HP 7500 Switch Series FAQ

HP 7500 Switch Series FAQ
© Copyright 2013 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P. The information contained
herein is subject to change without notice. The only warranties for HP products and services are
set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such products and services.
Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. HP shall not be
liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein.
Part number:
5998-4953
Contents
Hardware ..................................................................................................................................................... 1 Q. What models does the HP 7500 Switch Series include? ................................................................... 1 Q. What MPUs does the switch support? ............................................................................................ 1 Q. What MPUs should I choose for the switch? ................................................................................... 2 Q. Can different MPU models be used on the same switch? .................................................................. 3 Q. What are the specifications for the CPU, memory, and flash of the MPUs supported by the
switch? ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Q. Does the switch support CF cards? Are the CF cards hot swappable? ................................................ 3 Q. Are there any compatibility issues between the switch's MPUs and LPUs? ........................................... 4 Q. How do I identify a card name? ................................................................................................... 4 Q. What is wire speed? ................................................................................................................... 4 Q. What LPUs does the switch support? ............................................................................................. 4 Q. What 7500 LPUs support PoE? What PoE types can these LPUs provide? ........................................... 6 Q. Do any 7500 LPUs provide 40G interfaces? What transceiver modules and cables are
available for 40G interfaces? ....................................................................................................... 7 Q. What transceiver modules and cables are available for the 10-Gigabit fiber interface cards
on the switch? ............................................................................................................................ 8 Q. What transceiver modules are available for the Gigabit fiber interface cards on the switch?
............................................................................................................................................... 11 Q. What transceiver modules are available for the 100-Mbps fiber interface cards on the
switch? ..................................................................................................................................... 12 Q. Does the switch support hot swapping of LPUs, fans, and power supplies? ........................................ 13 Q. What power supplies does the switch support? .............................................................................. 13 Q. Can DC power supplies and AC power supplies be used on the same switch? .................................. 15 Q. How is the intelligent power management function implemented? .................................................... 15 Q. What protective measures do the switch power supplies adopt? ...................................................... 15 Q. What is the maximum power consumption for each switch model? ................................................... 15 Q. Can the switch automatically adjust the fan speed? ........................................................................ 15 Q. What are the operating temperature and upper and lower temperature thresholds of the
switch? ..................................................................................................................................... 15 Q. What are the requirements for grounding the switch? ..................................................................... 16 Q. How do I ground the switch? ....................................................................................................... 16 Q. What are the dust concentration and harmful gas limits in the equipment room of the switch?
............................................................................................................................................... 16 Q. How is the switch immune to EMI? ............................................................................................... 17 Q. How is the switch designed for high availability? ........................................................................... 17 System software .......................................................................................................................................... 18 Q. How do I obtain the software version of the switch? ....................................................................... 18 Q. Can I delete the running system software image file? ...................................................................... 18 Q. What patch types does the switch support? ................................................................................... 18 Q. What are the differences between hotfixes and coldfixes? ............................................................... 18 Q. How do I collect system operating information for diagnosis or troubleshooting?................................ 18 Software specifications................................................................................................................................. 18 Q. How many MAC address entries does the switch support? .............................................................. 18 Q. How many ARP entries does the switch support? ............................................................................ 19 Q. How many VLAN IDs does the switch support? .............................................................................. 19 Q. How many VLAN interfaces does the switch support? ..................................................................... 19 Q. How many route entries does the switch support?........................................................................... 19 Q. How many ACLs does the switch support? ................................................................................... 20 Link layer features ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Q. Does the switch support port mirroring? ....................................................................................... 20 Q. Does the switch support traffic mirroring? ...................................................................................... 21 Q. Does the switch support Ethernet link aggregation? ........................................................................ 21 Q. Can the switch forward traffic without any delay, packet loss, or error? ............................................. 21 Q. What spanning tree protocols does the switch support? ................................................................. 22 Q. How do I bulk-configure ports on the switch? .................................................................................23 Q. What is QinQ? Does the switch support QinQ? ............................................................................23 Q. What is selective QinQ? Does the switch support selective QinQ? ...................................................24 IP routing ................................................................................................................................................... 24 Q. What dynamic routing protocols does the switch support? ..............................................................24 Q. How are dynamic routing protocols operating in the TCP/IP protocol stack?......................................24 Q. How are the dynamic routing protocols classified? .........................................................................24 Q. What is the principle of optimal route selection? ............................................................................24 Q. What is the compatibility between routing protocols and GR, NSR, FRR, and BFD features?
.............................................................................................................................................. 25 Q. What are the differences between GR and NSR? ..........................................................................26 QoS and ACL .............................................................................................................................................. 26 Q. What ACL and QoS functions does the switch support? ..................................................................26 Q. Which directions and destinations can a QoS policy apply to? .......................................................27 Q. Which match criteria are supported for QoS traffic classification? ....................................................27 Q. What match criteria does a QoS policy support in the inbound and outbound directions? ..................27 Q. Which actions are supported in a traffic behavior? ....................................................................... 28 Q. What actions does a QoS policy support in the inbound and outbound directions? .......................... 29 Q. What congestion avoidance features does the switch support? ....................................................... 30 Security features and high availability features ............................................................................................ 30 Q. What security features does the switch support? ........................................................................... 30 Q. What authentication methods does the switch support for 802.1X? .................................................. 30 Q. What are the differences between the supported HWTACACS and RADIUS? ................................... 30 Q. If the source MAC address of an EAPOL-Start packet is a multicast or broadcast MAC
address, can the packet trigger 802.1X authentication? .................................................................. 31 Q. If the IP address of a client is a multicast or broadcast IP address, can the client trigger
802.1X authentication? ............................................................................................................... 31 Q. What's the EAD fast deployment feature supported by 802.1X? ....................................................... 31 Q. What is the dot1x timer tx-period command used for? ....................................................................32 Q. What is the dot1x timer supp-timeout command used for? ..............................................................32 Q. What is the dot1x timer server-timeout command used for? .............................................................32 Q. What is the dot1x timer handshake-period command used for? .......................................................32 Q. What is the dot1x timer quiet-period command used for? ...............................................................32 Q. What are the VLAN features supported by 802.1X? .......................................................................32 Q. How do I use Windows XP 802.1X client for 802.1X authentication? ............................................... 33 Q. When does the switch add a user to a MAC authentication guest VLAN? ........................................ 33 Q. When does the switch add a user to a MAC authentication critical VLAN? ...................................... 33 Q. What are the typical causes for MAC authentication failures? ........................................................ 33 Q. What are the port security modes? ............................................................................................. 34 Q. What high availability features does the switch support? ............................................................... 35 Q. Does the switch support Graceful Restart? .................................................................................... 35 Network management and monitoring ........................................................................................................ 35 Q. What methods are available for managing the switch? ................................................................. 35 Q. What SNMP versions does the switch support? ............................................................................ 36 Q. How is SNMP related to RMON? ............................................................................................... 36 Q. What are the sampling mechanisms of sFlow?.............................................................................. 36 IP multicast ................................................................................................................................................. 36 Q. What IP multicast protocols does the switch support?..................................................................... 36 Q. What networking modes and solutions are available for IPTV application? .......................................37 Q. What are the multicast specifications of the switch? ........................................................................37 Q. How do I deploy multicast services for users in different VLANs? ......................................................37 Q. What benefits does the multicast VLAN feature provide? ................................................................37 Q. What types of multicast VLANs are available? ..............................................................................37 MPLS .......................................................................................................................................................... 38 Q. What MPLS features are supported by the switch? ........................................................................ 38 Q. What L2VPN features are supported by the switch? ...................................................................... 38 IRF ............................................................................................................................................................. 38 Q. Do all HP 7500 models support IRF? ........................................................................................... 39 Q. How many chassis can an HP 7500 IRF fabric have? .................................................................... 39 Q. What are the basic hardware and software requirements for setting up an IRF fabric? ....................... 39 Q. Can HP 7500 switches form an IRF fabric if they run different software versions? .............................. 39 Q. Can MPUs in an IRF fabric run different software versions? ............................................................ 39 Q. Can IRF member chassis use duplicate member IDs? ..................................................................... 39 Q. What member IDs can I assign to member chassis? ...................................................................... 39 Q. Are there any special requirements for connecting IRF member chassis?........................................... 40 Q. Why must I bind physical ports to an IRF port? ............................................................................. 40 Q. What ports can I use as IRF physical ports? ................................................................................. 40 Q. What are the differences between the normal mode and enhanced mode for an IRF
physical port? ........................................................................................................................... 40 Q. What types of transceiver modules and cables can I use to connect IRF physical ports? ..................... 40 Q. Can one HP 7500 model form an IRF fabric with other HP 7500 models? ....................................... 40 Q. Are there any restrictions for MPUs in an IRF fabric? ...................................................................... 40 Q. Are there any restrictions for LPUs in an IRF fabric?......................................................................... 41 Q. What topologies does IRF support? .............................................................................................. 41 Q. How does a chassis in a daisy-chained IRF fabric determine the forwarding path for a
cross-chassis unicast frame?......................................................................................................... 41 Q. How does a chassis in a ring-topology IRF fabric choose a forwarding path from multiple
paths for a cross-chassis unicast frame? ........................................................................................ 41 Q. How does an IRF member chassis process broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast
traffic? ......................................................................................................................................42 Q. How does the interface number of a physical interface change after IRF mode is enabled
on the chassis? ..........................................................................................................................42 Q. How do the MPUs in an IRF fabric operate? ..................................................................................42 Q. Can I remove all the MPUs in a subordinate chassis? .................................................................... 43 Q. Can I install only one MPU in each IRF member chassis? ............................................................... 43 Q. Why must I reboot the master chassis instead of rebooting only global active MPU for a
manual master/subordinate switchover between chassis? ............................................................... 43 Q. What methods are available for detecting IRF splits? ..................................................................... 43 Q. What are the differences between LACP MAD and BFD MAD? ...................................................... 44 Q. Can I use LACP MAD and BFD MAD in the same IRF fabric? ......................................................... 45 Q. Can I use any LACP-capable device as the intermediate device for LACP MAD? ............................... 45 Q. What devices can be used as an intermediate device for LACP MAD? ............................................ 45 Q. Can I run LACP MAD on any Ethernet link aggregation? ............................................................... 45 Q. What should I do if the intermediate device for LACP MAD is also in an IRF fabric? .......................... 45 Q. How do I deploy links for BFD MAD? .......................................................................................... 45 Q. Can I use VLAN 1 as a BFD VLAN? ............................................................................................ 46 Q. Can I configure other features on the BFD MAD VLAN?................................................................. 46 Q. Can different IRF fabrics in a network use the same BFD MAD VLAN? ............................................. 46 Q. How does MAD handle an IRF split? ........................................................................................... 46 Q. How do I recover an IRF fabric? ................................................................................................. 46 Q. Why are ports that were shut down by MAD still down after an IRF merge? ..................................... 46 Q. What is local-first load sharing? ................................................................................................. 46 HP 7500 Switch Series FAQ
Hardware
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about the switch hardware.
