vref is the peak value of the sinusoidal voltage, which is equivalent to 1 mW into 50 ohms.
Power Density Spectrum The power density spectrum (V2/Hz) is the power spectrum divided by
the equivalent noise bandwidth of the filter, in hertz. The power density spectrum is displayed on
the dBm scale, with 0 dBm corresponding to (Vref2/Hz).
Sampling Frequency The time-domain records are acquired at sampling frequencies dependent
on the selected time base. Before the FFT computation, the time-domain record may be
decimated. If the selected maximum number of points is lower than the source number of points,
the effective sampling frequency is reduced. The effective sampling frequency equals twice the
Nyquist frequency.
Scallop Loss This is loss associated with the picket fence effect.
Window Functions All available window functions belong to the sum of cosines family with one
to three non-zero cosine terms:
where: M = 3 is the maximum number of terms, am are the coefficients of the terms, N is the
number of points of the decimated source waveform, and k is the time index.
The table of Coefficients of Window Functions lists the coefficients am. The window functions seen
in the time domain are symmetric around the point k = N/2.
Window Type
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Coefficients of Window Functions
a0
a1
a2
Rectangular
1.0
0.0
0.0
Hanning (Von
Hann)
0.5
–0.5
0.0
Hamming
0.54
–0.46
0.0
Flattop
0.281
–0.521
0.198
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Blackman–
Harris
0.423
–0.497
0.079
FFT Setup
To Set Up an FFT
1. In the menu bar touch Math, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a Math function trace button: F1 through Fx The number of math traces available
depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See Specifications.; a pop-up
menu appears. Select FFT
from the menu.
or Dual (function of a function)
3. Touch the Single
be of the result of another math operation.
button if the FFT is to
4. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a channel, memory, or math trace on which to
perform the FFT.
5. Touch inside the Operator1 field: Select FFT from the pop-up menu if you selected
Single function. Select another math function if you selected Dual function. Then touch
inside the Operator2 field and select FFT from the pop-up menu.
6. In the right-hand dialog, touch the FFT tab.
7. Choose whether to Truncate1
or Zero-fill2
the trace display.
8. Touch the Suppress DC checkbox if you want to make the DC bin go to zero. Otherwise,
leave it unchecked.
9. Touch inside the Output type field, and make a selection from the pop-up menu.
10. Touch inside the Window field, select a window type.
11. Touch inside the Algorithm field and select either Least Prime3 from the pop-up menu.
1
When the FFT transform size does not match the record length, you can truncate the record and perform an FFT on the
shorter record. This will increase the resolution bandwidth.
2
Zero-fill is useful when the source data for the FFT comes from a math operation that shortens the record. This is
commonly encountered in filtering operations like enhanced resolution. The missing data points are replaced by data
values, whose amplitudes are interpolated to fit between the last data point and the first data point in the record. This
guarantees that there is not a first-order discontinuity in the filled data. Since the data at the end of the record is "filled"
data, it is advisable to select a weighting window other than rectangular to minimize the effect of the fill on the resulting
spectrum.
3
The default algorithm is a least primes algorithm that computes FFTs on transform sizes having lengths that can be
N
K
expressed as factors of 2 *5 . This is very compatible with the record lengths encountered in the oscilloscope, which are
often multiples of 1, 2, 4, 5, or 10. or Power of 2 The other choice is a power of two algorithm where the record lengths are
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ANALYSIS
Pass/Fail Testing
Comparing Parameters
Each Pass/Fail input (Qx) can compare a different parameter result to a user-defined limit (or
statistical range) under a different condition.
The conditions are represented by these comparison operators:
At the touch of a button, test results can also be compared to these standard statistical limits:
•
current mean
•
mean + 1 SD
•
mean + 3 SD
In Dual Parameter Compare mode, your X-Stream scope gives you the option to compare to each
other parameter results measured on two different waveforms. You can set your test to be true if
Any waveform or All waveforms fit the criterion stipulated by the comparison condition. Your setup
is conveniently shown in the Summary box of the Qx dialog. For example:
N
in the form of 2 . The power of 2 algorithm generally runs faster than the least primes algorithm. The price that is paid is a
N
record length that is not the same as the acquired signal. The power-of-two FFT uses the first 2 points of the record. For
example, if you acquire 500 points in your trace, the power-of-two FFT would only use the first 256 points.
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Mask Tests
You have the choice to do mask testing by using an existing mask, or by using a mask created
from your actual waveform, with vertical and horizontal tolerances that you define. Existing
masks can be loaded from a floppy disk or from a network.
You can set your mask test to be True for waveforms All In, All Out, Any In, or Any Out. For
example, if you select All In, the test will be False if even a single waveform falls outside the
mask.
Masks that you create from your waveform can be confined to just a portion of the trace by use of
a measure gate. (See Measure Gate for an explanation of how this feature works.)
Actions
By touching the Stop Test checkbox
in the
"Actions" dialog, you can set up the test to end after a predetermined number of sweeps that you
decide.
You can also decide the actions to occur upon your waveforms' passing or failing, by selecting
one or all of the following:
•
stop
•
audible alarm
•
print image of display
•
emit pulse
•
save waveform
causes a pulse to be output through the Aux Out connector at
The selection Pulse
the front of the scope. This pulse can be used to trigger another scope. You can set the amplitude
and width of the pulse as described in Auxiliary Output Signals.
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Depending on your scope model, you can configure up to 8 pass/fail conditions. The boolean
conditions to determine if your waveform passes are as follows:
All True
All False
Any True
Any False
All Q1 to Q4 Or All Q5 to Q8
Any Q1 to Q4 And Any Q5 to Q8
Setting Up Pass/Fail Testing
Initial Setup
1. Touch Analysis in the menu bar, then Pass/Fail Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Actions tab.
3. Touch the Enable Actions checkbox. This will cause the actions that you will select to
occur upon your waveform's passing or failing a test.
4. Touch the Summary View to enable a line of text
that shows concisely the status of your last waveform and keeps a running count of how
many sweeps have passed.
5. Touch inside the Pass If field, and select a boolean condition from the pop-up menu.
6. If you want to set up the test to end after a finite number of sweeps, touch the Stop Test
checkbox. Then touch inside the After data entry field and enter a value, using the popup numeric keypad.
or Fail
7. Under "If", touch either the Pass
occur upon your waveform's passing or failing the test.
button to set the actions to
8. Under "Then", touch the actions you want to occur: stop test, sound alarm, print result,
emit pulse, or save the waveform. If you want to have the results printed and your scope
is not equipped with a printer, be sure that the it is connected to a local or network printer.
See Printing.
9. If you want to save your waveform automatically, touch the Save Setup. This will take
you out of the current dialog and will open the "Save Waveform" dialog. See Saving and
Recalling Waveforms.
10. Test your Pass/Fail conditions by touching the Force Actions Once button. Press the
Clear All button to quickly uncheck all checkboxes if you want to change your selections.
Comparing a Single Parameter
1. Touch Analysis in the menu bar, then Pass/Fail Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a Qx tab; a setup dialog for that position will open.
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3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source from the pop-up menu.
4. Touch inside the Condition field in the main dialog and select ParamCompare
5. Touch inside the Compare Values field and select All or Any from the pop-up menu
.
By selecting All, the test will be true only if every waveform falls within the limit that you
will set. By selecting Any, the test will be true if just one waveform falls within the limit.
6. Touch inside the Condition field in the "ParamCompare" mini-dialog and select a math
operator from the pop-up menu:
.
7. Touch inside the Limit field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric keypad. This
value takes the dimensions of the parameter that you are testing. For example, if you are
testing a time parameter, the unit is seconds. If you chose either WithinDeltaPct
or WithinDeltaAbs
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setting the limit by means of the statistical buttons at the bottom of the "ParamCompare"
dialog:
Comparing Dual Parameters
1. Touch Analysis in the menu bar, then Pass/Fail Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a Qx tab; a setup dialog for that position will open.
3. Touch inside the Condition field in the main dialog and select DualParamCompare
.
4. Touch inside the Source1 and Source2 fields and select a source from the pop-up menu.
5. Touch inside the "ParamCompare" mini-dialog field and select a source from the pop-up
menu.
6. Touch inside the Compare Values field and select All or Any from the pop-up menu:
.
By selecting All, the test will be true only if every waveform falls within the limit that you
will set. By selecting Any, the test will be true if just one waveform falls within the limit.
7. Touch inside the Condition field in the "ParamCompare" mini-dialog and select a math
operator from the pop-up menu:
.
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8. Touch inside the Limit field and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric keypad. This
value takes the dimension of the parameter that you are testing. For example, if you are
testing a time parameter, the unit is seconds.
9. If you chose either WithinDeltaPct
or WithinDeltaAbs
Condition menu, touch inside the Delta field and enter a value.
from the
Mask Testing
1. Touch Analysis in the menu bar, then Pass/Fail Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch a Qx tab; a setup dialog for that position will open.
3. Touch inside the Source1 field and select a source from the pop-up menu.
4. Touch inside the Condition field in the main dialog and select Mask Test
.
5. From the "Test" mini-dialog, make a selection in the Test is True when group of buttons:
.
This selection means, for example, that if you select All In the test will be False if even a
single waveform falls outside the mask.
6. From Show Markers, choose whether or not to have mask violations displayed.
7. If you are loading a pre-existing mask, touch the Load Mask tab, then the File button.
You can then enter the file name or browse to its location.
8. If you want to make a mask from your waveform, touch the Make Mask tab.
9. Touch inside the Ver Delta and Hor Delta fields and enter boundary values, using the
pop-up numeric keypad.
10. Touch the Browse button to create a file name and location for the mask if you want to
save it.
11. Touch the Gate tab, then enter values in the Start and Stop fields to constrain the mask
to a portion of the waveform. Or, you can simply touch and drag the Gate posts, which
initially are placed at the extreme left and right ends of the grid.
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UTILITIES
Status
The status read-only dialog displays system information including serial number, firmware
version, and installed software and hardware options.
To Access Status Dialog
1. In the menu bar, touch Utilities.
2. Touch the Status tab.
Remote communication
The Remote dialog is where you can select a network communication protocol, establish network
connections, and configure the Remote Control Assistant log. The choice of communication
protocols is limited to TCPIP and GPIB.
Note: GPIB is an option and requires a GPIB card to be installed in a card slot at the rear of the scope.
Note: The instrument uses Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) as its addressing protocol. Therefore, it is not
necessary to set up an IP address if your network supports DHCP. If it does not, you can assign a static address in the
standard Windows 2000 network setup menu.
The Remote Control Assistant monitors communication between your PC and scope when you
are operating the instrument remotely. You can log all events, or errors only. This log can be
invaluable when you are creating and debugging remote control applications.
To Set Up Remote Communication.
1. If you are connecting the scope to a network, first contact your Information Systems
administrator. If you are connecting the scope directly to your PC, connect a GPIB or
Ethernet cable between them.
2. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
3. Touch the Remote tab.
4. Make a Port selection:TCPIP (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol) or GPIB
(general purpose interface bus). If you do not have a GPIB card installed, the GPIB
selection will not be accessible.
5. If you are using GPIB, set a GPIB address by touching inside the GPIB Address data
entry field and enter an address.
6. Press the Net Connections button; the Windows Network and Dial-up Connections
window appears.
7. Touch Make New Connection and use the Windows Network Connection Wizard to
make a new connection; or, touch Local Area Connection to reconfigure the scope's
connection if it is already connected to the network.
To Configure the Remote Control Assistant Event Log
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
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2. Touch the Remote tab.
3. Touch inside the Log Mode data entry field.
4. Select Off, Errors Only, or Full Dialog from the pop-up menu.
5. To export the contents of the event log to an ASCII text file, touch the Show Remote
Control Log button: the "Event Logs" popup window appears. Touch inside the
DestFilename data entry field and enter a file name, using the pop-up keyboard. Then
touch the Export to Text File button.
Hardcopy
Printing
For print setup, refer to Printing.
Clipboard
This selection prints to the clipboard so you can paste a file into another application (like MS
Word, for example).
To Print from the Clipboard
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Hardcopy tab.
3. Under Colors, touch the Use Print Colors checkbox if you want the traces printed on a
white background. A white background saves printer toner.
4. Touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not need to print the dialog area and you
only want to show the waveforms and grids.
5. Touch the Print Now button.
File
Choose File if you want to output the screen image to storage media such as floppy drive or hard
drive. When outputting to floppy disk, be sure to use a preformatted disk.
To Print to File
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
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2. Touch the Hardcopy tab, then the File icon.
3. Touch inside the File Format data entry field and select a graphic file format from the
pop-up menu.
4. Under Colors, touch the Use Print Colors checkbox if you want the traces printed on a
white background. A white background saves printer toner.
5. Touch inside the Directory data entry field and type the path to the folder you want to
print to, using the pop-up keyboard. Or touch the Browse button and navigate to the
folder.
6. Touch inside the File Name data entry field and enter a name for the display image,
using the pop-up keyboard.
7. Touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not need to print the dialog area and you
only want to show the waveforms and grids.
8. Touch the Print Now button.
E-Mail
The instrument also gives you the option to e-mail your screen images, using either the MAPI or
SMTP protocols. Before you output to e-mail from the Utilities dialog, you first have to set up the
e-mail server and recipient address in Preference Setup.
