Data Sheet
DiskOnChip® Millennium Module
8MByte
Highlights
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is a member of
M-Systems’ family of DiskOnChip flash disk
products. It is available in 8MByte (MB) capacity,
32-pin DIP form factor, and replaces M-Systems’
DiskOnChip Millennium 8MB DIP product.
DiskOnChip Millennium Module features:
Single-chip, plug and play flash disk
Low power, single 3.3V or 5V power supply
8MByte capacity
Simple, easy-to-integrate interface
8KByte memory window
eXecute In Place (XIP) OS boot functionality
Proprietary TrueFFS® technology for full hard
disk emulation, high data reliability and
maximum flash lifetime
NAND-based flash technology
Software tools for programming, duplicating,
testing and debugging
Hardware Compatibility
32-pin DIP, JEDEC standard EEPROMcompatible pinout
Compatible with all major CPUs, including x86,
StrongARM, XScale, Geode® SCxxxx,
PowerPC™ MPC8xx, MediaGX, 68K, MIPS,
SuperH™ SH-x
8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit bus architecture support
Compatibility with Millennium DIP
Hardware compatibility
Pinout
Timing
Reliability
On-the-fly Reed-Solomon Error Detection
Code/Error Correction Code (EDC/ECC)
Fully software compatible (no need to upgrade
TrueFFS)
Guaranteed data integrity, even after power
failure
Same socket on the target platform can be used
when migrating from DiskOnChip Millennium
8MB DIP
Transparent bad block management
TrueFFS Software
Applications
Full hard-disk read/write emulation for
transparent file system management
Embedded systems
Internet access devices
Patented methods to extend flash lifetime,
including:
Dynamic virtual mapping
Dynamic and static wear leveling
Internet set-top boxes, interactive TVs,
web browsers
Support for all major OSs, including:
VxWorks, Windows CE, Windows NT, Linux,
Nucleus and QNX
Operates with TrueFFS Software Development
Kit (SDK) in OS-less environment
WBT, thin clients, network computers
Routers, switches, networking equipment
Web phones, Car PCs, DVD, HPC
Automotive computing
Point of sale (POS) terminals, industrial PCs
Medical equipment
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
Table of Contents
1.
Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 4
2.
Product Overview ................................................................................................................ 5
2.1 Product Description ...................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Pin Assignment............................................................................................................................. 6
2.3 System Interface........................................................................................................................... 6
2.4 Signal Descriptions ....................................................................................................................... 7
3.
Theory of Operation ............................................................................................................ 8
3.1 Major Functional Blocks ............................................................................................................... 8
3.1.1 System Interface ....................................................................................................................... 8
3.1.2 Boot Block with eXecute In Place (XIP) Capability ................................................................... 9
3.1.3 Error Detection Code/Error Correction Code (EDC/ECC) ........................................................ 9
3.1.4 Flash Control............................................................................................................................. 9
3.2 Modes of Operation ...................................................................................................................... 9
3.3 8KB Memory Window ................................................................................................................. 10
4.
TrueFFS Technology......................................................................................................... 11
4.1 General Description .................................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Built-in Operating System Support ............................................................................................. 11
4.3 TrueFFS Software Development Kit (SDK) ................................................................................ 12
4.4 File Management ........................................................................................................................ 12
4.5 Bad Block Management ............................................................................................................. 12
4.6 Wear-Leveling............................................................................................................................. 12
4.6.1 Dynamic Wear-Leveling.......................................................................................................... 12
4.6.2 Static Wear-Leveling ............................................................................................................... 13
4.7 Power Failure Management ....................................................................................................... 13
4.8 Error Detection/Correction .......................................................................................................... 13
4.9 Special Features through I/O Control (IOCTL) Mechanism ....................................................... 13
4.10 Compatibility ............................................................................................................................... 13
5.
6.
Boot Procedure in PC-Compatible Platforms ................................................................. 14
Design Considerations ..................................................................................................... 15
6.1 Design Environment ................................................................................................................... 15
6.2 System Interface......................................................................................................................... 16
6.2.1 Standard Interface................................................................................................................... 16
6.2.2 Signal Connections ................................................................................................................. 16
6.3 Platform-Specific Issues ............................................................................................................. 17
6.3.1 Wait State................................................................................................................................ 17
6.3.2 Big and Little Endian Systems ................................................................................................ 17
6.3.3 Working with 8/16/32-Bit Systems .......................................................................................... 17
6.4 Compatibility with DiskOnChip Millennium DIP 8MB.................................................................. 17
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.
Product Specifications ..................................................................................................... 18
7.1 Environmental Specifications ..................................................................................................... 18
7.1.1 Operating Temperature Ranges ............................................................................................. 18
7.1.2 DiskOnChip Assembly ............................................................................................................ 18
7.1.3 Humidity .................................................................................................................................. 18
7.1.4 Shock and Vibration ................................................................................................................ 18
7.2 Endurance .................................................................................................................................. 18
7.3 Disk Capacity.............................................................................................................................. 18
7.4 Electrical Specifications .............................................................................................................. 19
7.4.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings .................................................................................................... 19
7.4.2 Capacitance ............................................................................................................................ 19
7.4.3 DC Electrical Characteristics Over Operating Range ............................................................. 19
7.4.4 AC Operating Conditions ........................................................................................................ 20
7.5 Timing Specifications.................................................................................................................. 21
7.5.1 Read Cycle Timing.................................................................................................................. 21
7.5.2 Write Cycle Timing Standard Interface ................................................................................... 22
7.5.3 Power-Up Timing .................................................................................................................... 23
7.6 Mechanical Dimensions.............................................................................................................. 24
8.