Q. What models does the HP 7500 Switch Series include?
A. The HP 7500 Switch Series includes the following models:
Product code
Description
JD242B
HP 7502 Switch Chassis
JD243B
HP 7503-S Switch Chassis
JD240B
HP 7503 Switch Chassis
JD239B
HP 7506 Switch Chassis
JD241B
HP 7506-V Switch Chassis
JD238B
HP 7510 Switch Chassis
Q. What MPUs does the switch support?
A. The switch supports the following MPUs:
Product code
Description
JD196A
HP 7502 Main Processing Unit
JC697A
HP 7502 TAA-compliant Main Processing Unit
JD220A
HP 7510 768 Gbps Fabric / Main Processing Unit
JC701A
HP 7510 768 Gbps TAA-compliant Fabric / Main Processing Unit
JD222A
JC698A
JD193B
JC699A
MPU model
LSQ1MPUA0
LSQ1SRPD0
HP 7503-S 144 Gbps Fabric / Main Processing Unit with 16 GbE
SFP Ports and 8 GbE Combo Ports
HP 7503-S 144 Gbps TAA Fabric / Main Processing Unit with 16
LSQ1CGP24TSC0
GbE SFP Ports and 8 GbE Combo Ports
HP 7500 384 Gbps Fabric / Main Processing Unit with 2 10-GbE
XFP Ports
HP 7500 384 Gbps TAA-compliant Fabric / Main Processing Unit
with 2 10-GbE XFP Ports
1
LSQ1SRP2XB0
Product code
Description
JD194B
HP 7500 384 Gbps Fabric / Main Processing Unit
JC700A
HP 7500 384 Gbps TAA-compliant Fabric / Main Processing Unit
JD195A
HP 7500 384 Gbps Fabric / Advanced Main Processing Unit
JC666A
MPU model
HP 7503-S 144 Gbps Fabric / Main Processing Unit with
PoE-upgradable 20p Gig-T / 4p GbE Combo
LSQ1SRPB0
LSQ1SRP1CB0
LSQ1CGV24PSC0
Q. What MPUs should I choose for the switch?
A. Use the following matrix when you choose MPUs for a 7500 switch:
MPU
7502
7503-S
7503
7506
7510
7506-V
LSQ1MPUA0
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
LSQ1CGP24TSC0
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
LSQ1CGV24PSC0
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
LSQ1SRPB0 (Salience
VI)
LSQ1SRPD0
(Salience VI-Plus)
LSQ1SRP1CB0
(Salience VI-Turbo)
LSQ1SRP2XB0
(Salience VI-10GE)
NOTE:
You can install two MPUs of the same model for redundancy on all 7500 switches except the 7503-S.
The 7503-S switch supports only one MPU.
2
Q. Can different MPU models be used on the same switch?
A. No. Different MPU models cannot be used on the same switch.
Q. What are the specifications for the CPU, memory, and flash of the MPUs supported by the switch?
A. The specifications for the CPU, memory, and flash of the MPUs supported by the switch are shown in the
following table:
MPU
CPU
Memory
Flash
LSQ1MPUA0
600 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
LSQ1CGP24TSC0
400 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
LSQ1CGV24PSC0
400 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
LSQ1SRPB0 (Salience VI)
600 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
LSQ1SRPD0 (Salience VI-Plus)
600 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
LSQ1SRP1CB0 (Salience VI-Turbo)
600 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
LSQ1SRP2XB0 (Salience VI-10GE)
600 MHz
512 MB
64 MB
Q. Does the switch support CF cards? Are the CF cards hot swappable?
A. Yes. All MPUs, except LSQ1CGV24PSC0 and LSQ1CGP24TSC0, support CF cards. All CF cards are hot
swappable.
CAUTION:
Before you remove a CF card from the system, use the umount command to unmount the CF card to
avoid damaging the CF card.
3
Q. Are there any compatibility issues between the switch's MPUs and LPUs?
A. No. There are no compatibility issues between the switch's MPUs and LPUs.
Q. How do I identify a card name?
A. For an MPU, the name is on the upper-left corner of the card panel. For an LPU, the name is on the upper-right
corner of the card panel.
Q. What is wire speed?
A. Wire speed means that data is transmitted on a physical medium at the maximum rate defined by the industry
standard. For example, the wire speed of a fast Ethernet link is 100 Mbps.
Q. What LPUs does the switch support?
A. The switch supports the following LPUs:
Product code
Description
LPU model
JD197B
HP 7500 48-port 100Base-FX SA Module
LSQ1FP48SA0
JD198B
HP 7500 48-port 10/100Base-TX PoE-upgradable SA Module
LSQ1FV48SA0
JD199B
HP 7500 48-port Gig-T PoE-upgradable SA Module
LSQ1GV48SA0
JC667A
HP 7500 16-port GbE SFP / 8-port GbE Combo SA Module
LSQ1GP24TSA0
JC668A
HP 7500 20-port Gig-T / 4-port GbE PoE-upgradable Combo SA
Module
LSQ1GV24PSA0
JD201A
HP 7500 2-port 10-GbE XFP SC Module
JD203B
HP 7500 24-port GbE SFP SC Module
JC704A
HP 7500 24-port GbE SFP SC TAA-compliant Module
JD204B
HP 7500 24-port Gig-T SC Module
LSQ1GT24SC0
JD205A
HP 7500 24-port GbE SFP / 2-port 10-GbE XFP SC Module
LSQ1P24XGSC0
JD206A
HP 7500 24-port Gig-T / 2-port 10-GbE XFP SC Module
LSQ1T24XGSC0
JD207A
HP 7500 12-port GbE SFP SC Module
LSQ1GP12SC0
JD210A
HP 7500 48-port Gig-T PoE-upgradable SC Module
JC709A
HP 7500 48-port Gig-T PoE-upgradable SC TAA-compliant Module
JG663A
HP 7500 48-port 1000BASE-T PoE+ SC Module
JG664A
HP 7500 48-port 1000BASE-T PoE+ SC TAA-compliant Module
JD228B
HP 7500 40-port Gig-T / 8-port GbE SFP PoE-upgradable SC
4
LSQ1TGX2SC0
LSQ1GP24SC0
LSQ1GV48SC0
LSQ3GV48SC0
LSQ1GV40PSC0
Product code
Description
LPU model
Module
JC710A
HP 7500 40-port Gig-T / 8-port GbE SFP PoE-upgradable SC
TAA-compliant Module
JD223A
HP 7500 16-port GbE SFP / 8-port GbE Combo SC Module
LSQ1GP24TSC0
JD211B
HP 7500 48-port GbE SFP SC Module
LSQ1GP48SC0
JF290A
HP 7500 8-port 10-GbE SFP+ SC Module
JC723A
HP 7500 8-port 10-GbE SFP+ SC TAA-compliant Module
JC669A
HP 7500 20-port Gig-T / 4-port GbE Combo PoE-upgradable SC
Module
LSQ1TGS8SC0
LSQ1GV24PSC0
JC792A
HP 7500 4-port 40GbE QSFP+ SC Module
LSQ1QGS4SC0
JG373A
HP 7500 4-port 40GbE CFP SC Module
LSQ1QGC4SC0
JD191A
HP 7500 8-port 10-GbE XFP SD Module
JC713A
HP 7500 8-port 10-GbE XFP SD TAA-compliant Module
JD229B
HP 7500 48-port Gig-T PoE+ SD Module
JC712A
HP 7500 48-port Gig-T PoE+ SD TAA-compliant Module
JD230A
HP 7500 24-port GbE SFP / 2-port 10-GbE XFP SD Module
JC714A
HP 7500 24-port GbE SFP / 2-port 10-GbE XFP SD TAA-compliant
HP 7500 2-port 10-GbE XFP SD Module
JD234A
HP 7500 16-port GbE SFP / 8-port GbE Combo SD Module
HP 7500 16-port GbE SFP / 8-port GbE Combo SD TAA-compliant
HP 7500 4-port 10-GbE XFP SD Module
JC719A
HP 7500 4-port 10-GbE XFP SD TAA-compliant Module
JD237A
HP 7500 48-port GbE SFP SD Module
JC721A
HP 7500 48-port GbE SFP SD TAA-compliant Module
JD221A
HP 7500 48-port GbE SFP EB Module
JD231A
HP 7500 16-port GbE SFP / 8-port GbE Combo EB Module
JD232A
LSQ1GP24TXSD0
LSQ1TGX2SD0
LSQ1GP24TSD0
Module
JD235A
JC715A
LSQ1GV48SD0
Module
JD236A
JC718A
LSQ1TGX8SD0
HP 7500 16-port GbE SFP / 8-port GbE Combo EB TAA-compliant
LSQ1TGX4SD0
LSQ1GP48SD0
LSQ1GP48EB0
LSQ1GP24TEB0
Module
HP 7500 4-port 10-GbE XFP EB Module
5
LSQ1TGX4EB0
Product code
Description
JC716A
HP 7500 4-port 10-GbE XFP EB TAA-compliant Module
JD233A
HP 7500 2-port 10-GbE XFP EB Module
JG639A
HP 10500/7500 20G Unified Wired-WLAN Module
JG645A
LPU model
HP 10500/7500 20G Unified Wired-WLAN TAA-compliant
LSQ1TGX2EB0
LSU3WCMD0
Module
JG372A
HP 10500/11900/7500 20Gbps VPN Firewall module
LSU1FWCEA0
JD249A
HP 7500 VPN Firewall Module
LSQ1FWBSC0
JD252A
HP 7500 Load Balancing Module
LSQ1LBSC0
JD254A
HP 7500 NetStream Monitoring Module
LSQ1NSMSC0
JD253A
HP 7500 SSL VPN Module with 500-user License
LSQ1SSLSC0
Q. What 7500 LPUs support PoE? What PoE types can these LPUs provide?
A. The PoE powering types include type 1 and type 2.
•
Type 1—A port provides power of 0 to 15.4 W, voltage of 44 V to 57 V, and maximum current of 350 mA.
This type is applicable to class 0 through class 3 PDs.
•
Type 2—A port provides power of 0 to 30 W, voltage of 50 V to 57 V, and maximum current of 600 mA.
This type is applicable to class 0 through class 4 PDs.