To Send E-mail
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Hardcopy tab, then the E-mail button.
3. Touch inside the File Format data entry field and select a graphic file format from the
pop-up menu.
4. Under Colors, touch the Use Print Colors checkbox if you want the traces printed on a
white background. A white background saves printer toner.
5. Touch the Prompt for message to send with mail checkbox if you want to include
remarks with the image.
6. Touch the Grid Area Only checkbox if you do not need to print the dialog area and you
only want to show the waveforms and grids.
7. Touch the Print Now button.
Aux Output
Refer to Auxiliary Output Signals.
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Date & Time
The instrument gives you the choice of manually setting the time and date or getting it from the
Internet. If you elect to get the time and date from the Internet, you need to have the scope
connected to the Internet through the LAN connector on the rear panel. You can also set time
zones and daylight savings time.
To Set Time and Date Manually
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Date/Time tab.
3. Touch inside each of the Hour, Minute, Second, Day, Month, and Year data entry fields
and enter a value, using the pop-up numeric keypad.
4. Touch the Validate Changes button.
To Set Time and Date from the Internet
1. The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) is used.
2. Ensure that the scope is connected to the Internet through the LAN connector at the rear
of the scope.
3. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
4. Touch the Date/Time tab.
5. Touch the Set from Internet button.
To Set Time and Date from Windows
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Utilities Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Date/Time tab.
3. Touch the Windows Date/Time button
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4. Use the Time & Date Properties window to configure the time, including time zone.
Options
Use this dialog to add or remove software options. For information about software options,
contact your local LeCroy Sales and Service office, or visit our Web site at
http://www.lecroy.com/options.
Options that you purchase, such as JTA2, add performance to you instrument. This added
performance is seen in the new math functions or parameters that you can choose from when
doing Measure or Math setups.
Preferences
Audible Feedback
You can elect to have audible confirmation each time you touch a screen or front panel control.
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities; then touch Preferences in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the "Audible Feedback" Enable checkbox so that the scope emits a beep with
each touch of the screen or front panel control.
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Auto-calibration
You can choose to have your instrument automatically recalibrate itself whenever there is a
significant change in ambient temperature. If you do not enable this option, the scope will only
recalibrate at startup and whenever you make a change to certain operating conditions.
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities; then touch Preferences in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the "Automatic Calibration" Enable checkbox.
Offset Control
As you change the gain, this control allows you to either keep the vertical offset level indicator
stationary (when Div is selected) or to have it move with the actual voltage level (when Volts is
selected). The advantage of selecting Div is that the waveform will remain on the grid as you
increase the gain; whereas, if Volts is selected, the waveform could move off the grid.
Note: Regardless of whether you select Volts or Div, the "Offset" shown in the channel setup dialog always indicates
volts. However, when Div is selected for the Offset Control, the offset in volts is scaled proportional to the change in gain,
thereby keeping the division on the grid constant.
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities; then touch Preferences in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Offset/Delay tab.
3. Under Offset Setting constant in:, touch either the Div or Volts button.
Delay Control
As you change the timebase, this control allows you to either keep the horizontal offset indicator
stationary (when Div is selected) or to have it move with the trigger point (when Time is
selected). The advantage of selecting Div is that the trigger point will remain on the grid as you
increase the timebase; whereas, if Time is selected, the trigger point could move off the grid.
Note: Regardless of whether you select Time or Div, the "Delay" shown in the timebase setup dialog always indicates
time. However, when Div is selected for Delay In, the delay in time is scaled proportional to the change in timebase,
thereby keeping the division on the grid constant.
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities; then touch Preferences in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the Offset/Delay tab.
3. Under Delay Setting constant in:, touch either the Div or Volts button.
Trigger Counter
Checking the Reset trigger counter before starting a new acquisition checkbox clears the
trigger counter each time the scope issues an arm acquisition command. This applies when you
have set a trigger Holdoff condition in the Trigger dialog in either time or events:
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The default condition of this control is off (unchecked).
Performance Optimization
You can set up the scope to optimize either calculating speed or display speed. If the display
update rate is of primary concern to you, optimize for Display. If acquisition and analysis are more
important, optimize for analysis. Optimizing for analysis can be useful when persistence or
averaging is used, giving higher priority to waveform acquisition at the expense of display update
rate.
The choices are presented as a spectrum with highest values at the extremes:
1. In the menu bar touch Utilities; then touch Preferences in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch one of the optimization icons.
E-mail
1. Before you can send e-mail from the scope, it must first be configured.
2. In the menu bar touch Utilities, then Preference Setup... in the drop-down menu.
3. Touch the E-mail tab.
4. Choose an e-mail server protocol: MAPI (Messaging Application Programming Interface)
is the Microsoft interface specification that allows different messaging and workgroup
applications (including e-mail, voice mail, and fax) to work through a single client, such as
the Exchange client included with Windows 95 and Windows NT. MAPI uses the default
Windows e-mail application (usually Outlook Express). SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol) is a TCP/IP protocol for sending messages from one computer to another
through a network. This protocol is used on the Internet to route e-mail. In many cases no
account is needed.
5. If you chose MAPI, touch inside the Originator Address (From:) data entry field and use
the pop-up keyboard to type in the instrument's e-mail address. Then touch inside the
Default Recipient Address (To:) data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to enter
the recipient's e-mail address.
6. If you chose SMTP, touch inside the SMTP Server data entry field and use the pop-up
keyboard to enter the name of your server. Touch inside the Originator Address (From:)
data entry field and use the pop-up keyboard to type in the instrument's e-mail address.
Then touch inside the Default Recipient Address (To:) data entry field and use the popup keyboard to enter the recipient's e-mail address.
7. You can send a test e-mail text message by touching the Send Test Mail button. The test
message reads "Test mail from [name of scope's email address]."
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Acquisition Status
For each general category of scope operation, you can view a summary of your setups. These
dialogs are not accessible through the Utilities menu, but are instead accessed from the menu
bar drop-down menus. The categories are as follows:
•
Vertical -- select Channels Status . . . from drop-down menu
•
Timebase -- select Acquisition Status . . . from drop-down menu
•
Trigger -- select Acquisition Status . . . from drop-down menu
•
Math -- select Math Status . . . from drop-down menu
In addition to these dialogs, summaries are also provided for XY setups, memory (M1-M4)
setups, and time stamps for sequence mode sampling.
Service
This button provides access to service dialogs, which are for the sole use of LeCroy
service personnel. A security code is required to gain access.
Show Windows Desktop
Touching the Show Windows Desktop button
in the main "Utilities" dialog minimizes
the instrument application to reveal the underlying desktop. To maximize the application, touch
the appropriate shortcut icon:
.
Touch Screen Calibration
Touching the Touch-Screen Calibration button
starts the calibration procedure. During
the procedure, you will be prompted to touch the center of a small cross in 5 key locations on the
touch screen. Because sufficient accuracy cannot be achieved using your finger, use a stylus
instead for this procedure. The calibration has a ten-second timeout in case no cross is touched.
To avoid parallax errors, be sure to place your line of sight directly in front of each cross before
touching it.
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CUSTOMIZATION
Customizing Your Instrument
The instrument provides powerful capability to add your own parameters, functions, display
algorithms, or other routines to the scope user interface without having to leave the instrument
application environment. You can customize the instrument to your needs by using the power of
programs such as Excel™, Mathcad™, and MATLAB™, or by scripting in VBS. Whichever
method you use, the results appear on the instrument's display together with the signals that you
started with. This ability offers tremendous advantages in solving unique problems for a large
range of applications, with comparatively little effort from you.
Introduction
Instrument customization provides these important capabilities:
•
You can export data to programs, without leaving the instrument environment.
•
You can get results back from those programs, and display them on the instrument,
without leaving the instrument application environment.
•
Once the result is returned, you can perform additional scope operations, such as
measuring with cursors, applying parameters, or performing additional functions on the
waveform, in exactly the same way as for a normal waveform.
•
You can program the scope yourself.
•
The instrument does not just provide connectivity with data downloads to other programs.
It provides true customizable interaction with these other programs, and allows you to
truly customize the scope to do the exact job you want it to do. The advantages to this
are many:
•
You can use the standard processing power of the instrument to do most of your
calculations
•
You only need to write the function, parameter, display algorithm, etc. that specifically
applies to your need and that the instrument doesn’t contain.
•
You can view the final result on the instrument display, and use all of the instrument's
tools to understand the result.
•
You can do additional processing on the result by applying either standard instrument
parameters, functions, etc. to the returned result, or even more powerfully, adding
chained customized functions. For example, you can do an Excel calculation on a result
with a MATLAB function applied to it.
Solutions
Engineers do not buy equipment; they buy solutions. But what solutions can be reached from a
set of instrument waveform data? In principle, anything that can be logically derived from those
data, given the limitations of signal-to-noise ratio and processing time. Here are some examples
of what can be done with a customized instrument:
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Changing the units of a grid to joules, newtons, amps, etc.
•
Creating a new waveform by manipulating the data of one or two input waveforms
•
Creating a new waveform without using any of the input data
•
Creating a new parameter by manipulating the data of one or two input waveforms
•
Changing a vertical scale or a horizontal scale from linear to non-linear
You don’t have to use all the data from the input waveforms: you can select data from one or
more segments, which need not be aligned in the two-input waveforms.
Examples
Example 1: Simple math functions using VBScript
WaveOut is the waveform being returned to the instrument (F1 in this case). WaveIn is the input
waveform (C1 in this case) You can see that the F1 result is displayed on the scope, and can be
processed further.
Example 2: Another simple math function using VBScript
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Example 3 below doesn’t use the input data at all. The middle waveform (F2) is a "golden
waveform", in this case a perfect sine (subject to 16-bit resolution), that was created using a
VBScript. The lower trace (F3) is a subtraction of the acquired waveform (upper trace) and the
golden waveform. The subtraction (of course) contains all the noise, but it also shows the
presence of a very small square wave signal.
Example 3
Here is the VBScript that produced the "golden sine" (F2 above):
Frequency = 3000000.0
' Frequency of real data
SampleTime = InResult.HorizontalPerStep
Omega = 2.0 * 3.1416 * Frequency * SampleTime
Amplitude = 0.15
' Amplitude of real data
For K = 0 To LastPoint
newDataArray(K) = Amplitude * Sin(Omega * K)
Next
OutResult.DataArray(True) = newDataArray ' Data in volts
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OutResult.DataArray is the waveform returned to the scope and displayed on the scope as the F2
waveform.
Example 4
Example 4 is a measurement of DVI (Digital Video Interface) Data-Clock skew jitter
measurement, using a VBScript to emulate the PLL.
In this example, a customer was not able to probe the desired clock signal. The only probing point
available was the output differential clock signal (C2). However, that clock was a factor of 10
slower than the clock embedded in the data signal (C3). By using a VBScript to create a clock
waveform of the appropriate frequency (waveform F1), the customer was able to display and
measure data-clock skew using a LeCroy instrument function and parameter.
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Example 5
Next, a logarithmic vertical scale, for which the script can be found here. (Most scripts would be
far simpler than this one.)
Frequency response curves are frequently drawn on a logarithmic scale. The upper trace is a
frequency spectrum of a square wave after enhanced resolution has been applied. It was created
using instrument functions. The lower trace is the first lobe of the FFT display. But with a
logarithmic frequency scale. Click here for the VBScript.
In addition to VBScripting, MATLAB, Mathcad, or Excel can also be used to generate a result.
The F1 trace (shown below in Example 6) was calculated in MATLAB (F1=WformOut) from C1
(WformIn1) and C2 (WformIn2). The same calculation could also be done in Excel by using a
simple formula in a spreadsheet cell.
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Example 6
Summary
The examples above illustrate only the capability to use VBScript and MATLAB. The instrument
with the LeCroy XMAP software option allows you to use Excel, Mathcad, MATLAB, and VBScript
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in this manner. Of course, you will need to load Excel, Mathcad, or MATLAB in the scope
(VBScript does not require any additional software) to take advantage of the capability. You can
think of these functions as "subroutines" of the instrument's main software, which take in
waveform data and other variables like vertical scale and offset, and horizontal scale and offset.
These functions then return a waveform or a parameter as required. In addition, you can view the
calculated data directly in Excel, MATLAB, or Mathcad, if you desire.
What is Excel?
Excel is a program within Microsoft Office. With it you can place data in the cells of a
spreadsheet, calculate other values from them, prepare charts of many kinds, use mathematical
and statistical functions, and communicate with other programs in Office. From the instrument
you can send data to Excel (where processing can take place) and return the results to the
instrument.
What is Mathcad?
Mathcad is a software package from MathSoft. It provides an integrated environment for
performing numerical calculations and solving equations, and communicating with other
programs. Results can be presented in tabular or graphical form.
What is MATLAB?
MATLAB is a software package from MathWorks that provides an environment for work in
computation and mathematics. An interactive language and graphics are provided.
What is VBS?
VBS is a programming language, but you don’t write it in a special environment such as C++ or
Visual Basic; you write it within your own application. In the instrument, a few clicks or button
pushes will get you into an editing panel where you can write what you want. You cannot crash
the scope, or in any other way interfere with its workings, because the system is completely
protected.