3
Ordering Information......................................................................................................... 25
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
1.
Introduction
This data sheet includes the following sections:
Section 1:
Overview of data sheet contents
Section 2:
Product overview, including a brief product description, pin diagram and signal descriptions
Section 3:
Theory of operation for the major building blocks, including modes of operation and memory map
Section 4:
TrueFFS technology, including power failure management
Section 5:
Using DiskOnChip Millennium Module as a boot device
Section 6:
Hardware and software design considerations
Section 7:
Environmental, electrical, timing and product specifications
Section 8:
Information on ordering DiskOnChip Millennium Module
To contact M-Systems’ worldwide offices for general information and technical support, please see the listing on the
back cover, or visit M-Systems’ website (www.m-sys.com).
4
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
2.
Product Overview
2.1
Product Description
DiskOnChip Millennium Module, a member of M-Systems’ DiskOnChip product family, is a single-chip, solid-state
flash disk in a standard 32-pin DIP package that incorporates a disk controller with flash memory.
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is used in a wide range of products, such as set-top boxes, thin clients, thin
servers, network computers, and portable computers. DiskOnChip Millennium Module has a simple SRAM-like
interface for easy integration. Since DiskOnChip Millennium Module fits into a standard socket, no cables or extra
space is required (unlike IDE drives). It is easy to use and reduces integration overhead. DiskOnChip Millennium
Module is therefore a very attractive alternative to conventional hard and floppy disk drives.
M-Systems’ patented TrueFFS software technology fully emulates a hard disk to manage the files stored on
DiskOnChip Millennium Module. This transparent file system management enables read/write operations that are
identical to a standard, sector-based hard disk. In addition, TrueFFS employs various patented methods, such as
dynamic virtual mapping, dynamic and static wear-leveling, and automatic bad-block management to ensure high
data reliability and to maximize flash lifetime. TrueFFS binary drivers are available for a wide range of popular
OSs, including VxWorks, Windows CE, Windows NT, Linux, Nucleus and QNX. Customers developing for target
platforms not supported by TrueFFS binary drivers can use the TrueFFS Software Development Kit (SDK). For
customized boot solutions, M-Systems provides the DiskOnChip Boot Software Development Kit (BDK).
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is available in 8MB capacity, and is hardware and software compatible with
DiskOnChip Millennium DIP 8MB. Only the mechanical dimensions differ slightly from DiskOnChip Millennium
DIP 8MB. Please refer to Section 7.6 for further information on mechanical dimensions.
Note: The same socket on the target platform can be used when migrating from DiskOnChip Millennium 8MB DIP
to DiskOnChip Millennium Module.
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is shipped as a plug-and-play device that is fully tested and formatted, and
programmed with a DOS driver. Future driver, software or content upgrades, or formatting, can be made on-board or
off-board using M-Systems’ DiskOnChip utilities and accessories.
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
2.2
Pin Assignment
See Figure 1 for the DiskOnChip Millennium Module pinout.
Note: Pins marked NC are not connected internally.
NC
1
32
VCC
NC
2
31
WE#
NC
3
30
NC
A12
4
29
NC
A7
5
28
NC
A6
6
27
A8
A5
7
26
A9
25
A11
24
OE#
DiskOnChip
Millennium
Module
A4
8
A3
9
A2
10
23
A10
A1
11
22
CE#
A0
12
21
D7
D0
13
20
D6
D1
14
19
D5
D2
15
18
D4
VSS
16
17
D3
Figure 1: DiskOnChip Millennium Module Pin Diagram
2.3
System Interface
See Figure 2 for a simplified I/O diagram.
A[12:0]
D[7:0]
OE#
DiskOnChip
Millennium Module
WE#
CE#
Figure 2: Simplified I/O Diagram
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
2.4
Signal Descriptions
See Table 1 for brief signal descriptions, presented in logic groups, based on the pin assignments in Figure 1.
Table 1: Signal Descriptions DiskOnChip Millennium Module
Signal
Pin No.
Input
Type
Signal
Type
Description
System Interface
A[12:0]
4-12, 23,
25-27
ST
Address bus
D[7:0]
13-15,
17-21
IN
Data bus
Input
Input/
Output
CE#
22
ST
Chip Enable, active low
Input
OE#
24
ST
Output Enable, active low
Input
WE#
31
ST
Write Enable, active low
Input
Power
VCC
32
-
Device supply. Requires a 10 nF and 0.1 µF capacitor.
Supply
VSS
16
-
Ground
Supply
Reserved
NC
1, 2, 3, 28,
29, 30
-
Not Connected. These signals are not connected internally and may
be left floating, or connected to VCC, VSS or any other logic signal.
The following abbreviations are used:
IN
Standard (non-Schmidt) input
ST
Schmidt Trigger input
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
3.
Theory of Operation
3.1
Major Functional Blocks
DiskOnChip Millennium Module consists of the following major functional blocks, as shown in Figure 3:
•
System Interface for host interface.
•
Boot Block that contains 512 bytes of boot code, usually required for recognition during the BIOS
expansion search in PC architectures.
•
Reed-Solomon-based Error Detection and Error Correction Code (EDC/ECC) for on-the-fly error
handling.
•
Flash Control block that contains registers responsible for transferring the address, data and control
information between the TrueFFS driver and the flash media.