The following table describes 7500 LPUs that support PoE as well as the PoE types that these LPUs can provide:
PoE LPU
Number of
PoE-capable ports
Compatible PoE DIMM module
LSQ1GV48SD0
48
No PoE DIMM is needed for supplying
LSQ3GV48SC0
48
power through PoE
LSQ1CGV24PSC0
24
LSQ1GV24PSC0
24
LSQ1GV24PSA0
24
LSQ1FV48SA0
48
LSQ1GV48SA0
48
LSQ1GV48SC0
48
LSQ1GV40PSC0
40
PoE type
Type1, Type2
HP 7500 24-port PoE DIMM(JC671A)
Type 1
HP 7500 48-port PoE DIMM(JD192B)
6
CAUTION:
The maximum PoE output power provided by the LSQ1GV48SD0 and LSQ3GV48SC0 is 806 W. The
total PoE power provided by the ports on the card cannot exceed 806 W.
Q. Do any 7500 LPUs provide 40G interfaces? What transceiver modules and cables are available for 40G
interfaces?
A. Yes. The following table describes LPUs that provide 40G interfaces as well as transceiver modules and
cables available for 40G interfaces:
LPU model
Description
Connector
Number of
interfaces
Interface
transmission
rate
Available transceiver
modules and cables
4-port 40-G
LSQ1QGS4S
C0
• QSFP+ module
optical Ethernet
interface
MPO
4
• QSFP+ cable
40 Gbps
(QSFP+, MPO)
• QSFP+ to SFP+ cable
card
LSQ1QGC4S
C0
4-port 40-G
optical interface
LC
4
• CFP module
40 Gbps
(CFP) card
The transceiver module and cable specifications are as follows:
•
CFP module specifications:
Product code
JC857A
•
Description
HP X140 40G CFP LC LR4
10km SM Transceiver
Central
wavelength(nm)
Fiber
diameter (μm)
1310
9/125
10 km (6.21
miles)
QSFP+ module specifications:
Product
code
Description
Connector
Fiber
specifications
Multimode
fiber modal
bandwidth
(MHz*km)
JG325A
•
Maximum
transmission
distance
HP X140 40G QSFP+
MPO SR4 Transceiver
MULTIMODE
MPO
50/125μm
OM3
QSFP+ cable specifications:
7
2000
Maximum
transmission
distance
100 m (328.08
ft)
Product code
JG326A
JG327A
JG328A
•
Description
Cable length
HP X240 40G QSFP+ QSFP+ 1m
Direct Attach Copper Cable
HP X240 40G QSFP+ QSFP+ 3m
Direct Attach Copper Cable
HP X240 40G QSFP+ QSFP+ 5m
Direct Attach Copper Cable
Remarks
1 m (3.28 ft)
3 m (9.84 ft)
Used for connecting 40 G
QSFP+ ports.
5 m (16.40 ft)
QSFP+ to SFP+ cable specifications:
Product code
Description
Cable length
Remarks
HP X240 40G QSFP+ to 4x10G
JG329A
SFP+ 1m Direct Attach Copper
1 m (3.28 ft)
Splitter Cable
HP X240 40G QSFP+ to 4x10G
JG330A
SFP+ 3m Direct Attach Copper
Used for connecting 40 GE
3 m (9.84 ft)
Splitter Cable
QSFP+ ports and 10 GE SFP+
ports.
HP X240 40G QSFP+ to 4x10G
JG331A
SFP+ 5m Direct Attach Copper
5 m (16.40 ft)
Splitter Cable
Q. What transceiver modules and cables are available for the 10-Gigabit fiber interface cards on the switch?
A. 10-Gigabit fiber interfaces include XFP interfaces and SFP+ interfaces.
•
An XFP interface supports the following XFP transceiver modules:
Product
Code
Description
Central
wavelength
(nm)
Fiber
diameter
(μm)
Multimode
fiber modal
bandwidth
(MHz*km)
2000
50/125
JD117B
HP X130 10G XFP LC SR
Transceiver
850
62.5/125
JD108B
HP X130 10G XFP LC LR
Transceiver
1310
9/125
8
Max
transmission
distance
300 m (984.25
ft)
500
82 m(269.03 ft)
400
66 m(216.54 ft)
220
33 m (108.27 ft)
160
26 m (85.3 ft)
N/A
10 km (6.21
miles)
Product
Code
JD121A
JD107A
Description
HP X135 10G XFP LC ER
Transceiver
HP X130 10G XFP LC ZR
Transceiver
Central
wavelength
Multimode
fiber modal
bandwidth
(nm)
Fiber
diameter
(μm)
1550
9/125
N/A
1550
9/125
N/A
1538.98
9/125
N/A
1539.77
9/125
N/A
1540.56
9/125
N/A
1542.14
9/125
N/A
1542.94
9/125
N/A
1558.98
9/125
N/A
1559.79
9/125
N/A
1560.61
9/125
N/A
(MHz*km)
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG226A
80km 1538.98nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG227A
80km 1539.77nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG228A
80km 1540.56nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG229A
80km 1542.14nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG230A
80km 1542.94nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG231A
80km 1558.98nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG232A
80km 1559.79nm
DWDM Transceiver
HP X180 10G XFP LC LH
JG233A
80km 1560.61nm
DWDM Transceiver
Max
transmission
distance
40 km (24.86
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
80 km (49.71
miles)
NOTE:
The 9/125μm single-mode fibers used by modules JG226A through JG233A should conform to ITU-T
G.655. Fibers used by other modules should conform to ITU-T G.652.
•
An SPF+ interface supports the following SPF+ transceiver modules and SPF+ cables:
{
SPF+ transceiver modules:
9
Product
Code
Description
Central
wavelength
(nm)
Fiber diameter
(μm)
Multimode
fiber modal
bandwidth
(MHz*km)
300 m (984.25
2000
50/125
JD092B
HP X130 10G SFP+
LC SR Transceiver
850
62.5/125
50/125
JD093B
HP X130 10G SFP+
LC LRM Transceiver
1310
JD094B
JG234
A
{
HP X130 10G SFP+
LC LR Transceiver
ft)
500
82 m (269.03 ft)
400
66 m (216.54 ft)
200
33 m (108.27 ft)
160
26 m (85.3 ft.)
1500
220 m (721.78
500
ft)
100 m (328.08
400
62.5/125
ft)
200
220 m (721.78
160
ft)
1310
9/125
N/A
1550
9/125
N/A
10 km (6.21
miles)
HP X130 10G SFP+
LC ER 40km
Maximum
transmission
distance
40 km (24.86
miles)
Transceiver
SFP+ cables:
Product
Code
JD096C
JD097C
JG081C
JC784C
Description
Cable length
HP X240 10G SFP+ SFP+ 1.2m Direct
Attach Copper Cable
HP X240 10G SFP+ SFP+ 3m Direct Attach
Copper Cable
HP X240 10G SFP+ SFP+ 5m Direct Attach
Copper Cable
HP X240 10G SFP+ SFP+ 7m Direct Attach
Copper Cable
10
Cable
type
Description
1.2 m (3.94 ft)
3 m (9.84 ft)
5 m (16.40 ft)
7m (22.97 ft)
SFP+
cable
Used for
connecting
SFP+ ports
Q. What transceiver modules are available for the Gigabit fiber interface cards on the switch?
A. The following transceiver modules are available for Gigabit fiber interface cards on the switch:
Product
Code
JD089B
Central
wavelength
Description
(nm)
HP X120 1G SFP RJ45 T
Transceiver
Fiber
diameter
(μm)
Category-5
N/A
twisted pair
50/125
JD118B
HP X120 1G SFP LC SX
Transceiver
850
62.5/125
9/125
JD119B
JD061A
JD062A
JD063B
JD103A
HP X120 1G SFP LC LX
Transceiver
HP X125 1G SFP LC LH40
1310nm Transceiver
HP X120 1G SFP LC LH40
1550nm Transceiver
HP X125 1G SFP LC LH70
Transceiver
HP X120 1G SFP LC LH100
Transceiver
1310
50/125
Multimode
fiber modal
bandwidth
(MHz*km)
Maximum
transmission
distance
N/A
100 m (328.08 ft)
500
550 m (1804.46 ft)
400
500 m (1640.42 ft)
200
275 m (902.23 ft)
160
220 m (721.78 ft)
N/A
10 km (6.21 miles)
500
400
550 m (1804.46 ft)
62.5/125
500
550 m (1804.46 ft)
1310
9/125
N/A
40 km (24.86 miles)
1550
9/125
N/A
40 km (24.86 miles)
1550
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1550
9/125
N/A
9/125
N/A
10 km (6.21 miles)
9/125
N/A
10 km (6.21 miles)
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
100 km (62.14
miles)
HP X120
JD098B
JD099B
TX: 1310nm
1G SFP LC
BX 10-U
The two
Transceiver
modules must
HP X120
be used
1G SFP LC
together.
BX 10-D
RX: 1490nm
TX: 1490nm
RX: 1310nm
Transceiver
JD113A
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1470 Transceiver
1470
11
Product
Code
JD114A
JD115A
JD116A
JD109A
JD110A
JD111A
JD112A
Central
wavelength
Description
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1490 Transceiver
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1510 Transceiver
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1530 Transceiver
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1550 Transceiver
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1570 Transceiver
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1590 Transceiver
HP X170 1G SFP LC LH70
1610 Transceiver
Multimode
fiber modal
bandwidth
(nm)
Fiber
diameter
(μm)
1490
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1510
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1530
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1550
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1570
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1590
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
1610
9/125
N/A
70 km (43.50 miles)
(MHz*km)
Maximum
transmission
distance
NOTE:
The 100/1000-Mbps SFP port of a combo interface does not support transceiver module JD089B.
Q. What transceiver modules are available for the 100-Mbps fiber interface cards on the switch?
A. The following transceiver modules are available for the 100-Mbps fiber interface cards on the switch:
Product
Code
JD102B
JD120B
JD090A
JD091A
JD100A
Central wavelength
Description
(nm)
HP X115 100M SFP LC FX
Transceiver
HP X110 100M SFP LC LX
Transceiver
HP X110 100M SFP LC LH40
Transceiver
HP X110 100M SFP LC LH80
Transceiver
HP X110 100M SFP
The
Fiber diameter
(μm)
50/125
1310
62.5/125
Maximum
transmission distance
2 km (1.24 miles)
1310
9/125
15 km (9.32 miles)
1310
9/125
40 km (24.86 miles)
1550
9/125
80 km (49.71 miles)
TX: 1310
9/125
15 km (9.32 miles)
12
Product
Code
Central wavelength
Description
(nm)
LC BX 10-U
two
Transceiver
modu
Fiber diameter
(μm)
Maximum
transmission distance
9/125
15 km (9.32 miles)
RX: 1550
les
must
JD101A
HP X110 100M SFP
be
LC BX 10-D
used
Transceiver
in
TX: 1550
RX: 1310
pairs
.