A product of Microsoft and a subset of Visual Basic, VBS can be learned very quickly if you have
some experience in any programming language. The VBS processing function can collect a
number of useful variables from the scope, including waveform data and useful variables such as
volts per division and time per division. The output from a script can be a waveform or a
parameter, and you can choose your own values for variables such as volts per division.
The idea of a VBS function is that you start with an input waveform, operate on some or all of the
values with a script, and show the result on a scope grid, like any other waveform.
VBScript customization is built into the instrument, so no additional programs need to be loaded
to take advantage of this capability.
The following diagrams were made by changing a small part, in some cases just one line, of a
standard VBScript. VBS is a well-known standard language, with excellent support
documentation, and it is easy to use in several different environments.
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These examples are purely illustrative, but you can easily imagine that with a VBScript you can
add value to the scope in a very short time. This gives you an instrument that does exactly what
you want, time after time, by using your stored setups and scripts.
What can you do with a customized instrument?
If you require a result that can be derived logically from the input waveform, you can do it. Many
calculations can be done with remarkably small scripts, but if you have no time for scripting, you
can use one of the proprietary packages, such as Excel, MATLAB, or Mathcad, which offer
immense processing power.
Scaling and Display
Scripting and programming allow a large variety of opportunities. You may, for example, be using
transducers. If so, you can change the units of your waveforms, and write N (newtons), J (joules)
and so on, and you can introduce scaling factors. If the transducers are non-linear, you can
correct for that, too. You can also transform horizontal scales and vertical scales by manipulating
the data. Logarithmic scales in amplitude and frequency are often required. Squaring and taking
square roots are needed in certain applications. Here is a picture showing some graphs related to
white noise, showing ways of detecting small deviations from the true distribution. The lower two
graphs were generated and placed in one trace using a VBScript.
In the next example, four graphs are placed in one trace.
Golden Waveforms
This is a rich field for VBS. An example was given earlier. The only limits to the shapes that can
be generated are the vertical resolution and the number of samples.
A practical example – DVI Data-Clock skew
The next example is a measurement of DVI Data-Clock skew jitter measurement, using a
VBScript to emulate the PLL. A solution to a practical measurement problem was shown earlier.
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These are just a few of the many solutions that can be created.
Calling Excel from Your Instrument
Calling Excel Directly from the Instrument
Excel can be directly called from the instrument in two ways:
Using a function
F1 through Fx The number of Excel returns a waveform
math traces available depends
on the software options loaded
on your scope. See
Specifications.
Using a parameter
P1 through Px The number of Excel returns a parameter
parameters available depends
on the software options loaded
on your scope. See
Specifications.
In both cases, one call to Excel can use two separate waveforms as input.
Notes:
Excel has a calculation algorithm of 64,000 points (32,000 if you have created a chart in Excel). Therefore, make sure that
your acquisition has less than this number of points if you are going to use an Excel calculation.
To use this capability, you must have the LeCroy XMAP software option and Excel loaded in your instrument. Select
Minimize from the instrument's File menu to access the Excel program directly.
How to Select a Math Function Call
The Excel math function is selected from the Math Operator menu, where it appears in the
Custom group.
How to Select a Parameter Function Call
The Excel Parameter function is selected from the Select Measurement menu, where it appears
in the Custom group.
The Excel Control Dialog
Once you have invoked an Excel call, you will see a dialog at the right of the screen, allowing you
to control the zoom, Excel properties, linking cells, and scale of the output trace from Excel:
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Entering a File Name
If you uncheck the New Sheet checkbox, you can enter the file name of an existing file.
Create Demo Sheet Calls up a default Excel spreadsheet.
Add Chart Adds charts of your waveforms to Excel. You can go into Excel and create as many
charts as you want.
Organizing Excel sheets
The Cells tab allows you to organize your Excel chart. When placing the components in the
sheet, be careful to avoid over-writing needed information, especially when you are using multiple
input waveforms. As depicted here, the instrument panel has been pasted over the Excel sheet.
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There are three arrays of data for the three waveforms: up to two inputs and one output. There
are corresponding small arrays of information about each trace.
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Setting the Vertical Scale
The vertical scale of the output waveform from Excel may be set in three ways:
Automatic
For each acquisition, the instrument fits the waveform into the grid.
Manual
For one acquisition, click Find Scale; the instrument fits the current waveform
into the grid. All subsequent acquisitions will use this scale until you make a
change.
From Sheet
The scale is taken from the specified cells in the Excel sheet, H2 through H10 in
the example above, where cell H2 was specified as the top of the data set, as
depicted below.
Trace Descriptors
The next figure explains the meanings of the descriptors for each trace.
Multiple Inputs and Outputs
If you invoke two or more instrument parameter functions or waveform functions that call Excel,
you will find that they all refer to the same spreadsheet by default. Thus, your spreadsheet can
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use the data from several waveforms, and you can derive many different combinations of output
parameters and waveforms, including some of each, from your spreadsheet. You only have to be
careful about the positioning of your cell ranges within the sheet so that no conflicts occur.
Because filling cells in the spreadsheet is a relatively slow process, all unwanted sources (inputs)
should be left disabled (unchecked). For example, if you want one waveform and two parameters
derived from the data of three waveforms, you can have one function with both sources enabled,
one with one source enabled, and one with no sources enabled. The alternative is to use one
input in each function.
Examples
Simple Excel Example 1
In this example we use Excel to invert or negate a waveform. The first figure shows a part of the
screen. The upper trace is the original signal. The lower is the result from Excel.
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The dialog is the one that controls the location of the data in the Excel worksheet.
The input data are in columns A and B (though, only the first is used) and the output is in column
C. All have been set to start at row 2, allowing space for a title in row 1.
Columns D, E and F contain the headers for the three waveforms. These are the set of numbers
that provide the description of the scope settings, such as vertical scale and offset, and number of
samples.
In this figure, the panel has been pasted onto the Excel sheet for comparison:
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To get the output values in column C, we set C2 = - A2 and copy this formula down the column.
This is the only action needed in Excel, and can be seen in the next figure:
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Simple Excel Example 2
In this example we use Excel to invert or negate a waveform. The first figure shows a part of the
instrument screen. The upper trace (C1) is the original signal. The lower trace (F1) is the result
calculated in Excel and displayed on the screen.
The input data is in columns A and B (though by default, only a single input/column is used), and
the output is in column C. All have been set to start at row 2 (which allows for a header in row 1).
To create this waveform, you would simply do the following:
1. Ensure that your acquisition has no more than 64 kpts (the Excel calculation limit)
2. Choose a function, and select ExcelMath as Operator1 for the function. Excel will open
automatically in the background.
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3. Choose File, Minimize from the menu bar to minimize the instrument display and open
the Excel program.
4. Create your formula for each data point in column A (in this case, our formula for cell C2
is –A2, copied for the entire column), as shown here:
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.
5. Retrigger the scope (if it is not currently triggering)
6. Return to the program
Note that the only action that was needed in Excel was to create the formula in column C for each
data point in column A. The instrument automatically opens Excel, puts the waveform data in the
correct columns, and returns the calculated data back to the display as the chosen F trace. This
Excel-calculated trace can have further measurements or math calculations performed on it, if
desired.
You can also create a chart of the data in Excel automatically and view the data there. Simply
press the Add Chart button in the instrument's Excel dialog and a chart of the input (top chart)
and Excel calculated output (bottom chart) will be automatically created in the spreadsheet. The
chart will be updated automatically as the scope is triggered.
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Examples of Excel Parameter Functions
Refer to on-line Help.
Excel Example 1: Exponential decay constant of a pulse
Excel Example 2: Parameter gated by a waveform
Examples of Excel Waveform Functions
Excel Example 3: Auto-correlation and cross-correlation
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Excel Example 4: Multiple traces (not returning a waveform to instrument)
Excel Example 5: Using a Surface Plot
Exponential Decay Time Constant Excel Parameter (Excel Example 1)
This example calculates the time constant of an exponentially falling pulse, such as the light
output of a phosphor.
The first figure shows a typical pulse, including pseudo-random noise, generated by a VBScript.
The pulse was generated by a formula of the form e(1 – t/TC1) * e-t/TC2, where TC1 and TC2 are time
constants, The requirement is to measure the time constant TC2, using the portion of the trace
where TC1 has negligible effect. This was done using Function F1, which is not a part of the
measurement process.
For the actual measurement, Parameter P1 was set up as an Excel call. In Excel, the selected
portion of the trace was converted to logarithms, and the Excel function SLOPE was used, as
shown here.
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Here we see the input data in column B (with a time scale in A) created using the contents of cell
F9, Horizontal Per Step. The logarithmic data are in column D, with the time scale repeated in C.
The output appears in cell H3, using the formula =1/SLOPE(D21:D51,C21:C51).
Required files:
Setup: PhosphorDecay20Apr.lss
F1 Generator: PhosphorPulseGen.txt
P1 Excel: PhosphorDecay.xls
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Gated Parameter Using Excel (Excel Example 2)
This example calculates a parameter of a waveform, in a region of interest defined by the leading
edges of two pulses in a separate waveform.
This figure shows the instrument screen:
The traces were made using VBS scripts in functions F1 and F2, based on pseudo-random
numbers to provide noise and varying pulse widths. Randomize Timer: Randomize Timer was
used in both scripts to ensure that successive acquisitions produced different data. Script F1
generates pulses with widths that are multiples of a set clock period. F2 generates one pulse in
the first half of the time window, and one pulse in the second half. Both pulses are constrained to
coincide with the clock pulses of F1. F1 and F2 are used here only as simulations and are not
part of the measurement process, which only uses P1.
The call to Excel is made through Parameter P1.
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The next figure shows a part of the Excel workbook.
Here we see the gated waveform that has been created in Excel. The Mean parameter during the
region of interest (ROI) is placed in cell H3.
How Does this Work?
The amplitude of the signal is about 0.3 volts, and the screen height is 0.4 volts, as derived from
cells F7 and Fx. A threshold value for amplitude was calculated by placing 0.5 * (Fy – Fx) in cell
A4.
Remember that in the instrument the sources were defined to be A10 and B10. This means that
the first point on the waveform will be read into A10, and, since the waveform has 500 points, the
last point will be read into A510. The same holds true for F2 and column B, since F2 is assigned
as Source2, and data is defined to write into column B starting with cell B10.
To create the gating function in column C, the cell C10 was given the following formula:
IF ( ( B10 – B9) > $A$4, 1 – C9, C9). This was copied down the column. Column D, the output
column, is simply A * C.
The output was defined as cell H3.
The required mean in cell H3 is given by SUM (D10 : D509) / SUM (C10 : C509), for a 500 point
waveform.
Required files:
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Setup: GatedParameterExcel.lss
Function F1: RandomPulses22Apr.txt
Function F2: RandomGate22Apr.txt
Parameter P1: GatedMean.xls
Correlation Excel Waveform Function (Excel Example 3)
This example uses an Excel waveform function to examine the cross-correlation between two
signals, which are both noisy sinusoidal segments. The correlation trace is, of necessity, shorter
than the input traces.
The noise was generated using pseudo-random numbers. Randomize Timer was included in the
VBScript to ensure that the two traces differed, and that subsequent acquisitions differed.
Functions F1 and F2 are included only to simulate signals, and are not part of the measurement
process, which is performed by F3.
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This example used the CORREL (Array1, Array2) function of Excel, as depicted below:
Required files:
Setup: CorrelateExcel22Apr.lss
Function F1: NoisySine22Apr.txt
Function F2: NoisySine22Apr.txt
Function F3: Correlate22Apr.xls
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Multiple Traces on One Grid (Excel Example 4)
This example shows how you can place multiple traces in one picture, with only two operations in
an Excel sheet. Depicted below is an example from an Excel spreadsheet.
Here is an original instrument trace.
The method is very simple. First, the waveform is transferred to an Excel spreadsheet by means
of an instrument Excel call. Second, two operations are needed in Excel: placing a simple formula
in one cell, and copying that formula into a range of cells.
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Depicted below is the required Excel formula.
In fact, the simple expression B374 + 0.02 comprises several components. The original
instrument trace is in column B, and the plot is required to start at cell B134. The traces repeat at
intervals of 250 cells. Let us call this interval R. If we require a horizontal displacement D, then in
cell CN we write B(N + R – D). In this example D is 10. Finally we may want a vertical
displacement V, and we write B(N + R – D) + V. In this example, V is 0.02. D and V can be zero if
required, as depicted below. All that remains is to copy the formula to the required range of cells.
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Required files:
F1 is needed only as a simulator of signals.
Instrument setup:
LaserStartup25Apr.lss
Function F1:
LaserStartupApr25.txt
Function F2:
LaserStartupPulses.xls No offset
LaserStartupPulses2.xls Vertical offset
LaserStartupPulses3.xls Vertical and horizontal
offset
Using a Surface Plot (Excel Example 5)
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Required files:
Setup: LaserSurface1May.lss
Function F1 Generator: LaserSurface2May.txt
Function F2 Excel: LaserSurface2May.xls
Writing VB Scripts
VBScripting is one of the custom features of your instrument. Others include the ability to work
with programs such as Excel, Mathcad and MATLAB.
Types of Scripts in VBS
The instrument's VBS provides two types of script.