CE#
WE#
OE#
Flash
Control
System
Interface
D[0:7]
Flash
A[0:12]
Boot Block
(512 bytes)
EDC/ECC
Figure 3: DiskOnChip Millennium Module Simplified Block Diagram
3.1.1 System Interface
The system interface block provides an easy-to-integrate SRAM/EEPROM-like interface to DiskOnChip
Millennium Module, enabling it to interface with various CPU interfaces, such as a local bus, ISA bus, SRAM
interface, EEPROM interface or any other compatible interface. In addition, the EEPROM-like interface enables
direct access to the Programmable Boot Block to permit XIP functionality during system initialization.
A 13-bit wide address bus enables access to the DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8KB memory window (as shown
in Figure 4). The Chip Enable (CE#), Write Enable (WE#) and Output Enable (OE#) signals trigger read and write
cycles. A write cycle occurs while both the CE# and the WE# inputs are asserted. Similarly, a read cycle occurs
while both the CE# and OE# inputs are asserted. Note that DiskOnChip Millennium Module does not require a clock
signal. The CE#, WE# and OE# signals trigger the controller (e.g., system interface block, bus control and data
pipeline) and flash access.
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
3.1.2 Boot Block with eXecute In Place (XIP) Capability
During boot-up, code must be executed directly from the flash media, rather than first copied to the host RAM and
then executed from there. This direct XIP code execution functionality is essential for booting.
The first 2KB and last 2KB (out of a total of 8KB) of the DiskOnChip Millennium Module memory window each
include a single programmable, fail-safe Programmable Boot Block of 512 bytes. These 512 bytes are aliased four
times in each 2KB. The last 2KB window is aliased to the first 2KB window, thereby delivering a 512-byte boot
block aliased a total of eight times.
The Programmable Boot Block can be used by the CPU to fetch and eXecute In Place (XIP) instructions at boot
time. The boot block usually includes basic hardware initialization code and the IPL (Initial Program Loader), which
loads the rest of the platform initialization code and the SPL (Secondary Program Loader). Loading the OS and
executing the application follow these steps.
In PC architectures, the boot block is responsible for replying to the BIOS expansion search. After the BIOS
identifies DiskOnChip Millennium Module as a valid BIOS expansion device, it executes the code stored in the
Programmable Boot Block. The BIOS then loads the TrueFFS software from flash memory to the host memory,
delivering full disk capabilities to the OS.
3.1.3 Error Detection Code/Error Correction Code (EDC/ECC)
NAND flash, being an imperfect memory, requires error handling. DiskOnChip Millennium Module implements
Reed-Solomon Error Detection Code (EDC). A hardware-generated, 6-byte error detection signature is computed
each time a page (512 bytes) is written to or read from DiskOnChip.
The TrueFFS driver implements complementary Error Correction Code (ECC). Unlike error detection, which is
required on every cycle, error correction is relatively seldom required, hence implemented in software. The
combination of DiskOnChip’s built-in EDC mechanism and the TrueFFS driver ensures highly reliable error
detection and correction, while providing maximum performance.
The following detection and correction capability is provided for each 512 bytes:
•
Corrects up to two 10-bit symbols, including two random bit errors.
•
Corrects single bursts up to 11 bits.
•
Detects single bursts up to 31 bits and double bursts up to 11 bits.
•
Detects up to 4 random bit errors.
3.1.4 Flash Control
The Flash Control block contains registers responsible for transferring the address, data and control information
between the TrueFFS driver and the flash media. Additional registers are used to monitor the status of the flash
media (ready/busy) and of the DiskOnChip controller.
3.2
Modes of Operation
DiskOnChip Millennium Module can operate in two modes:
•
Normal mode: The device responds to every valid hardware cycle. While in this mode, all sections respond
to valid read and write cycles.
•
Reset mode: The device ignores all write cycles, and returns predetermined values for all read cycles.
Mode changes can occur due to any of the following events:
9
•
A valid write sequence to the Control register
•
Triggering the boot detector circuit, which enables automatic driver loading in a PC environment.
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
3.3
8KB Memory Window
The memory map of the DiskOnChip Millennium Module occupies a total address space of 8KB consisting of four
2KB sections, as depicted in Figure 4 and described below.
•
Section 0: Programmable Boot Block
This section includes data that is typically used for booting code from the CPU. The available size is 512
bytes, aliased 4 times in the 2KB section.
•
Section 1: Flash Area Window
Used as a window to the flash media for data to be written or read.
•
Section 2: Control Registers
Used to control the behavior of DiskOnChip Millennium Module and the flash media.
•
Section 3: Programmable Boot Block
This section includes data that is typically used for booting code from the CPU. The available size is 512
bytes, aliased four times in the 2KB section.
When in Reset mode, read cycles from sections 1 and 2 always return the value 00H to create a fixed and known
checksum. When in Normal mode, these two sections are used for the internal registers. The 512 bytes of the
Programmable Boot Block are aliased four times, in section 0 and section 3, to support systems that search for a
checksum at the boot stage both from the top and bottom of memory. The addresses described here are relative to
the absolute starting address of the 8KB memory window.
000H
Reset Mode
Normal Mode
Boot Block
[000H-3FFH]
(4 aliases)
Boot Block
[000H-3FFH]
(4 aliases)
Section 0
800H
00H
Section 1
00H
Section 2
Flash area
window
(+ aliases)
1000H
Control
Registers
(+ aliases)
1800H
Boot Block
[000H-3FFH]
(4 aliases)
Section 3
Boot Block
[000H-3FFH]
(4 aliases)
Figure 4: DiskOnChip Millennium Module Memory Map
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
4.