Q. Does the switch support hot swapping of LPUs, fans, and power supplies?
A. Yes. The switch supports hot swapping of LPUs, fans, and power supplies.
Q. What power supplies does the switch support?
A. The switch supports the following power supplies:
Product code
Description
Alias
JD218A
HP 7500 1400W AC Power Supply
1400W AC
JD208A
HP 7500 1400W DC Power Supply
1400W DC
JD217A
HP 7500 650W AC Power Supply
650W AC
JD209A
HP 7500 650W DC Power Supply
650W DC
JD226A
HP 7502 300W AC Power Supply
300W AC
JD225A
HP 7502 300W DC Power Supply
300W DC
JD219A
HP 7500 2800W AC Power Supply
2800W AC
JD227A
HP 7500 6000W AC Power Supply
6000W AC
The specifications of the power supplies are as follows:
Power supply
model
Height
Input
Support
for PoE
300W AC
1 RU
AC
No
300W DC
1 RU
DC
No
650W AC
1 RU
AC
No
Maximu
m output
power
Maximum PoE output
power
300 W
N/A
–48 VDC to –60 VDC
300 W
N/A
100 VAC to 240 VAC,
650 W
N/A
Rated voltage range
100 VAC to 240 VAC,
50/60 Hz
13
Power supply
model
Height
Input
Support
for PoE
Rated voltage range
Maximu
m output
power
Maximum PoE output
power
650 W
N/A
50/60Hz
650W DC
1 RU
DC
No
–48 VDC to –60 VDC
1150 W
1400W AC
3 RU
AC
No
100 VAC to 240 VAC,
at 110 V
50/60Hz
1400 W
N/A
at 220 V
1400W DC
3 RU
DC
Yes
–48 VDC to –60 VDC
1400 W
6720 W
1150 W
2800W AC
3 RU
AC
Yes
100 VAC to 240 VAC,
at 110 V
1150 W at 110 V
50/60Hz
1400 W
1400 W at 220 V
at 220 V
• One PoE input: 1200
W
1150 W
• Two PoE inputs: 2400
W
at 110 V
• Three PoE inputs:
6000W AC
3 RU
AC
Yes
3600 W
100 VAC to 240 VAC
• One PoE input: 1800
50/60Hz
W
1400 W
• Two PoE inputs: 3600
W
at 220 V
• Three PoE inputs:
5300 W
NOTE:
The rack unit (RU) specifies the rack height, and 1 RU is 44.45 mm (1.75 inch).
14
Q. Can DC power supplies and AC power supplies be used on the same switch?
A. No. DC power supplies and AC power supplies cannot be used on the same switch.
Q. How is the intelligent power management function implemented?
A. When the switch starts up, the total power that can be provided by all power supplies is calculated. Then the
power required by fans and MPUs is deducted from the total power. The remaining power is used for LPUs.
When a new LPU is added, the switch compares the remaining power to the power required by the LPU. If the
remaining power is sufficient, the device provides power to the LPU. Otherwise, the device does not provide
power to the LPU.
Q. What protective measures do the switch power supplies adopt?
A. The switch power supplies adopt the following protective measures:
•
Input protection—Input over-voltage protection, input under-voltage protection, and input over-current
protection.
•
Output protection—Output over-voltage protection, output over-current protection, output short-circuit
protection, and output over-temperature protection.
Q. What is the maximum power consumption for each switch model?
A. The maximum power consumption for each switch model is as follows:
•
7502—285 W
•
7503-S—365 W
•
7503—520 W
•
7506—895 W
•
7506-V—900 W
•
7510—1380 W
Q. Can the switch automatically adjust the fan speed?
A. Yes. The switch can automatically adjust the fan speed depending on the temperature in the chassis.
Q. What are the operating temperature and upper and lower temperature thresholds of the switch?
A. The operating temperature of the switch is in the range of 0°C (32°F) to 45°C (113°F).
You can use the display environment command to display the temperature statistics of the cards, including the
current temperature and temperature thresholds.
•
When the card temperature drops below the lower warning threshold or reaches the upper warning
threshold, the switch displays a log message and a trap.
15
When the card temperature reaches the alarm threshold, the switch repeatedly displays log and trap
•
messages. It also alerts the user to the high-temperature condition through LEDs on the panel.
When the card temperature reaches the shutdown threshold, the switch generates a log message and a
•
trap, and the card automatically powers off.
Q. What are the requirements for grounding the switch?
A. Before using the switch, connect the grounding cable properly to guarantee lightning protection and
anti-interference of the switch.
When you ground the switch, make sure the resistance between the chassis and the ground is less than 1 ohm.
Q. How do I ground the switch?
A. You can ground the switch in the following ways:
If a grounding strip is available at the installation site, connect the switch to the ground trip through the
•
grounding cable:
a.
Unpack the grounding cable provided with the switch.
b.
Remove the grounding screws from the grounding holes at the rear of the chassis.
c.
Fasten the grounding screws, which are attached with the dual-hole terminals of the grounding cable,
into the grounding holes of the chassis.
d.
Connect the ring terminal of the grounding cable to the grounding post of the grounding strip, and
fasten the grounding cable to the grounding strip with the hex nut.
If the switch is AC powered and no grounding strip is available at the installation site, you can ground
•
the switch through the PE wire of the AC power supply. Make sure the following requirements are met:
{
The AC power supply uses a three-wire cable with a protection wire.
{
The PE wire of the AC power supply is well grounded at the power distribution room or AC power
supply transformer side.
{
•
The PE connector on the switch is well connected to the PE wire of the AC power supply.
If the switch is powered by a –48 VDC power supply and no grounding strip is available at the installation
site, you can ground the switch through the return (RTN) wire of the DC power supply. Make sure the RTN
wire is well grounded from the DC egress of the DC power cabinet.
Q. What are the dust concentration and harmful gas limits in the equipment room of the switch?
A. The dust concentration limit in the equipment room is as follows:
Substance
Dust particles
Concentration limit (particles/m³)
≤ 3 x 104
(No visible dust on desk in three days.)
16
NOTE:
Dust particle diameter ≥ 5 μm
The equipment room must also meet limits on salts, acids, and sulfides to eliminate corrosion and premature
aging of components. The harmful gas limits in the equipment room are as follows:
Gas
Max. (mg/m³)
SO2
0.2
H2S
0.006
NH3
0.05
Cl2
0.01
Q. How is the switch immune to EMI?
A. The switch design is compliant to the EMC specifications. Its performance is not degraded under the following
EMI levels:
Level
Interference wave
frequency
Radiation field
strength of the
interference source
Modulation
amplitude
Modulation wave frequency
1
80 to 800 MHz
3 V/m
80% AM
1 KHz
2
800 to 960 MHz
10 V/m
80% AM
1 KHz
3
960 to 1000 MHz
3 V/m
80% AM
1 KHz
4
1400 to 2000 MHz
10 V/m
80% AM
1 KHz
Q. How is the switch designed for high availability?
A. The switch is designed as follows for high availability:
•
MPU—Active/standby backup.
•
Power system—1 + 1 redundancy.
•
Fan tray—FRU.
•
Other functional components—FRU.
•
Card PCB—Derated, simplified, and failure-separated.
•
Software—Failure locating, detection, and isolation.
All module designs are verified in environment simulation tests and HALTs.
17
System software
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about system software.
Q. How do I obtain the software version of the switch?
A. Use the display version command to display system version information. This command displays information
including software version, chassis model, MPU type, and interface card type.
Q. Can I delete the running system software image file?
A. HP recommends that you not delete the running system software image file.
Deleting the file does not affect system operations. However, the switch or card will be unable to start up if the
switch or a card reboots before you respecify a startup system software image file.
Q. What patch types does the switch support?
A. The switch supports hotfixes and coldfixes.
Q. What are the differences between hotfixes and coldfixes?
A. Hotfixes repair software defects without requiring a reboot. Coldfixes require a card reboot to be activated.
Q. How do I collect system operating information for diagnosis or troubleshooting?
A. The following diagnosis and troubleshooting methods are available:
•
Use feature-specific display commands to collect running status data feature by feature.
•
Use the display diagnostic-information command in any view to bulk collect running status data for
multiple features.
Using the display diagnostic-information command can take a long period of time, depending on the amount
of data in the system. To save time, choose to save data to a file at the prompt instead of choosing to display
data on the screen.
Software specifications
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about software specifications.
Q. How many MAC address entries does the switch support?
A. The number of MAC addresses entries supported on the switch varies by card, as follows:
•
EB cards—512K
18
•
SA cards—8K
•
Salience VI (LSQ1SRPB0)—32K
•
Salience VI-10GE (LSQ1SRP2XB0)—32K
•
Salience VI-Plus (LSQ1SRPD0)—32K
•
Salience VI-Turbo (LSQ1SRP1CB0)—128K
•
SC cards (excluding SC cards providing 40-Gbps ports)—32K
•
SC cards providing 40-Gbps ports—128K
•
SD cards—128K
Q. How many ARP entries does the switch support?
A. The total number of ARP entries of the switch cannot exceed 16K. The number of ARP entries that a card
supports varies by card as follows:
•
EB cards—16K
•
SA cards—2K
•
SC cards (excluding SC cards providing 40-Gbps ports)—8K
•
SC cards providing 40-Gbps ports—16K
•
SD cards—16K
Q. How many VLAN IDs does the switch support?
A. The switch supports VLAN IDs 1 to 4094.
Q. How many VLAN interfaces does the switch support?
A. The switch supports 1024 VLAN interfaces.
Q. How many route entries does the switch support?
A. The number of routes supported on the switch varies by card, as follows:
•
EB cards—256000 (8K IPv6)
•
SA cards—512 (shared by IPv4 and IPv6; 512 for IPv4 and 256 for IPv6)
•
Salience VI (LSQ1SRPB0) card—12K (shared by IPv4 and IPv6; 12K for IPv4 and 6K for IPv6)
•
Salience VI-10GE (LSQ1SRP2XB0) card—12K (shared by IPv4 and IPv6; 12K for IPv4 and 6K for IPv6)
•
Salience VI-Plus (LSQ1SRPD0) card—12K (shared by IPv4 and IPv6; 12K for IPv4 and 6K for IPv6)
•
Salience VI-Turbo (LSQ1SRP1CB0) card—128000 (shared by IPv4 and IPv6; 128000 for IPv4 and 64000
for IPv6)
•
SC cards—12K (shared by IPv4 and IPv6; 12K for IPv4 and 6K for IPv6)
•
SD cards—128000 (8K IPv6)
19
Q. How many ACLs does the switch support?
A. The number of ACLs supported on the switch varies by card, as follows:
•
•
In the inbound direction:
{
24-port SA cards—512
{
24-port SC cards—3K
{
48-port SA cards—1024
{
48-port SC cards (excluding SC cards providing 40-Gbps ports)—6K
{
EB/SD cards—6K
{
SC cards providing 40-Gbps ports—1K
In the outbound direction:
{
EB/SD cards—1024
{
SC cards—512
Link layer features
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about link layer features.