•
The Waveform Function script allows you to take the data from one or two traces and
make a new trace whose values may depend on the values of the input trace.
•
The Parameter Function script also takes in the data from one or two traces, but it only
has one output. This output is the zeroth element in the output array. It appears as a
parameter value on the instrument's screen. The remainder of the array is currently not
used, and is not accessible.
Within both types of script, you can call Excel.
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Loading and Saving VBScripts
From the editing panel you can save your script and you can load a previous one. Should you
forget to save a script, please note that when you save your setup, it has your current scripts
embedded in it. Therefore it is a good idea to save your setup frequently. It is worth saving the
script separately as well, because it is saved in a suitable format for printing or off-line editing with
Notepad. Note that in both these examples the input data are referred to as InResult.DataArray.
You can also write InResult1.DataArray and InResult2.DataArray, which refer to the two input
traces. InResult.DataArray always refers to input trace 1. These remarks hold for any script that
you write.
Example Waveform Function Script: Square of a waveform
' Example script to produce a waveform
This example calculates the square of
the input waveform.
OutResult.Samples = InResult.Samples ' Visible trace length + 1
' Note that a trace of nominal length 1000 comprises data numbered from
' 0 to 1001. The 1001st point is not visible, so you
' normally use points 0 to 1000,
' giving 1001 points and 1000 intervals between points.
startData = 0
endData = OutResult.Samples
LastPoint = endData - 1 ' because the last point is invisible.
ReDim newArray(OutResult.Samples) ' to store the results
unscaledData = InResult.DataArray(False)
' InResult.DataArray(False) provides
' integer data from -32768 to 32767.
' InResult.DataArray(True) provides real data
' in the same physical unit as the vertical scale of the input trace.
ScaleFactor = 1.0 / 32768 ' to make the trace fill the screen.
For i = 0 To LastPoint
newArray(i) = ScaleFactor * (unscaledData(i)) ^ 2
Next
OutResult.DataArray(False) = newArray ' signed long integer data output
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Example Parameter Function Script: RMS of a waveform
' Example script to produce a parameter.
' This script calculates the root mean square
' of the input waveform.
' Note that a trace of nominal length 1000 has data from
' 0 to 1001. The 1001st point is not visible, so you
' normally use points 0 to 1000,
' giving 1001 points and 1000 intervals between points.
startData = 0
endData = InResult.Samples
LastPoint = endData - 1 ' because the last point is invisible.
ReDim newArray(InResult.Samples) ' to store the results
unscaledData = InResult.DataArray(True)
' InResult.DataArray(False) provides
' integer data from -32768 to 32767.
' InResult.DataArray(True) provides real data
' in the same unit as the vertical scale of the trace.
Total = 0
For i = 0 To LastPoint
Total = Total + (unscaledData(i)) ^ 2
Next
NewArray(0) = Sqr (Total / (LastPoint + 1)) Place the result in the
zeroth element.
OutResult.ValueArray(True) = newArray ' integer data output
The default waveform function script: explanatory notes
InResult.Samples is the number of points in the incoming waveform.
InResult.DataArray(Boolean) (or InResult1.DataArray or InResult2.DataArray) is the array of input
data. If the Boolean is True you get scaled real data in the units of the trace. If the Boolean is
false you get unscaled integer data in the range -32768 to + 32767.
The value of InResult.Samples is the total number of data in a trace. It is two more than the
nominal value given on the screen. The first point DataArray(0), coincides with the left edge of the
screen, apart from the wobble caused by the trigger-to-sample clock difference. If the trace length
is nominally 500, the right edge of the screen coincides with DataArray(500), which is the 501st
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point. The last point, number 502, is just off the right of the screen, and is never seen. That is why
the loop in the script runs only to endData - 1.
OutResult.Samples is the number of data in the output trace, and is set to be the same as the
number of data in the input trace. If you set the output length less than the input length, you get a
shorter trace, the remainder being made of zeroes. If you try to set the output values to
something illegal, you may find that a part of the trace retains the values from a previous
acquisition.
If you try to set something outside the bounds of an array, or you make some other error, or
something overflows, or you ask for something impossible, such as log(-13), the instrument tells
you the line number, and the nature of the problem. Other types of error may not be given the
correct line number, for example, if "Next" or "End If" is omitted, because VBS does not know
where it should have been.
UnscaledData is simply a copy of the input data set.
ReDim newDataArray(OutResult.Samples) defines an array of data for use as a scratch pad. Dim
is short for Dimension, which is used in Visual Basic to declare a variable (even if it only has one
element, in which case you omit the size of the array).
InResult.DataArray(False) means that the data are signed integers in the range -32768 to 32767.
False is a Boolean value applying to the property Scaled. Scaled data are specified in the units of
the vertical scale, such as volts. You get these by putting "True" instead of "False". If you want to
make a section of the output trace invisible, you simply set the data values to full scale or bigger,
top or bottom.
You can start with the unscaled data (False) as input, and then set the output data to scaled data
(True), and you can go from scaled to unscaled. Using scaled data, an overflow will make a
picture like this:
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You can also start with True and convert to False, but in this case overflows will cause an error
message.
Anything after a single quotation mark on a line will not be used by the instrument. This feature is
intended for comments, for example
' This is a comment.
A = Amp * Sin(Omega * T) Calculate the output.
InResult.DataArray and OutResult.DataArray are only to be used as shown in the default scripts
and in the example scripts: you cannot refer directly to individual elements of these arrays. You
have to use your own arrays, in this example, unscaledData and newDataArray. You are not
allowed to write statements like the following:
Y = InResult.DataArray (17)
OutResult.DataArray (257) = Z
Some parts of the default script must not be changed because they are a part of the interface.
These are highlighted in the following script .
' TODO add your custom code here accessing OutResult and InResult
objects
' Here's a small example that just inverts the waveform.
OutResult.Samples = InResult.Samples
startData = 0
endData = OutResult.Samples
newNumPoints = endData - startData
ReDim newDataArray (OutResult.Samples)
unscaledData = InResult.DataArray (False)
For i = 0 To endData - 1
newDataArray (i) = - unscaledData (i)
Next
OutResult.DataArray (False) = newDataArray _' only support raw data
The four highlighted quantities are parts of the interface. The names must be retained.
Furthermore, InResult.Samples and InResult.DataArray are inputs, and their values cannot be
changed. OutResult.Samples and OutResult.DataArray are outputs, and can be changed, but not
directly through their individual elements.
The default parameter function script: explanatory notes
The default parameter script is similar to the default waveform script, but there are subtle
differences.
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First, the size of the data array is the same as the nominal value: you cannot use or see the extra
two points. So "500 points" means just that: 500 points.
Second, the output looks like an array, but only element zero is currently used. You must copy
your parameter result into newValueArray(0). As with the arrays of the Waveform Script, you
cannot refer directly to elements of the input and output arrays. You may not write something like
OutResult.ValueArray (0) = P.
Note that the unit of the parameter is displayed as the same as the vertical unit of the trace, even
if you have squared the data, for example, unless you change the unit yourself.
To find out how to edit a parameter script, click here.
The default parameter script is shown below.
' TODO add your custom code here accessing OutResult and InResult
objects
' Here's a small example that just inverts the waveform
numParam = InResult.Samples
ReDim newValueArray(numParam)
scaledData = InResult.DataArray
For i = 0 To numParam-1
newValueArray(i) = -scaledData(i)_' Change this to do something
useful.
Next
OutResult.ValueArray = newValueArray 'only support raw data
Your parameter script should include something like this:
A. Do calculation to obtain your parameter value from the input data array.
B. newValueDataArray (0) = ParameterValue
C. OutResult.ValueArray = newValueArray
You can test this script using setup MeanDemoScriptApr2.lss.
You can edit scripts using Notepad, but you will not get any notification of errors.
You are not allowed to write OutResult.ValueArray(0) = MeanParameter.
InResult.DataArray and OutResult.DataArray are only to be used as shown in the default scripts
and in the example scripts. You cannot refer to, or modify, any individual element in these arrays.
Scripting with VBScript
Separators
The two separators in VBS are the colon : and the single quotation mark .
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Using the colon, you can place two or more statements on a line, for example:
XMin = 0.0 : XMax = 800.0 : YMin = 0.0 : YMax = 600.0
There is also an implied separator whenever a new line is begun.
Using the quotation mark you can signify that the remainder of the line is a comment: nonexecutable material that is usually used to clarify the workings of the script. For example:
RMSMax = 32767 / Sqr (2)
can be
' RMS of the largest sinusoid that
' fitted into the screen in unscaled
mode.
To continue a comment on to another line, another quotation mark is required on the new line.
Variable Types
VBS supports the following variable types:
Integer
signed 16 bit value in the range -32768 to 32767
Long
signed 32 bit value in the range -231 to +231 - 1
Single
real number or floating point number
Double
real number or floating point number
Boolean
Boolean or logical value
String
string of characters
When making comparisons using real numbers, beware of testing for equality, because of
rounding errors. It may be better to apply a tolerance band. For Boolean, integers and strings,
equality is valid.
You can use variables in VBS without declaring the type. The context may force an implicit type
assignment. For example, if the result of a calculation is of a different type from the defined type,
the type may be changed. Always set out calculations in such a way that type changes will not
affect the final result in an undesirable or unpredictable way. If you want to change the type of a
variable or a result, use a conversion function that will show others what you intend to happen.
The conversion functions are CDbl, CInt, CLng, CSng, CStr.
Variable Names
Upper and lower case have no significance in VBS, either in variable names or in keywords (the
names reserved by the system), but it is a good idea to be consistent about the spelling of a
variable name to avoid confusion. At least 36 characters may be used in a variable name. These
can include any combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and the underscore character.
No other punctuation character may be used in a variable name.
Do not use any of the following characters in a variable name:
! @ & $ # ? , * . { } ( ) [ ] = + - ^ % / ~ < > : ;
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Just use alphanumerics and underscore, for example: Example_Name
If you have to introduce constants, give them sensible names, just like variables. For example, do
not write:
_If RMS < 23169 Then OutputY = Y
Its meaning may not be obvious to someone else.
It is better to write something like this:
FullScale = 32767
RootTwo = Sqr (2.0)
MaxRMS = FullScale / RootTwo
. . . . .
If RMS < MaxRMS Then . . . . .
But to keep your scripts fast, leave definitions like this outside your loops.
General usage
Note that white space has no effect, so you can introduce spaces for clarity, except of course
within variable names, function names and other keywords. Indenting control statements can be a
great help in understanding a program. For example:
For K = Kstart To Kstop
X = K * Sqr (3)
For N = NStart To Nstop
Y = N * N
If Y < FullScale Then
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
End If
Next
Next
' End of main calculation
' End of N loop
' End of K loop
If a section becomes very long, you could provide the end with a comment, to show where it
comes from.
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Arithmetic Operators
As with most other languages, the arithmetic operators are used as follows:
^
Exponentiation
A ^ B = A B = A raised to the power B
/
Division
A / B = A divided by B
\
Integer division
A \ B = A divided by B, truncated to next integer
below
*
Multiplication
A * B = A multiplied by B
+
Addition
A + B = B added to A
-
Subtraction
A B = B subtracted from A
Notes:
If there is any possibility that you will be taking the exponent of a negative number, make sure to trap any possible errors
arising from such operations as trying to take the square root of a negative number. Logs of negative numbers are
forbidden also.
If there is any possibility that you will be dividing by zero, make sure to trap this.
There are two ways of dealing with these types of problem. One is to prevent it happening by making suitable tests before
the calculation is performed. The other is to let it happen, and use an error handling routine. This will be discussed later.
Normally in VBScript you will know the range of the data, since all the incoming data are, by definition, integer (unscaled
data) or real (scaled data), and they must fit into the screen of the instrument.
Results of Calculations
Sometimes you may see a statement like this:
A = A * A * (Cos (A) + Sin (A) )
The program takes the quantity represented by A and performs all of the following operations,
using that original value:
1. Multiply A by itself.
2. Calculate the cosine of A.
3. Calculate the sine of A.
4. Add the cosine and the sine together.
5. Multiply that result by the square of A.
At this point, the quantity represented by A has not been changed. Only at the end of the
calculation is the final value placed in the memory location labeled A.
Note that you can write more than one statement on a line, separated by colons, like this
A = B * Cos (34 * Theta) * Sin (55 * Theta) : B = A * A + Z * Z
Order of Calculations
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Operations are performed in the following order:
1. Contents of brackets
2. Exponentiation
3. Division and multiplication
4. Addition and subtraction
If there is any doubt as to how the calculation will be done, use brackets. These will also make
the order of the calculations clear to any reader of the program, which is desirable if you are to
give it to a customer, who will want to know what was intended.
Here are some examples of the uses of brackets:
Brackets are worked out before any other operations are performed.
Use brackets to force the result you want, and also to clarify a calculation.
A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 255 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 90
(B OR C) AND (D OR E)
B 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 240 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
B OR (C AND D) OR E
C 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 130 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 250 B OR (C AND (D OR E))
D 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 85
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 95
((B OR C) AND D) OR E)
E 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 15
F 00000000 0
A 7
315 A * B * (C / D) * E * F
B 6
8.75 A * B * C / (D * E * F)
C 5
35
A * B * (C / (D * E) ) * F
D 4
E 3
F 2
Check these results to see whether any errors, deliberate or otherwise, have been introduced.