TrueFFS Technology
4.1
General Description
M-Systems’ patented TrueFFS technology was designed to maximize the benefits of flash memory while
overcoming inherent flash limitations that would otherwise reduce its performance, reliability and lifetime. TrueFFS
emulates a hard disk, making it completely transparent to the OS. In addition, since it operates under the OS file
system layer (see Figure 5), it is completely transparent to the application.
Application
OS File System
TrueFFS
DiskOnChip
Figure 5: TrueFFS Location in System Hierarchy
TrueFFS technology support includes:
•
Binary driver support for all major OSs
•
TrueFFS Software Development Kit (TrueFFS SDK)
•
Boot Software Development Kit (BDK)
•
Support for all major CPUs, including 8, 16 and 32-bit bus architectures
TrueFFS technology features:
4.2
•
Block device API
•
Flash file system management
•
Bad-block management
•
Dynamic virtual mapping
•
Dynamic and static wear-leveling
•
Power failure management
•
Implementation of Reed-Solomon EDC/ECC
•
Performance optimization
•
Compatibility with all DiskOnChip products
Built-in Operating System Support
The TrueFFS driver is integrated into all major OSs including: Windows CE, Windows NT, Symbian, Linux
(various kernels), VxWorks, Nucleus, pSOS, QNX, DOS, and others. For a complete listing of all available drivers,
please refer to M-Systems’ website http://www.m-sys.com. It is advised to use the latest driver versions that can be
downloaded from the DiskOnChip Millennium Module web page on the M-Systems site.
11
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
4.3
TrueFFS Software Development Kit (SDK)
The basic TrueFFS Software Development Kit (SDK) provides the source code of the TrueFFS driver. It can be used
in an OS-less environment or when special customization of the driver is required for proprietary OSs.
When storing the OS image in a separate partition, TrueFFS SDK also incorporates in its source code the BDK,
software that is required for this configuration (this package is also available separately). Please refer to the
DiskOnChip Boot Software Development Kit (BDK) developer guide for further information on the usage of this
software package.
4.4
File Management
TrueFFS accesses the flash memory within DiskOnChip Millennium Module through an 8KB window in the CPU
memory space. It provides block device API by using standard file system calls, identical to those used by a
mechanical hard disk, to enable reading from and writing to any sector on DiskOnChip. This makes it compatible
with any file system and file system utilities, such as diagnostic tools and applications. When using the File
Allocation Table (FAT) file system, the data stored on DiskOnChip uses FAT-16.
Note:
4.5
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is shipped formatted and contains the FAT file system.
Bad Block Management
NAND flash, being an imperfect storage media, contains some bad blocks that cannot be used for storage because of
their high error rates. TrueFFS automatically detects and maps bad blocks upon system initialization, ensuring that
they are not used for storage. This management process is completely transparent to the user, who is unaware of the
existence and location of bad blocks, while remaining confident of the integrity of data stored.
4.6
Wear-Leveling
Flash memory can be erased a limited number of times. This number is called the erase cycle limit or write
endurance limit and is defined by the flash array vendor. The erase cycle limit applies to each individual erase block
in the flash device. In DiskOnChip Millennium Module, the erase cycle limit of the flash is 1,000,000 erase cycles.
This means that after approximately 1,000,000 erase cycles, the erase block begins to make storage errors at a rate
significantly higher than the error rate that is typical to the flash.
In a typical application and especially if a file system is used, a specific page or pages are constantly updated (e.g.,
the page/s that contain the FAT, registry etc.). Without any special handling, these pages would wear out more
rapidly than other pages, reducing the lifetime of the entire flash.
To overcome this inherent deficiency, TrueFFS uses M-Systems' patented wear-leveling algorithm. The wearleveling algorithm ensures that consecutive writes of a specific sector are not written physically to the same page
in the flash. This spreads flash media usage evenly across all pages, thereby maximizing flash lifetime. TrueFFS
wear-leveling extends the flash lifetime 10 to 15 years beyond the lifetime of a typical application.
4.6.1 Dynamic Wear-Leveling
TrueFFS uses statistical allocation to perform dynamic wear-leveling on newly written data. This not only
minimizes the number of erase cycles per block, it also minimizes the total number of erase cycles. Because a block
erase is the most time-consuming operation, dynamic wear-leveling has a major impact on overall performance. This
impact cannot be noticed during the first write to flash (since there is no need to erase blocks beforehand), but it is
more and more noticeable as the flash media becomes full.
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Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
4.6.2 Static Wear-Leveling
Areas on the flash media may contain static files, characterized by blocks of data that remain unchanged for very
long periods of time, or even for the whole device lifetime. If wear-leveling were only applied on newly written
pages, static areas would never be cycled. This limited application of wear-leveling would lower life expectancy
significantly in cases where flash memory contains large static areas. To overcome this problem, TrueFFS forces
data transfer in static areas as well as in dynamic areas, thereby applying wear-leveling to the entire media.
4.7
Power Failure Management
TrueFFS uses algorithms based on “erase after write” instead of "erase before write" to ensure data integrity during
normal operation and in the event of a power failure. Used areas are reclaimed for erasing and writing the flash
management information into them only after an operation is complete. This procedure serves as a check on data
integrity.
The “erase after write” algorithm is also used to update and store mapping information on the flash memory. This
keeps the mapping information coherent even during power failures. The only mapping information held in RAM is
a table pointing to the location of the actual mapping information. This table is reconstructed during power-up or
after reset from the information stored in the flash memory.
To prevent data from being lost or corrupted, TrueFFS uses the following mechanisms:
4.8
•
When writing, copying, or erasing the flash device, the data format remains valid at all intermediate stages.