Q. Does the switch support port mirroring?
A. Yes. The switch supports local port mirroring, Layer 2 remote port mirroring, and Layer 3 port mirroring.
The following are the port mirroring specifications:
•
Multi-card port mirroring is supported.
•
A maximum of four mirroring groups.
•
Mirroring inbound traffic, outbound traffic, or both.
•
A port can be configured as the source port of multiple mirroring groups. However, the source port of a
mirroring group cannot be configured as the reflector port, egress port, or monitor port of any mirroring
group.
20
Q. Does the switch support traffic mirroring?
A. The switch supports traffic mirroring. Traffic mirroring includes local traffic mirroring and remote traffic
mirroring.
Q. Does the switch support Ethernet link aggregation?
A. Yes. The switch supports static link aggregation and dynamic link aggregation.
Q. Can the switch forward traffic without any delay, packet loss, or error?
A. Yes. Table 1 through Table 4 show the results of testing variable-length packets on 40-GE ports, 10-GE ports,
and GE ports.
Table 1 Layer 2 forwarding delay for FE ports
Packet length
(bytes)
Throughput (%)
Average delay
(μs)
Minimum delay
(μs)
Maximum delay (μs)
64
100
6.19722
2.95
26.16
128
100
7.12512
3.06
27.09
256
100
8.98117
2.84
29.16
512
100
12.64186
2.83
33.22
1024
100
20.4433
2.97
41.35
1280
100
24.22218
2.85
45.46
1518
100
27.664
2.97
49.3
Table 2 Layer 2 forwarding delay for GE ports
Packet length
(bytes)
Throughput (%)
Average delay
(μs)
Minimum delay
(μs)
Maximum delay
(μs)
64
100
3.53
2.39
3.79
128
100
3.51
2.56
3.73
256
100
3.23
2.16
3.52
512
100
3.19
2.12
3.43
1024
100
3.18
2.26
3.43
1280
100
3.17
2.11
3.42
1518
100
3.16
2.15
3.42
21
Table 3 Layer 2 forwarding delay for 10-GE ports
Packet length
(bytes)
Throughput (%)
Average delay
(μs)
Minimum delay
(μs)
Maximum delay
(μs)
64
100
1.214
1.08
1.59
128
100
1.211
1.08
1.54
256
100
1.217
1.12
1.56
512
100
1.215
1.11
1.55
1024
100
1.245
1.16
1.58
1280
100
1.213
1.12
1.55
1518
100
1.209
1.13
1.54
Table 4 Layer 2 forwarding delay for 40-GE ports
Packet length
(bytes)
Throughput (%)
Average delay
(μs)
Minimum delay
(μs)
Maximum delay
(μs)
64
100
0.961
0.928
0.98
128
100
0.952
0.93
0.97
256
100
0.955
0.923
0.975
512
100
0.953
0.928
0.973
1024
100
0.954
0.933
0.978
1280
100
0.955
0.923
0.978
1518
100
0.951
0.92
0.973
Q. What spanning tree protocols does the switch support?
A. The switch supports STP, RSTP, PVST, and MSTP:
•
STP—Provides slowest network convergence among the supported spanning tree protocols.
•
RSTP—An enhancement to STP. RSTP shortens the delay for a port to change its state from blocking to
forwarding after the port is elected the root or designated port.
•
MSTP—Adds the support for multiple instances on the basis of RSTP. MSTP supports instances 0 to 31.
Instance 0 is the default instance. When the spanning tree protocol is operating in MSTP mode, you must
configure VLAN-to-instance mappings in MST region view. Multiple VLANs can be mapped to an instance.
•
PVST—Refers to Cisco Rapid PVST. PVST is supported in Release 6626 and later versions. PVST supports
instances 0 through 128. Instance 0 is the default instance. PVST instances are divided based on VLANs.
The switch dynamically assigns an instance to a VLAN, and each VLAN corresponds to one instance.
22
To modify the spanning tree mode, use the stp mode command in system view and then use the stp mcheck
command.
Q. How do I bulk-configure ports on the switch?
A. Use the interface range command in system view to enter interface range view to bulk configure multiple
interfaces with the same feature. You can add multiple interfaces of different types (for example, Ethernet
interfaces and VLAN interfaces) to an interface range.
The interface-range name command allows you to define an alias for an interface range and add interfaces to
the interface range multiple times. You can define different aliases for different interface ranges to differentiate
them. Additionally, you can enter the interface range name to enter the view of the interface range, rather than
enter an interface list. This command reduces the configuration workload.
Q. What is QinQ? Does the switch support QinQ?
802.1Q-in-802.1Q (QinQ) delivers the following benefits:
•
Enables a service provider to use a single SVLAN to convey multiple CVLANs for a customer.
•
Enables customers to plan CVLANs without conflicting with SVLANs.
•
Provides an easy-to-implement Layer 2 VPN solution of small-sized MANs and enterprise networks.
Figure 1 shows the single-tagged Ethernet frame header and double-tagged Ethernet frame header.
Figure 1 single-tagged Ethernet frame header and double-tagged Ethernet frame header
The inner VLAN tag is the CVLAN tag of a customer network, and the outer VLAN tag is the SVLAN tag that
the service provider assigns to the customer network. The devices in the service provider network forward a
tagged frame according to its SVLAN tag only. They transmit the CVLAN tag as part of the frame's payload.
The MAC address of the packet is learned into the MAC address entries for the SVLAN.
The switch supports basic QinQ and selective QinQ.
23
Q. What is selective QinQ? Does the switch support selective QinQ?
A. Selective QinQ is implemented based on basic QinQ.
Selective QinQ can be configured to process the incoming frames on a port based on the CVLAN tags. It
allows you to do the following:
•
Add different SVLAN tags to the incoming frames based on the CVLAN tags of the incoming frames.
•
Set the 801.1p priority values in the SVLAN tags according to the 802.1p priority values in the CVLAN
tags.
•
Modify the CVLAN tags after the incoming port adds SVLAN tags to the incoming frames.
IP routing
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about IP routing.
Q. What dynamic routing protocols does the switch support?
A. The switch supports RIP, RIPng, OSPF, OSPFv3, IS-IS, IS-ISv6, BGP, and BGP4+.
Q. How are dynamic routing protocols operating in the TCP/IP protocol stack?
A. All dynamic routing protocols operate on the application layer of the TCP/IP stack. For examples, OSPF, BGP,
and RIP use different lower layer protocols:
•
OSPF encapsulates its messages inside IP packets with the IP protocol number 89. OSPF also guarantees
data delivery reliability.
•
BGP employs TCP, which provides reliable data delivery, to exchange routing information through port
179.
•
RIP employs UDP, which does not provide reliable data delivery, to exchange routing information through
port 520.
Q. How are the dynamic routing protocols classified?
A. Distance-vector protocols include RIP and BGP.
Shortest path first (link-state) protocols include OSPF and IS-IS.
Q. What is the principle of optimal route selection?
A. If routing protocols find multiple routes to the same destination, the route management module selects the
optimal route by using the following process:
1.
Selects the route with the highest preference. A smaller value represents a higher preference. You can
configure a preference for each static route and each dynamic routing protocol.
24
2.
Selects the route with the highest default preference if two routes have equal preference. Different
protocol routes cannot be used to implement ECMP load balancing even if they are configured with the
same preference. Table 5 lists the route types and default preferences.
3.
Selects the route with the lowest cost between routes of the same protocol.
On a switch, the redistributed OSPF ASE and OSPF NSSA routes inherit the OSPF route preference.
Table 5 Route types and default route preferences
Route type
Preference
Direct route
0
OSPF
10
IS-IS
15
Unicast static route
60
RIP
100
OSPF ASE
150
OSPF NSSA
150
IBGP
255
EBGP
255
Unknown (route from an untrusted source)
256
Q. What is the compatibility between routing protocols and GR, NSR, FRR, and BFD features?
A. The following matrix describes the GR, NSR, FRR, and BFD features and routing protocol compatibility:
Route type
GR
NSR
FRR
BFD
IPv4 static route
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
IPv6 static route
N/A
N/A
N/A
No
RIP
No
No
Yes
Yes
RIPng
No
No
No
No
OSPF
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
OSPFv3
Yes
No
No
Yes
IS-IS
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
IS-ISv6
Yes
No
No
Yes
BGP
Yes
No
No
Yes
BGP4+
Yes
No
No
Yes
25
Q. What are the differences between GR and NSR?
A. Graceful Restart (GR), also called non-stop forwarding (NSF), ensures forwarding continuity when an
active/standby switchover occurs. GR does not back up routing information. After an active/standby
switchover, the MPU of the GR restarter obtains routing information from its neighbors.
GR has the following disadvantages:
•
GR requires the cooperation of neighboring devices to recover routing information.
•
After an active/standby switchover, the routing process in the MPU must learn all the routes.
•
During the switchover, removed routes cannot be deleted immediately from the FIB until the corresponding
entries in the FIB age out, which can result in blackhole routes.
Non-stop routing (NSR) backs up routing information (including static and dynamic data) from the active MPU
to the standby MPU. The active MPU and the standby MPU own the same basic system operating data,
dynamic data, and status. When an active/standby switchover occurs, the standby MPU seamlessly takes over
without requiring the cooperation of other devices. NSR applies to more application scenarios than GR and
improves the high availability of the system.
QoS and ACL
Q. What ACL and QoS functions does the switch support?
A. The switch supports the following ACL functions:
•
Basic, advanced, and Ethernet frame header ACLs.
•
Ingress and egress ACLs.
•
VLAN ACL.
•
Global ACL.
The switch supports the following QoS functions:
•
Diff-Serv QoS model.
•
SP, WRR, WFQ, SP+WRR, and SP+WFQ queuing.
•
Traffic shaping.
•
Congestion avoidance.
•
Priority marking.
•
Priority mapping for 802.1p, ToS, DSCP, and EXP.
26
Q. Which directions and destinations can a QoS policy apply to?
A. A QoS policy can apply to the inbound or outbound direction of the system, an interface, or a VLAN. A QoS
policy can also apply to the inbound direction of the control plane.