These results are from file Brackets.Xls. You can make a copy of that file in order to experiment
with different combinations of brackets.
VBS Controls
Do
Do
Do
. . . .
. . . .
. . . .
Loop
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Loop Until . . . .
Loop While
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Do Until
Do While
. . . .
. . . .
Loop
Loop
For . . . Next
Exit Do
Exit For
GoTo__This is not allowed in instrument VBS.
If . . . . Then . . . . _' On one line__
If . . . Then
ElseIf . . . Then
End If
If . . . Then . . . End If__
If . . . Then . . . Else . . . End If
Select Case
. . . .
End Select
While
. . . .
Wend
Choose the construction that best satisfies the requirements of speed and clarity.
The construction GoTo LabelledStatement is available in many languages, including VBA, but not
in VBS. GOTO is not allowed in VBS.
IF . . . Then . . . Else . . . End If
A very simple example:
If A >= 0 Then B = Sqr (A) 'Take the square root of A if A is not
negative.
If A + B < C + D Then E = F : G = H_ 'No End Is needed if all on
one line.
If you need to perform a longer procedure, make this construction:
If A >= 0 Then
B = Sqr (A)
C = 32766 * Sin ( TwoPi * B / PeriodOfSinusoid)
End If
' End If is needed to terminate the construction.
The If statement is very often used with the following Boolean expressions:
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A>B
A is greater than B
A >= B
A is greater than B or equal to B
A=B
A is equal to B
A<B
A is less than B
A <= B
A is less than B or equal to B
A <> B
A is not equal to B
These statements are not like the usual program statements, such as A = B. These statements
are Boolean (logic) statements, which can take the values True or False. You may even see
things like "If A Then B", which means that if A is True, B gets done.
In the first example, if A is negative, we might want to write something like this:
If A >= 0 Then
B = Sqr (A)
Else
B = 0
End If
and in fact you can make some very complex constructions using If, as in the examples below:
If A < 0 Then
If A < - 1 Then
Z = 17
Else_
Z = 31
End If
Else_
If A > 3 Then
Z = 63
Else
Z = 127
End If
End If
If A > 0 Then
If B > 0 Then
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Z = Y
End If
End If
This is equivalent to:
If ( (A > 0) And (B > 0) ) Then
Z = Y
End If
Summary of If . . . . Then . . . . Else
If Boolean Then AnyVBScriptingOnOneLine
If Boolean Then
AnyVBScriping
End If
If Boolean Then
AnyVBScripting
Else
AnyOtherVBScripting
End If
If you write a list like this, all the Booleans will be evaluated, whether you want that or not:
If A > 9 Then VBScripting1
If A > 7 Then VBScripting2
If A > 6 Then VBScripting3
If A > 4 Then VBScripting4
If A > 3 Then VBScripting5
If A > 1 Then VBScripting6
Be very careful when testing for equality. There will be no trouble with Integers, Long Integers,
and Strings, but Real numbers are different. Because they have so many significant digits, values
that should be equal, may differ minutely after a computation. It is safer with Real numbers to test
using a tolerance band.
File for this example: IfThenElse.xls
If you find that you are building up a rather complicated set of Ifs, you might want to consider the
Select Case construction.
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Select Case
This is a very powerful construction, which is also easy to understand when written out. It is best
for Integers and Strings, where exact values are always obtained. Here is a simple example:
Select Case K
Case 7 : Y = 6 : Z = 3
Case 7 : Y = Sqr (Sin (A) ) : Z = Sqr (Cos (A) )
Case N : Z = Y + X
Case Else :
End Select
Case N assumes that the value of N has already been set. Case Else is included to cover other
cases, whether foreseen or not. It should always be included.
You can also provide lists of values.
Select Case K
Case 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 : Y = 55 : Z = 89
Case 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 : Y = Sqr (Sin (A) ) : Z = Sqr (Cos (A)
)
Case 7, 15, 31, 63, 127 : Z = Y + X
Case Else : Z = 3
End Select
Case N assumes that the value of N has already been set. Case Else is included to cover other
cases, whether foreseen or not. It should always be included.
This is very much neater than a string of Ifs and Elses, but remember: you cannot use Select
Case unless you are sure of exact equality, which allows you to compare integers and strings
only. You cannot put Case > 5, for example. File for this example: SelectCase.Xls
Summary of Select Case . . . . End Select
SelectCase VariableName
Case Alist : VBScriptingA
Case Blist : VBScriptingB
. . . .
Case Else : VBScriptingElse_ VBScriptingElse can be empty.
End Select
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Do . . . Loop
This construction is useful when you do not know at programming time how many times the loop
will be executed. Here are some examples:
Do
AnyVBSCalculation
Loop Until D > Pi
Do Until Z < Y
AnyVBSCalculation
Loop
Do
AnyVBSCalculation
Loop While D <= Pi
Do While Y >=Z
AnyVBSCalculation
Loop
These constructions enable you to make the test before or after the calculation. If before, the
calculation might not be done even one time, if the condition for terminating were already true.
With the condition at the end, the calculation is done at least one time.
Sometimes you might want to exit the loop from somewhere inside: for example, if some kind of
problem is looming, such as the logarithm of a negative number.
For this case, you can use If . . . . Then Exit Do.
To make a pause of 10 seconds you can write:
NewTime = Timer + 10.0
Do Loop Until Timer >= NewTime
where Timer is a clock function in the PC, which has a resolution of one second.
Example file for these constructions: DoLoops.Xls
While . . . Wend
This is similar to Do While . . . Loop. You can write things like:
While ( (A > 2) And (C < 92677663) )
AnyVBCalculation
Wend
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For . . . Next
Sometimes you know, or you think you know, the number of times that you want to do a job. For
this case a For loop is ideal, especially when you have an array of numbers to work with.
Examples:
For K = 0 To Total
HistogramBin (K) = 0
Next
Omega = TwoPi / Period
For N = 0 To Period
Y (N) = A * Sin (Omega * N)
Next
Be careful about changing the counting variable in any loop. You can do this to terminate the loop
early (but Exit For is better), but you could also prevent it from terminating at all.
For emergency exit, you can use Exit For. For example:
For K = 0 To Total
If HistogramBin(K) = 0 Then Exit For
AnyVBScripting
Next
It is possible to make a For loop with steps greater than 1, as in the following example in which K
takes the values 3, 7, 11, 15, . . . . 83.
For K = 3 To 82 Step 4
AnyVBScripting
Next K
You may place loops inside one another (nested loops), but they must all use different control
variables. Example:
For K = 0 To N
VBScriptingK
For L = - 7 To 17
VBScriptingL
For M = S To T
VBScriptingM
Next
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Next
Next
VBS keywords and functions
The ones in italics do not apply to the instrument.
268
+
Add two values or concatenate two strings.
-
Subtract two values.
*
Multiply two values.
/
Divide two values.
\
Divide two values to obtain an integer result
Abs
Make absolute value.
Asc
Make ASCII value of a character.
Atn
Make tan-1 of a value. Result in range from -π /2 to +π /2 radians.
Cdbl
Convert a value to double precision floating point.
Chr
Create a character from an integer in range 0 to 255.
Cint
Convert a value to nearest integer in the range -32768 to +32767
Clng
Convert a value to nearest long integer in the range -231 to +231 - 1.
Close
Close a file.
Cos
Make the cosine of an angle expressed in radians.
Csng
Convert a number to single precision floating point.
Cstr
Convert a variable to a string.
Exp
Raise e to the power of the input.
Get
Get a value from a file.
Input
Get some ASCII data from a file.
Instr
Find the position of a string in a longer string.
Int
Convert to nearest integer below the input value.
Left
Take some characters at the left end of a string.
Log
Take the natural logarithm of a positive value.
Ltrim
Remove spaces at the left end of a string.
Mid
Take or insert some characters in a string.
Mod
Take the modulus of a value in terms of another value.
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On Error
Take some action if an error occurs.
Open
Open a file.
Print
Send some ASCII data to a file.
Put
Randomize
Send some data to a file.
Randomize Timer re-seeds the pseudo-random number generator.
Read
Read from a file.
Right
Take some characters at the right end of a string.
Rnd
Make a random real number in the range from 0.0 to 1.0
Rtrim
Remove spaces from right hand end of a string.
Sin
Make the sine of an angle expressed in radians.
Sqr
Make the square root of a positive number.
Str
Make a string from a numerical value.
Timer
Time since midnight in seconds, with a resolution of one second.
Trim
Remove leading and trailing spaces from a string.
Val
Get the ASCII value of a string beginning with numerical characters.
Other VBS Words
Const
Dim
Redim
Define a constant value.
Dimension a variable.
Dimension a variable again.
Boolean
Boolean variable
Double
Double precision real variable.
Integer
Integer in the range -32768 to + 32767
Long
Long integer in the range -231 to + 231 - 1
Single
Single precision real variable
String
String variable
And
Logical AND
Or
Logical OR
To make a bit-by-bit comparison, logical constructions can be used with variables, as in A and B,
or with tests such as If A > B Then . . .
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Functions
These are mainly of the form C = F (A), where A is the argument, or input to the function.
Abs
Abs (A) calculates the absolute value of an integer or a real number, so the
result is always positive or zero. A can be any number in the range of the VB
system.
Atn
Atn (A) calculates the angle of which A is the tangent. Because infinitely many
angles can have the same tangent, the output of Atn always lies in the range
minus π / 2 to plus π / 2. The input can be any positive or negative value in the
range of the VB system.
CDbl
CDbl (A) calculates a double precision real variable, equal to A.
CInt
Cint (A) calculates the integer value nearest to A, which can be any acceptable
VBS number. Cint (-7.4) = -7. Integers are signed 16-bit values in the range 32767 to + 32767.
CLng
CLng (A) calculates the nearest long integer to the value A. Long integers are
signed 32-bit values in the approximate range -21.5 M to + 21.5 M.
Cos
Cos (A) calculates the cosine of any integer or real number, giving an output
that is never greater than plus one or less than minus one.
CSng
Exp
Int
Log
CSng (A) calculates a single precision real variable equal to A.
Exp (A) calculates the value of eA.
Cint (A) calculates the integer value next below A, which can be any acceptable
VBS number. Int (-7.4) = -8.
Log (A) calculates the natural logarithm (to base e), of any acceptable VBS
number greater than zero. A negative number or zero will create an error.
To calculate Log10(A), use Log10(A) = Log(A) / Log(10)
Mod
A Mod (B) calculates the modulus of A, which is the remainder after A has been
divided by B.
34 Mod 8 = 2. 34 Mod 55 = 0. -34 Mod 13 = -8. 21 Mod -8 = 5.
Randomize
Calculates a new seed for the pseudo-random number generator.
Randomize Timer uses the real-time clock for this purpose.
Sin
Sin (A) calculates the sine of any integer or real number, giving an output that is
never greater than +1 or less than -1.
Sqr
Sqr (A) calculates the square root of any integer or a real number that is not
negative. If A is negative, an error will occur.
Timer
270
Time since the previous midnight in whole seconds.
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Hints and Tips for VBScripting
•
Set the trigger to Single or Stopped if you need to do a lot of editing: it is faster.
•
Before starting a script, remove any existing scripts that you do not need. This is because
errors in an existing script will give you error messages, even if your current script is
perfect. And an existing good script may develop a fault if you change the setup. For
example, you might change the vertical scale or the memory length and get an overflow if
you did not guard against it in the script.
•
When starting a script, make sure that you have chosen the right kind: function or
parameter. You can get some very frustrating problems if you are in the wrong mode. You
can cut and paste the VBS statements if you discover this error.
•
If your calculation requires a long memory, development might be quicker if you test the
principles on a shorter trace at first.
•
Note that the pseudo-random number generator is reset at the start of a script. If you
want a different set of pseudo-randoms every time, put Randomize Timer in the program,
to be run once, before any pseudo-randoms are generated. You can use this instruction
to re-seed the generator at any time during execution.
•
Do not put the final statement in a loop, hoping that you can see a progressive result as
some parameter changes. No output will be seen on the screen of the instrument until the
script has been completely run and quitted, so only the final result will appear. If the loop
runs many times, you will think that the scope has hung up.
•
If you want a For loop, end it with "Next" and not "Next X".
•
If you make a script that takes a long time to run, go back to the default setup before
quitting or powering down, or you will have a long wait next time you power up.
•
Always use a recursive calculation when this will speed things up.
•
Keep everything outside a loop that does not have to be inside, to speed things up.
•
Make your scripts clear, not only by indenting and commenting, but by structuring neatly
as well.
•
Sometimes it might be easier to develop your script in Excel VBA (remembering that VBA
is not identical to VBS), so that you can display intermediate results. If you do this, note
that you can read from a cell or write to it using statements like these:
A = Worksheets("Sheet1").Cells(Row, Column).Value
Worksheets("Sheet1").Cells(Row, Column).Value = B
•
Note that in VBS, after you have corrected an error and clicked on "Apply," the error
message may go on flashing for a few seconds, or a few acquisitions, before being
erased. Look for the "Script OK" message. Be patient before assuming that you still have
a bug.