Previous data is never erased until the operation has been completed and the new data has been verified.
•
A data sector cannot exist in a partially written state. Either the operation is successfully completed, in
which case the new sector contents are valid, or the operation has not yet been completed or has failed, in
which case the old sector contents remain valid.
Error Detection/Correction
TrueFFS implements a Reed-Solomon Error Correction Code (ECC) algorithm to ensure data reliability. Refer to
Section 3.1.3 for further information on the EDC/ECC mechanism.
4.9
Special Features through I/O Control (IOCTL) Mechanism
In addition to standard storage device functionality, the TrueFFS driver provides extended functionality. This
functionality goes beyond simple data storage capabilities to include features such as: format the media, read/write
protect, binary partition(s) access, flash defragmentation and other options. This unique functionality is available in
all TrueFFS-based drivers through the standard I/O control command of the native file system.
For further information, please refer to Extended Functions of the TrueFFS Driver for DiskOnChip developer guide,
available on M-Systems’ website (www.m-sys.com).
4.10 Compatibility
The TrueFFS driver supports all released DiskOnChip products. Upgrading from one product to another requires no
additional software integration.
Note: When migrating from DiskOnChip Millennium 8MB DIP, no software change is required.
When using different drivers (e.g. TrueFFS SDK, BDK, BIOS extension firmware, etc.) to access DiskOnChip
Millennium Module, the user must verify that all software is based on the same code base version. It is also
important to use only tools (e.g. DFORMAT, DINFO, GETIMAGE, etc.) derived from the same version as the
firmware version and the TrueFFS drivers used in the application. Failure to do so may lead to unexpected results,
such as lost or corrupted data. The driver and firmware version can be verified by the sign-on messages displayed, or
by the version information stored in the driver or tool.
13
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
5.
Boot Procedure in PC-Compatible Platforms
The DiskOnChip Millennium Module default firmware contains drivers to enable it to perform as the OS boot
device under DOS. For other OSs, please refer to the TrueFFS driver readme file.
When used in PC-compatible platforms, DiskOnChip Millennium Module is connected to an 8KB memory window
in the BIOS expansion memory range, typically located between 0C8000H to 0EFFFFH. During the boot process,
the BIOS loads the TrueFFS firmware into the PC memory and installs DiskOnChip Millennium Module as a disk
drive in the system. When the operating system is loaded, DiskOnChip Millennium Module is recognized as a
standard disk. No external software is required to boot from DiskOnChip. Figure 6 illustrates the location of the
DiskOnChip Millennium Module memory window in the PC memory map.
Extended Memory
0FFFFFH
BIOS
1M
0F0000H
8k
DiskOnChip
0C8000H
Display
0B0000H
640k
RAM
0
Figure 6: DiskOnChip Millennium Module Memory Window in PC Memory Map
After reset, the BIOS code first executes the Power On Self-Test (POST) and then searches for all expansion ROM
devices. When DiskOnChip is found, the BIOS code executes from it the IPL (Initial Program Loader) code, located
in the boot block. This code loads the TrueFFS driver into system memory, installs DiskOnChip Millennium
Module as a disk in the system, and then returns control to the BIOS code. The operating system subsequently
identifies DiskOnChip as an available disk. TrueFFS responds by emulating a hard disk.
From this point onward, DiskOnChip Millennium Module appears as a standard disk drive. It is assigned a drive
letter and can be used by any application, without any modifications to either the BIOS set-up or the
autoexec.bat/config.sys files. DiskOnChip Millennium Module can be used as the only disk in the system, with or
without a floppy drive, and with or without hard disks.
The drive letter assigned depends on how DiskOnChip Millennium Module is used in the system, as follows:
14
•
If DiskOnChip Millennium Module is used as the only disk in the system, the system boots directly from it
and assigns drive C.
•
If DiskOnChip Millennium Module is used with other disks in the system:
o DiskOnChip Millennium Module can be configured as the last drive (the default configuration). The
system assigns drive C to the hard disk and drive D to DiskOnChip Millennium Module.
o Alternatively, DiskOnChip Millennium Module can be configured as the system’s first drive. The
system assigns drive D to the hard disk and drive C to DiskOnChip Millennium Module.
•
If DiskOnChip Millennium Module is used as the OS boot device when configured as drive C, it must be
formatted as a bootable device by copying the OS files onto it. This is done by using the SYS command
when running DOS.
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
6.
Design Considerations
6.1
Design Environment
DiskOnChip Millennium Module provides a complete design environment consisting of:
•
Evaluation Boards (EVB) for enabling software integration and development with DiskOnChip Millennium
Module, even before the target platform is available. EVBs for ISA and PCI buses are available for
immediate plug and play usage.
•
Programming solutions:
o GANG programmer
o Programming house
•
TrueFFS Software Development Kit (SDK) and BDK
•
DOS utilities:
o DFORMAT
o GETIMG/PUTIMG
o DINFO
•
Documentation:
o Data sheet
o Application notes
o Technical notes
o Articles
o White papers
Please visit the M-Systems website (www.m-sys.com) for the most updated documentation, utilities and drivers.
15
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
6.2
System Interface
6.2.1 Standard Interface
DiskOnChip Millennium Module uses an SRAM-like interface that can easily be connected to any microprocessor
bus. With a standard interface, it requires 13 address lines, 8 data lines and basic memory control signals (CE#,
OE#, WE#), as shown in Figure 7. Typically, DiskOnChip Millennium Module can be mapped to any free 8KB
memory space. In a PC-compatible platform, it is usually mapped into the BIOS expansion area. If the allocated
memory window is larger than 8KB, an automatic anti-aliasing mechanism prevents the firmware from being loaded
more than once during the ROM expansion search.