Q. Which match criteria are supported for QoS traffic classification?
A. Traffic classification supports the following match criteria:
•
Basic ACLs, advanced ACLs, and Ethernet frame header ACLs.
•
Source and destination MAC addresses.
•
Inner and outer VLAN tags.
•
802.1p priorities of inner and outer VLAN tags, DSCP values, and IP precedence.
•
Protocol types.
•
Local QoS IDs.
•
System indexes (predefined match criteria for packets sent to the control plane).
Q. What match criteria does a QoS policy support in the inbound and outbound directions?
A. A QoS policy supports the following match criteria in the inbound and outbound directions:
Match criteria
Inbound
Outbound
destination-mac
Supported
Supported
source-mac
Supported
Supported
customer-vlan-id
Supported
Supported
service-vlan-id
Supported
Supported
customer-dot1p
Supported
Supported
service-dot1p
Supported
Supported
dscp
Supported
Supported
ip-precedence
Supported
Supported
protocol
Supported
Supported
qos-local-id
Supported
Not supported
system-index
Supported
Not Supported
27
Q. Which actions are supported in a traffic behavior?
A. The switch supports the following actions in a traffic behavior:
Action type
Traffic mirroring
Action
Mirroring traffic to physical ports, aggregate interfaces, and the CPU.
Many-to-two traffic mirroring.
Redirecting traffic to physical ports, aggregate interfaces, and the
CPU.
Traffic redirection
Redirecting traffic to the next hop IPv4 or IPv6 address to implement
policy-based routing.
Actions after a redirection failure.
Traffic accounting
Traffic accounting by packet.
Traffic accounting by byte.
DSCP marking.
802.1p marking.
Local precedence marking.
Priority marking
Drop precedence marking.
Local QoS ID marking.
Priority marking for green, yellow, and red packets.
IP precedence.
Actions on VLAN tags
VLAN tag adding.
CVLAN marking VLAN and SVLAN marking.
Common CAR.
Traffic policing
Aggregate CAR.
Hierarchical CAR.
28
Q. What actions does a QoS policy support in the inbound and outbound directions?
A. A QoS policy supports the following actions in the inbound and outbound directions:
Inbound
Outbound
Permit
Supported
Supported
Deny
Supported
Supported
Supported
Supported
Supported
Not supported
Supported
Supported
Supported
Not supported
Supported
Not supported
Supported
Not supported
Supported
Not supported
Common CAR
Supported
Supported
Aggregate CAR
Supported
Not supported
Hierarchical CAR
Supported
Not supported
Supported
Supported
DSCP
Supported
Supported
802.1p
Supported
Supported
Local precedence
Supported
Not supported
Drop precedence
Supported
Not supported
IP precedence
Supported
Supported
VLAN tag marking
Supported
Supported
VLAN tag adding
Supported
Not supported
Local QoS ID marking
Supported
Not supported
Action
Packet filtering
Mirroring traffic to physical
ports
Traffic mirroring
Mirroring traffic to the CPU
Mirroring traffic to
aggregate interfaces
Redirecting traffic to physical
ports
Traffic
redirection
Redirecting traffic to the CPU
Redirecting traffic to
aggregate interfaces
Redirecting traffic to the next
IPv4 or IPv6 address
Traffic policing
Traffic
Traffic accounting by packet
accounting
or byte
Priority marking
VLAN
Local QoS ID
29
Q. What congestion avoidance features does the switch support?
The switch supports tail drop and WRED.
Security features and high availability features
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about security and high availability features.
Q. What security features does the switch support?
A. The switch supports the following security features:
•
Authentication modes of scheme, password, and none to control console login.
•
Local user configuration.
•
SSH 1.5 and SSH 2.0 protocols.
•
RADIUS and HWTACACS protocols.
•
802.1X authentication, MAC authentication, and portal authentication.
•
Port security.
Q. What authentication methods does the switch support for 802.1X?
A. The switch supports the CHAP, PAP, and EAP authentication methods for 802.1X.
•
When the switch uses EAP termination mode, it performs either CHAP or PAP authentication with the
RADIUS server.
•
If EAP relay mode is used, it performs EAP authentication. EAP supports EAP-TLS, EAP-MD5, PEAP, and
EAP-TTLS. In this mode, the user-name-format command configured in RADIUS scheme view does not take
effect. The switch sends the authentication data from the client to the server without any modification.
Q. What are the differences between the supported HWTACACS and RADIUS?
A. Table 6 lists the primary differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS.
Table 6 Differences between HWTACACS and RADIUS
Item
RADIUS
Encryption
Secures the user password by using MD5.
Upper layer
Uses UDP, which provides high transport
Uses TCP, which provides reliable network
protocol used
efficiency.
transmission.
Authentication
The authorization and authentication
Authorization is independent of authentication and
HWTACACS
30
Secures the entire packet except for the HWTACACS
header by using MD5.
and
processes are combined. The authentication
authorization
success response packet includes the user
works with other authentication protocols.
authorization attribute.
management
Does not support command authorization or
accounting.
Supports command authorization and accounting.
• 802.1X users.
Applicable to
• MAC authentication users.
users
• Portal users.
Device management users.
• Device management users.
Q. If the source MAC address of an EAPOL-Start packet is a multicast or broadcast MAC address, can the packet
trigger 802.1X authentication?
A. No, the EAPOL-Start packet with a multicast or broadcast source MAC address cannot trigger 802.1X
authentication. If the least significant bit of the most significant address octet is set to 1, the MAC address is a
multicast address (0100-0000-0000 represented in hexadecimal notation). The switch discards the packet.
An EAPOL-Start packet with a correct unicast MAC address can trigger 802.1X authentication.
Q. If the IP address of a client is a multicast or broadcast IP address, can the client trigger 802.1X
authentication?
A. Yes. However, the display connection command does not display the address of a client if the address is
multicast or broadcast.
For example, when a client with source IP address 224.1.1.1 passes 802.1X authentication, the IP field displays
N/A.
[Device]display connection
Index=544 ,Username=why@system
MAC=00ff-ffff-ffff ,IP=N/A
Total 1 connection(s) matched.
Q. What's the EAD fast deployment feature supported by 802.1X?
A. The 802.1X supported EAD fast deployment feature is implemented by the following functions:
•
Free IP—A free IP is a freely accessible network segment, which has a limited set of network resources,
such as software and DHCP servers. An unauthenticated user can access only this segment to perform
operations to ensure security strategy compliance. For example, the user can download EAD client from a
software server or obtain a dynamic IP address from a DHCP server.
•
URL redirection—If an unauthenticated 802.1X user is using a Web browser to access the network, the
EAD fast deployment function redirects the user to a specific URL, for example, the EAD client software
download page. The server that provides the URL must be on the free IP accessible to unauthenticated
users.
31
Q. What is the dot1x timer tx-period command used for?
A. The dot1x timer tx-period command sets the username request timeout timer. The switch starts the timer when
it sends an EAP-Request/Identity packet to a client in response to an authentication request. If the switch does
not receive a response before the timer expires, it retransmits the request.
Q. What is the dot1x timer supp-timeout command used for?
A. The dot1x timer supp-timeout command sets the client timeout timer. The switch starts the timer when it sends
an EAP-Request/MD5 Challenge packet to a client. If it does not receive a response when the timer expires,
the switch retransmits the request to the client.
Q. What is the dot1x timer server-timeout command used for?
A. The dot1x timer server-timeout command sets the server timeout timer. The switch starts the timer when it
sends a RADIUS Access-Request packet to the authentication server. If it does not receive a response when the
timer expires, the switch retransmits the request to the server.
Q. What is the dot1x timer handshake-period command used for?
A. The dot1x timer handshake-period command sets the interval at which the switch sends client handshake
requests to check the online status of a client that has passed authentication. If the switch does not receive a
response after sending the maximum number of handshake requests, it considers that the client has logged
off.
The 802.1X client available with Windows XP does not support the 802.1X online user handshake function.
You must disable the 802.1X online user handshake function to prevent the switch from logging off the users
that use the Windows XP 802.1X client.
Q. What is the dot1x timer quiet-period command used for?
A. The dot1x timer quiet-period command sets the quiet timer. When a client fails 802.1X authentication, the
device must wait a period of time before it can process authentication requests from the MAC address of the
client. The waiting period is user configurable.
Q. What are the VLAN features supported by 802.1X?
A. 802.1X supports the following VLAN features to control users in different authentication states:
•
Guest VLAN—A guest VLAN on a port accommodates users who have not performed 802.1X
authentication.
•
VLAN assignment—The authentication server assigns a VLAN to an authenticated 802.1X user to access
the resources in the VLAN.
•
Critical VLAN—An 802.1X critical VLAN on a port accommodates 802.1X users that fail authentication
because none of the RADIUS authentication servers in their ISP domain is reachable (active).
32
•
Auth-Fail VLAN—An Auth-Fail VLAN accommodates users that have failed 802.1X authentication because
of the failure to comply with the organization security strategy.
Q. How do I use Windows XP 802.1X client for 802.1X authentication?
A. The Windows XP 802.1X client cannot send EAPOL-Start packets. The switch must multicast Identity
EAP-Request packets periodically (every 30 seconds by default) to initiate 802.1X authentication. When the
host receives the packet, a dialog box prompts you to enter the username and password. To use Windows XP
802.1X client, you must enable 802.1X authentication in the network connection attribute settings.
Q. When does the switch add a user to a MAC authentication guest VLAN?
A. A MAC authentication guest VLAN accommodates MAC authentication users that have failed MAC
authentication. Its function differs from the 802.1X guest VLAN. To use the MAC authentication guest VLAN,
you must enable MAC-based VLAN on the port.
Q. When does the switch add a user to a MAC authentication critical VLAN?
A. The MAC authentication critical VLAN function has higher priority than the block MAC action but lower
priority than the shut down port action of the port intrusion protection feature. The critical VLAN does not take
effect on a port with the shut down port action enabled.
You can configure a MAC authentication critical VLAN on a port to accommodate users that fail MAC
authentication because no RADIUS authentication server is reachable. Users in a critical VLAN can access a
limited set of network resources in the critical VLAN.
Q. What are the typical causes for MAC authentication failures?
A. The causes for MAC authentication failures include the following:
•
MAC authentication is not enabled globally and on the target port.
•
The username format is not consistent with the setting configured on the server.
•
The password is not consistent with the setting configured on the server.
•
The shared keys in the RADIUS scheme on the switch are not consistent with the settings configured on the
server.