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•
If your calculation requires data to be used at some other horizontal positions than their
original ones, make sure that your algorithm does not try to send data to non-existent
array positions, that is, beyond the edges of the screen. You may have to truncate your
output trace, as happens with the instrument's Enhanced Resolution and Boxcar
functions.
•
No output will emerge from a script until you press Apply.
•
No output will emerge from a script until it has received an input. This includes the case
where the input data are not used in calculating the output data. So you must have had at
least one acquisition before you see anything.
•
Because you can introduce undeclared variables at any point in a calculation, VBS does
not check your spelling.
•
You can make a portion of a trace disappear if you set the values to 32767 or -32768.
•
You can highlight a section of a trace by making the points alternately too high and too
low by a suitable amount. Providing the memory length is not too short, the compaction
algorithm will give the effect of a thicker trace.
•
The lengths of the output trace and the input trace need not be the same. You can even
make the output trace longer than the input trace, but you will need to unzoom it to see it
all. This feature can be used to avoid compaction problems with non-linear horizontal
scales. It can also be used to show several versions of a function at the same time,
without having to set up a separate script for each one.
•
If your program structure is complicated, consider typing all the IFs, ELSEIFs, ENDIFs,
FORs, NEXTs, etc and then clicking Apply. You wont get any output, but the system will
tell you if the structure is acceptable. Then you can insert the actual program statements.
•
Always try to make the script as independent as possible of variables such as V/Div,
T/Div, and memory length, unless that would make it harder to understand. If so, give
some values as examples, and explain how the script would have to change if the
variables changed.
ERRORS
The instrument VBS tries hard to help you when errors occur.
Errors may be of two main types:
•
The script may not be usable because the interpreter cannot construct a logical structure
from it.
•
The script may be usable, but may fail while running because an incomputable function
has been requested.
Sometimes the line number given for an error is wrong. This can happen when the error is of this
general type:
Missing "Next" Missing "End If"
Extra "Next" Missing "Until" etc.
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This happens because VBS cannot know where you should have put the statement.
If at some point during the calculation of an output array, a value goes outside the allowed range,
the calculation will stop, and you will see the new values up to the point of the stoppage. To the
right of that point, the trace will display the previous values. In fact, if you deliberately recalculate
only a part of a trace, you can have a mixture of new and old values.
In the figure below is a type of error message that you may see if one of your calculations has
tried to set a value outside the range -32768 to +32767. It takes extra time to guard against this,
but unless you are sure that it will not happen, you need some kind of check. In the example on
the next page, the red trace has gone outside the allowed range at the beginning, resulting in the
message at the bottom of the instrument screen: This array is fixed or temporarily locked:
OutResult.DataArray.
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Error Handling
Note that the construction OnError GoTo Label: is not allowed in VBS. In fact no GoTos or labels
are allowed. Therefore there is no way for you to provide handlers to deal with errors and
exceptions. You must be aware of all possibilities at all points in your program, and you must
either be certain that errors will not occur, or you must take action to ensure that they do not.
Examples:
Sqr
You cannot take the square root of a negative number.
Log
You cannot take the log of zero or of a negative number.
A/B
You cannot divide by zero.
Array
You cannot use an index outside the bounds of an array.
Size
Unscaled data cannot go outside the range -32768 to 32767.
If there is any possibility that any of these might occur, take steps to deal with this before it can
happen.
For example, you may write some kind of generator of pseudo-random statistical values. If these
belong to a distribution that in principle has an infinite range, or a finite range which is wider than
the signed 16-bits allowed, check each value. If a value falls outside the range, you could set it to
the maximum or generate another example.
You can, however, use one of the following:
On Error Resume Next
followed by some code that may make some attempt to deal with the problem, or at least to allow
execution to continue.
On Error GoTo 0
This cancels On Error Resume Next_
Speed of Execution
To maximize the speed of execution of a script, the most important thing you can do is to
minimize the number of operations that are performed inside loops. Anything done once only is
unlikely to be an important source of delay. Please note that VBS is much slower than the internal
computations of the instrument, so do everything you can to save time, unless time is irrelevant to
the application.
Using an array element takes longer than using a single variable. Here is an example:
For K = 1 to Total
If X (K) > X (K - 1) Then
Y = Cos (X (K) ) * Sin (X (K) ) * Sqr (X (K) )
End If
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Next
To do the same thing we could also write this, using the index only once:
OldXK = X (0)
For K = 1 To Total
XK = X (K)
If XK > OldXK Then
Y = Cos (XK) * Sin (XK) * Sqr (XK)
OldXK = XK
End If
Next
VBS runs slower than the "internal" calculations, because the scripts are interpreted. This could
be serious for calculations where many operations are needed on each sample, such as
convolution, correlation, and long digital filters.
Scripting Ideas
What can we do in a VBS script that we cannot do with the normal instrument functions? Here are
some possibilities.
•
Create a new function that acts on waveform values.
•
Create a new parameter.
•
Create a new form of non-linear vertical scale.
•
Create a new form of non-linear horizontal scale.
•
Move some or all data horizontally, including reflections.
•
Combine data to form digital filters.
•
Show several function results side by side.
•
Show several function results interleaved.
You can even create output data that are not related to the input. The output data need not even
be in the same domain as the input data, because the system treats them as pure numbers. So
you can create your own transforms into the frequency domain, for example.
Example Waveform Script
•
Custom Window
•
Creating a window function for FFT calculations.
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Example Parameter Scripts
•
Decay Parameter
•
Calculating the rate of decay of a damped sine.
•
Locating Pulses
•
Finding pulses in a pulse train.
Debugging Scripts
Until we have integrated a more comprehensive debugger for VBScript there is a workaround.
1. Download the Windows Scripting Debugger for Windows 2000 from here:
http://download.microsoft.com/download/winscript56/Install/1.0a/NT45XP/ENUS/scd10en.exe
2. Enable JIT (Just In Time) debugging by setting the following registry key
HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows Script\Settings\JITDebug = to 1 (DWORD value)
3. Place a Stop statement in your script.
Now, when the Stop statement is executed the debugger will open and allow single-stepping,
variable examination, etc.
Using VBA or Visual Basic to debug VBScripts is not recommended since the language syntax for
these three variants of basic is slightly different.
Horizontal Control Variables
InResult.HorizontalOffset
Double precision
Time shift of input waveform on grid in
units of horizontal scale
OutResult.HorizontalOffset
Double precision
Time shift of output waveform on grid in
units of horizontal scale
InResult.HorizontalPerStep
Double precision
Time between successive samples in
the input waveform
OutResult.HorizontalPerStep
Double precision
Time between successive samples in
the output waveform
InResult.HorizontalUnits
String
Horizontal units of input waveform
OutResult.HorizontalUnits
String
Horizontal units of output waveform
InResult.Samples
Integer
Number of samples in input waveform
InResult.VerticalOffset
Double precision
Vertical shift of input waveform on grid
OutResult.VerticalOffset
Double precision
Vertical shift of output waveform on grid
Vertical Control Variables
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InResult.VerticalPerStep
Double precision
Difference between successive possible
levels in the input waveform memory
OutResultVerticalPerStep
Double precision
Difference between successive possible
levels in the output waveform memory
1 / 65536 of vertical full scale
InResult.VerticalResolution
Double precision
Difference between successive possible
physical levels in the input waveform
OutResultVerticalResolution
Double precision
Difference between successive possible
physical levels in the output waveform
1 / 256 of vertical full scale for channel
waveforms
1 / 65536 of vertical full scale for math
waveforms
InResult.VerticalUnits
String
Vertical units of input waveform
OutResult.VerticalUnits
String
Vertical units of output waveform
List of Variables Available to Scripts
FirstEventTime([out, retval] VARIANT * pVal); FirstEventTime([in] VARIANT newVal);
LastEventTime([out, retval] VARIANT * pVal); LastEventTime([in] VARIANT newVal);
UpdateTime([out, retval] VARIANT * pVal); UpdateTime([in] VARIANT newVal);
Details([in] BSTR strDetailsIID, [out, retval] VARIANT * pVal);
Status([out, retval] VARIANT * pVal); Status([in] VARIANT newVal);
ExtendedStatus([out, retval] VARIANT * pVal); ExtendedStatus([in] VARIANT newVal);
StatusDescription([out, retval] BSTR * pVal); StatusDescription([in] BSTR newVal);
DataArray([in, defaultvalue(TRUE)] BOOL arrayValuesScaled,
[in, defaultvalue(LEC_ALL_DATA)] int numSamples,
[in, defaultvalue(0)] int startIndex,
[in, defaultvalue(1)] int sparsingFactor,
[out, retval] VARIANT *pArray);
DataArray([in, defaultvalue(TRUE)] BOOL arrayValuesScaled,
[in, defaultvalue(LEC_ALL_DATA)] int numSamples,
[in, defaultvalue(0)] int startIndex,
[in, defaultvalue(1)] int sparsingFactor,
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[in] VARIANT array);
HorizontalUnits([out, retval] BSTR *pVal); HorizontalUnits([in] BSTR newVal);
Samples([out, retval] int *pVal); Samples([in] int newVal);
HorizontalResolution([out, retval] double *pVal); HorizontalResolution([in] double newVal);
HorizontalPerStep([out, retval] double *pVal); HorizontalPerStep([in] double newVal);
HorizontalOffset([out, retval] double *pVal); HorizontalOffset([in] double newVal);
Sweeps([out, retval] int *pVal); Sweeps([in] int newVal);
HorizontalVariances([out, retval] int *pVal); HorizontalVariances([in] int newVal);
HorizontalVarianceArray([out, retval] VARIANT * pArray);
HorizontalVarianceArray([in] VARIANT array);
HorizontalFrameStart([out, retval] double *pVal); HorizontalFrameStart([in] double newVal);
HorizontalFrameStop([out, retval] double *pVal); HorizontalFrameStop([in] double newVal);
VerticalFrameStart([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalFrameStart([in] double newVal);
VerticalFrameStop([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalFrameStop([in] double newVal);
VerticalResolution([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalResolution([in] double newVal);
VerticalPerStep([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalPerStep([in] double newVal);
VerticalOffset([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalOffset([in] double newVal);
VerticalMinPossible([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalMinPossible([in] double newVal);
VerticalMaxPossible([out, retval] double *pVal); VerticalMaxPossible([in] double newVal);
VerticalUnits([out, retval] BSTR *pVal); VerticalUnits([in] BSTR newVal);
Communicating with Other Programs from a VBScript
The ability of The instrument to communicate with other programs opens up immense
possibilities, both for calculation and for graphics, making the assembly of reports relatively
simple.
Communicating with Excel from a VBScript
Although there are direct instrument calls to Excel and other programs, you may wish to do this
from a VBScript. Here is an example:
OutResult.Samples = InResult.Samples
startData = 0
endData = OutResult.Samples
ReDim newData(OutResult.Samples)
USD = InResult.DataArray(False)
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LastPoint = endData - 1
Set ExcelApp = GetObject(,"Excel.Application")
ExcelApp.Visible = True
ExcelColumnA = 2
'Column where the data will appear in Excel
ExcelRow = 10
'Row where the data will start
ExcelColumnB = 3
Excel
' Column where the output data will appear in
For K = 0 To LastPoint
ExcelApp.ActiveSheet.Cells("ExcelRow + K, ExcelColumnA ") = USD(K)
Next
Once the data are in Excel, any Excel functions can be applied to the
data. The results can be returned to the VB script.
For K = 0 To LastPoint
NDA(K) = ExcelApp.ActiveSheet.Cells("ExcelRow + K, ExcelColumnB")
Next
Transferring data cell by cell is very slow, so it is better to do a block transfer.
Calling MATLAB from the Instrument
Calling MATLAB
Note: Load MATLAB version 6.5 just as you would on any PC. Once it is loaded, open MATLAB from the desktop, then
close it again, before you attempt to open it from the instrument application. This is to update the registry.
MATLAB can be directly called from the instrument in two ways:
Using a function
F1 through Fx The number of MATLAB returns a waveform
math traces available depends
on the software options loaded
on your scope. See
Specifications.
Using a parameter
P1 through Px
MATLAB returns a parameter
In both cases, one call to MATLAB can use two separate waveforms as input, providing much
greater computing power than is available by calling MATLAB from a VBScript.
Note: If you do not place a semicolon ";" at the end of a line, MATLAB will show the calculated value in the result window,
significantly slowing down the processing rate. This feature is best kept for diagnostics.
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How to Select a Waveform Function Call
The MATLAB Waveform functions are selected from the Select Math Operator menu. Please
note that once you have clicked on "MATLAB Wave" there will be a slight pause before MATLAB
starts.
Source 1 and Source 2 are the waveforms that MATLAB will use.
The MATLAB Waveform Control Panel
Once you have invoked a MATLAB waveform call, you will see the zoom dialog at the right of the
screen. Touch the MATLAB tab to see a panel like this:
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Touch Find Scale to make your output fit the grid, or use the text boxes to choose a scale.
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MATLAB Waveform Function Editor -- Example
By touching Edit Code, you can reach the MATLAB Editor where you will see the default
waveform function. If you are familiar with MATLAB, you might prefer to launch MATLAB and
create a MATLAB function that performs your task. Your program in the instrument could then be
a one-line call of your MATLAB function.