5V
0.1 uF
Address
A[12:0]
Data
D[7:0]
Output Enable
10 nF
VCC
DiskOnChip
Millennium Module
OE#
Write Enable
WE#
Chip Enable
CE#
VSS
Figure 7: DiskOnChip Millennium Module System Interface
Notes: 1.
2.
The 0.1 µF and 10 nF low-inductance high-frequency capacitors must be attached to the device’s VCC
pin. These capacitors must be placed as close as possible to the package leads.
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is an edge-sensitive device. CE#, OE# and WE# should be properly
terminated (according to board layout, serial parallel or both terminations) to avoid signal ringing.
6.2.2 Signal Connections
DiskOnChip Millennium Module uses standard SRAM-like control signals, which should be connected as follows:
•
Address (A[12:0]) – To the host address bus.
•
Data (D[7:0]) – To the host data bus.
•
Write (WE#) and Output Enable (OE#) – To the host WR# and RD# signals, respectively.
•
Chip Enable (CE#) – To the memory address decoder.
DiskOnChip Millennium Module derives its internal clock signal from the CE#, OE# and WE# inputs. Since access
to DiskOnChip Millennium Module registers is volatile, much like a FIFO or UART, ensure that these signals have
clean rising and falling edges, and are free from ringing that can be interpreted as multiple edges. PC board traces
for these three signals must either be kept short or properly terminated to guarantee proper operation.
16
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
6.3
Platform-Specific Issues
The following section describes hardware design issues.
6.3.1 Wait State
Wait states can be implemented only when DiskOnChip Millennium Module is designed in a bus that supports a
Wait state insertion, and supplies a WAIT signal.
6.3.2 Big and Little Endian Systems
PowerPC, ARM, and other RISC processors can use either Big or Little Endian systems. DiskOnChip uses the Little
Endian system. Therefore, bits D[7:0] are its Least Significant Byte (LSB). Within the byte, bit D0 and bit D8 are
the least significant bits. When connecting DiskOnChip Millennium Module to a device that supports the Big
Endian system, make sure that the bytes of the CPU and DiskOnChip Millennium Module match.
Note: Certain processors, such as PowerPC, also change the bit ordering within the bytes. Failing to follow the
designated order results in improper connection of DiskOnChip Millennium Module and prevents the
TrueFFS driver from identifying DiskOnChip Millennium Module.
For further information on how to connect DiskOnChip Millennium Module to support CPUs that use the Big
Endian system, refer to the application note for the relevant CPU.
6.3.3 Working with 8/16/32-Bit Systems
TrueFFS supports a wide range of OSs (see Section 4.2). The TrueFFS driver is set to work in 8-bit data access
mode as the default. To support 16-bit/32-bit data access modes and their related memory window allocations,
TrueFFS must be modified:
•
For 16-bit address boundary shifts, shift the address lines by one, so that the host address line A1 connects
to DiskOnChip Millennium Module address line A0, the host address line A2 connects to DiskOnChip
Millennium Module line A1, and so on.
•
For 32-bit address boundary shifts, shift the address lines by two, so that the host address line A2 connects
to DiskOnChip Millennium Module address line A0, the host address line A3 connects to DiskOnChip
2000 line A1, and so on.
In Windows CE and Windows NT Embedded, these changes can be implemented through the registry entries. In all
other cases, some minor customization is required in the driver. Please refer to the readme of each specific driver for
further information.
6.4
Compatibility with DiskOnChip Millennium DIP 8MB
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is fully hardware and software compatible with DiskOnChip Millennium DIP
8MB. No software change is required, and the same TrueFFS version can be used. The same pinout is retained, and
the timing specifications are identical. The only difference is in the mechanical dimensions (see Section 7.6 for the
specifications).
17
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.
Product Specifications
7.1
Environmental Specifications
7.1.1 Operating Temperature Ranges
Commercial Temperature Range:
0°C to 70°C
Storage Temperature Range:
-50°C to +85°C
7.1.2 DiskOnChip Assembly
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is not hermetically sealed. Therefore, it must be assembled after the PCB goes
through its final rinse. Assembling DiskOnChip Millennium Module prior to the final rinse phase may cause it to
absorb moisture. Failure to adhere to these assembly instructions can lead to device failure not covered by MSystems' warranty.
Note: DiskOnChip Millennium Module requires a DIP socket on the target platform. Due to its plastic shell and
molding material, it cannot be soldered directly to the platform.
7.1.3 Humidity
10% to 90% relative, non-condensing.
7.1.4 Shock and Vibration
Table 2: Reliability Tests
Reliability Test
Test Conditions
Reference Standard
Vibration
100Hz~2000Hz, 15G peak, 3 cycles per axis (1hr.), 3 axes
STD-202F, Method 204D
Mechanical Shock
Half sine shock 50G, 11msec, +/-3 shock per axis, 3 axes
STD-202F, Method 213B
7.2
Endurance
DiskOnChip Millennium Module is based on NAND flash technology, which guarantees a minimum of 1,000,000
erase cycles. Due to the TrueFFS wear-leveling algorithm, the life span of all DiskOnChip products is significantly
prolonged. M-Systems’ website (www.m-sys.com) provides an online life-span calculator to facilitate applicationspecific endurance calculations.
7.3
Disk Capacity
Table 3: Disk Capacity (Bytes)
DOS 6.22 (TrueFFS Report)
DOS 6.22
Formatted Capacity
Sectors
Formatted Capacity
Sectors
8,151,040
15,920
8,128,512
15,876
Note: DiskOnChip Millennium Module is shipped formatted and contains the FAT file system.