•
The source IP address for outgoing RADIUS packets configured by the nas-ip command in the RADIUS
scheme does not match the IP address of the NAS configured on the RADIUS server.
•
ACL resources are not sufficient when an ACL is assigned to the user.
33
Q. What are the port security modes?
A. The switch supports the following port security modes on a port:
•
autoLearn—The port can learn MAC addresses, and it allows frames from learned or configured MAC
addresses to pass. The automatically learned MAC addresses are secure MAC addresses. You can also
configure secure MAC addresses by using the port-security mac-address security command.
Before you set the autoLearn mode, you must set the port security's limit on the number of MAC
addresses.
•
secure—MAC address learning is disabled on the port. 802.1X authentication and MAC authentication
are not supported. The port allows only frames sourced from secure MAC addresses and manually
configured MAC addresses to pass.
•
userLogin—The port performs 802.1X authentication and implements port-based access control. The port
supports multiple 802.1X users.
Once an 802.1X user passes authentication, any subsequent 802.1X users can access the network
through the port without authentication. The userLogin mode does not support the NTK and intrusion
protection features.
•
userLoginSecure—The port performs 802.1X authentication and implements MAC-based access control.
The port services only one user passing 802.1X authentication.
•
userLoginSecureExt—The port performs 802.1X authentication and implements MAC-based access control.
The port supports multiple online 802.1X users.
•
userLoginWithOUI—The port performs 802.1X authentication and implements MAC-based access control.
The port supports only one 802.1X user and one user whose MAC address matches a specific OUI. The
port performs 802.1X authentication upon receiving 802.1X frames and performs OUI check upon
receiving non-802.1X frames.
The port security feature records the source MAC address and adds it to the driver as a dynamic MAC
address. When the port receives another non-802.1X frame with a new source MAC address that
contains the specified OUI, the new MAC address overwrites the previous MAC address.
•
macAddressWithRadius—The port performs MAC authentication and supports multiple users.
•
macAddressOrUserLoginSecure—This mode is the combination of the macAddressWithRadius and
userLoginSecure modes. The port performs MAC authentication after receiving non-802.1X frames and
performs 802.1X authentication upon receiving 802.1X EAP-Start frames.
When the authentication is passed, 802.1X checks if a MAC authentication user with the same MAC
exists.
{
If there is not a user with the same MAC, 802.1X process proceeds.
{
If there is, 802.1X disconnects the user and continues 802.1X authentication when the authenticated
MAC authentication user is offline.
•
macAddressOrUserLoginSecureExt—This mode is similar to the macAddressOrUserLoginSecure mode,
except that this mode supports multiple 802.1X users.
34
•
macAddressElseUserLoginSecure—This mode is the combination of the macAddressWithRadius and
userLoginSecure modes, with MAC authentication having a higher priority.
The port performs MAC authentication after receiving an EAP-Start or Identity packet. If the MAC
authentication fails, port security sends an 802.1X Identity packet to trigger 802.1X authentication.
•
macAddressElseUserLoginSecureExt—This mode is similar to the macAddressElseUserLoginSecure mode
except that this mode supports multiple 802.1X users.
Q. What high availability features does the switch support?
A. The switch supports VRRP, DLDP, RRPP, SmartLink, CFD, Ethernet OAM, BFD, Track, and active and standby
switchover.
Q. Does the switch support Graceful Restart?
A. Yes.
Network management and monitoring
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about network management and monitoring.
Q. What methods are available for managing the switch?
A. You can manage the switch through in-band management or out-of-band management:
•
In-band management manages the shared bandwidth for control packets and service traffic in the
following ways:
{
SNMP enables you to read and set the variables on managed devices for management purposes.
{
RMON is an enhancement to SNMP. It enables proactive remote monitoring and management of
network devices and subnets.
{
The information center outputs logs to the following destinations: console, monitor terminal, log buffer,
log host, and log file. You can use log data to monitor network performance and troubleshoot network
problems.
•
Out-of-band management enables control packets to use a dedicated channel without occupying the
bandwidth for service traffic in the following ways:
{
Logging in through the console port locally.
{
Logging in through Telnet.
{
Logging in through a pair of modems.
35
Q. What SNMP versions does the switch support?
A. The switch supports SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3.
Q. How is SNMP related to RMON?
A. SNMP and RMON are related in the following ways:
•
RMON implements statistics collecting and alarm functions, and enables proactive remote monitoring and
management of network devices. RMON is an enhancement to SNMP.
•
RMON uses SNMP notifications to notify NMSs of various alarm conditions. SNMP reports function and
interface operating status changes. They differ in monitored objects, trigger conditions, and report
contents.
•
RMON enables the managed device to automatically send a notification when an alarm threshold is
exceeded. The NMS does not need to constantly poll MIB variables and compare the results.
Q. What are the sampling mechanisms of sFlow?
A. sFlow provides the following sampling mechanisms defined by RFC 3176:
•
Flow sampling—Obtains packet information.
•
Counter sampling—Obtains interface counter information.
The sFlow agent encapsulates the sampled information in sFlow packets. When the sFlow packet buffer is full,
or the aging timer (which is fixed to 1 second) for sFlow packets expires, the sFlow agent sends the sFlow
packets to the specified sFlow collector.
IP multicast
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about IP multicast.
Q. What IP multicast protocols does the switch support?
A. The switch supports Layer 3 multicast protocols and Layer 2 multicast protocols.
The supported Layer 3 multicast protocols include:
•
IGMPv1/v2/v3
•
MLDv1/v2
•
PIM-DM, PIM-SM, PIM-SSM, and BIDIR-PIM
•
IPv6 PIM-DM, IPv6 PIM-SM, IPv6 PIM-SSM, and IPv6 BIDIR-PIM
•
MSDP
•
MBGP
•
IPv6 MBGP
36
The supported Layer 2 multicast protocols include:
•
IGMP snooping
•
MLD Snooping
•
PIM snooping
•
IPv6 PIM snooping
•
Multicast VLAN
•
IPv6 multicast VLAN
Q. What networking modes and solutions are available for IPTV application?
A. There are two networking modes: single-edge network and multi-edge network. For these two modes,
centralized multicast replication solution and edge multicast replication solution are available.
At the initial stage, if the number of users is not large, centralized multicast replication solution can be used.
At the expansion stage, if the number of users becomes large, edge multicast replication solution can be used
to lessen the burden on multicast replication.
To meet the granular management requirements of the carriers, you can divide VLANs for multicast users by
using per user per VLAN (PUPV) mode or per user per service per VLAN (PUPSPV) mode.
Q. What are the multicast specifications of the switch?
A. The switch supports the following multicast specifications:
Item
Specifications
L2 multicast table
2000 L2 multicast entries
IP multicast table, (S,G)
2000 L3 multicast entries
Q. How do I deploy multicast services for users in different VLANs?
A. Use the multicast VLAN feature.
Q. What benefits does the multicast VLAN feature provide?
A. The multicast VLAN feature saves bandwidth for links that convey multiple VLANs. With the multicast VLAN
feature, you can use one VLAN to transmit multicast traffic to multicast receivers in different user VLANs. If
multiple VLANs on a link has multicast receivers, the switch sends multicast data only in the multicast VLAN
instead of replicating multicast data for each VLAN.
Q. What types of multicast VLANs are available?
Multicast VLANs include sub-VLAN-based multicast VLANs and port-based multicast VLANs
37
On a Layer 2 switch that directly connects to receiver hosts, the multicast VLAN implements the following
functions:
•
Forwards the IGMP packets from user VLANs to the multicast VLAN toward the multicast source.
•
Propagates multicast data to member ports of a port-based multicast VLAN.
•
Propagates multicast data to sub-VLANs of a sub-VLAN-based VLAN.
MPLS
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about MPLS.
Q. What MPLS features are supported by the switch?
A. The switch supports the following MPLS features:
•
MPLS data forwarding, LSP, and LDP.
•
LER and LSR.
•
MPLS TE and RSVP-TE.
•
MPLS L2VPN and VPLS.
•
MPLS L3VPN.
Q. What L2VPN features are supported by the switch?
A. The switch supports the following L2VPN features:
•
CCC, SVC, Martini, and Kompella connections.
•
VPLS connection.
IRF
This section contains the most frequently asked questions about IRF.
38
Q. Do all HP 7500 models support IRF?
A. All HP 7500 switches support IRF except for the HP 7502 and 7503-S switches.
Q. How many chassis can an HP 7500 IRF fabric have?
A. HP 7506, 7506-V, and 7503 switches support four-chassis IRF fabrics. All other IRF-capable HP 7500
switches only support two-chassis IRF fabrics.
Q. What are the basic hardware and software requirements for setting up an IRF fabric?
A. To form an IRF fabric, the member chassis must meet the following basic requirements:
•
The chassis are the same model.
•
The chassis are assigned unique member IDs.
•
For neighboring chassis, the physical ports of IRF-port 1 must be connected to the physical ports of IRF-port
2.
•
The chassis are operating in IRF mode.
Q. Can HP 7500 switches form an IRF fabric if they run different software versions?
A. No. To form an IRF fabric, switches must run the same software version.
Q. Can MPUs in an IRF fabric run different software versions?
A. During an ISSU upgrade, the MPUs in an IRF fabric can run different software versions. In other situations, all
MPUs in an IRF fabric must run the same software version.
Q. Can IRF member chassis use duplicate member IDs?
A. No. You must assign a unique IRF member ID to each member chassis before setting up an IRF fabric.
Q. What member IDs can I assign to member chassis?
A. You can assign member ID 1, 2, 3, or 4 to a member chassis.
•
If the switch uses the LSQ1SRP1CB MPU, its member ID must be 1 or 2.
•
The member ID of the 7510 switch must be 1 or 3.
For the 7506 or 7506-V switch:
•
If the switch is assigned member ID 4, the card in slot 7 by default will not work. To resolve the problem for
a four-member 7506 or 7506-V IRF fabric, use the irf-pbr disable command as described in the IRF
configuration guide for the switch.
•
If you are setting up a two- or three-chassis 7506 or 7506-V IRF fabric, do not assign member ID 4 to any
member chassis.
39
Q. Are there any special requirements for connecting IRF member chassis?
A. Yes. When you connect two neighboring IRF members, you must connect the physical ports of IRF-port 1 on
one member to the physical ports of IRF-port 2 on the other. The IRF fabric cannot be formed if physical
connections are incorrect.
When you bind physical ports to IRF ports, you must make sure the bindings are consistent with the physical
connections.
Q. Why must I bind physical ports to an IRF port?
A. IRF ports are logical interfaces between IRF member devices. You must bind at least one physical port to IRF
ports for transmitting traffic.