This is the default waveform function, with one important change – the semi-colon (;) has been
removed from the end of the line. If the semicolon is present, your function will run much faster,
because the output values will not be shown in MATLAB Response. With a long waveform, the
time needed to display it could be quite long. The response values can be useful during
development and debugging. Any line without a semicolon will produce a visible MATLAB
Response.
From this panel you can save your code, load a previous code, and edit your function. A powerful
feature of MATLAB is that you can refer to an entire waveform as a vector. The two input
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waveforms are WformIn1 and WformIn2, while the output is WformOut. You can also refer to
individual samples, such as WformIn1(34), and sequences of samples, such as WformIn(55:89)
You can write statements such as these:
WformOut(5) = WformIn(5)
WformOut(89) = WformIn(144)
WformOut(34:55) = WformIn(34:55)
WformOut(233:377) = WformIn(100:244)
This very simple example adds a rescaled copy of Channel 2 to a copy of Channel 1, and
then rescales the result.
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MATLAB Example Waveform Plot
If you touch the MATLAB Plot checkbox you will see a MATLAB plot like this one.
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How to Select a MATLAB Parameter Call
Menu position for MATLAB parameter call in Select Measurement menu.
The MATLAB Parameter Control Panel
Once you have invoked a MATLAB parameter call, a mini-dialog to the right of the main dialog will
appear:
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You can touch the MATLAB Plot checkbox if you want to see a plot in MATLAB as well as getting
a result in the instrument.
The MATLAB Parameter Editor
By touching Edit Code, you can reach the MATLAB Editor:
This simple example shows the MATLAB function Standard Deviation acting on input channel 1,
and the result would be shown in the MATLAB Response pane for an amplitude of 0.15 volt.
You can load an existing MATLAB program, using the Load Code button, and you can save the
current program, using the Save Code button.
If you are familiar with MATLAB you might prefer to launch MATLAB and create a MATLAB
function that performs your task. Your program in the instrument could then be a one-line call of
your MATLAB function.
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MATLAB Example Parameter Panel
The next example calculates the ratio of the number of data points that are above a given level to
the number of points below the level, in this case one half of the amplitude.
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Further Examples of MATLAB Waveform Functions
Negate the input signal.
Square the input signal.
Create pulses from a sinusoid.
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Create pulses at the zero crossings of the signal.
Convolve two signals.
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Creating Your Own MATLAB Function
The procedure is simple. Create a MATLAB function using any text editor, and save it as a
MATLAB m-file by giving it a name of the form Filename.m. Call the function using the MATLAB
math editor or the MATLAB parameter editor as appropriate. A simple example is shown below.
function out = negatewf(wf1)
% NEGATEWF changes the sign of all the data.
out = -wf1;
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CUSTOMDSO
Custom DSO
Introduction – What is CustomDSO?
CustomDSO, in its Basic mode, allows you to create DSO setups that can be called by the touch
of a single button. The recalled setups can themselves include calls to other setups. A very simple
example would be a toggle between two setups. Rings of three or more setups are possible, as
are trees, or any other topology that you need. Basic mode also allows you to recall VBScripts
that can set up all or part of the scope and do many other things.
Another more powerful feature is the PlugIn, which allows you to add your own ActiveX controls
to a setup. These controls are powered by routines written in Visual Basic. With ActiveX controls
you can create your own user interfaces to suit your own preferences. A large number of
interactive devices are available: button, checkbox, radio button, list box, picture box, and
common dialogue box.
Invoking CustomDSO
CustomDSO can be invoked from the Analysis drop-down menu:
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If CustomDSO is already in Basic mode, the following dialog will be displayed:
CustomDSO Basic Mode
The Basic CustomDSO mode offers eight Action buttons, each of which can call a different setup
when touched. The "Action Definition" dialog is used to enter a CustomDSO setup file name by
means of the pop-up keyboard.
By clicking the checkbox
, the eight CustomDSO
buttons will continue to be available at the bottom of the screen after you close the CustomDSO
dialog. Furthermore, they will appear automatically each time the DSO is powered up.
Editing a CustomDSO Setup File
; a dialog will appear for you to
If the file does not exist, touch the Edit button
create the file. If the file does already exist, the Edit button enables you to modify it. The Edit
button allows you to edit the file that is named in the Setup file to recall field, and not the file of
the setup that the instrument is currently in, unless these happen to be the same.
In the example used here, three setup files were made, called CustomA.lss, CustomB.lss and
CustomC.lss. Fragments from all three are shown below.
1160 Set CustomDSO = XStreamDSO.CustomDSO
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1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
‘ CustomDSO Setup A.lss
CustomDSO.ActionScript1
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1
CustomDSO.ActionScript1
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1
CustomDSO.ActionScript1
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1
CustomDSO.ActionScript1
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
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Set CustomDSO = XStreamDSO.CustomDSO
‘ CustomDSO Setup B.lss
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\B.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\C.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False
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Set CustomDSO = XStreamDSO.CustomDSO
‘ CustomDSO Setup C.lss
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\B.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = True
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\C.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False
CustomDSO.ActionScript1 = “c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss”
CustomDSO.ActionEnable1 = False
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
“c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss”
False
“c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\B.lss”
True
“c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\C.lss”
True
“c:\LeCroy\XStream\CustomDSO\A.lss”
False
The text in green following a single quotation mark is a VBS comment and causes no action.
The text in red contains the path and name of the setup file associated with the numbered button.
This setup will be called when the button is pressed.
The boolean (in blue) decides whether the action button will invoke the setup or remain inactive.
For example, in setup B, A.lss and C.lss can be invoked, but not B, which is already in place.
As you see from the line numbers in the program fragments, the setup files are rather long
because they include all the information needed to set the DSO to the required state. But if you
want to make a very short file that changes only a few variables (for example, the action button
settings) you can make a file that includes only the relevant instructions. This usage assumes that
the remainder of the DSO is already in the required state. This is an example of the complete
compatibility of the instrument's software. The same commands can be used in setups, in scripts,
or in remote control commands in external programs, whether resident in the instrument or in an
external computer.
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Creating a CustomDSO Setup File
If you touch the Edit button
when the Setup file to recall field contains the name
of a non-existent file, you will see a message like this:
If you then touch Yes, the DSO will display a file like this:
' XStreamDSO ConfigurationVBScript ...
' Created by CustomDSO ...
On Error Resume Next
set dso = CreateObject("LeCroy.XStreamDSO.1")
' dso.Display.GridMode = "Dual"
' dso.Acquisition.C1.VerScale = 0.1
' dso.Acquisition.Horizontal.HorScale = 1e-6
' dso.Acquisition.TriggerMode = "Auto"
You can add to this fragment any commands you need.
CustomDSO PlugIn Mode
This is the mode in which CustomDSO really shows its power. You can insert any ActiveX control
or graph.
Creating a CustomDSO PlugIn
Follow these steps to create an example Visual Basic PlugIn:
Start a new VB project. Select ActiveX Control from the New tab.
Resize the control. A. In the Properties window set Width 11940. B. In the Properties window set
Height 2475.
Place two buttons on the control. A. Double click on the command button at left of screen (left
arrow below). B. Move and resize the resulting button as required, using the handles (right arrow
below). C. Repeat for the second button. D. In the Properties window set the Name properties to
SingleButton and AutoButton, respectively. E. Set the button Caption properties to Single and
Auto, respectively
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1. Create code for the buttons. A. Double click on the Single button. B. In the resulting code
window, insert code to make the following subroutine:
Private Sub SingleButton_Click()
Dim app as Object
Set app = CreateObject(“LeCroy.XStreamApplication”)
app.Acquistion.TriggerMode = “Stopped”
End Sub
2. Double click on the Auto button.
In the resulting code window, insert code to make the following subroutine:
Private Sub AutoButton_Click()
Dim app as Object
Set app = CreateObject(“LeCroy.XStreamApplication”)
app.Acquistion.TriggerMode = “Auto”
End Sub
3. Test the Component in Internet Explorer. (This is an optional, but very useful step,
because you can test your work without installing anything in the instrument.) A. Start the
instrument. B. Click the Run button In Visual Basic. C. Click the Stop button in Visual
Basic when you have finished.
4. Make the Project in Visual Basic. A. Click the Stop button in Visual Basic. B. Select Make
Project1.ocx from the File menu.
5. Install the PlugIn in the instrument. A. Start the instrument. B. Select ActiveDSO in the
Analysis Menu. C. Select PlugIns mode. D. Type “Project1.UserControl1” in the “COM
ProgID of Plug-In” text box. E. Click the Install button under the text box.
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6. Now Click the new Auto and Single buttons to see their effects.
Properties of the Control and its Objects
Using the View Properties button in Visual Basic, you can customize your PlugIn to your exact
requirements. Among the most useful properties are the following: Height, Width, BackColor,
Name, Caption.
You can gain access to the properties of your objects by Clicking View – Properties. Positions and
sizes of objects can be changed from View – Object, by dragging the object or one of its handles.
You can insert any available control into your plug-in. The basic control set is shown in a toolbar
at the left of the screen in the picture below. Double click on any control to insert it into the plugin. In the following example, a command button has just been inserted.
In the next example you can see a command button, a picture box, a list box and a Tabbed Dialog
Control.
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The Tabbed Control (arrow) is not in the basic tool box. To gain access to it, right click in the tool
box at left (but not on an icon.) You will see this menu:
Now select the Microsoft Tabbed Control as shown below, and click on Apply. The control will be
added into the toolbox at the left of the screen, where you can double click on it as usual.
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The new control is shown below (arrow).
The system is very versatile, and you can place controls on the tabs of the Tabbed Control. Look
in the properties window to see how you can customize your tabs, as illustrated below.
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Removing a PlugIn
To remove a plug-in, click on Remove in the PlugIn dialog, as shown below:
Close the CustomDSO dialog and reopen; the plug-in will vanish.
First Example PlugIn – Exchanging Two Traces on the Grids
The example assumes that the instrument is in dual-grid mode, and that there are at least two
visible traces. The routine looks for the visible traces, in the order C1 . . . C4, F1 . . . . Fx The
number of math traces available depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See
Specifications., and it exchanges the first two it finds whenever the button is pressed. Note that
arrays of objects can be constructed, allowing numerous objects to be accessed in simple loops.
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim wm As Object
Set wm = CreateObject("LeCroy.XStreamApplication")
Set acq = wm.Acquisition ' To save typing
Set mat = wm.Math
' To save typing
Dim t(16) As Object
‘ Create an array of objects to allow looping.
Set t(1) = acq.C1 : Set t(2) = acq.C2
Set t(3) = acq.C3 : Set t(4) = acq.C4
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Set
Set
Set
Set
t(5) = mat.F1 : Set t(6) = mat.F2
t(7) = mat.F3 : Set t(8) = mat.F4
t(9) = mat.F5 : Set t(10) = mat.F6
t(11) = mat.F7 : Set t(12) = mat.F8
Dim trace As Integer
trace = 0: views = 0
' Exchange the traces on the grids.
Do
trace = trace + 1
If t(trace).View = "True" Then
views = views + 1
If t(trace).UseGrid = "YT1" Then
t(trace).UseGrid = "YT2"
Else
t(trace).UseGrid = "YT1"
End If
End If
Loop Until ((trace = 12) Or (views = 2))
' Show the parity of the last swap.
If Command1.Caption = "Swap A" Then
Command1.Caption = "Swap B"
Else
Command1.Caption = "Swap A"
End If
Dim TextString As String
TextString = Text1.Text
Dim TextValue As Integer
TextValue = Val(TextString) + 1
TextString = Str(TextValue)
TextString = Trim(TextString)
Text1.Text = TextString
End Sub
This routine exchanges the first two traces that it finds. You can make it exchange all the traces
on a dual grid by changing the penultimate line to this - Loop Until trace = 12
The next figure shows the Visual Basic Screen just after the Text Box text has been set to “0” in
the Properties Window, thus defining the initial value.
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Here is the result after seven swaps. The counting method could be useful in any routine where
numerous operations, such as triggers, have to be performed. In fact, the caption of the button
could have been used to show the number of operations.
ActiveX offers a large range of standard controls, including list boxes for selection from a list, and
picture boxes for drawing graphs and charts.
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Second Example PlugIn – Log-Log FFT Plot
A frequent requirement is to plot a frequency spectrum on two logarithmic scales. The instrument
provides a vertical scale, so CustomDSO has only to change the horizontal one. Here is an
example. The first figure has been truncated on the right side.
These examples were made with two different instrument setups: in the second, the FFT was
zoomed vertically. The graph has a red line to represent the theoretical envelope for the peaks.
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This has great potential for testing the transmission characteristics of amplifiers and filters, since
the output can be compared with a theoretical curve. Furthermore, if the output is divided by the
curve, the result for a perfect DUT would be a horizontal line, which is easy to inspect. The
example below has been magnified vertically by a factor of ten. The rise at the right side occurs
because the signal is descending into the noise.
Private Sub Command1_Click()
'
Draw a DSO trace on a logarithmic horizontal scale.
Dim WM As Object
Set WM = CreateObject("LeCroy.XStreamApplication")
Dim Samples As Long
Samples = WM.Math.F1.Out.Result.Samples
Samples = Samples - 1 ' Make it a round number.