18
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.4
Electrical Specifications
7.4.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
Table 4: Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Rating1
Symbol
DC supply voltage
Unit
Notes
VCC
-0.3 to 6.0
V
VIN
2
-0.3 to 6.6
V
Input pin current
IIN
-10 to 10
mA
+25°C
Lead temperature
TLEAD
260
°C
10 Sec
Input pin voltage
Notes: 1.
Permanent device damage may occur if absolute maximum ratings are exceeded. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
2.
The voltage on any pin may undershoot to -2.0V or overshoot to 8.6V for <20ns.
7.4.2 Capacitance
Table 5: Capacitance
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Input Capacitance
CIN
VIN =0V
5
12
pF
Output Capacitance
COUT
VOUT = 0V
8
12
pF
7.4.3 DC Electrical Characteristics Over Operating Range
See Table 6 and Table 7 and for DC characteristics for VCC=3.3V or VCC=5V.
Table 6: DC Characteristics VCC=3.3V
Parameter
Supply Voltage
High-level Input Voltage
Low-level Input Voltage
Conditions
VCC
VIH
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
VCC = 3.6V
2.1
V
VIL
0.7
V
Hysteresis
VHYS
All inputs
0.4
V
High-level Output Voltage
VOH
IOH = IOHMAX
2.4
V
Low-level Output Voltage
VOL
IOL = IOLMAX
Maximum High Level Output
Current
IOHMAX
Maximum Low Level Output
Current
IOLMAX
Input Leakage Current
Active Supply Current
19
Symbol
0.4
3.0 < VCC <3.6
D outputs
-5
mA
VCC < 3.0V
D outputs
-2
mA
VCC > 3.3V
16
mA
VCC < 4.5V
D outputs
5
mA
IILK
ICC
V
Cycle Time = 100ns
Outpus open
VCC = 3.3V
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
16
±10
µA
30
mA
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
Parameter
Symbol
Standby Supply Current
Conditions
Min
Typ
CE# > VCC–0.2V
All other inputs:
Vin < 0.2V or Vin > VCC-0.2V
ICCS
Max
Unit
100
µA
Table 7: DC Characteristics VCC=5V
Parameter
Supply Voltage
Symbol
Conditions
VCC
High-level Input Voltage
VIH
Low-level Input Voltage
VIL
VCC = 5.5V
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
3.2
V
0.7
V
Hysteresis
VHYS
All inputs
0.4
V
High-level Output Voltage
VOH
IOH = IOHMAX
2.4
V
Low-level Output Voltage
VOL
Maximum High Level
Output Current
Maximum Low Level
Output Current
IOL = IOLMAX
IOHMAX
IOLMAX
0.4
V
VCC > 4.5V
D outputs
-16
mA
VCC < 4.5V
D outputs
-5
mA
VCC > 4.5V
D outputs
16
mA
VCC < 4.5V
D outputs
5
mA
Input Leakage Current
IILK
Active Supply Current
ICC
Cycle Time = 100ns
Outpus open
VCC = 5.0V
Standby Supply Current
ICCS
CE# > VCC–0.2V
All other inputs:
Vin < 0.2V or Vin > VCC-0.2V
25
±10
µA
45
mA
100
µA
7.4.4 AC Operating Conditions
Environmental and timing specifications are based on the following conditions.
Table 8: AC Test Conditions
Parameter
Ambient Temperature (TA)
-40°C to +85°C
Supply Voltage
5V ± 0.5V or
3.3V ± 0.3V
Input Pulse Levels
0.4V to 2.6V
Input Rise and Fall Times
5ns
Input Timing Levels
2.0V
Output Timing Levels
Output Load
20
VCCQ=2.7-3.6V
1.5V
100pF
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.5
Timing Specifications
7.5.1 Read Cycle Timing
THO(A)
TSU(A)
A[12:0]
CE#
THO(CE1)
TSU(CE0)
TSU(CE1)
THO(CE0)
OE#
TREC(OE)
TACC
WE#
THIZ(D)
TLOZ(D)
D[7:0]
Figure 8: Read Cycle Timing
Table 9: Read Cycle Timing Parameter
Symbol
3.3V
Description
Tsu(A)
Address to OE#
Tho(A)
OE#
Min
setup time
to Address hold time
1
5V
Max
Min
Unit
Max
0
0
ns
0
0
ns
Tsu(CE0)
CE#
to OE#
setup time
—
—
ns
Tho(CE0)
OE#
to CE#
hold time2
—
—
ns
Tho(CE1)
OE# or WE#
8
7
ns
Tsu(CE1)
CE#
8
7
ns
Trec(OE)
OE# negated to start of next cycle
Tacc
to WE#
to CE#
or OE#
hold time
setup time
11
Read access time (RAM)3
3
Read access time (all other addresses)
Tloz(D)
OE#
to D driven
Thiz(D)
OE#
to D Hi-Z delay
10
ns
130
85
ns
100
65
ns
20
18
20
ns
17
ns
1. CE# may be asserted any time before or after OE# is asserted. If CE# is asserted after OE#, all timing relative to when
OE# was asserted will be referenced to the time CE# was asserted.
2. CE# may be negated any time before or after OE# is negated. If CE# is negated before OE#, all timing relative to when
OE# was negated will be referenced to the time CE# was negated.
3. The boot block is located at addresses 0000~07FFH and 1800H~1FFFH. Registers located at addresses 0800H~17FFH
have a faster access time than the boot block. Access to the boot block is not required after the boot process has
completed.