Q. What ports can I use as IRF physical ports?
A. You can use 10-GE and 40-GE fiber ports as IRF physical ports.
Q. What are the differences between the normal mode and enhanced mode for an IRF physical port?
A. You can specify the normal or enhanced keyword when you bind a physical port to an IRF port. The
enhanced mode improves the normal mode. For example, the enhanced mode supports VPLS, but the normal
mode does not. HP recommends that you set a physical port (not on an SC card) in enhanced mode when
you bind it to an IRF port.
The physical ports on an SC card do not support the enhanced mode. If you bind physical ports on an SC card
to an IRF port, you must specify the normal mode for all physical ports bound to the same IRF port and the
neighboring IRF port.
Q. What types of transceiver modules and cables can I use to connect IRF physical ports?
A. The following are media combinations available for physical IRF connection:
•
Use SFP+ or QSFP+ transceiver modules and fibers.
•
Use SFP+ or QSFP+ cables.
Q. Can one HP 7500 model form an IRF fabric with other HP 7500 models?
A. No. For hardware specification consistency across member chassis, make sure all member chassis in an HP
7500 IRF fabric are the same model. For example, you cannot use HP 7503 and HP 7506 switches to
establish an IRF fabric.
Q. Are there any restrictions for MPUs in an IRF fabric?
A. Yes. The LSQ1SRP1CB MPU has the following restrictions:
•
It cannot be used in a 7510 IRF fabric.
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•
It is used only in IRF fabrics that have no more than two chassis.
Q. Are there any restrictions for LPUs in an IRF fabric?
A. Yes. You cannot use SA cards in an IRF fabric that has three or four chassis.
Q. What topologies does IRF support?
A. IRF supports the following topologies:
•
A two-chassis 7500 IRF fabric must use the daisy-chained topology.
•
A three- or four-chassis 7500 IRF fabric can use the ring topology or daisy-chained topology.
IRF does not support the full mesh topology.
No intermediate devices are allowed between neighboring members.
Q. How does a chassis in a daisy-chained IRF fabric determine the forwarding path for a cross-chassis unicast
frame?
A. For a cross-chassis unicast frame, the daisy-chained IRF fabric has only one forwarding path. Each member
chassis sends the unicast frame out of the IRF port that faces the egress chassis hop by hop, as shown
in Figure 2.
Figure 2 Unicast forwarding path in a daisy-chained topology
Q. How does a chassis in a ring-topology IRF fabric choose a forwarding path from multiple paths for a
cross-chassis unicast frame?
A. When equal cost paths exist, the member chassis makes a forwarding path choice by comparing its member
ID with the egress chassis' member ID.
•
The chassis sends the frame out of IRF-port 1 if it has a lower member ID than the egress chassis.
•
The chassis sends the frame out of IRF-port 2 if it has a higher member ID than the egress chassis.
Figure 3 shows the forwarding path between member device 1 and member device 3.
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Figure 3 Unicast forwarding path in a ring-topology IRF fabric
Q. How does an IRF member chassis process broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast traffic?
A. Each IRF member chassis sends broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast traffic out of both IRF-port 1 and
IRF-port 2. To prevent loops, IRF uses the following source-drop mechanism:
•
Generates source-drop entries on each IRF physical port based on IRF forwarding rules (see Figure 2
and Figure 3).
•
Drops a multicast or broadcast frame if the frame sending chassis matching a source-drop entry.
For example, IRF-port 2 on member chassis 1 will drop broadcast, multicast, and unknown unicast frames
received from member chassis 3 if the port has a source-drop entry for member chassis 3.
Q. How does the interface number of a physical interface change after IRF mode is enabled on the chassis?
A. In standalone mode, a physical interface is numbered in the slot-number/subslot-number/port-index form.
In IRF mode, the member ID is included as the first part of interface numbers to uniquely identify interfaces in
an IRF fabric.
For example, when you enable IRF mode on a chassis with a member ID of 2, the name of interface
GigabitEthernet 3/0/1 changes to GigabitEthernet 2/3/0/1.
Q. How do the MPUs in an IRF fabric operate?
A. In an IRF fabric, the active MPU on the master chassis manages and controls the entire IRF fabric, and all
other MPUs back up the active MPU on the master chassis.
The following are MPU roles in an IRF fabric and their responsibilities:
Role
Master MPU
Description
Active MPU of the master device. It is also called the "global active MPU." You
configure and manage the entire IRF fabric at the CLI of the global active MPU.
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Active MPU on each member device. An active MPU has the following responsibilities:
• Forwards traffic.
Active MPU
• Manages the local chassis, including synchronizing configuration with the local
standby MPU, processing protocol packets, and creating and maintaining route
entries.
• Processes IRF related events, such as master election and topology collection.
For the master MPU, all other MPUs, including active MPUs on subordinate chassis,
Standby MPU
are standby MPUs.
If a member chassis has two MPUs, the one backing up the local active MPU is the
local standby MPU from the perspective of the member chassis.
Q. Can I remove all the MPUs in a subordinate chassis?
A. No. Each subordinate chassis must have an MPU to communicate with the global active MPU and manage
forwarding on the local chassis. If you remove all the MPUs on a subordinate chassis, its LPUs cannot
communicate with each other to forward cross-card traffic correctly.
Q. Can I install only one MPU in each IRF member chassis?
A. For high availability, HP recommends that you install two MPUs in each IRF member chassis. If there are
budget limitations, you may install only one MPU in each member chassis. However, this practice decreases
high availability.
Q. Why must I reboot the master chassis instead of rebooting only global active MPU for a manual
master/subordinate switchover between chassis?
A. When the global active MPU fails or reboots, the standby MPU in the master chassis has a higher preference
than all other MPUs in subordinate chassis to take over. For a master/subordinate switchover between
chassis, you must reboot the entire master chassis.
Q. What methods are available for detecting IRF splits?
A. IRF uses multi-active detection (MAD) mechanisms to detect IRF splits. An IRF split can cause member devices
to appear with the same Layer 3 configuration (including IP addresses) on the network.
The switch provides the following MAD mechanisms:
•
LACP MAD—Extends LACPDUs for MAD.
•
BFD MAD—Uses the BFD protocol for MAD.
You can use both of the MAD mechanisms in an IRF fabric.
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Q. What are the differences between LACP MAD and BFD MAD?
A. LACP MAD and BFD MAD have the following features and differences:
MAD
mechanism
Advantages
• Detection speed is fast.
LACP MAD
• Requires no
MAD-dedicated physical
ports or interfaces.
Disadvantages
Application scenario
Requires an intermediate HP
Link aggregation is used
device that supports LACP
between the IRF fabric and its
MAD packets.
upstream or downstream device.
• Requires MAD dedicated
physical ports and Layer
3 interfaces, which
• Detection speed is fast.
• No intermediate device is
BFD MAD
required.
• Intermediate device, if used,
can come from any vendor.
cannot be used for
transmitting user traffic.
• If no intermediate device
is used, the IRF members
must be fully meshed.
• If an intermediate device
is used, every IRF
member must connect to
the intermediate device.
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• No special requirements for
network scenarios.
• If no intermediate device is
used, this mechanism is only
suitable for IRF fabrics that
have a small number of
members that are
geographically close to one
another.
Q. Can I use LACP MAD and BFD MAD in the same IRF fabric?
A. Yes. LACP MAD and BFD MAD run independently without affecting each other.
Q. Can I use any LACP-capable device as the intermediate device for LACP MAD?
A. No. The intermediate device must be an HP device capable of processing extended LACPDUs that contain the
ActiveID field for MAD.
Q. What devices can be used as an intermediate device for LACP MAD?
A. The intermediate device must be a Comware-based HP device that can process the LACPDUs that convey the
ActiveID field for MAD.
Q. Can I run LACP MAD on any Ethernet link aggregation?
A. No. To run LACP MAD, make sure the aggregation meets following requirements:
•
The remote device is a Comware-based HP device that can process the LACPDUs that convey the ActiveID
field for MAD.
•
The aggregation mode is dynamic.
•
The aggregation includes at least one link from each member chassis.
Q. What should I do if the intermediate device for LACP MAD is also in an IRF fabric?
A. You must assign different domain IDs to the two IRF fabrics.
Q. How do I deploy links for BFD MAD?
A. The following are the methods for deploying links for BFD MAD:
•
Connect all member chassis with dedicated BFD MAD links into a full mesh topology. This method is
suitable for two-chassis IRF fabrics.
•
Set up a dedicated BFD MAD link with an intermediate device for each IRF member chassis. This method is
suitable for three- or four-chassis IRF fabrics, because it uses fewer physical ports than the previous method.
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Q. Can I use VLAN 1 as a BFD VLAN?
A. No.
Q. Can I configure other features on the BFD MAD VLAN?
A. No. Do not use a BFD MAD VLAN for any other purpose. Layer 2 or Layer 3 features, including ARP and
LACP, cannot work on the BFD MAD-enabled VLAN interface or any port in the VLAN. If you configure any
other feature on the VLAN, neither the configured feature nor the BFD MAD function will work correctly.
Q. Can different IRF fabrics in a network use the same BFD MAD VLAN?
A. No. The IRF fabrics in a network must use different VLANs for BFD MAD.
Q. How does MAD handle an IRF split?
A. When MAD detects multiple identical active IRF fabrics, it compares the member IDs of their masters. If the
master in one IRF fabric has the lowest member ID among all the masters, the members in the fabric continue
to operate in Active state and forward traffic. MAD sets all the other IRF fabrics in Recovery (disabled) state
and shuts down all their physical ports but the console ports, physical IRF ports, and any ports you have
specified with the mad exclude interface command.
Q. How do I recover an IRF fabric?
A. To recover an IRF fabric:
1.
Check the failed IRF links and remove the link failure.
2.
Reboot the member chassis in the Recovery-state IRF fabric to merge with the Active-state IRF fabric.
The network ports that have been shut down by MAD restore their original physical state automatically.
Q. Why are ports that were shut down by MAD still down after an IRF merge?
A. If you reboot the Active-state fabric instead of the Recovery-state IRF fabric to complete an IRF merge, the ports
that were shut down by MAD cannot be restored automatically. You must use the mad restore command to
restore their original physical state.
Q. What is local-first load sharing?
A. Local-first load sharing (the link-aggregation load-sharing mode local-first command) takes effect on known
unicast traffic on multichassis or multicard Ethernet link aggregations.
This feature preferentially distributes frames across the member ports of the card or chassis where the frames
arrived. It uses member ports of other cards or chassis only when none of the member ports on the ingress card
or chassis is available.
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This feature reduces cross-chassis traffic on IRF links, and it is enabled by default. HP recommends that you do
not disable the feature.
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