'
Calculate the horizontal scale.
LogSamples = Log(Samples)
XScale = Samples / LogSamples
'
Set the scale using DSO variables
Dim Top, Bot As Single
Top = WM.Math.F1.Out.Result.VerticalFrameStop
Bot = WM.Math.F1.Out.Result.VerticalFrameStart
Picture1.Scale (0, Top)-(Samples, Bot)
Dim Wave
Wave = WM.Math.F1.Out.Result.DataArray
Dim Black, White, Blue, Red As Long
Black = 0: White = &HFFFFFF
Blue = &HFF4444: Red = &HFF
'
Draw a theoretical curve for the peaks.
StartPoint = Top + 20#: EndPoint = -54.5
Picture1.Line (0, StartPoint)-(Samples, EndPoint), Red
'
Draw the plot with linear interpolation between points.
For X = 1 To Samples
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LogX = XScale * Log(X): Y = Wave(X)
If X > 1 Then
Picture1.Line (LogX, Y)-(OldLogX, OldWave), Black
End If
OldLogX = LogX: OldWave = Y
Next X
End Sub
Here is an example showing a simple one-pole roll-off compared to a curve.
Control Variables in CustomDSO
The simplest way to select variables for use in CustomDSO is to use LeCroy’s X-Stream Browser.
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PROCESSING WEB OPTION
This feature is available with the XWEB software option.
The Processing Web provides a graphical way to quickly and easily set up math functions and
parameter measurements. Using the Processing Web, you can chain together many more mathon-math functions than you can using the Math Setup dialog, where you are limited to two
functions. In addition, you can insert a parameter measurement for any math output waveform
anywhere in the web.
The "web" analogy derives from the nodes and connecting lines used to construct the web.
Nodes are math functions selected from the Add Math Processor menu, parameters selected
from the Add Measure Processor menu, or parameter math functions from the Add Parameter
Math Processor menu.
Another key feature of the Processing Web is that you can preview your waveform at any math or
parameter node in the web. Math previews are thumbnail images of the waveform. For
parameters, the statistic displayed is the value of the last acquisition:
Once you have created a Processing Web setup, you can save and recall it for future use, the
same as for any panel setup.
To Use the Web Editor
1. In the menu bar, touch Display, then Web Editor
menu.
in the drop-down
2. Touch the Math tab and select a math location (F1 to Fx The number of math traces available
depends on the software options loaded on your scope. See specifications.) for the new math
function that you are about to create by touching the Web Edit button:
.
Once you select a math location for web editing, it cannot be used for another math function,
and will appear as unavailable in the Math Setup dialog:
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.
However, you can cancel web processing within the "Math Setup" dialog by touching the
single function, double function, or graph button. Touch the Measure tab, then touch the Web
Edit button, if you want to dedicate a parameter location (P1 to Px) for web processing:
.
The parameter location you choose will display "Web Edit" under the waveform display grid:
.
3. Touch the Web Editor tab to return to the web setup dialog. The math and parameter
locations you selected appear as outputs at the far right:
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.
You may have to scroll up or down to see it.
4. Touch the Add Math button and select a math function from the Add Math Processor menu.
The math function icon will appear on the web setup field:
.
Touch and drag the icon to the desired location.
5. If you are using channel inputs, touch the arrow of a channel input icon:
.
Then drag a line from the channel to the input of the math function icon. If your math function
is a dual input function (such as ratio), select a second input and drag another line to the
second math input. If you are using a memory location:
(M1 to M4) as an input, drag a line to the math function in the same way as for channel
inputs.
Note: You can use a combination of channel input and memory input to your math function.
6. Touch the output arrow of the math function icon and drag a line to the Fx output on the righthand side of the setup field. Your math function is complete.
Adding Parameters
Add parameter measurements in the same way as for math functions. Parameters can be
connected to any math function in the web.
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Adding Previews
1. Touch the Add Preview button:
. A scope-like icon will appear:
.
2. Touch the output arrow on the math function or parameter icon and drag a line to the input
arrow of the preview icon. A thumbnail view of your signal will appear if the preview icon is
connected to a channel output or math function output. If it is connected to a parameter
output, a numeric value of the last acquisition will be displayed:
.
Exiting the Web Editor
To exit, touch the Close tab; or, in the menu bar, touch Display then Scope Display
in the drop-down menu. The scope display will return to the normal
waveform display grid.
Viewing the Output
1. Touch Math in the menu bar, then Math Setup... in the drop-down menu.
2. Touch the On checkbox
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for the function you want to view.
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LABNOTEBOOK
Introduction to LabNotebook
LeCroy's LabNotebook feature extends the documentation capabilities of your scope. It allows
you to create an annotated notebook entry containing all displayed waveforms, the setup of the
DSO, and user-supplied annotation. The notebook entry can then be converted to hardcopy
format -- pdf, rtf, or html -- and printed or e-mailed. You can also use the default report layout or
configure your own, and even substitute your own company logo in the header.
Notebook entries are stored in an internal database and are available for recall at any time.
Besides storing the waveform data, LabNotebook also stores your panel setups and parameter
measurements. You have the capability to back up the database to external media.
The Flashback feature allows you to recall the state of the DSO at a later date, including the
saved waveforms and the DSO setup, so that you can make additional measurements. A keyword
filter makes it easy to find the correct notebook entry to recall.
You can choose which notebook to use for your entries, and label the notebook by project or user.
If the scope is shared among several users, for example, or used for different projects, the data
can be kept separately. Similarly, hardcopy reports can be stored in different folders.
Preferences
You should set your preferences before creating notebook entries.
Miscellaneous Settings
You can elect to name notebook entries with the default date
and time by leaving the top box unchecked. Check the box if
you want the opportunity to rename the notebook entry as
soon as it is created.
Check the middle box if you want to be able to annotate a
notebook entry as soon as it is created.
Check the last box if you want to generate a notebook entry
by simply touching the Hardcopy (Print) front panel
. By checking this box, you override any other
button
configuration for this button; for example, send e-mail or
output to printer.
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Hardcopy Setup
Check the Use Print Colors checkbox to place your
waveforms on a white background in the notebook entry.
This will save printer ink later when you print the hardcopy
report.
Touch inside Hardcopy Area to determine how much of the
screen image to include in the report: grid area only, grid
area plus dialog, whole screen.
E-mail Setup
You can e-mail just the pdf or html report; or, you can
include additional files: trace data (.trc) for each waveform in
the report, a screen dump, a scope setup file, and an xml
report record. Touch the checkbox to enable the extra report
segments.
Touch the Configure E-Mail button to set the recipient
address and server information.
Creating a Notebook Entry
1. Touch File in the menu bar, then Create Notebook Entry in the drop-down menu:
.
A dialog box is displayed in which to enter a title and comments for the entry. By default, the
entry is titled with the current date and time:
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2. Touch inside the Title field and enter a title, using the pop-up keyboard. Then touch inside the
Description field and enter a description, if desired, and touch Close.
The notebook entry will display your waveforms in "print colors," that is, on a white background to
save printer ink, if you selected that option in notebook Preferences. Otherwise, the waveforms
will appear on a black background. A drawing toolbar appears at top:
The pen tool enables you to write or draw in freehand. You can use a
mouse, or a stylus to do this using the touch screen. Once you click off, you
can drag your note anywhere on your waveform.
The circle tool enables you to create a circle around a waveform feature that
you want to point out. Once you click off, the circle is drawn and you can
drag it anywhere on the screen.
The arrow tool enables you to draw lines with arrowheads for callouts. You
can rotate these lines through 360 degrees and drag them to any location on
the screen.
The text tool enables you to enter text callouts on your report. When you
touch this tool, a dialog box opens in which to enter text by means of a popup keyboard:
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After you touch Close, your text will appear on the display as a draggable
object.
These are the three default colors that you can select for shapes, lines, and
text. To use additional colors, touch More.
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When you touch More, a Custom box opens with the default color yellow
displayed. Touch the yellow button to open the full color palette:
When you have chosen a custom color, touch Add to Custom Colors; the
color will appear in the Custom Colors palette:
Then touch the color to enable it, and touch OK. The next object that you
create will be in that color.
If you want to erase a drawing object, touch it to select it, then touch Erase
Selected.
Touch Erase All to erase all drawn objects and text.
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Touch Undo to discard the last object drawn.
The Move Toolbar button enables you to place the toolbar anywhere on the
screen. Touch the button a second time to return it to its original fixed
location.
Touch Done when you are finished annotating the notebook entry. The name
of the entry will appear in the list box in the "LabNotebook" dialog. You can
now create a hardcopy report of it, and email or print it out.
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Recalling Notebook Entries
After a notebook entry is made, you can recall it at any time. The recall includes waveforms and
scope settings.
1. Select the notebook entry from the list box.
2. Touch Flashback.
3. To exit Flashback, touch the Undo Flashback button in the top-right corner of the screen, or
press the Auto trigger button.
Note: The flashback feature currently recalls the DSO Setup, and all displayed waveforms. Some forms of ‘result data’
are not recalled, including:
a. Persistence data. This will be saved in the hardcopy, and will be printed in the report, but will not be recalled during
Flashback.
b. Histogram data. Histograms internally have a 32-bit resolution, but when stored into a trace file and recalled during
flashback they are clipped to 16-bits.
c. Floating point waveforms. Certain math operations result in the creation of floating point waveforms with much higher
resolution than can be stored in a 16-bit waveform file. This extra resolution will not be preserved when traces are recalled
using flashback.
d. Cumulative Measurements. Any measurements that are on when the Lab Notebook entry is created are not saved
individually in the database, other than being embedded in the hardcopy image. This means that when flashback is used,
the measurements will be recomputed using the waveform data that was recalled. Normally this will not pose a problem,
but if cumulative measurements were on, which accumulated data from multiple acquired waveforms, they will loose their
history and show instead only the results from the stored waveforms.
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Creating a Report
Once the notebook entry is created, you can easily generate a hardcopy report for e-mailing or
printing.
Previewing a Report
Before creating a report, you can preview it by simply touching the View button
exit the preview, touch the Close button at the right of the dialog.
. To
Locating a Notebook Entry
A search filter is provided to help you locate the notebook entry you want to make a report of. You
can search by date or keyword.
1. Touch the Filter button
search dialog box opens.
.A
2. Touch inside the Day, Month, and Year
fields and enter a date. Or touch inside the
Keyword field and enter a keyword or
phrase.
3. Touch Find Now. Only the entries fitting the
date or keyword criteria will now appear in
the list box.
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Creating the Report
1. Select a notebook entry in the list box
.
2. Touch inside the Format field and select a report format from the pop-up menu
3. Touch the Create Report button.
4. A dialog box opens in which to name the report and select a folder to contain the report.
Touch inside the File name field and enter a name using the pop-up keyboard.
5. If you want to e-mail or print the data to a network printer, touch More Actions, then the Print
or E-Mail button. If you select Print, a Windows dialog box will open for you to select a
printer and set options. If you select E-Mail, the report will be sent immediately to the e-mail
address configured in Utilities Preferences.
Formatting the Report
LeCroy provides a default report format (template); however, you can use your own format,
including company logo.
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1. Touch the Advanced tab.
2. Touch inside the Directory field and navigate to a folder to contain the reports.
3. Touch the Browse button next to Template to navigate to an existing report format that you
want to use. Or touch inside the Template field and enter the name and path to the template,
using the pop-up keyboard. Otherwise, touch the Use Default checkbox to use LeCroy's
format.
4. To use a logo other that the one provided, which indicates the scope that produced the report,
browse to the bit map file or touch inside the Logo field and enter the name and path to the
file, using the pop-up keyboard. Otherwise, touch the Use Default checkbox to use LeCroy's
logo:
Note: If you elect to use your own logo bit map, do not use a bit map larger than 180 pixels (height) x 100 pixels (width).
Managing Notebook Entry Data
Adding Annotations
You can add annotations to your notebook entry at any time.
1. Touch the "LabNotebook" tab.
2. Touch the notebook entry you want to annotate in the scroll list box. A new tab will appear
bearing the name of the selected notebook entry.
3. Touch the new tab, then the Scribble button
. The notebook entry will appear
again with the drawing toolbar, described in Creating a Notebook Entry.
Deleting Notebook Entries
1. Touch the "LabNotebook" tab.
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2. Touch the Delete All button
to clear the database, or Select a notebook entry in
the list box, then touch the Delete button
to discard just that one entry.
Saving Notebook Entries to a Folder
You can save notebook entries to a folder other than the default.
1. Touch the tab bearing the name of the notebook entry.
. A navigation window opens, which provides the
2. Touch the Save Data to button
opportunity also to open Windows Explorer to navigate to the folder.
3. Touch the Zip checkbox
if you want to compress the data before archiving.
Managing the Database
You can begin a new database for your notebook entries at any time, back up the current one, or
compress the data.
To Select a Database for Backup or Compression
1. Touch the Advanced tab.
2. Touch the Browse button. A navigation window opens. Navigate to the database you want to
work on
Touch Compact to reduce the size of a database. This function "defragments" the
notebook after a large amount of entries have been deleted.
Insert a memory stick into a USB port, then touch Backup to send the database to
the external media:
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To Start a New Database
Touch the Start New button. The name of the notebook database will be incremented by 1:
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