21
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.5.2 Write Cycle Timing Standard Interface
T SU (A)
T HO (A)
A[12:0]
T HO (CE1
CE#
T SU (CE0)
T SU (CE1
T HO (CE0)
OE#
T REC (W E)
Tw(W E)
W E#
T SU (D)
T HO (D)
D[7:0]
Figure 9: Write Cycle Timing
Table 10: Write Cycle Parameters
Symbol
3.3V
Description
TSU (A)
Address to WE#
Tho(A)
WE#
Tw(WE)
WE# asserted width
5V
Min
setup time
Unit
0
0
ns
0
0
ns
65
46
ns
to Address hold time
1
Max
Tsu (CE0)
CE#
to WE#
setup time
--
--
ns
Tho (CE0)
WE#
to CE#
hold time2
--
--
ns
Tho (CE1)
OE# or WE#
8
7
ns
Tsu (CE1)
CE#
to WE#
8
7
ns
Trec (WE)
WE#
to start of next cycle
Tsu(D)
D to WE#
Tho (D)
WE#
to CE#
hold time
or OE#
setup time
setup time
11
10
ns
43
29
ns
0
0
to D hold time
1. CE# may be asserted any time before or after WE# is asserted. If CE# is asserted after WE#, all timing relative to WE#
asserted should be referenced to the time CE# was asserted.
2. CE# may be negated any time before or after WE# is negated. If CE# is negated before WE#, all timing relative to WE#
negated will be referenced to the time CE# was negated.
22
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.5.3 Power-Up Timing
DiskOnChip Millennium Module generates an internal reset pulse on power-up, which is asserted for a maximum of
165 ms after VCC has reached the minimum operating voltage. When the reset condition is met, DiskOnChip
Millennium Module initiates the download procedure from flash memory to the Programmable Boot Block.
Host systems accessing DiskOnChip Millennium Module for the first time must conform to the timing requirements
shown in Figure 10.
VCC Minimum
(4.5V)
TREC(VCC-CE)
VCC
TRISE(VCC)
CE#
Figure 10: Reset Timing
It is illegal for the host to access DiskOnChip Millennium Module before the internal reset signal has been negated
and the download process completed. Therefore, the host must delay TREC(VCC-CE) before the first access to
DiskOnChip Millennium Module.
Table 11: Reset Timing Parameters
Symbol
Description
Min
Trec(VCC-CE)
VCC stable to first access
165
Trise(VCC)1
VCC rise time
Max
Unit
mS
44
mS
1. Specified as the first positive crossing above 0.5V to the final positive crossing above 3.0V or 4.5V.
23
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
7.6
Mechanical Dimensions
See Figure 11 and Table 12for the mechanical dimensions of DiskOnChip Millennium Module.
Figure 11: Mechanical Dimensions of DiskOnChip Millennium Module
Table 12: Mechanical Dimensions Parameters
Millimeters (max.)
24
A
43.95
B
18.3
C
2.54
D
15.24
E
6.0
F
4.0
G
0.51
H
38.2
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
8.
Ordering Information
MD2802-D08-V
MD:
M-Systems DiskOnChip
2802:
DiskOnChip Millennium Module
D08:
Capacity: 8MB
V
Supply Voltage
Blank: 5V
V3: 3.3V
25
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
DiskOnChip Millennium Module 8MByte
How to Contact Us
Internet:
http://www.m-sys.com
General Information:
info@m-sys.com
Sales and Technical Information:
techsupport@m-sys.com
USA
M-Systems Inc.
8371 Central Ave, Suite A
Newark CA 94560
Phone: +1-510-494-2090
Fax: +1-510-494-5545
China
M-Systems China Ltd.
25A International Business Commercial Bldg.
Nanhu Rd., Lou Hu District
Shenzhen, China 518001
Phone: +86-755-2519-4732
Fax: +86-755-2519-4729
Taiwan
M-Systems Asia Ltd.
Room B, 13 F, No. 133 Sec. 3
Min Sheng East Road
Taipei, Taiwan
R.O.C.
Tel: +886-2-8770-6226
Fax: +886-2-8770-6295
Europe & Israel
M-Systems Ltd.
7 Atir Yeda St.
Kfar Saba 44425, Israel
Tel: +972-9-764-5000
Fax: +972-3-548-8666
Japan
M-Systems Japan Inc.
Asahi Seimei Gotanda Bldg., 3F
Shinagawa-ku Tokyo, 141-0022
Phone: +81-3-5423-8101
Fax: +81-3-5423-8102
© 2002 M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers, Ltd. All rights reserved.
This document is for information use only and is subject to change without prior notice. M-Systems Flash Disk Pioneers Ltd. assumes
no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. No part of this document may be reproduced, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in a retrievable manner or translated into any language or computer language, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, manual or otherwise, without prior written consent of M-Systems.
M-Systems products are not warranted to operate without failure. Accordingly, in any use of the Product in life support systems or
other applications where failure could cause injury or loss of life, the Product should only be incorporated in systems designed with
appropriate and sufficient redundancy or backup features.
Contact your local M-Systems sales office or distributor, or visit our website at www.m-sys.com to obtain the latest specifications
before placing your order.
DiskOnChip®, DiskOnChip Millennium®, DiskOnKey® and TrueFFS® are registered trademarks of M-Systems. FFD™ and
SuperMAP™ are trademarks of M-Systems. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective owners and are hereby acknowledged.
26
Data Sheet, Rev. 1.1
93-SR-008-01-8L
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